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Sample records for rats teratological study

  1. Teratology studies in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroy, Mariline; Allais, Linda

    2013-01-01

    The rat is the rodent species of choice for the regulatory safety testing of xenobiotics, such as medicinal products, food additives, and other chemicals. Many decades of experience and extensive data have accumulated for both general and developmental toxicology investigations in this species. The high fertility and large litter size of the rat are advantages for teratogenicity testing. The study designs are well defined in the regulatory guidelines and are relatively standardized between testing laboratories across the world. Teratology studies address maternal- and embryo-toxicity following exposure during the period of organogenesis. This chapter describes the design and conduct of a teratology study in the rat in compliance with the regulatory guidelines. The procedures for the handling and housing of the pregnant animals, the caesarean examinations and the sampling of fetuses for morphological examinations are described. The utility and design of preliminary studies and the inclusion of satellite animals in the main study for toxicokinetic sampling are discussed.

  2. Toxicological study on the safety of DTPA as a drug, (1). Teratological study in the rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuda, Satoshi; Iida, Haruzo (National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan))

    1983-03-01

    In order to clarify the safety of Ca-DTPA and Zn-DTPA recommended to use as drugs in the therapeutic removal of incorporated radionuclides from the human body, the teratological study on these two agents was carried out in rats as one of a series of the toxicological tests. The teratological effects of DTPA were observed because the fetus is highly susceptible to any drug. The pregnant females of Wistar rat were injected subcutaneously daily on days 9-13 of gestation with 1, 6, 12, 24 and 36 H.D. (H.D. = human dose, 1 H.D. = 30..mu..mol/kg body weight) of Ca-DTPA or Zn-DTPA, respectively. In the dams, no toxic effects were observed. In the fetuses, the decrease of the survival rate was observed in only the group injected daily with 36 H.D. of Ca-DTPA. Some cases of gross defects of fetuses: the exencephaly, microphthalmia, anophthalmia and fusion of ribs were observed in the groups injected daily with 12, 24 and 36 H.D. of Ca-DTPA. The results obtained show that Ca-DTPA should not be given to a pregnant woman. However, no toxic effects of either Ca-DTPA or Zn-DTPA observed in the dams or of Zn-DTPA even in the fetuses indicate that these agents can be used by a radiation worker who usually is an adult man.

  3. Teratological studies in defatted jojoba meal-supplemented rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cokelaere, M; Flo, G; Lievens, S; Van Boven, M; Vermaut, S; Decuypere, E

    2001-03-01

    To look for possible developmental effects in the offspring of jojoba meal-treated Wistar rats, and to distinguish between the effects of reduced food intake and the specific developmental effects of jojoba meal itself, mated female rats were divided into three groups of 20 rats. They received during gestation: (a) normal rodent food (control group); (b) normal rodent food supplemented with 3% defatted jojoba meal (jojoba group); or (c) normal rodent food pair-fed with the jojoba group (pair-fed group). The jojoba meal group showed approximately 30% inhibition of food intake. Ten rats from each group were killed on gestation day 21. Compared to the control group, foetal body weight was reduced in both the jojoba and pair-fed groups, with a greater reduction in the jojoba group. Skeletal ossification was retarded to the same extent in both the jojoba and pair-fed groups. The other 10 rats from each group were left to produce litters. Compared with controls, the body weight of the pups was lower in both the jojoba and pair-fed groups; the reduction was slightly greater in the jojoba group, but this difference disappeared after 1 week. The offspring showed no other abnormalities and reproduced normally. We conclude that, at the dose used, the retardation in foetal skeletal ossification, induced by jojoba meal supplementation during gestation, is due to food intake inhibition. Moreover, the lower birth weight of the young of jojoba-treated dams compared with the pair-fed group is merely due to a lower body weight gain during gestation.

  4. Vitamin A acetate: a behavioral teratology study in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutz, S A; Troise, N J; Cimprich, R E; Yearsley, S M; Rugen, P J

    1989-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of maternal administration of vitamin A acetate on pup development and behavior. Vitamin A acetate was administered by oral gavage to pregnant rats (N = 10/treatment) on gestation days 6-19 at doses of 25,000, 50,000 or 100,000 I.U./kg/day. Male and female pups from dams that received 100,000 I.U./kg/day showed a significantly reduced live birth index but few external abnormalities. Twenty-four and 48 hour survival indices were also significantly reduced. The mean pup body weight gain at 100,000 I.U./kg/day was significantly reduced at days 1-3, 3-7 and 21-42. Pinna detachment and eye opening were significantly delayed in all male pups and in female pups from the 50,000 and 100,000 I.U./kg/day groups. Incisor eruption was significantly delayed in male and female pups from the 25,000 and 50,000 I.U./kg/day groups. The following showed no treatment effects: dam mean weight change, length of gestation, total litter size, surface righting, cliff avoidance, negative geotaxis, swimming development, open field activity and discriminatory learning.

  5. Reporting of teratology studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrow, Paul C; Reynaud, Lucie

    2013-01-01

    The regulatory toxicology report is an unusual document that requires a particular skill to write. The report must be clear, accurate, concise, and focused. A clear and direct writing style is required. The end-users of the report will hope to find the information they seek with as little effort as possible. Few, or none, will read the entire document. The author should aim to appease the user by obliging him to read as little text and turn as few pages as possible. This chapter gives tips and guidance on how to present the experimental data and write the narrative text in the final study report for a teratology study.

  6. Teratology studies in the minipig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAnulty, Peter A

    2013-01-01

    The minipig is a suitable species for regulatory teratology testing and may be regarded as an alternative to the rabbit, dog, and primate. The first successful regulatory teratology studies in the minipig were performed in the 1990s. It became clear that minipigs have several benefits over the other non-rodents, as they are purpose-bred for laboratory use, they are sexually mature at approximately 5 months of age, and they produce multiple offspring. The minipig has subsequently gained regulatory acceptance in the teratology testing of new drugs.

  7. Teratology studies in the mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsden, Edward; Leroy, Mariline

    2013-01-01

    The rat is the routine species of choice as the rodent model for regulatory safety testing of xenobiotics such as medicinal products, food additives, and other chemicals. However, the rat is not always suitable for pharmacological, toxicological, immunogenic, pharmacokinetic, or even practical reasons. Under such circumstances, the mouse offers an alternative for finding a suitable rodent model acceptable to the regulatory authorities. Since all essential routes of administration are possible, the short reproductive cycle and large litter size of the mouse make it a species well adapted for use in teratology studies. Given that good quality animals, including virgin mated females, can be acquired relatively easily and inexpensively, the mouse has been used in reproductive toxicity studies for decades and study protocols are well established.

  8. Inhalation developmental toxicology studies: Teratology study of tetrahydrofuran in mice and rats: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mast, T.J.; Evanoff, J.J.; Stoney, K.H.; Westerberg, R.B.; Rommereim, R.L.; Weigel, R.J.

    1988-08-01

    Tetrahydrofuran (THF), a four-carbon cyclic ether, is widely used as an industrial solvent. Although it has been used in large quantities for many years, few long-term toxicology studies, and no reproductive or developmental studies, have been conducted on THF. This study addresses the potential for THF to cause developmental toxicity in rodents by exposing Sprague-Dawley rats and Swiss (CD-1) mice to 0, 600, 1800, or 5000 ppm tetrahydrofuran (THF) vapors, 6 h/day, 7 dy/wk. Each treatment group consisted of 10 virgin females (for comparison), and approx.33 positively mated rats or mice. Positively mated mice were exposed on days 6--17 of gestation (dg), and rats on 6--19 dg. The day of plug or sperm detection was designated as O dg. Body weights were obtained throughout the study period, and uterine and fetal body weights were obtained at sacrifice (rats, 20 dg; mice, 18 dg). Implants were enumerated and their status recorded and live fetuses were examined for gross, visceral, skeletal, and soft-tissue craniofacial defects. 27 refs., 6 figs., 23 tabs.

  9. Inhalation developmental toxicology studies: Teratology study of isoprene in mice and rats: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mast, T.J.; Evanoff, J.J.; Stoney, K.H.; Westerberg, R.B.; Rommereim, R.L.; Weigel, R.J.

    1989-01-01

    Isoprene, a reactive, branched diene, is used in large quantities in the manufacture of polyisoprene and as a copolymer in the synthesis of butyl rubber. The potential for isoprene to cause developmental toxicity was assessed in rodents, by exposing four groups each of Sprague-Dawley rats and Swiss (CD-1) mice to 0, 280, 1400, or 7000 ppM isoprene vapors, 6 h/day, 7 day/wk. Each treatment group consisted of 10 virgin females (for comparison), and approx.30 positively mated rats or mice. Positively mated mice were exposed on days 6-17 of gestation (dg), and rats on 6-19 dg. The day of plug or sperm detection was designated as 0 dg. Body weights were obtained throughout the study period, and uterine and fetal body weights were obtained at sacrifice (rats, 20 dg; mice, 18 dg). Implants were enumerated and their status recorded. Live fetuses were sexed and examined for gross, visceral, skeletal, and soft-tissue craniofacial defects. 31 refs., 6 figs., 19 tabs.

  10. Inhalation developmental toxicology studies: Teratology study of acetone in mice and rats: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mast, T.J.; Evanoff, J.J.; Rommereim, R.L.; Stoney, K.H.; Weigel, R.J.; Westerberg, R.B.

    1988-11-01

    Acetone, an aliphatic ketone, is a ubiquitous industrial solvent and chemical intermediate; consequently, the opportunity for human exposure is high. The potential for acetone to cause developmental toxicity was assessed in Sprague-Dawley rats exposed to 0, 440, 2200, or 11000 ppm, and in Swiss (CD-1) mice exposed to 0, 440, 2200, and 6600 ppm acetone vapors, 6 h/day, 7 days/week. Each of the four treatment groups consisted of 10 virgin females (for comparison), and approx.32 positively mated rats or mice. Positively mated mice were exposed on days 6-17 of gestation (dg), and rats on 6-19 dg. The day of plug or sperm detection was designated as 0 dg. Body weights were obtained throughout the study period, and uterine and fetal body weights were obtained at sacrifice (rats, 20 dg; mice, 18 dg). Implants were enumerated and their status recorded. Live fetuses were sexed and examined for gross, visceral, skeletal, and soft-tissue craniofacial defects. 46 refs., 6 figs., 27 tabs.

  11. Acute, reproductive toxicity and two-generation teratology studies of a standardized quassinoid-rich extract of Eurycoma longifolia Jack in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Bin-Seng; Das, Prashanta Kumar; Chan, Kit-Lam

    2014-07-01

    The roots of Eurycoma longifolia Jack are popularly sought as herbal medicinal supplements to improve libido and general health amongst the local ethnic population. The major quassinoids of E. longifolia improved spermatogenesis and fertility but toxicity studies have not been well documented. The reproductive toxicity, two generation of foetus teratology and the up-and-down acute toxicity were investigated in Sprague-Dawley rats orally treated with quassinoid-rich E. longifolia extract (TAF273). The results showed that the median lethal dose (LD50 ) of TAF273 for female and male rats was 1293 and >2000 mg/kg, respectively. Fertility index and litter size of the TAF273 treated were significantly increased when compared with those of the non-treated animals. The TAF273-treated dams decreased in percentage of pre-implantation loss, post-implantation loss and late resorption. No toxic symptoms were observed on the TAF273-treated pregnant female rats and their foetuses were normal. The no-observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) obtained from reproductive toxicity and teratology studies of TAF273 in rats was 100 mg/kg body weight/day, being more than 10-fold lower than the LD50 value. Thus, any human dose derived from converting the rat doses of 100 mg/kg and below may be considered as safe for further clinical studies. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Teratology Studies on Lewisite and Sulfur Mustard Agents: Effects of Sulfur Mustard in Rats and Rabbits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hackett, P. L.; Rommereim, R. L.; Burton, F. G.; Buschbom, R. L.; Sasser, L . B.

    1987-09-30

    Sulfur mustard (HD) was administered to rats and rabbits by intragastric intubation. Rats were dosed daily from 6 through 15 days of gestation (dg) with 0. 0.5, 1.0 or 2.0 mg of HD/kg; rabbits were dosed with 0, 0.4, 0.6 or 0.8 mg/kg on 6 through 19 dg. Maternal animals were weighed periodically and, at necropsy, were examined for gross lesions of major organs and reproductive performance; live fetuses were weighed and examined for external, internal and skeletal defects. In rats, reductions in body weights were observed in maternal animals and their female fetuses at the lowest administered dose (0.5 mg/kg), but the incidence of fetal malformations was not increased. In rabbits the highest administered dose (0.8 mg/kg) induced maternal mortality and depressed body weight measures but did not affect fetal development. These results suggest that orally administered HD is not teratogenic in rats and rabbits since fetal effects were observed only at dose levels that induced frank maternal toxicity. Estimations of dose ranges for "no observable effects levels" in rats and rabbits, respectively, were: < 0.5 and < 0.4 mg/kg in maternal animals and < 0.5 and > 0.8 mg/kg in their fetuses.

  13. Teratology studies in the rabbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allais, Linda; Reynaud, Lucie

    2013-01-01

    The rabbit is generally the non-rodent species or second species after the rat recommended by the regulatory authorities and is part of the package of regulatory reproductive studies for the detection of potential embryotoxic and/or teratogenic effects of pharmaceuticals, chemicals, food additives, and other compounds, including vaccines (see Chapters 1-7).Its availability, practicality in housing and in mating as well as its large size makes the rabbit the preferred choice as a non-rodent species. The study protocols are essentially similar to those established for the rat (Chapter 9), with some particularities. The study designs are well defined in guidelines and are relatively standardized between testing laboratories across the world.As for the rat, large litter sizes and extensive background data in the rabbit are valuable criteria for an optimal assessment of in utero development of the embryo or fetus and for the detection of potential external or internal fetal malformations.

  14. A mixed model framework for teratology studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braeken, Johan; Tuerlinckx, Francis

    2009-10-01

    A mixed model framework is presented to model the characteristic multivariate binary anomaly data as provided in some teratology studies. The key features of the model are the incorporation of covariate effects, a flexible random effects distribution by means of a finite mixture, and the application of copula functions to better account for the relation structure of the anomalies. The framework is motivated by data of the Boston Anticonvulsant Teratogenesis study and offers an integrated approach to investigate substantive questions, concerning general and anomaly-specific exposure effects of covariates, interrelations between anomalies, and objective diagnostic measurement.

  15. Teratology Studies on Lewisite and Sulfur Mustard Agents: Effects of Sulfur Mustard in Rats and Rabbits - Part 2, Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hackett, P L; Rommereim, R L; Burton, F G; Buschbom, R L; Sasser, L B

    1987-09-30

    Sulfur mustard (HD) was administered to rats and rabbits by intragastric intubation. Rats were dosed daily from 6 through 15 days of gestation (dg) with o. 0.5, 1 .0 or 2.0 mg of HD/kg; rabbits were dosed with 0, 0.4, 0.6 or 0.8 mg/kg on 6 through 19 dg. Maternal animals were weighed periodically and, at necropsy, were examined for gross lesions of major organs and reproductive performance; live fetuses were weighed and examined for external, internal and skeletal defects. In rats, reductions in body weights were observed in maternal animals and their female fetuses at the lowest administered dose (0.5 mg/kg), but the incidence of fetal malformations was not increased. In rabbits the highest administered dose (0.8 mg/kg) induced maternal mortality and depressed body weight measures but did not affect fetal development These results suggest that orally administered HD is not teratogenic in rats • and rabbits since fetal effects were obs~rved only at dose levels that induced frank maternal toxicity. Estimations of dose ranges for •no observable effects levers· in rats and rabbits, respectively, were: < 0.5 and < 0.4 mg/kg in maternal animals and < 0.5 and > 0.8 mg/kg in their fetuses.

  16. Studies in tropical teratology, 2nd Series, No. I

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Venema, H.J.

    1937-01-01

    Dr J. J. Smith is best known by his studies about Orchidaceae. But since 1904 he published regularly in collaboration with Dr J. C. Costerus in the ”Annales du Jardin Botanique de Buitenzorg“, the results of their researches in teratology of tropical plants. Some years ago, Dr J. J. Smith was so

  17. [Teratologic cranio-encephalic effects of chronic thinner inhalation in progenitors, in rats and humans].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barroso-Moguel, R; Villeda-Hernández, J; Méndez-Armenta, M

    1991-01-01

    Inhalation of thinner by youngsters and adolescents is an increasing drug abuse problem in Mexico. It presents serious repercussions upon socio-economic, cultural, legal and health (neurologic and psychiatric) problems. We report a comparative study in humans and rats which demonstrate the embryotoxic and craneo encephalic teratologic effects in the children and brood of progenitors who have chronically inhaled thinner (in the case of pregnant women, before, at the beginning and throughout pregnancy). Inhaled thinner passes directly to the blood stream and crosses the placentary barrier freely reaching the embryo. It may cause craneal bone and partial or total encephalon agenesia, added to macro and microscopic lesions secondary to direct aggression to the neuroepithelial germ cells. Abortions and premature labor with weight and size underdeveloped products and placentary hemorrhages occur. Usually these die, but if they survive they show trascendental mental retardation, as well as neurologic and psychiatric sequels.

  18. Development of the central nervous system functions in rat pups prenatally exposed to alcohol (study on the behavioural teratology of ethanol in CFY rat pups).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehotzky, K; Ungváry, G; Szeberényi, J M; Kiss, A

    1988-01-01

    As a model of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) the rate of the maturation of the functions of the central nervous system was studied in the offspring of pregnant CFY rats receiving (from the 7th-15th day of gestation) either oral ethanol treatment or liquid diet containing ethanol. Both types of exposure caused numerous behavioural impairments, besides high perinatal mortality also the opening of the eyes and ears, and the appearance of postural reflexes were delayed. The newborn rats could be characterized by hyperactivity and weak motor coordination. The learning capacity, the avoidance conditioned reflexes was the poorest in the case of the offspring of mothers kept on liquid diet, containing alcohol, the latency of the conditioned response was significantly lenghtened. During reconditioning, in the case of the sexually already mature pups, the weakest performance was observed in the offspring of mothers having received oral alcohol treatment. This findings indicated, on one hand, that the retardation ceased and, on the other, that the learning and memory impairments caused by oral alcohol exposure was persistent. Following prenatal alcohol exposure carried out by different methods the neurotoxic effect, the retardation of the rate of maturation of the central nervous functions, and the adaptive mechanisms were all affected to different extent. Besides alcohol exposure also other factors (relative protein insufficiency, malnutrition) may be involved in the pathomechanism of the above mentioned phenomena.

  19. Cobalamin (Vitamin B12) Role on the Biochemical, Histological and Teratological Changes Induced in Diabetic Irradiated Pregnant Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramadan, F.L.

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin B 12 called Cobalamin, is a water soluble vitamin with a key role in the normal function of the brain, nervous system, cell division and for the formation of blood. It is normally involved in the metabolism of every cell of the human body especially affecting DNA synthesis and regulation, fatty acid synthesis and energy production.The aim of the present study was to evaluate the role of vitamin B 12 intake on radiation induced damage in diabetic mothers.Diabetes was induced in female rats by intra-peritoneal injection of alloxan 150 mg/kg b.wt. dissolved in saline. Pregnant diabetic mothers were received vitamin B 12 0.1 mg/100 g b.wt. from the 1st up to 19th day of gestation. Meanwhile, pregnant diabetic rats were exposed to 0.6 Gy on the 7th and the 14th days of gestation. The increased incidence of malformations in diabetic pregnancy with an excess of free oxygen radicals in the embryos was recorded .Vitamin B12 supplementation to diabetic mother ameliorated radiation-induced damage which was obvious by diminishing the increase in glucose level, improving serum insulin level, glycogen content in the liver and ameliorating the decrease in glutathione (GSH) content in the liver of pregnant rats and their fetuses.In addition, vitamin B 12 treatment improved the decrease in red blood cells (RBCs), white blood cells (WBCs) and hemoglobin (Hb) of fetuses and DNA content in the liver tissues. Moreover, vitamin B 12 treatment lead to the regeneration of normal architecture of maternal and fetuses hepatic cells and blood vessels. It could be concluded that vitamin B 12 supplementation to diabetic mothers ameliorated the radiation effect which induced biochemical, histochemical, histological and teratological disorders.Furthermore, the results obtained showed that vitamin B 12 administration caused a protection to diabetic pregnant rats against embryo malformations induced by gamma rays

  20. Sperm characteristics and teratology in rats following vas deferens occlusion with RISUG and its reversal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohiya, N K; Suthar, R; Khandelwal, A; Goyal, S; Ansari, A S; Manivannan, B

    2010-02-01

    The functional success of the reversal of vas occlusion by styrene maleic anhydride (RISUG), using the solvent vehicle, Dimethyl Sulphoxide (DMSO), has been investigated. Reversal with DMSO was carried out in Wistar albino rats 90 days after bilateral vas occlusion. The body weight, organ weight, sperm characteristics, fertility test and teratology, including skeletal morphology were evaluated in vas occlusion and reversal animals and in F(1) progenies to assess the functional success of the occlusion and reversal. Body weight, organ weight and the cauda epididymal sperm characteristics of vas occlusion and reversal animals and of F(1) progenies were comparable to control. Ejaculated spermatozoa in the vaginal smear showed detached head/tail, acrosomal damage, bent midpiece, bent tail and morphological aberrations in sperm head after vas occlusion, which returned to normal, 90 days after reversal. Monthly fertility test, post-injection showed 0% fertility, which improved gradually and 100% fertility was achieved 90 days after reversal. The fertility/pregnancy/implantation record and skeletal morphology of the offspring were comparable to control. The results suggest functional success and safety of vas occlusion reversal by DMSO.

  1. Teratology testing under REACH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Steve

    2013-01-01

    REACH guidelines may require teratology testing for new and existing chemicals. This chapter discusses procedures to assess the need for teratology testing and the conduct and interpretation of teratology tests where required.

  2. Comments from the Behavioral Teratology Committee of the Japanese Teratology Society on OECD guideline for the testing of chemicals, proposal for a new guideline 426, developmental neurotoxicity study, draft document (September 2003).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukui, Yoshihiro; Ema, Makoto; Fujiwara, Michio; Higuchi, Hashihiro; Inouye, Minoru; Iwase, Takayuki; Kihara, Takahide; Nishimura, Tatsuya; Oi, Akihide; Ooshima, Yojiro; Otani, Hiroki; Shinomiya, Mitsuhiro; Sugioka, Kozo; Yamano, Tsunekazu; Yamashita, Keisuke H; Tanimura, Takashi

    2004-09-01

    In September 2003, a new revision of the draft guideline (Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development [OECD] Guideline for the Testing of Chemicals, Proposal for a New Guideline 426, Developmental Neurotoxicity Study) was distributed. The draft guideline consists of 51 paragraphs and an appendix. The National Coordinators were requested to arrange national expert reviews of the guideline proposal in their member countries. The member of the Behavioral Teratology (BT) Committee of the Japanese Teratology Society (JTS) reviewed, discussed and commented on the draft Test Guideline proposal. The BT Committee of the JTS also commented that the International Collaborative Study to validate this protocol should be definitely performed. These comments were sent to the OECD Secretariat. The BT Committee of the JTS expects that the comments are useful for further discussion.

  3. An Overview of Teratology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calado, Ana M; Dos Anjos Pires, Maria

    2018-01-01

    In this chapter, we provide an overview of the basic principles of teratology, beginning with its definition, the critical point for teratogenesis to occur and the most evident etiological agents to improve the understanding of this science.Teratology is a recent science that began in the early twentieth century, and has greatly improved over the recent years with the advancements in molecular biology, toxicology, animal laboratory science, and genetics, as well as the improvement on the knowledge of the environmental influences.Nevertheless, more work is required to reduce the influence of hazardous products that could be deleterious during pregnancy, thus reducing teratogenic defects in the newborn. While some teratogenic defects are attributed to their agents with certainty, the same for a lot of other such defects is lacking, necessitating consistent studies to decipher the influence of various teratogenic agents on their corresponding teratogenic defects. It is here that the laboratory animal science is of great importance both in the present and in the future.

  4. Effect of feeding graded doses of Citrinin on clinical and teratology in female Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, N D; Sharma, A K; Patil, R D; Rahman, S; Leishangthem, G D; Kumar, M

    2014-02-01

    Citrinin is the one of the well-known mycotoxins, which is possibly spread all over the world. The graded doses of citrinin (1, 3 and 5 ppm CIT in feed) in female Wistar rats 10 weeks prior to mating, during mating and during organogenesis resulted in resorptions and post implantation losses, decreased fetal body weights and crown-rump lengths in fetuses of all groups. Various developmental anomalies recorded in fetuses of treated rats included gross (wrist drop, curled tail, stretched forelimb, subcutaneous haematoma), skeletal (incomplete ossification of skull bones, incomplete fusion of vertebral bodies, complete and partial agenesis of sternaebrae, metacarpals, metatarsals and phalanges, fused ribs and swing out ribs) and visceral (internal and external hydrocephalus, cerebellar hypoplasia, microphthalmia, roundening of heart, contracted kidneys, dilated renal pelvis and cryptorchid testes). The results suggest that CIT has adverse effects on fetal development which may be due to the longer bioavailability of citrinin in the animals.

  5. Burnei's disease: teratological spondylolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavriliu, S T; Ghiță, R A; El Nayef, T; Burnei, A; Olaru-Barbilian, C R

    2015-01-01

    Teratological spondylolysis is a pathological entity noted for the first time in the specialty literature by Gh. Burnei in "The Spine Journal", in September 25, 2014. This disease was described in a short presentation of the first case treated by the author. The aim of this paper was to expose in a didactic manner the main characteristic aspects of Burnei's disease: embryological, clinical, imaging and treatment data and also to make known this pathological entity with all its pathognomonic diagnostic elements. This paper was based on data obtained after analyzing 2 cases of teratological spondylolysis: a 18-year-old patient with triple L3-L5 teratological spondylolysis with Pang 1 spinal dysraphism and a 1-year-old child with teratological spondylolysis and retrospondylolisthesis.

  6. Teratology - past, present and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ujházy, Eduard; Mach, Mojmír; Navarová, Jana; Brucknerová, Ingrid; Dubovický, Michal

    2012-12-01

    Teratology is the science that studies the causes, mechanisms, and patterns of abnormal development. The authors present an updated overview of the most important milestones and stages of the development of modern teratology. Development of knowledge and society led to the recognition that causes of congenital developmental disorders (CDDs) might be caused by various mechanical effects, foetal diseases, and retarded or arrested development of the embryo and foetus. Based on the analysis of the historical development of hypotheses and theories representing a decisive contribution to this field, we present a survey of the six Wilson's fundamental principles of teratology. The aim of observing these principles is to get insight into developmental relations and to understand mechanisms of action on the level of cell populations (elementary morphogenetic processes), tissues and organs. It is important to realise that any negative intervention into the normal course of these processes, either on genetic or non-genetic basis, inevitably leads to a sequence of subsequent changes resulting in CDDs. Moreover, the classical toxicologic monotonic dose-response paradigm recently has been challenged by the so-called "low dose-hypothesis", particularly in the case of endocrine active substances. These include some pesticides, dioxins, polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs), and bisphenol A. Despite modern approaches of molecular biology and genetics, along with top diagnostic techniques, we are still not able to identify the actual cause in more than 65 to 70% of all congenital defects classified as having an unknown etiology. Today CDDs include any birth defect, either morphological, biochemical, or behavioural.

  7. Categorization of fetal external findings in developmental toxicology studies by the Terminology Committee of the Japanese Teratology Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izumi, Yuko; Ooshima, Yojiro; Chihara, Kazuhiro; Fujiwara, Michio; Katsumata, Yoshihiro; Shiota, Kohei

    2018-05-01

    Categorization of fetal external findings in common laboratory animals, intended to make the agreement at Berlin Workshop in 2014 more practical, was proposed by the Terminology Committee of the Japanese Teratology Society at the Workshop in the 55th Japanese Teratology Society Annual Meeting in 2015. In the Workshop, 73 external findings, which had been categorized as "Gray zone" anomalies but not as "Malformation" or "Variation" in the 2014 Berlin Workshop, were discussed and classified as Malformation, "Non-structural abnormality," Variation, and "Not applicable." The proposal was based on the results of a survey conducted in 2014, where 20 facilities (including pharmaceutical, chemical, and pesticide companies and contract laboratories) and 2 selected expert teratologists in Japan were asked for their opinions on the categorization of these findings. Based on the discussion, Japanese Teratology Society members have agreed that 42 out of the 73 findings can be classified as Malformations (38), Non-structural abnormalities (3), Malformations/Non-structural abnormalities (1), and Variations (0), while the remaining 31 findings were recommended to be categorized as Not applicable for fetuses. The details of the classification are shown on the website of the Japanese Teratology Society (http://www.umin.ac.jp/cadb/External.pdf). © 2018 Japanese Teratology Society.

  8. Teratology study of amide derivatives of branched aliphatic carboxylic acids with 4-aminobenzensulfonamide in NMRI mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onishi, Yuko; Okada, Akinobu; Noyori, Hiroko; Okamura, Ai; Hen, Naama; Yagen, Boris; Bialer, Meir; Fujiwara, Michio

    2013-08-01

    Valproic acid (VPA), widely used to treat epilepsy, bipolar disorders, and migraine prophylaxis, is known to cause neural tube and skeletal defects in humans and animals. Aminobenzensulfonamide derivatives of VPA with branched aliphatic carboxylic acids, namely 2-methyl-N-(4-sulfamoyl-phenyl)-pentanamide (MSP), 2-ethyl-N-(4-sulfamoyl-phenyl)-butyramide (ESB), 2-ethyl-4-methyl-N-(4-sulfamoyl-phenyl)-pentanamide (EMSP), and 2-ethyl-N-(4-sulfamoyl-benzyl)-butyramide (ESBB), have shown more potent anticonvulsant activity than VPA in preclinical testing. Here, we investigated the teratogenic effects of these analogous compounds of VPA in NMRI mice. Pregnant NMRI mice were given a single subcutaneous injection of either VPA at 1.8 or 3.6 mmol/kg, or MSP, ESB, EMSP, or ESBB at 1.8, 3.6, or 4.8 mmol/kg on gestation day (GD) 8. Cesarean section was performed on GD 18, and the live fetuses were examined for external and skeletal malformations. Compared with VPA, which induced neural tube defects (NTDs) in fetuses at 1.8 and 3.6 mmol/kg, the analog derivatives induced no NTDs at dose levels up to 4.8 mmol/kg (except for a single case of exencephaly at 4.8 mmol/kg MSP). Skeletal examination showed several abnormalities mainly at the axial skeletal level with VPA at 1.8 mmol/kg. Fused vertebrae and/or fused ribs were also observed with MSP, ESB, EMSP, and ESBB, they were less severe and seen at a lower incidence that those induced by VPA at the same dose level. In addition to exerting more potent preclinical antiepileptic activity, teratology comparison indicates that aminobenzensulfonamide analogs are generally more weakly teratogenic than VPA. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Behavioral teratologic studies using microwave radiation: is there an increased risk from exposure to cellular phones and microwave ovens?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensh, R P

    1997-01-01

    The objective of the investigations presented in this review was to determine if there are adverse effects due to chronic prenatal microwave exposure in rats at term and/or alterations in neonatal and adult offspring psychophysiologic development and growth. Following the establishment of a nonhyperthermal power density level of microwave radiation, pregnant rats were exposed throughout pregnancy to continuous wave 915 MHz, 2450 MHz, or 6000 MHz radiation at power density levels of 10, 20, or 35 mW/cm2, respectively. Teratologic evaluation included the following parameters: maternal weight and weight gain; mean litter size; maternal organ weight and organ weight/body weight ratios; body weight ratios of brain, liver, kidneys, and ovaries; maternal peripheral blood parameters including hematocrit, hemoglobin, and white cell counts; number of resorptions and resorption rate; number of abnormalities and abnormality rate; mean term fetal weight. Mothers were rebred, and the second, nonexposed litters were evaluated for teratogenic effects. Exposed offspring were evaluated using the following perinatal and adult tests: eye opening, surface righting, negative geotaxis, auditory startle, air righting, open field, activity wheel, swimming, and forelimb hanging. Offspring were also monitored for weekly weight and weight gain. Animals exposed to 915 MHz did not exhibit any consistent significant alterations in any of the above parameters. Exposure to 2450 MHz resulted only in a significantly increased adult offspring activity level compared to nonexposed offspring. Offspring exposed to 6000 MHz radiation exhibited an initial slight, but significant, retardation in term weight, while mothers had a significantly reduced monocyte count. No changes in any of the other term parameters were observed. A few postnatal parameters were affected in offspring exposed to 6000 MHz. Weekly weights were lower in the exposed offspring, but they recovered by the fifth week. Eye opening was

  10. Inhalation developmental toxicology studies: Teratology study of methyl ethyl ketone in mice: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mast, T.J.; Dill, J.A.; Evanoff, J.J.; Rommereim, R.L.; Weigel, R.J.; Westerberg, R.B.

    1989-02-01

    Methyl ethyl ketone (MEK) is a widely used industrial solvent which results in considerable human exposure. In order to assess the potential for MEK to cause developmental toxicity in rodents, four groups of Swiss (CD-1) mice were exposed to 0, 400, 1000 or 3000 ppM MEK vapors, 7 h/day, 7 dy/wk. Ten virgin females and ∼30 plug-positive females per group were exposed concurrently for 10 consecutive days (6--15 dg for mated mice). Body weights were obtained throughout the study period, and uterine and fetal body weights were obtained at sacrifice on 18 dg. Uterine implants were enumerated and their status recorded. Live fetuses were sexed and examined for gross, visceral, skeletal, and soft-tissue craniofacial defects. Exposure of pregnant mice to these concentrations of MEK did not result in apparent maternal toxicity, although there was a slight, treatment-correlated increase in liver to body weight ratios which was significant for the 3000-ppM group. Mild developmental toxicity was evident at 3000-ppM as a reduction in mean fetal body weight. This reduction was statistically significant for the males only, although the relative decrease in mean fetal body weight was the same for both sexes. 17 refs., 4 figs., 10 tabs

  11. Inhalation developmental toxicology studies: Teratology study of methyl ethyl ketone in mice: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mast, T.J.; Dill, J.A.; Evanoff, J.J.; Rommereim, R.L.; Weigel, R.J.; Westerberg, R.B.

    1989-02-01

    Methyl ethyl ketone (MEK) is a widely used industrial solvent which results in considerable human exposure. In order to assess the potential for MEK to cause developmental toxicity in rodents, four groups of Swiss (CD-1) mice were exposed to 0, 400, 1000 or 3000 ppM MEK vapors, 7 h/day, 7 dy/wk. Ten virgin females and approx.30 plug-positive females per group were exposed concurrently for 10 consecutive days (6--15 dg for mated mice). Body weights were obtained throughout the study period, and uterine and fetal body weights were obtained at sacrifice on 18 dg. Uterine implants were enumerated and their status recorded. Live fetuses were sexed and examined for gross, visceral, skeletal, and soft-tissue craniofacial defects. Exposure of pregnant mice to these concentrations of MEK did not result in apparent maternal toxicity, although there was a slight, treatment-correlated increase in liver to body weight ratios which was significant for the 3000-ppM group. Mild developmental toxicity was evident at 3000-ppM as a reduction in mean fetal body weight. This reduction was statistically significant for the males only, although the relative decrease in mean fetal body weight was the same for both sexes. 17 refs., 4 figs., 10 tabs.

  12. Prenatal drug exposure and teratological risk: one-year experience of an Italian Teratology Information Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Santis, Marco; Cesari, Elena; Ligato, Maria Serena; Nobili, Elena; Straface, Gianluca; Cavaliere, Annafranca; Caruso, Alessandro

    2008-02-01

    Concern about exposure to drugs, radiation, or infection during pregnancy occur often because pregnancy is not always planned. A teratology information service offers rapid scientific counseling to all those worried about prenatal exposure. The aim of this study is to present data on the most common pharmaceutical products responsible for teratogenic risk in the one-year experience of a teratology information service in Italy. The survey was conducted among 8664 callers who contacted our Teratology Information Service in Rome between January and December 2006. Data on maternal age, gravidity, parity, maternal health status, and details of exposure (dose and timing) were collected and stored in a specific data base. Scientific counseling on prenatal exposure was given to the caller by a specialized service operator, specifying the type of risk and suggesting appropriate tests for prenatal diagnosis. Most of the people called regarding drug exposure; increased risk was present in only 5% of the pregnant women calling during pregnancy. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are the first category that are actually considered of increased risk to the fetus. The second category is represented by antiepileptic drugs. This experience confirms previous data that there is a high teratological risk perception among both women and physicians. The drugs estimated to present increased risk are medications used for chronic neurological diseases, mainly mood disorders and epilepsy. Preconceptional counseling for these women could be an effective strategy to prevent such exposure and to improve maternal and fetal outcome.

  13. Teratology in cultural documents and today.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacher, Gert-Horst

    2004-12-01

    Teratology is the science of congenital malformations. The incidence of birth defects amounts to 2-3%, but it doubles postnatal owing to the fact that many dysfunctions are not discernible at birth. Congenital malformations were already known in ancient cultures, records from Assyrian and Babylonian astrologists as well as from physicians and philosophers of the Hippocratic era are testifying it. In medieval times they were recognized as supernatural phenomenons, terata, from what the term TERATOLOGY derived. In the eyes of the superstitious people affected stillborns were regarded as monster, symbol of devil or miracle. The foundation of anatomy as a science by Vesalius marked the beginning of a reorientation. In the 17th century, when the age of enlightenment began, ideas concerning the origin of birth defects became more objective. Original studies dealing with congenital malformations became common in the 18th century. Fundamental discoveries made by microscopy placed Teratology on a truly scientific basis. Significant impetus was grown to teratological research with the discovery of Gregg (1941) that German measles (rubella virus) of pregnant women caused birth defects in the embryo and the contergan disaster (1959--1962). Congenital malformations originate from genetic factors (single gene defects and chromosomal aberrations) and environmental factors, such as radiation, drugs, chemicals, and infectious agents. The susceptibility of teratogen depends on the period of embryonal development, which is classified into gametogenesis, blastogenesis, embryogenesis and fetogenesis. The Food and Drug Administration of the USA published guidelines for teratogenetic testing (1966). There are in-vivo and in-vitro-test programmes, the latter became of increasing importance owing to the large number of chemicals to be tested and the activities of opponents against animal experiments. Although great advances were made, the problem remained to transfer results from in

  14. A population-based case-control teratologic study of ampicillin treatment during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czeizel, A.E.; Rockenbauer, M.; Sørensen, Henrik Toft

    2001-01-01

    Objective: This was a study of the association between ampicillin treatment during pregnancy and prevalence of different congenital abnormalities. Study Design: The paired analysis of case patients with congenital abnormalities and matched population control subjects was performed in the populati...

  15. Teratology study of derivatives of tetramethylcyclopropyl amide analogues of valproic acid in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Akinobu; Onishi, Yuko; Aoki, Yoshinobu; Yagen, Boris; Sobol, Eyal; Bialer, Meir; Fujiwara, Michio

    2006-06-01

    Although valproic acid (VPA) is used extensively for treating various kinds of epilepsies, it is well known that it causes neural tube and skeletal defects in both humans and animals. The amide and urea derivatives of the tetramethylcylcopropyl VPA analogue, N-methoxy-2,2,3,3-tetramethylcyclopropanecarboxamide (N-methoxy-TMCD) and 2,2,3,3-tetramethylcyclopropanecarbonylurea (TMC-urea), were synthesized and shown to have a more potent anticonvulsant activity than VPA. The objective of this study was to investigate the teratogenic effects of these compounds in NMRI mice. Pregnant NMRI mice were given a single subcutaneous injection of either VPA, N-methoxy-TMCD, or TMC-urea at 1.8 and 3.6 mmol/kg on gestation day (GD) 8. Cesarean section was performed on GD 18. First, the live fetuses were examined to detect any external malformations, then their skeletons were double-stained for bone and cartilage and subsequently examined. Significant increases in fetal losses and neural tube defects were observed with administration of VPA at 3.6 mmol/kg when compared to the vehicle control. In contrast, upon cesarean section, there were no significant differences between either N-methoxy-TMCD or TMC-urea and the control groups for any parameter. Skeletal examination revealed that a number of the abnormalities were induced by VPA dose-dependently at high rates of incidence. These abnormalities were mainly at the axial skeletal level. However, lower frequencies of skeletal abnormality were observed with N-methoxy-TMCD and TMC-urea than with VPA. In addition to their more potent antiepileptic activity, these findings clearly indicate that N-methoxy-TMCD and TMC-urea are distinctly less teratogenic than VPA in NMRI mice.

  16. Teratology – past, present and future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mach, Mojmír; Navarová, Jana; Brucknerová, Ingrid; Dubovický, Michal

    2012-01-01

    Teratology is the science that studies the causes, mechanisms, and patterns of abnormal development. The authors present an updated overview of the most important milestones and stages of the development of modern teratology. Development of knowledge and society led to the recognition that causes of congenital developmental disorders (CDDs) might be caused by various mechanical effects, foetal diseases, and retarded or arrested development of the embryo and foetus. Based on the analysis of the historical development of hypotheses and theories representing a decisive contribution to this field, we present a survey of the six Wilson′s fundamental principles of teratology. The aim of observing these principles is to get insight into developmental relations and to understand mechanisms of action on the level of cell populations (elementary morphogenetic processes), tissues and organs. It is important to realise that any negative intervention into the normal course of these processes, either on genetic or non-genetic basis, inevitably leads to a sequence of subsequent changes resulting in CDDs. Moreover, the classical toxicologic monotonic dose-response paradigm recently has been challenged by the so-called “low dose-hypothesis”, particularly in the case of endocrine active substances. These include some pesticides, dioxins, polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs), and bisphenol A. Despite modern approaches of molecular biology and genetics, along with top diagnostic techniques, we are still not able to identify the actual cause in more than 65 to 70% of all congenital defects classified as having an unknown etiology. Today CDDs include any birth defect, either morphological, biochemical, or behavioural. PMID:23554558

  17. Digital data and the 19th century teratology collection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baljet, B.; Oostra, R. J.

    1999-01-01

    The golden age of descriptive teratology (congenital anomalies) was between 1750 and 1850. During that period, the study of human congenital malformations, especially those dramatic examples designated as 'monsters', attracted special attention. One of the finest collections in this field was Museum

  18. Mammalian Genetics and Teratology Section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    The work of the Mammalian Genetics and Teratology Section includes research in mutagenesis, basic genetics, reproductive biology, and teratogenesis involving basic studies, method development, including exploration of the biological material, and testing. The basic studies make good use of the genetic material accumulated in mutagenesis experiments of various kinds, or of the findings of mutagenesis experiments themselves. In the latter category is the finding of a repair system in the fertilized egg. The genetics of repair competency or deficiency are now under study. A linear relationship between gene dosage and level of expression of an enzyme has been demonstrated. Opportunities for the study of gene action are provided by a number of X-autosome translocations which continue to be discovered in the course of mutagenesis experiments. In these rearrangements, X-chromosome inactivation extends to neighboring autosomal loci. Considerable progress has been made in developing the skeletal mutation system, which provides information on dominants that is highly useful for risk assessment. A sensitive-indicator test is now under development which will make the screening for skeletal mutations much faster and easier. Method development has also progressed on the in vivo somatic-mutation test now being widely used as an in vivo screen for mutagens. Another method developed here is the numerical sex-chromosome anomaly (NSA) test for nondisjunction. The NSA method is being used to explore the effects of female age on chromosome loss and nondisjunction. A model for estimating the misclassification error was experimentally established for the heritable translocation test. A rapid, easy, and sensitive in vivo screening test for teratogenesis was developed. An in vitro teratogenic prescreen being developed makes use of teratocarcinoma-derived cell lines

  19. Holoprosencephaly: A mythologic and teratologic distillate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, M Michael

    2010-02-15

    This review of holoprosencephaly provides a mythologic and teratologic distillate of the subject under the following headings: Babylonian tablets; Greek mythology; pictures from the 16th through the 20th Centuries; 19th Century teratology; history of more modern concepts and their terminologies; and ocean-going ships named "Cyclops." 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. Comparison of a modified mid-coronal sectioning technique and Wilson's technique when conducting eye and brain examinations in rabbit teratology studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziejewski, Mary K; Solomon, Howard M; Rendemonti, Joyce; Stanislaus, Dinesh

    2015-02-01

    There are two methods used when examining fetal rabbit eyes and brain in teratology studies. One method employs prior fixation before serial sectioning (Wilson's technique) and the other uses fresh tissue (mid-coronal sectioning). We modified the mid-coronal sectioning technique to include removal of eyes and brain for closer examination and to increase the number of structures that can be evaluated and compared it to the Wilson's technique. We found that external examination of the head, in conjunction with either sectioning method, is equally sensitive in identifying developmental defects. We evaluated 40,401 New Zealand White (NZW) and Dutch-Belted (DB) rabbit fetuses for external head alterations, of which 28,538 fetuses were further examined for eye and brain alterations using the modified mid-coronal sectioning method (16,675 fetuses) or Wilson's technique (11,863 fetuses). The fetuses were from vehicle control or drug-treated pregnant rabbits in embryo-fetal development studies conducted to meet international regulatory requirements for the development of new drugs. Both methods detected the more common alterations (microphthalmia and dilated lateral cerebral ventricles) and other less common findings (changes in size and/or shape of eye and brain structures). While both methods are equally sensitive at detecting common and rare developmental defects, the modified mid-coronal sectioning technique eliminates the use of chemicals and concomitant fixation artifacts that occur with the Wilson's technique and allows for examination of 100% intact fetuses thereby increasing potential for detecting eye and brain alterations as these findings occur infrequently in rabbits. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Burnei’s disease: teratological spondylolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavriliu, ST; Ghiță, RA; El Nayef, T; Burnei, A; Olaru-Barbilian, CR

    2015-01-01

    Teratological spondylolysis is a pathological entity noted for the first time in the specialty literature by Gh. Burnei in “The Spine Journal”, in September 25, 2014. This disease was described in a short presentation of the first case treated by the author. The aim of this paper was to expose in a didactic manner the main characteristic aspects of Burnei’s disease: embryological, clinical, imaging and treatment data and also to make known this pathological entity with all its pathognomonic diagnostic elements. This paper was based on data obtained after analyzing 2 cases of teratological spondylolysis: a 18-year-old patient with triple L3-L5 teratological spondylolysis with Pang 1 spinal dysraphism and a 1-year-old child with teratological spondylolysis and retrospondylolisthesis. PMID:26664464

  2. The neurobehavioral teratology of retinoids: a 50-year history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Jane

    2010-10-01

    This review of the central nervous system (CNS) and behavioral teratology of the retinoids over the last 50 years is a commemorative retrospective organized by decade to show the prominent research focus within each period and the most salient findings. In the 1960s, research focused on the gross CNS malformations associated with exposure and the delineation of dose-response and stage-specific responses in rodent models. Relevant scientific events before and during the 1960s are also discussed to provide the zeitgeist in which the field of neurobehavioral teratology emerged in the 1970s. During this period, studies demonstrated that adverse effects on postnatal behavior could be produced in animals exposed to doses of vitamin A lower than those that were teratogenic or impacted growth. Work during the 1980s showed an overrepresentation of behavioral studies focused on the reliability of screening methods, while the marked effects of human exposure were illustrated in children born to women treated with isotretinoin during pregnancy. The human catastrophe invigorated research during the 1990s, a period when technological advances allowed more elegant examinations of the developing CNS, of biochemical, cellular, and molecular developmental events and regulatory actions, and of the effects of direct genetic manipulations. Likewise, research in the 1990s reflected a reinvigoration of research in neurobehavioral teratology evinced in studies that used animal models to try to better understand human vulnerability. These foci continued in the 2000-2010 period while examinations of the role of retinoids in brain development and lifelong functioning became increasingly sophisticated and broader in scope. This review of the work on retinoids also provides a lens on the more general ontogeny of the field of neurobehavioral teratology. Birth Defects Research (Part A), 2010. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. Effects of prenatal X-irradiation on postnatal testicular development and function in the Wistar rat: development/teratology/behavior/radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensh, R.P.; Brent, R.L.

    1988-01-01

    It is evident that significant permanent tissue hypoplasia can be produced following radiation exposure late in fetal development. Because two organs, brain and testes, are developmentally and functionally interrelated, it was of interest to determine whether fetal testicular hypoplasia was a primary or a secondary effect of fetal brain irradiation. Twenty-four pregnant Wistar strain rats were randomly assigned to one of four groups, and a laparotomy was performed on day 18 of gestation. The fetuses received sham irradiation, whole body irradiation, or only head/thorax or pelvic body irradiation at a dosage level of 1.5 Gy. Mothers were allowed to deliver and raise their offspring until postnatal day 30, when the offspring were weaned. At 60 days of age, 74 male offspring were allowed to mate with colony control females of similar age until successful insemination or until the males reached 90 days of age, when they were killed. Testes were weighed and processed for histologic examination. Direct radiation of testes, due to whole body or pelvic exposure, resulted in testicular growth retardation and significantly reduced spermatogenesis. Breeding activity of the males and the percent of positive inseminations were also slightly reduced. However, a significant percentage of male offspring receiving direct testicular radiation did produce offspring. Head/thorax-only irradiation did not adversely affect testicular growth or spermatogenesis. Therefore, the use of histologic analysis as the sole determinant of infertility may be misleading. This study indicates that testicular growth retardation and an increased infertility rate result from direct prenatal exposure of rat testes to X-radiation and are not necessarily mediated via X-irradiation effects on the central nervous system

  4. Fetal behavioral teratology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, Gerard H A; Mulder, Eduard J H; Tessa Ververs, F F

    2010-10-01

    Ultrasound studies of fetal motor behavior provide direct – in vivo – insight in the functioning of the motor component of the fetal central nervous system. In this article, studies are reviewed showing changes in the first timetable of appearance of fetal movements, changes in quality and/or quantity of movements and disturbances in the development of fetal behavioral states in case of endogenous malfunctions, maternal diseases and exogenous behavioral teratogens.

  5. Educating the medical community through a teratology newsletter.

    OpenAIRE

    Guttmacher, A E; Allen, E F

    1993-01-01

    To educate a geographically and professionally diverse group of health care providers about teratology in an economic and efficient manner, we developed a locally written and distributed teratology newsletter. Response to the newsletter, from readers as well as from our staff and funding agencies, suggests that such a newsletter can be a valuable tool in educating medical communities about teratology.

  6. Educating the medical community through a teratology newsletter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guttmacher, A E; Allen, E F

    1993-01-01

    To educate a geographically and professionally diverse group of health care providers about teratology in an economic and efficient manner, we developed a locally written and distributed teratology newsletter. Response to the newsletter, from readers as well as from our staff and funding agencies, suggests that such a newsletter can be a valuable tool in educating medical communities about teratology. PMID:8434594

  7. The principles of teratology: are they still true?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Jan M

    2010-10-01

    James Wilson originally proposed a set of "Principles of Teratology" in 1959, the year before he helped to found the Teratology Society. By 1977, when these Principles were presented in a more definitive form in Wilson and Fraser's Handbook of Teratology, they had become a standard formulation of the basic tenets of the field. Wilson's Principles have continued to guide scientific research in teratology, and they are widely used in teaching. Recent advances in our knowledge of the molecular and cellular bases of embryogenesis serve only to provide a deeper understanding of the fundamental developmental mechanisms that underlie Wilson's Principles of Teratology. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. The contribution of new findings and ideas to the old principles of teratology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelínek, Richard

    2005-01-01

    Although the last generally accepted concept of principles of teratology was issued more than 30 years ago, the cause of less than 50% of all congenital anomalies is known and no substantial change in their incidence has been observed worldwide. In the meantime, powerful techniques of molecular biology as well as many sophisticated preventive measures have been introduced with marginal effects on the overall birth defects numbers. In this paper, we follow the history of basic concepts of teratology starting with Isidore Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire and Dareste, followed in the 20th century by James Wilson. Since that time no bright and completely new idea, which would deserve the name principle, has emerged. The advanced molecular studies support the long-existing principles and disclose the great variability of individuals and their responses to adverse exposures. In this way, the future of teratology counseling may be seen in a deep analysis of any individual case.

  9. Teratology in Mexico. 19th Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorbach, Frida

    2014-01-01

    It was not until the last third of the 19th century, the period in which, according to historiography, the country definitely inserted itself into modernity, that anomalies and monstrosities had a presence in Mexico. Therefore, what I present here are four moments of teratology in Mexico, four dates in which I try to recount how teratology, which still occupied a marginal place within the main themes of national science, not only reached to cover the realm of medical discussions at the time, but also laid the foundations for new disciplines like biology and anthropology.

  10. A population-based case-control teratologic study of furazidine, a nitrofuran-derivative treatment during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czeizel, A E; Rockenbauer, M; Sørensen, H T; Olsen, J

    2000-04-01

    To study human teratogenic potential of furazidine treatment during pregnancy. Pair analysis of cases with congenital abnormalities and matched population controls. The Hungarian Case-Control Surveillance of Congenital Abnormalities. 38,151 pregnant women who had newborn infants without any defects (population control group) and 22,865 pregnant women who had newborns or fetuses with congenital abnormalities between 1980 and 1996. In the case group, 157 (0.7%) and in the control group, 254 (0.7%) pregnant women were treated with furazidine. The case-control pair analysis did not indicate a teratogenic potential of furazidine use during the second to third months of gestation, i.e. in the critical period for major congenital abnormalities. Treatment with furazidine during pregnancy did not show teratogenic risk to the fetus.

  11. [Wilson's principles--a base of modern teratology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdan, Franciszek; Bełzek, Artur; Szumiło, Justyna; Dudka, Jarosław; Korobowicz, Agnieszka; Tokarska, Edyta; Klepacz, Lidia; Bełzek, Marta; Klepacz, Robert

    2006-03-01

    Wilson's principles were formulated after thalidomide tragedy. They become a fundamental for teratological studies with drugs and other factors that may disturb fetal development. It is postulated that susceptibility to teratogen depends on the genotype and developmental stage of the conceptus. Teratogenic agents act in specific manner on developing cells and tissues. The exposition depends on the agent's nature and availability. Manifestations of deviant development depends on the dosage and exposure frequency. In case of abnormal development the final manifestations include death of embryo or fetus, malformation, growth retardation and functional disorder.

  12. Cost effectiveness of teratology counseling - the Motherisk experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koren, Gideon; Bozzo, Pina

    2014-01-01

    While the benefits of evidence-based counseling to large numbers of women and physicians are intuitively evident, there is an urgent need to document that teratology counseling, in addition to improving the quality of life of women and families, also leads to cost saving. The objective of the present study was to calculate the cost effectiveness of the Motherisk Program, a large teratology information and counseling service at The Hospital for Sick Children and the University of Toronto. We analyzed data from the Motherisk Program on its 2012 activities in two domains: 1) Calculation of cost-saving in preventing unjustified pregnancy terminations; and 2) prevention of major birth defects. Cost of pregnancy termination and lifelong cost of specific birth defects were identified from primary literature and prorated for cost of living for the year 2013. Prevention of 255 pregnancy terminations per year led to cost savings of $516,630. The total estimated number of major malformations prevented by Motherisk counseling in 2012 was 8.41 cases at a total estimated cost of $9,032,492. With an estimated minimum annual prevention of 8 major malformations, and numerous unnecessary terminations of otherwise- wanted pregnancies, a cost saving of $10 million can be calculated. In 2013 the operating budget of Motherisk counseling totaled $640,000. Even based on the narrow range of activities for which we calculated cost, this service is highly cost- effective. Because most teratology counseling services are operating in a very similar method to Motherisk, it is fair to assume that these results, although dependent on the size of the service, are generalizable to other countries.

  13. Recommendations for harmonization of data collection and analysis of developmental neurotoxicity endpoints in regulatory guideline studies: Proceedings of workshops presented at Society of Toxicology and joint Teratology Society and Neurobehavioral Teratology Society meetings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Abby A; Sheets, Larry P; Raffaele, Kathleen; Moser, Virginia; Hofstra, Angela; Hoberman, Alan; Makris, Susan L; Garman, Robert; Bolon, Brad; Kaufmann, Wolfgang; Auer, Roland; Lau, Edmund; Vidmar, Thomas; Bowers, Wayne J

    2017-09-01

    The potential for developmental neurotoxicity (DNT) of environmental chemicals may be evaluated using specific test guidelines from the US Environmental Protection Agency or the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). These guidelines generate neurobehavioral, neuropathological, and morphometric data that are evaluated by regulatory agencies globally. Data from these DNT guideline studies, or the more recent OECD extended one-generation reproductive toxicity guideline, play a pivotal role in children's health risk assessment in different world areas. Data from the same study may be interpreted differently by regulatory authorities in different countries resulting in inconsistent evaluations that may lead to inconsistencies in risk assessment decisions internationally, resulting in regional differences in public health protection or in commercial trade barriers. These issues of data interpretation and reporting are also relevant to juvenile and pre-postnatal studies conducted more routinely for pharmaceuticals and veterinary medicines. There is a need for development of recommendations geared toward the operational needs of the regulatory scientific reviewers who apply these studies in risk assessments, as well as the scientists who generate DNT data sets. The workshops summarized here draw upon the experience of the authors representing government, industry, contract research organizations, and academia to discuss the scientific issues that have emerged from diverse regulatory evaluations. Although various regulatory bodies have different risk management decisions and labeling requirements that are difficult to harmonize, the workshops provided an opportunity to work toward more harmonized scientific approaches for evaluating DNT data within the context of different regulatory frameworks. Five speakers and their coauthors with neurotoxicology, neuropathology, and regulatory toxicology expertise discussed issues of variability, data reporting

  14. Radiological imaging of teratological fetuses: what can we learn?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boer, Lucas L; Schepens-Franke, A N; van Asten, J J A; Bosboom, D G H; Kamphuis-van Ulzen, K; Kozicz, T L; Ruiter, D J; Oostra, R-J; Klein, W M

    2017-06-01

    To determine the advantages of radiological imaging of a collection of full-term teratological fetuses in order to increase their scientific and educational value. BACKGROUND : Anatomical museums around the world exhibit full-term teratological fetuses. Unfortunately, these museums are regularly considered as "morbid cabinets". Detailed dysmorphological information concerning the exhibited specimens is often lacking. Moreover, fetuses with severe and complex congenital anomalies are frequently diagnosed incompletely, incorrectly or not at all. In order to verify diagnoses and to enrich their educational and scientific value, we imaged 41 out of the 72 teratological specimens present in the collection of our Anatomy and Pathology Museum in Nijmegen (The Netherlands) by means of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT). Additionally, contemporary dysmorphological insights and 3D models are implemented in the teratology education of medical students and residents. Full-term teratological fetuses have become increasingly rare and deserve a prominent place in every anatomical museum; they are suitable for contemporary teratological research and education. Modern radiological techniques markedly enhance their scientific and didactic value. • To explore the scientific and educational potential of institutionalised teratological collections • To understand the additional value of radiological imaging in diagnosing teratological specimens • To learn about the specific settings of MRI parameters when scanning fixed specimens • To recognise specific internal dysmorphology in several congenital anomalies.

  15. Expression analysis of some genes regulated by retinoic acid in controls and triadimefon-exposed embryos: is the amphibian Xenopus laevis a suitable model for gene-based comparative teratology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Renzo, Francesca; Rossi, Federica; Bacchetta, Renato; Prati, Mariangela; Giavini, Erminio; Menegola, Elena

    2011-06-01

    The use of nonmammal models in teratological studies is a matter of debate and seems to be justified if the embryotoxic mechanism involves conserved processes. Published data on mammals and Xenopus laevis suggest that azoles are teratogenic by altering the endogenous concentration of retinoic acid (RA). The expression of some genes (Shh, Ptch-1, Gsc, and Msx2) controlled by retinoic acid is downregulated in rat embryos exposed at the phylotypic stage to the triazole triadimefon (FON). In order to propose X. laevis as a model for gene-based comparative teratology, this work evaluates the expression of Shh, Ptch-1, Gsc, and Msx2 in FON-exposed X. laevis embryos. Embryos, exposed to a high concentration level (500 µM) of FON from stage 13 till 17, were examined at stages 17, 27, and 47. Stage 17 and 27 embryos were processed to perform quantitative RT-PCR. The developmental rate was never affected by FON at any considered stage. FON-exposed stage 47 larvae showed the typical craniofacial malformations. A significant downregulation of Gsc was observed in FON-exposed stage 17 embryos. Shh, Ptch-1, Msx2 showed a high fluctuation of expression both in control and in FON-exposed samples both at stages 17 and 27. The downregulation of Gsc mimics the effects of FON on rat embryos, showing for this gene a common effect of FON in the two vertebrate classes. The high fluctuation observed in the gene expression of the other genes, however, suggests that X. laevis at this stage has limited utility for gene-based comparative teratology. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. New teratological examples in Neotropical Staphylinidae (Insecta: Coleoptera, with a compilation of previous teratological records Nuevos ejemplos teratológicos en Staphylinidae neotropicales (Insecta: Coleoptera, con una compilación de registros teratológicos previos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julieta Asiain

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Teratology is the study of malformations that affect various organisms and may cause taxonomic confusion. The goal of this work is to compile the previously published information about malformations in species of Staphylinidae, to describe 10 teratological cases that have not been previously recorded in neotropical species of this family, and to point out the high frequency of these malformations in the studied specimens. The previously recorded cases were obtained from review of 13 papers, and the studied specimens were obtained on loan from several collections. In total, 43 teratological cases were compiled for Staphylinidae, belonging to 39 species from 8 subfamilies. Ten teratological cases are described for specimens from Belonuchus, Agrodes and Plochionocerus. One of them occurs in B. apiciventris, 2 in A. elegans, 3 in P. humeralis, 3 in P. fulgens and 1 in P. splendens. Most of the anomalies affect the antennae (7 cases, but teratologies that affect mandibles (1 case, midlegs (1 case and pronotum (1 case are also presented.Teratología es el estudio de las malformaciones que afectan a distintos organismos y que pueden causar confusiones taxonómicas. El objetivo del presente estudio es recopilar la información previamente publicada sobre teratologías en especies de Staphylinidae, dar a conocer 10 casos de anomalías presentes en especies neotropicales de esta familia que no han sido reportadas con anterioridad, así como resaltar la alta frecuencia de estas deformaciones en los organismos estudiados. Los casos previamente reportados se obtuvieron de la revisión de 13 trabajos, mientras que los ejemplares estudiados proceden del préstamo de organismos de distintas colecciones. Se recopiló un total de 43 casos teratológicos para Staphylinidae, pertenecientes a 39 especies de ocho subfamilias. Se describen 10 casos teratológicos en ejemplares de Agrodes, Plochionocerus y Belonuchus, 2 de ellos se presentaron en A. elegans, 1 en B

  17. The effectiveness of Teratology Information Services (TIS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, Rebecca L; Koren, Gideon; Einarson, Adrienne; Ungar, Wendy J

    2007-02-01

    Women and their health care providers have few reliable sources of information regarding the safety of exposures in pregnancy and lactation. Evidence-based information on these topics is provided by Teratology Information Services (TIS). Access to TIS, however, is limited in many regions, and many services have difficulty maintaining ongoing funding. The objective of this review is to highlight published reports of the effectiveness of TIS in improving maternal and neonatal health. A search of the Pub Med and Econ Lit databases was performed with no date restriction, using the search terms teratology, information, counseling, pregnancy, effectiveness, birth defects. Information disseminated from TIS has been shown to prevent congenital malformations, unnecessary pregnancy terminations, and occupational risks. TIS support optimal nutritional supplementation in pregnancy and optimal drug therapy in pregnancy and breast-feeding. In addition, they correct misperceptions of risk and facilitate knowledge transfer and translation. TIS have the potential to provide health care cost savings. TIS are vital services in supporting optimal maternal and neonatal health. A formal economic evaluation of TIS is required in order to inform resource allocation decision-making and continued funding of these services.

  18. [From teratology to mythology: ancient legends].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, A; Tourame, P

    2010-12-01

    The mythology of the Greeks and Romans is full of monsters of fiction: giants, cyclops, centaurs, hydras, Gorgons… The accounts of travelers, reproduced in the Natural History of Pline l'Ancien reported the existence, in distant countries, of men with a dog's head (baboons), of men with a single tall foot (sciapode), beings whose face is embedded in the chest (or acephala blemmyes), to which must be added a wide variety of men with no mouth, no nose, or equipped with giant ears or feet turned backwards, as well as hermaphrodites. Teratology reports on monstrous births, which have constituted the factual basis from which the imagination conceived adults whose morphology corresponds to the monsters of legend. Newborns sirenomelia were behind the legend of sciapode and sirens. Cyclopia have inspired the legend of the cyclops. Anencephaly probably explains the description of headless or blemmyes. The genesis of the legend of baboons may have multiple origins: firstly the existence of people suffering from congenital hypertrichosis, on the other hand, the influence of Egyptian mythology where the god Anubis has a dog's head. The acardiac fetus may explain some monstrous forms, features the work of Hieronymus Bosch. The significance of the monsters of legend, their genesis, their persistence through the ages is complex. By approaching teratology, we added a new field of exploration of real monsters of antiquity and Middle Ages. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  19. Experimental methods in behavioral teratology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zbinden, G.

    1981-09-01

    Efforts are made to develop toxicological techniques with which new behavioral teratogens can be recognized. The review describes the most important experimental methods which are presently explored, and which are based on a rich body of knowledge accumulated by experimental psychologists. Most of the tests were developed with small animals, mostly with rats. They range from the rather straightforward determination of various reflexes to complex behavioral situations involving mechanical devices, operant conditioning techniques and procedures evaluating social behavior. In applying these methods in routine toxicology, it is important to remember, that many behavioral effects determined in newborn and adult animals are subtle. Moreover, they are influenced by a large variety of environmental factors affecting the health and the behavior of the mothers and of the offspring in the early and later phases of development. Therefore, the experiments must be conducted under highly standardized conditions and must be controlled rigorously. It is concluded that the best experimental strategy for the evaluation of potential behavioral teratogens is not yet established. Therefore, it would be premature to decide on a fixed protocol to be included in routine animal safety experiments for drugs and other chemical substances.

  20. A hitchhiker's guide to the older literature of descriptive teratology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckwith, J Bruce

    2007-12-15

    Though relatively neglected in the age of molecular biology, the older literature of teratology includes superb illustrations and descriptions of malformations, and other information of permanent value to science and medicine. Accessing that literature can be challenging, as most is in works that are rare, published in languages other than English, and not available in digital form. This article describes some valuable sources of information concerning the antiquarian literature of descriptive teratology. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  1. Funding for teratology information services: up, down, and all around.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Dee

    2012-08-01

    Funding for Teratology Information Services has been an ongoing struggle over the 25 years of its existence. Traditional and novel funding mechanisms have been explored with varying success. The importance of providing teratology risk assessment and counseling to all women of reproductive age is now an established health care objective. Sufficient and stable funding for these services is essential. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. The teratology testing of food additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrow, Paul C; Spézia, François

    2013-01-01

    The developmental and reproductive toxicity testing (including teratogenicity) of new foods and food additives is performed worldwide according to the guidelines given in the FDA Redbook. These studies are not required for substances that are generally recognized as safe, according to the FDA inventory. The anticipated cumulated human exposure level above which developmental or reproduction studies are required depends on the structure-alert category. For food additives of concern, both developmental (prenatal) and reproduction (multigeneration) studies are required. The developmental studies are performed in two species, usually the rat and the rabbit. The reproduction study is generally performed in the rat. The two rat studies are preferably combined into a single experimental design, if possible. The test methods described in the FDA Redbook are similar to those specified by the OECD for the reproductive toxicity testing of chemicals.

  3. Mini-review: history of organized teratology information services in North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leen-Mitchell, M; Martinez, L; Gallegos, S; Robertson, J; Carey, J C

    2000-04-01

    A history of the Organization of Teratology Information Services (OTIS) is presented in context of the history of teratology information services. During the late 1970s, teratology information services grew out of the need for current and accurate information about fetal effects of environmental exposures in pregnancy. Over the next decade, teratology information services networked and collaborated, developing their own professional organization. A description of the activities of OTIS is described. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. An updated history of the Teratology Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepard, Thomas H; Barr, Mason; Brent, Robert L; Hendrickx, Andrew; Kochhar, Devendra; Oakley, Godfrey; Scott, William J; Rogers, John M

    2010-05-01

    The 49-year history of the Teratology Society is reviewed. An abbreviated history is outlined in table form, with listings of the Warkany Lectures, the Continuing Education Courses, and officers of the society. The original article was updated to include the years 2000 to 2010. A year-by-year description of the events is given, including the scientific and social content of the annual meetings and changes in the business of the society, in many cases using comments from the past presidents. The valuable and unique diversity of the members is discussed and illustrated, presenting the disciplines and main research areas of the presidents. The number of submitted abstracts and the various categories are tabulated, averaging the number and type over successive periods. A significant increase in the number of abstracts dealing with epidemiology and developmental biology is evident. The society's development is compared to that of a human, and the question was asked by Shephard et al. (2000): Have we reached the maturational stage of old age or senescence, or is the society still maturing gracefully? This question needs further discussion by all the members. By 2010, many positive changes are happening to revitalize the society. During the past 50 years, we have developed the scientific basis to prevent birth defects caused by rubella, alcoholism, and folate deficiency, as well as other prenatal exposures. We are now taking advantage of advances in many fields to begin shaping the Teratology Society of the 21st century. We must now engage in political battles to obtain the resources needed to conduct further research and to implement prevention programs, as well as to provide care and rehabilitation for persons with birth defects. 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. A history of the Teratology Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepard, T H; Barr, M; Brent, R L; Hendrickx, A; Kochhar, D; Oakley, G; Scott, W J

    2000-11-01

    The 39-year history of the Teratology Society is reviewed. An abbreviated history is outlined in table form, along with listings of the Warkany Lectures, the postgraduate courses, and officers of the Society. A year-by-year description of the events, including the scientific and social content of the annual meetings and changes in the business of the Society, is given, in many cases using comments from the past presidents. The valuable and unique diversity of the members is discussed and illustrated, presenting the disciplines and main research area of the presidents. The number of submitted abstracts and the various categories are tabulated, averaging the number and type over four periods. Within the past 10 years, a significant increase in the number of abstracts dealing with epidemiology and developmental biology is evident. The Society's development is compared with that of a human, and the question is asked: Have we reached the maturational stage of old age or senescence, or is the Society still maturing gracefully? This question needs further discussion by all the members. During the past 40 years, we have developed the scientific basis to prevent birth defects caused by rubella, alcoholism, and folate deficiency, as well as many other prenatal exposures. We must now engage in the political battles to obtain the resources needed to conduct further research and to implement the prevention programs, as well as to provide care and rehabilitation for persons with birth defects. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. Teratology on the crossroads: historical aspects and modern approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ujházy, Eduard; Mach, Mojmír; Navarová, Jana; Dubovický, Michal

    2012-01-01

    Teratology is the science of congenital developmental disorders (CDDs), overt or latent defects of the organism resulting from the effect of internal and external factors on developmental processes. In this article the significance and position of present-day teratology is discussed in the context of development of this branch of science and related disciplines. The authors present an updated overview of the most important milestones and stages of the development of teratology. Based on the analysis of the historical development of theses and theories that represent a decisive contribution to this field, we present a survey of the fundamental principles of experimental and clinical teratology. The aim of observing these principles is to get insight into developmental relations and to understand mechanisms of action on the level of cell populations (elementary morphogenetic processes), tissues and organs. It is important to realize that any negative intervention into the normal course of these processes, either on genetic or non-genetic basis, inevitably leads to a sequence of subsequent changes resulting in the development of congenital developmental disorders. Despite modern approaches of molecular biology and genetics, along with top diagnostic techniques, we are still not able to identify the actual cause in more than 50% of all congenital defects. One-half of the unidentified cases are referred to as "multifactorial", a term that is rather ambiguous. It either means that some of the basic principles of teratogenesis still escape our attention, or the interpretation of some of the well known principles might be misleading. A third possibility is rather pessimistic. The development of the individual is so sophisticated and dependent on a delicate network of a multitude of factors mutually affecting each other that it is extremely prone to give rise to a plethora of spontaneous errors which are unpredictable and impossible to prevent. Nevertheless, the long and

  7. Comments from the Developmental Neurotoxicology Committee of the Japanese Teratology Society on the OECD Guideline for the Testing of Chemicals, Proposal for a New Guideline 426, Developmental Neurotoxicity Study, Draft Document (October 2006 version), and on the Draft Document of the Retrospective Performance Assessment of the Draft Test Guideline 426 on Developmental Neurotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ema, Makoto; Fukui, Yoshihiro; Aoyama, Hiroaki; Fujiwara, Michio; Fuji, Junichiro; Inouye, Minoru; Iwase, Takayuki; Kihara, Takahide; Oi, Akihide; Otani, Hiroki; Shinomiya, Mitsuhiro; Sugioka, Kozo; Yamano, Tsunekazu; Yamashita, Keisuke H; Tanimura, Takashi

    2007-06-01

    In October 2006, a new revision of the draft guideline (OECD Guideline for the Testing of Chemicals, Proposal for a New Guideline 426. Developmental Neurotoxicity Study) and Draft Document of the Retrospective Performance Assessment (RPA) of the Draft Test Guideline 426 on Developmental Neurotoxicity were distributed following incorporation of the results of the Expert Consultation Meeting in Tokyo on May 24-26, 2005. The draft guideline consists of 50 paragraphs and an appendix with 102 references; and the draft RPA consists of 37 paragraphs with 109 references. National coordinators were requested to arrange for national expert reviews of these draft documents in their member countries. Members of the Developmental Neurotoxicology (DNT) Committee of the Japanese Teratology Society (JTS) reviewed, discussed, and commented on the draft Test Guideline Proposal. The DNT Committee of the JTS also commented on the draft document of the RPA. These comments were sent to the OECD Secretariat. The DNT Committee of the JTS expects the comments to be useful for the finalization of these draft documents.

