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Sample records for rattus argentiventer information

  1. PREFERENSI TIKUS SAWAH (RATTUS-RATTUS ARGENTIVENTER DAN PENGARUHNYA TERHADAP POLA KERUSAKAN PADI VARIETAS DODOKAN DAN CIANJUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solikhin dan Purnomo .

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Paddyfield Rat (Rattus-rattus argentiventer Preference and Its Impact on The Damage Pattern of Dodokan and Cianjur Rice Cultivar.  A field experiment was conducted during the dry season of 2006 in Central Lampung to evaluate the preference of  paddyfield rat (Rattus-rattus argentiventer to Dodokan and Cianjur rice cultivars in the rice field and its impact on the damage pattern caused by the rat’s attack. The experiment of  six treatments and 3 replications were arranged in a randomized completely block design.  Each treatment consisted of two rice cultivars i.e. Cisadane and Dodokan.  Dodokan cultivar was planted in centre of each experimental unit, surrounded by Cianjur, forming six different patterns (formations as treatment. All experimental units then were exposed to natural paddyfield rat population.  Weekly observations on both cultivars were made to record the damage caused by the rat from 30 to 84 day after transplanting.   Aerial view of all treatments  were also taken at 84 days after transplanting (a week prior to harvest. The result showed that the paddyfield rat significantly prefered Dodokan rice cultivar to  Cianjur.  Eventually, the preference of the rat influenced the damage pattern of Dodokan rice cultivar, showed by some unique aerial views of the plot.

  2. PENGGUNAAN PROTOZOA SARCOCYSTIS SINGAPORENSIS (APICOMPLEXA: SARCOCYSTIDAE UNTUK PENGENDALIAN TIKUS SAWAH RATTUS ARGENTIVENTER

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    Maryani Cyccu Tobing, Ameilia Zuliyanti Siregar, Lisnawita, dan Meirani.

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The use of protozoan Sarcocystis singaporensis (Apicomplexa: Sarcocystidae for control rice field rat Rattus argentiventer.  Rats are still a number-one-pest in field rice of various areas in Indonesia. Biological control using microparasite                         Sarcocystis singaporensis (Apicomplexa: Sarcocystidae is a highly host-specific protozoan for controlling the rats. The objective of this research was to study the use of protozoa parasite S. singaporensis against rodent pest Rattus argentiventer. The design of experiment was Factorial Randomized Complete Design with ten treatments and four replications.  The first factor was sporocyt doses of S. singaporensis (control; 1 x 105; 2 x 105; 3 x 105; 4 x 105, while the second factor was rats sexual category (male and female. The results showed that dose of sporocysts S. singaporensis was significantly different but rats’ sexual category has no effect on the treatments. The highest mortalities was on dose  4 x 105 (100% at 12.08 days, food consumption decreased two to four days before rats died, weight of rats decreased because of the infection of S. singaporensis.

  3. Over Rattus rattus roquei Sody met beschrijving van een nieuw ras van Rattus rattus van Soemba

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sody, H.J.V.

    1930-01-01

    Geen der op Java voorkomende soorten heeft wellicht den werkers in Javaansche ratten zooveel determinatie-zorgen gekost als de voor kort door mij 1) met roquei benoemde Javaansche „boomrat" 2). Door enkele auteurs 3) werd de vorm oorspronkelijk slechts aangeduid als Mus sp. of Rattus sp., ter

  4. Isolation and characterization of microsatellites in Rattus rattus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Loiseau, A.; Rahelinirina, S.; Rahalison, L.; Konečný, Adam; Duplantier, J.-M.; Brouat, C.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 4 (2008), s. 916-918 ISSN 1755-098X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA6093404 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : genetic diversity * microsatellite * Rattus rattus * Rodentia Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  5. Reproductive Toxicity of Triptolide in Male House Rat, Rattus rattus

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    Neena Singla

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of study was to investigate the toxic effect of triptolide fed in bait on reproduction of male house rat, Rattus rattus. Feeding of cereal based bait containing 0.2% triptolide to male R. rattus for 5 days in no-choice feeding test, leading to mean daily ingestion of 20.45 mg/kg bw of triptolide, was found effective in significantly (P≤0.05 reducing sperm motility and viability in cauda epididymal fluid by 80.65 and 75.14%, respectively, from that of untreated rats. Pregnancy rates were decreased by 100% in untreated cyclic female rats paired with male rats treated with 0.2% triptolide. Present studies suggest the potential of 0.2% triptolide bait in regulating reproductive output of R. rattus.

  6. Karyotype evolution and species differentiation in the genus Rattus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rattus is the most studied genus all over the world but species of the genus are not thoroughly reported from Manipur. The present paper deals with the morphometric, cytotaxonomic and phylogenetic studies of Manipur, India. The different species of Rattus namely Rattus rattus, Rattus brunneusculus, Rattus tanezumi and ...

  7. Helminth parasites in black rats (Rattus rattus) and brown rats (Rattus norvegicus) from different environments in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franssen, Frits; Swart, Arno; van Knapen, Frans|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/070114749; van der Giessen, Joke

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Rattus norvegicus (brown rat) and Rattus rattus (black rat) are known carriers of bacteria, viruses, and parasites of zoonotic and veterinary importance. Moreover, rats may play a role in the transmission of muscle larvae of the zoonotic nematode Trichinella spiralis to farm animals. We

  8. Alien rose-ringed parakeets (Psittacula krameri) attack black rats (Rattus rattus) sometimes resulting in death

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández-Brito, Dailos; Luna, Amparo; Carrete, Martina; Tella, José Luis

    2014-01-01

    The rose-ring parakeet (Psittacula krameri) is one of the most successful invasive birds in its establishment worldwide. Studies addressing its potential impact on native biota mostly focus on birds and little is known about how these and other parakeet species interact with native mammals. Here, we report 21 aggressions of rose-ringed parakeets towards black rats (Rattus rattus) in urban parks in Seville (Southern Spain) and Tenerife (Canary Islands). Either solitary parakeets or, more often...

  9. Spatial reorientation in rats (Rattus norvegicus): Use of geometric and featural information as a function of arena size and feature location

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maes, J.H.R.; Fontanari, L.; Regolin, L.

    2009-01-01

    Rats were used in a spatial reorientation task to assess their ability to use geometric and non-geometric, featural, information. Experimental conditions differed in the size of the arena (small, medium, or large) and whether the food-baited corner was near or far from a visual feature. The main

  10. Susceptibilité de Rattus norvegicus et Rattus rattus frugivurus de la ville de Recife à la Pasteurella pestis

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    Dalva A. de Mello

    1968-06-01

    Full Text Available L'auíeur a vérifié la susceptibilité de deux espèces de rongeurs domestiques de la ville de Recife. Etat du Pernambuco, R. norvegicus et Rattus rattus frugivurus, les comparant aux souris albinos de la souche "Swiss" avec deux souches de P. pestis dont une était isolée au municipe d'Exu, Etat du Pernambuco âenommée PEXU 19 et Vautre provenante du Venezuela dite RANGEL. Les deux espèces de rongeurs ont montré une resistence modérée par rapport aux deux souches de P. pestis tandis que les souris ont révélé d'être hautement susceptibles.

  11. A survey on helminthic infection in mice (Mus musculus and rats (Rattus norvegicus and Rattus rattus in Kermanshah, Iran

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    Norollah Pakdel

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Parasitic infections of rodents can compromise scientific research as well as the health of the animals and humans. Based on previous studies, infection rate of parasitic helminths is different in various regions of Iran. The current survey was aimed to determine endoparasitic helminths infection in 138 trapped rodents of Kermanshah county, Iran. Mice and rats were trapped using metal snares from January to October 2011 and euthanized. Rodents included 110 Mus musculus (79.00%, 23 Rattus norvegicus (17.00%, and five Rattus rattus (4.00%. The gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts were removed and examined to identify parasitic helminths. The results indicated that 42.02% of examined rodents were infected with eight helminths species, i.e. Trichuris muris (14.49%, Syphacia obvelata (13.76%, Syphacia muris (2.89%, Aspicularis tetrapetra (5.07%, Heterakis spumosa (5.07%, Capillaria hepatica eggs (3.62%, Hyminolepis diminuta (12.30%, and Cystisercus fasciolaris, the larva of Taenia teanieformis (4.34%. Given the results of this study, we concluded that examined rodents were more infected with nematodes than other helminths. As rodents are usually infected with a number of zoonotic parasites, hence control of these animals has an important role in safeguarding public health.

  12. Vitamin K requirement in Danish anticoagulant-resistant Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Mette D.; Heiberg, Ann-Charlotte; Nielsen, Robert

    2003-01-01

    Norway rats, Rattus norvegicus, Denmark, anticoagulant rodenticide resistance, vitamin K requirement......Norway rats, Rattus norvegicus, Denmark, anticoagulant rodenticide resistance, vitamin K requirement...

  13. Potential of Eucalyptus Oil as Repellent against House Rat, Rattus rattus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thind, Ramandeep Kaur; Mahal, Amrit Kaur

    2014-01-01

    Rodent repellents are chemicals which by taste or odour or possibly by both will prevent animal from feeding or gnawing. Such substances may be used in protecting an area from rodent infestation or in protecting packaged food, packing materials, electric cables, and other important vulnerable materials. Mature and healthy house rat, Rattus rattus of both sexes, was exposed to 5, 10, and 20% eucalyptus oil applied as spray in laboratory pens in bichoice tests. Each concentration was applied through three different modes of application, that is, daily, once, and alternatively in a week. Repellent effect of the oil was assessed based on food consumption from treated and untreated sides for four days. In overall, food consumption was significantly (P eucalyptus oil. Present studies reveal the potential of eucalyptus oil in repelling away R. rattus; however, further studies may be conducted to enhance the persistence of repellent effect for longer period of time. PMID:24523633

  14. Genetic monitoring detects an overlooked cryptic species and reveals the diversity and distribution of three invasive Rattus congeners in south Africa

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    van Hooft Pim

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background South Africa's long and extensive trade activity has ensured ample opportunities for exotic species introduction. Whereas the rich biodiversity of endemic southern African fauna has been the focus of many studies, invasive vertebrates are generally overlooked despite potential impacts on biodiversity, health and agriculture. Genetic monitoring of commensal rodents in South Africa which uncovered the presence of Rattus tanezumi, a South-East Asian endemic not previously known to occur in Africa, provided the impetus for expanded studies on all invasive Rattus species present. Results To this end, intensified sampling at 28 South African localities and at one site in Swaziland, identified 149 Rattus specimens. Cytochrome b gene sequencing revealed the presence of two R. tanezumi, seven Rattus rattus and five Rattus norvegicus haplotypes in south Africa. Phylogenetic results were consistent with a single, recent R. tanezumi introduction and indicated that R. norvegicus and R. rattus probably became established following at least two and three independent introductions, respectively. Intra- and inter-specific diversity was highest in informal human settlements, with all three species occurring at a single metropolitan township site. Rattus norvegicus and R. rattus each occurred sympatrically with Rattus tanezumi at one and five sites, respectively. Karyotyping of selected R. rattus and R. tanezumi individuals identified diploid numbers consistent with those reported previously for these cryptic species. Ordination of bioclimatic variables and MaxEnt ecological niche modelling confirmed that the bioclimatic niche occupied by R. tanezumi in south Africa was distinct from that occupied in its naturalised range in south-east Asia suggesting that factors other than climate may influence the distribution of this species. Conclusions This study has highlighted the value of genetic typing for detecting cryptic invasive species, providing

  15. The effects of high nautal radioactivity on the bone marrow activities of Rattus-rattus in Ramsar: A chromosomal study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamali, M.; Sahabi, Z.

    1993-01-01

    The area under study is Ramsar known as one of the high level natural radioactive areas in the world with radiation levels ranging from 0.8 to 5.5 mR.h -1 . The radioactivity of the area is due to 226 Ra and its daughters which have been brought up to the earth surface by the water of the warm springs. It is necessary to say that the radioactive area of Ramsar is divided into three parts: with high, medium and low radiation areas. The control area is Babol with a radius of 10 kilometers. The area has natural background radiation. In the control area thirty Rattus-rattus and in the area of study sixty Rattus-rattus were trapped. It was tried that the Rattuses chosen be from a distance of maximum 500 meters, and from the three different parts of the radioactive areas. Then all the ninety Rattuses were transported to Tehran for experiment. An average of 10-30 Rattuses were trapped for one week, and the maximum time between the trapping and the dissection was one month. The chromosomal study was followed by the Ford technique. The staining was routine and G. banding. No chromosomal disorders and morphological anomalies were considered. (author). 5 refs, 1 fig

  16. Mast cell dynamics in the house rat (Rattus rattus) ovary during estrus cycle, pregnancy and lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batth, B K; Parshad, R K

    2000-02-01

    The distribution of mast cells in various ovarian compartments was studied during different stages of the reproductive cycles in Rattus rattus. Two types of mast cell populations were recognized with light microscopy i.e., light purple and deep purple, the latter also includes deeply stained cells with extruded granules. Mast cells identified by electron microscopy showed the ultrastructural features during granule formation and release of their content. Significantly higher numbers of mast cells per unit area of ovary were seen at estrus and diestrus. Numbers of mast cells also remained high during pregnancy with possible involvement of mast cell products in vascularization of corpora lutea. A positive correlation existed between mast cell counts and embryo number during pregnancy. However, numbers of mast cells declined significantly after parturition.

  17. Effect of VCO and olive oil on HDL, LDL, and cholesterol level of hyperglycemic Rattus Rattus Norvegicus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusuf Wachidah Yuiwarti, Enny; Rini Saraswati, Tyas; Kusdiyantini, Endang

    2018-05-01

    Virgin coconut oil (VCO) and olive oil are edible oil containing an antioxidant that can prevent free radicals in Rattus rattus norvegicus hypoglycemic due to the damage of pancreatic beta cell after alloxan injection. Virgin coconut oil and olive oil are fatty acids when being consumed will affect lipid metabolism particularly HDL, LDL and cholesterol in serum. This research aims to determine the effect of VCO and Olive oil on cholesterol levels in hyperglycemic rats. Research materials were twenty male Rattus rattus norvegicus. Randomized Factorial Design was used in four treatment groups including P1(control), P2 (mice injected with alloxan), P3 (mice injected with alloxan plus 0.1 ml/BW of each VCO and vitamin E) and P4 (mice injected with alloxan plus 0.1 ml/BW of each olive oil and vitamin E. Each treatment was replicated 5 times. Feed and water were provided adlibitum for four weeks. The result showed that there was no significant difference in the level of HDL serum across the treatments, but P4 had a significantly higher LDL than the other treatments. Moreover, total cholesterol was significantly increased in P4 compared to the other groups. It can be concluded that olive oil could increase the level of cholesterol and LDL in serum, while VCO did not increase the level of cholesterol and LDL so VCO more potential to maintain cholesterol in hyperglycemic Rattus rattus norvegicus.

  18. Efecto de la Averrhoa carambola L. o "carambola" vs. gemfibrozilo sobre el perfil lipídico en Rattus rattus var albinus

    OpenAIRE

    Castillo Minaya, Karen Yanet; Castillo Minaya, Estalin Humberto; Huamán Saavedra, Juan Jorge

    2013-01-01

    Introducción: Las dislipidemias representan un factor de riesgo primario para la cardiopatía coronaria. Objetivo: Comparar el efecto sobre el perfil lipídico entre Averrhoa carambola L. o "carambola" vs el Gemfibrozilo en Rattus rattus var albinus. Material y Métodos: Se realizó un estudio aleatorizado. Se trabajó con 39 Rattus rattus var albinus machos; divididos al azar en 2 grupos experimentales (GE) y un grupo control (GC). Sometidos a 2 semanas de acondicionamiento, 2 semanas de alimenta...

  19. Genotoxic effects in wild rodents (Rattus rattus and Mus musculus) in an open coal mining area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    León, Grethel; Pérez, Lyda Espitia; Linares, Juan Carlos; Hartmann, Andreas; Quintana, Milton

    2007-06-15

    Coal is a mixture of a variety of compounds containing mutagenic and carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Exposure to coal is considered as an important non-cellular and cellular source of reactive oxygen species that can induce DNA damage. In addition, spontaneous combustion can occur in coal mining areas, further releasing compounds with detrimental effects on the environment. In this study the comet assay was used to investigate potential genotoxic effects of coal mining activities in peripheral blood cells of the wild rodents Rattus rattus and Mus musculus. The study was conducted in a coal mining area of the Municipio de Puerto Libertador, South West of the Departamento de Cordoba, Colombia. Animals from two areas in the coal mining zone and a control area located in the Municipio de Lorica were investigated. The results showed evidence that exposure to coal results in elevated primary DNA lesions in blood cells of rodents. Three different parameters for DNA damage were assessed, namely, DNA damage index, migration length and percentage damaged cells. All parameters showed statistically significantly higher values in mice and rats from the coal mining area in comparison to the animals from the control area. The parameter "DNA Damage Index" was found to be most sensitive and to best indicate a genotoxic hazard. Both species investigated were shown to be sensitive indicators of environmental genotoxicity caused by coal mining activities. In summary, our study constitutes the first investigation of potential genotoxic effects of open coal mining carried out in Puerto Libertador. The investigations provide a guide for measures to evaluate genotoxic hazards, thereby contributing to the development of appropriate measures and regulations for more careful operations during coal mining.

  20. Notes on the impact of the black rat (Rattus rattus L.) on the flora and fauna of Fungus Rock (Gozo, Maltese Islands)

    OpenAIRE

    Sciberras, Arnold; Lalov, Sdravko Vesselinov

    2007-01-01

    Recently the presence of the black rat Rattus rattus was reported from the island of Fungus Rock which houses a remarkable flora and fauna and has been a protected site for over 250 years. A preliminary account of the rat's impact on some Fungus Rock species is given and threats to the island's ecosystem are discussed.

  1. Adhesion of streptococcus rattus and streptococcus mutans to metal surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Branting, C.; Linder, L.E.; Sund, M.-L.; Oden, A.; Wiatr-Adamczak, E.

    1988-01-01

    The adhesion of Streptococcus rattus BHT and Streptococcus mutans IB to metal specimens of amalgam, silver, tin and copper was studied using (6- 3 H) thymidine labeled cells. In the standard assay the metal specimens were suspended by a nylon thread in an adhesion solution containing a chemically defined bacterial growth medium (FMC), sucrose, and radiolabeled bacteria. Maximum amounts of adhering bacteria were obtained after about 100 min of incubation. Saturation of the metal specimens with bacteria was not observed. Both strains also adhered in the absence of sucrose, indicating that glucan formation was not necessary for adhesion. However, in the presence of glucose, adhesion was only 26-45% of that observed in the presence of equimolar sucrose. Sucrose-dependent stimulation of adhesion seemed to be due to increased cell-to-cell adhesion capacity. Isolated radiolabeled water-insoluble and water-soluble polysaccharides produced from sucrose by S. rattus BHT were not adsorbed to the metal surfaces. (author)

  2. Adhesion of streptococcus rattus and streptococcus mutans to metal surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Branting, C.; Linder, L.E.; Sund, M.-L.; Oden, A.; Wiatr-Adamczak, E.

    1988-01-01

    The adhesion of Streptococcus rattus BHT and Streptococcus mutans IB to metal specimens of amalgam, silver, tin and copper was studied using (6-/sup 3/H) thymidine labeled cells. In the standard assay the metal specimens were suspended by a nylon thread in an adhesion solution containing a chemically defined bacterial growth medium (FMC), sucrose, and radiolabeled bacteria. Maximum amounts of adhering bacteria were obtained after about 100 min of incubation. Saturation of the metal specimens with bacteria was not observed. Both strains also adhered in the absence of sucrose, indicating that glucan formation was not necessary for adhesion. However, in the presence of glucose, adhesion was only 26-45% of that observed in the presence of equimolar sucrose. Sucrose-dependent stimulation of adhesion seemed to be due to increased cell-to-cell adhesion capacity. Isolated radiolabeled water-insoluble and water-soluble polysaccharides produced from sucrose by S. rattus BHT were not adsorbed to the metal surfaces.

  3. FIELD TRIALS OF FENITROTHION, MALATHION, AND DDT DUSTS AGAINST FLEAS ON RATTUS RATTUS DIARDII IN CILOTO, WEST JAVA, INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lim Boo Liat

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Sebuah percobaan penanggulangan pinjal Xenopsyll cheopis dari tikus Rattus rattus diardii dilaku­kan di Ciloto dari bulan Februari sampai Nopember 1978. Racun serangga yang digunakan 50 % mala-thion wdp, 40 % fenitrothion wdp dan 75 % DDT wdp. dicampur dengan serbuk bedak sehingga ter­dapat 5 % zat racun aktif (active ingredient. Percobaan dilakukan pada 3 dusun. Pengamatan dilakukan dari bulan Februari sampai Nopember 1978 di daerah percobaan dan daerah kontrol DDT 5 % tidak effektif untuk pemberantasan pinjal, malathion 5 % effektif sampai 15 minggu dan Fenitrothion 5 % sampai 19 minggu sesudah perlakuan pertama. Ketiga racun serangga juga effektif untuk tungau dan kutu, tapi tidak demikian untuk tungau dewasa mesostigmatik (mesostigmatic mites.

  4. Stomach nematodes (Mastophorus Muris) in rats (Rattus rattus) are associated with coconut (Cocos nucifera) Habitat at palmyra atoll

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafferty, K.D.; Hathaway, S.A.; Wegmann, A.S.; Shipley, F.S.; Backlin, A.R.; Helm, J.; Fisher, R.N.

    2010-01-01

    Black rats (Rattus rattus) and their stomach nematodes (Mastophorus muris) were historically introduced to islets at Palmyra Atoll in the central Pacific Line Islands. To investigate patterns of parasitism, we trapped rats and quantified nematodes on 13 islets of various sizes and habitat types. Most rats were parasitized (59) with an average of 12 worms per infected rat. Islet size did not greatly influence parasite population biology. Nematodes also did not appear to affect rat condition (weight to skull length). The only strong and consistent factor associated with the mean abundance of nematodes in rats was habitat (dominant cover and locally dominant plant species). Thus, nematodes were much more abundant in rats from sites dominated by coconut trees (Cocos nucifera). Coconut trees may also be an introduced species at Palmyra Atoll. ?? American Society of Parasitologists 2010.

  5. Stomach nematodes (Mastophorus muris) in rats (Rattus rattus) are associated with coconut (Cocos nucifera) habitat at Palmyra Atoll.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafferty, Kevin D; Hathaway, Stacie A; Wegmann, Alex S; Shipley, Frank S; Backlin, Adam R; Helm, Joel; Fisher, Robert N

    2010-02-01

    Black rats ( Rattus rattus ) and their stomach nematodes (Mastophorus muris) were historically introduced to islets at Palmyra Atoll in the central Pacific Line Islands. To investigate patterns of parasitism, we trapped rats and quantified nematodes on 13 islets of various sizes and habitat types. Most rats were parasitized (59%) with an average of 12 worms per infected rat. Islet size did not greatly influence parasite population biology. Nematodes also did not appear to affect rat condition (weight to skull length). The only strong and consistent factor associated with the mean abundance of nematodes in rats was habitat (dominant cover and locally dominant plant species). Thus, nematodes were much more abundant in rats from sites dominated by coconut trees (Cocos nucifera). Coconut trees may also be an introduced species at Palmyra Atoll.

  6. Pengaruh Jamu Dengan Tribulus Terrestris Terhadap Kualitas Sperma Tikus Wistar Jantan (Rattus Norvegicus)

    OpenAIRE

    Pelealu, Delano; Tendean, Lydia; Wantouw, Benny

    2015-01-01

    : Tribulus terrestris dikenal sebagai bahan yang dapat memperbaiki kualitas sperma. Salah satu jenis jamu yang diproduksi di Indonesia mengandung Tribulus terrestris Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh jamu dengan Tribulus terrestris terhadap konsentrasi, motilitas, dan morfologi spermatozoa tikus wistar jantan (Rattus norvegicus). Penelitian ini menggunakan metode eksperimental. Sampel 9 ekor tikus wistar jantan (Rattus norvegicus) dibagi menjadi 3 kelompok yakni, kelompok P0 ...

  7. High prevalence of Leptospira spp. in sewer rats (Rattus norvegicus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krøjgaard, L H; Villumsen, S; Markussen, M D K

    2009-01-01

    Earlier studies on the ecology of leptospirosis in temperate regions focused mainly on free-ranging rats in rural areas. Here we report on the occurrence of Leptospira spp. in Rattus norvegicus living in sewers in a suburban area in Copenhagen, Denmark. In 2006-2007, about 30 rats were captured...... in sewers at each of six different locations. Rat kidneys were screened by PCR for pathogenic Leptospira spp. In one location no infected rats were found, whereas the prevalence in the remaining five locations ranged between 48% and 89%. Micro-agglutination tests showed that serogroup Pomona, Sejroe...

  8. Nicotine supplementation blocks oocyte maturation in Rattus norvegicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meitria Syahadatina Noor

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Indonesia has the third largest tobacco consumption in the world after China and India. Nicotine as the main component of cigarette smoke has negative effects on the reproductive system, such as oocyte maturation, ovulation, and fertilization, and increasing the diploidy of oocytes. The goal of this research was to evaluate the effect of nicotine on oocyte maturation in Rattus norvegicus. Methods This was an experimental study with post test only control group design. The subjects were 40 rats selected homogenously and randomly. They were divided into a control group (receiving carboxy-methyl-cellulose sodium and 3 treatment groups (I-III receiving nicotine subcutaneously for 7 days at dosages of 21 mg/kgBW, 41 kg/kgBW and 84/kgBW, respectively. The observations comprised oocyte maturation stage, viz. germinal vesicle (GV, germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD, metaphase I and metaphase II. Data were analyzed by one-way Anova with á=0.05, followed by Tukey’s HSD test. Results One-way Anova showed significant differences in oocyte maturation in all groups. Tukey’s HSD test showed that for GV, the differing groups were control and I, control and II, I and III. For GVBD, the differing groups were control and I, I and II, I and III. For metaphase I, the differing groups were control with I, II, and III, I and II, I and III. For metaphase II, the differing groups were control versus I, II, and III, I and II, I and III. Conclusion Low dose of nicotine is capable of affecting oocyte maturation in Rattus norvegicus.

  9. Detection of Leishmania spp in silvatic mammals and isolation of Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis from Rattus rattus in an endemic area for leishmaniasis in Minas Gerais State, Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes Antônia Sampaio Pereira

    Full Text Available Knowledge of potential reservoirs of Leishmania spp. in an anthropic environment is important so that surveillance and control measures can be implemented. The aim of this study was to investigate the infection by Leishmania in small mammals in an area located in Minas Gerais, Brazil, that undergoes changes in its natural environment and presents autochthonous human cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL and visceral leishmaniasis (VL. For the capture of the animals, Sherman and Tomahawk traps were used and distributed in the peridomicile of houses with reports of autochthonous cases of CL or VL. Six catches were carried out on two consecutive nights with intervals of two months during one year and samples of spleen, liver, tail skin, ear skin and bone marrow of the animals were obtained. Parasitological and molecular methods were used to detect the infection. Identification of the Leishmania species was performed by PCR RFLPhsp70. Twenty five animals of four species were captured: ten Rattus rattus, nine Didelphis albiventris, five Cerradomys subflavus and one Marmosops incanus. In the PCR-hsp70, five animals were positive (20%. The Leishmania species identified in PCR-RFLPhsp70 were: Leishmania braziliensis in D. albiventris (2, C. subflavus (1 and R. rattus (1 and Leishmania infantum in R. rattus (1. The highest positivity rate for L. braziliensis was obtained in the liver samples. The spleen was the only tissue positive for L. infantum. It was isolated in culture medium L. braziliensis from two samples (liver and spleen of R. rattus. This is the first record of isolation of L. braziliensis from R. rattus in the southeastern region of Brazil. These results are relevant to the knowledge of the epidemiology of leishmaniasis in the region, mainly in the investigation of the presence of hosts and possible reservoirs of the parasite.

  10. Gemfibrozilo versus aceite de Sacha Inchi en la reducción de niveles de triglicéridos séricos en Rattus rattus var albinus

    OpenAIRE

    Vicuña Ríos, Augusto; Izquierdo Henríquez, Elva Julieta; Huamán Saavedra, Juan Jorge

    2012-01-01

    Objetivo: Comparar efectos hipotrigliceridemiantes entre gemfibrozilo y aceite de Sacha Inchi en Rattus rattus var albinus. Materiales y Método: Se utilizaron 36 especímenes, los cuales fueron divididos al azar en 2 grupos experimentales (GE1 y GE2) y un grupo control (GC). Fueron sometidos a etapa de acondicionamiento por 2 semanas, luego alimentación rica en grasa por 2 semanas; posteriormente se administró aceite de Sacha Inchi y gemfibrozilo a GE1 y GE2, respectivamente. Se midieron los n...

  11. Effects of Neem (Azadirachta indic and Custard Apple (Annona reticulata Diets on Sterility of House Rat (Rattus rattus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prem Nidhi Sharma

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Three different plant products diets – i neem (Azadirachta indic A. Juss oil mixed diet (neem oil mixed @ 80 ml/kg of normal diet, ii neem seed powder mixed diet (neem seed powder mixed @ 80 g/kg of normal diet and iii custard apple (Annona reticulata L. seed powder mixed diet (custard apple seed powder mixed @ 80 g/kg of normal diet were separately fed to mature rats (Rattus rattus with single dose feeding of 80 g per pair in a day on 13th week-age during the experimenting years, 2012/013 and 2013/014. In control group only normal diet without neem and custard apple constituents were fed. Sterility test of rat was conducted up to 38 and 28 weeks-age in first and second year, respectively. The test rats were fed normal diet during whole experimenting periods except the one day when they were fed only the neem or custard apple mixed diet on the age of 13th week. Efficacy of the mixed diets on rat-sterility was determined based on pregnancy and parturition by the rats. The two years' results confirmed that all the tested three mixed diets – neem oil mixed diet, neem seed powder mixed diet, and custard apple seed powder mixed diet were effective to stop pregnancy and parturition in rats during whole experimenting periods up to 38 and 28 weeks-age with single dose feeding of 80 g per pair (40 gm/rat in a day on 13th week-age of the rats; whereas the pregnancy and parturition were observed in the rats that were fed only the normal diet. It is expected, neem and custard apple mixed diets can be utilized in reducing the economically important rodent populations in rice-wheat cropping system in future.

  12. Poultry egg components as cereal bait additives for enhancing rodenticide based control success and trap index of house rat, Rattus rattus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neena Singla

    2014-05-01

    Conclusions: Present data support the use of 2% egg albumin and egg shell powder in cereal bait to enhance acceptance and efficacy of 2% zinc phosphide bait against R. rattus. This may further help in checking the spread of rodent borne diseases to animals and humans.

  13. Endemic angiostrongyliasis in the Brazilian Amazon: natural parasitism of Angiostrongylus cantonensis in Rattus rattus and R. norvegicus, and sympatric giant African land snails, Achatina fulica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, V L C; Giese, E G; Melo, F T V; Simões, R O; Thiengo, S C; Maldonado, A; Santos, J N

    2013-01-01

    Angiostrongylus cantonensis, the rat lungworm, is one etiological agent of eosinophilic meningoencephalitis in humans. This zoonosis is frequently found in Asia and, more recently, in North America, Caribbean Island and northeastern of South America. Until now, research of A. cantonensis in southern, southeastern and northeastern regions of Brazil has been found natural infections only terrestrial and freshwater intermediate snail hosts (Achatina fulica, Sarasinula marginata, Subulina octona, Bradybaena similaris and Pomacea lineate). In this study, we examined the occurrence of helminthes in the synantropic rodents Rattus rattus and Rattus norvegicus in northern Brazil, focusing on the role of these species as vertebrate hosts of A. cantonensis and A. fulica as intermediate host have found natural. Thirty specimens of R. rattus and twelve of R. norvegicus were collected in the Guamá and Jurunas neighborhoods of the city of Belém, in the Brazilian state of Pará, of which almost 10% harbored adult worms in their pulmonary arteries. Sympatric A. fulica were found to be infected by L(3) larvae, which experimental infection confirmed to be A. cantonensis. Natural infection of snails and rodents with A. cantonensis was confirmed through morphological and morphometrical analyses of adults and larvae using light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and molecular sequences of partial Cytochrome Oxidase subunit I. Phylogenetic analyses showed that A. cantonensis isolated from Pará, Brazil is similar to Japan isolate; once these specimens produced a single haplotype with high bootstrap support with Rio de Janeiro isolate. This study confirms that A. cantonensis is now endemic in northern Brazil, and that R. rattus and R. norvegicus act as natural definitive hosts, and A. fulica as the intermediate host of the parasite in this region. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. A Two-Year Ecological Study of Norway Rats (Rattus norvegicus) in a Brazilian Urban Slum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panti-May, Jesús A; Carvalho-Pereira, Ticiana S A; Serrano, Soledad; Pedra, Gabriel G; Taylor, Josh; Pertile, Arsinoê C; Minter, Amanda; Airam, Vladimir; Carvalho, Mayara; Júnior, Nivison N; Rodrigues, Gorete; Reis, Mitermayer G; Ko, Albert I; Childs, James E; Begon, Mike; Costa, Federico

    2016-01-01

    The Norway or brown rat (Rattus norvegicus) is among the most ubiquitous of rodents. However, the lack of studies describing Norway rat populations from tropical areas have limited our understanding regarding their demography and seasonal dynamics. In this study, we describe seasonal pattern in the abundance, reproductive parameters, and morphometrics of Norway rat populations in Salvador, Brazil. Rodents were trapped over four seasonal trapping periods (2013-2014) from three valleys. A total of 802 Norway rats were trapped over the course of the study over 7653 trap-nights. Norway rat abundance was high, but there was no significant differences between seasons. The reproductive parameters (e.g. frequency of pregnant and lactating females) did not show statistical differences between seasons. Female rats collected in the rainy season were heavier and older than females from the dry season. Salvador rats had a high incidence of pregnancy and birth rate (estimated birth rate of 79 young per year) compared to previous studies. The information generated is critical for the understanding of the ecology of Norway rat, the main reservoir of Leptospira in Salvador. However, future studies examining the effect of rodent control programs aimed at reducing populations, and determining rates of recovery, will further clarify our understanding of population dynamics.

  15. Low prevalence of human enteropathogenic Yersinia spp. in brown rats (Rattus norvegicus in Flanders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lieze Oscar Rouffaer

    Full Text Available Brown rats (Rattus norvegicus have been identified as potential carriers of Yersinia enterocolitica and Y. pseudotuberculosis, the etiological agents of yersiniosis, the third most reported bacterial zoonosis in Europe. Enteropathogenic Yersinia spp. are most often isolated from rats during yersiniosis cases in animals and humans, and from rats inhabiting farms and slaughterhouses. Information is however lacking regarding the extent to which rats act as carriers of these Yersinia spp.. In 2013, 1088 brown rats across Flanders, Belgium, were tested for the presence of Yersinia species by isolation method. Identification was performed using MALDI-TOF MS, PCR on chromosomal- and plasmid-borne virulence genes, biotyping and serotyping. Yersinia spp. were isolated from 38.4% of the rats. Of these, 53.4% were designated Y. enterocolitica, 0.7% Y. pseudotuberculosis and 49.0% other Yersinia species. Two Y. enterocolitica possessing the virF-, ail- and ystA-gene were isolated. Additionally, the ystB-gene was identified in 94.1% of the other Y. enterocolitica isolates, suggestive for biotype 1A. Three of these latter isolates simultaneously possessed the ail-virulence gene. Significantly more Y. enterocolitica were isolated during winter and spring compared to summer. Based on our findings we can conclude that brown rats are frequent carriers for various Yersinia spp., including Y. pseudotuberculosis and (human pathogenic Y. enterocolitica which are more often isolated during winter and spring.

  16. Urban population genetics of slum-dwelling rats (Rattus norvegicus) in Salvador, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajdacsi, Brittney; Costa, Federico; Hyseni, Chaz; Porter, Fleur; Brown, Julia; Rodrigues, Gorete; Farias, Helena; Reis, Mitermeyer G.; Childs, James E.; Ko, Albert I.; Caccone, Adalgisa

    2013-01-01

    Throughout the developing world, urban centers with sprawling slum settlements are rapidly expanding and invading previously forested ecosystems. Slum communities are characterized by untended refuse, open sewers, and overgrown vegetation, which promote rodent infestation. Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus), are reservoirs for epidemic transmission of many zoonotic pathogens of public health importance. Understanding the population ecology of R. norvegicus is essential to formulate effective rodent control strategies, as this knowledge aids estimation of the temporal stability and spatial connectivity of populations. We screened for genetic variation, characterized the population genetic structure, and evaluated the extent and patterns of gene flow in the urban landscape using 17 microsatellite loci in 146 rats from 9 sites in the city of Salvador, Brazil. These sites were divided between three neighborhoods within the city spaced an average of 2.7 km apart. Surprisingly, we detected very little relatedness among animals trapped at the same site and found high levels of genetic diversity, as well as structuring across small geographic distances. Most FST comparisons among sites were statistically significant, including sites Salvador, linked to the heterogeneous urban landscape. Future rodent control measures need to take into account the spatial and temporal linkage of rat populations in Salvador, as revealed by genetic data, to develop informed eradication strategies. PMID:24118116

  17. PREDICTORS OF TRYPANOSOMA LEWISI IN RATTUS NORVEGICUS FROM DURBAN, SOUTH AFRICA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Colleen Edith; Schoeman, M Corrie; Appleton, Christopher Charles; Mukaratirwa, Samson; Hope, Karen J; Matthews, Glenda Beverly

    2018-03-16

    This study investigated associations between Trypanosoma lewisi; Xenopsylla cheopis, a common cyclical vector of T. lewisi; Polyplax spinulosa, a reported mechanical vector; and Laelaps ecidnina and L. lamborni, two rodent mites of Rattus norvegicus in Durban. Three hundred and seventy nine R. norvegicus were live-trapped at 48 sites in 4 locality types of Durban during a one year period. Rats were euthanized, cardiac blood was taken to check for hemoparasites and ectoparasites were removed for identification. Parasite species richness was higher in pups (2.11) and juveniles (1.02) than adults (0.87). Most rats in the study harbored 1 or 2 of the 5 parasites examined. Rats with trypanosomes and fleas were more prevalent in the city center and harbor, and juveniles were most affected. Rats with lice were more prevalent in informal settlements and urban/peri-urban areas and pups had the highest infestations. There was a significant positive association between rats with fleas and trypanosomes and a negative association between rats with lice and trypanosomes. Location and rat age were significant predictors of T. lewisi, X. cheopis and P. spinulosa. Mites showed no strong associations with trypanosomes. Ectoparasite associations are possibly habitat and life-cycle related. We conclude that Durban's city center, which offers rats harborage, an unsanitary environment and availability of food, is a high transmission area for fleas and trypanosomes, and consequently, a potential public health risk.

  18. 14C AMS dates on Rattus exulans bones from natural and archaeological contexts on Norfolk Island, south-west Pacific

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holdaway, R.N.; Anderson, A.J.

    1998-01-01

    The Pacific rat (Rattus exulans) was transported throughout the western Pacific by migrant peoples in prehistory. Meredith et al (1985) reported a minimum date for the presence of Rattus exulans on Norfolk Island using dates on charcoal from an apparently enclosing layer (the upper part of their Unit C4) in Cemetery Bay. 8 refs., 3 tabs

  19. Feeding strategies of Rattus norvegicus: a review / Una sintesi di alcuni aspetti della strategia alimentare del ratto Rattus norvegicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara Cagnin

    1987-07-01

    the foraging behaviour of the rat, are: the constant sampling of al1 the potential foods that brings the populations to a noteworthy adaptability to the change of available resources; the social interactions among individuals (mother-pups, adult-adult that are very important in influencing the food preferences and, eventually, the food avoidance; the use of feeding-places, which is considered as a fundamental trait of the foraging behaviour of the rat, working as an information-centre of the animals. Riassunto Sono stati esaminati alcuni dei più importanti aspetti della strategia alimentare del ratto, Rattus norvegicus (Berkenhout, 1769 considerando in particolare il comportamento dei selvatici e i lavori in natura. Le marcate differenze individuali nelle preferenze alimentari ed il campionamento continuo di tutte le potenziali fonti alimentari, permettono alle popolazioni naturali di sfruttare un gran numero di risorse dell'ambiente, adattandosi alle sue variazioni. I1 comportamento di accumulo, ben evidenziato in laboratorio ma scarsamente documentato in natura, sembra nel ratto un meccanismo utilizzato solo per far fronte a situazioni particolari (es. surplus di cibo, allattamento. I1 grado di neofobia è variamente modulato in popolazioni che hanno un rapporto con l'ambiente umano e assente nelle popolazioni non commensali. Molto importanti risultano le interazioni sociali fra gli individui (madre-piccoli, adulti-adulti nell'influenzare le scelte alimentari. Vengono discussi i dati relativi alla predazione su Molluschi che confermano l'ipotesi di una trasmissione delle informazioni riguardo alla scoperta di nuovi alimenti e delle tecniche di apertura del guscio. La formazione di mense viene interpretata come un fondamentale aspetto del comportamento di foraggiamento del ratto, rilevante come centro per lo scambio di informazioni fra gli animali.

  20. Aboriginal and invasive rats of genus Rattus as hosts of infectious agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosoy, Michael; Khlyap, Lyudmila; Cosson, Jean-Francois; Morand, Serge

    2015-01-01

    From the perspective of ecology of zoonotic pathogens, the role of the Old World rats of the genus Rattus is exceptional. The review analyzes specific characteristics of rats that contribute to their important role in hosting pathogens, such as host-pathogen relations and rates of rat-borne infections, taxonomy, ecology, and essential factors. Specifically the review addresses recent taxonomic revisions within the genus Rattus that resulted from applications of new genetic tools in understanding relationships between the Old World rats and the infectious agents that they carry. Among the numerous species within the genus Rattus, only three species-the Norway rat (R. norvegicus), the black or roof rat (R. rattus), and the Asian black rat (R. tanezumi)-have colonized urban ecosystems globally for a historically long period of time. The fourth invasive species, R. exulans, is limited to tropical Asia-Pacific areas. One of the points highlighted in this review is the necessity to discriminate the roles played by rats as pathogen reservoirs within the land of their original diversification and in regions where only one or few rat species were introduced during the recent human history.

  1. Análisis fitoquímico y efecto sinérgico protector de las hojas de minthostachys mollis y malva sylvestris sobre la mucosa gástrica de rattus rattus var. albinus

    OpenAIRE

    Castillo Saavedra, Ericson Félix

    2010-01-01

    The peptic ulcer is a lesion that affects an area of the gastrointestinal mucose usually in the stomach or duodenum produced by a disbalance between defensives and protects factors. This report was oriented on determinating phytochemistry of Minthostachys mollis (Kunth) Griseb, Malva sylvestris L., and analyze if these plants in study had synergistic protect effect in the acute injure of gastric mucose induced by ethanol in Rattus rattus var. albinus. Phytochemical screening was realized usin...

  2. The increasing of odontoblast-like cell number on direct pulp capping of Rattus norvegicus using chitosan

    OpenAIRE

    Prananingrum, Widyasri

    2010-01-01

    Background: Pulpal perforation care with direct pulp capping in the case of reversible pulpitis due to mechanical trauma was performed with chitosan which has the ability to facilitate migration, proliferation, and progenitor cell differentiation. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the increasing number of odontoblast-like cells in direct pulp capping dental care of Rattus norvegicus using chitosan for seven and fourteen days. Methods: Samples were molars of male Rattus norve...

  3. Parasitological surveillance in a rat (Rattus norvegicus) colony in São Paulo Zoo animal house

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chagas, Carolina Romeiro Fernandes; Gonzalez, Irys Hany Lima; Favoretto, Samantha Mesquita; Ramos, Patrícia Locosque

    Rattus norvegicus (Mammalia: Rodentia) is a widespread and synanthropic rodent, broadly used in medical experiments. It can also be used for feeding captive animals in zoos. Parasitological surveys are important to guarantee the health of both the animals and the staff responsible for their management. The aim of this study was to identify intestinal parasites of Rattus norvegicus offered as food to captive animals from São Paulo Zoo, and demonstrate the importance of sanitary hurdling, disease control and biosecurity. The identified protozoan parasites were Eimeria sp., Entamoeba sp., Spironucleus sp., Giardia sp., Tritrichomonas sp., Chilomastix sp., unidentified cysts and non-sporulated coccidians oocysts (Isospora/Eimeria). The following helminths were found: Syphacia muris, Rodentolepis nana and Aspiculuris tetraptera.

  4. BIRD’S NEST EXTRACT CREAM: TREATMENT FOR PERINEAL WOUND IN RATTUS NORVEGICUS

    OpenAIRE

    Herlina Ofiwijayanti; Syarief Thaufik Hidayat; Nur Khafidhoh

    2017-01-01

    Background: Perineal rupture occurs almost in all the first labor and not infrequently in the next labor. Complex perineal wounds are at risk for non healing and infection. Objective: This study aims to determine the effect of bird’s nest extract on perineal wound healing on rattus norvegicus. Methods: This was a randomised posttest only group design conducted in October 2016 at Animal Laboratory Unit of Diponegoro University, Semarang. There were 30 samples recruited in this study, div...

  5. Behavioral changes in Rattus norvegicus coinfected by Toxocara canis and Toxoplasma gondii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maisa Leite de Queiroz

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Using an elevated plus maze apparatus and an activity cage, behavioral changes in Rattus norvegicus concomitantly infected by Toxocara canis and Toxoplasma gondii were studied, during a period of 120 days. Rats infected by Toxocara canis or Toxoplasma gondii showed significant behavioral changes; however, in the group coinfected by both parasites a behavioral pattern similar to that found in the group not infected was observed thirty days after infection, suggesting the occurrence of modulation in the behavioral response.

  6. Surgery and electrochemotherapy treatment of incompletely excised mammary carcinoma in two male pet rats (Rattus norvegicus)

    OpenAIRE

    LANZA, Andrea; PETTORALI, Michela; BALDI, Alfonso; SPUGNINI, Enrico P.

    2017-01-01

    Two male rats (Rattus norvegicus; 18 and 24 months old), were referred for treatment of large masses located in the axillary area. Following total body radiography and hematological and serum biochemical analysis, the rats were anesthetized, and the masses were surgically removed. Both lesions were diagnosed as mammary carcinoma based on histopathological diagnosis. The tumor beds were treated with two sessions of electrochemotherapy (ECT), two weeks apart. ECT involved cisplatin administrati...

  7. Corrected placement of Mus-Rattus fossil calibration forces precision in the molecular tree of rodents

    OpenAIRE

    Kimura, Yuri; Hawkins, Melissa T. R.; McDonough, Molly M.; Jacobs, Louis L.; Flynn, Lawrence J.

    2015-01-01

    Time calibration derived from the fossil record is essential for molecular phylogenetic and evolutionary studies. Fossil mice and rats, discovered in the Siwalik Group of Pakistan, have served as one of the best-known fossil calibration points in molecular phylogenic studies. Although these fossils have been widely used as the 12 Ma date for the Mus/Rattus split or a more basal split, conclusive paleontological evidence for the nodal assignments has been absent. This study analyzes newly reco...

