Sample records for rats started receiving

  1. Cold Start Strategy of the CubeSat GPS Receiver

    KOVAR, P.


    Full Text Available The cold start of the LEO satellite GPS receiver is complicated due to a large Doppler frequency shift, Doppler frequency rate of the navigation signals and a rapid change of the satellite visibility. The cold start time can be shortened by a proper strategy of a selection of the satellites to be searched for. The cold start simulator was developed and used for optimization of the sequence of the satellites search, for development and testing of an advanced satellite selection algorithm that utilizes information on the satellites already detected and for optimization of a frequency search range. The best performance was achieved by using an advanced selection strategy. The strategy is based on the selection of the satellites nearest to the detected satellite, using the average angle between the Earth center (apex and the satellites. Furthermore, the simulation shows that it is not practical to investigate all frequencies within the range of the maximum possible Doppler frequency shift of the carrier wave of the navigation signal, but investigate approximately +/- 35 kHz range and, if not successful, switch to the next satellite. The simulations proved that a simple GPS receiver with the sequential search algorithms can operate in the LEO orbit.

  2. Receiver for 6-cm Polarization Observation Starts Working


    @@ A 6-cm receiving system with a polarimeter, made by engineers of German MaxPlanck-Institute for Radioastronomy, has been installed to the 25 radio telescope in Urumqi, the capital of western China's Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region. The new instrument for Sino-German cooperation on radio astronomy will enable Chinese astronomers to measure the polarization of radio sources for the first time.

  3. Rats' Orientation at the Start Point Is Important for Spatial Learning in a Water T-Maze

    Peckford, Genieve; McRae, Samantha M.; Thorpe, Christina M.; Martin, Gerard M.; Skinner, Darlene M.


    When trained to locate a hidden platform in a T-maze moved between two positions, rats appear to adopt a conditional strategy based on start point discrimination. To determine if location cues or orientation cues at the start point underlie this discrimination, separate groups of rats were trained on two place problems, each with unique start…

  4. 5 CFR 894.701 - May I keep my dental and/or vision coverage when I retire or start receiving workers' compensation?


    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false May I keep my dental and/or vision... DENTAL AND VISION INSURANCE PROGRAM Annuitants and Compensationers § 894.701 May I keep my dental and/or vision coverage when I retire or start receiving workers' compensation? (a) Your FEDVIP...

  5. Persistence and adherence in multiple sclerosis patients starting glatiramer acetate treatment : assessment of relationship with care received from multiple disciplines

    Jongen, Peter Joseph; Lemmens, Wim A.; Hupperts, Raymond; Hoogervorst, Erwin L. J.; Schrijver, Hans M.; Slettenaar, Astrid; de Schryver, Els L.; Boringa, Jan; van Noort, Esther; Donders, Rogier


    Background: In multiple sclerosis patients, the persistence of, and adherence to, disease-modifying treatment are often insufficient. The degree of persistence and adherence may relate to the care received from various disciplines. Methods: In an observational study of 203 patients treated with glat

  6. Changes in oxidative status of the heart in rats receiving vitamin C supplements

    Đurašević S.F.


    Full Text Available We studied the oxidative status of the heart in rats receiving by two doses of vitamin C over a period of four weeks. The activities of copper zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD, manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD, and catalase, hydrogen peroxide concentration, the level of lipid peroxidation, and total vitamin C content were determined in the heart of the experimental animals, as well as the concentration of vitamin C in their serum. Our results indicate that, apart from the ability of rats to synthesize vitamin C, supplementation leads to additional antioxidative protection.

  7. Localization of Sonic hedgehog secreting and receiving cells in the developing and adult rat adrenal cortex.

    Guasti, Leonardo; Paul, Alex; Laufer, Ed; King, Peter


    Sonic hedgehog signaling was recently demonstrated to play an important role in murine adrenal cortex development. The organization of the rat adrenal differs from that of the mouse, with the zona glomerulosa and zona fasciculata separated by an undifferentiated zone in the rat, but not in the mouse. In the present study we aimed to determine the mRNA expression patterns of Sonic hedgehog and the hedgehog signaling pathway components Patched-1 and Gli1 in the developing and adult rat adrenal. Sonic hedgehog expression was detected at the periphery of the cortex in cells lacking CYP11B1 and CYP11B2 expression, while signal-receiving cells were localized in the overlying capsule mesenchyme. Using combined in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry we found that the cells expressing Sonic hedgehog lie between the CYP11B2 and CYP11B1 layers, and thus Sonic hedgehog expression defines one cell population of the undifferentiated zone.

  8. Metabolic parameters in rats receiving different levels of oral glycerol supplementation.

    Lisenko, K G; Andrade, E F; Lobato, R V; Orlando, D R; Damin, D H C; Costa, A C; Lima, R R; Alvarenga, R R; Zangeronimo, M G; Sousa, R V; Pereira, L J


    The use of glycerol in the diets for animals is of interest because it is a residue of biodiesel production and rich in energy. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate metabolic and physiological parameters of rats receiving supplemental pure glycerol by gavage. We used 30 Wistar rats (initial weight 202.7 ± 29.98 g) receiving 0 (control/saline), 200, 400, 800 and 1600 mg glycerol/kg of body weight (bidistilled glycerine, 99.85% glycerol) beside food and water ad libitum for 28 days. We used a completely randomised design with five treatments and six replicates. At the end of the experiment, the animals were killed, and the results showed that there was no change (p > 0.05) in the intake and excretion of water, the average daily weight gain, dry matter, ash and crude protein in the carcass or plasma triacylglycerols. There was a beneficial effect (p < 0.05) up to a dose of 800 mg/kg glycerol on feed intake, percentage of carcass fat, plasma levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), high-density lipoprotein (HDLc) and low-/very low-density lipoprotein (LDLc + VLDLc). The levels of total cholesterol and glucose were increased with up to a dose of 800 mg/kg glycerol (but remained within the normal range); they were reduced with the dose of 1600 mg/kg. The total leucocyte count tended to be reduced, although it was within the reference values for rats. There were no renal or pancreatic lesions. In conclusion, glycerol presented as a safe supplement at the studied doses, even having some beneficial effects in a dose-dependent manner in rats.

  9. Jump-starting urban rat research: Conspecific pheromones recruit wild rats into a behavioral and pathogen-monitoring assay

    Michael H Parsons


    Full Text Available Wild rats, Rattus spp, have adapted so well to urbanization that humans may be obligatory to their survival. Consequently, rats foul human food sources, predate threatened fauna and serve as reservoirs for disease, costing the US economy $19 billion in losses year -1. Urban rat ecology however, remains vastly unexplored because these animals are cryptic, crepuscular, difficult to identify, and hazardous to handle. Additionally, the high-rise buildings that block satellite link-ups, underground sewers and subway tunnels, and rebar enforced concrete covered landscape make it difficult—if not impossible— to track urban animals using traditional radio telemetry. Consequently, there are few ecological studies with free-ranging urban rats. Therefore, we set out to monitor the behaviors and health of free-ranging rats in metropolitan New York. Recognizing that wild rats are attracted to live laboratory-reared conspecifics and that they are sensitive to pheromones, we used soiled rat bedding to repeatedly attract animals to a Remote Frequency Identification (RFID- based antenna with camera-trap and load cell (scale for collecting weights. We captured and micro-chipped 13 rats within 50, 30 and 10 m from our antenna and followed their movements. Seven of the 8 animals released within 10 m of the antenna, visited the RFID antenna lure 398 times over 41 standardized days. Males (2.7 visits day-1 visited the antenna at the same frequency as females (2.7 visits day-1; P>0.5, and both sexes spent similar time dwelling at the pheromones (M, 2.9±0.9 sec; F, 2.4.±0.4 sec; P>0.05. The passive integrated transponder (PIT-tag worked free on the lone individual that did not participate. Within our population, female activity peaked between 6am and 7pm, while males visited throughout the day. Our results demonstrate the potential to safely overcome the primary barriers that have impeded urban rat ecological studies. We used pheromone-based lures to attract

  10. Factors influencing adverse skin responses in rats receiving repeated subcutaneous injections and potential impact on neurobehavior

    Levoe, S. Nikki; Flannery, Brenna M.; Brignolo, Laurie; Imai, Denise M.; Koehne, Amanda; Austin, Adam T.; Bruun, Donald A.; Tancredi, Daniel J.; Lein, Pamela J.


    Repeated subcutaneous (s.c.) injection is a common route of administration in chronic studies of neuroactive compounds. However, in a pilot study we noted a significant incidence of skin abnormalities in adult male Long-Evans rats receiving daily s.c. injections of peanut oil (1.0 ml/kg) in the subscapular region for 21 d. Histopathological analyses of the lesions were consistent with a foreign body reaction. Subsequent studies were conducted to determine factors that influenced the incidence or severity of skin abnormalities, and whether these adverse skin reactions influenced a specific neurobehavioral outcome. Rats injected daily for 21 d with food grade peanut oil had an earlier onset and greater incidence of skin abnormalities relative to rats receiving an equal volume (1.0 ml/kg/d) of reagent grade peanut oil or triglyceride of coconut oil. Skin abnormalities in animals injected daily with peanut oil were increased in animals housed on corncob versus paper bedding. Comparison of animals obtained from different barrier facilities exposed to the same injection paradigm (reagent grade peanut oil, 1.0 ml/kg/d s.c.) revealed significant differences in the severity of skin abnormalities. However, animals from different barrier facilities did not perform differently in a Pavlovian fear conditioning task. Collectively, these data suggest that environmental factors influence the incidence and severity of skin abnormalities following repeated s.c. injections, but that these adverse skin responses do not significantly influence performance in at least one test of learning and memory. PMID:25705100

  11. Evaluation of the pharmacokinetics and cardiotoxicity of doxorubicin in rat receiving nilotinib

    Zhou, Zhi-yong [Department of Pharmacy, Affiliated Sixth People' s Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 200233 Shanghai (China); School of Pharmacy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 200240 Shanghai (China); Wan, Li-li; Yang, Quan-jun; Han, Yong-long; Li, Yan; Yu, Qi [Department of Pharmacy, Affiliated Sixth People' s Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 200233 Shanghai (China); Guo, Cheng, E-mail: [Department of Pharmacy, Affiliated Sixth People' s Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 200233 Shanghai (China); School of Pharmacy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 200240 Shanghai (China); Li, Xiao, E-mail: [Department of Hematology, Affiliated Sixth people' s Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 200233 Shanghai (China)


    Doxorubicin (DOX) is a potent chemotherapy drug with a narrow therapeutic window. Nilotinib, a small-molecule Bcr-Abl tyrosine kinase inhibitor, was reported to reverse multidrug resistance (MDR) mediated by P-glycoprotein (P-gp) transmembrane transporters. The present study aimed to investigate nilotinib's affection on the steady-state pharmacokinetics, disposition and cardiotoxicity of DOX. A total of 24 male Sprague–Dawley rats were randomized into four groups (6 in each) and received the following regimens: saline, intravenous DOX (5 mg/kg) alone, and DOX co-administrated with either 20 or 40 mg/kg nilotinib. Blood was withdrawn at 12 time points till 72 h after DOX injection and the concentrations of DOX and its metabolite doxorubicinol (DOXol) in serum and cardiac tissue were assayed by LC–MS–MS method. To determine the cardiotoxicity, the following parameters were investigated: creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, malondialdehyde, and superoxide dismutase. Histopathological examination of heart section was carried out to evaluate the extent of cardiotoxicity after treatments. The results showed that pretreatment of 40 mg/kg nilotinib increased the AUC{sub 0–t} and C{sub max} of DOX and DOXol. However, their accumulation in cardiac tissue was significantly decreased when compared with the group that received DOX alone. In addition, biochemical and histopathological results showed that 40 mg/kg nilotinib reduced the cardiotoxicity induced by DOX administration. In conclusion, co-administration of nilotinib increased serum exposure, but significantly decreased the accumulation of DOX in cardiac tissue. Consistent with in vitro profile, oral dose of 40 mg/kg nilotinib significantly decreased the cardiotoxicity of DOX in rat by enhancing P-gp activity in the heart.

  12. Numerical Simulation of Different Start-up Performance of a Solar Cavity Receiver%太阳能腔式吸热器不同启动状态下启动性能研究

    屠楠; 方嘉宾; 魏进家


    由于太阳能在时间上的非连续性使得太阳能腔式吸热器要频繁地经历不同的启动过程,对腔式吸热器在冷态启动、温态启动和热态启动过程中的热性能进行了模拟。计算得到了吸热器在三种启动过程中入口处所需的太阳光能量,可为定日镜场的布置及控制提供理论指导,同时还得到了吸热器在启动过程中热效率及辐射热损失、对流热损失随时间变化的曲线。%A solar cavity receiver frequently experiences different start-up processes because of the noncontimfity of solar energy in time. The thermal performance during three start-up processes, including cold start-up, warm start-up and hot start-up, was numerically simulated. The solar energy that the aperture of cavity receiver required was calculated during three start-up processes, and it can provide theoretical guidance for the layout and control of heliostat field. The curves of thermal efficiency, radiative thermal loss and convective thermal loss were also gained.

  13. Effects of beta-glucans ingestion (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) on metabolism of rats receiving high-fat diet.

    de Araújo, T V; Andrade, E F; Lobato, R V; Orlando, D R; Gomes, N F; de Sousa, R V; Zangeronimo, M G; Pereira, L J


    We investigated the effects of beta-glucans (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) ingestion on metabolic parameters of Wistar rats receiving high-fat diet. The experimental period was divided into two stages: in the first one, the animals were divided into two groups containing 12 animals each. The first group received commercial feed and the second received high-fat diet containing 20% of pork fat during 60 days. At the end of this period, body weight, blood glucose and Lee index were assessed. In the second stage, those 24 animals were redivided into four groups: (C) - control diet; (CB) - control diet and treated with Beta-glucan (BG); (O) - obese animals and (OB) - obese animals treated with BG. Animals from groups CB and OB received 30 mg/kg of BG dissolved in saline solution by gavage. Animals from groups C and O received only saline solution for 28 days. The design used was totally randomized in 2 × 2 factorial scheme. Data were submitted to analysis of variance (anova). Animals from OB group showed inferior levels (p < 0.05) of total cholesterol (13.33%), triacylglycerols (16.77%) and blood glucose (23.97%) when compared to the animals from group O. The use of BG has provided smaller increase in Lee index (p < 0.05), without promoting alteration in feed and water consumption, organs weight, HDL-C, LDL+VLDL-C, carcass composition, villus/crypt ratio, and pancreas, kidney and stomach histology. BG from S. cerevisiae promoted beneficial metabolic effects in rats receiving high-fat diet.

  14. Increase of insulin sensitivity in diabetic rats received Die-Huang-Wan, a herbal mixture used in Chinese traditional medicine

    WU Yang-Chang; HSU Jen-Hao; LIU I-Min; LIOU Shorong-Shii; SU Hui-Chen; CHENG Juei-Tang


    AIM: Effects on insulin sensitivity of Die-Huang-Wan, the herbal mixture widely used to treat diabetic disorder in Chinese traditional medicine, were investigated in vivo. METHODS: The obese Zucker rats were employed as insulin-resistant animal model. Also, insulin-resistance was induced by the repeated intraperitoneal injections of long-acting human insulin at 0.5 U/kg three times daily into adult male Wistar rats. Insulin resistance was identified using the loss of tolbutamide (10 mg/kg) or electroacupuncture (EA)-induced plasma glucose lowering action. The plasma glucose concentration was examined by glucose oxidase assay. RESULTS: The plasma glucose-lowering action induced by tolbutamide was significantly enhanced in obese Zucker rats receiving the repeated administration of Die-Huang-Wan at dosage of 26 mg/kg for 3 d. Furthermore, administration of Die-Huang-Wan delayed the formation of insulin resistance in rats that were induced by the daily repeated injection of human long-acting insulin at 0.5 U/kg three times daily and identified by the loss of tolbutamide- or EA-induced hypoglycemia. In streptozotocininduced diabetic rats, oral administration of metformin at 320 mg/kg once daily made an increase of the response to exogenous short-acting human insulin 15 d later. This is consistent with the view that metformin can increase insulin sensitivity. Similar treatment with Die-Huang-Wan at an effective dose (26.0 mg/kg) also increased the plasma glucose lowering action of exogenous insulin at 10 d later. The effect of Die-Huang-Wan on insulin sensitivity seems to produce more rapidly than that of metformin. CONCLUSION: The present study found that oral administration of Die-Huang-Wan increased insulin sensitivity and delayed the development of insulin resistance in rats.

  15. Homeostasis of chosen bioelements in organs of rats receiving lithium and/or selenium.

    Kiełczykowska, Małgorzata; Musik, Irena; Żelazowska, Renata; Lewandowska, Anna; Kurzepa, Jacek; Kocot, Joanna


    Lithium is an essential trace element, widely used in medicine and its application is often long-term. Despite beneficial effects, its administration can lead to severe side effects including hyperparathyroidism, renal and thyroid disorders. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the influence of lithium and/or selenium treatment on magnesium, calcium and silicon levels in rats' organs as well as the possibility of using selenium as an adjuvant in lithium therapy. The study was performed on rats divided into four groups (six animals each): control-treated with saline; Li-treated with Li2CO3 (2.7 mg Li/kg b.w.); Se-treated with Na2SeO3·H2O (0.5 mg Se/kg b.w.); Se + Li-treated simultaneously with Li2CO3 and Na2SeO3·H2O (2.7 mg Li/kg b.w. and of 0.5 mg Se/kg b.w., respectively). The administration was performed in form of water solutions by stomach tube once a day for 3 weeks. In the organs (liver, kidney, brain, spleen, heart, lung and femoral muscle) the concentrations of magnesium, calcium and silicon were determined. Magnesium was increased in liver of Se and Se + Li given rats. Lithium decreased tissue Ca and co-administration of selenium reversed this effect. Silicon was not affected by any treatment. The beneficial effect of selenium on disturbances of calcium homeostasis let suggest that further research on selenium application as an adjuvant in lithium therapy is worth being performed.

  16. Oxidant balance in brain of rats receiving different compounds of selenium.

    Musik, Irena; Kiełczykowska, Małgorzata; Kocot, Joanna


    The influence of two organic selenocompounds and sodium selenite on oxidant processes in rat brain tissue was investigated. The study was performed on male Wistar rats. The animals were divided into four groups: I-control; II-administered with sodium selenite; III-provided with selenoorganic compound A of chain structure 4-(o-tolyl-)-selenosemicarbazide of 2-chlorobenzoic acid and IV-provided with selenoorganic compound B of ring structure 3-(2-chlorobenzoylamino-)-2-(o-tolylimino-)-4-methyl-4-selenazoline. Rats were treated by stomach tube at a dose of 5 × 10(-4) mg of selenium/g of b.w. once a day for a period of 10 days. In brain homogenates total antioxidant status (TAS), activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), concentrations of ascorbic acid (AA) and reduced glutathione (GSH) as well as concentration of malonyl dialdehyde (MDA) were determined. TAS was insignificantly diminished in all selenium-supplemented groups versus control. SOD was not significantly influenced by administration of selenium. GPx was markedly decreased in group III versus control, whereas increased in group IV versus control and group III. Selenosemicarbazide depleted AA in well-marked way versus group II. GSH was significantly depressed in group III versus both control and group II and diminished in group IV versus group II. MDA was significantly decreased in group III versus both control and group II, whereas in group IV increased versus group III. As selenazoline A did not decrease elements of antioxidant barrier and increased GPx activity, it seems to be a promising agent for future studies concerning its possible application as a selenium supplement.

  17. The effects of two Lactobacillus plantarum strains on rat lipid metabolism receiving a high fat diet.

    Salaj, Rastislav; Stofilová, Jana; Soltesová, Alena; Hertelyová, Zdenka; Hijová, Emília; Bertková, Izabela; Strojný, Ladislav; Kružliak, Peter; Bomba, Alojz


    The aim of our study was to evaluate the effects of the different probiotic strains, Lactobacillus plantarum LS/07 and Lactobacillus plantarum Biocenol LP96, on lipid metabolism and body weight in rats fed a high fat diet. Compared with the high fat diet group, the results showed that Lactobacillus plantarum LS/07 reduced serum cholesterol and LDL cholesterol, but Lactobacillus plantarum Biocenol LP96 decreased triglycerides and VLDL, while there was no change in the serum HDL level and liver lipids. Both probiotic strains lowered total bile acids in serum. Our strains have no significant change in body weight, gain weight, and body fat. These findings indicate that the effect of lactobacilli on lipid metabolism may differ among strains and that the Lactobacillus plantarum LS/07 and Lactobacillus plantarum Biocenol LP96 can be used to improve lipid profile and can contribute to a healthier bowel microbial balance.

  18. Protective effect of ketamine against hemorrhagic cystitis in rats receiving ifosfamide

    Ozguven, Ali A.; Yılmaz, Omer; Taneli, Fatma; Ulman, Cevval; Vatansever, Seda; Onag, Ali


    Objective: To investigate the possible protective effect of a single dose of ketamine and the synergistic effect between ketamine and 2-mercaptoethane sulfonate (mesna) against ifosfamide-induced hemorrhagic cystitis. Materials and Methods: 35 adult female wistar rats were divided into five groups and pretreated with ketamine at 10 mg/kg and/or mesna 400 mg/kg 30 minutes before intraperitoneal injection of IFS (400 mg/kg) or with saline (control group). Hemorrhagic cystitis was evaluated 24 hours after IFS injection according to bladder wet weight (BWW), and microscopic changes, i.e. edema, hemorrhage, cellular infiltration, and urothelial desquamation. The markers of oxidative damage including nitric oxide (NO) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and the expressions of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin 1-beta (IL-1β), inducible nitric oxide synthase (i-NOS) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (e-NOS) were also assayed in the bladder tissues. Results: Pretreatment with ketamine alone or ketamine in combination with mesna reduced the IFS-induced increase of BWW (58,47% and 63,33%, respectively, P 0,05). The parameters of oxidative stress, the NO and the MDA contents of the bladder tissues of the study groups were not different. Conclusion: The results of the present study suggest that a single dose of ketamine pretreatment attenuates experimental IFS-induced bladder damage. It is therefore necessary to investigate ketamine locally and systematically with various dosing schedulesin order to reduce the bladder damage secondary to oxazaphosphorine-alkylating agents and these results may widen the spectrum of ketamine. PMID:24741183

  19. Effect of methionine load on homocysteine levels, lipid peroxidation and DNA damage in rats receiving ethanol

    Alceu Afonso Jordao Júnior


    Full Text Available Changes in the metabolism of methionine can cause hyperhomocysteinemia, inducing a triad of atherosclerosis, hypertension, and increased oxidative stress. The generation of free radicals and oxidative damage to DNA is important in the liver damage caused by ethanol. In this study, the effect of methionine overload associated or otherwise with acute administration of ethanol on homocysteine values, damage to DNA, lipoperoxidation and vitamin E was evaluated. Thirty rats were divided into 3 groups: Group Ethanol 24 hours (EG24, Group Methionine 24 hours (MG24, and Group Methionine and Ethanol 24 hours (MEG24. TBARS, vitamin E, GS and, homocysteine values were determined and the Comet assay was carried out. Increased GSH, vitamin E and homocysteine levels were observed for MEG24, and increased TBARS were observed in EG24. The Comet assay showed an increase in DNA damage in EG24 and DNA protection in MEG24. The administration of ethanol decreased antioxidant levels and increased TBARS, indicating the occurrence of oxidative stress with possible DNA damage. The combination of methionine and ethanol had a protective effect against the ethanol-induced damage, but increased the levels of homocysteine.Alterações no metabolismo da metionina podem ocasionar hiper-homocisteinemia, quadro indutivo de aterosclerose, hipertensão e aumento do estresse oxidativo. A geração de radicais livres e dano oxidativo ao DNA são importantes na injúria hepática provocada pelo etanol. Neste estudo avaliaram-se os efeitos da sobrecarga de metionina associada ou não à administração aguda de etanol sobre valores de homocisteína, dano ao DNA, lipoperoxidação e vitamina E. Foram utilizados 30 ratos Wistar distribuídos em 3 Grupos: Grupo Etanol 24 horas (GE24, Grupo Metionina 24 horas (GM24 e Grupo Metionina e Etanol 24 horas (GME24. Realizaram-se determinações hepáticas de SRATB, vitamina E, GSH, homocisteína e Teste do Cometa e determinações plasm

  20. Superficially projecting principal neurons in layer V of medial entorhinal cortex in the rat receive excitatory retrosplenial input.

    Czajkowski, Rafał; Sugar, Jørgen; Zhang, Sheng-Jia; Couey, Jonathan J; Ye, Jing; Witter, Menno P


    Principal cells in layer V of the medial entorhinal cortex (MEC) have a nodal position in the cortical-hippocampal network. They are the main recipients of hippocampal output and receive inputs from several cortical areas, including a prominent one from the retrosplenial cortex (RSC), likely targeting basal dendrites of layer V neurons. The latter project to extrahippocampal structures but also relay information to the superficial layers of MEC, closing the hippocampal-entorhinal loop. In the rat, we electrophysiologically and morphologically characterized RSC input into MEC and conclude that RSC provides an excitatory input to layer V pyramidal cells. Ultrastructural analyses of anterogradely labeled RSC projections showed that RSC axons in layer V of MEC form predominantly asymmetrical, likely excitatory, synapses on dendritic spines (90%) or shafts (8%), with 2% symmetrical, likely inhibitory, synapses on shafts and spines. The overall excitatory nature of the RSC input was confirmed by an optogenetic approach. Patterned laser stimulation of channelrhodopsin-expressing presynaptic RSC axons evoked exclusively EPSPs in recorded postsynaptic layer V cells. All responding layer V pyramidal cells had an axon extending toward the white matter. Half of these neurons also sent an axon to superficial layers. Confocal imaging of RSC synapses onto MEC layer V neurons shown to project superficially by way of retrogradely labeling from superficial layers confirmed that proximal dendrites of superficially projecting cells are among the targets of inputs from RSC. The excitatory RSC input thus interacts with both entorhinal-cortical and entorhinal-hippocampal circuits.

  1. The effect of zinc deficiency on erythrocyte membrane lipids of force-fed rats receiving a diet containing coconut oil or fish oil.

    Eder, K; Kirchgessner, M


    In the present study, the effect of zinc deficiency on erythrocyte membrane lipids of force-fed rats that received either a diet with coconut oil and safflower oil (86:14, w/w) or a diet with fish oil and safflower oil (91:9, w/w) was investigated. Zinc deficiency caused in the rats fed both types of dietary fat an increase in the amounts of total phospholipids and individual phospholipid classes in erythrocyte membranes. In the rats fed the coconut oil diet, zinc deficiency caused an increase in the proportion of docosahexaenoic acid (22:6) in phosphatidylcholine (PC), diacyl phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), phosphatidylserine (PS), and in total erythrocyte membrane fatty acids. In contrast, in the rats fed the fish oil diet, zinc deficiency caused an increase in the proportion of docosahexaenoic acid only in PC, but not in the other phospholipids. However, in these rats, changes in the ratio between eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5) and the n-3 fatty acids with 20 and 22 carbon atoms were observed in PC, diacyl PE and plasmalogen PE. The most pronounced changes in fatty acid composition due to zinc deficiency in the rats fed both types of fat occurred in PC. There was a relationship between the changes in the composition of plasma total fatty acids and the changes in fatty acid composition of erythrocyte membrane PC caused by zinc deficiency in the rats fed both types of dietary fat. The amount of cholesterol was similar in all treatment groups. However, zinc-deficient rats fed the coconut oil diet-but not those fed the fish oil diet-had an increased ratio between total phospholipids and cholesterol. Thus, the study shows that the effect of zinc deficiency on erythrocyte membrane lipids is to some degree similar for rats fed a coconut oil diet and rats fed a fish oil diet, and to some degree different.

  2. Liver morphology and morphometry and plasma biochemical parameters of Wistar rats that received leaf infusion of Rudgea viburnoides Benth. (Rubiaceae

    Juliana Castro Monteiro


    Full Text Available Rudgea viburnoides leaves are widely used in popular Brazilian medicine as a diuretic, antirheumatic, hypotensive and blood depurative tea. The present study was carried out to investigate the effects of this infusion on the liver and on the plasma biochemical parameters of Wistar rats. Two groups received the R. viburnoides leaf infusion at a daily dose of 10 or 20g dry-leaves/L water, during 40 days. The histopathological analysis did not show degenerated areas or infiltration of leucocytes. Hepatic morphometry showed accumulation of fat in the hepatocytes of the treated groups. There was no significant change in the plasma levels of urea, creatinin, uric acid, direct bilirubin, cholesterol, total proteins, albumin, gamma glutamyl tranferase (gamma-GT, alanine transaminase (ALT, aspartate transaminase (AST, chlorine, phosphate and calcium. A significant reduction in the plasma levels of triacylglycerol (TAG occurred in the group that received the higher dose.As folhas de Rudgea viburnoides Benth. são utilizadas na medicina popular como diuréticas, hipotensoras, anti-reumáticas, depurativas do sangue e em regimes de emagrecimento. O presente estudo foi delineado para avaliar o efeito da infusão das folhas de R. viburnoides nos parâmetros bioquímicos plasmáticos e na morfologia e morfometria hepática de ratos Wistar adultos. Dois grupos receberam a infusão das folhas, diariamente, nas dosagens de 10 e 20 g de folhas secas/L de água, durante 40 dias. O grupo controle recebeu a mesma quantidade de água. As análises histopatológicas não mostraram áreas degeneradas e infiltrados inflamatórios. A morfometria hepática mostrou acúmulo significativo de gordura nos hepatócitos dos animais tratados, principalmente no grupo que recebeu a maior dose da infusão (8,75% de gotículas lipídicas, comparado com 0,25% delas encontradas nos animais controles. Não foram observadas alterações nos níveis plasmáticos de uréia, creatinina,

  3. Relationships between silicon content and glutathione peroxidase activity in tissues of rats receiving lithium in drinking water.

    Kiełczykowska, Małgorzata; Musik, Irena; Pasternak, Kazimierz


    Lithium salts are widely used in psychiatry, but their presence in organism can result in both beneficial and adverse effects. Silicon, the third most abundant trace element in humans as well as antioxidant enzyme glutathione peroxidase (GPx) play important roles in organism. The disturbance of their level can cause severe disorders. The aim of our work was to evaluate the influence of Li2CO3 administration in drinking water for a period of 4 weeks on Si content and GPx activity in the tissues of liver, kidney, brain and femoral muscle in rats. The concentrations of provided solutions were 0.7, 1.4, 2.6, 3.6, 7.1 and 10.7 mmol Li+ x dm-3. GPx activity was decreased versus control as a consequence of Li treatment, particularly in kidney and brain. This effect could be suggested to contribute to renal abnormalities which could occur during Li therapy. Si tissue level was significantly enhanced versus control in liver and femoral muscle in groups receiving high Li doses. In brain no well-marked changes were observed, whereas in kidney we observed the depletion in low-Li-groups, restoration of Si level in higher-Li-groups and unexpected decrease in the highest-Li-group. Positive correlations between Si content and GPx activity in the tissues of kidney (r = 0.677) and brain (r = 0.790) as well as negative correlation (r = -0.819) in femoral muscle were found. We consider that our results give some reason for suggesting that monitoring of silicon level in patients undergoing Li therapy could be recommended. However, more investigations should be performed, particularly regarding the relationships between Si and GPx in blood and urine Si excretion during lithium administration.

  4. Starting electronics

    Brindley, Keith


    Starting Electronics is unrivalled as a highly practical introduction for hobbyists, students and technicians. Keith Brindley introduces readers to the functions of the main component types, their uses, and the basic principles of building and designing electronic circuits. Breadboard layouts make this very much a ready-to-run book for the experimenter; and the use of multimeter, but not oscilloscopes, puts this practical exploration of electronics within reach of every home enthusiast's pocket. The third edition has kept the simplicity and clarity of the original. New material

  5. The tissue distribution of diazinon and the inhibition of blood cholinesterase activities in rats and mice receiving a single intraperitoneal dose of diazinon.

    Tomokuni, K; Hasegawa, T; Hirai, Y; Koga, N


    The tissue distribution of diazinon and the inhibition of cholinesterase (ChE) activities in plasma, erythrocyte and brain were investigated using male rats and mice which received a single intraperitoneal (i.p.) dose of diazinon (20 or 100 mg/kg body wt) in olive oil. The blood diazinon level was estimated to reach a maximum at 1-2 h after the i.p. administration. It was demonstrated that the diazinon residue levels are the highest in the kidney, when comparing the distribution of diazinon among liver, kidney and brain in the animals after dosing. It was indicated that the ChE inhibition by diazinon exposure is greater in the plasma than in the erythrocytes for male mice, while its inhibition is greater in the erythrocytes for male rats. Brain ChE activity was also inhibited markedly in the mice after dosing.

  6. Heart function in magnetic resonance imaging and the mesenteric artery reactivity in rats receiving lead-contaminated drinking water.

    Skoczynska, A; Skórka, T; Wojakowska, A; Nowacki, D; Turczyn, B; Poręba, R; Tyrankiewicz, U; Byk, K; Szuba, A


    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of lead (Pb)-contaminated drinking water on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-estimated cardiac function, vascular reactivity, and serum lipids in rats. For 3 months, male Wistar rats, aged 4-6 weeks, were given drinking water with the addition of lead acetate at a concentration of 100 ppm Pb (10 rats) or water free from Pb (8 control rats). The cardiac MRI was performed at rest and under β-adrenergic stimulation on a 4.7 T scanner using electrocardiogram-triggered gradient echo (FLASH) cine sequence. After 1-2 weeks of the MRI test, experiments were performed ex vivo. After stabilization of perfusion pressure (PP), norepinephrine at doses from 0.01 to 5.0 μg was dissolved in Krebs solution, injected in a volume of 100 μl, and next infused at a concentration of 0.5 μg/ml into the isolated mesenteric artery. In this manner, preconstricted mesenteric bed was used to determine PP changes induced by acetylcholine, given at doses from 0.05 to 5.0 μg, before and during the infusion of nitric oxide synthase inhibitor (1.0 μg/ml). At the end, dobutamine (5 mg), followed by potassium chloride (10.5 mg), was injected. Lipid levels were determined enzymatically, blood Pb level was measured by the atomic absorption spectrophotometer. This study showed that Pb impairs the left ventricular systolic and diastolic function. Pb-induced changes in response to resistance of vessels to vasoactive agents may be secondary to the reduced left ventricular ejection fraction. The high-density lipoprotein subfraction 2 (HDL2) is involved in the cardiovascular effect of Pb.

  7. Evaluation of immunohistochemical expression of ghrelin-producing rectal cells in Wistar rats receiving the cafeteria diet.

    Lyra, Humberto Fenner; Schiavon, Leonardo de Lucca; Vieira, Daniella Serafin Couto; Teive, André Muller; Costa, Aline; Onzi, Tiago Rafael; Nau, Angélica Luciana; d'Acampora, Armando José


    To investigate the impact of cafeteria diet on ghrelin expression in rectal tissue and identify the morphologic cell type. Twenty-four male Wistar rats were divided into four subgroups of six animals each: RC1 (rat chow 1) and CAF1 (cafeteria diet 1) for a period of 30 days; RC2 (rat chow 2) and CAF2 (cafeteria diet 2) for a period of 60 days. The animal and rectal weight, the number and the type of immunoreactive ghrelin cells were recorded and compared between the subgroups. The statistical study was established by ANOVA and Student's t test. There was no difference in the total of immunoreactive cells (p=0.685) between the subgroups nor between weight and presence or absence of ghrelin expression (p=0.993). All the immunoreactive cells identified were closed-type. The cafeteria diet did not have influence on the amount of immunoreactive rectal cells of ghrelin and only one type (closed-type) of immunoreactive cells was expressed in the rectum.

  8. Investigating the enteroenteric recirculation of apixaban, a factor Xa inhibitor: administration of activated charcoal to bile duct-cannulated rats and dogs receiving an intravenous dose and use of drug transporter knockout rats.

    Zhang, Donglu; Frost, Charles E; He, Kan; Rodrigues, A David; Wang, Xiaoli; Wang, Lifei; Goosen, Theunis C; Humphreys, W Griffith


    The study described here investigated the impact of intestinal excretion (IE; excretion of drug directly from circulation to intestinal lumen), enteroenteric recirculation (EER), and renal tubule recirculation (RTR) on apixaban pharmacokinetics and disposition. The experimental approaches involve integrating apixaban elimination pathways with pharmacokinetic profiles obtained from bile duct-cannulated (BDC) rats and dogs receiving i.v. doses together with oral administration of activated charcoal (AC). Additionally, the role of P-gp (P-glycoprotein; abcb1) and BCRP (breast cancer resistance protein; abcg2) in apixaban disposition was evaluated in experiments using transporter inhibitors and transporter knockout (KO) rats. Approximately 20-50% of an apixaban i.v. dose was found in feces of BDC rats and dogs, suggesting IE leading to fecal elimination and intestinal clearance (IC). The fecal elimination, IC, and systemic clearance of apixaban were increased upon AC administration in both BDC rats and dogs and were decreased in BDC rats dosed with GF-120918, a dual BCRP and P-gp inhibitor). BCRP appeared to play a more important role for absorption and intestinal and renal elimination of apixaban than P-gp in transporter-KO rats after oral and i.v. dosing, which led to a higher level of active renal excretion in rat than other species. These data demonstrate that apixaban undergoes IE, EER, and RTR that are facilitated by efflux transporters. Intestinal reabsorption of apixaban could be interrupted by AC even at 3 hours post-drug dose in dogs (late charcoal effect). This study demonstrates that the intestine is an organ for direct clearance and redistribution of apixaban. The IE, EER, and RTR contribute to overall pharmacokinetic profiles of apixaban. IE as a clearance pathway, balanced with metabolism and renal excretion, helps decrease the impacts of intrinsic (renal or hepatic impairment) and extrinsic (drug-drug interactions) factors on apixaban disposition.

  9. Adverse effects of melatonin on rat pups of Wistar-Kyoto dams receiving melatonin supplementation during pregnancy.

    Singh, Harbindar Jeet; Keah, Lee Siew; Kumar, Arun; Sirajudeen, K N S


    This report documents an incidental finding during a study investigating the effects of melatonin supplementation on the development of blood pressure in SHR. Administration of 10 mg/kg/day of melatonin in drinking water during pregnancy to Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) dams caused a loss of more than 50% of the pups by the age of three weeks and 95% by the age of 6 weeks. There was no maternal morbidity or mortality in the two strains or death of any of the SHR pups. No obvious physical defects were present but mean body weight was lower in the surviving WKY rats when compared to that of melatonin supplemented SHR or non-supplemented WKY pups. The reason for the high mortality in WKY pups is uncertain and appears to be strain if not batch specific. There is a need for caution in its use, particularly during pregnancy, and clearly necessitates more detailed studies.

  10. Differences in maturation of the jaw-opening reflex between rats that received early-and late-masticatory stimulation.

    Changsiripun, C; Yabushita, T; Soma, K


    The jaw-opening reflex (JOR) plays an important role in the regulation of jaw movement during mastication. Previous study showed that altered masticatory function during growth impedes JOR maturation and thus may affect masticatory performance in adults. However, no studies have compared the benefit of early and delayed correction in terms of functional development. Therefore, this study tested the hypothesis that early-stimulation of masticatory function during growth can promote JOR maturation better than late-stimulation during adulthood. Soon after weaning, 120 female Wistar rats were divided into two groups and fed either solid (control group) or liquid (experimental group) diets. The experimental group was further divided into early-, late-, and non-stimulation subgroups. Early- and late-stimulation groups were fed a solid diet instead of a liquid diet at 5- and 11-week-old, respectively, whereas non-stimulation group was fed only a liquid diet until the end of the experiment. At 3, 5, 7, 9, 11 and 13 weeks, JOR recordings were conducted in anaesthetised rats of all groups. Latency and peak-to-peak amplitude of the JOR were compared between the groups. From 7 to 13 weeks, early-stimulation group showed a JOR with short latency and high amplitude similar to that of control group. In contrast, late- and non-stimulation groups showed significantly longer latency and smaller amplitude of the JOR than in control group. We demonstrated that early masticatory stimulation within the critical period for programming mastication may have greater potential to restore JOR maturation to values close to those in normal adults. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. Budget impact analysis of the simplification to atazanavir + ritonavir + lamivudine dual therapy of HIV-positive patients receiving atazanavir-based triple therapies in Italy starting from data of the Atlas-M trial

    Restelli, Umberto; Fabbiani, Massimiliano; Di Giambenedetto, Simona; Nappi, Carmela; Croce, Davide


    Background This analysis aimed at evaluating the impact of a therapeutic strategy of treatment simplification of atazanavir (ATV)+ ritonavir (r) + lamivudine (3TC) in virologically suppressed patients receiving ATV+r+2 nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) on the budget of the Italian National Health Service (NHS). Methods A budget impact model with a 5-year time horizon was developed based on the clinical data of Atlas-M trial at 48 weeks (in terms of percentage of patients experiencing virologic failure and adverse events), from the Italian NHS perspective. A scenario in which the simplification strategy was not considered was compared with three scenarios in which, among a target population of 1,892 patients, different simplification strategies were taken into consideration in terms of percentage of patients simplified on a yearly basis among those eligible for simplification. The costs considered were direct medical costs related to antiretroviral drugs, adverse events management, and monitoring activities. Results The percentage of patients of the target population receiving ATV+r+3TC varies among the scenarios and is between 18.7% and 46.9% in year 1, increasing up to 56.3% and 84.4% in year 5. The antiretroviral treatment simplification strategy considered would lead to lower costs for the Italian NHS in a 5-year time horizon between −28.7 million € and −16.0 million €, with a reduction of costs between −22.1% (−3.6 million €) and −8.8% (−1.4 million €) in year 1 and up to −39.9% (−6.9 million €) and −26.6% (−4.6 million €) in year 5. Conclusion The therapy simplification for patients receiving ATV+r+2 NRTIs to ATV+r+3TC at a national level would lead to a reduction of direct medical costs over a 5-year period for the Italian NHS. PMID:28280375

  12. GNSS Software Receiver for UAVs

    Olesen, Daniel Madelung; Jakobsen, Jakob; von Benzon, Hans-Henrik


    This paper describes the current activities of GPS/GNSS Software receiver development at DTU Space. GNSS Software receivers have received a great deal of attention in the last two decades and numerous implementations have already been presented. DTU Space has just recently started development of ...... of our own GNSS software-receiver targeted for mini UAV applications, and we will in in this paper present our current progress and briefly discuss the benefits of Software Receivers in relation to our research interests....

  13. Anterior and posterior parts of the rat ventral tegmental area and the rostromedial tegmental nucleus receive topographically distinct afferents from the lateral habenular complex.

    Petzel, Anja; Bernard, René; Poller, Wolfram C; Veh, Rüdiger W


    That activation of the reward system involves increased activity of dopaminergic (DA) neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) is widely accepted. In contrast, the lateral habenular complex (LHb), which is known as the center of the anti-reward system, directly and indirectly inhibits DA neurons in the VTA. The VTA, however, is not a homogenous entity. Instead, it displays major functional differences between its anterior (aVTA) and posterior (pVTA) regions. It is not precisely known, whether habenular input to the aVTA, pVTA, and the newly recognized rostromedial tegmental nucleus (RMTg) are similarly or differently organized. Consequently, the present investigation addressed the connections between LHb and aVTA, pVTA, and RMTg using retrograde and anterograde tracing techniques in the rat. Our experiments disclosed strictly reciprocal and conspicuously focal interconnections between LHbM (LHbMPc/LHbMC) and PN, as well as between RLi and LHbLO. In addition, we found that LHb inputs to the aVTA are dorsoventrally ordered. Dorsal parts of the aVTA receive afferents from LHbL and LHbM, whereas ventral parts of the aVTA are preferentially targeted by the LHbM. LHb afferents to the pVTA are distinct from those to the RMTg, given that the RMTg is primarily innervated from the LHbL, whereas pVTA receives afferents from LHbM and LHbL. These data indicate the existence of two separate pathways from the LHb to the VTA, a direct and an indirect one, which may subserve distinct biological functions. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. The changes of cardioelectrical activity of rat with myocardial infarction receiving sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase gene modified bone marrow stem cell transplantation by microelectrode array technology



    Objective Therapy effects and cardiac electrical activity comparison of bone marrow stem cells (BMSCs) transplantation and sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA2a) gene modified BMSCs transplantation after acute myocardial infarction(AMI) in rats.Methods Rats with AMI were divided

  15. Xinjiang Dushanzi Project Started Construction Started Construction


    @@ Xinjiang Dushanzi petroleum refining and chemical integrated project,is the largest one so far in China, with a capacity of ten-million-ton petroleum refinery and onemillion-ton ethylene complex, directly under PetroChina Company Limited (PetroChina), was started construction along with laying a foundation on August 22, 2005.

  16. Start-Up Capital

    Verheul, Ingrid; Thurik, Roy


    textabstractFemale and male entrepreneurs differ in the way they finance their businesses. This can be attributed to the type of business and the type of management and experience (indirect effect). Female start-ups may also experience other barriers based upon discriminatory effects (direct effect). Whether gender has an impact on size and composition of start-up capital, is the subject of the present paper. To test for these direct and indirect effects data of 2000 Dutch starting entreprene...

  17. FEMA DFIRM Station Start

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This table contains information about station starting locations. These locations indicate the reference point that was used as the origin for distance measurements...

  18. Early Head Start Evaluation

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Longitudinal information from an evaluation where children were randomly assigned to Early Head Start or community services as usual;direct assessments and...

  19. Head Start Impact Study

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Nationally representative, longitudinal information from an evaluation where children were randomly assigned to Head Start or community services as usual;direct...

  20. Getting started with Unity

    Felicia, Patrick


    Getting Started with Unity is written in an easy-to-follow tutorial format.""Getting Started with Unity"" is for[ 3D game developers[/color] who would like to learn how to use Unity3D and become familiar with its core features. This book is also suitable for intermediate users who would like to improve their skills. No prior knowledge of Unity3D is required.

  1. Psychiatric Advance Directives: Getting Started

    ... More... Home Getting Started National Resource Center on Psychiatric Advance Directives - Getting Started Getting Started Psychiatric advance directives (PADs) are relatively new legal instruments ...

  2. Response of the sensorimotor cortex of cerebral palsy rats receiving transplantation of vascular endothelial growth factor 165-transfected neural stem cells

    Jielu Tan; Xiangrong Zheng; Shanshan Zhang; Yujia Yang; Xia Wang; Xiaohe Yu; Le Zhong


    Neural stem cells are characterized by the ability to differentiate and stably express exogenous ge-nes. Vascular endothelial growth factor plays a role in protecting local blood vessels and neurons of newborn rats with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. Transplantation of vascular endothelial growth factor-transfected neural stem cells may be neuroprotective in rats with cerebral palsy. In this study, 7-day-old Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into ifve groups: (1) sham operation (control), (2) cerebral palsy model alone or with (3) phosphate-buffered saline, (4) vascular en-dothelial growth factor 165 + neural stem cells, or (5) neural stem cells alone. hTe cerebral palsy model was established by ligating the letf common carotid artery followed by exposure to hypox-ia. Phosphate-buffered saline, vascular endothelial growth factor + neural stem cells, and neural stem cells alone were administered into the sensorimotor cortex using the stereotaxic instrument and microsyringe. Atfer transplantation, the radial-arm water maze test and holding test were performed. Immunohistochemistry for vascular endothelial growth factor and histology using hematoxylin-eosin were performed on cerebral cortex. Results revealed that the number of vas-cular endothelial growth factor-positive cells in cerebral palsy rats transplanted with vascular endothelial growth factor-transfected neural stem cells was increased, the time for ifnding water and the ifnding repetitions were reduced, the holding time was prolonged, and the degree of cell degeneration or necrosis was reduced. hTese ifndings indicate that the transplantation of vascu-lar endothelial growth factor-transfected neural stem cells alleviates brain damage and cognitive deifcits, and is neuroprotective in neonatal rats with hypoxia ischemic-mediated cerebral palsy.

  3. Response of the sensorimotor cortex of cerebral palsy rats receiving transplantation of vascular endothelial growth factor 165-transfected neural stem cells.

    Tan, Jielu; Zheng, Xiangrong; Zhang, Shanshan; Yang, Yujia; Wang, Xia; Yu, Xiaohe; Zhong, Le


    Neural stem cells are characterized by the ability to differentiate and stably express exogenous ge-nes. Vascular endothelial growth factor plays a role in protecting local blood vessels and neurons of newborn rats with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. Transplantation of vascular endothelial growth factor-transfected neural stem cells may be neuroprotective in rats with cerebral palsy. In this study, 7-day-old Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into five groups: (1) sham operation (control), (2) cerebral palsy model alone or with (3) phosphate-buffered saline, (4) vascular endothelial growth factor 165 + neural stem cells, or (5) neural stem cells alone. The cerebral palsy model was established by ligating the left common carotid artery followed by exposure to hypoxia. Phosphate-buffered saline, vascular endothelial growth factor + neural stem cells, and neural stem cells alone were administered into the sensorimotor cortex using the stereotaxic instrument and microsyringe. After transplantation, the radial-arm water maze test and holding test were performed. Immunohistochemistry for vascular endothelial growth factor and histology using hematoxylin-eosin were performed on cerebral cortex. Results revealed that the number of vascular endothelial growth factor-positive cells in cerebral palsy rats transplanted with vascular endothelial growth factor-transfected neural stem cells was increased, the time for finding water and the finding repetitions were reduced, the holding time was prolonged, and the degree of cell degeneration or necrosis was reduced. These findings indicate that the transplantation of vascular endothelial growth factor-transfected neural stem cells alleviates brain damage and cognitive deficits, and is neuroprotective in neonatal rats with hypoxia ischemic-mediated cerebral palsy.

  4. Lean start-up

    Rasmussen, Erik Stavnsager; Tanev, Stoyan


    The risk of launching new products and starting new firms is known to be extremely high. The Lean Start-up approach is a way of reducing these risks and enhancing the chances for success by validating the products and services in the market with customers before launching it in full scale. The main...... point is to develop a Minimum Viable Product that can be tested by potential customers and then pivot the idea if necessary around these customer evaluations. This iterative process goes through a number of stages with the purpose of validating the customers’ problems, the suggested solution...

  5. Induction motor starting current

    Arneaud, J.M.; Langman, R.A. [Tasmania Univ., Hobart, TAS (Australia)


    Large errors may occur if leakage path saturation is neglected when reduced-voltage test results are used to predict the direct-on-line starting current of induction motors. The results of applying three existing and two new methods for starting current prediction are compared with test data from 52 motors. A quantitative assessment is made of the probable reduction in error that would be achieved by increasing the number of available sets of reduced-voltage, locked rotor test results or by including slot design data. Guidelines are given for selecting an appropriate predictive method. (author). 4 tabs., 1 fig., 6 refs.

  6. ATLAS starts moving in


    The first large active detector component was lowered into the ATLAS cavern on 1 March. It consisted of the 8 modules forming the lower part of the central barrel of the tile hadronic calorimeter. The work of assembling the barrel, which comprises 64 modules, started the following day.

  7. A New Start


    Goodwill to the Islamic world and willingness to mend ties highlight Barack Obama’s new Middle East policy u.S. President Barack Obama started to implement his new Middle East policy soon after he assumed office. He paid a

  8. Getting started with UDOO

    Palazzetti, Emanuele


    If you are an Android developer who wants to learn how to use UDOO to build Android applications that are capable of interacting with their surrounding environment, then this book is ideal for you. Learning UDOO is the next great step to start building your first real-world prototypes powered by the Android operating system.

  9. Start-Up Capital

    I. Verheul (Ingrid); A.R. Thurik (Roy)


    textabstractFemale and male entrepreneurs differ in the way they finance their businesses. This can be attributed to the type of business and the type of management and experience (indirect effect). Female start-ups may also experience other barriers based upon discriminatory effects (direct

  10. Getting started with JUCE

    Robinson, Martin


    his book is a fast-paced, practical guide full of step-by-step examples which are easy to follow and implement.This book is for programmers with a basic grasp of C++. The examples start at a basic level, making few assumptions beyond fundamental C++ concepts. Those without any experience with C++ should be able to follow and construct the examples, although you may need further support to understand the fundamental concepts.

  11. Getting started with Simulink

    Zamboni, Luca


    This practical and easy-to-understand learning tutorial is one big exciting exercise for students and engineers that are always short on their schedules and want to regain some lost time with the help of Simulink.This book is aimed at students and engineers who need a quick start with Simulink. Though it's not required in order to understand how Simulink works, knowledge of physics will help the reader to understand the exercises described.

  12. Getting started with Hazelcast

    Johns, Mat


    Written as a step-by-step guide, Getting Started with Hazelcast will teach you all you need to know to make your application data scalable.This book is a great introduction for Java developers, software architects, or developers looking to enable scalable and agile data within their applications. You should have programming knowledge of Java and a general familiarity with concepts like data caching and clustering.

  13. Getting Started with Netduino

    Walker, Chris


    Start building electronics projects with Netduino, the popular open source hardware platform that's captured the imagination of makers and hobbyists worldwide. This easy-to-follow book provides the step-by-step guidance you need to experiment with Netduino and the .NET Micro Framework. Through a set of simple projects, you'll learn how to create electronic gadgets-including networked devices that communicate over TCP/IP. Along the way, hobbyists will pick up the basics of .NET programming, and programmers will discover how to work with electronics and microcontrollers. Follow the projects in

  14. Getting started with Arduino

    Banzi, Massimo


    Arduino is the open-source electronics prototyping platform that's taken the design and hobbyist world by storm. This thorough introduction, updated for Arduino 1.0, gives you lots of ideas for projects and helps you work with them right away. From getting organized to putting the final touches on your prototype, all the information you need is here! Inside, you'll learn about: Interaction design and physical computingThe Arduino hardware and software development environmentBasics of electricity and electronicsPrototyping on a solderless breadboardDrawing a schematic diagram Getting started

  15. Getting Started with Roo

    Long, Josh


    Spring Roo goes a step beyond the Spring Framework by bringing true Rapid Application Development to Java-just as Grails has done with Groovy. This concise introduction shows you how to build applications with Roo, using the framework's shell as an intelligent and timesaving code-completion tool. It's an ideal RAD tool because Roo does much of the tedious code maintenance. You'll get started by building a simple customer relationship management application, complete with step-by-step instructions and code examples. Learn how to control any part of the application with Roo's opt-in feature, w

  16. En god start

    Sievertsen, Hans Henrik

    I Danmark er det muligt at afvige fra reglen om, at barnet skal starte i skole det kalenderår, hvor barnet fylder 6 år. Det gør 10-15 procent af en årgang, mens 80-90 procent af børnene følger normen, og 2-3 procent starter i skole et år tidligere end normen, viser en analyse baseret på børn født i...