  8. Thomas H. Shepard, M.D., pioneer in embryology and teratology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fantel, Alan G; Polifka, Janine E; Oakley, Godfrey P

    2017-06-01

    Dr. Thomas H. Shepard died on October 3, 2016 at the age of 93. He was a major figure in the fields of teratology, embryonic and fetal pathology, and pediatrics. He was beloved by his colleagues as he was by the many students and fellows whom he taught, mentored and befriended. His contributions to teratology are extraordinary and he is greatly missed. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Studies of the teratogenic potential of exposure of rats to 6000-MHz microwave radiation. II. Postnatal psychophysiologic evaluations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensh, R.P.

    1984-01-01

    Wistar rats (36) were exposed daily throughout pregnancy to a power density level of 35 mW/cm 2 of 6000-MHz microwave radiation (11), sham irradiated (10), or used as control animals (15). Litters were culled to a maximum of eight F 1 /sub a/ offspring/litter (total = 124) on Postnatal Day 1 and subjected to a series of reflex tests beginning Day 3. Mothers were rebred 10 days after weaning. Teratologic evaluations were completed on 263 F 1 /sub b/ offspring. Weekly weights were recorded for 298 F 1 /sub a/ offspring. At 60 days, behavioral testing was initiated on 121 offspring. At 90 days, offspring were bred within/across groups. Teratologic evaluations were completed on 659 F 2 term fetuses. Organ weight analyses were completed on 17 mothers and 181 F 1 /sub a/ adult offspring, and blood analyses on 21 mothers and 131 offspring. Sex differences within groups were observed in four behavioral tests and in blood data. Significant differences between groups were observed for: F 1 /sub b/ term fetal weight; F 1 /sub a/ eye opening, postnatal growth to the fifth week, water T-maze and open field test results; and several organ/body weight ratios. These results indicate that exposure to 6000-MHz radiation at this power density level may result in subtle long-term neurophysiologic alterations not detectable at term using conventional morphologic teratologic procedures

  10. Studies of the teratogenic potential of exposure of rats to 6000-MHz microwave radiation. II. Postnatal phychophysiologic evaluations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensh, R.P.

    1984-01-01

    Wistar rats (36) were exposed daily throughout pregnancy to a power density level of 35 mW/cm 2 of 6000-MHz microwave radiation (11), sham irradiated (10), or used as control animals (15). Litters were culled to a maximum of eight F 1 /sub a/ offspring/litter (total = 124) on Postnatal Day 1 and subjected to a series of reflex tests beginning Day 3. Mothers were rebred 10 days after weaning. Teratologic evaluations were completed on 263 F 1 /sub b/ offspring. Weekly weights were recorded for 298 F 1 /sub a/ offspring. At 60 days, behavioral testing was initiated on 121 offspring. At 90 days, offspring were bred within/across groups. Teratologic evaluations were completed on 659 F 2 term fetuses. Organ weight analyses were completed on 17 mothers and 181 F 1 /sub a/ adult offspring, and blood analyses on 21 mothers and 131 offspring. Sex differences within groups were observed in four behavioral tests and in blood data. Significant differences between groups were observed for: F 1 /sub b/ term fetal weight; F 1 /sub a/ eye opening, postnatal growth to the fifth week, water T-maze and open field test results; and several organ/body weight ratios. These results indicate that exposure to 6000-MHz radiation at this power density level may result in subtle long-term neurophysiologic alterations not detectable at term using conventional morphologic teratologic procedures

  11. In honor of the Teratology Society's 50th anniversary: The role of Teratology Society members in the development and evolution of in vivo developmental toxicity test guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyl, Rochelle W

    2010-06-01

    Members of the Teratology Society (established in 1960) were involved in the first governmental developmental and reproductive toxicity testing guidelines (1966) by FDA following the thalidomide epidemic, followed by other national and international governmental testing guidelines. The Segment II (developmental toxicity) study design, described in rodents and rabbits, has evolved with additional enhanced endpoints and better descriptions, mechanistic insights, range-finding studies, and toxico/pharmacokinetic ADME information (especially for pharmaceuticals). Society members were also involved in the development of the current screening assays and tests for endocrine disruptors (beginning in 1996) and are now involved with developing new testing guidelines (e.g., the extended one-generation protocol), and evaluating the current test guidelines and new initiatives under ILSI/HESI sponsorship. New initiatives include ToxCast from the U.S. EPA to screen, prioritize, and predict toxic chemicals by high throughput and high-content in vitro assays, bioinformation, and modeling to reduce (or eliminate) in vivo whole animal studies. Our Society and its journal have played vital roles in the scientific and regulatory accomplishments in birth defects research over the past 50 years and will continue to do so in the future. Happy 50th anniversary! (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. [The Teratology Information Service: medicines during pregnancy and lactation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Loes C; de Swart, Irene W; van Puijenbroek, Eugène P

    2016-01-01

    Many women use medication during pregnancy. Both the healthcare professional and the pregnant woman often have many questions about the possible adverse effects of the medication that are not always answered in the product information. The Teratology Information Service (TIS), a part of the Netherlands Pharmacovigilance Centre Lareb, is a centre of expertise in the field of the safety of medication use and other external influences during spermatogenesis, pregnancy and lactation. The TIS collects, interprets, and disseminates information that can contribute to patient care. Healthcare professionals can contact the TIS for information and individual risk assessments. In this article we discuss the background and positioning of the TIS, the characteristics of telephone consultations, the collection of data and the considerations that are important for the use of medication during pregnancy and lactation.

  13. Paternal exposure and counselling: experience of a Teratology Information Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Santis, Marco; Cesari, Elena; Cavaliere, Annafranca; Ligato, Maria Serena; Nobili, Elena; Visconti, Daniela; Caruso, Alessandro

    2008-09-01

    We describe paternal exposure and counselling in a selected population calling to an Italian Teratology Information Service (TIS). The majority of callers asked for paternal drug exposure (76%, drugs except chemotherapy) and treatment for cancer (17%, chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy). Others asked for exposure to diagnostic radiations (4%), recreational drugs (2%) and occupational chemicals (1%). Among paternal drugs neurological compounds, immunosuppressive drugs and antiviral agents were the main reasons for calling. In humans, there are no evidences of birth defects after paternal exposures, but to minimize any possible risk, counselling in men exposed to radio and chemotherapy should recommend delaying conception for at least 3 months after the end of the therapy. Male patients treated with drugs, whose teratogenic potential has been well assessed or suspected for maternal exposure, should be advised to practice effective birth control during therapy and up to one or two cycles of spermatogenesis and to avoid semen contact with vaginal walls during first trimester of pregnancy.

  14. Reproductive studies with the anti-inflammatory agent, piroxicam: modification of classical protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perraud, J; Stadler, J; Kessedjian, M J; Monro, A M

    1984-02-14

    Reproductive toxicology studies were conducted in rabbits and rats given piroxicam, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent (NSAI), orally at 2, 5 and 10 mg/kg/day. In teratology studies there was neither drug-related embryotoxicity nor teratogenicity. As piroxicam, like other NSAI, affects parturition in rats and leads to a progressive toxicity in lactating females, standard protocols were modified: dams of the female fertility study were treated from 2 weeks prior to mating until day 6 of gestation and females of the post-natal toxicity study were treated from parturition until day 12 of lactation. No other adverse effects on reproduction, fertility and postnatal development were observed.

  15. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome: A Behavioral Teratology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavale, Kenneth A.; Karge, Belinda D.

    1986-01-01

    The review examines the literature on the behaviorally teratogenic aspects of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome, including: (1) prevalence of alcohol abuse among women, (2) acute and chronic effects of alcohol on the fetus, (3) genetic susceptibility, (4) neuropathology, (5) correlative conditions, and (6) animal studies. (Author/DB)

  16. Avian models in teratology and developmental toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Susan M; Flentke, George R; Garic, Ana

    2012-01-01

    The avian embryo is a long-standing model for developmental biology research. It also has proven utility for toxicology research both in ovo and in explant culture. Like mammals, avian embryos have an allantois and their developmental pathways are highly conserved with those of mammals, thus avian models have biomedical relevance. Fertile eggs are inexpensive and the embryo develops rapidly, allowing for high-throughput. The chick genome is sequenced and significant molecular resources are available for study, including the ability for genetic manipulation. The absence of a placenta permits the direct study of an agent's embryotoxic effects. Here, we present protocols for using avian embryos in toxicology research, including egg husbandry and hatch, toxicant delivery, and assessment of proliferation, apoptosis, and cardiac structure and function.

  17. EUROPEAN TERATOLOGY INFORMATION SERVICE: EXPERIENCE, PROBLEMS AND PERSPECTIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Ostrovskaya

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Congenital malformations are still the important medical and social issue. They take the second place among the reasons for the infant mortality and cause up to 18,3% of disablement cases among the children. Exogenous factors, effecting the growing fetus, are very essential along with the genetic matters among the reasons for the congenital malformations. The importance of information on the teratogenic potential of the medications is acknowledged by the doctors from various countries. The article outlines the information on entis activity — European network of teratology information services — a non profit organization, rendering consulting services to the pregnant women and medical staff, regarding the embryo and fetotoxic actions of the medications. The authors highlight the history of entis, its objectives, principles of operation and consulting algorithm and list the basic scientific publications by the entis members for the recent years. The article deals with the most obvious problems, which the organization members face, first of all — the quality of the information they receive. The authors also provide the substantiation for the necessity to develop such an information service in Russia and express hope for the successful development of the entis subsidiary they formed in Moscow.Key words: congenital malformations, medications, pregnancy, embryotoxicity.

  18. Teratology Public Affairs Committee position paper: maternal obesity and pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scialli, Anthony R

    2006-02-01

    Compared to normal-weight women, obese women have an increased risk of infertility and pregnancy complications. The most consistently described pregnancy complications are hypertensive disorders, gestational diabetes mellitus, thromboembolic events, and cesarean section. Fetal and neonatal complications may include congenital malformations, macrosomia, and shoulder dystocia. The literature suggests that women with a body mass index (BMI) >or=30 have approximately double the risk of having a child with a neural tube defect (NTD) compared to normal-weight women, and the increased risk associated with higher maternal body weight does not appear to be modified by folic acid supplementation. The Public Affairs Committee of the Teratology Society supports the public health initiatives identified by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration in 2004 and the research initiatives identified by the National Institutes of Health in 2004. The Public Affairs Committee recommends that clinicians counsel women about appropriate caloric intake and exercise and that health-care providers educate parents about appropriate childhood nutrition. Breast-feeding should be encouraged based on evidence of a protective effect against childhood obesity, as well as other health advantages. Birth Defects Research (Part A), 2006. (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. TERATOLOGY SOCIETY 1998 PUBLIC AFFAIRS COMMITTEE SYMPOSIUM: THE NEW THALIDOMIDE ERA: DEALING WITH THE RISKS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Teratology Society Public Affairs Committee Symposium was held on June 21, 1998, during the Society's annual meeting in San Diego, California. The symposium was organized and chaired by Dr. Carole Kimmel. The sysmposium was designed to consider the medical, social, and ethi...

  20. History and highlights of the teratological collection in the Museum Anatomicum of Leiden University, The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, Lucas L.; Boek, Peter L. J.; van Dam, Andries J.; Oostra, Roelof-Jan

    2018-01-01

    The anatomical collection of the Anatomical Museum of Leiden University Medical Center (historically referred to as Museum Anatomicum Academiae Lugduno-Batavae) houses and maintains more than 13,000 unique anatomical, pathological and zoological specimens, and include the oldest teratological

  1. Managing fertile women under lithium treatment: the challenge of a Teratology Information Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neri, Caterina; De Luca, Carmen; D'oria, Luisa; Licameli, Angelo; Nucci, Marta; Pellegrino, Marcella; Caruso, Alessandro; De Santis, Marco

    2018-06-01

    The objective of the present study is to review the literature regarding the management of fertile patients under lithium treatment for bipolar disorder and to report the experience of our Teratology Information Service over the past thirteen years in managing women treated with lithium during preconception, pregnancy and breastfeeding. This research focuses on a selective review of the literature and a retrospective survey has been carried out on fertile women under lithium treatment who called our service at A. Gemelli University Hospital in Rome from May 2002 to December 2015. A total of 140 women under lithium treatment called our TIS. A complete follow-up has been performed on 34 patients: 29 called during pregnancy and 5 called during preconception. None of the patients called during breastfeeding, while half of the patients were taking concomitant drugs during pregnancy. One major cardiac malformation (hypoplastic left heart syndrome) has been reported. No minor malformations have been detected. Twenty-one patients delivered a living child, with one premature neonate. Two patients underwent voluntary interruption of pregnancy and six patients had early spontaneous abortion. In one patient, intrauterine growth retardation occurred, but with no adverse neonatal outcomes. Four neonates experienced transient respiratory distress at birth. Two children developed mild to severe language delay, but normal motor development. Lithium treatment in fertile women is a very delicate topic, where risks and benefits of discontinuing therapy when women plan to become pregnant should be accurately evaluated. Thorough peri-conceptional counselling is crucial for the outcome of pregnancy and for maternal health status during preconception, gestation and breastfeeding.

  2. Effects of environmental enrichment on the activity of the amygdala in micrencephalic rats exposed to a novel open field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Wakoto; Ehara, Ayuka; Nakadate, Kazuhiko; Yoshimoto, Kanji; Ueda, Shuichi

    2018-01-01

    Environmental enrichment (EE) mediates recovery from sensory, motor, and cognitive deficits and emotional abnormalities. In the present study, we examined the effects of EE on locomotor activity and neuronal activity in the amygdala in control and methylazoxymethanol acetate (MAM)-induced micrencephalic rats after challenge in a novel open field. Control rats housed in EE (CR) showed reduced locomotor activity compared to rats housed in a conventional cage (CC), whereas hyperactivity was seen in MAM rats housed in a conventional cage (MC) and in MAM rats housed in EE (MR). Novel open field exposure in both CC and MC resulted in a marked increase in Fos expression in the anterior and posterior parts of the basolateral amygdaloid nucleus, basomedial nucleus, and medial nucleus, whereas these increases in expression were not observed in CR. The effect of EE on Fos expression in the amygdala was different in MR exposed to a novel open field compared to CR. Furthermore, we observed a quite different pattern of Fos expression in the central nucleus of the amygdala between control and MAM rats. The present results suggest that neuronal activity in the amygdala that responds to anxiety is altered in MAM rats, especially when the rats are reared in EE. These alterations may cause behavioral differences between control and MAM rats. © 2017 Japanese Teratology Society.

  3. The teratology society 2012-2017 strategic plan: pushing the boundaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, Christine Perdan; Lau, Christopher; Schellpfeffer, Michael A; Stodgell, Christopher J; Carney, Edward W

    2013-01-01

    The Teratology Society held its fourth strategic planning session in Albuquerque, NM, April 10-12, 2012, and launched the 2012-2017 Strategic Plan in conjunction with the 2012 annual meeting in Baltimore, MD. Building on the energy of the successful implementation of prior strategic plans (San Diego, 2007; Nashville,TN 2002; Cincinnati, OH 1998), session participants worked to identify barriers to success as a scientific society, as well as impending challenges and opportunities to which the Society needs to respond. The following report provides an overview of the Strategic Planning process, objectives, activities, and conclusions. A total of 23 members were present at the session, and the group included representation from Council, various committees, and different member constituencies. This plan, Pushing the Boundaries, and its three strategic intents: Broaden Our Identity, Expand Our Membership, and Increase Our Influence, will drive the direction of the Teratology Society for the next five years. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. The Teratology Society 2007 strategic planning session: a desire to inspire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-01

    On April 18-20, 2007, the Teratology Society held its third strategic planning session (SPS) in San Diego, CA. The purpose of this session was to build on the successful work generated by the previous strategic plans [Nashville, TN 2002 and Cincinnati, OH 1997] and importantly, to provide a path forward to inspire the Society, create deeper connections with members that speak to their individual passion for the science of teratology and to increase the Society's visibility within the larger scientific community. The following summary report provides an overview of the session's pre-work, objective, and discussions. A total of 24 attendees were present at the session. The group included representation from Council, various committees and different members constituencies. This plan and the activities subsequent to the session will provide a path forward for our Society for the next five years.

  5. Understanding the cone scale in Cupressaceae: insights from seed-cone teratology in Glyptostrobus pensilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dörken, Veit Martin; Rudall, Paula J

    2018-01-01

    Both wild-type and teratological seed cones are described in the monoecious conifer Glyptostrobus pensilis and compared with those of other Cupressaceae sensu lato and other conifers. Some Cupressaceae apparently possess a proliferation of axillary structures in their cone scales. In our interpretation, in Glyptostrobus each bract of both typical and atypical seed cones bears two descending accessory shoots, interpreted here as seed scales (ovuliferous scales). The primary seed scale is fertile and forms the ovules, the second is sterile and forms characteristic tooth-like structures. The bract and the two axillary seed scales are each supplied with a single distinct vascular bundle that enters the cone axis as a separate strand; this vasculature also characterises the descending accessory short shoots in the vegetative parts of the crown. In wild-type seed cones, the fertile seed scale is reduced to its ovules, and the ovules are always axillary. In contrast, the ovules of some of the teratological seed cones examined were located at the centre of the cone scale. An additional tissue found on the upper surface of the sterile lower seed scale is here interpreted as the axis of the fertile seed scale. Thus, the central position of the ovules can be explained by recaulescent fusion of the upper fertile and lower sterile seed scales. In several teratological cone scales, the ovules were enveloped by an additional sterile tissue that is uniseriate and represents an epidermal outgrowth of the fertile seed scale. Close to the ovules, the epidermis was detached from lower tissue and surrounded the ovule completely, except at the micropyle. These teratological features are potentially significant in understanding seed-cone homologies among extant conifers.

  6. Understanding the cone scale in Cupressaceae: insights from seed-cone teratology in Glyptostrobus pensilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veit Martin Dörken

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Both wild-type and teratological seed cones are described in the monoecious conifer Glyptostrobus pensilis and compared with those of other Cupressaceae sensu lato and other conifers. Some Cupressaceae apparently possess a proliferation of axillary structures in their cone scales. In our interpretation, in Glyptostrobus each bract of both typical and atypical seed cones bears two descending accessory shoots, interpreted here as seed scales (ovuliferous scales. The primary seed scale is fertile and forms the ovules, the second is sterile and forms characteristic tooth-like structures. The bract and the two axillary seed scales are each supplied with a single distinct vascular bundle that enters the cone axis as a separate strand; this vasculature also characterises the descending accessory short shoots in the vegetative parts of the crown. In wild-type seed cones, the fertile seed scale is reduced to its ovules, and the ovules are always axillary. In contrast, the ovules of some of the teratological seed cones examined were located at the centre of the cone scale. An additional tissue found on the upper surface of the sterile lower seed scale is here interpreted as the axis of the fertile seed scale. Thus, the central position of the ovules can be explained by recaulescent fusion of the upper fertile and lower sterile seed scales. In several teratological cone scales, the ovules were enveloped by an additional sterile tissue that is uniseriate and represents an epidermal outgrowth of the fertile seed scale. Close to the ovules, the epidermis was detached from lower tissue and surrounded the ovule completely, except at the micropyle. These teratological features are potentially significant in understanding seed-cone homologies among extant conifers.

  7. Development, anatomy, and genetic control of some teratological phenotypes of Ranunculaceae flowers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Jabbour

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Teratological organisms originate from developmental anomalies, and exhibit structures and a body organization that deviate from the species standard. These monsters give essential clues about the formation and evolutionary significance of the wild-type groundplan. We focus on flower terata, which can be affected in their sterile and/or fertile organs, with special emphasis on the Ranunculaceae. The diversity of perianth shapes and organizations in flowers of this family is huge, and is even increased when anomalies occur during organo- and/or morphogenesis. To begin with, we synthesize the observations and research conducted on the Ranunculacean floral terata, following the most recent phylogenetic framework published in 2016 by our team. Then, we report results regarding the morphology of developing meristems, the anatomy of buds, and the genetic control of selected teratological phenotypes of Ranunculaceae flowers. We focus on species and horticultural varieties belonging to the genera Aquilegia, Delphinium, and Nigella. Wildtype flowers of these species are actinomorphic (Aquilegia, Nigella or zygomorphic (Delphinium, spurred (Aquilegia, Delphinium or with pocket-like petals (Nigella. Last, we discuss the evolutionary potential of such teratological phenotypes when they occur in the wild.

  8. EFFECT OF ETHANOL ON HEPATOBILIARY TRANSPORT OF CATIONIC DRUGS - A STUDY IN THE ISOLATED-PERFUSED RAT-LIVER, RAT HEPATOCYTES AND RAT MITOCHONDRIA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    STEEN, H; MEIJER, DKF; Merema, M.T.

    The effect of ethanol on the hepatic uptake of various cationic drugs was studied in isolated perfused rat livers, isolated rat hepatocytes and isolated rat liver mitochondria. In isolated rat hepatocytes and in isolated perfused rat livers, the uptake of the model organic cation

  9. [Pituitary function of dysgenesic femal rats. Studies with grafting method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhems, E; Busquet, J

    1975-01-01

    Misulban administered to pregnant rats on the 15th day of gestation provoked gonadal dysgenesia in the offspring. Study of the pituitary function of dysgenesic female rats, realized by grafting method, showed gonadotrophic hypersecretion.

  10. Counselling pregnant women at the crossroads of Europe and Asia: effect of Teratology Information Service in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Yusuf Cem; Karadaş, Barış; Küçüksolak, Gözde; Ediz, Bartu; Demir, Ömer; Sozmen, Kaan; Nordeng, Hedvig

    2017-08-01

    Background Previous studies from western countries demonstrated the effectiveness of Teratology Information Service (TIS) counselling in reducing the teratogenic risk perception of pregnant women. Objective To assess whether TIS counselling would be effective in reducing the teratogenic risk perception of the Turkish pregnant women. Setting A TIS (Terafar) operating in a university hospital in Turkey. Methods A cross-sectional survey study. Pregnant women with non-teratogenic medication exposures were asked to assign scores on visual analogue scales (VAS) in response to the questions aiming to measure their teratogenic risk perception. The mean score before and after counselling were compared and the associations with maternal socio-demographic characteristics were analysed using SPSS (Version 20.0). Main outcome measures The differences in the mean scores of the perception regarding the baseline risk of pregnancy, own teratogenic risk and the likelihood of termination of pregnancy before and after counselling and their possible associations with maternal socio-demographic characteristics. Results 102 pregnant women participated in the study. The counselling significantly reduced the mean own teratogenic risk perception score and the mean score for the likelihood of termination of pregnancy whereas the mean baseline risk perception score was not significantly changed. Pregnancy week <8 and the exposed number of active ingredients <3 were significantly associated with the difference in the mean score for the likelihood of termination of pregnancy. Conclusions TIS counselling lowers the teratogenic risk perception of Turkish pregnant women and increases their likelihood to continue the pregnancy as it does in the western countries.

  11. Drug safety in pregnancy: utopia or achievable prospect? Risk information, risk research and advocacy in Teratology Information Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Christof

    2011-03-01

    Even though from preclinical testing to drug risk labeling, the situation with drugs in pregnancy has improved substantially since the thalidomide scandal, there is still an increasing need to provide healthcare professionals and patients with updated individualized risk information for clinical decision making. For the majority of drugs, clinical experience is still insufficient with respect to their safety in pregnancy. There is often uncertainty in how to interpret the available scientific data. Based on 20 years of experience with Teratology Information Services (TIS) cooperating in the European Network of Teratology Information Services (ENTIS) methods of risk interpretation, follow-up of exposed pregnancies through the consultation process and their evaluation is discussed. Vitamin K antagonists, isotretinoin and angiotensin (AT) II-receptor-antagonists are presented as examples of misinterpretation of drug risks and subjects of research based on observational clinical data recorded in TIS. As many TIS are poorly funded, advocacy is necessary by establishing contacts with decision makers in health politics and administration, informing them of the high return in terms of health outcomes and cost savings provided by TIS as reference institutions in clinical teratology. © 2011 The Author. Congenital Anomalies © 2011 Japanese Teratology Society.

  12. Czech Teratology Information Service: comparison of treatments by psychotropic and antiepileptic drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manáková, Eva; Hubicková-Heringová, Lucie; Jelínek, Richard

    2006-12-01

    Care, treatment and follow-up in psychiatric and epileptic pregnant women were compared with women inquiring Czech Teratology Information Service (CZTIS) due to other exposure to drugs during pregnancy. Data were collected by CZTIS, member of European Network of Teratology Information Services from 1996. Exposed groups were compared with pregnant women exposed to drugs which were not classified as major teratogens or hyperthermia. Groups do not vary in age, reproductive history and other parameters. We observed higher frequency of miscarriage and voluntary termination of pregnancy in the group of psychiatric patients. The number of malformation in prospective follow-up cases was lower than in control group. Chronic diseases as epilepsy or psychiatric disorders have to be treated during pregnancy. Women should obtain accurate information about possible risk before pregnancy. Co-operation is needed in these cases. Physicians should keep in mind that appropriate information is to be given to the patient according to her disease, education and comprehension of the problem. If there is any doubt they should organize help for their patients.

  13. Toxicological study on the safety of DTPA as a drug, (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuda, Satoshi; Iida, Haruzo

    1983-01-01

    In order to clarify the safety of Ca-DTPA and Zn-DTPA recommended to use as drugs in the therapeutic removal of incorporated radionuclides from the human body, the teratological study on these two agents was carried out in rats as one of a series of the toxicological tests. The teratological effects of DTPA were observed because the fetus is highly susceptible to any drug. The pregnant females of Wistar rat were injected subcutaneously daily on days 9-13 of gestation with 1, 6, 12, 24 and 36 H.D. (H.D. = human dose, 1 H.D. = 30μmol/kg body weight) of Ca-DTPA or Zn-DTPA, respectively. In the dams, no toxic effects were observed. In the fetuses, the decrease of the survival rate was observed in only the group injected daily with 36 H.D. of Ca-DTPA. Some cases of gross defects of fetuses: the exencephaly, microphthalmia, anophthalmia and fusion of ribs were observed in the groups injected daily with 12, 24 and 36 H.D. of Ca-DTPA. The results obtained show that Ca-DTPA should not be given to a pregnant woman. However, no toxic effects of either Ca-DTPA or Zn-DTPA observed in the dams ana of Zn-DTPA even in the fetuses indicate that these agents can be used by a radiation worker who usually is an adult man. (author)

  14. Studies of aluminum in rat brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipman, J.J.; Brill, A.B.; Som, P.; Jones, K.W.; Colowick, S.; Cholewa, M.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of high aluminum concentrations in rat brains were studied using /sup 14/C autoradiography to measure the uptake of /sup 14/C 2-deoxy-D-glucose (/sup 14/C-2DG) and microbeam proton-induced x-ray emission (microPIXE) with a 20-..mu..m resolution to measure concentrations of magnesium, aluminum, potassium, and calcium. The aluminum was introduced intracisternally in the form of aluminum tartrate (Al-T) while control animals were given sodium tartrate (Na-T). The /sup 14/C was administered intravenously. The animals receiving Al-T developed seizure disorders and had pathological changes that included cerebral cortical atrophy. The results showed that there was a decreased uptake of /sup 14/C-2DG in cortical regions in which increased aluminum levels were measured, i.e., there is a correlation between the aluminum in the rat brain and decreased brain glucose metabolism. A minimum detection limit of about 16 ppM (mass fraction) or 3 x 10/sup 9/ Al atoms was obtained for Al under the conditions employed. 14 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Studies of aluminum in rat brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipman, J.J.; Brill, A.B.; Som, P.; Jones, K.W.; Colowick, S.; Cholewa, M.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of high aluminum concentrations in rat brains were studied using 14 C autoradiography to measure the uptake of 14 C 2-deoxy-D-glucose ( 14 C-2DG) and microbeam proton-induced x-ray emission (microPIXE) with a 20-μm resolution to measure concentrations of magnesium, aluminum, potassium, and calcium. The aluminum was introduced intracisternally in the form of aluminum tartrate (Al-T) while control animals were given sodium tartrate (Na-T). The 14 C was administered intravenously. The animals receiving Al-T developed seizure disorders and had pathological changes that included cerebral cortical atrophy. The results showed that there was a decreased uptake of 14 C-2DG in cortical regions in which increased aluminum levels were measured, i.e., there is a correlation between the aluminum in the rat brain and decreased brain glucose metabolism. A minimum detection limit of about 16 ppM (mass fraction) or 3 x 10 9 Al atoms was obtained for Al under the conditions employed. 14 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  16. Alcohol and acute pancreatitis. An experimental study in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalovaara, P; Apaja, M

    1978-01-01

    The effect of chronic alcohol pretreatment and various pancreatobiliary secretions on the severity of experimental pancreatitis was studied in the rat. 95 rats were pretreated with ethanol (20% w/v, 1.1 ml/100 g body weight) five times weekly for 10 to 12 weeks by gastric intubation. 88 rats served as controls. Pancreatic lesions were produced by retograde injection of different pancreatobiliary secretions into the pancreatic ducts. The secretions were collected from both normal and chronically alcohol-fed rats, and each was used for induction of experimental pancreatitis in the control and alcohol pretreated rats. Bile obtained from normal rats was no more toxic to the pancreas than 0.9% saline solution, while bile obtained from the chronically alcohol-fed rats caused significantly more serious lesions to the pancreas than did normal rat bile. Bile-pancreatic juice (mixture of secretions at papilla of Vater) of normal and chronically alcohol-fed rats was as toxic as the bile of the alcohol-fed rats. Alcohol pretreatment had no significant effect on the severity of pancreatitis when control and alcohol-fed groups separately or the whole material according to pretreatment was examined. These results suggest that the metabolic effects of ethanol on the pancreas as such do not sensitize the pancreas to acute pancreatitis. An exogenous mechanism is required. The reflux of toxic alcoholic bile into the pancreas might act as an induction factor in acute alcohol pancreatitis.

  17. Xenotransplantation of uterine leiomyoma in Wistar rats: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Willane Bandeira de; Garcia, João Batista Santos; Nogueira Neto, João; Furtado, Pablo Gustavo Ribeiro; Anjos, Jonhnathan Adriano Araújo dos

    2015-07-01

    To evaluate whether xenografts derived from hysterectomized patients would implant successfully and lead to uterine leiomyoma in Wistar rats. This experimental study examined six female Wistar rats implanted with uterine leiomyoma obtained from patients who underwent hysterectomies at the gynecological surgery service of the HUUFMA. The rats were divided into two groups. Group I consisted of three rats in which the uterine leiomyoma had been implanted in the parietal peritoneum, and group II consisted of three rats in which the uterine leiomyoma was implanted in the subcutaneous tissue. The immunosuppressant mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) was administered orally by gavage (at a dose of 40 mg/kg of body weight) to prevent transplant rejection starting 15 days before the transplant and continuing throughout the entire experiment. After four weeks, necrosis and neovascularization were evaluated histologically in both groups and were classified as either absent or present. Lymphocytic inflammatory infiltration was also examined and classified as mild, moderate or intense (by hematoxylin and eosin staining), and fibrosis was classified as grade I-III (by Masson's trichrome staining). Necrosis was absent from all three rats in group I and was observed in only one rat from group II. Neovascularization was present in two rats from group I and in only one rat from group II. The lymphocytic inflammatory infiltrate was mild in two rats and moderate in one rat from group I, and it was moderate in two rats and intense in one rat from group II. Two rats from group 1 exhibited grade III fibrosis, and one rat presented grade I fibrosis. In group II, two rats presented grade I fibrosis and one rat had grade II fibrosis. When necrosis and neovascularization were evaluated as variables, group I demonstrated greater evidence of successful implantation when compared to group II, indicating that the peritoneal implantation technique produces better results than the subcutaneous approach (p

  18. Histological Studies Of The Pancreas Of Wistar Rats Following ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was to find the probable effect of Nicotiana tabacum (snuff) on the histological features of the pancreas of adult wistar rats. Nicotiana tabacum is a product of smokeless tobacco which contains many toxins and high levels of nicotine. Twenty male wistar rats weighing 200-210g were used for this study. The control ...

  19. [POETRYAND TERATOLOGY: LORENZO MASCHERONI'S "INVITO A LESBIA CIDONIA" IN ANATOMICAL PREPARATIONS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carla, Garbarino; Valentina, Cani; Stefano, Maretti; Paolo, Mazzarello

    2015-01-01

    In 1793 Lorenzo Mascheroni, appointed to the chair of Mathematics at the University of Pavia and well-known poet, wrote "L'invito di Dafni Orobiano a Lesbia Cidonia". In the poem he described the beauty of the University of Pavia and its wonders gathered in the scientific collections of the museums. From the beginning, one of the glass cases of the Museum for the History of the University of Pavia shows some of the preparations described in the Mascheroni's verses. In addition to some fossils, human teratological preparations are also exposed: they recall the verses of the poem dedicated to the description of "monstrous" preparations. However, after a detailed scientifc and historical research, the traditional association of the exposed anatomical preparations with the verses is questioned.

  20. Biochemical and pathological studies in rats following dietary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biochemical and pathological studies in rats following dietary supplementation with high levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids and vitamin E. ... Furthermore, high dietary supplementation of vitamin E showed no deleterious effects on rats and no pathological changes in the liver, kidney and heart tissues were observed in the ...

  1. TERATOLOGIC EFFECTS OF BISPHENOL A ON ZEBRAFISH (Danio rerio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cansu Akbulut

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Zebrafish (Danio rerio has easy reproductive capacity and transparent embryos and therefore generally preffered for scientific studies as a vertebrate model. Because of bisphenol A is produced too much and used for making plastics, many organisms including human are exposed to this substance. Bisphenol A has estrogenic activity and thus it effects fertility. So, in our study, effects of low doses of bisphenol A (4mg/L and 8 mg/L on embryo and larva development was investigated.

  2. Somatostatin ontogenesis in the gastrointestinal and pancreatic tract: study in normal rats and during a induced diabetes in neonates rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunha, M.C.

    1980-01-01

    The ontogenic studies of somatostatin of pancreas, ileum and duodenum of Wistar rats and the rats with induced diabetes were done. The radioimmunologic method to dose the somatostatin was used. (L.M.J.)

  3. Evaluation of the Ramazzini Foundation Study of Methanol in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evaluation of the Ramazzini Foundation Study of Methanol in Rats: A Comparison of Diagnoses by the RF Study Pathologist and a Recent NTP Review Team, summarized by George Cruzan and submitted to the Methanol Institute

  4. Development of a useful technique for analyzing behavioral teratologic data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensh, R.P.; Brent, R.L.

    1989-01-01

    Two measures of postnatal development are described in this paper: the PAC50 and AD50. These measures proved to be more sensitive than the use of means in the evaluation of three radiation studies involving postnatal developmental evaluation. PAC50 is the percent of achievement of a goal by litters or offspring in an experimental group at the age when 50% of the control litters or offspring attain that goal. AD50 is the age (acquisition day) at which 50% of the litters or offspring in each group attain a specified developmental goal. This methodology is a useful technique for analyzing selected behavioral data following in utero X-irradiation and may prove to be a sensitive means of determining postnatal alteration due to prenatal exposure to a variety of suspect agents

  5. Studies of the teratogenic potential of exposure of rats to 6000-MHz microwave radiation. I. Morphologic analysis at term

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensh, R.P.

    1984-01-01

    Thirty-six pregnant Wistar strain albino rats were exposed throughout pregnancy to 6000-MHz microwave radiation at a power density level of 35 mW/cm 2 or were used as controls. The irradiation did not cause a significant increase in maternal body temperature as measured by a rectal thermocouple. The rats were randomly assigned to one of four groups: home cage control (5), anechoic chamber control (10), sham-irradiated concurrent control (10), and irradiated (11). All animals were killed on the 22nd day of gestation, and maternal tissues were removed and weighed and maternal blood samples were taken. The 384 resultant fetuses and their placentas were individually weighed, fixed, and dissected to determine normality. Teratologic evaluation included the following parameters: maternal weight and weight gain; mean litter size; maternal organ weight and organ weight/body weight ratios; body weight ratios of brain, liver, kidneys, and ovaries; maternal peripheral blood parameters including hematocrit, hemoglobin, and white cell counts; number of resorptions and resorption rate; number of abnormalities and abnormality rate; mean term fetal weight. The irradiated fetuses exhibited slight but statistically significant growth retardation at term. Term maternal monocyte count was also significantly depressed. No other parameters differed between the control groups and the irradiated group

  6. Clinical teratology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCormack, M.K.

    1983-01-01

    Of particular importance in teratogenesis is the time of exposure to the offending environmental agent, route of exposure, and genotype of the embryo and the mother. The major teratogens include irradiation, maternal infections, other illnesses in pregnancy (diabetes, thyroid disease, maternal phenylketonuria, virilizing diseases), a host of pharmacologic agents and environmental contaminants. Teratogen exposure carries the potential for cancer in later life. Several sources of information on teratogens are now available

  7. Clinical teratology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCormack, M.K.

    1983-12-01

    Of particular importance in teratogenesis is the time of exposure to the offending environmental agent, route of exposure, and genotype of the embryo and the mother. The major teratogens include irradiation, maternal infections, other illnesses in pregnancy (diabetes, thyroid disease, maternal phenylketonuria, virilizing diseases), a host of pharmacologic agents and environmental contaminants. Teratogen exposure carries the potential for cancer in later life. Several sources of information on teratogens are now available.

  8. Toxicity studies of detoxified Jatropha meal (Jatropha curcas) in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakshit, K D; Darukeshwara, J; Rathina Raj, K; Narasimhamurthy, K; Saibaba, P; Bhagya, S

    2008-12-01

    Jatropha curcas, a tropical plant introduced in many Asian and African countries is presently used as a source of biodiesel. The cake after oil extraction is rich in protein and is a potential source of livestock feed. In view of the high toxic nature of whole as well as dehulled seed meal due to the presence of toxic phorbol esters and lectin, the meal was subjected to alkali and heat treatments to deactivate the phorbol ester as well as lectin content. After treatment, the phorbol ester content was reduced up to 89% in whole and dehulled seed meal. Toxicity studies were conducted on male growing rats by feeding treated as well as untreated meal through dietary source. All rats irrespective of treatment had reduced appetite and diet intake was low accompanied by diarrhoea. The rats also exhibited reduced motor activity. The rats fed with treated meals exhibited delayed mortality compared to untreated meal fed rats (p0.02). There were significant changes both in terms of food intake and gain in body weight. Gross examination of vital organs indicated atrophy compared to control casein fed rats. However, histopathological examination of various vital organs did not reveal any treatment related microscopic changes suggesting that the mortality of rats occurred due to lack of food intake, diarrhoea and emaciation. Further studies are in progress for complete detoxification of J. curcas meal for use in livestock feed.

  9. Radiation-induced cancers in the rat, an experimental study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morin, M.; Lafuma, J.

    1990-01-01

    Radiation carcinogenesis at low doses raises a major radiological protection problem; we have attempted to deal with it through animal investigations involving over 3,000 rats. For various radiation types, dose-effect relationships as well as possible synergies with endogenous or exogenous chemical factors were studied. The chief problem being the possibility of extrapolation to man, a comparison was made between man and rat with the only human data available from radon inhalation in uranium miners [fr

  10. Radiation-induced cancers in the rat, an experimental study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morin, M.; Lafuma, J.

    1988-09-01

    Radiation carcinogenesis at low doses raises a major radiological protection problem; we have attempted to deal with it through animal investigations involving over 3,000 rats. For various radiation types, dose-effect relationships as well as possible synergies with endogenous or exogenous chemical factors were studied. The chief problem being the possibility of extrapolation to man, a comparison was made between man and rat with the only human data available from radon inhalation in uranium miners [fr

  11. Impact of monosodium glutamate and /or gamma irradiation on pregnant rats and their embryos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, M.F.; Darwish, M.M.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the destructive impact of the widely used nutritional flavouring agent, monosodium glutamate (MSG) and/or radiation stress on the female rats mothers and their developing embryos as judged by the maternal biochemical and embryological morphological and histopathological lesions induced. MSG is the sodium salt of glutamic acid, widely used as a food additive and flavour enhancer in modern nutrition. MSG (4 mg/rat) was daily administered subcutaneously to pregnant female rats from the 10 th to the 15 th gestational days during which they were subjected to intermittent radiation dose levels of 0.5 Gy increments delivered every other day up to a cumulative dose of 1.5 Gy whereas investigation has been carried out one day prior to parturition. MSG and radiation dual treatment resulted in increased maternal serum levels of lipid peroxides, total lipids, triglycerides, cholesterol and sodium together with decreased calcium concentrations. consequently, the developing embryos in the uteri, due to their increased sensitivity, showed various teratological and histological impairments . MSG and/or radiation induced effects were detected as growth retardation, malformations, intrauterine death and embryonic resorption. moreover, embryonic histological examination revealed ill-shaped vertebrae with degenerated osteogenic layer together with severely degenerated neurons

  12. Histological study of rat masseter muscle following experimental occlusal alteration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishide, N; Baba, S; Hori, N; Nishikawa, H

    2001-03-01

    It has been suggested that occlusal interference results in masticatory muscle dysfunction. In our previous study, occlusal interference reduced the rat masseter energy level during masticatory movements. The purpose of this study was to investigate the histological alterations of rat masseter muscles following experimental occlusal alteration with unilateral bite-raising. A total of eight male adult Wistar rats were equally divided into control and experimental groups. The experimental rats wore bite-raising splints on the unilateral upper molar. However, 4 weeks after the operation, the anterior deep masseter muscles were removed and then stained for succinic acid dehydrogenase (SDH), haematoxylin eosin (HE) and myofibrillar ATPase. Most of the muscle fibres in experimental rats remained intact, although partial histological changes were observed, such as extended connective tissue, appearance of inflammatory cells in the muscle fibres and existence of muscle fibres with central nuclei and central cores. Moreover, the fibre area-fibre frequency histograms of experimental muscle indicated a broad pattern than that of controls. These results indicated that occlusal interference caused histological changes in masseter muscles and that this may be related to the fact that the masseter energy level was reduced during masticatory movements in unilateral bite-raised rats.

  13. Providing information regarding exposures in pregnancy: a survey of North American Teratology Information Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, Rebecca L; Ungar, Wendy J; Einarson, Adrienne; Goodstadt, Michael; Koren, Gideon

    2008-04-01

    Teratology Information Services (TIS) provide information on exposures during pregnancy and breast-feeding. Maintaining ongoing funding is a challenge. The purpose was to gather descriptive information on current TIS operations. All North American TIS (16 American, 2 Canadian) completed a detailed survey. Service goal ranked as most important was correction of risk misperceptions. Inquiries were primarily for medications (mean 43.5%, S.D. 14.1), lactation exposures, and workplace exposures. Median employees per TIS: three (range 1-12.5). Two TIS only counsel health care professionals (HCPs). Main callers to remaining TIS were pregnant women (mean 46.8%, S.D. 22.8), physicians, and nurses. Calls per week varied (median 20, range 4-600). Median annual budget: US dollars 69,000 (range dollars 3000-335,000). Seventeen TIS collect patient data for research. This survey was the first to document TIS operations in North America and demonstrates a spectrum of clinical and research activities, and provides data for a future cost-benefit analysis of TIS.

  14. Toward a comparative retrospective analysis of rat and rabbit developmental toxicity studies for pharmaceutical compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theunissen, P T; Beken, S; Cappon, G D; Chen, C; Hoberman, A M; van der Laan, J W; Stewart, J; Piersma, A H

    2014-08-01

    Based on a proposal made at the ICH Workshop in Tallinn, Estonia (2010), the value of the rabbit embryo-fetal development (EFD) versus the rodent EFD was examined by the HESI DART group. A cross-industry data survey provided anonymised EFD and toxicokinetic data from EFD studies on over 400 marketed and unmarketed drugs (over 800 studies) that were entered by experts at RIVM into US EPA’s ToxRefDB style database. The nature and severity of findings at the lowest observed adverse effect level (LOAEL) are being reviewed to quantitate the frequency with which lesser signs of embryo-fetal effects (e.g., delays in ossification, minor changes in frequency of variants) are driving the LOAELs. Interpretation was based on exposure rather than administered dose. This paper provides an update of this ongoing project as discussed during a workshop of the European Teratology Society in Ispra, Italy (2013). This was the first presentation of the initial data set, allowing debate on future directions, to provide a better understanding of the implications of either delaying a rabbit EFD or waiving the need in particular circumstances.

  15. Population genetical investigation of the level of mutagenesis and teratological events frequency in ecologically different regions of Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kashaganova, Zh.A.; Zhapbasov, R.; Kadyrova, N.Zh.; Karimbaeva, K.S.; Mamyrbaeva, A.N.; Altaeva, N.Z.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Kazakhstan territory is unique including regions with radioactive pollution of Semipalatinsk nuclear test territory and storage of radioactive waste of uranium mines and metallurgy enterprises, and regions of drying Aral sea. These technogenic factors may cause some types of chromosome aberrations and developmental anomalies in mammals. The level of mutagenesis was estimated basing on chromosome aberrations and genomic mutation frequencies in bone marrow cells of natural rodents populations (Allactaga major Kern, Allactaga saltator Eversman, Cytellus eritrogenus Br.) and domestic animals (sheep, cattle, horse), which inhabit these regions. Sheep populations which are bred in the regions with different climatic conditions were used for teratological investigations. Different generations are met in the populations of mice family rodents caught in the nature. So studying the animals of different ages separately we can estimate the frequency of mutations in the animals of different age inhabiting the same radiation polluted regions. The frequency of chromosome abe rations in mice family rodents from such territories was twice as high as from the clear territories. In some animals chromosome aberration types characteristic for radiation mutagenesis (dicentrics, double acentric fragments) were found. High level of cytogenetical instability in somatic cells of agricultural animals which were bred on the pastures within former nuclear test territories for several generations may be caused by chronic radiation in low doses. The analysis of the spectrum of recorder chromosome aberrations in somatic cells and their dynamics in different animal species inhabiting for several generations these territories being chronically irradiated, allows us to investigate the direction of genetical evolution of mammals genofond structure induced by ecological factors. Comparative analysis of the frequencies of spontaneous abortuses, deadborn and newborn animals with innate

  16. Experimental study of sucralfate intervention for paraquat poisoning in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junbo, Zhu; Yongtao, Yu; Hongbo, Li; Fenshuang, Zheng; Ruyun, Lin; Chun'ai, Yang

    2017-07-01

    This study explored the effects of sucralfate intervention as a novel treatment for paraquat (PQ) poisoning in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. After PQ poisoning, the SD rats were randomly divided into the PQ control group (treated with normal saline), the sodium bicarbonate (SB) treatment group, and the sucralfate (LTL) treatment group. Then, the rats were administered normal saline, sodium bicarbonate solution, or sucralfate suspension as an intervention by gastric lavage. At 1, 3, 6, and 10days after poisoning, the left lungs of some rats were removed to determine the lung wet/dry (W/D) weight ratio. Additionally, the serum cytokine levels were measured, and the lung and kidney tissues were pathologically examined. After treatment, the signs and symptoms of the rats were improved, the mortality rate was reduced, the W/D weight ratio of the lung was lower, the cytokine levels [transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1, interleukin (IL)-10, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α] were decreased, and the pathological injuries of the lungs and kidneys were improved. Moreover, sucralfate was significantly more effective than the control (normal saline) group and the SB treatment group. The results showed that early gastrointestinal lavage with sucralfate effectively reduced the inflammatory response and lung and kidney injuries and improved the survival of the SD rats. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Inhalation developmental toxicology studies: Gallium arsenide in mice and rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mast, T.J.; Greenspan, B.J.; Dill, J.A.; Stoney, K.H.; Evanoff, J.J.; Rommereim, R.L.

    1990-12-01

    Gallium arsenide is a crystalline compound used extensively in the semiconductor industry. Workers preparing solar cells and gallium arsenide ingots and wafers are potentially at risk from the inhalation of gallium arsenide dust. The potential for gallium arsenide to cause developmental toxicity was assessed in Sprague- Dawley rats and CD-1 (Swiss) mice exposed to 0, 10, 37, or 75 mg/m{sup 3} gallium arsenide, 6 h/day, 7 days/week. Each of the four treatment groups consisted of 10 virgin females (for comparison), and {approx}30 positively mated rats or {approx}24 positively mated mice. Mice were exposed on 4--17 days of gestation (dg), and rats on 4--19 dg. The day of plug or sperm detection was designated as 0 dg. Body weights were obtained throughout the study period, and uterine and fetal body weights were obtained at sacrifice (rats, 20 dg; mice, 18 dg). Implants were enumerated and their status recorded. Live fetuses were sexed and examined for gross, visceral, skeletal, and soft-tissue craniofacial defects. Gallium and arsenic concentrations were determined in the maternal blood and uterine contents of the rats (3/group) at 7, 14, and 20 dg. 37 refs., 11 figs., 30 tabs.

  18. Short-term toxicity study of carnauba was in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, I R; Butterworth, K R; Gaunt, I F; Grasso, P; Gangolli, S D

    1982-08-01

    Groups of 15 male and 15 female rats were fed diet containing 0 (control), 1, 5 or 10% carnauba wax or 10% cellulose powder for 13 wk and groups of five rats of each sex were given these treatments, except the 1% carnauba wax, for 2 or 6 wk. Rats given 10% carnauba wax or 10% cellulose consumed more food than the controls but showed no differences in body weight, an effect attributed to the dilution of the diet by non-nutrient test materials. The study showed no treatment-related differences in body weights, water intakes, haematological values, serum-enzyme activities, urinary concentration and 'dilution' tests, organ weights or histological findings. The no-untoward-effect level for carnauba wax in the diet was 10%, which represented a mean intake of approximately 8.8 and 10.2 g/kg body weight/day in males and females, respectively.

  19. [Study on sperm damage caused by trichloroethylene in male rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, De-sheng; Yang, Lin-qing; Huang, Sui; Liu, Jian-jun; Xu, Xin-yun; Huang, Hai-yan; Gong, Chun-mei; Hu, Gong-hua; Liu, Qing-cheng; Yang, Xi-fei; Hong, Wen-xu; Zhou, Li; Huang, Xin-feng; Yuan, Jian-hui; Zhuang, Zhi-xiong

    2013-11-01

    To study in vitro sperm damage caused by trichloroethylene in male rats. Sperms of Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were collected 4 hours after being contaminated by trichloroethylene of 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 mmol/L in vitro. Giemsa staining was performed to observe the morphological changes of sperms, and flow cytometer was used to detect the changes in mitochondrial membrane potential. The sperm motilities in 6, 8, and 10 mmol/L trichloroethylene groups decreased significantly compared with that in control group (P trichloroethylene groups were significantly higher than that in control group (Ptrichloroethylene groups and control group (Ptrichloroethylene can reduce sperm motility and increase the aberration rate and apoptosis rate of sperms in male SD rats.

  20. Erythrocyte survival studies in a rat myelogenous leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derelanko, M.J.; Meagher, R.C.; Lobue, J.; Khouri, J.A.; Gordon, A.S.

    1982-01-01

    To determine the extent intrinsic erythrocyte defects and/or extrinsic factors were involved in anemia of rats bearing Shay chloroleukemia (SCL), survival of 3 H-DFP labeled erythrocytes was studied in leukemic and nonleukemic hosts. Red blood cells labeled before induction of leukemia, were rapidly lost from the peripheral circulation of SCL rats in terminal stages of disease. However, labeled erythrocytes from terminal SCL animals displayed normal lifespans when transfused into nonleukemic controls. Thus the anemia of this leukemia probably resulted from extrinsic factors associated with the leukemic process. Hemorrhage appeared to be primarily responsible for the anemia of this disease

  1. MicroRNAs and fetal brain development: Implications for ethanol teratology during the second trimester period of neurogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh eMiranda

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Maternal ethanol consumption during pregnancy can lead to a stereotypic cluster of fetal craniofacial, cardiovascular, skeletal and neurological deficits that are collectively termed the Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD. Fetal ethanol exposure is a leading non-genetic cause of mental retardation. Mechanisms underlying the etiology of ethanol teratology are varied and complex. This review will focus on the developing brain as an important and vulnerable ethanol target. Near the end of the first trimester, and during the second trimester, fetal neural stem cells (NSCs produce most of the neurons of the adult brain, and ethanol has been shown to influence NSC renewal and maturation. We will discuss the neural developmental and teratological implications of the biogenesis and function of microRNAs (miRNAs, a class of small non-protein-coding RNAs that control the expression of gene networks by translation repression. A small but growing body of research has identified ethanol-sensitive miRNAs at different stages of NSC and brain maturation. While many microRNAs appear to be vulnerable to ethanol at specific developmental stages, a few, like the miR-9 family, appear to exhibit broad vulnerability to ethanol across multiple stages of NSC differentiation. An assessment of the regulation and function of these miRNAs provides important clues about the mechanisms that underlie fetal vulnerability to alterations in the maternal-fetal environment and yields insights into the genesis of FASD.

  2. The effect of chemotherapy on rat brain PET: preliminary study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin Su; Kim, Il Han; Yu, A Ram; Park, Ji Ae; Woo, Sang Keun; Kim, Jong Guk; Cheon, Gi Jeong; Kim, Byeong Il; Choi, Chang Woon; Lim, Sang Moo; Kim, Hee Joung; Kim, Kyeong Min [Korea Institute Radiological and Medical Science, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-10-15

    Chemotherapy was widely used for the therapy of cancer patients. When chemotherapy was performed, transient cognitive memory problem was occurred. This cognitive problem in brain was called as chemobrain. In this study, we have developed rat model for chemobrain. Cerebral glucose metabolism after chemotherapy was assessed using animal PET and voxel based statistical analysis method

  3. Spinal Cord Studies in the African Giant Rat (Cricetomys gambianus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    olayemitoyin

    J. Physiol. Sci. 30 (2015) 025 – 032 www.njps.com.ng. Spinal Cord Studies in the African Giant Rat (Cricetomys gambianus .... Body and Spinal Cord measurements of the AGR (C. gambianus), Mean ±SEM ... the eighth cervical segment appeared circular in shape. ... other lumbar segments, sacral and coccygeal segments.

  4. Isomyosin expression patterns during rat heart morphogenesis: an immunohistochemical study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, I. J.; Lamers, W. H.; Moorman, A. F.

    1989-01-01

    An immunohistochemical study of cardiac alpha and beta myosin heavy chain (MHC) expression during rat heart morphogenesis was performed. In tubular hearts (embryonic days, ED10-11) coexpression of both cardiac alpha and beta MHC was found throughout the heart, except for the left free wall of the

  5. Four-week oral toxicity study with erythritol in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Til, H.P.; Modderman, J.

    1996-01-01

    Erythritol was orally administered to Wistar rats at dietary levels of 0, 5, and 10% for 4 weeks. Soft stools and diarrhea were observed in male and female animals of the 10% group and in female animals of the 5% group. These symptoms disappeared during the course of the study. Mean body weights of

  6. The effect of chemotherapy on rat brain PET: preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jin Su; Kim, Il Han; Yu, A Ram; Park, Ji Ae; Woo, Sang Keun; Kim, Jong Guk; Cheon, Gi Jeong; Kim, Byeong Il; Choi, Chang Woon; Lim, Sang Moo; Kim, Hee Joung; Kim, Kyeong Min

    2010-01-01

    Chemotherapy was widely used for the therapy of cancer patients. When chemotherapy was performed, transient cognitive memory problem was occurred. This cognitive problem in brain was called as chemobrain. In this study, we have developed rat model for chemobrain. Cerebral glucose metabolism after chemotherapy was assessed using animal PET and voxel based statistical analysis method

  7. A disposition kinetic study of Tramadol in bile duct ligated rats in perfused rat liver model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmaeili, Zohre; Mohammadi, Saeid; Nezami, Alireza; Rouini, Mohammad Reza; Ardakani, Yalda Hosseinzadeh; Lavasani, Hoda; Ghazi-Khansari, Mahmoud

    2017-07-01

    Tramadol hydrochloride is a centrally acting synthetic opioid analgesic drug and is used to treat chronic pain. In this study, the effects of Bile Duct Ligation (BDL) on the pharmacokinetics of tramadol in a liver recirculating perfusion system of male rats were used. Twenty-four Wistar male rats were randomly divided into four groups: control, sham and two weeks BDL and four weeks BDL. Serum levels of liver enzymes were measured before perfusion and the pharmacokinetics of tramadol was evaluated by using liver recirculating perfusion system. Tramadol and metabolites concentrations were determined by HPLC-FL. The sharp increase in liver enzymes level in both BDL groups was observed and significant changes were also observed in liver weight and volume. Tramadol metabolites concentration significantly decreased compared with the control and sham group (Pbile duct diseases and the dose of tramadol should be accordingly adjusted. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. In vivo studies of biotin absorption in distal rat intestine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowman, B.B.; Rosenberg, I.H.

    1986-01-01

    The authors have extended their previous studies of biotin absorption in rat proximal jejunum (PJ) to examine biotin absorptive capacity of rat ileum (I) and proximal colon (PC) using in vivo intestinal loop technique. Intestinal loops (2.5 cm) were filled with 0.3 ml of solution containing ( 3 H)-biotin and ( 14 C)-inulin in phosphate buffer, pH 6.5. Biotin absorption was determined on the basis of luminal biotin disappearance after correction for inulin recovery and averaged (pmol/loop-10 min; X +/- SEM). In related experiments, 5-cm loops of PJ, distal I (DI), or PC were filled with 0.5 ml of solution of similar composition (1.0 μM biotin). The abdominal cavity was closed and the rats were allowed to recover from anesthesia, then sacrificed 3 hr after injection. Biotin absorption averaged 96.2% (PJ), 93.2% (DI), and 25.8% (PC) of the dose administered. These differences were reflected in the radioactive biotin content of plasma and intestinal loop, kidney, and liver. These data demonstrate significant biotin absorption in rat DI and PC, as required if the intestinal microflora are to be considered as a source of biotin for the host

  9. Study of Antiulcer Activity of Bauhinia racemosa lam in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.I. Borikar

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to study the antiulcer effect of the dried fruit powder of the plant Bauhinia racemosa in Wistar albino rats. Thirty Wistar rats of either sex weighing between 150 - 200gm were selected and divided into five groups, each comprising of six rats. The rats were divided into 5 groups T1T2, T3, T4, and T5 and were given 0.5 ml normal saline, aqueous extract in the dose rate of100mg/kg body weight, 200mg/kg body weight, alcoholic extract @100mg/kg body weight and 200mg/kg body weight respectively. After one hour all the groups were administered Paracetamol at a dose rate of 200mg/kg body weight orally. After 24hrs, the number of ulcers, ulcer score, percent incidence, ulcer index and healing index were recorded. From the results obtained it was concluded that aqueous extract in the dose rate of 200mg/kg body weight and alcoholic extract (100mg/kg & 200mg/kg body weight could produce antiulcer activity. [Vet World 2009; 2(6.000: 217-218

  10. Inhalation developmental toxicology studies: Teratology study of n-hexane in mice: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mast, T.J.; Decker, J.R.; Stoney, K.H.; Westerberg, R.B.; Evanoff, J.J.; Rommereim, R.L.; Weigel, R.J.

    1988-05-01

    Gestational exposure to n-hexane resulted in an increase in the number of resorbed fetuses for exposure groups relative to the control group; however, the increases were not directly correlated to exposure concentration. The differences were statistically significant for the 200-ppM with respect to total intrauterine death (early plus late resorptions), and with respect to late resorptions for the 5000-ppM group. A small, but statistically significant, reduction in female (but not male) fetal body weight relative to the control group was observed at the 5000-ppM exposure level. There were no exposure-related increases in any individual fetal malformation or variation, nor was there any increase in the incidence of combined malformations or variations. Gestational exposure of CD-1 mice to n-hexane vapors appeared to cause a degree of concentration-related developmental toxicity in the absence of overt maternal toxicity, but the test material was not found to be teratogenic. This developmental toxicity was manifested as an increase in the number of resorptions per litter for all exposure levels, and as a decrease in the uterine: extra-gestational weight gain ratio at the 5000-ppM exposure level. Because of the significant increase in the number of resorptions at the 200-ppM exposure level, a no observable effect level (NOEL) for developmental toxicity was not established for exposure of mice to 200, 1000 or 5000-ppM n-hexane vapors. 21 refs., 3 figs., 9 tabs.

  11. Studies concerning the effects of low level prenatal X-irradiation on postnatal growth and adult behaviour in the Wistar rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensh, R.P.; Brent, R.L.; Vogel, W.H.

    1986-01-01

    Fifty-nine pregnant Wistar strain rats were sham irradiated or given a 0.1 or 0.2 Gy exposure of X-radiation on the 9th or 17th day of gestation. Twenty-seven were killed at term for teratologic analysis. The remaining mothers raised their young. At 60 days of age the 252 offspring were randomly assigned three of six tests: open field, swimming, hanging, activity wheel, water T-maze, or conditioned avoidance response. Male offspring exposed at the 0.2 Gy level exhibited retarded growth only during the first few weeks of postnatal life. Female offspring exposed on the 17th day to 0.2 Gy X-radiation were growth retarded throughout the test period. Postnatal growth rates were not significantly different between the irradiated and control groups. There were no significant alterations in adult behaviour due to prenatal X-irradiation. There were sex differences in activity wheel and forelimb hanging performance, unrelated to radiation exposure. These results indicate that prenatal low level X-irradiation on the 9th or 17th day of gestation dose not result in significant alterations in rat adult behavioural performance but prenatal growth retardation persists postnatally. Growth may be a more sensitive indicator of the effects of prenatal exposure than postnatal behaviour. (author)

  12. Reproduction and subchronic feeding study of carnauba wax in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parent, R A; Re, T A; Babish, J G; Cox, G E; Voss, K A; Becci, P J

    1983-02-01

    The reproductive performance of Wistar rats fed carnauba wax at levels of 0.1, 0.3 or 1% in the diet and the effects of subchronic administration of carnauba wax at these dose levels on the resultant progeny were studied. Reproductive indices, body-weight gain, food consumption, haematological and clinical chemical data, ophthalmic, gross and histopathological examinations were used to study the possible toxic or pathological effects. Serum free fatty acid levels were found to be decreased in male and female rats fed carnauba wax at dietary levels of 0.3 and 1.0%. No other effects of feeding carnauba wax at levels up to 1.0% of the diet were observed.

  13. Wholesomeness study of irradiated salted and dried mackerel in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anukarahanonta, T.; Temcharoen, P.; Nagara, B.N.; Chudhabuddhi, C.; Bhamarapravati, N.

    1981-01-01

    A long-term multigeneration study was performed of the wholesomeness of irradiated salted and dried mackerel fed to the rats of Wistar strain and revealed no significant evidence that would impose a hazard attributable to irradiation with respect to the longevity, carcinogenecity, teratogenicity, dominant lethal, reproductive function and biophysiological function. Some abnormalities that were noted could be explained on the basis of differences in food quality due to the addition of fish protein and minerals rather than the irradiation effect

  14. Comparative Pharmacokinetics Study of Icariin and Icariside II in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Cheng

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available To explore the pharmacokinetic properties of icariin (ICA and icariside II (ICA II following intragastric and intravenous administration in rats, a rapid and sensitive method by using ultra-performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectroscopy (UPLC-MS/MS was developed and validated for the simultaneous quantification of ICA and ICA II in rat plasma. The quantification was performed by using multiple reaction monitoring of the transitions m/z 677.1/531.1 for ICA, 515.1/369.1 for ICA II and 463.1/301.1 for diosmetin-7-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (IS. The assay showed linearity over the concentration range of 1.03–1032 ng/mL, with correlation coefficients of 0.9983 and 0.9977. Intra- and inter-day precision and accuracy were within 15%. The lower limit of quantification for both ICA and ICA II was 1.03 ng/mL, respectively. The recovery of ICA and ICA II was more than 86.2%. The LC-MS/MS method has been successfully used in the pharmacokinetic studies of ICA and ICA II in rats. The results indicated that 91.2% of ICA was transformed into ICA II after oral administration by rats, whereas only 0.4% of ICA was transformed into ICA II after intravenous administration. A comparison of the pharmacokinetics of ICA and ICA II after oral administration revealed that the Cmax and AUC0–t of ICA II were 3.8 and 13.0 times higher, respectively, than those of ICA. However, after intravenous administration, the Cmax and AUC0–t of ICA II were about only 12.1% and 4.2% of those of ICA. These results suggest that ICA and ICA II have distinct pharmacokinetic properties, and the insights obtained facilitate future pharmacological action studies.

  15. Histopathological Study of Cyclosporine Pulmonary Toxicity in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Said Said Elshama

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cyclosporine is considered one of the common worldwide immunosuppressive drugs that are used for allograft rejection prevention. However, articles that address adverse effects of cyclosporine use on the vital organs such as lung are still few. This study aims to investigate pulmonary toxic effect of cyclosporine in rats by assessment of pulmonary histopathological changes using light and electron microscope examination. Sixty male adult albino rats were divided into three groups; each group consists of twenty rats. The first received physiological saline while the second and third groups received 25 and 40 mg/kg/day of cyclosporine, respectively, by gastric gavage for forty-five days. Cyclosporine reduced the lung and body weight with shrinkage or pyknotic nucleus of pneumocyte type II, degeneration of alveoli and interalveolar septum beside microvilli on the alveolar surface, emphysema, inflammatory cellular infiltration, pulmonary blood vessels congestion, and increase of fibrous tissues in the interstitial tissues and around alveoli with negative Periodic Acid-Schiff staining. Prolonged use of cyclosporine induced pulmonary ultrastructural and histopathological changes with the lung and body weight reduction depending on its dose.

  16. STUDIES ON INDUCED HEPATOTOXICITY IN MALE ALBINO RATS (RATTUS NORVEGICUS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ABULYAZID, I.; ABBAS, O.A.; FAYEZ, V.

    2008-01-01

    Levanox, a hepato protective drug, and garlic powder have been considered as safe anti-oxidant agents. The present investigation refers to biochemical and molecular studies to evaluate the protective role of levanox and/or garlic powder toward CCl4-induced toxicity in adult male albino rats. CCl4 intoxication was attempted using a dose of 0.03 ml/kg of rat body weight.Pre-treatment with levanox (one capsule/ kg of rat body weight, each capsule contains 100 mg catechu, 7.5 mg dandelion, 75 mg termiric 2 % curcumin , 17.5 mg silymarin, 100 mg lecithin) was more effective than garlic powder (100mg/kg of rat body weight) in reducing CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity as revealed by its higher potency in reducing elevation of aspartate (AST) and alanine (ALT) aminotransferases in serum. Serum of control rats and those treated with levanox or garlic or CCl4 produced 13 types of proteins, differing in the molecular weight (MW) and densities, while those of levanox + garlic or garlic +CCl4 produced 14 bands differing in the MW and densities. The similarity index at the epigenetic level was also studied using the primers under study. The control sample produced one amplified DNA fragment with Rf of 0.73 and a molecular size (MS) of 67 base pair (bp) . Using the same primers, no amplified DNA fragment with the same MS was produced in the sample taken from levanox + garlic treated group.OPA-2 primer of sequence 5?- AGA TGC AGC C-3? produced one amplified DNA band with MS of 292 bp and Rf of 0.46 . However, the same primer produced one amplified DNA characteristic band with a molecular size of 363 bp and Rf of 0.43 in the sample of levanox + garlic group.In the control sample, OPA-4 primer of sequence 5? - ACG CAC AAC C-3? produced one amplified DNA band of MS of 299 bp and Rf of 0.43. The same primer produced one amplified characteristic DNA band with MS of 363 bp and Rf of 0.43 in the sample of levanox + garlic group.Dual treatment with levanox and garlic powder resulted in a

  17. Ethanol intake and 3H-serotonin uptake I: A study in Fawn-Hooded rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daoust, M.; Compagnon, P.; Legrand, E.; Boucly, P.

    1991-01-01

    Ethanol intake and synaptosomal 3 H-serotonin uptake were studied in male Fawn-Hooded and Sprague-Dawley rats. Fawn-Hooded rats consumed more alcohol and more water than Sprague-Dawley rats. Plasma alcohol levels of Sprague-Dawley rats were not detectable but were about 5 mg/dl in Fawn-Hooded rats. Ethanol intake increased the Vmax of serotonin uptake in Fawn-Hooded rats in hippocampus and cortex, but not in thalamus. In Fawn-Hooded rats, serotonin uptake (Vmax) was higher than in Sprague-Dawley rats cortex. Ethanol intake reduced the Vmax of serotonin uptake in Fawn-Hooded rats in hippocampus and cortex. In cortex, the carrier affinity for serotonin was increased in alcoholized Fawn-Hooded rats. These results indicate that synaptosomal 3 H-serotonin uptake is affected by ethanol intake. In Fawn-Hooded rats, high ethanol consumption is associated with high serotonin uptake. In rats presenting high serotonin uptake, alcoholization reduces 3 H-serotonin internalization in synaptosomes, indicating a specific sensitivity to alcohol intake of serotonin uptake system

  18. Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey Kondrashov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to perform a chemical analysis of both Alibernet red wine and an alcohol-free Alibernet red wine extract (AWE and to investigate the effects of AWE on nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species production as well as blood pressure development in normotensive Wistar Kyoto (WKY and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs. Total antioxidant capacity together with total phenolic and selected mineral content was measured in wine and AWE. Young 6-week-old male WKY and SHR were treated with AWE (24,2 mg/kg/day for 3 weeks. Total NOS and SOD activities, eNOS and SOD1 protein expressions, and superoxide production were determined in the tissues. Both antioxidant capacity and phenolic content were significantly higher in AWE compared to wine. The AWE increased NOS activity in the left ventricle, aorta, and kidney of SHR, while it did not change NOS activity in WKY rats. Similarly, increased SOD activity in the plasma and left ventricle was observed in SHR only. There were no changes in eNOS and SOD1 expressions. In conclusion, phenolics and minerals included in AWE may contribute directly to increased NOS and SOD activities of SHR. Nevertheless, 3 weeks of AWE treatment failed to affect blood pressure of SHR.