  8. Plague Circulation and Population Genetics of the Reservoir Rattus rattus: The Influence of Topographic Relief on the Distribution of the Disease within the Madagascan Focus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouat, Carine; Rahelinirina, Soanandrasana; Loiseau, Anne; Rahalison, Lila; Rajerison, Minoariso; Laffly, Dominique; Handschumacher, Pascal; Duplantier, Jean-Marc

    2013-01-01

    Background Landscape may affect the distribution of infectious diseases by influencing the population density and dispersal of hosts and vectors. Plague (Yersinia pestis infection) is a highly virulent, re-emerging disease, the ecology of which has been scarcely studied in Africa. Human seroprevalence data for the major plague focus of Madagascar suggest that plague spreads heterogeneously across the landscape as a function of the relief. Plague is primarily a disease of rodents. We therefore investigated the relationship between disease distribution and the population genetic structure of the black rat, Rattus rattus, the main reservoir of plague in Madagascar. Methodology/Principal Findings We conducted a comparative study of plague seroprevalence and genetic structure (15 microsatellite markers) in rat populations from four geographic areas differing in topology, each covering about 150–200 km2 within the Madagascan plague focus. The seroprevalence levels in the rat populations mimicked those previously reported for humans. As expected, rat populations clearly displayed a more marked genetic structure with increasing relief. However, the relationship between seroprevalence data and genetic structure differs between areas, suggesting that plague distribution is not related everywhere to the effective dispersal of rats. Conclusions/Significance Genetic diversity estimates suggested that plague epizootics had only a weak impact on rat population sizes. In the highlands of Madagascar, plague dissemination cannot be accounted for solely by the effective dispersal of the reservoir. Human social activities may also be involved in spreading the disease in rat and human populations. PMID:23755317

  9. Record of Tropical Rat Mite, Ornithonyssus bacoti (Acari: Mesostigmata: Macronyssidae from Domestic and Peridomestic Rodents (Rattus rattus in Nilgiris, Tamil Nadu, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pranab Jyoti-Bhuyan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tropical rat mite (Ornithonyssus bacoti is reported from many parts of the world and is considered important in transmitting rickettsial pathogens. There have been scanty reports on prevalence of this parasite from India. Following a recent report of O. bacoti infestation in a laboratory mice colony from Nilgiris, Tamil Nadu, In­dia, attempts were made to detect the parasite in its natural reservoir, ie the domestic and peridomestic rats (Rattus rattus.Methods: The National Centre for Disease Control, Coonoor is involved in screening plague in domestic and peridomestic rats in Nilgiris and erstwhile plague endemic areas of Southern India. The parasite samples were identi­fied based on the morphological characteristics attributable to O. bacoti and as per description of published literature.Results: Seven mite samples identified as O. bacoti based on morphological characteristics were isolated inci­dentally from domestic and peridomestic rodents in and around the hilly districts of Nilgiris, Southern India, during the routine plague surveillance programme. The identification was based on the morphological characteristics at­tributable to O. bacoti observed under a low power microscope.Conclusion: In India, this is probably the first record of isolation of O. bacoti from domestic and peridomestic ro­dents. Prevalence of such parasite in domestic and peridomestic rats necessitates further investigation on monitoring and surveillance of rickettsial diseases in the locality, as these parasites are considered to be potential vector of transmitting rickettsial pathogens

  10. PENGARUH PEMBERIAN MONOSODIUM GLUTAMAT (MSG PADA TIKUS JANTAN (Rattus Norvegicus TERHADAP FSH DAN LH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulkarnain Edward

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakKemajuan teknologi informasi membawa dampak terhadap perubahan gaya hidup masyarakat, termasuk perubahan pola konsumsi makanan yang lebih banyak mengkonsumsi jenis makanan cepat saji, makanan kemasan dan makanan awetan yang belakangan ini semakin banyak dijual dipasar tradisional dan swalayan. Penggunaan bahan tambahan makanan sering dijumpai, salah satunya adalah bahan penyedap yang banyak sekali digunakan seperti senyawa L-asam glutamat yang digunakan dalam bentuk garam yaitu monosodium glutamat (MSG. Berbagai merk dagang MSG telah dikenal dimasyarakat secara luas seperti ajinomoto, vetsin, micin, sasa, miwon dan sebagainya.MSG adalah garam monosodium dengan asam glutamat yang sering digunakan sebagai bahan penyedap masakan untuk merangsang selera makan. Pemberian MSG mengakibatkan gangguan hormonal pada hewan coba, ion glutamat dalam sirkulasi portal akan mempengaruhi hipotalamus dalam memproduksi GnRH yang selanjutnya akan mengganggu hipofise anterior dalam memproduksi FSH dan LH. Fungsi FSH adalah untuk bekerja pada tubulus seminiferus terutama pada sel sertoli untuk meningkatkan spermatogenesis, sedangkan LH berfungsi pada sel Leydig untuk mengatur sekresi testosteron.Penelitian ini bersifat eksperimen dengan rancangan post only group design. Penelitian dilakukan di laboratorium Biologi dan laboratorium Biokimia Fakultas Kedokteran Unand Padang dari tanggal 20 Desember 2009 sampai 30 Februari 2010. Populasi adalah tikus putih jantan strain Jepang (Rattus norvegicus yang berasal dari laboratorium Fakultas Matematika dan Ilmu Pengetahuan Alam Unand. Sampel berjumlah 20 ekor dibagi atas 4 kelompok dengan satu kelompok kontrol dan tiga kelompok perlakuan. Dosis MSG yang digunakan yaitu P1= 4800 mg/kgbb/hari, P2=7200 mg/kgbb/hari dan P3= 9600 mg/kgbb/hari diberikan peroral sebanyak dua siklus epitel seminiferus. Analisa dengan uji Anova dengan derajat kepercayaan 95% dan jika bermakna dilanjutkan dengan uji Multiple Comparissons jenis

  11. Anatomía del Hígado de la Rata Wistar (Rattus norvegicus)

    OpenAIRE

    Möller Bredo, Richard; Vazquez Odo, Noelia

    2011-01-01

    La rata de laboratorio (Rattus norvegicus albinus) ha sido usada como modelo para investigaciones médicas, biológicas y moleculares, desde hace mucho tiempo. Es interesante el hecho de que no existen descripciones detalladas de la anatomía del hígado y sus ligamentos que lo fijan a la pared. El objetivo de este trabajo es definir en forma clara y acorde a los principios de la Nomina Anatomica Veterinaria el hígado y sus medios de unión en esta especie de mamífero de laboratorio. Se utilizaron...

  12. Erythrocyte enzymes in groups of Rattus norvegicus with genetic differences in 2,3-diphosphoglycerate levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, N A; Tanaka, K R

    1979-01-01

    1. A major locus with two alleles is responsible for large differences in erythrocyte 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (DPG) levels in Rattus norvegicus. Blood from homozygous High-DPG, homozygous Low-DPG and heterozygous animals was used to measure blood indices and red cell enzyme activities. 2. Significant differences between groups were found in DPG levels, white blood cell counts and hemoglobin levels. 3. The results suggest that none of the red cell enzymes assayed is structurally or quantitatively different in the three groups.

  13. Clinical Procedures Training for Veterinary Technicians and Investigators using Common Laboratory Animal Species, including: Mice (Mus musculus), Rats (Rattus norvegicus), Hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus), Guinea Pigs (Gavia porcellus), Rabbits (Otyctolagus cuniculus), Ferrets (Mustela putorius furo), Pigs (Sus scrofa), Sheep (Ovis aries), and Goats (Capra hircus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-30

    60th Medical Group (AMC), Travis AFB, CA INSTITUTIONAL ANIMAL CARE AND USE COMMITTEE (IACUC) FINAL REPORT SUMMARY (Please !ml all information. Use...Technicians and Investigators using Common Laboratory Animal Species, including: Mice (Mus muscu/us), Rats (Rattus norvegicus), Hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus...DATE: 14 November 2016 FUNDING SOURCE: SG O&M funds LAST TRIENNIAL REVISION DATE: 15 October 2015 1. RECORD OF ANIMAL USAGE: Animal Species: Total

  14. Corrected placement of Mus-Rattus fossil calibration forces precision in the molecular tree of rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Yuri; Hawkins, Melissa T R; McDonough, Molly M; Jacobs, Louis L; Flynn, Lawrence J

    2015-09-28

    Time calibration derived from the fossil record is essential for molecular phylogenetic and evolutionary studies. Fossil mice and rats, discovered in the Siwalik Group of Pakistan, have served as one of the best-known fossil calibration points in molecular phylogenic studies. Although these fossils have been widely used as the 12 Ma date for the Mus/Rattus split or a more basal split, conclusive paleontological evidence for the nodal assignments has been absent. This study analyzes newly recognized characters that demonstrate lineage separation in the fossil record of Siwalik murines and examines the most reasonable nodal placement of the diverging lineages in a molecular phylogenetic tree by ancestral state reconstruction. Our specimen-based approach strongly indicates that Siwalik murines of the Karnimata clade are fossil members of the Arvicanthini-Otomyini-Millardini clade, which excludes Rattus and its relatives. Combining the new interpretation with the widely accepted hypothesis that the Progonomys clade includes Mus, the lineage separation event in the Siwalik fossil record represents the Mus/Arvicanthis split. Our test analysis on Bayesian age estimates shows that this new calibration point provides more accurate estimates of murine divergence than previous applications. Thus, we define this fossil calibration point and refine two other fossil-based points for molecular dating.

  15. Rodent-borne Trypanosoma from cities and villages of Niger and Nigeria: A special role for the invasive genus Rattus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatard, C; Garba, M; Gauthier, P; Hima, K; Artige, E; Dossou, D K H J; Gagaré, S; Genson, G; Truc, P; Dobigny, G

    2017-07-01

    Although they are known to sometimes infect humans, atypical trypanosomes are very poorly documented, especially in Africa where one lethal case has yet been described. Here we conducted a survey of rodent-borne Trypanosoma in 19 towns and villages of Niger and Nigeria, with a special emphasis on Niamey, the capital city of Niger. The 1298 rodents that were captured yielded 189 qPCR-positive animals from 14 localities, thus corresponding to a 14.6% overall prevalence. Rats, especially black rats, displayed particularly elevated prevalence (27.4%), with some well sampled sites showing 40-50% and up to 68.8% of Trypanosoma-carrying individuals. Rattus were also characterized by significantly lower Ct values than in the other non-Rattus species. DNA sequences could be obtained for 43 rodent-borne Trypanosoma and corresponded to 41 T. lewisi (all from Rattus) and 2 T. microti (from Cricetomys gambianus). These results, together with data compiled from the available literature, suggest that Rattus may play a particular role for the maintaining and circulation of Trypanosoma, especially T. lewisi, in Africa. Taken into account its strong abilities to invade coastal and inland regions of the continent, we believe that this genus deserves a particular attention in regards to potentially under-looked but emerging atypical trypanosome-related diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Commensal ecology, urban landscapes, and their influence on the genetic characteristics of city-dwelling Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner-Santana, L C; Norris, D E; Fornadel, C M; Hinson, E R; Klein, S L; Glass, G E

    2009-07-01

    Movement of individuals promotes colonization of new areas, gene flow among local populations, and has implications for the spread of infectious agents and the control of pest species. Wild Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus) are common in highly urbanized areas but surprisingly little is known of their population structure. We sampled individuals from 11 locations within Baltimore, Maryland, to characterize the genetic structure and extent of gene flow between areas within the city. Clustering methods and a neighbour-joining tree based on pairwise genetic distances supported an east-west division in the inner city, and a third cluster comprised of historically more recent sites. Most individuals (approximately 95%) were assigned to their area of capture, indicating strong site fidelity. Moreover, the axial dispersal distance of rats (62 m) fell within typical alley length. Several rats were assigned to areas 2-11.5 km away, indicating some, albeit infrequent, long-distance movement within the city. Although individual movement appears to be limited (30-150 m), locations up to 1.7 km are comprised of relatives. Moderate F(ST), differentiation between identified clusters, and high allelic diversity indicate that regular gene flow, either via recruitment or migration, has prevented isolation. Therefore, ecology of commensal rodents in urban areas and life-history characteristics of Norway rats likely counteract many expected effects of isolation or founder events. An understanding of levels of connectivity of rat populations inhabiting urban areas provides information about the spatial scale at which populations of rats may spread disease, invade new areas, or be eradicated from an existing area without reinvasion.

  17. Molecular identification of Heterakis spumosa obtained from brown rats (Rattus norvegicus) in Japan and its infectivity in experimental mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šnábel, Viliam; Utsuki, Daisuke; Kato, Takehiro; Sunaga, Fujiko; Ooi, Hong-Kean; Gambetta, Barbara; Taira, Kensuke

    2014-09-01

    Heterakis spumosa is a nematode of invasive rodents, mainly affiliated with Rattus spp. of Asian origin. Despite the ecological importance and cosmopolitan distribution, little information is available on the genetic characteristics and infectivity to experimental animals of this roundworm. Heterakis isolates obtained from naturally infected brown rats caught in 2007 in the city of Sagamihara, east central Honshu, Japan, and maintained by laboratory passages were subjected to mitochondrial sequence analysis and experimental infection in mice. Sequencing of the cox1 gene revealed that nucleotides of H. spumosa and previously examined Heterakis isolonche isolates from gallinaceous birds in Japan differed by 11.2-12.2% that conforms to the range expected for interspecific differences. The two H. spumosa isolates differed by a single 138T/C non-synonymous substitution in the 393-bp mt sequence. In a dendrogram, the H. spumosa samples formed a subcluster with members of the nematode superfamily Heterakoidea, H. isolonche and Ascaridia galli. In an experimental infection study, ICR, AKR, B10.BR and C57BL/6 mice strains were inoculated with 200 H. spumosa eggs/head and necropsied at 14 and 90 days post-inoculation (DPI) when the number of worms was recorded. Eggs were initially detected in faeces from 32-35 DPI in ICR, AKR and B10.BR mice and the highest mean number of eggs per gram of faeces (EPG) was 4,800 at 38 DPI, 2,200 at 58 DPI and 800 at 44 and 72 DPI in ICR, AKR and B10.BR mice, respectively. No eggs were observed in faeces of the C57BL/6 mouse strain during the experiment. A similar number of juvenile worms were isolated from all mouse strains at 14 DPI, whereas no adult worms were detected in C57BL/6 mice at 90 DPI.

  18. Pengaruh Pemberian Jus Buah Naga Merah (Hylocereus polyrhizus Terhadap Kadar Trigliserida Tikus Putih (Rattus norvegicus Hiperlipidemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afrida Wira Surya Rizqi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease is a disease that causes the most deaths in the world. One of its main risk factor is triglyceride levels which make the emergence of plaque in coronary artery. Statin as an option drug in reducing triglyceride levels apparently reported to cause myopathy and kidney failure when used in a long term. Natural product like red dragon fruit began to be developed as a safer alternative. The content of various substances such as niacin, vitamin C and fiber in it useful as antihypertriglyceridemia. This study aims to determine the effect of red dragon fruit (Hylocereus polyrhizus juice to the decrease of triglyceride levels in hyperlipidemic white rats (Rattus norvegicus. This study was an experimental study with pre and post test with control group design. The subjects were 24 male experimental animals (Rattus norvegicus were divided into 4 groups: one positive control group given simvastatin 0.18 mg/ 200 gram of  weight and three groups treated with red dragon fruit juice doses of 3.6; 5.4 and 7.2 gram/ 200 gram of weight. Then, data were analyzed escriptively with One-Way ANOVA test using SPSS 16.0 for Windows. Results with descriptive analysis obtained that mean of positive control’s pre-test triglyceride level was 104.80 mg/ dl and treatment groups I, II and III respectively 108.15 mg/ dl, 106.47 mg/ dl and 107.43 mg/ dl whereas positive control’s post-test triglyceride level was 51.09 mg/ dl and for the treatment groups were 94.64 mg /dl, 71.01 mg/ dl and 58.75 mg/ dl. One Way ANOVA test obtained p <0.05 which indicated the difference between the treatment of various doses of red dragon fruit juice to white rats’ triglyceride levels. Based on that, means there is the effect of various doses of red dragon fruit (Hylocereus polyrhizus juice to the decrease of triglyceride levels in hyperlipidemic white rats (Rattus norvegicus.

  19. Completion of the life cycle of Sarcocystis zuoi , a parasite from the Norway rat, Rattus norvegicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jun-Jie; Meng, Yu; Guo, Yan-Mei; Liao, Jie-Ying; Song, Jing-Ling

    2012-06-01

    Transmission experiments were performed to elucidate the life cycle of Sarcocystis zuoi found in Norway rats ( Rattus norvegicus ) in China. Two king rat snakes ( Elaphe carinata ) fed sarcocysts from the muscles of 4 naturally infected Norway rats shed sporocysts measuring 10.8 ± 0.7 × 8.0 ± 0.7 µm, with a prepatent period of 8-9 days. Sporocysts from the intestine of 2 experimentally infected king rat snakes were given to the laboratory Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats ( R. norvegicus ) and Kunming (KM) mice ( Mus musculus ). Microscopic sarcocysts developed in the skeletal muscles of SD rats. No sarcocysts were observed in KM mice. Characters of ultrastructure and molecule of sarcocysts from SD rats were confirmed as S. zuoi . Our results indicate that king rat snake is the definitive host of S. zuoi .

  20. Pengaruh Pemberian Jus Buah Naga Merah (Hylocereus polyrhizus Terhadap Kadar Trigliserida Tikus Putih (Rattus norvegicus Hiperlipidemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afrida Wira Surya Rizqi

    2014-09-01

    Results with descriptive analysis obtained that mean of positive control’s pre-test triglyceride level was 104.80 mg/ dl and treatment groups I, II and III respectively 108.15 mg/ dl, 106.47 mg/ dl and 107.43 mg/ dl whereas positive control’s post-test triglyceride level was 51.09 mg/ dl and for the treatment groups were 94.64 mg /dl, 71.01 mg/ dl and 58.75 mg/ dl. One Way ANOVA test obtained p <0.05 which indicated the difference between the treatment of various doses of red dragon fruit juice to white rats’ triglyceride levels. Based on that, means there is the effect of various doses of red dragon fruit (Hylocereus polyrhizus juice to the decrease of triglyceride levels in hyperlipidemic white rats (Rattus norvegicus.

  1. The effect of fluoride on the serum level of calcium in the rat (Rattus norvegicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fočak M.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of fluoride on the calcium level in serum was analyzed in the laboratory rat Rattus norvegicus. The control group consisted of 10, and the experimental group of 15 animals. In the experimental group, fluoride at a concentration of 3 mg/100 g body weight of rats was intramuscularly injected into the musculus gluteus maximus. The concentration of calcium was measured by the CPC method. The average serum calcium concentration was 2.46 mmol/l, with female rats having higher values of serum calcium than male rats. Fluoride caused the reduction of calcium concentration in serum (p<0.05; the reduction was significantly expressed in female rats (p<0.000.

  2. Involvement of hepatic xenobiotic related genes in bromadiolone resistance in wild Norway rats, Rattus norvegicus (Berk.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Mette Drude; Heiberg, Ann-Charlotte; Alsbo, Carsten

    2007-01-01

    To examine the role of xenobiotic relevant genes in bromadiolone resistance in wild Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus) we compared the constitutive liver gene expression and expression upon bromadiolone administration in bromadiolone resistant and anticoagulant susceptible female rats using a LNA...... expressed in resistant than susceptible rats upon bromadiolone exposure. To establish how bromadiolone affected xenobiotic gene expression in the two strains we compared bromadiolone expression profiles to saline profiles of both strains. Bromadiolone mediated significant up-regulation of Cyp2e1 and Cyp3a3...... expression in the resistant rats whereas the rodenticide conferred down-regulation of Cyp2e1, Cyp3a3 and Gpox1 and induction of Cyp2c12 expression in susceptible rats. Cyp2c13 and Cyp3a2 expression were markedly suppressed in both strains upon treatment. This suggests that xenobiotic relevant enzymes play...

  3. Modeling the distribution of Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus on offshore islands in the Falkland Islands

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    Michael A. Tabak

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Non-native rats (Rattus spp. threaten native island species worldwide. Efforts to eradicate them from islands have increased in frequency and become more ambitious in recent years. However, the long-term success of some eradication efforts has been compromised by the ability of rats, particularly Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus which are good swimmers, to recolonize islands following eradications. In the Falkland Islands, an archipelago in the South Atlantic Ocean, the distance of 250 m between islands (once suggested as the minimum separation distance for an effective barrier to recolonization has shown to be insufficient. Norway rats are present on about half of the 503 islands in the Falklands. Bird diversity is lower on islands with rats and two vulnerable passerine species, Troglodytes cobbi (the only endemic Falkland Islands passerine and Cinclodes antarcticus, have greatly reduced abundances and/or are absent on islands with rats. We used logistic regression models to investigate the potential factors that may determine the presence of Norway rats on 158 islands in the Falkland Islands. Our models included island area, distance to the nearest rat-infested island, island location, and the history of island use by humans as driving variables. Models best supported by data included only distance to the nearest potential source of rats and island area, but the relative magnitude of the effect of distance and area on the presence of rats varied depending on whether islands were in the eastern or western sector of the archipelago. The human use of an island was not a significant parameter in any models. A very large fraction (72% of islands within 500 m of the nearest potential rat source had rats, but 97% of islands farther than 1,000 m away from potential rat sources were free of rats.

  4. The increasing of odontoblast-like cell number on direct pulp capping of Rattus norvegicus using chitosan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widyasri Prananingrum

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pulpal perforation care with direct pulp capping in the case of reversible pulpitis due to mechanical trauma was performed with chitosan which has the ability to facilitate migration, proliferation, and progenitor cell differentiation. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the increasing number of odontoblast-like cells in direct pulp capping dental care of Rattus norvegicus using chitosan for seven and fourteen days. Methods: Samples were molars of male Rattus norvegicus strain wistar, aged between 8–16 weeks, divided into two treatment groups, namely group I given chitosan and group II as a control group given Ca(OH2. Those Rattus norvegicus’ occlusal molar teeth were prepared with class I cavity, and then chitosan and Ca(OH2 were applied as the pulp capping materials. Afterwards, glasss ionomer cement type IX was used as a restoration material. Their teeth and jaw were then cut on the seventh day and the fourteenth day. Next, histopathological examination was carried out to observe the odontoblast like cells. All data were then analyzed by t test. Degree of confidence obtained, finally, was 95%. Results: The results obtained showed that the significant differences of odontoblast like cells on the seventh day observation was 0.001 (p = 0.001, and on the fourteenth day observation was 0.002 (p = 0.002. Conclusion: The number of odontoblast-like cells in direct pulp capping dental care of rattus norvegicus using chitosan is higher than the one using Ca(OH2 for seven and fourteen days.Latar belakang: Perawatan perforasi pulpa pada kasus pulpitis reversible karena trauma mekanis bur dilakukan direct pulp capping dengan cara pemberian bahan secara topikal pada daerah perforasi. Kitosan memiliki kemampuan untuk memfasilitasi migrasi, proliferasi dan diferensiasi sel progenitor pulpa. Tujuan: Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk menentukan jumlah peningkatan odontoblas-like cell pada perawatan direct pulp capping gigi

  5. Perbedaan Pengaruh Pemberian Insulin dan Ekstrak Zingiber officinale Terhadap Berat Badan Lahir Anak Rattus Norvegicus Model Diabetes Melitus Pragestasional

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    Ratih Mega Septiasari

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes during pregnancy can be divided into pregestational diabetes and gestational diabetes. The risk of fetal Diabetes Mellitus pregestational (DMpG patients can be either macrosomia or low birth weight. The purpose of this study was to investigate the differences in the administration effect of insulin and Zingiber officinale extract on birth weight of Rattus norvegicus pregestational diabetes mellitus model. This research is an experimental research using post test only control group design. Samples contained 30 pregnant Rattus norvegicus and divided into 5 groups, where K0 (negative control group and K1 (positive control group given aquadest 1cc, K2 given insulin 1IU, K3 given ginger extract 500mg/ kg BW, K4 given insulin 1IU and ginger extract 500mg/ kg BW. Treatment was administered during the first 16 days of pregnancy. On the 17th day, the rats were terminated and then the birth weight was measured with the scale. Data analysis using One-way ANOVA test followed by Tamhane test. The results showed that there was a difference of birth weight in the insulin treatment group and ginger extract treatment group (p-value = 0,037 < α =0,05. The conclusion of this study was Zingiber officinale can be used as a single therapy or combination with insulin of Rattus norvegicus pregestational diabetes mellitus model.

  6. Pengaruh Antikoagulan dan Waktu Penyimpanan Terhadap Profil Hematologis Tikus (Rattus norvegicus Berkenhout, 1769 Galur Wistar

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    Laksmindra Fitria

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Darah merupakan komponen penting karena menunjukkan kondisi fisiologis individu. Oleh  karena  itu  darah  menjadi salah  satu  parameter  pokok  dalam penelitian praklinik/ biomedik. Hematologi merupakan ilmu yang mempelajari kondisi sel-sel darah perifer dalam kondisi normal maupun patologis. Parameter pemeriksaan hematologis yang rutin dilakukan antara lain profil eritrosit dan leukosit. Sampel darah yang diterima kadangkala tidak langsung diperiksa karena berbagai alasan. Untuk menjaga supaya kondisinya tidak rusak, maka sampel darah ditambah antikoagulan dan disimpan di dalam lemari pendingin selama beberapa jam hingga beberapa hari. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mempelajari profil eritrosit dan leukosit pada sampel darah tikus (Rattus norvegicus Berkenhout, 1769 Galur Wistar yang sehat/normal dengan antikoagulan EDTA atau Heparin dan variasi waktu penyimpanan (0, 6, 18, 24, dan 48 jam. Untuk pembahasan lebih lanjut, data dianalisis secara statistik berdasarkan ANOVA two-factor (P0,05. Disimpulkan bahwa pemeriksaan profil hematologis yang terbaik adalah menggunakan darah tanpa antikoagulan namun harus langsung dilakukan segera setelah sampel diperoleh (sebelum darah mengalami koagulasi. Apabila tidak memungkinkan, maka dapat digunakan EDTA atau Heparin, dan jenis antikoagulan harus dijelaskan dalam pelaporannya. Pemeriksaan darah dengan antikoagulan hendaknya juga tetap dilakukan segera setelah sampel diterima (tidak ditunda.

  7. Food Neophobia in Wild Rats (Rattus norvegicus Inhabiting a Changeable Environment-A Field Study.

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    Klaudia Modlinska

    Full Text Available Food neophobia is a reaction to novel food observed in many animal species, particularly omnivores, including Rattus norvegicus. A neophobic reaction is typically characterised by avoidance of novel food and the necessity to assess both its potential value and toxicity by the animal. It has been hypothesised that this reaction is not observed in rats inhabiting a changeable environment with a high level of variability with regard to food and food sources. This study was conducted in such changeable conditions and it aims to demonstrate the behaviour of wild rats R. norvegicus in their natural habitat. The rats were studied in a farm setting, and the experimental arena was demarcated by a specially constructed pen which was freely accessible to the rats. At regular intervals, the rats were given new flavour- and smell-altered foods, while their behaviour was video-recorded. The results obtained in the study seem to confirm the hypothesis that rats inhabiting a highly changeable environment do not exhibit food neophobia. The observed reaction to novel food may be connected with a reaction to a novel object to a larger extent than to food neophobia. The value of the results obtained lies primarily in the fact that the study was conducted in the animals' natural habitat, and that it investigated their spontaneous behaviours.

  8. Coumatetralyl resistance of Rattus tanezumi infesting oil palm plantations in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andru, J; Cosson, J F; Caliman, J P; Benoit, E

    2013-03-01

    Rodent control is an important issue in human health and agriculture. Oil palm plantations are rapidly expanding in Indonesia and this is having a major economic and ecological impact. Rodent control in oil palm plantations is based principally on the use of anti-vitamin K (AVK), the main anticoagulant used being coumatetralyl, a first-generation AVK. We conducted a comparative study in two well established oil palm plantations in Indonesia: (1) one without chemical control in Riau and (2) another with intensive coumatetralyl use on Bangka Island. Rat species were identified by the molecular barcoding method. Susceptibility to coumatetralyl was then assessed within the two populations and we screened for mutations in vkorc1, which encodes the molecular target of AVK. Different species were found in the two areas: Rattus tiomanicus in Riau, and a mix of R. tanezumi and a close relative one in Bangka. The rats in Riau were much more susceptible to coumatetralyl than those in Bangka. This study is the first to demonstrate physiological tolerance to AVK in these species. vkorc1 displayed low levels of polymorphism, and no SNP was associated with the high-tolerance phenotypes of R. tanezumi clade, even those exposed to very high concentrations (32 × the effective dose of 0.36 mg kg(-1)). The biochemical basis of this tolerance remains unknown, but may involve the vkorc1 promoter and/or cytochrome P450 metabolism. We discuss our results and the selective role of anticoagulant use in the occurrence of phenotypic tolerance.

  9. Structure of the GH1 domain of guanylate kinase-associated protein from Rattus norvegicus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tong, Junsen; Yang, Huiseon; Eom, Soo Hyun; Chun, ChangJu; Im, Young Jun

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The crystal structure of GKAP homology domain 1 (GH1) was determined. • GKAP GH1 is a three-helix bundle connected by short flexible loops. • The predicted helix α4 associates weakly with the helix α3, suggesting dynamic nature of the GH1 domain. - Abstract: Guanylate-kinase-associated protein (GKAP) is a scaffolding protein that links NMDA receptor-PSD-95 to Shank–Homer complexes by protein–protein interactions at the synaptic junction. GKAP family proteins are characterized by the presence of a C-terminal conserved GKAP homology domain 1 (GH1) of unknown structure and function. In this study, crystal structure of the GH1 domain of GKAP from Rattus norvegicus was determined in fusion with an N-terminal maltose-binding protein at 2.0 Å resolution. The structure of GKAP GH1 displays a three-helix bundle connected by short flexible loops. The predicted helix α4 which was not visible in the crystal structure associates weakly with the helix α3 suggesting dynamic nature of the GH1 domain. The strict conservation of GH1 domain across GKAP family members and the lack of a catalytic active site required for enzyme activity imply that the GH1 domain might serve as a protein–protein interaction module for the synaptic protein clustering

  10. Green Tea Extract (Camellia sinensis L. Effects on Uric Acid Levels on Hyperuricemia Rats (Rattus norvegicus

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    Putranty Widha Nugraheni

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Uric acid is the end product of purine degradation. When uric acid levels exceed normal limits, it will build up and cause hyperuricemia. Allopurinol is one of the most effective and common medicine for hyperuricemia, but it brings serious side effects, therefore it is needed alternative therapy for hyperuricemia. One plant that may be expected to low uric acid levels is green tea (Camellia sinensis L., that contains many antioxidants polyphenols, especially flavonoids. Flavonoid has strong antioxidant properties, act as free radical and metal scavengers, and also xanthine oxidase (XOD inhibitors. This study investigates the potential of green tea using various doses of 150 mg/kg, 300 mg/kg, and 600 mg/kg of body weight in 24 white male rats (Rattus norvegicus Wistar strain that has been received high purine diet in 60 consecutive days. This study used DHBSA methods to measure uric acid levels in blood serum and urine that excreted 8 hours before surgery. Green tea extract that contains polyphenol can inhibit XOD activities, therefore, it leads to decrease uric acid level in blood and increase the excretion through urine by modulating urate gene transporter. A therapy with 600 mg/kg body weight of GTE is the most effective dose to decrease uric acid levels in serum and to increase excretion of exceeding uric acid significantly (p < 0.01, from One Way ANOVA and Tukey analysis.

  11. Uji teratogenik ekstrak Pandanus conoideus varietas buah kuning terhadap perkembangan embrio tikus putih (Rattus norvegicus

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    LINTAL MUNA

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Muna L, Astirin OP, Sugiyarto. 2011. Uji teratogenik ekstrak Pandanus conoideus varietas buah kuning terhadap perkembangan embrio tikus putih (Rattus norvegicus. Bioteknologi 8: 65-77. Penelitiian ini betujuan untuk mengkaji pengaruh pemberian ekstrak Pandanus conoideus Lam. var. buah kuning terhadap persentase fetus hidup, kematian intrauterus, berat dan panjang fetus, keadaan morfologi fetus, serta struktur skeleton fetus tikus putih. Dalam penelitian ini diggunakan 25 tikus bunting yang dibagi menjadi lima kelompok secara acak, sehingga masing-masing kelompok terdiri dari lima ekor tikus. Setiap kelompok diberi dosis yang berbeda. P1 (kontrol diberi 1 mL minyak wijen, P2 , P3, P4 dan P5 diberi ekstrak masing-masing: 0,02 mL, 0,04 mL, 0,08 mL dan 0,16 mL. Ekstrak tersebut diberikan secara oral pada kebuntingan hari ke 5 sampai hari ke 17 (fase organogenesis. Pengamatan dilakukan pada hari ke 18 dengan cara bedah sesar untuk menggambil fetus dari uterus. Morfologi fetu s diamati setelah fetus dikeluarkan dari uterus, sedangkan untuk pengamatan struktur skeleton dibuat preparat wholemount dengan pewarnaan ganda Alcian blue dan Allizarrin Red-S. Hasil percobaan diianalisis dengan ANAVA satu jalur. Hasil penelitiann menunjukkan bahwa pemberian ekstrak tidak berpengaruh terhadap persentase fetus hidup, kematian intrauterus, serta berat dan panjang fetus (P≥0,05. Pemberian ekstrak pada induk mengakibatkan kecacatan skeleton (lordosis fetus pada dosis 0,16 mL dan menghambat osifikasi fetus.

  12. LASERTERAPIA NA INFLAMAÇÃO PULMONAR EXPERIMENTAL EM RATTUS NORVEGICUS OCASIONADO PELA PAPAÍNA

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    Diego Rodrigues Pessoa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: A Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica (DPOC é caracterizada pela limitação do fluxo aéreo decorrente da dilatação dos espaços aéreos distais aos bronquíolos terminais. Analisar os efeitos da laserterapia quanto ao processo cicatricial na lesão pulmonar experimental em Rattus Novergicus. Utilizaram-se trinta animais agrupados em três grupos de dez animais: grupo controle (GC (não recebeu nada, grupo DPOC (GD (foi pulverizado 3 doses de papaína 3mg/kg e grupo DPOC + Laser (GDL (após 7 dias da indução da lesão com papaína foi tratado com laser de 660 nm durante 15 dias.Para analise dos resultados foi realizado o lavado broncoalveolar. Quanto ao Lavado: GC (número de células normais, GD (aumento de células inflamatórias e GDL (diminuição de células inflamatórias. A laserterapia diminui o numero de células inflamatórias, entretanto, não possui efeito reconstrutor do parênquima pulmonar apenas estabiliza a lesão comprovando sua ação anti-inflamatória.

  13. Giardiasis: Serum antibodies and coproantigens in brown rats (Rattus norvegicus from Grenada, West Indies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keshaw Tiwari

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Giardia is a serious zoonotic parasite, which causes diarrheal disease in humans and animals including rodents. The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence of Giardia spp. in brown rats (Rattus norvegicus in Grenada. Materials and Methods: Intestinal contents from 99 and serum samples from 169 brown rats (R. norvegicus from Grenada were collected. These samples were examined for the Giardia coproantigens using Cryptosporidium/Giardia Quik Chek assay (Tech lab® Inc., USA, and the serum was screened through an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA test kit for Giardia antibody (anti-GD ELISA kit (MyBioSource, San Diego, CA, USA. Results: Giardia coproantigens were positive in 17.17% (95% confidence interval [CI]; 10.33-26.06% rats, whereas 55% (95% CI: 47.20-62.68 were positive with serum antibodies (anti-GD to Giardia. Conclusion: The prevalence of Giardia spp. in brown rats in Grenada was moderate based on the presence of coproantigens in the intestinal contents and antibody in serum. The findings of Giardia infections and prevalence in brown rats will help veterinarians and physicians to better plan diagnostic and preventative strategies. This is the first report of prevalence of Giardia in brown rats in Grenada.

  14. Structure of the GH1 domain of guanylate kinase-associated protein from Rattus norvegicus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tong, Junsen; Yang, Huiseon [College of Pharmacy, Chonnam National University, Gwangju 500-757 (Korea, Republic of); Eom, Soo Hyun [School of Life Sciences, Steitz Center for Structural Biology, and Department of Chemistry, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Gwangju 500-712 (Korea, Republic of); Chun, ChangJu, E-mail: cchun1130@jnu.ac.kr [College of Pharmacy, Chonnam National University, Gwangju 500-757 (Korea, Republic of); Im, Young Jun, E-mail: imyoungjun@jnu.ac.kr [College of Pharmacy, Chonnam National University, Gwangju 500-757 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-09-12

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The crystal structure of GKAP homology domain 1 (GH1) was determined. • GKAP GH1 is a three-helix bundle connected by short flexible loops. • The predicted helix α4 associates weakly with the helix α3, suggesting dynamic nature of the GH1 domain. - Abstract: Guanylate-kinase-associated protein (GKAP) is a scaffolding protein that links NMDA receptor-PSD-95 to Shank–Homer complexes by protein–protein interactions at the synaptic junction. GKAP family proteins are characterized by the presence of a C-terminal conserved GKAP homology domain 1 (GH1) of unknown structure and function. In this study, crystal structure of the GH1 domain of GKAP from Rattus norvegicus was determined in fusion with an N-terminal maltose-binding protein at 2.0 Å resolution. The structure of GKAP GH1 displays a three-helix bundle connected by short flexible loops. The predicted helix α4 which was not visible in the crystal structure associates weakly with the helix α3 suggesting dynamic nature of the GH1 domain. The strict conservation of GH1 domain across GKAP family members and the lack of a catalytic active site required for enzyme activity imply that the GH1 domain might serve as a protein–protein interaction module for the synaptic protein clustering.

  15. Molecular genetic evidence for the place of origin of the Pacific rat, Rattus exulans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicki Thomson

    Full Text Available Commensal plants and animals have long been used to track human migrations, with Rattus exulans (the Pacific rat a common organism for reconstructing Polynesian dispersal in the Pacific. However, with no knowledge of the homeland of R. exulans, the place of origin of this human-commensal relationship is unknown. We conducted a mitochondrial DNA phylogeographic survey of R. exulans diversity across the potential natural range in mainland and Island Southeast Asia in order to establish the origin of this human-commensal dyad. We also conducted allozyme electrophoresis on samples from ISEA to obtain a perspective on patterns of genetic diversity in this critical region. Finally, we compared molecular genetic evidence with knowledge of prehistoric rodent faunas in mainland and ISEA. We find that ISEA populations of R. exulans contain the highest mtDNA lineage diversity including significant haplotype diversity not represented elsewhere in the species range. Within ISEA, the island of Flores in the Lesser Sunda group contains the highest diversity in ISEA (across all loci and also has a deep fossil record of small mammals that appears to include R. exulans. Therefore, in addition to Flores harboring unusual diversity in the form of Homo floresiensis, dwarfed stegodons and giant rats, this island appears to be the homeland of R. exulans.

  16. Rattus norvegicus (Rodentia: Muridae Infected by Leishmania (Leishmania infantum (syn. Le. chagasi in Brazil

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    Fabiana de Oliveira Lara-Silva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study we surveyed the fauna of phlebotomine sand flies and small mammals in peridomestic areas from a Brazilian municipality where the American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL is endemic. A total of 608 female phlebotomine sand flies were captured during nine months in 2009 and 2010. Seven different species were represented with 60% of them being Lutzomyia intermedia and Lu. whitmani, both incriminated vectors of ACL. Lu. longipalpis, a proven vector of visceral leishmaniasis (VL was also captured at high proportion (12.8%. Genomic DNA analysis of 136 species-specific pools of female sand flies followed by molecular genotyping showed the presence of Leishmania infantum DNA in two pools of Lu. longipalpis. The same Leishmania species was found in one blood sample from Rattus norvegicus among 119 blood and tissue samples analysed. This is the first report of Le. infantum in R. norvegicus in the Americas and suggests a possible role for this rodent species in the zoonotic cycle of VL. Our study coincided with the reemergence of VL in Governador Valadares.

  17. Pengaruh Lama Pemberian Diet Tinggi Kolesterol terhadap Kadar LDL dan TGF-Β Serum Tikus Putih (Rattus novergicus strain Wistar

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    Biomechy Oktomalioputri

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakDiet tinggi kolesterol ini akan meningkatkan kadar Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL sebagai penanda hiperlipidemia yang berdampak pada terjadinya aterosklerosis. Transforming Growth Factor β (TGF-β memiliki peranan dalam proses terjadinya aterosklerosis ini. Keterlibatannya dalam hiperlipidemia sebagai faktor risiko utama aterosklerosis belum banyak diketahui. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah menentukan pengaruh lama permberian diet tinggi kolesterol terhadap kadar LDL dan TGF-β pada tikus putih (Rattus novergicus strain Wistar. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode post test only control group design yang dilakukan terhadap tikus Rattus novergicus jantan umur 3-4 bulan, berat 200-250 gram. Sampel penelitian terdiri dari 24 ekor tikus yang dibagi menjadi 4 kelompok, yaitu kelompok kontrol, A, B dan C. Selain kelompok kontrol, kelompok tikus diberi diet tinggi kolesterol berupa lemak kambing 10%, telur puyuh 5%, selama 10 hari untuk kelompok A, 20 hari untuk kelompok B dan 30 hari untuk kelompok C. Pada akhir percobaan darah tikus diambil dan dilakukan pemeriksaan kadar LDL dan TGF-β serum. Hasil penelitian diolah secara bivariat. Analisis yang digunakan yaitu uji oneway Anova. Hasil penelitian diketahui terdapat pengaruh lama pemberian diet tinggi kolesterol terhadap peningkatan kadar LDL serum tikus dengan p=0,01 (p<0,05. Terdapat pengaruh lama pemberian diet tinggi kolesterol terhadap penurunan kadar TGF-β dimana p=0,04 (p>0,05. Penelitian ini menyimpulkan bahwa terdapat pengaruh lama pemberian diet tinggi kolesterol terhadap kadar LDL dan tikus putih Rattus novergicus strain Wistar.Kata kunci: diet tinggi kolesterol, LDL, TGF-β AbstractHigh-cholesterol diet will increase Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL levels which impact to atherosclerosis. Transforming Growth Factor β (TGF-β play a role in atherosclerosis process. But its involvement in hyperlipidemia as the main risk factor of atherosclerosis still unknown. The objective of this study was

  18. Thermal energetics of the New-Guinean moss-forest rat (Rattus niobe) in comparison with other tropical murid rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genoud, Michel

    2014-04-01

    The thermal energetics of rodents from cool, wet tropical highlands are poorly known. Metabolic rate, body temperature and thermal conductance were measured in the moss-forest rat, Rattus niobe (Rodentia), a small murid endemic to the highlands of New Guinea. These data were evaluated in the context of the variation observed in the genus Rattus and among tropical murids. In 7 adult R. niobe, basal metabolic rate (BMR) averaged 53.6±6.6mLO2h(-1), or 103% of the value predicted for a body mass of 42.3±5.8g. Compared to other species of Rattus, R. niobe combines a low body temperature (35.5±0.6°C) and a moderately low minimal wet thermal conductance cmin (5.88±0.7mLO2h(-1)°C(-1), 95% of predicted) with a small size, all of which lead to reduced energy expenditure in a constantly cool environment. The correlations of mean annual rainfall and temperature, altitude and body mass with BMR, body temperature and cmin were analyzed comparatively among tropical Muridae. Neither BMR, nor cmin or body temperature correlated with ambient temperature or altitude. Some of the factors which promote high BMR in higher latitude habitats, such as seasonal exposure to very low temperature and short reproductive season, are lacking in wet montane tropical forests. BMR increased with rainfall, confirming a pattern observed among other assemblages of mammals. This correlation was due to the low BMR of several desert adapted murids, while R. niobe and other species from wet habitats had a moderate BMR. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Gene S characterization of Hantavirus species Seoul virus isolated from Rattus norvegicuson an Indonesian island

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    Dian Perwitasari

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakLatar belakang: Hantavirus hidup dan berkembang biak di tubuh hewan pengerat, salah satunya Rattus norvegicus yang banyak ditemukan di daerah kepulauan di Indonesia. Hantavirus spesies Seoul virus (SEOV adalah virus RNA negatif rantai tunggal yang termasuk dalam keluarga Bunyaviridae, mempunyai beberapa gen spesifik terutama gen S yang dapat dikembangkan untuk uji diagnostik. Tujuan penelitian ini ialah untuk mengetahui karakter dari gen S dari Hantavirus spesies Seoulvirus.Metode:Pada penelitian ini dilakukan sekuensing gen S yang berasal dari jaringan paru-paru rodensia.  Fragmen DNA yang disekuensing menggunakan primer DNA SEOS-28F danSEOS -360R,VNS-1501F dan VNS-CSR. Hasil sekuensing dianalisis menggunakan program seqscapedan dianalisis menggunakan program Bioedit dan Mega5. Analisis filogenetik untuk homologi nukleotida dan asam amino dari ketiga strain Kepulauan Seribu tersebut dibandingkan dengan spesies hantavirus lainnya yang diambil dari genebank. Hasil:Analisis Homologi nukleotida dan asam amino antara strain Kepulauan Seribu dengan SEOV menunjukkan homologi nukleotida tertinggi pada strain KS74 (88,4% dan terendah pada KS90 (87,2%, sedangkan homologi asam amino tertinggi adalah strain KS74 (91.3% dan terendah pada strain KS90 (89,5%. Kesimpulan:Karakter gen S virus yang ditemukan di Kepulauan Seribu sebanding dengan virus SEOV yang ditemukan di Singapura dan Korea.  (Health Science Indones 2014;1:1-6Kata kunci:Seoul virus, gen S, Kepulauan Seribu, IndonesiaAbstractBackground: Hantavirus lives and reproduces in the body of rodents. Rattus norvegicuswas one found in the Kepulauan Seribu islands of Indonesia. Hantavirus species Seoul virus (SEOV is a negative single chain RNA viruses included in the family Bunyaviridae. It has a few specific genes, especially genes S that can be developed for a diagnostic test. The aim of this study was to ascertain the character of gene S of hantavirus species Seoul virus. Methods: Gene

  20. PENGARUH PEMBERIAN MONOSODIUM GLUTAMAT TERHADAP KADAR HORMON ESTRADIOL DAN KADAR HORMON PROGESTERON PADA TIKUS PUTIH BETINA (Rattus norvegicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    andri ani

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Perubahan pola demografi di negara maju dan negara berkembang, angka kejadian infertilitas di negara maju dilaporkan sekitar 5%-8% dan di negara berkembang sekitar 30%.WHO memperkirakan sekitar 8%-10% atau sekitar 50-80 juta pasangan suami istri di seluruh dunia mengalami masalah infertilitas, sehingga membuat infertilitas menjadi masalah mendesak. Untuk itu diperlukan pengendalian infertilitas, salah satunya adalah kewaspadaan perubahan gaya hidup, perubahan ini juga mempengaruhi pola konsumsi makanan dengan lebih banyak mengkonsumsi jenis makanan cepat saji yang banyak mengandung zat aditif (penyedap rasa. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh pemberian monosodium glutamate terhadap kadar hormon estradiol dan kadar hormon progesteron pada tikus putih betina ( Rattus norvegicus .Penelitian ini menggunakan metode pendekatan post test only control group design, terhadap tikus putih betina dengan berat 200 – 250 gr. Sampel terdiri dari 24 ekor tikus yang dibagi 4 kelompok yaitu kelompok kontrol ( K , perlakuan I, II dan III . Kelompok perlakuan diberikan monosodium glutamat dengan dosis masing-masing : 45 mg, 54 mg dan 63 mg setiap hari diberikan peroral yang dilarutkan dengan aquabides 2 ml selama 20 hari yang dimulai pada awal fase proestrus. Setelah 20 hari perlakuan tikus di korbankan dan diambil darahnya. Pemeriksaan kadar hormone estradiol dan progesteron menggunakan Elisa Spectrophotometer.  Kemudian hasilnya dianalisa dengan menggunakan One Way ANOVA dan dilanjutkan dengan uji Multiple Comparison jenis Bonferroni.Hasil penelitian pemberian  monosodium glutamat dengan dosis 45 mg/ ekor/ hari, 54 mg/ekor/ hari dan 63 mg/ ekor /hari dapat menurunkan kadar hormon estradiol tikus putih betina (Rattus norvegicus secara signifikan. Dan pemberian monosodium glutamate dengan dosis 45 mg/ ekor/ hari dapat menurunkan kadar hormon progesteron tikus putih betina (Rattus norvegicus walaupun tidak berpengaruh secara signifikan , dan pada

  1. Diminazene aceturate and imidocarb dipropionate in the control of Trypanosoma evansi infection in Rattus norvegicus experimentally infected

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Aleksandro Schafer da; Tochetto, Camila; Zanette, Régis Adriel; Pierezan, Felipe; Rissi, Daniel Ricardo; Santurio, Janio Morais; Monteiro, Silvia Gonzalez

    2008-01-01

    Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito do aceturato de diminazeno e do dipropionato de imidocarb no controle da infecção por Trypanosoma evansi em ratos (Rattus norvegicus) infectados experimentalmente. Cinqüenta e quatro ratos machos foram inoculados via intraperitonial com 104 tripomastigotas de T. evansi/animal. Os ratos foram monitorados diariamente por meio de esfregaço sanguíneo periférico. No momento em que se observassem oito protozoários por campo microscópico de 1000x, era ...