  17. Getting Started with Processing

    Reas, Casey


    Learn computer programming the easy way with Processing, a simple language that lets you use code to create drawings, animation, and interactive graphics. Programming courses usually start with theory, but this book lets you jump right into creative and fun projects. It's ideal for anyone who wants to learn basic programming, and serves as a simple introduction to graphics for people with some programming skills. Written by the founders of Processing, this book takes you through the learning process one step at a time to help you grasp core programming concepts. You'll learn how to sketch wi

  18. Missouri: Early Head Start Initiative

    Center for Law and Social Policy, Inc. (CLASP), 2012


    Missouri's Early Head Start/Child Care Partnership Project expands access to Early Head Start (EHS) services for children birth to age 3 by developing partnerships between federal Head Start, EHS contractors, and child care providers. Head Start and EHS contractors that participate in the initiative provide services through community child care…

  19. Glucemia, insulinemia y secreción de insulina en ratas prepúberes hiperandrogenizadas e hiperestrogenizadas Glycemia, insulinemia and insulin secretion in prepubescent rats receiving high doses of androgens and strogens

    Aimée Álvarez Álvarez


    Full Text Available Se estudió el efecto de una sobredosis de enantato de testosterona y de benzoato de estradiol en ratas machos prepúberes, sobre el comportamiento de la glucemia y la insulinemia in vivo, durante una prueba de tolerancia a la glucosa. Adicionalmente se exploró, in vitro, la capacidad de secreción de insulina estimulada por glucosa de los islotes de Langerhans de estas ratas hiperandrogenizadas e hiperestrogenizadas. Se encontró que la hiperandrogenización se acompañaba de un deterioro de la sensibilidad a la insulina, con hiperinsulinemia, que no se corresponde con un aumento de la capacidad de secreción de insulina de los islotes de Langerhans. Sin embargo, se comprobó que la hiperestrogenización no indujo cambios en los perfiles de glucemia, ni de insulinemia, ni en la capacidad de secreción de insulina de los islotes de Langerhans de este grupo de ratas hiperestrogenizadas.The effect of an overdose of testosterone heptanoate and estradiol in male prepubescent rats on the behavior of glycemia and insulinemia was studied in vivo during a glucose tolerance test. The capacity of insulin secretion stimulated by glucose from the islets of Langerhans of these rats that were administered a high dose of androgens and estrogens was explored in vitro. It was found that the high level of circulating androgens was accompanied by a deterioration of sensitivity to insulin with hyperinsulinemia that does not correspond to an increase of the insulin secreting capacity of the islets of Langerhans. However, it was demonstrated that the high level of circulating estrogens did not produce changes either in the glycemia and insulinemia profiles or in the insulin secreting capacity of the islets of Langerhans in this group of rats that received an elevated dose of estrogens.

  20. Electronic warfare receivers and receiving systems

    Poisel, Richard A


    Receivers systems are considered the core of electronic warfare (EW) intercept systems. Without them, the fundamental purpose of such systems is null and void. This book considers the major elements that make up receiver systems and the receivers that go in them.This resource provides system design engineers with techniques for design and development of EW receivers for modern modulations (spread spectrum) in addition to receivers for older, common modulation formats. Each major module in these receivers is considered in detail. Design information is included as well as performance tradeoffs o

  1. Alterations in the endometrium of rats, rabbits, and Macaca mulatta that received an implantation of copper/low-density polyethylene nanocomposite

    Hu LX


    Full Text Available Li-Xia Hu,1,* Hong Wang,1,* Meng Rao,1,* Xiao-Ling Zhao,1 Jing Yang,1 Shi-Fu Hu,1 Jing He,1,2 Wei Xia,1 Hefang Liu,1 Bo Zhen,1 Haihong Di,1 Changsheng Xie,3 Xianping Xia,3 Changhong Zhu,11Family Planning Research Institute, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, People's Republic of China; 2Central Hospital of Wuhan, Wuhan, People's Republic of China; 3Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, People's Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: A copper/low-density polyethylene nanocomposite (nano-Cu/LDPE, a potential intrauterine device component material, has been developed from our research. A logical extension of our previous work, this study was conducted to investigate the expression of plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1, substance P (SP, and substance P receptor (SP-R in the endometrium of Sprague Dawley rats, New Zealand White rabbits, and Macaca mulatta implanted with nano-Cu/LDPE composite. The influence of the nano-Cu/LDPE composite on the morphology of the endometrium was also investigated. Animals were randomly divided into five groups: the sham-operated control group (SO group, bulk copper group (Cu group, LDPE group, and nano-Cu/LDPE groups I and II. An expression of PAI-1, SP, and SP-R in the endometrial tissues was examined by immunohistochemistry at day 30, 60, 90, and 180 postimplantation. The significant difference for PAI-1, SP, and SP-R between the nano-Cu/LDPE groups and the SO group (P<0.05 was identified when the observation period was terminated, and the changes of nano-Cu/LDPE on these parameters were less remarkable than those of the Cu group (P<0.05. The damage to the endometrial morphology caused by the nano-Cu/LDPE composite was much less than that caused by bulk copper. The nano-Cu/LDPE composite might be a potential substitute for conventional materials for intrauterine


    Almeida, Sebastião Sousa; Oliveira,Luiz Marcellino de; Frederico G. Graeff


    In order to investigate whether early malnutrition causes lasting changes in the reactivity to anxiolytic drugs, rat dams lactation (21 days) and pops after weaning until the 49th day of life were fed on 8% casein diet (M rats), while their well-nourished controls received 25% casein (W rats), from day 50 on all animals ate the same balanced diet. Experiments started on the 91st day. Rats deprived for 22 hours drank water containing either 1.8% or 2.7% sodium chloride for 30 min in a test cha...

  3. An impressive start


    This has been an excellent week for the LHC, with a succession of fills rapidly increasing the number of proton bunches to 194 per beam. This has allowed the experiments to reach a peak luminosity of 2.5 × 1032 cm-2s-1, thereby surpassing the record for 2010 where we reached 2.0 × 1032 cm-2s-1. At the time of writing, the integrated luminosity delivered by the LHC in 2011 is around 28 inverse picobarns, which is already more than half of the total 2010 dataset.   These are impressive numbers, but what impresses me most is how quickly the LHC operators are now able to turn the machine around between fills, and how well LHC running has been incorporated into the overall operation of CERN’s accelerator complex. The flexibility of the LHC was illustrated on Thursday when we started a short phase of running at 1.38 TeV per beam, equivalent to the energy-per-nucleon of a lead-ion run. This lower energy data will be used by the experiments, in particular by ALICE, to compare...

  4. Starting physiology: bioelectrogenesis.

    Baptista, Vander


    From a Cartesian perspective of rational analysis, the electric potential difference across the cell membrane is one of the fundamental concepts for the study of physiology. Unfortunately, undergraduate students often struggle to understand the genesis of this energy gradient, which makes the teaching activity a hard task for the instructor. The topic of bioelectrogenesis encompasses multidisciplinary concepts, involves several mechanisms, and is a dynamic process, i.e., it never turns off during the lifetime of the cell. Therefore, to improve the transmission and acquisition of knowledge in this field, I present an alternative didactic model. The design of the model assumes that it is possible to build, in a series of sequential steps, an assembly of proteins within the membrane of an isolated cell in a simulated electrophysiology experiment. Initially, no proteins are inserted in the membrane and the cell is at a baseline energy state; the extracellular and intracellular fluids are at thermodynamic equilibrium. Students are guided through a sequence of four steps that add key membrane transport proteins to the model cell. The model is simple at the start and becomes progressively more complex, finally producing transmembrane chemical and electrical gradients. I believe that this didactic approach helps instructors with a more efficient tool for the teaching of the mechanisms of resting membrane potential while helping students avoid common difficulties that may be encountered when learning this topic.

  5. ATLAS starts moving in

    Della Mussia, S


    The first large active detector component was lowered into the ATLAS cavern on 1st March. It consisted of the 8 modules forming the lower part of the central barrel of the tile hadronic calorimeter. The work of assembling the barrel, which comprises 64 modules, started the following day. Two road trailers each with 64 wheels, positioned side by side. This was the solution chosen to transport the lower part of the central barrel of ATLAS' tile hadronic calorimeter from Building 185 to the PX16 shaft at Point 1 (see Figure 1). The transportation, and then the installation of the component in the experimental cavern, which took place over three days were, to say the least, rather spectacular. On 25 February, the component, consisting of eight 6-metre modules, was loaded on to the trailers. The segment of the barrel was transported on a steel support so that it wouldn't move an inch during the journey. On 26 February, once all the necessary safety checks had been carried out, the convoy was able to leave Buildi...

  6. LEP dismantling starts


    Since the end of November, various teams have been getting stuck into dismantling the LEP accelerator and its four experiments. After making the installations safe, the dismantling and removal of 40,000 tonnes of equipment is underway. Down in the tunnel, it is a solemn moment. It is 10 o'clock on 13 December and Daniel Regin, one of those heading the dismantling work, moves in on a magnet, armed with a hydraulic machine. Surrounded by teams gathered there for a course in dismantling, he makes the first cut into LEP. The great deconstruction has begun. In little over than a year, the accelerator will have been cleared away to make room for its successor, the LHC. The start of the operation goes back to 27 November. Because before setting about the machine with hydraulic shears and monkey wrenches, LEP had first to be made safe - it was important to make sure the machine could be taken apart without risk. All the SPS beam injection systems to LEP were cut off. The fluids used for cooling the magnets and superc...

  7. Enalapril mitigates radiation-induced pneumonitis and pulmonary fibrosis if started 35 days after whole-thorax irradiation.

    Gao, Feng; Fish, Brian L; Moulder, John E; Jacobs, Elizabeth R; Medhora, Meetha


    Victims of a radiological attack or nuclear accident may receive high-dose, heterogeneous exposures from radiation to the chest that lead to lung damage. Our goal is to develop countermeasures to mitigate such injuries. We used WAG/RijCmcr rats receiving 13 Gy to the whole thorax to induce pulmonary fibrosis within 210 days. The angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor enalapril was evaluated as a mitigator of these injuries at two doses (18 and 36 mg/m(2)/day) and 8 schedules: starting at 7, 35, 70, 105 and 140 days and continuing to 210 days or starting at 7 days and stopping at 30, 60 or 90 days after whole-thorax irradiation. The earliest start date at 7 days after irradiation would provide an adequate window of time for triage and dosimetry. Survival after 35 days, as permitted by our Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC) was also recorded as a primary end point of pneumonitis. Pulmonary fibrosis was evaluated using the Sircol biochemical assay to measure lung collagen. Our results indicated that a short course of either dose of enalapril from 7-90 days improved survival. However, pulmonary fibrosis was only mitigated by the higher dose of enalapril (36 mg/m(2)/day). The latest effective start date for the drug was 35 days after irradiation. These results indicate that ACE inhibitors can be started at least a month after irradiation for mitigation of pneumonitis and/or pulmonary fibrosis.

  8. Rats

    Alexey Kondrashov


    Full Text Available We aimed to perform a chemical analysis of both Alibernet red wine and an alcohol-free Alibernet red wine extract (AWE and to investigate the effects of AWE on nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species production as well as blood pressure development in normotensive Wistar Kyoto (WKY and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs. Total antioxidant capacity together with total phenolic and selected mineral content was measured in wine and AWE. Young 6-week-old male WKY and SHR were treated with AWE (24,2 mg/kg/day for 3 weeks. Total NOS and SOD activities, eNOS and SOD1 protein expressions, and superoxide production were determined in the tissues. Both antioxidant capacity and phenolic content were significantly higher in AWE compared to wine. The AWE increased NOS activity in the left ventricle, aorta, and kidney of SHR, while it did not change NOS activity in WKY rats. Similarly, increased SOD activity in the plasma and left ventricle was observed in SHR only. There were no changes in eNOS and SOD1 expressions. In conclusion, phenolics and minerals included in AWE may contribute directly to increased NOS and SOD activities of SHR. Nevertheless, 3 weeks of AWE treatment failed to affect blood pressure of SHR.

  9. Starting a New Chapter

    Loza-Murguia Manuel G.


    Full Text Available In this new stage we want to improve the magazine to make it useful for readers, on the one hand we intend to maintain their accreditation project of the contents of the magazine and on the other hand, the boost in indexing websites popularity, who raise the visibility and therefore coverage to authors and readers who have honored us with their support and we receive frequent visits. Obviously all the works received will remain subject to internal assessment and peer review as usual. Your acceptance will be based on significance, originality and validity of the material presented. The journal is indexed by the time DIALNET. The half-yearly, from 2012 we intend to be a leader in information that is intended to finding solutions to the problems latent, on the other side seeks to raise awareness among professionals and researchers that the publication is a prerequisite to in order to will be clear what is being done as has research in the region. The Journal of the Selva Andina Research Society is a journal founded no more than two years, having failed to publish any number of this enormous amount of material in all this time. We are currently under evaluation by the SciELO Project, Bolivia and have the confidence to be meeting all the criteria that are required to be visible on the website of international prestige. We want to be a reference publication in the journal Public areas both in the international literature (particularly in Latin America and in Bolivia. As Director and Editor in Chief continued in front of it, I thank the Board of the Supreme Council on Science and Biotechnology Research Society Selva Andina renewed confidence in me during these early years, all the items they want be published should be sent to or Following the usual guidelines and rules are expressed in the publication. There is an Editorial Board comprised of leading national and international professional experts who

  10. Social capital of venture capitalists and start-up funding

    O.T. Alexy (Oliver); J.H. Block (Jörn); P.G. Sandner (Philipp); A.L.J. Ter Wal (Anne)


    textabstractHow does the social capital of venture capitalists (VCs) affect the funding of start-ups? By building on the rich social capital literature, we hypothesize a positive effect of VCs' social capital, derived from past syndication, on the amount of money that start-ups receive. Specifically

  11. From BookStart to BookSmart : about the importance of an early start with parent-child reading

    Berg, Heleen van den


    BookStart has been developed to enhance parent-child verbal interactions in early childhood by promoting book sharing. Parents receive a voucher for a baby book and free access to baby books in the library. In a large-scale research, we found that if parents complied with the BookStart suggestion to

  12. From BookStart to BookSmart : about the importance of an early start with parent-child reading

    Berg, Heleen van den


    BookStart has been developed to enhance parent-child verbal interactions in early childhood by promoting book sharing. Parents receive a voucher for a baby book and free access to baby books in the library. In a large-scale research, we found that if parents complied with the BookStart suggestion to

  13. Marketing start- upů

    Vatulya, Anna


    This diploma thesis is dedicated to marketing of start-ups and the most frequent mistakes they make in this field. The goal of this thesis is to propose recommendations for start-up founders which could help them avoid mistakes while building their business. The thesis is divided into three parts. The first part defines the concept of start-ups, explores their history and introduces the main issues start-ups have to deal with in the field of marketing. The second part contains interviews with...

  14. Developmental Computer Awareness: Responses of Head Start and Kindergarten Children.

    Galen, Harlene; And Others

    Kindergarten experimental group subjects and Head Start children received classroom instruction about and "hands-on" experiences with computers, while a kindergarten control group received the "hands-on" experiences only. During an initial classroom instructional phase, a mini-unit was employed to introduce 10 computer terms to…

  15. Chip Advancer For GPS Receiver

    Meehan, Thomas K.; Srinivasan, Jeffrey M.; Thomas, J. Brooks


    Instrument errors made negligible. For each integration interval, both delay and rate of change of delay initialized to small fraction of chip - for example, to order of 10 to the negative 7th power - thereby making feedback control and extraction of delay highly accurate and flexible. With appropriate selection of sampling rate relative to chip rate, commensurability errors reduced to extremely small levels. In Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver, pseudorandom code sequence generated by simple digital logic incorporating effects of time, delay, and rate of change of delay. Flexibility in starting time and sum interval very useful in aligning correlation interval with beginnings and endings of data bits.

  16. School Starting Age and Crime

    Landersø, Rasmus; Nielsen, Helena Skyt; Simonsen, Marianne

    This paper investigates the effects of school starting age on crime while relying on variation in school starting age induced by administrative rules; we exploit that Danish children typically start first grade in the calendar year they turn seven, which gives rise to a discontinuity in children’...... who benefit most from being old-for-grade are those with high latent abilities whereas those with low latent ability seem to be unaffected by being old-for-grade in school.......This paper investigates the effects of school starting age on crime while relying on variation in school starting age induced by administrative rules; we exploit that Danish children typically start first grade in the calendar year they turn seven, which gives rise to a discontinuity in children......’s school starting age. Analyses are carried out using register-based Danish data. We find that higher age at school start lowers the propensity to commit crime, but that this reduction is caused by incapacitation while human capital accumulation is unaffected. Importantly, we also find that the individuals...

  17. Kansas: Early Head Start Initiative

    Center for Law and Social Policy, Inc. (CLASP), 2012


    Kansas Early Head Start (KEHS) provides comprehensive services following federal Head Start Program Performance Standards for pregnant women and eligible families with children from birth to age 4. KEHS was implemented in 1998 using Child Care and Development Block Grant (CCDBG) quality set-aside dollars augmented by a transfer of federal…

  18. Treadmill exercise during pregnancy ameliorates post‑traumatic stress disorder‑induced anxiety‑like responses in maternal rats.

    Seo, Jin-Hee; Kim, Tae-Woon; Kim, Chang-Ju; Sung, Yun-Hee; Lee, Sam-Jun


    Post‑traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is an anxiety disorder triggered by life‑threatening events that cause intense fear. Exercise is known to have protective effects on neuropsychiatric diseases. The present study investigated whether treadmill exercise during pregnancy reduced or alleviated symptoms of PTSD in maternal rats. To induce predator stress in pregnant rats, rats were exposed to a hunting dog in an enclosed room. Exposure time was three 10‑min daily sessions separated by 1 h, starting at week 1 of pregnancy until delivery. Pregnant rats in the exercise group were forced to run on a treadmill for 30 min once a day, starting one week following pregnancy until delivery. Rats receiving predator stress during pregnancy exhibited PTSD anxiety‑like behaviors following delivery. Expression of 5‑hydroxytryptamine (5‑HT) and its synthesizing enzyme tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) in the dorsal raphe was increased compared with unstressed rats. Expression of c‑Fos and neuronal nitric oxide synthases (nNOS) in the hypothalamus and locus coeruleus were higher in the rats receiving stress during pregnancy compared with unstressed rats. By contrast, treadmill exercise during pregnancy ameliorated anxiety‑like behaviors and reduced the expression of 5‑HT, TPH, c‑Fos and nNOS in the PTSD maternal rats. The results of the present study indicate that exercise during pregnancy is suitable for use as a therapeutic strategy to reduce anxiety‑related disorders, including PTSD.

  19. The START III bargaining space

    Karas, T.H.


    The declining state of the Russian military and precarious Russian economic condition will give the US considerable advantages at the START III bargaining table. Taking the US-RF asymmetries into account, this paper discusses a menu of START III measures the US could ask for, and measures it could offer in return, in attempting to negotiate an equitable treaty. Measures the US might seek in a START III treaty include: further reductions in deployed strategic nuclear warheads, irreversibility of reductions through warhead dismantlement; beginning to bring theater nuclear weapons under mutual control, and increased transparency into the Russian nuclear weapons complex. The US may, however, wish to apply its bargaining advantages to attempting to achieve the first steps toward two long-range goals that would enhance US security: bringing theater nuclear weapons into the US-RF arms control arena, and increasing transparency into the Russian nuclear weapons complex. In exchange for measures relating to these objectives, the US might consider offering to Russia: Further strategic weapons reductions approaching levels at which the Russians believe they could maintain a degree of parity with the US; Measures to decrease the large disparities in potential deliver-system uploading capabilities that appear likely under current START II/START III scenarios; and Financial assistance in achieving START II/START III reductions as rapidly as is technically possible.

  20. GABA transporter 1 transcriptional starting site exhibiting tissue specific difference


    GABA transporter 1(GAT1)takes important roles in multiple physiological processes through the uptake and release of GABA,but the regulation of GAT1 gene expression in different tissues is rarely known.To address the question,first,5' Rapid amplification of cDNA end(RACE)was used to determine GAT1 transcriptional starting sites in neonatal mouse cerebral cortex and intestine,adult mouse brain and adult rat testis.The products of 5'RACE were confirmed by DNA sequencing.We found that the transcript of GAT1 in neonatal mouse cerebral cortex and adult mouse brain starts at the same site(inside of exon 1),while in mouse intestine,GAT1 starts transcription in intron 1,and in rat testis,the transcript of GAT1 has an additional untranslation exon to the 5' direction.

  1. Accountability Starts with the Superintendent

    Ricketts, Kenneth E.


    Describes how Lawndale District, near Los Angeles, developed a system of accountability starting with the superintendent. Describes the subgoals and objectives developed by the superintendent in cooperation with the Board of Trustees and members of the community. (JF)

  2. Montessori Head Start Implementation Brief.

    Clifford, Alcillia; Kahn, David


    Discusses the use of the Montessori method in Head Start programs, focusing on educational environment, teacher training, parent involvement, and funding. Outlines the phased implementation of a Montessori program and provides a list of Montessori publications and organizations. (MDM)

  3. Highly Sensitive Optical Receivers

    Schneider, Kerstin


    Highly Sensitive Optical Receivers primarily treats the circuit design of optical receivers with external photodiodes. Continuous-mode and burst-mode receivers are compared. The monograph first summarizes the basics of III/V photodetectors, transistor and noise models, bit-error rate, sensitivity and analog circuit design, thus enabling readers to understand the circuits described in the main part of the book. In order to cover the topic comprehensively, detailed descriptions of receivers for optical data communication in general and, in particular, optical burst-mode receivers in deep-sub-µm CMOS are presented. Numerous detailed and elaborate illustrations facilitate better understanding.

  4. Early L-dopa, but not pramipexole, restores basal ganglia activity in partially 6-OHDA-lesioned rats.

    Marin, C; Bonastre, M; Mengod, G; Cortés, R; Giralt, A; Obeso, J A; Schapira, A H


    The most appropriate time for the initiation of dopaminergic symptomatic therapy in Parkinson's disease remains debatable. It has been suggested that early correction of basal ganglia pathophysiological abnormalities may have long-term beneficial effects. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the early and delayed actions of L-dopa and pramipexole, using a delayed-start protocol of treatment. The effects of early and delayed administration of these drugs on motor response, development of dyskinesias, neurogenesis and molecular markers in basal ganglia were studied in rats with a unilateral and partial 6-hydroxydopamine-induced nigrostriatal lesion. Ten days after lesioning, rats received treatment with: a) L-dopa methyl ester (25mg/kg with 6.25mg/kg of benserazide, i.p., twice a day); b) pramipexole (0.5mg/kg, sc, twice a day) or c) saline for 4weeks. Four weeks after treatment initiation, rats from the saline group were distributed in three groups that then received the following treatments: d) L-dopa, e) pramipexole or f) saline, for 4weeks more. Three animals in each treatment arm received 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine injections (200mg/kg) 3days before starting treatment. When compared with delayed-start L-dopa, early-start L-dopa treatment induced a lower rotational response (ppramipexole, early-start pramipexole induced a higher rotational response (ppramipexole treatments. Our data support a possible restoration of basal ganglia physiological mechanisms by early-start L-dopa therapy.

  5. Start-up Funding via Equity Crowdfunding in Germany

    Angerer, Martin; Brem, Alexander; Kraus, Sascha


    Entrepreneurs often struggle to find sufficient funding for their start-ups. A relatively new way for companies to attract capital is via an internet platform, locating investors who in return receive something in return for their ventures. Equity crowdfunding is one of several types of crowdfund......Entrepreneurs often struggle to find sufficient funding for their start-ups. A relatively new way for companies to attract capital is via an internet platform, locating investors who in return receive something in return for their ventures. Equity crowdfunding is one of several types...... of crowdfunding, and is also known as crowdinvesting in the German-speaking realm. This article predominantly advances the scientific knowledge regarding the success factors of equity crowdfunding for German start-ups. The study conducted nine qualitative interviews with start-ups and crowdinvesting platforms...

  6. Low complexity MIMO receivers

    Bai, Lin; Yu, Quan


    Multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems can increase the spectral efficiency in wireless communications. However, the interference becomes the major drawback that leads to high computational complexity at both transmitter and receiver. In particular, the complexity of MIMO receivers can be prohibitively high. As an efficient mathematical tool to devise low complexity approaches that mitigate the interference in MIMO systems, lattice reduction (LR) has been widely studied and employed over the last decade. The co-authors of this book are world's leading experts on MIMO receivers, and here they share the key findings of their research over years. They detail a range of key techniques for receiver design as multiple transmitted and received signals are available. The authors first introduce the principle of signal detection and the LR in mathematical aspects. They then move on to discuss the use of LR in low complexity MIMO receiver design with respect to different aspects, including uncoded MIMO detection...

  7. Delphi Accounts Receivable Module -

    Department of Transportation — Delphi accounts receivable module contains the following data elements, but are not limited to customer information, cash receipts, line of accounting details, bill...

  8. Economic evaluation of urgent-start peritoneal dialysis versus urgent-start hemodialysis in the United States.

    Liu, Frank Xiaoqing; Ghaffari, Arshia; Dhatt, Harman; Kumar, Vijay; Balsera, Cristina; Wallace, Eric; Khairullah, Quresh; Lesher, Beth; Gao, Xin; Henderson, Heather; LaFleur, Paula; Delgado, Edna M; Alvarez, Melissa M; Hartley, Janett; McClernon, Marilyn; Walton, Surrey; Guest, Steven


    Patients presenting late in the course of kidney disease who require urgent initiation of dialysis have traditionally received temporary vascular catheters followed by hemodialysis. Recent changes in Medicare payment policy for dialysis in the USA incentivized the use of peritoneal dialysis (PD). Consequently, the use of more expeditious PD for late-presenting patients (urgent-start PD) has received new attention. Urgent-start PD has been shown to be safe and effective, and offers a mechanism for increasing PD utilization. However, there has been no assessment of the dialysis-related costs over the first 90 days of care. The objective of this study was to characterize the costs associated with urgent-start PD, urgent-start hemodialysis (HD), or a dual approach (urgent-start HD followed by urgent-start PD) over the first 90 days of treatment from a provider perspective. A survey of practitioners from 5 clinics known to use urgent-start PD was conducted to provide inputs for a cost model representing typical patients. Model inputs were obtained from the survey, literature review, and available cost data. Sensitivity analyses were also conducted. The estimated per patient cost over the first 90 days for urgent-start PD was $16,398. Dialysis access represented 15% of total costs, dialysis services 48%, and initial hospitalization 37%. For urgent-start HD, total per patient costs were $19,352, and dialysis access accounted for 27%, dialysis services 42%, and initial hospitalization 31%. The estimated cost for dual patients was $19,400. Urgent-start PD may offer a cost saving approach for the initiation of dialysis in eligible patients requiring an urgent-start to dialysis.

  9. Double Star Mission Starts Countdown


    @@ As of July, scientists at the CAS Center for Space Science and Applied Research (CSSAR) have been busy modulating and testing the payloads that will be onboard a space exploration satellite, marking the start of the countdown for China's Double Star Project.

  10. Sulfur plant start-up

    Hudson, Hank; Grigson, Susan [Ortloff Engineers Ltd. (United States)


    The authors discuss an Ortloff sulfur plant design concept using the Claus reaction that differs from accepted 'industry practice': cold reactor bed start-up. The process is designed to eliminate catalyst sulfation, heat damage and furnace overheating in sulfur recovery units. (UK)

  11. Oral Administration of Interferon Tau Enhances Oxidation of Energy Substrates and Reduces Adiposity in Zucker Diabetic Fatty Rats

    Tekwe, Carmen D.; Lei, Jian; Yao, Kang; Rezaei, Reza; Li, Xilong; Dahanayaka, Sudath; Carroll, Raymond J.; Meininger, Cynthia J.; Bazer, Fuller W.; Wu, Guoyao


    Male Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats were used to study effects of oral administration of interferon tau (IFNT) in reducing obesity. Eighteen ZDF rats (28 days of age) were assigned randomly to receive 0, 4 or 8 μg IFNT/kg body weight (BW) per day (n=6/group) for 8 weeks. Water consumption was measured every two days. Food intake and BW were recorded weekly. Energy expenditure in 4-, 6-, 8-, and 10-week-old rats was determined using indirect calorimetry. Starting at 7 weeks of age, urinary g...

  12. Analysis of equivalent dose (H) starting from the exposition (X) received for patient families in myocardial perfusion study with {sup 99m}Tc-Sestamibi; Analisis de dosis equivalente (H) a partir de la exposicion (X) recibida por familiares de pacientes en estudio de perfusion miocardica con {sup 99m}Tc-Sestamibi

    Martinez H, I.; Vazquez E, R.; Jimenez A, L., E-mail: [Instituto Nacional de Cardiologia Ignacio Chavez, Departamento de Cardiologia Nuclear, Juan Badiano No. 1, Colonia Seccion XVI, 14080 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)


    The myocardial perfusion study with {sup 99m}Tc-Sestamibi has the major indication frequency for the coronary arterial illness diagnostic, due to its high sensibility and specificity. The patient families that are exposed to this study also receive the radiation of the injected radiopharmaceutical. The punctual source model (Psm) is generally used for the absorbed dose calculation of the radiation coming from patients under any procedure with radiopharmaceuticals. The objective of this study was to compare the equivalent doses calculated theoretically (Dat) by means of Psm, regarding the measurements that routinely are made by means of a detector Geiger (Dam), as well as to quantify the maxim equivalent dose to which they are exposed the families of the subjected patients to this procedure. 30 voluntary patients were evaluated with clinical indication for myocardial perfusion study with {sup 99m}Tc-Sestamibi with acquisition protocol of 1 day: Rest-effort, with dose of 15-30 mCi (555-1110 mBq) respectively. Immediate to each injection of {sup 99m}Tc-Sestamibi was calculated the Dat, using the equation that the Psm describes, considering a distance of 1 meter; and the exposition speed was measured by means of a detector Geiger at a distance 1 meter to the heart height. The measurements comparison (Dat vs Dam) was realized by means of the test statistical t-student for independent samples, considering a significance level p{<=}0.05. For the data of the second injection, was realized a regression analysis to evaluate the lineal correlation among both measurements. Immediately after the injection of 15 mCi (555 mBq) of {sup 99m}Tc-Sestamibi, the values of the Dam (1.37{+-}0.43 mrem, 13.7{+-}4.3 {mu}Sv) they differ significantly of the Dat (1.04 mrem, p<0.05) (10.4 {mu}Sv). The second injection of 30 mCi (1110 mBq) of {sup 99m}Tc-Sestamibi was carried out in an average time of 2.57{+-}0.02 hr, having the patients group a calculated initial activity of 11.14{+-}0.76 m

  13. Biomechanics of the sprint start.

    Harland, M J; Steele, J R


    Many variables have been studied pertaining to the block sprint start. Research suggests that the adoption of a medium block spacing is preferred, with front and rear knee angles in the set position approximating 90 and 130 degrees, respectively, with the hips held moderately high. The sprinter must be capable of developing a high force rate combined with a high maximum force, especially in the horizontal direction. This ability to create high force underlies other important indicators of starting performance such as minimum block clearance time, maximum block leaving velocity and maximum block leaving acceleration. Once the sprinter has projected him/herself from the blocks at a low angle (40 to 45 degrees) relative to the ground, the following 2 post-block steps should occur with the total body centre of gravity ahead of the contacting foot at foot strike to minimise potential horizontal braking forces.

  14. Getting started with Twitter Flight

    Hamshere, Tom


    Getting Started with Twitter Flight is written with the intention to educate the readers, helping them learn how to build modular powerful applications with Flight, Twitter's cutting-edge JavaScript framework.This book is for anyone with a foundation in JavaScript who wants to build web applications. Flight is quick and easy to learn, built on technologies you already understand such as the DOM, events, and jQuery.

  15. Getting started with Drupal commerce

    Jones, Richard


    A simple yet concise step-by-step tutorial that starts from scratch and builds up your knowledge with focused examples that will enable you to set up and run an e-commerce website.This book is for beginners and will take you through the installation and configuration of Drupal Commerce from scratch, but some familiarity with Drupal 7 will be an advantage. All examples are based on development on a local computer - you do not need a hosted Drupal environment.

  16. Manipulations of Start and Food Locations Affect Navigation on a Foraging Task

    Martin, Gerard M.; Pirzada, Ashar; Bridger, Alexander; Tomlin, Julian; Thorpe, Christina M.; Skinner, Darlene M.


    Rats were able to search multiple food cups in a foraging task and successfully return to a fixed, but not a variable, start location. Reducing the number of food cups to be searched resulted in an improvement in performance in the variable start condition. Performance was better when only one or two food cups had to be visited but was still…

  17. Characteristics Contributing to High-Technology Start-Up Success

    Goslin, L.; Brown, W.; Palm, T.


    The factors contributing to the success of high technology start-up firms have received much discussion in current business literature. The discussion of the characteristics of success has been based on increasing substantiation by empirical research. The available information suggests that the p...

  18. Formula Feeding FAQs: Starting Solids and Milk

    ... Year-Old Formula Feeding FAQs: Starting Solids and Milk KidsHealth > For Parents > Formula Feeding FAQs: Starting Solids ... When can I start giving my baby cow's milk? Before their first birthday, babies still need the ...

  19. Wideband CMOS receivers

    Oliveira, Luis


    This book demonstrates how to design a wideband receiver operating in current mode, in which the noise and non-linearity are reduced, implemented in a low cost single chip, using standard CMOS technology.  The authors present a solution to remove the transimpedance amplifier (TIA) block and connect directly the mixer’s output to a passive second-order continuous-time Σ∆ analog to digital converter (ADC), which operates in current-mode. These techniques enable the reduction of area, power consumption, and cost in modern CMOS receivers.

  20. New Start,New Opportunity


    Daniel Arbenz was bom and educated in Switzerland. In 1978, he entered the hotel indastry as a chef and worked his way up through all segments of the business. After graduating from the famous Swiss Hotel Management School in Luceme and obtaining management exposure in the finest hotels in Switzerland, he moved to Hong Kong in 1989, starting his career in Asia. Arbenz moved to Singapore, then to Bali, for Resort Hotels and has been with the Intercontinental Hotels Group for almost 10 years in general man...

  1. Getting Started with Hibernate 3

    Elliott, James


    Hibernate has clearly arrived. Are you ready to benefit from its simple way of working with relational databases as Java objects? This PDF updates the introductory material from the award-winning Hibernate: A Developer's Notebook to teach you how to jump right in and get productive with the current release of Hibernate. You'll be walked through the ins and outs of setting up Hibernate and some related tools that make it easier to use--and that may give you new ideas about how to store information in your Java programs. In short, this PDF gives you exactly the information you need to start u

  2. Getting started With Amazon Redshift

    Bauer, Stefan


    Getting Started With Amazon Redshift is a step-by-step, practical guide to the world of Redshift. Learn to load, manage, and query data on Redshift.This book is for CIOs, enterprise architects, developers, and anyone else who needs to get familiar with RedShift. The CIO will gain an understanding of what their technical staff is working on; the technical implementation personnel will get an in-depth view of the technology, and what it will take to implement their own solutions.

  3. Getting started with electronic mail.

    Van Vuren, D D; Johnson, D E


    This paper gives suggestions to librarians on how to get started with electronic mail. It discusses the cost- and time-saving advantages of using electronic mail rather than TWX, United States mail, or telephones for communicating ILL requests and messages. For instance, preliminary cost data show that electronic mail is often half as expensive as TWX and costs no more than a 22 stamp. Key management concerns that must be considered when setting up electronic mail are discussed, including the need for subscribers to agree on one system. Also covered are the types of equipment that can be used with electronic mail, including print terminals. PMID:4027444

  4. Neuroprotective effect of cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation in a rat stroke model.

    Notturno, Francesca; Pace, Marta; Zappasodi, Filippo; Cam, Etrugul; Bassetti, Claudio L; Uncini, Antonino


    Experimental focal brain ischemia generates in the penumbra recurrent depolarizations which spread across the injured cortex inducing infarct growth. Transcranial direct current stimulation can induce a lasting, polarity-specific, modulation of cortical excitability. To verify whether cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation could reduce the infarct size and the number of depolarizations, focal ischemia was induced in the rat by the 3 vessels occlusion technique. In the first experiment 12 ischemic rats received cathodal stimulation (alternating 15 min on and 15 min off) starting 45 min after middle cerebral artery occlusion and lasting 4 h. In the second experiment 12 ischemic rats received cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation with the same protocol but starting soon after middle cerebral artery occlusion and lasting 6 h. In both experiments controls were 12 ischemic rats not receiving stimulation. Cathodal stimulation reduced the infarct volume in the first experiment by 20% (p=0.002) and in the second by 30% (p=0.003). The area of cerebral infarction was smaller in animals receiving cathodal stimulation in both experiments (p=0.005). Cathodal stimulation reduced the number of depolarizations (p=0.023) and infarct volume correlated with the number of depolarizations (p=0.048). Our findings indicate that cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation exert a neuroprotective effect in the acute phase of stroke possibly decreasing the number of spreading depolarizations. These findings may have translational relevance and open a new avenue in neuroprotection of stroke in humans.

  5. Start-up Funding via Equity Crowdfunding in Germany

    Angerer, Martin; Brem, Alexander; Kraus, Sascha


    Entrepreneurs often struggle to find sufficient funding for their start-ups. A relatively new way for companies to attract capital is via an internet platform, locating investors who in return receive something in return for their ventures. Equity crowdfunding is one of several types...... of crowdfunding, and is also known as crowdinvesting in the German-speaking realm. This article predominantly advances the scientific knowledge regarding the success factors of equity crowdfunding for German start-ups. The study conducted nine qualitative interviews with start-ups and crowdinvesting platforms....... Its first result is that German start-ups select crowdinvesting because (1) it is a funding opportunity and (2) it has an expected marketing effect. To organize the results of relevant success factors, the Crowdinvesting Success Model was designed by the researchers. This supports German entrepreneurs...

  6. Inhibition of thromboxane synthesis attenuates insulin hypertension in rats.

    Keen, H L; Brands, M W; Smith, M J; Shek, E W; Hall, J E


    Chronic insulin infusion in rats increases mean arterial pressure (MAP) and reduces glomerular filtration rate (GFR), but the mechanisms for these actions are not known. This study tested whether thromboxane synthesis inhibition (TSI) would attenuate the renal and blood pressure responses to sustained hyperinsulinemia. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were instrumented with arterial and venous catheters, and MAP was measured 24 h/day. After 4 days of baseline measurements, endogenous synthesis of thromboxane was suppressed in 7 rats by infusing the thromboxane synthetase inhibitor, U63557A, intravenously (30 microg/kg/min) for the remainder of the experiment; 7 other rats received vehicle. Baseline MAP was not significantly different between vehicle and TSI rats (96 +/- 1 v 99 +/- 1 mm Hg). After 3 days of U63557A or vehicle, a 5-day control period was started, followed by a 7-day infusion of insulin (1.5 mU/kg/min, intravenously). Glucose (22 mg/kg/min, intravenously) was infused along with insulin to prevent hypoglycemia. In the control period, MAP was not different between vehicle and TSI rats (99 +/- 2 v 100 +/- 1 mm Hg), but MAP increased throughout the 7-day infusion period only in the vehicle rats with an average increase in blood pressure of 7 +/- 2 mm Hg. In the control period, GFR was lower in vehicle rats compared with TSI rats (2.5 +/- 0.1 v 3.1 +/- 0.2 mL/min, P = .06), and the decrease to 81% +/- 4% and 91% +/- 6% of control, respectively, during insulin was significant only in the vehicle rats. All variables returned toward control during a 6-day recovery period. These results suggest that full expression of hypertension and renal vasoconstriction during hyperinsulinemia in rats is dependent on a normal ability to synthesize thromboxane.

  7. Zero-power receiver

    Brocato, Robert W.


    An unpowered signal receiver and a method for signal reception detects and responds to very weak signals using pyroelectric devices as impedance transformers and/or demodulators. In some embodiments, surface acoustic wave devices (SAW) are also used. Illustrative embodiments include satellite and long distance terrestrial communications applications.

  8. Sender-Receiver Games

    Peeters, R.J.A.P.; Potters, J.A.M.


    Standard game-theoretic solution concepts do not guarantee meaningful commu- nication in cheap-talk games. In this paper, we define a solution concept which guarantees communication for a large class of games by designing a behavior pro- tocol which the receiver uses to judge messages sent by the

  9. The start of the harvest


    The first major particle physics summer conference has just started this week in Grenoble. After the Quark-Matter conference, the Europhysics Conference on High-Energy Physics marks the start of a promising harvest for the LHC experiments.   For the first time, the collaborations will be presenting their latest results based on all luminosity taken until end of June, which will provide more precise measurements in many areas. Thanks to the excellent performance of the LHC, the experiments have already accumulated a substantial quantity of data allowing them to push back the known limits and refine measurements in many fields ranging from b physics to the search for the Higgs boson and for dark matter. At the time of writing, the LHC collaborations are about to present these new results in an energy range which has never previously been explored. I have congratulated all the teams involved in getting the LHC into operation in record time with great efficiency. Today I would like to acknowledge the...

  10. Counterrotator And Correlator For GPS Receivers

    Thomas, J. Brooks; Srinivasan, Jeffrey M.; Meehan, Thomas K.


    Accurate, all-digital, high-speed processor comprising correlator and down-converter developed for receivers in Global Positioning System (GPS). Processor reduces roundoff and commensurability errors to extremely small values. Use of digital chip and phase advancers provides outstanding control and accuracy in phase and feedback. Great flexibility imparted by provision for arbitrary starting time and integration length. Minimum-bit design requires minimum number of logical elements, thereby reducing size, power, and cost.

  11. 30 CFR 75.1913 - Starting aids.


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Starting aids. 75.1913 Section 75.1913 Mineral... SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Diesel-Powered Equipment § 75.1913 Starting aids. (a) Volatile fuel starting aids shall be used in accordance with recommendations provided by the starting...

  12. Ingredients: where pet food starts.

    Thompson, Angele


    Every clinician is asked "What should I feed my pet?" Understanding the ingredients in pet food is an important part of making the best recommendation. Pet food can be as simple as one ingredient or as complicated as containing more than 60 ingredients. Pet food and its ingredients are regulated by the Food and Drug Administration and state feed officials. Part of that regulation is the review and definition of ingredients. Existing ingredients change and new ingredients become available so the need for ingredient definitions grows. Ingredients for product formulations are chosen based on their nutrient content, digestibility, palatability, functionality, availability, and cost. As an example, a typical, nutritionally complete dry dog food with 42 ingredients is examined and the ingredients are discussed here. Safe, healthy pet food starts with safe ingredients sourced from well-monitored suppliers. The ultimate goal of both veterinarians and pet food manufacturers is the same--long healthy lives for dogs and cats.

  13. l-Leucine Supplementation Worsens the Adiposity of Already Obese Rats by Promoting a Hypothalamic Pattern of Gene Expression that Favors Fat Accumulation

    Thais T. Zampieri


    Full Text Available Several studies showed that l-leucine supplementation reduces adiposity when provided before the onset of obesity. We studied rats that were exposed to a high-fat diet (HFD for 10 weeks before they started to receive l-leucine supplementation. Fat mass was increased in l-leucine-supplemented rats consuming the HFD. Accordingly, l-leucine produced a hypothalamic pattern of gene expression that favors fat accumulation. In conclusion, l-leucine supplementation worsened the adiposity of rats previously exposed to HFD possibly by central mechanisms.

  14. Digital Receiver Phase Meter

    Marcin, Martin; Abramovici, Alexander


    The software of a commercially available digital radio receiver has been modified to make the receiver function as a two-channel low-noise phase meter. This phase meter is a prototype in the continuing development of a phase meter for a system in which radiofrequency (RF) signals in the two channels would be outputs of a spaceborne heterodyne laser interferometer for detecting gravitational waves. The frequencies of the signals could include a common Doppler-shift component of as much as 15 MHz. The phase meter is required to measure the relative phases of the signals in the two channels at a sampling rate of 10 Hz at a root power spectral density digital receiver. The input RF signal is first fed to the input terminal of an analog-to-digital converter (ADC). To prevent aliasing errors in the ADC, the sampling rate must be at least twice the input signal frequency. The sampling rate of the ADC is governed by a sampling clock, which also drives a digital local oscillator (DLO), which is a direct digital frequency synthesizer. The DLO produces samples of sine and cosine signals at a programmed tuning frequency. The sine and cosine samples are mixed with (that is, multiplied by) the samples from the ADC, then low-pass filtered to obtain in-phase (I) and quadrature (Q) signal components. A digital signal processor (DSP) computes the ratio between the Q and I components, computes the phase of the RF signal (relative to that of the DLO signal) as the arctangent of this ratio, and then averages successive such phase values over a time interval specified by the user.

  15. Pressure difference receiving ears

    Michelsen, Axel; Larsen, Ole Næsbye


    of such pressure difference receiving ears have been hampered by lack of suitable experimental methods. In this review, we review the methods for collecting reliable data on the binaural directional cues at the eardrums, on how the eardrum vibrations depend on the direction of sound incidence, and on how sound...... waves behave in the air spaces leading to the interior surfaces of eardrums. A linear mathematical model with well-defined inputs is used for exploring how the directionality varies with the binaural directional cues and the amplitude and phase gain of the sound pathway to the inner surface...

  16. Prevention of 3-methylcholanthrene-induced fibrosarcomas in rats pre-inoculated with endogenous rat retrovirus.

    Fish, D C; Demarais, J T; Djurickovic, D B; Huebner, R J


    Weanling Fischer 344 rats received a single intraperitoneal injection of a 1000-fold concentrated preparation of endogenous nontransforming rat retrovirus. Ten days later, the rats were each given a single subcutaneous injection of 3-methylcholanthrene. The rats inoculated with the endogenous rat retrovirus were significantly protected against the development of cancer, whereas uninoculated rats and rats given one of several murine retroviruses or baboon retrovirus were not protected.

  17. Phenolic extract of Parkia biglobosa fruit pulp stalls aflatoxin B1 – mediated oxidative rout in the liver of male rats

    Taofeek O. Ajiboye


    Full Text Available The effect of phenolic extract of Parkia biglobosa (Jacq. R. Br. ex G. Don, Fabaceae, pulp on aflatoxin B1 induced oxidative imbalance in rat liver was evaluated. Thirty-five male rats were randomized into seven groups of five animals each. Rats in group A served as control and received vehicle for drug administration (0.5% DMSO once daily at 24 h intervals for six weeks. Rats in groups B, D, E, F and G, received aflatoxin B1 (167 μg/kg body weight in 0.5% DMSO for three weeks, starting from the third week of the experimental period. Rats in Group C received 400 mg/kg bodyweight of the extract for six weeks, while groups D, E and F rats were treated with 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg bodyweight of the extract for six weeks respectively. Group G rats received 100 mg/kg body weight of vitamin C. Aflatoxin B1-mediated decrease in the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase were significantly attenuated. Aflatoxin B1 mediated the elevation in malondialdehyde, conjugated dienes, lipid hydroperoxides, protein carbonyl, and significantly lowered DNA fragmentation percentage. Overall, the phenolic extract of P. biglobosa pulp stalls aflatoxin B1-mediated oxidative rout by enhancing antioxidant enzyme activities leading to decreased lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation and DNA fragmentation.

  18. Clinical trials on AIDS start.

    A 6-month clinical trial in the Philippines sought to determine the efficacy of coconut oil and of "monolaurin," a coconut oil byproduct, in killing HIV by breaking down its coating. This research is based on the theory that medium-chain fatty acids, like monolaurin, can have this effect on certain viruses. The trial involves 12 women and 3 men in the early stage of HIV infection. 10 patients will take different doses of monolaurin, and 5 will consume coconut oil. It is hypothesized that the regimen will lead to higher CD4 counts and a lower viral load. The trial was almost abandoned because it received only lukewarm approval from the Health Secretary.

  19. Cultured human embryonic neocortical cells survive and grow in infarcted cavities of adult rat brains and interconnect with host brain

    ZENG Jin-sheng; YU Jian; CUI Chun-mei; ZHAO Zhan; HONG Hua; SHENG Wen-li; TAO Yu-qian; LI Ling; HUANG Ru-xun


    Background There are no reports on exnografting cultured human fetal neocortical cells in this infracted cavities of adult rat brains. This study was undertaken to observe whether cultured human cortical neurons and astrocytes can survive and grow in the infarcted cavities of adult rat brains and whether they interconnect with host brains.Methods The right middle cerebral artery was ligated distal to the striatal branches in 16 adult stroke-prone renovascular hypertensive rats. One week later, cultured cells from human embryonic cerebral cortexes were stereotaxically transferred to the infarcted cavity of 11 rats. The other 5 rats receiving sham transplants served as controls. For immunosuppression, all transplanted rats received intraperitoneal injection of cyclosporine A daily starting on the day of grafting. Immunohistochemistry for glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), synaptophysin, neurofilament, and microtubule associated protein-2 (MAP-2) was performed on brain sections perfused in situ 8 weeks after transplantation.Results Grafts in the infarcted cavities of 6 of 10 surviving rats consisted of bands of neurons with an immature appearance, bundles of fibers, and GFAP-immunopositive astrocytes, which were unevenly distributed. The grafts were rich in synaptophysin, neurofilament, and MAP2-positive neurons with long processes. The graft/host border was diffuse with dendrites apparently bridging over to the host brain, into which neurofilament immunopositive fibers protruded. Conclusion Cultured human fetal brain cells can survive and grow in the infarcted cavities of immunodepressed rats and integrate with the host brain.

  20. Increased survival in men with metastatic prostate cancer receiving chemo and hormone therapy

    Men with hormone-sensitive metastatic prostate cancer who received the chemotherapy drug docetaxel given at the start of standard hormone therapy lived longer than patients who received hormone therapy alone, according to early results from a NIH-supporte

  1. Rehabilitation starts in the intensive care unit.

    Rozeboom, Nathan; Parenteau, Kathy; Carratturo, Daniel


    Each year between 10 000 and 12 000 spinal cord injuries occur in the United States. Once injured, many of these patients will receive a portion of their care in an intensive care unit (ICU), where their treatment will begin. Harborview Medical Center in Seattle, Washington, provides comprehensive care to approximately 60 to 70 cervical spinal cord injuries each year. Because of many factors such as hemodynamic instability, pulmonary complications, and risk of infection, patients with cervical spinal cord injuries can spend up to 2 or more weeks in the ICU before they transfer to a rehabilitation unit. To achieve optimal outcomes, it is imperative that members of the interdisciplinary team work together in a consistent, goal-oriented, collaborative manner. This team includes physicians, nurses, respiratory therapists, physical and occupational therapists, speech pathologists, dieticians, and rehabilitation psychologists. An individual plan is developed for each patient and rehabilitation starts in the ICU as soon as the patient is medically stable. This article will highlight the management strategies used in the neuroscience ICU at Harborview Medical Center and will include a case study as an example of the typical experience for our patients with high cervical cord injury.

  2. Preschool Facilities - MDC_HeadStart

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — A label (point) feature class of Head Start / Early Head Start/ Delegate Agencies/ Child Care Partnership & Family Day Care Homes Programs location in Miami-Dade...

  3. Tingzikou key water control project started construction


    Tingzikou key water control project on Jialing River, one of 18 newly started key projects in 2009 for China's western part development program, formally started construction at the end of November last year.

  4. Revenue Maximizing Head Starts in Contests

    Franke, Jörg; Leininger, Wolfgang; Wasser, Cédric


    We characterize revenue maximizing head starts for all-pay auctions and lottery contests with many heterogeneous players. We show that under optimal head starts all-pay auctions revenue-dominate lottery contests for any degree of heterogeneity among players. Moreover, all-pay auctions with optimal head starts induce higher revenue than any multiplicatively biased all-pay auction or lottery contest. While head starts are more effective than multiplicative biases in all-pay auctions, they are l...

  5. Taenia taeniaeformis: inhibition of metacestode development in the rat by gossypol.

    Rikihisa, Y; Lin, Y C


    The effect of gossypol, a polyphenolic compound, on developing Taenia taeniaeformis larvae in the rat liver was examined. Five groups of rats were used. In group 1, subcutaneous injection of gossypol at 10 mg/kg was started 5 days prior to administration of tapeworm eggs. In group 2, gossypol injections were started 5 days after administration of eggs. Groups 3 and 4 were infected and noninfected rats, respectively, which received the vehicle (10% ethyl alcohol in 0.85% NaCl) only. Group 5 rats were noninfected but received gossypol. From each group, 5 rats were killed on days 7, 12, and 22 of infection, respectively. The number and size of larvae and the size of the livers were much less in rats gossypol injected 5 days before infection than those in the vehicle-treated group. Administration of gossypol 5 days after infection resulted in less inhibition. The size and the thickness of the fibrous capsule around larvae of the gossypol-treated rats were much smaller than those of the control-infected group. The actively developing larvae excrete or secrete a sulfated glycosaminoglycan which is specifically stained with alcian blue. There was much more alcian blue-positive substance around the larvae and the capsule of the control-infected liver compared to the gossypol-treated infected animal. The percentage body weight of the spleen was significantly greater in the gossypol-treated rats in both infected and noninfected groups. These results suggest that gossypol may directly inhibit tapeworm larval development or that elimination of the tapeworm may be resulted from gossypol-induced stimulation of host cell-mediated immunity.

