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Sample records for rats showed important

  1. Geoscience is Important? Show Me Why

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boland, M. A.

    2017-12-01

    "The public" is not homogenous and no single message or form of messaging will connect the entire public with the geosciences. One approach to promoting trust in, and engagement with, the geosciences is to identify specific sectors of the public and then develop interactions and communication products that are immediately relevant to that sector's interests. If the content and delivery are appropriate, this approach empowers people to connect with the geosciences on their own terms and to understand the relevance of the geosciences to their own situation. Federal policy makers are a distinct and influential subgroup of the general public. In preparation for the 2016 presidential election, the American Geosciences Institute (AGI) in collaboration with its 51 member societies prepared Geoscience for America's Critical Needs: Invitation to a National Dialogue, a document that identified major geoscience policy issues that should be addressed in a national policy platform. Following the election, AGI worked with eight other geoscience societies to develop Geoscience Policy Recommendations for the New Administration and the 115th Congress, which outlines specific policy actions to address national issues. State and local decision makers are another important subgroup of the public. AGI has developed online content, factsheets, and case studies with different levels of technical complexity so people can explore societally-relevant geoscience topics at their level of technical proficiency. A related webinar series is attracting a growing worldwide audience from many employment sectors. Partnering with government agencies and other scientific and professional societies has increased the visibility and credibility of these information products with our target audience. Surveys and other feedback show that these products are raising awareness of the geosciences and helping to build reciprocal relationships between geoscientists and decision makers. The core message of all

  2. Immature rats show ovulatory defects similar to those in adult rats lacking prostaglandin and progesterone actions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanchez-Criado Jose E

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Gonadotropin-primed immature rats (GPIR constitute a widely used model for the study of ovulation. Although the equivalence between the ovulatory process in immature and adult rats is generally assumed, the morphological and functional characteristics of ovulation in immature rats have been scarcely considered. We describe herein the morphological aspects of the ovulatory process in GPIR and their response to classical ovulation inhibitors, such as the inhibitor of prostaglandin (PG synthesis indomethacin (INDO and a progesterone (P receptor (PR antagonist (RU486. Immature Wistar rats were primed with equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG at 21, 23 or 25 days of age, injected with human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG 48 h later, and sacrificed 16 h after hCG treatment, to assess follicle rupture and ovulation. Surprisingly, GPIR showed age-related ovulatory defects close similar to those in adult rats lacking P and PG actions. Rats primed with eCG at 21 or 23 days of age showed abnormally ruptured corpora lutea in which the cumulus-oocyte complex (COC was trapped or had been released to the ovarian interstitum, invading the ovarian stroma and blood and lymphatic vessels. Supplementation of immature rats with exogenous P and/or PG of the E series did not significantly inhibit abnormal follicle rupture. Otherwise, ovulatory defects were practically absent in rats primed with eCG at 25 days of age. GPIR treated with INDO showed the same ovulatory alterations than vehicle-treated ones, although affecting to a higher proportion of follicles. Blocking P actions with RU486 increased the number of COC trapped inside corpora lutea and decreased ovulation. The presence of ovulatory defects in GPIR, suggests that the capacity of the immature ovary to undergo the coordinate changes leading to effective ovulation is not fully established in Wistar rats primed with eCG before 25 days of age.

  3. Juvenile female rats, but not male rats, show renewal, reinstatement, and spontaneous recovery following extinction of conditioned fear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chun Hui J; Ganella, Despina E; Kim, Jee Hyun

    2017-12-01

    Anxiety disorders emerge early, and girls are significantly more likely to develop anxiety compared to boys. However, sex differences in fear during development are poorly understood. Therefore, we investigated juvenile male and female rats in the relapse behaviors following extinction of conditioned fear. In all experiments, 18-d-old rats first received three white-noise-footshock pairings on day 1. On day 2, extinction involved 60 white-noise alone trials. In experiment 1, we examined renewal by testing the rats in either the same or different context as extinction on day 3. Male rats did not show renewal, however, female rats showed renewal. Experiment 2 investigated reinstatement by giving rats either a mild reminder footshock or context exposure on day 3. When tested the next day, male rats did not show reinstatement, whereas female rats showed reinstatement. Experiment 3 investigated spontaneous recovery by testing the rats either 1 or 5 d following extinction. Male rats did not show any spontaneous recovery whereas female rats did. Taken together, fear regulation appear to be different in males versus females from early in development, which may explain why girls are more prone to suffer from anxiety disorders compared to boys. © 2017 Park et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  4. Optical spectroscopy of radiotherapy and photodynamic therapy responses in normal rat skin shows vascular breakdown products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teles de Andrade, Cintia; Nogueira, Marcelo S.; Kanick, Stephen C.; Marra, Kayla; Gunn, Jason; Andreozzi, Jacqueline; Samkoe, Kimberley S.; Kurachi, Cristina; Pogue, Brian W.

    2016-03-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) and radiotherapy are non-systemic cancer treatment options with different mechanisms of damage. So combining these techniques has been shown to have some synergy, and can mitigate their limitations such as low PDT light penetration or radiotherapy side effects. The present study monitored the induced tissue changes after PDT, radiotherapy, and a combination protocol in normal rat skin, using an optical spectroscopy system to track the observed biophysical changes. The Wistar rats were treated with one of the protocols: PDT followed by radiotherapy, PDT, radiotherapy and radiotherapy followed by PDT. Reflectance spectra were collected in order to observe the effects of these combined therapies, especially targeting vascular response. From the reflectance, information about oxygen saturation, met-hemoglobin and bilirubin concentration, blood volume fraction (BVF) and vessel radius were extracted from model fitting of the spectra. The rats were monitored for 24 hours after treatment. Results showed that there was no significant variation in the vessel size or BVF after the treatments. However, the PDT caused a significant increase in the met-hemoglobin and bilirubin concentrations, indicating an important blood breakdown. These results may provide an important clue on how the damage establishment takes place, helping to understand the effect of the combination of those techniques in order to verify the existence of a known synergistic effect.

  5. Obesity-resistant S5B rats showed great cocaine conditioned place preference than the obesity-prone OM rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thanos, P.K.; Wang, G.; Thanos, P.K..; Kim, R.; Cho, J.; Michaelides, M.; Anderson, B.J.; Primeaux, S.D.; Bray, G.A.; Wang, G.-J.; Robinson, J.K.; Volkow, N.D.

    2010-12-01

    Dopamine (DA) and the DA D2 receptor (D2R) are involved in the rewarding and conditioned responses to food and drug rewards. Osborne-Mendel (OM) rats are genetically prone and S5B/P rats are genetically resistant to obesity when fed a high-fat diet. We hypothesized that the differential sensitivity of these two rat strains to natural rewards may also be reflected in sensitivity to drugs of abuse. Therefore, we tested whether OM and S5B/P rats showed a differential preference to cocaine using conditioned place preference (CPP). To also evaluate whether there is specific involvement of the D2R in this differential conditioning sensitivity, we then tested whether the D2R agonist bromocriptine (BC) would differentially affect the effects of cocaine in the two strains. OM and S5B/P rats were conditioned with cocaine (5 or 10 mg/kg) in one chamber and saline in another for 8 days. Rats were then tested for cocaine preference. The effects of BC (0.5, 1, 5, 10, 20 mg/kg) on cocaine preference were then assessed in subsequent test sessions. OM rats did not show a significant preference for the cocaine-paired chamber on test day. Only the S5B/P rats showed cocaine CPP. Later treatment with only the highest dose of BC resulted in reduced cocaine CPP in S5B/P rats when treated with 5 mg/kg cocaine and in OM rats treated with 10 mg/kg cocaine. Our results indicated that obesity-resistant S5B rats showed greater cocaine CPP than the obesity-prone OM rats. These findings do not support a theory of common vulnerability for reinforcer preferences (food and cocaine). However, they show that BC reduced cocaine conditioning effects supporting at least a partial regulatory role of D2R in conditioned responses to drugs.

  6. Importance Performance Analysis as a Trade Show Performance Evaluation and Benchmarking Tool

    OpenAIRE

    Tafesse, Wondwesen; Skallerud, Kåre; Korneliussen, Tor

    2010-01-01

    Author's accepted version (post-print). The purpose of this study is to introduce importance performance analysis as a trade show performance evaluation and benchmarking tool. Importance performance analysis considers exhibitors’ performance expectation and perceived performance in unison to evaluate and benchmark trade show performance. The present study uses data obtained from exhibitors of an international trade show to demonstrate how importance performance analysis can be used to eval...

  7. Male Wistar rats show individual differences in an animal model of conformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolles, Jolle W; de Visser, Leonie; van den Bos, Ruud

    2011-09-01

    Conformity refers to the act of changing one's behaviour to match that of others. Recent studies in humans have shown that individual differences exist in conformity and that these differences are related to differences in neuronal activity. To understand the neuronal mechanisms in more detail, animal tests to assess conformity are needed. Here, we used a test of conformity in rats that has previously been evaluated in female, but not male, rats and assessed the nature of individual differences in conformity. Male Wistar rats were given the opportunity to learn that two diets differed in palatability. They were subsequently exposed to a demonstrator that had consumed the less palatable food. Thereafter, they were exposed to the same diets again. Just like female rats, male rats decreased their preference for the more palatable food after interaction with demonstrator rats that had eaten the less palatable food. Individual differences existed for this shift, which were only weakly related to an interaction between their own initial preference and the amount consumed by the demonstrator rat. The data show that this conformity test in rats is a promising tool to study the neurobiology of conformity.

  8. Astrocytes from adult Wistar rats aged in vitro show changes in glial functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Débora Guerini; Bellaver, Bruna; Raupp, Gustavo Santos; Souza, Diogo Onofre; Quincozes-Santos, André

    2015-11-01

    Astrocytes, the most versatile cells of the central nervous system, play an important role in the regulation of neurotransmitter homeostasis, energy metabolism, antioxidant defenses and the anti-inflammatory response. Recently, our group characterized cortical astrocyte cultures from adult Wistar rats. In line with that work, we studied glial function using an experimental in vitro model of aging astrocytes (30 days in vitro after reaching confluence) from newborn (NB), adult (AD) and aged (AG) Wistar rats. We evaluated metabolic parameters, such as the glucose uptake, glutamine synthetase (GS) activity, and glutathione (GSH) content, as well as the GFAP, GLUT-1 and xCT expression. AD and AG astrocytes take up less glucose than NB astrocytes and had decreased GLUT1 expression levels. Furthermore, AD and AG astrocytes exhibited decreased GS activity compared to NB cells. Simultaneously, AD and AG astrocytes showed an increase in GSH levels, along with an increase in xCT expression. NB, AD and AG astrocytes presented similar morphology; however, differences in GFAP levels were observed. Taken together, these results improve the knowledge of cerebral senescence and represent an innovative tool for brain studies of aging. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Rats with decreased brain cholecystokinin levels show increased responsiveness to peripheral electrical stimulation-induced analgesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, L X; Li, X L; Wang, L; Han, J S

    1997-01-16

    Using the P77PMC strain of rat, which is genetically prone to audiogenic seizures, and also has decreased levels of cholecystokinin (CCK), we examined the analgesic response to peripheral electrical stimulation, which is, in part, opiate-mediated. A number of studies have suggested that CCK may function as an antagonist to endogenous opiate effects. Therefore, we hypothesized that the P77PMC animals would show an enhanced analgesic response based on their decreased CCK levels producing a diminished endogenous opiate antagonism. We found that the analgesic effect on tail flick latency produced by 100 Hz peripheral electrical stimulation was more potent and longer lasting in P77PMC rats than in control rats. Moreover, the potency of the stimulation-produced analgesia correlated with the vulnerability to audiogenic seizures in these rats. We were able to block the peripheral electrical stimulation-induced analgesia (PSIA) using a cholecystokinin octapeptide (CCK-8) administered parenterally. Radioimmunoassay showed that the content of CCK-8 in cerebral cortex, hippocampus and periaqueductal gray was much lower in P77PMC rat than in controls. These results suggest that low CCK-8 content in the central nervous system of the P77PMC rats may be related to the high analgesic response to peripheral electrical stimulation, and further support the notion that CCK may be endogenous opiate antagonist.

  10. The kidneys play an important role in the clearance of rFVIIa in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Bill; Appa, Rupa S.; Lykkesfeldt, Jens

    2014-01-01

    study was to evaluate the importance of the kidneys in the clearance process of rFVIIa after iv administration to rats using a nephrectomy model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A nephrectomized rat model was established and validated using inulin, a compound primarily cleared by the kidneys, as a test substance...... of mixed effects methods, where a pharmacokinetic model was used to simultaneously model all data from healthy, sham operated, and nephrectomized rats. RESULTS: Nephrectomized animals showed stable rectal temperature, SpO2 and pulse and as expected, clearance of inulin was essentially abolished compared...

  11. Rats socially-reared and full fed learned an autoshaping task, showing less levels of fear-like behaviour than fasted or singly-reared rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Hernández, Miguel; Téllez-Alcántara, N Patricia

    2004-07-01

    During the learning of instrumental tasks, rats are usually fasted to increase reinforced learning. However, fasting produces several undesirable side effects. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that control rats, i.e. full-fed and group-reared rats, will learn an autoshaping task to the same level as fasted or singly-reared rats. The interaction between fasting and single-rearing of rats was also tested. Results showed that control rats and fasted rats acquired the autoshaping task similarly, independently of rearing condition or gender. However, fasted or singly-reared rats produced fear-like behaviour, since male rats group-reared and fasted (85% body/wt, P autoshaping task to the same level as fasted or singly-reared rats. However, fasting or single-rearing produced fear-like behaviour. Thus, the training of control rats in autoshaping tasks may be an option that improves animal welfare.

  12. Chlropyrifos-methyl shows anti-androgenic activity without estrogenic activity in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Hwan Goo; Jeong, Sang Hee; Cho, Joon Hyoung; Kim, Dong Gyu; Park, Jong Myung; Cho, Myung Haing

    2004-01-01

    Chlorpyrifos-methyl (CPM), an organophosphate insecticide, widely used for grain storage and agriculture, has been suspected as endocrine disrupter by a few in vitro studies. This study was performed to investigate the (anti-) estrogenicity and (anti-) androgenicity of CPM in vivo using immature rat uterotrophic assay and rat Hershberger assay. CPM with or without 17β-estradiol were administered to 20 days old female rats to investigate its (anti-) estrogenic activity. Uterine and vaginal weight, uterine epithelial cell height were not affected by the treatment of CPM (2, 10, 50, 250 mg/kg). CPM 250 mg/kg potentiated relative vagina weight in 17β-estradiol treated immature female rats without any changing of uterine weight. Relative liver weight was increased with decrease of body weight by CPM 250 mg/kg treatment. Uterine cell proliferation tested with bromodeoxyuridine labeling index was not observed in CPM treated rats. CPM with or without testosterone propionate were administered to castrated rat of 51 days old for 10 days to investigate the (anti-)androgenic activity,. The weight of relative and absolute androgen-dependent accessory sex organs; seminal vesicle with coagulating glands (SV/CG), ventral prostate gland (VP), glans penis (GP), levator ani plus bulbocarvernosus muscle (LABC) and Cowper's gland (CG,) were unchanged by the treatment of CPM alone. While CPM induced the increase of relative adrenal gland weight, CPM 50 mg/kg decreased the weights of CV/CG, VP, CG and LABC without change of GP without changing of GP when it was treated with TP. In conclusion, CPM dose not show estrogenic and anti-estrogenic activity in immature female rats, but it represents anti-androgenic activity by inhibition of the TP-stimulated increase of the weight of accessory sex organs

  13. Diethylene glycol-induced toxicities show marked threshold dose response in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landry, Greg M., E-mail: Landry.Greg@mayo.edu [Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology, & Neuroscience, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, Shreveport, LA (United States); Dunning, Cody L., E-mail: cdunni@lsuhsc.edu [Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology, & Neuroscience, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, Shreveport, LA (United States); Abreo, Fleurette, E-mail: fabreo@lsuhsc.edu [Department of Pathology, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, Shreveport, LA (United States); Latimer, Brian, E-mail: blatim@lsuhsc.edu [Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology, & Neuroscience, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, Shreveport, LA (United States); Orchard, Elysse, E-mail: eorcha@lsuhsc.edu [Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology, & Neuroscience, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, Shreveport, LA (United States); Division of Animal Resources, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, Shreveport, LA (United States); McMartin, Kenneth E., E-mail: kmcmar@lsuhsc.edu [Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology, & Neuroscience, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, Shreveport, LA (United States)

    2015-02-01

    Diethylene glycol (DEG) exposure poses risks to human health because of widespread industrial use and accidental exposures from contaminated products. To enhance the understanding of the mechanistic role of metabolites in DEG toxicity, this study used a dose response paradigm to determine a rat model that would best mimic DEG exposure in humans. Wistar and Fischer-344 (F-344) rats were treated by oral gavage with 0, 2, 5, or 10 g/kg DEG and blood, kidney and liver tissues were collected at 48 h. Both rat strains treated with 10 g/kg DEG had equivalent degrees of metabolic acidosis, renal toxicity (increased BUN and creatinine and cortical necrosis) and liver toxicity (increased serum enzyme levels, centrilobular necrosis and severe glycogen depletion). There was no liver or kidney toxicity at the lower DEG doses (2 and 5 g/kg) regardless of strain, demonstrating a steep threshold dose response. Kidney diglycolic acid (DGA), the presumed nephrotoxic metabolite of DEG, was markedly elevated in both rat strains administered 10 g/kg DEG, but no DGA was present at 2 or 5 g/kg, asserting its necessary role in DEG-induced toxicity. These results indicate that mechanistically in order to produce toxicity, metabolism to and significant target organ accumulation of DGA are required and that both strains would be useful for DEG risk assessments. - Highlights: • DEG produces a steep threshold dose response for kidney injury in rats. • Wistar and F-344 rats do not differ in response to DEG-induced renal injury. • The dose response for renal injury closely mirrors that for renal DGA accumulation. • Results demonstrate the importance of DGA accumulation in producing kidney injury.

  14. Activity/inactivity circadian rhythm shows high similarities between young obesity-induced rats and old rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo Santos, R; Delgado, J; Cubero, J; Franco, L; Ruiz-Moyano, S; Mesa, M; Rodríguez, A B; Uguz, C; Barriga, C

    2016-03-01

    The objective of the present study was to compare differences between elderly rats and young obesity-induced rats in their activity/inactivity circadian rhythm. The investigation was motivated by the differences reported previously for the circadian rhythms of both obese and elderly humans (and other animals), and those of healthy, young or mature individuals. Three groups of rats were formed: a young control group which was fed a standard chow for rodents; a young obesity-induced group which was fed a high-fat diet for four months; and an elderly control group with rats aged 2.5 years that was fed a standard chow for rodents. Activity/inactivity data were registered through actimetry using infrared actimeter systems in each cage to detect activity. Data were logged on a computer and chronobiological analysis were performed. The results showed diurnal activity (sleep time), nocturnal activity (awake time), amplitude, acrophase, and interdaily stability to be similar between the young obesity-induced group and the elderly control group, but different in the young control group. We have concluded that obesity leads to a chronodisruption status in the body similar to the circadian rhythm degradation observed in the elderly.

  15. Experimental Evidence Shows the Importance of Behavioural Plasticity and Body Size under Competition in Waterfowl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong; Prins, Herbert H. T.; Versluijs, Martijn; Wessels, Rick; Cao, Lei; de Boer, Willem Frederik

    2016-01-01

    When differently sized species feed on the same resources, interference competition may occur, which may negatively affect their food intake rate. It is expected that competition between species also alters behaviour and feeding patch selection. To assess these changes in behaviour and patch selection, we applied an experimental approach using captive birds of three differently sized Anatidae species: wigeon (Anas penelope) (~600 g), swan goose (Anser cygnoides) (~2700 g) and bean goose (Anser fabalis) (~3200 g). We quantified the functional response for each species and then recorded their behaviour and patch selection with and without potential competitors, using different species combinations. Our results showed that all three species acquired the highest nitrogen intake at relatively tall swards (6, 9 cm) when foraging in single species flocks in the functional response experiment. Goose species were offered foraging patches differing in sward height with and without competitors, and we tested for the effect of competition on foraging behaviour. The mean percentage of time spent feeding and being vigilant did not change under competition for all species. However, all species utilized strategies that increased their peck rate on patches across different sward heights, resulting in the same instantaneous and nitrogen intake rate. Our results suggest that variation in peck rate over different swards height permits Anatidae herbivores to compensate for the loss of intake under competition, illustrating the importance of behavioural plasticity in heterogeneous environments when competing with other species for resources. PMID:27727315

  16. Environmental justice research shows the importance of social feedbacks in ecosystem service trade-offs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil M. Dawson

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we shine a spotlight on approaches to research ecosystem service trade-offs and critically assess their representation of relevant social dynamics. Although studies linking ecosystem services and human well-being have provided theoretical insights into social and ecological trade-offs, we argue that ecosystem services research has paid insufficient attention to "social feedbacks," people's cognitive and behavioral responses to change. We demonstrate that augmenting ecosystem services research with environmental justice approaches (exploring perceptions of the distribution of costs and benefits, decision making procedures, and recognition of different values and identities can more effectively capture important responses to ecosystem governance. Spatial analysis of land use change, mixed-method assessment of multidimensional well-being, and qualitative environmental justice research were applied in three villages adjacent to Nam Et-Phou Louey National Protected Area in northern Laos. Spatial analysis showed that, from 2006 to 2015, forest clearance for cultivation remained stable within the protected area. Well-being assessment revealed the local population benefited from rapidly increasing incomes, asset ownership, and reduced poverty during that time. In combination, spatial and well-being analyses paint a picture of limited trade-offs, despite growing incentives to exploit protected land and resources through cash crops and high-value forest products. In contrast, results from environmental justice research revealed profound trade-offs between conservation and local practices, and highlight governance deficiencies relating to procedure and recognition. Consequently, formal protected area rules were perceived to be illegitimate by many and actively undermined, for example through negotiated access with alternative authorities. We conclude that although well-being research provides an essential foundation to understand diverse

  17. Alcohol-Preferring Rats Show Goal Oriented Behaviour to Food Incentives but Are Neither Sign-Trackers Nor Impulsive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña-Oliver, Yolanda; Giuliano, Chiara; Economidou, Daina; Goodlett, Charles R; Robbins, Trevor W; Dalley, Jeffrey W; Everitt, Barry J

    2015-01-01

    Drug addiction is often associated with impulsivity and altered behavioural responses to both primary and conditioned rewards. Here we investigated whether selectively bred alcohol-preferring (P) and alcohol-nonpreferring (NP) rats show differential levels of impulsivity and conditioned behavioural responses to food incentives. P and NP rats were assessed for impulsivity in the 5-choice serial reaction time task (5-CSRTT), a widely used translational task in humans and other animals, as well as Pavlovian conditioned approach to measure sign- and goal-tracking behaviour. Drug-naïve P and NP rats showed similar levels of impulsivity on the 5-CSRTT, assessed by the number of premature, anticipatory responses, even when the waiting interval to respond was increased. However, unlike NP rats, P rats were faster to enter the food magazine and spent more time in this area. In addition, P rats showed higher levels of goal-tracking responses than NP rats, as measured by the number of magazine nose-pokes during the presentation of a food conditioned stimulus. By contrast, NP showed higher levels of sign-tracking behaviour than P rats. Following a 4-week exposure to intermittent alcohol we confirmed that P rats had a marked preference for, and consumed more alcohol than, NP rats, but were not more impulsive when re-tested in the 5-CSRTT. These findings indicate that high alcohol preferring and drinking P rats are neither intrinsically impulsive nor do they exhibit impulsivity after exposure to alcohol. However, P rats do show increased goal-directed behaviour to food incentives and this may be associated with their strong preference for alcohol.

  18. Alcohol-Preferring Rats Show Goal Oriented Behaviour to Food Incentives but Are Neither Sign-Trackers Nor Impulsive.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda Peña-Oliver

    Full Text Available Drug addiction is often associated with impulsivity and altered behavioural responses to both primary and conditioned rewards. Here we investigated whether selectively bred alcohol-preferring (P and alcohol-nonpreferring (NP rats show differential levels of impulsivity and conditioned behavioural responses to food incentives. P and NP rats were assessed for impulsivity in the 5-choice serial reaction time task (5-CSRTT, a widely used translational task in humans and other animals, as well as Pavlovian conditioned approach to measure sign- and goal-tracking behaviour. Drug-naïve P and NP rats showed similar levels of impulsivity on the 5-CSRTT, assessed by the number of premature, anticipatory responses, even when the waiting interval to respond was increased. However, unlike NP rats, P rats were faster to enter the food magazine and spent more time in this area. In addition, P rats showed higher levels of goal-tracking responses than NP rats, as measured by the number of magazine nose-pokes during the presentation of a food conditioned stimulus. By contrast, NP showed higher levels of sign-tracking behaviour than P rats. Following a 4-week exposure to intermittent alcohol we confirmed that P rats had a marked preference for, and consumed more alcohol than, NP rats, but were not more impulsive when re-tested in the 5-CSRTT. These findings indicate that high alcohol preferring and drinking P rats are neither intrinsically impulsive nor do they exhibit impulsivity after exposure to alcohol. However, P rats do show increased goal-directed behaviour to food incentives and this may be associated with their strong preference for alcohol.

  19. Show Me the Money: Importance of Crowdfunding Factors on Backers’ Decisions to Financially Support Kickstarter Campaigns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Colistra

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Through the use of an online survey and supporting interviews of funders, this study explores which factors are most influential in people’s decisions to financially back Kickstarter projects. Findings suggest that Kickstarter has several distinct benefits for those who support its projects and offers them an experience that traditional production channels cannot. The results also indicate that backers typically feel involved in the process of creating the projects they support, and they are willing to take risks to see projects that are important to them come to fruition. This research helps to improve our understanding of the attitudes that drive Kickstarter funding, and it helps project creators know what aspects of their campaigns prospective supporters find most important.

  20. Importance Rat Liver Morphology and Vasculature in Surgical Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vdoviaková, Katarína; Vdoviaková, Katarína; Petrovová, Eva; Krešáková, Lenka; Maloveská, Marcela; Teleky, Jana; Jenčová, Janka; Živčák, Jozef; Jenča, Andrej

    2016-12-02

    BACKGROUND The laboratory rat is one of the most popular experimental models for the experimental surgery of the liver. The objective of this study was to investigate the morphometric parameters, physiological data, differences in configuration of liver lobes, biliary system, and vasculature (arteries, veins, and lymphatic vessels) of the liver in laboratory rats. In addition, this study supports the anatomic literature and identified similarities and differences with human and other mammals. MATERIAL AND METHODS Forty laboratory rats were dissected to prepare corrosion casts of vascular system specimens (n=20), determine the lymph vessels and lymph nodes (n=10), and for macroscopic anatomical dissection (n=10) of the rat liver. The results are listed in percentages. The anatomical nomenclature of the liver morphology, its arteries, veins, lymph nodes, and lymphatic vessels are in accordance with Nomina Anatomica Veterinaria. RESULTS We found many variations in origin, direction, and division of the arterial, venous, and lymphatic systems in rat livers, and found differences in morphometric parameters compared to results reported by other authors. The portal vein was formed by 4 tributaries in 23%, by 3 branches in 64%, and by 2 tributaries in 13%. The liver lymph was drained to the 2 different lymph nodes. The nomenclature and morphological characteristics of the rat liver vary among authors. CONCLUSIONS Our results may be useful for the planing of experimental surgery and for cooperation with other investigation methods to help fight liver diseases in human populations.

  1. Metachronous metastasis- and survival-analysis show prognostic importance of lymphadenectomy for colon carcinomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laubert Tilman

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lymphadenectomy is performed to assess patient prognosis and to prevent metastasizing. Recently, it was questioned whether lymph node metastases were capable of metastasizing and therefore, if lymphadenectomy was still adequate. We evaluated whether the nodal status impacts on the occurrence of distant metastases by analyzing a highly selected cohort of colon cancer patients. Methods 1,395 patients underwent surgery exclusively for colon cancer at the University of Lübeck between 01/1993 and 12/2008. The following exclusion criteria were applied: synchronous metastasis, R1-resection, prior/synchronous second carcinoma, age Results Five-year survival rates for TM + and TM- were 21% and 73%, respectively (p Conclusions Besides a higher T-category, a positive N-stage independently implies a higher probability to develop distant metastases and correlates with poor survival. Our data thus show a prognostic relevance of lymphadenectomy which should therefore be retained until conclusive studies suggest the unimportance of lmyphadenectomy.

  2. Variance decomposition shows the importance of human-climate feedbacks in the Earth system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvin, K. V.; Bond-Lamberty, B. P.; Jones, A. D.; Shi, X.; Di Vittorio, A. V.; Thornton, P. E.

    2017-12-01

    The human and Earth systems are intricately linked: climate influences agricultural production, renewable energy potential, and water availability, for example, while anthropogenic emissions from industry and land use change alter temperature and precipitation. Such feedbacks have the potential to significantly alter future climate change. Current climate change projections contain significant uncertainties, however, and because Earth System Models do not generally include dynamic human (demography, economy, energy, water, land use) components, little is known about how climate feedbacks contribute to that uncertainty. Here we use variance decomposition of a novel coupled human-earth system model to show that the influence of human-climate feedbacks can be as large as 17% of the total variance in the near term for global mean temperature rise, and 11% in the long term for cropland area. The near-term contribution of energy and land use feedbacks to the climate on global mean temperature rise is as large as that from model internal variability, a factor typically considered in modeling studies. Conversely, the contribution of climate feedbacks to cropland extent, while non-negligible, is less than that from socioeconomics, policy, or model. Previous assessments have largely excluded these feedbacks, with the climate community focusing on uncertainty due to internal variability, scenario, and model and the integrated assessment community focusing on uncertainty due to socioeconomics, technology, policy, and model. Our results set the stage for a new generation of models and hypothesis testing to determine when and how bidirectional feedbacks between human and Earth systems should be considered in future assessments of climate change.

  3. MicroRNAs show mutually exclusive expression patterns in the brain of adult male rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Line; Klausen, Mikkel; Helboe, Lone

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The brain is a major site of microRNA (miRNA) gene expression, but the spatial expression patterns of miRNAs within the brain have not yet been fully covered. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have characterized the regional expression profiles of miRNAs in five distinct regions...... of the adult rat brain: amygdala, cerebellum, hippocampus, hypothalamus and substantia nigra. Microarray profiling uncovered 48 miRNAs displaying more than three-fold enrichment between two or more brain regions. Notably, we found reciprocal expression profiles for a subset of the miRNAs predominantly found...... (> ten times) in either the cerebellum (miR-206 and miR-497) or the forebrain regions (miR-132, miR-212, miR-221 and miR-222). CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The results indicate that some miRNAs could be important for area-specific functions in the brain. Our data, combined with previous studies in mice...

  4. Female Sprague Dawley Rats Show Impaired Spatial Memory in the 8-Arm Radial Maze under Dim Blue and Red Light

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Pirchl

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Light intensity and wavelength strongly influence mood and cognition in humans and rodent animal models. The aim of the present study was to explore if dim white (7.6–17.7 lux , blue (1.3–2.3 lux, and red light (0.8–1.4 lux affect spatial memory of male and female Sprague Dawley rats in the 8-arm radial maze. Our data show that spatial memory significantly improved within 5 daily learning sessions (each 5 trials under dim white light, which was not different between male and female rats. However, dim blue and red light significantly reduced spatial learning of female rats in the 8-arm radial maze in the last training session (session 5. In conclusion, we suggest that female Sprague Dawley rats show reduced learning under blue and red light.