  2. Estereología Comparativa entre el Bazo del Cuye (Cavia porcellus) y la Rata (Rattus novergicus, Sprague Dawley)

    OpenAIRE

    Furrianca, María Cristina; Vásquez, Bélgica; del Sol, Mariano

    2008-01-01

    El bazo es el órgano linfático periférico más grande del organismo y conocer sus aspectos morfológicos cuantitativos es importante para determinar posibles patologías. El objetivo del estudio fue determinar en dos especies: cuye (Cavia porcellus) y rata (Rattus novergicus Sprague Dawley), las características estereológicas del bazo, para obtener patrones de normalidad cuantitativos, los que servirán de base para futuros estudios morfofuncionales. Se utilizaron 5 bazos de cada especie, clínica...

  3. Carriage of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus by wild urban Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chelsea G Himsworth

    Full Text Available Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA is an important cause of multi-drug-resistant infections in people, particularly indigent populations. MRSA can be transmitted between people and domestic animals, but the potential for transmission between people and commensal pests, particularly rodents, had not been investigated. The objective of this study was to identify the presence and characterize the ecology of MRSA in rats (Rattus spp. from in an impoverished, inner-city neighborhood. Oropharyngeal swabs were collected from rats trapped in 33 city blocks and one location within the adjacent port. Bacterial culture was performed and MRSA isolates were characterized using a variety of methods, including whole-genome sequencing (WGS. The ecology of MRSA in rats was described using phylogenetic analysis, geospatial analysis, and generalized linear mixed models. MRSA was identified 22 of 637 (3.5% rats tested, although prevalence varied from 0 - 50% among blocks. Isolates belonged to 4 clusters according to WGS, with the largest cluster (n = 10 containing isolates that were genetically indistinguishable from community-acquired USA300 MRSA strains isolated from people within the study area. MRSA strains demonstrated both geographic clustering and dispersion. The odds of an individual rat carrying MRSA increased with increased body fat (OR = 2.53, 95% CI = 1.33-4.82, and in the winter (OR = 5.29, 95% CI = 1.04-26.85 and spring (OR = 5.50, 95% CI = 1.10-27.58 compared to the fall. The results show that urban rats carried the same MRSA lineages occurring in local human and/or animal populations, supporting recent transmission from external sources. MRSA carriage was influenced by season, most likely as a result of temporal variation in rat behavior and rat-human interactions.

  4. BMP4 Expression Following Stem Cells from Human Exfoliated Deciduous and Carbonate Apatite Transplantation on Rattus norvegicus

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    Tania Saskianti

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Alveolar bone defects in children still have a high incidence. Conventional bone graft technique that has been used as a defect therapy is still not effective, so new techniques with tissue engineering approach are needed. Bone Morphogenetic Protein 4 (BMP4 as one of the indicators of osteogenic differentiation has not been widely studied, especially in the transplantation with combination of Stem Cells from Human Exfoliated Deciduous (SHED and carbonate apatite. Aim and Objectives: This research aimed to determine the expression of BMP4 after SHED and carbonate apatite transplantation on Rattus norvegicus. Material and Methods: The combinations of SHED and carbonate apatite were transplanted on alveolar bone defects of 4 rats (Rattus norvegicus as the treatment groups and another 4 rats were transplanted with carbonate apatite as the control groups. After 21 days, staining with Hematoxylin Eosin (HE and Immunohistochemistry (IHC BMP4 was performed. Results: BMP4 expression in the treatment groups was significantly higher when compared to the control groups. Discussion: Carbonate apatite has low crystallization rate and high osteoconductivity that produce more osteoblasts and increased BMP4 expression. Conclusion: The transplantation of SHED and carbonate apatite increased BMP4 expression as an indicator of osteogenic differentiation in rats.

  5. Factors affecting carriage and intensity of infection of Calodium hepaticum within Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus) from an urban slum environment in Salvador, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, R; Carvalho-Pereira, T; Serrano, S; Pedra, G; Hacker, K; Taylor, J; Minter, A; Pertile, A; Panti-May, A; Carvalho, M; Souza, F N; Nery, N; Rodrigues, G; Bahiense, T; Reis, M G; Ko, A I; Childs, J E; Begon, M; Costa, F

    2017-01-01

    Urban slum environments in the tropics are conducive to the proliferation and the spread of rodent-borne zoonotic pathogens to humans. Calodium hepaticum (Brancroft, 1893) is a zoonotic nematode known to infect a variety of mammalian hosts, including humans. Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus) are considered the most important mammalian host of C. hepaticum and are therefore a potentially useful species to inform estimates of the risk to humans living in urban slum environments. There is a lack of studies systematically evaluating the role of demographic and environmental factors that influence both carriage and intensity of infection of C. hepaticum in rodents from urban slum areas within tropical regions. Carriage and the intensity of infection of C. hepaticum were studied in 402 Norway rats over a 2-year period in an urban slum in Salvador, Brazil. Overall, prevalence in Norway rats was 83% (337/402). Independent risk factors for C. hepaticum carriage in R. norvegicus were age and valley of capture. Of those infected the proportion with gross liver involvement (i.e. >75% of the liver affected, a proxy for a high level intensity of infection), was low (8%, 26/337). Sixty soil samples were collected from ten locations to estimate levels of environmental contamination and provide information on the potential risk to humans of contracting C. hepaticum from the environment. Sixty percent (6/10) of the sites were contaminated with C. hepaticum. High carriage levels of C. hepaticum within Norway rats and sub-standard living conditions within slum areas may increase the risk to humans of exposure to the infective eggs of C. hepaticum. This study supports the need for further studies to assess whether humans are becoming infected within this community and whether C. hepaticum is posing a significant risk to human health.

  6. Recommended conservation of the names Streptococcus sanguis, Streptococcus rattus, Streptococcus cricetus, and seven other names included in the Approved Lists of Bacterial Names. Request for an opinion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kilian, Mogens

    2001-01-01

    With reference to the first Principle of the International Code of Nomenclature of Bacteria, which emphasizes stability of names, it is proposed that the original names Streptococcus sanguis, Streptococcus rattus, Streptococcus cricetus, Erwinia ananas, Eubacterium tarantellus, Lactobacillus sake......, Nitrosococcus oceanus, Pseudomonas betle, Rickettsia canada and Streptomyces rangoon, all included in the Approved Lists of Bacterial Names, be conserved. Request for an Opinion...

  7. Presencia de los géneros invasores Mus y Rattus en áreas naturales de Chile: un riesgo ambiental y epidemiológico Presence of the invasive genera Mus and Rattus in natural areas in Chile: an environmental and epidemiological risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GABRIEL LOBOS

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Realizamos un estudio que incluyó muestreos y prospecciones en un gradiente latitudinal en Chile continental para determinar la presencia y ausencia de roedores murinos introducidos, particularmente Mus musculus, Rattus rattus y R. norvegicus en áreas naturales o silvestres a lo largo de Chile. Además se analizó el riesgo epidemiológico que representan estas especies en el marco de un estudio sobre el virus Hanta. Los resultados mostraron que M. musculus rara vez es recolectado en áreas naturales. Sin embargo, las dos especies de Rattus han invadido ampliamente la región mediterránea chilena. Las regiones desérticas, los ambientes de alturas y las regiones australes, serían biótopos restringidos para estos invasores. Desde una perspectiva epidemiológica, la presencia del virus Hanta (variedades Andes y Seoul en Rattus es un elemento que demuestra que las especies invasoras además de generar impactos ecológicos, pueden ocasionar problemas económicos y de salud pública. La fragilidad de los ecosistemas mediterráneos determina que la presencia de especies exóticas constituya un elemento de alto riesgo para la conservación del patrimonio natural del país. Probablemente, la conservación de áreas naturales constituye la mejor herramienta para enfrentar a estas especies exóticasWe conducted a latitudinal study in natural areas of continental Chile to evaluate the occurrence of the introduced murine rodents Mus musculus, Rattus rattus and R. norvegicus. Furthermore, we evaluated the epidemiological risk of these species as part of an ongoing study on Hantavirus. The results allowed us to conclude that M. musculus occurs rarely in natural environments. However, the two species of Rattus have widely invaded the mediterranean region of Chile. Desert, altitudinal and high latitude regions seem to be restricted areas for these invasive rodents. From an epidemiological perspective, the occurrence of Hantavirus in Rattus (Andes and Seoul

  8. Perbandingan Kecepatan Kesembuhan Luka Insisi yang Diberi Amoksisilin-Deksametason dan Amoksisilin-Asam Mefenamat pada Tikus Putih (Rattus Norvegicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Kadek Laura Sastrawan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui perbedaan kecepatan kesembuhan luka insisi pada tikus putih (Rattus norvegicus yang diberikan obat deksametason dan asam mefenamat ditinjau dari gambaran makroskopik dan mikroskopik. Tiga puluh ekor tikus putih jantan dengan berat 150-200 gram dibagi menjadi tiga perlakuan, yang diinsisi pada daerah linea alba dengan panjang insisi dua cm dengan kedalaman hingga menembus peritoneum. Penelitian menggunakan Rancangan Acak Lengkap (RAL. Pengamatan makroskopik dilakukan setiap hari selama 14 hari. Pada hari ketujuh dan hari ke14, lima ekor tikus dari semua kelompok dieutanasi, kemudian kulit hingga peritoneum lokasi luka insisi dikoleksi untuk pemeriksaan histopatologis. Hasil pemeriksaan makroskopik dianalis secara deskriptif dan pemeriksaan histopatologis dianalisis menggunakan uji Non Parametrik. Hasil pemeriksaan makroskopik dan mikroskopik menunjukan bahwa tikus perlakuan III memberikan efek kesembuhan luka lebih cepat dibandingkan tikus perlakuan II dan tikus perlakuan I karena efek dari peradangan terjadi lebih sedikit (minimal dan kerapatan kolagen yang lebih padat.

  9. Growth performance and haematology of the laboratory rat, rattus norvegicus fed on protein supplements and heavy metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omotoso, O.T.; Sanya, B.T.

    2007-01-01

    Laboratory rat Rattus norvegicus. fed on poultry growers mash plus additional protein supplements and some heavy metals, was studied for the growth and the haematological parameters. All the dietary supplements resulted in an increase in the growth of the rats. The rats, fed on growers mash and prawn meal showed the best growth within 7 weeks. Effects of diets were significantly, correlated at 0.01 level. Weight loss was recorded in case of all heavy Metal-laced diets, however, calcium sulphate-laced diets resulted in an increase in growth. Mercurous chloride was the most toxic salt which resulted in the greatest weight loss. Haematological analysis of rats revealed that RBC/sub s/ were higher in the case of heavy metal-laced diets than heavy metal-free diets. Generally, RBC counts were higher in females than in males within a group. Fish meal and prawn meal feeding. (author)

  10. The potential of chitosan combined with chicken shank collagen as scaffold on bone defect regeneration process in Rattus norvegicus

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    Fitria Rahmitasari

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: In the field of dentistry, alveolar bone damage can be caused by periodontal disease, traumatic injury due to tooth extraction, cyst enucleation, and tumor surgery. One of the ways to regenerate the bone defect is using graft scaffold. Thus, combination of chitosan and collagen can stimulate osteogenesis. Purpose: The aim of this study was to examine the potential of chitosan combined with chicken shank collagen on bone defect regeneration process. Method: Twelve Rattus norvegicus were prepared as animal models in this research. A bone defect was intentionally created at both of the right and left femoral bones of the models. Next, 24 samples were divided into four groups, namely Group 1 using chitosan – collagen scaffold (50:50, Group 2 using chitosan collagen-scaffold (80:20, Group 3 using chitosan scaffold only, and Control Group using 3% CMC-Na. On 14th day, those animals were sacrificed, and histopathological anatomy examination was conducted to observe osteoclast cells. In addition, immunohistochemistry examination was also performed to observe RANKL expressions. Result: There was a significant difference in RANKL expressions among the groups, except between Group 3 using chitosan scaffold only and control group (p value > 0.05. The highest expression of RANKL was found in Group 1 with chitosan – collagen scaffold (50:50, followed by Group 2 with chitosan-collagen scaffold (80:20. Moreover, there was also a significant difference in osteoclast generation, except between Group 1 using chitosan – collagen scaffold (50:50 and Group 2 using chitosan-collagen scaffold (80:20, p value 0.05. Less osteoclast was found in the groups using chitosan – collagen scaffold (Group 1 and Group 2. Conclusion: Combination of chitosan and chicken shank collagen scaffold can improve regeneration process of bone defect in Rattus novergicus animals through increasing of RANKL expressions, and decreasing of osteoclast.

  11. Ecology of Leptospira interrogans in Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus in an inner-city neighborhood of Vancouver, Canada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chelsea G Himsworth

    Full Text Available Leptospira interrogans is a bacterial zoonosis with a worldwide distribution for which rats (Rattus spp. are the primary reservoir in urban settings. In order to assess, monitor, and mitigate the risk to humans, it is important to understand the ecology of this pathogen in rats. The objective of this study was to characterize the ecology of L. interrogans in Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus in an impoverished inner-city neighborhood of Vancouver, Canada.Trapping was performed in 43 city blocks, and one location within the adjacent port, over a 12 month period. Kidney samples were tested for the presence of L. interrogans using PCR and sequencing. A multivariable model was built to predict L. interrogans infection status in individual rats using season and morphometric data (e.g., weight, sex, maturity, condition, etc. as independent variables. Spatial analysis was undertaken to identify clusters of high and low L. interrogans prevalence. The prevalence of L. interrogans varied remarkably among blocks (0-66.7%, and spatial clusters of both high and low L. interrogans prevalence were identified. In the final cluster-controlled model, characteristics associated with L. interrogans-infection in rats included weight (OR = 1.14, 95% CI = 1.07-1.20, increased internal fat (OR = 2.12, 95% CI = 1.06-4.25, and number of bite wounds (OR = 1.20, 95% CI = 0.96-1.49.Because L. interrogans prevalence varied with weight, body fat, and bite wounds, this study suggests that social structure and interactions among rats may influence transmission. The prevalence and distribution of L. interrogans in rats was also highly variable even over a short geographic distance. These factors should be considered in future risk management efforts.

  12. Identifikasi Sifat dan Distribusi Sel Endokrin Ghrelin di Lambung Tikus (Rattus Norvegicus: Studi Immunohis-Tokimia pada Kondisi Obesitas

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    Teguh Budipitojo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is one of major nutritional problems in the world. Obesity is very dangerous, especially when concentrated in the abdomen, because it is closely linked to various diseases such as diabetes, hypertension, heart disease, which can to causing death. This study aims to identify the nature and distribution of ghrelin on gastric endocrine cells in the obese rat (Rattus norvegicus by using immunohistochemical techniques. The results will strengthen the understanding of the role and function of ghrelin as an alternative therapeutic target on obesity. The research used gastric tissues of ten obese and control rats which were stained with avidin-biotin-peroxidase complex method of immunohistochemistry. The results showed the existence of two types of ghrelin-producing cells (open and closed types on the gastric mucosa of control rats, and only one type of ghrelin producing cells (open type in obese rats. The intensity of ghrelin immunoreactive positive cells was detected weak in obese rats, but very strong in control rats. Ghrelin endocrine cells mainly distributed in the basal part of the gastric mucosa of the fundus parts, with a very small number in obese rats, but highly abundant in control rats. This study confirmed the decrease of the ghrelin synthesis and secretion in obese rat (Rattus norvegicus at the cellular level. The decrease of ghrelin synthesis is characterized by a reduction on the number of ghrelin producing cells, the disappearance of the close type of ghrelin producing cells, and the low activity of protein synthesis in the ghrelin producing cells. Ghrelin endocrine cells distributed mainly in the basal part of the gastric mucosa, especially in the fundus parts.

  13. Pemberian makanan enteral berformulasi bahan pangan lokal terhadap kadar zat besi dan hemoglobin pada tikus putih (Rattus norvegicus

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    Dini Ariani

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Enteral nutrition is nutrition used to fulfill the needs of nutrition entirely and as the supplement for malnutrition patient. In a certain condition of a patient, this nutrition is usually given in the form of liquid. Local material foods such as tempeh, rice, mung bean, and ganyong have adequate nutrition, therefore they are suitable for being used as main raw materials in the making of enteral nutrition. Objective: To know the influence of feeding enteral nutrition formulated with local food material toward malnutrition white rats (Rattus norvegicus of which the parameters are iron (Fe, hemoglobin (Hb level and weight. Method: This research used Completely Random Design (CRD. Twenty-seven of malnutrition male white rats were divided into 3 groups of treatment with 9 repetitions for each group of the treatment. Group A was given enteral nutrition diet of formula A (tempeh, rice, and mung bean as the main raw material, group B was given enteral nutrition diet of formula B (tempeh, rice, mung bean, and ganyong as the main raw material, and group C (as the positive control was given commercial enteral nutrition. The daily giving of enteral nutrition is 20 g/day during 30 days. The analysis of Fe and Hb level and the measurement of weight firstly were done before the treatment is given. The next measurement was conducted in 15th day and 31st day. Statistical analysis used ANOVA test dan DMRT of significance 5%. Results: The result showed that the treatment of the enteral nutrition feeding of formula B was more optimal than formula A in terms of the way to increase the level of Hb and Fe. Those two components will give positive effect toward the increasing of the weight of malnutrition white rats (Rattus norvegicus. Conclusion: The enteral nutrition of formula B is more proper to be developed as the main material of making enteral food in order to treat the malnutrition.

  14. 90-Day Inhalation Toxicity Study of Hydroprocessed Esters and Fatty Acids (HEFA) Bio-Based Jet Fuel in Rats (Rattus norvegicus) with Neurotoxicity Testing and Genotoxicity Assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    elevated frame to detect vertical rears, as well as differentiate small ( stereotypic ) movements from large movements. Motor activity was measured in a...Laboratory Animals V.3.3.1. Genus / Species Rattus norvegicus V.3.3.2. Strain / Stock 62 Distribution A: Approved for public release...horizontal movement and to differentiate small ( stereotypic ) movements from large movements, and a second frame was elevated above the ground level frame

  15. Uji Efek Ekstrak Etanol Daun Lidah Mertua (Sansevieria Trifasciata Prain) Terhadap Penurunan Kadar Gula Darah Tikus Putih Jantan Galur Wistar (Rattus Norvegicus L.) Yang Diinduksi Sukrosa

    OpenAIRE

    Laimeheriwa, Chornelia

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to test the effect of ethanol extract Lidah Mertua leaves (Sansevieria trifasciata Prain) to decrease blood sugar levels of white male wistar (Rattus norvegicus L.) who induced sucrose. This type of research laboratory experiments using a Complete Randomized Design methods. Animal testing of this experiments is a white 15 rat males totaled are divided into 5 groups. The five groups which are a negative control group given a solution of CMC 0,5%, a positive control group was g...

  16. Efektifitas Ekstrak Daun Sirih Merah (Piper crocatum Terhadap Penurunan Kadar Glukosa Darah Tikus Putih Jantan (Rattus novergicus Yang Di Induksi Aloksan

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    Yesy Febnica Dewi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh ekstrak daun sirih merah (Piper crocatum terhadap penurunan kadar glukosa darah tikus putih jantan (Rattus novergicus yang diinduksi aloksan. Penelitian ini menggunakan 20 ekor tikus putih jantan  (Rattus novergicus yang diadaptasi selama tiga minggu dan dibagi secara acak menjadi lima kelompok dan masing-masing kelompok berjumlah empat ekor. Rancangan yang digunakan adalah Rancangan Acak Lengkap (RAL. Ada lima perlakuan yang diberikan sebagai berikut: perlakuan I sebagai kontrol diabetes tanpa diberikan perlakuan, perlakuan II sebagai kontrol negatif (aloksan 120 mg/kg bb, perlakuan III aloksan + suspensi ekstrak daun sirih merah 2% (dosis 50 mg/kg bb, perlakuan IV aloksan + suspensi ekstrak daun sirih merah 2% (dosis 100 mg/kg bb, perlakuan V sebagai kontrol positif (Aloksan + Glibenklamid 1 ml/kg bb. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa ekstrak daun sirih merah (Piper crocatum 2% pada dosis 50 mg/kg bb, maupun dosis 100 mg/kg bb dapat menurunkan kadar glukosa darah tikus putih jantan (Rattus novergicus dan ekstrak daun sirih merah (Piper crocatum 2% memiliki efek yang sebanding dengan glibenklamid sebagai penurun glukosa darah.

  17. Comparação dos padrões de atratividade de Hermetia illucens (Diptera, Stratiomyidae associada a carcaças de Rattus norvergicus enterradas e tratadas com hormônios esteróides Comparison of attraction patterns of Hermetia illucens (Diptera, Stratiomyidae associated to buried Rattus norvergicus carcasses with steroid hormones treatment

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    Ana C. Ferrari

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Hermetia illucens (L. (Diptera, Stratiomyidae é uma espécie abundante em todo o continente americano. No entanto, ainda há poucos estudos no Brasil abordando aspectos em relação a sua biologia e ecologia, em particular associados a estudos forenses. Neste trabalho, nós observamos os efeitos de hormônios esteróides na decomposição corporal de Rattus norvergicus, variedade Wistar enterrados na atração de H. illucens. Além da presença de diversas espécies de larvas e adultos de insetos freqüentemente encontrados em carcaças nessas condições, observou-se uma grande quantidade de imaturos de H. illucens. Essa espécie representou aproximadamente 22% de todos os espécimes coletados, tendo aparecido somente nos animais que receberam tratamento com esteróides sexuais dos tipos testosterona, progesterona e estradiol. Dentre esses, a maior abundância foi verificada nos que haviam recebido testosterona (68%. A presença de imaturos de H. illucens, apenas nos animais que receberam o tratamento com esteróides, em experimentos realizados em dois anos consecutivos revela uma possível atração/seleção dessa espécie por corpos com quantidades aumentadas de hormônios sexuais. Esse comportamento pode ser particularmente útil para a entomologia forense no que diz respeito à estimativa do intervalo pós-morte (IPM, particularmente quando tem como base informações sobre o ciclo de vida e ecologia de insetos necrófagos.Hermetia illucens (L. (Diptera, Stratiomyidae is an abundant species in the entire American continent. Nevertheless, there are few studies in Brazil dealing with aspects of its biology and ecology, particularly associated with forensic studies. In this study we intended to observe the effects of steroids hormones in the corporal decomposition of buried Rattus norvergicus from the Wistar variety in the attraction of H. illucens. Besides the presence of several insect species commonly found in carcasses, a great amount of

  18. Hypolipidemic effect of aqueous extract from the leaves of Artocarpus altilis "breadfruit" in Rattus norvegicus induced hyperlipidemia

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    Julio Campos Florián

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to demonstrate the hypolipidemic activity of aqueous extract of leaves of breadfruit, Artocarpus altilis, in a model of acute hyperlipidemia induced with triton X-305, using Rattus norvegicus specimens males, mean weight 204.5 g, who were orally administered 0.05 g/100g and 0.2 g/100 g of aqueous extract of A. altilis; included a negative control group received physiological saline and hyperlipidemic positive control group. After 24 hours of administering the treatments were made measurements of the concentrations of serum cholesterol and triglycerides. Found significant reductions (p < 0.01 in both cholesterol and triglyceride levels relative to the positive control group. We also found a significant difference (p < 0.01 between triglyceride concentrations of the animals treated with both doses of the aqueous extract of A. altilis. Conclude that the aqueous extract from the leaves of A. altilis has hypolipidemic effect at the doses tested for the model of hyperlipidemia induced with triton X-305.

  19. STRUKTUR HISTOLOGI TRAKEA TIKUS PUTIH (Rattus sp. YANG TERPAPAR ASAP ROKOK SETELAH DIBERI EKSTRAK BUAH JUWET (Syzygium cumini L.

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    I Komang Angga Kristiawan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the effect of juwet fruit extract on histological structure of rat(Rattus sp  trachea which exposed to cigarette smoke. This research used Completely Randomized Design (CRD, with four treatments: the control group (K0 treated with 0.5 % CMC–Na, (K1 group is exposed to cigarette smoke, (K2 group were given juwetfruit extract, and (K3 group is exposed to cigarette smoke and juwet fruit extracts. Each treatment consisted of 6 rats as replication. The exposure to cigarette smoke is given from  an aerator pump lit cigarettes. Juwet fruit extract and 0.5 % CMC - Na was orally administered (gavage method for 48 days. The existence of comperative descriptive observed cilia. And goblet number, high epithelium and lumen diameter Data were analyzed with ANOVA and If they were 5 % significantly different would be followed by Duncan test. Results showed that the extract of the fruit juwet significant effect on the histological structure of the trachea mice that had been exposed to smoke.

  20. UJI AKTIVITAS ANTIINFLAMASI EKSTRAK ETANOL DAUN PISANG AMBON (Musa paradisiaca L. TERHADAP TIKUS PUTIH (Rattus norvegicus L. YANG DIINDUKSI KARAGENAN

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    Sukmawati Sukmawati

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Anti-inflammatory activity test of ethanolic extract of banana leaf (Musa Paradisiaca L. on carrageenan-induced paw edema in white male rats (Rattus novergicus L. has been conducted. It was aimed to investigate and to determine the anti-inflammatory activity and its effective dose. The extract was prepared by maceration method using ethanol 96%. Anti-inflammatory activity test was performed in five different groups. Each group consisted of 5 rats. The 1st group (negative control was given 0.5% CMC-Na suspension; the 2nd group (positive control was given diclofenac sodium 9 mg/KgBW; the 3rd, 4th, and 5th groups were successively given the banana leaf extract as much as 500, 750 and 1000 mg/KgBW. Each rat was then induced by 1% carrageenan and tested using subplantar method.  The inflamed paw diameter was measured using a calliper while the inflamed paw volume using pletysmometer. The measurements were done for 6 hours long with intervals of 60 minutes. The data was statistically analyzed using ANOVA (analysis of variance. The results showed that the negative control had a significant difference with the other treatment groups which did not show any anti-inflammatory effect. In conclusion, ethanolic extract of banana leaf has effective anti-inflammatory activity at a dose of 750 mg/KgBW

  1. The Pacific Rat Race to Easter Island: Tracking the Prehistoric Dispersal of Rattus exulans Using Ancient Mitochondrial Genomes

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    Katrina West

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The location of the immediate eastern Polynesian origin for the settlement of Easter Island (Rapa Nui, remains unclear with conflicting archeological and linguistic evidence. Previous genetic commensal research using the Pacific rat, Rattus exulans; a species transported by humans across Remote Oceania and throughout the Polynesian Triangle, has identified broad interaction spheres across the region. However, there has been limited success in distinguishing finer-scale movements between Remote Oceanic islands as the same mitochondrial control region haplotype has been identified in the majority of ancient rat specimens. To improve molecular resolution and identify a pattern of prehistoric dispersal to Easter Island, we sequenced complete mitochondrial genomes from ancient Pacific rat specimens obtained from early archeological contexts across West and East Polynesia. Ancient Polynesian rat haplotypes are closely related and reflect the widely supported scenario of a central East Polynesian homeland region from which eastern expansion occurred. An Easter Island and Tubuai (Austral Islands grouping of related haplotypes suggests that both islands were established by the same colonization wave, proposed to have originated in the central homeland region before dispersing through the south-eastern corridor of East Polynesia.

  2. Identification of Pathogenic Leptospira in Rat and Shrew Populations Using rpoB Gene and Its Spatial Distribution in Boyolali District

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    Dyah Widiastuti

    2016-08-01

    Ngemplak dan Desa Jeron Kecamatan Nogosari, Kabupaten Boyolali. Pemeriksaan Polymerase Chain Reaction dilakukan pada 104 sampel ginjal tikus dari dua lokasi penelitian. Analisis spasial sederhana dilakukan untuk memetakan sebaran tikus yang positif Leptospira. Terdapat enam sampel positif gen rpoB Leptospira pada Rattus tanezumi, Rattus argentiventer dan Suncus murinus. Lima dari keenam sampel menunjukkan hubungan kekerabatan yang paling dekat dengan Leptospira borgpetersenii serovar Sejroe berdasarkan gen rpoB. Satu isolat tidak memiliki hubungan kekerabatan yang dekat dengan serovar manapun yang masuk dalam cluster. Analisis spasial berdasarkan jarak aktivitas harian tikus menunjukkan tikus positif Leptospira ditemukan berada dalam kisaran 30 meter dan 150 meter dari penderita leptospirosis.

  3. Assessment of the risks of rats (Rattus norvegicus and opossums (Didelphis albiventris in different poultry-rearing areas in Argentina Avaliação dos riscos sanitários de ratos (Rattus norvegicus e gambás (Didelphis albiventris em diferentes granjas avícolas na Argentina

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    Isabel E. Gómez Villafañe

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available We have studied the prevalence of Trichinella spiralis, Leptospira spp. and Salmonella spp. in rats and opossums that inhabit poultry farms of Exaltación de la Cruz, Buenos Aires, Argentina, to determine the potential sanitary risk for humans that are in contact with these animals. The study was carried out on 48 poultry farms between spring 1999 and winter 2001. The study of opossums began in winter 2000. During the study period we captured 152 Rattus norvegicus, 3 Rattus rattus, 16 Didelphis albiventris and 1 Lutreolina crassicaudata. We have registered the presence of rats and opossums in 70% and 27% of the studied farms, respectively. The percentage of farms with rats was independent of the presence or absence of pigs. We did not detect the presence of Leptospira spp. and Trichinella spiralis in any individual. We detected the presence of Salmonella Enteritidis in one Rattus norvegicus and one Didelphis albiventris. According to our results, the rats and opossums of poultry farms may not report a risk factor in the transmission of Trichinella and Leptospira under the present conditions; but the detection of Salmonella Enteritidis in rats as well as in opossums suggests the idea of applying prophylactics measurements on poultry farms.A prevalência de Trichinella spiralis, Leptospira spp. e Salmonella spp. foi estudada em ratos e gambás que habitam granjas avícolas da região de Exaltación de la Cruz, Buenos Aires, Argentina, com o objetivo de determinar o potencial risco sanitário para pessoas que ficam em contato com esses animais. O estudo foi realizado entre a primavera de 1999 e o inverno de 2001 em 48 granjas avícolas. O estudo em gambás iniciou-se no inverno de 2000. Foram capturados 152 Rattus norvegicus, 3 Rattus rattus, 16 Didelphis albiventris e 1 Lutreolina crassicaudata. Registrou-se a presença de ratos e de gambás em 70% e 27% das granjas estudadas, respectivamente. A percentagem de granjas com ratos foi independente da

  4. Aceturato de diminazeno e dipropionato de imidocarb no controle de infecção por Trypanosoma evansi em Rattus norvegicus infectados experimentalmente Diminazene aceturate and imidocarb dipropionate in the control of Trypanosoma evansi infection in Rattus norvegicus experimentally infected

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    Aleksandro Schafer da Silva

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito do aceturato de diminazeno e do dipropionato de imidocarb no controle da infecção por Trypanosoma evansi em ratos (Rattus norvegicus infectados experimentalmente. Cinqüenta e quatro ratos machos foram inoculados via intraperitonial com 104 tripomastigotas de T. evansi/animal. Os ratos foram monitorados diariamente por meio de esfregaço sanguíneo periférico. No momento em que se observassem oito protozoários por campo microscópico de 1000x, era iniciado o tratamento com as drogas (dia zero. O estudo foi dividido em dois protocolos terapêuticos e os fármacos foram administrados via intramuscular. O primeiro protocolo foi aplicado nos grupos A, B, C e D e o segundo protocolo nos grupos E, F, G e H. O grupo controle foi identificado como grupo I, não medicados. No primeiro protocolo, os ratos receberam uma dose única dos fármacos no dia zero e sempre que se observasse T. evansi na circulação periférica. No segundo protocolo, os roedores receberam as mesmas doses, no entanto, por cinco dias consecutivos. No primeiro protocolo, os dois princípios ativos não apresentaram eficácia curativa, ocorrendo reincidência da parasitemia após alguns dias do tratamento. No segundo protocolo, o aceturato de diminazeno eliminou a forma tripomastigota da circulação e os ratos foram eutanasiados após 90 dias do início do tratamento. Os roedores tratados com dipropionato de imidocarb apresentaram recidiva da infecção após 30 dias. Na histopatologia não se observou alteração renal e hepática relacionada à doença ou aos medicamentos testados. Com base nos resultados, foi concluído que o aceturato de diminazeno, quando administrado por cinco dias consecutivos, é efetivo no tratamento da tripanossomose em ratos.The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of diminazene aceturate and imidocarb dipropionate in the control of Trypanosoma evansi infection in rats (Rattus norvegicus

  5. High prevalence of Angiostrongylus cantonensis (rat lungworm on eastern Hawai'i Island: A closer look at life cycle traits and patterns of infection in wild rats (Rattus spp..

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    Susan I Jarvi

    Full Text Available The nematode Angiostrongylus cantonensis is a zoonotic pathogen and the etiological agent of human angiostrongyliasis or rat lungworm disease. Hawai'i, particularly east Hawai'i Island, is the epicenter for angiostrongyliasis in the USA. Rats (Rattus spp. are the definitive hosts while gastropods are intermediate hosts. The main objective of this study was to collect adult A. cantonensis from wild rats to isolate protein for the development of a blood-based diagnostic, in the process we evaluated the prevalence of infection in wild rats. A total of 545 wild rats were sampled from multiple sites in the South Hilo District of east Hawai'i Island. Adult male and female A. cantonensis (3,148 were collected from the hearts and lungs of humanely euthanized Rattus rattus, and R. exulans. Photomicrography and documentation of multiple stages of this parasitic nematode in situ were recorded. A total of 45.5% (197/433 of rats inspected had lung lobe(s (mostly upper right which appeared granular indicating this lobe may serve as a filter for worm passage to the rest of the lung. Across Rattus spp., 72.7% (396/545 were infected with adult worms, but 93.9% (512/545 of the rats were positive for A. cantonensis infection based on presence of live adult worms, encysted adult worms, L3 larvae and/or by PCR analysis of brain tissue. In R. rattus we observed an inverse correlation with increased body mass and infection level of adult worms, and a direct correlation between body mass and encysted adult worms in the lung tissue, indicating that larger (older rats may have developed a means of clearing infections or regulating the worm burden upon reinfection. The exceptionally high prevalence of A. cantonensis infection in Rattus spp. in east Hawai'i Island is cause for concern and indicates the potential for human infection with this emerging zoonosis is greater than previously thought.

  6. Pengaruh Pemberian Alga Coklat (Sargassum sp. Terhadap Enzim Katalase Kelenjar Submandibularis Tikus Rattus Norvegicus Strain Wistar Akibat Iradiasi Linear Energy Transfer (LET Rendah

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    sariano ferni

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Background: Intraoral radiography use some lower LET (Linear Energy Transfer and could penetrate submandibular salivary gland. Radiography have negative impact which is decrease catalase enzyme of human body. Brown algae (Sargassum sp. has a flavonoid antioxidant, polysaccharides as Fucoidan and alginat (Na-alginat can be used for immunomodulator, antioxidative and activation modulation of immune. Purpose: To knowing effectiveness of brown algae (Sargassum sp. on activity catalase enzyme submandibular salivary gland Rattus Novergicus strain Wistar with irradiation low LET. Material and Methods: 28 samples of Rattus Novergicus strain Wistar, weight 200gr, age 2-3months, gender male, sample divide into 4 groups, K1 (control with brown algae dosage 0,018mg/kgbw K2 (use brown algae and irradiation 4 times, K3 (use brown algae and irradiation 8 times, K4 (use brown algae and irradiation 14 times. Brown algae been given 7days before apply irradiotion on day 8, then did euthanasia and took submandibular salivary gland. After that did measurement activity of catalase enzyme and counted by spectrophotometer with 240 λ. Result: Data were analyze by Shapiro-wilk, One Way ANOVA and Bonferroni. The activity of catalase enzyme have increased; 0,2586 ± 0,1050 (K1, 0,2595 ± 0,0630 (K2, 0,3252 ± 0,1663 (K3, 0,3668 ± 0,0852 (K4 but theres no significant differences  activity of catalase enzyme between one group to other group. Conclusion: Brown algae dosage 0,018mg/kgbw can’t increase activity of catalase enzyme on Rattus Novergicus strain Wistar.

  7. Larval recovery of Toxocara cati in experimentally infected Rattus norvegicus and analysis of the rat as potential reservoir for this ascarid

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    Sérgio V Santos

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Toxocara cati is a common feline parasite transmitted by the ingestion of embryonated eggs, by the transmammary route or by predation of paratenic hosts harbouring third-stage larvae in their bodies. In the present study, the larval distribution of T. cati in tissues and organs of Rattus norvegicus experimentally infected with 300 embryonated eggs was analysed. Third-stage larvae were recovered from livers, lungs, kidneys, eyes, brains and carcasses of infected rats, following tissue digestion with HCl 0.5% for 24 h at 37°C. Some differences from the known larval distribution of Toxocara canisin the same rodent species were found.

  8. EFICÁCIA DE TRÊS MEDICAMENTOS NO CONTROLE DA INFECÇÃO EXPERIMENTAL POR TRYPANOSOMA EVANSI EM RATOS (RATTUS NORVEGICUS) LINHAGEM WISTAR

    OpenAIRE

    Rovaina Laureano Doyle

    2006-01-01

    Este trabalho objetivou verificar os achados laboratoriais e histológicos da infecção experimental por Trypanosoma (Trypanozoon) evansi (Steel, 1885) Balbiani, 1888, em ratos (Rattus norvegicus) da linhagem Wistar, testando a eficácia de três medicamentos. Foram utilizados 40 ratos, divididos em quatro grupos de 10 cada, sendo cada grupo composto por 5 machos e cinco fêmeas, os quais foram tratados com três quimioterápicos distintos após a detecção de parasitemia superior a oit...

  9. Aceturato de diminazeno e dipropionato de imidocarb no controle de infecção por Trypanosoma evansi em Rattus norvegicus infectados experimentalmente

    OpenAIRE

    Silva,Aleksandro Schafer da; Tochetto,Camila; Zanette,Régis Adriel; Pierezan,Felipe; Rissi,Daniel Ricardo; Santurio,Janio Morais; Monteiro,Silvia Gonzalez

    2008-01-01

    Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito do aceturato de diminazeno e do dipropionato de imidocarb no controle da infecção por Trypanosoma evansi em ratos (Rattus norvegicus) infectados experimentalmente. Cinqüenta e quatro ratos machos foram inoculados via intraperitonial com 104 tripomastigotas de T. evansi/animal. Os ratos foram monitorados diariamente por meio de esfregaço sanguíneo periférico. No momento em que se observassem oito protozoários por campo microscópico de 1000x, era ...

  10. Osteogenic Ability of Combined Hematopoetic Stem Cell, Hydroxyapatite Graft and Platelet Rich Fibrin on Rats (Rattus Novergicus

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    Dwi Rahmawati

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: In Indonesia, the incidence rate of tooth extraction as the main form of dental treatment reached as high as 79.6% in 2014. Teeth extraction leads to periodontal tissue defect whose treatment, incorporating the use of graft material Hydroxyapatite (HA and Platelet Rich Fibrin (PRF with stem cells, has become increasingly widespread. The stem cell potentially put to therapeutic use is the Hematopoetic Stem Cell (HSC. Aim and Objectives: to examine the effect of hematopoetic stem cell addition to HA graft and PRF post-tooth extraction on the number of osteoblasts and amount of Osteoprotegerin (OPG in periodontal defect treatment. Material and Methods: This study constituted laboratory-based experimental research with a post test-only control group. Twenty four rats (Rattus novergicus represented the animal study model in this research. Alveolar bone defect in the animal study model was induced by extracting the first molar of the mandible using sterile needle holder clamps. The sample population was divided into four groups: K0: the untreated control group; K1: socket filled with HA Graft and PRF. K2: socket filled with HSC 105 cells. K3: the socket filled with HA Graft and PRF with HSC 106 cells. Results: The K3 group had both the highest number of osteoblasts when compared with the control group (350.17 ± 33.42; P <0.001 and the strongest OPG expression of all treatment groups (11.36 ± 0.54; P <0.01. Conclusion: A combination of HA graft, PRF and HSC significantly increases the expression of OPG and the number of osteoblasts rendering it a potential treatment for tissue engineering-based periodontal defect.

  11. ACTIVITY TEST OF GUAVA (Psidium guajava L. LEAF METHANOL EXTRACT AS CONTRACEPTION ANTIFERTILITY TO WHITE MICE (Rattus norvegicus

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    Sri Retno Dwi Ariani

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to know about if the guava (Psidium guajava L. leaf methanol extract on 10.5 mg/mL and 21.0 mg/mL dossages indicate a positive test as contraception antifertility to white mice (Rattus norvegicus. The sample is guava leaf from Mungkid, Magelang Central of Java Indonesia. The animals experiment are the white mice on 140-300 g for female, 200-250 g for male and about 3 months of age in average. The steps of this research are : (1 preparing  sample, i.e. washing, drying on to indirect sunlight and make the sample into powder, (2 isolation the guava leaf powder in soxhlet instrument with hexane, (3 evaporation the sample with rotary evaporator until guava leaf hexane extract produced, (4 maseration the sample with methanol, (5 evaporation the sample with rotary evaporator until guava leaf methanol extract produced, (6 conducting contraception antifertility activity test to guave leaf methanol extract on 10.5 mg/mL and 21.0 mg/mL dossages to mice white. The results of this research are guava leaf methanol extract on 10.5 mg/mL and 21.0 mg/mL dossages indicate a negative contraception antifertility test to white mice but in these dossages have indicated that an antiimplantation effect (the total natality of fetus is less than the total implantation site in mice white.   Keywords: Guava leaf, contraseption antifertility, methanol extract, white mice, implantation

  12. Defensive aggregation (huddling in Rattus norvegicus toward predator odor: individual differences, social buffering effects and neural correlates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael T Bowen

    Full Text Available Aggregation is a defensive strategy employed by many prey species in response to predatory threat. Our group has characterized defensive aggregation (huddling in Rattus norvegicus in response to a ball of cat fur. In this situation some rats huddle less, and approach the threatening cue more than others (active vs. passive responders. The present study explored whether active responding is a stable phenotype associated with behaviors outside direct predatory encounters. The neural substrates of active and passive responding under predatory threat were explored using c-Fos immunohistochemistry. Finally, we examined whether the presence of conspecifics during predatory threat biases behavior towards active responding. Active and passive responding styles were found to be stable in individual rats across consecutive group exposures to cat fur, and were predicted by anxiety-like behavior in an open-field emergence test. Active responders displayed less conditioned fear in an environment associated with predatory threat, and had higher post-exposure intake of a weak sucrose solution (a test of "anhedonia". Active responding was associated with: greater cat fur-induced activation of the accessory olfactory bulb, reflecting greater olfactory stimulation in rats actively approaching the fur; lowered activation of somatosensory cortex, reflecting reduced huddling with conspecifics; and reduced activation in the lateral septum. Social exposure to cat fur promoted active responding relative to individual exposure, and lowered c-Fos expression in the dorsomedial periaqueductal grey, medial caudate putamen and lateral habenula. We conclude that individual differences in anti-predator behavior appear stable traits with active responders having a more resilient phenotype. Social exposure to predatory threat has an acute buffering effect, subtly changing the neural and behavioral response towards threat and encouraging active responding. An association between

  13. Defensive Aggregation (Huddling) in Rattus Norvegicus toward Predator Odor: Individual Differences, Social Buffering Effects and Neural Correlates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Michael T.; Kevin, Richard C.; May, Matthew; Staples, Lauren G.; Hunt, Glenn E.; McGregor, Iain S.