  19. Enzymatic and ultrastructural study of lysosomes in rats bearing radiation-induced thyroid follicular carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starling, J.R.; Clifton, K.H.; Norback, D.H.

    1981-01-01

    Radiation-induced well-differentiated and poorly differentiated follicular thyroid cancers were transplanted into the intrascapular fat pads of male Fisher 144 rats. The tumors grew in the recipient rats and after a time interval were removed and studied along with normal rat thyroids for lysosomal activity and ultrastructural characteristics. Plasma from experimental and control rats was also studied for lysosomal activity. Rats with radiation-induced thyroid carcinoma had a decrease in growth rate compared with normal rats. There was no significant increase in plasma lysosomal enzymes in the experimental rats. Well-differentiated thyroid carcinomatous tissue showed increased total activities of lysosomal enzymes as well as a difference in subcellular distribution compared with normal and poorly differentiated carcinomatous tissue. Electron microscopy of normal and carcinomatous tissue demonstrated the greatest number of lysosomes in the well-differentiated carcinoma and the fewest in the poorly differentiated carcinoma

  20. Morphological studies on the healing process of tooth extraction wounds in whole body irradiated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosokawa, Yoichiro

    1991-01-01

    The present studies were performed to investigate the healing process of the tooth extraction wound in whole body irradiated rats and to clarify the effect of irradiation on bone metabolism. One hundred and seven Wistar rats of about 100 g body weight were used and divided into 3 groups. Whole body irradiated rats were given single exposure with a dose of 8 Gy. The region of the left upper molars of local irradiated rats as controls, was exposed to 8 Gy. On the 7th day after irradiation, the left upper first molar of each rat was extracted. The rats were sacrificed at intervals of 1 to 14 days after extraction. Non-irradiated rats were sacrificed at the same intervals after extraction. The maxillary bone including the extraction wound was evaluated, histologically, histometrically and ultrastructurally. From the histological and histometrical findings, the difference of the healing process between non-irradiated rats and locally irradiated rats is not significant. In whole body irradiated rats, the healing process especially in the socket was disturbed. The osteoblastic new bone formation following production of granulation tissue was interfered with. Ultrastructurally, the cytoplasmic organellae were poorly developed in the osteoblast and osteoid formation was reduced in the socket. But periosteal new bone formation was the same as that of the locally irradiated rats. In whole body irradiated rats, the osteoclasts in the interradicular alveolar bone were decreased and have smaller nuclei, compared with non-irradiated and locally irradiated rats. Histometrically, the amount of bone loss was decreased in whole body irradiated rats. Ultrastructurally, the cyoplasmic organellae and ruffled border were poorly developed in the osteoclasts of whole body irradiated rats. The findings suggested that irradiation induced cytological changes not only in osteoblasts but in osteoclasts and these changes resulted in the delayed healing of extraction wound. (author) 106 refs

  1. Morphological studies on the healing process of extraction wound in irradiated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iizuka, Tadashi

    1984-01-01

    The present studies were performed to investigate the healing process of the extraction wound in irradiated rats and to clarify the effect of irradiation on bone formation and resorption. 282 Wistar rats of about 100g body weight were used. The region of the left upper molars of experimental rats was exposed to 1000 rad or 2000 rad of 60 Co. On the 7th day after irradiation, the left upper first molar of each rat was extracted. The rats were sacrificed at intervals of from 1 day to 28 days after extraction. Control rats were sacrificed at same intervals after extraction. The maxillary bone including the extraction wound was examined histologically, histometrically, histochemically and ultrastructurally. In irradiated rats, the healing process of extraction wound was disturbed. The osteoblastic new bone formation following production of granulation tissue and periosteal new bone formation was interfered. Histochemical examination revealed that the osteoblasts of irradiated rats reduced enzymatic activity compared with control rats. Ultrastructurally, the cytoplasmic organellae were poorly developed in the osteoblasts of irradiated rats and osteoid formation was reduced. In irradiated rats, the osteoclasts in the interradicular alveolar bone were more numerous and increased more rapidly as compared with control rats, whereas, histometrically, there was no significant difference in the amount of bone loss between control and irradiated rats. Histochemically, there was no distinct difference in the enzymatic activity in osteoclasts between control and irradiated rats. Ultrastructurally, the cytoplasmic organellae and ruffled border were poorly developed in the osteoclasts of irradiated rats. The findings suggest that irradiation induced cytological changes in not only oseoblasts but also osteoclasts and these changes resulted in the delayed healing of extraction wound. (author)

  2. Morphological studies on the healing process of tooth extraction wounds in whole body irradiated rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosokawa, Yoichiro (Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan). School of Dentistry)

    1991-06-01

    The present studies were performed to investigate the healing process of the tooth extraction wound in whole body irradiated rats and to clarify the effect of irradiation on bone metabolism. One hundred and seven Wistar rats of about 100 g body weight were used and divided into 3 groups. Whole body irradiated rats were given single exposure with a dose of 8 Gy. The region of the left upper molars of local irradiated rats as controls, was exposed to 8 Gy. On the 7th day after irradiation, the left upper first molar of each rat was extracted. The rats were sacrificed at intervals of 1 to 14 days after extraction. Non-irradiated rats were sacrificed at the same intervals after extraction. The maxillary bone including the extraction wound was evaluated, histologically, histometrically and ultrastructurally. From the histological and histometrical findings, the difference of the healing process between non-irradiated rats and locally irradiated rats is not significant. In whole body irradiated rats, the healing process especially in the socket was disturbed. The osteoblastic new bone formation following production of granulation tissue was interfered with. Ultrastructurally, the cytoplasmic organellae were poorly developed in the osteoblast and osteoid formation was reduced in the socket. But periosteal new bone formation was the same as that of the locally irradiated rats. In whole body irradiated rats, the osteoclasts in the interradicular alveolar bone were decreased and have smaller nuclei, compared with non-irradiated and locally irradiated rats. Histometrically, the amount of bone loss was decreased in whole body irradiated rats. Ultrastructurally, the cyoplasmic organellae and ruffled border were poorly developed in the osteoclasts of whole body irradiated rats. The findings suggested that irradiation induced cytological changes not only in osteoblasts but in osteoclasts and these changes resulted in the delayed healing of extraction wound. (author) 106 refs.

  3. Neurogenic inflammation: a study of rat trigeminal ganglion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Kim Anker; Edvinsson, Lars

    2010-01-01

    Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is linked to neurogenic inflammation and to migraine. Activation of the trigeminovascular system plays a prominent role during migraine attacks with the release of CGRP. The trigeminal ganglion (TG) contains three main cell types: neurons, satellite glial...... cells (SGC) and Schwann cells; the first two have before been studied in vitro separately. Culture of rat TG provides a method to induce inflammation and the possibility to evaluate the different cell types in the TG simultaneously. We investigated expression levels of various inflammatory cytokines...

  4. Bone repair after osteotomy with diamond burs and CVD ultrasonic tips – histological study in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Matuda, Fábio S.; Pagani, Clovis; Miranda, Carolina B.; Crema, Aline A. S.; Brentel, Aline S.; Carvalho, Yasmin R.

    2010-01-01

    This study histologically evaluated the behavior of bone tissue of rats submitted to osteotomy with conventional diamond burs in high speed and a new ultrasonic diamond tips system (CVD – Chemical Vapor Deposition), at different study periods. The study was conducted on 24 Wistar rats. Osteotomy was performed on the posterior paws of each rat, with utilization of diamond burs in high speed under thorough water cooling at the right paw, and CVD tips at the left paw. Animals were killed a...

  5. Study on Application of Static Magnetic Field for Adjuvant Arthritis Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norimasa Taniguchi

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to examine the effectiveness of the application of static magnetic field (SMF on pain relief, we performed a study on rats with adjuvant arthritis (AA. Sixty female Sprague–Dawley (SD rats (age: 6 weeks, body weight: approximately 160 g were divided into three groups [SMF-treated AA rats (Group I, non-SMF-treated AA rats (Group II and control rats (Group III]. The SD rats were injected in the left hind leg with 0.6 mg/0.05 ml Mycobacterium butyrium to induce AA. The rats were bred for 6 months as chronic pain model. Thereafter, the AA rats were or were not exposed to SMF for 12 weeks. We assessed the changes in the tail surface temperature, locomotor activity, serum inflammatory marker and bone mineral density (BMD using thermography, a metabolism measuring system and the dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA method, respectively. The tail surface temperature, locomotor activity and femoral BMD of the SMF-exposed AA rats were significantly higher than those of the non-SMF-exposed AA rats, and the serum inflammatory marker was significantly lower. These findings suggest that the pain relief effects are primarily due to the increased blood circulation caused by the rise in the tail surface temperature. Moreover, the pain relief effects increased with activity and BMD of the AA rats.

  6. A Naturally Transmitted Epitheliotropic Polyomavirus Pathogenic in Immunodeficient Rats: Characterization, Transmission, and Preliminary Epidemiologic Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besch-Williford, Cynthia; Pesavento, Patricia; Hamilton, Shari; Bauer, Beth; Kapusinszky, Beatrix; Phan, Tung; Delwart, Eric; Livingston, Robert; Cushing, Susan; Watanabe, Rie; Levin, Stephen; Berger, Diana; Myles, Matthew

    2017-07-01

    We report the identification, pathogenesis, and transmission of a novel polyomavirus in severe combined immunodeficient F344 rats with null Prkdc and interleukin 2 receptor gamma genes. Infected rats experienced weight loss, decreased fecundity, and mortality. Large basophilic intranuclear inclusions were observed in epithelium of the respiratory tract, salivary and lacrimal glands, uterus, and prostate gland. Unbiased viral metagenomic sequencing of lesioned tissues identified a novel polyomavirus, provisionally named Rattus norvegicus polyomavirus 2 (RatPyV2), which clustered with Washington University (WU) polyomavirus in the Wuki clade of the Betapolyomavirus genus. In situ hybridization analyses and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) results demonstrated viral nucleic acids in epithelium of respiratory, glandular, and reproductive tissues. Polyomaviral disease was reproduced in Foxn1 rnu nude rats cohoused with infected rats or experimentally inoculated with virus. After development of RatPyV2-specific diagnostic assays, a survey of immune-competent rats from North American research institutions revealed detection of RatPyV2 in 7 of 1,000 fecal samples by PCR and anti-RatPyV2 antibodies in 480 of 1,500 serum samples. These findings suggest widespread infection in laboratory rat populations, which may have profound implications for established models of respiratory injury. Additionally, RatPyV2 infection studies may provide an important system to investigate the pathogenesis of WU polyomavirus diseases of man.

  7. STUDY OF OVARIAN CHANGES IN RATS WITH MAMMARY CARCINOMAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Zečević

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to estimate ovarian changes in 7,12 dimethylbenz (α anthracene (DMBA induced rat mammary carcinomas. The study was carried out on female virgin albino Wistar rats (n=35, age=35-37days, body mass 120-140g, divided into control (n=10 and experimental group (n=25. Anesthetised animals of experimental group were inoculated with 2 mg mixture (1 mg of DMBA and 1 mg of cholesterol-buffer into the fifth left mammary gland. The animals were sacrificed 90 days after implantation, and ovaries and mammary glands were investigated. Mammary gland carcinomas (in situ and/or invasive were pathohistologically verified in 19 experimental animals. Histological, histochemical, and immunohistochemical (cytokeratin AE1/AE3 and PCNA studies of ovaries were performed.Besides non-neoplastic changes, such as decrease in ovary’s volume, reduction in the rate of follicular development and numerous corpora lutea formation were found in the vicinity of preneoplastic changes: papillomatous epithelial hyperplasia and inclusion cysts, microglandular formations with dysplasia and seromucinous microcystic formation. Intensive diffuse PCNA expression was present in the epithelium of glandlike structures, follicular and inclusion cysts.These morphological changes confirmed that DMBA is a pluripotent carcinogen capable to induce a wide spectrum of preneoplastic lesions in the ovaries. The present dilemma is whether the changes described are the consequence of the direct effects of DMBA or of hormonal activity of the induced breast carcinomas, or both.

  8. Postmortem acinar autolysis in rat sublingual gland: a morphometric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nery, Leticia Rodrigues; Moreira, Carla Ruffeil; Cestari, Tania Mary; Taga, Rumio; Damante, José Humberto

    2010-01-01

    To analyze and to quantify morphological acinar postmortem changes in rat sublingual glands (SLG). MATERIAL AND METHODSs: Fifty rats were divided into two groups of 25 animals each. Group I was used for morphological and morphometric evaluations and group II for the determination of gland density and processed gland volume. Acinar autolytic changes were studied at 0 (control group), 3, 6, 12 and 24 h postmortem periods. The morphometric analysis of the volume density (Vv) and total volume (Vt) of intact (ia) and autolyzed (aa) acini was performed under light microscopy using a Zeiss II integration grid with 100 symmetrically distributed points. Morphologically, temporal progressive nuclear alterations and gradual loss of the structural architecture of acinar cells were found. Regarding quantitative results, both the Vvaa and the Vvia showed statistically significant differences among all postmortem periods (p0.05), respectively. Vtaa increased from 0.18 mm³ at 0 h to 38.17 mm³ at 12 h, while Vtia showed a decrease from 33.47 mm³ to 0 mm³ between 3-24 h postmortem. Data concerning Vtaa were adjusted by two-variable linear regression, obtaining the equation: y=-3.54+3.38x (r²=0.90). The Vtaa growth rate calculated by this equation was 3.38 mm³/h between 0-12 h. Acinar autolysis on rat SLG demonstrated the most significant signs during the first 6 h postmortem and was widely spread through the gland at 12 h.

  9. HYPOLIPEDEMIC EFFECT OF CYNODON DACTYLON ON HISTOPATHOLOGICAL STUDY AND DNA FRAGMENTATION ANALYSIS IN EXPERIMENTALLY INDUCED HYPERCHOLESTEREMIC RATS

    OpenAIRE

    C. Selva Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Hypercholesteremia is one of the risk factors for coronary artery disease. The present study highlights the efficacy of Ayurvedic herbal formulation Cynodon dactylon (Bermuda grass) on histopathological study and DNA fragmentation analysis in experimentally induced hypercholesteremic rats. Four groups of rats were employed namely control, hypercholesterolemia rats (4% Cholesterol+1% cholic acid), Cynodon dactylon treatment in hypercholesteremic rats and Cynodon dactylon alone treated rats. Re...

  10. Inhalation carcinogenicity study with nickel metal powder in Wistar rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oller, Adriana R.; Kirkpatrick, Daniel T.; Radovsky, Ann; Bates, Hudson K.

    2008-01-01

    Epidemiological studies of nickel refinery workers have demonstrated an association between increased respiratory cancer risk and exposure to certain nickel compounds (later confirmed in animal studies). However, the lack of an association found in epidemiological analyses for nickel metal remained unconfirmed for lack of robust animal inhalation studies. In the present study, Wistar rats were exposed by whole-body inhalation to 0, 0.1, 0.4, and 1.0 mg Ni/m 3 nickel metal powder (MMAD = 1.8 μm, GSD = 2.4 μm) for 6 h/day, 5 days/week for up to 24 months. A subsequent six-month period without exposures preceded the final euthanasia. High mortality among rats exposed to 1.0 mg Ni/m 3 nickel metal resulted in the earlier termination of exposures in this group. The exposure level of 0.4 mg Ni/m 3 was established as the MTD for the study. Lung alterations associated with nickel metal exposure included alveolar proteinosis, alveolar histiocytosis, chronic inflammation, and bronchiolar-alveolar hyperplasia. No increased incidence of neoplasm of the respiratory tract was observed. Adrenal gland pheochromocytomas (benign and malignant) in males and combined cortical adenomas/carcinomas in females were induced in a dose-dependent manner by the nickel metal exposure. The incidence of pheochromocytomas was statistically increased in the 0.4 mg Ni/m 3 male group. Pheochromocytomas appear to be secondary to the lung toxicity associated with the exposure rather than being related to a direct nickel effect on the adrenal glands. The incidence of cortical tumors among 0.4 mg Ni/m 3 females, although statistically higher compared to the concurrent controls, falls within the historical control range; therefore, in the present study, this tumor is of uncertain relationship to nickel metal exposure. The lack of respiratory tumors in the present animal study is consistent with the findings of the epidemiological studies

  11. Ameliorating role of chromium ingestion on biochemical, histological and trigluconate disorders induced by diabetes and / or gamma irradiation in pregnant albino rats and their fetuses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    RAMADAN, F.L.; REZK, R.G.

    2006-01-01

    Chromium is an essential trace element in human nutrition for the regulation of insulin action thereby influencing carbohydrate and lipid metabolism The aim of the present study was to evaluate the role of chromium intake on radiation-induced damage in diabetic mothers. Diabetes was induced in female rats by intraperitoneal injection of 150 mg/kg alloxan dissolved in saline. Pregnant diabetic mothers were received chromium (20 mg/kg) from the 1st up to the 19 th day of gestation. Meanwhile, pregnant diabetic rats were exposed to 0.3 Gy gamma radiation on the 6th and the 12 th day of gestation. Chromium treatment of diabetic mothers ameliorated radiation-induced damage, which was obvious by diminishing the increase of glucose, malonaldehyde (MDA), total cholesterol levels and by ameliorating the decrease of glutathione level in blood serum. In addition,chromium treatment ameliorated the radiation-induced changes in cholesterol levels of the fetuses. Moreover, chromium treatment led to the regeneration of the normal architecture of maternal hepatic cells and blood vessels. It could be concluded that chromium supplementation to diabetic mothers ameliorated the radiation-induced biochemical, histopathological and teratological disorders. Furthermore, the results obtained showed that chromium administration caused a significant protection to diabetic pregnant females against radiation-induced spontaneous abortion and embryo malformations

  12. Histophysiological study of aluminum chloride effect on male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. H. Al-Mallah

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to detect the effects of aluminum chloride AlCl3 on some pathophysiological features of adult male rats. Eighteen rats were divided to 3 groups of 6 animals each. These included untreated control and 2 treated groups received AlCl3 at the doses 40 and 80 mg/kg of body weight, orally and daily for 30 days. The following parameters were recorded: Body weight (weekly, central nervous system activity tests (weekly, hematological examinations at 15 and 30 days of experimentally and gross and histopathology for brain, liver, kidneys and heart at the day (30. The results showed a significant decrease in body weight mean of 3rd group (80 mg/kg at 4th week, a significant decrease in the activity associated with time progress in experiment by recording (moving onset, square crossed and rearing in 3 minutes, negative geotaxis tests, there were no significant differences between groups at pack cell volume and hemoglobin concentration with a significant decrease in total leukocyte count at 2nd group (40 mg/kg. Differential leukocyte count revealed significant increase in lymphocyte at day 30. Histopathological changes were neuronal vaculation and proliferation of microgelial cells in brain, vacular degeneration and lymphocytic infiltrations in hepatic parenchyma with mild portal fibrosis in liver, at kidneys there were cloudy swelling, coagulative necrosis to the renal tubular epithelium, more severely noticed at 3rd group, no pathological changes were noticed at myocardium and coronary arteries at both treated groups.

  13. Breast cancer study in rats by using Raman scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez E, J. C.; Cordova F, T.; Roca Ch, J. M.; Hernandez R, A.

    2015-10-01

    Full text: The use of Raman scattering to differentiate the biochemistry and hence distinguish between normal and abnormal samples of breast cancer with induced stress was investigated. Twelve different rat serum samples (5 control samples and 7 breast cancer samples) were measured. 25 spectra per sample were acquired in a region of 50 X 50 microns. Three hundred spectra were recorded and the spectral diagnostic models were constructed by using multivariate statistical analysis on the spectral matrix to carry out the discrimination between the control samples and cancers samples with induced stress. The spectral recording was performed with Raman microscopy system Thermo Scientific XRD in the range from 200 to 2000 cm -1 with a laser source of 780 nm, 24 m W of power and 50 s and exposure time were used for each spectrum. It is shown that the serum samples from rats with breast cancer and the control group can be discriminate when the multivariate analysis methods are applied to their Raman data set. The ratios were significant and correspond to proteins and phospholipids. The preliminary results suggest that the Raman spectroscopy could be an alternative technique to study the breast cancer in humans in a near future. (Author)

  14. Breast cancer study in rats by using Raman scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez E, J. C. [IPN, Unidad Profesional Interdisciplinaria de Ingenieria, Campus Guanajuato, Av. Mineral de Valenciana 200, Col. Fracc. Industrial Puerto Interior, 36275 Silao, Guanajuato (Mexico); Cordova F, T.; Roca Ch, J. M.; Hernandez R, A., E-mail: jcmartineze@ipn.mx [Universidad de Guanajuato, Division de Ciencias e Ingenierias, Departamento de Ingenieria Fisica, Loma del Bosque 103, Col. Lomas del Campestre, 37150 Leon, Guanajuato (Mexico)

    2015-10-15

    Full text: The use of Raman scattering to differentiate the biochemistry and hence distinguish between normal and abnormal samples of breast cancer with induced stress was investigated. Twelve different rat serum samples (5 control samples and 7 breast cancer samples) were measured. 25 spectra per sample were acquired in a region of 50 X 50 microns. Three hundred spectra were recorded and the spectral diagnostic models were constructed by using multivariate statistical analysis on the spectral matrix to carry out the discrimination between the control samples and cancers samples with induced stress. The spectral recording was performed with Raman microscopy system Thermo Scientific XRD in the range from 200 to 2000 cm{sup -1} with a laser source of 780 nm, 24 m W of power and 50 s and exposure time were used for each spectrum. It is shown that the serum samples from rats with breast cancer and the control group can be discriminate when the multivariate analysis methods are applied to their Raman data set. The ratios were significant and correspond to proteins and phospholipids. The preliminary results suggest that the Raman spectroscopy could be an alternative technique to study the breast cancer in humans in a near future. (Author)

  15. Effects of parsley (Petroselinum crispum) on the liver of diabetic rats: a morphological and biochemical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolkent, S; Yanardag, R; Ozsoy-Sacan, O; Karabulut-Bulan, O

    2004-12-01

    Parsley is used by diabetics in Turkey to reduce blood glucose. The present study aims to investigate both the morphological and biochemical effects of parsley on liver tissue. Rat hepatocytes were examined by light and electron microscopy. Degenerative changes were observed in the hepatocytes of diabetic rats. These degenerative changes were significantly reduced or absent in the hepatocytes of diabetic rats treated with parsley. Blood glucose levels, alanine transaminase and alkaline phosphatase were observed to be raised in diabetic rats. Diabetic rats treated with parsley demonstrated significantly lower levels of blood glucose, alanine transaminase and alkaline phosphatase. The present study suggests that parsley demonstrates a significant hepatoprotective effect in diabetic rats. 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Autoradiographic studies of oleilanilide-3H distribution in rat tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Negro Alvarez, M.J.; Saez Angulo, R.M.

    1987-01-01

    In this work the possibility that oleilanilides are involved in the pathgenesis of ''toxic syndrome'' is studied. Oleilanilide- 3 H labelled in the anilidi aromatic ring has been used to determine the distribution, localization and incorporation of that compound in several tissues of rats. Liquid scintillation counting for quantitative evaluation of the total radioactivity accumulated in the tissues, as well as autoradiographic techniques have been employed as analytical procedures. Results obtained from measurement of total radioactivity have shown accumulation of oleilanilide or its metabolites in all the studied tissues, mainly in the liver. No specific radioactivity localization has been detected by autoradiographic techniques, being the labelled molecules distributed in cytaplasm and cell interstice. (Author)

  17. Rat two-generation reproductive toxicity study of bisphenol A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ema, M; Fujii, S; Furukawa, M; Kiguchi, M; Ikka, T; Harazono, A

    2001-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the low-dose effects of bisphenol A (BPA) in a rat two-generation reproduction study. Groups of 25 male and 25 female Crj: CD (SD) IGS rats were given BPA at 0.2, 2, 20, or 200 microg/kg/day by gastric intubation throughout the study beginning at the onset of a 10- and 2-week premating period, in F0 males and females, respectively, and continuing through the mating, gestation, and lactation periods, for two generations. There were adult (F0, F1, F2) and postnatal day (PND) 22 (F1, F2) necropsies: the oldest F2 males and females being killed at postnatal weeks 7 and 14, respectively. No compound-related clinical signs or effects on body weight or food consumption were observed in any generation. There were no compound-related changes in surface righting reflex, negative geotaxis reflex, mid-air righting reflex, pinna detachment, incisor eruption, eye opening, testes descent, preputial separation, or vaginal opening in F1 and F2 generations, or behavior in the open field or water filled multiple T-maze in the F1 generation. No test compound-related changes in estrous cyclicity, copulation index, fertility index, number of implantations, gestation length, litter size, pup weight, pup sex ratio, pup viability, or other functional reproductive measures were noted in any generation. A few significant changes in the anogenital distance (AGD) per cube root of body weight ratio were found at 0.2 and 20 microg/kg in F1 males, at 2, 20, and 200 microg/kg in F1 females, and at 20 and 200 microg/kg in F2 females. However, the changes in the AGD were consistently small (within 5% of control values), and no continuous changes in the AGD or AGD/cube root of body weight ratio were detected. There were no compound-related changes in epididymal sperm counts or motility in F0 and F1 males. No compound-related necropsy findings or effects on organ weight including the reproductive organs were found in any generation. Histopathologic examinations

  18. The Presence Of Rat And House Sanitation Associated With Leptospira sp. Bacterial Infection In Rats (A Cross Sectional Study In Semarang, Central Java Province, Indonesia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setiyani, Endang; Martini, Martini; Saraswati, Lintang Dian

    2018-02-01

    The Gajah Mungkur sub-district in Semarang, Indonesia had highest leptospirosis cases (reported in human with seven infected and one dead) in 2015. The purpose of this study was to analyze the association between house sanitation and density of rats with Leptospira sp. infection in rats. The study design was cross sectional observational analytic. The number of 308 trapswere placed in study sites over three consecutive nights afterwards. Every houses were placed with four traps, inside and outside. Trapped rats were anesthetized with atropine dose from 0.02 to 0.05 mg/kg body weight of rats continued with Ketamine HCL dose of 50-100 mg/kg body weight of rats by injecting in the thick thigh muscle of it. After that, identification of rats by species and gender then continues with surgery in which a kidney sample was taken to confirm the presence of bacteria Leptospirasp using PCR techniques. The trap installed in 77 houses which later had further observation on house sanitation which includes the existence of a pile of used goods, food storage, garbage can, and the presence of the ceiling, windows and other ventilation.Data was analyzed using distribution frequency and bivariate chi-square test. We had 100 rats captured with live traps as the samples.The proportion of Rattusnorvegicuswas 27% (14.8% positive Leptospira sp.infection) and Rattustanezumi 73% (11%positive Leptospira sp.infection). The proportion of male and female rats were almost equal. The statistic test result was significant between the density of rats (p = 0.0001, OR 12.833, 95%CI: 1.565-105.261) and sex of rats (p = 0.019, OR 0.095, 95%CI: 0.012-0.769) with Leptospira sp. infection in rats. The number of rats may increase the infection of Leptospirasp., especially female rats and poor condition of house sanitation. It is recommended to improve house sanitation and regularly trapping rats.

  19. Genetic and rat toxicity studies of cyclodextrin glucanotransferase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert R. Maronpot

    Full Text Available Introduction: Microbiologically derived cyclodextrin glucanotransferase (CGTase is used commercially as a processing agent in manufacture of food, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetics. Its toxic potential was evaluated in anticipation of use in the production of alpha-glycosyl isoquercitrin, a water-soluble form of quercetin. Methods: Following OECD guidelines, CGTase, produced by Bacillus pseudalcaliphilus DK-1139, was evaluated in a genotoxicity battery consisting of a bacterial reverse mutation assay, an in vitro micronucleus (MN assay and MN and comet assays using B6C3F1 male and female mice. These same genotoxicity assays were also conducted for sodium sulfate, a contaminant of CGTase preparation. In a 90-day Sprague Dawley rat toxicity study, CGTase was administered by gavage in water at daily doses of 0, 250, 500, and 1000 mg/kg/day. Results: CGTase did not induce mutations with or without metabolic activation in the bacterial reverse mutation assay. Formation of micronuclei was not induced in either in vitro or in vivo MN assays with or without metabolic activation. No induction of DNA damage was detected in male or female mouse liver, stomach, or duodenum in the comet assay. Sodium sulfate also tested negative in these same genotoxicity assays. In the 90-day repeated dose rat study there were no treatment-related adverse clinical or pathological findings. Conclusion: The genotoxicity assays and repeated dose toxicity study support the safe use of CGTase in production of alpha-glycosyl isoquercitrin. Keywords: Micronucleus assay, Comet assay, Enzymatically modified isoquercitrin (EMIQ, Food additive, Flavonol, Sodium sulfate

  20. Increased dopaminergic activity in socially isolated rats: an electrophysiological study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius, Katrine; Helboe, Lone; Fink-Jensen, Anders

    2010-01-01

    The development of animal models mimicking symptoms associated with schizophrenia has been a critical step in understanding the neurobiological mechanisms underlying the disease. Long-term social isolation from weaning in rodents, a model based on the neurodevelopmental hypothesis of schizophrenia......, has been suggested to mimic some of the deficits seen in schizophrenic patients. We confirm in the present study that socially isolated rats display an increase in both spontaneous and d-amphetamine-induced locomotor activity, as well as deficits in sensorimotor gating as assessed in a pre......, and a change of firing activity towards a more irregular and bursting firing pattern. Taken together, our findings suggest that the behavioral phenotype induced by social isolation may be driven by an overactive dopamine system....

  1. Subchronic toxicity studies of t-butyl alcohol in rats and mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindamood, C; Farnell, D R; Giles, H D; Prejean, J D; Collins, J J; Takahashi, K; Maronpot, R R

    1992-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the toxicity of t-butyl alcohol, an important commodity chemical, an additive to unleaded gasoline, and a contaminant of drinking water. Ninety-day toxicity studies were conducted in B6C3F1 mice and Fischer 344 (F344) rats of both sexes using dosed water. Dose levels of t-butyl alcohol were 0, 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, and 4% (w/v). Lethality was observed at the 4% level of both sexes and species. Weight-gain depression was present in all dose levels of male rats; 4% female rats; 1, 2, and 4% male mice; and 2 and 4% female mice. Water consumption was increased at lower dose levels in male rats and decreased in the higher dose levels of both sexes of rats and female mice. Clinical signs in rats were ataxia in both sexes and hypoactivity in males. Clinical signs in mice were ataxia, abnormal posture, and hypoactivity. In rats, urine volumes were reduced, in association with crystalluria. Gross lesions at necropsy were urinary tract calculi, renal pelvic and ureteral dilatation, and thickening of the urinary bladder mucosa. Microscopic lesions were hyperplasia of transitional epithelia and inflammation of the urinary bladder. In male rats treated with t-butyl alcohol, microscopic renal changes were suggestive of alpha-2 mu-globulin nephropathy. No-effect levels for the urinary tract lesions were 1% in male rats and mice (803.7 mg/kg/day for the male rats and 1565.8 mg/kg/day for the male mice) and 2% in female rats and mice (1451.5 mg/kg/day for the female rats and 4362.9 mg/kg/day for the female mice). The results indicate that in rodents the urinary tract is the target organ for t-butyl alcohol toxicity, and males are more sensitive to t-butyl alcohol toxicity than females.

  2. Biological studies on albino rats fed with Sorghum bicolor starch ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Partially purified amylase was extracted from the culture medium of Rhizopus sp. grown in potato dextrose broth for 48 h at room temperature by precipitation with 96.9% ethanol. The enzyme was used to hydrolyze sorghum starch. The hydrolyzed product was afterwards formulated into rat feed, which was fed to albino rats ...

  3. A pharmacokinetic study of diclofenac sodium in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jing; Ma, He; Cen, Nannan; Zhou, Ai; Tao, Hengxun

    2017-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the pharmacokinetics of a single intravenous injection (i.v.) and oral administration (p.o.) of diclofenac sodium (DIC) in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Twelve male SD rats were divided into 2 groups (n=6 per group); one group was injected intravenously with 2 mg/kg DIC, whereas the other group was lavaged with 2 mg/kg DIC. Blood samples were collected prior to DIC delivery (0 h) and 0.033, 0.083, 0.167, 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 6, and 8 h post-administration. Blood plasma samples were analyzed using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) following pretreatment to induce protein precipitation. Pharmacokinetics software was applied to calculate relevant pharmacokinetic parameters using a non-compartmental model. Following i.v. administration of DIC, the terminal elimination rate constant (λ z ), apparent terminal elimination half-life (t ½ ), area under the concentration-time curve from time 0 extrapolated to infinity (AUC0 -∞ ), clearance (CL), apparent volume of distribution (V z ), mean residence time (MRT), and apparent volume of distribution at steady state (V ss ) were 0.57±0.05 l/h, 1.22±0.11 h, 3356±238 h × ng/ml, 0.60±0.04 l/h, 1.05±0.10 l, 1.05±0.07 h and 0.63±0.07 l, respectively. Following p.o. administration of DIC, the λ z , t ½ , C max , t max , AUC 0-∞ , CL, V z , MRT were: 0.63±0.12 l/h, 1.12±0.18 h, 1272±112 ng/ml, 0.19±0.04 h, 2501±303 h × ng/ml, 0.81±0.10 l/h, 1.29±0.12 l, and 2.70±0.18 h, respectively. The pharmacokinetic parameters of i.v. and p.o. DIC in rats show that the drug is rapidly absorbed, distributed, and eliminated.

  4. Study in radiation tolerance of damaged liver induced by dimethylaminoazobenzene. Histological study using Wistar rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izumiyama, Kazutaka; Kodama, Akihisa; Kono, Michio

    1997-01-01

    We studied to determine the tolerable dose of radiation in damaged liver using Wistar male rats aged 4 weeks. A damaged liver group fed on low-protein animal chow containing 0.07% dimethylaminoazobenzene (DAB) ad libitum. Rats feeding on the chow without DAB served as the normal liver group. In both groups, two rats each underwent irradiation of the right half of the liver with doses of 5 Gy, 10 Gy, 15 Gy, or 20 Gy using a 15 MeV electron beam. The animals were sacrificed 2 or 4 weeks after irradiation, and the irradiated and non-irradiated parts of the liver were compared histologically with respect to hepatocellular necrosis, the extent of degeneration, and the degree of inflammatory cell infiltration, as well as the degree of inflammatory cell infiltration and fibrosis in Glisson's capsule. Secondly, in the normal liver group, 6 rats were irradiated with dose of 20 Gy, and in the damaged liver group, 6 rats each were irradiated with doses of 10 Gy, 12 Gy, 15 Gy or 20 Gy, and the same study was performed. In the normal liver group, no histological differences were seen between the irradiated and non-irradiated parts of the liver even when irradiated with 20 Gy dose. In the damaged liver group, there were no differences between the irradiated and non-irradiated parts of the liver in animals given 15 Gy or 10 Gy. In the 12 Gy group, however, one out of three rats each showed more severe changes in the irradiated part at 2 and 4 weeks after irradiation. One out of six rats in the 15 Gy group and four out of six rats in the 20 Gy group died in the first week after irradiation. In the damaged liver group, a single irradiation of up to 10 Gy delivered to one half of the liver was tolerable. At doses of 12 Gy or higher, however, irreversible changes occurred in some animals, and deaths occurred at 15 Gy or 20 Gy. Since even 20 Gy was tolerated in the normal liver group, damaged liver showed a lower tolerance than normal liver. (author)

  5. A Two-Year Ecological Study of Norway Rats (Rattus norvegicus) in a Brazilian Urban Slum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panti-May, Jesús A; Carvalho-Pereira, Ticiana S A; Serrano, Soledad; Pedra, Gabriel G; Taylor, Josh; Pertile, Arsinoê C; Minter, Amanda; Airam, Vladimir; Carvalho, Mayara; Júnior, Nivison N; Rodrigues, Gorete; Reis, Mitermayer G; Ko, Albert I; Childs, James E; Begon, Mike; Costa, Federico

    2016-01-01

    The Norway or brown rat (Rattus norvegicus) is among the most ubiquitous of rodents. However, the lack of studies describing Norway rat populations from tropical areas have limited our understanding regarding their demography and seasonal dynamics. In this study, we describe seasonal pattern in the abundance, reproductive parameters, and morphometrics of Norway rat populations in Salvador, Brazil. Rodents were trapped over four seasonal trapping periods (2013-2014) from three valleys. A total of 802 Norway rats were trapped over the course of the study over 7653 trap-nights. Norway rat abundance was high, but there was no significant differences between seasons. The reproductive parameters (e.g. frequency of pregnant and lactating females) did not show statistical differences between seasons. Female rats collected in the rainy season were heavier and older than females from the dry season. Salvador rats had a high incidence of pregnancy and birth rate (estimated birth rate of 79 young per year) compared to previous studies. The information generated is critical for the understanding of the ecology of Norway rat, the main reservoir of Leptospira in Salvador. However, future studies examining the effect of rodent control programs aimed at reducing populations, and determining rates of recovery, will further clarify our understanding of population dynamics.

  6. Potency of maternal folic acid supplementation on gamma irradiation- induced histological and embryological anomalies in albino rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rezk, R.G.; Ibrahim, M.F.

    2006-01-01

    Folic acid, a member of the water-soluble vitamin B group, is emerged as an important nutritional factor especially during the course of pregnancy. It is rapidly absorbed from the proximal part of small intestine, distributed to the body tissues, stored in the liver and actively concentrated in the cerebrospinal fluid. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potency of maternal folic acid supplementation in ameliorating the maternal and fetal detrimental impacts of gamma irradiation. Folic acid, at a dose level of 4 mg/Kg body weight was daily administered via an oral stomach tube to pregnant adult albino rats from the 1st to the 20 th day of pregnancy, while mothers were subjected to gamma irradiation at the dose of 3 Gy on day 10 of gestation during the sensitive period of organogenesis. Experimental investigations carried out 1 day prior to parturition have demonstrated that folic acid intake throughout the whole gestational period had significantly diminished the deleterious histopathological disorders in large intestine, liver and uterus of irradiated mothers. Concomitantly, folic acid has been able to enfeeble the hazardous teratological effects of radiation including mainly the fetal intrauterine lethality, developmental delay and prominent morphological deformities. Conclusively, folic acid was found to offer protection during pregnancy against radiation injury, thus was capable of modulating the histopathological impacts of the studied maternal body organs and suppressing the embryonic mortality rates and serious fetal malformations induced by radiation

  7. Potency of maternal folic acid supplementation on gamma irradiation- induced histological and embryological anomalies in albino rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rezk, R G [Health Rad. Res., NCRRT, Cairo (Egypt); Ibrahim, M F [Rad. Biology Dept., NCRRT, Cairo (Egypt)

    2006-07-01

    Folic acid, a member of the water-soluble vitamin B group, is emerged as an important nutritional factor especially during the course of pregnancy. It is rapidly absorbed from the proximal part of small intestine, distributed to the body tissues, stored in the liver and actively concentrated in the cerebrospinal fluid. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potency of maternal folic acid supplementation in ameliorating the maternal and fetal detrimental impacts of gamma irradiation. Folic acid, at a dose level of 4 mg/Kg body weight was daily administered via an oral stomach tube to pregnant adult albino rats from the 1st to the 20 th day of pregnancy, while mothers were subjected to gamma irradiation at the dose of 3 Gy on day 10 of gestation during the sensitive period of organogenesis. Experimental investigations carried out 1 day prior to parturition have demonstrated that folic acid intake throughout the whole gestational period had significantly diminished the deleterious histopathological disorders in large intestine, liver and uterus of irradiated mothers. Concomitantly, folic acid has been able to enfeeble the hazardous teratological effects of radiation including mainly the fetal intrauterine lethality, developmental delay and prominent morphological deformities. Conclusively, folic acid was found to offer protection during pregnancy against radiation injury, thus was capable of modulating the histopathological impacts of the studied maternal body organs and suppressing the embryonic mortality rates and serious fetal malformations induced by radiation.

  8. Short-term toxicity studies with triphenyltin compounds in rats and guinea-pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verschuuren, H.G.; Kroes, R.; Vink, H.H.; Esch, G.J. van

    1966-01-01

    Short-term toxicity studies have been carried out in rats and guinea-pigs fed diets containing triphenyltin acetate (TPTA), triphenyltin hydroxide (TPTH) or triethyltin hydroxide (TETH) for 90 days at levels ranging from 0 to 50 ppm. The lowest dietary levels found to retard growth in rats and

  9. A semiautomated test apparatus for studying partner preference behavior in the rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Bakker (Julie); J. van Ophemert (J.); F. Eijskoot (F.); A.K. Slob (Koos)

    1994-01-01

    textabstractA semiautomated three-compartment box (3CB) for studying partner preference behavior of rats is decribed. This apparatus automatically records the rat's time spent in each compartment, as well as the locomotor activity (i.e., the number of visits an animal pays to each compartment).

  10. Prenatal developmental toxicity study with 7-hydroxymatairesinol potassium acetate (HMRlignan) in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolterbeek, A.P.M.; Roberts, A.; Korte, H.; Unkila, M.; Waalkens-Berendsen, D.H.

    2004-01-01

    Plant lignan 7-hydromatairesinol, a novel precursor of the mammalian lignan enterolactone was evaluated in a prenatal developmental toxicity study conducted in the Wistar rat. Mated female rats were fed diets containing 0, 0.25, 1, and 4% (w/w) of 7-hydroxymatairesinol in the form of potassium

  11. Growth control of the cranial base. A study with experimentally bipedal male rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smit-Vis, J.H.

    1981-01-01

    In a cross-sectional study the postnatal development of the skull, particularly that of the cranial base, was studied in experimentally bipedal male rats, up to the age of 46 weeks. A total of 81 bipedal rats and a control group of 90 animals were studied. It was found that, as compared with control rats, the bipedal rats had a definitely more spherical skull. This was the result of an increased height and a stronger dorsal flexion of the anterior cranial base. As to the chondrocranial elements, the basi-occipital bone reached, on the average, the same length in bipedal rats as in controls. However, the basisphenoid bone was significantly shorter. Arguments are given to relate the latter phenomenon to the altered shape of the neurocranium. The conclusion is drawn that, in this experimental approach, chondrocranial growth at the intersphenoidal synchondrosis is controlled not only by intrinsic genetic factors but also by local epigenetic and/or environmental factors.

  12. A comparative study of myosin and its subunits in adult and neonatal-rat hearts and in rat heart cells from young and old cultures.

    OpenAIRE

    Ghanbari, H A; McCarl, R L

    1980-01-01

    A possible explanation for the decrease in myosin Ca2+-dependent ATPase activity as rat heart cells age in culture is presented. The subunit structure and enzyme kinetics of myosin from adult and neonatal rat hearts and from rat heart cells of young and old cultures are compared. These studies indicate that the loss in Ca-ATPase activity of myosin from older cultures was an intrinsic property of the myosin itself. Myofibrillar fractions from the indicated four sources showed no qualitative or...

  13. Monosodium glutamate induced testicular lesions in rats (histological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aisha D. Alalwani

    2014-12-01

    Conclusions: MSG may have some deleterious effects on the testes of Wistar rats and by extension may contribute to the causes of male infertility. Thus, it is important to reconsider the usage of MSG as a flavor enhancer.

  14. Determination and Distribution Study of Pogostone in Rat Tissues by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BEH C18 column with acetonitrile-water containing 0.1 % formic acid (55:45, v/v) as the mobile phase, ... Keywords: Ultra-fast liquid chromatography, Tissue distribution, Pogostone, Honokiol, Rats .... sample extraction, storage, and intermittent.

  15. A study on experimental toxicology of 147Pm in rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Jingyong; Lao Qinhua

    1988-11-01

    The absorb law of 147 Pm by pulmonary compartment, intestines and skin of rat is reported. The metabolic pattern of 147 Pm in rat and its dose model are worked out on the basis of measured data. The injurious effects of the nuclide were observed by using LD 50/60 , micro-nucleus rates of lymphocytes in peripheral blood and activity of SGPT in serum as indices

  16. Quantitative analysis of the renal aging in rats. Stereological study

    OpenAIRE

    Melchioretto, Eduardo Felippe; Zeni, Marcelo; Veronez, Djanira Aparecida da Luz; Martins Filho, Eduardo Lopes; Fraga, Rogério de

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT PURPOSE: To evaluate the renal function and the renal histological alterations through the stereology and morphometrics in rats submitted to the natural process of aging. METHODS: Seventy two Wistar rats, divided in six groups. Each group was sacrificed in a different age: 3, 6, 9, 12, 18 and 24 months. It was performed right nephrectomy, stereological and morphometric analysis of the renal tissue (renal volume and weight, density of volume (Vv[glom]) and numerical density (Nv[glo...

  17. Quantitative analysis of the renal aging in rats. Stereological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melchioretto, Eduardo Felippe; Zeni, Marcelo; Veronez, Djanira Aparecida da Luz; Martins, Eduardo Lopes; Fraga, Rogério de

    2016-05-01

    To evaluate the renal function and the renal histological alterations through the stereology and morphometrics in rats submitted to the natural process of aging. Seventy two Wistar rats, divided in six groups. Each group was sacrificed in a different age: 3, 6, 9, 12, 18 and 24 months. It was performed right nephrectomy, stereological and morphometric analysis of the renal tissue (renal volume and weight, density of volume (Vv[glom]) and numerical density (Nv[glom]) of the renal glomeruli and average glomerular volume (Vol[glom])) and also it was evaluated the renal function for the dosage of serum creatinine and urea. There was significant decrease of the renal function in the oldest rats. The renal volume presented gradual increase during the development of the rats with the biggest values registered in the group of animals at 12 months of age and significant progressive decrease in older animals. Vv[glom] presented statistically significant gradual reduction between the groups and the Nv[glom] also decreased significantly. The renal function proved to be inferior in senile rats when compared to the young rats. The morphometric and stereological analysis evidenced renal atrophy, gradual reduction of the volume density and numerical density of the renal glomeruli associated to the aging process.

  18. Transmission of stress between cagemates: a study in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akyazi, Ibrahim; Eraslan, Evren

    2014-01-17

    The neuroendocrine responses triggered by stressors cause significant behavioral changes in animals. Considering the continuous behavioral interaction between social animals, it would be reasonable to suggest that the aforementioned behavioral changes can lead to transmission of stress between individuals. In the present study the aim is to investigate the outcomes of the behavioral interaction between stressed and unstressed animals housed together. A total of 28 adult male Wistar rats were used in the study. The animals were randomly allocated to four groups. Two of the groups were exposed to white noise stress in a period of 15days, while the other two groups remained unstressed. One of the stress exposed groups served as the stress control (SC) group and one of the non-stressed groups served as the reference value (RV) group. The remaining two groups were transmission groups. Every two animals of the non-stressed transmission group (TC) have been housed with two other animals of the stress exposed transmission group (TS) during the experimental period. After the stress exposure period, six animals from each group were subjected to behavioral assessment in an elevated plus maze (EPM), and subsequently, their cortisol levels were determined. White noise exposure of animals in the SC group induced a stress response indicated by an 1.8 fold increase of plasma cortisol level compared to the RV group (2.11±0.43 and 1.16±0,02, respectively). The transmission groups (TS and TC) entered the open arms more frequently and spent more time in open arms compared to the RV group. White noise exposure caused a stress response characterized by an elevation of cortisol level in rats. The gradual decrease of cortisol level from the SC towards the RV group may be interpreted as an evidence supporting the hypothesis of stress-transmission between cagemates. The moderate stress levels of the transmission groups, but not low and high levels of the SC and RV groups, decreased the

  19. Prenatal development toxicity study of zinc oxide nanoparticles in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong JS

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Jeong-Sup Hong,1,2 Myeong-Kyu Park,1 Min-Seok Kim,1 Jeong-Hyeon Lim,1 Gil-Jong Park,1 Eun-Ho Maeng,1 Jae-Ho Shin,3 Meyoung-Kon Kim,4 Jayoung Jeong,5 Jin-A Park,2 Jong-Choon Kim,6 Ho-Chul Shin2 1Health Care Research Laboratory, Korea Testing and Research Institute, Gimpo, South Korea; 2College of Veterinary Medicine, Konkuk University, Seoul, South Korea; 3Department of Biomedical Laboratory Science, Eulji University, Seongnam-si, South Korea; 4Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Korea University Medical School and College, Seoul, South Korea; 5Toxicological Research Division, National Institute of Food and Drug Safety Evaluation, Chungcheongbuk-do, South Korea; 6College of Veterinary Medicine, Chonnam National University, Gwangju, South Korea Abstract: This study investigated the potential adverse effects of zinc oxide nanoparticles ([ZnOSM20(+ NPs] zinc oxide nanoparticles, positively charged, 20 nm on pregnant dams and embryo–fetal development after maternal exposure over the period of gestational days 5–19 with Sprague-Dawley rats. ZnOSM20(+ NPs were administered to pregnant rats by gavage at 0, 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg/day. All dams were subjected to a cesarean section on gestational day 20, and all of the fetuses were examined for external, visceral, and skeletal alterations. Toxicity in the dams manifested as significantly decreased body weight after administration of 400 mg/kg/day NPs; reduced food consumption after administration of 200 and 400 mg/kg/day NPs; and decreased liver weight and increased adrenal glands weight after administration of 400 mg/kg/day NPs. However, no treatment-related difference in: number of corpora lutea; number of implantation sites; implantation rate (%; resorption; dead fetuses; litter size; fetal deaths and placental weights; and sex ratio were observed between the groups. On the other hand, significant decreases between treatment groups and controls were seen for fetal weights after

  20. Pharmacokinetic Study of Piracetam in Focal Cerebral Ischemic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paliwal, Pankaj; Dash, Debabrata; Krishnamurthy, Sairam

    2018-04-01

    Cerebral ischemia affects hepatic enzymes and brain permeability extensively. Piracetam was investigated up to phase III of clinical trials and there is lack of data on brain penetration in cerebral ischemic condition. Thus, knowledge of the pharmacokinetics and brain penetration of piracetam during ischemic condition would aid to improve pharmacotherapeutics in ischemic stroke. Focal cerebral ischemia was induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion for 2 h in male Wistar rats followed by reperfusion. After 24 h of middle cerebral artery occlusion or 22 h of reperfusion, piracetam was administered for pharmacokinetic, brain penetration, and pharmacological experiments. In pharmacokinetic study, blood samples were collected at different time points after 200-mg/kg (oral) and 75-mg/kg (intravenous) administration of piracetam through right external jugular vein cannulation. In brain penetration study, the cerebrospinal fluid, systemic blood, portal blood, and brain samples were collected at pre-designated time points after 200-mg/kg oral administration of piracetam. In a separate experiment, the pharmacological effect of the single oral dose of piracetam in middle cerebral artery occlusion was assessed at a dose of 200 mg/kg. All the pharmacokinetic parameters of piracetam including area under curve (AUC 0-24 ), maximum plasma concentration (C max ), time to reach the maximum plasma concentration (t max ), elimination half-life (t 1/2 ), volume of distribution (V z ), total body clearance, mean residence time, and bioavailability were found to be similar in ischemic stroke condition except for brain penetration. Piracetam exposure (AUC 0-2 ) in brain and CSF were found to be 2.4- and 3.1-fold higher, respectively, in ischemic stroke compared to control rats. Piracetam significantly reduced infarct volume by 35.77% caused by middle cerebral artery occlusion. There was no change in the pharmacokinetic parameters of piracetam in the ischemic stroke model except for

  1. Subchronic toxicity study of corn silk with rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cuina; Zhang, Tiehua; Liu, Jun; Lu, Shuang; Zhang, Cheng; Wang, Erlei; Wang, Zuozhao; Zhang, Yan; Liu, Jingbo

    2011-09-01

    Corn silk is a traditional herbal medicine in China, which has been used in many parts of the world for the treatment of edema as well as for cystitis, gout, kidney stones, nephritis, prostatitis and similar ailments. However, there is little scientific evidence about its safety. As a part of its safety assessment, a subchronic toxicity was performed in this paper. The subchronic toxicity was investigated in male and female Wistar rats by dietary administration at concentrations of 0.5%, 2.0% and 8.0% (w/w) for 90 days. Overall health, body weight, food consumption, hematology, blood chemistry, organ weights, gross and microscopic appearance of tissues were compared between test and control groups. A number of significant differences were seen between groups, but none of them was considered to be adverse. Based on the present study, the no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) of corn silk is at least 8.0% which corresponds to a mean daily corn silk intake of approximately 9.354 and 10.308 g/day/kg body weight for males and females, respectively. The results obtained in the present study suggest that consumption of corn silk has no adverse effects and support the safety of corn silk for humans. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. A novel device for studying weight supported, quadrupedal overground locomotion in spinal cord injured rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamlin, Marvin; Traughber, Terence; Reinkensmeyer, David J; de Leon, Ray D

    2015-05-15

    Providing weight support facilitates locomotion in spinal cord injured animals. To control weight support, robotic systems have been developed for treadmill stepping and more recently for overground walking. We developed a novel device, the body weight supported ambulatory rodent trainer (i.e. BART). It has a small pneumatic cylinder that moves along a linear track above the rat. When air is supplied to the cylinder, the rats are lifted as they perform overground walking. We tested the BART device in rats that received a moderate spinal cord contusion injury and in normal rats. Locomotor training with the BART device was not performed. All of the rats learned to walk in the BART device. In the contused rats, significantly greater paw dragging and dorsal stepping occurred in the hindlimbs compared to normal. Providing weight support significantly raised hip position and significantly reduced locomotor deficits. Hindlimb stepping was tightly coupled to forelimb stepping but only when the contused rats stepped without weight support. Three weeks after the contused rats received a complete spinal cord transection, significantly fewer hindlimb steps were performed. Relative to rodent robotic systems, the BART device is a simpler system for studying overground locomotion. The BART device lacks sophisticated control and sensing capability, but it can be assembled relatively easily and cheaply. These findings suggest that the BART device is a useful tool for assessing quadrupedal, overground locomotion which is a more natural form of locomotion relative to treadmill locomotion. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. The prostate after administration of anabolic androgenic steroids: a morphometrical study in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Rafael Arêas; Oliveira, Leonardo Pires; Frankenfeld, Stephan; Souza, Diogo Benchimol de; Costa, Waldemar Silva; Favorito, Luciano Alves; Sampaio, Francisco José Barcellos

    2013-01-01

    Many adverse effects have been associated with abuse of anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS), including disorders of the urogenital tract. The objective of this study is to analyze the morphological modifications in the prostate ventral lobe of pubertal and adult rats chronically treated with AAS, using morphometric methods. We studied 39 male Wistar rats weighing between 400 g and 550 g. The rats were divided into four groups: (a) control rats, with 105 days of age (C105) (n = 7); (b) control rats with 65 days of age (C65) (n = 9), injected only with the vehicle (peanut oil); (c) treated rats, with 105 days of age (T105) (n = 10) and (d) treated rats with 65 days of age (T65) (n = 13). The treated rats were injected with nandrolone decanoate at a dose of 10 mg.Kg-1 body weight. The steroid hormone and the vehicle were administered by intramuscular injection once a week for eight weeks. The rats were killed at 161 days of age (C105 and T105) and 121 days of age (C65 and T65) and the ventral prostate lobe was dissected and processed for histology. The height of the acinar epithelium, the surface densities of the lumen, epithelium and stroma were observed with X400 magnification using an Olympus light microscope coupled to a Sony CCD video camera, and the images transferred to a Sony monitor KX14-CP1. The selected histological areas were then quantified using the M42 test-grid system on the digitized fields. The data were analyzed with the Graphpad software. To compare the quantitative data in both groups (controls and treated) and the outcomes, Student's t-test was used (p anabolic androgenic steroids in rats promotes structural changes in the prostate. We observed structural changes in the weight, volume and epithelium height of the prostate ventral lobe and a predominance of collagen fibers.

  4. Study of Antipyretic Activity of Bauhinia racemosa lam in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.I. Borikar

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to screen the antipyretic activity of alcoholic extract of the stem bark of Bauhinia racemosa Lam. as per the method discribed by Bhalla et.al, (1971. Thirty six healthy rats weighing between 200-250gms were divided into six groups of six animals each, with 50% sex ratio. The initial rectal temperature of each animal was recorded by digital thermometer and its hourly variation was noted for 3 hours. The pyrexia was induced by injecting a suspension of 15% of brewer’s yeast and 2% gum acacia in normal saline sub-cutaneously below the nape of neck @ 1ml/100gm of animal weight. The difference in temperature between 0 hour and respective time interval was found out by statistical method. The potency of extract to bring down the temperature was compared with that of the control group. The extract showed marked antipyretic activity in a dose dependent manner. [Vet World 2009; 2(6.000: 215-216

  5. Research Note. Transcriptomic study of the rat pinworm Syphacia muris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okamoto M.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Syphacia muris is a ubiquitous nematode parasite and common contaminant of laboratory rats. A lthough S. muris infection is considered symptomless, it has some effects on the host’s immunity and therefore can interfere with experimental settings and interrupt final results. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in the alteration within the host’s immunity remain unclear because of the absence of information about mRNA expressed in this parasite. In this study we performed the transcriptome profiling of S. muris by next-generation sequencing. After de novo assembly and annotation, 14,821 contigs were found to have a sequence homology with any nematode sequence. Gene ontology analysis showed that the majority of the expressed genes are involved in cellular process, binding, and catalytic activity. Although the rate of expressed genes involved in the immune system was low, we found candidate genes that might be involved in the alteration within the host’s immunity by regulating the host’s innate immune response.

  6. Studies on tritium (tritiated water) mutagenicity and teratogenicity in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yagova, A.Kh.

    1979-01-01

    Single parental exposures to a range of tritium (tritiated water) activities, injecterd intraperitoneally, were used to study induction of genetic damage and effects on prenatal development in rats. In the male, treatment of postmeiotic stages of spermatogenesis was found to produce genetic damage, as judged by the dominant lethality test, at activity levels of the order of 1.0 microcurie/g body weight and above; when treating spermatogonia, no genetic damage was detected by this test. In the female, induced dominant lethality was observed after exposing oocytes in growing follicles to a tritium activity level of 10 microcurie/g b.w. Cytogenetic analysis of spermatocytes in meiosis disclosed increased frequency of reciprocal translocations after exposure of premeiotic cells (spermatogonia) to activities above 7 microcurie/g b.w., the effect tending to rise with increase in activity aministered per gram of body weight. Maternal treatment during early pregnancy was shown to raise prenatal death rate only at activities above 0.1 microcurie/g b.w; with such low activities, no discernible effects on postnatal development were noted, judging by postnatal death rate and increase in offspring body weight with time. In conclusion, experimental evidence was obthained that a tritiated water activity level of 0.1 microcurie per gram body weight (which is one order of magnitude above the annual limit of intake of tritiated water for members of the public) appears to produce no mutagenic effect and exert no influence upon the embryo

  7. Uranium in bone: metabolic and autoradiographic studies in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Priest, N.D.; Haines, J.W.; Howells, G.R.; Green, D.

    1982-01-01

    The distribution and retention of intravenously injected hexavalent uranium-233 in the skeleton of the female rat has been investigated using a variety of autoradiographic and radiochemical techniques. These showed that approximately one third of the injected uranium is deposited in the skeleton where it is retained with an initial biological half-time of approximately 40 days. The studies also showed that: 1) Uranium is initially deposited on to all types of bone surface, but preferentially on to those that are accreting. 2) Uranium is deposited in the calcifying zones of skeletal cartilage. 3) Bone accretion results in the burial of surface deposits of uranium. 4) Bone resorption causes the removal of uranium from surfaces. 5) Resorbed uranium is not retained by osteoclasts and macrophages in the bone marrow. 6) Uranium removed from bone surfaces enters the bloodstream where most is either redeposited in bone or excreted via the kidneys. 7) The recycling of resorbed uranium within the skeleton tends to produce a uniform level of uranium contamination throughout mineralized bone. These results are taken to indicate that uranium deposition in bone shares characteristics in common with both the 'volume-seeking radionuclides' typified by the alkaline earth elements and with the 'bone surface-seeking radionuclides' typified by plutonium. (author)

  8. Uranium in bone: metabolic and autoradiographic studies in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priest, N D; Howells, G R; Green, D; Haines, J W

    1982-03-01

    The distribution and retention of intravenously injected hexavalent uranium-233 in the skeleton of the female rat has been investigated using a variety of autoradiographic and radiochemical techniques. These showed that approximately one third of the injected uranium is deposited in the skeleton where it is retained with an initial biological half-time of approximately 40 days. The studies also showed that: 1 Uranium is initially deposited onto all types of bone surface, but preferentially onto those that are accreting. 2 Uranium is deposited in the calcifying zones of skeletal cartilage. 3 Bone accretion results in the burial of surface deposits of uranium. 4 Bone resorption causes the removal of uranium from surfaces. 5 Resorbed uranium is not retained by osteoclasts and macrophages in the bone marrow. 6 Uranium removed from bone surfaces enters the bloodstream where most is either redeposited in bone or excreted via the kidneys. 7 The recycling of resorbed uranium within the skeleton tends to produce a uniform level of uranium contamination throughout mineralized bone. These results are taken to indicate that uranium deposition in bone shares characteristics in common with both the 'volume-seeking radionuclides' typified by the alkaline earth elements and with the 'bone surface-seeking radionuclides' typified by plutonium.

  9. Malformations Induced in Pregnant Rats and their Fetuses Treated with Fluconazole and / or Gamma Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramadan, F.L.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present work is to study the synergistic effect of antifungal (fluconazole) treatment and / or g-radiation stress on pregnant mothers and their developing embryos by evaluating the maternal biochemical changes, embryological and histopathological lesions. Fluconazole is a broad-spectrum azole antifungal medication used for the treatment of several types of fungal infections including common forms such as vaginal candidiasis. Fluconazole (50 mg/kg b.wt.) was daily administered by oral gavage to pregnant rats from the 4th to the 13th gestational days during which they were subjected to g-radiation at a dose level of 1 Gy given at the 6th day (post implantation period) and 1 Gy on the 12th day (organogenesis period) of gestation. The animals were dissected and examined on the 20th day of gestation (one day prior to praturation). Fluconazole and radiation dual treatment resulted in increased maternal serum of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatine phosphokinase (CPK), aspartate transaminase (AST) activities and sodium (Na + ) level accompanied with a decline in potassium (K + ) concentration. The results showed that there was an elevation in the lipid peroxidation end product malondialdehyde (MDA) as well as nitric oxide (NO) in the brain and heart tissues of pregnant rats. Meantime, the developing embryos in the uteri showed various teratological, skeletal and histological impairments. Moreover, the fluconazole treatment and / or g-radiation harm effects were detected as growth retardation, malformations, intrauterine death and embryonic resorption. The examination of the endoskeletal system of fetuses showed retardation in the ossification of the skull bones and lack of ossification at the center of vertebrae and appendages. In addition, the embryonic histological examinations revealed heart loss of normal architecture, the interstitial tissues were oedematous and containing necrotic cellular debris together with fibrosis of nerve cells in the brain

  10. Outcome of Angiotensin II Inhibition in Pregnant Irradiated Rats and their Embryos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramadan, F. L.; Ashry, Kh. M.

    2010-01-01

    The study aims to evaluate the synergism of losartan and or irradiation stress on the female rat mothers and their developing embryos as judged by the maternal biochemical pathways during gestation and teratogenic effects on the embryos. Losartan is an angiotensin II AT1-receptor antagonist used to regulate blood pressure. Losartan (5 mg/kg b.wt day) was daily orally administrated to pregnant rats from the 6 th to 18 th gestational days during which they were subjected to intermittent radiation dose levels of 0.5 Gy/4 times at the 9 th, 10 th, 11 th and 12 th days of gestation whereas investigation has been carried out one day prior to parturition. Dual treatment of losartan and radiation resulted in increased maternal serum levels of creatinine and bilirubin.The developing embryos in the uteri due to their high sensitivity showed various teratological, skeletal and histological impairment. Losartan and/or radiation induced effects were detected as growth retardation, malformations expressed as anopthalmia, kypophysis, subcutaneous haemorrhage and microtia as well as elevated intrauterium death and embryonic resorption. Moreover, the examination of endo skeletal system of fetuses showed retardation in the ossification of the skull bones and lack of ossification at the vertebrae and edges. Also, maternal and embryonic histological examination revealed that losartan and gamma radiation induced injury to kidney tissue manifested in rupture and shrinkage of renal corpuscle, infiltration, disappearance of glomularies, while the kidney of fetuses showed loss of renal pattern. Results point out that losartan should be used with caution in women at the reproductive age and those occupationally exposed to irradiation

  11. Contribution to the study of calcium metabolism in rats treated with tetracycline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncalves, M.R.B.

    1980-01-01

    The tetracycline is one of the most used antibiotics. The interferences in the rats calcium metabolism were studied. Sixteen rats, R dutch type were treated with a 1 mg/100 g of corporal weight, of tetracycline twice a day, for 23 days. In the twentieth day of the treatment, a dose of Calcium 45 was administrated to verify thhe decay curve of the radionuclide plasmatic concentration. A control group of 16 rats was studied to compare the results. A significative decrease of the calcemy and of bone reabsorption in the group treated with tetracycline were observed. (L.M.J.)

  12. Inhalation developmental toxicology studies: Acetonitrile in rats. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mast, T.J.; Weigel, R.J.; Westerberg, R.B.; Boyd, P.J.; Hayden, B.K.; Evanoff, J.J.; Rommereim, R.L.

    1994-02-01

    The potential for acetonitrile to cause developmental toxicity was assessed in Sprague-Dawley rats exposed to 0, 100, 400, or 1200 ppM acetonitrile, 6 hours/day, 7 days/week. Exposure of rats to these concentrations of acetonitrile resulted in mortality in the 1200 ppM group (2/33 pregnant females; 1/10 non-pregnant females). However, there were no treatment-related effects upon body weights or reproduction indices at any exposure level, nor was there a significant increase in the incidence of fetal malformations or variations. The only effect observed in the fetuses was a slight, but not statiscally significant, exposure-correlated increase in the incidence of supernumerary ribs. Determination of acetonitrile and cyanide concentrations in maternal rat blood showed that acetonitrile concentration in the blood increased with exposure concentration for all exposed maternal rats. Detectable amounts of cyanide in the blood were found only in the rats exposed to 1200 ppM acetonitrile ({approximately}2 {mu}g cyanide/g of blood).

  13. HISTOLOGICAL STUDIES OF THE EFFECTS OF MONOSODIUM GLUTAMATE ON THE INFERIOR COLLICULUS OF ADULT WISTAR RATS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.O. Eweka.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Histological effects of Monosodium glutamate (MSG commonly used as food additive on the inferior colliculus (IC of adult Wistar rats were carefully studied. The rats of both sexes (n=24, average weight of 185g were randomly assigned into two treatments (n=16 and control (n=8 groups. The rats in the treatment groups received 3g and 6g of MSG thoroughly mixed with their feeds for fourteen days, while the control rats received equal amounts of feeds without MSG added. The rats were fed with growers' mash purchased from Edo Feeds and Flour Mill Ltd, Ewu, Edo State and were given water liberally. The rats were sacrificed on day fifteen of the experiment. The inferior colliculus was carefully dissected out and quickly fixed in 10% formal saline for routine histological study after H&E method.The histological findings after H&E methods indicated that the treated sections of the inferior colliculus showed some cellular degenerative changes, cellular hypertrophy, and autophagic vacuoles with some intercellular vacuolations appearing in the stroma, and some degree of neuronal hypertrophy when compared to the control sections.These findings indicate that MSG consumption may have a deleterious effect on the neurons of the inferior colliculus (IC. MSG may probably have adverse effects on the auditory sensibilities by its deleterious effects on the nerve cells of the IC of adult Wistar rats. It is recommended that further studies aimed at corroborating these observations be carried out.

  14. Study of morbidity in orthotopic small intestine transplantation with Wistar rats: experimental study

    OpenAIRE

    LEE André Dong Won; GAMA-RODRIGUES Joaquim; GALVÃO Flávio H.; WAITZBERG Dan L.

    2002-01-01

    Background - Transplantation of the small intestine is a surgical procedure currently under investigation for its possible application in the treatment of patients with short bowel syndrome, aiming at the reintroduction of an oral diet. Aim - To define the morbidity and mortality of intestinal transplantation in small animals using microsurgery. Intra and postoperative morbidity and mortality were studied in Wistar rats submitted to orthotopic intestinal allotransplantation. Material and Meth...

  15. De rijping van het cerebellum; a study of the postnatal development of the rat cerebellum.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ebels, E.J.

    1969-01-01

    Chapter I: INTRODUCTION In this investigation the development of the rat cerebellum from 0 -30 days after birth is studied morphologically, by means of enzymchistochemistry and electronmicroscopy. Enzymchistochemistry and electronmicroscopy were chosen because changes in enzyme content or enzyme

  16. [Toxicity studies of landiolol hydrochloride (ONO-1101) (1). Single intravenous toxicity study in rats and dogs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, K; Kasahara, T; Yanagisawa, Y; Nanba, T; Aze, Y; Shinomiya, K; Yonezawa, H; Fujita, T

    1997-12-01

    Single dose toxicity studies of landiolol hydrochloride (ONO-1101), a novel ultra short acting beta-blocker, were conducted in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats and beagle dogs. ONO-1101 was administered intravenously at a dose level of 37.5, 75, 150 or 300 mg/kg to rats of both sexes and 25, 50 or 100 mg/kg to male dogs. In the rat study, 5/6 males in the 150 mg/kg group and all animals in the 300 mg/kg group died during or right after administration. Survivors in the 150 mg/kg group showed temporal hypoactivity, bradypnea, dyspnea, tremor, loss of righting reflex and reddish lacrimation up to 5 min after injection. One male in the 150 mg/kg group had a tendency of suppression on body weight gain. No effects on clinical signs and body weight gain were seen in the 75 mg/kg group or lower. Necropsy findings showed only red tear in the majority of the decedents. In the dog study, all animals died within 6 min after administration in the 100 mg/kg group, showed ataxic gait, rolling and tachypnea followed by bradypnea and gasping/apnea. Incontinence of urine, defecation and vocalization were also seen in each one of two animals before death. Temporal hypoactivity was seen 1 min after administration in the 50 mg/kg group. No clinical signs were seen in the 25 mg/kg group. ONO-1101 did not affect bodyweight or food consumption. Necropsy findings of the decedents showed no abnormalities. It is indicated that the minimum lethal doses are 150 mg/kg in rats and 100 mg/kg in dogs.