  6. CERN apprentice receives award


    Another CERN apprentice has received an award for the quality of his work. Stéphane Küng (centre), at the UIG ceremony last November, presided over by Geneva State Councillor Pierre-François Unger, Head of the Department of Economics and Health. Electronics technician Stéphane Küng was honoured in November by the Social Foundation of the Union Industrielle Genevoise (UIG) as one of Geneva’s eight best apprentices in the field of mechatronics. The 20-year-old Genevan obtained his Federal apprentice’s certificate (Certificat fédéral de capacité - CFC) in June 2007, achieving excellent marks in his written tests at the Centre d’Enseignement Professionnel Technique et Artisanal (CEPTA). Like more than 200 youngsters before him, Stéphane Küng spent part of his four-year sandwich course working at CERN, where he followed many practical training courses and gained valuable hands-on experience in various technical groups and labs. "It’ always very gr...

  7. Transient simulation of molten salt central receiver

    Doupis, Dimitri; Wang, Chuan; Carcorze-Soto, Jorge; Chen, Yen-Ming; Maggi, Andrea; Losito, Matteo; Clark, Michael


    Alstom is developing concentrated solar power (CSP) utilizing 60/40wt% NaNO3-KNO3 molten salt as the working fluid in a tower receiver for the global renewable energy market. In the CSP power generation cycle, receivers undergo a daily cyclic operation due to the transient nature of solar energy. Development of robust and efficient start-up and shut-down procedures is critical to avoiding component failures due to mechanical fatigue resulting from thermal transients, thus maintaining the performance and availability of the CSP plant. The Molten Salt Central Receiver (MSCR) is subject to thermal transients during normal daily operation, a cycle that includes warmup, filling, operation, draining, and shutdown. This paper describes a study to leverage dynamic simulation and finite element analysis (FEA) in development of start-up, shutdown, and transient operation concepts for the MSCR. The results of the FEA also verify the robustness of the MSCR design to the thermal transients anticipated during the operation of the plant.



    In this paper, with the starting velocity experiments of natural cohesive sedimentation, the author proposes an assumption concerning the starting mechanism of cohesive sedimentation and gives a formula to determine the starting velocity of compact clay. It is pointed out that the fluctuating function of flow is a main factor for the starting of sedimentation. And the component and the structure of cohesive sedimentation are also the affecting factors for the starting. Consequently, the study shows that modern results of soil mechanics, clay mineralogy and fluid mechanics are helpful in the investigation of this kind of engineering problem.

  9. Hypertension after bilateral kidney irradiation in young and adult rats

    Jongejan, H.T.; van der Kogel, A.J.; Provoost, A.P.; Molenaar, J.C.


    The mechanism of a rise in blood pressure after kidney irradiation is unclear but most likely of renal origin. We have investigated the role of the renin-angiotensin system and dietary salt restriction in the development of systolic hypertension after bilateral kidney irradiation in young and adult rats. Three to 12 months after a single X-ray dose of 7.5 or 12.5 Gy to both kidneys of young and adult rats, the systolic blood pressure (SBP) and plasma renin concentration (PRC) were measured regularly. A single X-ray dose of 12.5 Gy caused a moderate rise in SBP and a slight reduction in PRC in both young and adult rats. A dose of 7.5 Gy did not significantly alter the SBP or PRC during the follow-up period of 1 year. In a second experiment, the kidneys of young rats received an X-ray dose of 20 Gy. Subsequently, rats were kept on a standard diet (110 mmol sodium/kg) or a sodium-poor diet (10 mmol sodium/kg). On both diets, SBP started to rise rapidly 3 months after kidney irradiation. Sodium balance studies carried out at that time revealed an increased sodium retention in the irradiated rats compared to controls on the same diet. In rats on a low sodium intake, there was neither a delay nor an alleviation in the development of hypertension. Compared to controls, the PRC tended to be lower in irradiated rats up to 4 months after irradiation. Subsequently, malignant hypertension developed in all 20 Gy rats, resulting in pressure natriuresis, stimulating the renin-angiotensin system. Our findings indicated that hypertension after bilateral kidney irradiation was not primarily the result of an activation of the renin-angiotensin system. Although there were some indications that sodium retention played a role, dietary sodium restriction did not influence the development of hypertension.

  10. Glutamate and CO2 production from glutamine in incubated enterocytes of adult and very old rats.

    Meynial-Denis, Dominique; Bielicki, Guy; Beaufrère, Anne-Marie; Mignon, Michelle; Mirand, Philippe Patureau; Renou, Jean-Pierre


    Glutamine is the major fuel for enterocytes and promotes the growth of intestinal mucosa. Although oral glutamine exerts a positive effect on intestinal villus height in very old rats, how glutamine is used by enterocytes is unclear. Adult (8 months) and very old (27 months) female rats were exposed to intermittent glutamine supplementation for 50% of their age lifetime. Treated rats received glutamine added to their drinking water, and control rats received water alone. Jejunal epithelial cells (~300×10(6) cells) were incubated in oxygenated Krebs-Henseleit buffer for 30 min containing [1-(13)C] glutamine (~17 M) for analysis of glutamine metabolites by (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance ((13)C NMR). An aliquot fraction was incubated in the presence of [U-(14)C] glutamine to measure produced CO2. Glutamine pretreatment increased glutamate production and decreased CO2 production in very old rats. The ratio CO2/glutamate, which was very high in control very old rats, was similar at both ages after glutamine pretreatment, as if enterocytes from very old rats recovered the metabolic abilities of enterocytes from adult rats. Our results suggest that long-term treatment with glutamine started before advanced age (a) prevented the loss of rat body weight without limiting sarcopenia and (b) had a beneficial effect on enterocytes from very old rats probably by favoring the role of glutamate as a precursor for glutathione, arginine and proline biosynthesis, which was not detected in (13)C NMR spectra in our experimental conditions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. TrustRank: a Cold-Start tolerant recommender system

    Zou, Haitao; Gong, Zhiguo; Zhang, Nan; Zhao, Wei; Guo, Jingzhi


    The explosive growth of the World Wide Web leads to the fast advancing development of e-commerce techniques. Recommender systems, which use personalised information filtering techniques to generate a set of items suitable to a given user, have received considerable attention. User- and item-based algorithms are two popular techniques for the design of recommender systems. These two algorithms are known to have Cold-Start problems, i.e., they are unable to effectively handle Cold-Start users who have an extremely limited number of purchase records. In this paper, we develop TrustRank, a novel recommender system which handles the Cold-Start problem by leveraging the user-trust networks which are commonly available for e-commerce applications. A user-trust network is formed by friendships or trust relationships that users specify among them. While it is straightforward to conjecture that a user-trust network is helpful for improving the accuracy of recommendations, a key challenge for using user-trust network to facilitate Cold-Start users is that these users also tend to have a very limited number of trust relationships. To address this challenge, we propose a pre-processing propagation of the Cold-Start users' trust network. In particular, by applying the personalised PageRank algorithm, we expand the friends of a given user to include others with similar purchase records to his/her original friends. To make this propagation algorithm scalable to a large amount of users, as required by real-world recommender systems, we devise an iterative computation algorithm of the original personalised TrustRank which can incrementally compute trust vectors for Cold-Start users. We conduct extensive experiments to demonstrate the consistently improvement provided by our proposed algorithm over the existing recommender algorithms on the accuracy of recommendations for Cold-Start users.

  12. An experimental model of acute encephalopathy after total body irradiation in the rat: effect of Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb 761); Effet de l'extrait de Ginkgo biloba (EGb 761) chez le rat sur un modele experimental d'encephalopathie aigue apres irradiation corporelle totale

    Lamproglou, I.; Bok, B. [Hopital Bichat, 75 - Paris (France); Boisserie, G.; Mazeron, J.J.; Baillet, F. [Hopital Pitie-Salpetriere, 75 - Paris (France); Drieu, K. [IHB-IPSEN, 75 - Paris (France)


    To define the therapeutic effect of Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb 761) in an experimental model of acute encephalopathy following total body irradiation in rats. Ninety four-month-old rats received 4.5 Gy total body irradiation (TBI) at day 1 while 15 rats received sham irradiation. A behavioural study based on a conditioning test of negative reinforcement, the one-way avoidance test, was performed test, was performed after irradiation. Orally treatment was started one day (study A) or twenty two days (study B) after irradiation and repeated daily for twelve days. In the irradiated group, three subgroups were defined according to the treatment received: EGb 761 (50 mg/kg), EGb 761 (100 mg/kg), water. This work comprised two consecutive studies. In study A (45 rats) the one-way avoidance test was administered daily from day 7 to day 14. In study B (45 rats) the behavioural test was performed from day 28 to day 35. Study A (three groups of 15 rats): following TBI, irradiated rats treated with water demonstrated a significant delay in a learning the one-way avoidance test in comparison with sham-irradiated rats (P < 0.0002) or irradiated rats treated with EGb 761 (50 mg/kg; P < 0.007) or EGb 761 (100 mg/kg; P < 0.0002). The irradiated rats, treated with EGb 761 (50 or 100 mg/kg) did not differ from the sham-irradiated controls. Study B (three groups of 15 rats): the irradiated rats, treated with water of EGb 761 (50 or 100 mg/kg) did not differ from the sham-irradiated controls. (authors)

  13. Effects of garlic extract on TNF-α expression and oxidative stress status in the kidneys of rats with STZ + nicotinamide-induced diabetes.

    Ziamajidi, Nasrin; Nasiri, Abolfazl; Abbasalipourkabir, Roghayeh; Sadeghi Moheb, Somayeh


    Allium sativum L. (Liliaceae) (garlic) is a medicinal plant that is widely used in herbal medicine. Nephropathy is a complication of diabetes that is induced by long-term hyperglycaemia. The effects of aqueous extract of garlic (AGE) on the expression of tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and oxidative stress status were studied in the kidneys of rats with streptozotocin (STZ) + nicotinamide-induced diabetes. Twenty-four Wistar rats were divided into four groups: control rats, rats with STZ + nicotinamide-induced diabetes that received a single dose of STZ (65 mg/kg) and nicotinamide (110 mg/kg) intraperitoneally, diabetic rats that were treated with garlic (2 g/kg/d, gavage), and normal rats that received garlic (2 g/kg/d, gavage). The glucose level was determined in the start of study, 7 d after induction of diabetes and 33 d after treatment with garlic. At the end of the treatment period, urea, uric acid and creatinine levels were estimated in sera. Malondialdehyde (MDA), total oxidant status (TOS), nitric oxide (NO) levels and TNF-α gene and protein expression were measured in the renal tissues of the rats. The glucose, uric acid, and urea levels increased in the serum of diabetic rats compared with control rats, and decreased in garlic-treated diabetic rats compared with diabetic rats (p garlic-treated diabetic rats compared with diabetic rats (p garlic, it was close to the normal level (p garlic extract has hypoglycaemic, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties; therefore, it can be useful for the alleviation of diabetic complications.

  14. Effect of Coconut Oil Administration on Some Hemostatic Changes Associated with Obesity in Rats

    Fatma Ahmed Mohamed, Nehal Mohammad Bahgat


    Full Text Available In the last few decades, coconut oil was claimed to have some beneficial health effects, attributed mainly to its medium chain triglycerides. It was, thus, intriguing to investigate the potential benefit of coconut oil in alleviating the prothrombotic tendency often encountered in obese individuals. The present study was carried out on 44 rats, of both sexes, aged 10 days at the start of the study. 31 out of 44 rats were offered high caloric diet (the cafeteria diet for induction of obesity. Rats were allocated into the following groups: Group1: Control rats (C (n=13 rats, comprising rats fed on the standard chow diet all-over the study period (24 weeks. Group2: Cafeteria diet-fed rats (Caf (n=16 rats, comprising rats fed on cafeteria diet until the end of the study period and Group3: Cafeteria diet/coconut oil-fed rats (Caf/Coco (n=15 rats, comprising rats fed on cafeteria diet with coconut oil starting from the 16th week till the end of the study period. At the end of the study, the BMI was assessed in the 3 studied groups and blood samples were collected for determination of platelet count and aggregation, prothrombin time (PT, activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT, fibrin degradation products (FDPs, and plasma lipid profile. The encountered results revealed that the mean BMI of the cafeteria diet-fed rats was significantly higher than the BMI of control rats, and that the mean BMI of rats receiving cafeteria/coconut oil diet for 9 weeks was significantly decreased compared to their matched caf group. The PT, APTT and platelet count were all non significantly different in the three studied groups. Platelet aggregation, on the other hand, was significantly increased in the caf group compared to the control group, and significantly decreased in the caf/coco group compared to both the caf group and the control group. The plasma FDPs levels were not significantly different in the 3 studied groups. The lipid profile was insignificantly

  15. Arginine requirement of starting broiler chicks.

    Cuca, M; Jensen, L S


    Three experiments were conducted to estimate the arginine requirement of male broiler chicks from 0 to 3 wk of age. The experiments were conducted in battery brooders with wires floors, and the birds received water and feed ad libitum. In the first experiment, chicks were fed a diet based on corn, soybean meal, casein, and corn-gluten meal containing 3,200 kcal ME per kg and either 20 or 23% crude protein. Regression analysis indicated an arginine requirement of 1.22% for maximum growth rate and feed efficiency with the 20% protein diet. For chicks fed the 23% protein diet, neither growth rate nor feed efficiency was significantly different among the diets containing arginine ranging from 1.13 to 1.43%. In the second experiment, a basal diet was used containing 17.5% casein and 22.5% protein with arginine ranging from 1.03 to 1.43%. An arginine requirement of 1.18% for maximum body weight gain was estimated by regression analysis, but no significant response to arginine above the basal level was observed for feed efficiency. Performance of chicks fed the basal diet was somewhat reduced because of a difficulty with adherence of feed to the beaks. In a third experiment, three basal diets containing 21, 22, or 23% protein were formulated from practical ingredients without use of casein. The requirement for maximum growth rate and feed efficiency was estimated to be 1.24 to 1.28% for the three diets. The results of these investigations indicate that the arginine requirement for starting chicks suggested by the National Research Council in 1984 of 1.44% in diets containing 3,200 kcal ME per kg is too high for practical diets. The data presented here support an arginine requirement of 1.25%.

  16. Cell Treatment for Stroke in Type Two Diabetic Rats Improves Vascular Permeability Measured by MRI.

    Guangliang Ding

    Full Text Available Treatment of stroke with bone marrow stromal cells (BMSC significantly enhances brain remodeling and improves neurological function in non-diabetic stroke rats. Diabetes is a major risk factor for stroke and induces neurovascular changes which may impact stroke therapy. Thus, it is necessary to test our hypothesis that the treatment of stroke with BMSC has therapeutic efficacy in the most common form of diabetes, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. T2DM was induced in adult male Wistar rats by administration of a high fat diet in combination with a single intraperitoneal injection (35mg/kg of streptozotocin. These rats were then subjected to 2h of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo. T2DM rats received BMSC (5x106, n = 8 or an equal volume of phosphate-buffered saline (PBS (n = 8 via tail-vein injection at 3 days after MCAo. MRI was performed one day and then weekly for 5 weeks post MCAo for all rats. Compared with vehicle treated control T2DM rats, BMSC treatment of stroke in T2DM rats significantly (p<0.05 decreased blood-brain barrier disruption starting at 1 week post stroke measured using contrast enhanced T1-weighted imaging with gadopentetate, and reduced cerebral hemorrhagic spots starting at 3 weeks post stroke measured using susceptibility weighted imaging, although BMSC treatment did not reduce the ischemic lesion volumes as demarcated by T2 maps. These MRI measurements were consistent with histological data. Thus, BMSC treatment of stroke in T2DM rats initiated at 3 days after stroke significantly reduced ischemic vascular damage, although BMSC treatment did not change infarction volume in T2DM rats, measured by MRI.

  17. 76 FR 37174 - Capital Investment Program-New Starts and Small Starts Program Funds


    ... Federal Transit Administration Capital Investment Program--New Starts and Small Starts Program Funds... appropriated for the Capital Investments Grant Account, which includes the New Starts and Small Starts programs... Transportation's (DOT) Federal Transit Administration (FTA) announces the apportionment of the FY 2011...

  18. In vivo proton observed carbon edited (POCE) (13) C magnetic resonance spectroscopy of the rat brain using a volumetric transmitter and receive-only surface coil on the proton channel.

    Kumaragamage, Chathura; Madularu, Dan; Mathieu, Axel P; De Feyter, Henk; Rajah, M Natasha; Near, Jamie


    In vivo carbon-13 ((13) C) MR spectroscopy (MRS) is capable of measuring energy metabolism and neuroenergetics, noninvasively in the brain. Indirect ((1) H-[(13) C]) MRS provides sensitivity benefits compared with direct (13) C methods, and normally includes a (1) H surface coil for both localization and signal reception. The aim was to develop a coil platform with homogenous B1+ and use short conventional pulses for short echo time proton observed carbon edited (POCE) MRS. A (1) H-[(13) C] MRS coil platform was designed with a volumetric resonator for (1) H transmit, and surface coils for (1) H reception and (13) C transmission. The Rx-only (1) H surface coil nullifies the requirement for a T/R switch before the (1) H preamplifier; the highpass filter and preamplifier can be placed proximal to the coil, thus minimizing sensitivity losses inherent with POCE-MRS systems described in the literature. The coil platform was evaluated with a PRESS-POCE sequence (TE = 12.6 ms) on a rat model. The coil provided excellent localization, uniform spin nutation, and sensitivity. (13) C labeling of Glu-H4 and Glx-H3 peaks, and the Glx-H2 peaks were observed approximately 13 and 21 min following the infusion of 1-(13) C glucose, respectively. A convenient and sensitive platform to study energy metabolism and neurotransmitter cycling is presented. Magn Reson Med, 2017. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  19. Starting Time Calculation for Induction Motor.

    Abhishek Garg


    Full Text Available This Paper Presents The Starting Time Calculation For A Squirrel Cage Induction Motor. The Importance Of Starting Time Lies In Determining The Duration Of Large Current, Which Flows During The Starting Of An Induction Motor. Normally, The Starting Current Of An Induction Motor Is Six To Eight Time Of Full Load Current. Plenty Of Methods Have Been Discovered To Start Motor In A Quick Time, But Due To Un-Economic Nature, Use Are Limited. Hence, For Large Motors Direct Online Starting Is Most Popular Amongst All Due To Its Economic And Feasible Nature. But Large Current With Dol Starting Results In A Heavy Potential Drop In The Power System. Thus, Special Care And Attention Is Required In Order To Design A Healthy System. A Very Simple Method To Calculate The Starting Time Of Motor Is Proposed In This Paper. Respective Simulation Study Has Been Carried Out Using Matlab 7.8.0 Environment, Which Demonstrates The Effectiveness Of The Starting Time Calculation.

  20. Role of the lung in the progression of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome in ageing rat model

    WANG Xue-ping; ZHU Qing-lei; XUE Qiao; LI Yang; QIAN Xiao-shun; WANG Zhong-liang; WANG Shi-wen


    Background Multiple organ dysfunction syndrome in the elderly (MODSE) is a problem with high mortality in the critical care of elderly patients.The pathogenesis of MODSE remains elusive.This study aimed to establish rat models of MODSE and to investigate the pathogenetic mechanism responsible for the development of MODSE in the rat models.Methods Twenty-four-month old rats (elderly) received intravenous injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to induce rat model of MODSE.In the model,we observed the physical responses,biochemical indices changes,histopathological features of vital organs,including lung,liver,heart,and kidney.We also investigated the sequence of individual organ dysfunction and changes of proinflammatory factors.Three-month-old rats.serving as young rat controls,received parallel procedures.Besides,normal saline injection was also performed on elderly and young control rats.Results All rats displayed different degree of physical response after LPS injection,preceded by deterioration of respiratory status.At 6 hours,lung injury was observed,which started eariier than other organ injury that was observed in about 24 hours.Furthermore,all vital organ injury was more severe in elderiy rats than in young rats at the same time points.After LPS injection,pulmonary alveolar macrophages apoptosis rate increased obviously,and was more significant in elderly rats ((43.4±8.4)%) than in young rats ((24.2±3.0)%).LPS injection also enhanced tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) concentration significantly in these organs.Its peak concentration appeared at 6 hours in lung tissue and at 24 hours in other organs after LPS injection.TNF-α level was higher in elderly rats than in young rats at the same time points.The increase was most significant in lung tissue.After intravenous administration of LPS.toll-like receptor 4(TLR4) expression in lung tissue was upregulated markedly,and peaked at 6 hours.In contrast,upregulation of TLR4expression in liver peaked at 24

  1. The Phenomenon of Business Start-Ups.

    Melis, Africa


    A study of four European countries (France, United Kingdom, Italy, and Spain) was conducted to gather data on the business start-up process and its impact on the generation of jobs, small business start-up support programs, training and counseling programs, and characteristics of successful business starters. (The original aim of the study was to…

  2. Start-up analysis for marketing strategy.

    Griffith, M J; Baloff, N


    The complex start-up effect on utilization of health care services is too often overlooked or underestimated by marketing planners, leading to a range of negative consequences for both the users of services and the provider organization. Start-up analysis allows accurate estimation of these utilization effects for coordinated strategic planning among marketing finance, and operations.

  3. Lean and global technology start-ups

    Tanev, Stoyan; Rasmussen, Erik Stavnsager; Zijdemans, Erik


    In this paper the authors introduce the concept of Lean Global Start-up (LGS) as a way of emphasizing the impossibility for new technology start-ups to deal separately with business development, innovation and early internationalization. For a newly established technology firm the task of being...... of their products and the insights from business supporting organizations....

  4. Getting started with SBT for Scala

    Saxena, Shiti


    A practical and fast-paced guide, Getting Started with SBT for Scala walks you through the setup of Scala projects in SBT with sample code for common as well as critical scenarios.Getting Started with SBT for Scala is for developers working on Scala projects who are interested in learning and utilizing Simple Build Tool to manage the build process.

  5. Assisted Workouts: Starting My Own Workout Program

    Cousminer, Douglas


    As an undergraduate student with cerebral palsy, I found it difficult to achieve my goal of starting a regular exercise program at my school, the University of Central Florida. However, when I started a program called Assisted Workouts in spring 2003. the struggle proved to be well worth it. The program is not only beneficial to me, but it has…

  6. Modeling Start Curves of Bainite Formation

    Van Bohemen, S.M.C.


    It is demonstrated that calculations with a physically based model give an accurate description of the start curve of bainite formation in a wide range of steels. The temperature dependence of the overall kinetics, which determines the characteristic C shape of the start curve, is controlled by both

  7. Eleven Tribes Jump START Clean Energy Projects, Summer 2012 (Newsletter)


    This newsletter describes key activities of the DOE Office of Indian Energy Policy and Programs for Summer 2012. The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Indian Energy Policy and Programs (DOE-IE) has selected 11 Tribes - five in Alaska and six in the contiguous United States - to receive on-the-ground technical support for community-based energy efficiency and renewable energy projects as part of DOE-IE's Strategic Technical Assistance Response Team (START) Program. START finalists were selected based on the clarity of their requests for technical assistance and the ability of START to successfully work with their projects or community. Technical experts from DOE and its National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) will work directly with community-based project teams to analyze local energy issues and assist the Tribes in moving their projects forward. In Alaska, the effort will be bolstered by DOE-IE's partnership with the Denali Commission, which will provide additional assistance and expertise, as well as funding to fuel the Alaska START initiative.

  8. On the impact of receiver imperfections on the MMSE-IRC receiver performance in 5G networks

    Tavares, Fernando Menezes Leitão; Berardinelli, Gilberto; Mahmood, Nurul Huda


    The usage of Minimum Mean Square Error - Interference Rejection Combining (MMSE-IRC) receivers is expected to be a significant performance booster in the ultra-dense deployment of small cells envisioned by an upcoming 5th generation (5G) Radio Access Technology (RAT). However, hardware limitations...

  9. Pakistan/USAID to start CSM project.


    Pakistan, with the assistance of funds for the US Agency for International Development (USAID), is about to start its novel approach to contraceptive social marketing (CSM). This new effort suggests a marked policy shift on the part of the Pakistan government toward intensifying its family planning activities. The program will be government-operated and supported by AID over the next 5 years with $20 million, more than double the cost of similar CSM projects elswhere. Distribution of a condom on a pilot project basis is expected to begin by December 1984. Sales of a low-dose oral contraceptive (OC) could begin in test market areas by mid-1985, with national launching of both products tentatively scheduled for January 1986. The Pakistan/USAID agreement represents the 1st time since the formation of India's Nirodh project in the late 1960s that a CSM program is being established without the involvement of either an international social marketing contractor or a country's family planning association. The Pakistan CSM program will be managed by a policy board composed of representatives from the government's Ministries of Planning, Health and Education; a resident advisor from USAID; and a local company responsible for product marketing and distribution. The approach has received a skeptical response among international social marketing experts about the program's chances for success. Their doubts extend to 2 other aspects of the proposed design: an official of the Ministry of Planning's Population and Welfare Division expects the CSM program to generate sufficient revenues to cover all operating costs following the 5-year subsidy period, while also providing attractive profit margins for the marketing/distribution company; and the government prohibits mass media advertising of contraceptives. According to AID, the issue of mass media contraceptive advertising has not yet been resolved, and a national survey will be conducted to determine what communication needs are

  10. Experimental model of arthritis induced by Paracoccidioides brasiliensis in rats.

    Loth, Eduardo Alexandre; Biazin, Samia Khalil; Paula, Claudete Rodrigues; Simão, Rita de Cássia Garcia; de Franco, Marcello Fabiano; Puccia, Rosana; Gandra, Rinaldo Ferreira


    Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM), a disease caused by the fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis (Pb), is highly prevalent in Brazil, where it is the principal cause of death by systemic mycoses. The disease primarily affects men aged 30-50 year old and usually starts as a pulmonary focus and then may spread to other organs and systems, including the joints. The present study aimed to develop an experimental model of paracoccidioidomycotic arthritis. Two-month-old male Wistar rats (n = 48) were used, divided in 6 groups: test groups EG/15 and EG/45 (received one dose of 100 μl of saline containing 10(5) Pb viable yeasts in the knee); heat killed Pb-group HK/15 and HK/45 (received a suspension of 10(5) Pb nonviable yeasts in the knee) and control groups CG/15 and CG/45 (received only sterile saline in the knee). The rats were killed 15 and 45 days postinoculation. In contrast with the control rats, the histopathology of the joints of rats of the test groups (EG/15 and EG/45) revealed a picture of well-established PCM arthritis characterized by extensive sclerosing granulomatous inflammation with numerous multiple budding fungal cells. The X-ray examination revealed joint alterations in these groups. Only metabolic active fungi evoked inflammation. The experimental model was able to induce fungal arthritis in the knees of the rats infected with metabolic active P. brasiliensis. The disease tended to be regressive and restrained by the immune system. No evidence of fungal dissemination to the lungs was observed.

  11. Start 2: Thinking one move ahead

    Gaines, L.L.


    At their summit meeting in the spring of 1990, Presidents Bush and Gorbachev issued a joint statement expressing their intentions to continue the process of strategic arms control beyond the Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (START), which was eventually signed in July 1991, toward agreement on further reductions. They set general goals for negotiation of a follow-on treaty to START, which has been called START II. President Bush's historic speech on September 27, 1991, reinforced those goals and specified several actions the US would take. It is the purpose of this report to examine possible provisions of START II and the implications of those provisions for achievement of the goals set at the 1990 summit, for verifiability, and for US force planning. This look ahead will contribute to advance planning of appropriate negotiating positions, verification research and development (R D), and force modernization and restructuring. This report describes the goals for a START II treaty and possible means for achieving them. It postulates one set of provisions for such a treaty, while it examines force structures for the US that could result from adoption of a treaty with these provisions. The adequacy of methods for verifying START II are examined and the implications of a START II treaty are postulated.

  12. Start 2: Thinking one move ahead

    Gaines, L.L.


    At their summit meeting in the spring of 1990, Presidents Bush and Gorbachev issued a joint statement expressing their intentions to continue the process of strategic arms control beyond the Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (START), which was eventually signed in July 1991, toward agreement on further reductions. They set general goals for negotiation of a follow-on treaty to START, which has been called START II. President Bush`s historic speech on September 27, 1991, reinforced those goals and specified several actions the US would take. It is the purpose of this report to examine possible provisions of START II and the implications of those provisions for achievement of the goals set at the 1990 summit, for verifiability, and for US force planning. This look ahead will contribute to advance planning of appropriate negotiating positions, verification research and development (R&D), and force modernization and restructuring. This report describes the goals for a START II treaty and possible means for achieving them. It postulates one set of provisions for such a treaty, while it examines force structures for the US that could result from adoption of a treaty with these provisions. The adequacy of methods for verifying START II are examined and the implications of a START II treaty are postulated.

  13. Start 2: Thinking one move ahead

    Gaines, L.L.


    At their summit meeting in the spring of 1990, Presidents Bush and Gorbachev issued a joint statement expressing their intentions to continue the process of strategic arms control beyond the Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (START), which was eventually signed in July 1991, toward agreement on further reductions. They set general goals for negotiation of a follow-on treaty to START, which has been called START II. President Bush's historic speech on September 27, 1991, reinforced those goals and specified several actions the US would take. It is the purpose of this report to examine possible provisions of START II and the implications of those provisions for achievement of the goals set at the 1990 summit, for verifiability, and for US force planning. This look ahead will contribute to advance planning of appropriate negotiating positions, verification research and development (R D), and force modernization and restructuring. This report describes the goals for a START II treaty and possible means for achieving them. It postulates one set of provisions for such a treaty, while it examines force structures for the US that could result from adoption of a treaty with these provisions. The adequacy of methods for verifying START II are examined and the implications of a START II treaty are postulated.

  14. Preventive effects of ACTICOA powder, a cocoa polyphenolic extract, on experimentally induced prostate hyperplasia in Wistar-Unilever rats.

    Bisson, Jean-François; Hidalgo, Sophie; Rozan, Pascale; Messaoudi, Michaël


    Plant extracts are useful in the management of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). This study investigates whether ACTICOA (Barry Callebaut France, Louviers, France) powder (AP), a cocoa polyphenolic extract, could prevent prostate hyperplasia induced by testosterone propionate (TP) in rats. Male Wistar-Unilever rats were randomly divided in four groups of 12 rats: one negative control group receiving subcutaneous injections of corn oil and treated with vehicle and three groups injected subcutaneously with TP and treated with the vehicle (positive control) or AP at 24 (AP24) and 48 (AP48) mg/kg/day. Treatments were given orally and started 2 weeks before the induction of prostate hyperplasia. The influence of TP and AP on body weights and food and water consumption of rats was examined. On day 36, rats were sacrificed, and the prostates were removed, cleaned, and weighed. The prostate size ratio (prostate weight/rat body weight) was then calculated. TP significantly influenced the body weight gain of the rats and their food and water consumption, while AP at both doses tested reduced significantly these differences. TP significantly increased prostate size ratio (P < .001), and this induced increase was significantly inhibited in AP-treated rats in comparison with positive controls (P < .001) in a dose-dependent manner. We conclude that AP can prevent TP-induced prostate hyperplasia and therefore may be beneficial in the management of BPH.

  15. Communications receivers principles and design

    Rohde, Ulrich L; Zahnd, Hans


    This thoroughly updated guide offers comprehensive explanations of the science behind today’s radio receivers along with practical guidance on designing, constructing, and maintaining real-world communications systems. You will explore system planning, antennas and antenna coupling, amplifiers and gain control, filters, mixers, demodulation, digital communication, and the latest software defined radio (SDR) technology. Written by a team of telecommunication experts, Communications Receivers: Principles and Design, Fourth Edition, features technical illustrations, schematic diagrams, and detailed examples. Coverage includes: • Basic radio considerations • Radio receiver characteristics • Receiver system planning • Receiver implementation considerations • RF and baseband techniques for Software-Defined Radios • Transceiver SDR considerations • Antennas and antenna coupling • Mixers • Frequency sources and control • Ancillary receiver circuits • Performance measurement

  16. Physics of Tokamak Plasma Start-up

    Mueller, Dennis


    This tutorial describes and reviews the state-of-art in tokamak plasma start-up and its importance to next step devices such as ITER, a Fusion Nuclear Science Facility and a Tokamak/ST demo. Tokamak plasma start-up includes breakdown of the initial gas, ramp-up of the plasma current to its final value and the control of plasma parameters during those phases. Tokamaks rely on an inductive component, typically a central solenoid, which has enabled attainment of high performance levels that has enabled the construction of the ITER device. Optimizing the inductive start-up phase continues to be an area of active research, especially in regards to achieving ITER scenarios. A new generation of superconducting tokamaks, EAST and KSTAR, experiments on DIII-D and operation with JET's ITER-like wall are contributing towards this effort. Inductive start-up relies on transformer action to generate a toroidal loop voltage and successful start-up is determined by gas breakdown, avalanche physics and plasma-wall interaction. The goal of achieving steady-sate tokamak operation has motivated interest in other methods for start-up that do not rely on the central solenoid. These include Coaxial Helicity Injection, outer poloidal field coil start-up, and point source helicity injection, which have achieved 200, 150 and 100 kA respectively of toroidal current on closed flux surfaces. Other methods including merging reconnection startup and Electron Bernstein Wave (EBW) plasma start-up are being studied on various devices. EBW start-up generates a directed electron channel due to wave particle interaction physics while the other methods mentioned rely on magnetic helicity injection and magnetic reconnection which are being modeled and understood using NIMROD code simulations.

  17. Begin and start: aspect and complement choice

    Tünde Nagy


    Full Text Available The paper offers a semantic analysis of begin and start and their non-finite complementation: the to-infinitive and –ing constructions. The core idea of the paper is that the aspectual constructions ‘begin+ to infinitive’, ‘begin + ing’, ‘start+ to infinitive’, and ‘start+ ing’ have both a schematic and a prototypical meaning, and that the subtle differences between them are motivated by several factors, like viewing (perfectivity vs. imperfectivity, temporality (future orientation vs. ongoing reading dynamicity (graduality vs. abruptness, agentivity, etc.

  18. Starting Circuit For Erasable Programmable Logic Device

    Cole, Steven W.


    Voltage regulator bypassed to supply starting current. Starting or "pullup" circuit supplies large inrush of current required by erasable programmable logic device (EPLD) while being turned on. Operates only during such intervals of high demand for current and has little effect any other time. Performs needed bypass, acting as current-dependent shunt connecting battery or other source of power more nearly directly to EPLD. Input capacitor of regulator removed when starting circuit installed, reducing probability of damage to transistor in event of short circuit in or across load.

  19. Office of Head Start (OHS) Head Start Center Locations Search Tool

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Office of Head Start (OHS) web based search tool for finding Head Start program office contact information. Searchable by location, grant number or center type....

  20. High-frequency transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation alters thermal but not mechanical allodynia following chronic constriction injury of the rat sciatic nerve.

    Somers, D L; Clemente, F R


    To determine if daily transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) can alter the thermal and mechanical allodynia that develops after chronic constriction injury (CCI) to the right sciatic nerve of rats. A completely randomized experimental design was used. Four groups of rats underwent CCI surgery to the right sciatic nerve and either were not treated with TENS or received TENS starting at different times after the CCI surgery. TENS was delivered daily for 1 hour to CCI rats through self-adhesive electrodes applied to skin innervated by the right dorsal rami of lumbar spinal nerves L1-6. Rats of different groups received daily TENS starting immediately, 20 to 30 hours, or 3 days after the CCI surgery. Thermal and mechanical pain thresholds of hind paws were assessed bilaterally in all rats twice before the CCI surgery (baseline) and then 2, 7, 12, and 14 days after surgery. Thermal and mechanical allodynia were expressed as difference scores between the pain thresholds of right and left hind paws. These values were normalized to differences that existed between the two paws at baseline. Daily TENS beginning immediately after CCI surgery prevented the development of thermal allodynia at all assessment times (p < .05). Daily TENS starting 1 day after surgery reduced thermal allodynia, but only on days 2 and 14 (p < .05). Daily TENS beginning 3 days after surgery had no effect on the development of thermal allodynia. Regardless of when it was started, daily TENS did not consistently alter mechanical allodynia in CCI rats. It appears that daily TENS can prevent thermal but not mechanical allodynia in this model. However, early intervention with the treatment is critical if it is to be effective at all.

  1. National Head Start Association Position Paper: A Vision for Head Start and State Collaboration.

    Ryan, Joel; Allen, Ben

    Based on the view that coordinated efforts among Head Start programs, child care programs and other prekindergarten programs, and states can be enhanced without devolving Head Start and its high quality standards to the states, this position paper draws on a Bush Administration report and the Head Start Program Performance Standards to demonstrate…

  2. Automobile Starting and Lighting System Maintenance Training ...

    Automobile Starting and Lighting System Maintenance Training Manual for Effective Learning ... Journal Home > Vol 10, No 2 (2015) > ... College Minna and Automobile Supervisors in automobile companies in Minna to establish its reliability.

  3. Quit Smoking: 5 Steps to START

    ... this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Quit Smoking 5 Steps to START Past Issues / Winter 2011 ... a part of every successful plan to quit smoking: S et a quit date. T ell family, friends, ...

  4. Starting a Technology Camp for Children.

    Litowitz, Len S.; Baylor, Steven C.


    Presents information for starting and maintaining a technology camp for students. Includes selecting topics, identifying participants, marketing, managing the camp, budgeting, and benefits to students and host institutions. (JOW)

  5. Head Start Program Information Report (HSPIR)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Information about children enrolled in the Head Start program and information about their families. Data about the children include: age, type of program attended,...

  6. Corporate leadership and start-up entrepreneurship

    Coulson-Thomas, Colin


    This article is based on a paper prepared by Colin Coulson-Thomas for the 2016 Dubai Global Convention on Leadership for Business Excellence. It examines the role of leadership in relation to start-up enterprises.

  7. Start small and build toward business intelligence.

    Kirby, Sean; Robertson, Brian


    To use business intelligence effectively, healthcare organizations should start small, align organizationally, and leverage success. Organizations should determine which measures they need and how to present them. Organizations should reinvest savings to continually improve.

  8. starting infants on antiretroviral therapy clinical: paediatrics

    CHARACTERISTICS OF CHILDREN STARTING ART. A literature review of 30 ... Overall mortality during follow-up was mostly low, with a probability of ..... type 1 infection in children: a five-year prospective study in Rwanda. Pediatrics. 1999 ...



    正Nowadays there are many college students who choose to start their own undertakings instead of finding a job after graduation.The government encourages this practice,and provides many preferential policies and facilitation measures for college students.This phenomenon has aroused great concern from the whole society. However,why do so many college students take the way of starting their own

  10. 氯胺酮对强迫游泳大鼠前额皮层谷氨酸及γ-氨基丁酸的影响%Effects of ketamine on glutamate and GABA in prefrontal cortex of rats receiving forced swimming test

    张广芬; 石金云; 李晓敏; 王楠; 徐世霞; 杨建军


    目的:观察氯胺酮对强迫游泳大鼠前额皮层谷氨酸及γ-氨基丁酸的影响.方法:32只Wistar雄性大鼠随机均分为4组(n=8):生理盐水0.5 h组(S05组)、生理盐水2h组(S2组)、氯胺酮0.5 h组(K0.5组)、氯胺酮2h组(K2组).药物干预前1d大鼠行强迫游泳15 min制备急性应激抑郁模型.药物干预当天,给大鼠分别腹腔注射1 mL容积的生理盐水或氯胺酮10 mg/kg,给药后0.5 h及2h分别再次行强迫游泳6 min,记录后5 min内不动时间.行为学测试结束后,取大鼠前额皮层,检测谷氨酸及γ-氨基丁酸的含量.结果:与S05组相比,K05组大鼠强迫游泳不动时间显著减少,谷氨酸含量上升,γ-氨基丁酸含量下降(P<0.05).与S2组相比,K2组大鼠强迫游泳不动时间显著降低(P<0.05),谷氨酸及γ-氨基丁酸含量则无明显变化(P>0.05).结论:氯胺酮在大鼠强迫游泳模型中能够发挥快速抗抑郁作用,同时伴随大鼠前额皮层谷氨酸上调及γ-氨基丁酸下调.%Objective To observe the effects of ketamine on glutamate and GABA in prefrontal cortex of rats receiving forced swimming test (FST). Methods 32 male Wistar rats were randomized into 4 groups (each n = 8); saline 0.5 h group (S05 group), saline 2 h group (S2 group), ketamine 0.5 h group (K0.5 group), ketamine 2 h group (K2 group). The FST lasted for 15 min was used to establish rat depression model. On the next day, saline or ketamine (10.0 mg/kg) of lmL were intraperitoneally injected, then 0.5 h and 2 h later, the FST of 6 min was carried out and the immobility time within 5 min during the FST was recorded. The animals were then decapitated and the prefrontal cortex was harvested for determination of glutamate and γ-aminobutyric acid levels. Results Compared with those in S0.5 group, the immobility time was decreased, the content of glutamate was increased and the content of γ-aminobutyric acid was decreased significantly in K0.5 group (P 0.05). Conclusion Ketamine

  11. Postoperative start compared to preoperative start of low-molecular-weight heparin increases mortality in patients with femoral neck fractures

    Leer-Salvesen, Sunniva; Dybvik, Eva; Dahl, Ola E; Gjertsen, Jan-Erik; EngesæTer, Lars B


    Background and purpose — Controversies exist regarding thromboprophylaxis in orthopedic surgery. Using data in the nationwide Norwegian Hip Fracture Register (NHFR) with postoperative death and reoperation in the first 6 months after surgery as endpoints in the analyses, we determined whether the thromboprophylaxis in patients who undergo hemiarthroplasty for femoral neck fracture should start preoperatively or postoperatively. Patients and methods — After each operation for hip fracture in Norway, the surgeon reports information on the patient, the fracture, and the operation to the NHFR. Cox regression analyses were performed with adjustments for age, ASA score, gender, type of implant, length of surgery, and year of surgery. Results — During the period 2005–2014, 25,019 hemiarthroplasties as treatment for femoral neck fractures were reported to the registry. Antithrombotic medication was given to 99% of the patients. Low-molecular-weight heparin predominated with dalteparin in 57% of the operations and enoxaparin in 41%. Only operations with these 2 drugs and with known information on preoperative or postoperative start of the prophylaxis were included in the analyses (n = 20,241). Compared to preoperative start of thromboprophylaxis, postoperative start of thromboprophylaxis gave a higher risk of death (risk ratio (RR) = 1.13, 95% CI: 1.06–1.21; p < 0.001) and a higher risk of reoperation for any reason (RR =1.19, 95% CI: 1.01–1.40; p = 0.04), whereas we found no effect on reported intraoperative bleeding complication or on the risk of postoperative reoperation due to hematoma. The results did not depend on whether the initial dose of prophylaxis was the full dosage or half of the standard dosage. Interpretation — Postoperative start of thromboprophylaxis increased the mortality and risk of reoperation compared to preoperative start in femoral neck fracture patients operated with hemiprosthesis. The risks of bleeding and of reoperation due to

  12. Chronic toxicity and carcinogenicity study of isomalt in rats and mice.

    Smits-Van Prooije, A E; De Groot, A P; Dreef-Van der Meulen, H C; Sinkeldam, E J


    The chronic toxicity and possible carcinogenicity of the sugar replacer isomalt was studied in Wistar rats and Swiss mice. Groups of 50 animals of each sex were fed 0, 2.5, 5 or 10% isomalt in the diet for nearly 2.5 yr (rats) or 2 yr (mice). Control groups received either basal diet with 10% maize starch or basal diet with 10% sucrose. Additional groups of ten rats/sex were fed the same diets and were killed after 1 yr. Isomalt and sucrose were included in the diet at the expense of maize starch. Administration of isomalt was started, in rats, in utero, and in mice, at weaning age. Feeding isomalt did not affect the appearance or behaviour of rats or mice, nor did it cause diarrhoea. Mortality rate was unaffected. Body weights of rats and mice fed 10% isomalt were generally slightly lower than those of controls. Periodic examinations of rats for haematological criteria, clinical chemistry of the blood, urine composition and kidney function did not reveal any changes of toxicological significance. Periodic haematological examinations of mice were likewise negative. Caecal enlargement was observed in rats and mice of the high-dose group, but the microscopic structure of the caecal wall was unaffected. An increased number of treated male and female rats showed hyperplasia of the urothelium in the renal pelvis accompanied by mineralization, whereas the number of females showing corticomedullary mineralization was decreased in the treated groups. The incidence, type or location of neoplasia provided no evidence of a carcinogenic potential of isomalt. Feeding 10% sucrose did not induce significant differences compared with the controls fed 10% maize starch, whereas isomalt at levels of up to 10% produced some of the changes that are common to rats fed high levels of poorly digestible carbohydrates.

  13. Immediate start of hormonal contraceptives for contraception.

    Lopez, Laureen M; Newmann, Sara J; Grimes, David A; Nanda, Kavita; Schulz, Kenneth F


    Health care providers often tell women to wait until the next menses to begin hormonal contraception. The intent is to avoid contraceptive use during an undetected pregnancy. An alternative is to start hormonal contraception immediately with back-up birth control for the first seven days. Immediate initiation was introduced with combined oral contraceptives (COCs), and has expanded to other hormonal contraceptives. At the time of the initial review, how immediate start compared to conventional menses-dependent start was unclear regarding effectiveness, continuation, and acceptability. The immediate-start approach may improve women's access to, and continuation of, hormonal contraception. This review examined randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of immediate-start hormonal contraception for differences in effectiveness, continuation, and acceptability. In August 2012, we searched MEDLINE, CENTRAL, POPLINE, LILACS,, and ICTRP for trials of immediate-start hormonal contraceptives. We contacted researchers to find other studies. Earlier searches also included EMBASE. We included RCTs that compared immediate start to conventional start of hormonal contraception. Also included were trials that compared immediate start of different hormonal contraceptive methods with each other. Data were abstracted by two authors and entered into RevMan. The Peto odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) was calculated. Five studies were included. No new eligible studies have been found since the review was initially conducted. Method discontinuation was similar between groups in all trials. Bleeding patterns and side effects were similar in trials that compared immediate with conventional start. In a study of depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA), immediate start of DMPA showed fewer pregnancies than a 'bridge' method before DMPA (OR 0.36; 95% CI 0.16 to 0.84). Further, more women in the immediate-DMPA group were very satisfied versus those with a 'bridge

  14. Functional inactivation of the rat hippocampus disrupts avoidance of a moving object.

    Telensky, Petr; Svoboda, Jan; Blahna, Karel; Bureš, Jan; Kubik, Stepan; Stuchlik, Ales


    The hippocampus is well known for its critical involvement in spatial memory and information processing. In this study, we examined the effect of bilateral hippocampal inactivation with tetrodotoxin (TTX) in an "enemy avoidance" task. In this paradigm, a rat foraging on a circular platform (82 cm diameter) is trained to avoid a moving robot in 20-min sessions. Whenever the rat is located within 25 cm of the robot's center, it receives a mild electrical foot shock, which may be repeated until the subject makes an escape response to a safe distance. Seventeen young male Long-Evans rats were implanted with cannulae aimed at the dorsal hippocampus 14 d before the start of the training. After 6 d of training, each rat received a bilateral intrahippocampal infusion of TTX (5 ng in 1 μL) 40 min before the training session on day 7. The inactivation severely impaired avoidance of a moving robot (n = 8). No deficit was observed in a different group of rats (n = 9) that avoided a stable robot that was only displaced once in the middle of the session, showing that the impairment was not due to a deficit in distance estimation, object-reinforcement association, or shock sensitivity. This finding suggests a specific role of the hippocampus in dynamic cognitive processes required for flexible navigation strategies such as continuous updating of information about the position of a moving stimulus.

  15. Technical Assistance Program: Off to a Running Start (Newsletter)


    This newsletter describes key activities of the DOE Office of Indian Energy Policy and Programs for Winter 2012. Between December 2, 2011, and January 15, 2012, 46 American Indian and Alaska Native Tribes submitted applications to receive technical assistance through the program, which provides Tribes with on-the-ground technical support from DOE and National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) staff to help move tribal energy efficiency and renewable energy projects forward. The applications are being considered through the Strategic Technical Assistance Response Team (START) selection process, which incorporates expert reviews and outreach to Tribes who present a need for assistance with their community-based energy efficiency and renewable energy projects. The final successful applicants will be selected based on the clarity of their requests for technical assistance and the ability of START to successfully work with each unique project or community. At least three selected Tribes in Alaska will receive technical assistance between March and May 2012, and up to five selected Tribes in the contiguous United States will receive technical assistance between March and August 2012. During the months of START Program activity, DOE and NREL experts will work in the two locations. In Alaska, START experts will work directly with community-based project teams to analyze local energy issues and provide assistance with energy projects and cost savings initiatives. This effort will be bolstered by DOE-IE's partnership with the Denali Commission, which will provide further assistance and expertise. In the lower 48 states, NREL experts will work with the selected renewable energy START projects to evaluate financial and technical feasibility and provide early development technical assistance to better position the projects for financing and construction. This on-the-ground technical assistance is part of a broader DOE-IE effort to make reliable, accurate technical

  16. Why START. [Strategic Arms Reduction Talks treaty

    Mendelsohn, J.


    Barring some major unexpected downturn in US-Soviet relations, it seems likely that the long-awaited Strategic Arms Reduction Talks (START) treaty will be signed sometime in 1991. Under negotiation for the past nine years, public acceptance and Senate approval of a START treaty will be facilitated by the generally less confrontational East-West relationship which has evolved over that time, by the growing constraints on the US defense budget, and by the obvious merits of the treaty itself. Not only will the nearly complete START treaty be an extremely useful and powerful arms control agreement, it is also decidedly advantageous to US security interests. First and foremost, a START treaty will cap and reduce the steady buildup of nuclear weapons that has characterized the last 30 years of the US-Soviet strategic relationship. As a result of the basic outline originally agreed to at the Reykjavik summit, START will take a 25 to 35 percent bite out of existing nuclear arsenals, impose approximately a 50 percent cut in overall Soviet ballistic missile warheads and throw-weight (lifting power or payload capacity), and produce an exact 50 percent cut in Soviet SS-18 missiles.

  17. Effect of Epimedium davidii on Testosterone Content, Substance Metabolism and Exercise Capacity in Rats Receiving Exercise Training%淫羊藿对运动训练大鼠睾酮含量、物质代谢及抗运动疲劳能力的影响

    周海涛; 曹建民; 林强; 赵卓


    group ( C group) , exercise ig water group(T group) ,and exercise ig Epimedium davidii group(TM group). Gavage was performed using professional device once a day. The rats in TM group were administered at a dose of 5 g·kg-1 with ig volume of 5 mL·kg-1. The rats in C and T groups were given saline of same volume. After 42 d of exhaustive swimming training, body weight, swimming time and serum testosterone and other biochemical markers were measured. RESULTS The body weights of the rats in TM group were greater than those in T group (P <0. 05) ,and the swimming time was longer than T group (P <0. 01). Exhaustive swimming led to decreased serum testosterone,for which T group decreased by 28. 85% more than C group(P<0. 01). Compared with T group,TM group increased by 28. 21% ( P < 0. 01) in serum testosterone; the serum corticosterone levels in each group showed no significant differences, and the serum testos-terone/corticosterone ratios changed in line with testosterone; liver glycogen and muscle glycogen reserves decreased. Compared with C group, the T groups glycogen decreased by 26. 40% ( P < 0. 01) , muscle glycogen decreased by 54. 83% (P <0. 01). Compared with T group,TM group had 20. 68% higher liver glycogen(P <0. 05) and 82. 76% higher muscle glycogen(P<0. 01) ; FSH had no significant difference; blood urea increased and hemoglobin decreased compared with C group. Blood urea of T group increased by 66. 32% (P <0. 01) ,and the hemoglobin decreased by 35. 89% (P <0. 01) ; compared with T group,TM group had 27. 85% lower blood urea (P < 0. 01) and 41. 23 % higher hemoglobin (P < 0. 01). CONCLUSION Epimedium davidii can alleviate the impact of high-intensity exercise on serum testosterone, and maintain it at normal physiological level; it can also promote protein synthesis, inhibit degradation of amino acid and protein, and increase hemoglobin and glycogen reserves in rats receiving exercise training.

  18. >venture>: Support for Early Stage Start-ups and Potential Entrepreneurs.

    Kauz, Lukas


    >venture>, the leading Swiss-wide business plan competition, is an ideal partner for young start-ups and entrepreneurs. For the upcoming tenth anniversary edition the competition will receive an update. Building upon a successful base of the past nine editions and equipped with contemporary networking events and more know-how transferring seminars, >venture> will fit even better into the Swiss start-up ecosystem.

  19. Starting a business through a franchise

    Dubravka Mahaček


    Full Text Available A business can be launched by establishing a new entity, purchasing an existing entity or through a franc - hise. There are certain prerequisites for starting a business, the most important ones being a quality idea and start-up capital. Potential start-up difficulties are inadequate financing, existing competition as well as the process of building your own market position. By purchasing an existing business some risks may be avoided and the opportunity for gaining profit may arise. Profitable operation is possible only if this business has up-to-date products and no outstanding liabilities. This paper discusses franchising business opportunities and the requisite investments and costs, which will bring success if they are accompanied by franchisee’s efforts. The paper aims to present the main characteristics of a franchise business, the necessary investment and the costs which arise in the process, as well as advantages, disadvantages and experiences with this kind of business

  20. Guidelines for starting today's private practice

    Schmitz ED


    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. Starting a new practice may seem like a daunting task. The purpose of this article is to demystify the process of creating a new practice from the beginning. The cardinal rule is to keep costs low and not to outsource work that can easily be performed by any competent physician and staff. You do not need a manager, lawyer, business partner, coder or biller individually; you may be able to perform many of these services yourself. What you do need is a commitment to making your practice a success. Do not spend too much on your office space, furnishings or equipment. Start with the bare essentials. Immediately start applying to all insurance companies especially Medicare. Request an employer identification number. Set up a basic business banking account and submit the account number to the insurance companies you plan to work with. You can purchase an entire electronic healthcare record (EHR …

  1. Ruderal succession starting at different seasons

    Reinhard Bornkamm


    Full Text Available Succession experiments were carried out in 1 m2 sized plots on three different soils (S = sand. SCL = silty clayey loam, CL = clayey loam. Vegetation was allowed to grow for 9 years, starting at different dates between 18.06.1969 and 1.04.1971. The greatest part of the variation of floristic composition and cover was brought about by the different soils. Direct effects of the starting season were detected only in the first two years. On sand in the first year the winter annual Conyza canadensis was well developed on the plots that had started in spring, but was poorly developed on the summer and fall plots. In the second year it decreased in the spring plots but increased in the summer and fall plots. The same was true for the winter annual Sonchus asper on CL. On SCL, however., Senecio vulgaris, belonging to the therophyta epeteia (overwintering in summer habit, was well developed in both the spring and summer plots, and showed an increase towards the second year in the fall plots only. In the later years of the experiment plots that had been started early in the year mostly were dominated by Poa pratensis ssp. angustifolia (or Quercus rubra, whereas plots that had been started late in the year mostly were dominated by Solidagn canadensis together with Artemsia vulgaris. The analyses of the transition events between the (subdominant species showed a variety of replacement patterns, but no determinated series of species following each other. It remains, therefore, unclear in what manner the differentiation between the terminal dominants may be related to the starting season.