  5. Importance of associative learning processes for one-trial behavioral sensitization of preweanling rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougall, Sanders A; Pothier, Alexandria G; Der-Ghazarian, Taleen; Herbert, Matthew S; Kozanian, Olga O; Castellanos, Kevin A; Flores, Ana T

    2011-10-01

    During adulthood, associative learning is necessary for the expression of one-trial behavioral sensitization; however, it is uncertain whether the same associative processes are operative during the preweanling period. Two strategies were used to assess the importance of associative learning for one-trial behavioral sensitization of preweanling rats. In the initial experiments, we varied both the sequence and time interval between presentation of the conditioned stimulus (CS, novel environment) and unconditioned stimulus (US, cocaine). In the final experiment, we determined whether electroconvulsive shock-induced retrograde amnesia would disrupt one-trial behavioral sensitization. Results showed that robust-sensitized responding was apparent regardless of the sequence in which cocaine and the novel environment (the presumptive CS) were presented. Varying the time between CS and US presentation (0, 3, or 6 h) was also without effect. Results from experiment 3 showed that single or multiple electroconvulsive shock treatments did not alter the expression of the sensitized response. Therefore, these data indicated that one-trial behavioral sensitization of preweanling rats was exclusively mediated by nonassociative mechanisms and that associative processes did not modulate sensitized responding. These findings are in contrast to what is observed during adulthood, as adult rats exhibit one-trial behavioral sensitization only when associative processes are operative.

  6. Rats Housed on Corncob Bedding Show Less Slow-Wave Sleep

    OpenAIRE

    Leys, Laura J; McGaraughty, Steve; Radek, Richard J

    2012-01-01

    Despite the reported advantages of corncob bedding, questions have emerged about how comfortable animals find this type of bedding as a resting surface. In this study, encephalography (EEG) was used to compare the effects of corncob and aspen-chip bedding on rat slow-wave sleep (SWS). According to a facility-wide initiative, rats that were weaned on aspen-chip bedding were switched to corncob bedding in home cages and EEG recording chambers. Spontaneous EEG recordings obtained for 5 wk after ...

  7. Rats with congenital learned helplessness respond less to sucrose but show no deficits in activity or learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollmayr, Barbara; Bachteler, Daniel; Vengeliene, Valentina; Gass, Peter; Spanagel, Rainer; Henn, Fritz

    2004-04-02

    Inbred rat strains for congenital learned helplessness (cLH) and for congenital resistance to learned helplessness (cNLH) were investigated as a model to study genetic predisposition to major depression. Congenitally helpless rats respond less to sucrose under a progressive ratio schedule. This is not confounded by locomotor hypoactivity: in contrast, cLH rats show a slight hyperactivity during the first 5 min of an open field test. cLH rats acquire operant responding to sucrose as readily as cNLH rats and exhibit normal memory acquisition and retrieval in the Morris water maze, thus ruling out general learning deficits as the cause of the decreased response to sucrose. Reduced total responses and reduced breaking points for sucrose in the cLH strain argue for anhedonia, which is an analogue to loss of pleasure essential for the diagnosis of major depressive episodes, and thus confirm the validity of congenitally learned helpless rats as a model of major depression.

  8. Female Sprague Dawley Rats Show Impaired Spatial Memory in the 8-Arm Radial Maze under Dim Blue and Red Light

    OpenAIRE

    Pirchl, Michael; Kemmler, Georg; Humpel, Christian

    2010-01-01

    Light intensity and wavelength strongly influence mood and cognition in humans and rodent animal models. The aim of the present study was to explore if dim white (7.6–17.7 lux) , blue (1.3–2.3 lux), and red light (0.8–1.4 lux) affect spatial memory of male and female Sprague Dawley rats in the 8-arm radial maze. Our data show that spatial memory significantly improved within 5 daily learning sessions (each 5 trials) under dim white light, which was not different between male and female rats. ...

  9. Bestrophin is important for the rhythmic but not the tonic contraction in rat mesenteric small arteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broegger, Torbjoern; Jacobsen, Jens Christian Brings; Dam, Vibeke Secher

    2011-01-01

    . Thus, vasomotion properties were consistent with those previously characterized for rat mesenteric small arteries. Data from our mathematical model are consistent with the experimental results. Conclusion This study demonstrates the importance of bestrophins for synchronization of SMCs and strongly...

  10. The BACHD Rat Model of Huntington Disease Shows Specific Deficits in a Test Battery of Motor Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manfré, Giuseppe; Clemensson, Erik K H; Kyriakou, Elisavet I; Clemensson, Laura E; van der Harst, Johanneke E; Homberg, Judith R; Nguyen, Huu Phuc

    2017-01-01

    Rationale : Huntington disease (HD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by motor, cognitive and neuropsychiatric symptoms. HD is usually diagnosed by the appearance of motor deficits, resulting in skilled hand use disruption, gait abnormality, muscle wasting and choreatic movements. The BACHD transgenic rat model for HD represents a well-established transgenic rodent model of HD, offering the prospect of an in-depth characterization of the motor phenotype. Objective : The present study aims to characterize different aspects of motor function in BACHD rats, combining classical paradigms with novel high-throughput behavioral phenotyping. Methods : Wild-type (WT) and transgenic animals were tested longitudinally from 2 to 12 months of age. To measure fine motor control, rats were challenged with the pasta handling test and the pellet reaching test. To evaluate gross motor function, animals were assessed by using the holding bar and the grip strength tests. Spontaneous locomotor activity and circadian rhythmicity were assessed in an automated home-cage environment, namely the PhenoTyper. We then integrated existing classical methodologies to test motor function with automated home-cage assessment of motor performance. Results : BACHD rats showed strong impairment in muscle endurance at 2 months of age. Altered circadian rhythmicity and locomotor activity were observed in transgenic animals. On the other hand, reaching behavior, forepaw dexterity and muscle strength were unaffected. Conclusions : The BACHD rat model exhibits certain features of HD patients, like muscle weakness and changes in circadian behavior. We have observed modest but clear-cut deficits in distinct motor phenotypes, thus confirming the validity of this transgenic rat model for treatment and drug discovery purposes.

  11. Transgenic rats overexpressing the human MrgX3 gene show cataracts and an abnormal skin phenotype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaisho, Yoshihiko; Watanabe, Takuya; Nakata, Mitsugu; Yano, Takashi; Yasuhara, Yoshitaka; Shimakawa, Kozo; Mori, Ikuo; Sakura, Yasufumi; Terao, Yasuko; Matsui, Hideki; Taketomi, Shigehisa

    2005-01-01

    The human MrgX3 gene, belonging to the mrgs/SNSRs (mass related genes/sensory neuron specific receptors) family, was overexpressed in transgenic rats using the actin promoter. Two animal lines showed cataracts with liquification/degeneration and swelling of the lens fiber cells. The transient epidermal desquamation was observed in line with higher gene expression. Histopathology of the transgenic rats showed acanthosis and focal parakeratosis. In the epidermis, there was an increase in cellular keratin 14, keratin 10, and loricrin, as well as PGP 9.5 in innervating nerve fibers. These phenotypes accompanied an increase in the number of proliferating cells. These results suggest that overexpression of the human MrgX3 gene causes a disturbance of the normal cell-differentiation process

  12. Importance of Pulmonary Vein Preferential Fibrosis for Atrial Fibrillation Promotion in Hypertensive Rat Hearts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasaki, Yu-Ki; Yamashita, Takeshi; Sekiguchi, Akiko; Hayami, Noriyuki; Shimizu, Wataru

    2016-06-01

    Hypertension is one of the independent risk factors for atrial fibrillation (AF). Pulmonary veins (PVs) play an important role as the substrate for AF and triggers of AF. The purpose of this study was to determine the structural remodelling of the PVs and its effect on promoting AF in hypertensive (HT) rat hearts. Eighteen-week-old Dahl salt-sensitive HT rats and their controls were used for histological and immunohistological analyses, and electrophysiological studies were performed in Langendorff perfused hearts. Masson-trichrome staining revealed that hypertension significantly increased the fibrosis in the PVs, particularly in subendocardial and perivascular areas, compared with that in control rats, however, at this early stage of hypertension, left atrial fibrosis was not prominent. In the HT rat hearts with PVs, electrical stimulation significantly increased the number of repetitive atrial firing and atrial tachycardia inducibility, which significantly diminished after the excision of the PVs. An immunofluorescent analysis revealed that HT rats had PV specific endocardial smooth muscle actin (αSMA)-positive cells with remarkable proliferation of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-C and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), which was lacking in the left atrial structures of the control and the HT rats. Pretreatment with imatinib, a PDGF receptor activity blocker, in HT rats reduced the αSMA-positive cell proliferation and fibrosis in the PVs and also induced a significant reduction in VEGF expression. Also, the drug pretreatment effectively prevented repetitive atrial firing promotion without affecting the blood pressure. PV preferential fibrosis might play an important role in the arrhythmogenic substrate of AF in HT rat hearts. Copyright © 2016 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Site-directed mutagenesis and molecular modelling studies show the role of Asp82 and cysteines in rat acylase 1, a member of the M20 family

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herga, Sameh; Brutus, Alexandre; Vitale, Rosa Maria; Miche, Helene; Perrier, Josette; Puigserver, Antoine; Scaloni, Andrea; Giardina, Thierry

    2005-01-01

    Acylase 1 from rat kidney catalyzes the hydrolysis of acyl-amino acids. Sequence alignment has shown that this enzyme belongs to the metalloprotein family M20. Site-directed mutagenesis experiments led to the identification of one functionally important amino acid residue located near one of the zinc coordinating residues, which play a critical role in the enzymatic activity. The D82N- and D82E-substituted forms showed no significant activity and very low activity, respectively, along with a loss of zinc coordination. Molecular modelling investigations indicated a putative role of D82 in ensuring a proper protonation of catalytic histidine. In addition, none of the five cysteine residues present in the rat kidney acylase 1 sequence seemed involved in the catalytic process: the loss of activity induced by the C294A substitution was probably due to a conformational change in the 3D structure

  14. Serotonin Transporter Knockout Rats Show Improved Strategy Set-Shifting and Reduced Latent Inhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonkes, Lourens J. P.; van de Vondervoort, Ilse I. G. M.; de Leeuw, Mark J. C.; Wijlaars, Linda P.; Maes, Joseph H. R.; Homberg, Judith R.

    2012-01-01

    Behavioral flexibility is a cognitive process depending on prefrontal areas allowing adaptive responses to environmental changes. Serotonin transporter knockout (5-HTT[superscript -/-]) rodents show improved reversal learning in addition to orbitofrontal cortex changes. Another form of behavioral flexibility, extradimensional strategy set-shifting…

  15. Amine oxidases as important agents of pathological processes of rhabdomyolysis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudkova, O O; Latyshko, N V; Shandrenko, S G

    2016-01-01

    In this study we have tested an idea on the important role of amine oxidases (semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase, diamine oxidase, polyamine oxidase) as an additional source of oxidative/carbonyl stress under glycerol-induced rhabdomyolysis, since the enhanced formation of reactive oxygen species and reactive carbonyl species in a variety of tissues is linked to various diseases. In our experiments we used the sensitive fluorescent method devised for estimation of amine oxidases activity in the rat kidney and thymus as targeted organs under rhabdomyolysis. We have found in vivo the multiple rises in activity of semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase, diamine oxidase, polyamine oxidase (2-4.5 times) in the corresponding cell fractions, whole cells or their lysates at the 3-6th day after glycerol injection. Aberrant antioxidant activities depended on rhabdomyolysis stage and had organ specificity. Additional treatment of animals with metal chelator ‘Unithiol’ adjusted only the activity of antioxidant enzymes but not amine oxidases in both organs. Furthermore the in vitro experiment showed that Fenton reaction (hydrogen peroxide in the presence of iron) products alone had no effect on semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase activity in rat liver cell fraction whereas supplementation with methylglyoxal resulted in its significant 2.5-fold enhancement. Combined action of the both agents had additive effect on semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase activity. We can assume that biogenic amine and polyamine catabolism by amine oxidases is upregulated by oxidative and carbonyl stress factors directly under rhabdomyolysis progression, and the increase in catabolic products concentration contributes to tissue damage in glycerol-induced acute renal failure and apoptosis stimulation in thymus.

  16. RNA–Stable-Isotope Probing Shows Utilization of Carbon from Inulin by Specific Bacterial Populations in the Rat Large Bowel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawley, Blair; Munro, Karen; Sims, Ian M.; Lee, Julian; Butts, Christine A.; Roy, Nicole

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge of the trophisms that underpin bowel microbiota composition is required in order to understand its complex phylogeny and function. Stable-isotope (13C)-labeled inulin was added to the diet of rats on a single occasion in order to detect utilization of inulin-derived substrates by particular members of the cecal microbiota. Cecal digesta from Fibruline-inulin-fed rats was collected prior to (0 h) and at 6, 12, 18 and 24 h following provision of the [13C]inulin diet. RNA was extracted from these cecal specimens and fractionated in isopycnic buoyant density gradients in order to detect 13C-labeled nucleic acid originating in bacterial cells that had metabolized the labeled dietary constituent. RNA extracted from specimens collected after provision of the labeled diet was more dense than 0-h RNA. Sequencing of 16S rRNA genes amplified from cDNA obtained from these fractions showed that Bacteroides uniformis, Blautia glucerasea, Clostridium indolis, and Bifidobacterium animalis were the main users of the 13C-labeled substrate. Culture-based studies of strains of these bacterial species enabled trophisms associated with inulin and its hydrolysis products to be identified. B. uniformis utilized Fibruline-inulin for growth, whereas the other species used fructo-oligosaccharide and monosaccharides. Thus, RNA–stable-isotope probing (RNA-SIP) provided new information about the use of carbon from inulin in microbiota metabolism. PMID:24487527

  17. Intestinal tract is an important organ for lowering serum uric acid in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Yu; Yin, Hua; Gao, Zhiyi; Li, Yue; Gao, Tao; Duan, Jinlian; Yang, Rong; Dong, Xianxiang; Zhang, Lumei; Duan, Weigang

    2017-01-01

    The kidney was recognized as a dominant organ for uric acid excretion. The main aim of the study demonstrated intestinal tract was an even more important organ for serum uric acid (SUA) lowering. Sprague-Dawley rats were treated normally or with antibiotics, uric acid, adenine, or inosine of the same molar dose orally or intraperitoneally for 5 days. Rat's intestinal tract was equally divided into 20 segments except the cecum. Uric acid in serum and intestinal segment juice was assayed. Total RNA in the initial intestinal tract and at the end ileum was extracted and sequenced. Protein expression of xanthine dehydrogenase (XDH) and urate oxidase (UOX) was tested by Western blot analysis. The effect of oral UOX in lowering SUA was investigated in model rats treated with adenine and an inhibitor of uric oxidase for 5 days. SUA in the normal rats was 20.93±6.98 μg/ml, and total uric acid in the intestinal juice was 308.27±16.37 μg, which is two times more than the total SUA. The uric acid was very low in stomach juice, and attained maximum in the juice of the first segment (duodenum) and then declined all the way till the intestinal end. The level of uric acid in the initial intestinal tissue was very high, where XDH and most of the proteins associated with bicarbonate secretion were up-regulated. In addition, SUA was decreased by oral UOX in model rats. The results suggested that intestinal juice was an important pool for uric acid, and intestinal tract was an important organ for SUA lowering. The uric acid distribution was associated with uric acid synthesis and secretion in the upper intestinal tract, and reclamation in the lower.

  18. Novel AAV-based rat model of forebrain synucleinopathy shows extensive pathologies and progressive loss of cholinergic interneurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Aldrin-Kirk

    Full Text Available Synucleinopathies, characterized by intracellular aggregation of α-synuclein protein, share a number of features in pathology and disease progression. However, the vulnerable cell population differs significantly between the disorders, despite being caused by the same protein. While the vulnerability of dopamine cells in the substantia nigra to α-synuclein over-expression, and its link to Parkinson's disease, is well studied, animal models recapitulating the cortical degeneration in dementia with Lewy-bodies (DLB are much less mature. The aim of this study was to develop a first rat model of widespread progressive synucleinopathy throughout the forebrain using adeno-associated viral (AAV vector mediated gene delivery. Through bilateral injection of an AAV6 vector expressing human wild-type α-synuclein into the forebrain of neonatal rats, we were able to achieve widespread, robust α-synuclein expression with preferential expression in the frontal cortex. These animals displayed a progressive emergence of hyper-locomotion and dysregulated response to the dopaminergic agonist apomorphine. The animals receiving the α-synuclein vector displayed significant α-synuclein pathology including intra-cellular inclusion bodies, axonal pathology and elevated levels of phosphorylated α-synuclein, accompanied by significant loss of cortical neurons and a progressive reduction in both cortical and striatal ChAT positive interneurons. Furthermore, we found evidence of α-synuclein sequestered by IBA-1 positive microglia, which was coupled with a distinct change in morphology. In areas of most prominent pathology, the total α-synuclein levels were increased to, on average, two-fold, which is similar to the levels observed in patients with SNCA gene triplication, associated with cortical Lewy body pathology. This study provides a novel rat model of progressive cortical synucleinopathy, showing for the first time that cholinergic interneurons are vulnerable

  19. Intestinal tract is an important organ for lowering serum uric acid in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zhiyi; Li, Yue; Gao, Tao; Duan, Jinlian; Yang, Rong; Dong, Xianxiang; Zhang, Lumei

    2017-01-01

    The kidney was recognized as a dominant organ for uric acid excretion. The main aim of the study demonstrated intestinal tract was an even more important organ for serum uric acid (SUA) lowering. Sprague-Dawley rats were treated normally or with antibiotics, uric acid, adenine, or inosine of the same molar dose orally or intraperitoneally for 5 days. Rat’s intestinal tract was equally divided into 20 segments except the cecum. Uric acid in serum and intestinal segment juice was assayed. Total RNA in the initial intestinal tract and at the end ileum was extracted and sequenced. Protein expression of xanthine dehydrogenase (XDH) and urate oxidase (UOX) was tested by Western blot analysis. The effect of oral UOX in lowering SUA was investigated in model rats treated with adenine and an inhibitor of uric oxidase for 5 days. SUA in the normal rats was 20.93±6.98 μg/ml, and total uric acid in the intestinal juice was 308.27±16.37 μg, which is two times more than the total SUA. The uric acid was very low in stomach juice, and attained maximum in the juice of the first segment (duodenum) and then declined all the way till the intestinal end. The level of uric acid in the initial intestinal tissue was very high, where XDH and most of the proteins associated with bicarbonate secretion were up-regulated. In addition, SUA was decreased by oral UOX in model rats. The results suggested that intestinal juice was an important pool for uric acid, and intestinal tract was an important organ for SUA lowering. The uric acid distribution was associated with uric acid synthesis and secretion in the upper intestinal tract, and reclamation in the lower. PMID:29267361

  20. Is abdominal wall contraction important for normal voiding in the female rat?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boone Timothy B

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Normal voiding behavior in urethane-anesthetized rats includes contraction of the abdominal wall striated muscle, similar to the visceromotor response (VMR to noxious bladder distension. Normal rat voiding requires pulsatile release of urine from a pressurized bladder. The abdominal wall contraction accompanying urine flow may provide a necessary pressure increment for normal efficient pulsatile voiding. This study aimed to evaluate the occurrence and necessity of the voiding-associated abdominal wall activity in urethane-anesthetized female rats Methods A free-voiding model was designed to allow assessment of abdominal wall activity during voiding resulting from physiologic bladder filling, in the absence of bladder or urethral instrumentation. Physiologic diuresis was promoted by rapid intravascular hydration. Intercontraction interval (ICI, voided volumes and EMG activity of the rectus abdominis were quantified. The contribution of abdominal wall contraction to voiding was eliminated in a second group of rats by injecting botulinum-A (BTX, 5 U into each rectus abdominis to induce local paralysis. Uroflow parameters were compared between intact free-voiding and BTX-prepared animals. Results Abdominal wall response is present in free voiding. BTX preparation eliminated the voiding-associated EMG activity. Average per-void volume decreased from 1.8 ml to 1.1 ml (p Conclusion The voiding-associated abdominal wall response is a necessary component of normal voiding in urethane anesthetized female rats. As the proximal urethra may be the origin of the afferent signaling which results in the abdominal wall response, the importance of the bladder pressure increment due to this response may be in maintaining a normal duration intermittent pulsatile high frequency oscillatory (IPHFO/flow phase and thus efficient voiding. We propose the term Voiding-associated Abdominal Response (VAR for the physiologic voiding-associated EMG

  1. Year-Round Carbon Fluxes in a Subarctic Landscape Show the Importance of Lake Emissions According to Season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jammet, M.; Crill, P. M.; Friborg, T.

    2014-12-01

    Lakes are increasingly recognized as important components of the global terrestrial carbon budget. Northern lakes are especially of interest due to a high density of open-water ecosystems in Northern latitudes and a potential increase in lake areal extent where permafrost is thawing. A better understanding of lake-atmosphere interactions requires long-term and direct measurement of surface fluxes. This is rarely achieved in Northern landscapes where seasonally ice-covered lakes are mostly studied during the open water season, and measurement methods do not always allow an integration of all gas transport pathways to the atmosphere. We present here ecosystem-scale data from Stordalen (68°20'N, 19°03'E), a thawing permafrost peatland in subarctic Sweden, where an eddy covariance system is used in an innovative way to quantify the importance of methane (CH4) emissions from a shallow lake. After more than a year of surface flux monitoring, it is found that spring is a crucial season for lake-atmosphere CH4 exchange. Despite its shallow depth, more than half of annual CH4 emissions from the lake were recorded at ice-out, suggesting significant winter CH4 production in lake sediments. Lake water dynamics seemed to drive the observed spring release rates. In contrast, summer methane emissions in Stordalen were dominated by the minerotrophic fens. This underlines the importance of considering the full annual budget when assessing the carbon source strength of seasonally ice-covered lakes. Carbon dioxide fluxes were also monitored and will be briefly discussed, as well as the significance of northern lakes spring burst for global atmospheric CH4 budget.

  2. A network model shows the importance of coupled processes in the microbial N cycle in the Cape Fear River Estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, David E.; Lisa, Jessica A.; Song, Bongkeun; Tobias, Craig R.; Borrett, Stuart R.

    2012-06-01

    Estuaries serve important ecological and economic functions including habitat provision and the removal of nutrients. Eutrophication can overwhelm the nutrient removal capacity of estuaries and poses a widely recognized threat to the health and function of these ecosystems. Denitrification and anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) are microbial processes responsible for the removal of fixed nitrogen and diminish the effects of eutrophication. Both of these microbial removal processes can be influenced by direct inputs of dissolved inorganic nitrogen substrates or supported by microbial interactions with other nitrogen transforming pathways such as nitrification and dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA). The coupling of nitrogen removal pathways to other transformation pathways facilitates the removal of some forms of inorganic nitrogen; however, differentiating between direct and coupled nitrogen removal is difficult. Network modeling provides a tool to examine interactions among microbial nitrogen cycling processes and to determine the within-system history of nitrogen involved in denitrification and anammox. To examine the coupling of nitrogen cycling processes, we built a nitrogen budget mass balance network model in two adjacent 1 cm3 sections of bottom water and sediment in the oligohaline portion of the Cape Fear River Estuary, NC, USA. Pathway, flow, and environ ecological network analyses were conducted to characterize the organization of nitrogen flow in the estuary and to estimate the coupling of nitrification to denitrification and of nitrification and DNRA to anammox. Centrality analysis indicated NH4+ is the most important form of nitrogen involved in removal processes. The model analysis further suggested that direct denitrification and coupled nitrification-denitrification had similar contributions to nitrogen removal while direct anammox was dominant to coupled forms of anammox. Finally, results also indicated that partial

  3. Discovery of LPMO activity on hemicelluloses shows the importance of oxidative processes in plant cell wall degradation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agger, Jane W.; Isaksen, Trine; Várnai, Anikó

    2014-01-01

    of LPMOs, and considering the complexity and copolymeric nature of the plant cell wall, it has been speculated that some LPMOs may act on other substrates, in particular the hemicelluloses that tether to cellulose microfibrils. We demonstrate that an LPMO from Neurospora crassa, NcLPMO9C, indeed degrades...... walls. Products generated by NcLPMO9C were analyzed using high performance anion exchange chromatography and multidimensional mass spectrometry. We show that NcLPMO9C generates oxidized products from a variety of substrates and that its product profile differs from those of hydrolytic enzymes acting...... on the same substrates. The enzyme particularly acts on the glucose backbone of xyloglucan, accepting various substitutions (xylose, galactose) in almost all positions. Because the attachment of xyloglucan to cellulose hampers depolymerization of the latter, it is possible that the beneficial effect...

  4. Neurons in the inferior colliculus of the rat show stimulus-specific adaptation for frequency, but not for intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duque, Daniel; Wang, Xin; Nieto-Diego, Javier; Krumbholz, Katrin; Malmierca, Manuel S.

    2016-01-01

    Electrophysiological and psychophysical responses to a low-intensity probe sound tend to be suppressed by a preceding high-intensity adaptor sound. Nevertheless, rare low-intensity deviant sounds presented among frequent high-intensity standard sounds in an intensity oddball paradigm can elicit an electroencephalographic mismatch negativity (MMN) response. This has been taken to suggest that the MMN is a correlate of true change or “deviance” detection. A key question is where in the ascending auditory pathway true deviance sensitivity first emerges. Here, we addressed this question by measuring low-intensity deviant responses from single units in the inferior colliculus (IC) of anesthetized rats. If the IC exhibits true deviance sensitivity to intensity, IC neurons should show enhanced responses to low-intensity deviant sounds presented among high-intensity standards. Contrary to this prediction, deviant responses were only enhanced when the standards and deviants differed in frequency. The results could be explained with a model assuming that IC neurons integrate over multiple frequency-tuned channels and that adaptation occurs within each channel independently. We used an adaptation paradigm with multiple repeated adaptors to measure the tuning widths of these adaption channels in relation to the neurons’ overall tuning widths. PMID:27066835

  5. The importance of dietary control in the development of a peanut allergy model in Brown Norway rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonge, J.D. de; Knippels, L.M.J.; Ezendam, J.; Odink, J.; Penninks, A.H.; Loveren, H. van

    2007-01-01

    This report describes the further development of a peanut allergy model in Brown Norway (BN) rats and in particular the importance of allergen-free breeding of the laboratory animals for the allergen to be used. For this purpose BN rats were bred for 3 generations on soy- and peanut-free feed since

  6. Highlighting the importance of transitional ventilation regimes in the management of Mediterranean show caves (Nerja-Pintada system, southern Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liñán, C; Del Rosal, Y; Carrasco, F; Vadillo, I; Benavente, J; Ojeda, L

    2018-08-01

    This study shows the utilization of the air CO 2 exhaled by a very high number of visitors in the Nerja Cave as both a tracer and an additional tool to precisely evaluate the air circulation through the entire karst system, which includes non-touristic passages, originally free of anthropogenic CO 2 . The analysis of the temporal - spatial evolution of the CO 2 content and other monitoring data measured from January 2015 to December 2016 in the Nerja-Pintada system, including air microbiological controls, has allowed us to define a new general ventilation model, of great interest for the conservation of the subterranean environment. During the annual cycle four different ventilation regimes and two ventilation modes (UAF-mode and DAF-mode) exist which determine the significance of the anthropogenic impact within the caves. During the winter regime, the strong ventilation regime and the airflow directions from the lowest to the highest entrance (UAF-mode) contribute to the rapid elimination of anthropogenic CO 2 , and this affects the whole karstic system. During the summer regime the DAF-mode ventilation (with airflows from the highest to the lowest entrances) is activated. Although the number of visitors is maximum and the natural ventilation of the karstic system is the lowest of the annual cycle, the anthropogenic impact only affects the Tourist Galleries. The transitional ventilation regimes -spring and autumn- are the most complex of the annual cycle, with changing air-flow directions (from UAF-mode to DAF-mode and vice versa) at diurnal and poly diurnal scale, which conditions the range of the anthropogenic impact in each sector of the karst system. The activation of the DAF-mode has been observed when the temperature difference between the external and air cave is higher than 5°C. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Image-based multiscale mechanical modeling shows the importance of structural heterogeneity in the human lumbar facet capsular ligament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarei, Vahhab; Liu, Chao J; Claeson, Amy A; Akkin, Taner; Barocas, Victor H

    2017-08-01

    The lumbar facet capsular ligament (FCL) primarily consists of aligned type I collagen fibers that are mainly oriented across the joint. The aim of this study was to characterize and incorporate in-plane local fiber structure into a multiscale finite element model to predict the mechanical response of the FCL during in vitro mechanical tests, accounting for the heterogeneity in different scales. Characterization was accomplished by using entire-domain polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography to measure the fiber structure of cadaveric lumbar FCLs ([Formula: see text]). Our imaging results showed that fibers in the lumbar FCL have a highly heterogeneous distribution and are neither isotropic nor completely aligned. The averaged fiber orientation was [Formula: see text] ([Formula: see text] in the inferior region and [Formula: see text] in the middle and superior regions), with respect to lateral-medial direction (superior-medial to inferior-lateral). These imaging data were used to construct heterogeneous structural models, which were then used to predict experimental gross force-strain behavior and the strain distribution during equibiaxial and strip biaxial tests. For equibiaxial loading, the structural model fit the experimental data well but underestimated the lateral-medial forces by [Formula: see text]16% on average. We also observed pronounced heterogeneity in the strain field, with stretch ratios for different elements along the lateral-medial axis of sample typically ranging from about 0.95 to 1.25 during a 12% strip biaxial stretch in the lateral-medial direction. This work highlights the multiscale structural and mechanical heterogeneity of the lumbar FCL, which is significant both in terms of injury prediction and microstructural constituents' (e.g., neurons) behavior.

  8. 19 CFR 113.75 - Bond conditions for deferral of duty on large yachts imported for sale at United States boat shows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... yachts imported for sale at United States boat shows. 113.75 Section 113.75 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS... Customs Bond Conditions § 113.75 Bond conditions for deferral of duty on large yachts imported for sale at....C. 1484b for a dutiable large yacht imported for sale at a United States boat show must conform to...

  9. 19 CFR Appendix C to Part 113 - Bond for Deferral of Duty on Large Yachts Imported for Sale at United States Boat Shows

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bond for Deferral of Duty on Large Yachts Imported... Appendix C to Part 113—Bond for Deferral of Duty on Large Yachts Imported for Sale at United States Boat Shows Bond for Deferral of Duty on Large Yachts Imported for Sale at United States Boat Shows ____, as...

  10. The BACHD Rat Model of Huntington Disease Shows Signs of Fronto-Striatal Dysfunction in Two Operant Conditioning Tests of Short-Term Memory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Karl Håkan Clemensson

    Full Text Available The BACHD rat is a recently developed transgenic animal model of Huntington disease, a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by extensive loss of striatal neurons. Cognitive impairments are common among patients, and characterization of similar deficits in animal models of the disease is therefore of interest. The present study assessed the BACHD rats' performance in the delayed alternation and the delayed non-matching to position test, two Skinner box-based tests of short-term memory function. The transgenic rats showed impaired performance in both tests, indicating general problems with handling basic aspects of the tests, while short-term memory appeared to be intact. Similar phenotypes have been found in rats with fronto-striatal lesions, suggesting that Huntington disease-related neuropathology might be present in the BACHD rats. Further analyses indicated that the performance deficit in the delayed alternation test might be due to impaired inhibitory control, which has also been implicated in Huntington disease patients. The study ultimately suggests that the BACHD rats might suffer from neuropathology and cognitive impairments reminiscent of those of Huntington disease patients.