  17. Novel pharmacokinetic studies of the Chinese formula Huang-Lian-Jie-Du-Tang in MCAO rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Huaxu; Qian, Zhilei; He, Feng; Liu, Mengzhu; Pan, Linmei; Zhang, Qichun; Tang, Yuping

    2013-07-15

    Our previous studies showed that after oral administration of an Huang-Lian-Jie-Du-Tang (HLJDT) decoction, there is a higher concentration of the pure components, berberine, baicalin and gardenoside in the plasma of Middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) rats than in sham-operated rats, The aim of the present study was to determine whether these components could be reliably measured in MCAO rat tissues. First, the plasma concentration-time profiles of berberine, palmatine, baicalin, baicalein and gardenoside were characterised in MCAO rats after oral administration of the aqueous extract of HLJDT. Subsequently, liver, lung and kidney tissues were obtained from sudden death MCAO rats in the absorption phase (0.25 h), the distribution phase (1.0 h) and the elimination phase (8.0 h) after administration of the HLJDT aqueous extract. An HPLC method was developed and validated for the determination of the distribution characteristics of berberine, palmatine, baicalin, baicalein and gardenoside simultaneously from the above-mentioned rat tissues. The results indicated that berberine, palmatine, baicalin and baicalein distributed rapidly and accumulated at high levels in the lung, while gardenoside distributed widely in the lung and the kidney. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report to describe the distribution of the active ingredients derived from HLJDT in MCAO rat tissues. The tissue distribution results provide a biopharmaceutical basis for the design of the clinic application of HLJDT in cerebrovascular disease. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. Rat Ultrasonic Vocalizations and Behavioral Neuropharmacology: From the Screening of Drugs to the Study of Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simola, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    Several lines of evidence indicate that rats emit ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) in response to a wide range of stimuli that are capable of producing either euphoric (positive) or dysphoric (negative) emotional states. On these bases, recordings of USVs are extensively used in preclinical studies of affect, motivation, and social behavior. Rat USVs are sensitive to the effects of certain classes of psychoactive drugs, suggesting that emission of rat USVs can have relevance not only to neurobiology, but also to neuropharmacology and psychopharmacology. This review summarizes three types of rat USVs, namely 40-kHz USVs emitted by pups, 22-kHz USVs and 50-kHz USVs emitted by young and adult animals, and relevance of these vocalizations to neuropharmacological studies. Attention will be focused on the issues of how rat USVs can be used to evaluate the pharmacological properties of different classes of drugs, and how rat USVs can be combined with other behavioral models used in neuropharmacology. The strengths and limitations of experimental paradigms based on the evaluation of rat USVs will also be discussed.

  19. Behavioral and Neurochemical Studies in Stressed and Unstressed Rats Fed on Protein, Carbohydrate and Fat Rich Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samia Moin§, Saida Haider*, Saima Khaliq1, Saiqa Tabassum and Darakhshan J. Haleem

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Stress produces behavioral and neurochemical deficits. To study the relationship between adaptation to stress and macronutrient intake, the present study was designed to monitor the effects of different diets on feed intake, growth rate and serotonin (5-Hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT metabolism following exposure to restraint stress in rats. Rats were divided into four groups (n=12 as control, sugar, protein and fat rich diet fed rats. After 5 weeks of treatment animals of each group were divided into unrestrained and restrained animals (n=6. Rats of restrained group were given immobilization stress for 2 hours/day for 5 days. Food intake and growth rates of unrestrained and restrained rats were monitored daily. Rats were decapitated on 6th day to collect brain samples for neurochemical estimation. Results show that sugar diet fed rats produced adaptation to stress early as compared to normal diet fed rats. Food intake and growth rates of unrestrained and restrained rats were comparable on 3rd day in sugar diet fed rats and on 4th day in normal diet fed rats. Stress decreased food intake and growth rates of protein and fat treated rats. Repeated stress did not alter brain 5-HT and 5-HIAA levels of normal diet fed rats and sugar diet fed rats. Protein diet fed restrained rats showed elevated brain 5-HT levels. Fat diet fed restrained rats significantly decreased brain TRP and 5-HIAA levels. Finding suggested that carbohydrate diet might protect against stressful conditions. Study also showed that nutritional status could alter different behaviors in response to a stressful environment.

  20. Preliminary EEG study of protective effects of Tebonin in transient global cerebral ischemia in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zagrean, L; Vatasescu, R; Munteanu, A M

    2000-01-01

    and metabolism. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of preventive treatment with Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb 761--Tebonin) in cerebral global ischemia and reperfusion in rats using computerized EEG analysis. Ginkgo biloba extract, known to be, in vitro, a free radicals scavanger and a PAF......--antagonist, was administrated in dose of 100 mg/kg over 24 hours, for 5 days before and 5 days after cerebral ischemia--reperfusion. The apparition of isoelectric EEG (flat-line) following 4-vessel occlusion was observed after a mean time of 25 sec. in Ginkgo biloba treated rats and after 18 sec. in control rats (p

  1. Experimental study of icariin on vascular dementia in rats induced by 2-VO method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rui-xiaXU; QinWU; Jing-shanSHI

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To study the effects of icariin (ICA) on the learning and memory of ischemic vascular dementia (VD) model of rats,and explore the protective mechanisms. METHODS: ICA was administered to the VD model rats induced by a permanent bilateral occlusion of both common carotids arteries(2-VO method) and by cerebral ischemia-reperfusion (I10-R 10-110 method). Morris water maze was used to examine the abilities of spatial learning and memory of VD model rats. The activity of SOD, level of

  2. Study of the effects of a prenatal or postnatal irradiation of 150 rads in adult rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coffigny, H.; Pasquier, C.

    Pregnant females and newborn rats were exposed to a gamma irradiation of 150 rads. The stage of gestation at the time of irradiation varied from 14 to 21 days. The newborn rats were irradiated at 0, 1 and 2 days of age. The effect of irradiation of foetus and newborn rats depends on the age of the animal at the time of irradiation. This effect was specially important at the beginning of the foetal life. Neonatal mortality, growth of body weight and adult brain development were investigated. A modification of germ cell radiosensitivity during the period studied, was emphasized [fr

  3. Metabolic and pharmacokinetic studies of scutellarin in rat plasma, urine, and feces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Jian-feng; You, Hai-sheng; Dong, Ya-lin; Lu, Jun; Chen, Si-ying; Zhu, Hui-fang; Dong, Qian; Wang, Mao-yi; Dong, Wei-hua

    2011-05-01

    To study the metabolic and pharmacokinetic profile of scutellarin, an active component from the medical plant Erigeron breviscapus (Vant) Hand-Mazz, and to investigate the mechanisms underlying the low bioavailability of scutellarin though oral or intravenous administration in rats. HPLC method was developed for simultaneous detection of scutellarin and scutellarein (the aglycone of scutellarin) in rat plasma, urine and feces. The in vitro metabolic stability study was carried out in rat liver microsomes from different genders. After a single oral dose of scutellarin (400 mg/kg), the plasma concentrations of scutellarin and scutellarein in female rats were significantly higher than in male ones. Between the female and male rats, significant differences in AUC, t(max2) and C(max2) for scutellarin were found. The pharmacokinetic parameters of scutellarin in the urine also showed significant gender differences. After a single oral dose of scutellarin (400 mg/kg), the total percentage excretion of scutellarein in male and female rats was 16.5% and 8.61%, respectively. The total percentage excretion of scutellarin and scutellarein in the feces was higher with oral administration than with intravenous administration. The in vitro t(1/2) and CL(int) value for scutellarin in male rats was significantly higher than that in female rats. The results suggest that a large amount of ingested scutellarin was metabolized into scutellarein in the gastrointestinal tract and then excreted with the feces, leading to the extremely low oral bioavailability of scutellarin. The gender differences of pharmacokinetic parameters of scutellarin and scutellarein are due to the higher CL(int) and lower absorption in male rats.

  4. HISTOLOGICAL STUDIES OF THE EFFECTS OF RED PEPPER ON THE STOMACH OF ADULT WISTAR RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josiah O. Adjene

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Histological effects of red pepper commonly used as spice in food on the stomach of adult wistar rats were carefully investigated. The rats of both sexes (n=24, average weight of 200g were randomly assigned into two treatments (n=16 and control (n=6 groups. The rats in the treatments groups received 1g and 2g of red pepper thoroughly mixed with 20g of their feeds for 7 and 14 days, while the control rats received equal amounts of feeds without the red pepper added. The rats were fed with grower's mash purchased from Edo feeds and flour mill Ltd, Ewu, Edo State and were given water liberally. The rats were sacrificed on day eight and fifteen of the experiment respectively.The stomach was carefully dissected out and quickly fixed in 10% formol saline for routine histological procedure after H & E method.The histological findings after H&E methods indicated that the treated sections of the stomach showed some level of cellular hypertrophy, congestion of blood vessels degenerative changes disruption and distortion of the cytoarchitecture of the stomach.These findings indicate that red pepper may have some deleterious effects on the microanatomy of the stomach of adult wistar rat at higher doses. It is recommended that further studies aimed at corroborating these findings be carried out.

  5. Impact of Ellagic Acid in Bone Formation after Tooth Extraction: An Experimental Study on Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazen M. Jamil Al-Obaidi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To estimate the impact of ellagic acid (EA towards healing tooth socket in diabetic animals, after tooth extraction. Methods. Twenty-four Sprague Dawley male rats weighing 250–300 g were selected for this study. All animals were intraperitoneally injected with 45 mg/kg (b.w. of freshly prepared streptozotocin (STZ, to induce diabetic mellitus. Then, the animals were anesthetized, and the upper left central incisor was extracted and the whole extracted sockets were filled with Rosuvastatin (RSV. The rats were separated into three groups, comprising 8 rats each. The first group was considered as normal control group and orally treated with normal saline. The second group was regarded as diabetic control group and orally treated with normal saline, whereas the third group comprised diabetic rats, administrated with EA (50 mg/kg orally. The maxilla tissue stained by eosin and hematoxylin (H&E was used for histological examinations and immunohistochemical technique. Fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2 and alkaline phosphatase (ALP were used to evaluate the healing process in the extracted tooth socket by immunohistochemistry test. Results. The reactions of immunohistochemistry for FGF-2 and ALP presented stronger expression, predominantly in EA treated diabetic rat, than the untreated diabetic rat. Conclusion. These findings suggest that the administration of EA combined with RSV may have accelerated the healing process of the tooth socket of diabetic rats, after tooth extraction.

  6. Colon Necrosis Due to Sodium Polystyrene Sulfonate with and without Sorbitol: An Experimental Study in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayoub, Isabelle; Oh, Man S; Gupta, Raavi; McFarlane, Michael; Babinska, Anna; Salifu, Moro O

    2015-01-01

    Based on a single rat study by Lillemoe et al, the consensus has been formed to implicate sorbitol rather than sodium polystyrene sulfonate (SPS) as the culprit for colon necrosis in humans treated with SPS and sorbitol. We tested the hypothesis that colon necrosis by sorbitol in the experiment was due to the high osmolality and volume of sorbitol rather than its chemical nature. 26 rats underwent 5/6 nephrectomy. They were divided into 6 groups and given enema solutions under anesthesia (normal saline, 33% sorbitol, 33% mannitol, SPS in 33% sorbitol, SPS in normal saline, and SPS in distilled water). They were sacrificed after 48 hours of enema administration or earlier if they were very sick. The gross appearance of the colon was visually inspected, and then sliced colon tissues were examined under light microscopy. 1 rat from the sorbitol and 1 from the mannitol group had foci of ischemic colonic changes. The rats receiving SPS enema, in sorbitol, normal saline, distilled water, had crystal deposition with colonic necrosis and mucosal erosion. All the rats not given SPS survived until sacrificed at 48 h whereas 11 of 13 rats that received SPS in sorbitol, normal saline or distilled water died or were clearly dying and sacrificed sooner. There was no difference between sorbitol and mannitol when given without SPS. In a surgical uremic rat model, SPS enema given alone or with sorbitol or mannitol seemed to cause colon necrosis and high mortality rate, whereas 33% sorbitol without SPS did not.

  7. Apomorphine and piribedil in rats: biochemical and pharmacologic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butterworth, R F; Poignant, J C; Barbeau, A

    1975-01-01

    We studied the biochemical and pharmacologic modes of action of piribedil and apomorphine in the rat. Although both drugs have many points in common, they are also different in many of their manifestations. Apomorphine causes high-intensity, short-duration stereotyped behavior; it is distributed within the brain in uneven fashion, the striatum being the area of lowest concentration as measured by fluorometry. Direct stereotactic injection within the dopaminergic mesolimbic system, and particularly the tuberculum olfactorium, produced constant intense responses. All effects of apomorphine can be blocked by pimozide, but propanolol, a beta blocker, only reduces aggression and ferocity, leaving stereotyped behaviors intact. Finally, L-5-HTP tends to reduce aggression, ferocity, and to a lesser extent stereotypy; MIF or piribedil, as well as reserpine, potentiates the stereotyped behaviors induced by apomorphine, whereas L-DOPA usually decreases them. Piribedil, on the other hand, causes low-intensity, long-duration stereotyped behavior. It is distributed within the brain almost uniformly. Most effects of piribedil can be blocked by pimozide, but propanolol blocks only aggression and ferocity, leaving stereotyped behaviors intact. On the other hand, clonidine, an alpha-receptor agonist, blocks stereotyped behaviors induced by piribedil but markedly increases aggression, ferocity, and motor activity. L-5-HTP and L-DOPA have little effect on piribedil-induced manifestations. Reserpine decreases piribedil stereotypy. The main metabolite of piribedil, S 584, had no clear-cut pharmacologic action in our hands at the dosage used. It is concluded that both apomorphine and piribedil produce stereotyped behavior by modifying the physiologic balance between mesolimbic and nigrostriatal dopaminergic systems. The other actions of apomorphine and piribedil upon aggression, ferocity, and motor activity are not always in parallel and depend probably on the fact that piribedil is less

  8. Studies on growth, nitrogen and energy metabolism in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorbek, G; Chwalibog, André; Eggum, B O

    1982-01-01

    Feed intake, growth, nitrogen retention and energy metabolism were measured in 12 male Wistar rats fed ad lib. for 14 weeks with non-purified diets. The feed intake increased rapidly in 4 weeks time from 16 g/d to 25 g/d, and then it was constant in the following 10 weeks. In relation to metabolic...

  9. The ovarian cycle in rats: a long term EEG study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luijtelaar, E.L.J.M. van; Budziszewska, B.; Jaworska-Feil, L.; Ellis, J.L.; Coenen, A.M.L.; Lason, W.; Kuznetsova, G.D.; Coenen, A.M.L.; Chepurnov, S.A.; Luijtelaar, E.L.J.M. van

    2000-01-01

    Rats of the WAG/Rij strain are considered as a genetic model for generalised absence epilepsy. The relationship between the phase of the estrous cycle and the number of spontaneously occurring spike-wave discharges (SWDs) was investigated during the 4 days of the cycle. Vaginal smears were daily

  10. Subchronic Inhalation Toxicity Study of n-pentane in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Kyu Kim

    2012-09-01

    Conclusion: The no-observable-adverse-effect level (NOAEL of n-pentane is evaluated as being more than 6,885 ppm (20.3 mg/L in both male and female rats. n-pentane was not a classified specific target organ toxicity in the globally harmonized classification system (GHS.

  11. Toxicity studies in rats fed nature cure bitters | Aniagu | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Graded doses of Nature Cure Bitters (NCB) were administered daily (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg p.o) to rats for 28 days and the effects on body weight, organ weight, clinical signs, gross pathology, haematology, histology and serum biochemical parameters were evaluated. The relative weights of the heart, liver and testes of ...

  12. The Presence Of Rat And House Sanitation Associated With Leptospira sp. Bacterial Infection In Rats (A Cross Sectional Study In Semarang, Central Java Province, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setiyani Endang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The Gajah Mungkur sub-district in Semarang, Indonesia had highest leptospirosis cases (reported in human with seven infected and one dead in 2015. The purpose of this study was to analyze the association between house sanitation and density of rats with Leptospira sp. infection in rats. The study design was cross sectional observational analytic. The number of 308 trapswere placed in study sites over three consecutive nights afterwards. Every houses were placed with four traps, inside and outside. Trapped rats were anesthetized with atropine dose from 0.02 to 0.05 mg/kg body weight of rats continued with Ketamine HCL dose of 50-100 mg/kg body weight of rats by injecting in the thick thigh muscle of it. After that, identification of rats by species and gender then continues with surgery in which a kidney sample was taken to confirm the presence of bacteria Leptospirasp using PCR techniques. The trap installed in 77 houses which later had further observation on house sanitation which includes the existence of a pile of used goods, food storage, garbage can, and the presence of the ceiling, windows and other ventilation.Data was analyzed using distribution frequency and bivariate chi-square test. We had 100 rats captured with live traps as the samples.The proportion of Rattusnorvegicuswas 27% (14.8% positive Leptospira sp.infection and Rattustanezumi 73% (11%positive Leptospira sp.infection. The proportion of male and female rats were almost equal. The statistic test result was significant between the density of rats (p = 0.0001, OR 12.833, 95%CI: 1.565-105.261 and sex of rats (p = 0.019, OR 0.095, 95%CI: 0.012–0.769 with Leptospira sp. infection in rats. The number of rats may increase the infection of Leptospirasp., especially female rats and poor condition of house sanitation. It is recommended to improve house sanitation and regularly trapping rats.

  13. Multidimensional study of orofacial chronic neuropathic pain: An experimental study in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Daniela Montes-Angeles

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Orofacial neuropathic chronic pain (NCP is frequently attributed to lesions caused by orofacial surgeries and dental treatments. There are many experimental models available to study orofacial NCP, however, many are extremely painful for the animal due to the amplitude of the innervated region. A previously proposed mental nerve constriction model, mNC, was used in this project. Forty Wistar rats were randomly divided into two groups: one group included rats with mNC (n=20, and another rats with sham lesions (n=20. Through the use of the fixed ratio program and the progressive program, a decrease of motivation for a sweet substance, caused by the lesion, was evaluated. The possibility of alterations in cognitive learning and adaptation abilities was also assessed using the go/no-go behavioral task. The mNC group showed low induced and spontaneously evoked pain responses, as well as a decrease in the motivation for sucrose, a sign of anhedonia. This decrease does not depend on taste processing. Finally, although no alterations in the learning-memory process were observed, the mNC group did show alterations when adapting to a new rule.

  14. Development of the rat larynx: a histological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alli, Opeyemi; Berzofsky, Craig; Sharma, Sansar; Pitman, Michael J

    2013-12-01

    To evaluate and describe the cartilaginous and muscular development of the rat larynx. Histologic evaluation. The larynges of Sprague Dawley rats of embryonic day (E) 13, 15, 17, 19, 21, postnatal day 0, 14, and adult of 250 gm were collected. Four larynges of each age were harvested, cut into 15-μm serial sections, stained with hematoxylin and eosin, and evaluated under light microscopy. Representative digital images were recorded and evaluated at the preglottic (supraglottic in humans), glottic, and postglottic (subglottic in humans) levels. Brachial arches were observed at E13. At E17, immature structures of the larynx, including skeletal muscle, cartilage, and the lumen were identifiable. Chondrification and muscle formation were clearly seen by E19. The muscular and cartilagenous components of the larynx were well established by E21. During the span between birth and adult maturation, the size of the larynx increased from a height of 1.10 mm to 2.90 mm, and from a width of 1.80 mm to 5.40 mm, and from a length of 1.38 mm to 4.77 mm in the stained section. Although developed at E21, the laryngeal structures continued to grow by approximately 30%. Rat laryngeal development parallels that in mice and humans. In the rat, at E17 immature structures of the larynx are identifiable, they are well developed at birth and grow by approximately 30% into adulthood. Understanding the chronology and morphology of the embryogenesis of the rat laryngeal musculature is essential and will allow for further evaluation of the embryologic innervation of these muscles. Copyright © 2013 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  15. Toxicology and carcinogenesis studies of dipropylene glycol in rats and mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooth, Michelle J; Herbert, Ronald A; Haseman, Joseph K; Orzech, Denise P; Johnson, Jerry D; Bucher, John R

    2004-11-15

    Dipropylene glycol (DPG) is a component of many commercial products such as antifreeze, air fresheners, cosmetic products, solvents, and plastics. Male and female F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice were exposed to DPG in the drinking water for 2 weeks, 3 months, or 2 years. In the 2-week and 3-month studies, rats and mice were exposed to 0, 5000, 10,000, 20,000, 40,000, or 80,000 ppm DPG. There was no mortality in the 2-week studies. In the 3-month rat study, all animals survived to the end of the study. Liver weights of rats exposed to 10,000 ppm or greater and kidney weights of rats exposed to 40,000 and 80,000 ppm were greater than those of the controls. The incidences of liver and kidney lesions were significantly increased in males exposed to 20,000 ppm or greater and females exposed to 80,000 ppm. Focal olfactory epithelial degeneration was present in all rats exposed to 80,000 ppm. In males, the incidences of testicular atrophy, epididymal hypospermia, and preputial gland atrophy were significantly increased in the 80,000 ppm group. In the 3-month mouse study, three males and one female exposed to 80,000 ppm died. Liver weights were increased, as was the incidence of centrilobular hypertrophy in males exposed to 40,000 ppm and males and females exposed to 80,000 ppm. In the 2-year studies, exposure groups were 0, 2500 (rats only), 10,000, 20,000 (mice only) or 40,000 ppm DPG. Survival of male rats exposed to 40,000 ppm and mean body weights of males and females exposed to 40,000 ppm were significantly less than controls. In male rats, exposure to DPG resulted in increased incidences and severities of nephropathy and secondary lesions in the parathyroid and forestomach. Increased incidences of focal histiocytic and focal granulomatous inflammation of the liver were also observed. In male and female rats, there were increased incidences of bile duct hyperplasia and changes in the olfactory epithelium of the nose. In mice, survival of males and females was similar to

  16. Study of a bridge-like bone transplantation in the mandible of rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Aizo

    1979-01-01

    A bridge-like bone transplantation using fresh auto-ribs was performed in the mandibles of 161 female rats (Donryu strain, weight 130 g) previously irradiated by means of a betatron (group B, 1000 rad; group C, 2000 rad; group D, 3000 rad). Formation of a bridge-like bone in the transplanted region was studied morphologically and the results were compared with those obtained from non-treated rats (nonirradiated and non-transplanted rats, 5), irradiated and non-transplanted rats (36), and control rats (group A: nonirradiated and transplanted rats, 30) on the 7th, 21st, 35th 49th, 63rd and 90th postoperative days (5 rats per day, totaling 90). All the rats had a favorable prognosis without suppuration or exclusion. In groups B, C, and D, depilation was noted on the skin of the mandible. In group D, incisor teeth were shorter, resulting in abnormal occlusion. Disappearance of reactive inflammation, formation of granulation tissues, resorption of transplanted bone, and new growth of bone appeared later in groups C and D than in groups A and B. New growth of bone in the recipient's was remarkably less in groups C and D than in groups A and B. Formation of a bridge-like bone was observed in all the rats in groups A and B after the 35th postoperative day. However, in groups C and D, new growth of bone from the base of the bridge was small and did not connect with the transplanted bone even on the 90th postoperative day. Consequently, a bridge-like bone was not formed. On every observation day, findings in group A were similar to those in group B, and those in group C were similar to those in group D. Irradiation with 2000 rad or 3000 rad had an effect on formation of a bridge-like bone, but irradiation with 1000 rad had no effect. (Ueda, J.)

  17. Food Neophobia in Wild Rats (Rattus norvegicus Inhabiting a Changeable Environment-A Field Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaudia Modlinska

    Full Text Available Food neophobia is a reaction to novel food observed in many animal species, particularly omnivores, including Rattus norvegicus. A neophobic reaction is typically characterised by avoidance of novel food and the necessity to assess both its potential value and toxicity by the animal. It has been hypothesised that this reaction is not observed in rats inhabiting a changeable environment with a high level of variability with regard to food and food sources. This study was conducted in such changeable conditions and it aims to demonstrate the behaviour of wild rats R. norvegicus in their natural habitat. The rats were studied in a farm setting, and the experimental arena was demarcated by a specially constructed pen which was freely accessible to the rats. At regular intervals, the rats were given new flavour- and smell-altered foods, while their behaviour was video-recorded. The results obtained in the study seem to confirm the hypothesis that rats inhabiting a highly changeable environment do not exhibit food neophobia. The observed reaction to novel food may be connected with a reaction to a novel object to a larger extent than to food neophobia. The value of the results obtained lies primarily in the fact that the study was conducted in the animals' natural habitat, and that it investigated their spontaneous behaviours.

  18. Studies on estradiol-2/4-hydroxylase activity in rat brain and liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theron, C.N.

    1985-03-01

    A sensitive and specific radio-enzymatic assay was used to study estradiol-2/4-hydroxylase activity in rat liver microsomes and in microsomes obtained from 6 discrete brain areas of the rat. Kinetic parameters were determined for these enzyme activities. The effects of different P-450 inhibitors on estradiol-2/4-hydroxylase activity in brain and liver microsomes were also studied. In both organs these enzyme activities were found to be located mainly in the microsomal fraction and were inhibited by the 3 P-450 inhibitors tested. The hepatic estradiol-2/4-hydroxylase activity in adult male rats was significantly higher than that of females, but the enzyme activity in the brain did not exhibit a similar sex difference. Furthermore, estradiol-2/4-hydroxylase activity in rat liver was strongly induced by phenobarbitone treatment, but not in the brain. The phenobarbitone-induced activity in male and female rats exhibited significant kinetic differences. In female rats sexual maturation was associated with significant changes in the apparent Km of estradiol-2/4-hydroxylases in the liver and hypothalamus. Evidence was found that the in vitro estradiol-2/4-hydroxylase activity in rat brain and liver is due to more than one form of microsomal P-450. Kinetic studies showed important differences between the estradiol-2/4-hydroxylase activities in the hippocampus and hypothalamus. Significant differences in estradiol-2/4-hydroxylase activities were observed in the 6 brain areas studied, with the hippocampus showing the highest, and the hypothalamus the lowest activity at all developmental stages in both male and female rats

  19. Immunohistochemical study on the fetal rat pituitary in hyperthermia-induced exencephaly

    OpenAIRE

    Watanabe, Yuichi G.; 渡辺, 勇一

    2002-01-01

    Hyperthermia of fetal rats is known to cause malformations of various organs including brain. The present study was carried out to investigate the effect of the hyperthermia-induced brain damages on the development of the adenohypophysis. Mother rats of Day 9.5 of pregnancy were anesthetized and immersed in hot water (43℃) for 15 min. At Day 21.5 of gestation, fetuses were removed by caesarian section and examined for exencephaly. Hyperthermal stress induced varying degrees of exencephaly in ...

  20. Immunohistochemical Study on the Fetal Rat Pituitary in Hyperthermia-lnduced Exencephaly(Endocrinology)

    OpenAIRE

    Yuichi G., Watanabe; Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Niigata University

    2002-01-01

    Hyperthermia of fetal rats is known to cause malformations of various organs including brain. The present study was carried out to investigate the effect of the hyperthermia-induced brain damages on the development of the adenohypophysis. Mother rats of Day 9.5 of pregnancy were anesthetized and immersed in hot water (43℃) for 15 min. At Day 21.5 of gestation, fetuses were removed by caesarian section and examined for exencephaly. Hyperthermal stress induced varying degrees of exencephaly in ...

  1. Pulmonary Complications of Gastric Fluid and Bile Salts Aspiration, an Experimental Study in Rat

    OpenAIRE

    Samareh Fekri, Mitra; Poursalehi, Hamid Reza; Najafipour, Hamid; Dabiri, Shahriar; Shokoohi, Mostafa; Siahposht Khacheki, Ali; Shahrokhi, Nader; Malekpour Afshar, Reza; Lashkarizadeh, Mohammad Reza

    2013-01-01

    Objective(s): Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD) is one of the most common digestive disorders that frequently lead to pulmonary complications due to gastric fluid aspiration. In the present experimental study, chronic aspiration of gastric fluid, its components and bile salts in rat lung was performed to find out the main factor(s) causing pulmonary complications of gastric fluid aspiration. Materials and Methods: Forty eight male rats weighted 250-300 g were selected in six groups. Afte...

  2. Effect of Sodium Cyclamate on the Rat Fetal Exocrine Pancreas: a Karyometric and Stereological Study

    OpenAIRE

    MARTINS, Alex Tadeu; SANTOS, Fabiano de Sant`Ana dos; SCANNAVINO, Fabio Luiz Ferreira; PIRES, Juliana Rico; ZUZA, Elizangela Partata; PADOVANI JUNIOR, Joao Armando; AZOUBEL, Reinaldo; MATEO, Miguel Angel Sala Di; LOPES, Ruberval Armando

    2010-01-01

    The cyclamate, a sweetner substance derived from N-cyclo-hexyl-sulfamic acid, is largely utilized as a non-caloric artificial edulcorant in foods and beverages as well as in the pharmaceutical industry. The objective of this study was to evaluate karyometric and stereological alterations in the rat fetal pancreas resulting from the intraperitoneal administration of sodium cyclamate. The exocrine pancreas of ten fetuses of rats were evaluated, five treated and five controls chosen at random, i...

  3. Exploratory studies of some Mexican medicinal plants. Cardiovascular effects in rats with and without hypertension.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gil Alfonso Magos-Guerrero

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Papaveraceae Argemone mexicana L., Burseraceae Bursera simaruba (L. Sarg., Acanthaceae Justicia spicigera Schltdl. and Selaginellaceae Selaginella lepidophylla (Hook. & Grev. Spring., have been used in Mexican traditional medicine to treat hypertension. The objective of this study was to further characterize the cardiovascular effects of the methanol extracts of such plants. Methods: The medicinal plants were collected and taxonomically identified; the methanol extract of each explored plant were administrated to conscious and unconscious male Wistar rats with and without glucose induced hypertension. The blood pressure and heart rate were evaluated before and after the extract administration. Vascular reactivity experiments were conducted in rat aortic rings obtained from rats with and without sugar induced hypertension, a model widely used to study such effects with cardiovascular agents. Results: After oral administration in normotensive conscious rats all tested extracts decreased the heart rate, such effect was only observed in hypertensive conscious rats after the administration of B. simaruba; only A. mexicana and B. simaruba decreased the blood pressure after oral administration. All extracts administrated by intravenous injection diminished the mean arterial pressure. Dose response curves to cumulative concentrations of all the extracts promote vascular relaxation in precontracted aortas from rats with and without sugar induced hypertension. Conclusions: The present study indicated that B. simaruba is worthy of further investigation as a potential phytotherapeutic agent for treating hypertension. [J Complement Med Res 2017; 6(3.000: 274-279

  4. An animal model to study lower urinary tract symptoms and erectile dysfunction: the hyperlipidaemic rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Nadeem U; Phonsombat, Surat; Bochinski, Derek; Carrion, Rafael E; Nunes, Lora; Lue, Tom F

    2007-09-01

    To present evidence that rats fed a high-fat diet could serve as a useful animal model to study both lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) and erectile dysfunction (ED), as recent epidemiological studies have shown a strong association between LUTS and ED but the physiological basis behind this relationship is unknown. In all, 24 male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into two groups: nine controls were fed a 'normal' diet and 15 were fed a high-fat diet (hyperlipidaemic rats). After 6 months all the rats had bladder and erectile functions evaluated using awake cystometry and cavernosal nerve electrostimulation, respectively. After the functional studies were completed, the penis, prostate and bladder were collected for immunohistochemical analysis. The hyperlipidaemic rats had significantly higher serum cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein than the controls (P enlargement, bladder overactivity, and ED. This rat model could be a useful research tool for understanding the common causes of LUTS and ED, as well as facilitating the development of preventive measures and better therapies to treat both conditions.

  5. Characterization of SV-40 Tag rats as a model to study prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harper, Curt E; Patel, Brijesh B; Cook, Leah M; Wang, Jun; Shirai, Tomoyuki; Eltoum, Isam A; Lamartiniere, Coral A

    2009-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the second most frequently diagnosed cancer in men. Animal models that closely mimic clinical disease in humans are invaluable tools in the fight against prostate cancer. Recently, a Simian Virus-40 T-antigen (SV-40 Tag) targeted probasin promoter rat model was developed. This model, however, has not been extensively characterized; hence we have investigated the ontogeny of prostate cancer and determined the role of sex steroid receptor and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) signaling proteins in the novel SV-40 Tag rat. The SV-40 Tag rat was histopathologically characterized for time to tumor development, incidence and multiplicity and in the ventral, dorsal, lateral and anterior lobes of the prostate. Immunoassay techniques were employed to measure cell proliferation, apoptosis, and sex steroid receptor and growth factor signaling-related proteins. Steroid hormone concentrations were measured via coated well enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits. Prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) and well-differentiated prostate cancer developed as early as 2 and 10 weeks of age, respectively in the ventral prostate (VP) followed by in the dorsolateral (DLP). At 8 weeks of age, testosterone and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) concentrations in SV-40 Tag rats were increased when compared to non-transgenic rats. High cell proliferation and apoptotic indices were found in VP and DLP of transgenic rats. Furthermore, we observed increased protein expression of androgen receptor, IGF-1, IGF-1 receptor, and extracellular signal-regulated kinases in the prostates of SV-40 Tag rats. The rapid development of PIN and prostate cancer in conjunction with the large prostate size makes the SV-40 Tag rat a useful model for studying prostate cancer. This study provides evidence of the role of sex steroid and growth factor proteins in prostate cancer development and defines appropriate windows of opportunity for preclinical trials and aids in the rational design of

  6. Modeling CICR in rat ventricular myocytes: voltage clamp studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palade Philip T

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The past thirty-five years have seen an intense search for the molecular mechanisms underlying calcium-induced calcium-release (CICR in cardiac myocytes, with voltage clamp (VC studies being the leading tool employed. Several VC protocols including lowering of extracellular calcium to affect Ca2+ loading of the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR, and administration of blockers caffeine and thapsigargin have been utilized to probe the phenomena surrounding SR Ca2+ release. Here, we develop a deterministic mathematical model of a rat ventricular myocyte under VC conditions, to better understand mechanisms underlying the response of an isolated cell to calcium perturbation. Motivation for the study was to pinpoint key control variables influencing CICR and examine the role of CICR in the context of a physiological control system regulating cytosolic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]myo. Methods The cell model consists of an electrical-equivalent model for the cell membrane and a fluid-compartment model describing the flux of ionic species between the extracellular and several intracellular compartments (cell cytosol, SR and the dyadic coupling unit (DCU, in which resides the mechanistic basis of CICR. The DCU is described as a controller-actuator mechanism, internally stabilized by negative feedback control of the unit's two diametrically-opposed Ca2+ channels (trigger-channel and release-channel. It releases Ca2+ flux into the cyto-plasm and is in turn enclosed within a negative feedback loop involving the SERCA pump, regulating[Ca2+]myo. Results Our model reproduces measured VC data published by several laboratories, and generates graded Ca2+ release at high Ca2+ gain in a homeostatically-controlled environment where [Ca2+]myo is precisely regulated. We elucidate the importance of the DCU elements in this process, particularly the role of the ryanodine receptor in controlling SR Ca2+ release, its activation by trigger Ca2+, and its

  7. Histometric study of socket healing after tooth extraction in rats treated with diclofenac

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yugoshi Luciana Ibara

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to investigate if diclofenac administration interferes with the time course of alveolar wound healing in rats. Forty-two Wistar rats were used, 21 rats received 10 mg/kg/day of diclofenac one day before and 4 days after extraction of the right maxillary incisors and 21 rats received saline. The animals were sacrificed 7, 14 and 21 days after tooth extraction. Progressive new bone formation and a decrease in the volume fraction of blood clot and connective tissue from 1 to 3 weeks after tooth extraction was quantified using the histometric point-counting method. Diclofenac treatment caused a significant delay in new bone formation in association with an impairment of blood clot remission/organization.

  8. Experimental study of Triglii semen(巴豆 on the blood in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dae-Hyun Kim

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to Experimental study effects of 「Triglii Semen」on the blood in Rats , we have made rats by administering Animal control chamber for two weeks, then have administered. The results were summerized as follows: 1. The total cholesterol, triglyceride and Hct, Hb by generally rats oral ingestion by Triglii semen of the sample group were decreased as compared with those of the control group. 2. GOT, GPT by generally rats oral ingestion were increased as compared those of control group. According to the above results, Triglii Semen showed inhibition on decrease of serum total cholesterol and Hb, Hct, WBC, RBC contents as well as inhibition on increase of GOT, GPT.

  9. Study of the biochemical indicators of chronic irradiation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabo, L D; Benko, A B; Gyenge, L; Predmerszky, T

    1976-01-01

    Daily urinary excretion of pseudouridine, creatinine and creatine of chronically irradiated Wistar rats was estimated. The irradiation conditions were: 60Co gamma source, dose-rate 10 rad/day, total dose 200, 400 and 600 rad. Control groups were kept under similar conditions. Urine samples were taken three times after the end of the irradiation period. It was found that: (1) pseudouridine excretion seems more suitable for indicating radiation injury than the creatine/creatinine ratio in chronic irradiation in rats; (ii) there are significant changes in dose dependence of pseudouridine excretion in the post-irradiation period; (iii) a new method for pseudouridine estimation gives closely similar data to those of earlier investigations.

  10. Microinjection study on potassium transport of rat kidney

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyamoto, Makoto

    1978-01-01

    Wister rate were divided into the following four groups. (A) control group (B) high-potassium diet group (C) low-potassium diet group (D) nephron population reduction (N.P.R.) group. Microinjection of the artificial solutions containing both 86 Rb and 3 H-inulin were performed into the proximal and distal convoluted tubules as well as cortical peritubular capillaries in rats undergoing mannitol diuresis. Excretory patterns of these substances were analyzed in successive urine samples. 3 H-inulin is entirely recovered in the urine of the experimental kidney following the injection into the proximal and distal tubules. 86 Rb is an adequate tracer for potassium and is absorbed into the potassium pool from either proximal tubular injections or peritubular capillaries. 86 Rb excreted with a time course similar to that of 3 H-inulin is termed as 'direct recovery' and that excreted more slowly, 'delayed recovery'. The 86 Rb recoveries which were obtained after proximal injections were independent of the injection site and averaged 9%. Secretion of 86 Rb into the urine was stimulate during enhanced K secretion and decreased during reduced K secretion along the distal nephron. Distal tubular injections gave 100% direct recovery in control, high-K diet, and N.P.R. rats. It was apparent that the 86 Rb recovery was significantly reduced, although not delayed, in animals deprived of dietary potassium for several weeks. At the collecting duct, the extensive net potassium reabsorption is observed in potassium depleted rats, whereas K absorption might be reduced or even secretion is seemingly taking place in potassium loading rats. In conclution, distal convolution and collecting duct play the major role in the regulation of urinary potassium excretion. (auth.)

  11. Studies On Some Fetal Rat Organs Following Maternal Hyperthermia

    OpenAIRE

    El Shabaka, H. A. [حمزة احمد الشبكة

    1993-01-01

    The present investigation was carried out to determine the histological changes in brain, liver and kidneys of rat fetuses maternally heatstressed at early stage of pregnancy to either high "spiking" temperature of short duration or low temperature of long duration. The number of viable fetuses as well as the fetal weight of the heatstressed groups was significantly reduced compared with corresponding controls. Edema and microphthalmia are the only malformations detected among the viable 18 d...

  12. Reference genes for normalization: A study of rat brain tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonefeld, Birgit; Elfving, Betina; Wegener, Gregers

    2008-01-01

    are warranted. With the overall aim to inspect the gene expression of three target genes, NMDAR1, SORT, and CREB, in rat hippocampus, we tested a panel of eight HKGs, 18s rRNA, ActB, CycA, Gapd, Hmbs, Hprt1, Rpl13A, and Ywhaz in order to select the most stably expressed gene, using the NormFinder and ge...

  13. Comparative studies of D2 receptors and cerebral blood flow in hemi-Parkinsonism rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Yansong; Lin Xiangtong

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To study the relationship between dopamine D 2 receptors and cerebral blood flow in hemi-Parkinsonism rats. Methods: Hemi-Parkinsonism rats were made by stereotaxic 6-hydroxy dopamine (6-OH-DA) lesions in substantia nigra and ventral tegmental area, apomorphine (Apo) which could induce the successful model rat to rotate toward the intact side was used to select the rat models, 125 I-IBZM in vivo autoradiography and 99 Tc m -HMPAO regional cerebral biodistribution analysis were used to study D 2 receptors and cerebral blood flow. The HPLC-ECD was used to measure striatum DA and its metabolite content . Results: the lesioned side striatum DA and its metabolites homovanillic acid (HVA) 3,4-dihyroxy-phenylacetic acid (DOPAC) reduced significantly than that of the intact side and pseudo-operated group, striatum/cerebellum 125 I-IBZM uptake ratio was 8.04 +- 0.71 in lesioned side of hemi-Parkinsonism rats, significantly increased compared with the intact side and the pseudo-operated group (P 0.05). Conclusions: the 6-OH-DA lesioned side DA content decreased significantly and thus induced a compensative up-regulation of striatum D 2 receptor binding sites in hemi-Parkinsonism rats, which show good correlation with rotation behavior induced by Apo. Comparing with cerebral blood flow, D 2 receptor reflected by IBZM seems to be more specific and earlier to detect the cerebral functional impairment in experimental hemi-Parkinsonism

  14. An experimental study on choroidal neovascularization induced by Krypton laser in rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Jing; Liu, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Jingkai; Yan, Hua

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to study the efficacy and safety of choroidal neovascularization (CNV) formation induced by Krypton laser in Brown Norway (BN) rats, and observe the trend of the change of CNV after laser photocoagulation. Twenty-five male BN rats were involved in this study. Two eyes of one rat without any laser photocoagulation were randomly selected as the control group, and the other 48 eyes of 24 rats were selected as the experimental group. Eight eyes of four rats were randomly selected to receive the examinations of fundus fluorescein angiography (FFA), histopathology, and transmission electron microscopy 3, 7, 14, 21, 28, and 56 days after laser photocoagulation. After laser photocoagulation, the leakage appeared in burns on day 7 (59%), reached the peak on day 21 (84%), (p0.05). The thickness of CNV increased from day 7 to day 21 (p0.05). The experimental model of CNV can be successfully induced by Krypton laser in rats with a stable, long-lasting, and high success rate. After laser photocoagulation, the leakages appear on day 7, reach the peak on day 21, and remain stable after day 21.

  15. Study on 41Ca-AMS for diagnosis and assessment of cancer bone metastasis in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Hongtao; Pang, Fangfang; Jiang, Shan; He, Ming; Dong, Kejun; Dou, Liang; Pang, Yijun; Yang, Xianlin; Ruan, Xiangdong; Liu, Manjun; Xia, Chunbo

    2015-01-01

    The annual incidence of new cancer patients in China is about 2 million, 30–40% of which will end up with bone metastasis. Profound study on the preclinical model and early diagnosis of cancer bone metastasis in rats are very significant for the drug development, better understanding and treatment of bone metastases. In order to monitor the process of bone metabolism and early detection of bone metastasis of cancer cells, a technique of 41 Ca isotope tracer combined with AMS has been developed and applied in the study on the bone metastasis of cancer cells by rat model. In this work, 3-month-old female Sprague–Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into different groups, and tumor cells injected respectively into the tail vein, femoral artery, femoral cavity and the thigh muscle to establish the rat models for bone metastases. The most appropriate model, i.e., the thigh muscle group, was finally adopted in our real metastases experiment. Each rat in this group was intramuscularly (i.m.) injected with 250 μl CaCl 2 solution (containing 1.4 mg Ca and 5nCi 41 Ca). About 40 days later, the rat mammary gland carcinoma cells (Walker 256) were injected into these rats following the established protocol. After bone metastasis, medicine interventions were performed. The sequential urine and blood samples were collected and analyzed for 41 Ca (by AMS) and N-terminal telopeptide (Ntx), respectively. Bone Mineral Density (BMD) values in the femur and the tibia were measured by CT scan. The results of 41 Ca/Ca in longitudinal urinary samples can sensitively reveal the skeletal perturbations caused by bone metastasis of rats, suggests that 41 Ca might be similarly developed for human use and improve clinical management through the assessment of the curative effect and non-invasive detection of the earliest stages of cancer growth in bone.

  16. Antioxidants as recipes for efavirenz-induced liver damage: A study in albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elias Adikwu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Hepatotoxicity is a clinical challenge associated with the use of efavirenz (EFV. This study investigated the effects of n-acetylcysteine (NAC, vitamins C and E on EFV-induced hepatotoxicity in albino rats. Methods: Rats were divided into groups and administered with NAC (20mg/kg, Vit C (50mg/kg, Vit  E (50mg/kg, Vit C+ E and 60mg/kg of EFV respectively. Rats were also divided into groups and pretreated with NAC, Vit C, E, and combined doses of Vit C+E prior to treatment with EFV for 15 days respectively. After drug administration rats were sacrificed and serum was collected and evaluated for liver function parameters. Rats were dissected, liver was collected weighed and evaluated for alkaline phosphatase (ALP, alanine aminotransferase (AST, aspartate aminotransferase (ALT, gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, malondialdehyde (MDA, super oxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, glutathione (GSH, gluthatione peroxidase (GPX levels and pathological damage. Results: Effects were not significant (p>0.05 on body and liver weights, however, the levels of AST, ALT, AST, GGT, LDH, CB, TB and MDA were increased significantly (p<0.05 whereas SOD, CAT, SOD, GSH and GPX were decreased significantly (p<0.05 in EFV-treated rats in comparison to control. The liver of EFV-treated rats showed necrosis of hepatocytes. Nevertheless, EFV-induced alterations in the above parameters were significantly (p<0.05 ameliorated in antioxidants pretreated rats.  The combined doses of Vit C and E produced the best and significant (p<0.05 ameliorative effects in comparison to their individual doses. Conclusion: This study shows the prospects of antioxidants as candidates for the treatments of efavirenz-induced hepatotoxicity.

  17. [Study on feeding behavior patterns of rats on cariogenic diet].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Y

    1989-03-01

    The feeding behavior patterns of Jcl:Wistar rats fed on commercial stock diet and cariogenic diet (Diet #2000) were investigated with the newly developed autorecording system. They were caged separately under a regular light-dark cycle (L:D = 12:12). The results and conclusion were as follows. All rats have a circadian feeding rhythm, and 70-85% of feeding frequency were observed during the dark period. The group on the commercial stock diet showed a dual-peak pattern of feeding at 20:30 and 4:00. On the other hand, the cariogenic diet groups showed a more frequent feeding pattern during the dark period. The feeding frequency increased from 1:00 to 3:00 in the high sucrose diet group and more frequent feeding was observed. From these results, it was suggested that dental caries in the rats was caused by not only the local effect of sucrose in the mouth but also by the changing patterns of feeding behavior with cariogenic diet.

  18. Neuromyelitis optica study model based on chronic infusion of autoantibodies in rat cerebrospinal fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marignier, R; Ruiz, A; Cavagna, S; Nicole, A; Watrin, C; Touret, M; Parrot, S; Malleret, G; Peyron, C; Benetollo, C; Auvergnon, N; Vukusic, S; Giraudon, P

    2016-05-18

    Devic's neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is an autoimmune astrocytopathy, associated with central nervous system inflammation, demyelination, and neuronal injury. Several studies confirmed that autoantibodies directed against aquaporin-4 (AQP4-IgG) are relevant in the pathogenesis of NMO, mainly through complement-dependent toxicity leading to astrocyte death. However, the effect of the autoantibody per se and the exact role of intrathecal AQP4-IgG are still controversial. To explore the intrinsic effect of intrathecal AQP4-IgG, independent from additional inflammatory effector mechanisms, and to evaluate its clinical impact, we developed a new animal model, based on a prolonged infusion of purified immunoglobulins from NMO patient (IgG(AQP4+), NMO-rat) and healthy individual as control (Control-rat) in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of live rats. We showed that CSF infusion of purified immunoglobulins led to diffusion in the brain, spinal cord, and optic nerves, the targeted structures in NMO. This was associated with astrocyte alteration in NMO-rats characterized by loss of aquaporin-4 expression in the spinal cord and the optic nerves compared to the Control-rats (p = 0.001 and p = 0.02, respectively). In addition, glutamate uptake tested on vigil rats was dramatically reduced in NMO-rats (p = 0.001) suggesting that astrocytopathy occurred in response to AQP4-IgG diffusion. In parallel, myelin was altered, as shown by the decrease of myelin basic protein staining by up to 46 and 22 % in the gray and white matter of the NMO-rats spinal cord, respectively (p = 0.03). Loss of neurofilament positive axons in NMO-rats (p = 0.003) revealed alteration of axonal integrity. Then, we investigated the clinical consequences of such alterations on the motor behavior of the NMO-rats. In a rotarod test, NMO-rats performance was lower compared to the controls (p = 0.0182). AQP4 expression, and myelin and axonal integrity were preserved in AQP4-Ig

  19. A comparative study of the anorectic and behavioral effects of fenproporex on male and female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattei, R; Carlini, E A

    1996-08-01

    The anorectic and behavioral effects of fenproporex (Fenp, 10 mg/kg, ip) and methamphetamine (Met, 2.5 mg/kg, ip), a prototypical example of an amphetamine-like drug, were studied in male and female Wistar rats (5 and 3 months of age, respectively, at the beginning of the experiments) after acute (immediately after a single dose) or chronic treatment (after 60 days of administration). For the evaluation of the experimental parameters six groups of eight rats each were utilized for food intake and stereotyped behavior and six groups of nine rats each for body weight and motor activity. Similar anorectic effects (decreased food intake in grams: saline (Sal): 12.8 +/- 2.5, Met: 4.7 +/- 4.0, and Fenp: 4.4 +/- 20; decreased weight gain: Sal: 38 +/- 10, Met: 25 +/- 1.0, and Fenp: 27 +/- 3.0) were induced by both drugs in male rats. Female rats, however, required larger doses (20 mg/kg Fenp and 5.0 mg/kg Met) for a complete blockade of food intake. The behavioral tests were carried out 30, 60, 120, 180 and 300 min after drug administration and on day 1 and day 60 immediately after the treatment, for stereotypy and motor activity, respectively (male rats: Met: 3.8 +/- 0.3, Fenp: 6.0 +/- 0.9, and female rats: Met: 15.4 +/- 1.9, Fenp: 9.7 +/- 1.3). Though stereotyped behavior such as sniffing, continuous licking, and false bites was observed in all animals, this was more evident and prolonged in female rats. Both drugs also increased motor activity (male rats, acute treatment: Met: 608 +/- 419, Fenp: 677 +/- 354; chronic treatment: Met: 701 +/- 423, Fenp: 908 +/- 479; female rats, acute treatment: Met: 817 +/- 350, Fenp: 1177 +/- 282; chronic treatment: Met: 623 +/- 274, Fenp: 1511 +/- 573) with female rats once again showing greater sensitivity both after acute and chronic treatment. Our data indicate that fenproporex, like methamphetamine, has a stimulating effect on the central nervous system, indicating an action on the dopaminergic systems. These data further suggest

  20. Influence of corticoids on healing of the rotator cuff of rats – biomechanical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Dau

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective:To compare healing strength of the infraspinatus tendon of rats with corticoid inoculation, regarding maximum tension, maximum force and rupture force, after injury and experimental repair.Methods:A total of 60 Wistar rats were subjected to tenotomy of the infraspinatus tendon, which was then sutured. Before the surgery, they were divided into a control group (C inoculated with serum and a study group (S inoculated with corticoids over the tendon. After repair, the rats were sacrificed in groups of 10 individuals in the control group and 10 in the study group at the times of one week (C1 and S1, three weeks (C3 and S3 and five weeks (C5 and S5. The rats were dissected, separating out the infraspinatus tendon with the humerus. The study specimens were subjected to a traction test, with evaluation of the maximum tension (kgf/cm2, maximum force (kgf and rupture force (kgf, comparing the study group with the respective control groups.Results:Among the rats sacrificed one week after the procedure, we observed greater maximum tension in group C1 than in group S1. The variables of maximum force (kgf and rupture force did not differ statistically between the groups investigated. In the same way, among the rats sacrificed three weeks after the procedure, group C3 only showed greater maximum tension than group S3 (p = 0.007, and the other variables did not present differences. Among the rats sacrificed five weeks after the procedure (C5 and S5, none of the parameters studied presented statistical differences.Conclusion:We concluded that corticoid diminished the resistance to maximum tension in the groups sacrificed one and three weeks after the procedure, in comparison with the respective control groups. The other parameters did not show differences between the study and control groups.

  1. Low-level inhaled-239PuO2 life-span studies in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanders, C.L.; McDonald, K.E.; Killand, B.W.; Mahaffey, J.A.; Cannon, W.C.

    1986-01-01

    This study determined the dose-response curve for lung tumor incidence in rats after inhalation of high-fired 239 PuO 2 , which gave radiation doses to the lung of from ∼5 to >1000 rads. Exposed rats were given a single, nose-only, inhalation exposure to 169 Yb- 239 PuO 2 aerosol (AMAD, 1.6 +- 0.11 μm). The effective half-time for 169 Yb in the lung was 14 days, whereas ∼76% of 239 Pu was cleared with a half-time of 20 days and 24%, with a half-time of 180 days. Whole-body counting for 169 Yb at 14 days after exposure was an accurate method for determining 239 Pu IAD in individual rats, even at IAD's as low as 0.60 nCi of 239 Pu. The 239 Pu lung-clearance curve and an equation describing changes in lung weight with body weight and age were used to determine lung radiation doses. The IAD's of exposure groups were 0.60 +- 0.15 nCi of 239 Pu (1000 rats), 0.98 +- 0.25 (531 rats), 2.4 +- 0.69 (209 rats), 5.7 +- 1.2 (98 rats), and 7.5 +- 2.0 to 150 +- 37 nCi (300 rats); corresponding radiation doses to the lung estimated at 3 years after exposure were 8.3, 14, 33, 79, and 100 to 2100 rads, respectively. 71 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs

  2. [Study on the oxidative stress in the ovaries of a rat model of polycystic ovary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Jin; Wu, Dong-bo; Zhang, Lan-lan; Li, Jia; Zhao, Xing; Zhang, Dan

    2015-03-01

    with the control group. In a rat model of PCO achieved via letrozole, it was found that the levels of TOS, MDA, oxidative stress index (OSI) and intracellular ROS were significantly increased, while the TAS level, SOD content were significantly decreased in the ovary homogenates (Pmodel successfully induced via letrozole, and it is a suitable model for study of ovarian lesions. Oxidative stress also contributes to the PCO rat model, the protective effect of antioxidant might provide a new insight into the potential therapeutic solution to PCOS.

  3. Comparative studies of D2 receptors and brain perfusion in hemi-parkinsonism rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Yansong; Lin Xiangtong

    2000-01-01

    The relationship between dopamine D 2 receptors and brain perfusion in hemi-parkinsonism rats was studied. Hemi-parkinsonism rats were made by stereotaxic 6-hydroxy dopamine (6-OH-DA) lesions in substantia nigra (SN) and ventral tegmental area (VTA), apomorphine (Apo) which could induced the successful model rat rotates toward the intact side was used to select the rats, 125 I-IBZM ex-vivo autoradiography analysis and 99m Tc-HM-PAO regional cerebral biodistribution were used to evaluate D 2 receptors and cerebral blood flow. The HPLC-ECD were used to measure striatum DA and its metabolites content. The lesioned side striatum DA and its metabolites HVA DOPAC reduced significantly than that of the intact side and pseudo-operated group, striatum/cerebellum 125 I-IBZM uptake ratio was 8.04 +- 0.71 in lesioned side of hemi-parkinsonism rats, significantly increased compared with the intact side and the pseudo-operated group (p 0.05). These results indicated that in the 6-OH-DA lesioned side DA content decreased significantly and an up-regulation of striatum D 2 receptor binding sites was induced in hemi-parkinsonism rats, which showed good correlation with rotation behavior induced by Apo. Comparing with cerebral blood flow, D 2 receptor reflected by IBZM seems to be more specific and earlier to detect the cerebral functional impairment in experimental hemi-parkinsonism

  4. A glance at Spanish embryology and teratology during the XX century through the academic life of Francisco Orts-Llorca (1905-1993).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aréchaga, Juan; Jiménez-Collado, Juan; Ruano-Gil, Domingo

    2009-01-01

    Francisco Ort-Llorca (1905-1993) was one of the most outstanding Spanish embryologists of the XX century. He was disciple of Henri Rouvire in Paris (France), Alfred Fischel in Vienna (Austria), Walther Vogt in Munich (Germany) and Pedro Ara in Madrid (Spain). From 1935, he was professor of Human Anatomy at the Faculty of Medicine of Cadiz, belonged then to the University of Seville (accidentally, in the University of Valencia, during the Spanish Civil War from 1936-1939) and, later on, at the Faculty of Medicine of Madrid (Complutense University) from 1954 to 1975. He was internationally recognized in anatomical sciences and stood out for his contributions to descriptive and experimental Embryology and Teratology, particularly in those aspects connected to the normal and pathological development of the heart and visual organs.

  5. Rats avoid exposure to HVdc electric fields: a dose response study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creim, J A; Lovely, R H; Weigel, R J; Forsythe, W C; Anderson, L E

    1993-01-01

    Rats, given the choice, avoid exposure to alternating current (ac) 60-Hz electric fields at intensities > or = 75 kV/m. This study investigated the generality of this behavior by studying the response of rats when exposed to high voltage direct current (HVdc) electric fields. Three hundred eighty male Long Evans rats were studied in 9 experiments with 40 rats per experiment and in one experiment with 20 rats to determine 1) if rats avoid exposure to HVdc electric fields of varying field strengths, and 2) if avoidance did occur, what role, if any, the concentration of air ions would have on the avoidance behavior. In all experiments a three-compartment glass shuttlebox was used; either the left or right compartment could be exposed to a combination of HVdc electric fields and air ions while the other compartment remained sham-exposed. The third, center compartment was a transition zone between exposure and sham-exposure. In each experiment, the rats were individually assessed in 1-h sessions where half of the rats (n = 20) had the choice to locomote between the two sides being exposed or sham-exposed, while the other half of the rats (n = 20) were sham-exposed regardless of their location, except in one experiment where there was no sham-exposed group. The exposure levels for the first six experiments were 80, 55, 42.5, 30, -36, and -55 kV/m, respectively. The air ion concentration was constant at 1.4 x 10(6) ions/cc for the four positive exposure levels and -1.4 x 10(6) ions/cc for the two negative exposure levels. Rats having a choice between exposure and non-exposure relative to always sham-exposed control animals significantly reduced the amount of time spent on the exposed side at 80 kV/m (P HVdc exposure level was held constant at either -55 kV/m (for three experiments) or -55 kV/m (for 1 experiment) while the air ion concentration was varied between experiments at 2.5 x 10(5) ions/cc, 1.0 x 10(4) for two of the experiments and was below the measurement limit

  6. Studies on the developmental toxicity of ozone: postnatal effects. [Rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kavlock, R J; Meyer, E; Grabowski, C T

    1980-01-01

    Pregnant rats were exposed to either 0, 1.0, or 1.5 ppm ozone during either mid gestation (Days 9-12) or late gestation (Days 17-20). The dams were allowed to deliver and the early morphological and behavioral development of their pups was monitored. Both exposure regimens transiently reduced neonatal growth rates. The late gestation exposure regimen produced retardations in early reflex development and in open field behavior. Finally, several males from this exposure regimen remained permanently stunted in growth.

  7. Identifying Key Events in AOPs for Embryonic Disruption using Computational Toxicology (European Teratology Society - AOP symp.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addressing safety aspects of drugs and environmental chemicals relies extensively on animal testing; however, the quantity of chemicals needing assessment and challenges of species extrapolation require alternative approaches to traditional animal studies. Newer in vitro and in s...

  8. A Study on Neuroprotective Effects of Curcumin on the Diabetic Rat Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, L; Kong, X-J; Wang, Z-Q; Xu, F-S; Zhu, Y-T

    2016-01-01

    The present study was aimed to study the neuroprotective therapeutic effect of curcumin on the male albino rat brain. Subarachnoid hemorrhage leads to severe mortality rate and morbidity, and oxidative stress is a crucial factor in subarachnoid hemorrhage. Therefore, we investigated the effect of curcumin on oxidative stress and glutamate and glutamate transporter-1 on a subarachnoid hemorrhage-induced male albino rats. The curcumin commonly used for the treatment and saline used for the control. Curcumin (10 mg/kg bwt) dissolved in saline and administered orally to the rats for one week. Glutamate, glutamate transporter-1, malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, glutathione reductase and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activities were determined. Glutamate level was lower in the curcumin-treated rats compared to their respective controls. Glutamate transporter-1 did not alter in the curcumin-treated rats compared to their controls. Glutamate transporter-1 protein expression is significantly reduced in the curcumin-treated rats. MDA levels decreased 18 and 29 % in the hippocampus and the cortex region respectively. SOD (17% and 32%), and catalase (19% and 24%) activities were increased in the curcumin-treated hippocampus and the cortex region respectively. Glutathione reductase (13% and 19%) and LDH (21% and 30%) activities were increased in the treated hippocampus and the cortex region respectively. The mRNA expression of NK-kB and TLR4 was significantly reduced following curcumin treatment. Taking all these data together, the curcumin found to be effective against oxidative stress and glutamate neurotoxicity in the male albino rats.

  9. Biokinetic studies on 14C-chitosan in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia Minghong; Nishimura, Y.; Watanabe, Y.; Yukawa, M.

    1998-05-01

    The absorption and the basic metabolism of chitosan in rats are investigated. The results indicated that 14 C-chitosan from gastrointestinal tract was absorbed, metabolized and excreted quickly without re-bioavailability. The radioactive compounds perhaps with specifically chemical forms in serum, liver and the contents of small intestines were separated on GPC column and measured by radioactivity counting. A big pile of peaks with the retention volume almost same as that of standard 14 C-chitosan and another sharp one with the retention volume in the range of higher molecular weight same as that of BSA were discovered in analysis respectively for contents of intestine and serum or liver. The sharp peak would disappear if the proteins contained in the serum or liver were removed. In addition, and interesting tail peak, followed with the pile ones and eluted with the retention volume of lower molecular weight range same as that of chitooligosaccharides was also found in each of the 3 samples, ignoring the protein removal or not. These results suggested that most of 14 C-chitosan was not to be digested in intestine. On the other hand, a small amount of 14 C-chitosan was likely to be absorbed directly or after degraded to small molecular compounds into blood, liver and other tissues, and then connected with the proteins. Perhaps it is these trace materials that were playing important roles in reduction of the bioavailability of radiostrontium in rats

  10. Brown coal derived humate inhibits contact hypersensitivity; An efficacy, toxicity and teratogenicity study in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Rensburg, C.E.J.; Snyman, J.R.; Mokoele, T.; Cromarty, A.D. [University of Pretoria, Pretoria (South Africa). Faculty of Health Science

    2007-10-15

    The effects of two humate products were compared to that of prednisolone on a contact hypersensitivity rat model. Rats, sensitized with dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB), were placed on a daily oral treatment of 61 mg/kg BW of humate derived from either leonardite or bituminous coal or on prednisolone at one mg/kg BW and challenged 6 days later with a topical application of DNFB to the right ear. The inflamed ears were measured daily. In a toxicity study rats were exposed to daily oral treatment of leonardite humate at 1,000 mg/kg BW for 1 month. A teratogenicity study was done where pregnant rats were treated with 500 mg/kg BW on days 5 to 17 of pregnancy. Only the leonardite humate compared favourably with prednisolone in suppressing contact hypersensitivity. No signs of toxicity were observed and weight gain was normal during the 6-day and 1 month treatments and during the teratogenicity study with the leonardite humate. However, the rats on the other two products experienced slower weight gain. The identification of a naturally occurring nontoxic compound with anti-inflammatory activity is exciting and merits further evaluation in the treatment of patients suffering from inflammatory conditions.

  11. Cola beverage consumption delays alveolar bone healing: a histometric study in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Mazzonetto Teófilo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies have suggested that cola beverage consumption may affect bone metabolism and increase bone fracture risk. Experimental evidence linking cola beverage consumption to deleterious effects on bone is lacking. Herein, we investigated whether cola beverage consumption from weaning to early puberty delays the rate of reparative bone formation inside the socket of an extracted tooth in rats. Twenty male Wistar rats received cola beverage (cola group or tap water (control group ad libitum from the age of 23 days until tooth extraction at 42 days and euthanasia 2 and 3 weeks later. The neoformed bone volume inside the alveolar socket was estimated in semi-serial longitudinal sections using a quantitative differential point-counting method. Histological examination suggested a decrease in the osteogenic process within the tooth sockets of rats from both cola groups, which had thinner and sparser new bone trabeculae. Histometric data confirmed that alveolar bone healing was significantly delayed in cola-fed rats at three weeks after tooth extraction (ANOVA, p = 0.0006, followed by Tukey's test, p < 0.01. Although the results of studies in rats cannot be extrapolated directly to human clinical dentistry, the present study provides evidence that cola beverage consumption negatively affect maxillary bone formation.

  12. Exploiting Redundant Measurement of Dose and Developmental Outcome: New Methods from the Behavioral Teratology of Alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bookstein, Fred L.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Discusses the use of new statistical procedures in a study of the enduring effects of prenatal alcohol exposure upon the neurobehavioral development of some 500 children born in 1975-76. Explains how the Partial Least Squares (PLS) methodology can summarize the data powerfully while avoiding familiar inferential pitfalls. (MDM)

  13. Toxicological study of a new maintenance fluid, Veen 3G, in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamei, J; Onodera, K; Kawaguchi, M; Shibata, M; Kagawa, M; Wachi, M; Kojima, J

    2002-10-01

    A study of the different volume and infusion rates of a new maintenance fluid, Veen 3G, on the general conditions of rats was investigated during the 14 days after infusion. In Experiment I, 100 ml/kg and 200 ml/kg of Veen 3G were infused at a rate of 300 ml/kg/h in male and female rats. Results were compared with those for Gurunon Ringer solution (GRS) in male and female rats. We observed only transient polyuria in animals administered by each dose of Veen 3G and GRS for 0-15 min after infusion. Necropsy was not observed in any of the animals tested 14 days after infusion. In Experiment II, 200 ml/kg of Veen 3G was infused at rates of 200, 400, 800 and 1600 ml/kg/h in male rats. At 800 and 1600 ml/kg/h, irregular respiration and decrease in movement were observed concomitantly with polyuria. Three out of 4 rats died immediately after the infusion of Veen 3G at a rate of 1600 ml/kg/h, and one rat was still alive 14 days after the infusion. In this experiment, 200 ml/kg Veen 3G was safe when we infused at a rate of less than 400 ml/kg/h in male rats. Since this rate is about 27-80 times higher than that used clinically in maintenance treatment, Veen 3G is suggested to be safe, with the exception of polyuria, in clinical situations at the standard infusion rate (5-15 ml/kg/h).

  14. A comparative immunohistochemical study on amylase localization in the rat and human exocrine pancreas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aughsteen, Adib A.

    2001-01-01

    Objective was to localize amylase enzyme immunohistochemically in the pancreatic acinar cells of rats and humans using polyclonal sheep anti-human amylase antibody, and to compare between the intensities of their amylase-immunostaining. Indirect immunofluorescence method was applied on formaldehyde-fixed, and paraffin-embedded pancreatic sections obtained from adult male Wistar rats and autopsied human samples. Primary incubation was performed using sheep anti-amylase antibody followed by secondary incubation with fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled rabbit anti-sheep IgG serum. Control tests of amylase immunospecificity were also undertaken either by incubation with primary antibodies previously pre-adsorbed with an excess of human pancreatic amylase, or only with secondary antibodies. The amylase immunofluorescence was positively and homogenously detected in all acinar cells of both rat and human pancreatic stained sections. The immunostaining was clearly demonstrated in the cell apices and peri-nuclear areas, but it was consistently brighter and more intense in the human acinar cells compared with that of the rat pancreas. Control tests of amylase immunofluorescence revealed the specificity of the antibodies applied for amylase localization in rat and human pancreas. Although many previous immunohisto- and cytochemical reports have successfully localized amylase in the pancreas of different mammalian species, but all of them have used locally prepared anti-amylase antibodies. The present report successfully illustrates immuno-localization of amylase in the pancreatic acinar cells of rats and humans using commercial polyclonal sheep anti-human pancreatic amylase antibodies, and also suggests their useful application in the immunochemical studies on various mammalian species. Additionally, the results indicate a structural similarity between the human and rat pancreatic amylases, a concept required further exploration. (author)

  15. [Experimental study on establishment of a simple model of rats crush injury-crush syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xi; Liu, Yuehong; Xu, Wei; Qin, Tingwu; Zhao, Luping; Liu, Shuping; Zhang, Yi; Tan, Hong; Zhou, Yu

    2013-01-01

    To establish a repeatable, simple, and effective model of rat crush injury and crush syndrome. A total of 42 female Sprague Dawley rats (2-month-old, (CS) so as to lay a foundation for further study on CS. weighing 160-180 g) were divided randomly into the control group (n=6) and experimental group (n=36). The rats of the experimental group were used to establish the crush injury and CS model in both lower limbs by self-made crush injury mould. The survival rate and hematuria rate were observed after decompression. The biochemical indexes of blood were measured at 2, 4, 8, 12, 24, and 48 hours after decompression. The samples of muscle, kidney, and heart were harvested for morphological observation. There was no treatment in the control group, and the same tests were performed. Seven rats died and 15 rats had hematuria during compression in the experimental group. Swelling of the lower limb and muscle tissue was observed in the survival rats after reperfusion. The liver function test results showed that the levels of alanine transaminase and aspartate aminotransferase in the experimental group were significantly higher than those in the control group (P congestion and swelling, renal tubular epithelial cell degeneration, edema, necrosis, and myoglobin tube type were found in the kidneys; and myocardial structure had no obvious changes. The method of the crush injury and CS model by self-made crush injury mould is a simple and effective procedure and the experimental result is stable. It is a simple method to establish an effective model of rats crush injury and CS.

  16. Exploring the effects of acid mine drainage on diatom teratology using geometric morphometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olenici, Adriana; Blanco, Saúl; Borrego-Ramos, María; Momeu, Laura; Baciu, Călin

    2017-10-01

    Metal pollution of aquatic habitats is a major and persistent environmental problem. Acid mine drainage (AMD) affects lotic systems in numerous and interactive ways. In the present work, a mining area (Roșia Montană) was chosen as study site, and we focused on two aims: (i) to find the set of environmental predictors leading to the appearance of the abnormal diatom individuals in the study area and (ii) to assess the relationship between the degree of valve outline deformation and AMD-derived pollution. In this context, morphological differences between populations of Achnanthidium minutissimum and A. macrocephalum, including normal and abnormal individuals, were evidenced by means of valve shape analysis. Geometric morphometry managed to capture and discriminate normal and abnormal individuals. Multivariate analyses (NMDS, PLS) separated the four populations of the two species mentioned and revealed the main physico-chemical parameters that influenced valve deformation in this context, namely conductivity, Zn, and Cu. ANOSIM test evidenced the presence of statistically significant differences between normal and abnormal individuals within both chosen Achnanthidium taxa. In order to determine the relative contribution of each of the measured physico-chemical parameters in the observed valve outline deformations, a PLS was conducted, confirming the results of the NMDS. The presence of deformed individuals in the study area can be attributed to the fact that the diatom communities were strongly affected by AMD released from old mining works and waste rock deposits.