  2. Two-Man Bobsled Push Start Analysis

    Lopes Alexandre Dias


    Full Text Available The importance of push start times on bobsled performance was evidenced by some studies, but at this moment there is no article to the authors’ knowledge that describes the bobsled push start. Thus, the objectives of this study were to describe the two-man bobsled push start, analyze the differences between teams, and estimate the most important variable analyzed. We hypothesized that the pilot and brakeman athletes’ movement patterns during a bobsled pushing start can be described. The images used in this study were obtained during the men’s two-man XIV World Championship of Bobsled (2004. Fifteen best teams participating in the championship were recorded, and four start runs for each team were analyzed. The videos were captured by two digital video cameras. The pilot athletes were analyzed during the moment that they touched the lateral push bar of the sled, and the brakemen were analyzed during the first take-off and first landing. The teams were pooled in three groups of five teams using the final ranking of pushing time. We concluded that there was a distinct pattern movement for pilots and brakemen. The initial position of the majority of the pilots was localized slightly behind the bar. After touching the lateral bar, the pilots remained in a semi-squat position, pushing the sled forward in a pattern of marching movement. All brakemen used the board attached to the track as a support for both feet at the start. The brakeman gave the greatest contribution to break the inertia of the sled. There was no significant difference of movement between the three groups analyzed for the pilot and the brakeman.

  3. Getting started with Microsoft Lync server 2013

    Volpe, Fabrizio


    This book has a practical approach with a lot of step-by-step guides and explanations as to where and why we're doing the various operations.Getting Started with Microsoft Lync Server 2013 is a starting point for system administrators, IT pros, unified communication technicians, and decision makers in companies or in the consultancy business. For people who have never managed Lync (or a U.C. product), the book will guide you through the basic concepts and mistakes. If you are already managing a Lync deployment you will find important explanations and ideas put together in a single text. If you

  4. Entrepreneur How to Start an Online Business

    Tobin, Lucy


    The secrets of the UK’s biggest online entrepreneurs revealed   Thinking of starting a business? Already have a business online and looking to take it to the next level? The wonderful world wide web has made creating a start-up that much easier. Thousands of people are out there reaping the rewards the web can bring. If you want to join them, you’ve come to the right place.  Profiling today’s foremost web entrepreneurs, Lucy Tobin - who meets successful business founders every week writing an enterprise column for The Evening Standard – takes us throug


    A. K. Esman


    Full Text Available Recent research and development show promising use of high-performance solid-state receivers of the electromagnetic radiation. These receivers are based on the low-barrier Schottky diodes. The approach to the design of the receivers on the basis of delta-doped low-barrier Schottky diodes with beam leads without bias is especially actively developing because for uncooled receivers of the microwave radiation these diodes have virtually no competition. The purpose of this work is to improve the main parameters and characteristics that determine the practical relevance of the receivers of mid-infrared electromagnetic radiation at the operating room temperature by modifying the electrodes configuration of the diode and optimizing the distance between them. Proposed original design solution of the integrated receiver of mid-infrared radiation on the basis of the low-barrier Schottky diodes with beam leads allows to effectively adjust its main parameters and characteristics. Simulation of the electromagnetic characteristics of the proposed receiver by using the software package HFSS with the basic algorithm of a finite element method which implemented to calculate the behavior of electromagnetic fields on an arbitrary geometry with a predetermined material properties have shown that when the inner parts of the electrodes of the low-barrier Schottky diode is performed in the concentric elliptical convex-concave shape, it can be reduce the reflection losses to -57.75 dB and the standing wave ratio to 1.003 while increasing the directivity up to 23 at a wavelength of 6.09 μm. At this time, the rounded radii of the inner parts of the anode and cathode electrodes are equal 212 nm and 318 nm respectively and the gap setting between them is 106 nm. These parameters will improve the efficiency of the developed infrared optical-promising and electronic equipment for various purposes intended for work in the mid-infrared wavelength range. 

  6. Systematic clustering of transcription start site landscapes

    Zhao, Xiaobei; Valen, Eivind; Parker, Brian J;


    Genome-wide, high-throughput methods for transcription start site (TSS) detection have shown that most promoters have an array of neighboring TSSs where some are used more than others, forming a distribution of initiation propensities. TSS distributions (TSSDs) vary widely between promoters...

  7. Getting started with OrientDB

    Tesoriero, Claudio


    A standard tutorial aimed at making you an OrientDB expert, through the use of practical examples, explained in a step-by-step format.Getting Started with OrientDB 1.3.0 is great for database designers, developers, and systems engineers. It is assumed that you are familiar with NoSQL concepts, Java, and networking principles.

  8. Single phase induction motor with starting performance

    Popescu, M.; Demeter, E. [Research Institute for Electrical Machines, ICPE-ME, Bucharest (Romania); Navrapescu, V. [University `Politehnica` Bucharest, Electrical Engineering Faculty Splaiul Independentei, Bucharest (Romania)


    The paper presents problems related to a special type of single phase induction motor. The main novelty consists in the use of a conducting (aluminium casted) shell distributed on the periferic region of the rotor. As a result the starting performance, as well as the rated ones, is much improved in comparison with the conventional construction. (orig.) 4 refs.

  9. An Alternative Starting Point for Fraction Instruction

    Cortina, José Luis; Višnovská, Jana; Zúñiga, Claudia


    We analyze the results of a study conducted for the purpose of assessing the viability of an alternative starting point for teaching fractions. The alternative is based on Freudenthal's insights about fraction as comparison. It involves portraying the entities that unit fractions quantify as always being apart from the reference unit, instead of…

  10. A strong start, a promising future

    Zihe Rao


    @@ Protein & Cell has made a very strong start in its first full year of publication, covering 12 monthly issues with a consistently high standard of content and production. Thanks to the contributors, editors, editorial board, editodal staff and publishers, both the scientific quality and the production quality of the journal have been outstanding.

  11. EU Emission Trading: Starting with Carbon Dioxide

    Vesterdal, Morten; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard


    The Commission of the European Union wants to start a limited emission trading scheme by 2005 within the Community to enable "learning-by-doing" prior to the Kyoto Protocol. This to accomplish the desired 8% target level for six different greenhouse gases. However, in the EU it is not clear whether...

  12. Addressing Tooth Decay in Head Start Children

    Knowlden, Adam P.; Hill, Lawrence F.; Alles-White, Monica L.; Cottrell, Randall R.


    Tooth decay is the most prevalent chronic disease of childhood. Oral health education and dental services are crucial to reducing the number of children afflicted with dental cavities. Due to limited access to preventative care, Head Start children are particularly vulnerable to tooth decay. This article outlines practical implications of a…

  13. EU Emission Trading: Starting with Carbon Dioxide

    Vesterdal, Morten; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard


    The Commission of the European Union wants to start a limited emission trading scheme by 2005 within the Community to enable "learning-by-doing" prior to the Kyoto Protocol. This to accomplish the desired 8% target level for six different greenhouse gases. However, in the EU it is not clear wheth...

  14. Jinde Lead lead smelting project starts construction


    <正>On Dec.20,the lead smelting project of Jiangxi Jinde Lead started construction in Dexin as a technical renovation project on environmental treatment of Jiangxi Metallurgical Group.The project is the one with the largest investment of Provincial Metallurgical Group in non-ferrous

  15. The Prickly Politics of School Starting Times.

    Wahlstrom, Kyla L.


    Tinkering with school schedules to accommodate adolescents' sleep patterns is politically risky. A University of Minnesota study analyzing stakeholders' attitudes toward later high school starting times showed that changing a school's schedule provokes as emotional a reaction as that of closing a school or changing its attendance area. Open…

  16. School Start Time and Teen Sleep.

    Wahlstrom, Kyla L.


    Sleep studies have shown that teenagers' internal clocks are incompatible with most high schools' early hours. Research in two Minnesota districts indicates that later school starting times can benefit teens and everyone dealing with them. Student participation in sports and other afterschool activities remained high. (MLH)

  17. Effects of sled towing on sprint starts.

    Cottle, Casey A; Carlson, Lara A; Lawrence, Michael A


    Sled towing is a popular method of sprint training. Researchers have struggled to identify a loading scheme that is most appropriate to improve sprint performance in the acceleration phase. The purpose of this study was to determine if loads of 10% body weight (BWT) or 20% BWT produced significantly greater propulsive ground reaction force (GRF) impulse, peak propulsive GRF, or a greater propulsive rate of force development (RFD) than an unweighted sprint start. Seventeen healthy court and field athletes (10 men, 7 women; 20.9 ± 1.1 years) completed 5 starts of each condition (unweighted, 10% BWT, 20% BWT). Participants began each start in an upright staggered stance. Propulsive GRF impulse was greater in the 20% BWT condition than the unweighted condition in both limbs and greater in the 20% BWT condition than the 10% BWT condition in the front leg only, and vertical GRF impulse was greater in the 20% BWT than the unweighted condition. In summary, our results suggest that a 10% BWT load is not sufficient to increase propulsive GRF impulse. A loading scheme of 20% BWT is sufficient to increase propulsive GRF impulse. Coaches seeking to improve sprint starts may observe improvements using a load of 20% BWT during training while towing a sled.

  18. The Lean and Global Start-up

    Tanev, Stoyan; Rasmussen, Erik Stavnsager

    Ventures research and research with a focus on the Lean Start-up company. It is our intention in this paper to give a short presentation of the two research streams and show how they can be merged into one with a focus on newly established technology oriented firms that are lean and global from...

  19. Starting New Schools: Lessons for Success.

    Jennings, Wayne B.

    Arguments for beginning new schools as a robust alternative to the incremental improvement of existing schools are presented in this paper. The educational improvement approach of starting new schools or programs, rather than making incremental improvements or generating comprehensive change in existing schools, is advocated. Two major types of…

  20. The Start of a Tech Revolution

    Dyrli, Kurt O.


    We are at the start of a revolution in the use of computers, one that analysts predict will rival the development of the PC in its significance. Companies such as Google, HP, Amazon, Sun Microsystems, Sony, IBM, and Apple are orienting their entire business models toward this change, and software maker SAS has announced plans for a $70 million…

  1. Starting with "I": Personal Essays by Teenagers.

    Estepa, Andrea, Ed.; Kay, Philip, Ed.

    In personal essays, teenagers express their views on serious subjects like violence, racism, and teen parenting, and discuss common teen experiences like dating, getting a job, and starting college. This collection contains the following: (1) "Brotherly Love" (Jessica Vicuna); (2) "How To Survive Shopping with Mom" (Chris Kanarick); (3) "A…

  2. Construction of Shanghai Chemical Park Started

    Wang Yan


    @@ Shanghai Chemical Industrial Park started construction on January 6, 2001 with the first pile driven for the 200,000-ton phenol acetone plant of Gaoqiao Branch,Sinopec Ltd. This is one of the largest industrial investment projects of the city of the country as well as the city at the beginning of the new century.

  3. Addressing Tooth Decay in Head Start Children

    Knowlden, Adam P.; Hill, Lawrence F.; Alles-White, Monica L.; Cottrell, Randall R.


    Tooth decay is the most prevalent chronic disease of childhood. Oral health education and dental services are crucial to reducing the number of children afflicted with dental cavities. Due to limited access to preventative care, Head Start children are particularly vulnerable to tooth decay. This article outlines practical implications of a…

  4. Getting started with Magento module development

    Ajzele, Branko


    This project-based tutorial gives you a strong foundation and guides you through practical, real-world examples.This book contains valuable insights for both newbies and already established Magento developers. This book is targeted at new and intermediate PHP developers starting afresh with Magento module development.

  5. Philadelphia's Independence Starts Here: Disability Arts Festival

    Smith, Mimi Kenney


    In tribute to Philadelphia's world-changing past, Festival partners dubbed the month-long Disability Arts Festival "Independence Starts Here." Through it, they hoped to begin to change the future for over 675,000 people with disabilities in the area and their families. Led by Amaryllis Theatre Company, which now also serves as VSA arts…

  6. No Promoting Effect of Ethyl Tertiary-butyl Ether (ETBE) on Rat Urinary Bladder Carcinogenesis Initiated with N-Butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl)nitrosamine.

    Hagiwara, Akihiro; Imai, Norio; Doi, Yuko; Suguro, Mayuko; Kawabe, Mayumi; Furukawa, Fumio; Nagano, Kasuke; Fukushima, Shoji


    The effects of ethyl tertiary-butyl ether (ETBE) on two-stage urinary bladder carcinogenesis in male F344 rats initiated with N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl)nitrosamine (BBN) were investigated at various dose levels with regard to possible promoting activity. Groups of 30 rats were given drinking water containing 500 ppm BBN, as an initiator, for 4 weeks and starting one week thereafter received ETBE by gavage (daily, 7 days/week) at dose levels of 0 (control), 100, 300, 500 or 1000 mg/kg/day until experimental week 36. No statistically significant differences in incidences of preneoplastic lesions, papillomas, and carcinomas of the urinary bladder were evident in rats treated with 100-1000 mg/kg/day ETBE as compared with control values. Furthermore, the average numbers of preneoplastic or neoplastic lesions per unit length of basement membrane in rats given 100-1000 mg/kg/day ETBE were also comparable to control values. However, papillomatosis of the urinary bladder was found in 4 out of 30 rats (13%) in the group given 1000 mg/kg/day ETBE, and soft stones in the urinary bladder were found in 3 out of these 4 rats. The results thus demonstrated that ETBE did not exert promotional activity on urinary bladder carcinogenesis. However, papillomatosis of the urinary bladder developed in small numbers of the rats given ETBE at 1000 mg/kg/day but not in rats given 500 mg/kg/day or lower doses.

  7. Early Start DENVER Model: A Meta - analysis

    Jane P. Canoy


    Full Text Available Each child with Autism Spectrum Disorder has different symptoms, skills and types of impairment or disorder with other children. This is why the word “spectrum” is included in this disorder. Eapen, Crncec, and Walter, 2013 claimed that there was an emerging evidence that early interventions gives the greatest capacity of child’s development during their first years of life as “brain plasticity” are high during this period. With this, the only intervention program model for children as young as 18 months that has been validated in a randomized clinical trial is “Early Start Denver Model” (ESDM. This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of the outcome of “Early Start Denver Model” (ESDM towards young children with Autism Spectrum Disorders. This study made use of meta-analysis method. In this study, the researcher utilized studies related to “Early Start Denver Model (ESDM” which is published in a refereed journal which are all available online. There were five studies included which totals 149 children exposed to ESDM. To examine the “pooled effects” of ESDM in a variety of outcomes, a meta-analytic procedure was performed after the extraction of data of the concrete outcomes. Comprehensive Meta Analysis Version 3.3.070 was used to analyze the data.  The effectiveness of the outcome of “Early Start Denver Model” towards young children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD highly depends on the intensity of intervention and the younger child age. This study would provide the basis in effectively implementing an early intervention to children with autism such as the “Early Start Denver Model” (ESDM that would show great outcome effects to those children that has “Autism Spectrum Disorder”.

  8. UWB communication receiver feedback loop

    Spiridon, Alex; Benzel, Dave; Dowla, Farid U.; Nekoogar, Faranak; Rosenbury, Erwin T.


    A novel technique and structure that maximizes the extraction of information from reference pulses for UWB-TR receivers is introduced. The scheme efficiently processes an incoming signal to suppress different types of UWB as well as non-UWB interference prior to signal detection. Such a method and system adds a feedback loop mechanism to enhance the signal-to-noise ratio of reference pulses in a conventional TR receiver. Moreover, sampling the second order statistical function such as, for example, the autocorrelation function (ACF) of the received signal and matching it to the ACF samples of the original pulses for each transmitted bit provides a more robust UWB communications method and system in the presence of channel distortions.

  9. Receiver-exciter controller design

    Jansma, P. A.


    A description of the general design of both the block 3 and block 4 receiver-exciter controllers for the Deep Space Network (DSN) Mark IV-A System is presented along with the design approach. The controllers are designed to enable the receiver-exciter subsystem (RCV) to be configured, calibrated, initialized and operated from a central location via high level instructions. The RECs are designed to be operated under the control of the DMC subsystem. The instructions are in the form of standard subsystem blocks (SSBs) received via the local area network (LAN). The centralized control provided by RECs and other DSCC controllers in Mark IV-A is intended to reduce DSN operations costs from the Mark III era.

  10. Factors influencing access to education, decision making, and receipt of preferred dialysis modality in unplanned dialysis start patients

    Machowska, Anna; Alscher, Mark Dominik; Vanga, Satyanarayana Reddy


    Objectives: Unplanned dialysis start (UPS) leads to worse clinical outcomes than planned start, and only a minority of patients ever receive education on this topic and are able to make a modality choice, particularly for home dialysis. This study aimed to determine the predictive factors for pat...

  11. Principios Multiculturales para los Programas Head Start (Multicultural Principles for Head Start Programs).

    Administration for Children, Youth, and Families (DHHS), Washington, DC. Head Start Bureau.

    This Spanish-language report outlines 10 multicultural principles for Head Start preschool programs and ancillary services. The report assets that Head Start programming should: (1) treat every child as an individual; (2) represent the cultural groups in the community; (3) emphasize accurate information about cultural groups and discard…

  12. Microwave Receivers for Fast-Ion Detection in Fusion Plasmas

    Furtula, Vedran

    collective Thomson scattering (CTS). The Danish CTS group has been involved in fusion plasma experiments for more than 10 years and the future plans will most probably include the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). Current CTS systems designed by the Danish group are specified...... are assessed. For the ITER HFS receiver we have designed and measured the quasioptical components that form a transmission link between the plasma and the radio frequency (RF) electronics. This HFS receiver is required to resolve the near parallel velocity components created by the alpha particles. Secondly...... have measured and analyzed all the receiver components starting from the two notch filters to the fifty square-law detector diodes. The receiver sensitivity is calculated from the system measurements and compared with the expected sensitivity based on the individual component measurements. Besides...

  13. The difference is in the start: impact of timing and start procedure on sprint running performance.

    Haugen, Thomas A; Tønnessen, Espen; Seiler, Stephen K


    The difference is in the start: impact of timing and start procedure on sprint running performance. The purpose of this study was to compare different sprint start positions and to generate correction factors between popular timing triggering methods on 40-m/40-yd sprint time. Fourteen female athletes (17 ± 1 years), personal best 100 m: 13.26 (±0.68) seconds and 11 male athletes (20 ± 5 years), personal best 100 m: 11.58 (±0.74) seconds participated. They performed 2 series of 3 40-m sprints in randomized order: (a) start from the block, measured by means of Brower audio sensor (BAS) and Dartfish video timing (DVT), (b) 3-point start, measured by using hand release pod (HR) and DVT, and (c) standing start, triggered by both photocell across starting line (SFC), and foot release (FR) plus DVT. Video analysis was performed by 2 independent observers and averaged. Simultaneous measurements at national athletics competitions demonstrated that DVT and BAS were equivalent to Omega Timing within the limits of precision of video timing (±0.01 seconds). Hand and floor timer triggering showed small but significant biases compared with movement captured from video (0.02-0.04 seconds), presumably because of sensitivity of pressure thresholds. Coefficient of variation for test-retest timing using different starting positions ranged from 0.7 to 1.0%. Compared with block starts reacting to gunfire, HR, SFC, and FR starts yielded 0.17 ± 0.09, 0.27 ± 0.12, and 0.69 ± 0.11 second faster times, respectively, over 40 m (all p sprint performances.

  14. Glutamine supplementation stimulates protein-synthetic and inhibits protein-degradative signaling pathways in skeletal muscle of diabetic rats.

    Adriana C Lambertucci

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigated the effect of glutamine (Gln supplementation on the signaling pathways regulating protein synthesis and protein degradation in the skeletal muscle of rats with streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetes. The expression levels of key regulatory proteins in the synthetic pathways (Akt, mTOR, GSK3 and 4E-BP1 and the degradation pathways (MuRF-1 and MAFbx were determined using real-time PCR and Western blotting in four groups of male Wistar rats; 1 control, non-supplemented with glutamine; 2 control, supplemented with glutamine; 3 diabetic, non-supplemented with glutamine; and 4 diabetic, supplemented with glutamine. Diabetes was induced by the intravenous injection of 65 mg/kg bw STZ in citrate buffer (pH 4.2; the non-diabetic controls received only citrate buffer. After 48 hours, diabetes was confirmed in the STZ-treated animals by the determination of blood glucose levels above 200 mg/dL. Starting on that day, a solution of 1 g/kg bw Gln in phosphate buffered saline (PBS was administered daily via gavage for 15 days to groups 2 and 4. Groups 1 and 3 received only PBS for the same duration. The rats were euthanized, and the soleus muscles were removed and homogenized in extraction buffer for the subsequent measurement of protein and mRNA levels. The results demonstrated a significant decrease in the muscle Gln content in the diabetic rats, and this level increased toward the control value in the diabetic rats receiving Gln. In addition, the diabetic rats exhibited a reduced mRNA expression of regulatory proteins in the protein synthesis pathway and increased expression of those associated with protein degradation. A reduction in the skeletal muscle mass in the diabetic rats was observed and was alleviated partially with Gln supplementation. The data suggest that glutamine supplementation is potentially useful for slowing the progression of muscle atrophy in patients with diabetes.

  15. To What Extent Do Head Start's Effects on Children's Language, Literacy, Mathematics, and Socio-Emotional Skills Vary across Individuals, Subgroups, and Centers?

    Bloom, Howard S.; Weiland, Christina


    Head Start is the largest publicly funded preschool program in the U.S., and one of its primary goals is to improve the school readiness of low-income children. As has been widely reported, the first randomized trial of Head Start in the program's history found some evidence that it is achieving this goal. Receiving one year of Head Start had…

  16. RFID receiver apparatus and method

    Scott, Jeffrey Wayne


    An RFID backscatter interrogator for transmitting data to an RFID tag, generating a carrier for the tag, and receiving data from the tag modulated onto the carrier, the interrogator including a single grounded-coplanar wave-guide circuit board and at least one surface mount integrated circuit supported by the circuit board.

  17. LU Peizhang receives Golay Award


    @@ Prof. LU Peizhang, an analytical chemist with the CAS Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, received the prestigious Golay Award at the 30th International Symposium on Capillary Chromatography opened on 5 June in Dalian, a port city in northeast China's Liaoning Province.

  18. Absorption Efficiency of Receiving Antennas

    Andersen, Jørgen Bach; Frandsen, Aksel


    A receiving antenna with a matched load will always scatter some power. This paper sets an upper and a lower bound on the absorption efficiency (absorbed power over sum of absorbed and scattered powers), which lies between 0 and 100% depending on the directivities of the antenna and scatter...

  19. Getting started with nopCommerce

    Atkinson, Brandon


    A friendly, tutorial style book, which will help you learn your way through creating a live storefront with nopCommerce in a step-by-step manner.Getting Started with nopCommerce is for anyone who wants to sell products online using nopCommerce. If you are a non-technical person and are discouraged by the complexity of this powerful e-commerce application, then this book is for you.

  20. New Start of “Psychological Thought”

    Stanislava Stoyanova


    Full Text Available The history and the mission of Psychological Thought are presented. The scientific journal “Psychological Thought” started its existence as an idea of the colleagues at the Department of Psychology at South-West University “Neofit Rilski” in 2006. Seven print issues were published from 2006 to 2009 (2 issues per year. Each issue included average ten articles published in Bulgarian or in English.

  1. Getting started with MariaDB

    Bartholomew, Daniel


    A practical, hands-on, beginner-friendly guide to installing and using MariaDB.Getting Started with MariaDB is for anyone who wants to learn more about databases in general or MariaDB in particular. No prior database experience is required. It is assumed that you have basic knowledge of software installation, editing files with a text editor, and using the command line and terminal.

  2. Starting and developing a surveying business

    Imber, Austen


    Starting and Developing a Surveying Business shows how surveyors can develop their own successful small business. For surveyors thinking of taking this step, guidance is provided on the pros and cons which will help the right decision to be made, and the key factors which help see the business through its early stages. For surveyors already running their own small business, consideration is given to factors which will help profitability and growth potential.

  3. New START: The Contentious Road to Ratification

    Elizabeth Zolotukhina


    Full Text Available Senate ratification of the New START treaty re-established effective bilateral inspection and monitoring of American and Russian nuclear holdings and has the potential to further enhance U.S.-Russian cooperation on key issues, including containing the Iranian nuclear program, and further reductions in the two countries' arsenals. Although the accord was widely heralded as a foreign policy success of the Obama administration, the contentious Senate ratification may impede future progress on arms control.

  4. Effect of Simvastatin on Renal Fibrosis after Unilateral Ureteral Obstruction in Rat

    M.H. Khayat Nouri


    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Comparative reductase inhibitors, such as simvastatin increase HDL-cholestrol and decrease serum triglyceride and cholesterol. It is widely recognized that statins have organ protective nature and most effective for organ damage progressing. Obstructive uropathy can be used to indicate any obstruction to urinary flow; which causes a developing of hydronephrosis, tubular atrophy and associated renal impairment. The aim of this study was evaluation of the simvastatin effect on renal fibrosis after unilateral ureteral obstruction in rat. Materials & Methods: In this experimental study, 50 adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO and randomly divided into five groups (ten rats in each group as follows: (1 control group; (2 UUO; (3 UUO/SIM; (4 Sham-operated; (5 Sham/SIM. Control animals received orally drug solvent by gavage for 15 days (started one day before operation. Unilateral ureteral obstruction was performed in groups 2 and 3 and sham operations were performed in groups 4 and 5. In group 2 animals received drug solvent and in group 3 animals received simvastatin (2 mg/kg/twice daily for 15 days (started one day before operation. Rats were sacrificed either at day 14 for histopathological evaluation with H&E, masson-trichrome and PAS technique. Results: In this investigation histopathologic evaluation approved that in UUO group, renal interstitial fibrosis, tubular epithelial necrosis, hemorrhage, interstitial infiltration of mononuclear cells, tubular atrophy, glumerular tufts expanding, periglomerular sclerosis, subcapsular fibrosis, glomerulosclerosis and peritubular capillaries edema were observed. But in simvastatin treated animals this histopatologic lesions and fibrosis significantly (p<0.05 decreased. There was no difference between control and sham groups.Conclusion: In this investigation our results showed that ureteral obstruction increased renal fibrosis and

  5. Effects of nutritional supplementation for HIV patients starting antiretroviral treatment

    Olsen, Mette Frahm; Abdissa, Alemseged; Kæstel, Pernille


    Objectives: To determine the effects of lipid based nutritional supplements with either whey or soy protein in patients with HIV during the first three months of antiretroviral treatment (ART) and to explore effects of timing by comparing supplementation at the start of ART and after three months...... delay. Design: Randomised controlled trial. Setting: Three public ART facilities in Jimma, Oromia region, Ethiopia. Participants: Adults with HIV eligible for ART with body mass index (BMI) >16. Intervention: Daily supplementation with 200 g (4600 kJ) of supplement containing whey or soy during either...... and CD3 and CD8 counts. Results: Of 318 patients enrolled, 210 (66%) were women, mean age was 33 (SD 9), and mean BMI was 19.5 (SD 2.4). At three months, participants receiving the supplements containing whey or soy had increased their lean body mass by 0.85 kg (95% confidence interval 0.16 kg to 1.53 kg...

  6. Agmatine promotes expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in brainstem facial nucleus in the rat facial nerve injury model

    Li Fang; Wenlong Luo


    BACKGROUND: Studies have shown that agmatine can reduce inhibition of neuronal regeneration by increasing cyclic adenosine monophosphate and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the hippocampus of morphine-dependent rats. The hypothesis that agmatine exerts similar effects on facial nerve injury deserves further analysis.OBJECTIVE: To study the effects of peritoneal agmatine injection on BDNF levels in the rat brainstem after facial nerve injury.DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: A controlled animal experiment was performed at the Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery at the Second Affiliated Hospital, Chongqing University of Medical Sciences (Chongqing, China), between October and December in 2007.MATERIALS: Twenty-four male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into a control, a lesion, and an agmatine treatment group, with eight rats in each group. Bilateral facial nerve anastomosis was induced in the lesion and agmatine treatment groups, while the control group remained untreated. A rat BDNF Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit was used to measure BDNF levels in the brainstem facial nucleus.METHODS: Starting on the day of lesion, the agmatine group received a peritoneal injection of 100 mg/kg agmatine, once per day, for a week, whereas rats in the lesion group received saline injections.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: BDNF levels in the brainstem containing facial nucleus were measured by ELISA.RESULTS: Twenty-four rats were included in the final analysis without any loss. Two weeks after lesion, BDNF levels were significantly higher in the lesion group than in the control group (P<0.01). A significant increase was noted in the agmatine group compared to the lesion group (P<0.01).CONCLUSION: Agmatine can substantially increase BDNF levels in the rat brainstem after facial nerve injury.

  7. Scintillation-Hardened GPS Receiver

    Stephens, Donald R.


    CommLargo, Inc., has developed a scintillation-hardened Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver that improves reliability for low-orbit missions and complies with NASA's Space Telecommunications Radio System (STRS) architecture standards. A software-defined radio (SDR) implementation allows a single hardware element to function as either a conventional radio or as a GPS receiver, providing backup and redundancy for platforms such as the International Space Station (ISS) and high-value remote sensing platforms. The innovation's flexible SDR implementation reduces cost, weight, and power requirements. Scintillation hardening improves mission reliability and variability. In Phase I, CommLargo refactored an open-source GPS software package with Kalman filter-based tracking loops to improve performance during scintillation and also demonstrated improved navigation during a geomagnetic storm. In Phase II, the company generated a new field-programmable gate array (FPGA)-based GPS waveform to demonstrate on NASA's Space Communication and Navigation (SCaN) test bed.

  8. Managing Medicare receivables after PIP.

    Loria, L S


    The luxury of PIP is gone and managing cash flow will become more important than ever before. The hospital industry has come a long way in the development of automated billing systems and related recordkeeping since PIP was first introduced. The performance of an operations review of the accounts receivable management system should improve the effectiveness and efficiency of operations and significantly improve cash flow.

  9. 76 FR 50813 - Major Capital Investment Projects; Guidance on News Starts/Small Starts Policies and Procedures


    ... Federal Transit Administration Major Capital Investment Projects; Guidance on News Starts/Small Starts... policy guidance on the New and Small Starts capital project review and evaluation process and criteria...) published by FTA in June 2010, which sought public comment on the New Starts and Small Starts project...

  10. Vitamin A supplementation in early life enhances the intestinal immune response of rats with gestational vitamin A deficiency by increasing the number of immune cells.

    Xia Liu

    Full Text Available Vitamin A is a critical micronutrient for regulating immunity in many organisms. Our previous study demonstrated that gestational or early-life vitamin A deficiency decreases the number of immune cells in offspring. The present study aims to test whether vitamin A supplementation can restore lymphocyte pools in vitamin A-deficient rats and thereby improve the function of their intestinal mucosa; furthermore, the study aimed to identify the best time frame for vitamin A supplementation. Vitamin A-deficient pregnant rats or their offspring were administered a low-dose of vitamin A daily for 7 days starting on gestational day 14 or postnatal day 1, day 14 or day 28. Serum retinol concentrations increased significantly in all four groups that received vitamin A supplementation, as determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. The intestinal levels of secretory immunoglobulin A and polymeric immunoglobulin receptor increased significantly with lipopolysaccharide challenge in the rats that received vitamin A supplementation starting on postnatal day 1. The rats in this group had higher numbers of CD8+ intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes, CD11C+ dendritic cells in the Peyer's patches and CD4+CD25+ T cells in the spleen compared with the vitamin A-deficient rats; flow cytometric analysis also demonstrated that vitamin A supplementation decreased the number of B cells in the mesenteric lymph nodes. Additionally, vitamin A supplementation during late gestation increased the numbers of CD8+ intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes and decreased the numbers of B lymphocytes in the mesenteric lymph nodes. However, no significant differences in lymphocyte levels were found between the rats in the other two vitamin A supplement groups and the vitamin A-deficient group. In conclusion, the best recovery of a subset of lymphocytes in the offspring of gestational vitamin A-deficient rats and the greatest improvement in the intestinal mucosal immune

  11. Diversity of MMSE MIMO Receivers

    Mehana, Ahmed Hesham


    In most MIMO systems, the family of waterfall error curves, calculated at different spectral efficiencies, are asymptotically parallel at high SNR. In other words, most MIMO systems exhibit a single diversity value for all {\\em fixed} rates. The MIMO MMSE receiver does not follow this pattern and exhibits a varying diversity in its family of error curves. This effect cannot be captured by DMT analysis, due to the fact that all fixed rates correspond to the same multiplexing gain, thus they cannot be differentiated within DMT analysis. This work analyzes this interesting behavior of the MMSE MIMO receiver and produces the MMSE MIMO diversity at each rate. The diversity of the quasi-static flat-fading MIMO channel consisting of any arbitrary number of transmit and receive antennas is fully characterized, showing that full spatial diversity is possible for all antenna configurations if and only if the rate is within a certain bound which is a function of the number of antennas. For other rate brackets, the avail...

  12. The Fragile Success of Team Start-ups

    Stam, Erik; Schutjens, Veronique


    This article describes the benefits and pitfalls of starting a firm with an entrepreneurial team, drawing on a longitudinal empirical analysis of the life course of 90 team start-ups and 1196 solo start-ups in the Netherlands. In the first three years of their existence, team start-ups perform better than solo start-ups on several success indicators. However, after this start phase, entrepreneurial teams face particular problems in realizing further growth. These team-specific bottlenecks can...

  13. Getting started with FortiGate

    Fabbri, Rosato


    This book is a step-by-step tutorial that will teach you everything you need to know about the deployment and management of FortiGate, including high availability, complex routing, various kinds of VPN working, user authentication, security rules and controls on applications, and mail and Internet access.This book is intended for network administrators, security managers, and IT pros. It is a great starting point if you have to administer or configure a FortiGate unit, especially if you have no previous experience. For people that have never managed a FortiGate unit, the book helpfully walks t

  14. Getting started with ownCloud

    Patawari, Aditya


    This is a standard, precise, and short tutorial for setting up ownCloud and includes advanced topics like encryption, user management, and server security. This ownCloud book would be an ideal starting point for anyone who wants to store their data and also share it.This book is for first time users as well as administrators who are interested or responsible for managing an ownCloud instance. You do not need any prior experience with any of the technology, including Linux/Windows, Apache/IIS, SQLite/MySQL, or even PHP. It is a beginner-friendly book, written with a first time user in mind.

  15. Start your own information marketing business

    Skrob, Robert


    Breaking down the information marketing world from A to Z, the undisputed info marketing expert offers professional strategies to set up a successful information marketing business. These businesses are easy to start, can be run from home, don't require any employees, need little cash outlay, can be run part-time, and can produce millions of dollars a year. Readers learn everything they need to jump into this lucrative field, creating an entirely new business that gives them added income or replaces their current salary entirely.

  16. China Starts Its Lunar Exploration Prbgram



    Why China Starts Lunar Exploration Program.Lunar exploration is always a subject of great interest, for the earth's I nearest neighbour probably holds the key to humanity's future subsistence and development. The unique mineral and energy resources on the moon are important supplement and reserve to the Earth resources, which will generate farreaching influence on the sustainable development of human society. The helium-3 resource unique to lunar soil is a clean, efficient, safe and cheap new-type nuclear fusion fuel, and it will help change the energy structure of human society.

  17. How To Start a Prep Physics Course

    Wall, Jesse D.


    At City College, we follow our mother institution, the University of California at Berkeley, in that we require high school physics as a prerequisite for general college physics and then provide a one-semester prep physics course as an alternative to meet this prerequisite. Many people have asked me how they can start such a course. In traveling about on my sabbatical, doing Physics Of Magic (1) at various schools, I have observed how various schools implement this prerequisite course. I will discuss my observations.

  18. Opening the insider's eye: starting action research


    This paper discusses the topic of getting started on a process of action research (AR). I hope that the paper encourages a few teachers to begin classroom investigations, because it is important for the TESOL and TEFL profession that we have more teacher-researchers. Only if we establish action research as a more attractive aspect of teaching can we avoid the almost complete separation between research on the one hand and practice on the other (Wallace 1991, p. 10). This gap between theory an...

  19. Robotics: Hephaestus is Starting all Over Again

    Laumond, Jean-Paul


    Hephaestus is starting all over again with new Pandoras. They are no longer of clay, but mecatronic. And they are animated. The roboticist keeps on asking the question of autonomy: what adaptability can we hope to give these new machines? The analogy between humans and machines has to be made; it cannot be avoided. In the end, does Hephaestus have the keys to knowledge? With his machines that adapt, that “decide” on their actions, what can he tell us about our own “functioning”? The question ...

  20. From Jam to Start-up

    Bering Kjæhr, Emil; Lyngbye Hvid Jensen, Jane; Schoenau-Fog, Henrik


    Production workshops such as game jams are popular ways of letting participants acquire hands-on knowledge and experience in producing an artifact or game prototype in a very limited timespan. Some of the games made at these production workshops are later published with great success, and create...... the foundation for new start-up companies. There are, however, an even larger group of very creative and innovative games and artifacts with great potential that go unpublished. This potentially leads to a loss of entrepreneurial opportunities and ultimately the jobs and careers such games could have fostered...

  1. Take Control of Getting Started with Dreamweaver

    Keller, Arnie


    Learn fundamental Web design principles and become comfortable working in Dreamweaver's complex interface! Dreamweaver 8 is a great Web design tool for pros, but newcomers may be overwhelmed by its interface or want to know more about how to work creatively and intelligently in the program. Help is at hand in Take Control of Getting Started with Dreamweaver, which offers a detailed tutorial for making your first site in Dreamweaver. Author Arnie Keller, who teaches Web design at the University of Victoria, shows you how to style type the smart way with CSS, create a sophisticated page layout

  2. Getting started with Zurb Foundation 4

    Patterson, Andrew D


    The book starts with the basics of Foundation and helps you build your skills as you advance from installation to design, configuration, and customization with examples at every step.This book will be of great benefit to web architects, designers, and builders. While it helps to be a programmer, it isn't necessary for this book. You should be familiar with the basic principles of responsive web design and have a desire to create a professional website that looks great on both mobile devices and regular displays.

  3. Getting started in 3D with Maya

    Watkins, Adam


    Deliver professional-level 3D content in no time with this comprehensive guide to 3D animation with Maya. With over 12 years of training experience, plus several award winning students under his belt, author Adam Watkins is the ideal mentor to get you up to speed with 3D in Maya. Using a structured and pragmatic approach Getting Started in 3D with Maya begins with basic theory of fundamental techniques, then builds on this knowledge using practical examples and projects to put your new skills to the test. Prepared so that you can learn in an organic fashion, each chapter builds on the know

  4. Getting started with the Lazarus IDE

    Person, Roderick


    This book is written in a simple, easy-to-understand format with lots of screenshots and step-by-step explanations.This book is geared toward developers that have a familiarity with Delphi or Free Pascal and would like to start using the open source Lazarus Integrated Development Environment. You should have knowledge of creating a console and GUI applications as well as creating basic components. Example source code and projects are provided to help learn the differences between Delphi and Lazarus projects.

  5. Laser phototherapy improves early stage of cutaneous wound healing of rats under hyperlipidic diet.

    Uzêda-E-Silva, Virgínia Dias; Rodriguez, Tania Tavares; Rocha, Isadora Almeida Rios; Xavier, Flávia Calo Aquino; Dos Santos, Jean Nunes; Cury, Patrícia Ramos; Ramalho, Luciana Maria Pedreira


    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of laser photobiomodulation in cutaneous healing of rats under a hyperlipidic diet. Forty-eight Wistar Albinus rats, weaned, received standard diet (SD) or hyperlipidic diet (HD) for 20 weeks. The groups were divided into SD rats and HD rats, SD-irradiated rats (LSD), and HD-irradiated rats (LHD). Standard cutaneous wound (1 cm(2)) was created on the dorsum of each rat. The irradiation started immediately after surgery and every 48 h for 7 or 14 days (λ660 nm, 40 mW, 6 J/cm(2), ϕ 0,04 cm(2), CW), when they were killed under deep anesthesia. The specimens were removed, routinely processed, stained with hematoxylin/eosin (H/E), and evaluated by light microscopy. Rats fed with hyperlipidic diet had greater intensity in the inflammatory process and prolonged hyperemia. At day 7, the intensity of inflammation was reduced in LSD and LHD groups when compared to their control groups, SD (p = 0.002) and HD (p = 0.02). There was an increase in fibroblast proliferation and collagen deposition, especially in the LHD group. At day 14, the HD group presented more intensive hyperemia than the SD group. It can be concluded that the hyperlipidic diet modified the inflammation pattern in wound healing and that laser light has a positive biomodulative effect on the healing process only in early stages.

  6. LHC Report: Rocky re-start

    Barbara Holzer for the LHC Team


    A rocky re-start with beam followed a successful machine development period and the first technical stop of 2012. Today, Friday 11 May, the machine began running again with 1380 bunches.   A short, two-day machine development period was successfully completed on 21-22 April. It focused on topics relevant for the 2012 physics beam operation. This was then followed by a five-day technical stop, the first of the year. The technical stop finished on time on Friday 26 April. The re-start with beam was somewhat tortuous and hampered by an unlucky succession of technical faults leading to extended periods of downtime. The planned intensity increase was put on hold for three days with the machine operating with 1092 bunches and a moderate bunch intensity of 1.3x1011 protons. This delivered a reasonable peak luminosity of 3.6x1033 cm-2s-1 to ATLAS and CMS. Higher than usual beam losses were observed in the ramp and squeeze, and time was required to investigate the causes and to implement mitigati...

  7. Giving start-ups a helping hand


    The French-Swiss foundation for research and technology (FFSRT) joined forces with CERN to organise an information day on setting up new businesses, at the Globe of Science and Innovation. The participants heard talks by entrepreneurs who started out at CERN, sharing their experiences and difficulties.CERN is a hot-bed of high-tech skills and know-how, and the Organization works actively to transfer this expertise to society. Some such innovations can lead to new business start-ups, but it can be extremely difficult to obtain the information and support you need to find your way through the inevitable administrative labyrinth. By opening its doors to the Fondation franco-suisse pour la recherche et la technologie (FFSRT) and hosting this "Entrepreneurial Day" on 7 March, CERN has clearly flagged its desire to assist budding entrepreneurs. The day was jointly kicked off by Olga Hooft, General Manager of the FFSRT, and Maximilian Metzger, CERN’s Se...


    N. G. Tagiltseva


    Full Text Available The paper considers the issue of children preparation for school in so called starting schools. In author’s opinion, the arts disciplines such as music, drawing and choreography can develop the aesthetic sense, moral qualities, more optimistic world outlook and respectful  attitude; the child develops creative skills and beauty perception both in fine arts and wild life.The author looks at the problems of planning and organizing the music training of preschool children, the different requirements for and concepts of the preschool and primary school normative documents being analyzed. The paper substantiates the effectiveness of poly-artistic and activity approaches to the split-level teaching, in particular – the method of projecting the familiar actions onto some sort of artistic activities. Based on the succession of preschool and primary school training, the author specifies the goals of music classes in starting schools, and outlines the most relevant game activities of role plays, didactic plays and contests.The paper is addressed to preschool and primary school teachers, music teachers, as well as methodologists and researchers dealing with preschool teaching. 

  9. Bauxite slurry pipeline: start up operation

    Othon, Otilio; Babosa, Eder; Edvan, Francisco; Brittes, Geraldo; Melo, Gerson; Janir, Joao; Favacho, Orlando; Leao, Marcos; Farias, Obadias [Vale, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Goncalves, Nilton [Anglo Ferrous Brazil S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)


    The mine of Miltonia is located in Paragominas-PA, in the north of Brazil. Bauxite slurry pipeline starts at the Mine of Miltonia and finishes in the draining installation of Alunorte refinery at the port of Barcarena-PA, located approximately 244km away from the mine. The pipeline runs over seven cities and passes below four great rivers stream beds. The system was designed for an underground 24 inches OD steel pipe to carry 9.9 million dry metric tonnes per annum (dMTAs) of 50.5% solid concentration bauxite slurry, using only one pumping station. The system is composed by four storage tanks and six piston diaphragm pumps, supplying a flow of 1680 m3/h. There is a cathodic protection system along the pipeline extension to prevent external corrosion and five pressure monitoring stations to control hydraulic conditions, there is also a fiber optic cable interconnection between pump station and terminal station. Pipeline Systems Incorporated (PSI) was the designer and followed the commissioning program of the start up operations. This paper will describe the beginning of the pipeline operations, technical aspects of the project, the operational experiences acquired in these two years, the faced problems and also the future planning. (author)

  10. Factors Associated with Unplanned Dialysis Starts in Patients followed by Nephrologists: A Retropective Cohort Study.

    Pierre Antoine Brown

    Full Text Available The number of patients starting dialysis is increasing world wide. Unplanned dialysis starts (patients urgently starting dialysis in hospital is associated with increased costs and high morbidity and mortality. Risk factors for starting dialysis urgently in hospital have not been well studied. The primary objective of this study was to identify risk factors for unplanned dialysis starts in patients followed in a multidisciplinary chronic kidney disease (CKD clinic. We performed a retrospective cohort study of 649 advanced CKD patients followed in a multidisciplinary CKD clinic at a tertiary care hospital from January 01, 2010 to April 30, 2013. Patients were classified as unplanned start (in hospital or elective start. Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify variables associated with unplanned dialysis initiation. 184 patients (28.4% initiated dialysis, of which 76 patients (41.3% initiated dialysis in an unplanned fashion and 108 (58.7% starting electively. Unplanned start patients were more likely to have diabetes (68.4% versus 51.9%; p = 0.04, CAD (42.1% versus 24.1%; p = 0.02, congestive heart failure (36.8% versus 17.6%; p = 0.01, and were less likely to receive modality education (64.5% vs 89.8%; p < 0.01 or be assessed by a surgeon for access creation (40.8% vesrus 78.7% p < 0.01. On multivariable analysis, higher body mass index (OR 1.07, 95% CI 1.02, 1.13, and a history of congestive heart failure (OR 2.41, 95% CI 1.09, 5.41 were independently associated with an unplanned start. Unplanned dialysis initiation is common among advanced CKD patients, even if they are followed in a multidisciplinary chronic kidney disease clinic. Timely education and access creation in patients at risk may lead to lower costs and less morbidity and mortality.

  11. Dish stirling solar receiver combustor test program

    Bankston, C. P.; Back, L. H.


    The operational and energy transfer characteristics of the Dish Stirling Solar Receiver (DSSR) combustor/heat exchanger system was evaluated. The DSSR is designed to operate with fossil fuel augmentation utilizing a swirl combustor and cross flow heat exchanger consisting of a single row of 4 closely spaced tubes that are curved into a conical shape. The performance of the combustor/heat exchanger system without a Stirling engine was studied over a range of operating conditions and output levels using water as the working fluid. Results show that the combustor may be started under cold conditions, controlled safety, and operated at a constant air/fuel ratio (10 percent excess air) over the required range of firing rates. Furthermore, nondimensional heat transfer coefficients based on total heat transfer are plotted versus Reynolds number and compared with literature data taken for single rows of closely spaced tubes perpendicular to cross flow. The data show enhanced heat transfer for the present geometry and test conditions. Analysis of the results shows that the present system meets specified thermal requirements, thus verifying the feasibility of the DSSR combustor design for final prototype fabrication.

  12. Immunological basis of septal fibrosis of the liver in Capillaria hepatica-infected rats

    Lemos Q.T.


    Full Text Available Rats infected with the helminth Capillaria hepatica regularly develop septal fibrosis of the liver similar to that induced by repeated ip injections of pig serum. Fibrosis starts when the focal parasitic lesions begin to show signs of resorption, thus suggesting an immunologically mediated pathogenesis of this fibrosis. To explore this possibility, the development of C. hepatica-related hepatic fibrosis was observed in rats exposed to worm antigens from the first neonatal day onward. Wistar rats (150 g were either injected ip with an extract of C. hepatica eggs (protein concentration: 1 mg/ml or received immature eggs by gavage from the first neonatal day until adult life and were then infected with 500 embryonated eggs. Changes were monitored on the basis of serum levels of anti-worm antibodies and hepatic histopathology. Rats submitted to immunological oral tolerance markedly suppressed C. hepatica-related serum antibodies and septal fibrosis of the liver when infected with the helminth later on. Tolerance trials with ip injections of worm antigens gave essentially negative results. The partial suppression of septal fibrosis of the liver after the induction of immunological tolerance to C. hepatica antigens in rats indicates an immunological basis for the fibrosis and emphasizes the importance of immunological factors in the pathogenesis of hepatic fibrosis.

  13. The Effect of Instructional Supervision by an Operating Room Assistant on First-Case Starts.

    Pan, Xiaohua; Zhang, Jun; Dai, Chen; Si, Yibing


    Delays in starting first cases of the day are a common topic associated with high economic costs. This study aimed to determine if an operating room (OR) assistant using an instructional supervision program could reduce the tardiness of first-case starts. A prospective study was conducted. Data from four ORs were used to compare the effectiveness of an instructional intervention to reduce delays in starting first cases of the day. The first cases in two ORs received instructional supervision by an OR. The primary endpoint was the percentage of first cases that started on time. Other endpoints were the percentage of the team work score of OR staff and the percentage of patient satisfaction score. Over 48 weeks, the effect of instructional supervision was evaluated in 960 first-case starts. In the instructional supervision group (n = 480), the percentage of first cases that started on time increased significantly (92.1% vs 71.7%; P < .001), and there was a higher percentage of the team work score (84.4% vs 76.7%; P < .01) and patient satisfaction score (88.3% vs 79.4%; P < .001). Instructional supervision by an OR assistant can make a potential improvement in our on-time first-case starts per day. Copyright © 2016 American Society of PeriAnesthesia Nurses. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Broadband direct RF digitization receivers

    Jamin, Olivier


    This book discusses the trade-offs involved in designing direct RF digitization receivers for the radio frequency and digital signal processing domains.  A system-level framework is developed, quantifying the relevant impairments of the signal processing chain, through a comprehensive system-level analysis.  Special focus is given to noise analysis (thermal noise, quantization noise, saturation noise, signal-dependent noise), broadband non-linear distortion analysis, including the impact of the sampling strategy (low-pass, band-pass), analysis of time-interleaved ADC channel mismatches, sampling clock purity and digital channel selection. The system-level framework described is applied to the design of a cable multi-channel RF direct digitization receiver. An optimum RF signal conditioning, and some algorithms (automatic gain control loop, RF front-end amplitude equalization control loop) are used to relax the requirements of a 2.7GHz 11-bit ADC. A two-chip implementation is presented, using BiCMOS and 65nm...

  15. A final report on the Phase 1 testing of a molten-salt cavity receiver

    Chavez, J M [ed.; Smith, D C [Babcock and Wilcox Co., Barberton, OH (United States). Nuclear Equipment Div.


    This report describes the design, construction, and testing of a solar central receiver using molten nitrate salt as a heat exchange fluid. Design studies for large commercial plants (30--100 MWe) have shown molten salt to be an excellent fluid for solar thermal plants as it allows for efficient thermal storage. Plant design studies concluded that an advanced receiver test was required to address uncertainties not covered in prior receiver tests. This recommendation led to the current test program managed by Sandia National Laboratories for the US Department of Energy. The 4.5 MWt receiver is installed at Sandia National Laboratories' Central Receiver Test Facility in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The receiver incorporates features of large commercial receiver designs. This report describes the receiver's configuration, heat absorption surface (design and sizing), the structure and supporting systems, and the methods for control. The receiver was solar tested during a six-month period at the Central Receiver Test Facility in Albuquerque, NM. The purpose of the testing was to characterize the operational capabilities of the receiver under a number of solar operating and stand-by conditions. This testing consisted of initial check-out of the systems, followed by steady-state performance, transient receiver operation, receiver operation in clouds, receiver thermal loss testing, receiver start-up operation, and overnight thermal conditioning tests. This report describes the design, fabrication, and results of testing of the receiver.