  11. The BACHD Rat Model of Huntington Disease Shows Signs of Fronto-Striatal Dysfunction in Two Operant Conditioning Tests of Short-Term Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemensson, Erik Karl Håkan; Clemensson, Laura Emily; Riess, Olaf; Nguyen, Huu Phuc

    2017-01-01

    The BACHD rat is a recently developed transgenic animal model of Huntington disease, a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by extensive loss of striatal neurons. Cognitive impairments are common among patients, and characterization of similar deficits in animal models of the disease is therefore of interest. The present study assessed the BACHD rats' performance in the delayed alternation and the delayed non-matching to position test, two Skinner box-based tests of short-term memory function. The transgenic rats showed impaired performance in both tests, indicating general problems with handling basic aspects of the tests, while short-term memory appeared to be intact. Similar phenotypes have been found in rats with fronto-striatal lesions, suggesting that Huntington disease-related neuropathology might be present in the BACHD rats. Further analyses indicated that the performance deficit in the delayed alternation test might be due to impaired inhibitory control, which has also been implicated in Huntington disease patients. The study ultimately suggests that the BACHD rats might suffer from neuropathology and cognitive impairments reminiscent of those of Huntington disease patients.

  12. A novel rat genomic simple repeat DNA with RNA-homology shows triplex (H-DNA)-like structure and tissue-specific RNA expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dey, Indranil; Rath, Pramod C.

    2005-01-01

    Mammalian genome contains a wide variety of repetitive DNA sequences of relatively unknown function. We report a novel 227 bp simple repeat DNA (3.3 DNA) with a d {(GA) 7 A (AG) 7 } dinucleotide mirror repeat from the rat (Rattus norvegicus) genome. 3.3 DNA showed 75-85% homology with several eukaryotic mRNAs due to (GA/CU) n dinucleotide repeats by nBlast search and a dispersed distribution in the rat genome by Southern blot hybridization with [ 32 P]3.3 DNA. The d {(GA) 7 A (AG) 7 } mirror repeat formed a triplex (H-DNA)-like structure in vitro. Two large RNAs of 9.1 and 7.5 kb were detected by [ 32 P]3.3 DNA in rat brain by Northern blot hybridization indicating expression of such simple sequence repeats at RNA level in vivo. Further, several cDNAs were isolated from a rat cDNA library by [ 32 P]3.3 DNA probe. Three such cDNAs showed tissue-specific RNA expression in rat. pRT 4.1 cDNA showed strong expression of a 2.39 kb RNA in brain and spleen, pRT 5.5 cDNA showed strong expression of a 2.8 kb RNA in brain and a 3.9 kb RNA in lungs, and pRT 11.4 cDNA showed weak expression of a 2.4 kb RNA in lungs. Thus, genomic simple sequence repeats containing d (GA/CT) n dinucleotides are transcriptionally expressed and regulated in rat tissues. Such d (GA/CT) n dinucleotide repeats may form structural elements (e.g., triplex) which may be sites for functional regulation of genomic coding sequences as well as RNAs. This may be a general function of such transcriptionally active simple sequence repeats widely dispersed in mammalian genome

  13. Time course of myosin heavy chain transitions in neonatal rats: importance of innervation and thyroid state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, G. R.; McCue, S. A.; Zeng, M.; Baldwin, K. M.

    1999-01-01

    During the postnatal period, rat limb muscles adapt to weight bearing via the replacement of embryonic (Emb) and neonatal (Neo) myosin heavy chains (MHCs) by the adult isoforms. Our aim was to characterize this transition in terms of the six MHC isoforms expressed in skeletal muscle and to determine the importance of innervation and thyroid hormone status on the attainment of the adult MHC phenotype. Neonatal rats were made hypothyroid via propylthiouracil (PTU) injection. In normal and PTU subgroups, leg muscles were unilaterally denervated at 15 days of age. The MHC profiles of plantaris (PLN) and soleus (Sol) muscles were determined at 7, 14, 23, and 30 days postpartum. At day 7, the Sol MHC profile was 55% type I, 30% Emb, and 10% Neo; in the PLN, the pattern was 60% Neo and 25% Emb. By day 30 the Sol and PLN had essentially attained an adult MHC profile in the controls. PTU augmented slow MHC expression in the Sol, whereas in the PLN it markedly repressed IIb MHC by retaining neonatal MHC expression. Denervation blunted the upregulation of IIb in the PLN and of Type I in the Sol and shifted the pattern to greater expression of IIa and IIx MHCs in both muscles. In contrast to previous observations, these findings collectively suggest that both an intact thyroid and innervation state are obligatory for the attainment of the adult MHC phenotype, particularly in fast-twitch muscles.

  14. The VGF-Derived Neuropeptide TLQP-21 Shows No Impact on Hormone Secretion in the Isolated Perfused Rat Pancreas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Charlotte Bayer; Svendsen, B; Holst, Jens Juul

    2015-01-01

    investigated the impact of TLQP-21 on insulin, glucagon, and somatostatin secretion in the perfused rat pancreas. We found that administration of 5 and 50 nM TLQP-21 had no impact on pancreatic hormone secretion at 3.5 or 8 mM glucose levels. Increasing TLQP-21 (200 nM) and glucose concentration (3.5 and 16 m...

  15. Amniotic fluid stem cells with low γ-interferon response showed behavioral improvement in Parkinsonism rat model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Jen Chang

    Full Text Available Amniotic fluid stem cells (AFSCs are multipotent stem cells that may be used in transplantation medicine. In this study, AFSCs established from amniocentesis were characterized on the basis of surface marker expression and differentiation potential. To further investigate the properties of AFSCs for translational applications, we examined the cell surface expression of human leukocyte antigens (HLA of these cells and estimated the therapeutic effect of AFSCs in parkinsonian rats. The expression profiles of HLA-II and transcription factors were compared between AFSCs and bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs following treatment with γ-IFN. We found that stimulation of AFSCs with γ-IFN prompted only a slight increase in the expression of HLA-Ia and HLA-E, and the rare HLA-II expression could also be observed in most AFSCs samples. Consequently, the expression of CIITA and RFX5 was weakly induced by γ-IFN stimulation of AFSCs compared to that of BMMSCs. In the transplantation test, Sprague Dawley rats with 6-hydroxydopamine lesioning of the substantia nigra were used as a parkinsonian-animal model. Following the negative γ-IFN response AFSCs injection, apomorphine-induced rotation was reduced by 75% in AFSCs engrafted parkinsonian rats but was increased by 53% in the control group after 12-weeks post-transplantation. The implanted AFSCs were viable, and were able to migrate into the brain's circuitry and express specific proteins of dopamine neurons, such as tyrosine hydroxylase and dopamine transporter. In conclusion, the relative insensitivity AFSCs to γ-IFN implies that AFSCs might have immune-tolerance in γ-IFN inflammatory conditions. Furthermore, the effective improvement of AFSCs transplantation for apomorphine-induced rotation paves the way for the clinical application in parkinsonian therapy.

  16. Anthocephalus cadamba (Roxb. Miq., Rubiaceae, extract shows hypoglycemic effect and eases oxidative stress in alloxan-induced diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad A. Alam

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The hydroethanolic extract of the flowering tops of Anthocephalus cadamba (Roxb. Miq., Rubiaceae, a Bangladeshi medicinal plant, was studied for its potential hypoglycemic effect and antioxidant property in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. The extract induced significant reduction in serum glucose, and transaminases, e.g. aspartate transaminase (AST, alanine transaminase (ALT and alkaline phosphatases (ALP, activities. Significant changes in the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS, peroxidase and catalase levels during the experimental period were also observed. The results established that the hydroethanolic extract of the flowering tops of A. cadamba possesses hypoglycemic property and is able to protect liver and brain from oxidative damages caused by diabetes.

  17. Effects of stress or infection on rat behavior show robust reversals due to environmental disturbance [version 2; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samira Abdulai-Saiku

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The behavior of animals is intricately linked to the environment; a relationship that is often studied in laboratory conditions by using environmental perturbations to study biological mechanisms underlying the behavioral change.  Methods: This study pertains to two such well-studied and well-replicated perturbations, i.e., stress-induced anxiogenesis and Toxoplasma gondii -induced loss of innate fear. Here, we demonstrate that behavioral outcomes of these experimental manipulations are contingent upon the ambient quality of the wider environment where animal facilities are situated. Results: During late 2014 and early 2015, a building construction project started adjacent to our animal facility. During this phase, we observed that maternal separation stress caused anxiolysis, rather than historically observed anxiogenesis, in laboratory rats. We also found that Toxoplasma gondii infection caused an increase, rather than historically observed decrease, in innate aversion to predator odors in rats. Conclusion: These observations suggest that effects of stress and Toxoplasma gondii are dependent on variables in the environment that often go unreported in the published literature.

  18. A window into extreme longevity; the circulating metabolomic signature of the naked mole-rat, a mammal that shows negligible senescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Kaitlyn N; Rubinstein, Nimrod D; Buffenstein, Rochelle

    2018-04-20

    Mouse-sized naked mole-rats (Heterocephalus glaber), unlike other mammals, do not conform to Gompertzian laws of age-related mortality; adults show no age-related change in mortality risk. Moreover, we observe negligible hallmarks of aging with well-maintained physiological and molecular functions, commonly altered with age in other species. We questioned whether naked mole-rats, living an order of magnitude longer than laboratory mice, exhibit different plasma metabolite profiles, which could then highlight novel mechanisms or targets involved in disease and longevity. Using a comprehensive, unbiased metabolomics screen, we observe striking inter-species differences in amino acid, peptide, and lipid metabolites. Low circulating levels of specific amino acids, particularly those linked to the methionine pathway, resemble those observed during the fasting period at late torpor in hibernating ground squirrels and those seen in longer-lived methionine-restricted rats. These data also concur with metabolome reports on long-lived mutant mice, including the Ames dwarf mice and calorically restricted mice, as well as fruit flies, and even show similarities to circulating metabolite differences observed in young human adults when compared to older humans. During evolution, some of these beneficial nutrient/stress response pathways may have been positively selected in the naked mole-rat. These observations suggest that interventions that modify the aging metabolomic profile to a more youthful one may enable people to lead healthier and longer lives.

  19. Virgin coconut oil (VCO) by normalizing NLRP3 inflammasome showed potential neuroprotective effects in Amyloid-β induced toxicity and high-fat diet fed rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzaei, Fatemeh; Khazaei, Mozafar; Komaki, Alireza; Amiri, Iraj; Jalili, Cyrus

    2018-05-02

    Both dyslipidemia and Alzheimer disease (AD) are associated with aging. In this study, the effects of virgin coconut oil (VCO) on inflammasome and oxidative stress in Alzheimer's model (receiving Amyloid-β (Aβ)) and high-fat diet (HFD) model were determined. A total of 120 male Wistar rats, were divided into 12 groups (n = 10), including; healthy control, sham surgery, sham surgery receiving normal saline, HFD, HFD + 8% VCO, HFD + 10% VCO, Aβ received rats, Aβ + 8%VCO, Aβ + 10%VCO, HFD + Aβ, HFD + Aβ+8%VCO, and HFD + Aβ + 10%VCO. Following memory and learning tests, blood sample prepared from the heart and hippocampus of rats in each group was kept at -70 °C for genes expression, oxidative stress, and biochemical tests. Aβ and HFD significantly impaired memory and learning by activating of both NOD-like receptor family pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome and oxidative stress (p<0.05), while treatment with both 8 and 10% VCO normalized inflammasome genes expression and oxidative stress (p<0.05). The Congo Red, Cresyl Violet staining and immunohistochemistry (IHC) test revealed that VCO improved hippocampus histological changes, reduced Aβ plaques and phosphorylated Tau. High-fat diet has exacerbated the effects of Aβ, while VCO showed potential neuroprotective effect. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Advanced imaging techniques show progressive arthropathy following experimentally induced knee bleeding in a factor VIII-/- rat model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorensen, K. R.; Roepstorff, K.; Petersen, M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Joint pathology is most commonly assessed by radiogra-phy, but ultrasonography (US) is increasingly recognized for its acces-sibility, safety and ability to show soft tissue changes, the earliestindicators of haemophilic arthropathy (HA). US, however, lacks theability to visualize...

  1. How Important Are Rats As Vectors of Leptospirosis in the Mekong Delta of Vietnam?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loan, Hoang Kim; Van Cuong, Nguyen; Takhampunya, Ratree; Kiet, Bach Tuan; Campbell, James; Them, Lac Ngoc; Bryant, Juliet E.; Tippayachai, Bousaraporn; Van Hoang, Nguyen; Morand, Serge; Hien, Vo Be

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Leptospirosis is a zoonosis known to be endemic in the Mekong Delta of Vietnam, even though clinical reports are uncommon. We investigated leptospira infection in rats purchased in food markets during the rainy season (October) (n=150), as well as those trapped during the dry season (February–March) (n=125) in the region using RT-PCR for the lipL32 gene, confirmed by 16S rRNA, as well as by the microscopic agglutination test (MAT). Results were compared with the serovar distribution of human cases referred from Ho Chi Minh City hospitals (2004–2012) confirmed by MAT (n=45). The MAT seroprevalence among rats was 18.3%. The highest MAT seroprevalence corresponded, in decreasing order, to: Rattus norvegicus (33.0%), Bandicota indica (26.5%), Rattus tanezumi (24.6%), Rattus exulans (14.3%), and Rattus argentiventer (7.1%). The most prevalent serovars were, in descending order: Javanica (4.6% rats), Lousiana (4.2%), Copenageni (4.2%), Cynopterie (3.7%), Pomona (2.9%), and Icterohaemorrhagiae (2.5%). A total of 16 rats (5.8%) tested positive by RT-PCR. Overall, larger rats tended to have a higher prevalence of detection. There was considerable agreement between MAT and PCR (kappa=0.28 [0.07–0.49]), although significantly more rats were positive by MAT (McNemar 29.9 (pgeographically linked co-sampling of humans and animals to establish the main sources of leptospirosis in the region. PMID:25629781

  2. Importance of D1 and D2 receptor stimulation for the induction and expression of cocaine-induced behavioral sensitization in preweanling rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougall, Sanders A; Rudberg, Krista N; Veliz, Ana; Dhargalkar, Janhavi M; Garcia, Aleesha S; Romero, Loveth C; Gonzalez, Ashley E; Mohd-Yusof, Alena; Crawford, Cynthia A

    2017-05-30

    The behavioral manifestations of psychostimulant-induced sensitization vary markedly between young and adult rats, suggesting that the neural mechanisms mediating this phenomenon differ across ontogeny. In this project we examined the importance of D1 and D2 receptors for the induction and expression of cocaine-induced behavioral sensitization during the preweanling period. In the behavioral experiments, rats were injected with reversible D1 and/or D2 antagonists (SCH23390 and/or raclopride) or an irreversible receptor antagonist (EEDQ) either before cocaine administration on the pretreatment day (induction) or before cocaine challenge on the test day (expression). In the EEDQ experiments, receptor specificity was assessed by using selective dopamine antagonists to protect D1 and/or D2 receptors from inactivation. Receptor binding assays showed that EEDQ caused substantial reductions in dorsal striatal D1 and D2 binding sites, while SCH23390 and raclopride fully protected D1 and D2 receptors from EEDQ-induced alkylation. Behavioral results showed that neither D1 nor D2 receptor stimulation was necessary for the induction of cocaine sensitization in preweanling rats. EEDQ disrupted the sensitization process, suggesting that another receptor type sensitive to EEDQ alkylation was necessary for the induction process. Expression of the sensitized response was prevented by an acute injection of a D1 receptor antagonist. The pattern of DA antagonist-induced effects described for preweanling rats is, with few exceptions, similar to what is observed when the same drugs are administered to adult rats. Thus, it appears that maturational changes in D1 and D2 receptor systems are not responsible for ontogenetic differences in the behavioral manifestation of cocaine sensitization. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Canonical transient receptor potential channel 2 (TRPC2): old name-new games. Importance in regulating of rat thyroid cell physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Törnquist, Kid; Sukumaran, Pramod; Kemppainen, Kati; Löf, Christoffer; Viitanen, Tero

    2014-11-01

    In addition to the TSH-cyclic AMP signalling pathway, calcium signalling is of crucial importance in thyroid cells. Although the importance of calcium signalling has been thoroughly investigated for several decades, the nature of the calcium channels involved in signalling is unknown. In a recent series of investigations using the well-studied rat thyroid FRTL-5 cell line, we showed that these cells exclusively express the transient receptor potential canonical 2 (TRPC2) channel. Our results suggested that the TRPC2 channel is of significant importance in regulating thyroid cell function. These investigations were the first to show that thyroid cells express a member of the TRPC family of ion channels. In this review, we will describe the importance of the TRPC2 channel in regulating TSH receptor expression, thyroglobulin maturation, intracellular calcium and iodide homeostasis and that the channel also regulates thyroid cell proliferation.

  4. Extract of Bauhinia vahlii Shows Antihyperglycemic Activity, Reverses Oxidative Stress, and Protects against Liver Damage in Streptozotocin-induced Diabetic Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbanna, Ahmed H.; Nooh, Mohammed M.; Mahrous, Engy A.; Khaleel, Amal E.; Elalfy, Taha S.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Several studies have affirmed the effectiveness of some Bauhinia plants as antihyperglycemic agents. Objective: We investigated the possible effect of Bauhinia vahlii leaves extract in reducing hyperglycemia and reversing signs of organ damage associated with diabetes in streptozotocin (STZ) rat model. Materials and Methods: Both polar fraction of the B. vahlii leaves (defatted ethanolic extract [DEE]) and nonpolar fraction (n-hexane extract) were evaluated in vitro for α-glucosidase inhibition and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging potential. DEE was selected for further in vivo studies and was administered at two doses, i.e., 150 or 300 mg/kg to STZ-diabetic rats for 4 weeks. Results: Only DEE exhibited in vitro antioxidant and antihyperglycemic activities and its oral administration at both dose levels resulted in significant reduction in fasting blood glucose and glycated hemoglobin. Furthermore, signs of oxidative stress as indicated by hepatic reduced glutathione, nitric oxide, and malondialdehyde levels were completely reversed. In addition, histopathological examination and measurement of serum aspartate transaminase and alanine transaminase levels showed that DEE protected the liver from signs of liver pathogenesis when compared to diabetic untreated animals and those treated with metformin. Phytochemical analysis of DEE showed high flavonoids content with quercitrin as the major constituent along with other quercetin glycosides. Conclusion: This study strongly highlights the possible beneficial effect of B. vahlii leaves extract in relieving hyperglycemia and liver damage in STZ-diabetic rats and recommends further investigation of the value of quercetin derivatives in controlling diabetes and ameliorating liver damage associated with it. SUMMARY The polar fraction of the Bauhinia vahlii leaves (defatted ethanolic extract [DEE]) exhibited both in vitro antioxidant activity in 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl scavenging assay and

  5. A dual inhibitor of FAAH and TRPV1 channels shows dose-dependent effect on depression-like behaviour in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkedal, Christian; Wegener, Gregers; Moreira, Fabricio; Joca, Sâmia Regiane Lourenco; Liebenberg, Nico

    2017-12-01

    The cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) and transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 1 (TRPV1) are proposed to mediate opposite behavioural responses. Their common denominator is the endocannabinoid ligand anandamide (AEA), which is believed to mediate antidepressant-like effect via CB1-R stimulation and depressive-like effect via TRPV1 activation. This is supposed to explain the bell-shaped dose-response curve for anandamide in preclinical models. We investigated this assumption by administering the dual inhibitor of AEA hydrolysis and TRPV1 activation N-arachidonoyl-serotonin (AA-5HT) into the medial prefrontal cortex of rats. AA-5HT was given in three different doses (0.125, 0.250, 0.500 nmol/0.4 µl/side) and rat behaviour was assessed in the forced swim test. Our results show significant antidepressant-like effect of AA-5HT (0.250 nmol) but no effects of low or high doses. The effect of 0.250 nmol AA-5HT was partially attenuated when coadministering the inverse CB1-agonist rimonabant (1.6 µg). A 0.250 nmol of AA-5HT administration into the medial prefrontal cortex induced a significant antidepressant-like effect that was partially attenuated by locally blocking CB1-receptor.

  6. Novel G Protein-Coupled Oestrogen Receptor GPR30 Shows Changes in mRNA Expression in the Rat Brain over the Oestrous Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma J. Spary

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Oestrogen influences autonomic function via actions at classical nuclear oestrogen receptors α and β in the brain, and recent evidence suggests the orphan G protein-coupled receptor GPR30 may also function as a cytoplasmic oestrogen receptor. We investigated the expression of GPR30 in female rat brains throughout the oestrous cycle and after ovariectomy to determine whether GPR30 expression in central autonomic nuclei is correlated with circulating oestrogen levels. In the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS, ventrolateral medulla (VLM and periaqueductal gray (PAG GPR30 mRNA, quantified by real-time PCR, was increased in proestrus and oestrus. In ovariectomised (OVX rats, expression in NTS and VLM appeared increased compared to metoestrus, but in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus and PAG lower mRNA levels were seen in OVX. GPR30-like immunoreactivity (GPR30-LI colocalised with Golgi in neurones in many brain areas associated with autonomic pathways, and analysis of numbers of immunoreactive neurones showed differences consistent with the PCR data. GPR30-LI was found in a variety of transmitter phenotypes, including cholinergic, serotonergic, catecholaminergic and nitrergic neurones in different neuronal groups. These observations support the view that GPR30 could act as a rapid transducer responding to oestrogen levels and thus modulate the activity of central autonomic pathways.

  7. Mitochondrial damage: An important mechanism of ambient PM2.5 exposure-induced acute heart injury in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Ruijin; Kou, Xiaojing; Geng, Hong; Xie, Jingfang; Tian, Jingjing; Cai, Zongwei; Dong, Chuan

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • PM 2.5 induces heart mitochondrial morphological damage of rats. • Mitochondrial fission/fusion gene expression is important regulation mechanism. • Proinflammatoy cytokine level changes are accompanied with mitochondrial damage. • Alterations in oxidative stress and calcium homeostasis are focused on. - Abstract: Epidemiological studies suggested that ambient fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) exposure was associated with cardiovascular disease. However, the underlying mechanism, especially the mitochondrial damage mechanism, of PM 2.5 -induced heart acute injury is still unclear. In this study, the alterations of mitochondrial morphology and mitochondrial fission/fusion gene expression, oxidative stress, calcium homeostasis and inflammation in hearts of rats exposed to PM 2.5 with different dosages (0.375, 1.5, 6.0 and 24.0 mg/kg body weight) were investigated. The results indicated that the PM 2.5 exposure induced pathological changes and ultra-structural damage in hearts such as mitochondrial swell and cristae disorder. Furthermore, PM 2.5 exposure significantly increased specific mitochondrial fission/fusion gene (Fis1, Mfn1, Mfn2, Drp1 and OPA1) expression in rat hearts. These changes were accompanied by decreases of activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), Na + K + -ATPase and Ca 2+ -ATPase and increases of levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and nitric oxide (NO) as well as levels of pro-inflammatory mediators including TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β in rat hearts. The results implicate that mitochondrial damage, oxidative stress, cellular homeostasis imbalance and inflammation are potentially important mechanisms for the PM 2.5 -induced heart injury, and may have relations with cardiovascular disease

  8. Transformation of Lettuce with rol ABC Genes: Extracts Show Enhanced Antioxidant, Analgesic, Anti-Inflammatory, Antidepressant, and Anticoagulant Activities in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Hammad; Dilshad, Erum; Waheed, Mohammad Tahir; Mirza, Bushra

    2017-03-01

    Lettuce is an edible crop that is well known for dietary and antioxidant benefits. The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of rol ABC genes on antioxidant and medicinal potential of lettuce by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Transgene integration and expression was confirmed through PCR and real-time RT-PCR, respectively. The transformed plants showed 91-102 % increase in total phenolic contents and 53-65 % increase in total flavonoid contents compared to untransformed plants. Total antioxidant capacity and total reducing power increased up to 112 and 133 % in transformed plants, respectively. Results of DPPH assay showed maximum 51 % increase, and lipid peroxidation assay exhibited 20 % increase in antioxidant activity of transformed plants compared to controls. Different in vivo assays were carried out in rats. The transgenic plants showed up to 80 % inhibition in both hot plate analgesic assay and carrageenan-induced hind paw edema test, while untransformed plants showed only 45 % inhibition. Antidepressant and anticoagulant potential of transformed plants was also significantly enhanced compared to untransformed plants. Taken together, the present work highlights the use of rol genes to enhance the secondary metabolite production in lettuce and improve its analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antidepressant, and anticoagulatory properties.

  9. On the importance of telemetric temperature sensor location during intraperitoneal implantation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapon, P A; Bulla, J; Gauthier, A; Moussay, S

    2014-04-01

    This study aims to assess the thermal homogeneity of the intraperitoneal (IP) cavity and the relevance of using a fixed telemetric temperature sensor at a given location in studying rodents. Ten rats were intraperitoneally implanted with three Jonah® capsules each; after assessing the accuracy and reliability of the sensors. Two capsules were attached, one to the right iliac fossa (RIF) and the other to the left hypochondrium (LH), and another was placed between the intestines but not attached (Free). In the ex vivo condition, the differences between sensors and reference values remained in the range of ±0.1. In the in vivo condition, each sensor enabled the observation of temperature patterns. However, sensor location affected mean and median temperature values while the rats were moving freely. Indeed, temperature data collected in the LH were 0.1 significantly higher than those collected in the RIF and temperature data collected in the LH were 0.11 significantly higher than those collected with the Free capsules. In in vivo conditions, intra-sensor variability of temperature data was not affected by sensor location. Taking into account sensor accuracy, similar intra-sensor variability, and mean differences observed between the three locations, the impact of sensor location within the IP cavity could be considered negligible. In in vivo conditions, temperature differences between locations regularly exceeded ±0.2 and reached up to 2.5. These extreme values could be explained by behavioral factors such as food or water intake. Finally, considering the good thermal homogeneity of the IP cavity and possible adverse consequences of sensor attachment, it seems better to let sensors range free within the cavity.

  10. Toxicity assessments of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in isolated mitochondria, rat hepatocytes, and zebrafish show good concordance across chemical classes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadanaciva, Sashi; Aleo, Michael D.; Strock, Christopher J.; Stedman, Donald B.; Wang, Huijun; Will, Yvonne

    2013-01-01

    To reduce costly late-stage compound attrition, there has been an increased focus on assessing compounds in in vitro assays that predict attributes of human safety liabilities, before preclinical in vivo studies are done. Relevant questions when choosing a panel of assays for predicting toxicity are (a) whether there is general concordance in the data among the assays, and (b) whether, in a retrospective analysis, the rank order of toxicity of compounds in the assays correlates with the known safety profile of the drugs in humans. The aim of our study was to answer these questions using nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) as a test set since NSAIDs are generally associated with gastrointestinal injury, hepatotoxicity, and/or cardiovascular risk, with mitochondrial impairment and endoplasmic reticulum stress being possible contributing factors. Eleven NSAIDs, flufenamic acid, tolfenamic acid, mefenamic acid, diclofenac, meloxicam, sudoxicam, piroxicam, diflunisal, acetylsalicylic acid, nimesulide, and sulindac (and its two metabolites, sulindac sulfide and sulindac sulfone), were tested for their effects on (a) the respiration of rat liver mitochondria, (b) a panel of mechanistic endpoints in rat hepatocytes, and (c) the viability and organ morphology of zebrafish. We show good concordance for distinguishing among/between NSAID chemical classes in the observations among the three approaches. Furthermore, the assays were complementary and able to correctly identify “toxic” and “non-toxic” drugs in accordance with their human safety profile, with emphasis on hepatic and gastrointestinal safety. We recommend implementing our multi-assay approach in the drug discovery process to reduce compound attrition. - Highlights: • NSAIDS cause liver and GI toxicity. • Mitochondrial uncoupling contributes to NSAID liver toxicity. • ER stress is a mechanism that contributes to liver toxicity. • Zebrafish and cell based assays are complimentary

  11. Toxicity assessments of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in isolated mitochondria, rat hepatocytes, and zebrafish show good concordance across chemical classes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nadanaciva, Sashi [Compound Safety Prediction, Worldwide Medicinal Chemistry, Pfizer, Inc., Groton, CT 06340 (United States); Aleo, Michael D. [Drug Safety Research and Development, Pfizer Inc., Groton, CT 06340 (United States); Strock, Christopher J. [Cyprotex US, Watertown, MA 02472 (United States); Stedman, Donald B. [Drug Safety Research and Development, Pfizer Inc., Groton, CT 06340 (United States); Wang, Huijun [Computational Sciences, Pfizer Inc., Groton, CT 06340 (United States); Will, Yvonne, E-mail: yvonne.will@pfizer.com [Compound Safety Prediction, Worldwide Medicinal Chemistry, Pfizer, Inc., Groton, CT 06340 (United States)

    2013-10-15

    To reduce costly late-stage compound attrition, there has been an increased focus on assessing compounds in in vitro assays that predict attributes of human safety liabilities, before preclinical in vivo studies are done. Relevant questions when choosing a panel of assays for predicting toxicity are (a) whether there is general concordance in the data among the assays, and (b) whether, in a retrospective analysis, the rank order of toxicity of compounds in the assays correlates with the known safety profile of the drugs in humans. The aim of our study was to answer these questions using nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) as a test set since NSAIDs are generally associated with gastrointestinal injury, hepatotoxicity, and/or cardiovascular risk, with mitochondrial impairment and endoplasmic reticulum stress being possible contributing factors. Eleven NSAIDs, flufenamic acid, tolfenamic acid, mefenamic acid, diclofenac, meloxicam, sudoxicam, piroxicam, diflunisal, acetylsalicylic acid, nimesulide, and sulindac (and its two metabolites, sulindac sulfide and sulindac sulfone), were tested for their effects on (a) the respiration of rat liver mitochondria, (b) a panel of mechanistic endpoints in rat hepatocytes, and (c) the viability and organ morphology of zebrafish. We show good concordance for distinguishing among/between NSAID chemical classes in the observations among the three approaches. Furthermore, the assays were complementary and able to correctly identify “toxic” and “non-toxic” drugs in accordance with their human safety profile, with emphasis on hepatic and gastrointestinal safety. We recommend implementing our multi-assay approach in the drug discovery process to reduce compound attrition. - Highlights: • NSAIDS cause liver and GI toxicity. • Mitochondrial uncoupling contributes to NSAID liver toxicity. • ER stress is a mechanism that contributes to liver toxicity. • Zebrafish and cell based assays are complimentary.

  12. Phosphorylation of CaMKII in the rat dorsal raphe nucleus plays an important role in sleep-wake regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Su-Ying; Li, Sheng-Jie; Cui, Xiang-Yu; Zhang, Xue-Qiong; Yu, Bin; Sheng, Zhao-Fu; Huang, Yuan-Li; Cao, Qing; Xu, Ya-Ping; Lin, Zhi-Ge; Yang, Guang; Song, Jin-Zhi; Ding, Hui; Wang, Zi-Jun; Zhang, Yong-He

    2016-02-01

    The Ca(2+) modulation in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) plays an important role in sleep-wake regulation. Calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CaMKII) is an important signal-transducing molecule that is activated by Ca(2+) . This study investigated the effects of intracellular Ca(2+) /CaMKII signaling in the DRN on sleep-wake states in rats. Maximum and minimum CaMKII phosphorylation was detected at Zeitgeber time 21 (ZT 21; wakefulness state) and ZT 3 (sleep state), respectively, across the light-dark rhythm in the DRN in rats. Six-hour sleep deprivation significantly reduced CaMKII phosphorylation in the DRN. Microinjection of the CAMKII activation inhibitor KN-93 (5 or 10 nmol) into the DRN suppressed wakefulness and enhanced rapid-eye-movement sleep (REMS) and non-REM sleep (NREMS). Application of a high dose of KN-93 (10 nmol) increased slow-wave sleep (SWS) time, SWS bouts, the mean duration of SWS, the percentage of SWS relative to total sleep, and delta power density during NREMS. Microinjection of CaCl2 (50 nmol) in the DRN increased CaMKII phosphorylation and decreased NREMS, SWS, and REMS. KN-93 abolished the inhibitory effects of CaCl2 on NREMS, SWS, and REMS. These data indicate a novel wake-promoting and sleep-suppressing role for the Ca(2+) /CaMKII signaling pathway in DRN neurons. We propose that the intracellular Ca(2+) /CaMKII signaling in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) plays wake-promoting and sleep-suppressing role in rats. Intra-DRN application of KN-93 (CaMKII activation inhibitor) suppressed wakefulness and enhanced rapid-eye-movement sleep (REMS) and non-REMS (NREMS). Intra-DRN application of CaCl2 attenuated REMS and NREMS. We think these findings should provide a novel cellular and molecular mechanism of sleep-wake regulation. © 2015 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  13. The liver plays an important role in the regulation of somatostatin-14 in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raper, S.E.; Kothary, P.C.; Kokudo, N.; DelValle, J.; Eckhauser, F.E.