    2013-01-01

    Aggregation is a defensive strategy employed by many prey species in response to predatory threat. Our group has characterized defensive aggregation (huddling) in Rattus norvegicus in response to a ball of cat fur. In this situation some rats huddle less, and approach the threatening cue more than others (active vs. passive responders). The present study explored whether active responding is a stable phenotype associated with behaviors outside direct predatory encounters. The neural substrates of active and passive responding under predatory threat were explored using c-Fos immunohistochemistry. Finally, we examined whether the presence of conspecifics during predatory threat biases behavior towards active responding. Active and passive responding styles were found to be stable in individual rats across consecutive group exposures to cat fur, and were predicted by anxiety-like behavior in an open-field emergence test. Active responders displayed less conditioned fear in an environment associated with predatory threat, and had higher post-exposure intake of a weak sucrose solution (a test of “anhedonia”). Active responding was associated with: greater cat fur-induced activation of the accessory olfactory bulb, reflecting greater olfactory stimulation in rats actively approaching the fur; lowered activation of somatosensory cortex, reflecting reduced huddling with conspecifics; and reduced activation in the lateral septum. Social exposure to cat fur promoted active responding relative to individual exposure, and lowered c-Fos expression in the dorsomedial periaqueductal grey, medial caudate putamen and lateral habenula. We conclude that individual differences in anti-predator behavior appear stable traits with active responders having a more resilient phenotype. Social exposure to predatory threat has an acute buffering effect, subtly changing the neural and behavioral response towards threat and encouraging active responding. An association between active

  14. Frequent combination of antimicrobial multiresistance and extraintestinal pathogenicity in Escherichia coli isolates from urban rats (Rattus norvegicus) in Berlin, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guenther, Sebastian; Bethe, Astrid; Fruth, Angelika; Semmler, Torsten; Ulrich, Rainer G; Wieler, Lothar H; Ewers, Christa

    2012-01-01

    Urban rats present a global public health concern as they are considered a reservoir and vector of zoonotic pathogens, including Escherichia coli. In view of the increasing emergence of antimicrobial resistant E. coli strains and the on-going discussion about environmental reservoirs, we intended to analyse whether urban rats might be a potential source of putatively zoonotic E. coli combining resistance and virulence. For that, we took fecal samples from 87 brown rats (Rattus norvegicus) and tested at least three E. coli colonies from each animal. Thirty two of these E. coli strains were pre-selected from a total of 211 non-duplicate isolates based on their phenotypic resistance to at least three antimicrobial classes, thus fulfilling the definition of multiresistance. As determined by multilocus sequence typing (MLST), these 32 strains belonged to 24 different sequence types (STs), indicating a high phylogenetic diversity. We identified STs, which frequently occur among extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC), such as STs 95, 131, 70, 428, and 127. Also, the detection of a number of typical virulence genes confirmed that the rats tested carried ExPEC-like strains. In particular, the finding of an Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing strain which belongs to a highly virulent, so far mainly human- and avian-restricted ExPEC lineage (ST95), which expresses a serogroup linked with invasive strains (O18:NM:K1), and finally, which produces an ESBL-type frequently identified among human strains (CTX-M-9), pointed towards the important role, urban rats might play in the transmission of multiresistant and virulent E. coli strains. Indeed, using a chicken infection model, this strain showed a high in vivo pathogenicity. Imagining the high numbers of urban rats living worldwide, the way to the transmission of putatively zoonotic, multiresistant, and virulent strains might not be far ahead. The unforeseeable consequences of such an emerging public health

  15. Defensive aggregation (huddling) in Rattus norvegicus toward predator odor: individual differences, social buffering effects and neural correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Michael T; Kevin, Richard C; May, Matthew; Staples, Lauren G; Hunt, Glenn E; McGregor, Iain S

    2013-01-01

    Aggregation is a defensive strategy employed by many prey species in response to predatory threat. Our group has characterized defensive aggregation (huddling) in Rattus norvegicus in response to a ball of cat fur. In this situation some rats huddle less, and approach the threatening cue more than others (active vs. passive responders). The present study explored whether active responding is a stable phenotype associated with behaviors outside direct predatory encounters. The neural substrates of active and passive responding under predatory threat were explored using c-Fos immunohistochemistry. Finally, we examined whether the presence of conspecifics during predatory threat biases behavior towards active responding. Active and passive responding styles were found to be stable in individual rats across consecutive group exposures to cat fur, and were predicted by anxiety-like behavior in an open-field emergence test. Active responders displayed less conditioned fear in an environment associated with predatory threat, and had higher post-exposure intake of a weak sucrose solution (a test of "anhedonia"). Active responding was associated with: greater cat fur-induced activation of the accessory olfactory bulb, reflecting greater olfactory stimulation in rats actively approaching the fur; lowered activation of somatosensory cortex, reflecting reduced huddling with conspecifics; and reduced activation in the lateral septum. Social exposure to cat fur promoted active responding relative to individual exposure, and lowered c-Fos expression in the dorsomedial periaqueductal grey, medial caudate putamen and lateral habenula. We conclude that individual differences in anti-predator behavior appear stable traits with active responders having a more resilient phenotype. Social exposure to predatory threat has an acute buffering effect, subtly changing the neural and behavioral response towards threat and encouraging active responding. An association between active responding

  16. UJI EFEK EKSTRAK ETANOL 96% ANGGUR MERAH (Vitis vinifera TERHADAP PENURUNAN KADAR TRIGLISERIDA PADA TIKUS PUTIH (Rattus Novergicus YANG DIINDUKSI TRITON X-100

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frans Saputra

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Buah anggur merah diduga memiliki kandungan pterostilbene, resveratrol, proantosianidin dan likopen yang memiliki efek terhadap penurunan kadar trigliserida. Penelitian ini bersifat eksperimental laboratorium dengan metode pre and post test with control group design. Objek penelitian 25 ekor tikus putih jantan, Rattus Novergicus, berat badan 150-200 gram, berumur 3-4 bulan yang dibagi menjadi 5 kelompok dengan teknik simple random sampling, kontrol negatif (aquadest, kontrol positif (Simvastatin 0,2mg/200gramBB/hari, kelompok perlakuan dosis I (100mg/200gramBB/hari, dosis II (250mg/200gramBB/hari, dosis III (500mg/200gramBB/ hari. Ekstrak etanol anggur merah dosis I, dosis II, dosis IIIdapat menurunkan kadar trigliserida darah dengan rerata penurunan secara berturut-turut adalah 147,4mg/dL, 135,2mg/dL, 97,2mg/dL. Pada uji statistic menggunakan one-way ANOVA didapatkan nilai p=0,000 (p<0,05, sehingga terdapat perbedaan signifikan kadar trigliserida darah tikus putih antar kelompok. Ekstrak etanol 96% anggur merah dosis 100mg; 250 dan 500 /200 gramBB/hari dapat menurunkan kadar trigliserida darah tikus putih.   Kata kunci :Ekstrak Anggur Merah, Trigliserida, Rattus Novergicus

  17. Frequent combination of antimicrobial multiresistance and extraintestinal pathogenicity in Escherichia coli isolates from urban rats (Rattus norvegicus in Berlin, Germany.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Guenther

    Full Text Available Urban rats present a global public health concern as they are considered a reservoir and vector of zoonotic pathogens, including Escherichia coli. In view of the increasing emergence of antimicrobial resistant E. coli strains and the on-going discussion about environmental reservoirs, we intended to analyse whether urban rats might be a potential source of putatively zoonotic E. coli combining resistance and virulence. For that, we took fecal samples from 87 brown rats (Rattus norvegicus and tested at least three E. coli colonies from each animal. Thirty two of these E. coli strains were pre-selected from a total of 211 non-duplicate isolates based on their phenotypic resistance to at least three antimicrobial classes, thus fulfilling the definition of multiresistance. As determined by multilocus sequence typing (MLST, these 32 strains belonged to 24 different sequence types (STs, indicating a high phylogenetic diversity. We identified STs, which frequently occur among extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC, such as STs 95, 131, 70, 428, and 127. Also, the detection of a number of typical virulence genes confirmed that the rats tested carried ExPEC-like strains. In particular, the finding of an Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL-producing strain which belongs to a highly virulent, so far mainly human- and avian-restricted ExPEC lineage (ST95, which expresses a serogroup linked with invasive strains (O18:NM:K1, and finally, which produces an ESBL-type frequently identified among human strains (CTX-M-9, pointed towards the important role, urban rats might play in the transmission of multiresistant and virulent E. coli strains. Indeed, using a chicken infection model, this strain showed a high in vivo pathogenicity. Imagining the high numbers of urban rats living worldwide, the way to the transmission of putatively zoonotic, multiresistant, and virulent strains might not be far ahead. The unforeseeable consequences of such an emerging public

  18. HYSTOPATHOLOGIC CHANGES ON AORTA OF CIRRHOSIS MALE RATS (RATTUS NORVEGICUS INDUCTED BY ESCHERICIA COLI O55 : B5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Hartono

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The background of this study is to visualize histopathological changes on aorta of cirrhosis rats (Rattus norvegicus induced by endotoxin E. coli O55 : B5 This study was a laboratory experimental using complete randomized design with five treatments and five repetitions. Twenty five male Wistar rats were used as experimental model of cirrhosis by bile duct ligation (BDL technique. Three weeks after BDL, all cirrhosis experimental models were induced with a single intra venous injection of Eschericia coli endotoxin (3mg/kg b.b in 1 ml sterile saline, except those of five control rats that induced with sterile saline at the same volume only. Aortas of control rats group were excised at 6 hours after induction with sterile saline, whereas the other four groups were done at 6, 12, 18 and 24 hours after induction with endotoxin. The quantity of endothelial cell, discontinuity increment and the thickness of internal elastic lamina layer were observed to know histopathological changes on aorta. Histopathological changes were observed using a light mycroscope, dyscontinuity and thickness of internal elastic lamina were measured by reticular micrometer. The quantity of endothelial cell on control and observation interval of 6 and 12 hours as significant difference (P<0.05, which are bigger than that of 18 and 24 hours. Rats in the control group have the biggest quantity comparing to the other treatments. Discontinuity and thickness of internal elastic lamina layer had significant difference (P<0.05 on control, observation on 6 and 12 hours compared to observation on 18 and 24 hours after being induced with endotoxine. The highest discontinuity and the thinnest elastic lamina internal were obtained within observation on 24 hours. VCAM-1 expression on control group differ from observation on 6 and 12hours but all of them have significant difference to observation on 18 and 24 hours (P<0,05. The decrease of endothelial cell number is caused by

  19. EFEK ZAT AKTIF EKSTRAK DAUN JAMBU BIJI MERAH (PSIDIUM GUAJAVA.L TERHADAP SPERMATOGENESIS PADA TIKUS PUTIH JANTAN (RATTUS NORVEGICUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ervi Husni

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Pendahuluan: Jumlah penduduk Indonesia sensus tahun 2010 sebanyak 237,6 juta jiwa dengan laju pertumbuhan penduduk 1,49 % per tahun. Target RPJPMN 2010-2014 sebesar1,14 %, laju pertumbuhan penduduk saat ini  0,53 % masih lebih tinggi. Pengendalian penduduk diperlukan antara lain dengan pemakaian kontrasepsi pada wanita maupun pria. Keterlibatan pria dalam KB masih rendah hanya 6,26 %. Tujuan penelitian untuk membuktikan zat aktif daun jambu biji merah dapat menurunkan kadar FSH dan spermatogenesis pada tikus putih jantan (Rattus norvegikus. Metode: Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian eksperimen dengan rancangan Post test only control group design. Besar sampel menggunakan rumus Federer dengan jumlah sampel 30 ekor tikus putih, terbagi tiga kelompok yaitu Kelompok 1 (K1 kelompok kontrol diberikan larutan CMC 0,5 % 1 ml/ hari, Kelompok Perlakuan 1 (P1 diberikan ekstrak daun jambu biji merah dosis 40 mg/ml/hari dan kelompok Perlakuan 2 (P2 diberikan ekstrak daun jambu biji merah dosis 80 mg/ml/hari dan diberikan selama 30 hari. Variabel penelitian  jumlah sel spermatogenik ( Spermatogonium, Spermatosit primer dan Spermatid. Data dianalisis menggunakan uji  ANOVA. Hasil: Hasil analisis data dengan uji ANOVA jumlah sel spermatogonium nilai p 0,801 (p < 0,05: tidak ada perbedaan signifikan diantara ketiga kelompok, uji LSD tidak dilakukan. Hasil uji ANOVA untuk jumlah sel spermatosit primer didapatkan nilai p 0,102 ( p < 0,05 , berarti  tidak ada perbedaan signifikan diantara ketiga kelompok, uji LSD tidak dilakukan. Hasil uji ANOVA untuk jumlah sel spermatid nilai p 0,001  (p < 0,05 berarti terdapat perbedaan signifikan diantara ketiga kelompok. Hasil uji LSD kontrol dengan P1 (p 0,036 : berbeda, Kontrol dengan P2 (p <0,000: berbeda, P1 dengan P2 (p <0,033 : berbeda. Diskusi: Kesimpulan penelitian ini adalah pemberian ekstrak daun jambu biji merah tidak menurunkan jumlah sel spermatogonium dan sel spermatosit primer tetapi menurunkan jumlah

  20. Atherosclerosis and atherosensitivity in two southwest Algerian desert rodents, Psammomys obesus and Gerbillus gerbillus, and in Rattus norvegicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Aoufi S

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Salima El-Aoufi,1 Mohamed-Amine Lazourgui,1 Lakhdar Griene,2 Boubekeur Maouche31Laboratoire de Biologie et de Physiologie des Organismes/MMDED, Faculté des Sciences Biologiques, USTHB, El-Alia, Dar El Beida, Algeria; 2Laboratoire d'Hormonologie, Centre Pierre et Marie Curie, C.H.U Mustapha, Algeria; 3Laboratoire de Physicochimie Théorique et Chimie Informatique, Faculté de Chimie, USTHB, El-Alia, Dar El Beida, AlgeriaAbstract: Cardiovascular disease, including atherosclerosis, is the leading cause of death in patients with diabetes worldwide; thus, it is a major medical concern. The endothelium contributes to the control of many vascular functions, and clinical observations show that it is a primary target for diabetic syndrome. To get better insight into the mechanisms underlying atherosclerosis, we studied the interspecific differences in the arterial metabolisms of two, Psammomys obesus and Gerbillus gerbillus, as well as Rattus norvegicus (Wistar rat, well known for its atheroresistance. Twenty-two enzymatic activities and six macromolecular substances were histochemically compared in the two desert species and in Wistar aortas (abdominal and thoracic and arteries (femoral and caudal embedded in a common block. In the healthy adult rodents, enzyme activities were very intense. They demonstrated that aortic myocytes are capable of various synthesis and catabolism processes. However, considering the frequency of atherosclerosis and its phenotypes, significant differences appeared between the species studied. Our comparative study shows that aortic atherosensitive animals have several common metabolic characteristics, which are found in Psammomys rich in metachromatic glycosaminoglycans (involved in the inhibition of lipolysis and in calcification of the organic matrix, reduced activity in enzymes related to the Krebs cycle (weakening energetic power, and low lipolytic enzyme, adenosine triphosphatase, and adenosine diphosphatase activities

  1. Information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyard, Pierre.

    1981-01-01

    The fear for nuclear energy and more particularly for radioactive wastes is analyzed in the sociological context. Everybody agree on the information need, information is available but there is a problem for their diffusion. Reactions of the public are analyzed and journalists, scientists and teachers have a role to play [fr

  2. Intraperitoneal Injection of Ethanol for the Euthanasia of Laboratory Mice (Mus musculus) and Rats (Rattus norvegicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen-Worthington, Krystal H; Brice, Angela K; Marx, James O; Hankenson, F Claire

    2015-11-01

    Compassion, professional ethics, and public sensitivity require that animals are euthanized humanely and appropriately under both planned and emergent situations. According to the 2013 AVMA Guidelines for the Euthanasia of Animals, intraperitoneal injection of ethanol is "acceptable with conditions" for use in mice. Because only limited information regarding this technique is available, we sought to evaluate ethanol by using ECG and high-definition video recording. Mice (n = 85) and rats (n = 16) were treated with intraperitoneal ethanol (70% or 100%), a positive-control agent (pentobarbital-phenytoin combination [Pe/Ph]), or a negative-control agent (saline solution). After injection, animals were assessed for behavioral and physiologic responses. Pain-assessment techniques in mice demonstrated that intraperitoneal injection of ethanol was not more painful than was intraperitoneal Pe/Ph. Median time to loss of consciousness for all mice that received ethanol or Pe/Ph was 45 s. Median time to respiratory arrest was 2.75, 2.25, and 2.63 min, and time (mean ± SE) to cardiac arrest was 6.04 ± 1.3, 2.96 ± 0.6, and 4.03 ± 0.5 min for 70% ethanol, 100% ethanol, and Pe/Ph, respectively. No mouse that received ethanol or Pe/Ph regained consciousness. Although successful in mice, intraperitoneal ethanol at the doses tested (9.2 to 20.1 g/kg) was unsuitable for euthanasia of rats (age, 7 to 8 wk) because of the volume needed and prolonged time to respiratory effects. For mice, intraperitoneal injection of 70% or 100% ethanol induced rapid and irreversible loss of consciousness, followed by death, and should be considered as "acceptable with conditions."

  3. Morphologic and quantitative study of the myenteric neurons of the jejunum of malnourished rats (Rattus norvegicus Estudo morfológico e quantitativo dos neurônios mientéricos do jejuno de ratos desnutridos (Rattus norvegicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARCÍLIO HUBNER DE MIRANDA NETO

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available We studied the effects of maternal proteic desnutrition on the neurons of the myenteric plexus of the jejunum of rats from Rattus norvegicus species. It was used litters of female rats which received diet with normal proteic level during gestation and lactation (group NN, normal diet during gestation and hypoproteic diet during lactation (group ND; hypoproteic diet during gestation and normal diet during lactation (group DN; hypoproteic diet during both gestation and lactation (group DD. After weaning all the animals received diet of normal proteic level until the 60th day of age, when they were killed. The jejunum of the animals was subjected to whole-mount preparations stained by the method of Giemsa and used for the morphologic and quantitative analyses of the neurons of the myenteric plexus. We verified that maternal proteic malnutrition does not cause decrease on the number of myenteric neurons per unit area of jejunum in rats, but elicits mechanisms which assure that, when the animal again receives normal proteic level diet (22% there occurs storage of proteic material on the cytoplasm of the neurons, thus rendering them larger and strongly basophylic.Estudamos os efeitos da desnutrição protéica materna sobre os neurônios do plexo mientérico do jejuno de ratos da espécie norvegicus. Utilizamos filhotes de ratas que receberam dieta com teor protéico normal durante a gestação e a lactação (grupo NN, dieta normoprotéica durante a gestação e hipoprotéica durante a lactação (grupo ND; dieta hipoprotéica durante a gestação e normoprotéica durante a lactação (grupo DN; dieta hipoprotéica durante a gestação e lactação (grupo DD. Após o desmame todos os animais receberam dieta com teor protéico normal até os 60 dias de vida ocasião em que foram sacrificados. Preparados de membrana do jejuno foram corados pelo método de Giemsa e foram utilizados para análises morfológicas e quantitativas dos neurônios do plexo

  4. Informe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egon Lichetenberger

    1950-10-01

    Full Text Available Informe del doctor Egon Lichetenberger ante el Consejo Directivo de la Facultad, sobre el  curso de especialización en Anatomía Patológica patrocinado por la Kellogg Foundation (Departamento de Patología

  5. Study of expression of genes cIAP and cMET, in liver tissue with and without neoplasia of Rattus norvegicus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coto Valverde, Daniel Esteban

    2010-01-01

    The expression levels of cIAP genes and cMET were determined in liver tissues with and without neoplasm of the organism Rattus norvegicus, for prevention, diagnosis and treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma. The technique of reaction Polymerase Chain in real time (qPCR), is used to obtain the expression, of both genes cIAP and cMET, and this has decreased in neoplastic samples compared to samples not affected. The expression of these genes has been analyzed in samples with neoplastic formations, but treated with an anti-tumor agent. The expression has presented an increase of the cMET gene, unlike the cIAP gene, which has decreased its expression. Perform statistical analysis has been impossible because the number of samples used has been reduced. The results obtained differ with those expected theoretically. (author) [es

  6. Efecto hipolipidémico del extracto acuoso de las hojas de Artocarpus altilis "árbol del pan" en Rattus norvegicus con hiperlipidemia inducida

    OpenAIRE

    Julio Campos Florián

    2013-01-01

    La presente investigación tuvo como objetivo demostrar la actividad hipolipidémica del extracto acuoso de las hojas del árbol del pan, Artocarpus altilis, en un modelo de hiperlipidemia aguda inducida con tritón X-305, utilizando como especímenes Rattus norvegicus machos, peso promedio 204,5 g, a los que se les administró por vía oral 0,05 g/100 g y 0,2 g/100 g del extracto acuoso de A. altilis; se incluyó un grupo control negativo que recibió solución salina fisiológica y un grupo control po...

  7. Effect of an indigenous herbal compound preparation 'Trikatu' on the lipid profiles of atherogenic diet and standard diet fed Rattus norvegicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivakumar, Valsala; Sivakumar, S

    2004-12-01

    Combating heart disease is one of the challenging problems of biomedical science today. Towards this goal an indigenous preparation 'Trikatu' (a herbal combination containing Piper longum (fruit), Piper nigrum (fruit) and Zingiber officinale (rhizome) dry powder) was fed to normal and cholesterol fed male Rattus norvegicus to ascertain its efficacy as a hypolipidaemic agent. Its effects on body weight, blood and tissue (aortic, cardiac and hepatic) lipids--total, free and esterified cholesterol, low density lipoprotein(LDL) and high density lipoprotein(HDL) cholesterol, triglycerides and phospholipids--and the atherogenic index were measured. It was found that 'Trikatu' by virtue of its ability to reduce triglycerides and LDL cholesterol and to increase HDL cholesterol can reduce the risk of hyperlipidaemia and atherosclerosis. Hence 'Trikatu' can be used as a potent hypolipidaemic agent and it can reduce the atherosclerosis associated with a high fat diet. 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Characterization of Bromadiolone Resistance in a Danish Strain of Norway Rats, Rattus norvegicus, by Hepatic Gene Expression Profiling of VKORC1 and Calumenin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Mette Drude; Heiberg, Ann-Charlotte; Fredholm, Merete

    2007-01-01

    Anticoagulant agents, such as warfarin and bromadiolone, are used to control populations of Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus). The anticoagulants compromise the blood-coagulation process by inhibiting the vitamin K2,3 epoxide reductase enzyme complex (VKOR). Mutations in the VKORC1 gene, encoding...... (with an Y139C-VKORC1 mutation), we compared VKORC1 and calumenin liver gene expression between resistant and anticoagulant-susceptible rats upon saline and bromadiolone-administration. Additionally, we established the effect of bromadiolone on VKORC1 and calumenin expression in the two rat strains....... Bromadiolone had no effect on gene expression in resistant rats but significantly induced calumenin expression in susceptible rats. Calumenin expression was similar between resistant and susceptible rats upon saline administration but two-fold lower in resistant rats upon bromadiolone-treatment. These results...

  9. (RattusNorvegicus)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-02-18

    Feb 18, 2015 ... ... use in sickle cell disease management regimen can cause hepatocellular damage in wistar rats. ... synergistic clinical benefit in sickle cell disease. (SCD) than ... was made to expose the thoraco-abdominal region. Part of ...

  10. Effect of All-Trans Retinoic Acid (ATRA against expression of Matrix Metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2 in model mice (Rattus norvegicus periodontitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilma Soraya

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Periodontitis is a condition of inflammation of the tooth supporting tissues generally caused by bacteria Phorphyromonas gingivalis (Pg. and is usually characterized by the occurrence of the alveolar bone resorption. Matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2 is an enzyme that plays an important role in inflammatory conditions. All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA is a metabolite of vitamin A which plays a role in healing the inflamed tissue and maintain the immune system. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of ATRA on the expression of MMP-2 in mouse models Rattus norvegicus of periodontitis. Methods: Experimental laboratory by using post test only with control group design. This study used 25 male Wistar mice (Rattus norvegicus that divided into 5 groups. Group 1 (G1 is a group of healthy mice, group 2 (G2 is a group of sick mice as induced periodontitis without treatment, group 3 (G3 is a group of periodontitis mice treated with 5 mg/kg dose of ATRA, group 4 (G4 is a group of periodontitis mice treated with 10 mg/kg dose of ATRA, group 5 (G5 is a group of periodontitis mice treated with 20 mg/kg dose of ATRA. Periodontitis induction was induced by Pg. bacteria every 3 days for 28 days and followed by administration of ATRA for 7 days. Expression of MMP-2 from gingival tissues and periodontal ligament was obtained by immunohistochemical methods. Results were analyzed using the Shapiro-Wilk Test and Mann-Whitney Test. Results: The results showed there were significant differences in the positive area of MMP-2 and MMP-2 color intensity (p < 0.05 between groups. Conclusion: ATRA dose of 20 mg/kg is the most effective dose in inhibiting the expression of MMP-2 in mice models of periodontitis when compared with the dose on other groups.

  11. Rattus norvegicus como indicador de la circulación de Capillaria hepatica y Taenia taeniaeformis en la Plaza Minorista de Medellín, Colombia

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    Biviana Andrea Duque

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. Rattus norvegicus cumple un papel epidemiológico en el mantenimiento y dispersión de agentes zoonóticos bacterianos, virales y parasitarios de interés en salud pública. La presencia de infección por helmintos en especies Rattus cercanas a poblaciones expuestas en condiciones ambientales propicias, puede convertirse en un factor de riesgo de transmisión. Objetivo. Reportar la frecuencia de infección con Capillaria hepatica y formas larvarias de Taenia taeniaeformis en ratas silvestres (R. norvegicus capturadas en una zona urbana de Medellín. Materiales y métodos. Se capturaron 254 ejemplares de R. norvegicus. Los hígados de 54 ejemplares que presentaron lesión hepática macroscópica durante la necropsia, fueron examinados por histopatología convencional. Resultados. La frecuencia de infección por C. hepatica fue de 20,1 % (51/254. Seis hígados fueron también positivos para larvas de T. taeniaeformis con una frecuencia de 2,4 % (6/254. Los hígados infestados con C. hepatica exhibían parásitos en el estadio adulto o juvenil y huevos ovalados conopérculos bipolares, asociados con hepatitis granulomatosa leve a moderada multifocal y acompañada por infiltrado leucocitario. Se observaron lesiones granulomatosas en resolución y fibrosis residual o calcificada que contenía huevos. Donde se encontraron cisticercos de T. taeniaeformis, el hallazgo más frecuente fueron quistes hepáticos que contenían larvas, y lesiones inflamatorias y fibróticas. Conclusión. Estos resultados indican que helmintos de potencial zoonótico circulan en R. norvegicus de ambientes urbanos. Debe investigarse la verdadera distribución de estos parásitos, para determinar el riesgo potencial que corren las poblaciones animales y humanas expuestas a adquirir este tipo de infecciones.   doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.7705/biomedica.v32i4.442

  12. FGF-2 expression and the amount of fibroblast in the incised wounds of Rattus norvegicus rats induced with Mauli banana (Musa acuminata stem extract

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    Didit Aspriyanto

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Traditional wound treatment using herbal medicine is thought to maintain the health of families and society in general economically, effectively, and efficiently without inducing side effects. One genus of plant that can be used as a traditional medicine is the Mauli banana, indigenous to South Borneo. Mauli banana stem contains bioactive compounds, most of which are tannins along with ascorbic acid, saponin, β-carotene, flavonoids, lycopene, alkaloids, and flavonoids. Tanin has antibacterial and antioxidant effects at low concentrations, as wells as antifungal ones at high concentrations. Purpose: This study aimed to analyze the effects of Mauli banana stem extract at concentrations of 25%, 37.5%, and 50% on the quality of incised wound healing in male Rattus norvegicus rats by assessing FGF-2 expression and fibroblast concentration on days 3 and 7. Methods: This research represented an experimental laboratory-based investigation involving 32 rats of the Rattus norvegicus strain aged 2-2.5 months old. Sampling was performed using a simple random sampling technique since the research population was considered homogeneous and divided into 8 treatment groups (C3, M3-25, M3-37.5, M3-50, C7, M7-25, M7-37.5, M7-50. The rats in each group were anesthetized before their back was incised with length and width of 15x15mm with a depth of 2mm. Gel hydroxy propyl cellulose medium (HPMC was applied to the incised wound of each rat in the control group, while stem Mauli banana extract was applied to that of each rat in the treatment groups three times a day at an interval of 6-8 hours. On day 3, four rats from each group were sacrificed, while, in the remaining groups, the same procedure was performed until day 7, at which point they (8 groups were sacrificed for HE examination in order to assess the amount of fibroblast and for IHC examination to examine FGF-2 expression. Data regarding FGF-2 expression and the amount of fibroblast were analysed

  13. The change in cholesterol content of long chain fatty acid egg during processing and its influence to the Rattus norvegicus L. blood cholesterol content

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    Dini Hardini

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Egg containing long chain unsaturated fatty acids is a functional food, because it is highly nutritious and could prevent diseases, (omega 3 and 6 such as coronary heart attack. The research was aimed to measure the change of egg cholesterol content during proceesing: frying, oiless frying and boiling and their influence to the blood plasma cholesterol of normal and hypercholesterolemia rat. Seven treatments of egg yolk were frying at 170°C for 3 min (welldone = GM, and 1min (half medium fried = GSM using deep fryer , oilless frying at 70°C for10 min (fried = TM, and 6 min (half fried = TSM using Teflon pan, and boiling at 100°C for 10’ (boiled = RM dan 4 min (half boiled = RSM using pan provided with thermoregulator and a fresh omega egg as a control. The Completely randomized design was apllied for 4 weeks research period. The data from different treatments were analyzed by Orthogonal Contrast. Fifty 2 months old male rats Rattus norvegicus L. separated in 2 groups; normal and hypercholesterolemia (blood cholesterol > 200 mg dl-1. The rats were placed in individual cage, fed 15 g h-1 day-1 and water drinking ad libitum. The ration was composed of 90% basal commercial feed BR II and 10% egg yolk was given to each animal at 20% of live weight. Factorial 2 x 7 of completely randomized design was applied. The data were analyzed by ANOVA and Duncan’s Multiple Range Test. Processsing method of egg affected to cholesterol content of egg, The lowest and the highest cholesterol contents were observed in TSM (0.30 g/100g and GM (0.37 g/100g, respectively. Biological test using Rattus norvegicus L rat showed that either fresh and processed long chain fatty acid egg decreased plasma cholesterol. The highest and the lowest decreases of cholesterol content were found in the group consumed RSM (8.64% and GM (1.77% for normal rat; and control (46.3% followed by RSM (44.53% and GM (24.86%, respectively. To maintain normal cholesterol and decrease

  14. Betel Leaf Extract (Piper betle L. Antihyperuricemia Effect Decreases Oxidative Stress by Reducing the Level of MDA and Increase Blood SOD Levels of Hyperuricemia Wistar Rats (Rattus norvegicus

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    I Made Sumarya

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Betel leaf extracts (Piper betle L. antioxidant activity and enzyme inhibitors of XO. Hyperuricemia cause oxidative stress by increasing the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS cause lipid peroxidation and oxygenation of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLc. Objective: The aim of this research was to determine the betel leaf extract as an anti hyperuricemia that can lower the blood uric acid levels and oxidative stress by lowering the levels of MDA and increase the SOD of hyperuricemia of the rat’s blood. Method: Experimental research was conducted with the design of The Randomized Post Test Only Control Group Design, on normal Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus, administered with oxonic potassium (hyperuricemia and the hyperuricemia rats either given betel leaf extract and allopurinol. After the experiment of uric acid levels, MDA and SOD in rat blood determined. Results: The results showed that the betel leaf extract significantly (p <0.05 lower uric acid levels, MDA and increase levels of SOD in rat blood. There is a positive correlation between the levels of uric acid with MDA levels and a negative correlation, although not significantly with SOD (p >0.05. Conclusion: It can be concluded that the betel leaf extract as an anti-hyperuricemia can lower the uric acid levels and decreases oxidative stress by lowering the levels of MDA and increasing the SOD.

  15. Efecto hipolipidémico del extracto acuoso de las hojas de Artocarpus altilis "árbol del pan" en Rattus norvegicus con hiperlipidemia inducida

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    Julio Campos Florián

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available La presente investigación tuvo como objetivo demostrar la actividad hipolipidémica del extracto acuoso de las hojas del árbol del pan, Artocarpus altilis, en un modelo de hiperlipidemia aguda inducida con tritón X-305, utilizando como especímenes Rattus norvegicus machos, peso promedio 204,5 g, a los que se les administró por vía oral 0,05 g/100 g y 0,2 g/100 g del extracto acuoso de A. altilis; se incluyó un grupo control negativo que recibió solución salina fisiológica y un grupo control positivo hiperlipidémico. Luego de 24 horas de administrar los tratamientos, se realizaron las mediciones en suero de las concentraciones de colesterol y triglicéridos. Encontramos reducciones significativas (p < 0,01 tanto de las cifras de colesterol, como de triglicéridos en relación a las concentraciones obtenidas en el grupo control positivo. También encontramos diferencia significativa (p < 0,01 entre las concentraciones de triglicéridos de los animales tratados con las dos dosis del extracto acuoso de A. altilis. Concluimos que el extracto acuoso de las hojas de A. altilis presenta efecto hipolipidémico a las dosis ensayadas para el modelo de hiperlipidemia inducida con tritón X-305.

  16. The Use of Cytochrome b Gene as a Specific Marker of the Rat Meat (Rattus norvegicus on Meat and Meat Products

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    C. Sumantri

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Falsification of the origin of livestock meat and its processed with rat meat is a problem that must be overcome to ensure food safety. One way that is often used to detect forgeries by using cytochrome b gene as a marker. The purpose of this study was to create a specific primer derived from cytochrome b sequences in rat (Rattus norvegicus as the DNA marker to detect any contamination of rat meat on fresh livestock meat and its processed meat products. Meatballs were made from beef meat with the addition of rat 1%-25%, and the meatballs were obtained from traditional markets. DNA extraction was conducted from seven species (goat, chicken, cattle, sheep, pig, horse, and rat by using phenol-chloroform. The highest success rate in detecting the presence of rat meat in a mixture of beef meatballs at concentration of 15% was 100%. The specific fragment of cytochrome b gene in R. norvegicus has no similarity with the cytochrome b gene from six other species, so it can be used as molecular markers to detect the presence of rat meat contamination in the processed of meat products. Amplified fragment length for goats, chickens, cattle, sheep, pigs, horses, and rats 157, 227, 274, 331, 398, 439 and 603 bp respectively. The amplification of cytochrome b gene in seven species of animals with different fragment length indicated the specificity of cytochrome b gene sequences among species.

  17. Repeated exposure to cat urine induces complex behavioral, hormonal, and c-fos mRNA responses in Norway rats ( Rattus norvegicus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Baofa; Gu, Chen; Lu, Yi; Hegab, Ibrahim M.; Yang, Shengmei; Wang, Aiqin; Wei, Wanhong

    2017-08-01

    Prey species show specific adaptations that allow recognition, avoidance, and defense against predators. This study was undertaken to investigate the processing of a chronic, life-threatening stimulus to Norway rats ( Rattus norvegicus). One hundred forty-four Norway rats were tested by repeated presentation of cat urine for 1 h at different days in a defensive withdrawal apparatus. Rats exposed to urine for short periods showed significantly larger defensive behavioral and medial hypothalamic c-fos messenger RNA (mRNA) responses than other groups. These defensive responses habituated shortly after the presentation of cat urine. Serum levels of adrenocorticotropic hormone and corticosterone increased significantly when animals were repeatedly exposed to cat urine. However, the hormonal responses took longer to habituate than the behavioral and molecular responses did. We conclude that the behavioral and c-fos mRNA responses are "primed" for habituation to repeated exposures to cat urine, while the hormonal responses show "resistance." The results support our hypothesis that the strongest anti-predator responses at three levels would occur during short-term exposure to cat urine and that these responses would subsequently disappear on prolonged exposure. This study assists understanding the way in which the different levels of defensive responses are integrated and react during chronic stress.

  18. Formigas em Carcaças de Rattus norvegicus (Berkenhout em uma Área de Cerrado no Sudeste do Brasil: Riqueza e Abundância

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    Alysson Fonseca

    2015-04-01

    Abstract. We studied the main species of ants associated with carcasses of Rattus norvegicus (Berkenhout during the decomposition process, in different seasons in a savannah area. In each of the four seasons a carcass was disposed in the field and we installed around it five pitfall traps. Ants were collected from the tray containing the carcass and from the traps daily, until the end of decomposition in each season. Ants belonging to twenty-three species, with 63.85% of the total individuals collected in the traps and the rest directly in the trays, were sampled. The presence of predatory and nectarivorous species were registered. The scarcity of available resources in the environment in the dry season possibly makes the carcasses important food sources, explaining the higher richness of active species near the trays (collected in the pitfall traps. This increased activity is also reflected in a higher number of species and individuals in the carcasses. The opposite also seems to occur once in the autumn, end of wet season, we observed lower abundance of ants in the carcasses. The presence of ants on carcasses throughout all stages of the decomposition process and in all seasons of the year highlighted the importance of the association between representatives of this taxon and carcasses in Cerrado environments.

  19. UJI AKTIVITAS ANTIINFLAMASI KOMBINASI DEKOKTA AKAR BELUNTAS (Pluchea indica L. DAN INFUSA DAUN JAMBU BIJI (Psidium guajava L. TERHADAP TIKUS PUTIH (Rattus norvegicus YANG DIINDUKSI KARAGENAN

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    Ersamukti Rahmatullah Achmad

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Marsh fleabane roots (Pluchea indica L. and guava leaves (Psidium guajava L. are traditionally used as an anti-inflammatory. The research has been conducted with the aim of knowing the anti-inflammatory effect of the combination of decoction of Marsh fleabane  roots (Pluchea indica L. and infusion of guava leaves (Psidium guajava L., and also determining  the effective concentration of such combination. The research used artificial edema method in white rat's leg ( Rattus norvegicus with the observation for 6 hours on the change of leg volume in white rat.  The measurement of white rat's leg volume used a pletismometer. The type of treatment was devided into 5 groups: negative control (Aquadest, positive control (Na Diclofenac, combination 1 (MFR 10% : IGL 8%, combination 2 (MFR 5% : IGL 5%, and combination 3 (MFR 8% : IGL 10%.  The data obtained were processed using One-Way ANOVA method with the result seen on the percent inhibition of inflammation resulting concentration of MFR 5%: IGL 5% amounting to 23.47%, and subsequently combined with a concentration of MFR 10% : IGL 8% and concentrations MFR 8% : IGL 10% respectively by the percent inhibition of inflammation by 20.70% and 13.75%.  The data obtained show the combination with a concentration of 5% : 5% have anti- inflammatory effect are better than the other combinations as well as comparable to the positive  control

  20. Distribution of rats infected with Rickettsia tsutsugamushi (scrub typhus) in an edge habitat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muul, I; Chai, K S

    1978-12-01

    No focalization of rats (Rattus tiomanicus and R. argentiventer) infected with Rickettsia tsutsugamushi could be discerned over a 500 m trapping transect at the border between a forest and lalang grass (Imperata cylindrica). R. tiomanicus appeared to occupy 250 m of the transect on the average and had periods during which infections were observed which averaged 97 days. Calulations indicated that more than 50% of individuals become infected over their life-time. The high rate of infection in this and other areas described in earlier publications and the habits of the rats suggest that infected mites are densely and widely dispersed in the areas studied in Malaysia.

  1. Contribution of diet to δ15N, δ13C, and Δ14C values in the Pacific rat (Rattus exulans)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beavan, N.R.

    2001-01-01

    This thesis is the outcome of a research project undertaken to determine how diet can affect the reliability of rat bone (especially that of Rattus exulans) for accurate radiocarbon analysis. It addresses questions about the reliability of R. exulans bone for radiocarbon dating with respect to the survival of bone in archaeological and natural burial sites, laboratory processing methods, and the extent to which diet influences radiocarbon ages of bone. I have shown that R. exulans bone can return reliable radiocarbon dates, based on bone survival and the efficacy of chemical treatment to remove burial contamination. In three dietary investigations, stable isotope (δ 13 C and δ 15 N) and radiocarbon ( 14 C) analyses of modern populations and archaeological specimens also indicated that Rattus exulans and other omnivorous species can have radiocarbon values influenced by a diet linked to 14 C - depleted reservoirs. Moreover, depleted carbon reservoir effects are localised and variable in their magnitude. Work on modern populations also provided an improved means of isotopic analysis in an ecological study, where bomb-generated radiocarbon (Δ 14 C) signatures in the natural environment were used as for other 'tracer' studies, in conjunction with stable isotopes (δ 13 C and δ 15 N). Results indicated that the changing atmospheric 14 C signal fixed into the biota in a given year by photosynthesis is transferred from plants through trophic levels to end-members, including rats. The additional isotopic 'clue' about diet given by radiocarbon analysis offered a better understanding of the variation in diets of R. exulans in different habitats. Variation in the isotopic signal among individuals supported other observations that diets of scavenging rats are opportunistic and associated with faunal availability in different habitats. To better understand diet-induced radiocarbon variations, I also examined the carbon contribution to bone protein from essential amino acids

  2. Determinación de metabolitos secundarios en Physalis angulata (L) 1758 "mullaca" y su importancia en el efecto hipoglucemiante en Rattus norvegicus "rata albina", Iquitos - Perú;

    OpenAIRE

    Donayre Ramirez, Marjorie Raquel; Carrasco Montañez, Daniel Diomedes

    2013-01-01

    El presente trabajo se desarrolló en el laboratorio de Química Analítica de la Universidad Nacional de la Amazonía Peruana (UNAP) y en el Instituto de Medicina Tradicional (IMET) de la Ciudad de !quitos - Perú. Se evaluó la actividad hipoglucemiante de los extractos, etanólico y metanólico de raíz, tallo y hoja de Physalis angulata (Linneo) "mullaca", en ratas albinas machos Rattus norvegicus cepa Holtzman, previa inducción de un estado de hiperglicemia con alloxano al 5% (125mg/kg de masa co...

  3. PEMBERIAN EKSTRAK BUAH JUWET (Syzygium cumini L. TERHADAP JUMLAH DAN MORFOLOGI SPERMATOZOA TIKUS PUTIH (Rattus sp. JANTAN YANG TERPAPAR ASAP ROKOK

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    Fitria Dwijayanti

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The research to determine the effect of fruit extracts juwet on the number and morphology of spermatozoa were superbly exposed to smoke has been conducted. This study uses rats aged 3 month, 200-210 gram, total 24 rats consisting of 4 treatment, is control, smoke of cigarette, juwet fruit extracts, and smoke of cigarette to juwet fruit extracts. Each treatment consisting 6 replications, each consisting of 1 rat. Before, acclimatization of rat treated 7 days. Way of giving juwet fruit extracts the gavage method 2 ml once daily for 48 days, while the CMC-Na 0,5% is given control. The exposure to cigarette smoke is given from an aerator pump , to given once daily for 48 days. Data were analyzed with ANOVA, if they were 5% significantly different would be followed by a DMRT. The result showed that the number of abnormal sperm morphology were significantly diferent (p<0,05. The averange number of abnormal spermatozoa K1 group was higher than K3 group. The number of spermatozoa was not significant different between treatments. The average number of spermatozoa K1 lower than K3. This is because the smoke of cigarette increased formation of ROS and the resulting stress oxidative and cause cell damage tissues and organs, especially to the reproductive system. Juwet fruits extract have been able to improve the count and morphologyof rats spermatozoa expose to smoke. This case because of antioxidant from juwet fruit can be protect cell from the free radical attack. Keywords: Rattus sp, smoke of cigarette, java plum  fruit, spermatozoa, , ROS, antioxidant.

  4. AKTIVITAS DIURETIK KOMBINASI EKSTRAK BIJI PEPAYA (Carica papaya L DAN BIJI SALAK (Salacca zalacca varietas zalacca (Gaert.Voss PADA TIKUS JANTAN GALUR WISTAR (Rattus norvegicus L

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    Nurihardiyanti Nurihardiyanti

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Research on diuretic activity of seed extract combination of papaya (Carica papaya L and snake fruit (Salacca zalacca (Gaert. Voss to male wistar strain rats (Rattus norvegicus L. has been conducted. This study aimed to determine the diuretic effect of the seed extract combination and its effective dose combination as diuretics. The extract was prepared by maceration method using ethanol 96%. Diuretic activity test was divided into 5 treatment groups. Each group consisted of 5 rats. Group 1 (negative control was given suspension of Na-CMC 0.5%; Group 2 (positive control was given furosemide 3.6 mg/kgBW; Group 3, 4, and 5 were given dose combination of snake fruit seed extract and papaya seed extract successively at “37.5 mg/kgBW + 7.5 mg/kgBW”; “70 mg/kgBW + 15mg/kgBW”; and “140 mg/kgBW + 30 mg/kgBW”. Each rat was then orally given warm distilled water (70°C 10ml/100gBW as loading dose. The excreted urine volume was measured and recorded every 30 minutes for 6 hours which was continued to cumulative urine volume calculation. Furthermore, sample was taken from the cumulative urine to measure levels of sodium (Na, potassium (K, and the pH of the urine. Data were statistically analyzed using ANOVA (Analysis of Variance. The results showed that the effective extract dose combination was found in Group 5’s dose (140 mg/kgBW of snake fruit seed extract and 30 mg/kgBW papaya seed extract with diuretic activity index of 1.48; urine pH of 7.52; sodium saluretic index of 1.62; and potassium saluretik index of 1.56

  5. The effect of organic quail egg supplementation on the blood lipid profile of white mice (Rattus Norvegicus L.) during the lactation period

    Science.gov (United States)

    lestari purba, Sri; Rini Saraswati, Tyas; Isdadiyanto, Sri

    2018-05-01

    Background: Quail eggs contain a considerable amount of complete nutritional sources such as carbohydrates, proteins, fats, and micronutrients. However, they also have a high cholesterol level, which can potentially cause atherosclerosis and chronic heart diseases. The response of the body to foods containing is influenced by factors such as ethnicity, genetics, and hormonal and nutrient status of the consumer. The cholesterol level of quail eggs can be reduced by manipulating the feed using supplemental organic feed. Organic quail eggs have been believed to correct the lipid profile of white mice during the lactation phase. Purpose: The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of feed containing organic quail eggs on the blood lipid profile of white mice (Rattus norvegicus L.) during the lactation phase. Materials and Methods: This experimental study was conducted using a completely randomized design with four experiments and five repetitions. Experimental mice: T0 mice were used as control; T1 mice were supplemented with quail eggs produced by quails that were fed with standard feed; T2 mice were supplemented with eggs produced by quails fed with standard organic feed; and T3 mice were supplemented with eggs produced by quails fed with organic feed with the addition of cassava leaf flour, mackerel flour, and turmeric powder. Quail egg supplementation was administered to the mice from the early pregnancy period till the end of the lactation phase. The acquired data were analyzed using ANOVA. SPSS version 16.0 software for Windows was used for data analyses. Results and summary: Feeding the white mice with different compositions of organic quail egg supplements had no effect on the consumption of feed and water, body weight, and lipid profile (including total cholesterol, LDL, HDL, and triglyceride) during the lactation phase (P > 0.05).

  6. From in silico to in vitro: a trip to reveal flavonoid binding on the Rattus norvegicus Kir6.1 ATP-sensitive inward rectifier potassium channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trezza, Alfonso; Cicaloni, Vittoria; Porciatti, Piera; Langella, Andrea; Fusi, Fabio; Saponara, Simona; Spiga, Ottavia

    2018-01-01

    ATP-sensitive inward rectifier potassium channels (Kir), are a potassium channel family involved in many physiological processes. K ATP dysfunctions are observed in several diseases such as hypoglycaemia, hyperinsulinemia, Prinzmetal angina-like symptoms, cardiovascular diseases. A broader view of the K ATP mechanism is needed in order to operate on their regulation, and in this work we clarify the structure of the Rattus norvegicus ATP-sensitive inward rectifier potassium channel 8 (Kir6.1), which has been obtained through a homology modelling procedure. Due to the medical use of flavonoids, a considerable increase in studies on their influence on human health has recently been observed, therefore our aim is to study, through computational methods, the three-dimensional (3D) conformation together with mechanism of action of Kir6.1 with three flavonoids. Computational analysis by performing molecular dynamics (MD) and docking simulation on rat 3D modelled structure have been completed, in its closed and open conformation state and in complex with Quercetin, 5-Hydroxyflavone and Rutin flavonoids. Our study showed that only Quercetin and 5-Hydroxyflavone were responsible for a significant down-regulation of the Kir6.1 activity, stabilising it in a closed conformation. This hypothesis was supported by in vitro experiments demonstrating that Quercetin and 5-Hydroxyflavone were capable to inhibit K ATP currents of rat tail main artery myocytes recorded by the patch-clamp technique. Combined methodological approaches, such as molecular modelling, docking and MD simulations of Kir6.1 channel, used to elucidate flavonoids intrinsic mechanism of action, are introduced, revealing a new potential druggable protein site.