  16. 低氧训练大鼠骨骼肌组织低氧诱导因子1对血管新生的影响%Effects of hypoxia inducible factor 1 on angiogenesis in skeletal muscle tissues of rats receiving hypoxia training

    邹志兵; 毛淑章; 郑澜


    背景:低氧诱导因子1是一种在氧平衡调节中起关键作用的转录因子,与机体的耐缺氧能力密切相关.目的:观察低氧训练大鼠骨骼肌组织中低氧诱导因子1和血管内皮CD34的蛋白表达,探讨低氧诱导因子1在促进骨骼肌组织血管形成中的作用.方法:将健康雄性SD大鼠60只,随机分为6组:常氧对照组、低氧不运动组、常氧训练组、低住高练组、高住低练组和高住高练低练组.运动组采用10 周递增负荷跑台运动训练,每周训练6 d,运动量由第1 周的速度为15 m/min、持续时间为25 min 递增至第10 周速度为28 m/min、持续时间为50 min,低练组每周二、四、六在相当于海拔1 500 m的低氧环境中训练,并且在低氧环境中居住,低氧程度由第1 周相当于海拔1 800 m 递增至第10 周相当于海拔3 600 m.结果与结论:低氧状态下,低氧诱导因子1有大量的蛋白表达,低氧复合运动表达更多,而CD34 蛋白表达只发生在常氧运动组和低氧训练组.提示低氧诱导因子1是促进骨骼肌组织血管新生的一种重要因子,但须结合运动才能产生积极的作用.%BACKGROUND: Hypoxia inducible factor 1 is a kind of transcription factor which plays a crucial role in the organism's adaptation to changing oxygen tensions. It is closely related to the organism resistance to anoxia.OBJECTIVE: To detect the expression of hypoxia inducible factor 1 and vascular endothelial CD34 protein expression in skeletal muscle tissues of rats receiving hypoxic training; to explore the effects of hypoxia inducible factor 1 on angiogenesis in skeletal muscle tissues.METHODS: A total of 60 healthy male SD rats were randomly divided into six groups: normoxic control group, hypoxic sedentary group, normoxic training group, hypoxic residence plus hyperoxic training group, hyperoxic residence plus hypoxic training group and hyperoxic residence plus hyperoxic/hypoxic training group. Rats in training group

  17. Biomechanical analysis of different starting strategies utilized during cross-country skiing starts.

    Wiltmann, Victor Wennemar; Holmberg, Hans-Christer; Pelttari, Pasi; Mikkola, Jussi; Häkkinen, Keijo; Ohtonen, Olli; Linnamo, Vesa


    The present study was designed to analyse and compare the kinetics and kinematics associated with three different starting strategies during classic cross-country ski racing. Inside a ski tunnel, 12 elite male skiers performed three sets of three 38 m starts. Each set included one start using: double poling only (DP), diagonal stride only (DIA) and freely chosen (FREE) (i.e. where subjects used the strategy or combination of strategies they felt was fastest) in random order. The first 18 m was performed on a series of force plates that measured horizontal and vertical forces followed by 20 m of a standard snow track. Additionally, cycle characteristics and joint angles were measured. DIA and FREE were faster over 38 m than DP (P skied faster when using only DIA for the entire 38 m. Furthermore, the sum duration and frequency of propulsive contacts over the first 18 m was less in DP than DIA and FREE (P < .01). In conclusion, differences between the starting strategies examined was especially pronounced during the initial cycles. Transition from DIA to DP during the start also slowed the skiers, but optimal timing for such a transition was not elucidated.

  18. 46 CFR 112.50-3 - Hydraulic starting.


    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hydraulic starting. 112.50-3 Section 112.50-3 Shipping... POWER SYSTEMS Emergency Diesel and Gas Turbine Engine Driven Generator Sets § 112.50-3 Hydraulic starting. A hydraulic starting system must meet the following: (a) The hydraulic starting system must be...

  19. Start-up Strategy for Continuous Bioreactors

    A.C. da Costa


    Full Text Available Abstract - The start-up of continuous bioreactors is solved as an optimal control problem. The choice of the dilution rate as the control variable reduces the dimension of the system by making the use of the global balance equation unnecessary for the solution of the optimization problem. Therefore, for systems described by four or less mass balance equations, it is always possible to obtain an analytical expression for the singular arc as a function of only the state variables. The steady state conditions are shown to satisfy the singular arc expression and, based on this knowledge, a feeding strategy is proposed which leads the reactor from an initial state to the steady state of maximum productivity

  20. The UK sugar tax - a healthy start?

    Jones, C M


    The unexpected announcement by the UK Chancellor of the Exchequer of a levy on sugar sweetened beverages (SSBs) on the 16 March 2016, should be welcomed by all health professionals. This population based, structural intervention sends a strong message that there is no place for carbonated drinks, neither sugared nor sugar-free, in a healthy diet and the proposed levy has the potential to contribute to both general and dental health. The sugar content of drinks exempt from the proposed sugar levy will still cause tooth decay. Improving the proposed tax could involve a change to a scaled volumetric tax of added sugar with a lower exemption threshold. External influences such as the Common Agricultural Policy and the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership may negate the benefits of the sugar levy unless it is improved. However, the proposed UK sugar tax should be considered as a start in improving the nation's diet.

  1. Starting point anchoring effects in choice experiments

    Ladenburg, Jacob; Olsen, Søren Bøye

    Anchoring is acknowledged as a potential source of considerable bias in Dichotomous Choice Contingent Valuation studies. Recently, another stated preference method known as Choice Experiments has gained in popularity as well as the number of applied studies. However, as the elicitation...... of preferences in Choice Experiments resembles the Dichotomous Choice format, there is reason to suspect that Choice Experiments are equally vulnerable to anchoring bias. Employing different sets of price levels in a so-called Instruction Choice Set presented prior to the actual choice sets, the present study...... finds that preferences elicited by Choice Experiments can be subject to starting point anchoring bias. Different price levels provoked significantly different distributions of choice in two otherwise identical choice set designs. On a more specific level, the results indicate that the anchoring...

  2. Starting point anchoring effects in choice experiments

    Ladenburg, Jacob; Olsen, Søren Bøye

    of preferences in Choice Experiments resembles the Dichotomous Choice format, there is reason to suspect that Choice Experiments are equally vulnerable to anchoring bias. Employing different sets of price levels in a so-called Instruction Choice Set presented prior to the actual choice sets, the present study......Anchoring is acknowledged as a potential source of considerable bias in Dichotomous Choice Contingent Valuation studies. Recently, another stated preference method known as Choice Experiments has gained in popularity as well as the number of applied studies. However, as the elicitation...... finds that preferences elicited by Choice Experiments can be subject to starting point anchoring bias. Different price levels provoked significantly different distributions of choice in two otherwise identical choice set designs. On a more specific level, the results indicate that the anchoring...

  3. Getting started with LevelDB

    Dent, Andy


    The book is a concise guide for using LevelDB. It explains database concepts and the use of C++, ranging from the basics all the way to high level topics in an easy to follow, step-by-step format.The book is meant for developers who want an embedded database for their applications. Experienced programmers can pick up on the sophisticated data mapping patterns and tuning tips.Getting Started with LevelDB requires a minimal background in programming in C++ or Objective-C for OS/X or iOS and familiarity with XCode. Therefore it teaches enough C++ to use LevelDB without presuming any C++ knowledge

  4. Re-starting an Arnoldi iteration

    Lehoucq, R.B. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)


    The Arnoldi iteration is an efficient procedure for approximating a subset of the eigensystem of a large sparse n x n matrix A. The iteration produces a partial orthogonal reduction of A into an upper Hessenberg matrix H{sub m} of order m. The eigenvalues of this small matrix H{sub m} are used to approximate a subset of the eigenvalues of the large matrix A. The eigenvalues of H{sub m} improve as estimates to those of A as m increases. Unfortunately, so does the cost and storage of the reduction. The idea of re-starting the Arnoldi iteration is motivated by the prohibitive cost associated with building a large factorization.

  5. Therapeutic effect of 15-deoxyspergualin on acute graft rejection detected by T P nuclear magnetic resonance spectrography, and its effect on rat heart transplantation

    Suzuki, S.; Kanashiro, M.; Watanabe, H.; Amemiya, H.


    We investigated the effect of 15-deoxyspergualin (DSG) on graft rejection, starting administration at the onset of rejection and on the induction of immunologic unresponsiveness. Hearts from WKAH rats were transplanted into the neck of ACI rats. The energy metabolism of the grafted hearts was followed by T P nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The day that energy metabolism started to fall was defined as the onset of rejection, and intraperitoneal administration of DSG was initiated at 5 mg/kg/day for 15 days from this day. The grafted heart arrested in 2 of 10 rats 9 and 11 days after transplantation, respectively, but the remaining 8 recovered from rejection and 5 of them showed evidence of immunologic unresponsiveness. Of 10 rats treated with DSG from the day of transplantation, only 1 rat showed evidence of unresponsiveness. The initiation of DSG treatment from the onset of rejection resulted in a higher percentage of induction of unresponsiveness. Therefore, DSG was considered to specifically inhibit lymphocyte clone expansion at the onset of rejection. Spleen cells obtained from recipients 7-10 days after the end of DSG treatment were administered to syngeneic ACI rats grafted with WKAH hearts. Graft survival was significantly prolonged, but long-term unresponsiveness could not be transferred. However, immunologic unresponsiveness could be adoptively transferred in 3 of 5 rats receiving spleen cells from syngeneic rats that had recovered from rejection after DSG treatment and had acquired long-term unresponsiveness. These results suggest that suppressor cells are resistant to DSG and are spared and participate in the maintenance of immunologic unresponsiveness.

  6. When to start: not so fast

    Lundgren J


    Full Text Available It remains controversial whether and, if so, the extent to which antiretroviral therapy (ART results in net benefit if used by HIV-positive persons with a high CD4 count, particularly those with early HIV infection. This controversy is primarily reflecting lack of solid evidence from randomized controlled trials. Currently published trials have compared early ART with initiation of ART below currently globally accepted thresholds for initiation (i.e. CD4 count at 350 cells/µL and, hence, are unable to inform this discussion. Analyses on large observational studies that have attempted to address this question have shown inconsistent results; therefore, those results are considered low-quality evidence, as per the GRADE criteria used by, for example, WHO when formulating guidelines. In resource-constrained regions, not even observational data are available to inform this question. The START study is underway to answer this question. Data remain blinded, but START may show net harm from early use of ART; such a result would severely undermine use of ART as prevention in early HIV infection. Prescription of any type of medicine is guided by the principle of “do no harm” – that is, “the doctor should not prescribe medications unless s/he knows that the treatment is unlikely to be harmful.” Hence, the balance of risk/benefit to individuals versus prevention benefit is important to accurately determine, and current guidelines of generally initiating ART once the patient develops HIV-related symptoms or the CD4 count drops to levels around 350 cells/µL should be adhered to until further evidence has emerged.

  7. A cryogenic receiver for EPR.

    Narkowicz, R; Ogata, H; Reijerse, E; Suter, D


    Cryogenic probes have significantly increased the sensitivity of NMR. Here, we present a compact EPR receiver design capable of cryogenic operation. Compared to room temperature operation, it reduces the noise by a factor of ≈2.5. We discuss in detail the design and analyze the resulting noise performance. At low microwave power, the input noise density closely follows the emission of a cooled 50Ω resistor over the whole measurement range from 20K up to room temperature. To minimize the influence of the microwave source noise, we use high microwave efficiency (≈1.1-1.7mTW(-1/2)) planar microresonators. Their efficient conversion of microwave power to magnetic field permits EPR measurements with very low power levels, typically ranging from a few μW down to fractions of nW. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. CERN physicist receives Einstein Medal


    On 29 June the CERN theorist Gabriele Veneziano was awarded the prestigious Albert Einstein Medal for significant contributions to the understanding of string theory. This award is given by the Albert Einstein Society in Bern to individuals whose scientific contributions relate to the work of Einstein. Former recipients include exceptional physicists such as Murray Gell-Mann last year, but also Stephen Hawking and Victor Weisskopf. Gabriele Veneziano, a member of the integrated CERN Theory Team since 1977, led the Theory Division from 1994 to 1997 and has already received many prestigious prizes for his outstanding work, including the Enrico Fermi Prize (see CERN Courier, November 2005), the Dannie Heineman Prize for mathematical physics of the American Physical Society in 2004 (see Bulletin No. 47/2003), and the I. Ya. Pomeranchuk Prize of the Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics (Moscow) in 1999.

  9. Protective effect of the combination of glutamine and arginine on intestinal barrier function in rats receiving fluorouracil chemotherapy%谷氨酰胺和精氨酸联合应用对化疗后大鼠肠屏障的保护作用

    雷福明; 段学宁; 任志忠; 崔士华


    Objective To investigate the protective effect of the combination of glutamine (Gln) and ar-ginine (Arg) on intestinal barrier function in rats receiving fluorouracil (5-FU) chemotherapy.Methods Totally 40 male SD rats receiving 5-FU chemotherapy were equally randomized into four groups:enteral nutrition group,Gln group (enteral nutrition+Gln),Arg group (enteral nutrition+Arg),and Arg+Gln group (enteral nutri-tion+Arg+Gln).Observe the changes post chemotherapy such as the changes of body weight and urine lactulose/mannitol ratio before and after chemotherapy were recorded.On the 8 th post-therapy day,the blood endotoxin level in portal vein was measured,and lymph nodes and blood in portal vein were taken for bacterial culture;colon and jejunum specimens were also taken to measure the height of jejunum villus and the thickness of colon and jejunum.Results Body weights of Gln group,Arg group,and Arg+Gln group significantly increased after chemotherapy (P0.05).Lactulose/manni-tol ratio in each group significantly increased after chemotherapy (P0.05).The blood endotoxin level in portal vein was signifi-cantly higher in enteral nutrition group than in other groups (P=0.000);the endotoxin level was significantly lower in Gln group than in Arg group (P=O.035) and Arg+Gln group (P=0.000);however,no such differ-ence was found between Arg group and Arg+Gln group (P=0.109).The height of jejunum villus and the thick-ness of jejunum were significantly lower in enteral nutrition group than those in the other groups (P=O.000);the thickness of colon was significantly lower in enteral nutrition group than those in Arg group and Arg+Gln group (P=0.000);however,no such difference was found when compared with Gln group (P=0.058).The thickness of colon (P=0.040) and jejunum (P=0.010) was significantly higher in Gln group than that in Arg group;but there was no significant difference in term of the height of jejunum villus (P=0.286).Compared with Arg+Gln group,the thickness of jejunum

  10. Effect of Cocoa Butter and Sunflower Oil Supplementation on Performance, Immunoglobulin, and Antioxidant Vitamin Status of Rats

    Ebru Yıldırım; Miyase Çınar; İlkay Yalçınkaya; Hüsamettin Ekici; Nurgül Atmaca; Enes Güncüm


    This study investigated the effects of cocoa butter and sunflower oil alone and in combination on performance, some biochemical parameters, immunoglobulin, and antioxidant vitamin status in Wistar rats. Forty-eight male rats were assigned to four groups, consisting of 12 rats with 3 replicates. Control received balanced rat diet without oil, cocoa butter group received 3.5% cocoa butter, sunflower oil group received 3.5% sunflower oil, the last group received 1.75% sunflower oil + 1.75% cocoa...

  11. Photoemission starting of induction rf-driven multicusp ion sources

    Pickard, D. S.; Leung, K. N.; Perkins, L. T.; Ponce, D. M.; Young, A. T.


    It has been demonstrated that pulsed and continuous wave, rf-driven hydrogen discharges can be started with photoemission. The extracted H- current from a photoemission-started plasma has been investigated and does not differ significantly from that of a filament-started plasma. The minimum pressure for photoemissive starting was found to be higher than that of filament starting, 17 mTorr compared to 7 mTorr, respectively, in this particular configuration.

  12. Extract of mangosteen increases high density lipoprotein levels in rats fed high lipid

    Dwi Laksono Adiputro


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND In cardiovascular medicine, Garcinia mangostana has been used as an antioxidant to inhibit oxidation of low density lipoproteins and as an antiobesity agent. The effect of Garcinia mangostana on hyperlipidemia is unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of an ethanolic extract of Garcinia mangostana pericarp on lipid profile in rats fed a high lipid diet. METHODS A total of 40 rats were divided into five groups control, high lipid diet, and high lipid diet + ethanolic extract of Garcinia mangostana pericarp at dosages of 200, 400, and 800 mg/kg body weight. The control group received a standard diet for 60 days. The high lipid diet group received standard diet plus egg yolk, goat fat, cholic acid, and pig fat for 60 days with or without ethanolic extract of Garcinia mangostana pericarp by the oral route. After 60 days, rats were anesthesized with ether for collection of blood by cardiac puncture. Analysis of blood lipid profile comprised colorimetric determination of cholesterol, triglyceride, low density lipoprotein (LDL, and high density lipoprotein (HDL. RESULTS From the results of one-way ANOVA it was concluded that there were significant between-group differences in cholesterol, trygliceride, LDL, and HDL levels (p=0.000. Ethanolic extract of Garcinia mangostana pericarp significantly decreased cholesterol, trygliceride, and LDL levels, starting at 400 mg/kg body weight (p=0.000. Ethanolic extract of Garcinia mangostana pericarp significantly increased HDL level starting at 200 mg/kg body weight (p=0.000. CONCLUSION Ethanolic extract of Garcinia mangostana pericarp has a beneficial effect on lipid profile in rats on a high lipid diet.

  13. Extended Deterrence, Nuclear Proliferation, and START III

    Speed, R.D.


    Early in the Cold War, the United States adopted a policy of ''extended nuclear deterrence'' to protect its allies by threatening a nuclear strike against any state that attacks these allies. This threat can (in principle) be used to try to deter an enemy attack using conventional weapons or one using nuclear, chemical, or biological weapons. The credibility of a nuclear threat has long been subject to debate and is dependent on many complex geopolitical factors, not the least of which is the military capabilities of the opposing sides. The ending of the Cold War has led to a significant decrease in the number of strategic nuclear weapons deployed by the United States and Russia. START II, which was recently ratified by the Russian Duma, will (if implemented) reduce the number deployed strategic nuclear weapons on each side to 3500, compared to a level of over 11,000 at the end of the Cold War in 1991. The tentative limit established by Presidents Clinton and Yeltsin for START III would reduce the strategic force level to 2000-2500. However, the Russians (along with a number of arms control advocates) now argue that the level should be reduced even further--to 1500 warheads or less. The conventional view is that ''deep cuts'' in nuclear weapons are necessary to discourage nuclear proliferation. Thus, as part of the bargain to get the non-nuclear states to agree to the renewal of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty, the United States pledged to work towards greater reductions in strategic forces. Without movement in the direction of deep cuts, it is thought by many analysts that some countries may decide to build their own nuclear weapons. Indeed, this was part of the rationale India used to justify its own nuclear weapons program. However, there is also some concern that deep cuts (to 1500 or lower) in the U.S. strategic nuclear arsenal could have the opposite effect. The fear is that such cuts might undermine extended

  14. False Belief, Emotion Understanding, and Social Skills among Head Start and Non-Head Start Children

    Weimer, Amy A.; Guajardo, Nicole R.


    The present study investigated relationships among false belief, emotion understanding, and social skills with 60 3- to 5-year-olds (29 boys, 31 girls) from Head Start and two other preschools. Children completed language, false belief, and emotion understanding measures; parents and teachers evaluated children's social skills. Children's false…

  15. National Head Start Association Position Paper: Why Conservatives Should Support Head Start.

    Allen, Ben; Greene, Sarah; McGrady, Michael; Boel, Bridget; Ryan, Joel; Whitehead, Diane; Smith, Angela; Kane, Elizabeth; Qualls, Brocklin; Wahid, Kahree

    Head Start is a comprehensive federal preschool program, serving children prenatal through age 5 and their families with the overall goal of increasing the school readiness of young children in low-income families. Noting that the program has typically garnered strong support from political liberals and moderates, this position paper of the…

  16. Vertebrate pressure-gradient receivers.

    Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob


    The eardrums of all terrestrial vertebrates (tetrapods) are connected through Eustachian tubes or interaural canals. In some of the animals, these connections create pressure-gradient directionality, an enhanced directionality by interaction of sound arriving at both sides of the eardrum and strongly dependent on interaural transmission attenuation. Even though the tympanic middle ear has originated independently in the major tetrapod groups, in each group the ancestral condition probably was that the two middle ears were exposed in the mouth cavity with relatively high interaural transmission. Recent vertebrates form a continuum from perfect interaural transmission (0 dB in a certain frequency band) and pronounced eardrum directionality (30-40 dB) in the lizards, over somewhat attenuated transmission and limited directionality in birds and frogs, to the strongly attenuated interaural transmission and functionally isolated pressure receiver ears in the mammals. Since some of the binaural interaction already takes place at the eardrum in animals with strongly coupled ears, producing enhanced interaural time and level differences, the subsequent neural processing may be simpler. In robotic simulations of lizards, simple binaural subtraction (EI cells, found in brainstem nuclei of both frogs and lizards) produces strongly lateralized responses that are sufficient for steering the animal robustly to sound sources.

  17. Recent developments in superconducting receivers

    Richards, Paul L.


    A description is given of recent work at Berkeley on superconducting mixers and detectors for infrared and millimeter wavelengths. The first report is a review article which summarizes the status of development of superconducting components for infrared and millimeter wave receivers. The next report describes accurate measurements and also theoretical modeling of an SIS quasiparticle waveguide mixer for W-band which uses very high quality Ta junctions. The best mixer noise is only 1.3 times the quantum limit. Both the mixer gain and the noise are in quantitative agreement with the quantum theory. Next, a report is given on measurements and theoretical modeling of the absorptivity (surface resistance) of high quality epitaxial films of the high Tc superconductor YBCO from 750 GHz to 21 THz. Finally, there are reports on the design and experimental performance of two different types of high Tc bolometric detectors. One is a conventional bolometer with a gold-black absorber. The other is an antenna coupled microbolometer.

  18. Effect of starting stance on initial sprint performance.

    Cronin, John B; Green, Jonathon P; Levin, Gregory T; Brughelli, Matt E; Frost, David M


    The effect of different starting stances from a standing position on short sprint times and the subsequent variability in times was investigated in this study. A dual-beam timing light system was used to measure 5- and 10-m times for 3 different standing starts commonly found in the sporting environment: parallel (feet parallel to the start line), split (lead left foot on start line, right leg back), and false (initial parallel start, right leg drops back to split start when movement initiated). The parallel start was found to be significantly (alpha men and women. The split and false start seem to offer the best option as a movement strategy for minimizing short-distance sprint times. However, the benefits of these 2 starts are less clear if total movement time is the variable of interest.

  19. Spreading continents kick-started plate tectonics.

    Rey, Patrice F; Coltice, Nicolas; Flament, Nicolas


    Stresses acting on cold, thick and negatively buoyant oceanic lithosphere are thought to be crucial to the initiation of subduction and the operation of plate tectonics, which characterizes the present-day geodynamics of the Earth. Because the Earth's interior was hotter in the Archaean eon, the oceanic crust may have been thicker, thereby making the oceanic lithosphere more buoyant than at present, and whether subduction and plate tectonics occurred during this time is ambiguous, both in the geological record and in geodynamic models. Here we show that because the oceanic crust was thick and buoyant, early continents may have produced intra-lithospheric gravitational stresses large enough to drive their gravitational spreading, to initiate subduction at their margins and to trigger episodes of subduction. Our model predicts the co-occurrence of deep to progressively shallower mafic volcanics and arc magmatism within continents in a self-consistent geodynamic framework, explaining the enigmatic multimodal volcanism and tectonic record of Archaean cratons. Moreover, our model predicts a petrological stratification and tectonic structure of the sub-continental lithospheric mantle, two predictions that are consistent with xenolith and seismic studies, respectively, and consistent with the existence of a mid-lithospheric seismic discontinuity. The slow gravitational collapse of early continents could have kick-started transient episodes of plate tectonics until, as the Earth's interior cooled and oceanic lithosphere became heavier, plate tectonics became self-sustaining.

  20. [The difficult start of nephrology in Rome].

    Cagli, V; Cinotti, G A


    Nephrology in Rome began in the 1960s with the arrival of Ernico Fiaschi in the wake of Cataldo Cassano at the Institute of Medical Pathology (later on Clinica Medica II). A group of doctors interested in nephrology was set up, with among them Giulio A. Cinotti, who was to become full professor of nephrology at the University of Rome ''La Sapienza'' in 1980. By the end of the 1960s, the renal transplant activity had become an important asset at the Institute of Surgical Pathology (later on Clinica Chirurgica II) thanks to Paride Stefanini. A chair of surgical nephrology was instituted at the Urology Clinics of Ulrico Bracci; the chair was first held by Nicola Cerulli, who developed an intensive hemodialysis program. Around the same time, the Center for the Research and Treatment of Arterial Hypertension and Kidney Diseases became operational at the hospitals of Rome (under the responsibility of Vito Cagli at the Policlinico Umberto I), while a nephrology and dialysis unit, directed by Giancarlo Ruggieri, was set up at the San Giacomo Hospital. Many nephrology-related ''cultural'' activities started to be undertaken thanks to the ''Gruppo Laziale di Nefrologia Medica e Chirurgica'' founded by Drs Cagli, Cerulli, and Cinotti. Two national congresses were organized by Giulio Cinotti in 1979 (Fiuggi) and 1992 (Rome).

  1. Impulsively started, steady and pulsated annular inflows

    Abdel-Raouf, Emad; Sharif, Muhammad A. R.; Baker, John


    A computational investigation was carried out on low Reynolds number laminar inflow starting annular jets using multiple blocking ratios and atmospheric ambient conditions. The jet exit velocity conditions are imposed as steady, unit pulsed, and sinusoidal pulsed while the jet surroundings and the far-field jet inlet upstream conditions are left atmospheric. The reason is to examine the flow behavior in and around the jet inlet under these conditions. The pulsation mode behavior is analyzed based on the resultant of the momentum and pressure forces at the entry of the annulus, the circulation and vortex formation, and the propulsion efficiency of the inflow jets. The results show that under certain conditions, the net force of inflow jets (sinusoidal pulsed jets in particular) could point opposite to the flow direction due to the adverse pressure drops in the flow. The propulsion efficiency is also found to increase with pulsation frequency and the sinusoidal pulsed inflow jets are more efficient than the unit pulsed inflow jets. In addition, steady inflow jets did not trigger the formation of vortices, while unit and sinusoidal pulsed inflow jets triggered the formation of vortices under a certain range of frequencies.

  2. Evaluation of antiosteoporotic activity of Root extract of Rubia Cordifolia in Ovariectomized Rats

    Kasabi Shivakumar


    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to investigate the antiosteoporotic activity of ethanolic extract from the root of Rubia cordifolia (RC in bilateral-overiectomy induced osteoporotic rats. The study was performed on female Sprague-dawley rats. Two different doses (200 and 400 mg/kg of ethanolic extract of RC root were evaluated by acute oral toxicity test. Raloxifene (5.4 mg/kg was used as a reference standard. Rats were randomly divided into 5 groups with 10 per group. Bilateral-overiectomy was performed for all the rats except for the rats from group-1, which were sham-operated and served as a basal control. Rats from group-2 were served as an OVX-control and received vehicle. Group-3 was administered with raloxifene (5.4 mg/kg, p.o. and served as a standard control. Group-4 and 5 were administered with suspension of ethanolic root extract of RC (200 and 400 mg/kg, p.o. respectively. Treatment was given for 90 days starting from the 15th day after surgery. At the end of the study, the blood samples from all the groups were withdrawn to assess biochemical parameters. The animals were then sacrificed and femur bones were isolated for biomechanical and scanning electron microscopy (SEM studies. Increased biomechanical strength, calcium absorption, minimal osteoclastic activity and enhanced osteoblastic activity were observed in the rats treated with ethanolic extract of RC root. SEM data adds a confirmatory note to the findings. All these results demonstrate significantly antiosteoporotic activity of RC extract. Further studies are required to determine the active components that are responsible for its antiosteoporotic activity.

  3. Dietary copper triggers onset of fulminant hepatitis in the Long-Evans cinnamon rat model

    Ramsi Siaj; Vanessa Sauer; Sandra St(o)ppeler; Hans-Ullrich Spiegel; Gabriele K(o)hler; Andree Zibert


    To investigate the impact of dietary copper given at different time paints on the onset of fulminant hepatitis.METHODS:The Long-Evans cinnamon (LEC) rat model of Wilson's disease (WD) was used to study the impact of high dietary copper (hCu) on the induction of fulminant hepatitis at early or late time points of life.High Cu diet was started in rat pups or in adults (month5) for three months.Animals that received reduced dietary copper (rCu) throughout their lifetime served as a control.Hepatitis-associated serum markers (alanine aminotransferase,aspartate transaminase,bilirubin)were analyzed in animal groups receiving hCu or rCu.Liver copper content and liver histology were revealed at sacrifice.A set of 5 marker genes previously found to be affected in injured liver and which are related to angiogenesis (Vegfa),fat metabolism (Srebf1),extracellular matrix (Timp1),oxidative stress (Hmox1),and the cell cycle (Cdkn1a) were analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction.RESULTS:Regardless of the time point when hCu wasstarted,LEC rats (35/36) developed fulminant hepatitis and died.Animals receiving rCu (36/36) remained healthy,did not develop hepatitis,and survived long term without symptoms of overt disease,although liver copper accumulated in adult animals (477 ± 75 lg/g).With regard to start of hCu,onset of fulminant hepatitis was significantly (P < 0.001) earlier in adults (35 ± 9d)that showed pre-accumulation of liver copper as compared to the pup group (77 ± 15 d).Hepatitis-associated serum markers,liver copper and liver histology,as well as gene expression,were affected in LEC rats receiving hCu.However,except for early and rapid onset of hepatitis,biochemical and molecular markers were similar at the early and late time points of disease.CONCLUSION:Rapid onset of fulminant hepatitis in asymptomatic LEC rats with elevated liver copper suggests that there is a critical threshold of liver copper which is important to trigger the course of WD.

  4. Study on Undertaking-starting of New Generation Migrant Workers

    Chuang; LU; Wanzhao; LIU


    New generation migrant workers have become mainstay of China’s migrant workers and also major builders of China’s urbanization process. Compared with last generation migrant workers,new generation migrant workers have greater awareness of starting an undertaking. In the new trend,undertaking-starting is inevitable for new generation migrant workers. This study analyzed problems encountered by new generation migrant workers in the course of starting an undertaking. It reached conclusions that competent authorities should set up support mechanism in undertaking-starting training,undertaking-starting fund,service platform,and preferential policies,to encourage and support new generation migrant workers to start an undertaking.

  5. The Mechanism of Company Accounts Receivable Management

    Halyna Yamnenko


    Full Text Available The relevance of the accounts receivable management is caused by its ability to influence on the filling of the company working capital. Therefore it is necessary to create a specific mechanism for management of accounts receivable in the company. The article analyses the components of the mechanism and the influence of factors that significantly affect the operation. The result of the functioning of the accounts receivable management is to receive funds and to minimize accounts receivable.

  6. Starting up microbial enhanced oil recovery.

    Siegert, Michael; Sitte, Jana; Galushko, Alexander; Krüger, Martin


    This chapter gives the reader a practical introduction into microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) including the microbial production of natural gas from oil. Decision makers who consider the use of one of these technologies are provided with the required scientific background as well as with practical advice for upgrading an existing laboratory in order to conduct microbiological experiments. We believe that the conversion of residual oil into natural gas (methane) and the in situ production of biosurfactants are the most promising approaches for MEOR and therefore focus on these topics. Moreover, we give an introduction to the microbiology of oilfields and demonstrate that in situ microorganisms as well as injected cultures can help displace unrecoverable oil in place (OIP). After an initial research phase, the enhanced oil recovery (EOR) manager must decide whether MEOR would be economical. MEOR generally improves oil production but the increment may not justify the investment. Therefore, we provide a brief economical assessment at the end of this chapter. We describe the necessary state-of-the-art scientific equipment to guide EOR managers towards an appropriate MEOR strategy. Because it is inevitable to characterize the microbial community of an oilfield that should be treated using MEOR techniques, we describe three complementary start-up approaches. These are: (i) culturing methods, (ii) the characterization of microbial communities and possible bio-geochemical pathways by using molecular biology methods, and (iii) interfacial tension measurements. In conclusion, we hope that this chapter will facilitate a decision on whether to launch MEOR activities. We also provide an update on relevant literature for experienced MEOR researchers and oilfield operators. Microbiologists will learn about basic principles of interface physics needed to study the impact of microorganisms living on oil droplets. Last but not least, students and technicians trying to understand

  7. Abscisic Acid Signal off the STARTing Block

    Archana Joshi-Saha; Christiane Valon; Jeffrey Leung


    The year 2009 marked a real turnaround in our understanding of the mode ot abscisJc acid(ABA)action. Nearly 25 years had elapsed since the first biochemical detection of ABA-binding proteins in the plasmalemma of Vicia guard cells was reported. This recent-and laudable-achievement is owed largely to the discovery of the soluble ABA receptors whose major interacting proteins happen to be some of the most well-established components of earliest steps in ABA signaling. These soluble receptors, with the double name of PYRABACTIN RESISTANCE (PYR)or REGULATORY COM-PONENT OF ABA RECEPTOR (RCAR), are a family of Arabidopsis proteins of about 150-200 amino acids that share a con-served START domain. The ABA signal transduction circuitry under non-stress conditions is muted by the ciade A protein phosphatases 2C (PP2C)(notably HAB1, ABI1, and ABI2). During the initial steps of ABA signaling, the binding of the hor-mone to the receptor induces a conformational change in the latter that allows it to sequester the PP2Cs. This excludes them from the negative regulation of the downstream ABA-activated kinases (OST1/SnRK2.6/SRK2E, SnRK2.2, and SnRK2.3), thus unleashing the pathway by freeing them to phosphorylate downstream targets that now include several b-ZIP transcription factors, ion channels (SLAC1, KAT1), and a NADPH oxidase (AtrbohF). The discovery of this family of soluble receptors and the rich insight already gained from structural studies of their complexes with different isoforms of ABA, PP2C, and the synthetic agonist pyrabactin lay the foundation towards rational design of chemical switches that can bolster drought hardiness in plants.

  8. Analysis of signal acquisition in GPS receiver software

    Vlada S. Sokolović


    Full Text Available This paper presents a critical analysis of the flow signal processing carried out in GPS receiver software, which served as a basis for a critical comparison of different signal processing architectures within the GPS receiver. It is possible to achieve Increased flexibility and reduction of GPS device commercial costs, including those of mobile devices, by using radio technology software (SDR, Software Defined Radio. The SDR application can be realized when certain hardware components in a GPS receiver are replaced. Signal processing in the SDR is implemented using a programmable DSP (Digital Signal Processing or FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array circuit, which allows a simple change of digital signal processing algorithms and a simple change of the receiver parameters. The starting point of the research is the signal generated on the satellite the structure of which is shown in the paper. Based on the GPS signal structure, a receiver is realized with a task to extract an appropriate signal from the spectrum and detect it. Based on collected navigation data, the receiver calculates the position of the end user. The signal coming from the satellite may be at the carrier frequencies of L1 and L2. Since the SPS is used in the civil service, all the tests shown in the work were performed on the L1 signal. The signal coming to the receiver is generated in the spread spectrum technology and is situated below the level of noise. Such signals often interfere with signals from the environment which presents a difficulty for a receiver to perform proper detection and signal processing. Therefore, signal processing technology is continually being improved, aiming at more accurate and faster signal processing. All tests were carried out on a signal acquired from the satellite using the SE4110 input circuit used for filtering, amplification and signal selection. The samples of the received signal were forwarded to a computer for data post processing, i. e

  9. Effect of ingestion of soy yogurt on intestinal parameters of rats fed on a beef-based animal diet

    Raquel Bedani


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate whether the ingestion of soy yogurt fermented with Enterococcus faecium CRL 183 would modify the intestinal count of enterococci, fecal pH and ammonia content in rats fed on a diet containing red meat. The rats were placed in 4 groups: for 60 days, group I was given a standard casein-based rodent feed and groups II-IV, the beef-based feed. From day 30, groups III-IV also received the following products: III soy yogurt; IV suspension of E. faecium CRL 183. At the start and on days 30 and 60, feces were collected for the determination of pH, ammonia content, count of enterococci and identification of their species. On day 60, rats were sacrificed and their colons also removed for count of enterococci and identification of their species. Rats that ingested soy yogurt showed no significant change (P<0.05 in fecal counts of Enterococcus spp., but, this rat group showed a higher count of E. faecium than rats that ingested suspension of E. faecium CRL 183. The ingestion of soy yogurt and E. faecium culture caused a significant rise (P < 0.05 in fecal pH and ammonia content. Our results suggest that consumption of soy yogurt fermented with E. faecium CRL 183 and L. helveticus subsp. jugurti could change the species of Enterococcus spp. present in the feces and colon of rats fed on a beef-based diet. However, the fermented soy product and the pure culture of E. faecium CRL 183 also induced undesirable effects such as the increase of fecal pH and ammonia content in the feces of rats fed on a beef-based diet.

  10. Empowering Head Start to improve access to good oral health for children from low income families.

    Milgrom, Peter; Weinstein, Philip; Huebner, Colleen; Graves, Janessa; Tut, Ohnmar


    Surveys over 20 years have documented worsening in the dental health of preschoolers. Healthy People 2010 Midcourse Review reports the country moving away from oral health goals for young children; the slip is 57%. Exacerbating this is the inability of Medicaid to provide for those in need. Most children receive examinations only: few receive comprehensive care. We urge Head Start grantees to adopt a new approach to oral health goals and in this paper offer: (1) a review of the problem and premises preventing a solution; (2) a proposal that Head Start adopt a public health perspective; and (3) specific roles staff and dental personnel can take to mount aggressive strategies to arrest tooth decay at the grantee site.

  11. Start of Arabidopsis research in Japan: a personal memoir of the seedling stage 1985-2000.

    Okada, Kiyotaka


    The author received the research award from the Botanical Society of Japan in September 2009 under the title Development of Plant Molecular Biology using Arabidopsis. Here, the author summarizes the motivations and efforts of researchers at the start and subsequent expansion of Arabidopsis research in Japan. Pioneering study that focused on Arabidopsis characteristics started in the 1960s but it did not expand until the mid-1980s when several research groups started their studies with the new and clear objectives of examining the characteristics and capacity of multi-cellular plants by use of a molecular genetics approach. Together, members of these research groups helped to promote the novel research field, and established a nationwide system encouraging students and young researchers to join in Arabidopsis research, and supporting them scientifically and financially.

  12. The effect of ego depletion on sprint start reaction time.

    Englert, Chris; Bertrams, Alex


    In the current study, we consider that optimal sprint start performance requires the self-control of responses. Therefore, start performance should depend on athletes' self-control strength. We assumed that momentary depletion of self-control strength (ego depletion) would either speed up or slow down the initiation of a sprint start, where an initiation that was sped up would carry the increased risk of a false start. Applying a mixed between- (depletion vs. nondepletion) and within- (before vs. after manipulation of depletion) subjects design, we tested the start reaction times of 37 sport students. We found that participants' start reaction times decelerated after finishing a depleting task, whereas it remained constant in the nondepletion condition. These results indicate that sprint start performance can be impaired by unrelated preceding actions that lower momentary self-control strength. We discuss practical implications in terms of optimizing sprint starts and related overall sprint performance.

  13. Your Starting Guide To Childhood Apraxia of Speech

    ... posters Books & Cards Jewelry & Accessories Video & Music Stay Connected Get Apraxia Kids News Notifications Home Family Start Guide Introduction Your Starting Guide To Childhood Apraxia of Speech If you are new to the diagnosis of ...

  14. Starting Retirement on a Sound Footing


    The fifth pre-retirement seminar has been a great success. The various sessions covered questions relating to rules and regulations, as well as financial and health issues, health insurance, residence permits and the psychological aspects of retirement. You will no doubt have noticed that the car parks near the Main Building were particularly full last week. In fact it was almost impossible to find a parking spot. A prestigious speaker? A sensational lecture series? Nothing of the sort. It was all due to the pre-retirement seminar, the fifth of its kind since 1993, which never fails to be a success. 'We sent out a thousand invitations to CERN staff aged 55 and above and received 500 positive replies' says William Blair, who has been organising the seminars for the Human Resources (HR) Division for the last eight years in collaboration with the CERN Pensioners Association and the Staff Association. The Main Auditorium was not big enough to accommodate everyone and the discussions also had to be retransmitted l...

  15. AWAKE starts the equipment installation phase

    Antonella Del Rosso


    AWAKE is the proof-of-principle experiment whose aim is to use protons to generate powerful wakefields to accelerate an electron beam. With accelerator gradients hundreds of times higher than those used in current systems, this technique could revolutionise the field of particle acceleration. Installed in the tunnel previously used by the CNGS facility, AWAKE is completing the service installation phase and will receive the plasma cell in the coming months.   The AWAKE proton line with all the magnets installed. (Image: AWAKE collaboration.) AWAKE is the world’s first proton-driven plasma wakefield acceleration experiment. In AWAKE, a beam of protons from the SPS will be travelling through a plasma cell and this will generate a wakefield that, in turn, will accelerate an electron beam. A laser will ionise the gas in the plasma cell and seed the self-modulation instability that will trigger the wakefield in the plasma. The project aims to prove that the plasma wakefield can be driv...

  16. Thermal resistance model for CSP central receivers

    de Meyer, O. A. J.; Dinter, F.; Govender, S.


    The receiver design and heliostat field aiming strategy play a vital role in the heat transfer efficiency of the receiver. In molten salt external receivers, the common operating temperature of the heat transfer fluid or molten salt ranges between 285°C to 565°C. The optimum output temperature of 565°C is achieved by adjusting the mass flow rate of the molten salt through the receiver. The reflected solar radiation onto the receiver contributes to the temperature rise in the molten salt by means of heat transfer. By investigating published work on molten salt external receiver operating temperatures, corresponding receiver tube surface temperatures and heat losses, a model has been developed to obtain a detailed thermographic representation of the receiver. The steady state model uses a receiver flux map as input to determine: i) heat transfer fluid mass flow rate through the receiver to obtain the desired molten salt output temperature of 565°C, ii) receiver surface temperatures iii) receiver tube temperatures iv) receiver efficiency v) pressure drop across the receiver and vi) corresponding tube strain per panel.

  17. Tokamak Start-up under Assistance of RF Waves



    To improve the start-up behavior of tokamak discharges and realize the low loop voltage start-up is required by performance of large scale, full superconductor tokamaks. In recent years, some kinds of RF wave have been used to assist the start-up and some exciting results have been gained. This paper introduce the investigation on both in physical principle and experimental research of the start-up process, in which high frequency RF waves were used to assist it.

  18. Protection from spontaneous hepatocellular damage by N-benzyl-d-glucamine dithiocarbamate in Long-Evans Cinnamon rats, an animal model of Wilson's disease.

    Shimada, Hideaki; Takahashi, Makiko; Shimada, Akinori; Okawara, Tadashi; Yasutake, Akira; Imamura, Yorishige; Kiyozumi, Morio


    The Long-Evans Cinnamon (LEC) rat is a mutant strain that accumulates excessive tissue copper (Cu) and models the clinical symptoms and biological features of Wilson's disease in humans. We compared the effects of three metal chelating agents, N-benzyl-d-glucamine dithiocarbamate (BGD), d-penicillamine (D-PEN), and triethylenetetramine (TETA), on the biliary and urinary excretions of Cu using LEC rats. The animals were treated ip with each chelating agent (1 mmol/kg body weight) and then the bile and urine samples were collected for 3 h. Because single treatment with BGD markedly stimulated biliary excretion of Cu, the protective effect of repeated BGD injection on spontaneous hepatocellular damage was further examined. Separate groups received two weekly injections of BGD starting at 11 weeks of age and were compared to saline-injected controls. Serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity and bilirubin level were significantly increased in control LEC rats by 19 weeks of age and histopathological analysis demonstrated extensive hepatic damage in these rats. However, repeated BGD injections prevented the increases in serum ALT and bilirubin and blocked the histopathological changes in the liver. Furthermore, although Cu rapidly accumulated in the liver, kidney, spleen, and serum of control LEC rats during the test period, repeated BGD injection largely prevented these increases. These results indicate that BGD treatment is effective in blocking excessive Cu accumulation in LEC rats that, in turn, provides protection from spontaneous liver damage.

  19. Jump Starting Entrepreneurship: How laid-off employees made a career transition

    Burcharth, Ana Luiza; Smith, Pernille; Frederiksen, Lars

    How do laid-off employees become entrepreneurs after receiving a dream start into self-employment? This question is relevant for policy makers and entrepreneurship researchers alike since it raises the possibility of a reverse entrepreneurial opportunity, in which the chance of becoming an entrep...... persevered in their endeavors and eventually became comfortable with their new career prospects. We discuss the psychological factors that impact career transition after organizational closure and theorize weather they encourage or discourage entrepreneurship....

  20. Different routes of administration of human umbilical tissue-derived cells improve functional recovery in the rat after focal cerebral ischemia.

    Zhang, Li; Li, Yi; Romanko, Michael; Kramer, Brian C; Gosiewska, Anna; Chopp, Michael; Hong, Klaudyne


    Human umbilical tissue-derived cells (hUTC) are a potential neurorestorative candidate for stroke treatment. Here, we test the effects of hUTC treatment in a rat model of stroke via various routes of administration. Rats were treated with hUTC or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) via different routes including intraarterial (IA), intravenous (IV), intra-cisterna magna (ICM), lumber intrathecal (IT), or intracerebral injection (IC) at 24h after stroke onset. Treatment with hUTC via IV and IC route led to significant functional improvements starting at day 14, which persisted to day 60 compared with respective PBS-treated rats. HUTC administered via IA, ICM, and IT significantly improved neurological functional recovery starting at day 14 and persisted up to day 49 compared with PBS-treated rats. Although IA administration resulted in the highest donor cell number detected within the ischemic brain compared to the other routes, hUTC treatments significantly increased ipsilateral bromodeoxyuridine incorporating subventricular zone (SVZ) cells and vascular density in the ischemic boundary compared with PBS-treated rats regardless of the route of administration. While rats received hUTC treatment via IA, IV, IC, and ICM routes showed greater synaptophysin immunoreactivity, significant reductions in TUNEL-positive cells in the ipsilateral hemisphere were observed in IA, IV, and IC routes compared with PBS-treated rats. hUTC treatments did not reduce infarct volume when compared to the PBS groups. Our data indicate that hUTC administered via multiple routes provide therapeutic benefit after stroke. The enhancement of neurorestorative events in the host brain may contribute to the therapeutic benefits of hUTC in the treatment of stroke.

  1. Effect of topical anti-Streptococcus mutans IgY gel on quantity of S. mutans on rats' tooth surface.

    Bachtiar, Endang W; Afdhal, Anggraeni; Meidyawati, Ratna; Soejoedono, Retno D; Poerwaningsih, Erni


    This study aims to evaluate the effect of anti-Streptococcus mutans IgY gel on quantity of S. mutans on rats' tooth surface. Sprague Dawley rats were exposed intra-orally with S. mutans Xc and were fed a caries-inducing diet 2000. The 24 rats were divided into four groups: group A had their teeth coated with IgY gel; group B received sterilized water as a control; group C had their teeth coated with IgY gel starting on the 29(th) day; and group D had their teeth coated with a gel without IgY. Plaque samples were swabbed from the anterior teeth for S. mutans colony quantification, and saliva was collected to measure immunoreactivity by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The results indicated that the quantity of S. mutans in rats treated with IgY gel showed significant difference compared with the controls. After coating with IgY anti-S. mutans gel, the mean immunoreactivity in rat saliva was higher than that of the no treatment group. In conclusion, topical application with anti-S. mutans IgY gel reduced the quantity of S. mutans on the tooth surface.

  2. Average weighted receiving time in recursive weighted Koch networks



    Motivated by the empirical observation in airport networks and metabolic networks, we introduce the model of the recursive weighted Koch networks created by the recursive division method. As a fundamental dynamical process, random walks have received considerable interest in the scientific community. Then, we study the recursive weighted Koch networks on random walk i.e., the walker, at each step, starting from its current node, moves uniformly to any of itsneighbours. In order to study the model more conveniently, we use recursive division method again to calculate the sum of the mean weighted first-passing times for all nodes to absorption at the trap located in the merging node. It is showed that in a large network, the average weighted receiving time grows sublinearly with the network order.

  3. Microwave receivers with electronic warfare applications

    Tsui, James


    This book by the author of Digital Techniques for Wideband Receivers willbe like no other one on your book shelf as the definitive word on electronicwarfare (EW) receiver design and performance. Whether you are an EWscientist involved in the test and evaluation of EW receivers or a designerof RWR's and other EW-related receivers, Microwave Receivers withElectronic Warfare Applications is a handy reference through which you canperfect your technical art. Lucidly written, this book is a treatise on EWreceivers that is relevant to you if you are just looking for a top-levelinsight into EW receive

  4. Enhancing Early Childhood Outcomes: Connecting Child Welfare and Head Start

    McCrae, Julie S.; Brown, Samantha M.; Yang, Jessica; Groneman, Sheila


    Head Start is a preschool program for families with low incomes and nearly 85% of child welfare-involved families are low-income, yet little is known about Head Start and child welfare collaboration. This study uses data from 28 Head Start directors to describe collaboration facilitators and barriers, and collaborative mechanisms in place. The…

  5. Parental Involvement Routines and Former Head Start Children's Literacy Outcomes

    Dove, Meghan Kicklighter; Neuharth-Pritchett, Stacey; Wright, David W.; Wallinga, Charlotte


    This study examined the relationship between parental involvement routines and former Head Start children's literacy outcomes. Former Head Start children (n = 3, 808) from the National Head Start/Public School Transition Demonstration Research Project comprised the sample. Family routines and literacy outcomes in kindergarten were examined,…

  6. Personal and Public Start Pages in a library setting

    Kieft-Wondergem, Dorine


    Personal and Public Start Pages are web-based resources. With these kind of tools it is possible to make your own free start page. A Start Page allows you to put all your web resources into one page, including blogs, email, podcasts, RSSfeeds. It is possible to share the content of the page with oth

  7. Personal and Public Start Pages in a library setting

    Kieft-Wondergem, Dorine

    Personal and Public Start Pages are web-based resources. With these kind of tools it is possible to make your own free start page. A Start Page allows you to put all your web resources into one page, including blogs, email, podcasts, RSSfeeds. It is possible to share the content of the page with

  8. 76 FR 17736 - Major Capital Investment Program-New Starts


    ... discretionary selection of projects for funding using unallocated Major Capital Investment (New Starts) program... Federal Transit Administration Major Capital Investment Program--New Starts AGENCY: Federal Transit Administration (FTA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of discretionary selection of New Starts projects for Funding. SUMMARY...

  9. Estradiol enhances the acquisition of lithium chloride-induced conditioned taste aversion in castrated male rats.

    Lin, Shih-Fan; Tsai, Yuan-Feen; Tai, Mei-Yun; Yeh, Kuei-Ying


    The present study examined the effects of short-term treatment with ovarian hormones on the acquisition of conditioned taste aversion (CTA). Adult male rats were castrated and randomly divided into LiCl- and saline-treated groups. Nineteen days after castration, all of the animals were subjected to 23.5-h daily water deprivation for seven successive days (day 1 to day 7). On the conditioning day (day 8), the rats received either a 4 ml/kg of 0.15 M LiCl or the same dose of saline injection immediately after administration of a 2 % sucrose solution during the 30-min water session. Starting from day 6, rats in both groups received one of the following treatments: daily subcutaneous injection of (1) estradiol alone (30 μg/kg; estradiol benzoate (E) group), (2) estradiol plus progesterone (500 μg; E + progesterone (P) group), or (3) olive oil. From day 9 to day 11, all of the rats were given daily two-bottle preference tests during the 30-min fluid session. The estradiol and estradiol plus progesterone treatments in the LiCl groups resulted in significantly lower preference scores for the sucrose solution compared with the olive oil treatment groups, but no difference in preference score was seen between these two groups. These results indicate that both the estradiol and estradiol plus progesterone treatments in the LiCl groups enhanced the acquisition of CTA learning and suggest that estradiol affects the acquisition of CTA mediated by an activational effect in male rats, whereas progesterone treatment does not influence the effects of estradiol on the acquisition of CTA.

  10. Estradiol enhances the acquisition of lithium chloride-induced conditioned taste aversion in castrated male rats

    Lin, Shih-Fan; Tsai, Yuan-Feen; Tai, Mei-Yun; Yeh, Kuei-Ying


    The present study examined the effects of short-term treatment with ovarian hormones on the acquisition of conditioned taste aversion (CTA). Adult male rats were castrated and randomly divided into LiCl- and saline-treated groups. Nineteen days after castration, all of the animals were subjected to 23.5-h daily water deprivation for seven successive days (day 1 to day 7). On the conditioning day (day 8), the rats received either a 4 ml/kg of 0.15 M LiCl or the same dose of saline injection immediately after administration of a 2 % sucrose solution during the 30-min water session. Starting from day 6, rats in both groups received one of the following treatments: daily subcutaneous injection of (1) estradiol alone (30 μg/kg; estradiol benzoate (E) group), (2) estradiol plus progesterone (500 μg; E + progesterone (P) group), or (3) olive oil. From day 9 to day 11, all of the rats were given daily two-bottle preference tests during the 30-min fluid session. The estradiol and estradiol plus progesterone treatments in the LiCl groups resulted in significantly lower preference scores for the sucrose solution compared with the olive oil treatment groups, but no difference in preference score was seen between these two groups. These results indicate that both the estradiol and estradiol plus progesterone treatments in the LiCl groups enhanced the acquisition of CTA learning and suggest that estradiol affects the acquisition of CTA mediated by an activational effect in male rats, whereas progesterone treatment does not influence the effects of estradiol on the acquisition of CTA.