    1991-01-01

    Since little is known about the in vivo disposition of circulating somatostatin-14 (SRIF-14), we examined hepatic processing of SRIF-14 in the rat. Three minutes after the intraportal injection of iodine 125 ( 125 I)-labeled SRIF-14, 16.0 +/- 2.0% of the injected dose is localized to the liver. In the presence of unlabeled SRIF-14, hepatic uptake can be decreased by 68%. Five minutes after the intraportal injection of 125 I-SRIF-14, 9.5 +/- 1.4% of the tracer is localized to the liver, more than any other organ tested. Serial collections of bile reveal peak radioactivity at between 10 and 20 minutes. Simultaneous administration of unlabeled SRIF-14 decreases biliary radioactivity by 40%. HPLC analysis of radioactive bile reveals a chromatographic profile similar to that of intact SRIF and is 73% immunoprecipitable by an anti-SRIF antibody. Pretreatment with chloroquine, a lysosomal enzyme inhibitor, does not significantly decrease biliary radioactivity. We conclude that the data are consistent with saturable hepatic uptake and predominantly nonlysosomal transcellular transport

  14. Type 2 Diabetic Rats on Diet Supplemented With Chromium Malate Show Improved Glycometabolism, Glycometabolism-Related Enzyme Levels and Lipid Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Weiwei; Zhao, Ting; Mao, Guanghua; Wang, Wei; Feng, Yun; Li, Fang; Zheng, Daheng; Wu, Huiyu; Jin, Dun; Yang, Liuqing; Wu, Xiangyang

    2015-01-01

    Our previous study showed that chromium malate improved the regulation of blood glucose in mice with alloxan-induced diabetes. The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of chromium malate on glycometabolism, glycometabolism-related enzymes and lipid metabolism in type 2 diabetic rats. Our results showed that fasting blood glucose, serum insulin level, insulin resistance index and C-peptide level in the high dose group had a significant downward trend when compared with the model group, chromium picolinate group and chromium trichloride group. The hepatic glycogen, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, glucokinase, Glut4, phosphor-AMPKβ1 and Akt levels in the high dose group were significantly higher than those of the model, chromium picolinate and chromium trichloride groups. Chromium malate in a high dose group can significantly increase high density lipoprotein cholesterol level while decreasing the total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride levels when compared with chromium picolinate and chromium trichloride. The serum chromium content in chromium malate and chromium picolinate group is significantly higher than that of the chromium trichloride group. The results indicated that the curative effects of chromium malate on glycometabolism, glycometabolism-related enzymes and lipid metabolism changes are better than those of chromium picolinate and chromium trichloride. Chromium malate contributes to glucose uptake and transport in order to improved glycometabolism and glycometabolism-related enzymes. PMID:25942313

  15. Characterization of juvenile play in rats: importance of sex of self and sex of partner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argue, Kathryn J; McCarthy, Margaret M

    2015-01-01

    Juvenile social play is observed in many mammalian species, and its disruption in several neuropsychiatric disorders has greatly increased interest in understanding the origins and sources of variability in this behavior. We quantified social play behavior in juvenile rats and investigated the impact of sex and familiarity of the play partner. Sex differences in play behavior were investigated by comparing males and females from either same- or mixed-sex pairs with data pooled over 12 days of analysis. Whether play was altered based on the sex of the play partner was assessed using a paired analysis to compare play with a same- or opposite-sex play partner for both males and females. Additionally, a repeated measures design was utilized to determine whether play changed with increasing age. On postnatal day 33, a novel play partner was introduced. We used a repeated measures analysis to compare postnatal day 33 with the previous day. These approaches were used to assess the effects of age, sex, sex of partner, and familiarity of partner on total social play behavior as well as how play was broken down into components, such as pouncing, pinning, chasing, and boxing. There were sex differences in total frequency of play, and specific parameters of play behavior, such as chasing, pouncing, pinning, and boxing. Additionally, males significantly altered their play behavior in response to the sex of their play partner, whereas females were more sensitive to the familiarity of the play partner. This study provides critical groundwork for uncovering factors that regulate social play behavior and can be used to guide future mechanistic based work.

  16. Leaf-specific pathogenesis-related 10 homolog, PgPR-10.3, shows in silico binding affinity with several biologically important molecules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Haeng Han

    2015-10-01

    Conclusion: Although ginseng PR-10.3 gene is expressed in all organs of 3-wk-old plantlets, its expression is restricted to leaves in mature 2-yr-old ginseng plants. The putative binding property of PgPR-10.3 with Re is intriguing. Further verification of binding affinity with other biologically important molecules in the large hydrophobic cavity of PgPR-10.3 may provide an insight into the biological features of PR-10 proteins.

  17. Differential response of rat strains to obesogenic diets underlines the importance of genetic makeup of an individual towards obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mn, Muralidhar; Smvk, Prasad; Battula, Kiran Kumar; Nv, Giridharan; Kalashikam, Rajender Rao

    2017-08-22

    Obesity, a multifactorial disorder, results from a chronic imbalance of energy intake vs. expenditure. Apart from excessive consumption of high calorie diet, genetic predisposition also seems to be equally important for the development of obesity. However, the role of genetic predisposition in the etiology of obesity has not been clearly delineated. The present study addresses this problem by selecting three rat strains (WNIN, F-344, SD) with different genetic backgrounds and exposing them to high calorie diets. Rat strains were fed HF, HS, and HFS diets and assessed for physical, metabolic, biochemical, inflammatory responses, and mRNA expression. Under these conditions: significant increase in body weight, visceral adiposity, oxidative stress and systemic pro-inflammatory status; the hallmarks of central obesity were noticed only in WNIN. Further, they developed altered glucose and lipid homeostasis by exhibiting insulin resistance, impaired glucose tolerance, dyslipidemia and fatty liver condition. The present study demonstrates that WNIN is more prone to develop obesity and associated co-morbidities under high calorie environment. It thus underlines the cumulative role of genetics (nature) and diet (nurture) towards the development of obesity, which is critical for understanding this epidemic and devising new strategies to control and manage this modern malady.

  18. Flomoxef showed excellent in vitro activity against clinically important gram-positive and gram-negative pathogens causing community- and hospital-associated infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qiwen; Zhang, Hui; Cheng, Jingwei; Xu, Zhipeng; Hou, Xin; Xu, Yingchun

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this study was to better understand the in vitro activity of flomoxef against clinical pathogens. A total of 545 clinical isolates, including Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA), methicillin-resistant S. aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Streptococcus pyogenes, were isolated consecutively from clinical specimens from Peking Union Medical College Hospital in 2013. MICs were determined using broth microdilution method. esbl and ampC genes were detected by polymerase chain reaction and sequencing. Flomoxef showed excellent activity against E. coli, K. pneumoniae, and P. mirabilis isolates, with susceptibility rate of 88.8%, 88.3%, and 97.7%, separately. Moreover, flomoxef exhibited great activity against extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producers, with MIC50/MIC90 of 0.125/(0.5-1) μg/mL. Flomoxef showed MIC50/MIC90 of 0.5/0.5 μg/mL against MSSA, 0.125/0.25 μg/mL against S. pyogenes, and 2/16 μg/mL against S. pneumoniae. In conclusion, flomoxef is one of the cephamycins showing excellent activity against ESBL-producing or ESBL-nonproducing E. coli, K. pneumoniae, and P. mirabilis and was also potent against MSSA, S. pyogenes, and S. pneumoniae. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. A set of genes previously implicated in the hypoxia response might be an important modulator in the rat ear tissue response to mechanical stretch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orgill Dennis

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Wounds are increasingly important in our aging societies. Pathologies such as diabetes predispose patients to chronic wounds that can cause pain, infection, and amputation. The vacuum assisted closure device shows remarkable outcomes in wound healing. Its mechanism of action is unclear despite several hypotheses advanced. We previously hypothesized that micromechanical forces can heal wounds. To understand better the biological response of soft tissue to forces, rat ears in vivo were stretched and their gene expression patterns over time obtained. The absolute enrichment (AE algorithm that obtains a combined up and down regulated picture of the expression analysis was implemented. Results With the use of AE, the hypoxia gene set was the most important at a highly significant level. A co-expression network analysis showed that important co-regulated members of the hypoxia pathway include a glucose transporter (slc2a8, heme oxygenase, and nitric oxide synthase2 among others. Conclusion It appears that the hypoxia pathway may be an important modulator of response of soft tissue to forces. This finding gives us insights not only into the underlying biology, but also into clinical interventions that could be designed to mimic within wounded tissue the effects of forces without all the negative effects that forces themselves create.

  20. An unusual case showing fatal rupture of a gastric ulcer or gastromalacia? The importance/role of histology for differential diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De-Giorgio, Fabio; Lodise, Maria; Pascali, Vincenzo L; Spagnolo, Antonio G; d'Aloja, Ernesto; Arena, Vincenzo

    2015-01-01

    Gastromalacia is the acute autolytic erosion of the gastric wall. It generally occurs postmortem, and it appears as a slimy brownish black region of the wall which occurs principally in the gastric fundus. A 59-year-old woman died in the Emergency Department following a 2-day period of mild abdominal pain, vomiting, and diarrhea. A forensic autopsy was performed which revealed a rupture of the gastric fundus that had caused leakage of gastric content into the abdominal cavity. There was no macroscopic evidence of peritonitis, and the stomach wall adjacent to the rupture site showed marked thinning. The gross appearance was typical of gastromalacia. In contrast, histological observations revealed the presence of an ulcer at the site of perforation and a severe acute inflammatory reaction indicating a robust reaction with an antemortem rupture. © 2014 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  1. Carcinoma ex-pleomorphic adenoma derived from recurrent pleomorphic adenoma shows important difference by array CGH compared to recurrent pleomorphic adenoma without malignant transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Viviane Mariano

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: A key step of cancer development is the progressive accumulation of genomic changes resulting in disruption of several biological mechanisms. Carcinoma ex-pleomorphic adenoma (CXPA is an aggressive neoplasm that arises from a pleomorphic adenoma. CXPA derived from a recurrent PA (RPA has been rarely reported, and the genomic changes associated with these tumors have not yet been studied. Objective: We analyzed CXPA from RPAs and RPAs without malignant transformation using array-comparative genomic hybridization (array-CGH to identify somatic copy number alterations and affected genes. Methods: DNA samples extracted from FFPE tumors were submitted to array-CGH investigation, and data was analyzed by Nexus Copy Number Discovery Edition v.7. Results: No somatic copy number alterations were found in RPAs without malignant transformation. As for CXPA from RPA, although genomic profiles were unique for each case, we detected some chromosomal regions that appear to be preferentially affected by copy number alterations. The first case of CXPA-RPA (frankly invasive myoepithelial carcinoma showed copy number alterations affecting 1p36.33p13, 5p and chromosomes 3 and 8. The second case of CXPA-RPA (frankly invasive epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma showed several alterations at chromosomes 3, 8, and 16, with two amplifications at 8p12p11.21 and 12q14.3q21.2. The third case of CXPA-RPA (minimally invasive epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma exhibited amplifications at 12q13.3q14.1, 12q14.3, and 12q15. Conclusion: The occurrence of gains at chromosomes 3 and 8 and genomic amplifications at 8p and 12q, mainly those encompassing the HMGA2, MDM2, WIF1, WHSC1L1, LIRG3, CDK4 in CXAP from RPA can be a significant promotional factor in malignant transformation.

  2. Data showing non-conventional HLA-B27 expression in axial joints and gut tissue from B27 transgenic rats, and in frozen and paraffin-fixed synovial SpA tissue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rysnik, Oliwia; McHugh, Kirsty; van Duivenvoorde, Leonie; van Tok, Melissa; Taurog, Joel; Kollnberger, Simon; Baeten, Dominique; Bowness, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Data is presented showing expression of non-conventional (NC) heavy chain forms of B27 in synovial tissues from SpA patients. Data is presented showing the expression patterns of NC-B27 in joint, gastrointestinal and lymphoid tissues from B27 transgenic (TG(1)) rats with M. tuberculosis-induced SpA.

  3. Glabridin and glycyrrhizic acid show no beneficial effect on the chemical composition and mechanical properties of bones in ovariectomized rats, when administered in moderate dose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaczmarczyk-Sedlak, Ilona; Klasik-Ciszewska, Sylwia; Wojnar, Weronika

    2016-10-01

    One of the major causes of osteoporosis and bone fracture in postmenopausal women is estrogen deficiency. To prevent the fractures, and avoid the side effects of hormone replacement therapy, phytoestrogens including the isoflavonoids are used. In the presented study two constituents occurring in the licorice root-the isoflavane glabridin and triterpenoid saponin glycyrrhizic acid were examined on the skeletal system of ovariectomized rats. The female Wistar rats were divided into five groups: control group, ovariectomized group as well as three ovariectomized groups treated with estradiol (0.2mg/kg), glabridin (5mg/kg) or glycyrrhizic acid (15mg/kg). All substances were administered orally for 4 weeks. The estradiol served as a positive control. The mechanical properties of femoral diaphysis, tibial metaphysis and femoral neck were assessed using bending and compression tests. Moreover the chemical composition of the femur, tibia and L-4 vertebra - content of water, organic substances and minerals - was determined. Ovariectomy induced unfavorable changes in the skeletal system of the rats. Administration of glabridin and glycyrrhizic acid to the ovariectomized rats did not improve analyzed parameters of the bones. Obtained results indicate, that the tested substances revealed no beneficial effect on the mechanical properties and chemical composition of the tested bones, thus they cannot be used as the osteoporosis protective agents. Copyright © 2016 Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  4. A combination of a dairy product fermented by lactobacilli and galactooligosaccharides shows additive effects on mineral balances in growing rats with hypochlorhydria induced by a proton pump inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takasugi, Satoshi; Ashida, Kinya; Maruyama, Suyaka; Matsukiyo, Yukari; Kaneko, Tetsuo; Yamaji, Taketo

    2013-06-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of a combination of a dairy product fermented by lactobacilli (DFL) and galactooligosaccharides (GOS) on mineral balances in growing rats with hypochlorhydria induced by a proton pump inhibitor (PPI). Three-week-old male rats were assigned to receive one of six diets: a control diet, control diets containing 1.6 or 5.0 % GOS, a DFL diet and DFL diets containing 1.6 or 5.0 % GOS for 9 days. From day 5 of the feeding period, half of the rats fed with control diets were subcutaneously administered with saline, whereas the remaining rats were administered with PPI for 5 days. Calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), magnesium (Mg), iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) balances were determined from days 6 to 9. PPI administration significantly decreased the apparent absorption of Ca and Fe and increased urinary P excretion, resulting in decreased Ca, Fe and P retention. GOS dose-dependently increased the apparent absorption of Ca, Mg and Fe and urinary Mg excretion and decreased urinary P excretion. DFL significantly increased the apparent absorption of Ca and Mg and urinary Mg excretion. The combination of DFL and GOS additively affected these parameters, resulting in increased Ca, P and Fe retention, and it further increased the apparent absorption and retention of Zn at 5.0 % GOS. In conclusion, the combination of DFL and GOS improves Ca, P and Fe retention in an additive manner and increases the Zn retention in growing rats with hypochlorhydria induced by PPI.

  5. Hepcidin is directly regulated by insulin and plays an important role in iron overload in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Heyang; Li, Hongxia; Jiang, Xin; Shi, Wencai; Shen, Zhilei; Li, Min

    2014-05-01

    Iron overload is frequently observed in type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2), but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. We hypothesize that hepcidin may be directly regulated by insulin and play an important role in iron overload in DM2. We therefore examined the hepatic iron content, serum iron parameters, intestinal iron absorption, and liver hepcidin expression in rats treated with streptozotocin (STZ), which was given alone or after insulin resistance induced by a high-fat diet. The direct effect of insulin on hepcidin and its molecular mechanisms were furthermore determined in vitro in HepG2 cells. STZ administration caused a significant reduction in liver hepcidin level and a marked increase in intestinal iron absorption and serum and hepatic iron content. Insulin obviously upregulated hepcidin expression in HepG2 cells and enhanced signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 protein synthesis and DNA binding activity. The effect of insulin on hepcidin disappeared when the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 pathway was blocked and could be partially inhibited by U0126. In conclusion, the current study suggests that hepcidin can be directly regulated by insulin, and the suppressed liver hepcidin synthesis may be an important reason for the iron overload in DM2.

  6. Pea fiber and wheat bran fiber show distinct metabolic profiles in rats as investigated by a 1H NMR-based metabolomic approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangmang Liu

    Full Text Available This study aimed to examine the effect of pea fiber (PF and wheat bran fiber (WF supplementation in rat metabolism. Rats were assigned randomly to one of three dietary groups and were given a basal diet containing 15% PF, 15% WF, or no supplemental fiber. Urine and plasma samples were analyzed by NMR-based metabolomics. PF significantly increased the plasma levels of 3-hydroxybutyrate, and myo-inositol as well as the urine levels of alanine, hydroxyphenylacetate, phenylacetyglycine, and α-ketoglutarate. However, PF significantly decreased the plasma levels of isoleucine, leucine, lactate, and pyruvate as well as the urine levels of allantoin, bile acids, and trigonelline. WF significantly increased the plasma levels of acetone, isobutyrate, lactate, myo-inositol, and lipids as well as the urine levels of alanine, lactate, dimethylglycine, N-methylniconamide, and α-ketoglutarate. However, WF significantly decreased the plasma levels of amino acids, and glucose as well as the urine levels of acetate, allantoin, citrate, creatine, hippurate, hydroxyphenylacetate, and trigonelline. Results suggest that PF and WF exposure can promote antioxidant activity and can exhibit common systemic metabolic changes, including lipid metabolism, energy metabolism, glycogenolysis and glycolysis metabolism, protein biosynthesis, and gut microbiota metabolism. PF can also decrease bile acid metabolism. These findings indicate that different fiber diet may cause differences in the biofluid profile in rats.

  7. Anti-nucleosome antibodies complexed to nucleosomal antigens show anti-DNA reactivity and bind to rat glomerular basement membrane in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramers, C; Hylkema, M N; van Bruggen, M C; van de Lagemaat, R; Dijkman, H B; Assmann, K J; Smeenk, R J; Berden, J H

    1994-01-01

    Histones can mediate the binding of DNA and anti-DNA to the glomerular basement membrane (GBM). In ELISA histone/DNA/anti-DNA complexes are able to bind to heparan sulfate (HS), an intrinsic constituent of the GBM. We questioned whether histone containing immune complexes are able to bind to the GBM, and if so, whether the ligand in the GBM is HS. Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) complexed to nucleosomal antigens and noncomplexed mAbs were isolated from culture supernatants of four IgG anti-nuclear mAbs. All noncomplexed mAbs showed strong anti-nucleosome reactivity in ELISA. One of them showed in addition anti-DNA reactivity in noncomplexed form. The other three mAbs only showed anti-DNA reactivity when they were complexed to nucleosomal antigens. After renal perfusion a fine granular binding of complexed mAbs to the glomerular capillary wall and activation of complement was observed in immunofluorescence, whereas noncomplexed mAbs did not bind. Immuno-electron microscopy showed binding of complexes to the whole width of the GBM. When HS in the GBM was removed by renal heparinase perfusion the binding of complexed mAb decreased, but did not disappear completely. We conclude that anti-nucleosome mAbs, which do not bind DNA, become DNA reactive once complexed to nucleosomal antigens. These complexed mAbs can bind to the GBM. The binding ligand in the GBM is partly, but not solely, HS. Binding to the GBM of immune complexes containing nucleosomal material might be an important event in the pathogenesis of lupus nephritis. Images PMID:8040312

  8. Rats that binge eat fat-rich food do not show somatic signs or anxiety associated with opiate-like withdrawal: implications for nutrient-specific food addiction behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocarsly, Miriam E; Berner, Laura A; Hoebel, Bartley G; Avena, Nicole M

    2011-10-24

    Previous studies suggest that binge eating sugar leads to behavioral and neurochemical changes similar to those seen with drug addiction, including signs of opiate-like withdrawal. Studies are emerging that show multiple neurochemical and behavioral indices of addiction when animals overeat a fat-rich diet. The goal of the present study was to utilize liquid and solid diets high in sugar and fat content to determine whether opiate-like withdrawal is seen after binge consumption of these diets in Sprague-Dawley rats. Control groups were given ad libitum access to the sweet-fat food or standard chow. All rats were then given a battery of tests to measure signs of opiate-like withdrawal, which included somatic signs of distress, elevated plus-maze anxiety, and locomotor hypoactivity. Neither naloxone-precipitated (3 mg/kg) nor deprivation-induced withdrawal was observed in rats that were maintained on a nutritionally complete pelleted sweet-fat diet or a sweet, high-fat diet supplemented with standard rodent chow. Naloxone-precipitated withdrawal was also not seen in rats fed a liquid sweet-fat food. Further, body weight reduction to 85%, which is known to potentiate the reinforcing effects of substances of abuse, did not affect naloxone-precipitated signs of opiate-like withdrawal. Thus, unlike previous findings reported regarding rats with binge access to a sucrose solution, rats that binge eat sweet-fat combinations do not show signs of opiate-like withdrawal under the conditions tested. These data support the idea that excessive consumption of different nutrients can induce behaviors associated with addiction in different ways, and that the behaviors that could characterize "food addiction" may be subtyped based on the nutritional composition of the food consumed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Importance of neural mechanisms in colonic mucosal and muscular dysfunction in adult rats following neonatal colonic irritation

    OpenAIRE

    Chaloner, A.; Rao, A.; Al-Chaer, E.D.; Meerveld, B. Greenwood-Van

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that early life trauma induced by maternal separation or colonic irritation leads to hypersensitivity to colorectal distension in adulthood. We tested the hypothesis that repetitive colorectal distension in neonates leads to abnormalities in colonic permeability and smooth muscle function in the adult rat. In neonatal rats, repetitive colorectal distension was performed on days 8, 10, and 12. As adults, stool consistency was graded from 0 (formed stool) to 3 (liqui...

  10. Relative importance of prenatal and postnatal androgen action in determining growth of the penis and anogenital distance in the rat before, during and after puberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Driesche, S; Scott, H M; MacLeod, D J; Fisken, M; Walker, M; Sharpe, R M

    2011-12-01

    Experimental animal studies show that measurement of anogenital distance (AGD) and/or penis length may provide lifelong 'read-outs' of foetal androgen exposure during the masculinization programming window (MPW). However, variation in postnatal androgen exposure may complicate interpretation of such measurements. This is important to clarify if such measurements are to be applied to humans. The present aim was to evaluate effects of prenatal and/or postnatal manipulation of androgen production/action on growth of AGD and the penis in rats. Pregnant rats were treated daily before (e13.5-e21.5) and after birth (postnatal days 1-15) with either vehicle, 500 mg/kg di(n-butyl) phthalate (DBP) or 100 mg/kg flutamide (postnatal only) in prenatal + postnatal treatment combinations (N = 6 treatment combinations); DBP impairs androgen production whereas flutamide impairs androgen action. Male offspring were killed on postnatal day 8 (prepuberty), 25 (early puberty) or 90 (adulthood) when AGD was measured, the penis dissected out and its weight and length measured; plasma testosterone and ventral prostate weight were measured at day 90 to assess endogenous androgen exposure. In controls, penis length, girth and AGD increased 2.2-, 5.3-and 5.9-fold respectively from day 8 to day 90. Significant inhibition of penis growth and final length and girth was induced by treatments that inhibited postnatal androgen action. Conversely, growth and ultimate (adult) AGD was inhibited by prenatal inhibition of androgen production whereas postnatal androgen inhibition had negligible effect. Nevertheless, AGD and penis length were highly correlated at every age (R(2) > 0.33; p penis size reflects both prenatal + postnatal androgen exposure. At the group treatment level, prepubertal measurement of either AGD or penis size accurately predicts their size in adulthood. © 2011 The Authors. International Journal of Andrology © 2011 European Academy of Andrology.

  11. Central neuropeptide Y plays an important role in mediating the adaptation mechanism against chronic stress in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yu; Babygirija, Reji; Zheng, Jun; Shi, Bei; Sun, Weinan; Zheng, Xiaojiao; Zhang, Fan; Cao, Yu

    2018-02-07

    Exposure to continuous life stress often causes gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms. Studies have shown that neuropeptide Y (NPY) counteracts the biological actions of corticotrophin-releasing factor (CRF), and is involved in the termination of the stress response. However, in chronic repeated restraint stress (CRS) conditions, the actions of NPY on GI motility remain controversial. To evaluate the role of NPY in mediation of the adaptation mechanism and GI motility in CRS conditions, a CRS rat model was set up. Central CRF and NPY expression levels were analyzed, serum corticosterone and NPY concentrations were measured, and GI motor function was evaluated. The NPY Y1 receptor antagonist BIBP-3226 was centrally administered before stress loading, and on days, 1-5, of repeated stress, the central CRF and the serum corticosterone concentrations were measured. In addition, gastric and colonic motor functions were evaluated. The elevated central CRF expression and corticosterone concentration caused by acute stress began to fall after 3 days of stress loading, while central NPY expression and serum NPY began to increase. GI dysmotility also returned to a normal level. Pretreatment with BIBP-3226 abolished the adaptation mechanism, and significantly increased CRF expression and the corticosterone concentration, which resulted in delayed gastric emptying and accelerated fecal pellet output. Inhibited gastric motility and enhanced distal colonic motility were also recorded. CRS-produced adaptation, over-expressed central CRF, and GI dysmotility observed in acute restraint stress were restored to normal levels. Central NPY via the Y1 receptor plays an important role in mediating the adaptation mechanism against chronic stress. Copyright © 2018 Endocrine Society.

  12. The flinders sensitive line rats, a genetic model of depression, show abnormal serotonin receptor mRNA expression in the brain that is reversed by 17beta-estradiol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osterlund, M K; Overstreet, D H; Hurd, Y L

    1999-12-10

    The possible link between estrogen and serotonin (5-HT) in depression was investigated using a genetic animal model of depression, the Flinders Sensitive Line (FSL) rats, in comparison to control Flinders Resistant Line rats. The mRNA levels of the estrogen receptor (ER) alpha and beta subtypes and the 5-HT(1A) and 5-HT(2A) receptors were analyzed in several limbic-related areas of ovariectomized FSL and FRL rats treated with 17beta-estradiol (0.15 microg/g) or vehicle. The FSL animals were shown to express significantly lower levels of the 5-HT(2A) receptor transcripts in the perirhinal cortex, piriform cortex, and medial anterodorsal amygdala and higher levels in the CA 2-3 region of the hippocampus. The only significant difference between the rat lines in ER mRNA expression was found in the medial posterodorsal amygdala, where the FSL rats showed lower ERalpha expression levels. Overall, estradiol treatment increased 5-HT(2A) and decreased 5-HT(1A) receptor mRNA levels in several of the examined regions of both lines. Thus, in many areas, estradiol was found to regulate the 5-HT receptor mRNA expression in the opposite direction to the alterations found in the FSL rats. These findings further support the implication of 5-HT receptors, in particular the 5-HT(2A) subtype, in the etiology of affective disorders. Moreover, the ability of estradiol to regulate the expression of the 5-HT(1A) and 5-HT(2A) receptor genes might account for the reported influence of gonadal hormones in mood and depression.

  13. Diffusion tensor MRI shows progressive changes in the hippocampus and dentate gyrus after status epilepticus in rat - histological validation with Fourier-based analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salo, Raimo A; Miettinen, Tuukka; Laitinen, Teemu; Gröhn, Olli; Sierra, Alejandra

    2017-05-15

    Imaging markers for monitoring disease progression, recovery, and treatment efficacy are a major unmet need for many neurological diseases, including epilepsy. Recent evidence suggests that diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) provides high microstructural contrast even outside major white matter tracts. We hypothesized that in vivo DTI could detect progressive microstructural changes in the dentate gyrus and the hippocampal CA3bc in the rat brain after status epilepticus (SE). To test this hypothesis, we induced SE with systemic kainic acid or pilocarpine in adult male Wistar rats and subsequently scanned them using in vivo DTI at five time-points: prior to SE, and 10, 20, 34, and 79 days post SE. In order to tie the DTI findings to changes in the tissue microstructure, myelin- and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-stained sections from the same animals underwent Fourier analysis. We compared the Fourier analysis parameters, anisotropy index and angle of myelinated axons or astrocyte processes, to corresponding DTI parameters, fractional anisotropy (FA) and the orientation angle of the principal eigenvector. We found progressive detectable changes in DTI parameters in both the dentate gyrus (FA, axial diffusivity [D || ], linear anisotropy [CL] and spherical anisotropy [CS], pFourier analysis revealed that both myelinated axons and astrocyte processes played a role in the water diffusion anisotropy changes detected by DTI in individual portions of the dentate gyrus (suprapyramidal blade, mid-portion, and infrapyramidal blade). In the whole dentate gyrus, myelinated axons markedly contributed to the water diffusion changes. In CA3bc as well as in CA3b and CA3c, both myelinated axons and astrocyte processes contributed to water diffusion anisotropy and orientation. Our study revealed that DTI is a promising method for noninvasive detection of microstructural alterations in the hippocampus proper. These alterations may be potential imaging markers for epileptogenesis

  14. High mobility group box associated with cell proliferation appears to play an important role in hepatocellular carcinogenesis in rats and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Shugo; Takeshita, Kentaro; Asamoto, Makoto; Takahashi, Satoru; Kandori, Hitoshi; Tsujimura, Kazunari; Saito, Fumiyo; Masuko, Kazuo; Shirai, Tomoyuki

    2009-01-31

    To identify genes important in hepatocellular carcinogenesis, especially processes involved in malignant transformation, we focused on differences in gene expression between adenomas and carcinomas by DNA microarray. Eighty-one genes for which expression was specific in carcinomas were analyzed using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis software and Gene Ontology, and found to be associated with TP53 and regulators of cell proliferation. In the genes associated with TP53, we selected high mobility group box (HMGB) for detailed analysis. Immunohistochemistry revealed expression of HMGBs in carcinomas to be significantly higher than in other lesions among both human and rat liver, and a positive correlation between HMGBs and TP53 was detected in rat carcinomas. Knock-down of HMGB 2 expression in a rat hepatocellular carcinoma cell line by RNAi resulted in inhibition of cell growth, although no effects on invasion were evident in vitro. These results suggest that acquisition of malignant potential in the liver requires specific signaling pathways related to high cell proliferation associated with TP53. In particular, HMGBs appear to have an important role for progression and cell proliferation associated with loss of TP53 function in rat and in human hepatocarcinogenesis.