  17. A biochemical study on the gastroprotective effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Andrographis paniculata in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panneerselvam, Saranya; Arumugam, Geetha

    2011-07-01

    The aim of the present study is to evaluate the gastroprotective effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Andrographis paniculata (HAEAP) in male albino wistar rats. Rats were pretreated with HAEAP (100,200,500mg/kg b. wt for 30 days) and then gastric ulcers were induced by ethanol, aspirin, pylorus ligation and cold restraint stress models. Ulcer score was determined in all the ulcer models. pH, gastric volume, titrable acidity, pepsin, mucin, myeloperoxidase, H(+)K(+)ATPase, thiobarbituric acid reacting substances (TBARS) and antioxidant enzyme activities were assayed in ethanol-administered rats. The ulcer score was found to be low in HAEAP-pretreated rats. Among the doses studied, 200 mg/kg b.wt was found to be optimum for significant ulcer reduction. The test drug significantly reduced the acidity, pepsin concentration, myeloperoxidase and H(+)K(+)ATPase activities in ethanol-administered rats. The elevated TBARS and decreased glutathione (GSH) and mucin levels observed during ulcerogenesis were found to be altered in HAEAP-received animals. The ulcer preventing effect of HAEAP may partly be due to its regulating effect on H(+)K(+)ATPase activity and /or mucin preserving effects. The flavonoids present in the HAEAP might be responsible for the gastroprotective action probably by maintaining the antioxidants and thiol status in the gastrointestinal tract.

  18. A biochemical study on the gastroprotective effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Andrographis paniculata in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panneerselvam, Saranya; Arumugam, Geetha

    2011-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the present study is to evaluate the gastroprotective effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Andrographis paniculata (HAEAP) in male albino wistar rats. Materials and Methods: Rats were pretreated with HAEAP (100,200,500mg/kg b. wt for 30 days) and then gastric ulcers were induced by ethanol, aspirin, pylorus ligation and cold restraint stress models. Ulcer score was determined in all the ulcer models. pH, gastric volume, titrable acidity, pepsin, mucin, myeloperoxidase, H+K+ATPase, thiobarbituric acid reacting substances (TBARS) and antioxidant enzyme activities were assayed in ethanol-administered rats. Results: The ulcer score was found to be low in HAEAP-pretreated rats. Among the doses studied, 200 mg/kg b.wt was found to be optimum for significant ulcer reduction. The test drug significantly reduced the acidity, pepsin concentration, myeloperoxidase and H+K+ATPase activities in ethanol-administered rats. The elevated TBARS and decreased glutathione (GSH) and mucin levels observed during ulcerogenesis were found to be altered in HAEAP-received animals. Conclusions: The ulcer preventing effect of HAEAP may partly be due to its regulating effect on H+K+ATPase activity and /or mucin preserving effects. The flavonoids present in the HAEAP might be responsible for the gastroprotective action probably by maintaining the antioxidants and thiol status in the gastrointestinal tract. PMID:21844994

  19. Alternative kynurenic acid synthesis routes studied in the rat cerebellum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tonali eBlanco Ayala

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Kynurenic acid (KYNA, an astrocyte-derived, endogenous antagonist of α7 nicotinic acetylcholine and excitatory amino acid receptors, regulates glutamatergic, GABAergic, cholinergic and dopaminergic neurotransmission in several regions of the rodent brain. Synthesis of KYNA in the brain and elsewhere is generally attributed to the enzymatic conversion of L-kynurenine (L-KYN by kynurenine aminotransferases (KATs. However, alternative routes, including KYNA formation from D-kynurenine (D-KYN by D-amino acid oxidase (DAAO and the direct transformation of kynurenine to KYNA by reactive oxygen species (ROS, have been demonstrated in the rat brain. Using the rat cerebellum, a region of low KAT activity and high DAAO activity, the present experiments were designed to examine KYNA production from L-KYN or D-KYN by KAT and DAAO, respectively, and to investigate the effect of ROS on KYNA synthesis. In chemical combinatorial systems, both L-KYN and D-KYN interacted directly with peroxynitrite (ONOO- and hydroxyl radicals (OH•, resulting in the formation of KYNA. In tissue homogenates, the non-specific KAT inhibitor aminooxyacetic acid (AOAA; 1 mM reduced KYNA production from L-KYN and D-KYN by 85.1 ± 1.7% and 27.1 ± 4.5%, respectively. Addition of DAAO inhibitors (benzoic acid, kojic acid or 3-methylpyrazole-5-carboxylic acid; 5 µM each attenuated KYNA formation from L-KYN and D-KYN by ~35% and ~66%, respectively. ONOO- (25 µM potentiated KYNA production from both L-KYN and D-KYN, and these effects were reduced by DAAO inhibition. AOAA attenuated KYNA production from L-KYN + ONOO- but not from D-KYN + ONOO-. In vivo, extracellular KYNA levels increased rapidly after perfusion of ONOO- and, more prominently, after subsequent perfusion with L-KYN or D-KYN (100 µM. Taken together, these results suggest that different mechanisms are involved in KYNA production in the rat cerebellum, and that, specifically, DAAO and ROS can function as alternative routes

  20. X radiation effects on the wound healing process after tooth extraction. Histological study in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miguel, R.M.; Santos Pinto, R. dos; Okamoto, T.; Santos Pinto, M.C. dos

    1988-01-01

    The X radiation effects on the wound healing process after teeth extractions are studied histologically. Albino rats are employed. After their right upper incisors were extracted, they were divided into groups of 20 animals each. With exception of the group I (control), 24 hours after teeth extractions the groups II, III and IV received X radiation, respectively, in the dosage of 75,125 and 175 R. The rats were sacrificed in group of 4, at 3, 6, 9,15 and 21 postoperative days and a histological study is done. (M.A.C.) [pt

  1. The rat orbital and agranular insular prefrontal cortical areas: a cytoarchitectonic and chemoarchitectonic study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Werd, H.J.J.M.; Uylings, H.B.M.

    2008-01-01

    Cytoarchitectonic characterization of borders is necessary for stereological studies (e.g., total cell number estimation), in which particular cortical areas have to be defined. In this study, cytoarchitectonic characteristics are described and illustrated for the rat ventral or orbital frontal

  2. Regulatory aspects of teratology: role of the Food and Drug Administration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelsey, F.O.

    1982-01-01

    The Food and Drug Administration is a scientific regulatory agency whose consumer protection activities cover a wide range of products including foods and additives, and pesticide residues on foods; drugs; cosmetics; medical devices; and radiation-emitting electronic products. Amongst its concerns is the possible teratogen effects of regulated products to which the pregnant woman is exposed. The policies and programs of the agency directed toward reducing such risks to the unborn are reviewed. These measures include guidelines for animal reproduction studies and for clinical trials involving women to childbearing potential; labeling of products to disclose known or possible harm to the fetus or embryo; surveillance procedures designed to detect previously unsuspected adverse effects of marketed products; research activities designed to develop better understanding of developmental toxicology and improved techniques for detecting embryocidal and embryotoxic effects; and educational efforts directed both to professionals and the public regarding hazards to the unborn of agency-regulated products

  3. Studies of Anorectic N-acylethanolamines in Rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diep, Thi Ai

    N-acylethanolamines (NAEs) are a group of lipids, which during the course of the last decades have shown to have multiple biological functions. They are widely distributed in the body, e.g. in the brain, adipose tissue and gastroinstetinal tract. Anandamide was the first NAE discovered to have......-inflammatory agent, being upregulated during inflammation and shown to be protective in the brain followed ischemic events. Oleoylethanolamide (OEA) has shown to be involved in energy homeostasis regulating food intake, gastric motility and lipolysis. In this Ph.D. dissertation focus has been on NAE levels...... in the small intestine and the effects of dietary fat consumption on intestinal NAE levels. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a high-fat diet for varying length and with varying energy percentages of fat in the diet. The intestinal NAE levels were extracted and measured by liquid chromatography mass...

  4. 131I labeling of tamoxifen and biodistribution studies in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biber Muftuler, F.Z.; Unak, P.; Teksoz, S.; Acar, C.; Yolcular, S.; Yuerekli, Y.

    2008-01-01

    Tamoxifen [TAM ([Z]-2-[4-(1,2-diphenyl-1-di-butenyl)-phenoxy]-N,N-dimethylethanamine)] has been used as an antiestrogen drug for treatment and prevention of human breast cancer. Tamoxifen was labeled with 131 I using iodogen as an oxidizing agent. Mass spectroscopy of the cold standard showed that the labeling occurs in ortho position to the phenyl ether position of TAM as expected. Quality control, radiochemical yield and stability were established using the radioelectrophoresis method. The radiolabeled compound maintained its stability throughout working period of 24 h. Scintigraphic imaging was performed and tissue distribution was determined in Albino Wistar rats. According to biodistribution and imaging experiments the radiolabeled compound presented estrogen receptor (ER) specificity and it was uptaken by endometrium as well as breast tissue

  5. An experimental study on barium peritonitis in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Heung Sik; Han, Man Chung; Kim, Chu Wan

    1985-01-01

    Barium sulfate is universally used contrast media in gastrointestinal roentgenology, and spillage of barium into peritoneal cavity can occur. The references on effect of barium sulfate in the peritoneal cavity have been scattered and the results are varied. In 80 rats, body weight of 130 gm to 150 gm, sterile pure barium, sterile commercial barium, intestinal content, and mixed pure barium and intestinal content were experimentally injected into the peritoneal cavity. Consecutive weekly laparotomy and microscopic examination were done for 4 weeks. The results are as followings: 1. Mind inflammatory reaction and mild adhesion after sterile pure barium injection. 2. Mild inflammatory reaction and moderate adhesion after sterile commercial barium injection. 3. Acute peritonitis and abscess formation after intestinal content injection. 4. High mortality due to severe acute peritonitis, and severe adhesion in survivors after injection of both pure barium and intestinal content.

  6. Metabolic enhancer piracetam attenuates rotenone induced oxidative stress: a study in different rat brain regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Dinesh Kumar; Joshi, Neeraj; Raju, Kunumuri Sivarama; Wahajuddin, Muhammad; Singh, Rama Kant; Singh, Sarika

    2015-01-01

    Piracetam is clinically being used nootropic drug but the details of its neuroprotective mechanism are not well studied. The present study was conducted to assess the effects of piracetam on rotenone induced oxidative stress by using both ex vivo and in vivo test systems. Rats were treated with piracetam (600 mg/kg b.w. oral) for seven constitutive days prior to rotenone administration (intracerebroventricular, 12 µg) in rat brain. Rotenone induced oxidative stress was assessed after 1 h and 24 h of rotenone administration. Ex vivo estimations were performed by using two experimental designs. In one experimental design the rat brain homogenate was treated with rotenone (1 mM, 2 mM and 4 mM) and rotenone+piracetam (10 mM) for 1 h. While in second experimental design the rats were pretreated with piracetam for seven consecutive days. On eighth day the rats were sacrificed, brain homogenate was prepared and treated with rotenone (1 mM, 2 mM and 4mM) for 1h. After treatment the glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were estimated in brain homogenate. In vivo study showed that pretreatment of piracetam offered significant protection against rotenone induced decreased GSH and increased MDA level though the protection was region specific. But the co-treatment of piracetam with rotenone did not offer significant protection against rotenone induced oxidative stress in ex vivo study. Whereas ex vivo experiments in rat brain homogenate of piracetam pretreated rats, showed the significant protection against rotenone induced oxidative stress. Findings indicated that pretreatment of piracetam significantly attenuated the rotenone induced oxidative stress though the protection was region specific. Piracetam treatment to rats led to its absorption and accumulation in different brain regions as assessed by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry. In conclusion, study indicates the piracetam is able to enhance the antioxidant capacity in brain cells

  7. Predictive teratology: teratogenic risk-hazard identification partnered in the discovery process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustine-Rauch, K A

    2008-11-01

    Unexpected teratogenicity is ranked as one of the most prevalent causes for toxicity-related attrition of drug candidates. Without proactive assessment, the liability tends to be identified relatively late in drug development, following significant investment in compound and engagement in pre clinical and clinical studies. When unexpected teratogenicity occurs in pre-clinical development, three principle questions arise: Can clinical trials that include women of child bearing populations be initiated? Will all compounds in this pharmacological class produce the same liability? Could this effect be related to the chemical structure resulting in undesirable off-target adverse effects? The first question is typically addressed at the time of the unexpected finding and involves considering the nature of the teratogenicity, whether or not maternal toxicity could have had a role in onset, human exposure margins and therapeutic indication. The latter two questions can be addressed proactively, earlier in the discovery process as drug target profiling and lead compound optimization is taking place. Such proactive approaches include thorough assessment of the literature for identification of potential liabilities and follow-up work that can be conducted on the level of target expression and functional characterization using molecular biology and developmental model systems. Developmental model systems can also be applied in the form of in vitro teratogenicity screens, and show potential for effective hazard identification or issue resolution on the level of characterizing teratogenic mechanism. This review discusses approaches that can be applied for proactive assessment of compounds for teratogenic liability.

  8. Chronic toxicity/carcinogenicity studies of FD & C Yellow No. 5 (tartrazine) in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borzelleca, J F; Hallagan, J B

    1988-03-01

    FD & C Yellow No. 5 was fed to Charles River CD rats as a dietary admixture in two long-term toxicity/carcinogenicity studies. The studies were conducted with an in utero phase in which the compound was administered to the F0 generation rats (60/sex/group) at levels of 0.0, 0.0, 0.1, 1.0 or 2.0% ('original study') and 0.0 or 5.0% ('high-dose study'). The concurrent control groups received the basal diet. After random selection of the F1 animals, the long-term phase was initiated using the same dietary levels with 70 rats of each sex/group, including the three control groups. The maximum exposure to the colouring was 113 and 114 wk for males and females, respectively, in the 'original' study and 122 and 125 wk for males and females, respectively, in the 'high-dose' study. No compound-related effects were noted. The no-adverse-effect level found in this study was 5.0% in the diet providing an average intake of 2641 and 3348 mg/kg/day for male and female rats, respectively.

  9. Study on chromium speciation in rats by the isotope tracer technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Weiyue; Qian Qinfang; Ding Wenjun; Chai Zhifang

    1999-01-01

    The chromium speciation in the liver cytosol fraction, serum and urine of both normal and diabetic rats are studied by the enriched stable isotope tracer technique combined with the get chromatography and the neutron activating analysis (NAA). The results are as follows: (1) When Cr(III) enters the animal body, it is most likely to be combined with serum proteins. The chromium-protein compound acts as a carrier to transport Cr to the whole body. In the liver cytosol fraction, Cr (III) is also mainly combined with the high molecular weight protein and retains as chromium-protein substance in the liver. (2) A low molecular weight chromium-containing compound is found in all the liver cell cytosol fraction, serum and urine of the two group rats. (3) The diabetic rats lose more amount of low molecular weight of chromium compound in urine than the normal rats do. This might be a main reason to explain why the diabetic rats retain lower Cr in their bodies than the normal group

  10. Transfer of obturator nerve for femoral nerve injury: an experiment study in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Depeng; Zhou, Jun; Lin, Yaofa; Xie, Zheng; Chen, Huihao; Yu, Ronghua; Lin, Haodong; Hou, Chunlin

    2018-07-01

    Quadriceps palsy is mainly caused by proximal lesions in the femoral nerve. The obturator nerve has been previously used to repair the femoral nerve, although only a few reports have described the procedure, and the outcomes have varied. In the present study, we aimed to confirm the feasibility and effectiveness of this treatment in a rodent model using the randomized control method. Sixty Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into two groups: the experimental group, wherein rats underwent femoral neurectomy and obturator nerve transfer to the femoral nerve motor branch; and the control group, wherein rats underwent femoral neurectomy without nerve transfer. Functional outcomes were measured using the BBB score, muscle mass, and histological assessment. At 12 and 16 weeks postoperatively, the rats in the experimental group exhibited recovery to a stronger stretch force of the knee and higher BBB score, as compared to the control group (p nerve with myelinated and unmyelinated fibers was observed in the experimental group. No significant differences were observed between groups at 8 weeks postoperatively (p > 0.05). Obturator nerve transfer for repairing femoral nerve injury was feasible and effective in a rat model, and can hence be considered as an option for the treatment of femoral nerve injury.

  11. Functional Magnetic Resonance Study of Non-conventional Morphological Brains: malnourished rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin R.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Malnutrition during brain development can cause serious problems that can be irreversible. Dysfunctional patterns of brain activity can be detected with functional MRI. We used BOLD functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI to investigate region differences of brain activity between control and malnourished rats. The food-competition method was applied to a rat model to induce malnutrition during lactation. A 7T magnet was used to detect changes of the BOLD signal associated with changes in brain activity caused by the trigeminal nerve stimulation in malnourished and control rats. Major neuronal activation was observed in malnourished rats in several brain regions, including cerebellum, somatosensory cortex, hippocampus, and hypothalamus. Statistical analysis of the BOLD signals from various brain areas revealed significant differences in somatosensory cortex between the control and experimental groups, as well as a significant difference between the cerebellum and other structures in the experimental group. This study, particularly in malnourished rats, demonstrates increased BOLD activation in the cerebellum.

  12. Biochemical studies on gamma irradiated male rats fed on whey protein concentrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, N.E; Anwar, M.M.; El-bostany, N.A.

    2010-01-01

    This study carried out to investigate the possible role of whey protein protein concentrate in ameliorating some biochemical disorders induced in gamma irradiated male rats. Forty eight male albino rats were divided into four equal groups: Group 1 fed on normal diet during experimental period. Group 2 where the diet contain 15 % whey protein concentrate instead of soybean protein . Group 3 rats were exposed to whole body gamma radiation with single dose of 5 Gy and fed on the normal diet. Group 4 rate exposed to 5 Gy then fed on diet contain 15 % whey protein concentrate, the rats were decapitated after two and four weeks post irradiation. Exposure to whole body irradiation caused significant elevation of serum ALT, AST, glucose, urea, creatinine and total triiodothyronine with significant decrease in total protein, albumin and thyroxin. Irradiated rats fed on whey protein concentrate revealed significant improvement of some biochemical parameters. It could be conclude that whey protein concentrate may be considered as a useful protein source for reducing radiation injury via metabolic pathway.

  13. Histomorphological study of parotid gland from young rats (Holtzman) submitted to ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roslindo, E.B.

    1988-01-01

    A study was performed on rats to verify v the effects of ionizing radiation on the structure of the parotid glands of young rats. Thirty twenty five-day old rats - Rattus norvegicus, albinus, Holtzman - with a medium body weight of 54,20 g were equally distributed in two experimental groups: group I - irradiated; group II - control. After intraperitoneal anesthetics with sodium Pentobarbital in 3% gad been applied, the group I - rats were immobilized in a dorsal position on special surgery tables. The region of the parotid glands were irradiated with a dose of 300 R, this procedure was repeated every 48 hours up to an exposition of 1200 R. The Group II - animals received a simulated treatment as control. The following conclusions may be drawn through the methodology used: the group I - rats gained body weight uniformly after the 13th day, this was not equivalent to the control group; the critical phase of glandular disorganization determined by irradiation corresponded to the experimental period of 8 days, decreasing in the subsequent days; the serous acini and the streated ducts showed to be more radium sensitive even under the use of low fractionated doses; the parotid gland showed indications of gradual morphological recovery after the last exposition to X-rays. (author)

  14. Study on the mechanism of retinal ganglion cell apoptosis in early stage of diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui-Dong Gu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate the mechanism of retinal ganglion cell apoptosis in early stage of streptozotocin(STZ-induced diabetic rats. METHODS: Sixty SD rats were randomly divided into two groups: control group(CONand diabetes mellitus group(DM. Diabetic rat model was produced by intraperitoneal injection of 1% STZ in 30 adult male SD rats. At 4, 8, 12wk,the rats were killed and eyeballs were enucleated for the HE staining, TUNEL staining, transmission electron microscopy detection respectively, and laser confocal microscope detection was used to detect the calcium ion concentration.RESULTS:At 8wk RGCs decreased gradually and appeared disordered arrangement and got worse at 12wk in DM group. In DM group, mitochondrial swelling was detected at 4wk., and became more obvious, more in number at 8wk with reduction in some cells' volume and the number of organelles decreased. In DM group, few TUNEL positive RGCs were seen at 4wk, and became more and more at 8 and 12wk. The apoptosis index was significantly higher in DM group compared with CON group in different time points(PPPCONCLUSION: The study suggested that RGCs apoptosis occurs in early stage of diabetes, the mechanism might be associated with increased intracellular calcium ion concentration.

  15. [Studies on transdermal delivery of ferulic acid through rat skin treated by microneedle arrays].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bing; Du, Shou-ying; Bai, Jie; Shang, Ke-xin; Lu, Yang; Li, Peng-yue

    2014-12-01

    In order to investigate the characteristics of transdermal delivery of ferulic acid under the treated of microneedle arrays and the influence on permeability of rat skin capillaries, improved Franz-cells were used in the transdermal delivery experiment with the rat skin of abdominal wall and the length of microneedle arrays, different insertion forces, retention time were studied in the influence of characteristics of transdermal delivery of FA. The amount of FA was determined by HPLC system. Intravenous injection Evans blue and FA was added after microneedle arrays treated. Established inflammation model was built by daubing dimethylbenzene. The amount of Evans blue in the rat skin was read at 590 nm wavelength with a Multiskan Go microplate reader. Compared with passive diffusion group the skin pretreated with microneedle arrays had a remarkable enhancement of FA transport (P Microneedle arrays with different length had a remarkable enhancement of FA transport, but was not related to the increase of the length. The research of FA on the reduce of permeability of rat skin capillaries indicated that the skin pretreated with microneedle arrays could reduce the content of Evans blue in the skins of rat significantly compared with the untreated group. The permeation rate of ferulic acid transdermal delivery had remarkable increase under the treated of microneedle arrays and the length of microneedle arrays ,the retention time so as to the insertion force were important to the transdermal delivery of ferulic acid.

  16. Methodological model of chronic stress associated with ligature-induced periodontitis in rats: a radiographic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Semenoff Segundo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the time efficiency of stress associated with ligature-induced periodontitis in rats. Sixty adult Wistar rats, housed in temperature-controlled rooms and receiving water and food ad libitum, were randomly separated into stress (n = 30 or control groups (n = 30. All animals were anesthetized, and nylon ligatures were placed at the gingival margin level of the maxillary right second molars. After the induction of periodontitis, rats in the stress group were subjected to physical restraint for 12 hours daily. The animals were euthanized after 7, 15 and 30 days by anesthetic overdose (10 animals per group per period. The right hemimaxillae were stored in formalin solution for 48 hours. Parallel radiographic images of the hemimaxillae were taken and processed following standard procedures. Radiographic examination was performed by a blinded and previously calibrated investigator. Bone height level was measured, and data were submitted to analysis of variance and post hoc Bonferroni tests (p 0.05. Restraint stress modulates the short-term progression of periodontal disease in rats. Therefore, the 12-hour daily physical restraint stress model in rats applied for up to 15 days is suitable for the investigation of the combined effect of ligation and restraint stress on periodontal degradation.

  17. Lung transplantation in the rat. III. Functional studies in iso- and allografts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marck, K.W.; Prop, J.; Wildevuur, C.R.

    1983-01-01

    Recently a microsurgical technique for orthotopic left lung transplantation in the rat was developed. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of the operation itself and of an unmodified rejection reaction on the function of the transplanted rat lung. Orthotopic left lung transplantation was performed in 59 rats (34 isografts and 25 allografts). Isografts demonstrated a mean left lung perfusion of 23.1% in the first two postoperative weeks. Seven out of the 10 animals, subjected to a repeated scintigraphy 5-10 weeks later, had an increased graft perfusion, resulting in an almost normal mean left lung perfusion of 34.8%. At that time chest roentgenography revealed a good aeration of the grafts, that at autopsy had a normal aspect. Allografts showed an initial mean left lung perfusion (24.6%) similar to the isografts, which, however, declined sharply a few days later (4.3%). At that time chest roentgenography revealed totally opalescent grafts that at autopsy had the hepatized aspect characteristic of lung allograft rejection. These results of isogeneic and allogeneic lung transplantation in the rat were comparable with those of canine auto- and allotransplantation. For immunogenetic and economical reasons lung transplantation in the rat is a good alternative animal model in lung transplantation research

  18. Chronic dietary toxicity and carcinogenicity study with potassium perfluorooctanesulfonate in Sprague Dawley rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butenhoff, John L.; Chang, Shu-Ching; Olsen, Geary W.; Thomford, Peter J.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► A two-year dietary toxicity and cancer bioassay was conducted with K + PFOS in rats. ► Hepatocellular hypertrophy was the main microscopic non-neoplastic finding. ► Hepatocellular adenoma was increased in males and females fed the high dose. ► Males fed high dose for 1 year had increased thyroid follicular cell adenoma. ► The latter finding is of equivocal relationship to treatment. -- Abstract: To investigate toxicity and neoplastic potential from chronic exposure to perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS), a two-year toxicity and cancer bioassay was conducted with potassium PFOS (K + PFOS) in male and female Sprague Dawley rats via dietary exposure at nominal K + PFOS concentrations of 0, 0.5, 2, 5, and 20 μg/g (ppm) diet for up to 104 weeks. Additional groups were fed 20 ppm for the first 52 weeks, after which they were fed control diet through study termination (20 ppm Recovery groups). Scheduled interim sacrifices occurred on Weeks 4, 14, and 53, with terminal sacrifice between Weeks 103 and 106. K + PFOS appeared to be well-tolerated, with some reductions in body weight occurring in treated rats relative to controls over certain study periods. Male rats experienced a statistically significant decreased trend in mortality with significantly increased survival to term at the two highest treatment levels. Decreased serum total cholesterol, especially in males, and increased serum urea nitrogen were consistent clinical chemistry observations that were clearly related to treatment. The principal non-neoplastic effect associated with K + PFOS exposure was in livers of males and females and included hepatocellular hypertrophy, with proliferation of endoplasmic reticulum, vacuolation, and increased eosinophilic granulation of the cytoplasm. Statistically significant increases in hepatocellular adenoma were observed in males (p = 0.046) and females (p = 0.039) of the 20 ppm treatment group, and all of these tumors were observed in rats surviving to

  19. Comparative studies of D2 receptors and cerebral blood flow in hemi-parkinsonism rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Y.; Lin, X.

    2000-01-01

    To study the relationship between dopamine (DA) D 2 receptors and cerebral blood flow in hemiparkinsonism rats. Hemi-parkinsonism rats were made by stereotaxic 6-hydroxy dopamine (6-OH-DA) lesions in substantia nigra and ventral tegmental area, apomorphine (Apo) which could induce the successful model rat rotates toward the intact side was used to screen that rats, 125 I-IBZM in vivo autoradiography and 99m Tc-HM-PAO regional brain biodistribution were used to study D 2 receptors and cerebral blood flow. The HPLC-ECD were used to measure the concentration of DA and it metabolites homovanillic acid (HVA), 3,4-dehydroxyphenyl acetic acid (DOPAC) in bilateral striatum (ST). The lesioned side ST DA and its metabolites HVA DOPAC reduced significantly than that of the intact side and pseudo-operated control group, ST/cerebellum (CB) 125 I-IBZM uptake ratio was 8.04 ±0.71 in lesioned side of hemi-parkinsonism rats, significantly increased compared with the intact side and the pseudo-operated group (p 99m Tc 30.1±4.53% enhancement as compared to the intact side, and also show good correlation with 30 min Apo induced rotation numbers (r=0.98), the regional cerebral blood flow study didn't show significant difference between bilateral brain cortex area (p>0.05). The DA content decreased significantly and induced an up-regulation of ST D 2 receptor binding sites in 6-OH-DA lesioned side in hemi-parkinsonism rats, the increased percentage of lesioned-intact side ST/CB 125 I-IBZM uptake ratio showed good correlation with rotation behavior induced by Apo. Compare with cerebral blood flow, D 2 receptor reflected by IBZM seems to be more specific and earlier to detect the cerebral functional impairment in experimental hemi-parkinsonism

  20. Electron autoradiographic study of intracellular conversion of fatty acids into glycogen in rats with alloxan diabetes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebkova, N.P.; Bobkov, Y.I.; Gorbonova, V.D.; Kolesova, O.E.

    1985-01-01

    An electron-autoradiographic study was undertaken of the intracellular distribution of hydrogen of fatty acids in alloxan diabetes. Alloxan diabetes was induced in rats; between 2 weeks and 2 months after development of the disease 0.1 ml of tritium-oleic or tritium-arachidonic acid was injected into the caudel vein of the rats. After decapitation, myocardial tissue from the subendocardial zone of the left ventricle, liver tissue, and glycogen isolated from the liver by a biochemical method, were taken for electron-autoradiographic investigation. Analysis of the data showed that a radioactive isotope, injected into the blood stream of the animals in the form of oleic or arachidonic acids, is incorporated into various structures of hepatocytes and cardiomyocytes. Direct proof is obtained to show that glycogen in hepatocytes and cardiomyoctyes of diabetic rats may be formed from fatty acids

  1. Preliminary Study of Quercetin Affecting the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Gonadal Axis on Rat Endometriosis Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Cao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the endometriosis rats model was randomly divided into 6 groups: model control group, ovariectomized group, Gestrinone group, and quercetin high/medium/low dose group. Rats were killed after 3 weeks of administration. The expression levels of serum FSH and LH were detected by ELISA. The localizations and quantities of ERα, ERβ, and PR were detected by immunohistochemistry and western blot. The results showed that the mechanism of quercetin inhibiting the growth of ectopic endometrium on rat endometriosis model may be through the decreasing of serum FSH and LH levels and then reducing local estrogen content to make the ectopic endometrium atrophy. Quercetin can decrease the expression of ERα, ERβ, and PR in hypothalamus, pituitary, and endometrium, thereby inhibiting estrogen and progesterone binding to their receptors to play the role of antiestrogen and progesterone.

  2. Experimental study of 『PERSICAE SEMEN』 on the blood injected by Endotoxin in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Keun

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed to investigate the effects of 「Persicae Semen」(PS on the blood injected by Endotoxin in rats. The blood was induced by Endotoxin injection into the caudal vein of rats and PS group taken a measurement of RBC, Hb, Hct, Platelet, WBC, ESR, CRP. The results were obtained as follows: 1. RBC, Hb, Hct, Platelet, WBC were increased with statistical significance at PS group as compared with those of the control group. 2. ESR, CRP were decreased with statistical significance at PS group as compared with those of the control group. It is concluded that PS group has significant effects on the blood injected by Endotoxin in rats. Therefore, PS group seems to be applicable to the diseases related to Endotoxin in clinics.

  3. In vivo imaging of brain androgen receptors in rats: a [18F]FDHT PET study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khayum, M.A.; Doorduin, J.; Antunes, I.F.; Kwizera, C.; Zijlma, R.; Boer, J.A. den; Dierckx, R.A.J.O.; Vries, E.F.J. de

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Steroid hormones like androgens play an important role in the development and maintenance of several brain functions. Androgens can act through androgen receptors (AR) in the brain. This study aims to demonstrate the feasibility of positron emission tomography (PET) with 16β-[ 18 F]fluoro-5α-dihydrotestosterone ([ 18 F]FDHT) to image AR expression in the brain. Methods: Male Wistar rats were either orchiectomized to inhibit endogenous androgen production or underwent sham-surgery. Fifteen days after surgery, rats were subjected to a 90-min dynamic [ 18 F]FDHT PET scan with arterial blood sampling. In a subset of orchiectomized rats, 1 mg/kg dihydrotestosterone was co-injected with the tracer in order to saturate the AR. Plasma samples were analyzed for the presence of radioactive metabolites by radio-TLC. Pharmacokinetic modeling was performed to quantify brain kinetics of the tracer. After the PET scan, the animals were terminated for ex-vivo biodistribution. Results: PET imaging and ex vivo biodistribution studies showed low [ 18 F]FDHT uptake in all brain regions, except pituitary. [ 18 F]FDHT uptake in the surrounding cranial bones was high and increased over time. [ 18 F]FDHT was rapidly metabolized in rats. Metabolism was significantly faster in orchiectomized rats than in sham-orchiectomized rats. Quantitative analysis of PET data indicated substantial spill-over of activity from cranial bones into peripheral brain regions, which prevented further analysis of peripheral brain regions. Logan graphical analysis and kinetic modeling using 1- and 2-tissue compartment models showed reversible and homogenously distributed tracer uptake in central brain regions. [ 18 F]FDHT uptake in the brain could not be blocked by endogenous androgens or administration of dihydrotestosterone. Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that imaging of AR availability in rat brain with [ 18 F]FDHT PET is not feasible. The low AR expression in the brain, the

  4. Acute and subchronic oral toxicity studies in rats of a hydrolyzed chicken sternal cartilage preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schauss, A G; Merkel, D J; Glaza, S M; Sorenson, S R

    2007-02-01

    Two acute and subchronic oral toxicity studies were conducted in rats to evaluate safety of a patented preparation of hydrolyzed chicken sternal cartilage (BioCell Collagen II) containing collagen type II, chondroitin sulfate, and hyaluronic acid. In the acute oral toxicity study, five males and five females of Sprague-Dawley rats were administered a single dose of 5000 mg of the test product per kg body weight and observed for 14 days. All animals survived and exhibited normal body weight gain throughout the study. Macroscopic necropsy examination conducted on day 15 revealed no gross pathological lesions in any of the animals. In the subchronic study, Sprague-Dawley rats (40 males, 40 females) were divided into four same-sex groups (10 animals/group). Animals in each group were administered daily either 0, 30, 300 or 1000 mg of the test product per kg of body weight for over 90 days. All animals survived and showed no significant changes in their body weights and histopathology. Although some differences were observed between the treated and control animals in several parameters, they were generally not dose-related or considered to be of toxicological significance. In conclusion, the results from the two oral toxicity studies with male and female young adult rats indicated that the test preparation from hydrolyzed chicken sternal cartilage collagen (BioCell Collagen II) was well tolerated at all four doses tested.

  5. Developmental Toxicity Studies with Pregabalin in Rats: Significance of Alterations in Skull Bone Morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Dennis C; Henck, Judith W; Bailey, Steven A

    2016-04-01

    Pregabalin was administered to pregnant Wistar rats during organogenesis to evaluate potential developmental toxicity. In an embryo-fetal development study, compared with controls, fetuses from pregabalin-treated rats exhibited increased incidence of jugal fused to maxilla (pregabalin 1250 and 2500 mg/kg) and fusion of the nasal sutures (pregabalin 2500 mg/kg). The alterations in skull development occurred in the presence of maternal toxicity (reduced body weight gain) and developmental toxicity (reduced fetal body weight and increased skeletal variations), and were initially classified as malformations. Subsequent investigative studies in pregnant rats treated with pregabalin during organogenesis confirmed the advanced jugal fused to maxilla, and fusion of the nasal sutures at cesarean section (gestation day/postmating day [PMD] 21) in pregabalin-treated groups. In a study designed to evaluate progression of skull development, advanced jugal fused to maxilla and fusion of the nasal sutures was observed on PMD 20-25 and PMD 21-23, respectively (birth occurs approximately on PMD 22). On postnatal day (PND) 21, complete jugal fused to maxilla was observed in the majority of control and 2500 mg/kg offspring. No treatment-related differences in the incidence of skull bone fusions occurred on PND 21, indicating no permanent adverse outcome. Based on the results of the investigative studies, and a review of historical data and scientific literature, the advanced skull bone fusions were reclassified as anatomic variations. Pregabalin was not teratogenic in rats under the conditions of these studies. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Motor System Development Depends on Experience: A Microgravity Study of Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Kerry D.; Llinas, Rodolfo R.; Kalb, Robert; Hillman, Dean; DeFelipe, Javier; Garcia-Segura, Luis Miguel

    2003-01-01

    Animals move about their environment by sensing their surroundings and making adjustments according to need. All animals take the force of gravity into account when the brain and spinal cord undertake the planning and execution of movements. To what extent must animals learn to factor in the force of gravity when making neural calculations about movement? Are animals born knowing how to respond to gravity, or must the young nervous system learn to enter gravity into the equation? To study this issue, young rats were reared in two different gravitational environments (the one-G of Earth and the microgravity of low Earth orbit) that necessitated two different types of motor operations (movements) for optimal behavior. We inquired whether those portions of the young nervous system involved in movement, the motor system, can adapt to different gravitational levels and, if so, the cellular basis for this phenomenon. We studied two groups of rats that had been raised for 16 days in microgravity (eight or 14 days old at launch) and compared their walking and righting (ability to go from upside down to upright) and brain structure to those of control rats that developed on Earth. Flight rats were easily distinguished from the age-matched ground control rats in terms of both motor function and central nervous system structure. Mature surface righting predominated in control rats on the day of landing (R+O), while immature righting predominated in the flight rats on landing day and 30 days after landing. Some of these changes appear to be permanent. Several conclusions can be drawn from these studies: (1) Many aspects of motor behavior are preprogrammed into the young nervous system. In addition, several aspects of motor behavior are acquired as a function of the interaction of the developing organism and the rearing environment; (2) Widespread neuroanatomical differences between one-G- and microgravity-reared rats indicate that there is a structural basis for the adaptation

  7. Pathological and MRI study on experimental heroin-induced brain damage in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long Yu; Kong Xiangquan; Xu Haibo; Liu Dingxi; Yuan Ren; Yu Qun; Xiong Yin; Deng Xianbo

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To study the pathological characteristics of the heroin-induced brain damage in rats, and to assess the diagnostic value of MRI. Methods: A total of 40 adult Wistar rats were studied, 32 rats were used for injecting heroin as heroin group and 8 were used for injecting saline as control group. The heroin dependent rat model was established by administering heroin (ip) in the ascending dosage schedule (0.5 mg/kg), three times a day (at 8:00, 12:00, and 18:00). The control group was established by the same way by injection with saline. The withdrawal scores were evaluated with imp roved criterion in order to estimate the degree of addiction after administering naloxone. Based on the rat model of heroin dependence, the rat model of heroin-induced brain damage was established by the same way with increasing heroin dosage everyday. Two groups were examined by using MRI, light microscope, and electron microscope, respectively in different heroin accumulated dosage (918, 1580, 2686, 3064, 4336, and 4336 mg/kg withdrawal after 2 weeks). Results: There was statistically significant difference (t=9.737, P<0.01) of the withdrawal scores between the heroin dependent group and the saline group (23.0 ± 4.4 and 1.4 ± 0.5, respectively). It suggested that the heroin dependent rat model be established successfully. In different accumulated dosage ( from 1580 mg/kg to 4336 mg/kg), there were degeneration and death of nerve cells in cerebrum and cerebellum of heroin intoxicated rats, and it suggested that the rat model of heroin-induced brain damage was established successfully. The light microscope and electron microscope features of heroin-induced brain damage in rats included: (1) The nerve cells of cerebral cortex degenerated and died. According to the heroin accumulated dosage, there were statistically significant difference of the nerve cell deaths between 4336 mg/kg group and 1580 mg/kg group or control group (P=0.024 and P=0.032, respectively); (2) The main

  8. Studies on the postnatal development of the rat liver plasma membrane following maternal ethanol ingestion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rovinski, B

    1984-01-01

    Studies on the developing rat liver and on the structure and function of the postnatal rat liver plasma membrane were carried out following maternal consumption of alcohol during pregnancy and lactation. A developmental study of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) indicated that both the activity and certain kinetic properties of the enzyme from the progeny of alcohol-fed and pair-fed mothers were similar. Fatty liver, however, developed in the alcoholic progeny only after ADH appeared on a day 19 of gestation. Further studies on structural and functional changes were then undertaken on the postnatal development of the rat liver plasma membrane. Radioligand binding studies performed using the hapatic alpha{sub 1}-adrenergic receptor as a plasma membrane probe demonstrated a significant decrease in receptor density in the alcoholic progeny, but no changes in binding affinity. Finally, the fatty acid composition of constituent phospholipids and the cholesterol content of rat liver plasma membranes were determined. All these observations suggest that membrane alterations in the newborn may be partially responsible for the deleterious action(s) of maternal alcoholism at the molecular level.

  9. IMMUNOHISTOCHEMICAL STUDY OF EXTRACELLULAR-MATRIX IN ACUTE GALACTOSAMINE HEPATITIS IN RATS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    JONKER, AM; DIJKHUIS, FWJ; BOES, A; HARDONK, MJ

    A single injection of D-galactosamine hydrochloride induces acute self-limiting liver disease in rats that morphologically resembles drug-induced hepatitis in human beings. In this immunohistochemical study we examined the localization and expression of the hepatic extracellular matrix components

  10. Discrimination between low dietary zinc and endotoxin exposure : a model study on weaning rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouwe, van J.P.; Veldhuizen, M.; Hamer, van den C.J.A.; de Goeij, J.J.M.

    1990-01-01

    To establish a parameter for zinc status that is independent of the occurrence of infection, we studied the effects of low dietary zinc and endotoxin in weaning rats 21 d after 65Zn intubation. We monitored aspects of zinc status (tissue zinc content, 65Zn distribution, and specific 65Zn activity in

  11. One-generation reproductive toxicity study of DHA-rich oil in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blum, R.; Kiy, T.; Waalkens-Berendsen, I.; Wong, A.W.; Roberts, A.

    2007-01-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids, including docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), are natural constituents of the human diet. DHA-algal oil is produced through the use of the marine protist, Ulkenia sp. The reproductive toxicity of DHA-algal oil was assessed in a one-generation study. Rats were provided diets

  12. Bone tissue engineering for spine fusion : An experimental study on ectopic and orthotopic implants in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gaalen, SM; Dhert, WJA; van den Muysenberg, A; Oner, FC; van Blitterswijk, C; Verbout, AJ; de Bruijn, J.D.

    2004-01-01

    Alternatives to the use of autologous bone as a bone graft in spine surgery are needed. The purpose of this study was to examine tissue-engineered bone constructs in comparison with control scaffolds without cells in a posterior spinal implantation model in rats. Syngeneic bone marrow cells were

  13. Ninety-day oral toxicity study of lycopene from Blakeslea trispora in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonker, D.; Kuper, C.F.; Fraile, N.; Estrella, A.; Rodríguez Otero, C.

    2003-01-01

    Lycopene, as a suspension in sunflower oil (20% w/w), was tested for subchronic toxicity by administration at dietary concentrations of 0, 0.25, 0.50, and 1.0% to groups of 20 male and 20 female Wistar rats for a period of 90 days. The lycopene examined in this study was derived from a fungal

  14. Proteinuria precedes cerebral edema in stroke-prone rats : a magnetic resonance imaging study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blezer, E.L.A.; Schurink, M.; Nicolaij, K.; Dop Bär, P.R.; Jansen, G.H.; Koomans, H.A.; Joles, Jaap

    1998-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSP) subjected to high sodium intake develop severe hypertension, cerebral edema, and proteinuria, culminating in organ damage and early death. MRI, which can be applied serially, provides the unique opportunity to study

  15. Synthesis of [11C]citalopram and brain distribution studies in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ram, S.; Krishnan, K.R.R.; Bissette, G.; Knight, D.L.; Coleman, R.E.

    1990-01-01

    The study of serotonin uptake sites in the living human brain by PET with [ 11 C]citalopram may be valuable in investigating the anatomic locus and the therapeutic role of depression and prevention of suicide. For this purpose, the authors have synthesized [ 11 C]citalopram. In vivo biodistribution in rats has been determined

  16. Comparative Study of the Liver Anatomy in the Rat, Rabbit, Guinea Pig and Chinchilla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin Gheorghe STAN

    2018-05-01

    Based on detailed study of the macroscopic anatomy of rat, rabbit, guinea pig and chinchilla a proper experimental model in liver research, could be assessed. In this regard, the vascular anatomy of the liver in the mentioned species is of a great importance and it is subject of another report.

  17. Microangiographic study of the normal anatomy of the cerebral venous system in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schumacher, M.

    1984-01-01

    Microangiographic serial cuts were performed in 20 Sprague-Dawley rats for a systematic study of the normal anatomy of the cerebral veins. The draining pathways of the cerebral and cerebellar cortex, basal ganglia, hypothalamus, hippocampus and the midbrain are described and discussed with regard to their different functions. (orig.)

  18. STUDY OF HEPATOPROTECTIVE ACTIVITY OF EMBLICA OFFICINALIS (AMLA IN ALBINO RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chinmoyee Deori

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The study has been undertaken to evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of fruits extract of Emblica officinalis on carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity on Albino rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS The present study was conducted in the Department of Pharmacology. The required amount of fresh fruits of Emblica officinalis were collected and prepared by percolation method using 90% ethyl alcohol. Oral toxicity test was performed as per OECD 423 guidelines. Liver damage was induced in Albino rats with carbon tetrachloride at the dose of 0.5 mL/kg/body weight subcutaneously. All the animals used for the experiment were kept under observation for daily food intake and body weight were measured after 7 days. The drugs were administered to the animals in the dose of 200 mg/kg/body weights by means of an intragastric feeding tube. The experiment was carried out for the period of 14 days. RESULTS The study was carried out with an attempt to evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of Emblica officinalis in carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic injury in albino rats and was compared with standard drug Silymarin. The statistical significance between groups was analysed using one way ANOVA followed by Dunnett’s test. The significance was expressed by ‘p’ values as mentioned in the tables. P value of <0.05 was considered significant. CONCLUSION From this study, it can be seen that Emblica officinalis has significant hepatoprotective activity in rats with CCL4-induced liver injury.

  19. Morphometric golgi study of some cortical locations in wag/rij and aci rat strains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karpova, A.V.; Bikbaev, A.F.; Coenen, A.M.L.; Luijtelaar, E.L.J.M. van; Luijtelaar, E.L.J.M. van; Kuznetsova, G.D.; Coenen, A.M.L.; Chepurnov, S.A.

    2004-01-01

    The present study was aimed to investigate the neuronal organization of two neocortical frontal zones using a Golgi staining technique in genetic epileptic rats, WAG/Rij's. One cortical zone was a specific part of the somatosensory cortex, which was recently proposed to contain a cortical epileptic

  20. The similitude of some negative outcomes of Omega-3 to those of gamma radiation in pregnant albino rats and their fetuses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, M.F.; Yacoub, S.F.; Abdel Aziz, N.

    2011-01-01

    Even though it is established that manipulation of Omega-3, the essential long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid, is beneficial during pregnancy for its well known antioxidant capacity, yet the present work aims at underscoring the adverse maternal biochemical and fetal teratological traits arising in consequence of excessive Omega-3 peri conceptional supplementation, some of which resemble various oxidative stress induced harmful effects of the prenatal maternal whole body gamma irradiation during the sensitive period of organogenesis. In the present study, adult Sprague Dawley female rats were randomized into 3 groups, one of which served as pregnant control (Group 1) whereas another one was orally administered with Omega-3 (0.5 g / kg /day) for 45 consecutive days (25 days preconception + 20 days of pregnancy) (Group 2) while the third group was subjected to 4 Gy whole body gamma irradiation on the 15th gestational day (Group 3). Five rats of each group were sacrificed after 20 days of gestation. The results revealed that both Omega-3 administration for 45 consecutive days or gamma radiation exposure resulted in a remarkable decrease in maternal blood Glutathione (GSH) content and Catalase accompanied by a significant elevation in maternal plasma Malonaldehyde (MDA), Total Cholesterol, Triglycerides and LDL-Cholesterol levels when compared to the control group. Accordingly, the fetuses of the Omega-3 treated mothers, despite their lively active appearance, showed the occurrence of unexpected abnormal malformed extremities, sharing this phenomenon with the fetuses of the irradiated mother group who showed an exceptional high mortality rate together with higher incidence of recorded growth defects. Thus it can be speculated that Omega-3 over supplementation, may be inadvisable in pregnancy time in a manner relative to some extent to the maternal gamma irradiation prohibition.

  1. A histochemical study of rat salivary gland acid phosphatase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isacsson, G

    1986-01-01

    Male Sprague-Dawley rats received 4 mg pilocarpine/100 g body wt intraperitoneally or physiological saline as control and were killed at various intervals. Acid phosphatase was reacted on frozen sections from soft palate, parotid and submandibular glands using sodium-alpha-naphthyl acid phosphate as substrate. Various inhibitors were added to the incubation medium. The strongest acid phosphatase activity was in the parotid gland acinar and proximal secretory duct cells; the mucous minor glands of the palate were completely negative. Activity was found in the acinar cells, proximal secretory duct cells, granular and striated duct and excretory duct cells. Pilocarpine injection slightly reduced the activity up to 6 h after injection. Cupric chloride added to the incubation medium lowered the overall activity. Fluoride and molybdate inhibited the acid phosphatase reaction in all structures. Tartrate inhibited the reaction in all structures except the submandibular striated duct cells. The tartrate-resistant activity may be a Na+K+-dependent ATPase involved in re-absorbing water and electrolytes from the primary saliva.

  2. Study of Anti-Fatigue Effect in Rats of Ferrous Chelates Including Hairtail Protein Hydrolysates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saibo Huang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The ability of ferrous chelates including hairtail protein hydrolysates to prevent and reduce fatigue was studied in rats. After hydrolysis of hairtail surimi with papain, the hairtail protein hydrolysates (HPH were separated into three groups by range of relative molecular weight using ultrafiltration membrane separation. Hairtail proteins were then chelated with ferrous ions, and the antioxidant activity, the amino acid composition and chelation rate of the three kinds of ferrous chelates including hairtail protein hydrolysates (Fe-HPH were determined. Among the three groups, the Fe-HPH chelate showing the best conditions was selected for the anti-fatigue animal experiment. For it, experimental rats were randomly divided into seven groups. Group A was designated as the negative control group given distilled water. Group B, the positive control group, was given glutathione. Groups C, D and E were designated as the Fe-HPH chelate treatment groups and given low, medium, and high doses, respectively. Group F was designated as HPH hydrolysate treatment group, and Group G was designated as FeCl2 treatment group. The different diets were orally administered to rats for 20 days. After that time, rats were subjected to forced swimming training after 1 h of gavage. Rats given Fe-FPH chelate had higher haemoglobin regeneration efficiency (HRE, longer exhaustive swimming time and higher SOD activity. Additionally, Fe-FPH chelate was found to significantly decrease the malondialdehyde content, visibly enhance the GSH-Px activity in liver and reduce blood lactic acid of rats. Fe-HPH chelate revealed an anti-fatigue effect, similar to or better than the positive control substance and superior to HPH or Fe when provided alone.

  3. A preliminary 13-week oral toxicity study of ginger oil in male and female Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeena, Kottarapat; Liju, Vijayastelter B; Kuttan, Ramadasan

    2011-12-01

    Zingiber officinale Roscoe, ginger, is a major spice extensively used in traditional medicine. The toxicity profile of ginger oil was studied by subchronic oral administration for 13 weeks at doses of 100, 250, and 500 mg/kg per day to 6 groups of Wistar rats (5/sex per dose). Separate groups of rats (5/sex per group) received either paraffin oil (vehicle) or were untreated and served as comparative control groups. There was no mortality and no decrease in body weight or food consumption as well as selective organ weights during the study period. Administration of ginger oil to rats did not produce any treatment-related changes in hematological parameters, hepatic, renal functions, serum electrolytes, or in histopathology of selected organs. The major component of ginger oil was found to be zingiberene (31.08%), and initial studies indicated the presence of zingiberene in the serum after oral dosing. These results confirmed that ginger oil is not toxic to male and female rats following subchronic oral administrations of up to 500 mg/kg per day (no observed adverse effect level [NOAEL]).

  4. Cone function studied with flicker electroretinogram during progressive retinal degeneration in RCS rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinilla, I; Lund, R D; Sauvé, Y

    2005-01-01

    The Royal College of Surgeons (RCS) rat has a primary defect in retinal pigment epithelial cells that leads to the progressive loss of photoreceptors and central visual responsiveness. While most rods are lost by 90 days of age (P90), cones degenerate more slowly, and can be detected anatomically up to 2 years of age, despite massive neuronal death and retinal remodelling. To examine how this progressive degenerative process impacts on cone function, we recorded the electroretingram to white light flashes (1.37 log cd s m(-2)) presented at frequencies ranging from 3 to 50 Hz, under light adapted conditions (29.8 cd m(-2)). Pigmented dystrophic and congenic non-dystrophic RCS rats aged from 18 to 300 days were studied. In all responsive animals at all ages, maximal amplitudes were obtained at 3 Hz. In both non-dystrophic and dystrophic rats, there was an increase from P18 to P21 in response amplitude and critical fusion frequency. After P21, these two parameters declined progressively with age in dystrophic rats. Other changes included prolongation in latency, which was first detected prior to the initiation of amplitude reduction. While phase shifts were also detected in dystrophic RCS rats, they appeared at later degenerative stages. The latest age at which responses could be elicited in dystrophic rats was at P200, with positive waves being replaced by negative deflections. The effect of increments in the intensity of background illumination was tested at P50 in both groups. This caused a diminution in flicker response amplitude and critical fusion frequencies in non-dystrophics, while in dystrophic animals, response amplitudes were reduced only at low frequencies and critical fusion frequencies were unaltered. In conclusion, although dystrophic RCS rats undergo a progressive decline in cone function with age, the flicker responsiveness at P21 is comparable to that of non-dystrophic congenic rats, suggesting normal developmental maturation of the cone system in

  5. Immunotoxicological studies of genetically modified rice expressing PHA-E lectin or Bt toxin in Wistar rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kroghsbo, Stine; Madsen, Charlotte Bernhard; Poulsen, Morten

    2008-01-01

    As part of the SAFOTEST project the immunmodulating effect of Cry1Ab protein from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) and PHA-E lectin from kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris erythroagglutinin) was examined in 28- and 90-day feeding studies in Wistar rats. PHA-E lectin was chosen as positive control. Rats...

  6. A combined phytohemagglutinin and a-ketoglutarate pharmacology study of gut morphology and growth in older adult rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filip, R.; Harrison, Adrian Paul; Pierzynowski, S.G.

    2008-01-01

    This study has evaluated the effect of phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) in combination with alpha-ketoglutaric acid (AKG), on GI-tract morphology and N balance in adult rats. Rats, aged approx. 15 months, were assigned to one of four experimental groups, (1) Control group, (2) AKG group, (3) AKG+PHA 100...

  7. Determination and pharmacokinetic study of catechin in rat plasma by HPLC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Xie

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available A high performance liquid chromatographic method was developed and validated for the quantitative determination of catechin in rat plasma and its pharmacokinetic study after intragastric administration of Catechu and Xiongdanjiangre Wan into SD rats. Plasma samples were prepared by protein precipitation using methanol–5% aqueous zinc sulfate (70:30, v/v as precipitant. Chromatographic separation was achieved on Hypersil C18 column (250 mm×4.6 mm, 10 μm with acetonitrile–water–triethylamine (6:94:0.3, v/v/v, pH 4.0±0.1, adjusted with phosphoric acid as mobile phase, followed by a UV detection at 207 nm. Good linearity was obtained over the range of 0.143–7.15 mg/L of catechin, with correlation coefficient of 0.9992. The method was simple, sensitive, accurate and reproducible and has been successfully applied to the pharmacokinetic study of catechin in rat plasma. Keywords: HPLC, Determination, Pharmacokinetic, Catechin, Rat, Plasma

  8. Toxicity studies of the water extract from the calyces of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sireeratawong, Seewaboon; Itharat, Arunporn; Khonsung, Parirat; Lertprasertsuke, Nirush; Jaijoy, Kanjana

    2013-01-01

    Acute and chronic toxicities of the water extract from calyces of Hibiscus sabdariffa were studied in male and female rats. After 14 days of a single oral administration of test substance 5,000 mg/kg body weight, measurement of the body and organ weights, necropsy and health monitoring were performed. No signs and differences of the weights or behaviour compared to the control rats were observed. The results indicated that the single oral administration of H. sabdariffa extract in the amount of 5,000 mg/kg body weight does not produce acute toxicity. The chronic toxicity was determined by oral feeding both male and female rats daily with the extract at the doses of 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg body weight for 270 days. The examinations of signs, animal behaviour and health monitoring showed no defects in the test groups compared to the control groups. Both test and control groups (day 270th) and satellite group (day 298th) were analysed by measuring their final body and organ weights, taking necropsy, and examining haematology, blood clinical chemistry, and microanatomy. Results showed no differences from the control groups. Overall, our study demonstrated that an oral administration of H. sabdariffa extract at the doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight for 270 days does not cause chronic toxicity in rat.

  9. Sequential changes in ischemic edema following transient focal cerebral ischemia in rats; Magnetic resonance imaging study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagahiro, Shinji; Goto, Satoshi; Kogo, Kasei; Sumi, Minako; Takahashi, Mutsumasa; Ushio, Yukitaka [Kumamoto Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    1994-07-01

    Sequential and regional changes in ischemic edema following various durations of focal cerebral ischemia were studied by magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in a rat unilateral intraluminal middle cerebral artery occlusion model. Occlusion was performed from 5 minutes to 5 hours. T[sub 2]-weighted images were obtained chronologically 6 hours after onset of ischemia, on day 1 and day 7. An immunohistochemical study using antibodies to calcineurin and glial fibrillary acidic protein was performed to observe histological changes in the ischemic brain. The T[sub 2] high-signal-intensity areas representing ischemic edema were observed in the lateral striatum and/or the cerebral cortex by day 1 in all rats with 1- to 5-hour ischemia, and the areas were larger and detected earlier with longer durations of ischemia. In three of six rats with 15-minute ischemia and five of six rats with 30-minute ischemia, the T[sub 2] high-signal-intensity areas appeared transiently on day 1 in the dorsolateral striatum where loss of neurons expressing calcineurin immunoreactivity and associated gliosis were found. MR imaging in animal models of reversible focal ischemia can achieve sequential and noninvasive evaluation of dynamic regional changes in ischemic edema. (author).

  10. Initial studies using the RatCAP conscious animal PET tomograph

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woody, C. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States)]. E-mail: woody@bnl.gov; Vaska, P. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States); Schlyer, D. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States); Pratte, J.-F. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States); Junnarkar, S. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States); Park, S.-J. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States); Stoll, S. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States); Purschke, M. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States); Southekal, S. [Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY (United States); Kriplani, A. [Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY (United States); Krishnamoorthy, S. [Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY (United States); Maramraju, S. [Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY (United States); Lee, D. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States); Schiffer, W. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States); Dewey, S. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States); Neill, J. [Long Island University, Brookville, NY (United States); Kandasamy, A. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States); O' Connor, P. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States); Radeka, V. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States); Fontaine, R. [Sherbrooke University, Sherbrooke, Que. (Canada); Lecomte, R. [Sherbrooke University, Sherbrooke, Que. (Canada)

    2007-02-01

    The RatCAP is a small, head-mounted PET tomograph designed to image the brain of a conscious rat without the use of anesthesia. The detector is a complete, high-performance 3D tomograph consisting of a 3.8 cm inside-diameter ring containing 12 block detectors, each of which is comprised of a 4x8 array of 2.2x2.2x5 mm{sup 3} LSO crystals readout with a matching APD array and custom ASIC, and has a 1.8 cm axial field of view. Construction of the first working prototype detector has been completed and its performance characteristics have been measured. The results show an intrinsic spatial resolution of 2.1 mm, a time resolution of {approx}14 ns FWHM, and a sensitivity of 0.7% at an energy threshold of 150 keV. First preliminary images have been obtained using {sup 18}F-FDG and {sup 11}C-methamphetamine, which show comparable image quality to those obtained from a commercial MicroPET R4 scanner. Initial studies have also been carried out to study stress levels in rats wearing the RatCAP.

  11. Initial studies using the RatCAP conscious animal PET tomograph

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woody, C.; Vaska, P.; Schlyer, D.; Pratte, J.-F.; Junnarkar, S.; Park, S.-J.; Stoll, S.; Purschke, M.; Southekal, S.; Kriplani, A.; Krishnamoorthy, S.; Maramraju, S.; Lee, D.; Schiffer, W.; Dewey, S.; Neill, J.; Kandasamy, A.; O'Connor, P.; Radeka, V.; Fontaine, R.; Lecomte, R.

    2007-01-01

    The RatCAP is a small, head-mounted PET tomograph designed to image the brain of a conscious rat without the use of anesthesia. The detector is a complete, high-performance 3D tomograph consisting of a 3.8 cm inside-diameter ring containing 12 block detectors, each of which is comprised of a 4x8 array of 2.2x2.2x5 mm 3 LSO crystals readout with a matching APD array and custom ASIC, and has a 1.8 cm axial field of view. Construction of the first working prototype detector has been completed and its performance characteristics have been measured. The results show an intrinsic spatial resolution of 2.1 mm, a time resolution of ∼14 ns FWHM, and a sensitivity of 0.7% at an energy threshold of 150 keV. First preliminary images have been obtained using 18 F-FDG and 11 C-methamphetamine, which show comparable image quality to those obtained from a commercial MicroPET R4 scanner. Initial studies have also been carried out to study stress levels in rats wearing the RatCAP

  12. Neural correlates of sensorimotor gating: A metabolic positron emission tomography study in awake rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cathrin eRohleder

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Impaired sensorimotor gating occurs in neuropsychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia and can be measured using the prepulse inhibition (PPI paradigm of the acoustic startle response. This assay is frequently used to validate animal models of neuropsychiatric disorders and to explore the therapeutic potential of new drugs. The underlying neural network of PPI has been extensively studied with invasive methods and genetic modifications. However, its relevance for healthy untreated animals and the functional interplay between startle- and PPI-related areas during a PPI session is so far unknown. Therefore, we studied awake rats in a PPI paradigm, startle control and background noise control, combined with behavioral [18F]fluoro-2-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET. Subtractive analyses between conditions were used to identify brain regions involved in startle and PPI processing in well-hearing Black hooded rats. For correlative analysis with regard to the amount of PPI we also included hearing-impaired Lister hooded rats that startled more often, because their hearing threshold was just below the lowest prepulses. Metabolic imaging showed that the brain areas proposed for startle and PPI mediation are active during PPI paradigms in healthy untreated rats. More importantly, we show for the first time that the whole PPI modulation network is active during passive PPI sessions, where no selective attention to prepulse or startle stimulus is required. We conclude that this reflects ongoing monitoring of stimulus significance and constant adjustment of sensorimotor gating.

  13. Dietary restriction of choline reduces hippocampal acetylcholine release in rats: in vivo microdialysis study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, A; Suzuki, Y; Umegaki, H; Ikari, H; Tajima, T; Endo, H; Iguchi, A

    2001-12-01

    We fed rats with a diet deficient in choline for 12 weeks and studied how dietary choline deficiency affected their behavior and their ability to release acetylcholine in discrete regions of rat brain using step-through passive avoidance task and in vivo microdialysis. In comparison with the control, rats fed the choline-deficient diet showed poorer retention of nociceptive memory in the passive avoidance task. Average choline level in cerebrospinal fluid in the choline-deficient group was significantly less (33.1%) than that of control rats. In vivo microdialysis showed no difference in the pattern of acetylcholine release enhanced by intraperitoneal administration of scopolamine hydrochloride (2 mg/kg) in the striatum between the two groups, whereas in the hippocampus, the maximum and subsequent increase of acetylcholine from the baseline by scopolamine injection was significantly lower in the choline-deficient group than in the control. From the results of our study, we speculate that long-term dietary restriction of choline can affect extra- and intracellular sources of substrates required for acetylcholine synthesis, and eventually limit the ability to release acetylcholine in the hippocampus. Reduced capacity to release acetylcholine in the hippocampus implies that the mechanism, maintaining acetylcholine synthesis on increased neuronal demand, may vary in discrete regions of the brain in response to dietary manipulation. The vulnerability of the mechanism in the hippocampus to dietary choline restriction is indicated by impaired mnemonic performance we observed.

  14. Evidence for oral agmatine sulfate safety--a 95-day high dosage pilot study with rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilad, Gad M; Gilad, Varda H

    2013-12-01

    Agmatine, decarboxylated arginine, exerts beneficial effects in various experimental disease models. Clinical trials indicate the safety and effectiveness of short-term (up to 21 days) high dose regimens of oral agmatine sulfate, but longer term studies are lacking. This pilot study undertook to assess the safety of a longer term high dosage oral agmatine sulfate in laboratory rats. Adult Wistar rats consumed 5.3 g/l agmatine sulfate in their drinking water for 95 days, a regimen estimated to result in a daily dosage of absorbed agmatine of about 100mg/kg. Animals' body weight, water consumption and blood pressure were periodically measured, and general cage behavior, fur appearance, urination and feces appearance monitored. These parameters were also determined at 20 days after treatment cessation (day 115). On days 95 and 115, animals were euthanized for gross necropsy assessment. Agmatine-treated rats showed slight, but significant reductions in body weight and blood pressure, and reduced water consumption during treatment, which recovered completely within 20 days after treatment cessation. Otherwise, no abnormal behaviors or organ pathologies were observed. These findings are first to suggest apparent safety of sub-chronic high dosage dietary agmatine sulfate in laboratory rats, thus lending further support to the therapeutic applications of agmatine. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Study of Cyclooxygenase-2 Expression in Sprague Dawley Rat Gastric Cancer Induced by H. Pylori

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    Pooladi A

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Gastric cancer is one of the most common gastrointestinal tumors; the incidence and mortality of gastric cancer are on the increase nowadays. Helicobacter pylori(H.Pylori causes chronic active gastritis and peptic ulcer disease. Cycloocygenase-2 (COX-2 is the central enzyme in the biosynthetic pathway to prostaglandins. Studies from different laboratories suggested that over-expression of COX-2 was detected in colon and other tumors. To obtain direct evidence concerning this relationship, we investigated the immunohistochemical findings of gastric mucosa using an animal model of gastric cancer induced by H. pylori in sprague dawley rat.Methods: The rats were randomly assigned into three groups(n=5. Those of experimental group2 were given MNU. one week after completion of MNU administration, rats in experimental groups 1 were inoculated with H. pylori three times every other day. Rats in control group(group 3 received neither MNU nor H. pylori. Rats of groups 1, 2, and control group were maintained on standard diets throughout the experiment. Rat were weighed and sacrificed under anesthesia with ether at 20 weeks after infection. One half of the excised stomachs, were fixed in neutral-buffered 10% formalin and were cut into approximately six strips, which were processed by standard methods, embedded in paraffin, sectioned at 6 µm, and stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E and immunohistochemistry for Cox-2 protein detection. To confirm H. pylori infection, samples ( 3-mm2 of stomach mucosa transferred to appropriate medium and Colonies were identified by characteristic Gram’s stain morphology, and by urease, catalase, and oxidase activity sample was also placed into the gel of a rapid urease test kit.Results: Data showed a significant decrease of animal body weight in experimental groups compared with control group. Histopathological studies showed severe infiltration of the lamina propria and submucusaal layer by

  16. Study of Cyclooxygenase-2 Expression in Sprague Dawley Rat Gastric Cancer Induced by H. Pylori

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Aeini

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available

    Background and Objectives: Gastric cancer is one of the most common gastrointestinal tumors; the incidence and mortality of gastric cancer are on the increase nowadays. Helicobacter pylori(H.Pylori causes chronic active gastritis and peptic ulcer disease. Cycloocygenase-2 (COX-2 is the central enzyme in the biosynthetic pathway to prostaglandins. Studies from different laboratories suggested that over-expression of COX-2 was detected in colon and other tumors. To obtain direct evidence concerning this relationship, we investigated the immunohistochemical findings of gastric mucosa using an animal model of gastric cancer induced by H. pylori in sprague dawley rat. Methods: The rats were randomly assigned into three groups(n=5. Those of experimental group2 were given MNU. one week after completion of MNU administration, rats in experimental groups 1 were inoculated with H. pylori three times every other day. Rats in control group(group 3 received neither MNU nor H. pylori. Rats of groups 1, 2, and control group were maintained on standard diets throughout the experiment. Rat were weighed and sacrificed under anesthesia with ether at 20 weeks after infection. One half of the excised stomachs, were fixed in neutral-buffered 10% formalin and were cut into approximately six strips, which were processed by standard methods, embedded in paraffin, sectioned at 6 µm, and stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E and immunohistochemistry for Cox-2 protein detection. To confirm H. pylori infection, samples ( 3-mm2 of stomach mucosa transferred to appropriate medium  and Colonies were identified by characteristic Gram’s stain morphology, and by urease, catalase, and oxidase activity sample was also placed into the gel of a rapid urease test kit. Results: Data showed a significant decrease of animal body weight in experimental groups compared with control group

  17. A biochemical study on the gastroprotective effect of andrographolide in rats induced with gastric ulcer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saranya, P; Geetha, A; Selvamathy, S M K Narmadha

    2011-09-01

    The major objective of the study was to evaluate the gastroprotective property of andrographolide, a chief component of the leaves of Andrographis paniculata in terms of the ulcer preventive effect in rats. An acute toxicity test was conducted with different concentrations of andrographolide to determine the LD(50) value. The dose responsive study was conducted in rats pretreated with andrographolide (1, 3 and 5 mg/kg) for a period of 30 days, prior to ulcer induction by administering ethanol, aspirin or by pyloric ligation. The ulcer protective efficacy was tested by determining the ulcer score, pH, pepsin, titrable acidity, gastric mucin, lipid peroxides, reduced glutathione, and enzymatic antioxidants superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase in gastric tissue. The activities of H(+)-K(+) ATPase and myeloperoxidase were also determined in gastric tissue. The LD(50) value was found to be 48 mg/kg b. wt and the effective dose was found to be 3 mg/kg. We have observed a significant reduction in the ulcer score in rats pretreated with 3 mg of andrographolide/kg body weight. A favourable increase in the pH and decrease in titrable acidity were observed in the gastric fluid of rats pretreated with the test drug. The gastric tissue H(+)-K(+) ATPase and myeloperoxidase activities were elevated in ulcer-induced animals. The elevation in the enzyme activity was significantly minimized in the andrographolide received animals. The antioxidants and mucin levels were significantly maintained in the gastric tissue of drug-pretreated animals. Andrographolide did not produce any toxic effects in normal rats. This study reveals that the ulcer preventive efficacy of andrographolide may probably due to its antioxidant, cytoprotective and antiacid secretory effects.

  18. Teratological effects of exposure to 20 mT, 50 Hz magnetic fields in CD1 mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kowalczuk, C.I.; Sienkiewicz, Z.J.; Robbins, L.; Butland, B.K.; Haylock, R.G.E.; Thomas, J.M.; Saunders, R.D.