  11. Developmental immunotoxicity of Diazepam in prenatally exposed weanling Wistar rats

    Loveren H van; Piersma AH; Jong WH de; Waal EJ de; LPI; LEO; LGM


    A prenatal developmental toxicity study was conducted in rats receiving the pharmaceutical Diazepam from gestation days 14 to 20. Reports from the literature claim that Diazepam has impaired the immune function in the offspring of rats receiving treatment during the third trimester of gestation. Dia

  12. The Use of Personality and the Five-Factor Model to Predict New Business Ventures from Outplacement to Start-up.

    Wooten, Kevin C.; Timmerman, Thomas A.; Folger, Robert


    Personality traits of 145 downsized executives receiving outplacement services were examined using the 16 Personality Factor Questionnaire. The 51 who started new businesses were more likely to be emotionally stable, tough minded (less open to experience), and expedient (realistic). (SK)

  13. The Use of Personality and the Five-Factor Model to Predict New Business Ventures from Outplacement to Start-up.

    Wooten, Kevin C.; Timmerman, Thomas A.; Folger, Robert


    Personality traits of 145 downsized executives receiving outplacement services were examined using the 16 Personality Factor Questionnaire. The 51 who started new businesses were more likely to be emotionally stable, tough minded (less open to experience), and expedient (realistic). (SK)

  14. Cardiosphere-Derived Cells Reverse Heart Failure With Preserved Ejection Fraction in Rats by Decreasing Fibrosis and Inflammation

    Romain Gallet, MD


    Full Text Available The pathogenesis of heart failure with a preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF is unclear. Myocardial fibrosis, inflammation, and cardiac hypertrophy have been suggested to contribute to the pathogenesis of HFpEF. Cardiosphere-derived cells (CDCs are heart-derived cell products with antifibrotic and anti-inflammatory properties. This study tested whether rat CDCs were sufficient to decrease manifestations of HFpEF in hypertensive rats. Starting at 7 weeks of age, Dahl salt-sensitive rats were fed a high-salt diet for 6 to 7 weeks and randomized to receive intracoronary CDCs or placebo. Dahl rats fed normal chow served as controls. High-salt rats developed hypertension, left ventricular (LV hypertrophy, and diastolic dysfunction, without impairment of ejection fraction. Four weeks after treatment, diastolic dysfunction resolved in CDC-treated rats but not in placebo. The improved LV relaxation was associated with lower LV end-diastolic pressure, decreased lung congestion, and enhanced survival in CDC-treated rats. Histology and echocardiography revealed no decrease in cardiac hypertrophy after CDC treatment, consistent with the finding of sustained, equally-elevated blood pressure in CDC- and placebo-treated rats. Nevertheless, CDC treatment decreased LV fibrosis and inflammatory infiltrates. Serum inflammatory cytokines were likewise decreased after CDC treatment. Whole-transcriptome analysis revealed that CDCs reversed changes in numerous transcripts associated with HFpEF, including many involved in inflammation and/or fibrosis. These studies suggest that CDCs normalized LV relaxation and LV diastolic pressure while improving survival in a rat model of HFpEF. The benefits of CDCs occurred despite persistent hypertension and cardiac hypertrophy. By selectively reversing inflammation and fibrosis, CDCs may be beneficial in the treatment of HFpEF.

  15. Heavy Ethanol Intoxication Increases Proinflammatory Cytokines and Aggravates Hemorrhagic Shock-Induced Organ Damage in Rats

    Tsung-Ming Hu


    Full Text Available Hemorrhagic shock (HS following acute alcohol intoxication can increase proinflammatory cytokine production and induce marked immunosuppression. We investigated the effects of ethanol on physiopathology and cytokine levels following HS in acutely alcohol-intoxicated rats. Rats received an intravenous injection of 5 g/kg ethanol over 3 h followed by HS induced by withdrawal of 40% of total blood volume from a femoral arterial catheter over 30 min. Mean arterial pressure (MAP and heart rate (HR were monitored continuously for 48 h after the start of blood withdrawal. Biochemical parameters, including hemoglobin, ethanol, glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT, glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT, blood urea nitrogen (BUN, creatinine (Cre, lactic dehydrogenase (LDH, and creatine phosphokinase (CPK, were measured at 30 min before induction of HS and 0, 1, 3, 6, 9, 12, 18, 24, and 48 h after HS. Serum tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α and interleukin-6 (IL-6 levels were measured at 1 and 12 h after HS. The liver, kidneys, and lungs were removed for pathology at 48 h later. HS significantly increased HR, blood GOT, GPT, BUN, Cre, LDH, CPK, TNF-α, and IL-6 levels and decreased hemoglobin and MAP in rats. Acute ethanol intoxication further increased serum levels of GOT, GPT, BUN, Cre, LDH, CPK, TNF-α and IL-6 elevation following HS. Acutely intoxicated rats exacerbated the histopathologic changes in the liver, kidneys, and lungs following HS.

  16. The First Six ALMA Band 10 Receivers

    Fujii, Y.; Gonzalez, A.; Kroug, M.; Kaneko, K.; Miyachi, A.; Yokoshima, T.; Kuroiwa, K.; Ogawa, H.; Makise, K.; Wang, Z.; Uzawa, Y.


    The first six Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) Band 10 (787-950 GHz) receivers have been developed and characterized during the receiver preproduction phase. State-of-the-art measurement systems at THz frequencies have been implemented and successfully used to measure the performance of the first six receivers. Extensive tests ranging from receiver sensitivity and stability to optical aperture efficiency on the secondary antenna have been performed. Performance of all six receivers is well within the stringent ALMA requirements. Moreover, our extensive tests have shown that there are no big performance differences between receivers. These results indicate that the ALMA Band 10 receiver is ready for the production phase, during which an additional 67 receivers will be produced and characterized.

  17. Trough Receiver Heat Loss Testing (Presentation)

    Lewandowski, A.; Feik, C.; Hansen, R.; Phillips, S.; Bingham, C.; Netter, J.; Forristal, R.; Burkholder, F.; Meglan, B.; Wolfrum, E.


    This presentation describes the design, fabrication, and qualification of an experimental capability for thermal loss testing of full-size trough receiver elements; and the testing on a variety of receivers.

  18. Starting of HPS lamps driven by electronic ballast

    张伟强; 王卫; 徐殿国


    A complete research of two different starting techniques for HPS lamps driven by electronic ballast is presented while a traditional starting technique based on the series resonant theory which is used widely for fluorescent lamps starting is analyzed in detail. An improved nth harmonic resonant technique is also simulated. Furthermore, a novel starting technique based on a pulse ransformer is proposed, which still offer the automatic switch-off capability. The differences between two starting techniques are explained. The experimental results from a lab prototype are used to verify the design.

  19. Photoemission starting of induction rf-driven multicusp ion sources

    Pickard, D.S.; Leung, K.N.; Perkins, L.T.; Ponce, D.M.; Young, A.T. [Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)


    It has been demonstrated that pulsed and continuous wave, rf-driven hydrogen discharges can be started with photoemission. The extracted H{sup {minus}} current from a photoemission-started plasma has been investigated and does not differ significantly from that of a filament-started plasma. The minimum pressure for photoemissive starting was found to be higher than that of filament starting, 17 mTorr compared to 7 mTorr, respectively, in this particular configuration. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  20. Give Your Child a Head Start = Dele a Su Hijo la Ventaja Educativa Inicial de Head Start.

    Administration for Children, Youth, and Families (DHHS), Washington, DC. Head Start Bureau.

    This pamphlet, in English- and Spanish-language versions, offers information to parents on the functioning and benefits of Head Start, a federal program for preschool children from low-income families. The pamphlet's sections answer the following questions: (1) "What Is Head Start?" (2) "What Can the Head Start Program Offer to Your…

  1. Disposition of 14C-erythritol in germfree and conventional rats

    Ommen, B. van; Bie, B. de; Bar, A.


    The metabolism and disposition of U-14C-erythritol was examined in four groups of three male and three female, nonfasted rats each. The rats of groups A and D were germfree; the rats of groups B and C were kept under conventional conditions. The rats of group B received an erythritol-supplemented

  2. 49 CFR 236.730 - Coil, receiver.


    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Coil, receiver. 236.730 Section 236.730 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Coil, receiver. Concentric layers of insulated wire wound around the core of a receiver of an...

  3. 49 CFR 393.88 - Television receivers.


    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Television receivers. 393.88 Section 393.88... NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION Miscellaneous Parts and Accessories § 393.88 Television receivers. Any motor vehicle equipped with a television viewer, screen or other means of visually receiving a...

  4. [Potentially inappropriate prescribing in older Spanish population according to STOPP/START criteria (STARTREC study)].

    Cruz-Esteve, Inés; Marsal-Mora, Josep Ramón; Galindo-Ortego, Gisela; Galván-Santiago, Leonardo; Serrano-Godoy, Marcos; Ribes-Murillo, Esther; Real-Gatius, Jordi


    Rational prescribing in older people is a priority for health care organizations. The STOPP/START screening tool has been developed to identify potentially inappropriate prescribing (PIP) in individuals. In a primary care setting, STOPP/START can estimate PIP prevalence and related factors at population level. The aim of this study is to measure the prevalence rates of PPI in elderly population using clinical and prescription claim databases. Cross-sectional population study. Primary Care, Lleida Health Region, Spain. 45.408 patients 70 years old and over, attended in the primary health care centers at least once the last year. 43 STOPP and 12 START criteria are applied to their 2012 clinical and prescription records. Logistic regression models are adjusted to determine PIP association with several factors. 45,408 patients are included. The mean age is 79.7 years, 58% being female. The overall prevalence of PPI is 58.1%. According to STOPP, the most common drugs identified are benzodiazepines, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and proton pump inhibitors; according to START, osteoporosis treatments, antiplatelet agents, statins, metformin and beta blockers. PIP increases with age and polypharmacy and it is higher in long-term care facilities residents and patients receiving home health care. In our Health Region, at least 50% of the population aged 70 or older has one or more PIP, according to STOPP/START criteria. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy or hydroxycobalamin attenuates surges in brain interstitial lactate and glucose; and hyperbaric oxygen improves respiratory status in cyanide-intoxicated rats

    Lawson-Smith, P; Olsen, Niels Vidiendal; Hyldegaard, O


    to four groups receiving potassium CN (KCN) 5.4 mg/kg or vehicle intra-arterially: 1) vehicle-treated control rats; 2) KCN-poisoned rats; 3) KCN-poisoned rats receiving hydroxycobalamin (25 mg); and 4) KCN-poisoned rats treated with HBO2 (284 kPa for 90 minutes). KCN alone caused a prompt increase...

  6. OFDM frame synchronization based on energy difference of the received preamble

    JIANG Feng; SONG Mei; GUO Da; SONG Jun-de


    The article presents a novel orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) frame synchronization method.The method uses the preamble that contains two identical halves,and the energy difference of the two similar parts of the received preamble in receiver is used to obtain the frame's correct starting point. Furthermore, an improvement of the proposed method is presented, which uses the preamble that can be divided into four similar portions, and the energy difference of the four similar parts of the received preamble in receiver is used to obtain the frame's correct starting point. The performances of the frame synchronization methods in multipath channel are compared in terms of mean square error (MSE) obtained by simulations. It can be seen from the simulation results that the proposed methods have better performances than Schmidl's, Minn's, and Park's method in multipath channel.

  7. Notes on some ectoparasites received by the Medical Entomology Unit, Institute for Medical Research.

    Lee, H L; Krishnasamy, M; Jeffery, J; Paramasvaran, S


    There were a spate of recent complaints of insect bites and the entomological specimens received from various sources were identified to be those of cat flea (Ctenocephalides felis) and rat flea (Xenopsylla cheopis), the tropical bed-bug (Cimex hemipterus) and the dog louse (Heterodoxus spiniger). Only the fleas and the bed-bug are known to attack humans.

  8. Social Technologies to Jump Start Geoscience Careers

    Keane, Christopher; Martinez, Cynthia; Gonzales, Leila


    early career geoscientists to tune in what's going on in the geoscience community, to meet geoscience professionals, and to find innovative career ideas. Early analysis of the page's participants indicates that the network is reaching its intended audience, with more than two-thirds of "fans" participating in the page falling in the 18-34 age range. Twenty-seven percent of these are college-aged, or 18-24 years old. An additional 20% of the page's fans are over age 45, providing students with access to seasoned geoscientists working in a variety of professions. GeoConnection's YouTube Channel includes video resources for students on educational pathways and career choices. Videos on the channel have received more than 100,000 views collectively. In addition, the AGI Workforce program has been an active participant in the YES network, and facilitated the virtual participation of both speakers and attendees for the first YES Congress, held in October 2009 in Beijing. By integrating webinar technologies and other social media, the breadth of attendees and speakers at the Congress was greatly expanded. Challenges with technology represented the minor problem for this effort, but rather human factors required the greatest focus to ensure success. Likewise, the challenge for the GeoConnection Network is not so much technology implementation, but rather remaining responsive and relevant with the ever-changing landscape of online communications. Reports show that participation in social-networking media among young people ages 16-24 has dropped (eg. Istrategy Labs, 2009, Ofcom, 2009) however, internet use among younger generations is high. Geoscience organizations must identify and participate in new online communications trends in order to continue to reach students and young professionals, but also, these individuals must also communicate with geosciences organizations so that the appropriate technologies and venues can be provided to strengthen the interconnect between

  9. Perforating corneal injury in rat and pentadecapeptide BPC 157.

    Masnec, Sanja; Kokot, Antonio; Zlatar, Mirna; Kalauz, Miro; Kunjko, Kristian; Radic, Bozo; Klicek, Robert; Drmic, Domagoj; Lazic, Ratimir; Brcic, Luka; Radic, Radivoje; Ivekovic, Renata; Seiwerth, Sven; Sikiric, Predrag


    Based on its healing effects in various tissues, we hypothesized that the stable gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157 heals corneal ulcerations in rats and effects corneal transparency. We made a penetrant linear 2-mm incision in the paralimbal region of the left cornea at the 5 o'clock position with a 20-gauge MVR incision knife at 45° under an operating microscope. Medication was BPC 157 (2 pg/mL, 2 ng/mL, and 2 μg/mL distilled water, two eye drops/left rat eye) immediately after injury induction and then every 8 h up to 120 h; controls received an equal volume of distilled water. In contrast to the poor healing response in controls, BPC 157 significantly accelerated the healing process in 2 μg and 2 ng BPC 157-treated eyes, starting 24 h after the injury, and the fluorescein and Seidel tests became negative. The epithelial defects were completely healed at 72 h (2 μg BPC 157-treated group) and at 96 h (2 ng BPC 157-treated group) after injury. Aqueous cells were absent at 96 h and 120 h after injury in the 2 μg and 2 ng BPC 157-treated groups, respectively. In conclusion, BPC 157 effects the rapid regaining of corneal transparency. Whereas controls developed new vessels that grew from the limbus to the penetrated area, BPC 157-treated rats generally had no new vessels, and those that did form in the limbus did not make contact with the penetrated area. Thus, BPC 157 eye drops successfully close perforating corneal incisions in rats.

  10. A zero-power radio receiver.

    Brocato, Robert Wesley


    This report describes both a general methodology and some specific examples of passive radio receivers. A passive radio receiver uses no direct electrical power but makes sole use of the power available in the radio spectrum. These radio receivers are suitable as low data-rate receivers or passive alerting devices for standard, high power radio receivers. Some zero-power radio architectures exhibit significant improvements in range with the addition of very low power amplifiers or signal processing electronics. These ultra-low power radios are also discussed and compared to the purely zero-power approaches.

  11. An SDR based AIS receiver for satellites

    Larsen, Jesper Abildgaard; Mortensen, Hans Peter; Nielsen, Jens Frederik Dalsgaard


    For a few years now, there has been a high interest in monitoring the global ship traffic from space. A few satellite, capable of listening for ship borne AIS transponders have already been launched, and soon the AAUSAT3, carrying two different types of AIS receivers will also be launched. One...... of the AIS receivers onboard AAUSAT3 is an SDR based AIS receiver. This paper serves to describe the background of the AIS system, and how the SDR based receiver has been integrated into the AAUSAT3 satellite. Amongst some of the benefits of using an SDR based receiver is, that due to its versatility, new...

  12. Astronomical Receiver Modelling Using Scattering Matrices

    King, O G; Copley, C; Davis, R J; Leahy, J P; Leech, J; Muchovej, S J C; Pearson, T J; Taylor, Angela C


    Proper modelling of astronomical receivers is vital: it describes the systematic errors in the raw data, guides the receiver design process, and assists data calibration. In this paper we describe a method of analytically modelling the full signal and noise behaviour of arbitrarily complex radio receivers. We use electrical scattering matrices to describe the signal behaviour of individual components in the receiver, and noise correlation matrices to describe their noise behaviour. These are combined to produce the full receiver model. We apply this approach to a specified receiver architecture: a hybrid of a continous comparison radiometer and correlation polarimeter designed for the C-Band All-Sky Survey. We produce analytic descriptions of the receiver Mueller matrix and noise temperature, and discuss how imperfections in crucial components affect the raw data. Many of the conclusions drawn are generally applicable to correlation polarimeters and continuous comparison radiometers.

  13. Control of glomerular hypertension by insulin administration in diabetic rats.

    Scholey, J.W.; Meyer, T W


    Micropuncture studies were performed in Munich Wistar rats made diabetic with streptozotocin and in normal control rats. Diabetic rats received daily ultralente insulin to maintain moderate hyperglycemia (approximately 300 mg/dl). Group 1 diabetic rats studied after routine micropuncture preparation exhibited elevation of the single nephron glomerular filtration rate (SNGFR) due to increases in the glomerular transcapillary hydraulic pressure difference and glomerular plasma flow rate. In gro...

  14. Biochemical effect of curcumin on hyperlipidemia induced in rats

    Omayma A.R.; Ragab A.; Abdel-Majeed A.D; Hassanin K.M.; Abdelghaffar M.M.


    This study was performed to investigate the effect of oral supplementation of curcumin, garlic extract and olive oil on lipid profile, nitric oxide, adiponectin, endothelin-1, blood glucose and some inflammatory markers in normal, diabetic and hyperlipidemic rats supplementing high fat and cholesterol-enriched diet. Forty female adult albino rats were divided into four equal groups of 10 rats each. Group (1): negative control received normal diet only, group (2): rats fed on normal diet and r...

  15. Carcinogenic risk of copper gluconate evaluated by a rat medium-term liver carcinogenicity bioassay protocol

    Abe, Masayoshi; Usuda, Koji; Hayashi, Seigo; Ogawa, Izumi; Furukawa, Satoshi [Nissan Chemical Industries Limited, Toxicology and Environmental Science Department, Biological Research Laboratories, Saitama (Japan); Igarashi, Maki [Tokyo University of Agriculture, Laboratory of Protection of Body Function, Department of Food and Nutritional Science, Graduate School of Agriculture, Tokyo (Japan); Nakae, Dai [Tokyo University of Agriculture, Laboratory of Protection of Body Function, Department of Food and Nutritional Science, Graduate School of Agriculture, Tokyo (Japan); Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Public Health, Tokyo (Japan)


    Carcinogenic risk and molecular mechanisms underlying the liver tumor-promoting activity of copper gluconate, an additive of functional foods, were investigated using a rat medium-term liver carcinogenicity bioassay protocol (Ito test) and a 2-week short-term administration experiment. In the medium-term liver bioassay, Fischer 344 male rats were given a single i.p. injection of N-nitrosodiethylamine at a dose of 200 mg/kg b.w. as a carcinogenic initiator. Starting 2 weeks thereafter, rats received 0, 10, 300 or 6,000 ppm of copper gluconate in diet for 6 weeks. All rats underwent 2/3 partial hepatectomy at the end of week 3, and all surviving rats were killed at the end of week 8. In the short-term experiment, rats were given 0, 10, 300 or 6,000 ppm of copper gluconate for 2 weeks. Numbers of glutathione S-transferase placental form (GST-P) positive lesions, single GST-P-positive hepatocytes and 8-oxoguanine-positive hepatocytes, and levels of cell proliferation and apoptosis in the liver were significantly increased by 6,000 ppm of copper gluconate in the medium-term liver bioassay. Furthermore, hepatic mRNA expression of genes relating to the metal metabolism, inflammation and apoptosis were elevated by 6,000 ppm of copper gluconate both in the medium-term liver bioassay and the short-term experiments. These results indicate that copper gluconate possesses carcinogenic risk toward the liver at the high dose level, and that oxidative stress and inflammatory and pro-apoptotic signaling statuses may participate in its underlying mechanisms. (orig.)

  16. Antidepressant-like effects of omega-3 fatty acids in postpartum model of depression in rats.

    Arbabi, Leila; Baharuldin, Mohamad Taufik Hidayat; Moklas, Mohamad Aris Mohamad; Fakurazi, Sharida; Muhammad, Sani Ismaila


    Postpartum depression (PPD) is a psychiatric disorder that occurs in 10-15% of childbearing women. It is hypothesized that omega-3 fatty acids, which are components of fish oil, may attenuate depression symptoms. In order to examine this hypothesis, the animal model of postpartum depression was established in the present study. Ovariectomized female rats underwent hormone-simulated pregnancy (HSP) regimen and received progesterone and estradiol benzoate or vehicle for 23 days, mimicking the actual rat's pregnancy. The days after hormone termination were considered as the postpartum period. Forced feeding of menhaden fish oil, as a source of omega-3, with three doses of 1, 3, and 9g/kg/d, fluoxetine 15mg/kg/d, and distilled water 2ml/d per rat started in five postpartum-induced and one vehicle group on postpartum day 1 and continued for 15 consecutive days. On postpartum day 15, all groups were tested in the forced swimming test (FST) and open field test (OFT), followed by a biochemical assay. Results showed that the postpartum-induced rats not treated with menhaden fish oil, exhibited an increase in immobility time seen in FST, hippocampal concentration of corticosterone and plasmatic level of corticosterone, and pro-inflammatory cytokines. These depression-related effects were attenuated by supplementation of menhaden fish oil with doses of 3 and 9g/kg. Moreover, results of rats supplemented with menhaden fish oil were comparable to rats treated with the clinically effective antidepressant, fluoxetine. Taken together, these results suggest that menhaden fish oil, rich in omega-3, exerts beneficial effect on postpartum depression and decreases the biomarkers related to depression such as corticosterone and pro-inflammatory cytokines. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Predictors of insulin requirements among hospitalized adults receiving parenteral nutrition.

    Roehl, Kelly A; Lach, Kristen; Coltman, Anne E; Bacon, Cheryl A; Singh, Shubha; Peterson, Sarah J; Sowa, Diane C


    The objective of this quality improvement project was to determine factors predictive of parenteral nutrition (PN) insulin therapy. Patients receiving PN at a tertiary care academic medical center between January 1, 2009, and December 1, 2012, 18 years or older were included. Variables collected included demographics, medical information, and PN-specific data. χ(2) and Student t tests were used to determine differences between patients who did and did not require PN insulin. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to determine associations between characteristics. Stepwise forward logistic regression was used determine the best predictors of PN insulin. A total of 1388 patients were started on PN. After adjusting for potential confounders, strong associations existed between PN insulin requirements and diabetes mellitus (DM) diagnosis (OR, 8.90; 95% CI, 4.98-15.90, P obese status (body mass index ≥25.0 kg/m(2)) (OR, 2.12; 95% CI, 1.04-4.30, P = .04), intensive care unit (ICU) admission (OR, 1.79; 95% CI, 1.03-3.11, P = .04), blood glucose (BG) on day of PN start >120 mg/dL (OR, 2.32; 95% CI, 1.32-4.05, P = .003), mean BG >180 mg/dL while receiving PN (OR, 6.10; 95% CI, 2.18-17.04, P = .001), and hemoglobin A1c (A1c) ≥5.7% (OR, 3.18; 95% CI, 1.84-5.50, P 120 mg/dL on PN start day (P < .001), and ICU admission (P < .001) predicted the need for PN insulin.

  18. Head Start: A True Start to Getting Ahead: A Literature Review of the Head Start Program as a Primary Poverty Prevention Strategy

    Smith, LaPorsche C.


    Full Text Available The federal Head Start Program plays a vital role in increasing the likelihood that under-privileged children will become academically successful in school, attend college, and become successful citizens. Yet, Head Start continuously struggles to retain its funding and is challenged in its goal of assisting low income children. A review of the literature on Head Start and related early childhood education longitudinal studies will attest to the importance of this program as a primary prevention strategy to reduce poverty, raise public awareness of its benefits, and support the efforts of its advocates to retain and expand its funding at local and federal levels.

  19. VISTA: Pioneering New Survey Telescope Starts Work


    A new telescope - VISTA (the Visible and Infrared Survey Telescope for Astronomy) - has just started work at ESO's Paranal Observatory and has made its first release of pictures. VISTA is a survey telescope working at infrared wavelengths and is the world's largest telescope dedicated to mapping the sky. Its large mirror, wide field of view and very sensitive detectors will reveal a completely new view of the southern sky. Spectacular new images of the Flame Nebula, the centre of our Milky Way galaxy and the Fornax Galaxy Cluster show that it is working extremely well. VISTA is the latest telescope to be added to ESO's Paranal Observatory in the Atacama Desert of northern Chile. It is housed on the peak adjacent to the one hosting the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT) and shares the same exceptional observing conditions. VISTA's main mirror is 4.1 metres across and is the most highly curved mirror of this size and quality ever made - its deviations from a perfect surface are less than a few thousandths of the thickness of a human hair - and its construction and polishing presented formidable challenges. VISTA was conceived and developed by a consortium of 18 universities in the United Kingdom [1] led by Queen Mary, University of London and became an in-kind contribution to ESO as part of the UK's accession agreement. The telescope design and construction were project-managed by the Science and Technology Facilities Council's UK Astronomy Technology Centre (STFC, UK ATC). Provisional acceptance of VISTA was formally granted by ESO at a ceremony at ESO's Headquarters in Garching, Germany, attended by representatives of Queen Mary, University of London and STFC, on 10 December 2009 and the telescope will now be operated by ESO. "VISTA is a unique addition to ESO's observatory on Cerro Paranal. It will play a pioneering role in surveying the southern sky at infrared wavelengths and will find many interesting targets for further study by the Very Large Telescope, ALMA and

  20. Role of the KATP channel in the protective effect of nicorandil on cyclophosphamide-induced lung and testicular toxicity in rats

    Ahmed, Lamiaa A.; El-Maraghy, Shohda A.; Rizk, Sherine M.


    This study is the first to investigate the role of the KATP channel in the possible protection mediated by nicorandil against cyclophosphamide-induced lung and testicular toxicity in rats. Animals received cyclophosphamide (150 mg/kg/day, i.p.) for 2 consecutive days and then were untreated for the following 5 days. Nicorandil (3 mg/kg/day, p.o.) was administered starting from the day of cyclophosphamide injection with or without glibenclamide (5 mg/kg/day, p.o.). Nicorandil administration si...

  1. A palatable hyperlipidic diet causes obesity and affects brain glucose metabolism in rats

    Motoyama Caio SM


    Full Text Available Abstract Background We have previously shown that either the continuous intake of a palatable hyperlipidic diet (H or the alternation of chow (C and an H diet (CH regimen induced obesity in rats. Here, we investigated whether the time of the start and duration of these feeding regimens are relevant and whether they affect brain glucose metabolism. Methods Male Wistar rats received C, H, or CH diets during various periods of their life spans: days 30-60, days 30-90, or days 60-90. Experiments were performed the 60th or the 90th day of life. Rats were killed by decapitation. The glucose, insulin, leptin plasma concentration, and lipid content of the carcasses were determined. The brain was sliced and incubated with or without insulin for the analysis of glucose uptake, oxidation, and the conversion of [1-14C]-glucose to lipids. Results The relative carcass lipid content increased in all of the H and CH groups, and the H30-60 and H30-90 groups had the highest levels. Groups H30-60, H30-90, CH30-60, and CH30-90 exhibited a higher serum glucose level. Serum leptin increased in all H groups and in the CH60-90 and CH30-90 groups. Serum insulin was elevated in the H30-60, H60-90, CH60-90, CH30-90 groups. Basal brain glucose consumption and hypothalamic insulin receptor density were lower only in the CH30-60 group. The rate of brain lipogenesis was increased in the H30-90 and CH30-90 groups. Conclusion These findings indicate that both H and CH diet regimens increased body adiposity independent treatment and the age at which treatment was started, whereas these diets caused hyperglycemia and affected brain metabolism when started at an early age.

  2. The Effects of Histaminergic Agents in the Nucleus ccumbens of Rats in the Elevated Plus-Maze Test of Anxiety

    Ameneh Rezayof


    Full Text Available "n Objective: "n The nucleus accumbens (NAc receive histaminergic neurons from tuberomammillary nuclei. There are reports indicating that central histamine systems are involved in many physiological behavioral processes, including anxiety. The aim of the present study was to assess whether the histaminergic system of the NAc is involved in anxiety-related behaviors. Methods: Rats were anesthetized with intra-peritoneal injection of ketamine hydrochloride, plus xylazine and then were placed in a stereotaxic apparatus. In addition, two stainless-steel cannuale were placed 2 mm above the nucleus accumbens shell. Seven days after recovery from surgery, the behavioral testing was started. As a model of anxiety, the elevated plus maze which is a useful test to investigate the effects of anxiogenic or anxiolytic drugs in rodents, was used in male Wistar rats.  "nResults: Intra-NAc administration of histamine (0.01, 0.1 and 1 µg/rat increased the percentage of open arm time (%OAT and open arm entries (%OAE ,but not locomotor activity, indicating an anxiolytic response. Furthermore, bilateral  microinjections of different doses of the H1 receptor  antagonist pyrilamine (0.001, 0.01, 0.1 and 1 µg/rat or the H2 receptor antagonist ranitidine (0.001, 0.01, 0.1 and 1 µg/rat into the NAc increased %OAT and %OAE , but not locomotor activity. However, both histamine and histamine receptor antagonists showed an anxiolytic-like effect ; the antagonists (1 µg/rat also decreased the histamine response. "n "n Conclusion: The results may indicate a modulatory effect for the H1 and H2 histamine receptors of nucleus accumbens in the anxiety behavior of rats.

  3. Daily melatonin administration at middle age suppresses male rat visceral fat, plasma leptin, and plasma insulin to youthful levels.

    Rasmussen, D D; Boldt, B M; Wilkinson, C W; Yellon, S M; Matsumoto, A M


    Human and rat pineal melatonin secretion decline with aging, whereas visceral fat and plasma insulin levels increase. Melatonin modulates fat metabolism in some mammalian species, so these aging-associated melatonin, fat and insulin changes could be functionally related. Accordingly, we investigated the effects of daily melatonin supplementation to male Sprague-Dawley rats, starting at middle age (10 months) and continuing into old age (22 months). Melatonin was added to the drinking water (92% of which was consumed at night) at a dosage (4 microg/ml) previously reported to attenuate the aging-associated decrease in survival rate in male rats, as well as at a 10-fold lower dosage. The higher dosage produced nocturnal plasma melatonin levels in middle-aged rats which were 15-fold higher than in young (4 months) rats; nocturnal plasma melatonin levels in middle-aged rats receiving the lower dosage were not significantly different from young or middle-aged controls. Relative (% of body wt) retroperitoneal and epididymal fat, as well as plasma insulin and leptin levels, were all significantly increased at middle age when compared to young rats. All were restored within 10 weeks to youthful (4 month) levels in response to both dosages of melatonin. Continued treatment until old age maintained suppression of visceral (retroperitoneal + epididymal) fat levels. Plasma corticosterone and total thyroxine (T4) levels were not significantly altered by aging or melatonin treatment. Plasma testosterone, insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and total triiodothyronine (T3) decreased by middle age; these aging-associated decreases were not significantly altered by melatonin treatment. Thus, visceral fat, insulin and leptin responses to melatonin administration may be independent of marked changes in gonadal, thyroid, adrenal or somatotropin regulation. Since increased visceral fat is associated with increased insulin resistance, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease, these results

  4. Coadministration of Dexamethasone and Melissa officinalis Has Neuroprotective Effects in Rat Animal Model with Spinal Cord Injury.

    Hosseini, Seyed Ruhollah; Kaka, Gholamreza; Joghataei, Mohammad Taghi; Hooshmandi, Mehdi; Sadraie, Seyed Homayoon; Yaghoobi, Kayvan; Mansoori, Korosh; Mohammadi, Alireza


    Spinal cord injury (SCI) causes inflammation, deformity and cell loss. It has been shown that Melissa officinalis (MO), as herbal medicine, and dexamethasone (DEX) are useful in the prevention of various neurological diseases. The present study evaluated combinational effects of DEX and MO on spinal cord injury. Thirty six adult male Wistar rats were used in this experimental study. The weight-drop contusion method was employed to induce spinal cord injury in rats. DEX and MO were administrated alone and together in different treatment groups. Intra-muscular injection of DEX (1 mg/kg) was started three hours after injury and continued once a day for seven days after injury. Intra-peritoneal (I.P) injection of MO (150 mg/ kg) was started one day after injury and continued once a day for 14 days. Our results showed motor and sensory functions were improved significantly in the group received a combination of DEX and MO, compared to spinal cord injury group. Mean cavity area was decreased and loss of lower motor neurons and astrogliosis in the ventral horn of spinal cord was significantly prevented in the group received combination of DEX and Melissa officinalis, compared to spinal cord injury group. Furthermore, the findings showed a significant augmentation of electromyography (EMG) recruitment index, increase of myelin diameter, and up-regulation of myelin basic protein in the treated group with combination of DEX and MO. Results showed that combination of DEX and MO could be considered as a neuroprotective agent in spinal cord injury.




    Business start-ups by indigenous people in wildlife conservation areas are prone to failure. Funding issues have been identified as a contributing cause of the disappointing results. A great deal has been written about capital structure both in the start-up literature and the corporate literature, but the applicability of this research to small, indigenous start-ups in and around conservation areas is lacking. Although current practice dictates a reliance on equity, we apply the relevant corp...

  6. Study on Undertaking-starting of New Generation Migrant Workers

    Lu, Chuang; Liu, Wanzhao


    New generation migrant workers have become mainstay of China’s migrant workers and also major builders of China’s urbanization process. Compared with last generation migrant workers, new generation migrant workers have greater awareness of starting an undertaking. In the new trend, undertaking-starting is inevitable for new generation migrant workers. This study analyzed problems encountered by new generation migrant workers in the course of starting an undertaking. It reached conclusions...


    O. Vrublevskiy


    Full Text Available A methodology of modernization of the single-cylinder engine start by replacing the standard system by an electric starter is presented. Based on the calculated and experimental studies there have been provided the start-up characteristics of a single-cylinder engine. The measures to reduce the start-up time of the engine during the race in the Shell – EcoMarathon are offered.

  8. Peculiarities of osteoarthritis in rats

    Maria Drahulian


    Full Text Available Was received model of osteoarthritis in the rat line Wistar, by a one-time injection of CH3COOI acid into the knee joint. There changes in joint studied histological and clinical methods.On the 7-th day of the experiment was installed resemblance to similar changes in the joints of humans with acquired osteoarthritis

  9. Dynamic usage of transcription start sites within core promoters

    Kawaji, Hideya; Frith, Martin C; Katayama, Shintaro


    BACKGROUND: Mammalian promoters do not initiate transcription at single, well defined base pairs, but rather at multiple, alternative start sites spread across a region. We previously characterized the static structures of transcription start site usage within promoters at the base pair level......, based on large-scale sequencing of transcript 5' ends. RESULTS: In the present study we begin to explore the internal dynamics of mammalian promoters, and demonstrate that start site selection within many mouse core promoters varies among tissues. We also show that this dynamic usage of start sites...

  10. 21 CFR 26.11 - Start of operational period.


    ... RECOGNITION OF PHARMACEUTICAL GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE REPORTS, MEDICAL DEVICE QUALITY SYSTEM AUDIT REPORTS... Specific Sector Provisions for Pharmaceutical Good Manufacturing Practices § 26.11 Start of...

  11. Product innovation and commercialization in lean global start-ups

    Tanev, Stoyan; Rasmussen, Erik Stavnsager; Zijdemans, Erik


    The paper examines the distinctive characteristics of product innovation and commercialization in Lean Global Start-up (LGS) – new technology firms which have adopted a lean and global path from or near to their inception. It suggests an uncertainty vs risk framework which allows integrating two...... research streams – Born Global (BG) firms and lean start-ups. In addition to its integrative theoretical value, the paper offers insights for lean start-up managers dealing with the challenges of a global start....

  12. Sino-German research on rural development starts in Yunnan


    @@ A Sino-German project entitled Rural Development by Land Use Diversification: Stakeholder- based Strategies and Integrative Technologies for Agricultural Landscapes in Mountainous Southwest China started recently.

  13. School Starting Age and the Crime-Age Profile

    Landersø, Rasmus; Nielsen, Helena Skyt; Simonsen, Marianne


    to a discontinuity in school starting age for children born around New Year. Our analysis speaks against a simple invariant crime-age profile as is popular in criminology: we find that higher school starting age lowers the propensity to commit crime at young ages. We also find effects on the number of crimes......This paper uses register-based data to investigate the effects of school starting age on crime. Through this, we provide insights into the determinants of crime-age profiles. We exploit that Danish children typically start first grade in the calendar year they turn seven, which gives rise...

  14. Does swimming exercise affect experimental chronic kidney disease in rats treated with gum acacia?

    Badreldin H Ali

    Full Text Available Different modes of exercise are reported to be beneficial in subjects with chronic kidney disease (CKD. Similar benefits have also been ascribed to the dietary supplement gum acacia (GA. Using several physiological, biochemical, immunological, and histopathological measurements, we assessed the effect of swimming exercise (SE on adenine-induced CKD, and tested whether SE would influence the salutary action of GA in rats with CKD. Eight groups of rats were used, the first four of which were fed normal chow for 5 weeks, feed mixed with adenine (0.25% w/w to induce CKD, GA in the drinking water (15% w/v, or were given adenine plus GA, as above. Another four groups were similarly treated, but were subjected to SE during the experimental period, while the first four groups remained sedentary. The pre-SE program lasted for four days (before the start of the experimental treatments, during which the rats were made to swim for 5 to 10 min, and then gradually extended to 20 min per day. Thereafter, the rats in the 5th, 6th, 7th, and 8th groups started to receive their respective treatments, and were subjected to SE three days a week for 45 min each. Adenine induced the typical signs of CKD as confirmed by histopathology, and the other measurements, and GA significantly ameliorated all these signs. SE did not affect the salutary action of GA on renal histology, but it partially improved some of the above biochemical and physiological analytes, suggesting that addition of this mode of exercise to GA supplementation may improve further the benefits of GA supplementation.

  15. High stable remote photoelectric receiver for interferometry

    Yang, Hongxing; Zhu, Pengfei; Tan, Jiubin; Hu, Pengcheng; Fan, Zhigang


    A high sensitive and high stable remote photoelectric receiver has been developed to reduce noise and phase delay drift caused by thermal pollution and environmental interference. The phase delay drift model is analyzed and built based on a traditional photoelectric receiver. According to the model, a new mechanical isolation structure and a temperature control system are designed to keep the photoelectric receiver in a low constant temperature. Comparison experiments with traditional bias voltage compensation method and temperature control method are carried out between photoelectric receivers. The results verify that the output voltage fluctuation of photoelectric receiver used is reduced by 65% while the phase drift between measurement and reference photoelectric receivers decreases from 1.05° to 0.02°.

  16. Analysis of the omnium-g receiver

    Bohn, M.


    A thermal analysis of the Omnium-G receiver is presented and the technique is shown to be generally applicable to solar thermal receivers utilizing a directly heated thermal mass. The thermal loss coefficient, including reradiation losses, is calculated and shown to agree quite well with the experimentally measured thermal loss coefficient. The rate of heat transfer to the working fluid is also analyzed and the analysis is used to show that the Omnium-G receiver is well matched to the water/steam working fluid because the steam outlet temperature is almost the same as the receiver temperature. A general procedure for calculating receiver performance is presented. With this procedure, the energy delivery to any working fluid, the delivered temperature of the working fluid, and the pressure drop through the receiver can be determined. An example of the calculation is also presented.

  17. Glutamate and CO2 production from glutamine in incubated enterocytes of adult and very old rats

    Meynial-Denis, Dominique; Bielicki, Guy; Beaufrere, Anne-Marie; MIGNON, Michelle; Patureau Mirand, Philippe; Renou, Jean-Pierre


    Glutamine is the major fuel for enterocytes and promotes the growth of intestinal mucosa. Although oral glutamine exerts a positive effect on intestinal villus height in very old rats, how glutamine is used by enterocytes is unclear. Adult (8 months) and very old (27 months) female rats were exposed to intermittent glutamine supplementation for 50% of their age lifetime. Treated rats received glutamine added to their drinking water, and control rats received water alone. Jejunal epithelial ce...

  18. Concentrated solar power generation using solar receivers

    Anderson, Bruce N.; Treece, William Dean; Brown, Dan; Bennhold, Florian; Hilgert, Christoph


    Inventive concentrated solar power systems using solar receivers, and related devices and methods, are generally described. Low pressure solar receivers are provided that function to convert solar radiation energy to thermal energy of a working fluid, e.g., a working fluid of a power generation or thermal storage system. In some embodiments, low pressure solar receivers are provided herein that are useful in conjunction with gas turbine based power generation systems.

  19. Receiver-initiated medium access control protocols for wireless sensor networks

    Fafoutis, Xenofon; Di Mauro, Alessio; Vithanage, Madava D.


    is to provide a comprehensive and self-contained introduction to the fundamentals of the receiver-initiated paradigm, providing newcomers with a quick-start guide on the state of the art of this field and a palette of options, essential for implementing applications or designing new protocols....

  20. Shipping/Receiving and Quality Control

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Shipping receiving, quality control, large and precise inspection and CMM machines. Coordinate Measuring Machines, including "scanning" probes, optical comparators,...

  1. Efficient structures for wideband digital receiver

    Wang Hong; Lu Youxin; Wang Xuegang; Wan Yonglun


    Digital receivers have become more and more popular in radar, communication, and electric warfare for the advantages compared with their analog counterparts. But conventional digital receivers have been generally considered impractical for bandwidth greater than several hundreds MHz. To extend receiver bandwidth, decrease data rate and save hardware resources, three novel structures are proposed. They decimate the data stream prior to mixing and filtering, then process the multiple decimated streams in parallel at a lower rate. Consequently it is feasible to realize wideband receivers on the current ASIC devices. A design example and corresponding simulation results are demonstrated to evaluate the proposed structures.

  2. Receiver function estimated by maximum entropy deconvolution

    吴庆举; 田小波; 张乃铃; 李卫平; 曾融生


    Maximum entropy deconvolution is presented to estimate receiver function, with the maximum entropy as the rule to determine auto-correlation and cross-correlation functions. The Toeplitz equation and Levinson algorithm are used to calculate the iterative formula of error-predicting filter, and receiver function is then estimated. During extrapolation, reflective coefficient is always less than 1, which keeps maximum entropy deconvolution stable. The maximum entropy of the data outside window increases the resolution of receiver function. Both synthetic and real seismograms show that maximum entropy deconvolution is an effective method to measure receiver function in time-domain.

  3. Nursing process approach improves receivables management.

    Dias, K; Stockamp, D


    The "nursing process" is a systematic decision-making approach to problem solving based on open-system theory. This theory assumes that there is an on-going interchange between all system components. Components cannot be viewed in isolation, because decisions regarding one component will affect other components. Receivables management is similar to the nursing process, in that it involves constant diagnosis, assessment, and intervention in the work in process during all phases of the receivables cycle. In experiments that applied the nursing process concept to the management of accounts receivable in several hospitals, gross days in accounts receivable were reduced and cash flow was increased.

  4. Special design topics in digital wideband receivers

    Tsui, James B Y


    Offering engineers a thorough examination of special, more advanced aspects of digital wideband receiver design, this practical book builds on fundamental resources on the topic, helping you gain a more comprehensive understanding of the subject. This in-depth volume presents a detailed look at a complete receiver design, including the encoder. Moreover, it discusses the detection of exotic signals and provides authoritative guidance on designing receivers used in electronic warfare. From frequency modulation and biphase shifting keys, to parameter encoders in electronic warfare receivers and

  5. Biomechanical analysis of the swim-start: a review.

    Vantorre, Julien; Chollet, Didier; Seifert, Ludovic


    This review updates the swim-start state of the art from a biomechanical standpoint. We review the contribution of the swim-start to overall swimming performance, the effects of various swim-start strategies, and skill effects across the range of swim-start strategies identified in the literature. The main objective is to determine the techniques to focus on in swimming training in the contemporary context of the sport. The phases leading to key temporal events of the swim-start, like water entry, require adaptations to the swimmer's chosen technique over the course of a performance; we thus define the swim-start as the moment when preparation for take-off begins to the moment when the swimming pattern begins. A secondary objective is to determine the role of adaptive variability as it emerges during the swim-start. Variability is contextualized as having a functional role and operating across multiple levels of analysis: inter-subject (expert versus non-expert), inter-trial or intra-subject (through repetitions of the same movement), and inter-preference (preferred versus non-preferred technique). Regarding skill effects, we assume that swim-start expertise is distinct from swim stroke expertise. Highly skilled swim-starts are distinguished in terms of several factors: reaction time from the start signal to the impulse on the block, including the control and regulation of foot force and foot orientation during take-off; appropriate amount of glide time before leg kicking commences; effective transition from leg kicking to break-out of full swimming with arm stroking; overall maximal leg and arm propulsion and minimal water resistance; and minimized energy expenditure through streamlined body position. Swimmers who are less expert at the swim-start spend more time in this phase and would benefit from training designed to reduce: (i) the time between reaction to the start signal and impulse on the block, and (ii) the time in transition (i.e., between gliding and leg

  6. Variable velocity in solar external receivers

    Rodríguez-Sánchez, M. R.; Sánchez-González, A.; Acosta-Iborra, A.; Santana, D.


    One of the major problems in solar external receivers is tube overheating, which accelerates the risk of receiver failure. It can be solved implementing receivers with high number of panels. However, it exponentially increases the pressure drop in the receiver and the parasitic power consumption of the Solar Power Tower (SPT), reducing the global efficiency of the SPT. A new concept of solar external receiver, named variable velocity receiver, is able to adapt their configuration to the different flux density distributions. A set of valves allows splitting in several independent panels those panels in which the wall temperature is over the limit. It increases the velocity of the heat transfer fluid (HTF) and its cooling capacity. This receiver does not only reduce the wall temperature of the tubes, but also simplifies the control of the heliostat field and allows to employ more efficient aiming strategies. In this study, it has been shown that variable velocity receiver presents high advantages with respect to traditional receiver. Nevertheless, more than two divisions per panels are not recommendable, due to the increment of the pressure drop over 70 bars. In the design point (12 h of the Spring Equinox), the use of a variable number of panels between 18 and 36 (two divisions per panel), in a SPT similar to Gemasolar, improves the power capacity of the SPT in 5.7%, with a pressure drop increment of 10 bars. Off-design, when the flux distribution is high and not symmetric (e.g. 10-11 h), the power generated by the variable velocity receiver is 18% higher than the generated by the traditional receiver, at these hours the pressure drop increases almost 20 bars.

  7. Design and implementation of the CAPS receiver

    Hu, Yonghui; Hua, Yu; Hou, Lei; Wei, Jingfa; Wu, Jianfeng


    In this paper, based on analyses of the Chinese Area Positioning System (CAPS) satellite (GEO satellite) resources and signal properties, the signal power at the port of the receiver antenna is estimated, and the implementation projects are presented for a switching band C to band L CAPS C/A code receiver integrated with GPS receiver suite and for a CAPS dual frequency P code receiver. A microstrip receiving antenna is designed with high sensitivity and wide beam orientation, the RF front end of the C/A code and P code receivers, and a processor is designed for the navigation baseband. A single frequency CAPS C/A code receiver and a CAPS dual frequency P code receiver are built at the same time. A software process flow is provided, and research on relatively key techniques is also conducted, such as signal searching, code loop and carrier loop algorithms, a height assistant algorithm, a dual frequency difference speed measurement technique, a speed measurement technique using a single frequency source with frequency assistance, and a CAPS time correcting algorithm, according to the design frame of the receiver hardware. Research results show that the static plane positioning accuracy of the CAPS C/A code receiver is 20.5-24.6 m, height accuracy is 1.2-12.8 m, speed measurement accuracy is 0.13-0.3 m/s, dynamic plane positioning accuracy is 24.4 m, height accuracy is 3.0 m, and speed measurement accuracy is 0.24 m/s. In the case of C/A code, the timing accuracy is 200 ns, and it is also shown that the positioning accuracy of the CAPS precise code receiver (1 σ) is 5 m from south to north, and 0.8 m from east to west. Finally, research on positioning accuracy is also conducted.

  8. Design and implementation of the CAPS receiver


    In this paper, based on analyses of the Chinese Area Positioning System (CAPS) satellite (GEO satellite) resources and signal properties, the signal power at the port of the receiver antenna is estimated, and the implementation projects are presented for a switching band C to band L CAPS C/A code receiver integrated with GPS receiver suite and for a CAPS dual frequency P code receiver. A microstrip receiving antenna is designed with high sensitivity and wide beam orientation, the RF front end of the C/A code and P code receivers, and a processor is designed for the navigation baseband. A single frequency CAPS C/A code receiver and a CAPS dual frequency P code receiver are built at the same time. A software process flow is provided, and research on relatively key techniques is also conducted, such as signal searching, code loop and carrier loop algorithms, a height assistant algorithm, a dual frequency difference speed measurement technique, a speed measurement technique using a single frequency source with frequency assistance, and a CAPS time correcting algorithm, according to the design frame of the receiver hardware. Research results show that the static plane positioning accuracy of the CAPS C/A code receiver is 20.5-24.6 m, height accuracy is 1.2-12.8 m, speed measurement accuracy is 0.13-0.3 m/s, dynamic plane positioning accuracy is 24.4 m, height accuracy is 3.0 m, and speed measurement accuracy is 0.24 m/s. In the case of C/A code, the timing accuracy is 200 ns, and it is also shown that the positioning accuracy of the CAPS precise code receiver (1σ ) is 5 m from south to north, and 0.8 m from east to west. Finally, research on positioning accuracy is also conducted.

  9. Perfluorooctanoate: Placental and lactational transport pharmacokinetics in rats.

    Hinderliter, Paul M.; Mylchreest, E.; Gannon, S. A.; Butenhoff, J. L.; Kennedy, G.L., Jr.


    This study was conducted to develop a quantitative understanding of the potential for gestational and lactational transfer of perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) in the rat. Time-mated female rats were dosed by oral gavage once daily at concentrations of 3, 10, or 30 mg/kg/day of the ammonium salt of PFOA (APFO) starting on gestation (G) day 4 and continuing until sacrifice. On days 10, 15, and 21G, five rats per dose level were sacrificed and blood samples were collected 2h post-dose. Embryos were collected on day 10G, amniotic fluid, placentas, and embryos/fetuses were collected on days 15 and 21G, and fetal blood samples were collected on day 21G. Five rats per dose level were allowed to deliver and nurse their litters, and on days 3, 7, 14, and 21 post-partum (PP) milk and blood samples of maternal and pup were collected 2h post-dose. All samples were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) for PFOA concentration. Concentrations of PFOA in maternal plasma and milk attained steady state during the sampling interval. The steady-state concentrations in maternal plasma were 10-15, 25-30, and 60-75 microg/mL in rats receiving 3, 10, and 30 mg/kg, respectively. Steady-state concentrations in milk were approximately 10 times less than those in maternal plasma. The concentration of PFOA in fetal plasma on day 21G was approximately half the steady-state concentration in maternal plasma. The milk concentrations appeared to be generally comparable to the concentrations in pup plasma. Pup plasma concentrations decreased from day 3PP to day 7PP, and were similar on days 7, 14, and 21PP at all dose levels. PFOA was detected in placenta (days 15 and 21G), amniotic fluid (days 15 and 21G), embryo (days 10 and 15G), and fetus (day 21G). These pharmacokinetics allow estimation of the dose to developing and nursing rat offspring following maternal exposure.

  10. Response Time Comparisons among Four Base Running Starting Techniques in Slow Pitch Softball.

    Israel, Richard G.; Brown, Rodney L.


    Response times among four starting techniques (cross-over step, jab step, standing sprinter's start, and momentum start) were compared. The results suggest that the momentum start was the fastest starting technique for optimum speed in running bases. (FG)

  11. Fresh Start: A Model for Success and Sustainable Change

    Matthews, Susan; Kinchington, Francia


    This article examines the rationale and debate of the "Fresh Start" schools policy introduced by the New Labour Government in 1997 as a vehicle for improvement in schools that historically had been classified as "failing". Underpinning the policy is the assumption that Fresh Start can act as a catalytic agent of positive change to performance,…

  12. 10 CFR 36.15 - Start of construction.


    ... work, purchase of a site, site surveys or soil testing, site preparation, site excavation, construction... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Start of construction. 36.15 Section 36.15 Energy NUCLEAR... Requirements § 36.15 Start of construction. The applicant may not begin construction of a new irradiator prior...

  13. 40 CFR 86.236-94 - Engine starting and restarting.


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Engine starting and restarting. 86.236-94 Section 86.236-94 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... New Medium-Duty Passenger Vehicles; Cold Temperature Test Procedures § 86.236-94 Engine starting...

  14. Starting an Actuarial Science Major at a Liberal Arts College

    Mills, Mark A.


    The article provides details of the process of starting an actuarial science major at a small, liberal arts college. Some critique of the major is included, as well as some challenges that may be faced by others wanting to start such a major at their institution.

  15. Caregivers' attitudes regarding portion size served to Head Start children

    The purpose of this study was to identify caregivers' attitudes regarding amounts and types of foods served to Head Start preschoolers using qualitative methods. Researchers conducted 8 focus groups (4 African American; 4 Hispanic) with 33 African American and 29 Hispanic Head Start caregivers. Mode...

  16. Supporting Early Childhood Environmental Education through the Natural Start Alliance

    Merrick, Christy; Braus, Judy


    The Natural Start Alliance is a new initiative of the North American Association for Environmental Education. Natural Start was created to support and expand early childhood environmental education (ECEE) by creating a network of organizations, educators, parents, and others who care about using environmental education to support young children's…

  17. Starting an Actuarial Science Major at a Liberal Arts College

    Mills, Mark A.


    The article provides details of the process of starting an actuarial science major at a small, liberal arts college. Some critique of the major is included, as well as some challenges that may be faced by others wanting to start such a major at their institution.

  18. Starting Time and School Life: Reflections from Educators and Students.

    Kubow, Particia K; Wahlstrom, Kyla L.; Bemis, Amy E.


    Using teacher surveys and focus groups, a University of Minnesota study examined the effects of changing school starting times on school operations at all levels and on the community. The least desirable start time was 9:40 a.m. at middle schools. Later schedules benefited high school students. No one schedule can accommodate everyone. (MLH)

  19. How Does Personal Bankruptcy Law Affect Start-ups?

    Cerqueiro, G.M.; Penas, M.F.