  15. High mobility group box associated with cell proliferation appears to play an important role in hepatocellular carcinogenesis in rats and humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Shugo; Takeshita, Kentaro; Asamoto, Makoto; Takahashi, Satoru; Kandori, Hitoshi; Tsujimura, Kazunari; Saito, Fumiyo; Masuko, Kazuo; Shirai, Tomoyuki

    2009-01-01

    To identify genes important in hepatocellular carcinogenesis, especially processes involved in malignant transformation, we focused on differences in gene expression between adenomas and carcinomas by DNA microarray. Eighty-one genes for which expression was specific in carcinomas were analyzed using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis software and Gene Ontology, and found to be associated with TP53 and regulators of cell proliferation. In the genes associated with TP53, we selected high mobility group box (HMGB) for detailed analysis. Immunohistochemistry revealed expression of HMGBs in carcinomas to be significantly higher than in other lesions among both human and rat liver, and a positive correlation between HMGBs and TP53 was detected in rat carcinomas. Knock-down of HMGB 2 expression in a rat hepatocellular carcinoma cell line by RNAi resulted in inhibition of cell growth, although no effects on invasion were evident in vitro. These results suggest that acquisition of malignant potential in the liver requires specific signaling pathways related to high cell proliferation associated with TP53. In particular, HMGBs appear to have an important role for progression and cell proliferation associated with loss of TP53 function in rat and in human hepatocarcinogenesis

  16. Fossil mice and rats show isotopic evidence of niche partitioning and change in dental ecomorphology related to dietary shift in Late Miocene of Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Yuri; Jacobs, Louis L; Cerling, Thure E; Uno, Kevin T; Ferguson, Kurt M; Flynn, Lawrence J; Patnaik, Rajeev

    2013-01-01

    Stable carbon isotope analysis in tooth enamel is a well-established approach to infer C3 and C4 dietary composition in fossil mammals. The bulk of past work has been conducted on large herbivorous mammals. One important finding is that their dietary habits of fossil large mammals track the late Miocene ecological shift from C3 forest and woodland to C4 savannah. However, few studies on carbon isotopes of fossil small mammals exist due to limitations imposed by the size of rodent teeth, and the isotopic ecological and dietary behaviors of small mammals to climate change remain unknown. Here we evaluate the impact of ecological change on small mammals by fine-scale comparisons of carbon isotope ratios (δ(13)C) with dental morphology of murine rodents, spanning 13.8 to ∼2.0 Ma, across the C3 to C4 vegetation shift in the Miocene Siwalik sequence of Pakistan. We applied in-situ laser ablation GC-IRMS to lower first molars and measured two grazing indices on upper first molars. Murine rodents yield a distinct, but related, record of past ecological conditions from large herbivorous mammals, reflecting available foods in their much smaller home ranges. In general, larger murine species show more positive δ(13)C values and have higher grazing indices than smaller species inhabiting the same area at any given age. Two clades of murine rodents experienced different rates of morphological change. In the faster-evolving clade, the timing and trend of morphological innovations are closely tied to consumption of C4 diet during the vegetation shift. This study provides quantitative evidence of linkages among diet, niche partitioning, and dental morphology at a more detailed level than previously possible.

  17. Fossil Mice and Rats Show Isotopic Evidence of Niche Partitioning and Change in Dental Ecomorphology Related to Dietary Shift in Late Miocene of Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Yuri; Jacobs, Louis L.; Cerling, Thure E.; Uno, Kevin T.; Ferguson, Kurt M.; Flynn, Lawrence J.; Patnaik, Rajeev

    2013-01-01

    Stable carbon isotope analysis in tooth enamel is a well-established approach to infer C3 and C4 dietary composition in fossil mammals. The bulk of past work has been conducted on large herbivorous mammals. One important finding is that their dietary habits of fossil large mammals track the late Miocene ecological shift from C3 forest and woodland to C4 savannah. However, few studies on carbon isotopes of fossil small mammals exist due to limitations imposed by the size of rodent teeth, and the isotopic ecological and dietary behaviors of small mammals to climate change remain unknown. Here we evaluate the impact of ecological change on small mammals by fine-scale comparisons of carbon isotope ratios (δ13C) with dental morphology of murine rodents, spanning 13.8 to ∼2.0 Ma, across the C3 to C4 vegetation shift in the Miocene Siwalik sequence of Pakistan. We applied in-situ laser ablation GC-IRMS to lower first molars and measured two grazing indices on upper first molars. Murine rodents yield a distinct, but related, record of past ecological conditions from large herbivorous mammals, reflecting available foods in their much smaller home ranges. In general, larger murine species show more positive δ13C values and have higher grazing indices than smaller species inhabiting the same area at any given age. Two clades of murine rodents experienced different rates of morphological change. In the faster-evolving clade, the timing and trend of morphological innovations are closely tied to consumption of C4 diet during the vegetation shift. This study provides quantitative evidence of linkages among diet, niche partitioning, and dental morphology at a more detailed level than previously possible. PMID:23936324

  18. Fossil mice and rats show isotopic evidence of niche partitioning and change in dental ecomorphology related to dietary shift in Late Miocene of Pakistan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri Kimura

    Full Text Available Stable carbon isotope analysis in tooth enamel is a well-established approach to infer C3 and C4 dietary composition in fossil mammals. The bulk of past work has been conducted on large herbivorous mammals. One important finding is that their dietary habits of fossil large mammals track the late Miocene ecological shift from C3 forest and woodland to C4 savannah. However, few studies on carbon isotopes of fossil small mammals exist due to limitations imposed by the size of rodent teeth, and the isotopic ecological and dietary behaviors of small mammals to climate change remain unknown. Here we evaluate the impact of ecological change on small mammals by fine-scale comparisons of carbon isotope ratios (δ(13C with dental morphology of murine rodents, spanning 13.8 to ∼2.0 Ma, across the C3 to C4 vegetation shift in the Miocene Siwalik sequence of Pakistan. We applied in-situ laser ablation GC-IRMS to lower first molars and measured two grazing indices on upper first molars. Murine rodents yield a distinct, but related, record of past ecological conditions from large herbivorous mammals, reflecting available foods in their much smaller home ranges. In general, larger murine species show more positive δ(13C values and have higher grazing indices than smaller species inhabiting the same area at any given age. Two clades of murine rodents experienced different rates of morphological change. In the faster-evolving clade, the timing and trend of morphological innovations are closely tied to consumption of C4 diet during the vegetation shift. This study provides quantitative evidence of linkages among diet, niche partitioning, and dental morphology at a more detailed level than previously possible.

  19. Importance of neural mechanisms in colonic mucosal and muscular dysfunction in adult rats following neonatal colonic irritation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaloner, A; Rao, A; Al-Chaer, E D; Greenwood-Van Meerveld, B

    2010-02-01

    Previous studies have shown that early life trauma induced by maternal separation or colonic irritation leads to hypersensitivity to colorectal distension in adulthood. We tested the hypothesis that repetitive colorectal distension in neonates leads to abnormalities in colonic permeability and smooth muscle function in the adult rat. In neonatal rats, repetitive colorectal distension was performed on days 8, 10, and 12. As adults, stool consistency was graded from 0 (formed stool) to 3 (liquid stool). Colonic tissue was isolated for histology and myeloperoxidase levels. The colonic mucosa was placed in modified Ussing chambers for measurements of permeability and short-circuit current responses to forskolin, electrical field stimulation, and carbachol. Segments of colonic musculature were placed in organ baths and contractile response to potassium chloride, electrical field stimulation, and carbachol were determined. In adult rats that experienced neonatal colonic irritation, no significant changes in colonic histology or myeloperoxidase activity were observed; however, stool consistency scores were increased. Mucosal permeability, measured as an increase in basal conductance, was significantly increased but no changes in short-circuit current responses were observed. In adulthood, rats that underwent colorectal distension as neonates exhibited an elevated smooth muscle contractile response to potassium chloride, but no changes in response to electrical field stimulation or carbachol. In summary, neonatal colonic irritation, shown previously to produce colonic hypersensitivity, leads to significant alterations in colonic mucosal and smooth muscle function characterized by loose stools, increased mucosal permeability, and increased smooth muscle contractility in the absence of colon inflammation in adulthood. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. PCB-153 shows different dynamics of mobilisation from differentiated rat adipocytes during lipolysis in comparison with PCB-28 and PCB-118.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louis, Caroline; Tinant, Gilles; Mignolet, Eric; Thomé, Jean-Pierre; Debier, Cathy

    2014-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent organic pollutants. Due to their lipophilic character, they are preferentially stored within the adipose tissue. During the mobilisation of lipids, PCBs might be released from adipocytes into the bloodstream. However, the mechanisms associated with the release of PCBs have been poorly studied. Several in vivo studies followed their dynamics of release but the complexity of the in vivo situation, which is characterised by a large range of pollutants, does not allow understanding precisely the behaviour of individual congeners. The present in vitro experiment studied the impact of (i) the number and position of chlorine atoms of PCBs on their release from adipocytes and (ii) the presence of other PCB congeners on the mobilisation rate of such molecules. Differentiated rat adipocytes were used to compare the behaviour of PCB-28, -118 and -153. Cells were contaminated with the three congeners, alone or in cocktail, and a lipolysis was then induced with isoproterenol during 12 hours. Our data indicate that the three congeners were efficiently released from adipocytes and accumulated in the medium during the lipolysis. Interestingly, for a same level of cell lipids, PCB-153, a hexa-CB with two chlorine atoms in ortho-position, was mobilised slower than PCB-28, a tri-CB, and PCB-118, a penta-CB, which are both characterised by one chlorine atom in ortho-position. It suggests an impact of the chemical properties of pollutants on their mobilisation during periods of negative energy balance. Moreover, the mobilisation of PCB congeners, taken individually, did not seem to be influenced by the presence of other congeners within adipocytes. These results not only highlight the obvious mobilisation of PCBs from adipocytes during lipolysis, in parallel to lipids, but also demonstrate that the structure of congeners defines their rate of release from adipocytes.

  1. Which component of treatment is important for changes of cortical epileptic afterdischarges after status epilepticus in immature rats?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tsenov, Grygoriy; Kubová, Hana; Mareš, Pavel

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 644, Mar 22 (2017), s. 1-4 ISSN 0304-3940 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP304/12/G069; GA ČR(CZ) GAP302/10/0971; GA ČR(CZ) GA15-16605S Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : status epilepticus * immature rats * pilocarpine * lithium chloride * paraldehyde * cortical epileptic afterdischarges Subject RIV: FH - Neurology OBOR OECD: Neuroscience s (including psychophysiology Impact factor: 2.180, year: 2016

  2. Importance of Maternal Diabetes on the Chronological Deregulation of the Intrauterine Development: An Experimental Study in Rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar García, Marcela; Reyes Maldonado, Elba; Revilla Monsalve, María Cristina; Villavicencio Guzmán, Laura; Reyes López, Alfonso; Sánchez-Gómez, Concepción

    2015-01-01

    We investigated whether maternal diabetes induced in rats using streptozotocin (STZ) on Day 5 of pregnancy affects the intrauterine developmental timeline. A total of 30 pregnant Sprague-Dawley diabetic rats (DRs) and 20 control rats (CRs) were used to obtain 21-day fetuses (F21) and newborn (NB) pups. Gestational age, weight, and body size were recorded as were the maxillofacial morphometry and morphohistological characteristics of the limbs. In DRs, pregnancy continued for ∼1.7 days, and delivery occurred 23 days postcoitus (DPC). In this group, the number of pups was lower, and 13% had maxillofacial defects. F21 in the DR group had lower weights and were smaller; moreover, the morphological characteristics of the maxillofacial structures, derived from the neural crest, were discordant with their chronological gestational age, resembling 18- to 19-day-old fetuses. These deficiencies were counterbalanced in NB pups. We conclude that hyperglycemia, which results from maternal diabetes and precedes embryo implantation, deregulates the intrauterine developmental timeline, restricts embryo-fetal growth, and primarily delays the remodeling and maturation of the structures derived from neural crest cells. PMID:25756053

  3. Importance of Maternal Diabetes on the Chronological Deregulation of the Intrauterine Development: An Experimental Study in Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Salazar García

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated whether maternal diabetes induced in rats using streptozotocin (STZ on Day 5 of pregnancy affects the intrauterine developmental timeline. A total of 30 pregnant Sprague-Dawley diabetic rats (DRs and 20 control rats (CRs were used to obtain 21-day fetuses (F21 and newborn (NB pups. Gestational age, weight, and body size were recorded as were the maxillofacial morphometry and morphohistological characteristics of the limbs. In DRs, pregnancy continued for ∼1.7 days, and delivery occurred 23 days postcoitus (DPC. In this group, the number of pups was lower, and 13% had maxillofacial defects. F21 in the DR group had lower weights and were smaller; moreover, the morphological characteristics of the maxillofacial structures, derived from the neural crest, were discordant with their chronological gestational age, resembling 18- to 19-day-old fetuses. These deficiencies were counterbalanced in NB pups. We conclude that hyperglycemia, which results from maternal diabetes and precedes embryo implantation, deregulates the intrauterine developmental timeline, restricts embryo-fetal growth, and primarily delays the remodeling and maturation of the structures derived from neural crest cells.

  4. Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey Kondrashov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to perform a chemical analysis of both Alibernet red wine and an alcohol-free Alibernet red wine extract (AWE and to investigate the effects of AWE on nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species production as well as blood pressure development in normotensive Wistar Kyoto (WKY and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs. Total antioxidant capacity together with total phenolic and selected mineral content was measured in wine and AWE. Young 6-week-old male WKY and SHR were treated with AWE (24,2 mg/kg/day for 3 weeks. Total NOS and SOD activities, eNOS and SOD1 protein expressions, and superoxide production were determined in the tissues. Both antioxidant capacity and phenolic content were significantly higher in AWE compared to wine. The AWE increased NOS activity in the left ventricle, aorta, and kidney of SHR, while it did not change NOS activity in WKY rats. Similarly, increased SOD activity in the plasma and left ventricle was observed in SHR only. There were no changes in eNOS and SOD1 expressions. In conclusion, phenolics and minerals included in AWE may contribute directly to increased NOS and SOD activities of SHR. Nevertheless, 3 weeks of AWE treatment failed to affect blood pressure of SHR.

  5. Mitochondrial damage: An important mechanism of ambient PM{sub 2.5} exposure-induced acute heart injury in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Ruijin; Kou, Xiaojing; Geng, Hong; Xie, Jingfang; Tian, Jingjing [Institute of Environmental Science, College of Environmental & Resource Sciences, Shanxi University, Taiyuan (China); Cai, Zongwei, E-mail: zwcai@hkbu.edu.hk [State Key Laboratory of Environmental and Biological Analysis, Department of Chemistry, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong SAR (China); Dong, Chuan, E-mail: dc@sxu.edu.cn [Institute of Environmental Science, College of Environmental & Resource Sciences, Shanxi University, Taiyuan (China)

    2015-04-28

    Highlights: • PM{sub 2.5} induces heart mitochondrial morphological damage of rats. • Mitochondrial fission/fusion gene expression is important regulation mechanism. • Proinflammatoy cytokine level changes are accompanied with mitochondrial damage. • Alterations in oxidative stress and calcium homeostasis are focused on. - Abstract: Epidemiological studies suggested that ambient fine particulate matter (PM{sub 2.5}) exposure was associated with cardiovascular disease. However, the underlying mechanism, especially the mitochondrial damage mechanism, of PM{sub 2.5}-induced heart acute injury is still unclear. In this study, the alterations of mitochondrial morphology and mitochondrial fission/fusion gene expression, oxidative stress, calcium homeostasis and inflammation in hearts of rats exposed to PM{sub 2.5} with different dosages (0.375, 1.5, 6.0 and 24.0 mg/kg body weight) were investigated. The results indicated that the PM{sub 2.5} exposure induced pathological changes and ultra-structural damage in hearts such as mitochondrial swell and cristae disorder. Furthermore, PM{sub 2.5} exposure significantly increased specific mitochondrial fission/fusion gene (Fis1, Mfn1, Mfn2, Drp1 and OPA1) expression in rat hearts. These changes were accompanied by decreases of activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), Na{sup +}K{sup +}-ATPase and Ca{sup 2+}-ATPase and increases of levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and nitric oxide (NO) as well as levels of pro-inflammatory mediators including TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β in rat hearts. The results implicate that mitochondrial damage, oxidative stress, cellular homeostasis imbalance and inflammation are potentially important mechanisms for the PM{sub 2.5}-induced heart injury, and may have relations with cardiovascular disease.

  6. Meta-analysis to estimate the load of Leptospira excreted in urine: beyond rats as important sources of transmission in low-income rural communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barragan, Veronica; Nieto, Nathan; Keim, Paul; Pearson, Talima

    2017-01-28

    Leptospirosis is a major zoonotic disease with widespread distribution and a large impact on human health. Carrier animals excrete pathogenic Leptospira primarily in their urine. Infection occurs when the pathogen enters a host through mucosa or small skin abrasions. Humans and other animals are exposed to the pathogen by direct contact with urine, contaminated soil or water. While many factors influence environmental cycling and the transmission of Leptospira to humans, the load of pathogenic Leptospira in the environment is likely to play a major role. Peridomestic rats are often implicated as a potential source of human disease; however exposure to other animals is a risk factor as well. The aim of this report is to highlight the importance of various carrier animals in terms of the quantity of Leptospira shed into the environment. For this, we performed a systematic literature review and a meta-analysis of the amount of pathogen that various animal species shed in their urine. The quantity of pathogen has been reported for cows, deer, dogs, humans, mice, and rats, in a total of 14 research articles. We estimated the average Leptospira per unit volume shed by each animal species, and the daily environmental contribution by considering the total volume of urine excreted by each carrier animal. Rats excrete the highest quantity of Leptospira per millilitre of urine (median = 5.7 × 10 6  cells), but large mammals excrete much more urine and thus shed significantly more Leptospira per day (5.1 × 10 8 to 1.3 × 10 9  cells). Here we illustrate how, in a low-income rural Ecuadorian community, host population demographics, and prevalence of Leptospira infection can be integrated with estimates of shed Leptospira to suggest that peridomestic cattle may be more important than rats in environmental cycling and ultimately, transmission to humans.

  7. Background synaptic activity in rat entorhinal cortex shows a progressively greater dominance of inhibition over excitation from deep to superficial layers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart David Greenhill

    Full Text Available The entorhinal cortex (EC controls hippocampal input and output, playing major roles in memory and spatial navigation. Different layers of the EC subserve different functions and a number of studies have compared properties of neurones across layers. We have studied synaptic inhibition and excitation in EC neurones, and we have previously compared spontaneous synaptic release of glutamate and GABA using patch clamp recordings of synaptic currents in principal neurones of layers II (L2 and V (L5. Here, we add comparative studies in layer III (L3. Such studies essentially look at neuronal activity from a presynaptic viewpoint. To correlate this with the postsynaptic consequences of spontaneous transmitter release, we have determined global postsynaptic conductances mediated by the two transmitters, using a method to estimate conductances from membrane potential fluctuations. We have previously presented some of this data for L3 and now extend to L2 and L5. Inhibition dominates excitation in all layers but the ratio follows a clear rank order (highest to lowest of L2>L3>L5. The variance of the background conductances was markedly higher for excitation and inhibition in L2 compared to L3 or L5. We also show that induction of synchronized network epileptiform activity by blockade of GABA inhibition reveals a relative reluctance of L2 to participate in such activity. This was associated with maintenance of a dominant background inhibition in L2, whereas in L3 and L5 the absolute level of inhibition fell below that of excitation, coincident with the appearance of synchronized discharges. Further experiments identified potential roles for competition for bicuculline by ambient GABA at the GABAA receptor, and strychnine-sensitive glycine receptors in residual inhibition in L2. We discuss our results in terms of control of excitability in neuronal subpopulations of EC neurones and what these may suggest for their functional roles.

  8. Passive mechanical properties of rat abdominal wall muscles suggest an important role of the extracellular connective tissue matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Stephen H M; Carr, John Austin; Ward, Samuel R; Lieber, Richard L

    2012-08-01

    Abdominal wall muscles have a unique morphology suggesting a complex role in generating and transferring force to the spinal column. Studying passive mechanical properties of these muscles may provide insights into their ability to transfer force among structures. Biopsies from rectus abdominis (RA), external oblique (EO), internal oblique (IO), and transverse abdominis (TrA) were harvested from male Sprague-Dawley rats, and single muscle fibers and fiber bundles (4-8 fibers ensheathed in their connective tissue matrix) were isolated and mechanically stretched in a passive state. Slack sarcomere lengths were measured and elastic moduli were calculated from stress-strain data. Titin molecular mass was also measured from single muscle fibers. No significant differences were found among the four abdominal wall muscles in terms of slack sarcomere length or elastic modulus. Interestingly, across all four muscles, slack sarcomere lengths were quite long in individual muscle fibers (>2.4 µm), and demonstrated a significantly longer slack length in comparison to fiber bundles (p resistance to lengthening at long muscle lengths. Titin molecular mass was significantly less in TrA compared to each of the other three muscles (p < 0.0009), but this difference did not correspond to hypothesized differences in stiffness. Copyright © 2012 Orthopaedic Research Society.

  9. Data showing non-conventional HLA-B27 expression in axial joints and gut tissue from B27 transgenic rats, and in frozen and paraffin-fixed synovial SpA tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliwia Rysnik

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Data is presented showing expression of non-conventional (NC heavy chain forms of B27 in synovial tissues from SpA patients. Data is presented showing the expression patterns of NC-B27 in joint, gastrointestinal and lymphoid tissues from B27 transgenic (TG1 rats with M. tuberculosis-induced SpA. Expression of NC-B27 was determined by immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry using HC10 and HD6 antibodies. These data are the extension of the data presented and discussed in “Non-conventional forms of HLA-B27 are expressed in Spondyloarthritis joints and gut tissue” (O. Rysnik, K. McHugh, L. M. van Duivenvoorde, M. N. van Tok, G. Guggino, J. D. Taurog, S. Kollnberger, F. Ciccia, D. L. Baeten, P. Bowness, 2016 [1].

  10. Improvements and important considerations for the 5-choice serial reaction time task-An effective measurement of visual attention in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandari, Jayant; Daya, Ritesh; Mishra, Ram K

    2016-09-01

    The 5-choice serial reaction time task (5-CSRTT) is an automated operant conditioning task that measures rodent attention. The task allows the measurement of several parameters such as response accuracy, speed of processing, motivation, and impulsivity. The task has been widely used to investigate attentional processes in rodents for attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder and has expanded to other illnesses such as Alzheimer's disease, depression, and schizophrenia. The 5-CSRTT is accompanied with two significant caveats: a time intensive training period and largely varied individual rat capability to learn and perform the task. Here we provide a regimented acquisition protocol to enhance training for the 5-CSRTT and discuss important considerations for researchers using the 5-CSRTT. We offer guidelines to ensure that inferences on performance in the 5-CSRTT are in fact a result of experimental manipulation rather than training differences, or individual animal capability. According to our findings only rats that have been trained successfully within a limited time frame should be used for the remainder of the study. Currently the 5-CSRTT employs a training period of variable duration and procedure, and its inferences on attention must overcome heterogeneous innate animal differences. The 5-CSRTT offers valuable and valid insights on various rodent attentional processes and their translation to the underpinnings of illnesses such as schizophrenia. The recommendations made here provide important criteria to ensure inferences made from this task are in fact relevant to the attentional processes being measured. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. PARP-1 and YY1 are important novel regulators of CXCL12 gene transcription in rat pancreatic beta cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Marković

    Full Text Available Despite significant progress, the molecular mechanisms responsible for pancreatic beta cell depletion and development of diabetes remain poorly defined. At present, there is no preventive measure against diabetes. The positive impact of CXCL12 expression on the pancreatic beta cell prosurvival phenotype initiated this study. Our aim was to provide novel insight into the regulation of rat CXCL12 gene (Cxcl12 transcription. The roles of poly(ADP-ribose polymerase-1 (PARP-1 and transcription factor Yin Yang 1 (YY1 in Cxcl12 transcription were studied by examining their in vitro and in vivo binding affinities for the Cxcl12 promoter in a pancreatic beta cell line by the electrophoretic mobility shift assay and chromatin immunoprecipitation. The regulatory activities of PARP-1 and YY1 were assessed in transfection experiments using a reporter vector with a Cxcl12 promoter sequence driving luciferase gene expression. Experimental evidence for PARP-1 and YY1 revealed their trans-acting potential, wherein PARP-1 displayed an inhibitory, and YY1 a strong activating effect on Cxcl12 transcription. Streptozotocin (STZ-induced general toxicity in pancreatic beta cells was followed by changes in Cxcl12 promoter regulation. PARP-1 binding to the Cxcl12 promoter during basal and in STZ-compromised conditions led us to conclude that PARP-1 regulates constitutive Cxcl12 expression. During the early stage of oxidative stress, YY1 exhibited less affinity toward the Cxcl12 promoter while PARP-1 displayed strong binding. These interactions were accompanied by Cxcl12 downregulation. In the later stages of oxidative stress and intensive pancreatic beta cell injury, YY1 was highly expressed and firmly bound to Cxcl12 promoter in contrast to PARP-1. These interactions resulted in higher Cxcl12 expression. The observed ability of PARP-1 to downregulate, and of YY1 to upregulate Cxcl12 promoter activity anticipates corresponding effects in the natural context where the

  12. Association rules for rat spatial learning: the importance of the hippocampus for binding item identity with item location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albasser, Mathieu M; Dumont, Julie R; Amin, Eman; Holmes, Joshua D; Horne, Murray R; Pearce, John M; Aggleton, John P

    2013-12-01

    Three cohorts of rats with extensive hippocampal lesions received multiple tests to examine the relationships between particular forms of associative learning and an influential account of hippocampal function (the cognitive map hypothesis). Hippocampal lesions spared both the ability to discriminate two different digging media and to discriminate two different room locations in a go/no-go task when each location was approached from a single direction. Hippocampal lesions had, however, differential effects on a more complex task (biconditional discrimination) where the correct response was signaled by the presence or absence of specific cues. For all biconditional tasks, digging in one medium (A) was rewarded in the presence of cue C, while digging in medium B was rewarded in the presences of cue D. Such biconditional tasks are "configural" as no individual cue or element predicts the solution (AC+, AD-, BD+, and BC-). When proximal context cues signaled the correct digging choice, biconditional learning was seemingly unaffected by hippocampal lesions. Severe deficits occurred, however, when the correct digging choice was signaled by distal room cues. Also, impaired was the ability to discriminate two locations when each location was approached from two directions. A task demand that predicted those tasks impaired by hippocampal damage was the need to combine specific cues with their relative spatial positions ("structural learning"). This ability makes it possible to distinguish the same cues set in different spatial arrays. Thus, the hippocampus appears necessary for configural discriminations involving structure, discriminations that potentially underlie the creation of cognitive maps. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Hippocampus Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Is the ipsilateral cortex surrounding the lesion or the non-injured contralateral cortex important for motor recovery in rats with photochemically induced cortical lesions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takata, Kotaro; Yamauchi, Hideki; Tatsuno, Hisashi; Hashimoto, Keiji; Abo, Masahiro

    2006-01-01

    To determine whether the ipsilateral cortex surrounding the lesion or the non-injured contralateral cortex is important for motor recovery after brain damage in the photochemically initiated thrombosis (PIT) model. We induced PIT in the sensorimotor cortex in rats and examined the recovery of motor function using the beam-walking test. In 24 rats, the right sensorimotor cortex was lesioned after 2 days of training for the beam-walking test (group 1). After 10 days, PIT was induced in the left sensorimotor cortex. Eight additional rats (group 2) received 2 days training in beam walking, then underwent the beam-walking test to evaluate function. After 10 days of testing, the left sensorimotor cortex was lesioned and recovery was monitored by the beam-walking test for 8 days. In group 1 animals, left hindlimb function caused by a right sensorimotor cortex lesion recovered within 10 days after the operation. Right hindlimb function caused by the left-side lesion recovered within 6 days. In group 2, right hindlimb function caused by induction of the left-side lesion after a total of 12 days of beam-walking training and testing recovered within 6 days as with the double PIT model. The training effect may be relevant to reorganization and neuromodulation. Motor recovery patterns did not indicate whether motor recovery was dependent on the ipsilateral cortex surrounding the lesion or the cortex of the contralateral side. The results emphasize the need for selection of appropriate programs tailored to the area of cortical damage in order to enhance motor functional recovery in this model. Copyright 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Post-cancer Treatment with Condurango 30C Shows Amelioration of Benzo[a]pyrene-induced Lung Cancer in Rats Through the Molecular Pathway of Caspa- se-3-mediated Apoptosis Induction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sikdar Sourav

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The present investigation aimed at examining if post-cancer treatment with a potentized homeopathic drug, Condurango 30C, which is generally used to treat oesophageal cancer, could also show an ameliorating effect through apoptosis induction on lung cancer induced by benzo[a]pyrene (BaP in white rats (Rattus norvegicus. Methods: Lung cancer was induced after four months by chronic feeding of BaP to rats through gavage at a dose of 50 mg/kg body weight for one month. After four months, the lung-cancer-bearing rats were treated with Condurango 30C for the next one (5th, two (5th-6th and three (5th-7th months, respectively, and were sacrificed at the corresponding time- points. The ameliorating effect, if any, after Condurango 30C treatment for the various periods was evaluated by using protocols such as histology, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, annexinV-FITC/PI assay, flow cytometry of the apoptosis marker, DNA fragmentation, reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR, immunohistochemistry, and western blot analyses of lung tissue samples. Results: Striking recovery of lung tissue to a near normal status was noticed after post-cancerous drug treatment, as evidenced by SEM and histology, especially after one and two months of drug treatment. Data from the annexinV-FITC/PI and DNA fragmentation assays revealed that Condurango 30C could induce apoptosis in cancer cells after post-cancer treatment. A critical analysis of signalling cascade, evidenced through a RT-PCR study, demonstrated up-regulation and down-regulation of different pro- and anti-apoptotic genes, respectively, related to a caspase-3-mediated apoptotic pathway, which was especially discernible after one-month and two- month drug treatments. Correspondingly, Western blot and immunohistochemistry studies confirmed the ameliorative potential of Condurango 30C by its ability to down-regulate the elevated epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR expression, a

  15. Obesity in show cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbee, R J

    2014-12-01

    Obesity is an important disease with a high prevalence in cats. Because obesity is related to several other diseases, it is important to identify the population at risk. Several risk factors for obesity have been described in the literature. A higher incidence of obesity in certain cat breeds has been suggested. The aim of this study was to determine whether obesity occurs more often in certain breeds. The second aim was to relate the increased prevalence of obesity in certain breeds to the official standards of that breed. To this end, 268 cats of 22 different breeds investigated by determining their body condition score (BCS) on a nine-point scale by inspection and palpation, at two different cat shows. Overall, 45.5% of the show cats had a BCS > 5, and 4.5% of the show cats had a BCS > 7. There were significant differences between breeds, which could be related to the breed standards. Most overweight and obese cats were in the neutered group. It warrants firm discussions with breeders and cat show judges to come to different interpretations of the standards in order to prevent overweight conditions in certain breeds from being the standard of beauty. Neutering predisposes for obesity and requires early nutritional intervention to prevent obese conditions. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  16. Lesions to the subthalamic nucleus decrease impulsive choice but impair autoshaping in rats: the importance of the basal ganglia in Pavlovian conditioning and impulse control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winstanley, Catharine A; Baunez, Christelle; Theobald, David E H; Robbins, Trevor W

    2005-06-01

    Although the subthalamic nucleus (STN) is involved in regulating motor function, and inactivation of this structure relieves the motor symptoms in Parkinsonian patients, recent data indicate that corticosubthalamic connections are involved in both the regulation of attention and the ability to withhold from responding. Considerable evidence suggests that the neural circuitry underlying such behavioural disinhibition or impulsive action can be at least partially dissociated from that implicated in impulsive decision-making and it has been suggested that the tendency to choose impulsively is related to the ability to form and use Pavlovian associations. To explore these hypotheses further, STN-lesioned rats were tested on the delay-discounting model of impulsive choice, where impulsivity is defined as the selection of a small immediate over a larger delayed reward, as well as in a rodent autoshaping paradigm. In contrast to previous reports of increased impulsive action, STN lesions decreased impulsive choice but dramatically impaired the acquisition of the autoshaping response. When the STN was lesioned after the establishment of autoshaping behaviour, lesioned subjects were more sensitive to the omission of reward, indicative of a reduction in the use of Pavlovian associations to control autoshaping performance. These results emphasize the importance of the STN in permitting conditioned stimulus-unconditioned stimulus associations to regulate goal-seeking, a function which may relate to the alterations in impulsive choice observed in the delay-discounting task. These data bear a striking similarity to those observed after lesions of the orbitofrontal cortex and are suggestive of an important role for corticosubthalamic connections in complex cognitive behaviour.