  7. EFFECTIVITY OF EXTRACT RED BETEL LEAF (Piper crocatum WITH WEIGHT INCREASE OF MALE WHITE MICE (Rattus novergicus IN CONDUTION DIABETES WHICH INDUCE ALLOXAN

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    I Nengah Kerta Besung

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of this research is to learn the level of effectiveness of ethanol extract from red betel leaf (Piper crocatum within increase weight of male white mouse in condition for diabetes mellitus. 20 male white mice (Rattus novergicus in 3 mounth with weight between 190-250 gram which adapted during 2 weeks. It classified to be 5 groups random, each group consisty by 4 mice. The first treatment as a negative control (healty mouse whitout giving treatment. The second treatment as alloxan positive control, the third treatment alloxan added by 2% suspension of ethaol extract from red betel leaf (dose 100 mg/kg bb per oral. The fifth treatment is alloxan added by 0.02% suspension glibenclamide (dose 1 ml/kg bb per oral. Giving extract betel leaf is done by oral with used sonde. Giving treatment at treatment III, IV and V is done everyday start from day 3 until the end of the day (21 day. The weight of mouse is measure at day 7, 14 and day 21 used analytical balanced. The result of this research show up that giving 2% ethanol extract from red betel leaf (Piper crocatum with dose (50 mg/kg bb, dose (100 mg/kg bb and glibenclamide 0,02% ( 1 ml/kg bb with significant can increase weight (P<0,05 of white mice which induce alloxan. Result of this research could be conclude that ethanol extract of red betel leaf (Piper crocatum can used for increase the weight.

  8. Possible use of wild-living rats (Rattus norvegicus) as bioindicators for heavy metal pollution. Part I. Sex and age-related quantification of Al, As, Cd, Co, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sr, Ti, Tl and Zn in liver, heart, lung, kidney, muscle, brain and bones, and the establishment of distribution patterns; Untersuchungen zur Eignung wildlebender Wanderratten (Rattus norvegicus) als Indikatoren der Schwermetallbelastung. T. I. Alters- und geschlechtsspezifische Quantifizierung der Verteilung von Al, As, Cd, Co, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sr, Ti, Tl und Zn in den Organen Herz, Leber, Lunge, Niere, Muskulatur, Gehirn und Knochen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wuenschmann, S. [Internationales Hochschulinstitut Zittau (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Umweltverfahrenstechnik; Hochschule fuer Technik, Wirtschaft und Sozialwesen Zittau/Goerlitz (FH), Zittau (Germany). Fachbereich Mathematik/Naturwissenschaften; Oehlmann, J. [J. W. Goethe-Univ. Frankfurt, Zoologisches Inst., Frankfurt/M. (Germany); Delakowitz, B. [Hochschule fuer Technik, Wirtschaft und Sozialwesen Zittau/Goerlitz (FH), Zittau (Germany). Fachbereich Mathematik/Naturwissenschaften; Markert, B. [Internationales Hochschulinstitut Zittau (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Umweltverfahrenstechnik

    2001-07-01

    The objective of the current attempt was to investigate the suitability of wild-living rats (Rattus norvegicus) as a passive bioindicator using quantitative determinations of 12 chemical elements in different organs taken from rats which were caught in the Zoological Garden of Zittau. Aside from the determinations of so-called background levels, the focus of interest was with accumulations of certain elements within the organs depending on either sex or age of the rats. There were different affinities of the elements towards certain organs. Because of apparent sex and age-related differences in element concentrations and accumulation features, a well-planned sampling strategy for the use of rats as possible passive bioindicators is indeed required. The consideration of element distribution patterns within the organ system of Rattus norvegicus (based on body burden calculations (in part 2 of this work)) allows an effective use of the rat for purposes of integrative monitoring. (orig.) [German] Durch die Quantifizierung von 12 chemischen Elementen im Organsystem von wildlebenden Ratten (Rattus norvegicus) aus dem Tierpark Zittau (Sachsen) sollte die Eignung dieser Spezies als passiver Bioindikator untersucht werden. Neben der Ermittlung von sogenannten Hintergrundkonzentrationen standen insbesondere Fragen zur geschlechts- und altersspezifischen Akkumulation einzelner Elemente im Organsystem von Rattus norvegicus im Vordergrund. Spezifisch zeigten dabei einzelne Elemente unterschiedliche Affinitaeten zu den entsprechenden Geweben und Organen. Insbesondere die hierbei ermittelten geschlechts- und altersspezifischen Charakteristika einzelner Elemente macht eine detaillierte Ausarbeitung einer Beprobungsstrategie fuer den spaeteren Einsatz als passiver Bioindikator zwingend. Unter Beruecksichtigung des durch die Berechnung des Body Burden (Koerperlast) im 2. Teil der Arbeit ermittelten typischen Verteilungsmusters einzelner Elemente ist Rattus norvegicus zum

  9. Efeitos das fontes e níveis de lipídios nas dietas de ratos machos da linhagem wistar (rattus norvegicus sobre frações lipídicas do sangue Effect of source and level of fat in the diet of wistar rats (rattus norvegicus on lipoidal fractions in the serum

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    Cecília Sandra Nunes Morais

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Foram estudadas quatro fontes lipídicas (óleo de soja, óleo de canola, azeite de oliva e gordura suína em dois níveis na dieta (7 e 14%, verificando a influência do consumo dessas fontes lipídicas sobre algumas frações lipídicas do sangue de ratos. Assim, oito grupos de ratos machos da linhagem Wistar (Rattus norvegicus foram alimentados ad libitum por 56 dias com oito dietas distintas contendo as fontes e níveis citados de lipídios. As dosagens de colesterol total e triacilgliceróis no soro foram realizadas pelo método colorimétrico/enzimático utilizando "kit" comercial específico. O colesterol em HDL foi determinado por precipitação dos quilomícrons, VLDL e LDL, utilizando também "kit" específico. O aumento de lipídios na dieta para 14% elevou os valores de colesterol total, HDL-colesterol e LDL+VLDL-colesterol séricos, quando a fonte foi a gordura suína. Com 14% de lipídios na dieta, os menores valores de triacilgliceróis séricos foram observados nas fontes lipídicas óleo de soja e canola, com valores de 76,09 e 84,42 mg/dL, respectivamente.Four fat sources (soybean oil, canola oil, olive oil, swine fat were evaluated with regard to their influence, at two levels in the diet (7 and 14%, on some fat fractions in rats' blood. Thus, eight groups of Wistar rat (Rattus norvegicus males were ad libitum fed eight different diets, containing the fat and level reported, for 56 days. The dosages of total serum cholesterol and thriacylglicerols were performed by the colorimetric/enzymatic method utilizing a commercial specific kit. The HDL cholesterol was determined by precipitation of kilomicra (VLDL and LDL by utilizing also a specific kit. The increase of fat in the diet to 14% raised the total cholesterol contents, serum HDL cholesterol and LDL + VLDL cholesterol when the source was swine fat. With 14% of fat in the diet, the lowest values of serum triacylglycerols were found for the fat sources soybean and canola oils

  10. Possible use of wild-living rats (Rattus norvegicus) as bioindicators for heavy metal pollution. Part 2. Body burden calculations for identification of depot compartments; Untersuchungen zur Eignung wildlebender Wanderratten (Rattus norvegicus) als Indikatoren der Schwermetallbelastung. Teil 2. Die Berechnung der Koerperlast zur Identifikation von Depotkompartimenten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wuenschmann, S. [Internationales Hochschulinstitut Zittau, Lehrstuhl Umweltverfahrenstechnik, Zittau (Germany); Hochschule Zittau/Goerlitz, Fachbereich Mathematik/Naturwissenschaften, Zittau (Germany); Oehlmann, J. [J.W. Goethe-Univ. Frankfurt, Zoologisches Inst., Frankfurt/M. (Germany); Delakowitz, B. [Hochschule Zittau/Goerlitz, Fachbereich Mathematik/Naturwissenschaften, Zittau (Germany); Markert, B. [Internationales Hochschulinstitut Zittau, Lehrstuhl Umweltverfahrenstechnik, Zittau (Germany)

    2002-07-01

    Background concentrations of eleven elements in tissues and organs of wild-living rats (Rattus norvegicus) obtained from a region (Euroregion Neisse, around the trilateral border region of Germany, Poland and the Czech Republic) distinguished by low to intermediate levels of environmental contaminations are given in part I of this work. In order to identify the most important depot compartments for certain elements, a body burden method was applied. Differences of affinity due to sex and age of analyzed rats are discussed, as are the suitability of specific organs and tissues with regard to bioaccumulation measurements concerning metals. The principal depot compartments for the heavy metals Cu, Mn, Cd, (in adult rats) and Tl are the liver and kidneys, whereas the elements Ni, Sr, Pb (for adult animals) and Ti are more affinitively to bones. Co and Zn displayed a more pronounced affinity towards tissues of the bones and liver. The analysis revealed large differences in Cd and Pb distributions both among young and adult rats, and with respect to sexes. It can be concluded that the distribution of the elements investigated in this study in free-living rats agrees with that in man, except for that of Ni. The above agreement gives proof of the possibility to use depot organs of rats for bioindication which was already mentioned in part I of this work. (Sex and age-related quantification of Al, As, Cd, Co, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sr, Ti, Tl and Zn in liver, heart, lung, kidney, muscle, brain and bones and establishment of distribution patterns'). (orig.) [German] Die in Teil I quantifizierten Hintergrundkonzentrationen von 11 Elementen in Geweben und Organen wildlebender Ratten (Rattus norvegicus) aus einem gering bis maessig belasteten Untersuchungsgebiet (Euroregion Neisse) werden im 2. Teil fuer die Berechnung ihres relativen Beitrags zur Gesamtkoerperbelastung (Koerperlast oder Bodyburden) verwendet, um bevorzugte Depotkompartimente fuer die untersuchten Elemente

  11. EFEK PEMBERIAN SUSU SAPI BUBUK TERHADAP KADAR SERUM HDL (HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEIN PADA TIKUS PUTIH (Rattus norvegicus GALUR WISTAR MODEL DIABETES MELITUS TIPE 2

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    Zakia Umami

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe purpose of this study was to determine the cow’s milk powder to increased serum levels of High Density Lipoprotein (HDL of white male rat model with diabetes mellitus type 2. The design of this study was a post-test control group study conducted in 30 male rats which randomly divided into five groups. Negative control group was the group of rats which fed normally, the positive control group was induced by streptozotocin (STZ without given cow’s milk, group P1, P2, P3 were given a normal diet and cow’s milk 0.9; 1.8, and 2.7 g orally every day. The results of this study were the levels of HDL in K(-=44.22 mg/dl, K(+=47.45 mg/dl, P1=56.56 mg/dl, P2=51.82 mg/dl, and P3=59.45 mg/dl. The conclusion was the milk powder was not significantly increase levels of HDL (p>0.05. More longer intervention was suggested for further research to get more significant of HDL level on type 2 diabetes mellitus.Keywords: HDL serum level, high fat diet, milk powder, streptozotocinABSTRAKTujuan penelitian ini adalah menganalisis pengaruh pemberian susu sapi bubuk terhadap peningkatan kadar serum High Density Lipoprotein (HDL tikus putih (Rattus norvegicus berjenis kelamin jantan model diabetes melitus (DM tipe 2. Penelitian ini menggunakan desain penelitian post test control group dengan 30 ekor tikus dibagi secara acak menjadi lima kelompok. Kelompok K(- adalah tikus yang diberi pakan normal, kelompok K(+ diinduksi dengan streptozotocin (STZ tanpa diberi susu, kelompok P1 sampai P3 diberi diet normal dan susu 0,9; 1,8, dan 2,7 g secara oral setiap hari. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan kadar HDL pada K(-=44,22 mg/dl, K(+=47,45 mg/dl, P1=56,56 mg/dl, P2=51,82 mg/dl, dan P3=59,45 mg/dl. Susu sapi bubuk mampu meningkatkan kadar HDL tikus model DM tipe 2 akan tetapi tidak signifikan (p>0,05. Perlu dilakukan penelitian lebih lanjut dengan waktu lama penelitian yang berbeda sehingga bisa berdampak yang lebih signifikan untuk kadar HDL pada DM tipe 2.Kata kunci

  12. ASPEK ZOONOTIK PARASIT NEMATODA PADA KERA DAN BINATANG MENGERAT DI BENGKULU, SUMATERA. INDONESIA

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    Untung S.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Twentyfive monkeys and 481 rats were examined for parasitic nematodes in Bengkulu, nine species of nematode were found infecting these animals. Five of filarían nematodes, i.e. Brugia malayi, Brugia pahangi, Dirofilaria magnilarvatum and Edesonfilaria malayensis were infecting monkeys and one speciesTBreinlia booliati, was found infecting rats. Three species of gastrointestinal helminths, i.e. Trichuris trichiura, Enterobius vermicularis and Oestophagomomum spp were found in monkeys; a lung worm, Angiostrongylus cantonensis, was found in rats. The most important nematode species is B. malayi, which was found in Presbytis cristatus (36.8 % and in Macaca fascicularis (20.0 %. T. trichiura was found in R. cristatus (47.9 % and A. cantonensis in Rattus argentiventer (4.0 % and Rattus tiomanicus (2.9%.

  13. Ectoparasitos de roedores da região urbana de Belo Horizonte, MG: III. Indices pulicidianos, anoplurianos e acarianos em Rattus Norvegicus norvegicus Ectoparasites in rodents of the urban region of Belo Horizonte, MG: III. Fleas, anoplura and acari indices in Rattus norvegicus norvegicus

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    Pedro Marcos Linardi

    1985-09-01

    Full Text Available Indices pulicidianos, anoplurianos e acarianos, globais e específicos foram determinados para os ectoparasitos de Rattus norvegicus norvegicus capturados em zona urbana de Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brasil, no período de junho de 1980 a setembro de 1982. Tendo-se em vista os valores limites ou críticos atribuídos aos índices pulicidianos, sobretudo ao índice "cheopis" e propostos por diversos autores como medida complementar de vigilância epidemiológica para peste bubônica, a comunidade de Belo Horizonte poderia ter estado exposta a esta infecção, uma vez que os índices globais anuais de 0,3 a 2,4 e a pulga prevalente foi Xenopsylla cheopis (99,2%, com os maiores índices coincidindo com o final da estação seca-fria. Em duas ocasiões, a comunidade poderia ter permanecido altamente exposta à infecção, já que os índices-limites tolerados foram suplantados: 8,8 (outubro 1980 e 6,2 (setembro 1982. Sugere-se que medidas profiláticas como anti-ratização e desinsetização sejam eficazmente aplicadas ao final da estação seca-fria, ou anteriormente à chegada das chuvas, sendo sucedidas pela desratização. Informações sobre índices anoplurianos e acarianos são importantes para que se possa, no exclusivas de roedoresThe total and specific indices of fleas, lice and mites were determined for ectoparasites on Rattus norvegicus norvegicus capture in urban areas of Belo Horizonte, Minas state, Brazil, from June 1980 to September 1982. In view of the limiting or critical values attributed to flea indices above all the [quot ]cheopis[quot ] index, proposed by several authors as a complementary measure for bubonic plague surveillance, the community of Belo Horizonte would have been exposed to this infection. The annual total indices ranged from 0.3 to 2.4 and the prevalent flea was Xenopsylla cheopis (99.2%, with the highest indices coinciding with the late dry-cool season. On two occasions, in this period, the community would

  14. Effet thérapeutique de l’extrait aqueux de Globularia alypum suite à une insulinotoxicité induite in vitro sur les cardiomyocytes de Rattus norvegicus. [Therapeutic effect of aqueous extract of Globularia alypum following in vitro insulin induced toxicity on Rattus norvegicus cardiomyocytes

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    Leila SMAIL

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. L’insulino‐résistance, marquée par une réaction inflammatoire via la production de TNF‐α et par l’hyperinsulinémie compensatoire, conduit à long terme à l’installation d’une glucolipotoxicité et du diabète de type 2. Objectif. Dans cette étude, les effets d’un extrait aqueux de Globularia alypum (Ga a été analysé in vitro, suite à un stress induit sur le cardiomyocyte de Rattus norvegicus. Matériel et Méthodes. Le stress a été induit par addition d’une dose élevée d’insuline (10 UI/ mL. Les taux de prolifération ont été déterminés par comptage et les contenus cellulaires en monoxyde d’azote (NO, en malondialdéhyde (MDA et en catalase ont été évalués. Résultats. En présence de la dose élevée d’insuline, les cardiomyocytes ont montré une diminution de la survie cellulaire, un déséquilibre du statut redox en faveur d’une augmentation de NO et de MDA et d’une diminution d’une enzyme du système antioxydant, la catalase. Suite à l’action de l’extrait de Ga, il a été noté une amélioration du taux de prolifération cellulaire, une diminution du taux de No et de MDA ainsi qu’une augmentation de l’activité de la catalase. Conclusion. L’état de stress induit sur le cardiomyocyte par l’insulino‐résistance, mimé par la dose élevée d’insuline, entraîne des altérations physiologiques et biochimiques. Ces dernières, précurseurs de mort cellulaire par apoptose sont atténuées après addition d’un extrait de Globularia alypum, lequel pourrait constituer une cible thérapeutique en aval de l’installation du DT2.

  15. Perfil do corpo celular de neurônios mioentéricos nadh-diaforase positivos do estômago de ratos (Rattus norvegicus submetidos ao alcoolismo crônico - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v26i3.1599 Profile of the cell body of nadh-diaphorase positive myenteric neurons from the stomach of rats (Rattus norvegicus subjected to chronic alcoholism - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v26i3.1599

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    Marcílio Hubner de Miranda Neto

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi comparar o perfil dos corpos celulares dos neurônios mioentéricos NADH-diaforase positivos do estômago de ratos. Utilizou-se 10 animais (Rattus norvegicus, provenientes dos grupos: a controle (n=5, que durante 210 dias receberam, ad libitum, dieta com teor protéico normal (22% e água; e b experimental (n = 5, que durante 210 dias receberam, ad libitum, ração com teor protéico normal (22% e aguardente-de-cana diluída a 30 Gay Lussac (30º v/v. Os estômagos coletados foram submetidos à técnica de evidenciação neuronal. A mensuração do perfil dos corpos celulares dos neurônios (n = 1.000 foi através de um Sistema Computadorizado de Análise de Imagem. O perfil dos corpos celulares dos neurônios do grupo controle ficou entre 60,16 a 638,64 µm2. No grupo experimental variou de 40,84 a 599,15 µm2. Constatamos redução significante no tamanho do corpo celular, aumento de neurônios pequenos e diminuição de neurônios grandesThe purpose of this work was to compare the profile of the cell body of the NADH-diaphorase positive myenteric neurons from the stomach of rats. It was used 10 animals (Rattus norvegicus, from groups a control (n = 5, that during 210 days had ad libitum supply of chow with normal protein level (22% and water; and b experimental (n = 5, that during 210 days had ad libitum supply of chow with normal protein level (22% and sugar cane brandy diluted to 30 Gay Lussac (30o v/v. The stomachs collected and subjected to the technique for neuronal staining. The cell body of the neurons (n = 1.000 was measured through a computerized system of image analysis. The profile of the neurons from the control rats ranged from 60.16 and 638.64 µm2. In the experimental group the values ranged from 40.84 to 599.15 µm2. We observed a significant decrease on the cell body size, increase of the small neurons and decrease of the large neurons

  16. Effects of Gram-negative Bacteria, E.coli and Cold Exposure on Free Radicals Production, Lactate Dehydrogenase and Glutathione Peroxidase Activity in the Lungs of Rats, Rattus norvigicus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AlSaid, A Haffor

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of LPS-gram negative bacteria and low ambient temperature on free radicals (FR) production, the activities of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in the lungs of rats, Rattus norvigisu. Twenty four male rats, matched with age and weigh, were divided randomly into four groups namely control (C), Bacteria (B), cold temperature (T), and bacteria plus cold (BT). The T group was exposed to 10-12degree C ambient temperature for 3 days. Animals of the BT was injected LPS bacteria (IP, 500 micron g/kg) during the last five hour of cold exposure to 10-12 degree C for 3 days. In comparison with C group FR increased significantly (p<0.05) in the experimental groups, indicating high rate of reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation. The activity of LDH increased significantly (p<0.05) in the T and BT groups, which demonstrated that bacteria and exposure to cold are causes for cellular injury in the lungs. The synergetic effect of both bacteria and cold on LDH was more intense, as compared with the single effect. The activity of GPx increased significantly (p<0.05) in the B and BT, as compared with the C group. The results of the present study is the first worldwide report to demonstrate that both cold exposure and bacteria infection are mediated by elevation in FR generation. (author)

  17. Influence of CSN1S2 protein from Caprine milk Etawah Breed (EB) on histology of microglial cells in rat (Rattus norvegicus) Type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rika, Margareth; Fatchiyah

    2017-11-01

    Type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a degenerative disease that causes an imbalance in the metabolism. The aim of this research is to determine the influences of CSN1S2 on the structure of microglial cells in T2DM. Rats (Rattus norvegicus) were divided into eight groups of treatment with looping three times each between treatment groups (CM) Control. The control is given a milk treatment with doses of 375 mg/kg (CM375), 750 mg/kg (CM750), and 1500 mg/kg (CM1500), T2DM (DMK), and T2DM with CSN1S2 375 mg/kg dose (DM375), 750mg/kg (DM750), and 1500 mg/kg (DM1500). The animal model T2DM was induced by a high-fat diet in the form of feed followed by injection of STZ (dose of 25 mg/kg of animal treatment) and treatment of CSN1S2 for 28 days. Brain organs were taken and analysed in histopathology stained by Hematoxylin-eosin (HE) and observed using Olympus BX53. Based on the results, it was concluded that CSN1S2 protein is influential for induction of microglial cell proliferation in animal models of T2DM, as immunity responds to the inflammatory condition in T2DM.

  18. Inform@ed space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerrum, Peter; Olsen, Kasper Nefer

    2001-01-01

    Inform@ed space Sensorial Perception And Computer Enchancement - bidrag til Nordisk Arkitekturforskningsforenings IT-konference, AAA april 2001.......Inform@ed space Sensorial Perception And Computer Enchancement - bidrag til Nordisk Arkitekturforskningsforenings IT-konference, AAA april 2001....

  19. Environmental enrichment of young adult rats (Rattus norvegicus) in different sensory modalities has long-lasting effects on their ability to learn via specific sensory channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolivo, Vassilissa; Taborsky, Michael

    2017-05-01

    Sensory modalities individuals use to obtain information from the environment differ among conspecifics. The relative contributions of genetic divergence and environmental plasticity to this variance remain yet unclear. Numerous studies have shown that specific sensory enrichments or impoverishments at the postnatal stage can shape neural development, with potential lifelong effects. For species capable of adjusting to novel environments, specific sensory stimulation at a later life stage could also induce specific long-lasting behavioral effects. To test this possibility, we enriched young adult Norway rats with either visual, auditory, or olfactory cues. Four to 8 months after the enrichment period we tested each rat for their learning ability in 3 two-choice discrimination tasks, involving either visual, auditory, or olfactory stimulus discrimination, in a full factorial design. No sensory modality was more relevant than others for the proposed task per se, but rats performed better when tested in the modality for which they had been enriched. This shows that specific environmental conditions encountered during early adulthood have specific long-lasting effects on the learning abilities of rats. Furthermore, we disentangled the relative contributions of genetic and environmental causes of the response. The reaction norms of learning abilities in relation to the stimulus modality did not differ between families, so interindividual divergence was mainly driven by environmental rather than genetic factors. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Jenis-Jenis Tikus (Rodentia: Muridae dan Pakan Alaminya di Daerah Pertanian Sekitar Hutan di Kabupaten Banggai, Sulawesi Tengah

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    Bambang Agus Suripto

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available The species diversity of rats (Fam. Muridae differs on each island in Indonesia. There are at least 16 genera of 41 species of rats in Sulawesi Island. Recently it has been reported that rats attack relatively new paddy field surrounding forest, but the identity of the species is still unknown. The objectives of this research are to assess the rat’s diversity and the guilds of rats living around the forest. The research was done in agricultural area surrounding forest in Siuna, foothill of Tompotika Mt, Banggai Regency, Central Sulawesi. Rats in the forest and coconut plantation were captured using Shermann traps, which were randomly situated. Rats in paddy field were captured by trap barrier system (TBS. Habitat condition and the presence of predators were recorded. All rat specimens were identified to their scientific names using Corbert & Hill (1992. Their stomach contents was put in 70% alcohol, taken 5 samples for each stomach, and analyzed under a microscope to determine their feed. The data were interpreted descriptively, which was emphasizing its potency as a pest. The result shows that there are 7 genera i.e. Bunomys, Maxomys, Taeromys, Paruromys, Tateomys, Mus, Rattus and 18 species of rats. Bunomys sp., B. penitus, B. prolatus, Maxomys sp., M. musschenbroekii, M. dollmani, Taeromys sp., T. callitrichus, T. celebensis, T. rhinogradoide, Paruromys ursinus, P. camurus, and P. dominator occupy the forest. B. heinrichi, B. prolatus, M. musschenbroekii, P. camurus, Mus musculus; and Rattus nitidus ocupy coconut plantation. R. argentiventer, R. exulans and R. nitidus occupies the paddy field. The stomach content examination shows that B. prolatus, M. musschenbroekii, R. exulans, R. nitidus, and T. rhinogradoide eat mostly animal materials, especially member of Phylum Arthropoda; R. argentiventer mostly eat plant material, especially member of Family Graminae (grass family. Unfortunately the stomach contents B. heinrichi, B. penitus, M

  1. TIKUS RIUL (Rattus norvegicus Berkenhout, 1769

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    Dian Indra Dewi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Tikus riul telah menyebabkan lebih banyak kematian jika dibandingkan dengan semua perang dalam sejarah. Rat-borne diseases diperkirakan telah menewaskan banyak orang dalam 1000 tahun terakhir. Mereka merupakan ancaman bagi kesehatan masyarakat. Mereka menjadi hospes dari kutu dan pinjal yang dapat menyebabkan pes, trichinosus, tularemia, infeksi penyakit kuning, demam tifus endemik, ratbite fever, dan beberapa penyakit berbahaya.

  2. Information and Informality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsson, Magnus; Segerstéen, Solveig; Svensson, Cathrin

    2011-01-01

    leaders on the basis of their possession of reliable knowledge in technical as well as organizational domains. The informal leaders engaged in interpretation and brokering of information and knowledge, as well as in mediating strategic values and priorities on both formal and informal arenas. Informal...... leaders were thus seen to function on the level of the organization as a whole, and in cooperation with formal leaders. Drawing on existing theory of leadership in creative and professional contexts, this cooperation can be specified to concern task structuring. The informal leaders in our study...... contributed to task structuring through sensemaking activities, while formal leaders focused on aspects such as clarifying output expectations, providing feedback, project structure, and diversity....

  3. Information Space, Information Field, Information Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Ya. Tsvetkov

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes information space, information field and information environment; shows that information space can be natural and artificial; information field is substantive and processual object and articulates the space property; information environment is concerned with some object and acts as the surrounding in relation to it and is considered with regard to it. It enables to define information environment as a subset of information space. It defines its passive description. Information environment can also be defined as a subset of information field. It corresponds to its active description.

  4. How Important Are Rats As Vectors of Leptospirosis in the Mekong Delta of Vietnam?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loan, Hoang Kim; Van Cuong, Nguyen; Takhampunya, Ratree; Kiet, Bach Tuan; Campbell, James; Them, Lac Ngoc; Bryant, Juliet E.; Tippayachai, Bousaraporn; Van Hoang, Nguyen; Morand, Serge; Hien, Vo Be

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Leptospirosis is a zoonosis known to be endemic in the Mekong Delta of Vietnam, even though clinical reports are uncommon. We investigated leptospira infection in rats purchased in food markets during the rainy season (October) (n=150), as well as those trapped during the dry season (February–March) (n=125) in the region using RT-PCR for the lipL32 gene, confirmed by 16S rRNA, as well as by the microscopic agglutination test (MAT). Results were compared with the serovar distribution of human cases referred from Ho Chi Minh City hospitals (2004–2012) confirmed by MAT (n=45). The MAT seroprevalence among rats was 18.3%. The highest MAT seroprevalence corresponded, in decreasing order, to: Rattus norvegicus (33.0%), Bandicota indica (26.5%), Rattus tanezumi (24.6%), Rattus exulans (14.3%), and Rattus argentiventer (7.1%). The most prevalent serovars were, in descending order: Javanica (4.6% rats), Lousiana (4.2%), Copenageni (4.2%), Cynopterie (3.7%), Pomona (2.9%), and Icterohaemorrhagiae (2.5%). A total of 16 rats (5.8%) tested positive by RT-PCR. Overall, larger rats tended to have a higher prevalence of detection. There was considerable agreement between MAT and PCR (kappa=0.28 [0.07–0.49]), although significantly more rats were positive by MAT (McNemar 29.9 (pgeographically linked co-sampling of humans and animals to establish the main sources of leptospirosis in the region. PMID:25629781

  5. Information management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricks, Wendell; Corker, Kevin

    1990-01-01

    Primary Flight Display (PFD) information management and cockpit display of information management research is presented in viewgraph form. The information management problem in the cockpit, information management burdens, the key characteristics of an information manager, the interface management system handling the flow of information and the dialogs between the system and the pilot, and overall system architecture are covered.

  6. Invasion genetics of the introduced black rat (Rattus rattus) in Senegal, West Africa

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Konečný, Adam; Estoup, A.; Duplantier, J.-M.; Bryja, Josef; Ba, K.; Galan, M.; Tatard, C.; Cosson, J.-F.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 2 (2013), s. 286-300 ISSN 0962-1083 R&D Project s: GA AV ČR IAA6093404; GA ČR GAP506/10/0983 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : approximate bayesian computation * bioinvasion * Bayesian clustering * founder effects * genetic admixture * microsatellites * multiple introductions Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 5.840, year: 2013

  7. Information Crisis

    CERN Document Server

    Losavio, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Information Crisis discusses the scope and types of information available online and teaches readers how to critically assess it and analyze potentially dangerous information, especially when teachers, editors, or other information gatekeepers are not available to assess the information for them. Chapters and topics include:. The Internet as an information tool. Critical analysis. Legal issues, traps, and tricks. Protecting personal safety and identity. Types of online information.

  8. Social information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Fernando de Barros Campos

    Full Text Available Based on Erving Goffman's work, the article aims to discuss a definition of information centered on the type conveyed by individuals in a multimodal way, encompassing language and body in situations of co-presence, where face-to-face interaction occurs, and influencing inter-subjective formation of the self. Six types of information are highlighted: material information, expressive information, ritualized information, meta-information, strategic information, and information displays. It is argued that the construction of this empirical object tends to dissolve the tension among material, cognitive and pragmatic aspects, constituting an example of the necessary integration among them. Some vulnerable characteristics of the theory are critically mentioned and it is suggested that the concept of information displays could provide a platform to approach the question of the interaction order in its relations with the institutional and social orders, and consequently, to reassess the scope of the notion of social information analyzed.

  9. Information Concepts

    CERN Document Server

    Marchionini, Gary

    2010-01-01

    Information is essential to all human activity, and information in electronic form both amplifies and augments human information interactions. This lecture surveys some of the different classical meanings of information, focuses on the ways that electronic technologies are affecting how we think about these senses of information, and introduces an emerging sense of information that has implications for how we work, play, and interact with others. The evolutions of computers and electronic networks and people's uses and adaptations of these tools manifesting a dynamic space called cyberspace. O

  10. Information Myopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadi Helena Presser

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This article reflects on the ways of appropriation in organizations. The notion of Information Myopia is characterized by the lack of knowledge about the available informational capabilities in organizations, revealing a narrow view of the information environment. This analysis has focused on the process for renewing the software licenses contracts of a large multinational group, in order to manage its organizational assets in information technology. The collected, explained and justified information allowed to elaborate an action proposal, which enabled the creation of new organizational knowledge. In its theoretical dimension, the value of information was materialized by its use, in a collective process of organizational learning.

  11. Information cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skouvig, Laura

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to suggest a genealogy of the concept of information beyond the 20th century. The article discusses how the concept of information culture might provide a way of formulating such a genealogic strategy. The article approaches this purpose by providing a general...... narrative of premodern information cultures, examining works on early-modern scholars and 18th century savants and discussion of what seems to be a Foucauldian rupture in the conceptualization of information in 19th century England. The findings of the article are situated in the thinking that a genealogy...... of information would reveal that information had specific purposes in specific settings....

  12. INFORMATION MANAGERx

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    Use of Online Information Sources in Federal University Medical Libraries in North West Geo-Political Zone of Nigeria. By ... on the quality of information services provided to clients. .... North West Zone need to identify the importance of.

  13. Informational Urbanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang G. Stock

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary and future cities are often labeled as "smart cities," "ubiquitous cities," "knowledge cities" and "creative cities." Informational urbanism includes all aspects of information and knowledge with regard to urban regions. "Informational city" is an umbrella term uniting the divergent trends of information-related city research. Informational urbanism is an interdisciplinary endeavor incorporating on the one side computer science and information science and on the other side urbanism, architecture, (city economics, and (city sociology. In our research project on informational cities, we visited more than 40 metropolises and smaller towns all over the world. In this paper, we sketch the theoretical background on a journey from Max Weber to the Internet of Things, introduce our research methods, and describe main results on characteristics of informational cities as prototypical cities of the emerging knowledge society.

  14. Copyright Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Here: Home → Copyright Information URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/copyright.html Copyright Information To use ... the Magazine and NIH MedlinePlus Salud The FAQs ( https://medlineplus.gov/faq/faq.html ) The same content ...

  15. Information Literacy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ian

    The paper also discusses some challenges faced in the teaching ... groups, language and cultural barriers and time and lack of computers. The paper ... administrative staff, researchers and librarians work with information. ...... The role of Information and Communication Technologies in Harnessing Information for women in.

  16. Informal Taxation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olken, Benjamin A; Singhal, Monica

    2011-10-01

    Informal payments are a frequently overlooked source of local public finance in developing countries. We use microdata from ten countries to establish stylized facts on the magnitude, form, and distributional implications of this "informal taxation." Informal taxation is widespread, particularly in rural areas, with substantial in-kind labor payments. The wealthy pay more, but pay less in percentage terms, and informal taxes are more regressive than formal taxes. Failing to include informal taxation underestimates household tax burdens and revenue decentralization in developing countries. We discuss various explanations for and implications of these observed stylized facts.

  17. Informal Taxation*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olken, Benjamin A.; Singhal, Monica

    2011-01-01

    Informal payments are a frequently overlooked source of local public finance in developing countries. We use microdata from ten countries to establish stylized facts on the magnitude, form, and distributional implications of this “informal taxation.” Informal taxation is widespread, particularly in rural areas, with substantial in-kind labor payments. The wealthy pay more, but pay less in percentage terms, and informal taxes are more regressive than formal taxes. Failing to include informal taxation underestimates household tax burdens and revenue decentralization in developing countries. We discuss various explanations for and implications of these observed stylized facts. PMID:22199993

  18. Information Trust

    OpenAIRE

    Atele-Williams , Tosan; Marsh , Stephen

    2017-01-01

    Part 7: IFIPTM 2017 Graduate Symposium; International audience; Information has been an essential element in the development of collaborative and cooperative models, from decision making to the attainmentof varying goals, people are adept at making judgment on the trustworthiness of information, based on knowledge and understanding of a normative model of information. Contemporary narrative especially in high-impact contexts like politics, health, business, government and technology, is erodi...

  19. Information circulars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-02-01

    The document summarizes the Information Circulars published by the IAEA for the purpose of bringing matters of general interest to the attention of all Member States. This revision contains INFCIRCs published up to February 1997, grouped by field of activity. A complete list of information circulars in numerical order is given in an annex

  20. Information circulars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-05-01

    Information circulars are published from time to time under the symbol INFCIRC/... for the purpose of bringing matters of general interest to the attention of all Members of the Agency. The present revision contains INFCIRCs published up to the end of April 2002. A complete numerical list of information circulars is reproduced with their titles in the Annex

  1. Information circulars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-06-01

    The document summarizes the Information Circulars published by the IAEA for the purpose of bringing matters of general interest to the attention of all Member States. This revision contains INFCIRCs published up to the end of May 1999, grouped by field of activity. A complete list of information circulars in numerical order is given in an annex

  2. Information circulars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-08-01

    Information circulars are published from time to time under the symbol INFCIRC/... for the purpose of bringing matters of general interest to the attention of all Members of the Agency. The present revision contains INFCIRCs published up to mid-August 1994. A complete numerical list of information circulars is reproduced with their titles in the Annex

  3. Information circulars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-08-01

    The document summarizes the Information Circulars published by the IAEA for the purpose of bringing matters of general interest to the attention of all Members of the Agency. This revision contains INFCIRCs published up to mid-August 1992. A complete numerical lift of Information Circulars with their titles is reproduced in an Annex

  4. INFORMATION MANAGERx

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    This study investigated the effectiveness and impact of library instruction (GST 111 – the use of ... information literacy of the students for lifelong .... competency of freshman business students of a ... strategies, information sources, proper use of library ..... P. Remark. Library skill. Secondary school attended. 47.5846. 01.3600.

  5. Spacetime information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartle, J.B.

    1995-01-01

    In usual quantum theory, the information available about a quantum system is defined in terms of the density matrix describing it on a spacelike surface. This definition must be generalized for extensions of quantum theory which neither require, nor always permit, a notion of state on a spacelike surface. In particular, it must be generalized for the generalized quantum theories appropriate when spacetime geometry fluctuates quantum mechanically or when geometry is fixed but not foliable by spacelike surfaces. This paper introduces a four-dimensional notion of the information available about a quantum system's boundary conditions in the various sets of decohering, coarse-grained histories it may display. This spacetime notion of information coincides with the familiar one when quantum theory is formulable in terms of states on spacelike surfaces but generalizes this notion when it cannot be so formulated. The idea of spacetime information is applied in several contexts: When spacetime geometry is fixed the information available through alternatives restricted to a fixed spacetime region is defined. The information available through histories of alternatives of general operators is compared to that obtained from the more limited coarse grainings of sum-over-histories quantum mechanics that refer only to coordinates. The definition of information is considered in generalized quantum theories. We consider as specific examples time-neutral quantum mechanics with initial and final conditions, quantum theories with nonunitary evolution, and the generalized quantum frameworks appropriate for quantum spacetime. In such theories complete information about a quantum system is not necessarily available on any spacelike surface but must be searched for throughout spacetime. The information loss commonly associated with the ''evolution of pure states into mixed states'' in black hole evaporation is thus not in conflict with the principles of generalized quantum mechanics

  6. Exchanging information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1971-01-01

    The Agency has a statutory mandate to foster 'the exchange of scientific and technical information on the peaceful uses of atomic energy'. The prime responsibility for this work within the Agency lies with the Division of Scientific and Technical Information, a part of the Department of Technical Operations. The Division accomplishes its task by holding conferences and symposia (Scientific Conferences Section), through the Agency Library, by publishing scientific journals, and through the International Nuclear Information System (INIS). The Computer Section of the Division, which offers services to the Agency as a whole, provides resources for the automation of data storage and retrieval. (author)

  7. Information evaluation

    CERN Document Server

    Capet, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    During the reception of a piece of information, we are never passive. Depending on its origin and content, from our personal beliefs and convictions, we bestow upon this piece of information, spontaneously or after reflection, a certain amount of confidence. Too much confidence shows a degree of naivety, whereas an absolute lack of it condemns us as being paranoid. These two attitudes are symmetrically detrimental, not only to the proper perception of this information but also to its use. Beyond these two extremes, each person generally adopts an intermediate position when faced with the recep

  8. How Informed Are Informal Educators?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lederman, Norman G.; Niess, Margaret L.

    1998-01-01

    Explores current reforms in both mathematics and science education that emphasize the importance of learning in informal settings. Suggests that informal education must include planned and purposeful attempts to facilitate students' understanding of mathematics and science in community settings other than the local school. (Author/CCM)

  9. Informed consent: information or knowledge?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Ken

    2003-01-01

    A fiduciary relationship should be nurtured between patient and physician. This requires effective communication throughout all aspects of care - especially pertaining to treatment decisions. In the context of illness as experienced by the patient a unique set of circumstances is presented. However, communication in an illness context is fraught with problems. The patient is vulnerable and the situation may be overwhelming. Voluminous amounts of information are available to patients from a host of health care providers, family members, support groups, advocacy centers, books, journals, and the internet. Often conflicting and confusion, frequently complex, this information may be of greater burden than benefit. Some information is of high validity and reliability while other information is of dubious reliability. The emotional freight of bad news may further inhibit understanding. An overload of information may pose an obstacle in decision-making. To facilitate the transformation of information into knowledge, the health care provider must act on some occasions as a filter, on other occasions as a conduit, and on still other occasions simply as a reservoir. The evolution of patient rights to receive or refuse treatment, the right to know or not to know calls for a change in processing of overwhelming information in our modem era. In this paper we will discuss the difference between information and knowledge. How can health care providers ensure they have given their patients all necessary and sufficient information to make an autonomous decision? How can they facilitate the transformation of information into knowledge? The effect of knowledge to consent allows a more focused, relevant and modern approach to choice in health care.

  10. Information Managerx

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    1996-10-01

    Oct 1, 1996 ... locate and access information from current awareness sources such as newspapers and radio. Legislators (35%) ... law-making and supervision for a viable democracy .... from a parliamentary library is a major concern for.

  11. Position Information

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Position Information Data Asset provides the ability to search for active SSA position descriptions using various search criteria. An individual may search by PD...

  12. INFORMATION MANAGERx

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    information but also quickly access and retrieve large volume of ... created their management becomes a challenge for most institutions .... continuous upgrade of operating system, .... Tammro, A.M (2006) the Digital Library Users: Case.

  13. Supporting Information

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This is the supporting information for the journal article. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Rankin, K., S. Mabury, T. Jenkins, and J....

  14. Supplemental information

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Supplemental information showing results of inter-comparison between C-PORT, AERMOD and R-LINE dispersion algorithms. This dataset is associated with the following...

  15. Information Literacy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ian

    Institutions are consequently introducing information literacy programmes in their curricula in a bid to ..... Brazil, Chile and Mexico (Lau 2007:31). Lau (2007) reported that these initiatives rarely involve IL inclusion in curricula and are scattered ...

  16. Information Managerx

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    Communication technologies (ICTs) to Library Operations and Routines in Selected Nigerian Federal University ... should use Open-source library information management software and DSpace content management ..... Marketing of library.

  17. UBS INFORMATION

    CERN Document Server

    UBS

    2002-01-01

    As a supplement to the information published on 27.05.2002, we inform you that the works foreseen in the building 504 will begin July 1st. The alterations become necessary force us to suspend the contomat service for a duration of one month. From July 1st the services of counter will be offered in the building 500. We ask you to excuse us for this interruption and thank you for your understanding. Your UBS

  18. Information circulars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-06-01

    The document summarizes the information circulars published by the IAEA for the purpose of bringing matters of general interest to the attention of all Members of the Agency. In the main body of the document only those documents which are regarded as likely to be of current interest are listed. A complete numerical list of information circulars with their titles is reproduced in the Annex

  19. Information engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, D.N.

    1997-02-01

    The Information Engineering thrust area develops information technology to support the programmatic needs of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s Engineering Directorate. Progress in five programmatic areas are described in separate reports contained herein. These are entitled Three-dimensional Object Creation, Manipulation, and Transport, Zephyr:A Secure Internet-Based Process to Streamline Engineering Procurements, Subcarrier Multiplexing: Optical Network Demonstrations, Parallel Optical Interconnect Technology Demonstration, and Intelligent Automation Architecture.

  20. Quantum information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilin, Sergei Ya

    1999-01-01

    A new research direction known as quantum information is a multidisciplinary subject which involves quantum mechanics, optics, information theory, programming, discrete mathematics, laser physics and spectroscopy, and depends heavily on contributions from such areas as quantum computing, quantum teleportation and quantum cryptography, decoherence studies, and single-molecule and impurity spectroscopy. Some new results achieved in this rapidly growing field are discussed. (reviews of topical problems)

  1. Quantum information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kilin, Sergei Ya [B.I. Stepanov Institute of Physics, National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, Minsk (Belarus)

    1999-05-31

    A new research direction known as quantum information is a multidisciplinary subject which involves quantum mechanics, optics, information theory, programming, discrete mathematics, laser physics and spectroscopy, and depends heavily on contributions from such areas as quantum computing, quantum teleportation and quantum cryptography, decoherence studies, and single-molecule and impurity spectroscopy. Some new results achieved in this rapidly growing field are discussed. (reviews of topical problems)

  2. Information Literacy

    OpenAIRE

    Basili, Carla

    2015-01-01

    Information literacy is a concept which is well established in theory while in practice it is only slowly breaking ground in accordance with the understanding of its significance and the possibilities of its realisation. Based on fundamental works, the characteristics of information literacy, its cognitive foundations and significance for individuals as well as for society, are argumented in the article. The analyzed content of this concept is connected with the content of a librarian’s knowl...

  3. Information Presentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, K.L.; Boyer, J.L.; Sandor, A.; Thompson, S.G.; McCann, R.S.; Begault, D.R.; Adelstein, B.D.; Beutter, B.R.; Stone, L.S.

    2009-01-01

    The goal of the Information Presentation Directed Research Project (DRP) is to address design questions related to the presentation of information to the crew. The major areas of work, or subtasks, within this DRP are: 1) Displays, 2) Controls, 3) Electronic Procedures and Fault Management, and 4) Human Performance Modeling. This DRP is a collaborative effort between researchers at Johnson Space Center and Ames Research Center.

  4. Informal Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartmann, Mia Rosa Koss; Hartmann, Rasmus Koss

    Informal innovation, defined as the development and putting-into-use of novel solutions by non-R&D employees without prior formal approval from or subsequent revealing to superiors, has been recurrently observed in organizational research. But even as it is increasingly recognized that R&D is not......Informal innovation, defined as the development and putting-into-use of novel solutions by non-R&D employees without prior formal approval from or subsequent revealing to superiors, has been recurrently observed in organizational research. But even as it is increasingly recognized that R......&D is not the only plausible source of innovation inside organizations, informal innovation has yet to be systematically explored or theorized. We propose a theory of informal innovation based on analyses of prior literature and mixed-method, multi-site studies of innovation at the working level of two extreme......-case organizations. We propose that informal innovation occurs as 1) employees personally experience problems that they believe are not recognized or prioritized by superiors; 2) some employees are able to develop solutions, essentially at no cost; 3) innovators face no benefits from revealing to superiors, but can...

  5. When Information Improves Information Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossklags, Jens; Johnson, Benjamin; Christin, Nicolas

    This paper presents a formal, quantitative evaluation of the impact of bounded-rational security decision-making subject to limited information and externalities. We investigate a mixed economy of an individual rational expert and several naïve near-sighted agents. We further model three canonical types of negative externalities (weakest-link, best shot and total effort), and study the impact of two information regimes on the threat level agents are facing.