    We analyze the effect of changes in U.S. state personal exemptions on the financing structure and performance of a representative sample of start-ups. An increase in the amount of borrower’s personal wealth protected in bankruptcy reduces the availability of bank credit to all start-ups. Owners of u

  20. Start-up Costs, Taxes and Innovative Entrepreneurship

    P. Darnihamedani (Pourya); J.H. Block (Jörn); S.J.A. Hessels (Jolanda); A. Simonyan (Aram)


    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Prior research suggests that start-up costs and taxes negatively influence entry into entrepreneurship. Yet, no distinction is made regarding the type of entrepreneurship, particularly innovative versus non-innovative entrepreneurship. Start-up costs, being one-off

  1. The Automatic Start Method of Application Program Using API


    This paper introduces on a method about the au-tomactic start of application program. Through defining Registryby API function, the automatic start of specified application pro-gram is fulfilled when Windows98 is taking action. It gives facil-ities to many computer application works.

  2. Numerical study of unsteady starting characteristics of a hypersonic inlet

    Wang Weixing; Guo Rongwei


    The impulse and self starting characteristics of a mixed-compression hypersonic inlet designed at Mach number of 6.5 are studied by applying the unsteady computational fluid dynamics (CFD) method.The full Navier-Stokes equations are solved with the assumption of viscous perfect gas model,and the shear-stress transport (SST) k-ω two-equation Reynolds averaged NavierStokes (RANS) model is used for turbulence modeling.Results indicate that during impulse starting,the flow field is divided into three zones with different aerodynamic parameters by primary shock and upstream-facing shock.The separation bubble on the shoulder of ramp undergoes a generating,growing,swallowing and disappearing process in sequence.But a separation bubble at the entrance of inlet exists until the freestream velocity is accelerated to the starting Mach number during self starting.The mass flux distribution of flow field is non-uniform because of the interaction between shock and boundary layer,so that the mass flow rate at throat is unsteady during impulse starting.The duration of impulse starting process increases almost linearly with the decrease of fleestream Mach number but rises abruptly when the freestream Mach number approaches the starting Mach number.The accelerating performance of booster almost has no influence on the self starting ability of hypersonic inlet.

  3. Early versus Late Start in Foreign Language Education: Documenting Achievements

    Dominguez, Rocio; Pessoa, Silvia


    This study compares 27 sixth grade students who have been learning Spanish since kindergarten with 5 who have had Spanish for only 1 year using a battery of Spanish oral and written tests. The students who started early out performed the new students in listening, speaking, and writing Spanish. Those who started early also displayed a positive…

  4. African American Preschool Children's Physical Activity Levels in Head Start

    Shen, Bo; Reinhart-Lee, Tamara; Janisse, Heather; Brogan, Kathryn; Danford, Cynthia; Jen, K-L. C.


    The purpose of this study was to describe the physical activity levels of urban inner city preschoolers while attending Head Start, the federally funded preschool program for children from low-income families. Participants were 158 African American children. Their physical activity during Head Start days was measured using programmed RT-3…

  5. Summary of Head Start Provisions on Homelessness and Foster Care

    National Association for the Education of Homeless Children and Youth, 2008


    On Wednesday, December 12, President Bush signed the "Improving Head Start for School Readiness Act of 2007" into law. The legislation reauthorizes the Head Start Act and contains numerous provisions on homelessness and foster care. A summary of those provisions is provided in this paper.

  6. A new paradigm: home therapy for patients who start dialysis in an unplanned way.

    Lecouf, Angelique; Ryckelynck, Jean-Philippe; Ficheux, Maxence; Henri, Patrick; Lobbedez, Thierry


    Starting dialysis in a non-planned manner or in a 'suboptimal' manner is a frequent situation in dialysis centres, even for patients with a regular nephrology follow-up. Unplanned dialysis initiation can be defined as a patient beginning dialysis with no functional vascular access or peritoneal dialysis catheter. These patients start haemodialysis with a temporary catheter, frequently converted to a tunnelled catheter pending native fistula creation or whilst waiting for fistula maturation. In this case, conventional in-centre haemodialysis (ICH) is more frequently used than peritoneal dialysis (PD) or home haemodialysis (HHD). This review found that patients who start dialysis in an unplanned way are significantly older and have more heart and peripheral vascular diseases. Home-based dialysis therapies showed better outcomes than ICH (PD for the first two to three years and HHD for the long-term). This review proposes a paradigm shift in the initial form of dialysis offered to new patients starting dialysis in an unplanned way. Even if they require a temporary catheter, it is possible for them to receive a pre-dialysis education programme (PDEP). The PDEP should be based on both individualised information session(s) given by an experienced nurse to the patient and family and therapeutic education (educative diagnosis, individualised and group session(s)) in order to relieve anxiety and promote home modalities. © 2013 European Dialysis and Transplant Nurses Association/European Renal Care Association.

  7. Quick-start of full-scale anaerobic digestion (AD) using aeration

    Lagerkvist, Anders, E-mail:; Pelkonen, Markku; Wikström, Tommy


    Highlights: • A fast, and original, start up procedure for anaerobic digestors has been applied at full scale. • The development of a methanogenic culture has been documented using fluorescent in situ hybridization. • The technique can be widely applied. - Abstract: A conventional 1300 m{sup 3} continuously stirred anaerobic tank reactor at the city of Boden, north Sweden, which was receiving a feed of both sewage sludge and food waste, was put out of operation due to the build-up of a float phase. The reactor was emptied and cleaned. At start-up there was no methanogenic sludge available, so an unconventional start-up procedure was applied: The reactor was rapidly (8 days with 1200 kg of total solids (TS) added daily) filled with thickened, and slightly acidic sewage sludge, showing only slight methane generation, which was subsequently heated to 55 °C. Then compressed air was blown into the digester and within a month a fully functional methanogenic culture was established. The transfer from acidogenic to methanogenic conditions happened in about one week. As a start-up technique this is fast and cost efficient, it only requires the access of a compressor, electricity and a source of air. In total, about 16 tonnes of oxygen were used. It is proposed that this method may also be used as an operational amendment technique, should a reactor tend to acidify.

  8. Effect of a vitamin D{sub 3}-based nutritional supplement ('Videchol') on carbohydrate metabolism of rats following chronic low dose-rate irradiation

    Starikovich, L.S.; Vernikovska, Ya.I.; Vigovska, T.V.; Veliky, M.M. [Lviv Ivan Franko National University, Department of Biochemistry, Lviv (Ukraine); Becerril Aragon, G.A. [Lviv Ivan Franko National University, Department of Biochemistry, Lviv (Ukraine)]. E-mail:


    In this study we evaluated the effects of the administration of a vitamin D{sub 3} preparation 'Videchol' to chronically irradiated rats (1 cGy day{sup -1}) by the assessment of the activities of several glycolytic enzymes: lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) (EC, pyruvate kinase (PK) (EC and hexokinase (HK) (EC, in populations of erythroid and myeloid bone marrow cells. Videchol treatment of irradiated rats led to the normalisation of HK and LDH activity at cumulative doses of around 30 cGy in granulocyte-monocyte cells and to normalisation of LDH and PK activities in erythroid cells starting at 20 cGy in comparison with irradiated rats who did not receive Videchol. The reaction kinetic parameters of LDH in erythrocytes changed according to the redistribution pattern of the isozymes throughout the different stages of the experiment. The administration of Videchol to irradiated rats led to a rearrangement of the LDH isozymes ratio characterised by kinetic properties more comparable to those of the controls. Thus, vitamin D{sub 3} appears to induce a normalisation of carbohydrate metabolism in rats chronically irradiated with low dose-rate ionising radiation. (author)

  9. Superconducting integrated submillimeter receiver for TELIS

    Koshelets, Valery P.; Ermakov, Andrey B.; Filippenko, Lyudmila V.; Khudchenko, Andrey V.; Kiselev, Oleg S.; Sobolev, Alexander S.; Torgashin, Mikhail Yu.; Yagoubov, Pavel A.; Hoogeveen, Ruud W. M.; Wild, Wolfgang


    In this report an overview of the results on the development of a single-chip superconducting integrated receiver for the Terahertz Limb Sounder (TELIS) balloon project intended to measure a variety of stratosphere trace gases is presented. The Superconducting Integrated Receiver (SIR) comprises in

  10. 47 CFR 32.1170 - Receivables.


    ... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.1170 Receivables. (a... enable the company to make the following analysis: (1) Amounts due from customers who are receiving... process of collection. (b) Collections in excess of amounts charged to this account may be credited to...

  11. Superconducting chip receivers for imaging application

    Shitov, SV; Koshelets, VP; Ermakov, AB; Filippenko, LV; Baryshev, AM; Luinge, W; Gao, [No Value


    Experimental details of a unique superconducting imaging array receiver are discussed. Each pixel contains an internally pumped receiver chip mounted on the back of the elliptical microwave lens. Each chip comprises a quasi-optical SIS mixer integrated with a superconducting flux-flow oscillator (FF

  12. Social networks and receiving informal care.

    Boer, A. de; Klerk, M. de; Cardol, M.; Westert, G.


    In 2001, roughly half a million people (4% of the Dutch population) received informal care from family members living outside their home, and a quarter of a million (2% of the Dutch population) received this care from acquaintances, such as friend, neighbours and work colleagues. The potential suppl

  13. 21 CFR 1020.10 - Television receivers.


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Television receivers. 1020.10 Section 1020.10 Food...) RADIOLOGICAL HEALTH PERFORMANCE STANDARDS FOR IONIZING RADIATION EMITTING PRODUCTS § 1020.10 Television receivers. (a) Applicability. The provisions of this section are applicable to television...

  14. RF performance of T-DAB receivers

    Schiphorst, R.; Potman, J.; Hofstra, K.L.; Cronie, H.S.; Slump, C.H.


    In every wireless system, the weakest link determines the performance of the network. In this paper the Radio Frequency (RF) performance of both band III and L-band Terrestrial Digital Audio Broadcasting (T-DAB) consumer receivers are discussed. The receivers have been tested based on the EN 50248 s

  15. Prognostic effect of hyperbaric oxygen therapy starting time for sudden sensorineural hearing loss.

    Yıldırım, Erol; Murat Özcan, K; Palalı, Mehmet; Cetin, Mehmet Ali; Ensari, Serdar; Dere, Hüseyin


    Sudden sensorineural hearing loss is one of the otological emergencies whose pathogenesis is uncertain and associated with total or partial loss of hearing function. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the hyperbaric oxygen therapy starting time affects the management of sudden sensorineural hearing loss. Fifty-nine patients with sudden sensorineural hearing loss admitted to our clinic between 2008 and 2012 were retrospectively included in this study. All patients received hyperbaric oxygen therapy. In addition, each patient received intravenous piracetam and 37 patients received steroid therapy. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy was initiated between 1 and 7 days with 20 patients determined as Group A, between 8 and 14 days with 25 patients determined as Group B and between 15 and 28 days with 14 patients determined as Group C. Hearing gains of these three groups were statistically evaluated. Each of them showed statistically significant improvement. Lowest hearing gain was observed in Group C and the gain of this group was statistically less than the other two groups. There was no significant difference between the hearing gains of the Group A and Group B. Starting hyperbaric oxygen therapy in patients with sudden sensorineural hearing loss within the first 14 days has positive effect on the prognosis of the disease.

  16. Compressive Sensing for Spread Spectrum Receivers

    Fyhn, Karsten; Jensen, Tobias Lindstrøm; Larsen, Torben


    With the advent of ubiquitous computing there are two design parameters of wireless communication devices that become very important: power efficiency and production cost. Compressive sensing enables the receiver in such devices to sample below the Shannon-Nyquist sampling rate, which may lead...... to a decrease in the two design parameters. This paper investigates the use of Compressive Sensing (CS) in a general Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) receiver. We show that when using spread spectrum codes in the signal domain, the CS measurement matrix may be simplified. This measurement scheme, named...... Compressive Spread Spectrum (CSS), allows for a simple, effective receiver design. Furthermore, we numerically evaluate the proposed receiver in terms of bit error rate under different signal to noise ratio conditions and compare it with other receiver structures. These numerical experiments show that though...

  17. High dynamic, low volume GPS receiver

    Hurd, W. J.


    A new GPS receiver concept and design are presented to meet the high dynamic and low volume requirements for range applications in missiles and drones. The receiver has the potential to satisfy all range requirements with one basic receiver, which has significant potential economic benefit over the alternate approach of using a family of receivers, each tailored for specific applications. The main new concept is to use approximate maximum likelihood estimates of pseudo range and range-rate, rather than tracking with carrier phase locked loops and code delay locked loops. Preliminary analysis indicates that receivers accelerating at 50 g or more can track with position errors due to acceleration of approximately 0.2 m/g, or 10 m at 50 g. Implementation is almost entirely digital to meet the low volume requirements.

  18. An SDR based AIS receiver for satellites

    Larsen, Jesper Abildgaard; Mortensen, Hans Peter; Nielsen, Jens Frederik Dalsgaard


    For a few years now, there has been a high interest in monitoring the global ship traffic from space. A few satellite, capable of listening for ship borne AIS transponders have already been launched, and soon the AAUSAT3, carrying two different types of AIS receivers will also be launched. One...... of the AIS receivers onboard AAUSAT3 is an SDR based AIS receiver. This paper serves to describe the background of the AIS system, and how the SDR based receiver has been integrated into the AAUSAT3 satellite. Amongst some of the benefits of using an SDR based receiver is, that due to its versatility, new...... detection algorithms are easily deployed, and it is easily adapted the new proposed AIS transmission channels....

  19. In vivo dosimetry of high-dose fractionated irradiation in an experimental set-up with rats

    Fortan, L.; Van Hecke, H.; Van Duyse, B.; De Neve, W.; De Meerleer, B. [Ghent Rijksuniversiteit (Belgium). Kliniek voor Radiotherapie en Kerngeneeskunde; Pattyn, P.; Van Renthergem, K. [Ghent University (Belgium). Dept. of Surgery


    The feasibility to irradiate a limited section of a rat abdomen with well-defined edges was assessed. Because of the relative small volume involved, in vivo dosimetry with TLDs was necessary in providing us information about the accuracy of the irradiation method. Three to five days prior to the start of the radiotherapy treatment, two plastic strips - each containing a TLD-dosimeter (Harshaw TLD10 LiF rods, 1 mm dia x 6 mm) sealed in polyethylene tubing, and a lead bean - were implanted in the rat abdomen. The plastic strips made a closed loop around the bowel, through the mesenterium, and were fixed with a single stitch on the inner abdominal wall. One loop was made in the hepatic area; another was made in the lower abdomen, around the rectosigmoid. Conscious animals were irradiated using a purpose-build plexi-holder, with rear legs immobilised to avoid longitudinal movements. The implanted lead beans enabled us to simulate the rat prior to each radiation session. This way, the radiation field could be set up individually for each rat, in such way that the rectosigmoid area received full dose and the hepatic area received no irradiation dose at all. Irradiation was carried out, using 5 MV photons of a linear accelerator. Fifteen animals per group were irradiated according a conventional (2.0 Gy / fraction; 5 fractions / week) or a hyperfractionated (1.6 Gy / fraction; 2 daily fractions; 5 days / week) schedule, with different total doses. Prior to implantation, TLDs were individually calibrated and checked for stability. After removal from the abdomen . TLDs were tested again for accuracy. TLDs with an unacceptable read-out curve were rejected (about 2 to 4 TLDs per group of 15). The obtained accumulated doses - as determined by TLD read-outs-were comparable to the theoretical doses, indicating that fractionated radiation of small fields, with well defined mark off, in rats is feasible.

  20. Effect of diazepam on sociability of rats submitted to neonatal seizures

    Ingrid Stanize Leite


    Full Text Available Status epilepticus (SE, an acute condition characterized by repetitive or ongoing seizures activity, may produce long-term deleterious consequences. Previous data demonstrated that Wistar rats subjected to neonatal SE displayed autistic behavior, characterized by social play impairment, low preference by novelty, deficit in social discrimination; anxiety related behavior and stereotyped behavior with no changes in locomotor activity (doi:, doi:, doi: [1–3]. Taking into account the bi-directional relationship between the state of anxiety and social interaction (doi: [4], we evaluated the impact of the state of anxiety on social interaction. Male Wistar rats at postnatal day 9 were subjected to pilocarpine-induced neonatal SE (380 mg/kg, ip and the controls received 0.9% saline (0.1 ml/10 g. The groups received saline or diazepam (1.0 mg/kg 45 min prior each behavioral testing that started from 60 days of postnatal life. In the open field, rats subjected to neonatal seizure exhibited less central zone activity as compared to animals treated with diazepam, with no changes in the total locomotor activity. In elevated plus maze, rats subjected to neonatal seizure and treated with diazepam exhibited higher locomotor activity and spent more time on the open arms as compared to untreated animals. In approach phase of sociability paradigm, animals subjected to neonatal seizures similarly to controls, regardless the treatment, spent more time with social stimulus as compared to non social stimulus. In social novelty phase of sociability paradigm, animals subjected to neonatal seizures differently of controls, regardless the treatment, spent similar time with familiar and novel stimulus.

  1. CSPonD demonstrative project: Start-up process of a 25 kW prototype

    Gil, Antoni; Grange, Benjamin; Perez, Victor G.; Tetreault-Friend, Melanie; Codd, Daniel S.; Calvet, Nicolas; Slocum, Alexander S.


    The current concept of commercial concentrated solar power (CSP) plants, based on the concept of a solar field, receiver, storage and power block, experienced significant growth in the past decades. The power block is the most well know part of the plant, while solar field depends on the receiver technology. The dominant receiver technologies are parabolic troughs and central towers. Most thermal energy storage (TES) relies on two tanks of molten salts, one hot and one cold serviced by pumps and piping systems. In spite of the technical development level achieved by these systems, efficiency is limited, mainly caused by thermal losses in piping, parasitic losses due to electric tracing and pumping and receiver limitations. In order to mitigate the these issues, a new concept called Concentrated Solar Power on Demand (CSPonD), was developed, consisting of a direct absorption Solar Salt CSP receiver which simultaneously acts as TES tank. Currently, in the frame of the flagship collaborative project between the Masdar Institute (UAE) and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (USA) a 25 kW demonstrative prototype is in its final building phase at the Masdar Institute Solar Platform. The present paper, explains the demonstration prototype based on the CSPonD concept, with emphasis on the planned start-up process for the facility.

  2. Factors contributing to delay in diagnosis and start of treatment of leprosy

    Nicholls, P.G.; Chhina, N; Aaen, Karen Bro


    The objective of our research was to identify factors contributing to delay in diagnosis and start of treatment in leprosy, focussing on patients' narratives of help-seeking behaviour. Our research took place in Purulia, West Bengal, India and in Nilphamari, northern Bangladesh. Between January...... and August 2000, we conducted semi-structured interviews with 104 patients that explored each individual's narrative of help-seeking behaviour and the context of beliefs and attitudes towards leprosy. Subsequently we surveyed 356 patients currently receiving treatment for leprosy and recorded specific...... aspects of each help-seeking action and their reports of local beliefs and attitudes towards leprosy. Delay was estimated from time of first symptoms through to start of effective treatment (mean 18 months, median 9 months in Purulia and mean 20 months, median 12 months in Nilphamari). The number of help...

  3. Solid oxide fuel cell power plant having a bootstrap start-up system

    Lines, Michael T


    The bootstrap start-up system (42) achieves an efficient start-up of the power plant (10) that minimizes formation of soot within a reformed hydrogen rich fuel. A burner (48) receives un-reformed fuel directly from the fuel supply (30) and combusts the fuel to heat cathode air which then heats an electrolyte (24) within the fuel cell (12). A dilute hydrogen forming gas (68) cycles through a sealed heat-cycling loop (66) to transfer heat and generated steam from an anode side (32) of the electrolyte (24) through fuel processing system (36) components (38, 40) and back to an anode flow field (26) until fuel processing system components (38, 40) achieve predetermined optimal temperatures and steam content. Then, the heat-cycling loop (66) is unsealed and the un-reformed fuel is admitted into the fuel processing system (36) and anode flow (26) field to commence ordinary operation of the power plant (10).

  4. Solid oxide fuel cell power plant having a bootstrap start-up system

    Lines, Michael T


    The bootstrap start-up system (42) achieves an efficient start-up of the power plant (10) that minimizes formation of soot within a reformed hydrogen rich fuel. A burner (48) receives un-reformed fuel directly from the fuel supply (30) and combusts the fuel to heat cathode air which then heats an electrolyte (24) within the fuel cell (12). A dilute hydrogen forming gas (68) cycles through a sealed heat-cycling loop (66) to transfer heat and generated steam from an anode side (32) of the electrolyte (24) through fuel processing system (36) components (38, 40) and back to an anode flow field (26) until fuel processing system components (38, 40) achieve predetermined optimal temperatures and steam content. Then, the heat-cycling loop (66) is unsealed and the un-reformed fuel is admitted into the fuel processing system (36) and anode flow (26) field to commence ordinary operation of the power plant (10).

  5. Experimental and Numerical Study on the Thermal Performance of a Water/Steam Cavity Receiver

    Jinjia Wei


    Full Text Available An experimental platform was designed and built for testing the thermal performance of a water/steam cavity receiver. The experimental platform was utilized to investigate the start-up performance and operation characteristics of the receiver. The electrical heating mode was chosen to simulate the non-uniform distribution of heat flux on the surface of absorber tubes inside the cavity. During start-up the temperature rise rate and the mass flow rate are considered as control variables. A couple of start-up curves under different working pressures were finally obtained. The results showed that the receiver performed at relatively low thermal efficiencies. The main reason for the low thermal efficiency was attributed to the low steam mass flow rate, which causes a high proportional heat loss. In order to study the relationship between thermal efficiency and mass flow rate, a computational model for evaluating the thermal performance of a cavity receiver was built and verified. This model couples three aspects of heat transfer: the radiative heat transfer inside the receiver, the flow boiling heat transfer inside the absorber tubes and the convection heat transfer around the receiver. The water/steam cavity receiver of the experimental platform was studied numerically. The curve of thermal efficiency versus mass flow rate was obtained to show that the thermal efficiency increases with increasing mass flow rate within a certain range, and the increase is more remarkable at low mass flow rates. The purpose of the present study was to determine an appropriate mass flow rate for the receiver of the experimental platform to ensure its efficient operation.

  6. Reactions of the rat musculoskeletal system to compressive spinal cord injury (SCI) and whole body vibration (WBV) therapy.

    Schwarz, A; Pick, C; Harrach, R; Stein, G; Bendella, H; Ozsoy, O; Ozsoy, U; Schoenau, E; Jaminet, P; Sarikcioglu, L; Dunlop, S; Angelov, D N


    Traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) causes a loss of locomotor function with associated compromise of the musculo-skeletal system. Whole body vibration (WBV) is a potential therapy following SCI, but little is known about its effects on the musculo-skeletal system. Here, we examined locomotor recovery and the musculo-skeletal system after thoracic (T7-9) compression SCI in adult rats. Daily WBV was started at 1, 7, 14 and 28 days after injury (WBV1-WBV28 respectively) and continued over a 12-week post-injury period. Intact rats, rats with SCI but no WBV (sham-treated) and a group that received passive flexion and extension (PFE) of their hind limbs served as controls. Compared to sham-treated rats, neither WBV nor PFE improved motor function. Only WBV14 and PFE improved body support. In line with earlier studies we failed to detect signs of soleus muscle atrophy (weight, cross sectional diameter, total amount of fibers, mean fiber diameter) or bone loss in the femur (length, weight, bone mineral density). One possible explanation is that, despite of injury extent, the preservation of some axons in the white matter, in combination with quadripedal locomotion, may provide sufficient trophic and neuronal support for the musculoskeletal system.

  7. Overexpression of parathyroid pituitary-specific transcription factor (Pit)-1 in hyperphosphatemia-induced hyperparathyroidism of chronic renal failure rats

    JIANG Ying; WANG Mei


    Background Hyperphosphatemia in renal failure has been identified as a major role in the pathogenesis of hyperparathyroidism that is independent of changes in serum calcium and 1,25(OH)2D3. The aim of this study was to evaluate the expression of parathyroid Pit-1 in hyperphosphatemia-induced secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) of chronic renal failure (CRF) rats.Methods Wistar rats with CRF induced by 5/6 nephrectomy were ramdomly fed with diet containing 1.2% inorganic phosphate (Pi, high phosphate (HP) group, n=9) or 0.2% Pi (low phosphate (LP) group, n=9) for 10 weeks starting from the fourth week after the surgery. Another 7 nephrectomy rats with HP diet were intraperitoneally injected with phosphonoformic acid (PFA, the specific inhibitor of Pit-1, HP+PFA group) 0.15 g/kg every other day for 10 weeks starting from HP diet. Another 6 HP rats injected with the same amount of normal saline as the control of the HP+PFA group (HP+saline group). At the same time, 9 rats with sham surgery received HP diet as the controls. At the 4th week and 14th week, blood was taken for measurement of serum creatinine (SCr), serum calcium (SCa), serum phosphorus (SPi),1,25(OH)2D3 and intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH). At the 14th week, two parathroid glands (PTGs) of each rat were removed by microsurgery, one gland for immunohistochemistry analysis of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), the other one for detection of Pit-1 by Western blotting, and for the measurement of Pit-1 mRNA and PTH mRNA by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction.Results In nephrectomy rats, high dierary phosphate induced a marked increase in serum phosphate, iPTH, PTH mRNA and PCNA parathyroid cells, accompanying Pit-1 and its mRNA in parathyroid gland increased significantly.However, serum Ca and 1,25(OH)2D3 remained unchanged. PFA decreased Pit-1 and its mRNA levels to reduce intact PTH, PTH mRNA and PCNA-positive parathyroid cells.Conclusions Expression of parathyroid Pit-1 in

  8. The Effects of Smart Start Child Care on Kindergarten Entry Skills. FPG-UNC Smart Start Evaluation Report.

    Bryant, Donna; Bernier, Kathleen; Taylor, Karen; Maxwell, Kelly

    Helping families access affordable, quality child care has been the primary focus for the Orange County, North Carolina Smart Start Partnership for Young Children. This study investigated the effects of Smart Start efforts on children's skills at kindergarten entry. Kindergarten teachers rated the cognitive, language and social skills of 39…

  9. 10-MWe pilot-plant-receiver panel test requirements document solar thermal test facility


    Testing plans for a full-scale test receiver panel and supporting hardware which essentially duplicate both physically and functionally, the design planned for the Barstow Solar Pilot Plant are presented. Testing is to include operation during normal start and shutdown, intermittent cloud conditions, and emergencies to determine the panel's transient and steady state operating characteristics and performance under conditions equal to or exceeding those expected in the pilot plant. The effects of variations of input and output conditions on receiver operation are also to be investigated. Test hardware are described, including the pilot plant receiver, the test receiver assembly, receiver panel, flow control, electrical control and instrumentation, and structural assembly. Requirements for the Solar Thermal Test Facility for the tests are given. The safety of the system is briefly discussed, and procedures are described for assembly, installation, checkout, normal and abnormal operations, maintenance, removal and disposition. Also briefly discussed are quality assurance, contract responsibilities, and test documentation. (LEW)

  10. Potential formula for the calculation of starting and incremental insulin glargine doses: ALOHA subanalysis.

    Takashi Kadowaki

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pragmatic methods for dose optimization are required for the successful basal management in daily clinical practice. To derive a useful formula for calculating recommended glargine doses, we analyzed data from the Add-on Lantus® to Oral Hypoglycemic Agents (ALOHA study, a 24-week observation of Japanese type 2 diabetes patients. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The patients who initiated insulin glargine in basal-supported oral therapy (BOT regimen (n = 3506 were analyzed. The correlations between average changes in glargine dose and HbA1c were calculated, and its regression formula was estimated from grouped data categorized by baseline HbA1c levels. Starting doses of the background-subgroup achieving the HbA1c target with a last-observed dose above the average were compared to an assumed optimal starting dose of 0.15 U/kg/day. The difference in regression lines between background-subgroups was examined. A formula for determining the optimal starting and titration doses was thereby derived. The correlation coefficient between changes in dose and HbA1c was -0.9043. The estimated regression line formula was -0.964 × change in HbA1c+2.000. A starting dose of 0.15 U/kg/day was applicable to all background-subgroups except for patients with retinopathy (0.120 U/kg/day and/or with eGFR<60 mL/min/1.73 m(2 (0.114 U/kg/day. Additionally, women (0.135 U/kg/day and patients with sulfonylureas (0.132 U/kg/day received a slightly decreased starting dose. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We suggest a simplified and pragmatic dose calculation formula for type 2 diabetes patients starting glargine BOT optimal daily dose at 24 weeks  =  starting dose (0.15×weight + incremental dose (baseline HbA1c - target HbA1c+2. This formula should be further validated using other samples in a prospective follow-up, especially since several patient groups required lower starting doses.

  11. Melatonin combined with exercise cannot alleviate cerebral injury in a rat model of focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury

    Seunghoon Lee; Kyu-Tae Chang; Yonggeun Hong; Jinhee Shin; Minkyung Lee; Yunkyung Hong; Sang-Kil Lee; Youngjeon Lee; Tserentogtokh Lkhagvasuren; Dong-Wook Kim; Young-Ae Yang


    Previous studies have demonstrated that melatonin combined with exercise can alleviate secondary damage after spinal cord injury in rats. Therefore, it is hypothesized that melatonin combined with exercise can also alleviate ischemic brain damage. In this study, adult rats were subjected to right middle cerebral artery occlusion after receiving 10 mg/kg melatonin or vehicle subcutaneously twice daily for 14 days. Forced exercise using an animal treadmill was performed at 20 m/min for 30 minutes per day for 6 days prior to middle cerebral artery occlusion. After middle cerebral artery occlusion, each rat received melatonin combined with exercise, melatonin or exercise alone equally for 7 days until sacrifice. Interestingly, rats receiving melatonin combined with exercise exhibited more severe neurological deficits than those receiving melatonin or exercise alone. Hypoxia-inducible factor 1α mRNA in the brain tissue was upregulated in rats receiving melatonin combined with exercise. Similarly, microtubule associated protein-2 mRNA expression was significantly upregulated in rats receiving melatonin alone. Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan 4 (NG2) mRNA expression was significantly decreased in rats receiving melatonin combined with exercise as well as in rats receiving exercise alone. Furthermore, neural cell loss in the primary motor cortex was significantly reduced in rats receiving melatonin or exercise alone, but the change was not observed in rats receiving melatonin combined with exercise. These findings suggest that excessive intervention with melatonin, exercise or their combination may lead to negative effects on ischemia/reperfusion-induced brain damage.

  12. Enhanced AIS receiver design for satellite reception

    Clazzer, Federico; Lázaro, Francisco; Plass, Simon


    The possibility to detect Automatic Identification System (AIS) messages from low earth orbit (LEO) satellites paves the road for a plurality of new and unexplored services. Besides worldwide tracking of vessels, maritime traffic monitoring, analysis of vessel routes employing big data, and oceans monitoring are just few of the fields, where satellite-aided AIS is beneficial. Designed for ship-to-ship communication and collision avoidance, AIS satellite reception performs poorly in regions with a high density of vessels. This calls for the development of advanced satellite AIS receivers able to improve the decoding capabilities. In this context, our contribution focuses on the introduction of a new enhanced AIS receiver design and its performance evaluation. The enhanced receiver makes use of a coherent receiver for the low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) region, while for medium to high SNRs, a differential Viterbi receiver is used. Additional novelty of our work is in the exploitation of previously decoded packets from one vessel that is still under the LEO reception range, to improve the vessel detection probability. The assessment of the performance against a common receiver is done making the use of a simple and tight model of the medium access (MAC) layer and the multi-packet reception (MPR) matrix for physical layer (PHY) representation. Performance results show the benefits of such enhanced receiver, especially when it is bundled with successive interference cancellation (SIC).

  13. Terahertz Array Receivers with Integrated Antennas

    Chattopadhyay, Goutam; Llombart, Nuria; Lee, Choonsup; Jung, Cecile; Lin, Robert; Cooper, Ken B.; Reck, Theodore; Siles, Jose; Schlecht, Erich; Peralta, Alessandro; Thomas, Bertrand; Mehdi, Imran


    Highly sensitive terahertz heterodyne receivers have been mostly single-pixel. However, now there is a real need of multi-pixel array receivers at these frequencies driven by the science and instrument requirements. In this paper we explore various receiver font-end and antenna architectures for use in multi-pixel integrated arrays at terahertz frequencies. Development of wafer-level integrated terahertz receiver front-end by using advanced semiconductor fabrication technologies has progressed very well over the past few years. Novel stacking of micro-machined silicon wafers which allows for the 3-dimensional integration of various terahertz receiver components in extremely small packages has made it possible to design multi-pixel heterodyne arrays. One of the critical technologies to achieve fully integrated system is the antenna arrays compatible with the receiver array architecture. In this paper we explore different receiver and antenna architectures for multi-pixel heterodyne and direct detector arrays for various applications such as multi-pixel high resolution spectrometer and imaging radar at terahertz frequencies.

  14. Fundamentals of GPS Receivers A Hardware Approach

    Doberstein, Dan


    While much of the current literature on GPS receivers is aimed at those intimately familiar with their workings, this volume summarizes the basic principles using as little mathematics as possible, and details the necessary specifications and circuits for constructing a GPS receiver that is accurate to within 300 meters. Dedicated sections deal with the features of the GPS signal and its data stream, the details of the receiver (using a hybrid design as exemplar), and more advanced receivers and topics including time and frequency measurements. Later segments discuss the Zarlink GPS receiver chip set, as well as providing a thorough examination of the TurboRogue receiver, one of the most accurate yet made. Guiding the reader through the concepts and circuitry, from the antenna to the solution of user position, the book’s deployment of a hybrid receiver as a basis for discussion allows for extrapolation of the core ideas to more complex, and more accurate designs. Digital methods are used, but any analogue c...

  15. Temperature influences in receiver clock modelling

    Wang, Kan; Meindl, Michael; Rothacher, Markus; Schoenemann, Erik; Enderle, Werner


    In Precise Point Positioning (PPP), hardware delays at the receiver site (receiver, cables, antenna, …) are always difficult to be separated from the estimated receiver clock parameters. As a result, they are partially or fully contained in the estimated "apparent" clocks and will influence the deterministic and stochastic modelling of the receiver clock behaviour. In this contribution, using three years of data, the receiver clock corrections of a set of high-precision Hydrogen Masers (H-Masers) connected to stations of the ESA/ESOC network and the International GNSS Service (IGS) are firstly characterized concerning clock offsets, drifts, modified Allan deviations and stochastic parameters. In a second step, the apparent behaviour of the clocks is modelled with the help of a low-order polynomial and a known temperature coefficient (Weinbach, 2013). The correlations between the temperature and the hardware delays generated by different types of antennae are then analysed looking at daily, 3-day and weekly time intervals. The outcome of these analyses is crucial, if we intend to model the receiver clocks in the ground station network to improve the estimation of station-related parameters like coordinates, troposphere zenith delays and ambiguities. References: Weinbach, U. (2013) Feasibility and impact of receiver clock modeling in precise GPS data analysis. Dissertation, Leibniz Universität Hannover, Germany.

  16. Dynamic contrast-enhanced susceptibility-weighted perfusion MRI (DSC-MRI) in a glioma model of the rat brain using a conventional receive-only surface coil with a inner diameter of 47 mm at a clinical 1.5 T scanner.

    Ulmer, Stephan; Reeh, Matthias; Krause, Joerg; Herdegen, Thomas; Heldt-Feindt, Janka; Jansen, Olav; Rohr, Axel


    Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in animal models is usually performed in expensive dedicated small bore animal scanners of limited availability. In the present study a standard clinical 1.5 T MR scanner was used for morphometric and dynamic contrast-enhanced susceptibility-weighted MR imaging (DSC-MRI) of a glioma model of the rat brain. Ten male Wistar rats were examined with coronal T2-weighted, and T1-weighted images (matrix 128 x 128, FOV 64 mm) after implantation of an intracerebral tumor xenografts (C6) using a conventional surface coil. For DSC-MRI a T2*-weighted sequence (TR/TE=30/14 ms, matrix 64 x 64, FOV 90 mm; slice thickness of 1.5mm) was performed. Regions of interest were defined within the tumor and the non-affected contralateral hemisphere and the mean transit time (MTT) was determined. Tumor dimensions in MR predicted well its real size as proven by histology. The MTT of contrast agent passing through the brain was significantly decelerated in the tumor compared to the unaffected hemisphere (pscanners or dedicated custom-made coils.

  17. Effect of Pentoxifylline Administration on an Experimental Rat Model of Femur Fracture Healing With Intramedullary Fixation.

    Vashghani Farahani, Mohammad Mahdi; Masteri Farahani, Reza; Mostafavinia, Ataroalsadat; Abbasian, Mohammad Reza; Pouriran, Ramin; Noruzian, Mohammad; Ghoreishi, Seyed Kamran; Aryan, Arefe; Bayat, Mohammad


    Globally, musculoskeletal injuries comprise a major public health problem that contributes to a large burden of disability and suffering. Pentoxifylline (PTX) has been originally used as a hemorheologic drug to treat intermittent claudication. Previous test tube and in vivo studies reported the beneficial effects of PTX on bony tissue. This study aims to evaluate the effects of different dosages of PTX on biomechanical properties that occur during the late phase of the fracture healing process following a complete femoral osteotomy in a rat model. We applied intramedullary pin fixation as the treatment of choice. This experimental study was conducted at the Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. We used the simple random technique to divide 35 female rats into five groups. Group 1 received intraperitoneal (i.p.) PTX (50 mg/kg, once daily) injections, starting 15 days before surgery, and group 2, group 3, and group 4 received 50 mg/kg, 100 mg/kg, and 200 mg/kg i.p. PTX injections, respectively, once daily after surgery. All animals across groups received treatment for six weeks (until sacrificed). Complete surgical transverse osteotomy was performed in the right femur of all rats. At six weeks after surgery, the femurs were subjected to a three-point bending test. Daily administration of 50 mg/kg PTX (groups 1 and 2) decreased the high stress load in repairing osteotomized femurs when compared with the control group. The highest dose of PTX (200 mg/kg) significantly increased the high stress load when compared with the control group (P = 0.030), group 1 (P = 0.023), group 2 (P = 0.008), and group 3 (P = 0.010), per the LSD findings. Treatment with 200 mg/kg PTX accelerated fracture healing when compared with the control group.

  18. Origin of irreversibility of cell cycle start in budding yeast.

    Gilles Charvin


    Full Text Available Budding yeast cells irreversibly commit to a new division cycle at a regulatory transition called Start. This essential decision-making step involves the activation of the SBF/MBF transcription factors. SBF/MBF promote expression of the G1 cyclins encoded by CLN1 and CLN2. Cln1,2 can activate their own expression by inactivating the Whi5 repressor of SBF/MBF. The resulting transcriptional positive feedback provides an appealing, but as yet unproven, candidate for generating irreversibility of Start. Here, we investigate the logic of the Start regulatory module by quantitative single-cell time-lapse microscopy, using strains in which expression of key regulators is efficiently controlled by changes of inducers in a microfluidic chamber. We show that Start activation is ultrasensitive to G1 cyclin. In the absence of CLN1,2-dependent positive feedback, we observe that Start transit is reversible, due to reactivation of the Whi5 transcriptional repressor. Introduction of the positive feedback loop makes Whi5 inactivation and Start activation irreversible, which therefore guarantees unidirectional entry into S phase. A simple mathematical model to describe G1 cyclin turn on at Start, entirely constrained by empirically measured parameters, shows that the experimentally measured ultrasensitivity and transcriptional positive feedback are necessary and sufficient dynamical characteristics to make the Start transition a bistable and irreversible switch. Our study thus demonstrates that Start irreversibility is a property that arises from the architecture of the system (Whi5/SBF/Cln2 loop, rather than the consequence of the regulation of a single component (e.g., irreversible protein degradation.

  19. Origin of irreversibility of cell cycle start in budding yeast.

    Charvin, Gilles; Oikonomou, Catherine; Siggia, Eric D; Cross, Frederick R


    Budding yeast cells irreversibly commit to a new division cycle at a regulatory transition called Start. This essential decision-making step involves the activation of the SBF/MBF transcription factors. SBF/MBF promote expression of the G1 cyclins encoded by CLN1 and CLN2. Cln1,2 can activate their own expression by inactivating the Whi5 repressor of SBF/MBF. The resulting transcriptional positive feedback provides an appealing, but as yet unproven, candidate for generating irreversibility of Start. Here, we investigate the logic of the Start regulatory module by quantitative single-cell time-lapse microscopy, using strains in which expression of key regulators is efficiently controlled by changes of inducers in a microfluidic chamber. We show that Start activation is ultrasensitive to G1 cyclin. In the absence of CLN1,2-dependent positive feedback, we observe that Start transit is reversible, due to reactivation of the Whi5 transcriptional repressor. Introduction of the positive feedback loop makes Whi5 inactivation and Start activation irreversible, which therefore guarantees unidirectional entry into S phase. A simple mathematical model to describe G1 cyclin turn on at Start, entirely constrained by empirically measured parameters, shows that the experimentally measured ultrasensitivity and transcriptional positive feedback are necessary and sufficient dynamical characteristics to make the Start transition a bistable and irreversible switch. Our study thus demonstrates that Start irreversibility is a property that arises from the architecture of the system (Whi5/SBF/Cln2 loop), rather than the consequence of the regulation of a single component (e.g., irreversible protein degradation).

  20. Global Positioning System receiver evaluation results

    Byrne, R.H.


    A Sandia project currently uses an outdated Magnavox 6400 Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver as the core of its navigation system. The goal of this study was to analyze the performance of the current GPS receiver compared to newer, less expensive models and to make recommendations on how to improve the performance of the overall navigation system. This paper discusses the test methodology used to experimentally analyze the performance of different GPS receivers, the test results, and recommendations on how an upgrade should proceed. Appendices contain detailed information regarding the raw data, test hardware, and test software.

  1. Remark on receiving encouraging prize; Shoreisho jusho shokan

    Mizutani, Tomichika [Meji University, Tokyo (Japan)


    The 1998 fiscal year Japan Solar Energy Soc. encouraging prize is received this time, and it is really sure of thank you and this winning prize for future research activity with large encouragement, while research activity in the university becomes in the good commemoration. This study also put environmental problem in visual field oil crisis energy resource worldwide new, and it was noticed in the wave energy which was one of the natural energy, it was started. That the wave energy was noticed, when the research of various natural energy was advanced, Over 10 years, it is the idea which was produced by the process in which the mechanics laboratory studies the vibration problem, and it is regarded as connecting with present winning prize as a summing-up of research result kept since the front. In the keyword of 'new{exclamation_point}' it began to leave Mr.Taichi Matsuoka and cooperation of the science graduate student as a partner of the graduation thesis the research the present it was a start from the nothing as a thing of this type. It is negative to advance this study in which the failure was always given here, when the new work began, of Mr.Matsuoka of the passion for the research. Away from the research of the wave power generation, solar light and wind power generation are noticed a little, and I aim at the hybridization of the wave power generation, and the research is advanced. Therefore, the vibration-proof stage for installing sun and wind energy conversion system on the wave-power device at present has been designed. At the end, the gratitude is shown to the everybody who received the enthusiastic guidance for this study. (translated by NEDO)

  2. Public Policy and Success of Business Start-ups in Germany

    Eckl, Verena; Rothgang, Michael; Welter, Friederike


    In this paper, we evaluate the success of publicly supported business start-ups by comparing the outcomes of various support measures. Our question is: do business starter get what they need? Since we do not know the needs of the founders we analyse (1) who received which kind of support (financial support, individual coaching, general information) and (2) which kind of support is successful for whom with regard to his/her job history (employed, unemployed or being not part of the job market)...

  3. Improving NPT safeguards. Particularly at the natural uranium starting point

    Harry, J. [Netherlands Energy Research Foundation (ECN), Petten (Netherlands); Klerk, P. de [Ministry of Foreign Affairs, The Hague (Netherlands)


    According to the Non Proliferation Treaty (NPT) all nuclear material is subject to safeguards, but according to INFCIRC/153 the full range of safeguards is only applied beyond the `starting point of safeguards`, that is: The point at which nuclear material has reached a composition and purity suitable for fuel fabrication or enrichment. This paper addresses the two questions: (a) is the starting point adequately defined, and (b) what mesures could be applied to nuclear material before the starting point? Those questions have been asked before, some of the answers in this paper are new. (orig.).

  4. Sprint Start Kinetics of Amputee and Non-Amputee Sprinters

    Willwacher, Steffen; Herrmann, Volker; Heinrich, Kai; Funken, Johannes; Strutzenberger, Gerda; Goldmann, Jan-Peter; Braunstein, Björn; Brazil, Adam; Irwin, Gareth; Potthast, Wolfgang; Brüggemann, Gert-Peter


    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between the forces applied to the starting blocks and the start performances (SPs) of amputee sprinters (ASs) and non-amputee sprinters (NASs). SPs of 154 male and female NASs (100-m personal records [PRs], 9.58–14.00 s) and 7 male ASs (3 unilateral above knee, 3 unilateral below knee, 1 bilateral below knee; 100 m PRs, 11.70–12.70 s) with running specific prostheses (RSPs) were analysed during full-effort sprint starts using instrumen...

  5. University Knowledge Spillovers & Regional Start-up Rates

    Hellerstedt, Karin; Wennberg, Karl; Frederiksen, Lars


    on entrepreneurship, we develop a theoretical framework which captures how both supply- and demand-side factors mold the regional bedrock for start-ups in knowledge-intensive industries. Using multilevel data of all knowledge-intensive start-ups across 286 Swedish municipalities between 1994 and 2002 we demonstrate...... demand-side and supply-side context than is the case for high-tech start-ups in general. Our study contributes to the growing stream of research that explains entrepreneurial activity as shaped by contextual factors, most notably academic institutions, such as universities that contribute to knowledge...

  6. Start-up business plan: organic food restaurant in Bilbao

    Sharafutdinova, Alisa


    My thesis is a start-up business plan for a restaurant in Bilbao, Spain. This product-oriented thesis is a part of the Hospitality Management program of Haaga-Helia UAS. The purpose of this work is to build a theoretical framework about successful business plan writing and follow it up by writing a start-up business plan according to the studied theory. A business plan is a first important step for starting a business and the practice of writing it will be beneficial while helping me to ...

  7. A new highly segmented start counter for the CLAS detector

    Sharabian, Y.G. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA 23606 (United States); Battaglieri, M. [INFN Sezione di Genova, 16146 Genova (Italy); Burkert, V.D. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA 23606 (United States); DeVita, R. [INFN Sezione di Genova, 16146 Genova (Italy); Elouadrhiri, L. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA 23606 (United States); Guo, L. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA 23606 (United States); Kashy, D. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA 23606 (United States); Kubarovsky, V. [Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY 12180 and Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA 23606 (United States); Mutchler, G.S. [T.W. Bonner Nuclear Laboratory, Rice University, Houton, TX 77251-1892 (United States)]. E-mail:; Ostrick, M. [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Bonn, Bonn (Germany); Ripani, M. [INFN Sezione di Genova, 16146 Genova (Italy); Rossi, P. [INFN Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, 00044 Frascati (Italy); Rottura, A. [INFN Sezione di Genova, 16146 Genova (Italy); Pasyuk, E. [Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, 85287-1504 (United States); Weygand, D. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA 23606 (United States)


    The design, construction and performance of a highly segmented Start Counter are described. The Start Counter is an integral part of the trigger used in photon beam running with CLAS in Hall B at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF). The Start Counter is constructed of 24 2.2-mm-thick single-ended scintillation paddles, forming a hermetic hexagon around the target region. This device measures the interaction time of the incoming photon in the target by detecting the outgoing particles. The counter provides complex trigger topologies, shows good efficiency and achieved a time resolution of 350 ps.

  8. Start-up business plan: organic food restaurant in Bilbao

    Sharafutdinova, Alisa


    My thesis is a start-up business plan for a restaurant in Bilbao, Spain. This product-oriented thesis is a part of the Hospitality Management program of Haaga-Helia UAS. The purpose of this work is to build a theoretical framework about successful business plan writing and follow it up by writing a start-up business plan according to the studied theory. A business plan is a first important step for starting a business and the practice of writing it will be beneficial while helping me to ...

  9. Protective effects of Nigella sativa against hypertension-induced oxidative stress and cardiovascular dysfunction in rats

    Nur Taşar


    Full Text Available We investigated the protective effect of Nigella sativa against oxidative injury in the heart and kidney tissues of rats with renovascular hypertension (RVH. RVH model was induced by placing a renal artery clip (2-kidney-1-clip, 2K1C in Wistar albino rats (n= 8, while sham rats (n= 8 had no clip placement. Starting on the 3rd week after the operation, rats received Nigella sativa (0.2 ml/kg/day, intraperitoneally or vehicle for the following 6 weeks. Blood pressures (BP were recorded at the beginning of the study and at the end of the 3rd and 9th weeks. Cardiac functions were assessed using transthoracic echocardiography before the rats were decapitated. Plasma samples were obtained to assay asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA, nitric oxide (NO, creatine kinase (CK and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH levels. Production of reactive oxidants was monitored by chemiluminescence (CL assay in the cardiac and renal tissues. Moreover oxidative injury was examined through malondialdehyde (MDA and glutathione (GSH levels and Na+,K+-ATPase activity in these tissues. 2K1C caused increased BP and left ventricular (LV dysfunction, while plasma ADMA, CK, and LDH levels were increased (p<0.05-0.001. Moreover, hypertension caused significant decreases in plasma NO levels, as well as in tissue Na+,K+-ATPase activities and GSH contents, while MDA levels in both tissues were increased (p<0.05-0.001. On the other hand, Nigella sativa treatment significantly reduced BP, attenuated oxidative injury and improved LV function. Nigella sativa protected against hypertension-induced tissue damage and improved cardiovascular function via its antioxidant and antihypertensive actions, suggesting a therapeutic potential of Nigella sativa in renovascular hypertension.

  10. Neuropeptide expression and morphometric differences in crushed alveolar inferior nerve of rats: Effects of photobiomodulation.

    Martins, Daniel Oliveira; Dos Santos, Fabio Martinez; Ciena, Adriano Polican; Watanabe, Ii-Sei; de Britto, Luiz Roberto G; Lemos, José Benedito Dias; Chacur, Marucia


    Inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) injuries may occur during various dental routine procedures, especially in the removal of impacted lower third molars, and nerve recovery in these cases is a great challenge in dentistry. Here, the IAN crush injury model was used to assess the efficacy of photobiomodulation (PBM) in the recovery of the IAN in rats following crushing injury (a partial lesion). Rats were divided into four experimental groups: without any procedure, IAN crush injury, and IAN crush injury with PBM and sham group with PBM. Treatment was started 2 days after surgery, above the site of injury, and was performed every other day, totaling 10 sessions. Rats were irradiated with GaAs Laser (Gallium Arsenide, Laserpulse, Ibramed Brazil) emitting a wavelength of 904 nm, an output power of 70 mWpk, beam spot size at target ∼0.1 cm(2), a frequency of 9500 Hz, a pulse time 60 ns, and an energy density of 6 J/cm(2). Nerve recovery was investigated by measuring the morphometric data of the IAN using TEM and by the expression of laminin, neurofilaments (NFs), and myelin protein zero (MPZ) using Western blot analysis. We found that IAN-injured rats which received PBM had a significant improvement of IAN morphometry when compared to IAN-injured rats without PBM. In parallel, all MPZ, laminin, and NFs exhibited a decrease after PBM. The results of this study indicate that the correlation between the peripheral nerve ultrastructure and the associated protein expression shows the beneficial effects of PBM.

  11. Influence of heavy metals upon the retention and mobilization of polonium-210 in rats.

    Rencová, J; Vlková, A; Curík, R; Holusa, R; Veselá, G


    To provide information about the tissue retention and mobilization of the alpha-emitting radionuclide, polonium-210 (210Po), in rats under combined exposure to heavy metal ions and the chelating agent, 2, 3-dimercaptopropane-1-sulfonate (DMPS). Rats were pre-exposed intraperitoneally to either CdCl2 or Pb(CH3COO)2. 9 or 15 h later they received 210Po nitrate intravenously. The retention and excretion of 210Po via the urine and faeces of pre-exposed rats, as well as in pre-exposed rats treated with DMPS, were followed. The radioactivity due to 210Po in a broad spectrum of body tissues and excreta was measured by the liquid scintillation counting after sample digestion in a mixture of perchloric acid and hydrogen peroxide. The immunohistochemical localization of metallothioneins (MT) was studied using a mixture of murine monoclonal antibodies directed against MT I+II. The present study revealed different tissue distributions of polonium-210 in the rats pre-exposed to lead or cadmium ions when compared with that in 210Po only controls. Under combined exposure to Pb or Cd, the spontaneous excretion of 210Po was enhanced and could be further enhanced by treatment with DMPS. Treatment with this chelator was efficient even when its start was postponed until 24h after internal contamination of the body with 210Po. Polonium-210 is bound in vivo to binding sites on various biomolecules, among them erythrocytic enzymes and MT. This phenomenon explains the different affinity and overall distribution of 210Po in control body tissues. When the appropriate binding sites are occupied by lead or cadmium, enhanced natural excretion of polonium-210 occurs.

  12. Correlation between light scattering signal and tissue reversibility in rat brain exposed to hypoxia

    Kawauchi, Satoko; Sato, Shunichi; Uozumi, Yoichi; Nawashiro, Hiroshi; Ishihara, Miya; Kikuchi, Makoto


    Light scattering signal is a potential indicator of tissue viability in brain because cellular and subcellular structural integrity should be associated with cell viability in brain tissue. We previously performed multiwavelength diffuse reflectance measurement for a rat global ischemic brain model and observed a unique triphasic change in light scattering at a certain time after oxygen and glucose deprivation. This triphasic scattering change (TSC) was shown to precede cerebral ATP exhaustion, suggesting that loss of brain tissue viability can be predicted by detecting scattering signal. In the present study, we examined correlation between light scattering signal and tissue reversibility in rat brain in vivo. We performed transcranial diffuse reflectance measurement for rat brain; under spontaneous respiration, hypoxia was induced for the rat by nitrogen gas inhalation and reoxygenation was started at various time points. We observed a TSC, which started at 140 +/- 15 s after starting nitrogen gas inhalation (mean +/- SD, n=8). When reoxygenation was started before the TSC, all rats survived (n=7), while no rats survived when reoxygenation was started after the TSC (n=8). When reoxygenation was started during the TSC, rats survived probabilistically (n=31). Disability of motor function was not observed for the survived rats. These results indicate that TSC can be used as an indicator of loss of tissue reversibility in brains, providing useful information on the critical time zone for treatment to rescue the brain.