  17. The effects of exercise on cocaine self-administration, food-maintained responding, and locomotor activity in female rats: importance of the temporal relationship between physical activity and initial drug exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Mark A; Witte, Maryam A

    2012-12-01

    Previous studies have reported that exercise decreases cocaine self-administration in rats with long-term access (8+ weeks) to activity wheels in the home cage. The purpose of this study was to (a) examine the importance of the temporal relationship between physical activity and initial drug exposure, (b) determine the effects of exercise on responding maintained by a nondrug reinforcer (i.e., food), and (c) investigate the effects of exercise on cocaine-induced increases in locomotor activity. To this end, female rats were obtained at weaning and divided into 4 groups: (a) EXE-SED rats were housed in exercise cages for 6 weeks and then transferred to sedentary cages after the first day of behavioral testing; (b) SED-EXE rats were housed in sedentary cages for 6 weeks and then transferred to exercise cages after the first day of behavioral testing; (c) SED-SED rats remained in sedentary cages for the duration of the study; and (d) EXE-EXE rats remained in exercise cages for the duration of the study. Relative to the sedentary group (SED-SED), exercise reduced cocaine self-administration in both groups with access to activity wheels after initial drug exposure (EXE-EXE, SED-EXE) but did not reduce cocaine self-administration in the group with access to activity wheels only before drug exposure (EXE-SED). Exercise also decreased the effects of cocaine on locomotor activity but did not reduce responding maintained by food. These data suggest that exercise may reduce cocaine use in drug-experienced individuals with no prior history of aerobic activity without decreasing other types of positively reinforced behaviors.

  18. RESEARCH SHOWS IMPORTANCE OF RIPARIAN BUFFERS FOR AQUATIC HEALTH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issue: Excess nitrogen from fertilizer, septic tanks, animal feedlots, and runoff from pavement can threaten aquatic ecosystem health. Riparian buffers -- the vegetated region adjacent to streams and wetlands -- are thought to be effective at intercepting and controlling excess ...

  19. Showing Value (Editorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Koufogiannakis

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available When Su Cleyle and I first decided to start Evidence Based Library and Information Practice, one of the things we agreed upon immediately was that the journal be open access. We knew that a major obstacle to librarians using the research literature was that they did not have access to the research literature. Although Su and I are both academic librarians who can access a wide variety of library and information literature from our institutions, we belong to a profession where not everyone has equal access to the research in our field. Without such access to our own body of literature, how can we ever hope for practitioners to use research evidence in their decision making? It would have been contradictory to the principles of evidence based library and information practice to do otherwise.One of the specific groups we thought could use such an open access venue for discovering research literature was school librarians. School librarians are often isolated and lacking access to the research literature that may help them prove to stakeholders the importance of their libraries and their role within schools. Certainly, school libraries have been in decline and the use of evidence to show value is needed. As Ken Haycock noted in his 2003 report, The Crisis in Canada’s School Libraries: The Case for Reform and Reinvestment, “Across the country, teacher-librarians are losing their jobs or being reassigned. Collections are becoming depleted owing to budget cuts. Some principals believe that in the age of the Internet and the classroom workstation, the school library is an artifact” (9. Within this context, school librarians are looking to our research literature for evidence of the impact that school library programs have on learning outcomes and student success. They are integrating that evidence into their practice, and reflecting upon what can be improved locally. They are focusing on students and showing the impact of school libraries and

  20. Show-Bix &

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The anti-reenactment 'Show-Bix &' consists of 5 dias projectors, a dial phone, quintophonic sound, and interactive elements. A responsive interface will enable the Dias projectors to show copies of original dias slides from the Show-Bix piece ”March på Stedet”, 265 images in total. The copies are...

  1. Measuring performance at trade shows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kåre

    2004-01-01

    Trade shows is an increasingly important marketing activity to many companies, but current measures of trade show performance do not adequately capture dimensions important to exhibitors. Based on the marketing literature's outcome and behavior-based control system taxonomy, a model is built...... that captures a outcome-based sales dimension and four behavior-based dimensions (i.e. information-gathering, relationship building, image building, and motivation activities). A 16-item instrument is developed for assessing exhibitors perceptions of their trade show performance. The paper presents evidence...

  2. Talking with TV shows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandvik, Kjetil; Laursen, Ditte

    2014-01-01

    User interaction with radio and television programmes is not a new thing. However, with new cross-media production concepts such as X Factor and Voice, this is changing dramatically. The second-screen logic of these productions encourages viewers, along with TV’s traditional one-way communication...... mode, to communicate on interactive (dialogue-enabling) devices such as laptops, smartphones and tablets. Using the TV show Voice as our example, this article shows how the technological and situational set-up of the production invites viewers to engage in new ways of interaction and communication...

  3. Talk Show Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Mitzi Ruth

    1992-01-01

    Proposes having students perform skits in which they play the roles of the science concepts they are trying to understand. Provides the dialog for a skit in which hot and cold gas molecules are interviewed on a talk show to study how these properties affect wind, rain, and other weather phenomena. (MDH)

  4. Honored Teacher Shows Commitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratte, Kathy

    1987-01-01

    Part of the acceptance speech of the 1985 National Council for the Social Studies Teacher of the Year, this article describes the censorship experience of this honored social studies teacher. The incident involved the showing of a videotape version of the feature film entitled "The Seduction of Joe Tynan." (JDH)

  5. Localizing by autoradiography at -195 deg radioactive areas in rats exposed to a high flux of thermal neutrons, importance of phosphorus 32 in consecutive internal irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chanteur, J.; Pellerin, P.

    1961-01-01

    Rats weighing 25 g were exposed for 5 mn to a flux of 6.10 12 thermal neutrons/cm 2 /s. Anatomical autoradiography at -195 deg. C has enabled the radioactive organs to be easily localised, to follow in course of time the decrease of radioactivity, and from it to deduce the probable nature of the numerous emitters in question. In particular, the phosphorus 32 has thus appeared to be one of those responsible for internal irradiation, general, on the one hand, by activating cellular phosphorus, local, on the other, by activating bony phosphates. Owing to this, an accidental irradiation by neutrons might have consequences that are both somatic (elective irradiation of the bone marrow) and genetic (activation of nucleic acids). The gamma spectrometry has confirmed the nature of certain other emitters. (author) [fr

  6. Feeding of the water extract from Ganoderma lingzhi to rats modulates secondary bile acids, intestinal microflora, mucins, and propionate important to colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yongshou; Nirmagustina, Dwi Eva; Kumrungsee, Thanutchaporn; Okazaki, Yukako; Tomotake, Hiroyuki; Kato, Norihisa

    2017-09-01

    Consumption of reishi mushroom has been reported to prevent colon carcinogenesis in rodents, although the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. To investigate this effect, rats were fed a high-fat diet supplemented with 5% water extract from either the reishi mushroom (Ganoderma lingzhi) (WGL) or the auto-digested reishi G. lingzhi (AWGL) for three weeks. Both extracts markedly reduced fecal secondary bile acids, such as lithocholic acid and deoxycholic acid (colon carcinogens). These extracts reduced the numbers of Clostridium coccoides and Clostridium leptum (secondary bile acids-producing bacteria) in a per g of cecal digesta. Fecal mucins and cecal propionate were significantly elevated by both extracts, and fecal IgA was significantly elevated by WGL, but not by AWGL. These results suggest that the reishi extracts have an impact on colon luminal health by modulating secondary bile acids, microflora, mucins, and propionate that related to colon cancer.

  7. The energy show

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The Energy Show is a new look at the problems of world energy, where our supplies come from, now and in the future. The programme looks at how we need energy to maintain our standards of living. Energy supply is shown as the complicated set of problems it is - that Fossil Fuels are both raw materials and energy sources, that some 'alternatives' so readily suggested as practical options are in reality a long way from being effective. (author)

  8. Loss of Intralipid®- but not sevoflurane-mediated cardioprotection in early type-2 diabetic hearts of fructose-fed rats: importance of ROS signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phing-How Lou

    Full Text Available Insulin resistance and early type-2 diabetes are highly prevalent. However, it is unknown whether Intralipid® and sevoflurane protect the early diabetic heart against ischemia-reperfusion injury.Early type-2 diabetic hearts from Sprague-Dawley rats fed for 6 weeks with fructose were exposed to 15 min of ischemia and 30 min of reperfusion. Intralipid® (1% was administered at the onset of reperfusion. Peri-ischemic sevoflurane (2 vol.-% served as alternative protection strategy. Recovery of left ventricular function was recorded and the activation of Akt and ERK 1/2 was monitored. Mitochondrial function was assessed by high-resolution respirometry and mitochondrial ROS production was measured by Amplex Red and aconitase activity assays. Acylcarnitine tissue content was measured and concentration-response curves of complex IV inhibition by palmitoylcarnitine were obtained.Intralipid® did not exert protection in early diabetic hearts, while sevoflurane improved functional recovery. Sevoflurane protection was abolished by concomitant administration of the ROS scavenger N-2-mercaptopropionyl glycine. Sevoflurane, but not Intralipid® produced protective ROS during reperfusion, which activated Akt. Intralipid® failed to inhibit respiratory complex IV, while sevoflurane inhibited complex I. Early diabetic hearts exhibited reduced carnitine-palmitoyl-transferase-1 activity, but palmitoylcarnitine could not rescue protection and enhance postischemic functional recovery. Cardiac mitochondria from early diabetic rats exhibited an increased content of subunit IV-2 of respiratory complex IV and of uncoupling protein-3.Early type-2 diabetic hearts lose complex IV-mediated protection by Intralipid® potentially due to a switch in complex IV subunit expression and increased mitochondrial uncoupling, but are amenable to complex I-mediated sevoflurane protection.

  9. Poly (ADP-ribose polymerase plays an important role in intermittent hypoxia-induced cell death in rat cerebellar granule cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiu Sheng-Chun

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Episodic cessation of airflow during sleep in patients with sleep apnea syndrome results in intermittent hypoxia (IH. Our aim was to investigate the effects of IH on cerebellar granule cells and to identify the mechanism of IH-induced cell death. Methods Cerebellar granule cells were freshly prepared from neonatal Sprague-Dawley rats. IH was created by culturing the cerebellar granule cells in the incubators with oscillating O2 concentration at 20% and 5% every 30 min for 1-4 days. The results of this study are based on image analysis using a confocal microscope and associated software. Cellular oxidative stress increased with increase in IH. In addition, the occurrence of cell death (apoptosis and necrosis increased as the duration of IH increased, but decreased in the presence of an iron chelator (phenanthroline or poly (ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP inhibitors [3-aminobenzamide (3-AB and DPQ]. The fluorescence of caspase-3 remained the same regardless of the duration of IH, and Western blots did not detect activation of caspase-3. However, IH increased the ratio of apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF translocation to the nucleus, while PARP inhibitors (3-AB reduced this ratio. Results According to our findings, IH increased oxidative stress and subsequently leading to cell death. This effect was at least partially mediated by PARP activation, resulting in ATP depletion, calpain activation leading to AIF translocation to the nucleus. Conclusions We suggest that IH induces cell death in rat primary cerebellar granule cells by stimulating oxidative stress PARP-mediated calpain and AIF activation.

  10. The scopolamine-reversal paradigm in rats and monkeys: the importance of computer-assisted operant-conditioning memory tasks for screening drug candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buccafusco, Jerry J; Terry, Alvin V; Webster, Scott J; Martin, Daniel; Hohnadel, Elizabeth J; Bouchard, Kristy A; Warner, Samantha E

    2008-08-01

    The scopolamine-reversal model is enjoying a resurgence of interest in clinical studies as a reversible pharmacological model for Alzheimer's disease (AD). The cognitive impairment associated with scopolamine is similar to that in AD. The scopolamine model is not simply a cholinergic model, as it can be reversed by drugs that are noncholinergic cognition-enhancing agents. The objective of the study was to determine relevance of computer-assisted operant-conditioning tasks in the scopolamine-reversal model in rats and monkeys. Rats were evaluated for their acquisition of a spatial reference memory task in the Morris water maze. A separate cohort was proficient in performance of an automated delayed stimulus discrimination task (DSDT). Rhesus monkeys were proficient in the performance of an automated delayed matching-to-sample task (DMTS). The AD drug donepezil was evaluated for its ability to reverse the decrements in accuracy induced by scopolamine administration in all three tasks. In the DSDT and DMTS tasks, the effects of donepezil were delay (retention interval)-dependent, affecting primarily short delay trials. Donepezil produced significant but partial reversals of the scopolamine-induced impairment in task accuracies after 2 mg/kg in the water maze, after 1 mg/kg in the DSDT, and after 50 microg/kg in the DMTS task. The two operant-conditioning tasks (DSDT and DMTS) provided data most in keeping with those reported in clinical studies with these drugs. The model applied to nonhuman primates provides an excellent transitional model for new cognition-enhancing drugs before clinical trials.

  11. Sex differences in the stress response in SD rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jing; Wu, Xue-Yan; Zhu, Qiong-Bin; Li, Jia; Shi, Li-Gen; Wu, Juan-Li; Zhang, Qi-Jun; Huang, Man-Li; Bao, Ai-Min

    2015-05-01

    Sex differences play an important role in depression, the basis of which is an excessive stress response. We aimed at revealing the neurobiological sex differences in the same study in acute- and chronically-stressed rats. Female Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into 6 groups: chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS), acute foot shock (FS) and controls, animals in all 3 groups were sacrificed in proestrus or diestrus. Male SD rats were randomly divided into 3 groups: CUMS, FS and controls. Comparisons were made of behavioral changes in CUMS and control rats, plasma levels of corticosterone (CORT), testosterone (T) and estradiol (E2), and of the hypothalamic mRNA-expression of stress-related molecules, i.e. estrogen receptor α and β, androgen receptor, aromatase, mineralocorticoid receptor, glucocorticoid receptor, corticotropin-releasing hormone, arginine vasopressin and oxytocin. CUMS resulted in disordered estrus cycles, more behavioral and hypothalamic stress-related molecules changes and a stronger CORT response in female rats compared with male rats. Female rats also showed decreased E2 and T levels after FS and CUMS, while male FS rats showed increased E2 and male CUMS rats showed decreased T levels. Stress affects the behavioral, endocrine and the molecular response of the stress systems in the hypothalamus of SD rats in a clear sexual dimorphic way, which has parallels in human data on stress and depression. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Different importance of the volatile and non-volatile fractions of an olfactory signature for individual social recognition in rats versus mice and short-term versus long-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noack, Julia; Richter, Karin; Laube, Gregor; Haghgoo, Hojjat Allah; Veh, Rüdiger W; Engelmann, Mario

    2010-11-01

    When tested in the olfactory cued social recognition/discrimination test, rats and mice differ in their retention of a recognition memory for a previously encountered conspecific juvenile: Rats are able to recognize a given juvenile for approximately 45 min only whereas mice show not only short-term, but also long-term recognition memory (≥ 24 h). Here we modified the social recognition/social discrimination procedure to investigate the neurobiological mechanism(s) underlying the species differences. We presented a conspecific juvenile repeatedly to the experimental subjects and monitored the investigation duration as a measure for recognition. Presentation of only the volatile fraction of the juvenile olfactory signature was sufficient for both short- and long-term recognition in mice but not rats. Applying additional volatile, mono-molecular odours to the "to be recognized" juveniles failed to affect short-term memory in both species, but interfered with long-term recognition in mice. Finally immunocytochemical analysis of c-Fos as a marker for cellular activation, revealed that juvenile exposure stimulated areas involved in the processing of olfactory signals in both the main and the accessory olfactory bulb in mice. In rats, we measured an increased c-Fos synthesis almost exclusively in cells of the accessory olfactory bulb. Our data suggest that the species difference in the retention of social recognition memory is based on differences in the processing of the volatile versus non-volatile fraction of the individuals' olfactory signature. The non-volatile fraction is sufficient for retaining a short-term social memory only. Long-term social memory - as observed in mice - requires a processing of both the volatile and non-volatile fractions of the olfactory signature. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. treated rats

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    aghomotsegin

    2014-01-08

    Jan 8, 2014 ... nucleus, bizarre segmentation; (I) shows hypersegmentation, bizarre segmentation of neutrophils in the shape of ring nucleus with polychromatophilic RBCs. 1998; Muller and Tobin, 1980). The current study shows that rats administered C. edulis hydro-ethanol extract, orally for 28 days, developed anemia, ...

  14. Correlation of catecholamine levels in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and reduced sexual behavior in middle-aged male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Joyce C; Tsai, Houng-Wei; Yeh, Kuei-Ying; Tai, Mei-Yun; Tsai, Yuan-Feen

    2008-07-01

    The correlation between dopamine (DA) and norepinephrine (NE) levels in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) and male sexual behavior was examined in middle-aged rats. Male rats (18-19 months) were divided into: (a) Group MIE, consisting of rats showing mounts, intromissions, and ejaculations; (b) Group MI, composed of rats showing mounts and intromissions, but no ejaculation; and (c) Group NC, consisting of noncopulators. Young adult rats (4-5 months) displaying complete copulatory behavior were used as the control. Tissue levels of DA, NE, and DA metabolites in the BNST were measured by high-pressure liquid chromatography. DA, but not NE, levels in MIE rats were significantly lower than those in young controls. DA and NE levels in MIE rats were significantly higher than those in NC rats. These results suggest that DA and NE in the BNST might play an important role in the control of male sexual behavior in middle-aged rats.

  15. Importance measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez Cobo, A.

    1997-01-01

    The presentation discusses the following: general concepts of importance measures; example fault tree, used to illustrate importance measures; Birnbaum's structural importance; criticality importance; Fussel-Vesely importance; upgrading function; risk achievement worth; risk reduction worth

  16. Localizing by autoradiography at -195 deg radioactive areas in rats exposed to a high flux of thermal neutrons, importance of phosphorus 32 in consecutive internal irradiation; Localisation par autoradiographie a -195 deg des zones radioactives chez le rat expose a un haut flux de neutrons thermiques, importance du phosphore 32 dans l'irradiation interne consecutive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chanteur, J; Pellerin, P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1961-07-01

    Rats weighing 25 g were exposed for 5 mn to a flux of 6.10{sup 12} thermal neutrons/cm{sup 2}/s. Anatomical autoradiography at -195 deg. C has enabled the radioactive organs to be easily localised, to follow in course of time the decrease of radioactivity, and from it to deduce the probable nature of the numerous emitters in question. In particular, the phosphorus 32 has thus appeared to be one of those responsible for internal irradiation, general, on the one hand, by activating cellular phosphorus, local, on the other, by activating bony phosphates. Owing to this, an accidental irradiation by neutrons might have consequences that are both somatic (elective irradiation of the bone marrow) and genetic (activation of nucleic acids). The gamma spectrometry has confirmed the nature of certain other emitters. (author) [French] Des rats de 25 g ont ete exposes pendant 5 mn a un flux de 6.10{sup 12} neutrons thermiques/cm{sup 2}/s. L'autoradiographie anatomique a -195 deg. C a permis de localiser facilement les organes radioactifs, de suivre dans le temps la decroissance de la radioactivite, et d'en deduire la nature probable des nombreux emetteurs en cause. En particulier, le phosphore 32 est ainsi apparu comme l'un des responsables de l'irradiation interne, d'une part generale par activation du phosphore cellulaire, d'autre part locale par activation des phosphates osseux. Une irradiations accidentelle par neutrons aurait, de ce fait, des consequences a la fois somatiques (irradiation elective de la moelle osseuse) et genetiques (activation des acides nucleiques). La spectrometrie gamma a confirme la nature de certains autres emetteurs. (auteur)

  17. IMPORTANT NOTIFICATION

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    Green plates, removals and importation of personal effects Please note that, as from 1 April 2009, formalities relating to K and CD special series French vehicle plates (green plates), removals and importation of personal effects into France and Switzerland will be dealt with by GS Department (Building 73/3-014, tel. 73683/74407). Importation and purchase of tax-free vehicles in Switzerland, as well as diplomatic privileges, will continue to be dealt with by the Installation Service of HR Department (Building 33/1-011, tel. 73962). HR and GS Departments

  18. The Hypocretin/Orexin Antagonist Almorexant Promotes Sleep Without Impairment of Performance in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen R Morairty

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The hypocretin receptor (HcrtR antagonist almorexant (ALM has potent hypnotic actions but little is known about neurocognitive performance in the presence of ALM. HcrtR antagonists are hypothesized to induce sleep by disfacilitation of wake-promoting systems whereas GABAA receptor modulators such as zolpidem (ZOL induce sleep through general inhibition of neural activity. To test the hypothesis that less functional impairment results from HcrtR antagonist-induced sleep, we evaluated the performance of rats in the Morris Water Maze in the presence of ALM vs. ZOL. Performance in spatial reference memory (SRM and spatial working memory (SWM tasks were assessed during the dark period after equipotent sleep-promoting doses (100 mg/kg, po following undisturbed and sleep deprivation (SD conditions. ALM-treated rats were indistinguishable from vehicle (VEH-treated rats for all SRM performance measures (distance travelled, latency to enter, time within, and number of entries into, the target quadrant after both the undisturbed and 6 h SD conditions. In contrast, rats administered ZOL showed impairments in all parameters measured compared to VEH or ALM in the undisturbed conditions. Following SD, ZOL-treated rats also showed impairments in all measures. ALM-treated rats were similar to VEH-treated rats for all SWM measures (velocity, time to locate the platform and success rate at finding the platform within 60 s after both the undisturbed and SD conditions. In contrast, ZOL-treated rats showed impairments in velocity and in the time to locate the platform. Importantly, ZOL rats only completed the task 23-50% of the time while ALM and VEH rats completed the task 79-100% of the time. Thus, following equipotent sleep-promoting doses, ZOL impaired rats in both memory tasks while ALM rats performed at levels comparable to VEH rats. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that less impairment results from HcrtR antagonism than from GABAA

  19. Caloric Restriction in Lean and Obese Strains of Laboratory Rat: Effects on Body Composition, Metabolism, Growth, and Overall Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    NEW FINDINGS: What is the central question of this study? How do lean and obese rats respond physiologically to caloric restriction? What is the main finding and its importance? Obese rats show marked benefits compared with lean animals. Reduced body fat is associated with improv...

  20. Epidermal growth factor and lung development in the offspring of the diabetic rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thulesen, J; Poulsen, Steen Seier; Nexø, Ebba

    2000-01-01

    Fetuses of diabetic mothers who were exposed to excessive glucose show delayed maturation. Under these conditions, altered growth factor expression or signaling may have important regulatory influences. We examined the role of epidermal growth factor (EGF) in lung development and maternal diabetes...... in the rat. In order to evaluate the possible role of glucose for the expression of EGF and the growth of lung tissue, we performed in vitro studies with organotypic cultures of fetal alveolar cells obtained from control rats. Compared to pups of normal rats, the newborn rats of untreated diabetic rats had...... and was associated with a reduced intensity of surfactant protein A-IR. The only difference observed between pups of treated diabetic rats and controls was a decrease in the lung weight:body weight ratio. In organotypic cultures, the presence of 13 mmol/L glucose in the cell media increased immunoreactive staining...

  1. Retinal shows its true colours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coughlan, N. J.A.; Adamson, B. D.; Gamon, L.

    2015-01-01

    Retinal is one of Nature's most important and widespread chromophores, exhibiting remarkable versatility in its function and spectral response, depending on its protein environment. Reliable spectroscopic and photochemical data for the isolated retinal molecule are essential for calibrating theor...

  2. Importance classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizumachi, Wataru; Kobayashi, Masahide

    2008-01-01

    Conventionally, the design of a nuclear reactor has been performed from a viewpoint of a safety function and the importance on earthquake-proof on the basis of not giving off the mainly included radioactivity outside. In this Niigataken-Chuetsuoki earthquake, there is almost no damage to the system, components and structure on safe also in the earthquake beyond assumption, and the validity of the design was checked. But, the situation peculiar to a big earthquake was also generated. The emergency plan room which should serve as a connection center with the exterior was not able to open a door and use at the beginning. Fire-extinguishing system piping fractured and self-defense fire fighting was not made. And so on. Discussion from the following three viewpoints was performed. 1st: The importance from a viewpoint which should maintain a function also with the disaster in case of an earthquake like an emergency plan room etc. 2nd: In the earthquake, since the safe system and un-safe system was influenced, the importance from a viewpoint which may have influence safely inquired when the un-safe system broke down. 3rd: Although it was not directly related safely, discussion from a viewpoint which influences fear of insecurity, such as taking out smoke, for example, was performed (author)

  3. Beer improves copper metabolism and increases longevity in Cu-deficient rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, R.J.; Klevay, L.M.

    1989-01-01

    Moderate consumption of alcoholic beverages decreases risk of death from ischemic heart disease (IHD). Evidence suggests that Cu-deficiency is important in the etiology and pathophysiology of IHD. The effect of beer (25 ng Cu/ml) drinking on the severity of Cu-deficiency was examined in weanling, male Sprague-Dawley rats fed a low Cu diet (0.84 μg Cu/g). Beer drinking increased median longevity to 204 or 299 d from 62 or 42 d respectively in rats drinking water in two experiments (15 rats/group). In experiment 3, a single dose of 67 Cu (3.3 μCi as chloride) was added to 1 g of feed and given to 12-h fasted rats 30 d after the start of the experiment. Whole body counting over 13 d showed apparent Cu absorption and t 1/2 (biological) were greater in Cu-deficient rats drinking beer than in similar rats drinking water. Plasma cholesterol was lower but hematocrit and liver Cu were higher in surviving rats drinking beer than in rats drinking water. Body weight was not affected by beer in any experiment. In experiment 4, a 4% aqueous ethanol solution had no effect on longevity of copper deficient rats. A non-alcohol component of beer alters Cu metabolism and mitigates the severity of nutritional Cu-deficiency in rats

  4. Risk Aversion in Game Shows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steffen; Harrison, Glenn W.; Lau, Morten I.

    2008-01-01

    We review the use of behavior from television game shows to infer risk attitudes. These shows provide evidence when contestants are making decisions over very large stakes, and in a replicated, structured way. Inferences are generally confounded by the subjective assessment of skill in some games......, and the dynamic nature of the task in most games. We consider the game shows Card Sharks, Jeopardy!, Lingo, and finally Deal Or No Deal. We provide a detailed case study of the analyses of Deal Or No Deal, since it is suitable for inference about risk attitudes and has attracted considerable attention....

  5. Unconventional imports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, N.D.

    2001-01-01

    This article focuses on bitumens and bitumen products from Canadian oil sands and explores how they will affect the Canadian oil industry and the US refining industry. The falling production of crude, the growing demand for it, and the stagnating refining capacity in the US are reported, and Canadian and Mexican exports to the US, the definition of bitumens and bitumen quality, and the position of Canada as world leader in bitumen resources are considered. Bitumen production techniques, sales of bitumens and synthetic crude, the production outlook, and the quality and refining of bitumen and synthetic crude are examined. Plots illustrating North American crude refining capacity, production and demand for 1980-2000; US crude imports from Canada and Mexico (1981-2000), world proven oil reserves (2001), world bitumen resources, and Canadian oil production (1998-2000) are provided. Details of the composition of crudes and bitumens, and recent synthetic crude production are tabulated

  6. A diet containing the soy phytoestrogen genistein causes infertility in female rats partially deficient in UDP glucuronyltransferase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seppen, Jurgen

    2012-01-01

    Soy beans contain genistein, a natural compound that has estrogenic effects because it binds the estrogen receptor with relatively high affinity. Genistein is therefore the most important environmental estrogen in the human diet. Detoxification of genistein is mediated through conjugation by UDP-glucuronyltransferase 1 and 2 (UGT1 and UGT2) isoenzymes. Gunn rats have a genetic deficiency in UGT1 activity, UGT2 activities are not affected. Because our Gunn rats stopped breeding after the animal chow was changed to a type with much higher soy content, we examined the mechanism behind this soy diet induced infertility. Gunn and control rats were fed diets with and without genistein. In these rats, plasma levels of genistein and metabolites, fertility and reproductive parameters were determined. Enzyme assays showed reduced genistein UGT activity in Gunn rats, as compared to wild type rats. Female Gunn rats were completely infertile on a genistein diet, wild type rats were fertile. Genistein diet caused a persistent estrus, lowered serum progesterone and inhibited development of corpora lutea in Gunn rats. Concentrations of total genistein in Gunn and control rat plasma were identical and within the range observed in humans after soy consumption. However, Gunn rat plasma contained 25% unconjugated genistein, compared to 3.6% in control rats. This study shows that, under conditions of reduced glucuronidation, dietary genistein exhibits a strongly increased estrogenic effect. Because polymorphisms that reduce UGT1 expression are prevalent in the human population, these results suggest a cautionary attitude towards the consumption of large amounts of soy or soy supplements. -- Highlights: ► Gunn rats are partially deficient in detoxification by UDP glucuronyltransferases. ► Female Gunn rats are infertile on a soy containing diet. ► Soy contains genistein, a potent phytoestrogen. ► Inefficient glucuronidation of genistein causes female infertility.

  7. A diet containing the soy phytoestrogen genistein causes infertility in female rats partially deficient in UDP glucuronyltransferase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seppen, Jurgen, E-mail: j.seppen@amc.uva.nl

    2012-11-01

    Soy beans contain genistein, a natural compound that has estrogenic effects because it binds the estrogen receptor with relatively high affinity. Genistein is therefore the most important environmental estrogen in the human diet. Detoxification of genistein is mediated through conjugation by UDP-glucuronyltransferase 1 and 2 (UGT1 and UGT2) isoenzymes. Gunn rats have a genetic deficiency in UGT1 activity, UGT2 activities are not affected. Because our Gunn rats stopped breeding after the animal chow was changed to a type with much higher soy content, we examined the mechanism behind this soy diet induced infertility. Gunn and control rats were fed diets with and without genistein. In these rats, plasma levels of genistein and metabolites, fertility and reproductive parameters were determined. Enzyme assays showed reduced genistein UGT activity in Gunn rats, as compared to wild type rats. Female Gunn rats were completely infertile on a genistein diet, wild type rats were fertile. Genistein diet caused a persistent estrus, lowered serum progesterone and inhibited development of corpora lutea in Gunn rats. Concentrations of total genistein in Gunn and control rat plasma were identical and within the range observed in humans after soy consumption. However, Gunn rat plasma contained 25% unconjugated genistein, compared to 3.6% in control rats. This study shows that, under conditions of reduced glucuronidation, dietary genistein exhibits a strongly increased estrogenic effect. Because polymorphisms that reduce UGT1 expression are prevalent in the human population, these results suggest a cautionary attitude towards the consumption of large amounts of soy or soy supplements. -- Highlights: ► Gunn rats are partially deficient in detoxification by UDP glucuronyltransferases. ► Female Gunn rats are infertile on a soy containing diet. ► Soy contains genistein, a potent phytoestrogen. ► Inefficient glucuronidation of genistein causes female infertility.