  6. Information barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuller, J.L.; Wolford, J.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: An information barrier (IB) consists of procedures and technology that prevent the release of sensitive information during a joint inspection of a sensitive nuclear item, and provides confidence that the measurement system into which it has been integrated functions exactly as designed and constructed. Work in the U.S. on radiation detection system information barriers dates back at least to 1990, even though the terminology is more recent. In January 1999 the Joint DoD-DOE Information Barrier Working Group was formed in the United States to help coordinate technical efforts related to information barrier R and D. This paper presents an overview of the efforts of this group, by its Chairs, as well as recommendations for further information barrier R and D. Progress on the demonstration of monitoring systems containing IBs is also provided. From the U.S. perspective, the basic, top-level functional requirements for the information barrier portion of an integrated radiation signature-information barrier inspection system are twofold: The host must be assured that his classified information is protected from disclosure to the inspecting party; and The inspecting party must be confident that the integrated inspection system measures, processes, and presents the radiation-signature-based measurement conclusion in an accurate and reproducible manner. It is the position of the United States that in the absence of any agreement to share classified nuclear weapons design information in the conduct of an inspection regime, the requirement to protect host country classified warhead design information is paramount and admits no tradeoff versus the confidence provided to the inspecting party in the accuracy and reproducibility of the measurements. The U.S. has reached an internal consensus on several critical design elements that define a general standard for radiation signature information barrier design. These criteria have stood the test of time under intense

  7. Information Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scofield, James

    Newspaper librarians discussed the public use of their newspapers' libraries. Policies run the gamut from well-staffed public information services, within or outside the newspaper library, to no service at all to those outside the staff of the paper. Problems of dealing with tax and law enforcement agencies were covered, as well as cooperative…

  8. Informed policies

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT RESEARCH CENTRE. Informed ... more evidence-based policy on social ... Community involvement is key to the success of CBMS in reducing poverty. IDRC ... nationwide network of “telecentres” that ... and holidays for young people to use for ... National Conference on Youth led to the.

  9. Informational precaution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieters, Wolter; Mainzer, K.

    2010-01-01

    In environmental ethics, the precautionary principle states that parties should refrain from actions in the face of scientific uncertainties about serious or irreversible harm to public health or the environment. A similar principle is lacking when judging effects of information technology. Such a

  10. Information Parallax

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grootjen, F.A.; Weide, Th.P. van der; Sugumaran, V.

    2007-01-01

    To effectively use and exchange information among AI systems, a formal specification of the representation of their domain of discourse - called an ontology - is indispensable. In this chapter we introduce a special kind of knowledge representation based on a dual view on the universe of discourse

  11. Information Security

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartel, Pieter H.; Suryana Herman, Nanna; Leukfeldt, E.R.; Stol, W.Ph.

    2012-01-01

    Information security is all about the protection of digital assets, such as digital content, personal health records, state secrets etc. These assets can be handled by a party who is authorised to access and control the asset or a party who is not authorised to do so. Authorisation determines who is

  12. INFORMATION MANAGERx

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    Four research questions were posed in order to assess the Mac Arthur ... The research adopted survey method using questionnaire as instrument for data ... serial resources in these university libraries were inadequate before the ... and societal development has made the demand for ..... Information Management in Nigeria.

  13. Information circulars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-04-01

    The document summarizes the Information Circulars published by the IAEA under the symbol INFCIRC/ for the purpose of bringing matters of general interest to the attention of all Members of the Agency. A complete list of INFCIRCs in numerical order with their titles is given in the Annex

  14. Information Circulars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1966-01-01

    Information circulars are published from time to time under the symbol INFCIRC/. . . . for the purpose of bringing matters of general interest to the attention of all Members of the Agency. A list of the circulars that were current or on the press on 15 May 1966 is given, followed by an index to their subject matter.

  15. Information Circulars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1965-01-01

    Information circulars are published from time to time under the symbol INFCIRC/. for the purpose of bringing matters of general interest to the attention of all Members of the Agency. A list of the circulars that were current on 31 December 1964 is given, followed by an index to their subject matter.

  16. Supplementary information

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Supplementary information. Flexible synthesis of isomeric pyranoindolones and evaluation of cytotoxicity towards HeLa cells. J C JEYAVEERANa, CHANDRASEKAR PRAVEEN*,b, Y ARUNc, A A M PRINCEa and P. T PERUMALc. aDepartment of Chemistry, Ramakrishna Mission Vivekananda College, Mylapore, Chennai.

  17. Information week...

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2007-01-01

    Here we are at the end of a series of public information meetings held in the Departments. We thank all those who came to find out about the subjects presented and to exchange ideas and opinions. All the positive feedback we have received shows how much you appreciate these meetings. And well, so do we!

  18. Information Circulars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1966-06-10

    Information circulars are published from time to time under the symbol INFCIRC/. . . . for the purpose of bringing matters of general interest to the attention of all Members of the Agency. A list of the circulars that were current or on the press on 15 May 1966 is given, followed by an index to their subject matter.

  19. Information Circulars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1965-01-18

    Information circulars are published from time to time under the symbol INFCIRC/. for the purpose of bringing matters of general interest to the attention of all Members of the Agency. A list of the circulars that were current on 31 December 1964 is given, followed by an index to their subject matter.

  20. Information Ecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Ellen Tove

    2006-01-01

    in the 1960ties, and chosen here because it integrates cultural and psychological trajectories in a theory of living settings. The pedagogical-didactical paradigm comprises three distinct information ecologies, named after their intended outcome: the problem-setting, the exploration-setting, and the fit...

  1. Information geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Ay, Nihat; Lê, Hông Vân; Schwachhöfer, Lorenz

    2017-01-01

    The book provides a comprehensive introduction and a novel mathematical foundation of the field of information geometry with complete proofs and detailed background material on measure theory, Riemannian geometry and Banach space theory. Parametrised measure models are defined as fundamental geometric objects, which can be both finite or infinite dimensional. Based on these models, canonical tensor fields are introduced and further studied, including the Fisher metric and the Amari-Chentsov tensor, and embeddings of statistical manifolds are investigated. This novel foundation then leads to application highlights, such as generalizations and extensions of the classical uniqueness result of Chentsov or the Cramér-Rao inequality. Additionally, several new application fields of information geometry are highlighted, for instance hierarchical and graphical models, complexity theory, population genetics, or Markov Chain Monte Carlo. The book will be of interest to mathematicians who are interested in geometry, inf...

  2. Informed consent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bundy, A.L.

    1988-01-01

    Numerous articles on informed consent have appeared in medical and legal journals over the past few years. Many of these have been in the radiological literature. This chapter presents an overview of the legal principles behind this controversial topic. Recent articles are reviewed and specific suggestions are made where applicable. The doctrine of informed consent is both a product of and the basis for the physician-patient relationship. Their communications to each other establish the relationship, but once established, heightened degrees of expectations on the patient's part have dictated the need for a more sophisticated level of communication. Since patients and physicians often expect different things of each other, it is imperative that the relationship leads to effective and respectful conversation

  3. Information Circulars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1969-01-01

    Information circulars are published from time to time under the symbol INFCIRC/. . . . for the purpose of bringing matters of general interest to the attention of all Members of the Agency. A list of the circulars which were of current interest on 15 January 1969 is given below, followed by an index to their subject matter. Other circulars can be traced by reference to earlier issues of the present document.

  4. Information Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    34 continuously over time " through a division of labor and responsibility " integrated by INFORMATION-BASED decision process * in an environment of stress...responsibilities for learning in a particular field. This division of labor is especially true for staff members who must develop expertise in particular...likely founa a commano clima e with: - Multiple layering - Sub optimization Policy of no surprises - Lip service to feedback - Over centralization and non

  5. Information Circulars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1969-01-24

    Information circulars are published from time to time under the symbol INFCIRC/. . . . for the purpose of bringing matters of general interest to the attention of all Members of the Agency. A list of the circulars which were of current interest on 15 January 1969 is given below, followed by an index to their subject matter. Other circulars can be traced by reference to earlier issues of the present document.

  6. Medizinbibliotheken: Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bauer, Bruno

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available [english] The focus of the current issue 3/2014 of GMS Medizin – Bibliothek – Information is the annual conference 2014 of the German Medical Libraries Association in Mannheim. The motto of the conference was “Medical libraries: Information”. The authors in this issue are Michaele Adam (Bibliometrics 2.0 – Altmetrics in Medicine, Bruno Bauer (Open access cooperation in Austria: Open Access Network Austria and Austria – recent developments since 2012, Fabian Gail & Ulrich Korwitz (Market and strategy – results of the ZB MED market study, Sabine Gehrlein (Library goes Anatomy: Anatomical teaching media at Heidelberg University Library, Kaja Scheliga (Opening science: New publication forms in science, Ulrike Ostrzinski (The four types of social media user in the academic and research community. Results of a nationwide study, Sandra Pfob & Alena Ittner (First aid for library use on PC: webinars increase library visits, reach everyone, save costs, Simone Waldboth (Integration of e-learning in the lecture “Information Literacy” at the Provincial College for Health-Care Professions Claudiana, Maike Piegler (The pick up box of the library of the Hamburg medical association – a way to bring scientific information to medical specialists and Christoph Wehrmüller & Heidrun Janka (Medical : Information – Annual meeting 2014 of the German MLA, September 22 to 24 in Mannheim.Furthermore this focus issue features articles from Bruno Bauer (: transformation strategies for subscription-based journaleport on the 8 Open Access Days at Cologne, September 8–9 2014, Eike Hentschel (German MLA News; Pioneer projects in medical libraries 2014: Introduction of the winners; Pioneer projects in medical libraries 2015 – Announcement and Franz J. Kühnen (Klaus Gerber 1934–2014.

  7. Information Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    2003. http://cse.org/informed/issues_template.php/1250.htm [60] World Bank. E- Government , www1.worldbank.org/publicsector/ egov /definition.htm [61...Office of Management and Budget, E-Gov Related Legislation Overview. www.whitehouse.gov/omb/ egov /about_leg.htm [62] E- Government Act, December 17...s, the IT industry contributed 30% to U.S. GDP growth. Additionally, ev military service transformation relies heavily on IT. An IT advantage is

  8. Information services and information processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    Attempts made to design and extend space system capabilities are reported. Special attention was given to establishing user needs for information or services which might be provided by space systems. Data given do not attempt to detail scientific, technical, or economic bases for the needs expressed by the users.

  9. Teaching Information Skills: Recording Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, Marjorie L.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses how to teach students in primary and intermediate grades to record and organize information. Highlights include developing a research question; collaborative planning between teachers and library media specialists; consistency of data entry; and an example of a unit on animal migration based on an appropriate Web site. (LRW)

  10. Informal learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callanan, Maureen; Cervantes, Christi; Loomis, Molly

    2011-11-01

    We consider research and theory relevant to the notion of informal learning. Beginning with historical and definitional issues, we argue that learning happens not just in schools or in school-aged children. Many theorists have contrasted informal learning with formal learning. Moving beyond this dichotomy, and away from a focus on where learning occurs, we discuss five dimensions of informal learning that are drawn from the literature: (1) non-didactive, (2) highly socially collaborative, (3) embedded in meaningful activity, (4) initiated by learner's interest or choice, and (5) removed from external assessment. We consider these dimensions in the context of four sample domains: learning a first language, learning about the mind and emotions within families and communities, learning about science in family conversations and museum settings, and workplace learning. Finally, we conclude by considering convergences and divergences across the different literatures and suggesting areas for future research. WIREs Cogni Sci 2011 2 646-655 DOI: 10.1002/wcs.143 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Information resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friend, Milton; Franson, J. Christian; Friend, Milton; Gibbs, Samantha E.J.; Wild, Margaret A.

    2015-10-19

    During recent decades, natural resources agency personnel and others involved with the management and stewardship of wildlife have experienced an increasing need to access information and obtain technical assistance for addressing a diverse array of wildlife disease issues. This Chapter provides a broad overview of selected sources for obtaining supplemental information and technical assistance for addressing wildlife disease issues in North America. Specifically, examples of existing major wildlife disease programs focusing on free-ranging wildlife populations are highlighted; training opportunities for enhancing within-agency wildlife disease response are identified; a selected reading list of wildlife disease references is provided; and selected Web sites providing timely information on wildlife disease are highlighted. No attempt is made to detail all the North American programs and capabilities that address disease in free-ranging wildlife populations. Instead, this Chapter is focused on enhancing awareness of the types of capabilities that exist as potential sources for assistance and collaboration between wildlife conservation agency personnel and others in addressing wildlife disease issues.

  12. Information Circulars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1973-09-10

    Information circulars are published from time to time under the symbol INFCIRC/.. for the purpose of bringing matters of general interest to the attention of all Members of the Agency. A subject index to the circulars is presented overleaf. It covers all those published in the last five years (that is, since the beginning of 1968 and ending with INFCIRC/192), as well as others which, for one reason or another, are still considered to be of current rather than merely historical interest. Such circulars can be traced by reference to the indexes that were included in earlier revisions of the present document.

  13. Information Security

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    Information security is all about the protection of digital assets, such as digital content, personal health records, state secrets etc. These assets can be handled by a party who is authorised to access and control the asset or a party who is not authorised to do so. Authorisation determines who is trusted to actually handle an asset. Two concepts complement authorisation. Authentication deter-mines who makes a request to handle an asset. To decide who is authorised, a system needs to au-the...

  14. Information Circulars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1973-01-01

    Information circulars are published from time to time under the symbol INFCIRC/.. for the purpose of bringing matters of general interest to the attention of all Members of the Agency. A subject index to the circulars is presented overleaf. It covers all those published in the last five years (that is, since the beginning of 1968 and ending with INFCIRC/192), as well as others which, for one reason or another, are still considered to be of current rather than merely historical interest. Such circulars can be traced by reference to the indexes that were included in earlier revisions of the present document.

  15. Quantum information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodgers, P.

    1998-01-01

    There is more to information than a string of ones and zeroes the ability of ''quantum bits'' to be in two states at the same time could revolutionize information technology. In the mid-1930s two influential but seemingly unrelated papers were published. In 1935 Einstein, Podolsky and Rosen proposed the famous EPR paradox that has come to symbolize the mysteries of quantum mechanics. Two years later, Alan Turing introduced the universal Turing machine in an enigmatically titled paper, On computable numbers, and laid the foundations of the computer industry one of the biggest industries in the world today. Although quantum physics is essential to understand the operation of transistors and other solid-state devices in computers, computation itself has remained a resolutely classical process. Indeed it seems only natural that computation and quantum theory should be kept as far apart as possible surely the uncertainty associated with quantum theory is anathema to the reliability expected from computers? Wrong. In 1985 David Deutsch introduced the universal quantum computer and showed that quantum theory can actually allow computers to do more rather than less. The ability of particles to be in a superposition of more than one quantum state naturally introduces a form of parallelism that can, in principle, perform some traditional computing tasks faster than is possible with classical computers. Moreover, quantum computers are capable of other tasks that are not conceivable with their classical counterparts. Similar breakthroughs in cryptography and communication followed. (author)

  16. Quantum information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodgers, P

    1998-03-01

    There is more to information than a string of ones and zeroes the ability of ''quantum bits'' to be in two states at the same time could revolutionize information technology. In the mid-1930s two influential but seemingly unrelated papers were published. In 1935 Einstein, Podolsky and Rosen proposed the famous EPR paradox that has come to symbolize the mysteries of quantum mechanics. Two years later, Alan Turing introduced the universal Turing machine in an enigmatically titled paper, On computable numbers, and laid the foundations of the computer industry one of the biggest industries in the world today. Although quantum physics is essential to understand the operation of transistors and other solid-state devices in computers, computation itself has remained a resolutely classical process. Indeed it seems only natural that computation and quantum theory should be kept as far apart as possible surely the uncertainty associated with quantum theory is anathema to the reliability expected from computers? Wrong. In 1985 David Deutsch introduced the universal quantum computer and showed that quantum theory can actually allow computers to do more rather than less. The ability of particles to be in a superposition of more than one quantum state naturally introduces a form of parallelism that can, in principle, perform some traditional computing tasks faster than is possible with classical computers. Moreover, quantum computers are capable of other tasks that are not conceivable with their classical counterparts. Similar breakthroughs in cryptography and communication followed. (author)

  17. Quantum information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodgers, P

    1998-03-01

    There is more to information than a string of ones and zeroes the ability of ''quantum bits'' to be in two states at the same time could revolutionize information technology. In the mid-1930s two influential but seemingly unrelated papers were published. In 1935 Einstein, Podolsky and Rosen proposed the famous EPR paradox that has come to symbolize the mysteries of quantum mechanics. Two years later, Alan Turing introduced the universal Turing machine in an enigmatically titled paper, On computable numbers, and laid the foundations of the computer industry one of the biggest industries in the world today. Although quantum physics is essential to understand the operation of transistors and other solid-state devices in computers, computation itself has remained a resolutely classical process. Indeed it seems only natural that computation and quantum theory should be kept as far apart as possible surely the uncertainty associated with quantum theory is anathema to the reliability expected from computers? Wrong. In 1985 David Deutsch introduced the universal quantum computer and showed that quantum theory can actually allow computers to do more rather than less. The ability of particles to be in a superposition of more than one quantum state naturally introduces a form of parallelism that can, in principle, perform some traditional computing tasks faster than is possible with classical computers. Moreover, quantum computers are capable of other tasks that are not conceivable with their classical counterparts. Similar breakthroughs in cryptography and communication followed. (author)

  18. Information management - Assessing the demand for information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, William H.

    1991-01-01

    Information demand is defined in terms of both information content (what information) and form (when, how, and where it is needed). Providing the information richness required for flight crews to be informed without overwhelming their information processing capabilities will require a great deal of automated intelligence. It is seen that the essence of this intelligence is comprehending and capturing the demand for information.

  19. STUDIES ON INDUCED HEPATOTOXICITY IN MALE ALBINO RATS (RATTUS NORVEGICUS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ABULYAZID, I.; ABBAS, O.A.; FAYEZ, V.

    2008-01-01

    Levanox, a hepato protective drug, and garlic powder have been considered as safe anti-oxidant agents. The present investigation refers to biochemical and molecular studies to evaluate the protective role of levanox and/or garlic powder toward CCl4-induced toxicity in adult male albino rats. CCl4 intoxication was attempted using a dose of 0.03 ml/kg of rat body weight.Pre-treatment with levanox (one capsule/ kg of rat body weight, each capsule contains 100 mg catechu, 7.5 mg dandelion, 75 mg termiric 2 % curcumin , 17.5 mg silymarin, 100 mg lecithin) was more effective than garlic powder (100mg/kg of rat body weight) in reducing CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity as revealed by its higher potency in reducing elevation of aspartate (AST) and alanine (ALT) aminotransferases in serum. Serum of control rats and those treated with levanox or garlic or CCl4 produced 13 types of proteins, differing in the molecular weight (MW) and densities, while those of levanox + garlic or garlic +CCl4 produced 14 bands differing in the MW and densities. The similarity index at the epigenetic level was also studied using the primers under study. The control sample produced one amplified DNA fragment with Rf of 0.73 and a molecular size (MS) of 67 base pair (bp) . Using the same primers, no amplified DNA fragment with the same MS was produced in the sample taken from levanox + garlic treated group.OPA-2 primer of sequence 5?- AGA TGC AGC C-3? produced one amplified DNA band with MS of 292 bp and Rf of 0.46 . However, the same primer produced one amplified DNA characteristic band with a molecular size of 363 bp and Rf of 0.43 in the sample of levanox + garlic group.In the control sample, OPA-4 primer of sequence 5? - ACG CAC AAC C-3? produced one amplified DNA band of MS of 299 bp and Rf of 0.43. The same primer produced one amplified characteristic DNA band with MS of 363 bp and Rf of 0.43 in the sample of levanox + garlic group.Dual treatment with levanox and garlic powder resulted in a characteristic protein differing from that of control as revealed through SDS-PAGE and confirmed by RAPD-PCR

  20. Basic Microsurgery Training Using the Laboratory Rat (Rattus norvegicus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-03-01

    there been any personnel/staffing changes (PI/CI/ AI /TC/Instructor) since the last IACUC approval of protocol, or annual review? ___ Yes _X_ No If yes...Include Name, Protocol function - PI/CI/ AI /TC/Instructor, IACUC approval - Yes/No) DELETIONS: (Include Name, Protocol function - PI/CI/ AI /TC

  1. Phylogeography of Rattus norvegicus in the South Atlantic Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Hingston

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Norway rats are a globally distributed invasive species, which have colonized many islands around the world, including in the South Atlantic Ocean. We investigated the phylogeography of Norway rats across the South Atlantic Ocean and bordering continental countries. We identified haplotypes from 517 bp of the hypervariable region I of the mitochondrial D-loop and constructed a Bayesian consensus tree and median-joining network incorporating all other publicly available haplotypes via an alignment of 364 bp. Three Norway rat haplotypes are present across the islands of the South Atlantic Ocean, including multiple haplotypes separated by geographic barriers within island groups. All three haplotypes have been previously recorded from European countries. Our results support the hypothesis of rapid Norway rat colonization of South Atlantic Ocean islands by sea-faring European nations from multiple European ports of origin. This seems to have been the predominant pathway for repeated Norway rat invasions of islands, even within the same archipelago, rather than within-island dispersal across geographic barriers.

  2. Karyotype evolution and species differentiation in the genus Rattus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dhananjoy

    2014-12-31

    Dec 31, 2014 ... from 50 metaphases per specimen directly under a 100X and photographs of ... Dorsum are in various shades of brown or of two colours that is, ... streak of grey or irregular grey patches (outdoor forms). Mammae is generally ...

  3. Food Color Induced Hepatotoxicity in Swiss Albino Rats, Rattus norvegicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Beenam; Sharma, Shiv

    2015-01-01

    Certain dietary constituents can induce toxicity and play a critical role in the development of several hepatic disorders. Tartrazine, metanil yellow and sunset yellow are widely used azo dyes in food products, so the present study is aimed to investigate the food color induced hepatotoxicity in Swiss albino rats. Swiss albino rats were divided into four groups, each group having six animals. Group I served as control, Group II, Group III and Group IV were administered with 25, 50 and 75 mg/kg body weight blend of sunset yellow, metanil yellow and tartrazine for 30 days. Hepatotoxicity in rats treated with a blend of these food colors was studied by assessing parameters such as serum total protein, serum albumin, serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) as well as hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA). The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), reduced glutathione (GSH) and catalase (CAT) were assessed. Significantly increased concentrations of serum total protein, serum albumin, serum ALP and hepatic MDA and significantly lowered levels of SOD, reduced GSH and CAT in the liver tissue of treated animals were observed when compared with control animals. The alteration in the liver includes necrosis of hepatocytes, infiltration and vacuolation. The result indicates that consumption of food color in diet induces liver tissue damage. The used doses of food color were mostly attributable to hepatocellular damage and drastic alteration in antioxidant defense system.

  4. Food Color Induced Hepatotoxicity in Swiss Albino Rats, Rattus norvegicus

    OpenAIRE

    Saxena, Beenam; Sharma, Shiv

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Certain dietary constituents can induce toxicity and play a critical role in the development of several hepatic disorders. Tartrazine, metanil yellow and sunset yellow are widely used azo dyes in food products, so the present study is aimed to investigate the food color induced hepatotoxicity in Swiss albino rats. Materials and Methods: Swiss albino rats were divided into four groups, each group having six animals. Group I served as control, Group II, Group III and Group IV were ad...

  5. Food Color Induced Hepatotoxicity in Swiss Albino Rats, Rattus norvegicus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Beenam; Sharma, Shiv

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Certain dietary constituents can induce toxicity and play a critical role in the development of several hepatic disorders. Tartrazine, metanil yellow and sunset yellow are widely used azo dyes in food products, so the present study is aimed to investigate the food color induced hepatotoxicity in Swiss albino rats. Materials and Methods: Swiss albino rats were divided into four groups, each group having six animals. Group I served as control, Group II, Group III and Group IV were administered with 25, 50 and 75 mg/kg body weight blend of sunset yellow, metanil yellow and tartrazine for 30 days. Hepatotoxicity in rats treated with a blend of these food colors was studied by assessing parameters such as serum total protein, serum albumin, serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) as well as hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA). The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), reduced glutathione (GSH) and catalase (CAT) were assessed. Results: Significantly increased concentrations of serum total protein, serum albumin, serum ALP and hepatic MDA and significantly lowered levels of SOD, reduced GSH and CAT in the liver tissue of treated animals were observed when compared with control animals. The alteration in the liver includes necrosis of hepatocytes, infiltration and vacuolation. Conclusion: The result indicates that consumption of food color in diet induces liver tissue damage. The used doses of food color were mostly attributable to hepatocellular damage and drastic alteration in antioxidant defense system. PMID:26862277

  6. Information Impact: Journal of Information and Knowledge ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Information Impact: Journal of Information and Knowledge Management: Advanced Search. Journal Home > Information Impact: Journal of Information and Knowledge Management: Advanced Search. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  7. Information Impact: Journal of Information and Knowledge ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Information Impact: Journal of Information and Knowledge Management: Site Map. Journal Home > About the Journal > Information Impact: Journal of Information and Knowledge Management: Site Map. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  8. Beyond information retrieval: information discovery and multimedia information retrieval

    OpenAIRE

    Roberto Raieli

    2017-01-01

    The paper compares the current methodologies for search and discovery of information and information resources: terminological search and term-based language, own of information retrieval (IR); semantic search and information discovery, being developed mainly through the language of linked data; semiotic search and content-based language, experienced by multimedia information retrieval (MIR).MIR semiotic methodology is, then, detailed.

  9. Information Need and Information Seeking Behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Nazan Özenç Uçak

    1997-01-01

    Information need is one of the cognitive needs of humankind. Information need causes information seeking behaviour and these concepts complement each other. Information need and information seeking behaviour are effected by many factors. It is necessary to know these factors in establishing the effective information centers and services.

  10. Information Need and Information Seeking Behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazan Özenç Uçak

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Information need is one of the cognitive needs of humankind. Information need causes information seeking behaviour and these concepts complement each other. Information need and information seeking behaviour are effected by many factors. It is necessary to know these factors in establishing the effective information centers and services.

  11. Liver dysfunction following whole-body Co-60 irradiation in gerbil (Meriones hurrianae Jerdon) and house rat (Rattus rattus rufescens)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixit, V.P.; Agrawal, M.; Gupta, C.

    1976-01-01

    Liver dysfunction following whole-body Co-60 irradiation has been studied in domestic and desert rat species. A significant elevation in the serum transaminases activity was noticed both in gerbil and house rat. Alkaline phosphatase and plasma cholesterol levels were also increased indicating an early radiation impairment of the liver tissue, which was later confirmed by histological studies. A steady fall in liver glycogen in irradiated gerbils was strikingly in contrast to an increase in irradiated house rat. Drastic depletion in liver glycogen, changes in the serum enzyme levels and the severity of the hepatic necrosis in gerbils point out that desert mammalian species are much more sensitive to radiation hazard as compared with domestic ones. (orig.) [de

  12. Information and information flow an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Bremer, Manuel

    2004-01-01

    This book is conceived as an introductory text into the theory of syntactic and semantic information, and information flow. Syntactic information theory is concerned with the information contained in the very fact that some signal has a non-random structure. Semantic information theory is concerned with the meaning or information content of messages and the like. The theory of information flow is concerned with deriving some piece of information from another. The main part will take us to situation semantics as a foundation of modern approaches in information theory. We give a brief overview o

  13. Information Impact | Journal of Information and Knowledge ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Information Impact | Journal of Information and Knowledge Management

    Information Impact | Journal of Information and Knowledge Management. 77 ... Libraries all over the world are applying information and communication ..... Bank Branch Performance, The International Journal on Advances in ICT for Emerging.

  14. Ergonomics and information technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krueger, H.

    1985-01-01

    Ergonomics are an essential safety factor in controlling automated processes. It has to be taken into account in three stages: information presentation, information perception and information treatment

  15. Information in organisations: directions for information management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyce Kirk

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The work of managers in small and medium-sized enterprises is very information-intensive and the environment in which it is done is very information rich. But are managers able to exploit the wealth of information which surrounds them? And how can information be managed in organisations so that its potential for improving business performance and enhancing the competitiveness of these enterprises can be realised? Answers to these questions lie in clarifying the context of the practice of information management by exploring aspects of organisations and managerial work and in exploring the nature of information at the level of the organisation and the individual manager. From these answers it is possible to suggest some guidelines for managing the integration of business strategy and information, the adoption of a broadly-based definition of information and the development of information capabilities.

  16. Network Centric Information Structure - Crisis Information Management

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Aarholt, Eldar; Berg, Olav

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a generic Network Centric Information Structure (NCIS) that can be used by civilian, military and public sectors, and that supports information handling applied to crises management and emergency response...

  17. Rethinking information handling: designing for information offload

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lone Koefoed; Pedersen, Peter Dalsgård; Eriksson, Eva

    2005-01-01

    This paper introduces information offload as a supplement way of responding to and designing for information. By presenting iFlush, a design concept aiming at providing the user with a possibility to offload information and then instantly dispose of it, the paper presents an approach towards desi...... designing for reflection and also serves as a critique towards information overload. Furthermore, the absence of reflection on the role played by HCI community in the constant augmenting of all spaces is addressed....

  18. Information Assurance Security in the Information Environment

    CERN Document Server

    Blyth, Andrew

    2006-01-01

    Intended for IT managers and assets protection professionals, this work aims to bridge the gap between information security, information systems security and information warfare. It covers topics such as the role of the corporate security officer; Corporate cybercrime; Electronic commerce and the global marketplace; Cryptography; and, more.

  19. Information Sensitive Consumers and Market Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Linda L.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Past research on consumer information has emphasized the effects of informed consumers of the provision of goods by sellers. This paper examines the effects of informed consumers on other consumers' product choices. These are demand-side effects. Directions for research are outlined. Author/CH)

  20. Information Impact: Journal of Information and Knowledge ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Information Impact: Journal of Information and Knowledge Management

    Information Impact: Journal of Information and Knowledge Management. 55. Adeola Esther Olutoki ... The main instruments used for data collection were research ... collections in the library and enhance academic performance. ... libraries; they contain the latest information on research findings which are of great importance.

  1. Information Skills for an Information Age?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawith, Gwen

    1986-01-01

    Although information skills are the most basic of skills, the tendency is to teach strategies related to educational projects, erroneously assuming that these "information skills" are applicable to everyday decision-making. Educated imaginations are needed for today's variety of lifelong creative information situations. (17 references)…

  2. Agricultural informational flow in informal communication networks ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Agricultural informational flow in informal communication networks of farmers in Ghana. ... should identify such farmers who can serve as intermediaries between actors to help disseminate information in rural communities. Keywords: key communicators, farmers, rural communities, social networks, extension agents ...

  3. Organising and presenting information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kankanady, Raghavendra; Wells, Marilyn

    2013-01-01

    Information management can be a daunting process for clinicians, health care providers and policy makers within the health care industry. This chapter discusses the importance of information classification and information architecture in the information economy and specific challenges faced within the health care industry. The healthcare sector has industry specific requirements for information management, standards and specifications for information presentation. Classification of information based on information criticality and the value in the health care industry is discussed in this paper. Presentation of information with reference to eHealth standards and specifications for healthcare information systems and their key requirements are also discussed, as are information architecture for eHealth implementation in Australia. This chapter also touches on information management and clinical governance since the importance of information governance is discussed by various researchers and how this is becoming of value to healthcare information management.

  4. Computing handbook information systems and information technology

    CERN Document Server

    Topi, Heikki

    2014-01-01

    Disciplinary Foundations and Global ImpactEvolving Discipline of Information Systems Heikki TopiDiscipline of Information Technology Barry M. Lunt and Han ReichgeltInformation Systems as a Practical Discipline Juhani IivariInformation Technology Han Reichgelt, Joseph J. Ekstrom, Art Gowan, and Barry M. LuntSociotechnical Approaches to the Study of Information Systems Steve Sawyer and Mohammad Hossein JarrahiIT and Global Development Erkki SutinenUsing ICT for Development, Societal Transformation, and Beyond Sherif KamelTechnical Foundations of Data and Database ManagementData Models Avi Silber

  5. A Model for Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Walton

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses an approach drawn from the ideas of computer systems modelling to produce a model for information itself. The model integrates evolutionary, static and dynamic views of information and highlights the relationship between symbolic content and the physical world. The model includes what information technology practitioners call “non-functional” attributes, which, for information, include information quality and information friction. The concepts developed in the model enable a richer understanding of Floridi’s questions “what is information?” and “the informational circle: how can information be assessed?” (which he numbers P1 and P12.

  6. Dynamics of Information Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Hirsch, Michael J; Murphey, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Our understanding of information and information dynamics has outgrown classical information theory. This book presents the research explaining the importance of information in the evolution of a distributed or networked system. It presents techniques for measuring the value or significance of information within the context of a system

  7. Technology Information Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emerson, E.L.; Shepherd, E.W.; Minor, E.E.

    1980-01-01

    A Transportation Technology Center (TTC) has been established at Sandia to address the transportation of nuclear waste and spent fuel. The Technology Information Center (TIC) acts as TTC's clearing house for nuclear material transportation information. TIC's activities are divided into three activities: public information, policy information, and technical information. Some of the uses of TIC's activities are briefly outlined

  8. Information as Wealth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deruchie, Douglas M.

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the value of information-based services in today's global economy. The combination of information technology with library and information services at an international accounting and auditing firm is described; the Global Information Network is explained; and the importance of the appropriate use of information is discussed. (LRW)

  9. Building an Information Infrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breivik, Patricia Senn

    1992-01-01

    College governing boards can promote good campus information management by understanding available services, monitoring changes and their relationship to priorities, supporting policies enhancing access to information, encouraging resource allocation for networking, promoting regional economic development through information use, and supporting…

  10. Stem Cell Information: Glossary

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tips Info Center Research Topics Federal Policy Glossary Stem Cell Information General Information Clinical Trials Funding Information Current ... here Home » Glossary Back to top Glossary Adult stem cell Astrocyte Blastocoel Blastocyst Bone marrow stromal cells Bone ...

  11. Carbon Monoxide Information Center

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... RSS E-mail Inside CPSC Accessibility Privacy Policy Budget, Performances & Finance Open Government Freedom of Information (FOIA) ... Information Sitemap RSS E-mail Accessibility Privacy Policy Budget & Performance Open Government Freedom of Information (FOIA) USA. ...

  12. Animal Product Safety Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Product Safety Information Product Safety Information Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ... to report adverse experiences with veterinary drugs. Additional Product Information Questions and Answers: Evanger’s Dog and Cat ...

  13. Carbon Monoxide Information Center

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Education Centers Carbon Monoxide Information Center Carbon Monoxide Information Center En Español The Invisible Killer Carbon monoxide, ... Install one and check its batteries regularly. View Information About CO Alarms Other CO Topics Safety Tips ...

  14. Personal anticipated information need

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Bruce

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The role of personal information collections is a well known feature of personal information management. The World Wide Web has introduced to such collections ideas such as filing Web pages or noting their existence in 'Bookmarks' and 'Favourites'. Argument. It is suggested that personal information collections are created in anticipation of some future need for that information-personal, anticipated information need, which also underlies the design of formal information systems. Elaboration. Examination of the literature of information needs and information seeking behaviour leads to the formulation of five propositions that elaborate the concept of personal, anticipated information need. These propositions draw upon concepts such as uncertainty, predictability, sensitivity and the valuation of information sources. Conclusion. An individual's understanding of personal, anticipated information need and how this understanding guides the acquisition and management of personal information will determine the effectiveness of that collection.

  15. Informed consent - Providing information about prenatal examinations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Katja; Kesmodel, Ulrik; Hvidman, Lone

    as well.The review is based on systematic search strategy in the electronic databases Medline and Science Citation. Additional studies were identified through reference lists of individual papers obtained. Improving knowledge scores and reducing decisional conflict can be obtained by group counselling...... pregnant women about prenatal examinations. Women's knowledge, decisional conflict, satisfaction and anxiety will be explored as compared with different ways and different groups of health professionals providing information. To what extent information empowers informed decision making will be explored...

  16. Strategic information security

    CERN Document Server

    Wylder, John

    2003-01-01

    Introduction to Strategic Information SecurityWhat Does It Mean to Be Strategic? Information Security Defined The Security Professional's View of Information Security The Business View of Information SecurityChanges Affecting Business and Risk Management Strategic Security Strategic Security or Security Strategy?Monitoring and MeasurementMoving Forward ORGANIZATIONAL ISSUESThe Life Cycles of Security ManagersIntroductionThe Information Security Manager's Responsibilities The Evolution of Data Security to Information SecurityThe Repository Concept Changing Job Requirements Business Life Cycles

  17. Towards Information Security Awareness

    OpenAIRE

    Marius Petrescu; Delia Mioara Popescu; Nicoleta Sirbu

    2010-01-01

    Information security has come to be recognized as increasingly important because global communication and information systems allow a potentially large number of unauthorized users to access and possibly alter information from around the world. As the dependence on information systems grows, so the security of information networks becomes ever more critical to any entity, no matter if it is a company or a public institution. Information security involves both technology and people. Any securi...

  18. Information protection playbook

    CERN Document Server

    Kane, Greg

    2013-01-01

    The primary goal of the Information Protection Playbook is to serve as a comprehensive resource for information protection (IP) professionals who must provide adequate information security at a reasonable cost. It emphasizes a holistic view of IP: one that protects the applications, systems, and networks that deliver business information from failures of confidentiality, integrity, availability, trust and accountability, and privacy. Using the guidelines provided in the Information Protection Playbook, security and information technology (IT) managers will learn how to

  19. Personal anticipated information need

    OpenAIRE

    H. Bruce

    2005-01-01

    Background. The role of personal information collections is a well known feature of personal information management. The World Wide Web has introduced to such collections ideas such as filing Web pages or noting their existence in 'Bookmarks' and 'Favourites'. Argument. It is suggested that personal information collections are created in anticipation of some future need for that information-personal, anticipated information need, which also underlies the design of formal information systems. ...

  20. Energy information sheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    The National Energy Information Center (NEIC), as part of its mission, provides energy information and referral assistance to Federal, State, and local governments, the academic community, business and industrial organizations, and the public. The Energy Information Sheets was developed to provide general information on various aspects of fuel production, prices, consumption, and capability. Additional information on related subject matter can be found in other Energy Information Administration (EIA) publications as referenced at the end of each sheet.

  1. Collaborative information seeking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertzum, Morten

    2008-01-01

    Since common ground is pivotal to collaboration, this paper proposes to define collaborative information seeking as the combined activity of information seeking and collaborative grounding. While information-seeking activities are necessary for collaborating actors to acquire new information......, the activities involved in information seeking are often performed by varying subgroups of actors. Consequently, collaborative grounding is necessary to share information among collaborating actors and, thereby, establish and maintain the common ground necessary for their collaborative work. By focusing...... on the collaborative level, collaborative information seeking aims to avoid both individual reductionism and group reductionism, while at the same time recognizing that only some information and understanding need be shared....

  2. Aeronautical Information System Replacement -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Aeronautical Information System Replacement is a web-enabled, automation means for the collection and distribution of Service B messages, weather information, flight...

  3. Aeronautical Information System -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Aeronautical Information System (AIS) is a leased weather automated system that provides a means of collecting and distributing aeronautical weather information...

  4. FFRRO Program Information

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This asset includes information related to Cleanups at Federal Facilities. Information is provided about contaminated federal facility sites in specific communities,...

  5. History of information science

    OpenAIRE

    Buckland, MK; Liu, Z

    1998-01-01

    This informative volume concentrates on the following areas: Historiography of Information Science; Paul Otlet and His Successors; Techniques, Tools, and Systems; People and Organizations; Theoretical Topics; and Literature.

  6. What is Quantum Information?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardi, Olimpia; Fortin, Sebastian; Holik, Federico; López, Cristian

    2017-04-01

    Preface; Introduction; Part I. About the Concept of Information: 1. About the concept of information Sebastian Fortin and Olimpia Lombardi; 2. Representation, information, and theories of information Armond Duwell; 3. Information, communication, and manipulability Olimpia Lombardi and Cristian López; Part II. Information and quantum mechanics: 4. Quantum versus classical information Jeffrey Bub; 5. Quantum information and locality Dennis Dieks; 6. Pragmatic information in quantum mechanics Juan Roederer; 7. Interpretations of quantum theory: a map of madness Adán Cabello; Part III. Probability, Correlations, and Information: 8. On the tension between ontology and epistemology in quantum probabilities Amit Hagar; 9. Inferential versus dynamical conceptions of physics David Wallace; 10. Classical models for quantum information Federico Holik and Gustavo Martin Bosyk; 11. On the relative character of quantum correlations Guido Bellomo and Ángel Ricardo Plastino; Index.

  7. Information technology to support informal knowledge sharing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davison, R.M.; Ou, C.X.J.; Martinsons, M.G.

    2013-01-01

    The knowledge management (KM) literature largely focuses on the explicit and formal representation of knowledge in computer-based KM systems. Informal KM practices are widespread, but less is known about them. This paper aims to redress this imbalance by exploring the use of interactive information

  8. Information Impact | Journal of Information and Knowledge ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    Information Impact | Journal of Information and Knowledge Management ... Abstract. This study was designed to determine the impact of collaboration on research and teaching .... delivery of quality instruction. ... for doing Collaborative projects, and there ... reveals that co-construction of knowledge ..... Get relevant materials.

  9. Information Impact: Journal of Information and Knowledge ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Information Impact: Journal of Information and Knowledge Management. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 7, No 2 (2016) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  10. The Information "Revolution": Information, Communications and Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostry, Bernard

    Today's communications systems and technology facilitate the erosion of cultural differences, threatening cultural sovereignty. In the fifteenth century, the first information revolution created the concept of the nation-state with its unique cultural identity. The technology of the second information revolution, which has advanced video…

  11. Floridi's Philosophy of Information and Information Ethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ess, Charles

    2009-01-01

    In order to evaluate Floridi's philosophy of information (PI) and correlative information ethics (IE) as potential frameworks for a global information and computing ethics (ICE), I review a range of important criticisms, defenses, and extensions of PI and IE, along with Floridi's responses to these......, as gathered together in a recent special issue of Ethics and Information Technology. A revised and expanded version of PI and IE emerges here, one that brings to the foreground PI's status as a philosophical naturalism—one with both current application and important potential in the specific domains...... of privacy and information law. Further, the pluralism already articulated by Floridi in his PI is now more explicitly coupled with an ethical pluralism in IE that will be enhanced through IE's further incorporation of discourse ethics. In this form, PI and IE emerge as still more robust frameworks...

  12. INFORMATION CULTURE AND INFORMATION SAFETY OF SCHOOLCHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. G. Belyakova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The article is devoted to the problem of interaction between schoolchildren and possible informational risks transmitted on the Internet. Considering the lack of external filters on the way of harmful information streams, it is actually necessary to develop information culture of schoolchildren, their abilities to sensibly and critically interpret the information on the Internet, and choice of adequate behaviour models surfing the Web. The aim of the present research is to analyze the state of informational safety of schoolchildren while using the Internet; gaining an understanding of the role of external restrictions and opportunities of intrapersonal filtration of the harmful Internet content depending on children age. Methodology and research methods. The methodology of the research is based on modern methods aimed to consider the problem of personal socialization in modern information society. Thus, the Internet Initiatives Development Fund (IIDF questionnaire let the authors define the level of awareness of recipients on the problem under consideration. Results and scientific novelty. The theoretical analysis helped the authors predict the correlation of basic methods in order to guarantee personal safety of schoolchildren taking into account the process of maturity as well as the decrease of external filters that may stop harmful content. Empirical part of the research has enabled to reveal decrease in external control of staying of a child in network in the process of growing up against the background of restrictive attitudes prevalence among teachers and parents. Therefore, the research supposed to improve information culture of schoolchildren from the earliest ages encouraging them to sensibly and correctly interpret the information on the Internet. Practical significance. The practical recommendations to parents and teachers in order to improve informational personal safety of schoolchildren are proposed. The relevancy

  13. The Information Highway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gore, Al

    1994-01-01

    The new information marketplace is based on a network of wide, two-way highways comprised of private owners and developers, makers of information appliances (televisions, telephones, computers, and combinations of all three), information providers (local broadcasters, digital libraries, information service providers, and entrepreneurs), and…

  14. Information Systems Security Audit

    OpenAIRE

    Gheorghe Popescu; Veronica Adriana Popescu; Cristina Raluca Popescu

    2007-01-01

    The article covers:Defining an information system; benefits obtained by introducing new information technologies; IT management;Defining prerequisites, analysis, design, implementation of IS; Information security management system; aspects regarding IS security policy; Conceptual model of a security system; Auditing information security systems and network infrastructure security.

  15. Aquaculture Information Package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd, T.; Rafferty, K. [editors

    1998-01-01

    This package of information is intended to provide background to developers of geothermal aquaculture projects. The material is divided into eight sections and includes information on market and price information for typical species, aquaculture water quality issues, typical species culture information, pond heat loss calculations, an aquaculture glossary, regional and university aquaculture offices and state aquaculture permit requirements.

  16. Understanding mobile information needs

    OpenAIRE

    Church, Karen; Smyth, Barry

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we describe the results of a four-week diary study of mobile information needs, focusing on the intent behind mobile needs and the importance on context on such needs. We identified three key intents among diary entries: informational, geographical and personal information management (PIM). Furthermore, we found many of these information needs have high temporal and location dependencies.

  17. Information science in transition

    CERN Document Server

    Gilchrist, Alan

    2013-01-01

    Are we at a turning point in digital information? The expansion of the internet is unprecedented. Will information science become part of computer science and does rise of the term informatics demonstrate convergence of information science and information technology - a convergence that must surely develop? This work reflects on such issues.

  18. Delaying information search

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaniv Shani

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In three studies, we examined factors that may temporarily attenuate information search. People are generally curious and dislike uncertainty, which typically encourages them to look for relevant information. Despite these strong forces that promote information search, people sometimes deliberately delay obtaining valuable information. We find they may do so when they are concerned that the information might interfere with future pleasurable activities. Interestingly, the decision to search or to postpone searching for information is influenced not only by the value and importance of the information itself but also by well-being maintenance goals related to possible detrimental effects that negative knowledge may have on unrelated future plans.

  19. Handbook of information science

    CERN Document Server

    Stock, Wolfgang G

    2013-01-01

    Dealing with information is one of the vital skills in thetwenty-first century. It takes a fair degree of information savvy to create, represent and supply information as well as to search for and retrieve relevant knowledge. This Handbook is a basic work of information science, providing a comprehensive overview of the current state of information retrieval and knowledge representation. It addresses readers from all professions and scientific disciplines, but particularly scholars, practitioners and students of Information Science, Library Science, Computer Science, Information Management, an

  20. Aquaculture information package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd, T.; Rafferty, K.

    1998-08-01

    This package of information is intended to provide background information to developers of geothermal aquaculture projects. The material is divided into eight sections and includes information on market and price information for typical species, aquaculture water quality issues, typical species culture information, pond heat loss calculations, an aquaculture glossary, regional and university aquaculture offices and state aquaculture permit requirements. A bibliography containing 68 references is also included.

  1. Information technology made simple

    CERN Document Server

    Carter, Roger

    1991-01-01

    Information Technology: Made Simple covers the full range of information technology topics, including more traditional subjects such as programming languages, data processing, and systems analysis. The book discusses information revolution, including topics about microchips, information processing operations, analog and digital systems, information processing system, and systems analysis. The text also describes computers, computer hardware, microprocessors, and microcomputers. The peripheral devices connected to the central processing unit; the main types of system software; application soft

  2. Information Aggregation in Organizations

    OpenAIRE

    Schulte, Elisabeth

    2006-01-01

    This dissertation contributes to the analysis of information aggregation procedures within organizations. Facing uncertainty about the consequences of a collective decision, information has to be aggregated before making a choice. Two main questions are addressed. Firstly, how well is an organization suited for the aggregation of decision-relevant information? Secondly, how should an organization be designed in order to aggregate information efficiently? The main part deals with information a...