    1992-09-01

    Pregnant CD1 mice were exposed or sham-exposed for all or nearly all of the period of gestation to a 20 mT, 50 Hz magnetic fields. Pre-implantation and post-implantation survival rates were assessed, and fetuses examined for the presence of gross external, internal and skeletal abnormalities. Other pregnancies were allowed to come to term and the offspring assessed for the appearance of certain developmental indices and reflexive behaviours; at a later stage, simple assessments of juvenile and adult behaviour were carried out. The study revealed no statistically significant field-dependent effects on pre-implantation or post-implantation survival, sex ratio, or the incidence of internal or skeletal abnormalities. Magnetic field exposure was, however, associated with longer and heavier fetuses at term with fewer external abnormalities and an increased incidence of one class of supernumerary ribs. The postnatal behaviour tests revealed two minor field-dependent effects. From a comparison with other studies, it was considered that most of the above effects were due to chance, a result of the spurious significance seen when large numbers of tests are analysed separately. However, the reduction in the number of external abnormalities in the exposed group was highly significant. This effect has not been reported in other studies and might reflect differences in the selection of exposed and sham-exposed groups; however, an effect of magnetic field exposure cannot be dismissed. In general, the results of the present and other studies of mice and rats suggest that exposure for the duration of pregnancy to power frequency magnetic fields and other extremely low frequency (ELF) fields of up to 20 mT does not increase the incidence of postnatal death or the incidence of gross external, internal or skeletal abnormalities. Similar conclusions can be derived from studies carried out by other authors about the possible effects on pregnancy outcome of exposure to RF fields of 18

  19. Developmental toxicity study of D-tagatose in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger, C L; Whittaker, M H; Frankos, V H; Schroeder, R E

    1999-04-01

    D-tagatose is a low-calorie sweetener that tastes like sucrose. The developmental toxicity of D-tagatose was investigated in Crl:CD(SD)BR rats administered D-tagatose at three dose levels (4000, 12,000, and 20,000 mg/kg body wt/day) via gastric intubation on days 6-15 of gestation. No compound-related toxicity was seen among any of the maternal groups. No treatment-related clinical effects were seen in the maternal animals at the 4000 mg/kg/day dose level. At the mid- and high-dose levels, most maternal animals had unformed or watery stools; this effect was most prominent early in the treatment period (Gestation Days 6-8). This effect was attributed to the osmotic effect of the large amount of D-tagatose given to the animals at these doses. Since D-tagatose is not digested or absorbed to a large extent, most of the sugar passes into the colon where it absorbs water and is fermented by colonic bacteria. Mean weight gain for the low- and mid-dose animals was comparable to the control; however, the high-dose group experienced a mean weight loss over the Gestation Day 6-9 interval. Over the entire treatment interval, however, mean weight gain for the high-dose animals was comparable to control. The decreased weight gain in the high-dose animals during the Gestation Day 6-9 interval was considered to be a direct result of laxation. In addition to the effect of laxation on body weight, reduced food consumption also contributed to the decreased weight gain. In the low-dose animals, no effect on food consumption was seen; however, both mid- and high-dose animals had food consumption values that were statistically significantly lower than the control. Food consumption was lowest during the Gestation Day 6-9 interval, the period when laxation was most prominent. Food consumption rebounded and was statistically significantly higher than the control for the mid- and high-dose animals during the posttreatment interval. Maternal liver weight for the low-dose animals was

  20. The rat as animal model in breast cancer research: a histopathological study of radiation- and hormone-induced rat mammary tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zwieten, M.J. van.

    1984-01-01

    One of the goals of this monograph is to present data on the frequency of mammary neoplasms following irradiation and/or hormone administration in intact and castrated female rats of three strains allowed to live their natural life spans. These data are intended to give an overview of the effects of radiation and hormonal manipulation on the mammary gland based on histological examination of necropsied rats and using standard morphological criteria for mammary tumors. The second goal of this monograph is to provide detailed histological descriptions of the mammary tumors found in the various experimental groups as well as in several groups of untreated control rats. The aims are to examine whether possible strain-related and treatment-related differences in morphology or growth patterns exist, as well as to define the pathogensis of radiation-induced rat mammary tumors through the study of early lesions. An attempt will be made to describe tumor characteristics which may be of comparative value in identifying tumor types (and their induction methods) useful as models for specific human breast neoplasms. A rat mammary tumor classification system reflecting the morphological features useful for comparative purposes is also presented. (Auth.)

  1. Studies on the pathogenicity of anaerobes, especially Prevotella bivia, in a rat pyometra model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikamo, H; Kawazoe, K; Izumi, K; Watanabe, K; Ueno, K; Tamaya, T

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Prevotella bivia is one of the anaerobic bacteria that resides in the flora of the female genital tract. We studied the pathogenicity of P. bivia in a rat pyometra model. METHODS: The experimental animal (rat) model of pyometra was developed to investigate the pathogenicity of P. bivia in a rat pyometra model. RESULTS: In the groups inoculated with aerobes alone, the infection rate was 10% (1/10) in the Staphylococcus aureus- or Staphylococcus agalactiae-inoculated group and 20% (2/10) in the Escherichia coli-inoculated group. Infection was not established in the groups inoculated with anaerobes alone. High infection rates were observed in all the mixed-infection groups. In the S. agalactiae- and Bacteroides fragilis-, S. agalactiae- and P. bivia-, F. coli- and B. fragilis-, and E. coli- and P. bivia-inoculated groups, an infection rate of 100% (10/10) was demonstrated. The efficacy of antibiotics such as flomoxef (FMOX) could be determined using a rat pyometra model. In relation to the alteration of vaginal microbial flora during the menstrual cycle, estrogen increased the growth of P. bivia. CONCLUSION: Mixture of aerobic bacteria and P. bivia increased the pathogenicity of P. bivia. Estrogen would be useful for raising up the inflammatory change of the uterus in experimental models of genital tract infection due to P. bivia. PMID:9702587

  2. Histomorphologic study of the parotide glands of young rats exposed of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roslindo, E.B.; Utrilla, L.S.; Roslindo, N.C.; Onofre, M.A.

    1989-01-01

    A study was performed on rats to verify the effects of ionizing radiation on the structure of the parotid glands of young rats. Thirty twenty five-day old rats (Holtzman) were equally distributed into two experimental groups: Group 1 - irradiated; Group II - control. Using a conventional X-ray apparatus, the region of the parotid glands was irradiated with a dose of 300 R, this procedure was repeated every 48 hours up to an exposition of 1200 R. After periods of 3, 8, 13, 18, and 28 days, the animals belonging to both groups were sacrificed and the parotid glands removed and fixed in 10% formalin and Bouin liquid for 24 hours. The sections were stained by hematoxylin and eosin and Mallory's Thricromic, allowing analysis through the usual optical microscope. The following conclusions may be drawn through the methodology used: the Group 1 - rats gained body weight uniformly after the 13 sup(th) day, although this was not equivalent to the control group; the critical phase of glandular disorganization determined by irradiation corresponded to the experimental period of 8 days, decreasing in the subsequent days; the serous acini and the striated ducts showed to be more radium sensitive even under the use of low fractionated doses; the parotid glands showed indications of gradual morphological recovery after the last exposition to X-rays. (author)

  3. Experimental study of the protective effects of Zhongfei decoction on radiation-induced pneumonia in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yuezhen; Ma Shenglin; Zhang Aiqin; Feng Jianguo; Fang Xianhua; Sun Xiaojiang; Bao Yejiang

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the protective effect and its possible mechanism of ZhongFei Decoction on radiation-induced pneumonia in rats. Methods: Single irradiation was given at two thorax of female Wistar rats with 30 Gy of 6 MV X irradiation. Sixty rats were randomly divided into the control group, radiation group, radiation plus DXM and ZhongFei Decoction plus radiation group. On days 14 and 28 after treatment, 5 rats of each group were sacrificed, and their lungs were harvested for measurement of the lung index, the difference of the histopathology change, the concentration of hydroxyproline (hyp), and expression of transforming growth factor-β1 in lungs were analyzed by HE stain, biochemical method and immunohistochemical method, respectively. Results: The pathological study showed marked lung injury in the radiation group while only slight hyperemia hemorrhage, exudation and thickness of alveolar walls in the lungs of ZhongFei Decoction plus radiation group, the concentration of hydroxyproline and expression of TGF-β1 in the radiation lungs increased compared with that in the control group and reduced in the ZhongFei Decoction plus radiation group compared with that in the radiation group. Conclusions: ZhongFei Decoction could have protective effects on the radiation-induced pneumonia and the mechanism of its may be related with down-regulating the expression of TGF-β1 in the irritated lung tissue. (authors)

  4. Effects of diuron on male rat reproductive organs: a developmental and postnatal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Glaura S A; Favareto, Ana Paula A; Fernandez, Carla D B; Bellentani, Fernanda F; Arena, Arielle C; Grassi, Tony F; Kempinas, Wilma G; Barbisan, Luís F

    2012-01-01

    This study was performed to determine whether developmental exposure (perinatal and juvenile) to the herbicide diuron exerted adverse effects on adult rat male reproductive system. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats received basal diet or diet containing diuron at 500 or 750 ppm from gestational day 12 (GD 12) until the end of lactation period (postnatal day 21, PND 21). After weaning male offspring received basal diet or diet containing diuron until PND 42 (peripubertal age). At PND 90, adult male rats from each experimental group were anesthetized and euthanized for evaluation of body and reproductive organ weights, sperm parameters, plasma testosterone levels, and testicular and epididymal histopathology. Male offspring exposed to diuron at 750 ppm displayed reduced body weight at PND 10, 21, 42, and 90 compared to controls. At PND 90, diuron treatment did not induce significant change in daily sperm production, sperm morphology and motility, and testosterone levels compared to controls. In conclusion, diuron at 750 ppm induced male offspring toxicity but these alterations were not permanent, as evidenced by absence of reproductive-system alterations in adult Sprague Dawley rats.

  5. The effect of therapeutic ultrasound on metallic implants: a study in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocaoğlu, Barış; Cabukoglu, Cengiz; Ozeras, Nadire; Seyhan, Mustafa; Karahan, Mustafa; Yalcin, Selim

    2011-11-01

    To investigate whether therapeutic ultrasound (US) use over metallic implants has the potential for adverse effects as a result of greater temperature increases at the tissue-metal interface. A randomized controlled trial. A research laboratory. Sprague-Dawley rats (N=40; weight, 230-300g) were used and divided into 3 study groups. In group 1, both limbs of 10 rats were used for evaluation of temperature changes. Metal pins were placed into the femur of the left limb, and the right limbs were used as controls. A thermal sensor was placed into the medulla to record the elevation of tissue temperature during US application. In groups 2 and 3 with 15 rats in each, a midshaft femoral fracture was produced, and intramedullary fixation was performed with metal pins. Group 2 received US treatment for 5 minutes daily and continued for 27 days. Group 3 served as controls. The rats in groups 2 and 3 were killed on postoperative day 30. The specimens were evaluated by radiology, histopathology, and biomechanics. The presence of metal in bone did not cause an increased temperature rise. US application did not increase or decrease callus formation, and there was no tissue necrosis. The average removal torques of pins in groups did not show a significant difference. Internal fixation with metallic implants may not be a contraindication for therapeutic US treatment. Copyright © 2011 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Biochemical Studies on Rosemary Extracts as an Antioxidant in Irradiated Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abady, M.M.; Zahran, A.M.; Mansour, S.Z.; Ragab, E.A.

    2003-01-01

    The antioxidant properties of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) essential oil and crude ethanolic extract, have been attributed to its phenolic diterpene, carnosol, carnosic acid, caffeic acid and its derivatives such as rosmarinic acid. These aroma compounds were identified to protect biological membranes from oxidative stress in addition to divers pharmacological and therapeutic activities. This study was undertaken to investigate the effect of natural extract derived from rosemary herb, as an antioxidant defensive element in irradiated rats. Mixture of essential oil and hydroalcoholic extract was orally administered to rats by gavage (150 mg/kg B.w.) for 35 days before exposure to the first fraction of irradiation exposure and during the whole period of irradiation treatment (12 days). Whole body irradiation was delivered as fractionated doses at 1 Gy increment every other day up to total cumulative dose of 6 Gy. Changes in the content of reduced glutathion (GSH), glutathion peroxidase (GSHPx), glucose -6- phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PD), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (Cat.) in blood, liver and spleen were evaluated in different rat groups. The results revealed that transient noticeable increase during the 1st hour post irradiation in the aforementioned parameters, followed by significant decrease recorded after 7 days. Rats supplemented rosemary extract before irradiation have significantly ameliorate the radiation induced depletion in the antioxidant component system

  7. Effect of Gallic Acid on Dementia Type of Alzheimer Disease in Rats: Electrophysiological and Histological Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajipour, Somayeh; Sarkaki, Alireza; Farbood, Yaghoob; Eidi, Akram; Mortazavi, Pejman; Valizadeh, Zohreh

    2016-04-01

    To study the effect of gallic acid (GA) on hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) and histological changes in animal model of Alzheimer disease (AD) induced by beta-amyloid (Aβ). Sixty-four adult male Wistar rats (300±20 g) were divided into 8 groups: 1) Control (Cont); 2) AD; 3) Sham; 4-7) AD+GA (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg for 10 days, orally) or vehicle, 8) Cont+GA100, Aβ (1μg/μL in each site) was infused into hippocampus bilaterally. Changes of amplitude and slope of LTP induced in hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) were evaluated by high frequency stimulation (HFS) of perforant path (PP). Data showed that LTP amplitude and area under curve significantly impaired in AD rats (P<0.001), while significantly improved in AD rats treated with GA (P<0.05, P<0.01). Current findings suggest that GA reduces neural damage and brain amyloid neuropathology and improves cognitive function via free radicals scavenging and inhibiting oligomerization of Aβ but with no effect on healthy rats.

  8. Experimental study of Pinus densiflora Siebold et Zuccarini on Hyperlipidemia and lipid in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim, Dae-Hyun

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the effects of Pinus densiflora on hyperlipidemia and lipid in rats, we divided the rats into groups(Normal group, Control group and Sample group and perfomed the experimental research. Hyperlipidemia and lipid in rats were induced by high fat diets for 8weeks. The sample group was administerd the extract of Pinus densiflora for 14 days and control group was administerd equal dose of oral. And then we measured the amount of serum triglyceride, Total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, Free Fatty Acid, phospholipid, Insuline, Laptin, Body weight, epididymis fat weight & rate, epididymis fat cell, Cardiac Risk Factor(CRF. The results were as followers : 1. Sample Group showed decreasing effects on Total cholesterol, Trigylceride, LDL-cholesterol, and Phospholipid levels in serum and CRF significantly. 2. Sample Group showed increasing effects on HDL-cholesterol level in serum significantly. 3. Sample Group showed decreasing effects on Insuline in serum significantly. 4. Sample Group showed increasing effects on Laptin in serum significantly. 5. Sample Group showed decreasing effects on Body weight, epididymis fat weight & rate, epididymis fat cell significantly. According to the above results, Pinus densiflora showed significant decreasing effects on hyperlipidemia and lipid in rats, it is considered that it is appropriate to apply for hyperlipidemia, obesity.

  9. Taurine Attenuates Dimethylbenz[a]anthracene-induced Breast Tumorigenesis in Rats: A Plasma Metabolomic Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Y U; Li, Qingdi Quentin; Guo, Song Chao

    2016-02-01

    Breast cancer is the most common malignancy and the leading cause of cancer-related mortality in women worldwide. Taurine, the most abundant free amino acid, plays a role in several biological processes in humans and has been shown to have activity against breast cancer and other tumors. To investigate the role and mechanism of taurine action in breast cancer, we used dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced breast carcinogenesis in rats as a model of breast cancer. The administration of taurine significantly reduced the DMBA-induced breast cancer rate from 80% to 40% in rats (ptaurine-administered rats. Bioinformatic analysis further revealed that these metabolites are involved in multiple metabolic pathways, including energy, glucose, amino acid, and nucleic acid metabolism, suggesting that the antitumor activity of taurine in rats is mediated through altered metabolism of breast cancer cells. We propose that these differential metabolites may be potential biomarkers for monitoring cancer therapy and prognosis in the clinic. This study provides a scientific basis for further investigations of the antitumor mechanism of taurine and the development of novel therapeutic strategies to treat breast cancer. Copyright© 2016 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  10. Learning and memory enhancing activity of Ficus carica (Fig: An experimental study in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meera Sumanth

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The study aimed to assess the learning and memory enhancing activity of the ethanolic fruit extract of Ficus carica in rats using elevated plus maze (EPM, Hebb-William maze (HWM and Morris water maze (MWM. Materials and Methods: Wistar rats (100-150 g of either sex, were divided into 5 groups (n = 6. Group I (control animals received vehicle, Group II (scopolamine control animals received scopolamine (0.4 mg/kg i.p, Groups III and IV animals received ethanolic fruit extract of F. carica (200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg p.o and Group V animals received piracetam (400 mg/kg i.p for 27 days. The rats of Groups III-V were injected with a single dose of scopolamine (0.4 mg/kg i.p on 19 th and 27 th day. Assessment of transfer latency (TL, time taken to reach reward chamber (TRC and swim latency (SL was done on 19 th and 27 th day using EPM, HWM and MWM, respectively. The data was analyzed by one-way Analysis of Variance followed by Dunnett′s test. P ≤ 0.05 was considered to be significant. Results: Ethanolic fruit extract of F. carica decreased TL, TRC and SL in comparison to scopolamine treated rats. Conclusion: The fruit of F. carica enhanced learning and memory activity.

  11. Preliminary study of efficacy of hyaluronic acid on caustic esophageal burns in an experimental rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cevik, Muazez; Demir, Tuncer; Karadag, Cetin Ali; Ketani, Muzaffer Aydin; Celik, Hakim; Kaplan, Davut Sinan; Boleken, Mehmet Emin

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of hyaluronic acid on the prevention of esophageal damage and stricture formation after experimental caustic (alkaline) esophageal injury in rats. Twenty-one Wistar albino rats were randomly divided into three groups. A caustic esophageal burn was created following the Gehanno model: Group l (n=7) underwent operation, but no injury; Group 2 (n=7) was injured and left untreated; and Group 3 (n=7) was injured and treated with hyaluronic acid, first topically and then orally by gavage (2×0.3mL; 12.5mg/mL for 7days). The caustic esophageal burn was created by instilling 25% NaOH into the distal esophagus. All rats were euthanized on day 22 for evaluation. The efficacy of hyaluronic acid treatment was assessed histopathologically and biochemically via blood determination of the total antioxidant status (TAS), total oxidant status (TOS), oxidative stress index (OSI), and sulfhydryl group (SH) and lipid hydroperoxidase (LOOH) levels. Statistical analyses were performed. Weight gain was significantly lower in Group 2 than in the other two groups (POSI, and SH and LOOH levels were higher in Group 2 than in the other two groups. The mean stenosis index, inflammation, TAS, SH and OSI in Group 2 were significantly different than those in the other two groups (P<0.05). Hyaluronic acid treatment is effective in treating damage and preventing strictures after caustic esophageal burn in rats. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. A relative study of hepatic perfusion and portal vein pressure in rats with liver cirrhosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jiaping; Yang Jianyong; Chen Wei; Huang Yonghui

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate spiral CT perfusion in assessing portal vein pressure in rats with different stages of liver cirrhosis. Methods Seventeen rats with early stage of liver cirrhosis, 18 with intermediate stage, 12 with advanced stage, and 13 healthy rats as a control group were selected and recieved hepatic perfusion on a single-row spiral CT scanner. The parameters of hepatic perfusion were calculated using the deconvolution method. The portal vein pressure was measured by multi-physiographer. Results: (1) In study group, the PVP (portal venous perfusion) and THBP (total hepatic blood perfusion) were negatively correlated with FPP, while positively correlated with the HPI (hepatic perfusion index) and MTT (mean transit time). The FPP had a close relation with PVP. The equation, Y 20.671-3.195X, could be conducted with linear regression analysis. (2) According to the linear regression equation mentioned above, the FPP in 47 rats were 16.090±2.150 cmH 2 0, which was highly correlated with the observed valuel6.108±3.662 cmH 2 O (r=0.823 P<0.01). Conclusion: CT perfusion is a new non-invasive and efficient modality for assessment of the portal pressure in liver cirrhosis in various stages. (authors)

  13. Influence of X-radiation on the renal function as studied in the unilaterally nephrectomized rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sittner, A.

    1976-01-01

    The effects of X-ray radiation on the renal function was studied in 83 Wistar rats. The rats received either only whole-body irradiation or were exposed to whole-body irradiation at certain intervals after unilateral nephrectomy. When the interval between operation and irradiation was shortened from 10 to 2 days, early lethality increased, although it has not yet been established whether the operation or the lack of a kidney plays a greater role here. The weight behaviour of non-nephrectomized or unilaterally nephrectomized rats is a function of the radiation dose; inappetence, dehydration and decreased intestinal absorption are influencing factors. Animals that died had exhibited another loss of weight after the 10th day p.r. The non-nephrectomized rats having undergone whole-body irradiation exhibited a decrease in serum urea on the 2nd and 10th day p.r. Animals unilaterally nephrectomized and then exposed to whole-body irradiation exhibited an increase in serum urea which was the more pronounced the earlier irradiation had taken place after unilateral nephrectomy. This raised urea level in the nephrectomized animals may be attributed to the compensatory hypertrophy not yet existing and to the reduced filtrate. (orig.) [de

  14. Experimental study on the effect of x-irradiation in the rat bone matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    You, Dong Soo

    1979-01-01

    The author studied on the side effects of x-ray irradiation to the developing mandible of the gestation and period of grow the stage rats. For experimental observation, 100 rads, 200 rads, and 300 rads of x-ray were irradiated in regular order at the lower abdomen of the 8th day gestated rats. 5 weeks after conception, their offspring were sacrificed and their mandibles were extracted with intact form. All the extracted mandible were examined for their developing modes histological findings. The results were as followed; 1) In 10 -200 rads irradiated rats offsprings, their mandibles were not revealed any morphological changes except of the irregular pattern of trabeculatum. In accompany with this findings, most of all the fibroblasts and osteoclasts had their nucleus with shrunken and eccentric position. 2) In according to the increasing x-ray irradiation, marked advent of osteoclast and cortical bone remuamsorption were observed. 3) In 300 rads irradiated rats offsprings, there irregular pattern of trabeculae and widening of bone morrow cavity in their alveolar proper.

  15. Study of antidiarrheal and hematology profile of laboratory rat fed with yogurt containing local probiotic and purple sweet potato extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tari, A. I. N.; Handayani, C. B.; Hartati, S.

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of local probiotic in yogurt with purple sweet potato extract supplementation on the hematological parameters of albino rats (Spraque dawley). The study was conducted using a Completely Randomized Design with 30 rats divided into 6 groups. In group K-, rats were fed with distilled water from day 1 to 21. In group YTP, Rats were fed with yogurt without probiotics from day 1 to 21. YDP group was rats were fed with probiotic yogurt from day 1 to 21. In group YTP+E, rats were fed with yogurt without probiotic from day 1 to 7, interspersed with exposure to enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) on day 8 to 14. In group YDP+E, rats were fed with probiotic yogurt from day 1 to 7, interspersed by EPEC on day 8 to 24. In group K +, rats were fed with water from day 1 to 7, then fed with EPEC on day 8 to 14, after which water was given back on day 15 to 21. The result showed that probiotic yogurt treatment with supplement of purple sweet potato extract had a significant effect (P<0,05) on feces water content, number of erythrocyte, leucocyte, and hemoglobin. The treatment of YDP had water content in feces 48.422% and the number of erythrocyte, leucocytes, and hemoglobin were 8.578 106/μl, 14.152 106/μl and 13.98 g/dL respectively.

  16. An experimental study of extraction wound healing in the calcium deficient rat and maxillofacial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    You, Young Sun; Hwang, Eui Hwan; Lee, Sang Rae [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, College of Dentistry, Kyung Hee University, (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-08-15

    The purpose of this study was to investigate effects of osteoporosis on extraction wound healing in the calcium deficient rat. In order to carry out this study, ten-week old Wistar strain rats weighing about 300 gms were selected. When the ras reached thirteen-week old, rat's mandibular first molar were removed. The rats were then divided into three groups : Group 1(rats given a normal diet both before and after tooth extraction), Group 2(rats given a low calcium diet for three weeks before tooth extraction and a normal diet after tooth extraction), and Group 3(rats given a low calcium diet for three weeks before and after tooth extraction). The healing of extraction wounds, as assessed by microradiography, autoradiography, and histopathologic examination, were compared among these three groups. The obtained results were as follows : 1. In Group 1, newly formed bone and active uptake of 45 Ca around extraction wound were noted on the 3rd and the 7th day. On the 14th and the 21st day, the extraction wounds of this group showed the bone trabecular formation and active 45 Ca uptake in the extraction wound and alveolar crest. The more prominent bone trabuculae with a less uptake of 45 Ca were noted on the 42nd day. 2. In Group 2, newly formed bone and thinning of alveolar bone trabeculae with more extensive uptake of 45 Ca than that in Group 1 were noted on the 3rd and the 7th day. On the 14th day, bone trabeculae were less thicker than that in Group 1. the prominent bone trabeculae in the extraction wounds and alveolar crest were noted on the 21st and the 42nd days. 3. In Group 3, newly formed bone was noted on the 3rd and the 7th day, Alveolar bone trabeculae and uptake of 45 Ca were similar to that in Group 2. On the 14th and 21st day, bone trabeculae were less thicker than that in Group 2 and group 3. the osteoporotic change with active uptake of 45 Ca was markedly noted on the 42nd day.

  17. An experimental study of extraction wound healing in the calcium deficient rat and maxillofacial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    You, Young Sun; Hwang, Eui Hwan; Lee, Sang Rae

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate effects of osteoporosis on extraction wound healing in the calcium deficient rat. In order to carry out this study, ten-week old Wistar strain rats weighing about 300 gms were selected. When the ras reached thirteen-week old, rat's mandibular first molar were removed. The rats were then divided into three groups : Group 1(rats given a normal diet both before and after tooth extraction), Group 2(rats given a low calcium diet for three weeks before tooth extraction and a normal diet after tooth extraction), and Group 3(rats given a low calcium diet for three weeks before and after tooth extraction). The healing of extraction wounds, as assessed by microradiography, autoradiography, and histopathologic examination, were compared among these three groups. The obtained results were as follows : 1. In Group 1, newly formed bone and active uptake of 45 Ca around extraction wound were noted on the 3rd and the 7th day. On the 14th and the 21st day, the extraction wounds of this group showed the bone trabecular formation and active 45 Ca uptake in the extraction wound and alveolar crest. The more prominent bone trabuculae with a less uptake of 45 Ca were noted on the 42nd day. 2. In Group 2, newly formed bone and thinning of alveolar bone trabeculae with more extensive uptake of 45 Ca than that in Group 1 were noted on the 3rd and the 7th day. On the 14th day, bone trabeculae were less thicker than that in Group 1. the prominent bone trabeculae in the extraction wounds and alveolar crest were noted on the 21st and the 42nd days. 3. In Group 3, newly formed bone was noted on the 3rd and the 7th day, Alveolar bone trabeculae and uptake of 45 Ca were similar to that in Group 2. On the 14th and 21st day, bone trabeculae were less thicker than that in Group 2 and group 3. the osteoporotic change with active uptake of 45 Ca was markedly noted on the 42nd day.

  18. The hTH-GFP reporter rat model for the study of Parkinson's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorraine Iacovitti

    Full Text Available Parkinson disease (PD is the second leading neurodegenerative disease in the US. As there is no known cause or cure for PD, researchers continue to investigate disease mechanisms and potential new therapies in cell culture and in animal models of PD. In PD, one of the most profoundly affected neuronal populations is the tyrosine hydroxylase (TH-expressing dopaminergic (DA neurons of the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc. These DA-producing neurons undergo degeneration while neighboring DA-producing cells of the ventral tegmental area (VTA are largely spared. To aid in these studies, The Michael J. Fox Foundation (MJFF partnered with Thomas Jefferson University and Taconic Inc. to generate new transgenic rat lines carrying the human TH gene promoter driving EGFP using a 11 kb construct used previously to create a hTH-GFP mouse reporter line. Of the five rat founder lines that were generated, three exhibited high level specific GFP fluorescence in DA brain structures (ie. SN, VTA, striatum, olfactory bulb, hypothalamus. As with the hTH-GFP mouse, none of the rat lines exhibit reporter expression in adrenergic structures like the adrenal gland. Line 12141, with its high levels of GFP in adult DA brain structures and minimal ectopic GFP expression in non-DA structures, was characterized in detail. We show here that this line allows for anatomical visualization and microdissection of the rat midbrain into SNpc and/or VTA, enabling detailed analysis of midbrain DA neurons and axonal projections after toxin treatment in vivo. Moreover, we further show that embryonic SNpc and/or VTA neurons, enriched by microdissection or FACS, can be used in culture or transplant studies of PD. Thus, the hTH-GFP reporter rat should be a valuable tool for Parkinson's disease research.

  19. THE MODULATION EFFECT OF MELATONIN AGAINST GAMMA IRRADIATION IN BIOCHEMICAL AND HISTOPATHOLOGICAL STUDIES ON MALE RATS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ABDOU, M.I.; OSMAN, H.F.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study is to illustrate the radiomodulatory role of melatonin in the regulation of some biochemical and histopathological damage in case of total body irradiated rats.Male albino rats weighing 120-150 g were divided into four groups, group (I) control animals, group (II) animals received melatonin daily by gavages (3 mg/kg body weight) for two weeks, group (III) animals irradiated with 4 Gy Gamma rays and group (IV) animals irradiated with 4 Gy Gamma rays followed by daily administration with melatonin (3 mg/kg body weight) for two weeks. Rats were sacrificed on the 1st and 2nd week post-irradiation. Blood samples were collected for biochemical investigations. The activities of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP), were determined as biomarkers of liver functions, urea and creatinine contents were measured as markers of kidney functions, creatine phosphokinase (CPK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activities were selected to evaluate heart damage. Alteration in the level of serum glucose was also determined. Tissue specimens from liver, kidney, heart and spleen were collected for the pathological studies.The results indicated that, the levels of liver enzymes, kidney functions and glucose were increased after irradiation of rats and reduced by the treatment with melatonin. These reductions were more noticed during the second weeks except in case of glucose which increased during the second week compared to the first week. On the other hand, heart enzymes levels were reduced by the effect melatonin which may be important for cardiopathological patients.Histopathological results showed that irradiation of rats induced tissue injuries in liver, kidney, heart and spleen.Melatonin treatment reduced these injuries to minimum.It could be concluded that, melatonin could be used as antioxidant to protect vital organs and their functions against irradiation since it works as free radicals

  20. Neuronal precursor cell proliferation in the hippocampus after transient cerebral ischemia: a comparative study of two rat strains using stereological tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelsen, Jesper; Larsen, Marianne; Sørensen, Jens Christian H.

    2010-01-01

    We are currently investigating microglial activation and neuronal precursor cell (NPC) proliferation after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAo) in rats. This study aimed: (1) to investigate differences in hippocampal NPC proliferation in outbred male spontaneously hypertensive rats ...

  1. Developmental Neurotoxicity Study of Dietary Bisphenol A in Sprague-Dawley Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Stump, Donald G.; Beck, Melissa J.; Radovsky, Ann; Garman, Robert H.; Freshwater, Lester L.; Sheets, Larry P.; Marty, M. Sue; Waechter, John M.; Dimond, Stephen S.; Van Miller, John P.; Shiotsuka, Ronald N.; Beyer, Dieter; Chappelle, Anne H.; Hentges, Steven G.

    2010-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the potential of bisphenol A (BPA) to induce functional and/or morphological effects to the nervous system of F1 offspring from dietary exposure during gestation and lactation according to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency guidelines for the study of developmental neurotoxicity. BPA was offered to female Sprague-Dawley Crl:CD (SD) rats (24 per dose group) and their litters at dietary concent...

  2. Comparative microscopic study of human and rat lungs after overexposure to welding fume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonini, James M; Roberts, Jenny R; Schwegler-Berry, Diane; Mercer, Robert R

    2013-11-01

    Welding is a common industrial process used to join metals and generates complex aerosols of potentially hazardous metal fumes and gases. Most long-time welders experience some type of respiratory disorder during their time of employment. The use of animal models and the ability to control the welding fume exposure in toxicology studies have been helpful in developing a better understanding of how welding fumes affect health. There are no studies that have performed a side-by-side comparison of the pulmonary responses from an animal toxicology welding fume study with the lung responses associated with chronic exposure to welding fume by a career welder. In this study, post-mortem lung tissue was donated from a long-time welder with a well-characterized work background and a history of extensive welding fume exposure. To simulate a long-term welding exposure in an animal model, Sprague-Dawley rats were treated once a week for 28 weeks by intratracheal instillation with 2mg of a stainless steel, hard-surfacing welding fume. Lung tissues from the welder and the welding fume-treated rats were examined by light and electron microscopy. Pathological analysis of lung tissue collected from the welder demonstrated inflammatory cell influx and significant pulmonary injury. The poor and deteriorating lung condition observed in the welder examined in this study was likely due to exposure to very high levels of potentially toxic metal fumes and gases for a significant number of years due to work in confined spaces. The lung toxicity profile for the rats treated with welding fume was similar. For tissue samples from both the welder and treated rats, welding particle accumulations deposited and persisted in lung structures and were easily visualized using light microscopic techniques. Agglomerates of deposited welding particles mostly were observed within lung cells, particularly alveolar macrophages. Analysis of individual particles within the agglomerates showed that these

  3. Effects of an ethanol-gasoline mixture: results of a 4-week inhalation study in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, I; Poon, R; Valli, V; Yagminas, A; Bowers, W J; Seegal, R; Vincent, R

    2005-01-01

    The inhalation toxicity of an ethanol-gasoline mixture was investigated in rats. Groups of 15 male and 15 female rats were exposed by inhalation to 6130 ppm ethanol, 500 ppm gasoline or a mixture of 85% ethanol and 15% gasoline (by volume, 6130 ppm ethanol and 500 ppm gasoline), 6 h a day, 5 days per week for 4 weeks. Control rats of both genders received HEPA/charcoal-filtered room air. Ten males and ten females from each group were killed after 4 weeks of treatment and the remaining rats were exposed to filtered room air for an additional 4 weeks to determine the reversibility of toxic injuries. Female rats treated with the mixture showed growth suppression, which was reversed after 4 weeks of recovery. Increased kidney weight and elevated liver microsomal ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity, urinary ascorbic acid, hippuric acid and blood lymphocytes were observed and most of the effects were associated with gasoline exposure. Combined exposure to ethanol and gasoline appeared to exert an additive effect on growth suppression. Inflammation of the upper respiratory tract was observed only in the ethanol-gasoline mixture groups, and exposure to either ethanol and gasoline had no effect on the organ, suggesting that an irritating effect was produced when the two liquids were mixed. Morphology in the adrenal gland was characterized by vacuolation of the cortical area. Although histological changes were generally mild in male and female rats and were reversed after 4 weeks, the changes tended to be more severe in male rats. Brain biogenic amine levels were altered in ethanol- and gasoline-treated groups; their levels varied with respect to gender and brain region. Although no general interactions were observed in the brain neurotransmitters, gasoline appeared to suppress dopamine concentrations in the nucleus accumbens region co-exposed to ethanol. It was concluded that treatment with ethanol and gasoline, at the levels studied, produced mild, reversible

  4. Multigeneration reproduction and male developmental toxicity studies on atrazine in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSesso, John M; Scialli, Anthony R; White, Tacey E K; Breckenridge, Charles B

    2014-06-01

    Reproductive toxicity of Atrazine (ATR) was evaluated in two rat multigenerational studies. Development of male reproductive parameters was evaluated in separate studies after prenatal or postnatal exposure. In multigenerational studies, rats received dietary concentrations of 0, 10, 50, 100 or 500 ppm ATR. In separate studies in female rats, ATR was administered by gavage at 0, 1, 5, 25 or 125 mg/kg/day during pregnancy (GD6-21) or lactation (LD2-21). Plasma testosterone concentration, testicular and epididymal weights, and sperm counts were measured in male offspring on PND70 and 170. In the multigenerational studies, parental systemic toxicity occurred at 500 ppm (38.7 mg/kg/day), but reproductive endpoints were unaffected. In the prenatal study, maternal toxicity and embryo-fetal mortality occurred at 125 mg/kg/day. In male offspring, testosterone levels and sperm counts were unaffected, although the percentage of abnormal sperm increased at 125 mg/kg/day (PND 70) and 25 mg/kg/day (PND170). In the postnatal study, maternal toxicity and reduced body weights of male offspring occurred at 125 mg/kg/day. Additionally, reduced testicular (PND70, PND170) and epididymal (PND70) weights and increased numbers of abnormal sperm (PND70, PND170) were seen, but no changes in plasma testosterone or sperm counts. Dietary administration of ATR did not affect rat reproduction up to a parentally toxic dose of 38.7 mg/kg/day. Some effects on male reproductive system development occurred after high dose, bolus administration to dams, but doses were much higher than expected under normal use conditions. Thus, oral RfDs for ATR would be protective for reproductive effects. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Does prolonged pneumoperitoneum affect the kidney? Oxidative stress, stereological and electron microscopy study in a rat model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo B. de Souza

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Pneumoperitoneum (Pp at 12 to 15 mmHg in rats is associated with kidney damage. However, Pp at 8 mmHg is now known to best correlate to working pressures used in humans. Thus the aim of this work was to study the kidney of rats submitted to prolonged Pp at 8 mmHg. Materials and Methods: Rats were divided into a Sham group (n = 14, submitted to anesthesia, and a Pp group (n = 14, submitted to Pp at 8 mmHg, followed by deflation. In both groups, 7 animals were immediately killed and their kidneys were used for oxidative stress analyses. The remaining 7 rats in each group were evaluated after 6 weeks for the number of glomeruli and podocyte morphology. Results: For all analyzed parameters Sham and Pp groups presented no statistical difference. Conclusion: When submitted to adequate Pp pressures (8 mmHg, no kidney damage occurs in rats.

  6. Histometric study of alveolar bone healing in rats treated with the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug nimesulide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teófilo, Juliana Mazzonetto; Giovanini, Gabriela Salgueiro; Fracon, Ricardo Nogueira; Lamano, Teresa

    2011-04-01

    There is extensive experimental and clinical evidence in the orthopedic area that prolonged use of nonselective (inhibitor of both cyclooxygenases 1 and 2) nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs can hinder long bone fracture healing, spinal fusion rate, and new bone formation around implants. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether nimesulide (Nimesulida, Medley S.A., Campinas, SP, Brazil), a preferential cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor, can hinder alveolar bone healing, in rats. Treated rats received oral doses (5 mg/kg/rat/day) of nimesulide from the day of tooth extraction until euthanasia 2 weeks later and control rats received tap water (n = 5 per group). The volume of neoformed bone inside the alveolar socket was estimated in semiserial longitudinal histological sections by a differential point-counting method, and the significance of the difference between groups was analyzed by Student t test (P alveolar bone healing in rats.

  7. Development of telmisartan in the therapy of spinal cord injury: pre-clinical study in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin CM

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Chien-Min Lin,1,* Jo-Ting Tsai,2,* Chen Kuei Chang,1 Juei-Tang Cheng,3 Jia-Wei Lin11Department of Neurosurgery, 2Department of Radiation Oncology, Shuang Ho Hospital-Taipei Medical University, 3Institute of Medical Science, College of Health Science, Chang Jung Christian University, Tainan City, Taiwan*These authors contributed equally to this workBackground: Decrease of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors-δ (PPARδ expression has been observed after spinal cord injury (SCI. Increase of PPARδ may improve the damage in SCI. Telmisartan, the antihypertensive agent, has been mentioned to increase the expression of PPARδ. Thus, we are going to screen the effectiveness of telmisartan in SCI for the development of it in clinical application.Methods: In the present study, we used compressive SCI in rats. Telmisartan was then used to evaluate the influence in rats after SCI. Change in PPARδ expression was identified by Western blots. Also, behavioral tests were performed to check the recovery of damage.Results: Recovery of damage from SCI was observed in telmisartan-treated rats. Additionally, this action of telmisartan was inhibited by GSK0660 at the dose sufficient to block PPARδ. However, metformin at the dose enough to activate adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase failed to produce similar action as telmisartan. Thus, mediation of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase in this action of telmisartan can be rule out. Moreover, telmisartan reversed the expressions of PPARδ in rats with SCI.Conclusion: The obtained data suggest that telmisartan can improve the damage of SCI in rats through an increase in PPARδ expression. Thus, telmisartan is useful to be developed as an agent in the therapy of SCI.Keywords: PPARδ, AMPK, spinal cord injury, angiotensin receptor blocker, metformin

  8. Pharmacologic studies on ET-26 hydrochloride in a rat model of lipopolysaccharide-induced sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bin; Jiang, Junli; Yang, Jun; Chen, Jun; Zhu, Zhaoqiong; Liu, Jin; Zhang, Wensheng

    2017-11-15

    ET-26 hydrochloride (ET-26 HCl) is a promising sedation-hypnotic compound with stable hemodynamic features that elicits virtually no adrenocortical suppression. However, whether it preserves better pharmacologic characteristics in a rat model of sepsis is not known. This study compared the survival rate, levels of corticosterone and pro-inflammatory cytokines, and histologic injury in the lungs and kidneys of rats suffering from sepsis treated with ET-26 HCl, etomidate, or normal saline (NS). Rats were given lipopolysaccharide (1mg/kg body weight, i.v.) to establish a sepsis model. Thirty minutes after lipopolysaccharide administration, ET-26 HCl, etomidate or NS were given as a bolus injection at equivalent doses. Plasma levels of corticosterone, interleukin-1β, interleukin-6, interleukin-10, and tumor necrosis factor-α were measured 1, 2, 4, 6 and 24h after administration. Histologic injury was observed at the time of death or 24h after drug administration. The survival rate for rats in the etomidate, ET-26 HCl and NS groups was 40%, 90% and 90%, respectively. Corticosterone concentrations in the etomidate group were lower than those in the other groups 1h after administration of hypnotic compounds. Concentrations of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the ET-26 HCl group and NS group were not significantly different, but were significantly lower than those in the etomidate group. The injury scores of kidneys and lungs in the etomidate group were higher than those in ET-26 HCl and NS groups. ET-26 HCl showed virtually no suppression of corticosterone synthesis, lower concentrations of pro-inflammatory cytokines, higher survival rate, and less organ injury in rats suffering from sepsis compared with the etomidate group. It may be safer to induce anesthesia using ET-26 HCl, rather than etomidate, in patients suffering from sepsis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. [Mechanism study on leptin resistance in lung cancer cachexia rats treated by Xiaoyan Decoction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yun-Chao; Jia, Ying-Jie; Yang, Pei-Ying; Zhang, Xing; Li, Xiao-Jiang; Zhang, Ying; Zhu, Jin-Li; Sun, Yi-Yu; Chen, Jun; Duan, Hao-Guo; Guo, Hua; Li, Chao

    2014-12-01

    To study the leptin resistance mechanism of Xiaoyan Decoction (XD) in lung cancer cachexia (LCC) rats. An LCC rat model was established. Totally 40 rats were randomly divided into the normal control group, the LCC model group, the XD group, and the positive control group, 10 in each group. After LCC model was set up, rats in the LCC model group were administered with normal saline, 2 mL each time. Rats in the XD group were administered with XD at the daily dose of 2 mL. Those in the positive control group were administered with Medroxyprogesterone Acetate suspension (20 mg/kg) by gastrogavage at the daily dose of 2 mL. All medication lasted for 14 days. The general condition and tumor growth were observed. Serum levels of leptin and leptin receptor in the hypothalamus were detected using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Contents of neuropeptide Y (NPY) and anorexia for genomic POMC were detected using real-time PCR technique. Serum leptin levels were lower in the LCC model group than in the normal control group with statistical significance (P XD group (P XD or Medroxyprogesterone Acetate could effectively reduce levels of leptin receptor with statistical significance (P XD group and the positive control group (P 0.05). There was statistical difference in POMC between the normal control group and the LCC model group (P XD group and the positive control group with statistical significance (P XD group (P XD could increase serum leptin levels and reduce leptin receptor levels in the hypothalamus. LCC could be improved by elevating NPY contents in the hypothalamus and reducing POMC contents, promoting the appetite, and increasing food intake from the periphery pathway and the central pathway.

  10. Comparative study between dimethyl sulfoxide (dmso), allopurinol and urate oxidase administration in nephrotoxic rats induced with

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heibashy, M.I.A.; El-Nahla, A.M.; Ibrahim, A.I.; Saleh, Sh.Y.A.

    2010-01-01

    This study was conducted to show whether DMSO, allopurinol and urate oxidase could offer ameliorating effects against abnormal alterations in kidney function tests in gentamicin (GM) induced nephrotoxic rats . Two experiments were carried out, the first one showed that daily injection of 80 mg GM/kg b. wt interapertonealy (I.P) for two weeks induced acute renal failure indicated by significant elevation in serum urea, creatinine, uric acid, potassium, inorganic phosphorus, TBARS and PTH and a significant decline in serum sodium, total and ionized calcium when compared with their corresponding values in saline injected rats. In the second experiment, comparisons were made between GM induced nephrotoxic rats and other nephrotoxic groups received daily pf I.P injection of DMSO (4 ml/kg b.wt), allopurinol (1.5 mg/100 g b.wt) and urate oxidase (10 mg/100 g b.wt) for 30 days after the incidence of nephrotoxicity. At all intervals, 10,20 and 30 days; serum urea, creatinine, uric acid, potassium, inorganic phosphorus, TBARS and PTH in DMSO, allopurinol and urate oxidase treated groups exhibited significant reduction than nephrotoxic untreated rats. During the same intervals, the levels of serum total and ionized calcium showed an opposite trend. serum sodium level did not show any significant difference between all treated groups except after 20 days , it was increased significantly in urate oxidase treated group and after 30 days in both allopurinol and urate oxidase treated groups. in term time intervals, a significant correction was recorded on the level of most measured parameters. in nephritic rats, the administration of DMSO, allopurinol or urate oxidase led to a significant amelioration effects in the kidney function tests and urate oxidase was the best protective.

  11. Dose dependent transfer of 203lead to milk and tissue uptake in suckling offspring studied in rats and mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palminger Hallen, I.; Oskarsson, A.

    1993-01-01

    The dose-dependent transfer of 203 Pb to milk and uptake in suckling rats and mice during a three-day nursing period was studied. On day 14 of lactation, the dams were administered a single intravenous dose of lead, labelled with 203 Pb, in four or five doses from 0.0005 to 2.0 mg Pb/kg b.wt. There was a linear relationship between Pb levels in plasma and milk of both species. The Pb milk: plasma ratios at 24 hr after administration were 119 and 89 in mice and rats, respectively. At 72 hr the Pb milk: plasma ratio had decreased to 72 in mice and 35 in rats. The tissue levels of lead in the suckling rats and mice were also linearly correlated with lead concentration in milk at 72 hr, showing that milk could be used as an indicator of lead exposure to the suckling offspring. It is concluded that lead is transported into rat and mouse milk to a very high extent and the excretion into milk is more efficient in mice than in rats. On the other hand, rat pups had higher lead levels in tissues than mice pups, which might be due to a higher bioavailability and/or a lower excretion of lead in rat pups. Thus, lead in breast milk could be used as a biological indicator of lead exposure in the mother as well as in the suckling offspring. (au) (38 refs.)

  12. Studies on absorption, distribution, excretion and metabolism of 3H-1α-hydroxycholecalciferol in vitamin D deficient rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tohira, Yasuo; Hinohara, Yoshikazu; Kamiyama, Hiroshi; Ogawa, Machiko; Nakano, Hideki

    1978-01-01

    The absorption, distribution, excretion and metabolism of 2- 3 H-1α-OH-D 3 (4.2 Ci/mmol) were studied in vitamin D deficient rats in comparison with the normal rats after oral or intravenous dosing. (1) Maximum blood level of administered radioactivity was observed at 8 hours after oral administration with apparent half life of 3.8 days. This blood level was higher than that in normal rat. (2) As in the normal rat, administered radioactivity was distributed relatively high in the liver, while any other specific distribution or accumulation was not observed in the another tissues, which was consistent to the finding in the normal rat. The tissue levels of the radioactivity were higher than these in the normal rat. (3) Urinary excretion of administered radioactivity was significantly higher, fecal and biliary excretion was significantly lower than that in the normal rat after intravenous dosing. (4) Relative percentage of 3 H-1α, 25-(OH) 2 -D 3 content to 3 H-1α-OH-D 3 content in tissues and blood was higher than that in the normal one. Above results suggest that in the vitamin D deficient state, the tissue accumulation of 1α-OH-D 3 was significantly augmented than in the normal rat, thus resulting increased bioavailability of its active metabolite, 1α, 25-(OH) 2 -D 3 . (author)

  13. Teratological studies of DTPA-CaNa3, DTPA-ZnNa3 and quinamic acid in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Meichu; Ruan Tianming; Tong Shungao

    1989-01-01

    DTPA-CaNa 3 , DTPA-ZnNa 3 and quinamic acid are effective chelating agents for removing actinide elements from the body. In this experiment, different doses of DTPA-CaNa 3 , DTPA-ZnNa 3 and quinamic acid were given to mice on gestation days 6-10. Eight groups of mice received 0.8 and 2.0 mM/kg of DTPA-CaNa 3 , 3.8, 7.6, and 11.4 mM/kg of DTPA-ZnNa 3 and 0.42, 2.1, and 4.2 mM/kg of quinamic acid. Hypetonic saline and isotonic saline were given to two control groups. DTPA-CaNa 3 and quinamidic acid were found to be much more toxic to fetus of mice than DTPA-ZnNa 3 . When the doses of DTPA-CaMa 3 and quinamidic acid were 20 times higher than the human dose, the number of resorbed fetus was increased and the number and weight of live fetus were reduced. The result of injection with 7.6 mM/kg (200 times of human dose)DTPA-ZnNa 3 and that of injection with isotonic saline are the same. Therefore, we suggest that the DTPA-CaNa 3 and quinamidic acid should not be given to pregnant woman, if chelation therapy is needed, while the much safer DTPA-ZnNa 3 could be used

  14. Oral carcinogenicity study with nickel sulfate hexahydrate in Fischer 344 rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heim, Katherine E.; Bates, Hudson K.; Rush, Rusty E.; Oller, Adriana R.

    2007-01-01

    Until now, existing data on the oral carcinogenicity of nickel substances have been inconclusive. Yet, the assessment of oral carcinogenicity of nickel has serious scientific and regulatory implications. In the present study, nickel sulfate hexahydrate was administered daily to Fischer 344 rats by oral gavage for 2 years (104 weeks) at exposure levels of 10, 30 and 50 mg NiSO 4 ·6H 2 O/kg. This treatment produced a statistically significant reduction in body weight of male and female rats, compared to controls, in an exposure-related fashion at 30 and 50 mg/kg/day. An exposure-dependent increase in mortality was observed in female rats. However, the overall study survival rate (males and females) was at least 25 animals per group (compliant with OECD guidelines) in the treated animals. Daily oral administration of nickel sulfate hexahydrate did not produce an exposure-related increase in any common tumor type or an increase in any rare tumors. One tumor type was statistically increased in a nickel sulfate-treated group compared to the study controls (keratoacanthoma in the 10 mg NiSO 4 ·6H 2 O/kg/day males), but there was no exposure-response relationship for this common tumor type. This study achieved sufficient toxicity to reach the Maximum Tolerated Dose (MTD) while maintaining a sufficiently high survival rate to allow evaluation for carcinogenicity. The present study indicated that nickel sulfate hexahydrate does not have the potential to cause carcinogenicity by the oral route of exposure in the Fischer 344 rat. Data from this and other studies demonstrate that inhalation is the only route of exposure that might cause concern for cancer in association with nickel exposures

  15. International practices in the provision of teratology information: a survey of international teratogen information programmes and comparisons with the North American model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, Rebecca L; Ungar, Wendy J; Einarson, Adrienne; Koren, Gideon

    2010-10-01

    Teratology Information Services (TIS) provide health care professionals and the public with information regarding the safety and/or risk of exposures during pregnancy and lactation, mainly via telephone consultations. An international comparison of clinical practices at TIS has never been conducted. The survey objective was to compare international TIS to North American TIS, with an aim to identify strengths and challenges that can lead to service improvement. Twenty-two international TIS were approached for participation during an international conference. TIS were surveyed on information in six categories: services, staffing, operations, data collection, knowledge transfer activities and additional information. Data were summarized using descriptive statistics. Statistical tests were conducted using SPSS®. Sixteen TIS from 12 countries participated. Survey results were compared with previously reported results from a similar survey of North American TIS (16 US, two Canadian). TIS exist in a variety of departments and settings, but most commonly are in university hospitals. Pregnant women were the most commonly counselled group worldwide. International TIS spent significantly more time fielding inquiries regarding medications, while North American TIS had a wider variety of inquiry categories. All TIS could improve budget tracking. Overall, service practices and goals were similar, although international TIS conducted more follow-up with service users than North American TIS. This report offers TIS the first ever opportunity to compare practices. Increased dialogue between TIS encourages sharing of best practices and improves the ability of these important public health programmes to support women and health care providers. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. Prevention and intervention studies with telmisartan, ramipril and their combination in different rat stroke models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christa Thoene-Reineke

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The effects of AT1 receptor blocker, telmisartan, and the ACE inhibitor, ramipril, were tested head-to head and in combination on stroke prevention in hypertensive rats and on potential neuroprotection in acute cerebral ischemia in normotensive rats. METHODS: Prevention study: Stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR-SP were subjected to high salt and randomly assigned to 4 groups: (1 untreated (NaCl, n = 24, (2 telmisartan (T; n = 27, (3 ramipril (R; n = 27 and (4 telmisartan + ramipril (T+R; n = 26. Drug doses were selected to keep blood pressure (BP at 150 mmHg in all groups. Neurological signs and stroke incidence at 50% mortality of untreated SHR-SP were investigated. Intervention study: Normotensive Wistar rats were treated s.c. 5 days prior to middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO for 90 min with reperfusion. Groups (n = 10 each: (1 sham, (2 vehicle (V; 0.9% NaCl, (3 T (0.5 mg/kg once daily, (4 R (0.01 mg/kg twice daily, (5 R (0.1 mg/kg twice daily or (6 T (0.5 mg/kg once daily plus R (0.01 mg/kg twice daily. Twenty-four and 48 h after MCAO, neurological outcome (NO was determined. Forty-eight h after MCAO, infarct volume by MRI, neuronal survival, inflammation factors and neurotrophin receptor (TrkB were analysed. RESULTS: Stroke incidence was reduced, survival was prolonged and neurological outcome was improved in all treated SHR-SP with no differences between treated groups. In the acute intervention study, T and T+R, but not R alone, improved NO, reduced infarct volume, inflammation (TNFα, and induced TrkB receptor and neuronal survival in comparison to V. CONCLUSIONS: T, R or T+R had similar beneficial effects on stroke incidence and NO in hypertensive rats, confirming BP reduction as determinant factor in stroke prevention. In contrast, T and T+R provided superior neuroprotection in comparison to R alone in normotensive rats with induced cerebral ischemia.

  17. Recent mouse and rat methods for the study of experimental oral candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Anna C B P; Pereira, Cristiane A; Junqueira, Juliana C; Jorge, Antonio O C

    2013-07-01

    The Candida genus expresses virulence factors that, when combined with immunosuppression and other risk factors, can cause different manifestations of oral candidiasis. The treatment of mucosal infections caused by Candida and the elucidation of the disease process have proven challenging. Therefore, the study of experimentally induced oral candidiasis in rats and mice is useful to clarify the etiopathology of this condition, improve diagnosis, and search for new therapeutic options because the disease process in these animals is similar to that of human candidiasis lesions. Here, we describe and discuss new studies involving rat and mouse models of oral candidiasis with respect to methods for inducing experimental infection, methods for evaluating the development of experimental candidiasis, and new treatment strategies for oral candidiasis.

  18. Recent mouse and rat methods for the study of experimental oral candidiasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Anna CBP; Pereira, Cristiane A; Junqueira, Juliana C; Jorge, Antonio OC

    2013-01-01

    The Candida genus expresses virulence factors that, when combined with immunosuppression and other risk factors, can cause different manifestations of oral candidiasis. The treatment of mucosal infections caused by Candida and the elucidation of the disease process have proven challenging. Therefore, the study of experimentally induced oral candidiasis in rats and mice is useful to clarify the etiopathology of this condition, improve diagnosis, and search for new therapeutic options because the disease process in these animals is similar to that of human candidiasis lesions. Here, we describe and discuss new studies involving rat and mouse models of oral candidiasis with respect to methods for inducing experimental infection, methods for evaluating the development of experimental candidiasis, and new treatment strategies for oral candidiasis. PMID:23715031

  19. Physiological studies on the effect of a phosphodiesterase inhibitor on the blood obtained from hypothyroid rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Ghany, I.Y.

    1997-01-01

    In the present study 300 male albino rats (100-120 g) were used. The search was planned to evaluate the biochemical effects of the therapeutic drug (pentoxifylline) in combination with thyroxine on the hypothyroid mammals. The biochemical determinations were serum: Tri-iodothyronine (T-3), thyroxine (T-4), Glucose, total protein, urea, creatinine, along with the enzymatic activities of : alkaline phosphatase (ALP), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT), glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT). The study included also glycogen, lactic acid, pyruvic acid, along with the enzymatic activities of : LDH, GOT and GPT in liver tissue homogenate. The data obtained, revealed significant alterations in assayed parameters reflecting disturbance in the metabolism due to hypothyroid state. Treatment of rats with thyroxine and / or pentoxifylline revealed significant amelioration in most of the tested parameters indicating the beneficial effect of these drugs. 17 tabs.,17 figs.,123 refs

  20. The Ovariectomized Rat as a Model for Studying Alveolar Bone Loss in Postmenopausal Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan D. Johnston

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In postmenopausal women, reduced bone mineral density at the hip and spine is associated with an increased risk of tooth loss, possibly due to a loss of alveolar bone. In turn, having fewer natural teeth may lead to compromised food choices resulting in a poor diet that can contribute to chronic disease risk. The tight link between alveolar bone preservation, tooth retention, better nutritional status, and reduced risk of developing a chronic disease begins with the mitigation of postmenopausal bone loss. The ovariectomized rat, a widely used preclinical model for studying postmenopausal bone loss that mimics deterioration of bone tissue in the hip and spine, can also be used to study mineral and structural changes in alveolar bone to develop drug and/or dietary strategies aimed at tooth retention. This review discusses key findings from studies investigating mandible health and alveolar bone in the ovariectomized rat model. Considerations to maximize the benefits of this model are also included. These include the measurement techniques used, the age at ovariectomy, the duration that a rat is studied after ovariectomy and habitual diet consumed.

  1. Study of thyroid hormone disruption by the environmental contaminant bde-99 in perinatal rats

    OpenAIRE

    Blanco Pérez, Jordi

    2013-01-01

    The main human concern about the environmental pollutants polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are the rising concentrations accumulated in women. The aim of the present thesis is the study of the toxicity by maternal transference of BDE-99 in the offspring. Among highlights of the results, we found that exposure to BDE-99 during the gestational period produced a delayed ossification, slight hypertrophy of the heart, and enlargement of the liver in rat fetuses. A transplacental effect of BD...

  2. PHARMACOLOGICAL VALIDATION OF Musa paradisiaca BHASMA FOR ANTIULCER ACTIVITY IN ALBINO RATS - A PRELIMINARY STUDY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadivelan, R; Elango, K; Suresh, B; Ramesh, B R

    2006-01-01

    Siddha system of medicine is one of the ancient systems of medicine in India. According to Siddhars, peptic ulcer is known as Valigunmam with its signs and symptoms as detailed in Siddha literature matching modern terminology of peptic ulcer. Bhasma refers to calcinated metals and minerals. During this study the Bhasma of Musa paradisiaca Linn, is prepared and evaluated for its antiulcer effect in albino wistar rats which could not be attempted by researchers earlier.

  3. PHARMACOLOGICAL VALIDATION OF Musa paradisiaca BHASMA FOR ANTIULCER ACTIVITY IN ALBINO RATS – A PRELIMINARY STUDY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadivelan, R.; Elango, K.; Suresh, B.; Ramesh, B. R.

    2006-01-01

    Siddha system of medicine is one of the ancient systems of medicine in India. According to Siddhars, peptic ulcer is known as Valigunmam with its signs and symptoms as detailed in Siddha literature matching modern terminology of peptic ulcer. Bhasma refers to calcinated metals and minerals. During this study the Bhasma of Musa paradisiaca Linn, is prepared and evaluated for its antiulcer effect in albino wistar rats which could not be attempted by researchers earlier. PMID:22557209

  4. The effect of eccentric exercise on injured patellar tendon healing in rats: a gene expression study

    OpenAIRE

    Yagishita, Masafumi

    2011-01-01

    Recently, clinical studies have suggested that eccentric exercise can be beneficial for patellar tendinopathy. It is known that loading induces collagen synthesis in tendon, but the mechanisms responsible for mediating this effect are still unclear. We hypothesized that loading-induced expression of collagen depends on a specific contraction type. Eccentric exercise induces a more beneficial healing response than concentric exercise. Two longitudinal incisions were made in rat patellar tendon...

  5. In vitro glucose uptake by isolated rat hemi-diaphragm study of Aegle marmelos Correa root

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subban Ravi

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The methanol extract of the root of Aegle marmelos, a medicinal plant, was fractionated into eight fractions using column chromatography. The anti-diabetic activity of all the fractions was studied using the glucose uptake by isolated rat hemi-diaphragm in vitro model. Using the bioassay-guided fractionation, two compounds 1 and 2 were isolated by column chromatography and identified as 6-methyl-4-chromanone and skimmianine respectively by NMR and mass spectral methods.

  6. Studies on the antidiabetic activities of Momordica charantia fruit juice in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Mona F; El Ashry, Fatma El Zahraa Z; El Maraghy, Nabila N; Fahmy, Ahmed

    2017-12-01

    Momordica charantia Linn (Cucurbitaceae) (MC) is used in folk medicine to treat various diseases including diabetes mellitus. This study investigates the antidiabetic activities of Momordica charantia (bitter gourd) on streptozotocin-induced type 2 diabetes mellitus in rats. Male Wister rats were randomly assigned to 4 groups. Group I, Normal control; Group II, STZ diabetic; Group III and IV, Momordica charantia fruit juice was orally administered to diabetic rats (10 mL/kg/day either as prophylaxis for 14 days before induction of diabetes then 21 days treatment, or as treatment given for 21 days after induction of diabetes). The effects of MC juice were studied both in vivo and in vitro by studying the glucose uptake of isolated rat diaphragm muscles in the presence and absence of insulin. Histopathological examination of pancreas was also performed. This study showed that MC caused a significant reduction of serum glucose (135.99 ± 6.27 and 149.79 ± 1.90 vs. 253.40* ± 8.18) for prophylaxis and treatment respectively, fructosamine (0.99 ± 0.01 and 1.01 ± 0.04 vs. 3.04 ± 0.07), total cholesterol, triglycerides levels, insulin resistance index (1.13 ± 0.08 and 1.19 ± 0.05 vs. 1.48 ± 1.47) and pancreatic malondialdehyde content (p Momordica charantia presents excellent antidiabetic and antioxidant activities and thus has great potential as a new source for diabetes treatment whether it is used for prophylaxis or treatment.

  7. In vitro metabolism and permeation studies in rat jejunum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelgaard, Bente; Jensen, K; Steffansen, B

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of these studies was to compare the in vitro absorption of two inorganic chromium(III) compounds: chromium chloride and chromium nitrate, with organic chromium(III)-picolinate; and to investigate if any in vitro metabolism of chromium(VI) takes place. The in vitro metabolism studies...

  8. Bone histomorphometric study of young rats following oestrogen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osteoporosis is a global problem which results in increased fractures risk. The reports from earlier studies were inconsistent with the aging factor as well as the time which is needed to induce bone loss post-ovariectomy. This study aimed to determine the short-term effects of estrogen deficiency on bone structural ...

  9. Immunohistochemical and morphometric study of the development of fetal and newborn rat pancreatic islets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badawoud, Mohammed H.

    2003-01-01

    Aim of this study is to perform a detailed morphometric immunohistochemichal study of develpment of fetal and newborn rat pancreatic islets. 24 pancreas were obtained from 19 and 21-day-old fetal rats,1 and 4-day-old newborn rats. They were fixed in a buffered neutral formalin ,dehydrated and embedded in paraplast. Sections were stained with anti-insulin antibodies. Study was performed at Department of Anatomy, King Abdul-Aziz University, Jeddah,Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, between 2001 and 2002. The volume density of B cells showed a grdual increase during the last days of gestation and a slight increase during the first 4 days after birth. All the other morphometric parameters showed a gradual increase during the last days of gestation and during the first days after birth.The B cell nuclear diameter and volume showed a slight increase after birth. B cells were stained and present in the central part of of fetal and new born islets,while the other islet cells were present in the periphery of the islets. The size of endocrine tissue, which was represented by the islet diameter, islet volume, islet volume density, total number of islet cells,number of B cells and volume density of B cells showed a progressive increase during the prenatal period. (author)

  10. Impact of cannabis sativa (marijuana) smoke on alveolar bone loss: a histometric study in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira-Filho, Getulio R; Todescan, Sylvia; Shah, Adnan; Rosa, Bruno T; Tunes, Urbino da R; Cesar Neto, Joao B

    2011-11-01

    Cannabis sativa (marijuana) can interfere with bone physiopathology because of its effect on osteoblast and osteoclast activity. However, its impact on periodontal tissues is still controversial. The present study evaluates whether marijuana smoke affects bone loss (BL) on ligature-induced periodontitis in rats. Thirty male Wistar rats were used in the study. A ligature was placed around one of the mandible first molars (ligated teeth) of each animal, and they were then randomly assigned to one of two groups: control (n = 15) or marijuana smoke inhalation ([MSI] for 8 minutes per day; n = 15). Urine samples were obtained to detect the presence of tetrahydrocannabinol. After 30 days, the animals were sacrificed and decalcified sections of the furcation area were obtained and evaluated according to the following histometric parameters: bone area (BA), bone density (BD), and BL. Tetrahydrocannabinol was positive in urine samples only for the rats of the MSI group. Non-significant differences were observed for unligated teeth from both groups regarding BL, BA, and BD (P >0.05). However, intragroup analysis showed that all ligated teeth presented BL and a lower BA and BD compared to unligated teeth (P <0.05). The intergroup evaluation of the ligated teeth showed that the MSI group presented higher BL and lower BD (P <0.05) compared to ligated teeth from the control group. Considering the limitations of this animal study, cannabis smoke may impact alveolar bone by increasing BL resulting from ligature-induced periodontitis.

  11. Righting elicited by novel or familiar auditory or vestibular stimulation in the haloperidol-treated rat: rat posturography as a model to study anticipatory motor control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Callie A M; Sacrey, Lori-Ann R; Whishaw, Ian Q

    2009-09-15

    External cues, including familiar music, can release Parkinson's disease patients from catalepsy but the neural basis of the effect is not well understood. In the present study, posturography, the study of posture and its allied reflexes, was used to develop an animal model that could be used to investigate the underlying neural mechanisms of this sound-induced behavioral activation. In the rat, akinetic catalepsy induced by a dopamine D2 receptor antagonist (haloperidol 5mg/kg) can model human catalepsy. Using this model, two experiments examined whether novel versus familiar sound stimuli could interrupt haloperidol-induced catalepsy in the rat. Rats were placed on a variably inclined grid and novel or familiar auditory cues (single key jingle or multiple key jingles) were presented. The dependent variable was movement by the rats to regain equilibrium as assessed with a movement notation score. The sound cues enhanced movements used to regain postural stability and familiar sound stimuli were more effective than unfamiliar sound stimuli. The results are discussed in relation to the idea that nonlemniscal and lemniscal auditory pathways differentially contribute to behavioral activation versus tonotopic processing of sound.

  12. Insulation fiber deposition in the airways of men and rats. A review of experimental and computational studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, G D; Koponen, I K

    2018-04-01

    The typical insulation rock, slag and glass wool fibers are high volume materials. Current exposure levels in industry (generally ≤ 1 fiber/cm 3 with a median diameter ∼1 μm and length ≥10 μm) are not considered carcinogenic or causing other types of severe lung effects. However, epidemiological studies are not informative on effects in humans at fiber levels >1 fiber/cm 3 . Effects may be inferred from valid rat studies, conducted with rat respirable fibers (diameter ≤ 1.5 μm). Therefore, we estimate delivery and deposition in human and rat airways of the industrial fibers. The deposition fractions in humans head regions by nasal (∼0.20) and by mouth breathing (≤0.08) are lower than in rats (0.50). The delivered dose into the lungs per unit lung surface area during a 1-day exposure at a similar air concentration is estimated to be about two times higher in humans than in rats. The deposition fractions in human lungs by nasal (∼0.20) and by mouth breathing (∼0.40) are higher than in rats (∼0.04). The human lung deposition may be up to three times by nasal breathing and up to six times higher by oral breathing than in rats, qualifying assessment factor setting for deposition. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Metformin increases liver accumulation of vitamin B12 - An experimental study in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greibe, E; Miller, J W; Foutouhi, S H

    2013-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Patients treated with metformin exhibit low levels of plasma vitamin B(12) (B(12)), and are considered at risk for developing B(12) deficiency. In this study, we investigated the effect of metformin treatment on B(12) uptake and distribution in rats. METHODS: Sprague Dawley rats (n...... that metformin has no decreasing effect on the B(12) absorption. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: These results show that metformin treatment increases liver accumulation of B(12), thereby resulting in decreases in circulating B(12) and kidney accumulation of the vitamin. Our data questions whether the low plasma B......(12) observed in patients treated with metformin reflects impaired B(12) status, and rather suggests altered tissue distribution and metabolism of the vitamin....

  14. Dose response of rat retinal microvessels to proton dose schedules used clinically: a pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Archambeau, John O.; Mao, Xiao W.; McMillan, Paul J.; Gouloumet, Vanessa L.; Oeinck, Steven C.; Grove, Roger; Yonemoto, Leslie T.; Slater, Jerry D.; Slater, James M.

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: This preclinical rat pilot study quantifies retinal microvessel, endothelial, and pericyte population changes produced by proton irradiation Methods and Materials: The left eyes of rats were irradiated with single doses of 8, 14, 20, and 28 Gy protons; right eyes, with two fractions. Animals were euthanized, and eyes were removed; elastase digests were prepared, and cell populations were counted in sample fields. Results were compared with unirradiated controls. Results: Progressive time- and dose-dependent endothelial cell loss occurred following all schedules. Cell loss was significantly different from control values (p 0 phase of the mitotic cycle. 28 Gy produced photoreceptor cell loss. Conclusion: The retinal digest is an elegant bioassay to quantify the microvessel population response. Single- and split-dose schedules appear to yield similar outcomes, in terms of endothelial cell density

  15. 31P nuclear magnetic resonance surface coil study of ischemic preconditioned isolated perfused rat heart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Yongbin; Luo Xuechun; Zhang Riqing; Wang Xiaoyin; Zuo Lin; Liu Wei

    2000-01-01

    ischemic preconditioning (IPC) will protect the heart from the damage caused by a subsequent long ischemia period. 31 P spectra of isolated perfused rat heart measured by the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) surface coil technique can be used to continually, dynamically and noninvasively obtain metabolism information. This paper explores the IPC mechanisms by NMR. This study shows that IPC has no effect on enhancing the ATP and PCr levels during reperfusion but makes significantly slows and smooths the changes of intracellular pH and ATP during ischemia periods. The ATP and PCr recovery rate of the IPC group after ischemia is significantly higher than that of the control group. In conclusion, the above results support that IPC can protect the rat heart by reducing damage during the ischemia period

  16. Study on the effect of food irradiation on some blood serum enzymes in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metwalli, O.M.

    1977-01-01

    Rats were fed irradiated diets as part of a study of screening tests for the safety of irradiated food. The diet consisted (g/100 g) of casein, 8.5; skim-milk, 9.4; potato starch, 50.00; wheat flour, 16.50; sucrose, 5.00; sunflower oil, 6.00; choline chloride, 0.10; salt mixture, 3.50; and vitamin mix.ure, 1.00. Diets were irradiated at 2.5 or 4.5 Mrad and were fed ad lib. for 4 months. Levels of serum (i) glutanic-pyruvic transaminase, (ii) glutamic-oxalacetic transaminase, and (iii) lactic dehydrogenase were determined. No significant changes were observed in (i) or (iii) on ieeding irradiated diets, or in (ii) for male rats. Significant decreases (P [de

  17. Sub-Acute Toxicity Study of Graphene Oxide in the Sprague-Dawley Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingbo Li

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Graphene oxide (GO is an oxidized derivative of graphene used in biotechnology and medicine. The safety of GO is uncertain, so we evaluated its toxicity in male rats. Rat tail veins were injected with 2.5, 5, or 10 mg/kg GO for seven days and behavioral patterns, pathology, and tissue morphology were assessed. Data show that behaviors were not altered according to an open field test and a functional observational battery test, but histopathological analysis indicated that GO caused inflammation of the lung, liver, and spleen. GO also reduced cholesterol, high density lipoprotein (HDL, and low density lipoprotein (LDL. No other organs were modified. Thus, high concentrations of GO are toxic for the lung, liver, and spleen, but the mechanism by which this occurs requires more study.