  8. Tokyo Motor Show 2003; Tokyo Motor Show 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joly, E.

    2004-01-01

    The text which follows present the different techniques exposed during the 37. Tokyo Motor Show. The report points out the great tendencies of developments of the Japanese automobile industry. The hybrid electric-powered vehicles or those equipped with fuel cells have been highlighted by the Japanese manufacturers which allow considerable budgets in the research of less polluting vehicles. The exposed models, although being all different according to the manufacturer, use always a hybrid system: fuel cell/battery. The manufacturers have stressed too on the intelligent systems for navigation and safety as well as on the design and comfort. (O.M.)

  9. Gastric secretion elicited by conditioning in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caboclo, José Liberato Ferreira; Cury, Francico de Assis; Borin, Aldenis Albanese; Caboclo, Luís Otávio Sales Ferreira; Ribeiro, Maria Fernanda Sales Caboclo; de Freitas, Pedro José; Andersson, Sven

    2009-01-01

    To investigate whether interdigestive gastric acid secretion can be controlled by a possible memory-related cortical mechanism. To evaluate gastric secretion in rats, we used a methodology that allows gastric juice collection in rats in their habitual conditions (without any restraining) by pairing sound as the conditioning stimulus (CS) and food as the unconditioning stimulus (US). The levels of gastric acid secretion under basal conditions and under sound stimulation were recorded and the circulating gastrin levels determined. When the gastric juice was collected in the course of the conditioning procedure, the results showed that under noise stimulation a significant increase in gastric acid secretion occurred after 10 days of conditioning (p<0.01). The significance was definitively demonstrated after 13 days of conditioning (p<0.001). Basal secretions of the conditioned rats reached a significant level after 16 days of conditioning. The levels of noise-stimulated gastric acid secretion were the highest so far described in physiological experiments carried out in rats and there were no significant increases in the circulating gastrin levels. The results point to the important role played by cortical structures in the control of interdigestive gastric acid secretion in rats. If this mechanism is also present in humans, it may be involved in diseases caused by inappropriate gastric acid secretion during the interprandial periods.

  10. Reality show: um paradoxo nietzschiano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilana Feldman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available

    O fenômeno dos reality shows - e a subseqüente relação entre imagem e verdade - assenta-se sobre uma série de paradoxos. Tais paradoxos podem ser compreendidos à luz do pensamento do filósofo alemão Friedrich Nietzsche, que, através dos usos de formulações paradoxais, concebia a realidade como um mundo de pura aparência e a verdade como um acréscimo ficcional, como um efeito. A ficção é então tomada, na filosofia de Nietzsche, não em seu aspecto falsificante e desrealizador - como sempre pleiteou nossa tradição metafísica -, mas como condição necessária para que certa espécie de invenção possa operar como verdade. Sendo assim, a própria expressão reality show, através de sua formulação paradoxal, engendra explicitamente um mundo de pura aparência, em que a verdade, a parte reality da proposição, é da ordem do suplemento, daquilo que se acrescenta ficcionalmente - como um adjetivo - a show. O ornamento, nesse caso, passa a ocupar o lugar central, apontando para o efeito produzido: o efeito-de-verdade. Seguindo, então, o pensamento nietzschiano e sua atualização na contemporaneidade, investigaremos de que forma os televisivos “shows de realidade” operam paradoxalmente, em consonância com nossas paradoxais práticas culturais.

  11. Decreased erythrocyte CCS content is a biomarker of copper overload in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertinato, Jesse; Sherrard, Lindsey; Plouffe, Louise J

    2010-07-02

    Copper (Cu) is an essential trace metal that is toxic in excess. It is therefore important to be able to accurately assess Cu deficiency or overload. Cu chaperone for Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (CCS) protein expression is elevated in tissues of Cu-deficient animals. Increased CCS content in erythrocytes is particularly sensitive to decreased Cu status. Given the lack of a non-invasive, sensitive and specific biomarker for the assessment of Cu excess, we investigated whether CCS expression in erythrocytes reflects Cu overload. Rats were fed diets containing normal or high levels of Cu for 13 weeks. Diets contained 6.3 +/- 0.6 (Cu-N), 985 +/- 14 (Cu-1000) or 1944 +/- 19 (Cu-2000) mg Cu/kg diet. Rats showed a variable response to the high Cu diets. Some rats showed severe Cu toxicity, while other rats showed no visible signs of toxicity and grew normally. Also, some rats had high levels of Cu in liver, whereas others had liver Cu concentrations within the normal range. Erythrocyte CCS protein expression was 30% lower in Cu-2000 rats compared to Cu-N rats (P CCS (47% reduction, P CCS content is associated with Cu overload in rats and should be evaluated further as a potential biomarker for assessing Cu excess in humans.

  12. A comparative study on the effect of high cholesterol diet on the hippocampal CA1 area of adult and aged rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abo El-Khair, Doaa M; El-Safti, Fatma El-Nabawia A; Nooh, Hanaa Z; El-Mehi, Abeer E

    2014-06-01

    Dementia is one of the most important problems nowadays. Aging is associated with learning and memory impairments. Diet rich in cholesterol has been shown to be detrimental to cognitive performance. This work was carried out to compare the effect of high cholesterol diet on the hippocampus of adult and aged male albino rats. Twenty adult and twenty aged male rats were used in this study. According to age, the rats were randomly subdivided into balanced and high cholesterol diet fed groups. The diet was 15 g/rat/day for adult rats and 20 g/rat/day for aged rats for eight weeks. Serial coronal sections of hippocampus and blood samples were taken from each rat. For diet effect evaluation, Clinical, biochemical, histological, immunohistochemical, and morphometric assessments were done. In compare to a balanced diet fed rat, examination of Cornu Ammonis 1 (CA 1) area in the hippocampus of the high cholesterol diet adult rats showed degeneration, a significant decrease of the pyramidal cells, attenuation and/or thickening of small blood vessels, apparent increase of astrocytes and apparent decrease of Nissl's granules content. Moreover, the high cholesterol diet aged rats showed aggravation of senility changes of the hippocampus together with Alzheimer like pathological changes. In conclusion, the high cholesterol diet has a significant detrimental effect on the hippocampus and aging might pronounce this effect. So, we should direct our attention to limit cholesterol intake in our food to maintain a healthy life style for a successful aging.

  13. Type 2 diabetic rats are sensitive to thioacetamide hepatotoxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawant, Sharmilee P.; Dnyanmote, Ankur V.; Warbritton, Alan; Latendresse, John R.; Mehendale, Harihara M.

    2006-01-01

    Previously, we reported high hepatotoxic sensitivity of type 2 diabetic (DB) rats to three dissimilar hepatotoxicants. Additional work revealed that a normally nonlethal dose of CCl 4 was lethal in DB rats due to inhibited compensatory tissue repair. The present study was conducted to investigate the importance of compensatory tissue repair in determining the final outcome of hepatotoxicity in diabetes, using another structurally and mechanistically dissimilar hepatotoxicant, thioacetamide (TA), to initiate liver injury. A normally nonlethal dose of TA (300 mg/kg, ip), caused 100% mortality in DB rats. Time course studies (0 to 96 h) showed that in the non-DB rats, liver injury initiated by TA as assessed by plasma alanine or aspartate aminotransferase and hepatic necrosis progressed up to 48 h and regressed to normal at 96 h resulting in 100% survival. In the DB rats, liver injury rapidly progressed resulting in progressively deteriorating liver due to rapidly expanding injury, hepatic failure, and 100% mortality between 24 and 48 h post-TA treatment. Covalent binding of 14 C-TA-derived radiolabel to liver tissue did not differ from that observed in the non-DB rats, indicating similar bioactivation-based initiation of hepatotoxicity. S-phase DNA synthesis measured by [ 3 H]-thymidine incorporation, and advancement of cells through the cell division cycle measured by PCNA immunohistochemistry, were substantially inhibited in the DB rats compared to the non-DB rats challenged with TA. Thus, inhibited cell division and compromised tissue repair in the DB rats resulted in progressive expansion of liver injury culminating in mortality. In conclusion, it appears that similar to type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes also increases sensitivity to dissimilar hepatotoxicants due to inhibited compensatory tissue repair, suggesting that sensitivity to hepatotoxicity in diabetes occurs in the absence as well as presence of insulin

  14. Effects of Arginase Inhibition in Hypertensive Hyperthyroid Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Gómez, Isabel; Manuel Moreno, Juan; Jimenez, Rosario; Quesada, Andrés; Montoro-Molina, Sebastian; Vargas-Tendero, Pablo; Wangensteen, Rosemary; Vargas, Félix

    2015-12-01

    This study analyzed the effects of chronic administration of N[omega]-hydroxy-nor-l-arginine (nor-NOHA), an inhibitor of arginase, on the hemodynamic, oxidative stress, morphologic, metabolic, and renal manifestations of hyperthyroidism in rats. Four groups of male Wistar rats were used: control, nor-NOHA-treated (10 mg/kg/day), thyroxine (T4)-treated (75 μg/rat/day), and thyroxine- plus nor-NOHA-treated rats. All treatments were maintained for 4 weeks. Body weight, tail systolic blood pressure (SBP), and heart rate (HR) were recorded weekly. Finally, morphologic, metabolic, plasma, and renal variables were measured. Arginase I and II protein abundance and arginase activity were measured in aorta, heart, and kidney. The T4 group showed increased arginase I and II protein abundance, arginase activity, SBP, HR, plasma nitrates/nitrites (NOx), brainstem and urinary isoprostanes, proteinuria and cardiac and renal hypertrophy in comparison to control rats. In hyperthyroid rats, chronic nor-NOHA prevented the increase in SBP and HR and decreased proteinuria in association with an increase in plasma NOx and a decrease in brainstem and urinary isoprostanes. In normal rats, nor-NOHA treatment did not significantly change any hemodynamic, morphologic, or renal variables. Acute nor-NOHA administration did not affect renal or systemic hemodynamic variables in normal or T4-treated rats. Hyperthyroidism in rats is associated with the increased expression and activity of arginase in aorta, heart, and kidney. Chronic arginase inhibition with nor-NOHA suppresses the characteristic hemodynamic manifestations of hyperthyroidism in association with a reduced oxidative stress. These results indicate an important role for arginase pathway alterations in the cardiovascular and renal abnormalities of hyperthyroidism. © American Journal of Hypertension, Ltd 2015. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. [Effect of vitamin sufficiency on adaptation syndrome in growing rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidorova, Iu S; Beketova, N A; Vrzhesinskaia, O A; Kodentsova, V M; Kosheleva, O V; Zorin, S N; Selifanov, A V; Mazo, V K

    2014-01-01

    The influence of vitamin supply of growing male -Wistar rats (n=21) with an initial body weight 53,5±0,9 g on their resistance to a single distress induced by the electric shock has been investigated. Control rats within 21 days received a complete semisynthetic diet,providingadequate amounts of vitamins. Combined vitamin deficiency in experimental rats was caused by 5-fold decrease of vitamin mixture amount in the feed and the total vitamin E exclusion from the mixture. On the 21st day, one day before the end of the experiment, both groups of rats were subjected to stress impact (electrocutaneous irritation on paws, 0,4 mA for 8 sec) and then animals were placed in metabolic cages to collect urine. By the end of the experiment, the animals with the combined vitamin deficiency lag behind in growth. Vitamin B2, A, B1 and E liver content decreased in experimental rats by 1,6, 2,3, 4,4 and 15 fold accordingly. Retinol plasma concentration was significantly reduced by 18%, α-tocopherol level - by 5 fold, urinary excretionof riboflavin and 4-pyridoxic acid (vitamin B6 metabolite) was significantly reduced by 6,5 and 2,46 times accordingly. MDA blood plasma concentration and the urinary ratio of oxidized and not oxidized form of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxy-guanosine did not differ in both groups of rats. Urinary excretion of stress biomarker corticosterone in rats with combined vitamin deficit was 2,5-fold higher than in control rats. Thus, reducing of vitamins supply resulted in an increase of urine corticosterone in stressed rats, that characterized the intensity of general adaptation syndrome. This fact shows the importance of optimal sufficiency with vitamins in nonspecific (general) resistance to stress.

  16. Individually reared rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraeuchi, K.; Gentsch, C.; Feer, H.

    1981-01-01

    The influence of social isolation in rats on postsynaptic alpha 1 - and beta-adrenergic receptors, on the cAMP generating system and on the presynaptic uptake mechanism in the central noradrenergic system was examined in different brain regions. Rearing rats in isolation from the 19th day of life for 12 weeks leads in all regions to a general tendency for a reduction in 3 H-DHA binding, to an enhanced 3 H-WB4101 binding and to a decreased responsiveness of the noradrenaline sensitive cAMP generating system. These changes reach significance only in the pons-medulla-thallamusregion. Isolated rats showed an increased synaptosomal uptake of noradrenaline, most pronounced and significant in the hypothalamus. Our data provide further support for a disturbance in central noradrenergic function in isolated rats. (author)

  17. Rapamycin suppresses brain aging in senescence-accelerated OXYS rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolosova, Nataliya G; Vitovtov, Anton O; Muraleva, Natalia A; Akulov, Andrey E; Stefanova, Natalia A; Blagosklonny, Mikhail V

    2013-06-01

    Cellular and organismal aging are driven in part by the MTOR (mechanistic target of rapamycin) pathway and rapamycin extends life span inC elegans, Drosophila and mice. Herein, we investigated effects of rapamycin on brain aging in OXYS rats. Previously we found, in OXYS rats, an early development of age-associated pathological phenotypes similar to several geriatric disorders in humans, including cerebral dysfunctions. Behavioral alterations as well as learning and memory deficits develop by 3 months. Here we show that rapamycin treatment (0.1 or 0.5 mg/kg as a food mixture daily from the age of 1.5 to 3.5 months) decreased anxiety and improved locomotor and exploratory behavior in OXYS rats. In untreated OXYS rats, MRI revealed an increase of the area of hippocampus, substantial hydrocephalus and 2-fold increased area of the lateral ventricles. Rapamycin treatment prevented these abnormalities, erasing the difference between OXYS and Wister rats (used as control). All untreated OXYS rats showed signs of neurodegeneration, manifested by loci of demyelination. Rapamycin decreased the percentage of animals with demyelination and the number of loci. Levels of Tau and phospho-Tau (T181) were increased in OXYS rats (compared with Wistar). Rapamycin significantly decreased Tau and inhibited its phosphorylation in the hippocampus of OXYS and Wistar rats. Importantly, rapamycin treatment caused a compensatory increase in levels of S6 and correspondingly levels of phospo-S6 in the frontal cortex, indicating that some downstream events were compensatory preserved, explaining the lack of toxicity. We conclude that rapamycin in low chronic doses can suppress brain aging.

  18. Sex differences underlying orofacial varicella zoster associated pain in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinson, Crystal; Deng, Mohong; Yee, Michael B; Bellinger, Larry L; Kinchington, Paul R; Kramer, Phillip R

    2017-05-17

    Most people are initially infected with varicella zoster virus (VZV) at a young age and this infection results in chickenpox. VZV then becomes latent and reactivates later in life resulting in herpes zoster (HZ) or "shingles". Often VZV infects neurons of the trigeminal ganglia to cause ocular problems, orofacial disease and occasionally a chronic pain condition termed post-herpetic neuralgia (PHN). To date, no model has been developed to study orofacial pain related to varicella zoster. Importantly, the incidence of zoster associated pain and PHN is known to be higher in women, although reasons for this sex difference remain unclear. Prior to this work, no animal model was available to study these sex-differences. Our goal was to develop an orofacial animal model for zoster associated pain which could be utilized to study the mechanisms contributing to this sex difference. To develop this model VZV was injected into the whisker pad of rats resulting in IE62 protein expression in the trigeminal ganglia; IE62 is an immediate early gene in the VZV replication program. Similar to PHN patients, rats showed retraction of neurites after VZV infection. Treatment of rats with gabapentin, an agent often used to combat PHN, ameliorated the pain response after whisker pad injection. Aversive behavior was significantly greater for up to 7 weeks in VZV injected rats over control inoculated rats. Sex differences were also seen such that ovariectomized and intact female rats given the lower dose of VZV showed a longer affective response than male rats. The phase of the estrous cycle also affected the aversive response suggesting a role for sex steroids in modulating VZV pain. These results suggest that this rat model can be utilized to study the mechanisms of 1) orofacial zoster associated pain and 2) the sex differences underlying zoster associated pain.

  19. The effect of the cytoskeletal inhibitors on the splenic lymphocyte traffic and homing in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Huibin

    1989-01-01

    The rat splenic lymphocyte traffic and homing in vivo and the effect of cytoskeletal inhibitors on this process were investigated using the technique of γ-counting of 51 Cr-labelled lymphocytes. The results suggests that:(1) After 2 of intravenous injection, the 51 Cr-labelled lymphocytes from donor rat spleen mainly home to recipient rat spleen, liver, lungs, mesenteric lymph modes (MLN) and gut-associated lymphoid tissues. (2) A significant inhibiting effect on the ability of preferential homing of splenic lymphocytes treated with sodium azide, cytochalasin B or colchicine shows that microtubles and microfilaments play an important role in the lymphocyte traffic and homing

  20. Permutation importance: a corrected feature importance measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altmann, André; Toloşi, Laura; Sander, Oliver; Lengauer, Thomas

    2010-05-15

    In life sciences, interpretability of machine learning models is as important as their prediction accuracy. Linear models are probably the most frequently used methods for assessing feature relevance, despite their relative inflexibility. However, in the past years effective estimators of feature relevance have been derived for highly complex or non-parametric models such as support vector machines and RandomForest (RF) models. Recently, it has been observed that RF models are biased in such a way that categorical variables with a large number of categories are preferred. In this work, we introduce a heuristic for normalizing feature importance measures that can correct the feature importance bias. The method is based on repeated permutations of the outcome vector for estimating the distribution of measured importance for each variable in a non-informative setting. The P-value of the observed importance provides a corrected measure of feature importance. We apply our method to simulated data and demonstrate that (i) non-informative predictors do not receive significant P-values, (ii) informative variables can successfully be recovered among non-informative variables and (iii) P-values computed with permutation importance (PIMP) are very helpful for deciding the significance of variables, and therefore improve model interpretability. Furthermore, PIMP was used to correct RF-based importance measures for two real-world case studies. We propose an improved RF model that uses the significant variables with respect to the PIMP measure and show that its prediction accuracy is superior to that of other existing models. R code for the method presented in this article is available at http://www.mpi-inf.mpg.de/ approximately altmann/download/PIMP.R CONTACT: altmann@mpi-inf.mpg.de, laura.tolosi@mpi-inf.mpg.de Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  1. Tubuloglomerular feedback in Dahl rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsen, F M; Leyssac, P P; Holstein-Rathlou, N H

    1998-01-01

    in both Dahl-S and salt-resistant Dahl rats on high- and low-salt diets. TGF was investigated in the closed-loop mode with a videometric technique, in which the response in late proximal flow rate to perturbations in Henle flow rate was measured. All Dahl rats showed a similar compensatory response...

  2. Activity of Protein Kinase C is Important for 3α,5α-THP’s Actions at Dopamine Type 1-like and/or GABAA receptors in the Ventral Tegmental Area for Lordosis of Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frye, Cheryl A.; Walf, Alicia A.

    2008-01-01

    In the ventral tegmental area, progestogens facilitate sexual receptivity of rodents via actions at dopamine type 1-like and/or γ-aminobutyric type A receptors and activation of downstream signal transduction molecules. In the present study, we investigated whether effects of progesterone’s metabolite, 3α,5α-THP, to enhance lordosis via actions at these receptors in the ventral tegmental area requires phospholipase C-dependent protein kinase C. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that: if progestogens’ actions through dopamine type 1-like and/or γ-aminobutyric type A receptors in the ventral tegmental area for lordosis require protein kinase C, then inhibiting protein kinase C in the ventral tegmental area should reduce 3α,5α-THP-facilitated lordosis and its enhancement by dopamine type 1-like or γ-aminobutyric type A receptor agonists. Ovariectomized, E2 (10 μg s.c. at hr 0)-primed rats were tested for their baseline lordosis responses and then received a series of three infusions to the ventral tegmental area: first, bisindolylmaleimide (75 nM/side) or vehicle; second, SKF38393 (100 ng/side), muscimol (100 ng/side), or vehicle; third, 3α,5α-THP (100, 200 ng) or vehicle. Rats were pre-tested for lordosis and motor behavior and then tested for lordosis after each infusion and 10 and 60 mins after the last infusion. Rats were tested for motor behavior following their last lordosis test. As has been previously demonstrated, 3α,5α-THP infusions to the ventral tegmental area increased lordosis and effects were further enhanced by infusions of SKF38393 and muscimol. Infusions of bisindolylmaleimide to the ventral tegmental area attenuated 3α,5α-THP-, SKF38393-, and/or muscimol-facilitated lordosis. Effects on lordosis were not solely due to changes in general motor behavior. Thus, 3α,5α-THP’s actions in the ventral tegmental area through membrane receptors may require activity of protein kinase C. PMID:18675324

  3. Ameliorative effect of the sea cucumber Holothuria arenicola extract against gastric ulcer in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sohair R. Fahmy

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Holothuria arenicola is the most important and abundant sea cucumber species in the Mediterranean Sea on the Egyptian coast. This work aimed to investigate the prophylactic and the curative effects of H. arenicola extract HaE (200 mg/kg on gastric mucosal damage following indomethacin and cold stress in healthy rats. Sixty-four rats were randomly divided into four main groups. Rats of the first group (8 rats/group were administered distilled water orally (control group, rats of the second group (8 rats/group were administered single oral dose of indomethacin (150 mg/kg and exposed to cold stress (4 ± 1 °C for 30 min to induce gastric ulcer (GU model (ulcer group, rats of the third group, prophylactic group (24 rats/group were treated with HaE and/or ranitidine (RAN and then exposed to GU and rats of the fourth group, curative group (24 rats/group were exposed firstly to GU and then treated with HaE and/or RAN. The results clearly indicate that pre-treatment with HaE and/or ranitidine significantly decreases the ulcer index, showing 72.50%, 53.11% and 80.56% ulceration inhibition, respectively. However, post-treatment with HaE and/or ranitidine significantly decreases the ulcer index, showing 51.66%, 62.41% and 67.78% ulceration inhibition, respectively. The results also showed that pre and post-treatment with HaE and/or RAN significantly decreased gastric malondialdehyde (MDA level and enhanced reduced glutathione (GSH, catalase (CAT, glutathione-S-transferase (GST and superoxide dismutase (SOD levels. The results clearly indicate that pre-treatment with HaE is preferable.

  4. Educational Outreach: The Space Science Road Show

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, N. L. J.

    2002-01-01

    The poster presented will give an overview of a study towards a "Space Road Show". The topic of this show is space science. The target group is adolescents, aged 12 to 15, at Dutch high schools. The show and its accompanying experiments would be supported with suitable educational material. Science teachers at schools can decide for themselves if they want to use this material in advance, afterwards or not at all. The aims of this outreach effort are: to motivate students for space science and engineering, to help them understand the importance of (space) research, to give them a positive feeling about the possibilities offered by space and in the process give them useful knowledge on space basics. The show revolves around three main themes: applications, science and society. First the students will get some historical background on the importance of space/astronomy to civilization. Secondly they will learn more about novel uses of space. On the one hand they will learn of "Views on Earth" involving technologies like Remote Sensing (or Spying), Communication, Broadcasting, GPS and Telemedicine. On the other hand they will experience "Views on Space" illustrated by past, present and future space research missions, like the space exploration missions (Cassini/Huygens, Mars Express and Rosetta) and the astronomy missions (Soho and XMM). Meanwhile, the students will learn more about the technology of launchers and satellites needed to accomplish these space missions. Throughout the show and especially towards the end attention will be paid to the third theme "Why go to space"? Other reasons for people to get into space will be explored. An important question in this is the commercial (manned) exploration of space. Thus, the questions of benefit of space to society are integrated in the entire show. It raises some fundamental questions about the effects of space travel on our environment, poverty and other moral issues. The show attempts to connect scientific with

  5. The relation of Cx43 and NMDA to visceral sensitization in rats with irritable bowel syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing-yu ZHANG

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective  To study the relationship between connexin 43 (Cx43 and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA receptors and visceral sensitization in the rats with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS. Methods  Thirty rats were gavaged with Triehinella spiralis to reproduce the IBS model. These rats were randomly divided into IBS group, IBS+colon distension group, and IBS+STI-571+colon distension group, and other groups of normal rats were randomized into normal group and normal+colon distension group, with 10 rats in each group. Immunofluorescent double staining were used to observe the expressions of intestine Cx43 and sacral NMDA re ceptors of rats in all the groups. Results  The Cx43 and sacral NMDA expressions in the normal group, normal+colon distension group and IBS group showed no significant changes (P>0.05, however, Cx43 and sacral NMDA expressions were significantly higher in IBS rats with colon distension as compared with those in normal group, normal+colon distension group, and IBS group (P<0.05, while they were significantly lower in the IBS+STI-571+colon distension group after STI-571 intervention (P<0.05. Conclusion  Cx43 and sacral NMDA may be the most important factor of visceral sensitization in IBS rats. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2015.12.02

  6. Inhibition of serum cholesterol oxidation by dietary vitamin C and selenium intake in high fat fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menéndez-Carreño, M; Ansorena, D; Milagro, F I; Campión, J; Martínez, J A; Astiasarán, I

    2008-04-01

    Cholesterol oxidation products (COPs) have been considered as specific in vivo markers of oxidative stress. In this study, an increased oxidative status was induced in Wistar rats by feeding them a high-fat diet (cafeteria diet). Another group of animals received the same diet supplemented with a combination of two different antioxidants, ascorbic acid (100 mg/kg rat/day) and sodium selenite (200 microg/kg rat/day) and a third group fed on a control diet. Total and individual COPs analysis of the different diets showed no differences among them. At the end of the experimental trial, rats were sacrificed and serum cholesterol, triglycerides and COPs were measured. None of the diets induced changes in rats body weight, total cholesterol and triglycerides levels. Serum total COPs in rats fed on the high-fat diet were 1.01 microg/ml, two times the amount of the control rats (0.47 microg/ml). When dietary antioxidant supplementation was given, serum total COPs concentration (0.44 microg/ml) showed the same levels than those of the rats on control diet. 7beta-hydroxycholesterol, formed non-enzymatically via cholesterol peroxidation in the presence of reactive oxygen species, showed slightly lower values in the antioxidant-supplemented animals compared to the control ones. This study confirms the importance of dietary antioxidants as protective factors against the formation of oxysterols.

  7. Progesterone impairs social recognition in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bychowski, Meaghan E; Auger, Catherine J

    2012-04-01

    The influence of progesterone in the brain and on the behavior of females is fairly well understood. However, less is known about the effect of progesterone in the male system. In male rats, receptors for progesterone are present in virtually all vasopressin (AVP) immunoreactive cells in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST) and the medial amygdala (MeA). This colocalization functions to regulate AVP expression, as progesterone and/or progestin receptors (PR)s suppress AVP expression in these same extrahypothalamic regions in the brain. These data suggest that progesterone may influence AVP-dependent behavior. While AVP is implicated in numerous behavioral and physiological functions in rodents, AVP appears essential for social recognition of conspecifics. Therefore, we examined the effects of progesterone on social recognition. We report that progesterone plays an important role in modulating social recognition in the male brain, as progesterone treatment leads to a significant impairment of social recognition in male rats. Moreover, progesterone appears to act on PRs to impair social recognition, as progesterone impairment of social recognition is blocked by a PR antagonist, RU-486. Social recognition is also impaired by a specific progestin agonist, R5020. Interestingly, we show that progesterone does not interfere with either general memory or olfactory processes, suggesting that progesterone seems critically important to social recognition memory. These data provide strong evidence that physiological levels of progesterone can have an important impact on social behavior in male rats. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Important mitochondrial proteins in human omental adipose tissue show reduced expression in obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter W. Lindinger

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is associated with impaired mitochondrial function. This study compares mitochondrial protein expression in omental fat in obese and non-obese humans. Omental adipose tissue was obtained by surgical biopsy, adipocytes were purified and mitochondria isolated. Using anion-exchange chromatography, SDS-PAGE and mass-spectrometry, 128 proteins with potentially different abundances in patient groups were identified, 62 of the 128 proteins are mainly localized in the mitochondria. Further quantification of 12 of these 62 proteins by immune dot blot analysis revealed four proteins citrate synthase, HADHA, LETM1 and mitofilin being inversely associated with BMI, and mitofilin being inversely correlated with gender.

  9. Important mitochondrial proteins in human omental adipose tissue show reduced expression in obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindinger, Peter W; Christe, Martine; Eberle, Alex N; Kern, Beatrice; Peterli, Ralph; Peters, Thomas; Jayawardene, Kamburapola J I; Fearnley, Ian M; Walker, John E

    2015-09-01

    Obesity is associated with impaired mitochondrial function. This study compares mitochondrial protein expression in omental fat in obese and non-obese humans. Omental adipose tissue was obtained by surgical biopsy, adipocytes were purified and mitochondria isolated. Using anion-exchange chromatography, SDS-PAGE and mass-spectrometry, 128 proteins with potentially different abundances in patient groups were identified, 62 of the 128 proteins are mainly localized in the mitochondria. Further quantification of 12 of these 62 proteins by immune dot blot analysis revealed four proteins citrate synthase, HADHA, LETM1 and mitofilin being inversely associated with BMI, and mitofilin being inversely correlated with gender.

  10. Neuronal Function in Male Sprague Dawley Rats During Normal Ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idowu, A J; Olatunji-Bello, I I; Olagunju, J A

    2017-03-06

    During normal ageing, there are physiological changes especially in high energy demanding tissues including the brain and skeletal muscles. Ageing may disrupt homeostasis and allow tissue vulnerability to disease. To establish an appropriate animal model which is readily available and will be useful to test therapeutic strategies during normal ageing, we applied behavioral approaches to study age-related changes in memory and motor function as a basis for neuronal function in ageing in male Sprague Dawley rats. 3 months, n=5; 6 months, n=5 and 18 months, n=5 male Sprague Dawley Rats were tested using the Novel Object Recognition Task (NORT) and the Elevated plus Maze (EPM) Test. Data was analyzed by ANOVA and the Newman-Keuls post hoc test. The results showed an age-related gradual decline in exploratory behavior and locomotor activity with increasing age in 3 months, 6 months and 18 months old rats, although the values were not statistically significant, but grooming activity significantly increased with increasing age. Importantly, we established a novel finding that the minimum distance from the novel object was statistically significant between 3 months and 18 months old rats and this may be an index for age-related memory impairment in the NORT. Altogether, we conclude that the male Sprague Dawley rat show age-related changes in neuronal function and may be a useful model for carrying out investigations into the mechanisms involved in normal ageing.