  3. Electronic healthcare information security

    CERN Document Server

    Dube, Kudakwashe; Shoniregun, Charles A

    2010-01-01

    The ever-increasing healthcare expenditure and pressing demand for improved quality and efficiency of patient care services are driving innovation in healthcare information management. The domain of healthcare has become a challenging testing ground for information security due to the complex nature of healthcare information and individual privacy. ""Electronic Healthcare Information Security"" explores the challenges of e-healthcare information and security policy technologies. It evaluates the effectiveness of security and privacy implementation systems for anonymization methods and techniqu

  4. Information Warfare, Threats and Information Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitriy Nikolaevich Bespalov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the opposite, but dependent on each other's reality - Revolutionary War information,information security goals and objectives of their study within the scheme "challenge-response", methodological and analytical support, the role of elites and the information society in promoting information security. One of the features of contemporaneityis the global spread of ICT, combined with poor governance and other difficulties in the construction of innovation infrastructures that are based on them in some countries. This leads to the reproduction of threats, primarily related to the ability to use ICT for purposes that are inconsistent with the objectives of maintaining international peace and security, compliance with the principles of non-use of force, non-interference in the internal affairs of states, etc. In this regard, include such terms as "a threat of information warfare", "information terrorism" and so forth. Information warfare, which stay in the policy declared the struggle for existence, and relationships are defined in terms of "friend-enemy", "ours-foreign". Superiority over the opponent or "capture of its territory" is the aim of political activity. And information security, serving activities similar process of political control, including a set of components, is a technology until their humanitarian. From the context and the decision itself is the ratio of the achieved results of information and political influence to the target - a positive image of Russia. Bringing its policy in line with the demands of a healthy public opinion provides conductivity of theauthorities initiatives in the country and increases the legitimacy of the Russian Federation actions in the world.

  5. Digital Information and Value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Walton

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Digital information changes the ways in which people and organisations interact. This paper examines the nature of this change in the context of the author’s Model for Information (MfI. It investigates the relationship between outcomes and value, selection processes and some attributes of information and explores how this relationship changes in the move from analogue to digital information. Selection processes shape the evolution of information ecosystems in which conventions are established for the ways in which information is used. The conventions determine norms for information friction and information quality as well as the sources of information and channels used. Digital information reduces information friction, often dramatically, and changes information quality. The increasing use of analytics in business increasingly delivers predictive or prescriptive digital information. These changes are happening faster than information ecosystem conventions can change. The relationships established in the paper enable an analysis of, and guide changes to, these conventions enabling a more effective use of digital information.

  6. Information Impact: Journal of Information and Knowledge ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    References must conform to the 6th edition of the Publication Manual of ... Book. Chapman, L.(2001). Managing acquisition in libraries and information services. ... For electronic resources, please see APA guidelines at www.apastyle.org ...

  7. Information Impact: Journal of Information and Knowledge ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Meeting the information needs of remote library users: the case of University of Maiduguri Distance Learning Programme · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Adam Gambo Saleh, 1-16 ...

  8. Information technology acceptance in health information management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdekhoda, M; Ahmadi, M; Dehnad, A; Hosseini, A F

    2014-01-01

    User acceptance of information technology has been a significant area of research for more than two decades in the field of information technology. This study assessed the acceptance of information technology in the context of Health Information Management (HIM) by utilizing Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) which was modified and applied to assess user acceptance of health information technology as well as viability of TAM as a research construct in the context of HIM. This was a descriptive- analytical study in which a sample of 187 personnel from a population of 363 personnel, working in medical records departments of hospitals affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences, was selected. Users' perception of applying information technology was studied by a researcher-developed questionnaire. Collected data were analyzed by SPSS software (version16) using descriptive statistics and regression analysis. The results suggest that TAM is a useful construct to assess user acceptance of information technology in the context of HIM. The findings also evidenced the perceived ease of use (PEOU) and perceived usefulness (PE) were positively associated with favorable users' attitudes towards HIM. PU was relatively more associated (r= 0.22, p = 0.05) than PEOU (r = 0.014, p = 0.05) with favorable user attitudes towards HIM. Users' perception of usefulness and ease of use are important determinants providing the incentive for users to accept information technologies when the application of a successful HIM system is attempted. The findings of the present study suggest that user acceptance is a key element and should subsequently be the major concern of health organizations and health policy makers.

  9. The Informal Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Áureo de Paula; José A. Scheinkman

    2007-01-01

    This paper investigates the determinants of informal economic activity. We present two equilibrium models of informality and test their implications using a survey of 48,000+ small firms in Brazil. We define informality as tax avoidance; firms in the informal sector avoid tax payments but suffer other limitations. In the first model there is a single industry and informal firms face a higher cost of capital and a limitation on size. As a result informal firms are smaller and have a lower capi...

  10. Energy information sheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-02

    The National Energy Information Center (NEIC), as part of its mission, provides energy information and referral assistance to Federal, State, and local governments, the academic community, business and industrial organizations, and the general public. Written for the general public, the EIA publication Energy Information Sheets was developed to provide information on various aspects of fuel production, prices, consumption and capability. The information contained herein pertains to energy data as of December 1991. Additional information on related subject matter can be found in other EIA publications as referenced at the end of each sheet.

  11. Towards Information Lasers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei Khrennikov

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the methods of quantum theory (QT, especially quantum information and probability, started to be widely applied outside of physics: in cognitive, social and political sciences, psychology, economics, finances, decision making, molecular biology and genetics. Such models can be called quantum-like, in contrast to real quantum physical cognitive and biological models. Quantum-like means that only the information and probability structures of QT are explored. This approach matches the information interpretation of QT well (e.g., Zeilinger and Brukner, Fuchs and Mermin, D’Ariano, as well as the informational viewpoint on physics in general (e.g., Wheeler’s “it from bit” paradigm. In this paper, we propose a quantum-like model of an information laser by precessing the assumptions on the structure of state spaces of information processors, “information atoms” (i-atoms and information fields. The basic assumption is the discrete structure of state spaces related to quantization of an information analog of energy. To analyze a possible structure of the state space of i-atoms leading to the possibility to create information lasers, we have to develop a purely information version of quantum thermodynamics. We did this by placing the main attention on the derivation of the conditions for the equilibrium of information exchange between i-atoms and a quantized information field.

  12. Sleep Apnea Information Page

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Page You are here Home » Disorders » All Disorders Sleep Apnea Information Page Sleep Apnea Information Page What research is being done? ... Institutes of Health (NIH) conduct research related to sleep apnea in laboratories at the NIH, and also ...

  13. Information manager vol 10

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Library _info_Sc_ 1

    1989-05-11

    May 11, 1989 ... This study explored rural-based library and information services. The location was .... However, following the passage of Imo State Law on. Local Government ... What are the information sources used to satisfy these needs? 3.

  14. Informal Unemployment and Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolm, Anne-Sofie; Larsen, Birthe

    This paper develops a four sector equilibrium search and matching model with informal sector employment opportunities and educational choice. We show that underground activities reduce educational attainments if informal employment opportunities mainly are available to low educated workers. More ...

  15. Carbon Monoxide Information Center

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Inside CPSC Accessibility Privacy Policy Budget, Performances & Finance Open Government Freedom of Information (FOIA) Inspector General No ... RSS E-mail Accessibility Privacy Policy Budget & Performance Open Government Freedom of Information (FOIA) USA.gov CPSC. ...

  16. Geographical information systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Möller, Bernd

    2004-01-01

    The chapter gives an introduction to Geographical Information Systems (GIS) with particular focus on their application within environmental management.......The chapter gives an introduction to Geographical Information Systems (GIS) with particular focus on their application within environmental management....

  17. Carbon Monoxide Information Center

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Accessibility Privacy Policy Budget, Performances & Finance Open Government Freedom of Information (FOIA) Inspector General No Fear Act ... mail Accessibility Privacy Policy Budget & Performance Open Government Freedom of Information (FOIA) USA.gov CPSC.gov is ...

  18. Integrated inventory information system

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sarupria, J.S.; Kunte, P.D.

    The nature of oceanographic data and the management of inventory level information are described in Integrated Inventory Information System (IIIS). It is shown how a ROSCOPO (report on observations/samples collected during oceanographic programme...

  19. Congenital Heart Information Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... heart defects. Important Notice The Congenital Heart Information Network website is temporarily out of service. Please join ... and Uwe Baemayr for The Congenital Heart Information Network Exempt organization under Section 501(c)3. Copyright © ...

  20. Indiana Health Information Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Indiana Health Information Exchange is comprised of various Indiana health care institutions, established to help improve patient safety and is recognized as a best practice for health information exchange.

  1. International cooperative information systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    Developing countries need mechanisms by which the information they generate themselves and development information from the rest of the world can be retrieved. The international cooperative information system is such a mechanism. Delegates to the Seminar on International Cooperative Information Systems were informed about various existing systems (INIS, AGRIS, INFOTERRA, TCDC/INRES, POPIN, DEVSIS, and INPADROC), some specialized information systems and services (CDS/ISIS and the Cassava Information Centre), and computer programs for information processing (INIS/AGRIS, CDS/ISIS, and MINISIS). The participants suggested some changes that should be made on both the national and the international levels to ensure that these systems meet the needs of developing countries more effectively. (LL)

  2. Informed Food Choice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coff, Christian

    2014-01-01

    of informed food choice. An informed food choice is an enlightened food choice made by the individual based on the information made available. Food choices are made when shopping for food or when eating/drinking, and information is believed to give clarity to the options by increasing market transparency......Food production and consumption influence health, the environment, social structures, etc. For this reason consumers are increasingly interested in information about these effects. Disclosure of information about the consequences of food production and consumption is essential for the idea......, supporting rationality (the best choice), consumers’ self-governance (autonomy) and life coherence (integrity). On a practical level, informed food choice remains an ideal to strive for, as information on food often is inadequate....

  3. Changing Information Retrieval Behaviours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Constantiou, Ioanna D.; Lehrer, Christiane; Hess, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    on the continuance of LBS use and indicate changes in individuals' information retrieval behaviours in everyday life. In particular, the distinct value dimension of LBS in specific contexts of use changes individuals' behaviours towards accessing location-related information....

  4. PDQ® Cancer Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    An NCI database that contains the latest information about cancer treatment, screening, prevention, genetics, supportive care, and complementary and alternative medicine, plus drug information and a dictionary of cancer terms.

  5. Carbon Monoxide Information Center

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Us Sitemap RSS E-mail Inside CPSC Accessibility Privacy Policy Budget, Performances & Finance Open Government Freedom of ... News and Information Sitemap RSS E-mail Accessibility Privacy Policy Budget & Performance Open Government Freedom of Information ( ...

  6. Newcomer information seeking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moring, Camilla Elisabeth

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Research on socialization and learning processes among organizational newcomers is offering valuable insight into the role of information seeking in the workplace, and to why, and how newcomers seek information when entering a new organization. Analysis: The aim of the paper is to o...... and corporeal information sources newcomers learn about the organizational practice, and the knowledge needed in order to develop as a competent practitioner and become a full member of the organization.......Introduction: Research on socialization and learning processes among organizational newcomers is offering valuable insight into the role of information seeking in the workplace, and to why, and how newcomers seek information when entering a new organization. Analysis: The aim of the paper...... is to outline and discuss the significance of information seeking in newcomer socialization and learning, and analyse how different approaches influence our understanding of the role of information seeking in the workplace. Results: It is argued, that a development in research on newcomer information seeking...

  7. What is quantum information ?

    CERN Document Server

    Fortin, Sebastian; Holik, Federico; López, Cristian

    2017-01-01

    Combining physics and philosophy, this is a uniquely interdisciplinary examination of quantum information science which provides an up-to-date examination of developments in this field. The authors provide coherent definitions and theories of information, taking clearly defined approaches to considering information in connection with quantum mechanics, probability, and correlations. Concepts addressed include entanglement of quantum states, the relation of quantum correlations to quantum information, and the meaning of the informational approach for the foundations of quantum mechanics. Furthermore, the mathematical concept of information in the communicational context, and the notion of pragmatic information are considered. Suitable as both a discussion of the conceptual and philosophical problems of this field and a comprehensive stand-alone introduction, this book will benefit both experienced and new researchers in quantum information and the philosophy of physics.

  8. Senior Information Officials Standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document establishes the (SIOs) as the Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) primary points of accountability for the effective oversight, coordination, and management of information and information technology (IT)

  9. Carbon Monoxide Information Center

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... E-mail Inside CPSC Accessibility Privacy Policy Budget, Performances & Finance Open Government Freedom of Information (FOIA) Inspector ... Sitemap RSS E-mail Accessibility Privacy Policy Budget & Performance Open Government Freedom of Information (FOIA) USA.gov ...

  10. Carbon Monoxide Information Center

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Education Safety Education Centers Carbon Monoxide Information Center Carbon Monoxide Information Center En Español The Invisible Killer Carbon monoxide, also known as CO, is called the " ...

  11. RCRA Facility Information

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This asset includes hazardous waste information, which is mostly contained in the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Information (RCRAInfo) System, a national...

  12. Repositioning Information Science.

    OpenAIRE

    Ibekwe-Sanjuan , Fidelia; Buckland , Michael; Latham , Kiersten

    2010-01-01

    International audience; During the twentieth century there was a strong desire for information studies to become scientific, to move from librarianship, bibliography, and documentation to an information science. In 1968 the American Documentation Institute was renamed American Society for Information Science. By the twenty-first century, however, departments of (library and) information science had turned instead towards the social sciences, but have not been successful in providing a coheren...

  13. Designing information systems

    CERN Document Server

    Blethyn, Stanley G

    2014-01-01

    Designing Information Systems focuses on the processes, methodologies, and approaches involved in designing information systems. The book first describes systems, management and control, and how to design information systems. Discussions focus on documents produced from the functional construction function, users, operators, analysts, programmers and others, process management and control, levels of management, open systems, design of management information systems, and business system description, partitioning, and leveling. The text then takes a look at functional specification and functiona

  14. Dynamic Strategic Information Transmission

    OpenAIRE

    Mikhail Golosov; Vasiliki Skreta; Aleh Tsyvinski; Andrea Wilson

    2011-01-01

    This paper studies strategic information transmission in a dynamic environment where, each period, a privately informed expert sends a message and a decision maker takes an action. Our main result is that, in contrast to a static environment, full information revelation is possible. The gradual revelation of information and the eventual full revelation is supported by the dynamic rewards and punishments. The construction of a fully revealing equilibrium relies on two key features. The first f...

  15. Public informations guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-06-01

    The purpose of these Public Information Guidelines is to provide principles for the implementation of the NWPA mandate and the Mission Plan requirements for the provision of public information. These Guidelines set forth the public information policy to be followed by all Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) performance components. The OCRWM offices should observe these Guidelines in shaping and conducting public information activities

  16. Public informations guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1986-06-01

    The purpose of these Public Information Guidelines is to provide principles for the implementation of the NWPA mandate and the Mission Plan requirements for the provision of public information. These Guidelines set forth the public information policy to be followed by all Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) performance components. The OCRWM offices should observe these Guidelines in shaping and conducting public information activities.

  17. Computer information systems framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahabuddin, S.

    1989-01-01

    Management information systems (MIS) is a commonly used term in computer profession. The new information technology has caused management to expect more from computer. The process of supplying information follows a well defined procedure. MIS should be capable for providing usable information to the various areas and levels of organization. MIS is different from data processing. MIS and business hierarchy provides a good framework for many organization which are using computers. (A.B.)

  18. Natural Information Processing Systems

    OpenAIRE

    John Sweller; Susan Sweller

    2006-01-01

    Natural information processing systems such as biological evolution and human cognition organize information used to govern the activities of natural entities. When dealing with biologically secondary information, these systems can be specified by five common principles that we propose underlie natural information processing systems. The principles equate: (1) human long-term memory with a genome; (2) learning from other humans with biological reproduction; (3) problem solving through random ...

  19. Information Services Directory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-08-01

    The Information Services Directory is intended to facilitate participation by states, affected Indian tribes and the public in the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program. The Directory is produced by the Information Services Division of the OCRWM's Office of Policy and Outreach and will be updated periodically. It is a reference document that identifies the sources of available program information

  20. Information Design Theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettersson, Rune

    2014-01-01

    Information design has practical and theoretical components. As an academic discipline we may view information design as a combined discipline, a practical theory, or as a theoretical practice. So far information design has incorporated facts, influences, methods, practices, principles, processes, strategies, and tools from a large number of…

  1. Information Manager (The)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Information Manager is an Interdisciplinary Journal which provides a forum for the ... It serves as a forum for new research in information dissemination and communication processes in general, The basic focus of Information manager are: i. to ... Influence of Mac Arthur Journal Donation Project on Serial Resources of ...

  2. Informed Consent and Routinisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ploug, Thomas; Holm, Søren

    2013-01-01

    provide evidence of the routinisation of informed consent in various types of interaction on the internet; among these, the routinisation of consent to the exchange of health related information. We also provide evidence that the extent of the routinisation of informed consent is dependent...

  3. Information Services Directory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-11-01

    The Information Services directory is intended to facilitate participation by states, affected Indian tribes and the public in the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management program. The Directory is produced by the Information Services Division of the OCRWM's Office of Policy and Outreach and will be updated periodically. It is a reference document that identifies the sources of available program information

  4. Community Information Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Andrew

    Information is provided on technological and social trends as background for a workshop designed to heighten the consciousness of workers in community information systems. Initially, the basic terminology is considered in its implications for an integrated perspective of community information systems, with particular attention given to the meaning…

  5. Security classification of information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quist, A.S.

    1993-04-01

    This document is the second of a planned four-volume work that comprehensively discusses the security classification of information. The main focus of Volume 2 is on the principles for classification of information. Included herein are descriptions of the two major types of information that governments classify for national security reasons (subjective and objective information), guidance to use when determining whether information under consideration for classification is controlled by the government (a necessary requirement for classification to be effective), information disclosure risks and benefits (the benefits and costs of classification), standards to use when balancing information disclosure risks and benefits, guidance for assigning classification levels (Top Secret, Secret, or Confidential) to classified information, guidance for determining how long information should be classified (classification duration), classification of associations of information, classification of compilations of information, and principles for declassifying and downgrading information. Rules or principles of certain areas of our legal system (e.g., trade secret law) are sometimes mentioned to .provide added support to some of those classification principles.

  6. Connectionist Interaction Information Retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominich, Sandor

    2003-01-01

    Discussion of connectionist views for adaptive clustering in information retrieval focuses on a connectionist clustering technique and activation spreading-based information retrieval model using the interaction information retrieval method. Presents theoretical as well as simulation results as regards computational complexity and includes…

  7. Information Retrieval Models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiemstra, Djoerd; Göker, Ayse; Davies, John

    2009-01-01

    Many applications that handle information on the internet would be completely inadequate without the support of information retrieval technology. How would we find information on the world wide web if there were no web search engines? How would we manage our email without spam filtering? Much of the

  8. Teaching Information Technology Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, M. J.; Jones, R. P.; Haggerty, J.; Gresty, D.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we discuss an approach to the teaching of information technology law to higher education computing students that attempts to prepare them for professional computing practice. As information technology has become ubiquitous its interactions with the law have become more numerous. Information technology practitioners, and in particular…

  9. Recommendation with Contextual Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jia

    2014-01-01

    Information retrieval (IR) systems have tremendously broaden users' access to information. However, users need to select their needs from trillions of information indexed daily. Due to the "semantic gap" between queries and indexed terms in IR system, whether users can satisfy their needs depends on whether they use the correct terms as…

  10. The Information Search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doraiswamy, Uma

    2011-01-01

    This paper in the form of story discusses a college student's information search process. In this story we see Kuhlthau's information search process: initiation, selection, exploration, formulation, collection, and presentation. Katie is a student who goes in search of information for her class research paper. Katie's class readings, her interest…

  11. Geothermal Greenhouse Information Package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafferty, K. [P.E.; Boyd, T. [ed.

    1997-01-01

    This package of information is intended to provide a foundation of background information for developers of geothermal greenhouses. The material is divided into seven sections covering such issues as crop culture and prices, operating costs for greenhouses, heating system design, vendors and a list of other sources of information.

  12. Ethics of Information Supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppenheim, Charles

    This discussion of the ethics of the information process provides a brief review of the process of information supply and flow, primarily in science and technology; looks at various points in the flow of information; and highlights particular ethical concerns. Facets of the process discussed in more detail include ways in which some scientists…

  13. Museums, Environments, Information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koutamanis, A.

    2015-01-01

    Modern digital media already permeate the physical world. The portability of information devices and the ubiquity of networks allow us to access information practically anyplace, creating digital overlays on reality. This also allows us to bring information we routinely archive in museums and

  14. Evaluating Health Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millions of consumers get health information from magazines, TV or the Internet. Some of the information is reliable and up to date; some is not. How can ... the site have an editorial board? Is the information reviewed before it is posted? Be skeptical. Things ...

  15. Is Information Still Relevant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Lia

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The term "information" in information science does not share the characteristics of those of a nomenclature: it does not bear a generally accepted definition and it does not serve as the bases and assumptions for research studies. As the data deluge has arrived, is the concept of information still relevant for information…

  16. Information Architecture: Looking Ahead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfeld, Louis

    2002-01-01

    Considers the future of the field of information architecture. Highlights include a comparison with the growth of the field of professional management; the design of information systems since the Web; more demanding users; the need for an interdisciplinary approach; and how to define information architecture. (LRW)

  17. Information network architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, N. D.

    1985-01-01

    Graphs, charts, diagrams and outlines of information relative to information network architectures for advanced aerospace missions, such as the Space Station, are presented. Local area information networks are considered a likely technology solution. The principle needs for the network are listed.

  18. Energy information directory 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    The National Energy Information Center provides energy information and referral assistance to Federal, State, and local governments, the academic community, business and industrial organizations, and the general public. This Energy Information Directory is used to assist the Center staff as well as other DOE staff in directing inquires to the proper offices.

  19. Information technology ethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hongladarom, Soraj; Ess, Charles

    This book was the first publication to take a genuinely global approach to the diverse ethical issues evoked by Information and Communication Technologies and their possible resolutions. Readers will gain a greater appreciation for the problems and possibilities of genuinely global information...... ethics, which are urgently needed as information and communication technologies continue their exponential growth...

  20. Methods of information processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kosarev, Yu G; Gusev, V D

    1978-01-01

    Works are presented on automation systems for editing and publishing operations by methods of processing symbol information and information contained in training selection (ranking of objectives by promise, classification algorithm of tones and noise). The book will be of interest to specialists in the automation of processing textural information, programming, and pattern recognition.

  1. Information, Precedent, and Statute

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O. Yalnazov (Orlin)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractI compare precedent and statute in cost-effectiveness terms. To make laws, a lawmaker needs information. Information has a cost. That cost is sensitive to the choice of law production technology. The orthodoxy is that the courts acquire information more cheaply. Litigants volunteer it in

  2. Personal, Anticipated Information Need

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Harry

    2005-01-01

    Background: The role of personal information collections is a well known feature of personal information management. The World Wide Web has introduced to such collections ideas such as filing Web pages or noting their existence in "Bookmarks" and "Favourites". Argument: It is suggested that personal information collections are…

  3. Mobile Student Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asif, Muhammad; Krogstie, John

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: A mobile student information system (MSIS) based on mobile computing and context-aware application concepts can provide more user-centric information services to students. The purpose of this paper is to describe a system for providing relevant information to students on a mobile platform. Design/methodology/approach: The research…

  4. Lofar information system design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valentijn, E.; Belikov, A. N.

    2009-01-01

    The Lofar Information System is a solution for Lofar Long Term Archive that is capable to store and handle PBs of raw and processed data. The newly created information system is based on Astro-WISE - the information system for wide field astronomy. We review an adaptation of Astro-WISE for the new

  5. Information system metaphors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gazendam, H.W.M.

    1999-01-01

    Metaphors are useful because they are efficient: they transfer a complex of meaning in a few words. Information systems are social constructs. Therefore, metaphors seem to be especially useful for explaining the space of possible meaning complexes or designs of information systems. Three information

  6. Does Information Change Behavior?

    OpenAIRE

    Huffman, Wallace

    2009-01-01

    This paper reviews and synthesizes the theory of information economics and empirical evidence on how information changes the behavior of consumers, households and firms. I show that consumers respond to new information in food experiments but perhaps not in retirement account management. Some seeming perverse consumer/investor decision making may be a result of a complex decision with a low expected payoff.

  7. Information manager vol 10

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Library _info_Sc_ 1

    The Perception of Librarians As Sources Of Information On HIV/AIDS By ... the librarian is confined to the library. ... is to offer information services that can assist information users to meet their needs at the right time and in the right format. ... relationships (Sande and Volbering,1992). ..... Education for Students: A Proposal for.

  8. Dynamic statistical information theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    In recent years we extended Shannon static statistical information theory to dynamic processes and established a Shannon dynamic statistical information theory, whose core is the evolution law of dynamic entropy and dynamic information. We also proposed a corresponding Boltzmman dynamic statistical information theory. Based on the fact that the state variable evolution equation of respective dynamic systems, i.e. Fokker-Planck equation and Liouville diffusion equation can be regarded as their information symbol evolution equation, we derived the nonlinear evolution equations of Shannon dynamic entropy density and dynamic information density and the nonlinear evolution equations of Boltzmann dynamic entropy density and dynamic information density, that describe respectively the evolution law of dynamic entropy and dynamic information. The evolution equations of these two kinds of dynamic entropies and dynamic informations show in unison that the time rate of change of dynamic entropy densities is caused by their drift, diffusion and production in state variable space inside the systems and coordinate space in the transmission processes; and that the time rate of change of dynamic information densities originates from their drift, diffusion and dissipation in state variable space inside the systems and coordinate space in the transmission processes. Entropy and information have been combined with the state and its law of motion of the systems. Furthermore we presented the formulas of two kinds of entropy production rates and information dissipation rates, the expressions of two kinds of drift information flows and diffusion information flows. We proved that two kinds of information dissipation rates (or the decrease rates of the total information) were equal to their corresponding entropy production rates (or the increase rates of the total entropy) in the same dynamic system. We obtained the formulas of two kinds of dynamic mutual informations and dynamic channel

  9. Information society studies

    CERN Document Server

    Duff, Alistair S

    2013-01-01

    We are often told that we are ""living in an information society"" or that we are ""information workers."" But what exactly do these claims mean, and how might they be verified? In this important methodological study, Alistair S. Duff cuts through the rhetoric to get to the bottom of the ""information society thesis."" Wide-ranging in coverage, this study will be of interest to scholars in information science, communication and media studies and social theory. It is a key text for the newly-unified specialism of information society studies, and an indispensable guide to the future of this disc

  10. Management of information organizations

    CERN Document Server

    Afzal, Waseem

    2012-01-01

    This book is a significant step towards developing a body of management knowledge pertinent to the context of Library Information Science (LIS) and provides a succinct but deep account of management and information organizations. Management of Information Organizations presents a broad view of the information organizations and the nature of management in these organizations, and how information professionals are affected by such management systems. The book equips the reader with the knowledge that will enable them to develop a strong intellectual foundation relating to management and its mani

  11. The Information Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiranya Nath

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This article briefly discusses various definitions and concepts of the so-called information society. The term information society has been proposed to refer to the post-industrial society in which information plays a pivotal role. The definitions that have been proposed over the years highlight five underlying characterisations of an information society: technological, economic, sociological, spatial, and cultural. This article discusses those characteristics. While the emergence of an information society may be just a figment of one’s imagination, the concept could be a good organising principle to describe and analyse the changes of the past 50 years and of the future in the 21st century.

  12. Information behaviour and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Rafferty, Pauline; Baker, David

    2015-01-01

    This special issue explores information behaviour and practice in general, and specifically focuses on the implications for library and information services. Information seeking behaviour and information practice remain areas of importance in information science and librarianship, perhaps even more so in the digital age. This special issue is an opportunity to share ideas and scholarship and to explore models and methods. The papers chosen for inclusion cover a range of topics and approach them from a number of different epistemological and methodological positions demonstrating the liveliness

  13. Nuclear Information Democratization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savić, Dobrica

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear information (Nl) interests people for many reasons, with energy supply, safety, and security being at the top of the list. Democratizing nuclear information has its roots in the growth of a knowledge-based economy, the knowledge worker as a user of nuclear information, developments in information and communication technologies (ICT), and the impact of internet growth. Results of democratization are apparent in the process of information creation, in how nuclear information is distributed and accessed, and in the conditions for using the information found. The International Nuclear Information System (INIS) both reflects and contributes to these trends. Nuclear information falls under the overall umbrella of scientific and technical information (STI). It is highly specialized, but it follows general principles and trends of STI. The world of STI has its own culture and its own long-established rules of use and existence. These have brought us many inventions and improvements, introduced important technological changes, and made our lives and work much easier and more pleasurable. However, the world is constantly changing, and the traditional closed STI environment, including the world of nuclear information, is not keeping up with today’s changes. (author)

  14. Informed Consent in Dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Kevin I

    2017-03-01

    A review of literature regarding informed consent in dentistry reveals a paucity of information and minimal scholarship devoted to this subject. But this begs the question about informed consent somehow being different for dentistry than for medicine or other healthcare delivery. My account draws distinctions where appropriate but is rooted in the premise that informed consent is an ethical construct applicable to vulnerable people as patients independent of what type of treatment or body part being considered. This paper highlights the crucial importance of the process of informed consent and refusal in dentistry, underscoring its important place in oral healthcare. This paper will not address the unique circumstances involving consent in those without capacity or focus on informed consent in the research setting; our focus will be on those patients with full decisionmaking capacity in the clinical setting. I will emphasize the importance of disclosure of treatment options and highlight the benefits of shared-decision-making in the informed consent process.

  15. Shipping Information Pipeline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas

    to creating a more efficient shipping industry, and a number of critical issues are identified. These include that shipments depend on shipping information, that shipments often are delayed due to issues with documentation, that EDI messages account for only a minor part of the needed information......This thesis applies theoretical perspectives from the Information Systems (IS) research field to propose how Information Technology (IT) can improve containerized shipping. This question is addressed by developing a set of design principles for an information infrastructure for sharing shipping...... information named the Shipping Information Pipeline (SIP). Review of the literature revealed that IS research prescribed a set of meta-design principles, including digitalization and digital collaboration by implementation of Inter-Organizational Systems based on Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) messages...

  16. Information Impact: Journal of Information and Knowledge ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Analytical study on availability of information and communication technology facilities in selected Nigerian university libraries · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. William O. Nkanu, Ebong N. Nkebem, Victoria A. Iyishu, Christopher E. Ogar ...

  17. Information Assurance and the Information Society

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luiijf, H.A.M.

    1998-01-01

    Society is on the verge of a new era: the information age. Economical changes, a new way of looking at services and new types of conflict are forecasted. Some glimpses of these changes were noticed during the Persian Gulf War. Government decision units, organisations, society and critical industries

  18. Information Impact: Journal of Information and Knowledge ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Information Impact: Journal of Information and Knowledge management

    Five (5) research questions guided the study and three hypotheses were tested at 0.05 level of ... key factor of knowledge management is knowledge sharing. ... difference has been recorded in terms of skills acquisition, information literacy, classroom ... However, little is known about knowledge-sharing strategies and their ...

  19. Application of information technology infrastructure in information ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated the application of infotech infrastructure in information processing for enhancing workplace safety in Rivers State. In view of this, the study was a research survey design. The population of the study comprised 600 oil company workers in Rivers State. A-30% basis was used to randomly select the ...

  20. Information Impact: Journal of Information and Knowledge ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Contributions of agriculture and veterinary complex of Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria to the dissemination of agricultural information: a bibliometric analysis · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Gabriel M. Kasa, Ibrahim Umar, Maimuna Izah, 51-59 ...

  1. Information Impact | Journal of Information and Knowledge ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Information Impact | Journal of Information and Knowledge Management

    the students was not library and information science they all had their career prior their ... boils down to a career decision-making process”. That is .... choose secretarial option do so on the account of their failure to be registered in accounting.

  2. Information Assurance and the Information Society

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luiijf, H.A.M.

    1999-01-01

    Society is on the verge of a new era: the information age. Economical changes, a new way of looking at services and new types of conflict are forecasted. Some glimpses of these changes were noticed during the Persian Gulf War. Government decision units, organisations, society and critical industries

  3. Information Management: Enhancing Information Discovery and Information Availability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nimfuehr, W.

    2015-01-01

    IBM Security Intelligence with Analytics of massive data provides exceptional threat and risk detection, combining deep security expertise with analytical insights on a massive scale. For forward-leaning organizations seeking advanced insight into security risks, the IBM solution -- Security Intelligence Platform for massive data -- provides a comprehensive, integrated approach that combines real-time correlation for continuous insight, custom analytics across massive structured and unstructured data, and forensic capabilities for irrefutable evidence. The combination can help you address advanced persistent threats, fraud and insider threats. The IBM solution is designed to widening the scope and scale of investigation, enabling analyzes of any kind of data in any format, such as DNS transactions or full packet capture data to find malicious activity hidden deep in the masses of an organization's data. IBMWatson Explorer provides a unified view displaying all of security relevant information in a portal-like UI. The information analytics system is built around AQL (Annotated query language), a declarative rule language with a familiar SQL-like syntax. AQL supports the paradigm describing data for data with an optional data governance catalogue for massive volumes of data supporting individual views in addition to the pre-defined Document view that holds the textual and label content. An underlying Role-Based Access Control that data protection rules are strictly enforced within the whole architecture. Security at the document, sub-document and record level is built intoWatson Explorer. When Watson Explorer security is implemented, users cannot see information that they would be prohibited from seeing if they were directly logged into the target system. (author)

  4. Information Asymmetry in Federations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Mikhailovich Libman

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates the problems of information transmission between levels of government in a federal state. The central government in a federation typically faces serious difficulties while collecting information on economic and political situation in the regions. There are two types of problems: lack of incentives for the regions to accurately collect information and strategic manipulation of information, which are discussed in the paper along with possible solutions. In particular, overcoming information asymmetry would require the development of national parties or informal coalitions of bureaucrats and politicians of the center and of the regions, creating incentives for regional politicians to back the successful functioning of the federal level. Furthermore, the paper discusses the issue of «informal decentralization», which emerges as a result of information asymmetry, and its consequences for the functioning of a federal state, including both advantages and disadvantages. We conclude that under information asymmetry the organization of the federation will inevitably turn into an issue of permanent negotiations and bargaining between the center and the regions, which functions as the information acquisition tool for optimal allocation of authorities in a federation

  5. 75 FR 28777 - Information Collection; Financial Information Security Request Form

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-24

    ... Collection; Financial Information Security Request Form AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice; Request... currently approved information collection; Financial Information Security Request Form. DATES: Comments must... Standard Time, Monday through Friday. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Financial Information Security...

  6. Information barriers and authentication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacArthur, D.W.; Wolford, J.K.

    2001-01-01

    Acceptance of nuclear materials into a monitoring regime is complicated if the materials are in classified shapes or have classified composition. An attribute measurement system with an information barrier can be emplo,yed to generate an unclassified display from classified measurements. This information barrier must meet two criteria: (1) classified information cannot be released to the monitoring party, and (2) the monitoring party must be convinced that the unclassified output accurately represents the classified input. Criterion 1 is critical to the host country to protect the classified information. Criterion 2 is critical to the monitoring party and is often termed the 'authentication problem.' Thus, the necessity for authentication of a measurement system with an information barrier stems directly from the description of a useful information barrier. Authentication issues must be continually addressed during the entire development lifecycle of the measurement system as opposed to being applied only after the system is built.

  7. COMPETITIVENESS THROUGH INFORMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca Daniela RIZEA

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Intelligence competitiveness has already started to build its road in the company’s long term strategies. Nonetheless, business executives continue to look for ways to apply information technology strategically to their businesses. Using information managers manage to communicate, to convey their knowledge about markets, competitors, products, services and operations. Even if data and information are all over there are few amounts of managers that realize the importance of them to the success of the business. This article will review competitive forces and competitive information systems strategies for gaining competitive advantages, explain concepts of value chain, value co-opetition (competition and cooperation, and discuss innovation strategy. Co-opetition is a strategy whereby companies cooperate and compete at the same time with their competitors, complementors (i.e. hardware and software businesses, customers, suppliers. The article discuss an important dimension of information system, identifies competitive advantages and enhancing competitive strategies thought information systems.

  8. What constitutes information integrity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Flowerday

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This research focused on what constitutes information integrity as this is a problem facing companies today. Moreover, information integrity is a pillar of information security and is required in order to have a sound security management programme. However, it is acknowledged that 100% information integrity is not currently achievable due to various limitations and therefore the auditing concept of reasonable assurance is adopted. This is in line with the concept that 100% information security is not achievable and the notion that adequate security is the goal, using appropriate countermeasures. The main contribution of this article is to illustrate the importance of and provide a macro view of what constitutes information integrity. The findings are in harmony with Samuel Johnson's words (1751: 'Integrity without knowledge is weak and useless, and knowledge without integrity is dangerous and dreadful.'

  9. What constitutes information integrity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Flowerday

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This research focused on what constitutes information integrity as this is a problem facing companies today. Moreover, information integrity is a pillar of information security and is required in order to have a sound security management programme. However, it is acknowledged that 100% information integrity is not currently achievable due to various limitations and therefore the auditing concept of reasonable assurance is adopted. This is in line with the concept that 100% information security is not achievable and the notion that adequate security is the goal, using appropriate countermeasures. The main contribution of this article is to illustrate the importance of and provide a macro view of what constitutes information integrity. The findings are in harmony with Samuel Johnson's words (1751: 'Integrity without knowledge is weak and useless, and knowledge without integrity is dangerous and dreadful.'

  10. Metric adjusted skew information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Frank

    2008-01-01

    ) that vanishes for observables commuting with the state. We show that the skew information is a convex function on the manifold of states. It also satisfies other requirements, proposed by Wigner and Yanase, for an effective measure-of-information content of a state relative to a conserved observable. We...... establish a connection between the geometrical formulation of quantum statistics as proposed by Chentsov and Morozova and measures of quantum information as introduced by Wigner and Yanase and extended in this article. We show that the set of normalized Morozova-Chentsov functions describing the possible......We extend the concept of Wigner-Yanase-Dyson skew information to something we call "metric adjusted skew information" (of a state with respect to a conserved observable). This "skew information" is intended to be a non-negative quantity bounded by the variance (of an observable in a state...

  11. Information services directory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-05-01

    This Directory will facilitate dissemination of information. It is a reference document that lists the sources of program information available to the states, Indian Tribes, and the public. Chapter 1 describes current program information sources produced by OCRWM and by DOE's Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI). Chapter 2 provides a directory of OCRWM and DOE technical information, and includes descriptions of computerized data bases and other resources. Chapter 3 is an index of OCRWM Headquarters and Project Office contacts, as well as state and Indian Tribe contacts. Chapter 4 enumerates Congressional Committees and Subcommittees that have jurisdiction over various components of the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program, and Chapter 5 lists DOE reading rooms, as well as information offices and the public libraries in affected states that are on one or more of OCRWM's mailing lists

  12. Quantum biological information theory

    CERN Document Server

    Djordjevic, Ivan B

    2016-01-01

    This book is a self-contained, tutorial-based introduction to quantum information theory and quantum biology. It serves as a single-source reference to the topic for researchers in bioengineering, communications engineering, electrical engineering, applied mathematics, biology, computer science, and physics. The book provides all the essential principles of the quantum biological information theory required to describe the quantum information transfer from DNA to proteins, the sources of genetic noise and genetic errors as well as their effects. Integrates quantum information and quantum biology concepts; Assumes only knowledge of basic concepts of vector algebra at undergraduate level; Provides a thorough introduction to basic concepts of quantum information processing, quantum information theory, and quantum biology; Includes in-depth discussion of the quantum biological channel modelling, quantum biological channel capacity calculation, quantum models of aging, quantum models of evolution, quantum models o...

  13. Accident management information needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanson, D.J.; Ward, L.W.; Nelson, W.R.; Meyer, O.R.

    1990-04-01

    The tables contained in this Appendix A describe the information needs for a pressurized water reactor (PWR) with a large, dry containment. To identify these information needs, the branch points in the safety objective trees were examined to decide what information is necessary to (a) determine the status of the safety functions in the plant, i.e., whether the safety functions are being adequately maintained within predetermined limits, (b) identify plant behavior (mechanisms) or precursors to this behavior which indicate that a challenge to plant safety is occurring or is imminent, and (c) select strategies that will prevent or mitigate this plant behavior and monitor the implementation and effectiveness of these strategies. The information needs for the challenges to the safety functions are not examined since the summation of the information needs for all mechanisms associated with a challenge comprise the information needs for the challenge itself

  14. Accident management information needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanson, D.J.; Ward, L.W.; Nelson, W.R.; Meyer, O.R. (EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (USA))

    1990-04-01

    The tables contained in this Appendix A describe the information needs for a pressurized water reactor (PWR) with a large, dry containment. To identify these information needs, the branch points in the safety objective trees were examined to decide what information is necessary to (a) determine the status of the safety functions in the plant, i.e., whether the safety functions are being adequately maintained within predetermined limits, (b) identify plant behavior (mechanisms) or precursors to this behavior which indicate that a challenge to plant safety is occurring or is imminent, and (c) select strategies that will prevent or mitigate this plant behavior and monitor the implementation and effectiveness of these strategies. The information needs for the challenges to the safety functions are not examined since the summation of the information needs for all mechanisms associated with a challenge comprise the information needs for the challenge itself.

  15. We inform you, you inform us

    CERN Multimedia

    Association du personnel

    2008-01-01

    Our September information meetings have ended and we thank the many people who came. This will allow us to start an extremely useful dialogue that we will continue with the survey announced at these meetings, which is now available. We invite all CERN staff members to reply to this questionnaire to enable us to have an accurate picture of your expectations and wishes with respect to the evolution of social and employment policies.

  16. Information, Technology, and Information Worker Productivity

    OpenAIRE

    Aral, Sinan; Brynjolfsson, Erik; Van Alstyne, Marshall

    2009-01-01

    We econometrically evaluate information worker productivity at a midsize executive recruiting firm and assess whether the knowledge that workers accessed through their electronic communication networks enabled them to multitask more productively. We estimate dynamic panel data models of multitasking, knowledge networks, and productivity using several types of micro-level data: (a) direct observation of more than 125,000 email messages over a period of 10 months; (b) detailed accounting data o...

  17. Medical Information Security

    OpenAIRE

    William C. Figg, Ph.D.; Hwee Joo Kam, M.S.

    2011-01-01

    Modern medicine is facing a complex environment, not from medical technology but rather government regulations and information vulnerability. HIPPA is the government’s attempt to protect patient’s information yet this only addresses traditional record handling. The main threat is from the evolving security issues. Many medical offices and facilities have multiple areas of information security concerns. Physical security is often weak, office personnel are not always aware of security needs an...

  18. Formalized Informal Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levinsen, Karin Tweddell; Sørensen, Birgitte Holm

    2013-01-01

    are examined and the relation between network society competences, learners’ informal learning strategies and ICT in formalized school settings over time is studied. The authors find that aspects of ICT like multimodality, intuitive interaction design and instant feedback invites an informal bricoleur approach....... When integrated into certain designs for teaching and learning, this allows for Formalized Informal Learning and support is found for network society competences building....

  19. Quality of Information

    OpenAIRE

    Christensen, Leif

    2016-01-01

    Accounting and auditing is closely related to the quality of data. Two important elements supporting the quality of information are internal controls and materiality. Inspired by Simons (1994), these elements can be considered “basic building blocks”. Internal controls are perhaps the most important element, as they ensure that information used for management purposes has the required quality (Kinney, 2000). This information can be used as a basis for preparing the external ...

  20. Design information verification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, Shirley

    2001-01-01

    The paper provides the bases to complete a Design Information Questionnaire (DIQ) for a research reactor. The IAEA requirements for provision of design information for nuclear facility is described. The role of the provided information for the development of the safeguards approach and for planning of the IAEA's general inspection program for a specific facility is emphasized. Content and preparation of the IAEA DIQ by the State is presented

  1. Information security fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Peltier, Thomas R

    2013-01-01

    Developing an information security program that adheres to the principle of security as a business enabler must be the first step in an enterprise's effort to build an effective security program. Following in the footsteps of its bestselling predecessor, Information Security Fundamentals, Second Edition provides information security professionals with a clear understanding of the fundamentals of security required to address the range of issues they will experience in the field.The book examines the elements of computer security, employee roles and r

  2. Management Information Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Furduescu Bogdan-Alexandru

    2017-01-01

    Technology is the science that studies processes, methods and operations run or applied onto raw materials, matters or data, in order to obtain a certain product. Information is the material signal able to launch a material reaction of a dynamic auto-tuning system for which the system is conditioned and finalized. Information Technology is the technology needed for handling (procuring, processing, storing converting and transmitting) information, in particular, with the use of computers [Long...

  3. Management Information Systems Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Research on management information systems is illusive in many respects. Part of the basic research problem in MIS stems from the absence of standard...decision making. But the transition from these results to the realization of ’satisfactory’ management information systems remains difficult indeed. The...paper discusses several aspects of research on management information systems and reviews a selection of efforts that appear significant for future progress. (Author)

  4. 2001 Industry Studies: Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    increasingly demand communications, computers, and software for use in the Internet , intranets, and extranets. Information technology (IT) - enabled...As the number of Internet users increases, so does the demand for the rapid deployment of information and telecommunication technologies . The key...proliferation has become uncontrollable. Only then will the US maintain the lead in the IT market . 13 ESSAYS ON MAJOR ISSUES ISSUE: THE INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY

  5. Framing Information Literacy

    OpenAIRE

    Anneke Dirkx

    2016-01-01

    In 2000 the Association of College & Research Libraries (ACRL) published the Standards for Information Literacy. After 15 years these standards were in desperate need of revision. Instead of releasing a revised edition of the Standards, in 2015 ACRL presented a completely new vision on information literacy in higher education. In this keynote we will explore the new ACRL Framework for Information Literacy in all its glory. We will compare it to the old standards. Is this new American Fram...

  6. IAEA safeguards information system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nardi, J.

    1984-01-01

    The basic concepts, structure, and operation of the Agency Safeguards Information System is discussed with respect to its role in accomplishing the overall objectives of safeguards. The basis and purposes of the Agency's information system, the structure and flow of information within the Agency's system, the relationship of the components is the Agency system, the requirements of Member States in respect of their reporting to the Agency, and the relationship of accounting data vis-a-vis facility and inspection data are described

  7. Information Needs/Relevance

    OpenAIRE

    Wildemuth, Barbara M.

    2009-01-01

    A user's interaction with a DL is often initiated as the result of the user experiencing an information need of some kind. Aspects of that experience and how it might affect the user's interactions with the DL are discussed in this module. In addition, users continuously make decisions about and evaluations of the materials retrieved from a DL, relative to their information needs. Relevance judgments, and their relationship to the user's information needs, are discussed in this module. Draft

  8. HOPE information system review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Yoshiaki; Nishiyama, Kenji; Ono, Shuuji; Fukuda, Kouin

    1992-08-01

    An overview of the review conducted on H-2 Orbiting Plane (HOPE) is presented. A prototype model was constructed by inputting various technical information proposed by related laboratories. Especially operation flow which enables understanding of correlation between various analysis items, judgement criteria, technical data, and interfaces with others was constructed. Technical information data base and retrieval systems were studied. A Macintosh personal computer was selected for information shaping because of its excellent function, performance, operability, and software completeness.