  13. List of Nuclear Materials Licensing Actions Received

    Nuclear Regulatory Commission — A catalog of all Materials Licensing Actions received for review. The catalog lists the name of the entity submitting the license application, their city and state,...

  14. Metal Mesh Filters for Terahertz Receivers Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The best low-noise receiver solutions for frequencies above about 800 GHz rely on either a low-noise bolometric direct detector or a hot electron bolometric mixer....

  15. Metal Mesh Filters for Terahertz Receivers Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The technical objective of this SBIR program is to develop and demonstrate metal mesh filters for use in NASA's low noise receivers for terahertz astronomy and...

  16. 49 CFR 236.788 - Receiver.


    ... OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.788 Receiver. A device on a locomotive, so placed that it is in position to be influenced inductively or actuated by...

  17. Collector/Receiver Characterization (Fact Sheet)


    Fact sheet describing NREL CSP Program capabilities for collector/receiver characterization: determining optical efficiency, measuring heat loss, developing and testing concentrators, concentrating the sun's power, and optically characterizing CSP plants.

  18. Digital Receiver for Laser Imaging Radar

    WANG Wei Ran; SUN Bing


    With the extension of the application domains for laser imaging radar,it is necessary to find a new technical way to obtain high technical performance and adaptive ability.In this paper,A new concept of digital receiver of laser imaging radar system is presented.This digital receiver is defined as a time varying parameter receiver which possesses large dynamics region and time domain filter.The receiver's mode,component structure as well as every function of its processing are described.The results and laboratorial data show the feasibility of digital reception.Also,it can exploit the inherent nature of laser imaging radar to obtain high probability of detection.

  19. Optical Coherent Receiver Enables THz Wireless Bridge

    Yu, Xianbin; Liu, Kexin; Zhang, Hangkai


    We experimentally demonstrated a 45 Gbit/s 400 GHz photonic wireless communication system enabled by an optical coherent receiver, which has a high potential in fast recovery of high data rate connections, for example, in disaster....

  20. High dynamic GPS receiver validation demonstration

    Hurd, W. J.; Statman, J. I.; Vilnrotter, V. A.


    The Validation Demonstration establishes that the high dynamic Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver concept developed at JPL meets the dynamic tracking requirements for range instrumentation of missiles and drones. It was demonstrated that the receiver can track the pseudorange and pseudorange rate of vehicles with acceleration in excess of 100 g and jerk in excess of 100 g/s, dynamics ten times more severe than specified for conventional High Dynamic GPS receivers. These results and analytic extensions to a complete system configuration establish that all range instrumentation requirements can be met. The receiver can be implemented in the 100 cu in volume required by all missiles and drones, and is ideally suited for transdigitizer or translator applications.

  1. High-Rate Receiver Design Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose an initial architectural and preliminary hardware design study for a high-rate receiver capable of decoding modulation suites specified by CCSDS 413.0-G-1...

  2. 29 CFR 1926.306 - Air receivers.


    ... transportation vehicles such as steam railroad cars, electric railway cars, and automotive equipment. (2) New and... manholes therein are easily accessible. Under no circumstances shall an air receiver be buried underground...

  3. 29 CFR 1910.169 - Air receivers.


    ... and equipment used on transportation vehicles such as steam railroad cars, electric railway cars, and... therein are easily accessible. Under no circumstances shall an air receiver be buried underground or...

  4. Microwave receivers for fast-ion detection in fusion plasmas

    Furtula, V.


    The main objectives of this thesis are to determine fundamental properties of a millimeter wave radiometer used to detect radiation associated with dynamics of fast ions and to investigate possibilities for improvements and new designs. The detection of fast ions is based on a principle called collective Thomson scattering (CTS). The Danish CTS group has been involved in fusion plasma experiments for more than 10 years and the future plans will most probably include the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). Current CTS systems designed by the Danish group are specified for the frequency range from 100 to 110 GHz. In this thesis we follow the path of the radiation from a fusion plasma to the data acquisition unit. Firstly, the scattered radiation passes through the quasi-optical system. Quasi-optical elements required to be installed on the high field side (HFS) on the ITER are assessed. For the ITER HFS receiver we have designed and measured the quasi-optical components that form a transmission link between the plasma and the radio frequency (RF) electronics. This HFS receiver is required to resolve the near parallel velocity components created by the alpha particles. Secondly, the radiation will encounter the RF part. This part is not yet designed for ITER, but instead the solution is addressed to the CTS receiver installed at ASDEX Upgrade (AUG).We have put effort to thoroughly examine and evaluate the performance of the receiver components and the receiver as an assembled unit. We have measured and analyzed all the receiver components starting from the two notch filters to the fifty square-law detector diodes. The receiver sensitivity is calculated from the system measurements and compared with the expected sensitivity based on the individual component measurements. Besides the system considerations we have also studied improvements of two critical components of the receiver. The first component is the notch filter, which is needed to block

  5. Design and implementation of the CAPS receiver

    HU YongHui; HUA Yu; HOU Lei; WEI JingFa; WU JianFeng


    In this paper,baaed on analyses of the Chinese Area Positioning System (CAPS) satellite (GEO satellite) resources and signal properties,the signal power at the port of the receiver antenna is estimated,and the implementation projects are presented for a switching band C to band L CAPS C/A code receiver integrated with GPS receiver suite and for a CAPS dual frequency P code receiver.A microstrip receiving antenna is designed with high sensitivity and wide beam orientation,the RF front end of the C/A code and P code receivers,and a processor is designed for the navigation baseband.A single frequency CAPS C/A code receiver and a CAPS dual frequency P code receiver are built at the same time.A software process flow is provided,and research on relatively key techniques is also conducted,such as signal searching,code loop and carrier loop algorithms,a height assistant algorithm,a dual frequency difference speed measurement technique,a speed measurement technique using a single frequency source with frequency assistance,and a CAPS time correcting algorithm,according to the design frame of the receiver hardware.Research results show that the static plane positioning accuracy of the CAPS C/A code receiver is 20.5-24.6 m,height accuracy is 1.2-12.8 m,speed measurement accuracy is 0.13-0.3 m/s,dynamic plane positioning accuracy is 24.4 m,height accuracy is 3.0 m,and speed measurement accuracy is 0.24 m/s.In the case of C/A code,the timing accuracy is 200 ha,and it is also shown that the positioning accuracy of the CAPS precise code receiver (1σ) is 5 m from south to north,and 0.8 m from east to west.Finally,research on positioning accuracy is also conducted.

  6. A handbook for solar central receiver design

    Falcone, P.K.


    This Handbook describes central receiver technology for solar thermal power plants. It contains a description and assessment of the major components in a central receiver system configured for utility scale production of electricity using Rankine-cycle steam turbines. It also describes procedures to size and optimize a plant and discussed examples from recent system analyses. Information concerning site selection criteria, cost estimation, construction, and operation and maintenance is also included, which should enable readers to perform design analyses for specific applications.

  7. Flexible receiver adapter formal design review

    Krieg, S.A.


    This memo summarizes the results of the Formal (90%) Design Review process and meetings held to evaluate the design of the Flexible Receiver Adapters, support platforms, and associated equipment. The equipment is part of the Flexible Receiver System used to remove, transport, and store long length contaminated equipment and components from both the double and single-shell underground storage tanks at the 200 area tank farms.

  8. Anatomy of a digital coherent receiver

    Borkowski, Robert; Zibar, Darko; Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso


    Digital coherent receivers have gained significant attention in the last decade. The reason for this is that coherent detection, along with digital signal processing (DSP) allows for substantial increase of the channel capacity by employing advanced detection techniques. In this paper, we first......, orthonormaliation, chromatic dispersion compensation/nonlinear compensation, resampling a nd timing recovery, polarization demultiplexing and equalization, frequency and phase recovery, digital demodulation. We also describe novel subsystems of a digital coherent receiver: modulation format recognition...

  9. Dose response for TCDD promotion of hepatocarcinogenesis in rats initiated with DEN: histologic, biochemical, and cell proliferation endpoints.

    Maronpot, R R; Foley, J F; Takahashi, K; Goldsworthy, T; Clark, G; Tritscher, A; Portier, C; Lucier, G


    The present study examines the dose-response relationship for 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) promotion of histologic and biochemical parameters by using a two-stage model for hepatocarcinogenesis in female Sprague-Dawley rats initiated with a single intraperitoneal dose of 175 mg of diethylnitrosamine (DEN)/kg body weight at 70 days of age. Starting 2 weeks after initiation, treatment groups of 8-10 rats were given TCDD by gavage in corn oil once every 2 weeks for 30 weeks. Doses were 3.5, 10.7, 35.7, and 125 ng TCDD/kg body weight/day. A significant body weight reduction was present in the noninitiated group that received 125 ng TCDD. Relative liver weight was statistically increased in initiated rats treated with > or = 10.7 ng TCDD and in noninitiated rats treated with > or = 35.7 ng TCDD. Histopathologic evidence of cytotoxicity was dose-related in all TCDD-treated groups. There was a statistically significant dose response in the bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) S-phase labeling index (LI) in the DEN-initiated rats (p < 0.01) and a marginally significant trend in the saline-treated rats (p = 0.10), but proliferating cell nuclear antigen S-phase LI and growth fraction within altered hepatic foci showed no increase. Among the DEN-initiated groups there was a significant increase in glutathione S-transferase altered hepatic foci stereological parameters in the 125 ng TCDD group. This study demonstrates that dose-response relationships for TCDD's effects on cell proliferation growth of altered hepatic foci are different from previously reported effects on P450 gene expression, indicating that different biological or biochemical responses may exhibit different dose-response relationships.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  10. Inversion of receiver function by wavelet transformation

    吴庆举; 田小波; 张乃铃; 李桂银; 曾融生


    A new method for receiver function inversion by wavelet transformation is presented in this paper. Receiver func-tion is expanded to different scales with different resolution by wavelet transformation. After an initial model be-ing taken, a generalized least-squares inversion procedure is gradually carried out for receiver function from low tohigh scale, with the inversion result for low order receiver function as the initial model for high order. Aneighborhood containing the global minimum is firstly searched from low scale receiver function, and will gradu-ally focus at the global minimum by introducing high scale information of receiver function. With the gradual ad-dition of high wave-number to smooth background velocity structure, wavelet transformation can keep the inver-sion result converge to the global minimum, reduce to certain extent the dependence of inversion result on theinitial model, overcome the nonuniqueness of generalized least-squares inversion, and obtain reliable crustal andupper mantle velocity with high resolution.

  11. GPS Receiver Performance Inspection by Wavelet Transform

    Xia Lin-yuan; Liu Jing-nan; Lu Liang-xi


    As a powerful analysis tool and the result of contemporary mathematics development, wavelet transform has shown its promising application potentials through the research in the paper. Three aspects regarding GPS receiver performance is tackled: cycle slip detection, receiver noise analysis and receiver channel bias inspection. Wavelet decomposition for double differential observation has demonstrated that this multi-level transform can reveal cycle slips as small as 0.5 cycles without any pre-adjustment processes or satellite orbit information, it can therefore be regarded as a 'geometry free' method. Based on property assumption of receiver noise, signal of noise serial is obtained at the high frequency scale in wavelet decomposition layers. This kind of noise influence on GPSb aseline result can be effectively eliminated by reconstruction process during wavelet reconstruction. Through observed data analysis, the transform has detected a kind of receiver channel bias that has not been completely removed by processing unit of GPS receiver during clock offset resetting operation. Thus the wavelet approach can be employed as a kind of system diagnosis in a generalized point of view.

  12. Efficient receiver tuning using differential evolution strategies

    Wheeler, Caleb H.; Toland, Trevor G.


    Differential evolution (DE) is a powerful and computationally inexpensive optimization strategy that can be used to search an entire parameter space or to converge quickly on a solution. The Kilopixel Array Pathfinder Project (KAPPa) is a heterodyne receiver system delivering 5 GHz of instantaneous bandwidth in the tuning range of 645-695 GHz. The fully automated KAPPa receiver test system finds optimal receiver tuning using performance feedback and DE. We present an adaptation of DE for use in rapid receiver characterization. The KAPPa DE algorithm is written in Python 2.7 and is fully integrated with the KAPPa instrument control, data processing, and visualization code. KAPPa develops the technologies needed to realize heterodyne focal plane arrays containing 1000 pixels. Finding optimal receiver tuning by investigating large parameter spaces is one of many challenges facing the characterization phase of KAPPa. This is a difficult task via by-hand techniques. Characterizing or tuning in an automated fashion without need for human intervention is desirable for future large scale arrays. While many optimization strategies exist, DE is ideal for time and performance constraints because it can be set to converge to a solution rapidly with minimal computational overhead. We discuss how DE is utilized in the KAPPa system and discuss its performance and look toward the future of 1000 pixel array receivers and consider how the KAPPa DE system might be applied.

  13. Unsteady Viscous Flow Past an Impulsively Started Porous Vertical ...

    Journal of the Nigerian Association of Mathematical Physics ... Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ... Past an Impulsively Started Porous Vertical Surface with Variable Viscosity Fluid in the Presence of Viscous Dissipation: BSRM Approach.

  14. A demonstration project for smart grid started in Tianjin


    On April 7, the construction of 110-kV Hechanglu intelligent substation in Tianjin Binhai New Area was started, inaugurating the comprehensive demonstration project for smart grid in Sino-Singapore Tianjin Eco-City.

  15. CERN confirms goal of 2007 start-up for LHC


    Speaking at the 131st session of CERN Council on 17 December 2004, the Director-General, Robert Aymar, confirmed that the top priority is to maintain the goal of starting up the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) in 2007.

  16. Participatory Savings And Borrowing For Start-Up And ...

    Journal of Agriculture and Social Research (JASR) ... Participatory Savings And Borrowing For Start-Up And Recapitalization Needs: Farmers ... be considered for more loans whenever they meet up with the conditions for such new contracts.

  17. CERN confident of LHC start-up in 2007


    "Delegates attending the 140th meeting of CERN Council heard a confident report from the Laboratory about the scheduled start-up of the world's highest energy particle accelerator, the Large Hadron Collier (LHC), in 2007." (1 page)

  18. Opioid Dependence Can Start in Just a Few Days

    ... Opioid Dependence Can Start in Just a Few Days Prescribing ... less may help patients avoid the dangers of dependence and addiction, a new study suggests. Among patients ...

  19. Low Starting Electron Beam Current in Degenerate Band Edge Oscillators

    Othman, Mohamed A K; Figotin, Alexander; Capolino, Filippo


    We propose a new principle of operation in vacuum electron-beam-based oscillators that leads to a low beam current for starting oscillations. The principle is based on super synchronous operation of an electron beam interacting with four degenerate electromagnetic modes in a slow-wave structure (SWS). The four mode super synchronous regime is associated with a very special degeneracy condition in the dispersion diagram of a cold periodic SWS called degenerate band edge (DBE). This regime features a giant group delay in the finitelength SWS and low starting-oscillation beam current. The starting beam current is at least an order of magnitude smaller compared to a conventional backward wave oscillator (BWO) of the same length. As a representative example we consider a SWS conceived by a periodically-loaded metallic waveguide supporting a DBE, and investigate starting-oscillation conditions using Pierce theory generalized to coupled transmission lines (CTL). The proposed super synchronism regime can be straightf...

  20. Renewable energy power generation projects started construction in Tibet


    On March 19, the construction of a 10-MW photovoltaic power plant and a 1 000-kW new type geothermal power generation project were started by Guodian Longyuan Group in Yanbajing Town, Dangxiong County of Tibet.

  1. Office of Head Start (OHS) Program Fact Sheet

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Office of Head Start (OHS) Program Fact Sheet provides information on demographics, state allocations, program statistics, and program enrollment history.

  2. Dialysis access, infections, and hospitalisations in unplanned dialysis start patients

    Machowska, Anna; Alscher, Mark Dominik; Vanga, Satyanarayana Reddy


    Introduction: Unplanned dialysis start (UPS) associates with worse clinical outcomes, higher utilisation of healthcare resources, lower chances to select dialysis modality and UPS patients typically commenced in-centre haemodialysis (HD) with central venous catheter (CVC). We evaluated patient ou...


    Hai YU; Shouyang WANG; Chuangyin DANG


    Reserve price auctions are one of hot research issues in traditional auction theory. Here we study the starting price in an online auction, the counterpart of the public reserve price in a traditional auction. By considering three features of eBay-like online auctions: stochastic entry of bidders (subject to Poisson process), insertion fee proportional to the starting price, and time discount, we have analyzed the properties of extremum points of the starting price for maximizing the seller's expected revenue,and found that, under certain conditions, the optimal starting price should be at the lowest allowable level, which is contrary to the results from the classic auction theory and finds its optimality in reality.We have also developed a general extended model of multistage auctions and carried out analysis on its properties. At last, some directions for further research are also put forward.

  4. Path to Smoking Addiction Starts at Very Young Ages

    ... PATH TO TOBACCO ADDICTION STARTS AT VERY YOUNG AGES Lifetime smoking and other tobacco use almost always ... turns into a strong addiction—well before the age of 18—that can overpower the most well- ...

  5. Wearable Sensors May Spot Illness Before Symptoms Start

    ... page: Wearable Sensors May Spot Illness Before Symptoms Start New technology ... 12, 2017 THURSDAY, Jan. 12, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Wearable sensors to track things such as heart rate, activity ...

  6. What to Start: Selecting a First HIV Regimen

    HIV Treatment What to Start: Choosing an HIV Regimen (Last updated 2/24/2016; last reviewed 2/24/ ... of HIV medicines used to treat HIV infection. HIV treatment (also called antiretroviral therapy or ART) begins with ...

  7. Spring 
start-up for the LHC


    A new schedule for the commissioning of the LHC was presented to the Council at its Session in June. The start-up of the accelerator is scheduled for May 2008, to allow all technical problems to be resolved.

  8. A novel approach to delayed-start analyses for demonstrating disease-modifying effects in Alzheimer's disease.

    Hong Liu-Seifert

    Full Text Available One method for demonstrating disease modification is a delayed-start design, consisting of a placebo-controlled period followed by a delayed-start period wherein all patients receive active treatment. To address methodological issues in previous delayed-start approaches, we propose a new method that is robust across conditions of drug effect, discontinuation rates, and missing data mechanisms. We propose a modeling approach and test procedure to test the hypothesis of noninferiority, comparing the treatment difference at the end of the delayed-start period with that at the end of the placebo-controlled period. We conducted simulations to identify the optimal noninferiority testing procedure to ensure the method was robust across scenarios and assumptions, and to evaluate the appropriate modeling approach for analyzing the delayed-start period. We then applied this methodology to Phase 3 solanezumab clinical trial data for mild Alzheimer's disease patients. Simulation results showed a testing procedure using a proportional noninferiority margin was robust for detecting disease-modifying effects; conditions of high and moderate discontinuations; and with various missing data mechanisms. Using all data from all randomized patients in a single model over both the placebo-controlled and delayed-start study periods demonstrated good statistical performance. In analysis of solanezumab data using this methodology, the noninferiority criterion was met, indicating the treatment difference at the end of the placebo-controlled studies was preserved at the end of the delayed-start period within a pre-defined margin. The proposed noninferiority method for delayed-start analysis controls Type I error rate well and addresses many challenges posed by previous approaches. Delayed-start studies employing the proposed analysis approach could be used to provide evidence of a disease-modifying effect. This method has been communicated with FDA and has been

  9. 47 CFR 15.121 - Scanning receivers and frequency converters used with scanning receivers.


    ... receivers and frequency converters designed or marketed for use with scanning receivers, shall: (1) Be...; replacing a plug-in semiconductor chip; or programming a semiconductor chip using special access codes or an external device, such as a personal computer. Scanning receivers, and frequency converters designed for...

  10. Comparing Drug Use between Welfare-Receiving Arrestees and Non-Welfare-Receiving Arrestees.

    Yacoubian, George S., Jr.; Peters, Ronald J., Jr.; Urbach, Blake J.; Johnson, Regina J.


    Compares drug-positive rates between welfare-receiving arrestees, non-welfare receiving arrestees living below the poverty level, and non-welfare arrestees living above the poverty level. Welfare-receiving arrestees were more likely to be female, older, less educated, and to test positive for opiates and benzodiazepines than the other subgroups.…

  11. Radioprotective potential of histamine on rat small intestine and uterus

    E. Carabajal


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to improve knowledge about histamine radioprotective potential investigating its effect on reducing ionising radiation-induced injury and genotoxic damage on the rat small intestine and uterus. Forty 10-week-old male and 40 female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 4 groups. Histamine and histamine-5Gy groups received a daily subcutaneous histamine injection (0.1 mg/kg starting 24 h before irradiation. Histamine-5Gy and untreated-5Gy groups were irradiated with a dose of whole-body Cesium-137 irradiation. Three days after irradiation animals were sacrificed and tissues were removed, fixed, and stained with haematoxylin and eosin, and histological characteristics were evaluated. Proliferation, apoptosis and oxidative DNA markers were studied by immunohistochemistry, while micronucleus assay was performed to evaluate chromosomal damage. Histamine treatment reduced radiation-induced mucosal atrophy, oedema and vascular damage produced by ionising radiation, increasing the number of crypts per circumference (239±12 vs 160±10; P<0.01. This effect was associated with a reduction of radiation-induced intestinal crypts apoptosis. Additionally, histamine decreased the frequency of micronuclei formation and also significantly attenuated 8-OHdG immunoreactivity, a marker of DNA oxidative damage. Furthermore, radiation induced flattening of the endometrial surface, depletion of deep glands and reduced mitosis, effects that were completely blocked by histamine treatment. The expression of a proliferation marker in uterine luminal and glandular cells was markedly stimulated in histamine treated and irradiated rats. The obtained evidences indicate that histamine is a potential candidate as a safe radioprotective agent that might increase the therapeutic index of radiotherapy for intra-abdominal and pelvic cancers. However, its efficacy needs to be carefully investigated in prospective clinical trials.

  12. Gastric emptying in rats with acetaminophen-induced hepatitis

    Hessel G.


    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to study the gastric emptying (GE of liquids in fasted and sucrose-fed rats with toxic hepatitis induced by acetaminophen. The GE of three test meals (saline, glucose and mayonnaise was evaluated in Wistar rats. For each meal, the animals were divided into two groups (N = 24 each. Group I was fed a sucrose diet throughout the experiment (66 h while group II was fasted. Forty-two hours after the start of the experiment, each group was divided into two subgroups (N = 12 each. Subgroup A received a placebo and subgroup B was given acetaminophen (1 g/kg. Twenty-four hours later, the GE of the three test meals was assessed and blood samples were collected to measure the serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST and acetaminophen. In group IB, the mean AST and ALT values were 515 and 263 IU/l, respectively, while for group IIB they were 4014 and 2472 IU/l, respectively. The mean serum acetaminophen levels were higher in group IIB (120 µg/ml than in group IB (87 µg/ml. The gastric retention values were significantly higher in group IIB than in group IIA for all three test meals: saline, 51 vs 35%; glucose, 52 vs 38% and mayonnaise, 51 vs 29% (median values. The correlation between gastric retention and AST levels was significant (P<0.05 for group IIB for the three test meals: r = 0.73, 0.67 and 0.68 for saline, glucose and mayonnaise, respectively. We conclude that GE is altered in rats with hepatic lesions induced by acetaminophen, and that these alterations may be related to the liver cell necrosis caused by the drug.

  13. University Start-ups: A Better Business Model

    Dehn, J.; Webley, P. W.


    Many universities look to start-up companies as a way to attract faculty, supporting research and students as traditional federal sources become harder to come by. University affiliated start-up companies can apply for a broader suite of grants, as well as market their services to a broad customer base. Often university administrators see this as a potential panacea, but national statistics show this is not the case. Rarely do universities profit significantly from their start-ups. With a success rates of around 20%, most start-ups end up costing the university money as well as faculty-time. For the faculty, assuming they want to continue in academia, a start-up is often unattractive because it commonly leads out of academia. Running a successful business as well as maintaining a strong teaching and research load is almost impossible to do at the same time. Most business models and business professionals work outside of academia, and the models taught in business schools do not merge well in a university environment. To mitigate this a new business model is proposed where university start-ups are aligned with the academic and research missions of the university. A university start-up must work within the university, directly support research and students, and the work done maintaining the business be recognized as part of the faculty member's university obligations. This requires a complex conflict of interest management plan and for the companies to be non-profit in order to not jeopardize the university's status. This approach may not work well for all universities, but would be ideal for many to conserve resources and ensure a harmonious relationship with their start-ups and faculty.

  14. Optimising Start-Up of a Crankshaft Press Drive

    E. N. Skladchikov


    Full Text Available The purpose of research is to decrease energy consumption as well as acceleration and heat time of the engine of main drive crankshaft press when starting it up. Modern crankshaft press designs include a flywheel connected to the engine by a belt drive. The flywheel performing a process operation spends the reserved kinetic energy. By virtue thereof it should possess the significant moment of inertia. It defines duration of acceleration process. High starting currents of engines lead to their vigorous heating and energy consumption at acceleration.The literature describes the way for eliminating these shortcomings, which is confined to the start-up of the asynchronous engine with a phase rotor when the circuit of each rotor phase includes an additional stepped resistance. However, there are no proved recommendations to specified resistance values and duration of engine acceleration at each step.Research used mathematical modeling and process optimization of three-stage acceleration of engine possessing a flywheel with the following optimization criteria: energy consumption at start-up, an equivalent (heating current of engine, acceleration time. Values of additional resistance and start-up time at each step are chosen to be parameters of optimization.Obtained results show, that optimization of drive start-up allows us to reduce time of acceleration from 27.3s up to 11.24s, energy consumption from 4405930 Joule up to 2538400 Joule, and an equivalent (heating current from 60.34 up to 14.01 А.As a result of research it is found, that a preferable start-up is the press drive start-up in modes with optimum time of flywheel acceleration and an optimum equivalent current, as the most efficient according to all optimization criteria.

  15. An Ultra Low Noise Self-Starting Pulse Generator

    Lasri, J.; Bilenca, A.; Dahan, D.;


    We describe a self-starting optical pulse source generating 10 GHz, 15 ps pulses with an average jitter of 43 fs and a o.15% amplitude noise over a frequency range of 500 Hz - 1 MHz.......We describe a self-starting optical pulse source generating 10 GHz, 15 ps pulses with an average jitter of 43 fs and a o.15% amplitude noise over a frequency range of 500 Hz - 1 MHz....

  16. Application of STOPP and START criteria: interrater reliability among pharmacists.

    Ryan, Cristin


    Inappropriate prescribing is a well-documented problem in older people. The new screening tools, STOPP (Screening Tool of Older Peoples\\' Prescriptions) and START (Screening Tool to Alert doctors to Right Treatment) have been formulated to identify potentially inappropriate medications (PIMs) and potential errors of omissions (PEOs) in older patients. Consistent, reliable application of STOPP and START is essential for the screening tools to be used effectively by pharmacists.

  17. Later Start Time for Teens Improves Grades, Mood, and Safety

    Wahlstrom, Kyla L.


    A recent study by the University of Minnesota looked at eight high schools across the U.S. that chose later start times, from 8:00 a.m. to 8:55 a.m. The study found significant decreases in absences and tardiness as well as greater academic benefits for schools with the latest start times. Among the 9,395 students in the study, those who slept…

  18. Later Start Time for Teens Improves Grades, Mood, and Safety

    Wahlstrom, Kyla L.


    A recent study by the University of Minnesota looked at eight high schools across the U.S. that chose later start times, from 8:00 a.m. to 8:55 a.m. The study found significant decreases in absences and tardiness as well as greater academic benefits for schools with the latest start times. Among the 9,395 students in the study, those who slept…

  19. Subsidizing Start-Ups: Policy Targeting and Policy Effectiveness

    Kösters, Sarah


    Start-up subsidies are a frequently employed policy instrument, the use of which is justified by alleged market failure resulting from positive external effects and capital market imperfections. This article investigates whether the allocation of subsidies reflects a policy focus on addressing these market failure occurrences. However, using survey data from the East German state of Thuringia, logistic regressions reveal a rather random subsidization of start-ups. Furthermore, propensity scor...

  20. Start-ups, Venture Capitalists and the Capital Gains Tax

    Keuschnigg, Christian; Nielsen, Søren Bo


    A model of start-up finance with double moral hazard is proposed. Entrepreneurs have ideas but lack their own resources as well as commercial experience. Venture capitalists provide start-up finance and managerial support. Both types of agents thus jointly contribute to the firm's success, but neither type's effort is verifiable. We find that the market equilibrium is biased towards inefficiently low venture capital support. In this situation, the capital gains tax is particularly harmful. Th...

  1. Start-up Costs, Taxes and Innovative Entrepreneurship

    Darnihamedani, Pourya; Block, Jörn; Hessels, Jolanda; Simonyan, Aram


    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Prior research suggests that start-up costs and taxes negatively influence entry into entrepreneurship. Yet, no distinction is made regarding the type of entrepreneurship, particularly innovative versus non-innovative entrepreneurship. Start-up costs, being one-off costs, may reduce the entry of entrepreneurs whose ideas are not very promising, thus increasing the proportion of innovative entrepreneurs. Taxes, being recurring costs, may reduce the “prize” of innov...

  2. The Backstroke Swimming Start: State of the Art

    de Jesus Karla


    Full Text Available As sprint swimming events can be decided by margins as small as .01 s, thus, an effective start is essential. This study reviews and discusses the ‘state of the art’ literature regarding backstroke start biomechanics from 23 documents. These included two swimming specific publications, eight peer-reviewed journal articles, three from the Biomechanics and Medicine in Swimming Congress series, eight from the International Society of Biomechanics in Sports Conference Proceedings, one from a Biomechanics Congress and one academic (PhD thesis. The studies had diverse aims, including swimmers’ proficiency levels and data collection settings. There was no single consensus for defining phase descriptions; and kinematics, kinetics and EMG approaches were implemented in laboratory settings. However, researchers face great challenges in improving methods of quantifying valid, reliable and accurate data between laboratory and competition conditions. For example, starting time was defined from the starting signal to distances as disparate as ~5 m to 22.86 m in several studies. Due to recent rule changes, some of the research outcomes now refer to obsolete backstroke start techniques, and only a few studies considered the actual international rules. This literature review indicated that further research is required, in both laboratory and competition settings focusing on the combined influences of the current rules and block configuration on backstroke starting performances

  3. A Novel method of Starting Induction Motor - A Comparative Study

    R L Chakrasali


    Full Text Available Polyphase induction motor, when started from rest with full voltage impressed, the starting current is 5 to 8 or more times the rated current. The large line current drawn by such a motor is objectionable because of the possible sharp drop in voltage of the supply circuit and undesired effects upon other connected loads/devices. Accordingly it is customary to start such motors at reduced voltage by using auto transformers, star delta starters etc. This paper deals with a new approach to start poly phase induction motors without using any primary voltage compensators thereby limiting the inrush of starting current. The rotor of the motor is driven at suitable speed in the specified direction of rotation by using crank driving mechanism. Then te rated voltage is applied to the motor. This is enunciated using a case study on a 3- phase, 5hp, NGEF make motor with oscillographic records obtained from the experimentation and is compared with the various starting techniques. Keywords: Induction motor, starter, inrush current, voltage dip, new approach

  4. Learning relay start strategies in swimming: What feedback is best?

    Fischer, Sebastian; Braun, Claudia; Kibele, Armin


    In the past, studies and book recommendations on relay starts in swimming have been predominantly focused on the change-over time (COT) as a performance criterion. Aside from the circular backswing start with parallel foot placement, few studies have analysed differences in the take-off movement including step approaches as well. Although trends could be identified, the results remained still somewhat inconclusive. In contrast, no study has examined as has examined whether a reduction of COT in between wall contact of the income swimmer and the take-off of the outgoing swimmer is an optimal relay start strategy, as advocated by various swimming experts. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare two different relay start strategies: offensive strategy minimizing COT and conservative strategy to maximize horizontal peak force (HPF). In this regard, a learning intervention with 24 elite-level swimmers (12 females, 12 male) was conducted to compare both strategies regarding relay start time, HPF and COT. Subjects were randomly assigned to two feedback groups: COT versus HPF at take-off. The results of this study showed a clear advantage for HPF feedback for relay start performance measured by wall contact of the incoming swimmer and head passage at 7.5 m of the outgoing swimmer. In addition, similar reductions in COTs were found in both training groups. In conclusion, swimmers should focus on force production rather than minimizing COT. For the latter, deteriorating consequences for force production must be considered.

  5. Different Starting Distances Affect 5-m Sprint Times.

    Altmann, Stefan; Hoffmann, Marian; Kurz, Gunther; Neumann, Rainer; Woll, Alexander; Haertel, Sascha


    The purpose of this study was to quantify the effect of different starting distances on 5-m sprint time and the accuracy of the initial timing gate. A single-beam timing gate system (1 m high) was used to measure 5-m sprint time in 13 male sports students. Each subject performed 3 valid trials for 3 starting distances: 0.3, 0.5, and 1.0 m from the initial timing lights, respectively. A high-speed video camera was used to track a reflective marker placed on the subjects' hip within a field of view around the initial timing gate. Accuracy of the initial timing gate was defined as the time between the initial timing light trigger and passing of the reflective marker by the initial timing gate. Sprint times were significantly faster for the 1.0-m starting distance (0.98 ± 0.06 seconds) than for the 0.5-m (1.05 ± 0.07 seconds) and the 0.3-m (1.09 ± 0.08 seconds) starting distances (p sprint times but not the accuracy of the initial timing gate. Researchers and coaches should consider the effect of starting distance on 5-m sprint time and ensure consistent testing protocols. Based on the results of this study, we recommend a starting distance of 0.3 m that should be used for all sprint performance tests.

  6. Starting lithium prophylaxis early v. late in bipolar disorder.

    Kessing, Lars Vedel; Vradi, Eleni; Andersen, Per Kragh


    No study has investigated when preventive treatment with lithium should be initiated in bipolar disorder. To compare response rates among patients with bipolar disorder starting treatment with lithium early v. late. Nationwide registers were used to identify all patients with a diagnosis of bipolar disorder in psychiatric hospital settings who were prescribed lithium during the period 1995-2012 in Denmark (n = 4714). Lithium responders were defined as patients who, following a stabilisation lithium start-up period of 6 months, continued lithium monotherapy without being admitted to hospital. Early v. late intervention was defined in two ways: (a) start of lithium following first contact; and (b) start of lithium following a diagnosis of a single manic/mixed episode. Regardless of the definition used, patients who started lithium early had significantly decreased rates of non-response to lithium compared with the rate for patients starting lithium later (adjusted analyses: first v. later contact: Pbipolar disorder: Plithium treatment early following first psychiatric contact or a single manic/mixed episode is associated with increased probability of lithium response. Royal College of Psychiatrists.

  7. A biomechanical analysis of four sprint start positions.

    Schot, P K; Knutzen, K M


    The sprint starts of 12 skilled collegiate sprinter/hurdlers were filmed for four different sprint start conditions. Ground reaction forces were collected for the first step out of the blocks and velocities through a 2-m speed trap immediately following the first support phase were recorded. The subjects employed their preferred right-left leg placement in the blocks, while the anterior-posterior spacing of the front block with respect to the starting line and the amount of forward lean in the set position were varied. Four positions were constructed that accounted for anthropometric differences. The four positions consisted of combinations of two arm orientations (forward lean and perpendicular to ground) and two front block to starting line distances (bunched and elongated). Kinematic data were reduced to provide center of mass position and velocity measures and analyzed for critical periods throughout the starting action. Selected critical events from the first step kinetic records were also analyzed. The results indicated that the elongated starting positions resulted in greater horizontal displacement, greater propelling impulse, increased first step toe-off velocity, and greater average velocity through a 2-m speed trap. Arm orientation effects were less well defined. Forward lean tended to result in greater vertical velocity at block clearance and horizontal velocity at first step toe-off, whereas perpendicular arm positioning resulted in greater 2-m speed trap velocity.

  8. Millimeter-wave receivers for wireless communications

    Overmiller, Brock Morgan

    The modern communications environment is becoming an increasingly crowded place, resulting in rapidly increasing demands on current technology. Military and civilian operations require the ability to locate and decode all communication signals in the environment. However, developments in RADAR (RAdio Detection And Ranging) and communications technology are making it harder to effectively identify and maintain bandwidth usage for everyone. Millimeter waves--waves measured between one millimeter to one centimeter in wavelength--have only recently been explored as a new technology to replace the augment receiver architectures. These small wavelengths introduce many engineering challenges, such as: large atmospheric losses, poor sensitivity, and expensive electronic equipment. With growing developments in Microwave Photonics, low-noise RF amplifiers and high-speed modulators have demonstrated the ability to design RF communication links in the millimeter wave regime to counter such problems. However, despite these developments, toward a cost-effective, spatial division multiplexing (SDM) receiver concept has not proved capable of being implemented as part of the next generation 5G wireless network infrastructure. To this end, we present a novel receiver architecture utilizing an optically addressed phased-array millimeter wave receiver based on optical-upconversion and signal recovery. This receiver is capable of geolocation and spatial multiplexing of multiple Tunable Optically Paired Source (TOPS) communication signals in its scene. Operating at 35 GHz, the receiver up-converts the received RF onto an optical sideband, which, to our advantage, contains all of the frequency, amplitude, and phase information of the received signals. Subsequent optical processing allows routing of the sideband to a free space detector port. Photomixing a coherent optical local oscillator (LO) with the optical sideband performs heterodyne down-conversion to an Intermediate Frequency (IF

  9. Performance outlook of the SCRAP receiver

    Lubkoll, Matti; von Backström, Theodor W.; Harms, Thomas M.


    A combined cycle (CC) concentrating solar power (CSP) plant provides significant potential to achieve an efficiency increase and an electricity cost reduction compared to current single-cycle plants. A CC CSP system requires a receiver technology capable of effectively transferring heat from concentrated solar irradiation to a pressurized air stream of a gas turbine. The small number of pressurized air receivers demonstrated to date have practical limitations, when operating at high temperatures and pressures. As yet, a robust, scalable and efficient system has to be developed and commercialized. A novel receiver system, the Spiky Central Receiver Air Pre-heater (SCRAP) concept has been proposed to comply with these requirements. The SCRAP system is conceived as a solution for an efficient and robust pressurized air receiver that could be implemented in CC CSP concepts or standalone solar Brayton cycles without a bottoming Rankine cycle. The presented work expands on previous publications on the thermal modeling of the receiver system. Based on the analysis of a single heat transfer element (spike), predictions for its thermal performance can be made. To this end the existing thermal model was improved by heat transfer characteristics for the jet impingement region of the spike tip as well as heat transfer models simulating the interaction with ambient. While the jet impingement cooling effect was simulated employing a commercial CFD code, the ambient heat transfer model was based on simplifying assumptions in order to employ empirical and analytical equations. The thermal efficiency of a spike under design conditions (flux 1.0 MW/m2, air outlet temperature just below 800 °C) was calculated at approximately 80 %, where convective heat losses account for 16.2 % of the absorbed radiation and radiative heat losses for a lower 2.9 %. This effect is due to peak surface temperatures occurring at the root of the spikes. It can thus be concluded that the geometric

  10. Later School Start Times: What Informs Parent Support or Opposition?

    Dunietz, Galit Levi; Matos-Moreno, Amilcar; Singer, Dianne C; Davis, Matthew M; O'Brien, Louise M; Chervin, Ronald D


    To investigate parental knowledge about adolescent sleep needs, and other beliefs that may inform their support for or objection to later school start times. In 2014, we conducted a cross-sectional, Internet-based survey of a nationally representative sample of parents as part of the C.S. Mott Children's Hospital National Poll on Children's Health. Parents with teens aged 13-17 years reported their children's sleep patterns and school schedules, and whether the parents supported later school start times (8:30 am or later). Responses associated with parental support of later school start times were examined with logistic regression analysis. Overall, 88% of parents reported school start times before 8:30 am, and served as the analysis sample (n = 554). In this group, 51% expressed support for later school start times. Support was associated with current school start times before 7:30 am (odds ratio [OR] = 3.1 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.2, 8.4]); parental opinion that their teen's current school start time was "too early" (OR = 3.8 [1.8, 7.8]); and agreement with American Academy of Pediatrics recommendations about school start times (OR = 4.7 [2.2, 10.1]). Support also was associated with anticipation of improved school performance (OR = 3.0 [1.5, 5.9]) or increased sleep duration (OR = 4.0 [1.8, 8.9]) with later school start times. Conversely, parents who anticipated too little time for after-school activities (OR = 0.5 [0.3, 0.9]) and need for different transportation plans (OR = 0.5 [0.2, 0.9]) were often less supportive. Parental education about healthy sleep needs and anticipated health benefits may increase their support for later school start times. Educational efforts should also publicize the positive experiences of communities that have made this transition, with regard to limited adverse effect on after-school activity schedules and transportation.

  11. Sexual function in women receiving maintenance dialysis.

    Seethala, Srikanth; Hess, Rachel; Bossola, Maurizio; Unruh, Mark L; Weisbord, Steven D


    While substantial attention has been paid to the issue of sexual dysfunction in men on chronic dialysis, less is known about this problem in women with end-stage renal disease. We sought to assess sexual dysfunction in women on chronic dialysis and determine whether patients discuss this problem with their providers and receive treatment. We prospectively enrolled women receiving chronic hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis in Pittsburgh, PA. We asked patients to complete the 19-item Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) to assess sexual function and a 5-item survey that assessed whether patients had discussed sexual dysfunction with their providers and/or received treatment for this problem in the past. We enrolled 66 patients; 59 (89%) on hemodialysis and 7 (11%) on peritoneal dialysis. All patients completed the FSFI, of whom 53 (80%) had FSFI scores <26.55, consistent with the presence of sexual dysfunction. Of 37 patients who were married or residing with a significant other, 27 (73%) had sexual dysfunction. Among 24 participants who reported having been sexually active over the previous 4 weeks, 11 (46%) had sexual dysfunction. Only 21% of patients with sexual dysfunction had discussed this problem with their gynecologist, renal or primary provider, and 3 (6%) reported having received treatment. Sexual dysfunction is common in women on dialysis, even among patients who are married or residing with a significant other and those who are sexually active. However, few women discuss this issue with their providers or receive treatment.

  12. Receiver-Controlled Multi-Node Cooperation

    Liang Ye; Yue Li; XueJun Sha; Esko Alasaarela


    Since wireless links in Ad hoc networks are more fragile than those in traditional wireless networks due to route flapping, multi-node cooperation plays an important role in ensuring the quality of service ( QoS) . Based on the authors’ previous work, this paper proposes a receiver-controlled multi-node cooperation routing protocol, known as AODV-RCC. In this protocol, nodes form a cooperation group based on signal power. In a cooperation group, signal power between a partner and a transmitter, as well as signal power between the partner and the receiver, must be larger than the signal power between the transmitter and the receiver. Otherwise, the transmission will not benefit from cooperation. To avoid collision or congestion, each cooperation group only contains one partner. This partner offers both data and ACK cooperative retransmission. Its retransmission time should be shorter than the internal retry time of the transmitter’ s MAC layer, because it is better for the partner to retransmit firstly, as it offers a more reliable cooperative link. In AODV-RCC, it is the receiver that chooses the partner, because the link between the partner and the receiver is the most important. According to our simulation results, AODV-RCC shortens the end-to-end delay and increases the packet delivery ratio.

  13. Schottky Heterodyne Receivers With Full Waveguide Bandwidth

    Hesler, Jeffrey; Crowe, Thomas


    Compact THz receivers with broad bandwidth and low noise have been developed for the frequency range from 100 GHz to 1 THz. These receivers meet the requirements for high-resolution spectroscopic studies of planetary atmospheres (including the Earth s) from spacecraft, as well as airborne and balloon platforms. The ongoing research is significant not only for the development of Schottky mixers, but also for the creation of a receiver system, including the LO chain. The new receivers meet the goals of high sensitivity, compact size, low total power requirement, and operation across complete waveguide bands. The exceptional performance makes these receivers ideal for the broader range of scientific and commercial applications. These include the extension of sophisticated test and measurement equipment to 1 THz and the development of low-cost imaging systems for security applications and industrial process monitoring. As a particular example, a WR-1.9SHM (400-600 GHz) has been developed (see Figure 1), with state-of-the-art noise temperature ranging from 1,000-1,800 K (DSB) over the full waveguide band. Also, a Vector Network Analyzer extender has been developed (see Figure 2) for the WR1.5 waveguide band (500 750 GHz) with 100-dB dynamic range.

  14. Direct broadcast satellite-radio, receiver development

    Vaisnys, A.; Bell, D.; Gevargiz, J.; Golshan, Nasser


    The status of the ongoing Direct Broadcast Satellite-Radio (DBS-R) Receiver Development Task being performed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology (JPL) is reported. This work is sponsored by the Voice of America/U.S. Information Agency through an agreement with NASA. The objective of this task is to develop, build, test, and demonstrate a prototype receiver that is compatible with reception of digital audio programs broadcast via satellites. The receiver is being designed to operate under a range of reception conditions, including fixed, portable, and mobile, as well as over a sufficiently wide range of bit rates to accommodate broadcasting systems with different cost/audio quality objectives. While the requirements on the receiver are complex, the eventual goal of the design effort is to make the design compatible with low cost production as a consumer product. One solution may be a basic low cost core design suitable for a majority of reception conditions, with optional enhancements for reception in especially difficult environments. Some of the receiver design parameters were established through analysis, laboratory tests, and a prototype satellite experiment accomplished in late 1991. Many of the necessary design trades will be made during the current simulation effort, while a few of the key design options will be incorporated into the prototype for evaluation during the planned satellite field trials.

  15. Dish/stirling hybrid-receiver

    Mehos, Mark S.; Anselmo, Kenneth M.; Moreno, James B.; Andraka, Charles E.; Rawlinson, K. Scott; Corey, John; Bohn, Mark S.


    A hybrid high-temperature solar receiver is provided which comprises a solar heat-pipe-receiver including a front dome having a solar absorber surface for receiving concentrated solar energy, a heat pipe wick, a rear dome, a sidewall joining the front and the rear dome, and a vapor and a return liquid tube connecting to an engine, and a fossil fuel fired combustion system in radial integration with the sidewall for simultaneous operation with the solar heat pipe receiver, the combustion system comprising an air and fuel pre-mixer, an outer cooling jacket for tangentially introducing and cooling the mixture, a recuperator for preheating the mixture, a burner plenum having an inner and an outer wall, a porous cylindrical metal matrix burner firing radially inward facing a sodium vapor sink, the mixture ignited downstream of the matrix forming combustion products, an exhaust plenum, a fossil-fuel heat-input surface having an outer surface covered with a pin-fin array, the combustion products flowing through the array to give up additional heat to the receiver, and an inner surface covered with an extension of the heat-pipe wick, a pin-fin shroud sealed to the burner and exhaust plenums, an end seal, a flue-gas diversion tube and a flue-gas valve for use at off-design conditions to limit the temperature of the pre-heated air and fuel mixture, preventing pre-ignition.

  16. Direct broadcast satellite-radio, receiver development

    Vaisnys, A.; Bell, D.; Gevargiz, J.; Golshan, Nasser

    The status of the ongoing Direct Broadcast Satellite-Radio (DBS-R) Receiver Development Task being performed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology (JPL) is reported. This work is sponsored by the Voice of America/U.S. Information Agency through an agreement with NASA. The objective of this task is to develop, build, test, and demonstrate a prototype receiver that is compatible with reception of digital audio programs broadcast via satellites. The receiver is being designed to operate under a range of reception conditions, including fixed, portable, and mobile, as well as over a sufficiently wide range of bit rates to accommodate broadcasting systems with different cost/audio quality objectives. While the requirements on the receiver are complex, the eventual goal of the design effort is to make the design compatible with low cost production as a consumer product. One solution may be a basic low cost core design suitable for a majority of reception conditions, with optional enhancements for reception in especially difficult environments. Some of the receiver design parameters were established through analysis, laboratory tests, and a prototype satellite experiment accomplished in late 1991. Many of the necessary design trades will be made during the current simulation effort, while a few of the key design options will be incorporated into the prototype for evaluation during the planned satellite field trials.

  17. Characterization of liraglutide, a glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist, in rat partial and full nigral 6-hydroxydopamine lesion models of Parkinson's disease.

    Hansen, Henrik H; Fabricius, Katrine; Barkholt, Pernille; Mikkelsen, Jens D; Jelsing, Jacob; Pyke, Charles; Knudsen, Lotte Bjerre; Vrang, Niels


    Exendin-4, a glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist, have been demonstrated to promote neuroprotection in the rat 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) neurotoxin model of Parkinson's disease (PD), a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive nigrostriatal dopaminergic neuron loss. In this report, we characterized the effect of a long-acting GLP-1 receptor agonist, liraglutide (500µg/kg/day, s.c.) in the context of a partial or advanced (full) 6-OHDA induced nigral lesion in the rat. Rats received a low (3µg, partial lesion) or high (13.5µg, full lesion) 6-OHDA dose stereotaxically injected into the right medial forebrain bundle (n=17-20 rats per experimental group). Six weeks after induction of a partial nigral dopaminergic lesion, vehicle or liraglutide was administered for four weeks. In the full lesion model, vehicle dosing or liraglutide treatment was applied for a total of six weeks starting three weeks pre-lesion, or administered for three weeks starting on the lesion day. Quantitative stereology was applied to assess the total number of midbrain tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) positive dopaminergic neurons. As compared to vehicle controls, liraglutide had no effect on the rotational responsiveness to d-amphetamine or apomorphine, respectively. In correspondence, while numbers of TH-positive nigral neurons were significantly reduced in the lesion side (partial lesion ≈55%; full lesion ≈90%) liraglutide administration had no influence dopaminergic neuronal loss in either PD model setting. In conclusion, liraglutide showed no neuroprotective effects in the context of moderate or substantial midbrain dopaminergic neuronal loss and associated functional motor deficits in the rat 6-OHDA lesion model of PD.

  18. Stop and Restart Effects on Modern Vehicle Starting System Components

    Windover, Paul R. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Owens, Russell J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Levinson, Terry M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Laughlin, Michael [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Gaines, Linda [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)


    Many drivers of personal and commercial vehicles believe that turning the vehicle off and on frequently instead of idling will cause premature wear of the starter system (starter motor and starter battery). As a result, they are concerned that the replacement cost of the starter motor and/or battery due to increased manual engine cycling would be more than the cumulative cost of the fuel saved by not idling unnecessarily. A number of variables play a role in addressing this complex concern, including the number of starting cycles per day, the time between starting cycles, the intended design life of the starting system, the amount of fuel used to restart an engine, and the cumulative cost of the saved fuel. Qualitative and quantitative information from a variety of sources was used to develop a life-cycle economic model to evaluate the cost and quantify the realistic factors that are related to the permissible frequency of starter motor cycles for the average vehicle to economically minimize engine idle time. Annual cost savings can be calculated depending on shutdown duration and the number of shutdown cycles per day. Analysis shows that cost savings are realized by eliminating idling exceeding one minute by shutting down the engine and restarting it. For a typical motorist, the damage to starting system components resulting from additional daily start cycles will be negligible. Overall, it was found that starter life is mostly dependent on the total number of start cycles, while battery life is more dependent on ensuring a full charge between start events.

  19. Male rats play a repeated donation game.

    Li, Grace; Wood, Ruth I


    While previous studies have demonstrated direct and generalized reciprocity in female Norway rats [26], the present study determined if unrelated male laboratory rats respond on behalf of a partner in an iterated sequential game. Pairs of rats worked for food reward in an operant chamber, where participants alternated as Donor and Responder in successive trials. In each trial, the Donor chose between variable and constant reward levers, where the constant reward lever delivered 1 pellet, and the variable reward lever triggered insertion of Responder lever(s); the Donor received 2 pellets when the Responder made any response. In forced-choice constant (FC) trials, the Responder also received 1 pellet for responding on the constant reward lever. In forced-choice variable (FV) trials, the Responder received no pellets for responding on the variable reward lever. In free-choice (FR) trials, the Responder chose between constant (1 pellet) and variable reward levers (0 pellets). With their cagemate, rats earned 61.4±2.0 pellets (64.0±2.1% of 96 possible pellets). As Donor in FC trials, rats preferred the variable reward lever, and the Responder responded frequently. In FV trials, Donor preference for the variable reward lever declined as Responder lever responses decreased. In FR trials, rats alternated responding on variable and constant reward levers as Donor and Responder, respectively. When paired with a new partner, there was no effect on Donor responses, but responses by the Responder decreased in the FV block. Similar effects were observed when paired with a maximally-cooperative stooge. Importantly, rats did not adjust their behavior as Donor to receive more pellets. Results suggest that unrelated male rats will work on behalf of a partner, and that their behavior is sensitive to familiarity, and to cooperative responses by their partner. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Getting it right from the start: evaluation of a DVD and booklet for new parents.

    Lee, Pauline; Foley, Sarah; Mee, Catherine


    Early universal preventive interventions have the potential to improve the parent-infant relationship. Getting it Right from the Start is a DVD and booklet given free to new parents to promote sensitive and responsive early parenting and infant communication. Parents in the local area were canvassed for their views and opinions as to what their needs and feelings were about infant mental health. The resource is based on evidence from research and clinical studies in infant development and infant mental health. A matched sample design evaluation study was conducted. A 'Baby Quiz' testing parents' knowledge of different areas covered in the DVD and booklet was given to parents in receipt of the materials and also to parents not yet in receipt of the resource. Results indicated that the mean number of correct responses to the quiz items was higher in the group receiving the DVD and booklet. The percentage of poor scorers in the group who received the DVD and booklet was almost half that of the control group, showing the effectiveness of this universal intervention. Getting it Right from the Start represents a simple, low-cost method of reaching parents during the perinatal period.