  18. Effects of ultraviolet radiation on mole rats kidney: A histopathologic and ultrastructural study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hüseyin Türker

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to realize the ultrastructural effects of ultraviolet radiation on the kidney tissue cells of mole rats (Spalax leucodon. The mole rats of 180–200 g body weight were divided into the control and radiation-trial groups. The control group was not given any radiation. The other groups were irradiated with artificially produced UVC radiation for 14, 28 and 60 days. The kidney tissue samples were prepared at the end of experiments and analyzed by the light and electron microscope. Several effects were observed in the kidney tissues cells analyzed in accordance with the dose magnitude of radiation. These results clearly show the detrimental effects of UVC radiation on kidney tissue cells in exposure periods dependent on radiation dose and exposure time.

  19. biochemical studies on toxicological aspects of sevin pesticide in gamma irradiated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afifi, E.A.A.; Osman, H.F.

    2009-01-01

    this study was carried out to investigate the toxic effect of daily oral administration of 28 mg/kg of the carbamate insecticide(sevin) and/ or whole body gamma irradiation at dose levels of 30.0 Gy and 6.0 Gy for consecutive 4 weeks on male albino rats which produced several alterations in blood biochemical components. results revealed significant increases in the liver, kidney and spleen relative weights, total leucocytic counts , haematocrit values, hemoglobin concentration, cholesterol,triglycerides and glucose levels. on the other hand significant decreases in whole body weights,red blood cells counts and blood hemoglobin content were recorded for rats treated with sevin alone,sevin +3 Gy and 6 Gy gamma irradiation treatment.using radioimmunoassay technique revealed that ,serum levels of triiodothyronine was significantly increased, while thyroxine hormone was significantly decreased at all different experimental periods and doses

  20. In vivo and in vitro study of /sub 90/Sr in developing rat molar enamel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, B.A.; Deaton, T.G.; Bawden, J.W.

    1980-01-01

    The uptake patterns of /sub 90/Sr in developing rat molar enamel were studied in vivo and in vitro. Autoradiographic methods were used that preclude loss or translocation of tracers associated with water-soluble compounds in the sections. In eight-day-old rats injected with the tracer, /sub 90/Sr uptake in the enamel was significantly less than for dentin and bone, particularly at early sacrifice times. The uptake pattern of 90Sr was somewhat different from that previously observed for /sub 45/Ca. The in vitro experiments indicated that the viable intact enamel organ limits uptake of /sub 90/Sr by enamel in both the secretory and maturation phases of enamel formation

  1. Structural and functional changes in the intenstine of irradiated and hypothermic irradiated rats : a scanning and transmission electron microscopic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudhuri, S.; Chaudhuri, Swapna; Roy, Bijon

    1982-01-01

    Severe destructive changes in the intestine of rats following whole body exposure to gamma rays (832 rads) were observed by light microscope, scanning and transmission electron microscope studies. Hypothermia (15deg C rectal temperature) induced prior to irradiation protected the intestinal mucosa from destruction. A simultaneous study showed that glucose absorption decreased significantly in irradiated rats, whereas it was increased in hypothermic irradiated animals. (author)

  2. Pharmacokinetic study of gallocatechin-7-gallate from Pithecellobium clypearia Benth. in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The pharmacokinetic profile of gallocatechin-7-gallate (J10688 was studied in rats after intravenous administration. Male and female Sprague-Dawley (SD rats received 1, 3, and 10 mg/kg (i.v. of J10688 and plasma drug concentrations were determined by a high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC–MS method. The pharmacokinetic software Data Analysis System (Version 3.0 was used to calculate the pharmacokinetic parameters. For different i.v. doses of J10688, the mean peak plasma concentration (C0 values ranged from 11.26 to 50.82 mg/L, and mean area under the concentration-time curve (AUC0–t values ranged from 1.75 to 11.80 (mg·h/L. J10688 lacked dose-dependent pharmacokinetic properties within doses between 1 and 10 mg/kg, based on the power model. The method developed in this study was sensitive, precise, and stable. The pharmacokinetic properties of J10688 in SD rats were shown to have rapid distribution and clearance values. These pharmacokinetic results may contribute to an improved understanding of the pharmacological actions of J10688.

  3. Studies of the hormonal control of postnatal testicular descent in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, J R; Vaughan, E D; Imperato-McGinley, J

    1993-03-01

    Dihydrotestosterone is believed to control the transinguinal phase of testicular descent based on hormonal manipulation studies performed in postnatal rats. In the present study, these hormonal manipulation experiments were repeated, and the results were compared with those obtained using the antiandrogens flutamide and cyproterone acetate. 17 beta-estradiol completely blocked testicular descent, but testosterone and dihydrotestosterone were equally effective in reversing this inhibition. Neither flutamide nor cyproterone acetate prevented testicular descent in postnatal rats despite marked peripheral antiandrogenic action. Further analysis of the data revealed a correlation between testicular size and descent. Androgen receptor blockade did not produce a marked reduction in testicular size and consequently did not prevent testicular descent, whereas estradiol alone caused marked testicular atrophy and testicular maldescent. Reduction of the estradiol dosage or concomitant administration of androgens or human chorionic gonadotropin resulted in both increased testicular size and degree of descent. These data suggest that growth of the neonatal rat testis may contribute to its passage into the scrotum.

  4. Study of wound healing potential of Stevia rebaudiana ethanol extract in male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Goorani

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Stevia rebaudiana has been used in medicine as anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antipyretic, anti-fungal, and antibacterial agent. The present study was conducted to investigate the healing effects of S. rebaudiana ethanol extracts on cutaneous wounds in rats. Methods: Full-thickness excisional wounds (2×2 cm were induced on the back of 32 rats. The rats were divided into four groups as follows; untreated (control and treated with 1 mL basal cream, 1 mL S. rebaudiana ethanol extract 10%, and 1 mL tetracycline (3% for 20 days (short term. Animals of each group were euthanized at 20 day post-injury and wounds were assessed through macroscopic and microscopic analyses. Results: During the experiment, S. rebaudiana indicated a significant reduction in the wound area compared to other groups. Parameters such as arrangement of the healing tissue, re-epithelilization and epithelial formation demonstrated considerable changes when compared to the control. In addition, treatment with S. rebaudiana decreased the total number of cells, fibrocytes/fibroblasts ratio, neutrophils, and lymphocytes and enhanced the number of blood vessels and fibroblasts at 20 day. Conclusion: The present study demonstrated the wound healing activity of S. rebaudiana, lending credence to the folkloric use in the treatment of cutaneous wounds.

  5. Study of antihyperglycaemic activity of medicinal plant extracts in alloxan induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attanayake, Anoja P; Jayatilaka, Kamani A P W; Pathirana, Chitra; Mudduwa, Lakmini K B

    2013-04-01

    Diabetes mellitus, for a long time, has been treated with plant derived medicines in Sri Lanka. The aim of this study is to determine the efficacy and dose response of oral antihyperglycaemic activity of eight Sri Lankan medicinal plant extracts, which are used to treat diabetes in traditional medicine in diabetic rats. Medicinal plants selected for the study on the basis of documented effectiveness and wide use among traditional Ayurveda physicians in the Southern region of Sri Lanka for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. The effect of different doses of aqueous stem bark extracts of Spondias pinnata (Anacardiaceae), Kokoona zeylanica (Celastraceae), Syzygium caryophyllatum (Myrtaceae), Gmelina arborea (Verbenaceae), aerial part extracts of Scoparia dulcis (Scrophulariaceae), Sida alnifolia (Malvaceae), leaf extract of Coccinia grandis (Cucurbitaceae) and root extract of Languas galanga (Zingiberaceae) on oral glucose tolerance test was evaluated. A single dose of 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.00, 1.25, 2.00 g/kg of plant extract was administered orally to alloxan induced (150 mg/kg, ip) diabetic Wistar rats (n = 6). Glibenclamide (0.50 mg/kg) was used as the standard drug. The acute effect was evaluated over a 4 h period using area under the oral glucose tolerance curve. The results were evaluated by analysis of variance followed by Dunnett's test. The eight plant extracts showed statistically significant dose dependent improvement on glucose tolerance (P dulcis, S. alnifolia, L. galanga and C. grandis possess potent acute antihyperglycaemic activity in alloxan induced diabetic rats.

  6. Self-Microemulsifying Drug Delivery System: Formulation and Study Intestinal Permeability of Ibuprofen in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharat Bhushan Subudhi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was aimed at developing a self-microemulsifying drug delivery system (SMEDDS of Ibuprofen for investigating its intestinal transport behavior using the single-pass intestinal perfusion (SPIP method in rat. Methods. Ibuprofen loaded SMEDDS (ISMEDDS was developed and was characterized. The permeability behavior of Ibuprofen over three different concentrations (20, 30, and 40 µg/mL was studied in each isolated region of rat intestine by SPIP method at a flow rate of 0.2 mL/min. The human intestinal permeability was predicted using the Lawrence compartment absorption and transit (CAT model since effective permeability coefficients (Peff values for rat are highly correlated with those of human, and comparative intestinal permeability of Ibuprofen was carried out with plain drug suspension (PDS and marketed formulation (MF. Results. The developed ISMEDDS was stable, emulsified upon mild agitation with 44.4 nm ± 2.13 and 98.86% ± 1.21 as globule size and drug content, respectively. Higher Peff in colon with no significant Peff difference in jejunum, duodenum, and ileum was observed. The estimated human absorption of Ibuprofen for the SMEDDS was higher than that for PDS and MF (P<0.01. Conclusion. Developed ISMEDDS would possibly be advantageous in terms of minimized side effect, increased bioavailability, and hence the patient compliance.

  7. A comparative behavioural study of mechanical hypersensitivity in 2 pain models in rats and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitz, Marie-Céline; Hrncic, Dragan; Treede, Rolf-Detlef; Caspani, Ombretta

    2016-06-01

    The assessment of pain sensitivity in humans has been standardized using quantitative sensory testing, whereas in animals mostly paw withdrawal thresholds to diverse stimuli are measured. This study directly compares tests used in quantitative sensory testing (pinpricks, pressure algometer) with tests used in animal studies (electronic von Frey test: evF), which we applied to the dorsal hind limbs of humans after high frequency stimulation and rats after tibial nerve transection. Both experimental models induce profound mechanical hypersensitivity. At baseline, humans and rats showed a similar sensitivity to evF with 0.2 mm diameter tips, but significant differences for other test stimuli (all P pain models (P pain sensitivity, but probe size and shape should be standardized. Hypersensitivity to blunt pressure-the leading positive sensory sign after peripheral nerve injury in humans-is a novel finding in the tibial nerve transection model. By testing outside the primary zone of nerve damage (rat) or activation (humans), our methods likely involve effects of central sensitization in both species.

  8. Effect of opium dependency on secondary intention wound healing in a rat model: an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahedian, Jalal; Mirshekari, Tooraj-Reza; Nabavizadeh, Fatemeh

    2013-06-01

    Opium dependency is a social and health problem in some middle eastern countries like Iran. Many of these people may require surgery. This study investigates the effects of opium dependency on histological parameters of secondary intention wound healing in rat. A full-thickness wound (2 × 2 cm in diameters) was created on the dorsum of two groups of rats, a normal control group and a second group of rat depended to opium (Badawy's method). Several times during 14 days postwounding, the wound was excised with peripheral margins of normal skin and was evaluated for cellular population, reepithelialisation and revascularisation. Results are presented as the mean ± standard error. Data were compared by an unpaired t-test or analysis of variance. Histological examination of the wound tissue showed evidence of increased population of fibroblasts, decreased recruitment of neutrophile and plateau of macrophage cells in opium depended animals comparing with control group. In the depended animals, reepithelialisation was seen to be enhanced significantly, while prohibiting progression of revascularisation. This study shows that opium dependency enhances reepitheliazation as well as tissue recruitment of fibroblasts; thereby probable enhancement of secondary intention wound healing. © 2012 The Authors. International Wound Journal © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Medicalhelplines.com Inc.

  9. Developing high-frequency ultrasound tomography for testicular tumor imaging in rats: An in vitro study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Chih-Chung, E-mail: cchuang@mail.ncku.edu.tw [Department of Biomedical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China); Chen, Wei-Tsen [Department of Electrical Engineering, Fu Jen Catholic University, New Taipei City 24205, Taiwan (China)

    2014-01-15

    Purpose: This paper describes a feasibility study for developing a 35-MHz high-frequency ultrasound computed-tomography (HFUCT) system for imaging rat testicles. Methods: The performances of two kinds of HFUCT-attenuation and sound-speed UCT-based on transmission and pulse-echo modes were investigated in this study. Experiments were carried out using phantoms and actual rat testiclesin vitro. HFUCT images were reconstructed using a filtered backprojection algorithm. Results: The phantom experimental results indicated that all types of HFUCT can determine the dimensions of a plastic cylinder with a diameter of 500μm. Compared to sound-speed HFUCT, attenuation HFUCT exhibited a better performance in recognizing a tiny sclerosed region in a gelatin phantom. Therefore, the in vitro testicular experiments were performed using attenuation HFUCT based on transmission and pulse-echo modes. The experimentally measured attenuation coefficient and sound speed for healthy rat testicles were 2.92 ± 0.25 dB/mm and 1537 ± 25 m/s, respectively. Conclusions: A homogeneous texture was evident for healthy testicles using both modes. An artificial sclerosed tumor could also be clearly observed using two- and three-dimensional attenuation HFUCT in both modes. However, an object artifact was apparent in pulse-echo mode because of ultrasound beam refraction. All of the obtained experimental results indicate the potential of using HFUCT as a novel tool for monitoring the preclinical responses of testicular tumors in small animals.

  10. Developing high-frequency ultrasound tomography for testicular tumor imaging in rats: An in vitro study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Chih-Chung; Chen, Wei-Tsen

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This paper describes a feasibility study for developing a 35-MHz high-frequency ultrasound computed-tomography (HFUCT) system for imaging rat testicles. Methods: The performances of two kinds of HFUCT-attenuation and sound-speed UCT-based on transmission and pulse-echo modes were investigated in this study. Experiments were carried out using phantoms and actual rat testiclesin vitro. HFUCT images were reconstructed using a filtered backprojection algorithm. Results: The phantom experimental results indicated that all types of HFUCT can determine the dimensions of a plastic cylinder with a diameter of 500μm. Compared to sound-speed HFUCT, attenuation HFUCT exhibited a better performance in recognizing a tiny sclerosed region in a gelatin phantom. Therefore, the in vitro testicular experiments were performed using attenuation HFUCT based on transmission and pulse-echo modes. The experimentally measured attenuation coefficient and sound speed for healthy rat testicles were 2.92 ± 0.25 dB/mm and 1537 ± 25 m/s, respectively. Conclusions: A homogeneous texture was evident for healthy testicles using both modes. An artificial sclerosed tumor could also be clearly observed using two- and three-dimensional attenuation HFUCT in both modes. However, an object artifact was apparent in pulse-echo mode because of ultrasound beam refraction. All of the obtained experimental results indicate the potential of using HFUCT as a novel tool for monitoring the preclinical responses of testicular tumors in small animals

  11. Respiratory alterations due to urban air pollution: An experimental study in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saldiva, P.H.N.; King, M.; Delmonte, V.L.C.; Macchione, M.; Parada, M.A.C.; Daliberto, M.L.; Sakae, R.S.; Criado, P.M.P.; Silveira, P.L.P.; Zin, W.A.; Boehm, G.M.

    1992-01-01

    In order to assess the adverse effects of urban levels of air pollution, rats were used as biological indicators in a chronic exposure experiment. Animals were housed for 6 months in the center of Sao Paulo and were compared to controls kept for the same period in a clean area. Pollution levels were obtained from a State air pollution monitoring station, 200 m distant from the exposure place, which provided the levels of CO, SO 2 , particulates, and ozone. The animals were submitted to several tests focusing on the respiratory system, comprising pulmonary function tests, studies on mucociliary clearance and mucus rheology, histochemical evaluation of airways, bronchoalveolar lavage, and ultrastructural studies of the epithelium of the airways. Rats exposed to air pollution developed secretory cell hyperplasia in the airways, ultrastructural ciliary alterations, and a more rigid mucus, changes that caused mucociliary clearance impairment. In addition, nasal resistance and the number of inflammatory cells recovered by bronchoalveolar lavage were increased in air pollution exposed animals. The results obtained in the present investigation suggest that chronic exposure to urban levels of air pollution may cause respiratory lesions in rats

  12. Methodological considerations on descriptive studies of induced periodontal diseases in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galvão Mariane Ponzio de Azevedo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to show the technique and the methodological approach used in describing histological characteristics of induced periodontal disease in rats. To reach that inflammatory process, periodontal disease was induced by ligature, with or without sucrose-rich diet. Twenty-four female adult (60 days old Wistar rats were divided in four groups: Group 1, or control (which received standard diet, Group 2 (which received ligature around the upper second molars and a standard diet, Group 3 (which received a sucrose-rich diet, and Group 4 (which received ligature around the upper second molars and a sucrose-rich diet. The animals were followed for a period of 30 days, after which they were sacrificed. The upper second molars were removed, processed, and the histological characteristics were analyzed by a descriptive dichotomous method. The results were analyzed by the Fisher's exact test (significance level of 95% and by a residual test, which showed the relation between groups and histological characteristics. The animals which received ligature (Groups 2 and 4 showed histological characteristics related with periodontitis, whilst the animals without ligatures showed no periodontal destruction. This was shown by a distribution of these groups in extremes of a graphic representation. The use of a ligature, as done in this study, was able to promote a chronic inflammatory process in the periodontium of rats, regardless of the adopted diet. The correspondence factorial analysis was capable of showing these characteristics, being one more tool to be used in histological research.

  13. Protective effects of y-irradiation to streptozotocin induced diabetic rats: A biochemical and histological study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gharib, O.A.; Noman, E.; Abo-Nour, S.

    2007-01-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the possible protective effect of low dose of gamma radiation against pancreatic cells damage in streptozotocin (STZ) diabetic rats. Young male Wister rats were divided into the control group, the irradiated groups, which divided into two subgroups, single irradiated group, which subjected to 0.5 Gy of whole body gamma-irradiation as a single dose and repeated irradiated group, which subjected to 0.5 Gy of whole body gamma-irradiation as a repeated dose (0.5 Gy daily for two days). The 3 r d groups, which in turn subdivided into three subgroups, STZ group administrated to a single dose of 45 mg kg -1 of STZ (i.p), the STZ single irradiated group, subjected to single irradiated dose after the STZ administration and STZ repeated irradiated group, that exposed to repeated dose of radiation after the STZ administration. The diabetic rats presented a significant increase in plasma glucose and lipid peroxidation and a significant decrease in both whole blood SOD and GSH as well as in liver tissue. In addition, marked depression was observed in plasma and liver glutathione- S-transferase compared with normal rats. Low dose of radiation as a single or repeated doses, significantly reduced blood glucose and TEARS and significantly increased SOD activity and GSH content in both blood and liver besides a marked amelioration in GST activity in plasma and liver tissues. The ultra structural studies revealed that STZ affects both cells of pancreas. There was a reduction in secretary granules and rough endoplasmic reticulum with the accumulation of lipid. Low dose of y-rays exposure result a remarkable protective effect on biochemical and histological level

  14. Thirteen-week oral toxicity study of L-arginine in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsubuku, Shoji; Hatayama, Kazuhisa; Mawatari, Kazunori; Smriga, Miro; Kimura, Takeshi

    2004-01-01

    The amino acid L-arginine (Arg) has been used extensively in dietary and pharmacological products. This study evaluated toxicological and behavioral effects of Arg produced by Ajinomoto Co. (Tokyo, Japan) during a dosing study with male and female Sprague-Dawley rats. The amino acid was incorporated into a standard diet at doses equal to 1.25%, 2.5%, and 5.0% (w/w). A control group of rats received only a standard diet. All diets were administered ad libitum for 13 continuous weeks. To examine recoverability of any potential effects, the administration period was followed by a 5-week-long recovery, during which only a standard diet was provided. In male and female rats in each concentration group, treatment-related changes were not observed for clinical signs, body weights, diet consumption, ophthalmology, gross pathology, organ weight, or histopathology. An elevated level of plasma glucose was detected in some male rats (5.0%, w/w) during the analysis conducted in the fifth week of administration; however, the degree of the change was within the physiological range, and no changes were observed at the end of the administration period. In the same group, an increase in hemoglobin, together with a tendency toward an increase in the red blood cell counts, was found, but the change was considered toxicologically insignificant. The no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) for Arg was estimated at 5.0% (w/w) for both genders (males, 3.3 +/- 0.1 g/kg/day; females, 3.9 +/- 0.2 g/kg/day).

  15. Hesperidin as radioprotector against radiation-induced lung damage in rat: A histopathological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholam Hassan Haddadi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Reactive oxygen species (ROS are generated by ionizing radiation, and one of the organs commonly affected by ROS is the lung. Radiation-induced lung injury including pneumonia and lung fibrosis is a dose-limiting factor in radiotherapy (RT of patients with thorax irradiation. Administration of antioxidants has been proved to protect against ROS. The present study was aimed to assess the protective effect of hesperidin (HES against radiation-induced lung injury of male rats. Fifty rats were divided into three groups. G1: Received no HES and radiation (sham. G2: Underwent γ-irradiation to the thorax. G3: Received HES and underwent γ-irradiation. The rats were exposed to a single dose of 18 Gy using cobalt-60 unit and were administered HES (100 mg/kg for 7 days before irradiation. Histopathological analysis was performed 24 h and 8 weeks after RT. Histopathological results in 24 h showed radiation-induced inflammation and presence of more inflammatory cells as compared to G1 (P < 0.05. Administration of HES significantly decreased such an effect when compared to G2 (P < 0.05. Histopathological evaluation in 8 weeks showed a significant increase in mast cells, inflammation, inflammatory cells, alveolar thickness, vascular thickness, pulmonary edema, and fibrosis in G2 when compared to G1 (P < 0.05. HES significantly decreased inflammatory response, fibrosis, and mast cells when compared to G2 (P < 0.05. Administration of HES resulted in decreased radiation pneumonitis and radiation fibrosis in the lung tissue. Thus, the present study showed HES to be an efficient radioprotector against radiation-induced damage in the lung of tissue rats.

  16. Biological studies on albino rats fed with Sorghum bicolor starch ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-06-17

    Jun 17, 2008 ... ghum and millets. It consists of amylopectin, a branched- chain polymer of glucose, and amylose, a straight-chain .... diamine tetracetic acid (EDTA) tubes for hematological studies. .... cially for people with diabetes such foods are known to ... consists of oligosaccharides, vitamins, essential amino acids ...

  17. Immunological studies on albino rats against crude endotoxins of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The genus Aeromonas comprises a group of organisms widely distributed in the environment, isolated from water, shallow tube wells, dug wells, piped water supply from sewage, children and adults with diarrhoea, and associated with disease in animals and man. The present work studied the effect of crude endotoxin ...

  18. Study on the influence of Sempervivum tectorum and Melatonin on Glutathion protective effects in rats blood exposed to Aluminum sulphate

    OpenAIRE

    Corina Gravila; Florin Muselin; Camelia Tulcan; Mirela Ahmadi – Khoie; Ariana- Bianca Velciov; Georgeta- Sofia Pintilie

    2014-01-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate the influence of Sempervivum tectorum aqueous extract and melatonin on reduced glutathione (GSH) protective effect in Wistar albino rat blood exposed to aluminium sulphate- Al2(SO4)3. The rats were divided in one control group (C) and 7 experimental groups (E). The control group received tap water. The experimental rats were feed the following way: E1 group – aluminum sulphate, daily, for 3 months; : E2 group – Sempervivum tectorum, daily, for ...

  19. [A study on the relationship between postmortem interval and the changes of DNA content in the kidney cellule of rat].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, L; Peng, D B; Liu, Y; Deng, W N; Liu, Y L; Li, J J

    2001-05-01

    To study changes of DNA content in the kidney cellule of rats and relationship with the postmortem interval. This experiment chose seven parameter of cell nuclear, including the area and integral optical density, determined the changes of DNA content in the kidney cellule of 15 rats at different intervals between 0 and 48 h postmortem with auto-TV-image system. The degradation rate of DNA in nuclear has a certainty relationship to early PMI(in 48 h) of rat, and get binomial regress equation. Determining the quantity of DNA in nuclear should be an objective and exact way to estimate the PMI.

  20. Ninety-day oral toxicity study of rice-derived γ-oryzanol in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Seol-Hee; Kim, Duyeol; Shimizu, Norihito; Okada, Tadashi; Hitoe, Shoketsu; Shimoda, Hiroshi

    2017-01-01

    A 90-day oral toxicity study of γ-oryzanol, a rice-derived triterpenoid ferulate, was performed by oral gavage administration to male and female Sprague-Dawley rats at doses of 0, 1000, and 2000 mg/kg body weight/day. All rats administered γ-oryzanol survived throughout the study period. Both male and female rats showed no toxicologically significant changes of the general signs, examination findings, body weight, food consumption, functional observational battery results, ophthalmological findings, urinalysis, hematology tests, clinical chemistry tests, organ weights, and necropsy findings. Moreover, there were no histopathological changes related to administration of γ-oryzanol in males and females from the 2000 mg/kg body weight/day group. In conclusion, the no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) of γ-oryzanol exceeded 2000 mg/kg body weight/day for both male and female rats under the conditions of this study.

  1. Study of morbidity in orthotopic small intestine transplantation with Wistar rats: experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LEE André Dong Won

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Background - Transplantation of the small intestine is a surgical procedure currently under investigation for its possible application in the treatment of patients with short bowel syndrome, aiming at the reintroduction of an oral diet. Aim - To define the morbidity and mortality of intestinal transplantation in small animals using microsurgery. Intra and postoperative morbidity and mortality were studied in Wistar rats submitted to orthotopic intestinal allotransplantation. Material and Method - The animals were divided into three groups: group A (37 donor animals, group B (37 recipient animals, and group C (10 control animals. Group B was divided into three subgroups according to survival time. Subgroup TI consisted of animals that died during surgery or due to causes directly related to surgical intervention, subgroup T2 consisted of animals that died between the 4th and 29th postoperative day, and subgroup T3 consisted of animals that survived after 30 days. Transplanted animals were evaluated in terms of surgical technique used (vascular and intestinal anastomosis, graft quality, surgical time, and clinical parameters. The animals that died by the 29th postoperative day were submitted to autopsy and the remaining ones were sacrificed after 30 days. Result - There was a high rate of complication of a surgical nature. Early mortality rate, i.e., mortality up to the third postoperative day, was 54% with vascular anastomosis being the major cause of death. Surgical time was evaluated in a restricted and homogeneous group and showed a strong prognostic value in terms of successful transplantation. Clinical parameters such as weight loss, reduction of ingestion, reduction of motor activity and diarrhea were directly correlated with acute rejection. Conclusion - The experimented intestinal transplant is a procedure companied by considerable morbidity and mortality due to surgical complications in postoperative period, vascular anastomosis and

  2. Effects of subchronic inhalation exposure of rats to emissions from a diesel engine burning soybean oil-derived biodiesel fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finch, G L; Hobbs, C H; Blair, L F; Barr, E B; Hahn, F F; Jaramillo, R J; Kubatko, J E; March, T H; White, R K; Krone, J R; Ménache, M G; Nikula, K J; Mauderly, J L; Van Gerpen, J; Merceica, M D; Zielinska, B; Stankowski, L; Burling, K; Howell, S

    2002-10-01

    chromatid exchanges in peripheral blood lymphocytes, fertility, reproductive toxicity, or teratology. This study demonstrated modest adverse effects at the highest exposure level, and none other than the expected physiological macrophage response to repeated particle exposure at the intermediate level.

  3. Structural and ultrastructural study of rat testes influenced by electromagnetic radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almášiová, Viera; Holovská, Katarína; Cigánková, Viera; Račeková, Enikö; Fabianová, Kamila; Martončíková, Marcela

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the influence of whole-body electromagnetic radiation (EMR) on testicular parenchyma of Wistar rats. Sexually mature rats were subjected to pulsed electromagnetic field at frequency of 2.45 GHz and mean power density 2.8 mW/cm(2) by 3-h daily applications for 3 wk. Tissue samples were obtained 3 h after the last irradiation and processed by histological techniques for light and transmission electron microscopy. Testes showed apparent degenerative changes of seminiferous epithelium. The seminiferous tubules were mostly irregular in shape, and seminiferous epithelium contained a number of empty spaces of different size. Subsequently, groups of sloughed epithelial cells were often found inside the lumina of tubules. Except for relatively unchanged Sertoli cells, some locations of basal compartment of seminiferous epithelium contained shriveled Sertoli cells with dark cytoplasm. These areas showed degenerative features including necrotizing and shriveled spermatogonia surrounded by empty irregular spaces, and undulating basement membrane. The intertubular spaces were enlarged but interstitial Leydig cells did not show any marked morphological changes. Evidence demonstrates the adverse effects of EMR on testicular parenchyma in rats.

  4. Structural and ultrastructural study of rat liver influenced by electromagnetic radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holovská, K; Almášiová, V; Cigánková, V; Beňová, K; Račeková, E; Martončíková, M

    2015-01-01

    Mobile communication systems are undoubtedly an environmental source of electromagnetic radiation (EMR). There is an increasing concern regarding the interactions of EMR with the humans. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of EMR on Wistar rat liver. Mature rats were exposed to electromagnetic field of frequency 2.45 GHz and mean power density of 2.8 mW/cm2 for 3 h/d for 3 wk. Samples of the liver were obtained 3 h after the last irradiation and processed histologically for light and transmission electron microscopy. Data demonstrated the presence of moderate hyperemia, dilatation of liver sinusoids, and small inflammatory foci in the center of liver lobules. Structure of hepatocytes was not altered and all described changes were classified as moderate. Electron microscopy of hepatocytes revealed vesicles of different sizes and shapes, lipid droplets, and proliferation of smooth endoplasmic reticulum. Occasionally necrotizing hepatocytes were observed. Our observations demonstrate that EMR exposure produced adverse effects on rat liver.

  5. Studies on cerebral protection of digoxin against hypoxic-ischemic brain damage in neonatal rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Kaiwei; Tan, Danfeng; He, Miao; Guo, Dandan; Huang, Juan; Wang, Xia; Liu, Chentao; Zheng, Xiangrong

    2016-08-17

    Hypoxic-ischemic brain damage (HIBD) is a major cause of neonatal acute deaths and chronic nervous system damage. Our present study was designed to investigate the possible neuroprotective effect of digoxin-induced pharmacological preconditioning after hypoxia-ischemia and underlying mechanisms. Neonatal rats were assigned randomly to control, HIBD, or HIBD+digoxin groups. Pharmacological preconditioning was induced by administration of digoxin 72 h before inducing HIBD by carotid occlusion+hypoxia. Behavioral assays, and neuropathological and apoptotic assessments were performed to examine the effects; the expression of Na/K ATPase was also assessed. Rats in the HIBD group showed deficiencies on the T-maze, radial water maze, and postural reflex tests, whereas the HIBD+digoxin group showed significant improvements on all behavioral tests. The rats treated with digoxin showed recovery of pathological conditions, increased number of neural cells and proliferative cells, and decreased number of apoptotic cells. Meanwhile, an increased expression level of Na/K ATPase was observed after digoxin preconditioning treatment. The preconditioning treatment of digoxin contributed toward an improved functional recovery and exerted a marked neuroprotective effect including promotion of cell proliferation and reduction of apoptosis after HIBD, and the neuroprotective action was likely associated with increased expression of Na/K ATPase.

  6. Sensory dynamics of intense microwave irradiation: A comparative study of aversive behaviors by mice and rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Justesen, D.R.

    1981-10-01

    The results of two experiments are reported, the first on 24 mice and 14 rats, all experimentally naive, that were observed for evidence of adventitious escape from faradic shock or from a potentially lethal, 2450-MHz microwave field in a multi-mode cavity. All of ten rats irradiated at a whole-body-averaged dose rate of 60 mW/g convulsed and expired, presumably from radiation-induced hyperpyrexia. Eight of ten mice irradiated at 60 mW/g survived the four sessions of irradiation, but reliable evidence of escape learning was not observed. The data of the second experiment, which was a pilot study of four rats with an extensive history of exposure to intense but intermittently applied microwave fields, revealed that the animals learned to thermoregulate behaviorally by locomoting in and out of the safe-area circle. A strong relation between dose rate (30, 60, and 120 mW/g) and proportion of time spent in the safe area was observed (r = .97). Post-exposure means of colonic temperature during three sets of sessions under the different rates of energy dosing were highly stable and averaged 39.6 deg C.

  7. The effect of electromagnetic radiation on the rat brain: an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eser, Olcay; Songur, Ahmet; Aktas, Cevat; Karavelioglu, Ergun; Caglar, Veli; Aylak, Firdevs; Ozguner, Fehmi; Kanter, Mehmet

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the structural changes of electromagnetic waves in the frontal cortex, brain stem and cerebellum. 24 Wistar Albino adult male rats were randomly divided into four groups: group I consisted of control rats, and groups II-IV comprised electromagnetically irradiated (EMR) with 900, 1800 and 2450 MHz. The heads of the rats were exposed to 900, 1800 and 2450 MHz microwaves irradiation for 1h per day for 2 months. While the histopathological changes in the frontal cortex and brain stem were normal in the control group, there were severe degenerative changes, shrunken cytoplasm and extensively dark pyknotic nuclei in the EMR groups. Biochemical analysis demonstrated that the Total Antioxidative Capacity level was significantly decreased in the EMR groups and also Total Oxidative Capacity and Oxidative Stress Index levels were significantly increased in the frontal cortex, brain stem and cerebellum. IL-1β level was significantly increased in the EMR groups in the brain stem. EMR causes to structural changes in the frontal cortex, brain stem and cerebellum and impair the oxidative stress and inflammatory cytokine system. This deterioration can cause to disease including loss of these areas function and cancer development.

  8. Alveolar bone healing process in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). A radiographic densitometry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manrique, Natalia; Pereira, Cassiano Costa Silva; Garcia, Lourdes Maria Gonzáles; Micaroni, Samuel; Carvalho, Antonio Augusto Ferreira de; Perri, Sílvia Helena Venturoli; Okamoto, Roberta; Sumida, Doris Hissako; Antoniali, Cristina

    2012-01-01

    Hypertension is one of the most important public health problems worldwide. If undiagnosed or untreated, this pathology represents a systemic risk factor and offers unfavorable conditions for dental treatments, especially those requiring bone healing. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate, by analysis of bone mineral density (BMD), that the alveolar bone healing process is altered in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). Wistar rats and SHRs were submitted to extraction of the upper right incisor and were euthanized 7, 14, 21, 28 and 42 days after surgery. Right maxillae were collected, radiographed and analyzed using Digora software. BMD was expressed as minimum (min), middle (med) and maximum (max) in the medium (MT) and apical (AT) thirds of the dental alveolus. The results were compared across days and groups. Wistar showed difference in med and max BMD in the MT between 7 and 28 and also between 14 and 28 days. The AT exhibited significant difference in med and min BMD between 7 and 28 days, as well as difference in min BMD between 28 and 42 days. SHRs showed lower med BMD in the MT at 28 days when compared to 21 and 42 days. Differences were observed across groups in med and min BMD at day 28 in the MT and AT; and in max BMD at 14, 21 and 42 days in the MT. These results suggest that the alveolar bone healing process is delayed in SHRs comparing with Wistar rats.

  9. A single-neuron tracing study of arkypallidal and prototypic neurons in healthy rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiyama, Fumino; Nakano, Takashi; Matsuda, Wakoto; Furuta, Takahiro; Udagawa, Jun; Kaneko, Takeshi

    2016-12-01

    The external globus pallidus (GP) is known as a relay nucleus of the indirect pathway of the basal ganglia. Recent studies in dopamine-depleted and healthy rats indicate that the GP comprises two main types of pallidofugal neurons: the so-called "prototypic" and "arkypallidal" neurons. However, the reconstruction of complete arkypallidal neurons in healthy rats has not been reported. Here we visualized the entire axonal arborization of four single arkypallidal neurons and six single prototypic neurons in rat brain using labeling with a viral vector expressing membrane-targeted green fluorescent protein and examined the distribution of axon boutons in the target nuclei. Results revealed that not only the arkypallidal neurons but nearly all of the prototypic neurons projected to the striatum with numerous axon varicosities. Thus, the striatum is a major target nucleus for pallidal neurons. Arkypallidal and prototypic GP neurons located in the calbindin-positive and calbindin-negative regions mainly projected to the corresponding positive and negative regions in the striatum. Because the GP and striatum calbindin staining patterns reflect the topographic organization of the striatopallidal projection, the striatal neurons in the sensorimotor and associative regions constitute the reciprocal connection with the GP neurons in the corresponding regions.

  10. Acute oral safety study of sodium caseinate glycosylated via maillard reaction with galactose in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anadón, Arturo; Martínez, Maria A; Ares, Irma; Castellano, Victor; Martínez-Larrañaga, Maria R; Corzo-Martínez, Marta; Moreno, F Javier; Villamiel, Mar

    2014-03-01

    In order to potentially use sodium caseinate (SC) glycated with galactose (Gal) in the food industry as a new functional ingredient with proved technological and biological properties, an evaluation of oral acute toxicity has been carried out. An acute safety study with SC-Gal glycoconjugates in the Wistar rat with a single oral gavage dose of 2,000 mg/kg of body weight was conducted. The SC-Gal glycoconjugates were well tolerated; no adverse effects or mortality was observed during the 2-week observation period. No abnormal signs, behavioral changes, body weight changes, or alterations in food and water consumption occurred. After this period, no changes in hematological and serum chemistry parameters, organ weights, or gross pathology or histopathology were detected. It was concluded that SC-Gal glycoconjugates obtained via the Maillard reaction were well tolerated in rats at an acute oral dose of 2,000 mg/kg of body weight. The SC-Gal glycoconjugates have a low order of acute toxicity, and the oral 50 % lethal dose for male and female rats is in excess of 2,000 mg/kg of body weight.

  11. Effect of carbon dioxide pneumoperitoneum on the severity of acute pancreatitis: an experimental study in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yol, S; Bostanci, E B; Ozogul, Y; Zengin, N I; Ozel, U; Bilgihan, A; Akoglu, M

    2004-12-01

    In the management of mild acute biliary pancreatitis, it is generally recommended to perform laparoscopic cholecystectomy after the subsidence of the attack during the same hospital admission. The effect of laparoscopy on abdominal organs has been widely investigated but not in acute pancreatitis. This study used an animal model of mild acute pancreatitis to examine the effects of CO(2) pneumoperitoneum on acute pancreatitis in rats. Mild acute pancreatitis was induced in 30 male Sprague-Dawley rats by surgical ligation of the biliopancreatic duct. After 2 days, animals were assigned to three groups: sham operation (animals were anesthetized for 30 min without undergoing laparotomy), CO(2) pneumoperitoneum (applied for 30 min at a pressure of 12 mmHg), and laparotomy (performed for 30 min, and then the abdomen was closed). Two hours after the surgical procedures, animals were killed and levels of lactate dehydrogenase, aspartate aminotransferase, glucose, urea, hematocrit, and leukocyte count among Ranson's criteria and levels of amylase, lipase, and total bilirubin were measured to determine the severity of acute pancreatitis. Histopathologic examination of the pancreas was done, and malondialdehyde and glutathione levels of the pancreas and lung were determined. The only significant differences between the groups were in lactate dehydrogenase and aspartate aminotransferase levels, which were significantly higher in the pneumoperitoneum group compared to the sham operation group. CO(2) pneumoperitoneum for 30 min at a pressure of 12 mmHg did not affect the severity of acute pancreatitis induced by ligation of the biliopancreatic duct in rats.

  12. Effects of melatonin on diclofenac sodium treated rat kidney: a stereological and histopathological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoshvakhti, Habib; Yurt, K Kübra; Altunkaynak, B Zuhal; Türkmen, Aysın P; Elibol, Ebru; Aydın, Işınsu; Kıvrak, Elfide G; Önger, M Emin; Kaplan, Süleyman

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we aimed to investigate the effect of diclofenac sodium (DS) and melatonin (MEL) on kidney of the prenatally administered rats. Pregnant rats were divided into the control, physiological saline, DS, and DS + MEL groups. All injections were given beginning from the 5th day after mating to the 15th day of the pregnancy. Physical dissector and Cavalieri principle were used to estimate the numerical density and total number of glomeruli and the volumetric parameters of kidney, respectively. Our stereological results indicated that DS application during the pregnancy lead to decrease in the mean volume, numerical density, and total number of the glomeruli (p  0.05). Light microscopic investigation showed congestion in blood vessels and shrinkage of the Bowman's space in the DS group. Moreover, there was degeneration in nephrons including glomerulosclerosis and tubular defects, and an increase in the connective tissue in the kidneys of the DS-treated group. However, usage of the MEL with the DS caused preventing of these pathological alterations in the kidney. We suggested that DS might lead to adverse effects in the kidneys of the rats that are prenatally subjected to this drug. Fortunately, these adverse effects can be prevented by the melatonin supplementation.

  13. Morphometric study on age-dependent pulmonary lesions in rats exposed to nitrogen dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kyono, H.; Kawai, K.

    1982-01-01

    Electronmicroscopic morphometry was performed on lung of 1, 3, 12 and 21 months-old rats exposed to 0.1, 0.5, 3 and 10 ppm nitrogen dioxide (NO/sub 2/) continuously for one month. The rats used in this experiment were all supplied at one time from one colony and kept under a barrier system until exposure. Effects of aging on the responses of lungs to NO/sub 2/ were studied by comparing the dose-effect reaction patterns among the age groups. A trend of dose-dependent increase of arithmetic mean thickness of air-blood barrier was found in all age groups examined. The response of lung to NO/sub 2/ exposure showed age-related differences. Based on the morphometric index, the response declines from 1 to 12 months, but increases again in 21-months-old rats. The compartmental components of alveolar wall tissue such as type I epithelial cells, type II epithelial cells, interstitial cells, interstitial matrix and capillary endothelium appeared to have various degrees of response due to both age at onset of exposure and NO/sub 2/ concentration, resulting in the appearance of varying stages in impairment or repair. Accordingly, the response of each compartmental component of lung to the concentrations of NO/sub 2/ did not always exhibit a simple dose-dependent increase or decrease but sometimes indicated a multiphasic reaction pattern.

  14. Preparation and biocompatibility study of in situ forming polymer implants in rat brains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasongkla, Norased; Boongird, Atthaporn; Hongeng, Suradej; Manaspon, Chawan; Larbcharoensub, Noppadol

    2012-02-01

    We describe the development of polymer implants that were designed to solidify once injected into rat brains. These implants comprised of glycofurol and copolymers of D: ,L: -lactide (LA), ε-caprolactone and poly(ethylene glycol) (PLECs). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and gel permeation chromatography (GPC) showed that the extent of implant degradation was increased with LA: content in copolymers. SEM analysis revealed the formation of porosity on implant surface as the degradation proceeds. PLEC with 19.3% mole of LA: was chosen to inject in rat brains at the volume of 10, 25 and 40 μl. Body weights, hematological and histopathological data of rats treated with implants were evaluated on day 3, 6, 14, 30 and 45 after the injection. Polymer solution at the injection volume of 10 μl were tolerated relatively well compared to those of 25 and 40 μl as confirmed by higher body weight and healing action (fibrosis tissue) 30 days after treatment. The results from this study suggest a possible application as drug delivery systems that can bypass the blood brain barrier.

  15. Rosuvastatin safety: An experimental study of myotoxic effects and mitochondrial alterations in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Ganainy, Samar O; El-Mallah, Ahmed; Abdallah, Dina; Khattab, Mahmoud M; Mohy El-Din, Mahmoud M; El-Khatib, Aiman S

    2017-01-04

    Myopathy is the most commonly reported adverse effect of statins. All statins are associated with myopathy, though with different rates. Rosuvastatin is a potent statin reported to induce myopathy comparable to earlier statins. However, in clinical practice most patients could tolerate rosuvastatin over other statins. This study aimed to evaluate the myopathic pattern of rosuvastatin in rats using biochemical, functional and histopathological examinations. The possible deleterious effects of rosuvastatin on muscle mitochondria were also examined. The obtained results were compared to myopathy induced by atorvastatin in equimolar dose. Results showed that rosuvastatin induced a rise in CK, a slight increase in myoglobin level together with mild muscle necrosis. Motor activity, assessed by rotarod, showed that rosuvastatin decreased rats' performance. All these manifestations were obviously mild compared to the prominent effects of atorvastatin. Parallel results were obtained in mitochondrial dysfunction parameters. Rosuvastatin only induced a slight increase in LDH and a minor decrease in ATP (∼14%) and pAkt (∼12%). On the other hand, atorvastatin induced an increase in LDH, lactate/pyruvate ratio and a pronounced decline in ATP (∼80%) and pAkt (∼65%). These findings showed that rosuvastatin was associated with mild myotoxic effects in rats, especially when compared to atorvastatin. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A comparative study of charge movement in rat and frog skeletal muscle fibres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollingworth, S; Marshall, M W

    1981-12-01

    1. The middle of the fibre voltage--clamp technique (Adrian & Marshall, 1977), modified where necessary for electrically short muscle fibres, has been used to measure non-linear charge movements in mammalian fast twitch (rat extensor digitorum longus), mammalian slow twitch (rat soleus) and frog (sartorius) muscles. 2. The maximum amount of charge moved in mammalian fast twitch muscle at 2 degrees C in hypertonic solution, was 3--5 times greater than in slow twitch muscle. The voltage distribution of fast twitch charge was 10--15 mV more positive when compared to slow twitch. 3. In both mammalian muscle types hypertonic Ringer solution negatively shifted the voltage distribution of charge some 6 mV. The steepness of charge moved around mechanical threshold was unaffected by hypertonicity. 4. The amount of charge in frog sartorius fibres at 2 degrees C in hypertonic solution was about half of that in rat fast twitch muscle; the voltage distribution of the frog charge was similar to rat soleus muscle. 5. Warming between 2 and 15 degrees C had no effect on either the amount of steady-state distribution of charge in mammalian or frog muscles. 6. At 2 degrees C, the kinetics of charge movement in fast and slow twitch mammalian muscles were similar and 2--3 times faster than frog muscle at the same temperature. In fast and slow mammalian fibres at 2 degrees C similar times were taken to shift the same fractions of the total amount of charge. The Q10 of charge movement kinetics was between 1.2 and 2.0 in the three muscles studied.

  17. Hypercaloric diet modulates effects of chronic stress: a behavioral and biometric study on rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Carla de; Oliveira, Cleverson Moraes de; de Macedo, Isabel Cristina; Quevedo, Alexandre S; Filho, Paulo Ricardo Marques; Silva, Fernanda Ribeiro da; Vercelino, Rafael; de Souza, Izabel C Custodio; Caumo, Wolnei; Torres, Iraci L S

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is a chronic disease that has been associated with chronic stress and hypercaloric diet (HD) consumption. Increased ingestion of food containing sugar and fat ingredients (comfort food) is proposed to "compensate" chronic stress effects. However, this eating habit may increase body fat depositions leading to obesity. This study evaluated behavioral/physiological parameters seeking to establish whether there is an association between the effects of HD intake and stress, and to test the hypothesis that the development of anxious behavior and obesity during chronic stress periods depends on the type of diet. Sixty-day-old male Wistar rats (n = 100) were divided into four groups: standard chow, hypercaloric diet, chronic stress/standard chow and chronic stress/hypercaloric diet. Chronic stress was induced by restraint stress exposure for 1 h/day, for 80 d. At the end of this period, rat behavior was evaluated using open-field and plus-maze tests. The results showed that HD alone increased weight gain and adipose deposition in subcutaneous and mesenteric areas. However, stress reduced weight gain and adipose tissue in these areas. HD also increased naso-anal length and concurrent stress prevented this. Behavioral data indicated that stress increased anxiety-like behaviors and comfort food reduced these anxiogenic effects; locomotor activity increased in rats fed with HD. Furthermore, HD decreased corticosterone levels and stress increased adrenal weight. The data indicate that when rats are given HD and experience chronic stress this association reduces the pro-obesogenic effects of HD, and decreases adrenocortical activity.

  18. Circulating and brain BDNF levels in stroke rats. Relevance to clinical studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yannick Béjot

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Whereas brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF levels are measured in the brain in animal models of stroke, neurotrophin levels in stroke patients are measured in plasma or serum samples. The present study was designed to investigate the meaning of circulating BDNF levels in stroke patients. METHODS AND RESULTS: Unilateral ischemic stroke was induced in rats by the injection of various numbers of microspheres into the carotid circulation in order to mimic the different degrees of stroke severity observed in stroke patients. Blood was serially collected from the jugular vein before and after (4 h, 24 h and 8 d embolization and the whole brains were collected at 4, 24 h and 8 d post-embolization. Rats were then selected from their degree of embolization, so that the distribution of stroke severity in the rats at the different time points was large but similar. Using ELISA tests, BDNF levels were measured in plasma, serum and brain of selected rats. Whereas plasma and serum BDNF levels were not changed by stroke, stroke induced an increase in brain BDNF levels at 4 h and 24 h post-embolization, which was not correlated with stroke severity. Individual plasma BDNF levels did not correlate with brain levels at any time point after stroke but a positive correlation (r = 0.67 was observed between individual plasma BDNF levels and stroke severity at 4 h post-embolization. CONCLUSION: Circulating BDNF levels do not mirror brain BDNF levels after stroke, and severe stroke is associated with high plasma BDNF in the very acute stage.

  19. Study of the variations in apoptotic factors in hippocampus of male rats with posttraumatic stress disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behrang Alani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD is a stress-related psychosomatic disorder caused by occurrence of a traumatic event and the hippocampus volume of the patients with Post-traumatic stress disorder decreased. However, the mechanisms that cause such damage are not well-understood. The aim of this study is to detect the expression of apoptosis-related Bax, Bcl-2, Caspase-3 and Insulin-like growth Factor-I proteins in the hippocampus region in the Predatory stress rats. Materials and Methods: A total of 70 male wistar rats were divided into Predatory stress groups of 1d, 2d, 3d, 7d, 14d, 30d and a normal control group (N = 10. Rats were subjected to 5 min of predatory stress and then exposed to the elevated plus-maze (EPM. Serum corticosterone and Insulin-like growth factor-1 level of Hippocampus were measured by ELISA technique. The expression of Bax, Bcl-2, and Caspase-3 were detected by western blotting. Results: Rats spent significantly more time in closed arms of the elevated plus maze (EPM than control group after exposure to stress. Serum levels of corticosterone significantly increased at 2d-3d. The expression of hippocampal IGF-1 was significantly up-regulated at 1d-2d after stress. Both Bax and the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2 significantly peaked at Predatory stress 2d-14d. Caspase3 was significantly active among 2d-30 compared to the normal control. Conclusion: The activation of caspase-3 in the stress groups indicates that apoptosis may be one of the reasons inducing hippocampus atrophy and play roles in the pathogenesis of PTSD. Increase in hippocampus levels of IGF-1 during early PTSD might be involved in the early molecular inhibitory mechanism of apoptosis in PTSD.

  20. Regulation of operant oral ethanol self-administration: a dose-response curve study in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnicella, Sebastien; Yowell, Quinn V; Ron, Dorit

    2011-01-01

    Oral ethanol self-administration procedures in rats are useful preclinical tools for the evaluation of potential new pharmacotherapies as well as for the investigation into the etiology of alcohol abuse disorders and addiction. Determination of the effects of a potential treatment on a full ethanol dose-response curve should be essential to predict its clinical efficacy. Unfortunately, this approach has not been fully explored because of the aversive taste reaction to moderate to high doses of ethanol, which may interfere with consumption. In this study, we set out to determine whether a meaningful dose-response curve for oral ethanol self-administration can be obtained in rats. Long-Evans rats were trained to self-administer a 20% ethanol solution in an operant procedure following a history of excessive voluntary ethanol intake. After stabilization of ethanol self-administration, the concentration of the solution was varied from 2.5 to 60% (v/v), and operant and drinking behaviors, as well as blood ethanol concentration (BEC), were evaluated following the self-administration of a 20, 40, and 60% ethanol solution. Varying the concentration of ethanol from 2.5 to 60% after the development of excessive ethanol consumption led to a typical inverted U-shaped dose-response curve. Importantly, rats adapted their level and pattern of responding to changes in ethanol concentration to obtain a constant level of intake and BEC, suggesting that their operant behavior is mainly driven by the motivation to obtain a specific pharmacological effect of ethanol. This procedure can be a useful and straightforward tool for the evaluation of the effects of new potential pharmacotherapies for the treatment of alcohol abuse disorders. Copyright © 2010 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  1. An automatic recording system for the study of escape from fear in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming; He, Wei

    2013-11-01

    Escape from fear (EFF) is an active response to a conditioned stimulus (CS) previously paired with an unconditioned fearful stimulus (US), which typically leads to the termination of the CS. In this paradigm, animals acquire two distinct associations: S-S [CS-US] and R-O [response-outcome] through Pavlovian and instrumental conditioning, respectively. The present study describes a computer controlled automatic recording system that captures the development of EFF and allows the determination of the respective roles of S-S and R-O associations in this process. We validated this system by showing that only rats subjected to a simultaneous CS-US conditioning (i.e., CS and US occur together at the beginning of each trial) acquired EFF, not those subjected to an unpaired CS-US conditioning. Paired rats had a progressively increased number of EFF and significantly shorter escape latencies than unpaired rats across the 5-trial blocks on the test day. However, during the conditioning phase, the unpaired rats emitted more 22kHz ultrasonic vocalizations, a validated measure of conditioned reactive fear responses. Our results demonstrate that the acquisition of EFF is contingent upon pairing of the CS with the US, not simply the consequence of a high level of generalized fear. Because this commercially available system is capable of examining both conditioned active and reactive fear responses in a single setup, it could be used to determine the relative roles of S-S and R-O associations in EFF, the neurobiology of conditioned active fear response and neuropharmacology of psychotherapeutic drugs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Developmental biology and the study of malformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, A F

    1976-05-01

    Experimental work on abnormal conditions of incubation in the chick has been undertaken to acquire a scientific approach to malformations. More precise experiments on causing abnormalities had a common origin with experimental embryology. Progress in experimental teratology during the last 50 years is reviewed in a commentary on the 4 principles formulated by Stockard in 1921. The results of cytogenetical studies in man and in other organisms have led to the tracing of some relationships between them. Present knowledge concerning malformations of the neural tube, originating either experimentally, spontaneously, or phenotypically, has been presented and the teratological implications of some recent theories on the expression of the genotype are discussed in particular reference to problems of hormones as teratogens, the implication of carbohydrate metabolism, and teratogenesis. It is speculated that teratogenesis is possibly related to cationic balance in early development and that 1 factor retarding progress in the understanding of malformations is the tendency toward the development of teratology in an adequately close relationship with other branches of cell biology.

  3. No association between periodontitis, preterm birth, or intrauterine growth restriction: experimental study in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogacci, Mariana Fampa; Barbirato, Davi da Silva; Amaral, Cristine da Silva Furtado; da Silva, Priscilla Gonçalves; Coelho, Mariana de Oliveira; Bertozi, Giuliana; de Carvalho, Denise Pires; Leão, Anna Thereza Thomé

    2016-06-01

    The biologic plausibility of the possible association between periodontitis and adverse pregnancy outcomes has been assessed with the use of different experimental models. However, most experimental studies did not induce periodontitis in the animals but promoted an acute microbial challenge with selected periodontal pathogens or their products subcutaneous or intravenous or intraamniotic. The present study was then conducted to verify the biologic plausibility of such association by experimentally inducing periodontitis in Wistar rats. An experimental study on an animal model by the induction of periodontitis in 50% of sites and assessment of the presence of cytokines in the gingival tissue, serum, placenta, cord, and amniotic fluid was designed to test the null hypothesis that experimental periodontitis that is induced on rats does not result in adverse pregnancy outcomes. Forty female Wistar rats were included in 2 groups: a periodontally healthy (without ligatures) and an experimentally induced periodontitis group (test, with ligatures). Forty-five days after the induction, the mating was initiated. Males were placed with females in the ratio of 1:2 for a period of 12 hours. The bodyweight of the female, from then on, was recorded daily. When the pregnancy was confirmed on day 20, laparotomy was performed. The amniotic fluid, placenta, umbilical cord, blood (serum) and maternal and gingival tissue samples were subjected to quantitative analysis for interleukin 1α, -6, -10, -4, -12p70, and -17a, tumor necrosis factor-α, and interferon-γ by multiplex methods. Mean scores, standard deviations, and standard errors for estimated measures were calculated. For cytokines analyses, the Mann-Whitney test was conducted to compare the concentration of the analytes from control and test groups in the different tissues samples. For comparison of cytokines reduction from gingival tissue to serum and from serum to placenta, the Wilcoxon Test was performed. Spearman

  4. Involvement of dopamine in the differences in sexual behaviour between Roman high and low avoidance rats: an intracerebral microdialysis study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanna, Fabrizio; Piludu, Maria Antonietta; Corda, Maria Giuseppa; Melis, Maria Rosaria; Giorgi, Osvaldo; Argiolas, Antonio

    2015-03-15

    Outbred Roman high- (RHA) and low-avoidance (RLA) rats are selected for respectively rapid vs. poor acquisition of the active avoidance response and display different copulatory patterns when exposed to a sexually receptive female, with RHA rats showing more robust sexual motivation and better performance than RLA rats also after repeated sexual activity. Here we show that the distinct patterns of sexual behaviour of the Roman lines are correlated with differences in the activity of the dopaminergic mesolimbic system, which plays a key role in sexual motivation and copulatory performance. Thus, differential increases in the concentrations of dopamine and its main metabolite 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, occurred in dialysates obtained from the nucleus accumbens shell of naïve and sexually experienced Roman rats during the anticipatory and consummatory phases of sexual activity. These differences were particularly evident between sexually naïve RHA and RLA rats and tended to diminish but still persisted between sexually experienced rats, as did the differences in sexual behaviour. Analysis of the biochemical and behavioural findings showed that, while in RHA rats sexual experience caused a shift in the changes in both the dopaminergic activity and copulation towards the first period of the sexual test, in RLA rats sexual experience increased dopaminergic activity and copulation throughout the entire test. Therefore, this study adds experimental support to the view that the different sexual patterns of the Roman lines are due, at least in part, to a more robust functional tone of the mesolimbic dopaminergic system of RHA rats. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Protective effect of curcumin on experimentally induced arthritic rats: detailed histopathological study of the joints and white blood cell count

    OpenAIRE

    Kamarudin, Taty Anna; Othman, Faizah; Mohd Ramli, Elvy Suhana; Md Isa, Nurismah; Das, Srijit

    2012-01-01

    Curcuma longa (turmeric) rhizomes contains curcumin, an active compound which possesses anti-inflammatory effects. Collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) is an accepted experimental animal model of rheumatoid arthritis. The present study aimed to observe the histological changes in the joints of experimental arthritic rats treated with curcumin. Twenty four male Sprague-Dawley (approximately 7 weeks-old) rats were randomly divided into four groups. Three groups were immunized with 150 ?g collagen. ...

  6. Effects of early life trauma are dependent on genetic predisposition: a rat study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell Vivienne A

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Trauma experienced early in life increases the risk of developing a number of psychological and/or behavioural disorders. It is unclear, however, how genetic predisposition to a behavioural disorder, such as attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, modifies the long-term effects of early life trauma. There is substantial evidence from family and twin studies for susceptibility to ADHD being inherited, implying a strong genetic component to the disorder. In the present study we used an inbred animal model of ADHD, the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR, to investigate the long-term consequences of early life trauma on emotional behaviour in individuals predisposed to developing ADHD-like behaviour. Methods We applied a rodent model of early life trauma, maternal separation, to SHR and Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY, the normotensive control strain from which SHR were originally derived. The effects of maternal separation (removal of pups from dam for 3 h/day during the first 2 weeks of life on anxiety-like behaviour (elevated-plus maze and depressive-like behaviour (forced swim test were assessed in prepubescent rats (postnatal day 28 and 31. Basal levels of plasma corticosterone were measured using radioimmunoassay. Results The effect of maternal separation on SHR and WKY differed in a number of behavioural measures. Similar to its reported effect in other rat strains, maternal separation increased the anxiety-like behaviour of WKY (decreased open arm entries but not SHR. Maternal separation increased the activity of SHR in the novel environment of the elevated plus-maze, while it decreased that of WKY. Overall, SHR showed a more active response in the elevated plus-maze and forced swim test than WKY, regardless of treatment, and were also found to have higher basal plasma corticosterone compared to WKY. Maternal separation increased basal levels of plasma corticosterone in SHR females only, possibly through adaptive

  7. Inhalation toxicity studies with 1,3-butadiene 3 two year toxicity/carcinogenicity study in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owen, P.E.; Glaister, J.R.; Gaunt, I.F.; Pullinger, D.H.

    1987-05-01

    Groups of 110 male and 110 female CD (Sprague-Dawley) rats were exposed to atmospheres containing 0 (control), 1000 or 8000 ppm v/v butadiene for 6 hr/day and 5 days/week. Ten of each sex from each group were killed at 52 weeks. The study was terminated when it was predicted that survival would drop to 20% to 25%. High dose rats had wet, ruffled fur and showed slight incoordination during the first exposure each week. During the second year, mortality in both treated female groups was increased because of humanitarian sacrifice of animals with large subcutaneous masses, while increased mortality in the high dose males was accompanied by an increase of the severity of nephropathy. Body weight was slightly lower than controls in both sexes at the high dose, but statistically significant only over the first 12 weeks. There were no effects in hematological analyses or tests of neuromuscular function that definitely could be associated with treatment. Liver weights at both doses were increased in both sexes with no associated pathological change. Kidney weight was increased in males at the high dose, together with an increase in the severity of nephrosis. There were increases in the incidences of pancreatic exocrine adenoma; uterine sarcoma; Zymbal gland carcinoma; mammary tumors; thyroid follicular cell tumors; and testis Leydig-cell tumors. These data suggest the butadiene is a weak oncogen to the rat under the conditions of exposure used in this study.

  8. Toxicity study of di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) in combination with acetone in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, M.; Østergaard, G.; Lam, Henrik Rye

    2000-01-01

    In two separate studies with exposure duration 9 weeks or 4 weeks, male Wistar rats were dosed with di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) by gavage and exposed to drinking water with or without acetone (0.5% wt/v in the 9-week study, 1.0% wt/v in the 4-week study). In the 9-week study the doses of DEHP...... were 0, 125, 250, 500 or 1000 mg/kg b.wt. In the 4-week study the doses of DEHP were increased to 1000, 5000 and 10,000 mg/kg b.wt. In the 9-week study, the relative liver weight was increased in the rats exposed to 500 and 1000 mg/kg b.wt. No interaction of DEHP and acetone was observed in any...... of the measured parameters. In the 4-week study DEHP, at the highest dose level, resulted in severe general toxicity. The group exposed to DEHP in combination with acetone was more affected. Male fertility was decreased. Body weight was decreased, and the relative weight of the liver, kidney, heart, brain...

  9. Lack of toxic effect of technical azadirachtin during postnatal development of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, M K; Raizada, R B

    2007-03-01

    Azadirachtin, a biopesticide has been evaluated for its possible toxic effects during postnatal development of rats over two generations. Rats were fed 100, 500 and 1000ppm technical azadirachtin through diet which is equivalent to 5, 25 and 50mg/kg body weight of rats. Technical azadirachtin has not produced any adverse effects on reproductive function and data were comparable to control animals over two generations. There were no toxicological effect in parent rats as evidenced by clinical signs of toxicity, enzymatic parameters like AST, ALT, ALP, S. bilirubin, S. cholesterol, total protein and histopathology of liver, brain, kidney and testes/ovary. The litters of F(1B) and F(2B) generations were devoid of any morphological, visceral and teratological changes. The percent cumulative loss and growth index of pups were also comparable to respective controls in successive growth period of 0, 4, 7, 14 and 21 days in two generations. There were no major malformations in fetuses while some insignificant minor skeletal variations like missing 5th sternebrae and bipartite thoracic centre found were not compound or dose related. No significant pathomorphological changes were observed in liver, kidney, brain and gonads of F(2B) pups. In conclusion rats fed technical azadirachtin showed no evidence of cumulative effects on postnatal development and reproductive performance over two generations. Absence of any major adverse reproductive effects in adults as well as in 21 days old pups of F(2B) generation suggest the safe use of technical azadirachtin as a biopesticide.

  10. In vivo studies on the nitrogen, chlorine, calcium and phosphorus composition of rats by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morel-Jacrot, Micheline.

    1975-01-01

    The role of neutron activation analysis 'in vivo' to determine the elementary composition of the rat organism is demonstrated. In part one the possibilities offered by certain methods which establish the elementary composition of living organisms are analyzed, together with the contribution and scope of neutron activation analysis. In part two the technical details of the neutron activation of rats in vivo are determined and the problems raised by application of the method considered. This is followed by an application of neutron activation analysis to research on changes in the nitrogen, chlorine, calcium and phosphorus composition of rats during growth (from 30 to 440 days) and important biological events such as puberty in both sexes, reproduction and lactation. Finally a study of the fertility rate and the effects of repeated irradiations on Sprague-Dawley rats are described [fr

  11. [Effect of supplementation with peach palm as source of vitamin A: study with rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuyama, L K; Cozzolino, S M

    1996-02-01

    The effect of supplementation with peach palm (Bactris gasipaes H.B.K.), as an alternative source of vit. A, in the regional diet of Manaus, AM, Brazil, in which the pulp was cooked and transformed into flour, was studied. The biological trial involved rats which were depleted in zinc and vitamin A, followed by repletion using the regional diet (RD), RD plus peach palm and RD plus vitamin A. The parameters used to determine the utilization of vitamin A were the vitamin A concentrations in the liver and plasma, and the growth of the animals. The diet was prepared according to the data of Shrimpton and Giugliano for families earning less than two legal minimum salaries. Adult post-partum rats were used, with six male pups each, which received a diet based on casein washed with 1% EDTA, without the addition of zinc or vitamin A for a period of 25 days, for the purpose of obtaining newly-weaned animals which were deficient in Zn and Vit.A. A control group received a diet also based on casein washed with 1% EDTA, but with all the nutrients in the quantities suggested by the Committee on Laboratory Animal Diets. The repletion period of the newly-weaned rats was of 30 days and the experimental design was entirely randomized with four groups of eight rats each. The diet supplementation followed the recommendations of the Committee on Laboratory Animal Diets. At the end of the experiment, it was observed that rats which consumed the diet based on the regional diet of Manaus supplemented with either peach palm or vitamin A showed a significantly greater concentration of vitamin A in the liver, 43.3 +/- 6.5 micrograms/g, 42.0 +/- 4.3 micrograms/g, respectively in relation to the regional diet, 5.5 +/- 1.1 micrograms/g (p < 0.05). The amount of zinc present in the regional diet, 10.7 mg per day, was bioavailable as determined by the concentration of zinc in the femurs. The results suggest that the regional diet of Manaus needs to be supplemented with vitamin A to maintain the

  12. Sequential variation in brain functional magnetic resonance imaging after peripheral nerve injury: A rat study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onishi, Okihiro; Ikoma, Kazuya; Oda, Ryo; Yamazaki, Tetsuro; Fujiwara, Hiroyoshi; Yamada, Shunji; Tanaka, Masaki; Kubo, Toshikazu

    2018-04-23

    Although treatment protocols are available, patients experience both acute neuropathic pain and chronic neuropathic pain, hyperalgesia, and allodynia after peripheral nerve injury. The purpose of this study was to identify the brain regions activated after peripheral nerve injury using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) sequentially and assess the relevance of the imaging results using histological findings. To model peripheral nerve injury in male Sprague-Dawley rats, the right sciatic nerve was crushed using an aneurysm clip, under general anesthesia. We used a 7.04T MRI system. T 2 * weighted image, coronal slice, repetition time, 7 ms; echo time, 3.3 ms; field of view, 30 mm × 30 mm; pixel matrix, 64 × 64 by zero-filling; slice thickness, 2 mm; numbers of slices, 9; numbers of average, 2; and flip angle, 8°. fMR images were acquired during electrical stimulation to the rat's foot sole; after 90 min, c-Fos immunohistochemical staining of the brain was performed in rats with induced peripheral nerve injury for 3, 6, and 9 weeks. Data were pre-processed by realignment in the Statistical Parametric Mapping 8 software. A General Linear Model first level analysis was used to obtain T-values. One week after the injury, significant changes were detected in the cingulate cortex, insular cortex, amygdala, and basal ganglia; at 6 weeks, the brain regions with significant changes in signal density were contracted; at 9 weeks, the amygdala and hippocampus showed activation. Histological findings of the rat brain supported the fMRI findings. We detected sequential activation in the rat brain using fMRI after sciatic nerve injury. Many brain regions were activated during the acute stage of peripheral nerve injury. Conversely, during the chronic stage, activation of the amygdala and hippocampus may be related to chronic-stage hyperalgesia, allodynia, and chronic neuropathic pain. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. An experimental study of mandibular fracture wound healing in the calcium deficient rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang Hoon; Wang, Eui Hwan; Lee, Sang Rae

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate effects of osteoporosis on fracture wound healing in the calcium deficient rat. To research the experiment some ten-week old Wistar strain rats with approximately 300 gms weight were selected. Then, the rats were divided into two groups : Normal diet group (rats given a normal diet before and after bone fracture) and Low calcium diet group (rats given a low calcium diet before and after bone fracture). Both groups had been provided with each diet for three weeks. When the rats became thirteen weeks old, the mandibular angle of rats in both groups was artificially fractured for test. The healing of fracture wounds was reviewed by using soft x-ray radiography and 99m Tc-MDP bone scan and also histopathologic examination. The obtained results were as follows : 1. The radiolucency of the fracture site for the Normal diet group started to decrease from the 14th day since the experiment was made, while the Low calcium diet group began decrease in the radiolucency from the 21st day of the experiment . The radiolucency for the normal diet group disappeared at the 42nd day, but one for the Low calcium diet group disappeared at the 56th day of the experiment. 2. The highest uptake rate of 99m Tc-MDP stood at the 14th day of the experiment in the Normal diet group and the Low calcium diet group's maximum rate was recorded at the 21st day of the experiment. These both groups were gradually experiencing decrease in the uptake rate as the experiment time was going on. However, the uptake rate in the Low calcium diet group was lower than one in the Normal diet group. 3. For the Normal diet group, the newly formed trabecular, which were similar to one of the surrounding bone, were seen at the 42nd day of the experiment. On the other hand, the Low claium diet group showed at the 56th day of the experiment that the osteoporotic findings looked weak, irregular trabecular, and also large bone marrow space were observed clearly. As a result

  14. Effects of Aluminium on Rat Brain Mitochondria Bioenergetics: an In vitro and In vivo Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias-González, Javier; Sánchez-Iglesias, Sofía; Beiras-Iglesias, Andrés; Méndez-Álvarez, Estefanía; Soto-Otero, Ramón

    2017-01-01

    Numerous studies have highlighted the potential of aluminium as an aetiological factor for some neurodegenerative disorders, particularly Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. Our previous studies have shown that aluminium can cause oxidative stress, reduce the activity of some antioxidant enzymes, and enhance the dopaminergic neurodegeneration induced by 6-hydroxydopamine in an experimental model of Parkinson's disease in rats. We now report a study on the effects caused by aluminium on mitochondrial bioenergetics following aluminium addition and after its chronic administration to rats. To develop our study, we used a high-resolution respirometry to test the mitochondrial respiratory capacities under the conditions of coupling, uncoupling, and non-coupling. Our study showed alterations in leakiness, a reduction in the maximum capacity of complex II-linked respiratory pathway, a decline in the respiration efficiency, and a decrease in the activities of complexes III and V in both models studied. The observed effects also included both an alteration in mitochondrial transmembrane potential and a decrease in oxidative phosphorylation capacity when relatively high concentrations of aluminium were added to the isolated mitochondria. These findings contribute to explain both the ability of aluminium to generate oxidative stress and its suggested potential to act as an etiological factor by promoting the progression of neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson's disease.