  9. Geometric theory of information

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    This book brings together geometric tools and their applications for Information analysis. It collects current and many uses of in the interdisciplinary fields of Information Geometry Manifolds in Advanced Signal, Image & Video Processing, Complex Data Modeling and Analysis, Information Ranking and Retrieval, Coding, Cognitive Systems, Optimal Control, Statistics on Manifolds, Machine Learning, Speech/sound recognition, and natural language treatment which are also substantially relevant for the industry.

  10. Future of information architecture

    CERN Document Server

    Baofu, Peter

    2008-01-01

    The Future of Information Architecture examines issues surrounding why information is processed, stored and applied in the way that it has, since time immemorial. Contrary to the conventional wisdom held by many scholars in human history, the recurrent debate on the explanation of the most basic categories of information (eg space, time causation, quality, quantity) has been misconstrued, to the effect that there exists some deeper categories and principles behind these categories of information - with enormous implications for our understanding of reality in general. To understand this, the b

  11. Teaching information seeking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Limberg

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The article argues for a closer association between information seeking research and the practices of teaching information seeking. Findings are presented from a research project on information seeking, didactics and learning (IDOL investigating librarians' and teachers' experiences of teaching information seeking. Method. Thirteen teachers and five librarians, teaching 12-19 year-old students in three schools, participated. Forty-five interviews were conducted over a period of three years. Analysis. The IDOL project adopted a phenomenographic approach with the purpose of describing patterns of variation in experiences. The findings were also analysed by way of relating them to four competing approaches to the mediation of information literacy. Results. A gap was identified between experiences of teaching content that focused on sources and order, and experiences of assessment criteria applied to students' work that focused on the importance of correct facts and the analysis of information. These findings indicate a highly restricted range of teaching contents when compared with the four theoretical approaches to the mediation of information literacy. Conclusion. Teaching information seeking might be enhanced by a wider repertoire of contents reflecting more varied theoretical understanding developed in information seeking research, particularly as regards the importance of content and context related to user perspectives.

  12. Brownfields Site Information

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This asset contains all Brownfield facility data. It includes all information necessary to track Brownfields grant recipients' environmental progress at Brownfield...

  13. Credential Application Awaiting Information

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — When a Credential application or required documentation is incomplete, an Awaiting Information letter is issued. The application process cannot continue until all...

  14. Information management for clinicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Neil B; Martin, Stephen A; Maypole, Jack; Andrews, Rebecca

    2016-08-01

    Clinicians are bombarded with information daily by social media, mainstream television news, e-mail, and print and online reports. They usually do not have much control over these information streams and thus are passive recipients, which means they get more noise than signal. Accessing, absorbing, organizing, storing, and retrieving useful medical information can improve patient care. The authors outline how to create a personalized stream of relevant information that can be scanned regularly and saved so that it is readily accessible. Copyright © 2016 Cleveland Clinic.

  15. Airports Geographic Information System -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Airports Geographic Information System maintains the airport and aeronautical data required to meet the demands of the Next Generation National Airspace System....

  16. Quantification of informed opinion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasmuson, D.M.

    1985-01-01

    The objective of this session, Quantification of Informed Opinion, is to provide the statistician with a better understanding of this important area. The NRC uses informed opinion, sometimes called engineering judgment or subjective judgment, in many areas. Sometimes informed opinion is the only source of information that exists, especially in phenomenological areas, such as steam explosions, where experiments are costly and phenomena are very difficult to measure. There are many degrees of informed opinion. These vary from the weatherman who makes predictions concerning relatively high probability events with a large data base to the phenomenological expert who must use his intuition tempered with basic knowledge and little or no measured data to predict the behavior of events with a low probability of occurrence. The first paper in this session provides the reader with an overview of the subject area. The second paper provides some aspects that must be considered in the collection of informed opinion to improve the quality of the information. The final paper contains an example of the use of informed opinion in the area of seismic hazard characterization. These papers should be useful to researchers and statisticians who need to collect and use informed opinion in their work

  17. Advanced information society (10)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuyama, Keiichi

    Informationalization in Japan has spread among various fields of industrial and social life in wide and depth by drastic advancement in technology and networking. Looking at the change in industrial structure as well as international trend in information the Japanese Government regards the role of information and communication technology as infrastructure to be important, and is under the way of constructing various measures with ministries and agencies concerned with them. This paper describes how administrative agencies involved in information and communication such as Ministry of Postal Services, Ministry of International Trade and Industry cope with informationalization, and mentions future direction in information policies.

  18. Carbon Monoxide Information Center

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Regulations, Laws & Standards Research & Statistics Business & Manufacturing Small Business ... Performances & Finance Open Government Freedom of Information (FOIA) Inspector General ...

  19. Introduction to information science

    CERN Document Server

    Bawden, David

    2012-01-01

    This landmark textbook takes a whole subject approach to Information Science as a discipline. Introduced by leading international scholars and offering a global perspective on the discipline, this is designed to be the standard text for students worldwide. The authors' expert narrative guides you through each of the essential building blocks of information science offering a concise introduction and expertly chosen further reading and resources.Critical topics covered include:foundations: concepts, theories and historical perspectivesorganising and retrieving Information information behaviour,

  20. Information security management handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Tipton, Harold F

    2003-01-01

    Since 1993, the Information Security Management Handbook has served not only as an everyday reference for information security practitioners but also as an important document for conducting the intense review necessary to prepare for the Certified Information System Security Professional (CISSP) examination. Now completely revised and updated and in its fifth edition, the handbook maps the ten domains of the Information Security Common Body of Knowledge and provides a complete understanding of all the items in it. This is a ...must have... book, both for preparing for the CISSP exam and as a c

  1. Health Information Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirintrapun, S Joseph; Artz, David R

    2015-06-01

    This article provides surgical pathologists an overview of health information systems (HISs): what they are, what they do, and how such systems relate to the practice of surgical pathology. Much of this article is dedicated to the electronic medical record. Information, in how it is captured, transmitted, and conveyed, drives the effectiveness of such electronic medical record functionalities. So critical is information from pathology in integrated clinical care that surgical pathologists are becoming gatekeepers of not only tissue but also information. Better understanding of HISs can empower surgical pathologists to become stakeholders who have an impact on the future direction of quality integrated clinical care. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Quantum information processing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Leuchs, Gerd; Beth, Thomas

    2003-01-01

    ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.5 SimulationofHamiltonians... References... 1 1 1 3 5 8 10 2 Quantum Information Processing and Error Correction with Jump Codes (G. Alber, M. Mussinger...

  3. EDIS Investigation Filing Information

    Data.gov (United States)

    US International Trade Commission — This dataset contains investigation, document and attachment metadata from the USITC's Electronic Document Information System (EDIS), as well as access to attached...

  4. Car monitoring information systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alica KALAŠOVÁ

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this contribution is to characterize alternatives of information systems used for managing, processing and evaluation of information related to company vehicles. Especially we focus on logging, transferring and processing of on-road vehicle movement information in inland and international transportation. This segment of company information system has to monitor the car movement – actively or passively – according to demand of the company and after the processing it has to evaluate and give the complex monitoring of a situation of all the company vehicles to the controller.

  5. Information, conservation and retrieval

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eng, T [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden); Norberg, E [National Swedish Archives, Stockholm (Sweden); Torbacke, J [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of History; Jensen, M [Swedish Radiation Protection Inst., Stockholm (Sweden)

    1996-12-01

    The seminar took place on the Swedish ship for transportation of radioactive wastes, M/S Sigyn, which at summer time is used for exhibitions. The seminar treated items related to general information needs in society and questions related to radioactive waste, i.e. how knowledge about a waste repository should be passed on to future generations. Three contributions are contained in the report from the seminar and are indexed separately: `Active preservation - otherwise no achieves`; `The conservation and dissemination of information - A democratic issue`; and, `Conservation and retrieval of information - Elements of a strategy to inform future societies about nuclear waste repositories`.

  6. Sustainability of scholarly information

    CERN Document Server

    Chowdhury, G G

    2015-01-01

    Professor Gobinda Chowdhury BSc Hons, MSc, PhD, FCLIP is Professor in Information Science at iSchool@northumbria, and Head of the Department of Mathematics and Information Sciences at Northumbria University. Before joining Northumbria University he was a Professor and Director of the Centre for Information and Knowledge Management at the University of Technology Sydney, Australia. For over 25 years he has worked as an academic and researcher in information science in different parts of the world including Asia, Africa, Europe and Australia. For the past few years he has been actively involved

  7. Integrated Information Management (IIM)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McIlvain, Jason

    2007-01-01

    Information Technology is the core capability required to align our resources and increase our effectiveness on the battlefield by integrating and coordinating our preventative measures and responses...

  8. Information, conservation and retrieval

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eng, T.; Norberg, E.; Torbacke, J.

    1996-12-01

    The seminar took place on the Swedish ship for transportation of radioactive wastes, M/S Sigyn, which at summer time is used for exhibitions. The seminar treated items related to general information needs in society and questions related to radioactive waste, i.e. how knowledge about a waste repository should be passed on to future generations. Three contributions are contained in the report from the seminar and are indexed separately: 'Active preservation - otherwise no achieves'; 'The conservation and dissemination of information - A democratic issue'; and, 'Conservation and retrieval of information - Elements of a strategy to inform future societies about nuclear waste repositories'

  9. Fundamentals of quantum information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeilinger, A.

    1998-01-01

    The fact that information is physical means that the laws of quantum mechanics can be used to process and transmit it in ways that are not possible with existing systems. Ever since its invention in the 1920s, quantum physics has given rise to countless discussions about its meaning and about how to interpret the theory correctly. These discussions focus on issues like the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paradox, quantum non-locality and the role of measurement in quantum physics. In recent years, however, research into the very foundations of quantum mechanics has also led to a new field quantum information technology. The use of quantum physics could revolutionize the way we communicate and process information. The important new observation is that information is not independent of the physical laws used to store and processes it (see Landauer in further reading). Although modern computers rely on quantum mechanics to operate, the information itself is still encoded classically. A new approach is to treat information as a quantum concept and to ask what new insights can be gained by encoding this information in individual quantum systems. In other words, what happens when both the transmission and processing of information are governed by quantum laws? (UK)

  10. Carbon Monoxide Information Center

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... main content Languages 简体中文 English Bahasa Indonesia 한국어 Español ภาษาไทย Tiếng Việt Text Size: Decrease Font Increase ... Monoxide Information Center Carbon Monoxide Information Center En Español The Invisible Killer Carbon monoxide, also known as ...

  11. Science and information theory

    CERN Document Server

    Brillouin, Léon

    1962-01-01

    A classic source for exploring the connections between information theory and physics, this text is geared toward upper-level undergraduates and graduate students. The author, a giant of 20th-century mathematics, applies the principles of information theory to a variety of issues, including Maxwell's demon, thermodynamics, and measurement problems. 1962 edition.

  12. Carbon Monoxide Information Center

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Information (FOIA) Inspector General No Fear Act Data USA.gov Report an Unsafe Product Contact Us: 800- ... Budget & Performance Open Government Freedom of Information (FOIA) USA.gov CPSC.gov is the U.S. government's official ...

  13. information manger-2012-editedx

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Library _info_Sc_ 1

    much as possible to exploit the benefits brought by information and communication technologies (ICTs) as an alternative to its services and for easy access, retrieval and dissemination of information to it users. Introduction. The Northern Nigerian area has been one of the earliest regions of West Africa with a literary tradition ...

  14. Archival Information Management System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-02-01

    management system named Archival Information Management System (AIMS), designed to meet the audit trail requirement for studies completed under the...are to be archived to the extent that future reproducibility and interrogation of results will exist. This report presents a prototype information

  15. Anthropology and nuclear information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Nuffelen, D.

    1994-01-01

    In this article is sketched a paradigm which permits to envisage nuclear information as an anthropologic problem. The author modelizes public information by a general theory of exchange. For him the most urgent problem is to refounding the circulation between the different components of social system. 3 figs,. 2 tabs,. 12 refs

  16. Credit Market Information Feedback

    OpenAIRE

    Balasubramanyan, Lakshmi; Craig, Ben R.; Thomson, James B.; Zaman, Saeed

    2015-01-01

    We examine how a combination of credit market and asset quality information can jointly be used in assessing bank franchise value. We find that expectations of future credit demand and future asset quality explain contemporaneous bank franchise value, indicative of the feedback in credit market information and its consequent impact on bank franchise value.

  17. Investigating Music Information Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissenberger, Lynnsey K.

    2016-01-01

    This dissertation, titled "Investigating Music Information Objects," is a study of the nature, description, representations, and ideas related to music information objects (MIOs). This research study investigates how music practitioners from various traditions describe and conceptualize MIOs, using a theoretical framework to classify…

  18. Evolution of information systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Jan

    2000-01-01

    This article offers a dynamic view of continuously changes in a specific informational system illustrated through a case study in a small network company. Central aspects of the evolutionary process will be identified and framed in relation to the informational system change. It will be argued th...

  19. Hybrid quantum information processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furusawa, Akira [Department of Applied Physics, School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo (Japan)

    2014-12-04

    I will briefly explain the definition and advantage of hybrid quantum information processing, which is hybridization of qubit and continuous-variable technologies. The final goal would be realization of universal gate sets both for qubit and continuous-variable quantum information processing with the hybrid technologies. For that purpose, qubit teleportation with a continuousvariable teleporter is one of the most important ingredients.

  20. Summary information report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-07-01

    The Summary Information Report (SIR) provides summary data concerning NRC and its licensees for general use by the Chairman, other Commissioners and Commission staff offices, the Executive Director for Operations, and the Office Directors. SIR is published quarterly by the Management Information Branch (49-27834) of the Office of Resource Management

  1. Lean information management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hammer, D.K.

    1997-01-01

    The concept of a Lean Enterprise has proven to be extremely valuable for making companies fit for today's competitive business environment. Lean Information Management denotes the type of information management that is appropriate for such all organization. According to the paradigm of a Lean

  2. Makerspaces in Informal Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Ryan A.; Antink-Meyer, Allison

    2017-01-01

    The maker movement, with its focus on-hands on learning through creating with familiar materials, has seen growth in both formal and informal learning spaces. This article examines three informal learning spaces that have redesigned their space (or a portion of it) to accommodate several tenets of the maker movement and in various ways have become…

  3. Information security management principles

    CERN Document Server

    Taylor, Andy; Finch, Amanda; Sutton, David; Taylor, Andy

    2013-01-01

    In today's technology-driven environment, there is an ever-increasing demand for information delivery. A compromise has to be struck between security and availability. This book is a pragmatic guide to information assurance for both business professionals and technical experts. This second edition includes the security of cloud-based resources.

  4. Carbon Monoxide Information Center

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... United States government. Website Feedback Connect with Us: Facebook Instagram YouTube Twitter Blog SlideShare GooglePlus Flickr Report an Unsafe Product Subscribe to CPSC News and Information Sitemap RSS E-mail Accessibility Privacy Policy Budget & Performance Open Government Freedom of Information ( ...

  5. Information or communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahms, Mona-Lisa

    2004-01-01

    The paper describes the development in Tanzania, in terms of information and communication technologies and how these developments have influenced people's daily life.......The paper describes the development in Tanzania, in terms of information and communication technologies and how these developments have influenced people's daily life....

  6. Slavery and information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dari-Mattiacci, G.

    2013-01-01

    This article shows how asymmetric information shaped slavery by determining the likelihood of manumission. A theoretical model explains the need to offer positive incentives to slaves working in occupations characterized by a high degree of asymmetric information. As a result, masters freed (and,

  7. Hybrid wars’ information component

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Nevskaya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The war of the new generation - hybrid war, the information component which is directed not so much on the direct destruction of the enemy, how to achieve the goals without warfare. Fighting in the information field is no less important than immediate military action.

  8. Constructor theory of information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutsch, David; Marletto, Chiara

    2015-01-01

    We propose a theory of information expressed solely in terms of which transformations of physical systems are possible and which are impossible—i.e. in constructor-theoretic terms. It includes conjectured, exact laws of physics expressing the regularities that allow information to be physically instantiated. Although these laws are directly about information, independently of the details of particular physical instantiations, information is not regarded as an a priori mathematical or logical concept, but as something whose nature and properties are determined by the laws of physics alone. This theory solves a problem at the foundations of existing information theory, namely that information and distinguishability are each defined in terms of the other. It also explains the relationship between classical and quantum information, and reveals the single, constructor-theoretic property underlying the most distinctive phenomena associated with the latter, including the lack of in-principle distinguishability of some states, the impossibility of cloning, the existence of pairs of variables that cannot simultaneously have sharp values, the fact that measurement processes can be both deterministic and unpredictable, the irreducible perturbation caused by measurement, and locally inaccessible information (as in entangled systems). PMID:25663803

  9. Post-socialist Informalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    to understand and explain informality, while also debating its relationship with the market and society. The authors seek to explain informality beyond a mere monetaristic/economistic approach, rediscovering its interconnection with social phenomena to propose a more holistic interpretation of the meaning...

  10. Information extraction system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemmond, Tracy D; Hanley, William G; Guensche, Joseph Wendell; Perry, Nathan C; Nitao, John J; Kidwell, Paul Brandon; Boakye, Kofi Agyeman; Glaser, Ron E; Prenger, Ryan James

    2014-05-13

    An information extraction system and methods of operating the system are provided. In particular, an information extraction system for performing meta-extraction of named entities of people, organizations, and locations as well as relationships and events from text documents are described herein.

  11. Marketing Information Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seale, Maura

    2013-01-01

    In 2012, more than a decade after the original Association of College and Research Libraries (ACRL) Information Literacy Competency Standards for Higher Education (hereafter the Standards) were institutionalized as the goal of academic library instruction, the Information Literacy Competency Standards Review Task Force convened by ACRL recommended…

  12. Institutionalizing Information Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, Sharon A.

    2012-01-01

    There is increasing recognition that information literacy is essential for individual and community empowerment, workforce readiness, and global competitiveness. However, there is a history of difficulty in integrating information literacy with the postsecondary educational process. This paper posits that a greater understanding of the…

  13. Public information strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waldahl, R.

    1995-01-01

    The Chernobyl accident in 1986 uncovered serious information problems in many Western countries, and started a debate on crisis communication and information strategies in relation to radiation danger in society. The information problem focuses on four main perspectives. The first is related to information as a persuasion process in which an efficient strategy would influence both the public's knowledge of radiation danger, their attitude towards it and their behaviour. The second perspective calls attention to the importance of the different elements of the information process. How important are different characteristics of the information source; the message itself, and the receiver? The third perspective concentrates on different types of information. What is this issue all about, why is the situation as it is, and how should people behave to protect themselves? The fourth perspective points to the various phases of a crisis. The information needed is obviously not the same in the period before a crisis emerges when no one knows what is going to happen, in the warning period when one knows that something may happen, and during the crisis itself. (Author)

  14. The nature of information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tpudlik

    2015-11-01

    In reply to Mark Buchanan's review of César Hidalgo's book How Information Grows (“The wealth of nations”, October pp40-41, http://ow.ly/SlqN3), in which Hidalgo argues that we need an “information-centric” view of economic growth.

  15. ISRIC - World Soil Information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dent, D.L.

    2006-01-01

    ISRICWorld Soil Information is an independent foundation, funded by the Netherlands Government with a mandate to increase knowledge of the land, its soils in particular, and to support the sustainable use of land resources; in short, to help people understand soils. Its aims are to -Inform and

  16. The Information Age?

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacVicar, Margaret L. A.

    1985-01-01

    The author examines the concept of information and how it relates to our future. She discusses the various waves of information about education: the decay of technology and the raid on educational institutions for brainpower made by business and industry, foreign competition, and the quality of education. (CT)

  17. Information Retrieval in Physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herschman, Arthur

    Discussed in this paper are the information problems in physics and the current program of the American Institute of Physics (AIP) being conducted in an attempt to develop an information retrieval system. The seriousness of the need is described by means of graphs indicating the exponential rise in the number of physics publications in the last…

  18. INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    legislators have to be ICT compliant so that they can utilize the services of their libraries and information centres to the fullest capacity. Introduction ... engagement in collaborative efforts with other libraries and information centres within ... economic, political and other civic activities that takes place in the country for which the.

  19. Information and Rural Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storm, Bonnie L.

    1982-01-01

    Outlines approaches taken to development in lesser developed countries in the past, discusses the importance of appropriate technology and human development, and summarizes the information needs of the rural poor in developing nations. Information dissemination programs using video- and audiotape technology in Bangladesh, Guatemala, and Peru are…

  20. A Mine of Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Lisa B.

    1986-01-01

    Business researchers and marketers find certain databases useful for finding information on investments, competitors, products, and markets. Colleges can use these same databases to get background on corporate prospects. The largest data source available, DIALOG Information Services and some other databases are described. (MLW)

  1. Strengthening Health Information Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haro, A. S.

    1977-01-01

    Discusses the need to apply modern scientific management to health administration in order to effectively manage programs utilizing increased preventive and curative capabilities. The value of having maximum information in order to make decisions, and problems of determining information content are reviewed. For journal availability, see SO 506…

  2. Medical Information Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alterescu, S.; Hipkins, K. R.; Friedman, C. A.

    1979-01-01

    On-line interactive information processing system easily and rapidly handles all aspects of data management related to patient care. General purpose system is flexible enough to be applied to other data management situations found in areas such as occupational safety data, judicial information, or personnel records.

  3. Personal Information Request Form

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    PC Forms Inc. 834-4048

    To apply for information under the Privacy Act, complete this form or a written request mentioning the Act. Describe the information being sought and provide any relevant details necessary to help the. International Development Research Centre. (IDRC) find it. If you require assistance, refer to. Info Source (Sources of ...

  4. Information. Mapping the money.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowper, Andy

    2006-03-16

    Dr Foster Intelligence aims to improve the use and accessibility of information to offer people more control over their care. It will also provide management with the information required to make effective business decisions. The new service will be 'taking advantage of private-sector expertise for public-sector advantage.

  5. Air System Information Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filman, Robert E.

    2004-01-01

    I flew to Washington last week, a trip rich in distributed information management. Buying tickets, at the gate, in flight, landing and at the baggage claim, myriad messages about my reservation, the weather, our flight plans, gates, bags and so forth flew among a variety of travel agency, airline and Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) computers and personnel. By and large, each kind of information ran on a particular application, often specialized to own data formats and communications network. I went to Washington to attend an FAA meeting on System-Wide Information Management (SWIM) for the National Airspace System (NAS) (http://www.nasarchitecture.faa.gov/Tutorials/NAS101.cfm). NAS (and its information infrastructure, SWIM) is an attempt to bring greater regularity, efficiency and uniformity to the collection of stovepipe applications now used to manage air traffic. Current systems hold information about flight plans, flight trajectories, weather, air turbulence, current and forecast weather, radar summaries, hazardous condition warnings, airport and airspace capacity constraints, temporary flight restrictions, and so forth. Information moving among these stovepipe systems is usually mediated by people (for example, air traffic controllers) or single-purpose applications. People, whose intelligence is critical for difficult tasks and unusual circumstances, are not as efficient as computers for tasks that can be automated. Better information sharing can lead to higher system capacity, more efficient utilization and safer operations. Better information sharing through greater automation is possible though not necessarily easy.

  6. Intelligent medical information filtering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintana, Y

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes an intelligent information filtering system to assist users to be notified of updates to new and relevant medical information. Among the major problems users face is the large volume of medical information that is generated each day, and the need to filter and retrieve relevant information. The Internet has dramatically increased the amount of electronically accessible medical information and reduced the cost and time needed to publish. The opportunity of the Internet for the medical profession and consumers is to have more information to make decisions and this could potentially lead to better medical decisions and outcomes. However, without the assistance from professional medical librarians, retrieving new and relevant information from databases and the Internet remains a challenge. Many physicians do not have access to the services of a medical librarian. Most physicians indicate on surveys that they do not prefer to retrieve the literature themselves, or visit libraries because of the lack of recent materials, poor organisation and indexing of materials, lack of appropriate and available material, and lack of time. The information filtering system described in this paper records the online web browsing behaviour of each user and creates a user profile of the index terms found on the web pages visited by the user. A relevance-ranking algorithm then matches the user profiles to the index terms of new health care web pages that are added each day. The system creates customised summaries of new information for each user. A user can then connect to the web site to read the new information. Relevance feedback buttons on each page ask the user to rate the usefulness of the page to their immediate information needs. Errors in relevance ranking are reduced in this system by having both the user profile and medical information represented in the same representation language using a controlled vocabulary. This system also updates the user profiles

  7. Canonical Information Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Jacob Schack; Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg

    2015-01-01

    is replaced by the information theoretical, entropy based measure mutual information, which is a much more general measure of association. We make canonical information analysis feasible for large sample problems, including for example multispectral images, due to the use of a fast kernel density estimator......Canonical correlation analysis is an established multivariate statistical method in which correlation between linear combinations of multivariate sets of variables is maximized. In canonical information analysis introduced here, linear correlation as a measure of association between variables...... for entropy estimation. Canonical information analysis is applied successfully to (1) simple simulated data to illustrate the basic idea and evaluate performance, (2) fusion of weather radar and optical geostationary satellite data in a situation with heavy precipitation, and (3) change detection in optical...

  8. Energy Information Directory 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The National Energy Information Center (NEIC), as part of its mission, provides energy information and referral assistance to Federal, State, and local governments, the academic community, business and industrial organizations, and the general public. The two principal functions related to this task are (1) operating a general access telephone line, and (2) responding to energy-related correspondence addressed to the Energy Information Administration (EIA). The Energy Information Directory was developed to assist the NEIC staff as well as other Department of Energy (DOE) staff, in directing inquires to the proper offices within DOE, other Federal agencies, or energy-related trade associations. The Directory is a list of most Government offices and trade associations that are involved in energy matters. It does not include those DOE offices which do not deal with the public or public information

  9. Micro Information Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulslev Pedersen, Rasmus; Kühn Pedersen, Mogens

    2014-01-01

    such as medical and manufacturing. These new sensor applications have implications for information systems (IS) and, the authors visualize this new class of information systems as fractals growing from an established class of systems; namely that of information systems (IS). The identified applications...... and implications are used as an empirical basis for creating a model for these small new information systems. Such sensor systems are called embedded systems in the technical sciences, and the authors want to couple it with general IS. They call the merger of these two important research areas (IS and embedded...... systems) for micro information systems (micro-IS). It is intended as a new research field within IS research. An initial framework model is established, which seeks to capture both the possibilities and constraints of this new paradigm, while looking simultaneously at the fundamental IS and ICT aspects...

  10. Training and information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    The Training and Information Division provides centralized direction and coordination for the training and information activities of the Center for Energy and Environment Research (formerly Puerto Rico Nuclear Center). The Division Head serves as Educational Officer, Technical Information Officer, and Public Information Officer. Training responsibilities include registering students; maintaining centralized records on training activities; preparing reports for ERDA; scheduling the utilization of training facilities; providing audiovisual equipment; assisting in the preparation of courses, seminars, symposia, and meetings; administering fellowship programs; and providing personal assistance to students in matters such as housing and immigration. The Division Head represents the Director on the Admissions Committee. Information responsibilities include preparation of manuscripts for ERDA patent clearance and publication release, maintenance of central files on all manuscripts and publications, preparation of the Annual Report, providing editorial and translation assistance, operation of a Technical Reading Room, operation of an ERDA Film Library, operation of a Reproduction Shop, providing copying services, and assisting visitors

  11. Physics as Information Processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Ariano, Giacomo Mauro

    2011-01-01

    I review some recent advances in foundational research at Pavia QUIT group. The general idea is that there is only Quantum Theory without quantization rules, and the whole Physics - including space-time and relativity - is emergent from the quantum-information processing. And since Quantum Theory itself is axiomatized solely on informational principles, the whole Physics must be reformulated in information-theoretical terms: this is the It from bit of J. A. Wheeler.The review is divided into four parts: a) the informational axiomatization of Quantum Theory; b) how space-time and relativistic covariance emerge from quantum computation; c) what is the information-theoretical meaning of inertial mass and of (ℎ/2π), and how the quantum field emerges; d) an observational consequence of the new quantum field theory: a mass-dependent refraction index of vacuum. I will conclude with the research lines that will follow in the immediate future.

  12. Defining Information Security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundgren, Björn; Möller, Niklas

    2017-11-15

    This article proposes a new definition of information security, the 'Appropriate Access' definition. Apart from providing the basic criteria for a definition-correct demarcation and meaning concerning the state of security-it also aims at being a definition suitable for any information security perspective. As such, it bridges the conceptual divide between so-called 'soft issues' of information security (those including, e.g., humans, organizations, culture, ethics, policies, and law) and more technical issues. Because of this it is also suitable for various analytical purposes, such as analysing possible security breaches, or for studying conflicting attitudes on security in an organization. The need for a new definition is demonstrated by pointing to a number of problems for the standard definition type of information security-the so-called CIA definition. Besides being too broad as well as too narrow, it cannot properly handle the soft issues of information security, nor recognize the contextual and normative nature of security.

  13. Interactive Information Retrieval:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borlund, Pia

    IIR from the perspective of search dedication and task load in order to also include everyday life information seeking? With this presentation, the IIR community is invited to an exchange of ideas and is encouraged to engage in collaborations with the solving of these (and other) issues to our joint......This presentation addresses methodological issues of interactive information retrieval (IIR) evaluation in terms of what it entails to study users' use and interaction with IR systems, as well as their satisfaction with retrieved information. In particular, the presentation focuses on test design...... of the users to ensure a complete and realistic picture to enhance our understanding of IIR. The presentation also reflects on whether a re-thinking of the concept on an information need is necessary. One may ask whether it still makes sense to talk about types of information needs. Or should we rather study...

  14. Information Technology Resources Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-04-01

    The Information Technology Resources Assessment (ITRA) is being published as a companion document to the Department of Energy (DOE) FY 1994--FY 1998 Information Resources Management Long-Range Plan. This document represents a collaborative effort between the Office of Information Resources Management and the Office of Energy Research that was undertaken to achieve, in part, the Technology Strategic Objective of IRM Vision 21. An integral part of this objective, technology forecasting provides an understanding of the information technology horizon and presents a perspective and focus on technologies of particular interest to DOE program activities. Specifically, this document provides site planners with an overview of the status and use of new information technology for their planning consideration.

  15. Quality of Information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Leif

    2016-01-01

    Accounting and auditing is closely related to the quality of data. Two important elements supporting the quality of information are internal controls and materiality. Inspired by Simons (1994), these elements can be considered “basic building blocks”. Internal controls are perhaps the most...... important element, as they ensure that information used for management purposes has the required quality (Kinney, 2000). This information can be used as a basis for preparing the external financial reporting (COSO, 2013) and as a prerequisite for establishing information-based management control systems...... (MCS) (Simons, 1994). When regarding management controls as a package, internal controls are part of the administrative controls and often formalised in policies and procedures (Malmi and Brown, 2008). The level of controls should be guided by the need for reliable information. These considerations...

  16. Information and Heterogeneous Beliefs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Peter Ove; Qin, Zhenjiang

    2014-01-01

    In an incomplete market with heterogeneous prior beliefs, we show public information can have a substantial impact on the ex ante cost of capital, trading volume, and investor welfare. The Pareto effcient public information system is the system enjoying the maximum ex ante cost of capital...... and the maximum expected abnormal trading volume. Imperfect public information increases the gains-to-trade based on heterogeneously updated posterior beliefs. In an exchange economy, this leads to higher growth in the investors' certainty equivalents and, thus, a higher equilibrium interest rate, whereas the ex...... ante risk premium is unaffected by the informativeness of the public information system. Similar results are obtained in a production economy, but the impact on the ex ante cost of capital is dampened compared to the exchange economy due to welfare improving reductions in real investments to smooth...

  17. Energy information directory 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-03-28

    The National Energy Information Center (NEIC), as part of its mission, provides energy information and referral assistance to Federal, State, and local governments, the academic community, business and industrial organizations, and the general public. The two principal functions related to this task are (1) operating a general access telephone line, and (2) responding to energy-related correspondence addressed to the Energy Information Administration (EIA). The Energy Information Directory was developed to assist the NEIC staff, as well as other Department of Energy (DOE) staff, in directing inquiries to the proper offices within DOE, other Federal agencies, or energy-related trade associations. The Directory is a list of most Government offices and trade associations that are involved in energy matters. It does not include those DOE offices which do not deal with the public or public information.

  18. Next generation information systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Limback, Nathan P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Medina, Melanie A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Silva, Michelle E [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    The Information Systems Analysis and Development (ISAD) Team of the Safeguards Systems Group at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has been developing web based information and knowledge management systems for sixteen years. Our vision is to rapidly and cost effectively provide knowledge management solutions in the form of interactive information systems that help customers organize, archive, post and retrieve nonproliferation and safeguards knowledge and information vital to their success. The team has developed several comprehensive information systems that assist users in the betterment and growth of their organizations and programs. Through our information systems, users are able to streamline operations, increase productivity, and share and access information from diverse geographic locations. The ISAD team is also producing interactive visual models. Interactive visual models provide many benefits to customers beyond the scope of traditional full-scale modeling. We have the ability to simulate a vision that a customer may propose, without the time constraints of traditional engineering modeling tools. Our interactive visual models can be used to access specialized training areas, controlled areas, and highly radioactive areas, as well as review site-specific training for complex facilities, and asset management. Like the information systems that the ISAD team develops, these models can be shared and accessed from any location with access to the internet. The purpose of this paper is to elaborate on the capabilities of information systems and interactive visual models as well as consider the possibility of combining the two capabilities to provide the next generation of infonnation systems. The collection, processing, and integration of data in new ways can contribute to the security of the nation by providing indicators and information for timely action to decrease the traditional and new nuclear threats. Modeling and simulation tied to comprehensive

  19. Information als Prozess

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diether Elstner

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available A unified definition of the phenomenon information is not possible at present, because of the enormous number of different views. The situation is increased by the 'Capurro‘s trilemma' which postulates the logical impossibility of a unified concept of information. There are two approaches in the literature, which aim to solve the trilemma. The first approach avoids collision with the trilemma through the introduction of a generalized parameter to form rules of language for information systems. The second approach is understood as a draft of a generalized understanding of information within a yet to be developed unified information science. This article presents the approach of understanding information as an instantaneous process, which effects changes in systems. These changes must be captured and reproduced by the organization of the system, otherwise they get lost by fluctuations. Information in this reductionist conception is possible in each system, under the assumption, that it has several stable states, which alternatively may be assumed by the system . The 'Capurro‘s trilemma' is negated.

  20. Acting to gain information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenchein, Stanley J.; Burns, J. Brian; Chapman, David; Kaelbling, Leslie P.; Kahn, Philip; Nishihara, H. Keith; Turk, Matthew

    1993-01-01

    This report is concerned with agents that act to gain information. In previous work, we developed agent models combining qualitative modeling with real-time control. That work, however, focused primarily on actions that affect physical states of the environment. The current study extends that work by explicitly considering problems of active information-gathering and by exploring specialized aspects of information-gathering in computational perception, learning, and language. In our theoretical investigations, we analyzed agents into their perceptual and action components and identified these with elements of a state-machine model of control. The mathematical properties of each was developed in isolation and interactions were then studied. We considered the complexity dimension and the uncertainty dimension and related these to intelligent-agent design issues. We also explored active information gathering in visual processing. Working within the active vision paradigm, we developed a concept of 'minimal meaningful measurements' suitable for demand-driven vision. We then developed and tested an architecture for ongoing recognition and interpretation of visual information. In the area of information gathering through learning, we explored techniques for coping with combinatorial complexity. We also explored information gathering through explicit linguistic action by considering the nature of conversational rules, coordination, and situated communication behavior.

  1. Ignorance, information and autonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, J; Keywood, K

    2001-09-01

    People have a powerful interest in genetic privacy and its associated claim to ignorance, and some equally powerful desires to be shielded from disturbing information are often voiced. We argue, however, that there is no such thing as a right to remain in ignorance, where a fight is understood as an entitlement that trumps competing claims. This does not of course mean that information must always be forced upon unwilling recipients, only that there is no prima facie entitlement to be protected from true or honest information about oneself. Any claims to be shielded from information about the self must compete on equal terms with claims based in the rights and interests of others. In balancing the weight and importance of rival considerations about giving or withholding information, if rights claims have any place, rights are more likely to be defensible on the side of honest communication of information rather than in defence of ignorance. The right to free speech and the right to decline to accept responsibility to take decisions for others imposed by those others seem to us more plausible candidates for fully fledged rights in this field than any purported right to ignorance. Finally, and most importantly, if the right to autonomy is invoked, a proper understanding of the distinction between claims to liberty and claims to autonomy show that the principle of autonomy, as it is understood in contemporary social ethics and English law, supports the giving rather than the withholding of information in most circumstances.

  2. Accessibility and inclusion informational

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Sena de Souza

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Discusses the role of information professionals in meeting the informational demands of people with disabilities in the information society. The librarian is crucial for the effectiveness and success in the informational inclusion of people with disabilities, considering also continuing education for their professional qualification.Objective: To provide reflections on the role of the librarian in serving users with disabilities, highlighting the need for improvement in information units, identified in the scientific literature with regard to accessibility.Methodology: Literature search, based on a review of literature in books and scientific papers, highlighting the main authors: Adams (2000, Mazzoni (2001 and Sassaki (1997, 2002, 2005.Results: The lack of informational access for people with disabilities hampers their social and political participation, hence, reduces its condition of citizenship.Conclusion: The librarian responsible for seeking continuing education, greater involvement in the events of the area and the constant search for job training, which will reflect on the best service the information needs of users with disabilities.

  3. Information disclosure on transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubo, M.

    1998-01-01

    In Japan, the transport of nuclear fuel materials strictly meets the above international convention and domestic regulations as well. Information on the transport of nuclear fuel materials within the country and between the country and foreign countries is treated carefully. Nuclear fuel materials are categorized for transport and are physically protected accordingly. Certain transportation information is treated with special precautions, including prior arrangements among sender, recipient and carrier, and prior agreement between entities subject to the jurisdiction and regulation of supplier and recipient countries. In the case of international transport, this information includes specifying time, place and procedures for transferring transport and responsibility. (O.M.)

  4. Reframing information architecture

    CERN Document Server

    Resmini, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Information architecture has changed dramatically since the mid-1990s and earlier conceptions of the world and the internet being different and separate have given way to a much more complex scenario in the present day. In the post-digital world that we now inhabit the digital and the physical blend easily and our activities and usage of information takes place through multiple contexts and via multiple devices and unstable, emergent choreographies. Information architecture now is steadily growing into a channel- or medium-specific multi-disciplinary framework, with contributions coming from a

  5. Future Information Technology

    CERN Document Server

    Stojmenovic, Ivan; Choi, Min; Xhafa, Fatos; FutureTech 2013

    2014-01-01

    Future technology information technology stands for all of continuously evolving and converging information technologies, including digital convergence, multimedia convergence, intelligent applications, embedded systems, mobile and wireless communications, bio-inspired computing, grid and cloud computing, semantic web, user experience and HCI, security and trust computing and so on, for satisfying our ever-changing needs. In past twenty five years or so, Information Technology (IT) influenced and changed every aspect of our lives and our cultures. These proceedings foster the dissemination of state-of-the-art research in all future IT areas, including their models, services, and novel applications associated with their utilization.

  6. Interviews with information receivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-11-01

    The Waste Policy Institute (WPI), through a cooperative agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Science and Technology (OST), conducted telephone interviews with people who requested OST publications to better understand why they wanted information from OST, how they used the information, and whether the information met their needs. Researchers selected 160 people who requested one of the two OST publications-either the Technology Summary Series (Rainbow Books) or the Initiatives newsletter. Of the 160 selected, interviewers spoke with 79 people nationwide representing six stakeholder audience categories

  7. Relying on the Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TK YAYIN KURULU

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The editorial discusses internet filtering in the light of the optional internet packages for users, namely Family, Standard, Kids and Domestic, to be offered by the Information Technologies Board with the "Secure Internet Law" to take effect on August 22, 2011. Also sharing the hesitations about the objectivity of the application with the reader, editorial emphasizes an education system focused on breeding citizens who are not scared of relying on the information and who can, by themselves, decide whether information is harmful or not. References are made to the results of similar applications abroad while the press statement made by Turkish NGOs on the issue are included.

  8. PROLOGUE : Health Information System

    OpenAIRE

    Tomar, Shivanjali

    2013-01-01

    Prologue is a health information system developed for underserved communities in Bihar, India. It is aimed at helping people living in poverty and with low literacy to take the right steps to manage their and their family’s health. Bihar suffers from one of the worst healthcare records in the country. This is as much due to the lack of access to the right information as it is due to the economic condition of the region. The inaccessibility of information is aggravated by the complex social se...

  9. Information security management handbook

    CERN Document Server

    2002-01-01

    The Information Security Management Handbook continues its tradition of consistently communicating the fundamental concepts of security needed to be a true CISSP. In response to new developments, Volume 4 supplements the previous volumes with new information covering topics such as wireless, HIPAA, the latest hacker attacks and defenses, intrusion detection, and provides expanded coverage on security management issues and applications security. Even those that don't plan on sitting for the CISSP exam will find that this handbook is a great information security reference.The changes in the tech

  10. Advanced information society (11)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawa, Kotaro

    Late in the 1980's the information system of Japanese corporation has been operated strategically to strengthen its competitive position in markets rather than to make corporate management efficient. Therefore, information-oriented policy in the corporation is making remarkable progress. This policy expands the intelligence activity in the corporation and also leads to the extension of the market in an information industry. In this environment closed corporate system is transformed into open one. For this system network and database are important managerial resources.

  11. Quantum Information Processing

    CERN Document Server

    Leuchs, Gerd

    2005-01-01

    Quantum processing and communication is emerging as a challenging technique at the beginning of the new millennium. This is an up-to-date insight into the current research of quantum superposition, entanglement, and the quantum measurement process - the key ingredients of quantum information processing. The authors further address quantum protocols and algorithms. Complementary to similar programmes in other countries and at the European level, the German Research Foundation (DFG) started a focused research program on quantum information in 1999. The contributions - written by leading experts - bring together the latest results in quantum information as well as addressing all the relevant questions

  12. Accident information needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanson, D.J.; Arcieri, W.C.; Ward, L.W.

    1992-01-01

    A Five-step methodology has been developed to evaluate information needs for nuclear power plants under accident conditions and the availability of plant instrumentation during severe accidents. Step 1 examines the credible accidents and their relationships to plant safety functions. Step 2 determines the information personnel involved in accident management will need to understand plant behavior. Step 3 determines the capability of the instrumentation to function properly under severe accident conditions. Step 4 determines the conditions expected during the identified severe accidents. Step 5 compares the instrument capabilities and the severe accident conditions to evaluate the availability of the instrumentation to supply needed plant information

  13. Oxyfuels information needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-01

    Questions have been raised about the benefits and risks of oxygenated gasoline and reformulatd gasoline (`oxyfuels`). This document highlights areas of information that would improve scientific understanding of the impacts of these fuels on the environment and public health. It emphasizes the importance of obtaining data to support quantitative assessments of oxyfuels in comparison to conventional fuels. In addition to providing some background information and outlining a general framework for comparative risk assessments of fuels, the document briefly summarizes currently available information and then focuses on work that is now underway or planned and on data needs that remain to be filled.

  14. Accident information needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanson, D.J.; Arcieri, W.C.; Ward, L.W.

    1992-12-31

    A Five-step methodology has been developed to evaluate information needs for nuclear power plants under accident conditions and the availability of plant instrumentation during severe accidents. Step 1 examines the credible accidents and their relationships to plant safety functions. Step 2 determines the information personnel involved in accident management will need to understand plant behavior. Step 3 determines the capability of the instrumentation to function properly under severe accident conditions. Step 4 determines the conditions expected during the identified severe accidents. Step 5 compares the instrument capabilities and the severe accident conditions to evaluate the availability of the instrumentation to supply needed plant information.

  15. Accident information needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanson, D.J.; Arcieri, W.C.; Ward, L.W.

    1992-01-01

    A Five-step methodology has been developed to evaluate information needs for nuclear power plants under accident conditions and the availability of plant instrumentation during severe accidents. Step 1 examines the credible accidents and their relationships to plant safety functions. Step 2 determines the information personnel involved in accident management will need to understand plant behavior. Step 3 determines the capability of the instrumentation to function properly under severe accident conditions. Step 4 determines the conditions expected during the identified severe accidents. Step 5 compares the instrument capabilities and the severe accident conditions to evaluate the availability of the instrumentation to supply needed plant information.

  16. Information Technology Service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ageron, M.; Boninchi, V.; Chartoire, M.; Combroux, A.; Giraud, N.; Jacquet, G.; Lagrange, B.; Malleret, S.; Martin, C.; Mas, J.; Morgue, M.; Ollivier, T.

    1998-01-01

    The information technology service works out the choices concerning the information technology systems of general use in the laboratory: computers, network, peripherals, workstations, software. It intervenes at the same time in the definition of the procedures and equipment specific to the research groups. The entire data acquisition is centralized by the service. The personnel is sharing the following two large directions of activities: - management of information technology park (setup, configuration and maintenance of the materials and soft ensemble, training and assistance afforded to users); - participation in software projects either in elaboration of applications or in realization and maintenance of specific tools

  17. National Network for Immunization Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists . © Copyright National Network for Immunization Information. The information contained in the National Network for Immunization Information Web site should not be ...

  18. From Information Management to Information Visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karami, Mahtab

    2016-01-01

    Summary Objective The development and implementation of a dashboard of medical imaging department (MID) performance indicators. Method Several articles discussing performance measures of imaging departments were searched for this study. All the related measures were extracted. Then, a panel of imaging experts were asked to rate these measures with an open ended question to seek further potential indicators. A second round was performed to confirm the performance rating. The indicators and their ratings were then reviewed by an executive panel. Based on the final panel’s rating, a list of indicators to be used was developed. A team of information technology consultants were asked to determine a set of user interface requirements for the building of the dashboard. In the first round, based on the panel’s rating, a list of main features or requirements to be used was determined. Next, Qlikview was utilized to implement the dashboard to visualize a set of selected KPI metrics. Finally, an evaluation of the dashboard was performed. Results 92 MID indicators were identified. On top of this, 53 main user interface requirements to build of the prototype of dashboard were determined. Then, the project team successfully implemented a prototype of radiology management dashboards into study site. The visual display that was designed was rated highly by users. Conclusion To develop a dashboard, management of information is essential. It is recommended that a quality map be designed for the MID. It can be used to specify the sequence of activities, their related indicators and required data for calculating these indicators. To achieve both an effective dashboard and a comprehensive view of operations, it is necessary to design a data warehouse for gathering data from a variety of systems. Utilizing interoperability standards for exchanging data among different systems can be also effective in this regard. PMID:27437043

  19. Flu Vaccine Safety Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Flu Vaccine Safety Information Questions & Answers Language: English (US) ... safety of flu vaccines monitored? Egg Allergy Are flu vaccines safe? Flu vaccines have good safety record. ...

  20. Rural Health Information Hub

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... U.S. (2011-2015): Individual-level & Placed-based Disparities Source: Southwest Rural Health Research Center Online Library » Resource and Referral Service Need help finding information? RHIhub can provide free assistance customized to your ...