  15. Histopathological study on the effects of turmeric (Curcuma longa linn. powdwer on renal ischemia-reperfusion injuryin rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Mohajeri

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Renal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R injury is a major cause of acute renal failure (ARF, which is faced in many clinical situations. This study was designed to investigate the effect of pre-treatment with turmeric (Curcuma longa linn powder on kidney histopathology and function markers in renal ischemia / reperfusion (IR induced injury in the rats. A total of 80 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: sham, IR model and two I/R+TREE (2%and4% - treated groups (n=20 per group. I/R groups’ kidneys were subjected to 60 min of global ischemia at 37oc followed by 30min of reperfusion. After 24h of reperfusion period, the rats were sacrificed. Kidney function tests and histopathological examination were also performed. Results were compared with a group of rats with sham operation. High serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen and uric acid were observed in I/R rats compared to the sham rats. Pre-treatment of turmeric powder for 30 days prior to IR operation improved renal function reduced IR induced renal inflammatory and oxidative injury. The results of this study showed that turmeric powder significantly prevented renal I/R-induced functional and histological injuries.

  16. Effect of antiresorptive drugs in the alveolar bone healing. A histometric and immunohistochemical study in ovariectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramalho-Ferreira, Gabriel; Faverani, Leonardo Perez; Momesso, Gustavo Antonio Correa; Luvizuto, Eloá Rodrigues; de Oliveira Puttini, Igor; Okamoto, Roberta

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the alendronate and raloxifene influence in the alveolar healing process of osteoporotic rats. Sixty-four female rats were divided in four groups: sham rats (SHAM), ovariectomized rats and no medical treatment (OVX NT), ovariectomized rats and submitted to alendronate treatment (OVX ALE), and ovariectomized and submitted to raloxifene treatment (OVX RAL). The histomorphometrical and immunohistochemical analysis was performed. The quantitative data were analyzed through Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn tests (α = 0.05). In the longest period, SHAM and OVX RAL groups showed the better bone formation responses (P alveolar healing process in osteoporotic rats, but not enough to achieve the histometrical and protein expression values that were observed in the SHAM group. Alendronate is largely used as a potent antiresorptive agent. Otherwise, considering the undesirable effects in relation to the alveolar healing, other antiosteoporosis medications should be studied. Raloxifene seems to be a good candidate once its action mechanism involves the activation of osteoblasts.

  17. Study on {sup 41}Ca-AMS for diagnosis and assessment of cancer bone metastasis in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Hongtao; Pang, Fangfang [College of Physics and Technology, Guangxi Normal University, Guilin 541004 (China); China Institute of Atomic Energy, P.O. Box 275-50, Beijing 102413 (China); Jiang, Shan; He, Ming; Dong, Kejun; Dou, Liang [China Institute of Atomic Energy, P.O. Box 275-50, Beijing 102413 (China); Pang, Yijun [College of Physics and Technology, Guangxi Normal University, Guilin 541004 (China); China Institute of Atomic Energy, P.O. Box 275-50, Beijing 102413 (China); Yang, Xianlin [College of Physics and Technology, Guangxi Normal University, Guilin 541004 (China); Ruan, Xiangdong [College of Physics, Guangxi University, Nanning 530004 (China); Liu, Manjun; Xia, Chunbo [Guiin Medical University, Guilin 541004 (China)

    2015-10-15

    The annual incidence of new cancer patients in China is about 2 million, 30–40% of which will end up with bone metastasis. Profound study on the preclinical model and early diagnosis of cancer bone metastasis in rats are very significant for the drug development, better understanding and treatment of bone metastases. In order to monitor the process of bone metabolism and early detection of bone metastasis of cancer cells, a technique of {sup 41}Ca isotope tracer combined with AMS has been developed and applied in the study on the bone metastasis of cancer cells by rat model. In this work, 3-month-old female Sprague–Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into different groups, and tumor cells injected respectively into the tail vein, femoral artery, femoral cavity and the thigh muscle to establish the rat models for bone metastases. The most appropriate model, i.e., the thigh muscle group, was finally adopted in our real metastases experiment. Each rat in this group was intramuscularly (i.m.) injected with 250 μl CaCl{sub 2} solution (containing 1.4 mg Ca and 5nCi {sup 41}Ca). About 40 days later, the rat mammary gland carcinoma cells (Walker 256) were injected into these rats following the established protocol. After bone metastasis, medicine interventions were performed. The sequential urine and blood samples were collected and analyzed for {sup 41}Ca (by AMS) and N-terminal telopeptide (Ntx), respectively. Bone Mineral Density (BMD) values in the femur and the tibia were measured by CT scan. The results of {sup 41}Ca/Ca in longitudinal urinary samples can sensitively reveal the skeletal perturbations caused by bone metastasis of rats, suggests that {sup 41}Ca might be similarly developed for human use and improve clinical management through the assessment of the curative effect and non-invasive detection of the earliest stages of cancer growth in bone.

  18. Acute and subchronic oral toxicity studies in rats with nanoscale and pigment grade titanium dioxide particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warheit, D B; Brown, S C; Donner, E M

    2015-10-01

    Data generated using standardized testing protocols for toxicity studies generally provide reproducible and reliable results for establishing safe levels and formulating risk assessments. The findings of three OECD guideline-type oral toxicity studies of different duration in rats are summarized in this publication; each study evaluated different titanium dioxide (TiO2) particles of varying sizes and surface coatings. Moreover, each study finding demonstrated an absence of any TiO2 -related hazards. To briefly summarize the findings: 1) In a subchronic 90-day study (OECD TG 408), groups of young adult male and female rats were dosed with rutile-type, surface-coated pigment-grade TiO2 test particles (d50 = 145 nm - 21% nanoparticles by particle number criteria) by oral gavage for 90 days. The no-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) for both male and female rats in this study was 1000 mg/kg bw/day, the highest dose tested. The NOAEL was determined based on a lack of TiO2 particle-related adverse effects on any in-life, clinical pathology, or anatomic/microscopic pathology parameters; 2) In a 28-day repeated-dose oral toxicity study (OECD TG 407), groups of young adult male rats were administered daily doses of two rutile-type, uncoated, pigment-grade TiO2 test particles (d50 = 173 nm by number) by daily oral gavage at a dose of 24,000 mg/kg bw/day. There were no adverse effects measured during or following the end of the exposure period; and the NOAEL was determined to be 24,000 mg/kg bw/day; 3) In an acute oral toxicity study (OECD TG 425), female rats were administered a single oral exposure of surface-treated rutile/anatase nanoscale TiO2 particles (d50 = 73 nm by number) with doses up to 5000 mg/kg and evaluated over a 14-day post-exposure period. Under the conditions of this study, the oral LD50 for the test substance was >5000 mg/kg bw. In summary, the results from these three toxicity studies - each with different TiO2 particulate-types, demonstrated an absence of

  19. A gene-environment study of cytoglobin in the human and rat hippocampus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hundahl, Christian Ansgar; Elfving, Betina; Müller, Heidi Kaastrup

    2013-01-01

    Cytoglobin (Cygb) was discovered a decade ago as the fourth vertebrate heme-globin. The function of Cygb is still unknown, but accumulating evidence from in vitro studies point to a putative role in scavenging of reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide metabolism and in vivo studies have shown C......NOS) in the rat hippocampus; 3) The effect of chronic restraint stress (CRS) on Cygb and nNOS expression.......Cytoglobin (Cygb) was discovered a decade ago as the fourth vertebrate heme-globin. The function of Cygb is still unknown, but accumulating evidence from in vitro studies point to a putative role in scavenging of reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide metabolism and in vivo studies have shown...... Cygb to be up regulated by hypoxic stress. This study addresses three main questions related to Cygb expression in the hippocampus: 1) Is the rat hippocampus a valid neuroanatomical model for the human hippocampus; 2) What is the degree of co-expression of Cygb and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (n...

  20. Effect of a Carbohydrate-Rich Diet on Rat Detrusor Smooth Muscle Contractility: An Experimental Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Suat Bolat

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. We aimed to investigate the effect of a carbohydrate-rich diet on detrusor contractility in rats. Materials and Methods. Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into two groups. The control group received regular food and water. The study group received carbohydrate-rich diet for six weeks. The rats’ detrusor muscle was isolated for pharmacological and histopathological examinations. Results. In the control and study groups, mean body weights were 431.5 ± 27.6 g and 528.0 ± 36.2 g, respectively (p < 0.001. Electrical stimulation of the detrusor strips of the control group resulted in gradual contraction. A decreased contractile response was shown in the study group. Acetylcholine in 10-7-10-3 molar concentration produced a decreased contractile response in the study group, compared to the control group (p < 0.01. The study group showed marked subepithelial and intermuscular fibrosis in the bladder. Conclusion. Carbohydrate-rich diet causes marked subepithelial and extracellular fibrosis and changes in contractility in the detrusor within a six-week period. Changes have higher costs in therapeutic choices and correction of these changes remains difficult. Putting an end to carbohydrate-rich diet would seem to be more cost-effective than dealing with the effects of consuming it in high proportions which should be the national policy worldwide.

  1. The effect of vitamin A and vitamin C on postoperative adhesion formation: A rat model study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behrouz Keleidari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of vitamin A and C, as the agents that improve wound healing, on the adhesion formation process. Materials and Methods: Sixty male Wistar rats were used. They underwent midline laparotomy, for repair of a peritoneal injury, and were then assigned to four groups. Group 1 (Vitamin A received 2000 units/kg intramuscular injection of vitamin A daily, post surgery, for two weeks; Group 2 (Vitamin C received 100 mg/kg oral vitamin C daily, after laparotomy, for two weeks; Group 3 (vitamins A and C received 2000 units/kg intramuscular injection of vitamin A and 100 mg/kg oral vitamin C daily, after laparotomy, for two weeks, and Group four (Sham rats did not receive any drugs. The adhesion, inflammation, fibrosis scores, and wound integrity were evaluated after two weeks. Results: Rats in the vitamin C group had the lowest mean adhesion formation score (1 ± 0.27 and the values of p were < 0.0001 for the vitamin A group and vitamin A and C groups and 0.003 for the sham group. Vitamin C also had the lowest fibrosis score (0.50 ± 0.17 among the study groups and the values of p were < 0.0001 for the vitamin A group and vitamin A and C groups and 0.002 for the sham group. The mean inflammation score did not differ significantly among the study groups. The wound disruption strength was the highest in the vitamin C group and the difference was statistically significant in the sham group (1188.69 ± 281.92 vs. 893.04 ± 187.46, p : 0.003. Conclusion: Administration of oral vitamin C reduces adhesion formation and improves wound healing

  2. Histological changes in kidneys of adult rats treated with Monosodium glutamate: A light microscopic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh BR, Ujwal Gajbe, Anil Kumar Reddy, Vandana Kumbhare

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Monosodium Glutamate (MSG, which is chemically known as AJI-NO-MOTO also familiar as MSG in routine life. MSG is always considered to be a controversial food additive used in the world. It is a natural excitatory neurotransmitter, helps in transmitting the fast synaptic signals in one third of CNS. Liver and kidney play a crucial role in metabolism as well as elimination of MSG from the body. Present study is to detect structural changes in adult rat kidney tissue treated with MSG; observations are done with a light microscope. Materials & Methods: The study was conducted in the department of Anatomy, J.N.M.C, Sawangi (M Wardha. Thirty (30 adult Wistar rats (2-3 months old weighing about (200 ± 20g were used in the current study, animals were divided into three groups (Group – A, B, C. Group A: Control, Group B: 3 mg /gm body weight, Group C: 6 mg /gm body weight, MSG were administered orally daily for 45 days along with the regular diet. Observations & Results: The Mean values of animals weight at the end of experiment (46th day respectively were 251.2 ± 13, 244.4 ± 19.9 and 320 ± 31.1. Early degenerative changes like, Glomerular shrinkage (GSr, loss of brush border in proximal convoluted tubules and Cloudy degeneration was observed in sections of kidney treated with 3 mg/gm body weight of MSG. Animals treated with 6 mg/gm body weight of MSG showed rare changes like interstitial chronic inflammatory infiltrate with vacuolation in some of the glomeruli, and much glomerular shrinkage invaginated by fatty lobules. Conclusion: The effects of MSG on kidney tissues of adult rats revealed that the revelatory changes are directly proportional to the doses of MSG.

  3. Experimental study of neuropharmacological profile of Euphorbia pulcherrima in mice and rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kundan Kr Singh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Euphorbia pulcherrima (EP belongs to the family: Euphorbiaceae and Genus: Euphorbia. Many species of Euphorbia have been reported as having beneficial properties like anticonvulsive effect, central analgesic properties, antipyretic action, central depressant action and strong sedative effect. However, little study has been done and published on EP. Aims: To observe and evaluate various neuropharmacological effects like antinociceptive effect, anticonvulsant effect, motor in-coordination, pentobarbital induced sleeping time and behavioral responses of EP in mice and rats. Setting and Design: Quantitative experimental study in mice and rats by various experimental models. Materials and Methods: Different experimental models were used to assess the antinociceptive effect (hotplate, tail flick and acetic acid induced writhing test, anticonvulsant effect (Maximal Electroshock Seizure test [MES] and Pentylenetetrazole induced seizures [PTZ], motor in-coordination effect (Rota rod test, pentobarbital induced sleeping time and behavioral responses of EP in mice and rats after oral administration of EP crude dried extracts in three different doses (250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg. Statistical Analysis Used: The significance of difference with respect to control was evaluated using the Mann-Whitney U test. A probability (P-value level less than 0.05 was considered as significant. Results: In MES test model, duration of tonic hind limb extension in mice treated with EP was significantly less as compared to vehicle treated group. EP was most effective in a dose of 1000 mg/kg. There was also significant increase in the latency and decrease in the incidence of convulsions with the use of EP in three different doses in PTZ induced seizure model. Conclusions: This study showed EP (crude dried extracts to possess anticonvulsant properties but no effect on motor co-ordination and anxiety.

  4. Carcinogenicity study on butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) in Wistar rats exposed in utero

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, P.; Meyer, Otto A.; Bille, N.

    1986-01-01

    Groups of 60, 40, 40 and 60 F0 Wistar rats of each sex were fed a semi-synthetic diet containing butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) in concentrations to provide intakes of 0, 25, 100 or 500 mg/kg body weight/day, respectively. The F0 rats were mated and groups of 100, 80, 80 or 100 F1 rats of each sex...

  5. Study on Biochemical Indices of Liver Function Tests of Albino Rats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    bilirubin, ALT (in rats fed with palm and groundnut oil-based diet), AST (in rats fed with coconut ... These results therefore, indicate a compromise in liver of rats administered 10% oil - based diet. ..... medicinal plants II: Effects of Aplotaxis lappa.

  6. In situ Raman study of redox state changes of mitochondrial cytochromes in a perfused rat heart

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brazhe, Nadezda; Treiman, Marek; Faricelli, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    We developed a Raman spectroscopy-based approach for simultaneous study of redox changes in c-and b-type cytochromes and for a semiquantitative estimation of the amount of oxygenated myoglobin in a perfused rat heart. Excitation at 532 nm was used to obtain Raman scattering of the myocardial...... surface of the isolated heart at normal and hypoxic conditions. Raman spectra of the heart under normal pO2 demonstrate unique peaks attributable to reduced c-and b-type cytochromes and oxymyoglobin (oMb). The cytochrome peaks decreased in intensity upon FCCP treatment, as predicted from uncoupling...

  7. Nucleolar activity after 3-methylcholanthrene treatment of rat liver cells studied by silver staining procedure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komaromy, L.; Tigyi, A.

    1986-01-01

    The influence of a single dose of 3-methylcholanthrene (3-MC) was studied in nucleoli of young rat liver cells by means of conventional and ultracytochemical methods. The nucleolar activity was stimulated in the authors experimental conditions: the appearance of the fibrillar centers in the liver cell nucleoli as well as the silver staining protein content of the fibrillar centers and the dense fibrillar component were increased by 3-MC. The results suggest that the activity of ribosomal genes was increased following 3-MC treatment.

  8. Studies of long-term noopept and afobazol treatment in rats with learned helplessness neurosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uyanaev, A A; Fisenko, V P

    2006-08-01

    Long-lasting effects of new Russian psychotropic drugs Noopept and Afobazol on active avoidance conditioning and formation of learned helplessness neurosis were studied on an original experimental model in rats. Noopept eliminated the manifestations of learned helplessness after long-term (21-day) treatment by increasing the percent of trained animals. Afobazol was low effective in preventing manifestations of learned helplessness, but if used for a long time, it reduced the incidence of learned helplessness development by increasing the percent of untrained animals.

  9. Malnutrition and myelin structure: an X-ray scattering study of rat sciatic and optic nerves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vargas, V.; Vargas, R.; Marquez, G.; Vonasek, E.; Mateu, L.; Luzzati, V.; Borges, J.

    2000-01-01

    Taking advantage of the fast and accurate X-ray scattering techniques recently developed in our laboratory, we tackled the study of the structural alterations induced in myelin by malnutrition. Our work was performed on sciatic and optic nerves dissected from rats fed with either a normal or a low-protein caloric diet, as a function of age (from birth to 60 days). By way of electrophysiological controls we also measured (on the sciatic nerves) the height and velocity of the compound action potential. Malnutrition was found to decrease the amount of myelin and to impair the packing order of the membranes in the sheaths. (orig.)

  10. Quantitative study of the myenteric plexus of the stomach of rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fregonesi Cristina Elena Prado Teles

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to investigate the morphological and quantitative alterations of the myenteric plexus neurons of the stomach of rats with streptozotocin-induced chronic diabetes and compare them to those of non-diabetic animals. Samples from the body of the stomach were used for whole-mount preparations stained with NADH-diaphorase and for histological sections stained with hematoxylin-eosin. It was observed that diabetes cause a significant decrease on the number of neurons.

  11. Effect of anti-GM2 antibodies on rat sciatic nerve: electrophysiological and morphological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Nicolau; Sabaté, M Mar; Garcia, Neus; Santafe, Manel M; Lanuza, M Angel; Tomàs, Marta; Tomàs, Josep

    2009-03-31

    We found that a monoclonal human IgM anti-GM2 was fixed in rat sciatic axons and Schwann cells and was able to activate human complement. The passive transfer of IgM and complement in sciatic nerves can induce an acute alteration in nerve conduction. When the transfer of IgM plus complement was repeated for 10 days, the compound action motor potential amplitude was very low and the morphological study showed axons and myelin damage. Without human complement, IgM can only slightly disorganize the myelin by separating some layers, probably by interfering with the functional role of gangliosides in the myelin package.

  12. Distribution of hippocampal mossy fibers in the rat. An experimental study with silver impregnation methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blackstad, T W; Brink, K; Hem, J

    1970-01-01

    dentata and the layer of mossy fibers in the rat form a curved and twisted structure extending from the level of the posterior aspect of the septum to the temporal tip. The horizontal serial sections used for this study were, therefore, in part interpreted by means of three‐dimensional reconstructions...... inferior. The bands of degenerated mossy fibers produced by lesions in the fascia dentata were largely oriented in the transverse direction (slightly in a temporal direction) and were somewhat wider distally than at the origin from the hilus. Very narrow bands were seen in a few animals with particularly...

  13. Toxicological and Histopathological Studies on the Effect of Tartrazine in Male Albino Rats

    OpenAIRE

    F. Alaa Ali; S. A. Sherein Abdelgayed; S. Osama. EL-Tawil; M. Adel Bakeer

    2016-01-01

    Tartrazine is an organic azo dyes food additive widely used in foods, drugs, and cosmetics. The present study aimed to investigate the toxic effects of tartrazine on kidneys and liver biomarkers in addition to the investigation of oxidative stress and change of histopathological structure of liver and kidneys in 30 male rats. Tartrazine was orally administrated daily at dose 200 mg/ kg bw (1/ 10 LD50) for sixty days. Serum and tissue samples were collected at the end of the experiment to inve...

  14. Iron supplementation during pregnancy and its effects on epiphyseal growth plate of newborn rat: a histological study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umbreen, F.; Qamar, K.; Rehman, S.

    2017-01-01

    To study the effect of iron supplementation during pregnancy on epiphyseal growth plate of Sprague dawley rat pups. Study Design: Laboratory based randomized control trial. Place and Duration of Study: This study was conducted at Department of Anatomy, Army Medical College Rawalpindi in collaboration with National Institute of Health (NIH) Islamabad, from Mar 2016 to Nov 2016. Material and Methods: Eight female and two male Sprague Dawley rats, 3-4 months old were selected and divided into two groups and kept for breeding. Pregnant rats were divided into two groups. Four pregnant rats in each group. Group A1was control group and group B1 was experimental group. Iron supplementation was given once daily throughout pregnancy till the time of delivery. Iron was given to the experimental group in syrup form (Sytron syrup containing iron as sodium feredetate). Each 5ml of sytron syrup contains 27.5mg of elemental iron content1. The dose was mixed in water given to the animal. Maternal body weight (wt.) was recorded at the start and the end of experiment. As the rat pups were born, they were weighed and euthanized. Right femur of each rat pup was removed for the epiphyseal plate analysis. It was processed, embedded and stained with Hematoxylin and Eosin, Perl's stain for histological study. Hypertrophy and proliferative zone length were histologically and statistically analyzed. Results: Height of hypertrophy and proliferative zone was measured. Mean values of the heights of two zones were taken. Heights of hypertrophy and proliferative zones were considerably decreased in group B1 as compared to groups A1. Conclusion: Indiscriminate iron supplementation to the rats throughout pregnancy without checking serum iron levels can disturb the longitudinal growth of epiphyseal plate of femur. The height of the hypertrophy zone and proliferative zone was significantly reduced in iron supplementation group as compared to the control group. (author)

  15. Acute and subchronic toxicity studies of methanol extract of Polygonum minus leaves in Sprague Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christapher, Parayil Varghese; Parasuraman, Subramani; Asmawi, Mohd Zaini; Murugaiyah, Vikneswaran

    2017-06-01

    Medicinal plant preparations may contain high levels of toxic chemical constituents to potentially cause serious harm to animals and/or humans. Thus, toxicity studies are important to assess the toxic effects of plant derived products. Polygonum minus is used traditionally for different ailments in Southeast Asia. This study was conducted to establish the acute and subchronic toxicity profile of the methanol extract of P. minus leaves. The acute toxicity study showed that the methanol extract of P. minus is safe even at the highest dose tested of 2000 mg/kg in female Sprague Dawley rats. There were no behavioural or physiological changes and gross pathological abnormalities observed. The subchronic toxicity study of methanol extract of P. minus at 250, 500, 1000 and 2000 mg/kg were conducted in both sexes of Sprague Dawley rats. There were no changes observed in the extract treated animal's body weight, food and water intake, motor coordination, behaviour and mental alertness. The values of haematological and biochemical parameters were not different between the treated and control animals. The relative organ weights of extract-treated animals did not differ with that of control animals. Based on the present findings, the methanol extract of P. minus leaves could be considered safe up to the dose of 2000 mg/kg. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Dose-response study in F344 rats exposed to (U,Pu)O2 or PuO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mewhinney, J.A.; Eidson, A.F.; Hahn, F.F.; Scott, B.R.; Seiler, F.A.; Boecker, B.B.

    1987-01-01

    The relationship of radiation dose to lung and the biological effect observed was investigated following inhalation of two types of plutonium-containing particulate materials in rats. Bulk powder samples of the two materials were obtained from within gloveboxes used in the routine manufacture of mixed plutonium and uranium oxide nuclear fuel. The materials were a solid solution of uranium and plutonium treated at 1750 0 C and a PuO 2 feedstock. Groups of rats received a single inhalation exposure to a material to achieve one of three levels of initial pulmonary burden. Rats were maintained for their lifespan to observe the biological effects produced. These effects were observed in the lungs of rats exposed to either type of particle. The same types of lung cancer were produced by both particulate materials. The incidences of cancers were also similar at comparable levels of initial pulmonary burden for the two materials. The crude incidence of lung cancers for rats exposed to these materials was not different than those reported for similar studies that used laboratory-produced aerosols of PuO 2 . Using a linear dose-effect model, the relative risk of lung cancer for rats exposed to these industrial materials was 2.3 +- 1.0 (SE) at a lung dose of 100 rad. The doubling dose for lung cancers was 78 +- 63 rad to lung to median life span. 21 refs., 9 figs., 10 tabs

  17. Influence of demineralized bone matrix's embryonic origin on bone formation: an experimental study in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavropoulos, Andreas; Kostopoulos, Lambros; Mardas, Nicolaos; Karring, Thorkild

    2003-01-01

    There are results suggesting that differences regarding bone-inducing potential, in terms of amount and/or rate of bone formation, exist between demineralized bone matrices (DBMs) of different embryonic origins. The aim of the present study was to examine whether the embryonic origin of DBM affects bone formation when used as an adjunct to guided tissue regeneration (GTR). Endomembranous (EM) and endochondral (ECH) DBMs were produced from calvarial and long bones of rats, respectively. Prior to the study the osteoinductive properties of the DBMs were confirmed in six rats following intramuscular implantation. Following surgical exposure of the mandibular ramus, a rigid hemispheric Teflon capsule loosely packed with a standardized quantity of DBM was placed with its open part facing the lateral surface of the ramus in both sides of the jaw in 30 rats. In one side of the jaw, chosen at random, the capsule was filled with EM-DBM, whereas in the other side ECH-DBM was used. Groups of 10 animals were sacrificed after healing periods of 1, 2, and 4 months, and undecalcified sections of the capsules were produced and subjected to histologic analysis and computer-assisted planimetric measurements. During the experiment increasing amounts of newly formed bone were observed inside the capsules in both sides of the animals' jaws. Limited bone formation was observed in the 1- and 2-month specimens, but after 4 months of healing, the newly formed bone in the ECH-DBM grafted sides occupied 59.1% (range 45.6-74.7%) of the area created by the capsule versus 46.9% (range 23.0-64.0%) in the EM-DBM grafted sides (p =.01). It is concluded that the embryonic origin of DBM influences bone formation by GTR and that ECH-DBM is superior to EM-DBM.

  18. An experimental study of the irradiation effects on rat parotid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kyu Chan; Lee, Sang Rae

    1986-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the irradiation effects on the rat parotid gland, applied to the head and neck region. For this experiment, twenty-four rat, feeded under the even condition, were used as experimental animals. Twenty rat were used for experimental group and the rest were assigned to the control group. The experimental group was singly irradiated with 10 Gray through Cobalt-60 radiotherapy device, Pickre model 4M 60 (Field size; 12x5 cm, SSD; 50 cm, Depth; 1 cm). The experimental animals of both group were sacrificed each four animals in 2 days, 1 week, 2 weeks, 3 weeks and 4 weeks after irradiation. The specimens were examined through the light microscope using the H-E stain and H stain by routine procedure. The other specimens were observed under the fluorescence microscope using the B-O dichroic mirror and Y 45 5 barrier filter after PA-ACH stain. The results of this study were obtained as follows: 1. The parotid acini were severely degenerated and intraacinar space were widened. Within the acini, retained secretory granules and increased fibrosis were observed. Also the shape and the size of the acini showed very irregular atrophic degeneration. 2. The nuclei showed severe pyknosis, displacement and irregular aggregated appearance. 3. The tissue changes of the parotid acini were initiated after 2 days of irradiation and most severely appeared at the second week of irradiation, but almost returned to normal. 4. The salivary ducts of the parotid gland were severely atrophied, discontinued but initiated to regenerated after 3 weeks of irradiation.

  19. The effect of topical minoxidil pretreatment on nonsurgical delay of rat cutaneous flaps: further studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gümüş, Nazım; Odemiş, Yusuf; Tuncer, Ersin; Yılmaz, Sarper

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of topically applied minoxidil in the pharmacological delay phenomenon and to demonstrate the comparable microscopic and macroscopic changes between minoxidil-pretreated flaps and surgically delayed flaps. A modified version of the McFarlane flap was used. Group 1 rats, in which a caudally based dorsal skin flap was raised and sutured back, were the control group. In group II, minoxidil solution was spread over the marked skin flap area for 7 days. On the 7th day, a caudally based dorsal skin flap was elevated and then sutured back. Group III rats underwent a surgical delay procedure alone. On the 7th day after flap elevation, evaluation was done by histologic examination and calculation of the flap survival areas in all groups. The lowest flap survival rate appeared in group I and was statistically different from groups II and III. The mean surviving skin flap area in the minoxidil-pretreated group was significantly larger than that in the control group. After histologic evaluation, moderate angiogenesis was also detected in group II. We also found that surgical delay significantly reduced flap necrosis when compared to the minoxidil pretreatment group. According to our study, minoxidil may be considered an effective vasoactive agent for the stimulation of angiogenesis in rat cutaneous flaps and capable of achieving pharmacological delay and increasing flap survival. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 .

  20. Study on developing brain damage of neonatal rats induced by enriched uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu Guixiong; Zhu Shoupeng; Yang Shuqin

    2000-01-01

    Objective: The injurious effects of enriched uranium 235 U on developing brain of neonatal Wistar pure bred rats were studied. Methods: The model of irradiation induced brain damage in vivo was settled. The effects of cerebrum exposure by 235 U on somatic growth and neuro-behavior development of neonatal rats were examined by thirteen index determination of multiple parameters. The dynamic retention of autoradiographic tracks of 235 U in cells of developing brain was observed. The changes of NSE, IL-1β, SOD, and ET in cerebral cortex, hippocampus, diencephalon, cerebellum after expose to 235 U were examined with radioimmunoassay. Results: The somatic growth such as increase of body weight and brain weight was lower significantly. The retardation of development was found such as eye opening, sensuous function as auditory startle, movement and coordination function and activity as swimming, physiological reflexes as negative geotaxis, surface righting, grasping reflex suspension and the tendency behavior. The data showed delayed growth and abnormal neuro-behavior. The micro-autoradiographic tracing showed that the tracks of 235 U were mainly accumulated in the nucleus of developing brain. At the same time only few tracks appeared in the cytoplasm and interval between cells. Experimental study showed that when the dose of 235 U irradiation was increased, the level of NSE was decreased and the IL-1β was increased. However, the results indicated that SOD and ET can be elevated by the low dose irradiation of 235 U, and can be inhibited by the high dose. Conclusion: The behavior of internal irradiation from 235 U on the developing brain damage of neonatal rats were of sensibility and compensation in nervous cells

  1. A comparative study on the effect of high cholesterol diet on the hippocampal CA1 area of adult and aged rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abo El-Khair, Doaa M; El-Safti, Fatma El-Nabawia A; Nooh, Hanaa Z; El-Mehi, Abeer E

    2014-06-01

    Dementia is one of the most important problems nowadays. Aging is associated with learning and memory impairments. Diet rich in cholesterol has been shown to be detrimental to cognitive performance. This work was carried out to compare the effect of high cholesterol diet on the hippocampus of adult and aged male albino rats. Twenty adult and twenty aged male rats were used in this study. According to age, the rats were randomly subdivided into balanced and high cholesterol diet fed groups. The diet was 15 g/rat/day for adult rats and 20 g/rat/day for aged rats for eight weeks. Serial coronal sections of hippocampus and blood samples were taken from each rat. For diet effect evaluation, Clinical, biochemical, histological, immunohistochemical, and morphometric assessments were done. In compare to a balanced diet fed rat, examination of Cornu Ammonis 1 (CA 1) area in the hippocampus of the high cholesterol diet adult rats showed degeneration, a significant decrease of the pyramidal cells, attenuation and/or thickening of small blood vessels, apparent increase of astrocytes and apparent decrease of Nissl's granules content. Moreover, the high cholesterol diet aged rats showed aggravation of senility changes of the hippocampus together with Alzheimer like pathological changes. In conclusion, the high cholesterol diet has a significant detrimental effect on the hippocampus and aging might pronounce this effect. So, we should direct our attention to limit cholesterol intake in our food to maintain a healthy life style for a successful aging.

  2. Study on cognitive impairment in diabetic rats by different behavioral experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu-bin, Ji; Zeng-yi, Li; Guo-song, Xin; Chi, Wei; Hong-jian, Zhu

    2017-12-01

    Object recognition test and Y maze test are widely used in learning and memory behavior evaluation techniques and methods. It was found that in the new object recognition experiment, the diabetic rats did more slowly than the normal rats in the discrimination of the old and new objects, and the learning and memory of the rats in the diabetic rats were injured. And the ratio of retention time and the number of errors in the Y maze test was much higher than that in the blank control group. These two methods can reflect the cognitive impairment in diabetic rats.

  3. Radioautographic study of binding and internalization of corticotropin-releasing factor by rat anterior pituitary corticotrophs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leroux, P.; Pelletier, G.

    1984-01-01

    In order to identify the anterior pituitary cell type(s) containing corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) receptors and to study the internalization processes of this peptide by the target cells, radioautography was performed on rat anterior pituitaries removed at specific intervals (2-60 min) after intracarotid injection of [ 125 I]iodo-CRF into intact and adrenalectomized female rats. In intact animals, all corticotrophs were labeled, whereas in the adrenalectomized animals about 80% of the hypertrophied corticotrophs (adrenalectomy cells) were. In control animals injected with both iodinated CRF and an excess of unlabeled peptide, no specific reaction could be detected. The time-course study in intact animals showed that 2 min after injection most silver grains were found over or within 160 nm of the plasma membrane. At the 5-min time intervals, grains were observed both over the plasma membrane and within the cytoplasm, associated with lysosomes, and the Golgi apparatus. Fifteen minutes after injection, grains were mostly found over lysosomes and the Golgi apparatus, whereas at the longest time intervals (30 and 60 min) almost no labeling could be detected. The results obtained in this study indicate that in the anterior pituitary CRF receptors are restricted to corticotrophs (as identified by electron microscopy) and that, after binding to the plasma membrane, CRF is rapidly internalized to Golgi elements and lysosomes

  4. Studies on the toxic interaction between monensin and tiamulin in rats: toxicity and pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szücs, G; Bajnógel, J; Varga, A; Móra, Z; Laczay, P

    2000-01-01

    The characteristics of the toxic interaction between monensin and tiamulin were investigated in rats. A three-day comparative oral repeated-dose toxicity study was performed in Phase I, when the effects of monensin and tiamulin were studied separately (monensin 10, 30, and 50 mg/kg or tiamulin 40, 120, and 200 mg/kg body weight, respectively). In Phase II, the two compounds were administered simultaneously to study the toxic interaction (monensin 10 mg/kg and tiamulin 40 mg/kg b.w., respectively). Monensin proved to be toxic to rats at doses of 30 and 50 mg/kg. Tiamulin was well tolerated up to the dose of 200 mg/kg. After combined administration, signs of toxicity were seen (including lethality in females). Monensin caused a dose-dependent cardiotoxic effect and vacuolar degeneration of the skeletal muscles in the animals given 50 mg/kg. Both compounds exerted a toxic effect on the liver in high doses. After simultaneous administration of the two compounds, there was a mild effect on the liver (females only), hydropic degeneration of the myocardium and vacuolar degeneration of the skeletal muscles. The alteration seen in the skeletal muscles was more marked than that seen after the administration of 50 mg/kg monensin alone.

  5. Nuclear medicine study of regeneration process of the liver after partial hepatectomy in normal rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nomura, Yasushi

    1990-01-01

    To evaluate regeneration of the liver in rats after partial hepatectomy based on Higgins' and Anderson's method, the present study reports using the morphological and radionuclide technique. The adult Wistar rats over 8 weeks of age were prepared in this study and were injected intravenously with either 99m Tc-N-(2,6 dimethylphenylcarbamoylmethyl) iminodiacetic acid ( 99m Tc-HIDA) or 99m Tc-phytate. Using Fishback equation, the ratio of wet weight liver regeneration was approximately 80% at 14 days after partial hepatectomy. On pathology, the microscopical findings were as follows: congestion and hepatocytes swelling on day 1; diffuse fat deposition and nuclear division on day 2; decreased hepatocytes swelling, fat deposition, and regular alignment of the hepatocytes on day 5; appearance of normal liver on day 7-14. The uptake and excretion ratio of the hepatocytes using 99m Tc-HIDA as a radionuclide technique recovered to the value prior to partial hepatectomy on day 3, and also the hepatic accumulation coefficient of Kupffer cells using 99m Tc-phytate recoverd on day 4. In conclusion, it was found that the functional recovery employed 3-4 days after partial hepatectomy. The present study using two radiopharmaceuticals describes that the radionuclide techniques can facilitate to evaluate the manifest pathological alterations of hepatocytes and Kupffer cells after partial hepatectomy. (author)

  6. Experimental ComparativeStudy of potential anxiolytic effect of Vitamin C and Buspirone in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghada Farouk Soliman

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anxiety disorders are the most common of all mental health problems. They are more prevalent among women than among men, and they affect children as well as adults. The aim of the current study is to evaluate this problem via an experimental animal model and try to explore its possible mechanisms by studying the effect of Vitamin C compared to Buspirone on anxiety in rats induced by Monosodium Glutamate (MSG. Materials and Methods: 56 healthy adult male albino rats (Sprague-Dawley weighing 200-250 gm were used and divided into 7 groups (8 rats each. The first and the second groups were provided with normal saline and MSG at a dose of (2 mg/g p.o. respectively. The other five groups were given MSG and treated daily in the following way: The third and fourth groups were treated with Vitamin C (100, 200 mg/kg p.o respectively. The fifth group was treated with only Buspirone (10 mg/kg p.o., while the last sixth and seventh groups were given a combination of Buspirone and Vitamin C with (100, 200 mg/kg respectively. After 3 weeks, the open field and successive alleys tests were used to assess behavioral changes. The percentage change of systolic blood pressure (SBP was measured. Additionally, glutathione reductase (GR, malondialdehyde (MDA, and corticosterone levels were determined biochemically. Results: The results after 3 weeks revealed that MSG group showed significant anxiogenic effects in both behavioral tests, with an increased percentage change of SBP in addition to increased malondialdehyde and corticosterone level measured statistically. While the results of the treated groups revealed that the Vitamin C (100mg/kg treated group demonstrated significant improvement in anxiety levels in the open field test, there were no significant changes in the biochemical assessment. However, vitamin C (200mg/kg treated group revealed a significant anxiolytic effect in behavioral tests, improved glutathione and malondialdehyde with low

  7. Toxicology Studies on Lewisite and Sulfur Mustard Agents: Two-Generation Reproduction Study of Lewisite in Rats Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasser, L. B.; Cushing, J. A.; Kalkwarf, D. R.; Mellick, P. W.; Buschbom, R. L.

    1989-07-15

    Occupational health standards have not been established for Lewisite [bis(2-chlorethyl)arsine], a potent toxic vesicant which reacts with the sulfhydryl groups of proteins through its arsenic group. The purposes of this study were to determine the reproductive consequences and dose~response of continuing Lewisite exposure of parental males and females and their offspring in a 42-week two-generation study. Solutions of Lewisite were prepared for administration by diluting the neat agent with sesame oil. Rats were administered Lewisite (0, 0.10, 0.25 or 0.60 mg/kg/day for 5 days a week) via intragastric intubation prior to mating, during mating and after mating until the birth of their offspring. The dams continued to receive Lewisite during lactation. At weaning, male and female offspring of each group were selected to continue on the study; rece1v1ng Lewisite during adolescence, mating and throughout gestation. Again, the dams continued to receive Lewisite until weaning of the offspring. Lewisite had no adverse effect on reproduction performance, fertility or reproductive organ weights of male or female rats through two consecutive generations. No adverse effect to offspring were attributed to Lewisite exposure. Minor changes in growth was the only maternal effect observed. Lewisite exposure of parental rats caused no gross or microscopic lesions in testes, epididymis, prostrate, seminal vesicles, ovaries, uterus or vagina. Severe inflammation of the lung was observed at necropsy in cases in which Lewisite gained access to the respiratory system from accidental dosing or reflux and aspiration; this usually caused early death of the animal. The NOEL for reproductive effects in this study was greater than 0.60 mg/kg/day.

  8. Lumbar spine intervertebral disc gene delivery: a pilot study in lewis rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damle, Sheela R; Rawlins, Bernard A; Boachie-Adjei, Oheneba; Crystal, Ronald G; Hidaka, Chisa; Cunningham, Matthew E

    2013-02-01

    Basic research toward understanding and treating disc pathology in the spine has utilized numerous animal models, with delivery of small molecules, purified factors, and genes of interest. To date, gene delivery to the rat lumbar spine has only been described utilizing genetically programmed cells in a matrix which has required partial disc excision, and expected limitation of treatment diffusion into the disc. This study was designed to develop and describe a surgical technique for lumbar spine exposure and disc space preparation, and use of a matrix-free method for gene delivery. Naïve or genetically programmed isogeneic bone marrow stromal cells were surgically delivered to adolescent male Lewis rat lumbar discs, and utilizing quantitative biochemical and qualitative immunohistological assessments, the implanted cells were detected 3 days post-procedure. Statistically significant differences were noted for recovery of the β-galactosidase marker gene comparing delivery of naïve or labeled cells (10(5) cells per disc) from the site of implantation, and between delivery of 10(5) or 10(6) labeled cells per disc at the site of implantation and the adjacent vertebral body. Immunohistology confirmed that the β-galactosidase marker was detected in the adjacent vertebra bone in the zone of surgical implantation. The model requires further testing in larger cohorts and with biologically active genes of interest, but the observations from the pilot experiments are very encouraging that this will be a useful comparative model for basic spine research involving gene or cell delivery, or other locally delivered therapies to the intervertebral disc or adjacent vertebral bodies in rats.

  9. Mechanistic studies with solubilized rat liver steroid 5 alpha-reductase: Elucidation of the kinetic mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levy, M.A.; Brandt, M.; Greway, A.T.

    1990-01-01

    A solubilized preparation of steroid 5 alpha-reductase from rat liver has been used in studies focused toward an understanding of the kinetic mechanism associated with enzyme catalysis. From the results of analyses with product and dead-end inhibitors, a preferentially ordered binding of substrates and release of products from the surface of the enzyme is proposed. The observations from these experiments were identical with those using the steroid 5 alpha-reductase activity associated with rat liver microsomes. The primary isotope effects on steady-state kinetic parameters when [4S-2H]NADPH was used also were consistent with an ordered kinetic mechanism. Normal isotope effects were observed for all three kinetic parameters (Vm/Km for both testosterone and NADPH and Vm) at all substrate concentrations used experimentally. Upon extrapolation to infinite concentration of testosterone, the isotope effect on Vm/Km for NADPH approached unity, indicating that the nicotinamide dinucleotide phosphate is the first substrate binding to and the second product released from the enzyme. The isotope effects on Vm/Km for testosterone at infinite concentration of cofactor and on Vm were 3.8 +/- 0.5 and 3.3 +/- 0.4, respectively. Data from the pH profiles of these three steady-state parameters and the inhibition constants (1/Ki) of competitive inhibitors versus both substrates indicate that the binding of nicotinamide dinucleotide phosphate involves coordination of its anionic 2'-phosphate to a protonated enzyme-associated base with an apparent pK near 8.0. From these results, relative limits have been placed on several of the internal rate constants used to describe the ordered mechanism of the rat liver steroid 5 alpha-reductase

  10. Photobiomodulation therapy by NIR laser in persistent pain: an analytical study in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micheli, Laura; Di Cesare Mannelli, Lorenzo; Lucarini, Elena; Cialdai, Francesca; Vignali, Leonardo; Ghelardini, Carla; Monici, Monica

    2017-11-01

    Over the past three decades, physicians have used laser sources for the management of different pain conditions obtaining controversial results that call for further investigations. In order to evaluate the pain relieving possibilities of photobiomodulation therapy (PBMT), we tested two near infrared (NIR) laser systems, with different power, against various kinds of persistent hyperalgesia animal models. In rats, articular pain was reproduced by the intra-articular injection of sodium monoiodoacetate (MIA) and complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA), while compressive neuropathy was modelled by the chronic constriction injury of the sciatic nerve (CCI). In MIA and CFA models, (NIR) laser (MLS-Mphi, ASA S.r.l., Vicenza, Italy) application was started 14 days after injury and was performed once a day for a total of 13 applications. In MIA-treated animals, the anti-hyperalgesic effect of laser began 5 min after treatment and vanished after 60 min. The subsequent applications evoked similar effects. In CFA-treated rats, laser efficacy started 5 min after treatment and disappeared after 180 min. In rats that underwent CCI, two treatment protocols with similar fluence but different power output were tested using a new experimental device called Multiwave Locked System laser (MLS-HPP). Treatments began 7 days after injury and were performed during 3 weeks for a total of 10 applications. Both protocols reduced mechanical hyperalgesia and hindlimb weight bearing alterations until 60 min after treatment with a higher efficacy recorded for the animals treated using the higher power output. In conclusion, this study supports laser therapy as a potential treatment for immediate relief of chronic articular or neuropathic pain.

  11. Experiment K-7-29: Connective Tissue Studies. Part 1; Rat Skin, Normal and Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vailas, A. C.; Grindeland, R.; Ashman, R.; Choy, V.; Durnova, G.; Graf, B.; Griffith, P.; Kaplansky, A. S.; Kolis, S.; Martinez, D.; hide

    1994-01-01

    The skin repair studies started to be problematic for the following reasons: (1) It was very difficult to locate the wound and many lesions were not of the same dimensions. A considerable amount of time was devoted to the identification of the wound using polarized light. We understand that this experiment was added on to the overall project. Marking of the wound site and standard dimensions should be recommended for the next flight experiment. (2) The tissue was frozen, therefore thawing and fixation caused problems with some of the immunocytochemical staining for obtaining better special resolution with light microscopy image processing. Despite these problems, we were unable to detect any significant qualitative differences for the following wound markers: (1) Collagen Type 3, (2) Hematotoxylin and Eosin, and (3) Macrophage Factor 13. All protein markers were isolated from rat sources and antibodies prepared and tested for cross reactivity with other molecules at the University of Wisconsin Hybridoma Facility. However, rat skin from the non lesioned site 'normal' showed interesting biochemical results. Skin was prepared for the following measurements: (1) DNA content, (2) Collagen content by hydroxyproline, and (3) uronic acid content and estimation of ground substance. The results indicated there was a non-significant increase (10%) in the DNA concentration of skin from flight animals. However, the data expressed as a ratio DNA/Collagen estimates the cell or nuclear density that supports a given quantity of collagen showed a dramatic increase in the flight group (33%). This means flight conditions may have slowed down collagen secretion and/or increased cell proliferation in adult rat skin. Further biochemical tests are being done to determine the crosslinking of elastin which will enhance the insight to assessing changes in skin turnover.

  12. The study regarding effect of paraoxon on oxidative stress index in kidney tissue of rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Abbasnezhad1

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available (Received 14 July, 2009 ; Accepted 23 December, 2009AbstractBackground and purpose: Paraoxon is the active form of parathion, which is an organophosphate pesticide (OP. The toxic effects of some OPs are not limited to inhibition of cholinesterase, they are capable to produce free radicals and induce disturbance in body antioxidant systems. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of paraoxon on oxidative stress index in the kidney of rat.Materials and methods: Wistar male rats were randomly divided in four groups including: control (corn oil as paraoxon solvent and three paraoxon groups receiving different doses (0.3, 0.7 and 1mg/kg by intraperitoneal injection. 24 hours after injection, animal was given anesthesia and kidney tissue removed. After kidney tissue hemogenation, superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase (CAT, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH and glutathione S- transferase (GST activities, glutathione (GSH and malondialdehyde (MDA levels were determined by biochemical methods.Results: At doses higher than 0.3 mg/kg paraoxon, kidney SOD and CAT activities were significantly increased, comparing with the control, while GSH level was significantly decreased. There were no significant changes observed in GST, LDH activities and MDA levels.Conclusion: The results suggest that paraoxon induces the production of free radicals and oxidative stress. The enhanced activity of antioxidant enzymes in kidney of rats probably was a function of the increased detoxification capacity. Depletion of tissue GSH is a prime factor, which can impair the cell’s defense against the toxic actions of free radicals.J Mazand Univ Med Sci 2009; 19(73: 17-26 (Persian.

  13. Experimental study on the effect of x-irradiation in the rat periodontal ligament

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Won Pyo; You, Dong Soo

    1980-01-01

    The author studied on the effects of X-ray irradiation to the development of periodontal ligament in gestation rats. They were irradiated in their abdomen with 100, 200 and 300 rads respectively in one shot irradiation with deep radiation therapy equipment(MAXIMAR 250-III). In 7th, 14th, 21th and 28th day after delivery, those new born rats were respectively sacrificed with ether anesthesia and removed of their mandibles. After removal, those mandibles were fixed in 10% neutral buffer formalin, decalcified with 5% trichloroacetic acid for 5 days and embedded with paraffin. Staining was performed with H-E, Van Gieson, Mallory azan, Bielshowsky-Gomori silver stain and Halmi's oxytalan fiber stain. The results were as follows: 1. Before tooth eruption, all the fiber components in dental sac were almost always oriented near the outer enamel epithelial layer. But in irradiated new born rats, those collagen fiber orientation was more irregular than those of control groups, and this phenomenon was more severe in proportion to the amount of irradiation in the gestation period. 2. Before tooth eruption, the connective tissue fibers in periodontal ligament were stained with lighter in the irradiated groups than those of control groups. Oxytalan fibers of irradiated groups were thin and splitting pattern of their fiber morphology to compare with those of control groups. 3. After tooth eruption, the periodontal ligament fibers of irradiated groups were oriented functionally and their morphology was thick, fine and heavy staining. Oxytalan fibers were revealed with oblique parallel arrangement in the periodontal ligament of irradiated groups.

  14. Transient inhibitory effect of methoxychlor on testicular steroidogenesis in rat: an in vivo study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaithinathan, S.; Saradha, B.; Mathur, P.P. [Pondicherry University, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, School of Life Sciences, Pondicherry (India)

    2008-11-15

    Methoxychlor, an organochlorine pesticide, has been reported to induce reproductive abnormalities in male reproductive tract. To get more insight into the mechanism(s) of gonadal toxicity provoked by methoxychlor, we investigated whether treatment with methoxychlor at low observed adverse effect level (LOAEL) would alter the activities of steroidogenic enzymes such as {delta}{sup 5}3{beta}-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3{beta}-HSD) and {delta}{sup 5}17{beta}-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17{beta}-HSD), the expression levels of steroidogenic acute regulatory (StAR) protein and androgen binding protein (ABP) in the testis of adult male rats. The experimental rats were exposed to a single dose of methoxychlor (50 mg/kg body weight) orally. The rats were killed at 0, 3, 6, 12, 24 and 72 h following treatment using anesthetic ether and testes were collected, processed and used to measure the activities of 3{beta}-HSD, 17{beta}-HSD, levels of hydrogen peroxide produced and the expression levels of StAR protein, and ABP. Methoxychlor administration resulted in a sequential reduction in the expression of StAR protein and activities of 3{beta}-HSD, 17{beta}-HSD with concomitant increase in the levels of hydrogen peroxide in the testis. These changes were significant between 6-12 h following treatment. The levels of ABP declined at 6-12 h following exposure to methoxychlor. The present study demonstrates transient effect of methoxychlor at LOAEL on testicular steroidogenesis and the possible role of hydrogen peroxide in mediating these effects. (orig.)

  15. [Study on the method of two dimensional polycrylamide gel electrophoresis on rat condylar chondrocyte].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tuo-jiang; Li, Huang; Ma, Qiao-lin; Wang, Wen-mei

    2010-08-01

    To investigate the protein profile by two dimensional polycrylamide gel electrophoresis on the rat condylar chondrocyte in vitro. The third-passage chondrocytes were harvested from the mandibular condyles of 2-day-old rats in this study. The protein profile of the rat mandibular condylar chondrocytes was examined by two dimensional polycrylamide gel electrophoresis (2-DE-PAGE). The 2-DE gel maps on different pH gradients were obtained. The result of modified coomassi blue-sliver staining and sliver staining was compared using Pdquest 7.1 image analysis software. The results showed that the good protein profile of the condylar chondrocytes was obtained by standard Bio-Rad manual. The protein was mainly in the field from pH4 to pH7. The 1203±86 protein points were examined on 2-DE gel map by modified coomassi blue-sliver staining, and 1769±97 protein points was examined by sliver staining. The silver staining map showed more distinctly but higher background than modified coomassi blue-sliver staining. The protein profile of the condylar chondrocytes enriches the proteomic database and gives evidence to further proteomic research. The 2-DE map obtained by modified coomassi blue-sliver staining is more suitable for MALDI-TOF mass identification. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. C30700963), China Postdoctoral Science Foundation(Grant No.20090461088), Jiangsu Provincial Postdoctoral Science Foundation (Grant No.0802003C) and Nanjing City's Science and Technology Foundation (Grant No.200905011).

  16. A study of the effects of pinealectomy on intestinal cell proliferation in infant newborn rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalio Marcelo Belini

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Study the proliferation rate of jejunum and large intestine crypt epithelial cells, in rats pinealectomized immediately after borning. METHODS: Twenty-four male Wistar rats were distributed into two groups: Acute group (n=12 and Chronic group (n=12. Six animals of each group were operated for removal of the pineal gland (pinealectomy-PnX, and other six were controls (sham pinealectomy-C. Animals from acute and chronic group were sacrificed 15 and 90 days after the surgery, respectively. RESULTS: In acute group, pinealectomy of new-born rats has not caused significant alteration in cell proliferation (PnX=58,77?1,77 and C=60,88?1,10 in the descending colon/ PnX=31,56?0,45 and C=31,73?0,47 in the proximal jejunum and in crypt cell population (PnX=24,92?4,82 and C=23,60?2,48 in the descending colon/ PnX=39,92?3,49 and C=44,32?5,56 in the proximal jejunum. However, in chronic group there was an uprising crypt cell production per crypt in the proximal jejunum (PnX=57,54?2,19 and C=47,19?7,3and in the descending colon (PnX=37,78?2,22 and C=17,92?2,28. CONCLUSION: As the increase of intestinal crypts epithelial cells in chronic group is a carcinogenesis predetermining factor, the understanding of the interaction between pineal gland and this event has great importance.

  17. Ninety-day oral toxicity study of rice-derived γ-oryzanol in Sprague-Dawley rats

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    Seol-Hee Moon

    Full Text Available A 90-day oral toxicity study of γ-oryzanol, a rice-derived triterpenoid ferulate, was performed by oral gavage administration to male and female Sprague-Dawley rats at doses of 0, 1000, and 2000 mg/kg body weight/day. All rats administered γ-oryzanol survived throughout the study period. Both male and female rats showed no toxicologically significant changes of the general signs, examination findings, body weight, food consumption, functional observational battery results, ophthalmological findings, urinalysis, hematology tests, clinical chemistry tests, organ weights, and necropsy findings. Moreover, there were no histopathological changes related to administration of γ-oryzanol in males and females from the 2000 mg/kg body weight/day group. In conclusion, the no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL of γ-oryzanol exceeded 2000 mg/kg body weight/day for both male and female rats under the conditions of this study. Keywords: γ-Oryznaol, Rice, Rat, Repeated-dose oral toxicity study, NOAEL

  18. Transient Hypothyroidism During Lactation Arrests Myelination in the Anterior Commissure of Rats. A Magnetic Resonance Image and Electron Microscope Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucia, Federico S; Pacheco-Torres, Jesús; González-Granero, Susana; Canals, Santiago; Obregón, María-Jesús; García-Verdugo, José M; Berbel, Pere

    2018-01-01

    Thyroid hormone deficiency at early postnatal ages affects the cytoarchitecture and function of neocortical and telencephalic limbic areas, leading to impaired associative memory and in a wide spectrum of neurological and mental diseases. Neocortical areas project interhemispheric axons mostly through the corpus callosum and to a lesser extent through the anterior commissure (AC), while limbic areas mostly project through the AC and hippocampal commissures. Functional magnetic resonance data from children with late diagnosed congenital hypothyroidism and abnormal verbal memory processing, suggest altered ipsilateral and contralateral telencephalic connections. Gestational hypothyroidism affects AC development but the possible effect of transient and chronic postnatal hypothyroidism, as occurs in late diagnosed neonates with congenital hypothyroidism and in children growing up in iodine deficient areas, still remains unknown. We studied AC development using in vivo magnetic resonance imaging and electron microscopy in hypothyroid and control male rats. Four groups of methimazole (MMI) treated rats were studied. One group was MMI-treated from postnatal day (P) 0 to P21; some of these rats were also treated with L-thyroxine (T4) from P15 to P21, as a model for early transient hypothyroidism. Other rats were MMI-treated from P0 to P150 and from embryonic day (E) 10 to P170, as a chronic hypothyroidism group. The results were compared with age paired control rats. The normalized T2 signal using magnetic resonance image was higher in MMI-treated rats and correlated with the number and percentage of myelinated axons. Using electron microscopy, we observed decreased myelinated axon number and density in transient and chronic hypothyroid rats at P150, unmyelinated axon number increased slightly in chronic hypothyroid rats. In MMI-treated rats, the myelinated axon g-ratio and conduction velocity was similar to control rats, but with a decrease in conduction delays. These

  19. Transient Hypothyroidism During Lactation Arrests Myelination in the Anterior Commissure of Rats. A Magnetic Resonance Image and Electron Microscope Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico S. Lucia

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid hormone deficiency at early postnatal ages affects the cytoarchitecture and function of neocortical and telencephalic limbic areas, leading to impaired associative memory and in a wide spectrum of neurological and mental diseases. Neocortical areas project interhemispheric axons mostly through the corpus callosum and to a lesser extent through the anterior commissure (AC, while limbic areas mostly project through the AC and hippocampal commissures. Functional magnetic resonance data from children with late diagnosed congenital hypothyroidism and abnormal verbal memory processing, suggest altered ipsilateral and contralateral telencephalic connections. Gestational hypothyroidism affects AC development but the possible effect of transient and chronic postnatal hypothyroidism, as occurs in late diagnosed neonates with congenital hypothyroidism and in children growing up in iodine deficient areas, still remains unknown. We studied AC development using in vivo magnetic resonance imaging and electron microscopy in hypothyroid and control male rats. Four groups of methimazole (MMI treated rats were studied. One group was MMI-treated from postnatal day (P 0 to P21; some of these rats were also treated with L-thyroxine (T4 from P15 to P21, as a model for early transient hypothyroidism. Other rats were MMI-treated from P0 to P150 and from embryonic day (E 10 to P170, as a chronic hypothyroidism group. The results were compared with age paired control rats. The normalized T2 signal using magnetic resonance image was higher in MMI-treated rats and correlated with the number and percentage of myelinated axons. Using electron microscopy, we observed decreased myelinated axon number and density in transient and chronic hypothyroid rats at P150, unmyelinated axon number increased slightly in chronic hypothyroid rats. In MMI-treated rats, the myelinated axon g-ratio and conduction velocity was similar to control rats, but with a decrease in conduction

  20. Immunohistochemical, histopathological study and chemoprotective effect of Solanum nigrum in N-nitrosodiethylamine-induced hepatocellular carcinoma in Wistar rats

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    G. M. Akshatha

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Cancer is a devastating disease with a severe impact on the physical and psychological well-being of patients. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC has been reported in various species of animals including dogs, cats, sheep, and pigs. The present study aimed to study the immunohistochemical and histopathological changes and chemoprotective effect of aqueous and alcoholic extracts of Solanum nigrum on N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA-induced HCC rat model. Materials and Methods: Eighty-two male Wistar rats of 15 weeks of age weighing 200-250 g were selected for the experiment. They were randomly divided into ten groups. Group I served as normal control consisted of healthy rats. HCC was induced in Group II, IV, V, VI, VII, and X rats using NDEA as inducing agent followed by phenobarbitone as a promoter for 16 weeks. Group II rats were kept untreated as HCC control. Group III rats were kept as vehicle control (0.05% Sodium bicarbonate. Group IV and V rats were treated with aqueous extract of S. nigrum at 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg, respectively, and Group VI and VII rats were treated with an alcoholic extract of S. nigrum at 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg, respectively, daily orally for 28 days. Group X rats were treated with sorafenib as reference drug at a dose of 11.4 mg/kg daily orally for 28 days. Group VIII and IX rats were kept as aqueous and alcoholic extract control for studying the effect of the same on normal rats. Liver samples were collected to study the gross and histopathological lesions and the activity of cleaved caspase-3 and chemopreventive effect of aqueous and alcoholic extracts of S. nigrum on HCC. Results: The liver sections of rats from HCC control (Group II showed loss of lobular architecture, necrosis, fatty change, enlarged and darkened nuclei with variable size, dilatation of hepatic sinusoids with Kupffer cell hyperplasia, dilatation and proliferation of bile duct, and intranuclear vacuoles and also showed the presence

  1. Comparative study on the effect of Eurycoma longifolia and Smilax myosotiflora on male rats fertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Amal Salem Farag; Noor, Mahanem Mat

    2013-11-01

    The effects of Eurycoma longifolia Jack and Smilax myosotiflora were studied on sperm quality include sperm count, motility, viability and histology of the testis and pregnancy rate after mating with fertile proved females, as well as litter size on Sprague-Dawley (S-D) adult male rats. After dosing them with distilled water group A, group B 150 mg/kg body weight of aqueous extract of E. longifolia roots, group C 150 mg/kg body weight aqueous extract of S. myosotiflora leaf and group D 150 mg/kg body weight of E. longifolia combined with 150 mg/kg S. myosotiflora body weight daily for 14 days of stage (a) and 28 days for stage (b) of treatments. Results exhibited no significant variation (P>0.05) of stage (a),while results showed that E. longifolia Jack increase (Psperm count, motility, viability and histology of the testis and gender (male) of the litter size respectively of stage (b). This study provides evidence that E. longifolia Jack is a potent stimulator of fertility in male rat.

  2. Cannabis sativa smoke inhalation decreases bone filling around titanium implants: a histomorphometric study in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira-Filho, Getulio da R; Cadide, Tiago; Rosa, Bruno T; Neiva, Tiago G; Tunes, Roberto; Peruzzo, Daiane; Nociti, Francisco Humberto; César-Neto, João B

    2008-12-01

    Although the harmful effect of tobacco smoking on titanium implants has been documented, no studies have investigated the effects of cannabis sativa (marijuana) smoking. Thus, this study investigated whether marijuana smoke influences bone healing around titanium implants. Thirty Wistar rats were used. After anesthesia, the tibiae surface was exposed and 1 screw-shaped titanium implant was placed bilaterally. The animals were randomly assigned to one of the following groups: control (n = 15) and marijuana smoke inhalation (MSI) 8 min/d (n = 15). Urine samples were obtained to detect the presence of tetra-hidro-cannabinoid. After 60 days, the animals were killed. The degree of bone-to-implant contact and the bone area within the limits of the threads of the implant were measured in the cortical (zone A) and cancellous bone (zone B). Tetra-hidro-cannabinoid in urine was positive only for the rats of MSI group. Intergroup analysis did not indicate differences in zone A-cortical bone (P > 0.01), however, a negative effect of marijuana smoke (MSI group) was observed in zone B-cancellous bone for bone-to-implant contact and bone area (Student's t test, P smoke on bone healing may represent a new concern for implant success/failure.

  3. Natural history of extensive diaphragmatic injury on the right side: experimental study in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Henrique Rivaben

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the natural healing of the rat diaphragm that suffered an extensive right penetrating injury.METHODS: Animals were submitted to an extensive penetrating injury in right diaphragm. The sample consisted of 40 animals. The variables studied were initial weight, weight 21 days after surgery; healing of the diaphragm, non-healing of the diaphragm, and herniated abdominal contents into the chest.RESULTS: Ten animals were used as controls for weight and 30 animals were operated. Two animals died during the experiment, so 28 animals formed the operated group; healing of the diaphragm occurred in 15 animals (54%, 11 other animals showed diaphragmatic hernia (39% and in two we observed only diaphragmatic injury without hernia (7%. Among the herniated organs, the liver was found in 100% of animals, followed by the omentum in 77%, small bowel in 62%, colon in 46%, stomach in 31% and spleen in 15%. The control group and the diaphragmatic healing subgroup showed increased weight since the beginning of the study and the 21 days after surgery (p <0.001. The unhealed group showed no change in weight (p = 0.228.CONCLUSION: there is a predominance of spontaneous healing in the right diaphragm; animals in which there was no healing of the diaphragm did not gain weight, and the liver was the organ present in 100% the diaphragmatic surface in all rats with healed diaphragm or not.

  4. The effect of melatonin and vitamin C treatment on the experimentally induced tympanosclerosis: study in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koc, Sema; Kıyıcı, Halil; Toker, Aysun; Soyalıç, Harun; Aslan, Huseyin; Kesici, Hakan; Karaca, Zafer I

    The ethiopathogenesis of tympanosclerosis has not been completely under- stood yet. Recent studies have shown that free oxygen radicals are important in the formation of tympanosclerosis. Melatonin and Vitamin C are known to be a powerful antioxidant, interacts directly with Reactive Oxygen Species and controls free radical-mediated tissue damage. To demonstrate the possible preventative effects of melatonin and Vitamin C on tympanosclerosis in rats by using histopathology and determination of total antioxidant status total antioxidant status. Standard myringotomy and standard injury were performed in the middle ear of 24 rats. The animals were divided into three groups: Group 1 received melatonin, Group 2 received vitamin C, and Group 3 received saline solution. The mean values of total antioxidant status were similar in the all study groups before the treatment period. The mean values of total antioxidant status were significantly higher in the melatonin and vitamin C groups compared to control group but vitamin C with melatonin groups were similar after the treatment period (pC groups compared to the control group but the differences were insignificant. Melatonin increases total antioxidant status level and might have some effect on tympanosclerosis that develops after myringotomy. Copyright © 2016 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  5. Altitude training induced alterations in erythrocyte rheological properties: a controlled comparison study in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bor-Kucukatay, Melek; Colak, Ridvan; Erken, Gülten; Kilic-Toprak, Emine; Kucukatay, Vural

    2014-01-01

    Altitude training is frequently used by athletes to improve sea-level performance. However, the objective benefits of altitude training are controversial. This study aimed to investigate the possible alterations in hemorheological parameters in response to altitude training. Sprague Dawley rats, were divided into 6 groups: live low-train low (LLTL), live high-train high (LHTH), live high-train low (LHTL) and their controls live high and low (LHALC), live high (LHC), live low (LLC). LHC and LHTH groups were exposed to hypoxia (15% O2, altitudes of 3000 m), 4 weeks. LHALC and LHTL were exposed to 12 hours hypoxia/normoxia per day, 4 weeks. Hypoxia was maintained by a hypoxic tent. The training protocol corresponded to 60-70% of maximal exercise capacity. Rats of training groups ran on treadmill for 20-30 min/day, 4 days/week, 4 weeks. Erythrocyte deformability of LHC group was increased compared to LHALC and LLC. Deformability of LHTH group was higher than LHALC and LLTL groups. No statistically significant alteration in erythrocyte aggregation parameters was observed. There were no significant relationships between RBC deformability and exercise performance. The results of this study show that, living (LHC) and training at altitude (LHTH) seems more advantageous in hemorheological point of view.

  6. Two-generation reproductive toxicity study of tributyltin chloride in female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogata, R; Omura, M; Shimasaki, Y; Kubo, K; Oshima, Y; Aou, S; Inoue, N

    2001-05-25

    A two-generation reproductive toxicity study of the effects of tributyltin chloride (TBTCl) was conducted in female rats using dietary concentrations of 5, 25, and 125 ppm TBTCl. Reproductive outcomes of dams (number and body weight of pups and the percentage of live pups) and the growth of female pups (the day of eye opening and body weight gain) were significantly decreased in the 125 ppm TBTCl group. A delay in vaginal opening and impaired estrous cyclicity were also observed in the 125 ppm TBTCl group. However, an increase in anogenital distance was found in all TBTCl groups on postnatal d 1. A dose-effect relationship was observed in TBTCl-induced changes in anogenital distance. These results indicate that the whole-life exposure to TBTCl affects the sexual development and reproductive function of female rats. In addition, the TBTCl-induced increase in anogenital distance seems to suggest it may exert a masculinizing effect on female neonates. However, the concentrations of TBTCl used in this study are not environmentally relevant.

  7. Electron microscopic study of the spilt irradiation effects on the rat parotid ductal cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sung Soo; Lee, Sang Rae

    1988-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the effects of split irradiation on the salivary ductal cells, especially on the intercalated cells of the rat parotid glands. For this study, 24 Sprague-Dawley strain rats were irradiated on the head and neck region with two equal split doses of 9 Gy for a 4 hours interval by Co-60 teletherapy unit, Picker's mode l 4M 60. The conditions of irradiation were that field size, dose rate, SSD and depth were 12 X 5 cm, 222 cGy/min, 50 cm and 1 cm, respectively. The experimental animals were sacrificed 1, 2, 3, 6, 12, hours and 1, 3, 7, days after the irradiation and the changes of the irradiated intercalated cells of the parotid glands were examined under light and electron microscope. The results were as follows: 1. By the split irradiation, the degenerative changes of intercalated cells of the parotid glands appeared at 3 hours after irradiation and the most severe cellular degeneration observed at 6 hours after irradiation. The repair processes began from 12 hours after irradiation and have matured progressively. 2. Under electron microscope, loss of nuclear membrane, microvilli and secretory granules, derangement of chromosomes, degeneration of cytoplasm, atrophy or reduction of intracytoplasmic organelles were observed in the intercalated ductal cells after split irradiation. 3. Under light microscope, derangement of ductal cells, widening of cytoplasms and nuclei, hyperchromatism and proliferation of ductal cells were observed in intercalated ducts after split irradiation.

  8. In vivo longitudinal micro-CT study of bent long limb bones in rat offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Schaepdrijver, Luc; Delille, Peter; Geys, Helena; Boehringer-Shahidi, Christian; Vanhove, Christian

    2014-07-01

    Micro-computed X-ray tomography (micro-CT) has been reported as a reliable method to assess ex vivo rat and rabbit fetal skeletons in embryo-fetal developmental toxicity studies. Since micro-CT is a non-invasive imaging modality it has the potential for longitudinal, in vivo investigation of postnatal skeletal development. This is the first paper using micro-CT to assess the reversibility of drug-induced bent long bones in a longitudinal study from birth to early adulthood in rat offspring. Analysis of the scans obtained on postnatal Day 0, 7, 21 and 80 showed complete recovery or repair of the bent long limb bones (including the scapula) within the first 3 weeks. When assessing risk the ability to demonstrate recovery is highly advantageous when interpreting such transient skeletal change. In summary, in vivo micro-CT of small laboratory animals can aid in non-clinical safety assessment, particularly for specific mechanistic purposes or to address a particular concern in developmental biology. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Magnet Tracking: a