  11. Effects on Glycemic Control in Impaired Wound Healing in Spontaneously Diabetic Torii (SDT) Fatty Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsuhiro, Miyajima; Hui Teoh, Soon; Yamashiro, Hideaki; Shinohara, Masami; Fatchiyah, Fatchiyah; Ohta, Takeshi; Yamada, Takahisa

    2018-02-01

    Impaired diabetic wound healing is an important issue in diabetic complications. The present study aims to evaluate the protective effect on glycemic control against impaired diabetic wound healing using a diabetic rat model. We investigated the wound healing process and effect on the impaired wound repair by glycemic control in the Spontaneously Diabetic Torii (SDT) fatty rat, which is a new animal model of obese type 2 diabetes and may be a good model for study impaired wound healing. Male SDT fatty rats at 15 weeks of age were administered orally with sodium glucose co-transporter (SGLT) 2 inhibitor for 3 weeks. Wounds were induced at 2 weeks after SGLT 2 inhibitor treatment, and the wound areas were periodically examined in morphological and histological analyses. The SDT fatty rats showed a delayed wound healing as compared with the normal rats, but a glycemic control improved the impaired wound healing. In histological analysis in the skin of SDT fatty rats showed severe infiltration of inflammatory cell, hemorrhage and many bacterial masses in the remaining and slight fibrosis of crust on skin tissue . Thought that this results skin performance to be a delay of crust formation and regeneration of epithelium; however, these findings were ameliorated in the SGLT 2 inhibitor treated group. Glycemic control is effective for treatment in diabetic wounds and the SDT fatty rat may be useful to investigate pathophysiological changes in impaired diabetic wound healing.

  12. Naturally-occurring estradiol-17β-fatty acid esters, but not estradiol-17β, preferentially induce mammary tumorigenesis in female rats: Implications for an important role in human breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, Laura H.; Yu Jina; Xu Xiaomeng; Lee, Anthony J.; Zhu Baoting

    2008-01-01

    Because mammary glands are surrounded by adipose tissues, we hypothesize that the ultra-lipophilic endogenous estrogen-17β-fatty acid esters may have preferential hormonal and carcinogenic effects in mammary tissues compared to other target organs (such as the uterus and pituitary). This hypothesis is tested in the present study. We found that all 46 rats implanted with an estradiol-17β pellet developed large pituitary tumors (average weight = 251 ±103 mg) and had to be terminated early, but only 48% of them developed mammary tumors. In addition, approximately one-fourth of them developed a huge uterus. In the 26 animals implanted with a mixture containing estradiol-17β-stearate and estradiol-17β-palmitate (two representative estradiol-17β-fatty acid esters) or in the 29 animals implanted with estradiol-17β-stearate alone (in the same molar dose as estradiol-17β), 73% and 79%, respectively, of them developed mammary tumors, whereas only 3 or 2 animals, respectively, had to be terminated early due to the presence of a large pituitary tumor. Both tumorous and normal mammary tissues contained much higher levels of estrogen esterase than other tissues, which catalyzes the releases of bioactive estrogens from their fatty acid esters. In conclusion, while estradiol-17β is much stronger in inducing pituitary tumor (100% incidence) than mammary tumor, estradiol-17β-fatty acid esters have a higher efficacy than estradiol-17β in inducing mammary tumor and yet it only has little ability to induce uterine out-growth and pituitary tumorigenesis. This study establishes the endogenous estrogen-17β-fatty acid esters as preferential inducers of mammary tumorigenesis

  13. Neural activity in the prelimbic and infralimbic cortices of freely moving rats during social interaction: Effect of isolation rearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minami, Chihiro; Shimizu, Tomoko

    2017-01-01

    Sociability promotes a sound daily life for individuals. Reduced sociability is a central symptom of various neuropsychiatric disorders, and yet the neural mechanisms underlying reduced sociability remain unclear. The prelimbic cortex (PL) and infralimbic cortex (IL) have been suggested to play an important role in the neural mechanisms underlying sociability because isolation rearing in rats results in impairment of social behavior and structural changes in the PL and IL. One possible mechanism underlying reduced sociability involves dysfunction of the PL and IL. We made a wireless telemetry system to record multiunit activity in the PL and IL of pairs of freely moving rats during social interaction and examined the influence of isolation rearing on this activity. In group-reared rats, PL neurons increased firing when the rat showed approaching behavior and also contact behavior, especially when the rat attacked the partner. Conversely, IL neurons increased firing when the rat exhibited leaving behavior, especially when the partner left on its own accord. In social interaction, the PL may be involved in active actions toward others, whereas the IL may be involved in passive relief from cautionary subjects. Isolation rearing altered social behavior and neural activity. Isolation-reared rats showed an increased frequency and decreased duration of contact behavior. The increased firing of PL neurons during approaching and contact behavior, observed in group-reared rats, was preserved in isolation-reared rats, whereas the increased firing of IL neurons during leaving behavior, observed in group-reared rats, was suppressed in isolation-reared rats. This result indicates that isolation rearing differentially alters neural activity in the PL and IL during social behavior. The differential influence of isolation rearing on neural activity in the PL and IL may be one of the neural bases of isolation rearing-induced behavior. PMID:28459875

  14. Neural activity in the prelimbic and infralimbic cortices of freely moving rats during social interaction: Effect of isolation rearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minami, Chihiro; Shimizu, Tomoko; Mitani, Akira

    2017-01-01

    Sociability promotes a sound daily life for individuals. Reduced sociability is a central symptom of various neuropsychiatric disorders, and yet the neural mechanisms underlying reduced sociability remain unclear. The prelimbic cortex (PL) and infralimbic cortex (IL) have been suggested to play an important role in the neural mechanisms underlying sociability because isolation rearing in rats results in impairment of social behavior and structural changes in the PL and IL. One possible mechanism underlying reduced sociability involves dysfunction of the PL and IL. We made a wireless telemetry system to record multiunit activity in the PL and IL of pairs of freely moving rats during social interaction and examined the influence of isolation rearing on this activity. In group-reared rats, PL neurons increased firing when the rat showed approaching behavior and also contact behavior, especially when the rat attacked the partner. Conversely, IL neurons increased firing when the rat exhibited leaving behavior, especially when the partner left on its own accord. In social interaction, the PL may be involved in active actions toward others, whereas the IL may be involved in passive relief from cautionary subjects. Isolation rearing altered social behavior and neural activity. Isolation-reared rats showed an increased frequency and decreased duration of contact behavior. The increased firing of PL neurons during approaching and contact behavior, observed in group-reared rats, was preserved in isolation-reared rats, whereas the increased firing of IL neurons during leaving behavior, observed in group-reared rats, was suppressed in isolation-reared rats. This result indicates that isolation rearing differentially alters neural activity in the PL and IL during social behavior. The differential influence of isolation rearing on neural activity in the PL and IL may be one of the neural bases of isolation rearing-induced behavior.

  15. Genome Editing in Rats Using TALE Nucleases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesson, Laurent; Remy, Séverine; Ménoret, Séverine; Usal, Claire; Thinard, Reynald; Savignard, Chloé; De Cian, Anne; Giovannangeli, Carine; Concordet, Jean-Paul; Anegon, Ignacio

    2016-01-01

    The rat is an important animal model to understand gene function and model human diseases. Since recent years, the development of gene-specific nucleases has become important for generating new rat models of human diseases, to analyze the role of genes and to generate human antibodies. Transcription activator-like (TALE) nucleases efficiently create gene-specific knockout rats and lead to the possibility of gene targeting by homology-directed recombination (HDR) and generating knock-in rats. We describe a detailed protocol for generating knockout and knock-in rats via microinjection of TALE nucleases into fertilized eggs. This technology is an efficient, cost- and time-effective method for creating new rat models.

  16. Microbiological and environmental issues in show caves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiz-Jimenez, Cesareo

    2012-07-01

    Cultural tourism expanded in the last half of the twentieth century, and the interest of visitors has come to include caves containing archaeological remains. Some show caves attracted mass tourism, and economical interests prevailed over conservation, which led to a deterioration of the subterranean environment and the rock art. The presence and the role of microorganisms in caves is a topic that is often ignored in cave management. Knowledge of the colonisation patterns, the dispersion mechanisms, and the effect on human health and, when present, over rock art paintings of these microorganisms is of the utmost importance. In this review the most recent advances in the study of microorganisms in caves are presented, together with the environmental implications of the findings.

  17. Noninvasive recording of electrocardiogram in conscious rat: A new device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Pradeep; Srivastava, Pooja; Gupta, Ankit; Bajpai, Manish

    2017-01-01

    Electrocardiogram (ECG) is an important tool for the study of cardiac electrophysiology both in human beings and experimental animals. Existing methods of ECG recording in small animals like rat have several limitations and ECG recordings of the anesthetized rat lack validity for heart rate (HR) variability analysis. The aim of the present study was to validate the ECG data from new device with ECG of anesthetized rat. The ECG was recorded on student's physiograph (BioDevice, Ambala) and suitable coupler and electrodes in six animals first by the newly developed device in conscious state and second in anesthetized state (stabilized technique). The data obtained were analyzed using unpaired t -test showed no significant difference ( P < 0.05) in QTc, QRS, and HR recorded by new device and established device in rats. No previous study describes a similar ECG recording in conscious state of rats. Thus, the present method may be a most physiological and inexpensive alternative to other methods. In this study, the animals were not restrained; they were just secured and represent a potential strength of the study.

  18. Ginger and alpha lipoic acid ameliorate age-related ultrastructural changes in rat liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Y I; Hegazy, H G

    2016-01-01

    Because of the important role that oxidative stress is thought to play in the aging process, antioxidants could be candidates for preventing its related pathologies. We investigated the ameliorative effects of two antioxidant supplements, ginger and alpha lipoic acid (ALA), on hepatic ultrastructural alterations in old rats. Livers of young (4 months) and old (24 months) Wistar rats were studied using transmission electron microscopy. Livers of old rats showed sinusoidal collapse and congestion, endothelial thickening and defenestration, and inconsistent perisinusoidal extracellular matrix deposition. Aged hepatocytes were characterized by hypertrophy, cytoplasmic vacuolization and a significant increase in the volume densities of the nuclei, mitochondria and dense bodies. Lipofuscin accumulation and decreased microvilli in bile canaliculi and space of Disse also were observed. The adverse alterations were ameliorated significantly by both ginger and ALA supplementation; ALA was more effective than ginger. Ginger and ALA appear to be promising anti-aging agents based on their amelioration of ultrastructural alterations in livers of old rats.

  19. Volumetric abnormalities of the brain in a rat model of recurrent headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Zhihua; Tang, Wenjing; Zhao, Dengfa; Hu, Guanqun; Li, Ruisheng; Yu, Shengyuan

    2018-01-01

    Voxel-based morphometry is used to detect structural brain changes in patients with migraine. However, the relevance of migraine and structural changes is not clear. This study investigated structural brain abnormalities based on voxel-based morphometry using a rat model of recurrent headache. The rat model was established by infusing an inflammatory soup through supradural catheters in conscious male rats. Rats were subgrouped according to the frequency and duration of the inflammatory soup infusion. Tactile sensory testing was conducted prior to infusion of the inflammatory soup or saline. The periorbital tactile thresholds in the high-frequency inflammatory soup stimulation group declined persistently from day 5. Increased white matter volume was observed in the rats three weeks after inflammatory soup stimulation, brainstem in the in the low-frequency inflammatory soup-infusion group and cortex in the high-frequency inflammatory soup-infusion group. After six weeks' stimulation, rats showed gray matter volume changes. The brain structural abnormalities recovered after the stimulation was stopped in the low-frequency inflammatory soup-infused rats and persisted even after the high-frequency inflammatory soup stimulus stopped. The changes of voxel-based morphometry in migraineurs may be the result of recurrent headache. Cognition, memory, and learning may play an important role in the chronification of migraines. Reducing migraine attacks has the promise of preventing chronicity of migraine.

  20. Glucose metabolic alterations in hippocampus of diabetes mellitus rats and the regulation of aerobic exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jingjing; Liu, Beibei; Cai, Ming; Lin, Xiaojing; Lou, Shujie

    2017-11-04

    Diabetes could negatively affect the structures and functions of the brain, especially could cause the hippocampal dysfunction, however, the potential metabolic mechanism is unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the changes of glucose metabolism in hippocampus of diabetes mellitus rats and the regulation of aerobic exercise, and to analyze the possible mechanisms. A rat model of type 2 diabetes mellitus was established by high-fat diet feeding in combination with STZ intraperitoneal injection, then 4 weeks of aerobic exercise was conducted. The glucose metabolites and key enzymes involved in glucose metabolism in hippocampus were respectively detected by GC/MS based metabolomics and western blot. Metabolomics results showed that compared with control rats, the level of citric acid was significantly decreased, while the levels of lactic acid, ribose 5-phosphate, xylulose 5-phosphate and glucitol were significantly increased in the diabetic rat. Compared with diabetic rats, the level of citric acid was significantly increased, while the lactic acid, ribose 5-phosphate and xylulose 5-phosphate were significantly decreased in the diabetic exercise rats. Western blot results showed that lower level of citrate synthase and oxoglutarate dehydrogenase, higher level of aldose reductase and glucose 6-phosphatedehydrogenase were found in the diabetic rats when compared to control rats. After 4 weeks of aerobic exercise, citrate synthase was upregulated and glucose 6-phosphatedehydrogenase was downregulated in the diabetic rats. These results suggest that diabetes could cause abnormal glucose metabolism, and aerobic exercise plays an important role in regulating diabetes-induced disorder of glucose metabolism in the hippocampus. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Presynaptic plasticity as a hallmark of rat stress susceptibility and antidepressant response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Luis Nieto-Gonzalez

    Full Text Available Two main questions are important for understanding and treating affective disorders: why are certain individuals susceptible or resilient to stress, and what are the features of treatment response and resistance? To address these questions, we used a chronic mild stress (CMS rat model of depression. When exposed to stress, a fraction of rats develops anhedonic-like behavior, a core symptom of major depression, while another subgroup of rats is resilient to CMS. Furthermore, the anhedonic-like state is reversed in about half the animals in response to chronic escitalopram treatment (responders, while the remaining animals are resistant (non-responder animals. Electrophysiology in hippocampal brain slices was used to identify a synaptic hallmark characterizing these groups of animals. Presynaptic properties were investigated at GABAergic synapses onto single dentate gyrus granule cells. Stress-susceptible rats displayed a reduced probability of GABA release judged by an altered paired-pulse ratio of evoked inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs (1.48 ± 0.25 compared with control (0.81 ± 0.05 and stress-resilient rats (0.78 ± 0.03. Spontaneous IPSCs (sIPSCs occurred less frequently in stress-susceptible rats compared with control and resilient rats. Finally, a subset of stress-susceptible rats responding to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI treatment showed a normalization of the paired-pulse ratio (0.73 ± 0.06 whereas non-responder rats showed no normalization (1.2 ± 0.2. No changes in the number of parvalbumin-positive interneurons were observed. Thus, we provide evidence for a distinct GABAergic synaptopathy which associates closely with stress-susceptibility and treatment-resistance in an animal model of depression.

  2. Distinct effects of acute and chronic sleep loss on DNA damage in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, M L; Ribeiro, D A; Bergamaschi, C T; Alvarenga, T A; Silva, A; Zager, A; Campos, R R; Tufik, S

    2009-04-30

    The aim of this investigation was to evaluate genetic damage induced in male rats by experimental sleep loss for short-term (24 and 96 h) and long-term (21 days) intervals, as well as their respective recovery periods in peripheral blood, brain, liver and heart tissue by the single cell gel (comet) assay. Rats were paradoxically deprived of sleep (PSD) by the platform technique for 24 or 96 h, or chronically sleep-restricted (SR) for 21 days. We also sought to verify the time course of their recovery after 24 h of rebound sleep. The results showed DNA damage in blood cells of rats submitted to PSD for 96 h. Brain tissue showed extensive genotoxic damage in PSD rats (both 24 and 96 h), though the effect was more pronounced in the 96 h group. Rats allowed to recover from the PSD-96 h and SR-21 days treatments showed DNA damage as compared to negative controls. Liver and heart did not display any genotoxicity activity. Corticosterone concentrations were increased after PSD (24 and 96 h) relative to control rats, whereas these levels were unaffected in the SR group. Collectively, these findings reveal that sleep loss was able to induce genetic damage in blood and brain cells, especially following acute exposure. Since DNA damage is an important step in events leading to genomic instability, this study represents a relevant contribution to the understanding of the potential health risks associated with sleep deprivation.

  3. Intermittent hypoxia in obese Zucker rats: cardiometabolic and inflammatory effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briançon-Marjollet, Anne; Monneret, Denis; Henri, Marion; Joyeux-Faure, Marie; Totoson, Perle; Cachot, Sandrine; Faure, Patrice; Godin-Ribuot, Diane

    2016-11-01

    What is the central question of this study? This study addresses the relative impact of obesity and intermittent hypoxia in the pathophysiological process of obstructive sleep apnoea by investigating the metabolic, inflammatory and cardiovascular consequences of intermittent hypoxia in lean and obese Zucker rats. What is the main finding and its importance? We found that obesity and intermittent hypoxia have mainly distinct consequences on the investigated inflammatory and cardiometabolic parameters in Zucker rats. This suggests that, for a given severity of sleep apnea, the association of obesity and obstructive sleep apnoea may not necessarily be deleterious. Obstructive sleep apnoea is associated with obesity with a high prevalence, and both co-morbidities are independent cardiovascular risk factors. Intermittent hypoxia (IH) is thought to be the main factor responsible for the obstructive sleep apnoea-related cardiometabolic alterations. The aim of this study was to assess the respective impact of obesity and IH on the inflammatory and cardiometabolic state in rats. Lean and obese Zucker rats were exposed to normoxia or chronic IH, and we assessed metabolic and inflammatory parameters, such as plasma lipids and glucose, serum leptin and adiponectin, liver cytokines, nuclear factor-κB activity and cardiac endothelin-1 levels. Myocardial infarct size was also evaluated following in vitro ischaemia-reperfusion. Circulating lipids, insulin, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), leptin and adiponectin levels were higher in obese versus lean rats. Chronic IH did not have a significant impact on metabolic parameters in lean rats. In obese rats, IH increased glycaemia and HOMA-IR. Liver interleukin-6 and tumour necrosis factor-α levels were elevated in lean rats exposed to IH; obesity prevented the increase in interleukin-6 but not in tumour necrosis factor-α. Finally, IH exposure enhanced myocardial sensitivity to infarction in both lean and

  4. Treatment of diabetic rats with encapsulated islets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweet, Ian R; Yanay, Ofer; Waldron, Lanaya; Gilbert, Merle; Fuller, Jessica M; Tupling, Terry; Lernmark, Ake; Osborne, William R A

    2008-12-01

    Immunoprotection of islets using bioisolator systems permits introduction of allogeneic cells to diabetic patients without the need for immunosuppression. Using TheraCyte immunoisolation devices, we investigated two rat models of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), BB rats and rats made diabetic by streptozotocin (STZ) treatment. We chose to implant islets after the onset of diabetes to mimic the probable treatment of children with T1DM as they are usually diagnosed after disease onset. We encapsulated 1000 rat islets and implanted them subcutaneously (SQ) into diabetic biobreeding (BB) rats and STZ-induced diabetic rats, defined as two or more consecutive days of blood glucose>350 mg/dl. Rats were monitored for weight and blood glucose. Untreated BB rats rapidly lost weight and were euthanized at >20% weight loss that occurred between 4 and 10 days from implantation. For period of 30-40 days following islet implantation weights of treated rats remained steady or increased. Rapid weight loss occurred after surgical removal of devices that contained insulin positive islets. STZ-treated rats that received encapsulated islets showed steady weight gain for up to 130 days, whereas untreated control rats showed steady weight loss that achieved >20% at around 55 days. Although islet implants did not normalize blood glucose, treated rats were apparently healthy and groomed normally. Autologous or allogeneic islets were equally effective in providing treatment. TheraCyte devices can sustain islets, protect allogeneic cells from immune attack and provide treatment for diabetic-mediated weight loss in both BB rats and STZ-induced diabetic rats.

  5. Locus coeruleus lesions and PCOS: role of the central and peripheral sympathetic nervous system in the ovarian function of rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farideh Zafari Zangeneh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is a complex endocrine and metabolic disorder associated with ovulatory dysfunction”. “Autonomic and central nervous systems play important roles in the regulation of ovarian physiology”. The noradrenergic nucleus locus coeruleus (LC plays a central role in the regulation of the sympathetic nervous system and synaptically connected to the preganglionic cell bodies of the ovarian sympathetic pathway and its activation is essential to trigger spontaneous or induced LH surges. This study evaluates sympathetic outflow in central and peripheral pathways in PCO rats. Objective: Our objectives in this study were (1 to estimate LC activity in rats with estradiol valerate (EV-induced PCO; (2 to antagonized alpha2a adrenoceptor in systemic conditions with yohimbine. Materials and Methods: Forty two rats were divided into two groups: 1 LC and yohimbine and 2 control. Every group subdivided in two groups: eighteen rats were treated with estradiol valerate for induction of follicular cysts and the remainders were sesame oil groups. Results: Estradiol concentration was significantly augmented by the LC lesion in PCO rats (p<0.001, while LC lesion could not alter serum concentrations of LH and FSH, like yohimbine. The morphological observations of ovaries of LC lesion rats showed follicles with hyperthecosis, but yohimbine reduced the number of cysts, increased corpus lutea and developed follicles. Conclusion: Rats with EV-induced PCO increased sympathetic activity. LC lesion and yohimbine decreased the number of cysts and yohimbine increased corpus lutea and developed follicles in PCO rats.

  6. Sex differences in methamphetamine seeking in rats: Impact of oxytocin

    OpenAIRE

    Cox, Brittney M.; Young, Amy B.; See, Ronald E.; Reichel, Carmela M.

    2013-01-01

    Previous evidence in an animal model of drug self-administration and drug seeking showed that acute oxytocin decreased methamphetamine (meth) seeking in male rats, suggesting potential clinical efficacy for the treatment of psychostimulant addiction. However, based on the well-established role of oxytocin in reproduction and pair bond formation, it is important to know how this effect extrapolates to females. Here, we tested whether oxytocin (1 mg/kg, IP) would decrease meth seeking in female...

  7. Engagement of the Rat Hindlimb Motor Cortex across Natural Locomotor Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiGiovanna, Jack; Dominici, Nadia; Friedli, Lucia; Rigosa, Jacopo; Duis, Simone; Kreider, Julie; Beauparlant, Janine; van den Brand, Rubia; Schieppati, Marco; Micera, Silvestro; Courtine, Grégoire

    2016-10-05

    Contrary to cats and primates, cortical contribution to hindlimb locomotor movements is not critical in rats. However, the importance of the motor cortex to regain locomotion after neurological disorders in rats suggests that cortical engagement in hindlimb motor control may depend on the behavioral context. To investigate this possibility, we recorded whole-body kinematics, muscle synergies, and hindlimb motor cortex modulation in freely moving rats performing a range of natural locomotor procedures. We found that the activation of hindlimb motor cortex preceded gait initiation. During overground locomotion, the motor cortex exhibited consistent neuronal population responses that were synchronized with the spatiotemporal activation of hindlimb motoneurons. Behaviors requiring enhanced muscle activity or skilled paw placement correlated with substantial adjustment in neuronal population responses. In contrast, all rats exhibited a reduction of cortical activity during more automated behavior, such as stepping on a treadmill. Despite the facultative role of the motor cortex in the production of locomotion in rats, these results show that the encoding of hindlimb features in motor cortex dynamics is comparable in rats and cats. However, the extent of motor cortex modulations appears linked to the degree of volitional engagement and complexity of the task, reemphasizing the importance of goal-directed behaviors for motor control studies, rehabilitation, and neuroprosthetics. We mapped the neuronal population responses in the hindlimb motor cortex to hindlimb kinematics and hindlimb muscle synergies across a spectrum of natural locomotion behaviors. Robust task-specific neuronal population responses revealed that the rat motor cortex displays similar modulation as other mammals during locomotion. However, the reduced motor cortex activity during more automated behaviors suggests a relationship between the degree of engagement and task complexity. This relationship

  8. [Pituitary function of dysgenesic femal rats. Studies with grafting method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhems, E; Busquet, J

    1975-01-01

    Misulban administered to pregnant rats on the 15th day of gestation provoked gonadal dysgenesia in the offspring. Study of the pituitary function of dysgenesic female rats, realized by grafting method, showed gonadotrophic hypersecretion.

  9. X-ray lethality in diabetic rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cember, H.; Thorson, T.M. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Rats were made diabetic with streptozotocin and were irradiated with X-rays at various exposure levels in order to determine the LD-50/30 day dose. Non-diabetic control rats were exposed in a similar manner. The LD-50 exposures for the diabetic rats and the control rats were 436 R, and 617 R respectively. In view of the high prevalence of diabetes among the adult population, this finding may have important implications for diabetic workers who may be exposed accidentally to high levels of ionizing radiation

  10. Target-selected mutagenesis of the rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, B.M.; Mudde, J.B.; Plasterk, R.; Cuppen, E.

    2004-01-01

    The rat is one of the most extensively studied model organisms, and with its genome being sequenced, tools to manipulate gene function in vivo have become increasingly important. We here report proof of principle for target-selected mutagenesis as a reverse genetic or knockout approach for the rat.

  11. Neuropeptide Y enhances olfactory mucosa responses to odorant in hungry rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negroni, Julia; Meunier, Nicolas; Monnerie, Régine; Salesse, Roland; Baly, Christine; Caillol, Monique; Congar, Patrice

    2012-01-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) plays an important role in regulating appetite and hunger in vertebrates. In the hypothalamus, NPY stimulates food intake under the control of the nutritional status. Previous studies have shown the presence of NPY and receptors in rodent olfactory system, and suggested a neuroproliferative role. Interestingly, NPY was also shown to directly modulate olfactory responses evoked by a food-related odorant in hungry axolotls. We have recently demonstrated that another nutritional cue, insulin, modulates the odorant responses of the rat olfactory mucosa (OM). Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the potential effect of NPY on rat OM responses to odorants, in relation to the animal's nutritional state. We measured the potential NPY modulation of OM responses to odorant, using electro-olfactogram (EOG) recordings, in fed and fasted adult rats. NPY application significantly and transiently increased EOG amplitudes in fasted but not in fed rats. The effects of specific NPY-receptor agonists were similarly quantified, showing that NPY operated mainly through Y1 receptors. These receptors appeared as heterogeneously expressed by olfactory neurons in the OM, and western blot analysis showed that they were overexpressed in fasted rats. These data provide the first evidence that NPY modulates the initial events of odorant detection in the rat OM. Because this modulation depends on the nutritional status of the animal, and is ascribed to NPY, the most potent orexigenic peptide in the central nervous system, it evidences a strong supplementary physiological link between olfaction and nutritional processes.

  12. Incorporation and distribution of tritium in rats after chronic exposure to various tritiated compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, H.

    1991-01-01

    Rats were chronically exposed to tritiated water ( 3 HHO) and several tritiated organic compounds ([ 3 H]leucine, [ 3 H]lysine, [ 3 H]glucose, [ 3 H]glucosamine, [ 3 H]thymidine and [ 3 H]uridine) dissolved in their drinking water. An analysis of tritium in wet and dry tissues of rats at the end of 22 days' chronic exposure showed that the chemical form of the ingested tritium was more important for tritium uptake in dry tissues than in wet tissues. The highest concentrations of OBT (organically bound tritium) were found in rats exposed to tritiated amino acids ([sup (3)/H]lysine and [ 3 H]leucine), 4-9 times higher than those in rats exposed to 3 HHO. The next highest concentrations were found in rats exposed to [ 3 H]uridine., The result of radiation dose estimations at the end of chronic exposure showed the contribution of OBT to total dose rate was higher in the tissues of rats exposed to tritiated organic compounds than that after exposure to 3 HHO. The differences between total dose rates from 3 HHO and those from tritiated organic compounds were within a factor of 2. (author)

  13. Cognitive and motivational requirements for the emergence of cooperation in a rat social game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viana, Duarte S; Gordo, Isabel; Sucena, Elio; Moita, Marta A P

    2010-01-13

    Game theory and the Prisoner's Dilemma (PD) game in particular, which captures the paradox of cooperative interactions that lead to benefits but entail costs to the interacting individuals, have constituted a powerful tool in the study of the mechanisms of reciprocity. However, in non-human animals most tests of reciprocity in PD games have resulted in sustained defection strategies. As a consequence, it has been suggested that under such stringent conditions as the PD game humans alone have evolved the necessary cognitive abilities to engage in reciprocity, namely, numerical discrimination, memory and control of temporal discounting. We use an iterated PD game to test rats (Rattus norvegicus) for the presence of such cognitive abilities by manipulating the strategy of the opponent, Tit-for-Tat and Pseudo-Random, or the relative size of the temptation to defect. We found that rats shape their behaviour according to the opponent's strategy and the relative outcome resulting from cooperative or defective moves. Finally, we show that the behaviour of rats is contingent upon their motivational state (hungry versus sated). Here we show that rats understand the payoff matrix of the PD game and the strategy of the opponent. Importantly, our findings reveal that rats possess the necessary cognitive capacities for reciprocity-based cooperation to emerge in the context of a prisoner's dilemma. Finally, the validation of the rat as a model to study reciprocity-based cooperation during the PD game opens new avenues of research in experimental neuroscience.

  14. Beta-endorphin in genetically hypoprolactinemic rat: IPL nude rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, H.; Sabbagh, I.; Abou-Samra, A.B.; Bertrand, J.

    1986-01-01

    Beta-endorphin has been reported to regulate not only stress- and suckling-induced but also basal prolactin secretion. In the aim to better evaluate the endogenous beta-endorphin-prolactin interrelation, the authors measured beta-endorphin levels in a new rat strain, genetically hypoprolactinemic and characterized by a total lack of lactation: IPL nude rat. Beta-endorphin was measured using a specific anti-h-β endorphin in plasma and extracts of anterior and neurointermediate lobes of the pituitary, hypothalamus and brain. Pituitary extracts were also chromatographed on Sephadex G50 column. Results obtained showed that in IPL nude females on diestrus and males, the beta-endorphin contents of the neurointermediate lobe was significantly lower than in normal rats, while the values found in the other organs and plasma were similar. However, elution pattern of the anterior pituitary extracts from male rats showed greater immunoactivity eluting as I 125 h-beta-endorphin than in normal rat; this was not the case for the female rat. These results are consistent with a differential regulation of beta-endorphin levels of anterior and neurointermediate lobe by catecholamines. Moreover they suggest that PRL secretion was more related to neurointermediate beta-endorphin. 40 references, 2 figures, 4 tables

  15. Beta-endorphin in genetically hypoprolactinemic rat: IPL nude rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, H.; Sabbagh, I.; Abou-Samra, A.B.; Bertrand, J.

    1986-01-20

    Beta-endorphin has been reported to regulate not only stress- and suckling-induced but also basal prolactin secretion. In the aim to better evaluate the endogenous beta-endorphin-prolactin interrelation, the authors measured beta-endorphin levels in a new rat strain, genetically hypoprolactinemic and characterized by a total lack of lactation: IPL nude rat. Beta-endorphin was measured using a specific anti-h-..beta.. endorphin in plasma and extracts of anterior and neurointermediate lobes of the pituitary, hypothalamus and brain. Pituitary extracts were also chromatographed on Sephadex G50 column. Results obtained showed that in IPL nude females on diestrus and males, the beta-endorphin contents of the neurointermediate lobe was significantly lower than in normal rats, while the values found in the other organs and plasma were similar. However, elution pattern of the anterior pituitary extracts from male rats showed greater immunoactivity eluting as I/sup 125/ h-beta-endorphin than in normal rat; this was not the case for the female rat. These results are consistent with a differential regulation of beta-endorphin levels of anterior and neurointermediate lobe by catecholamines. Moreover they suggest that PRL secretion was more related to neurointermediate beta-endorphin. 40 references, 2 figures, 4 tables.

  16. Helminth parasites in black rats (Rattus rattus) and brown rats (Rattus norvegicus) from different environments in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franssen, Frits; Swart, Arno; van Knapen, Frans|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/070114749; van der Giessen, Joke

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Rattus norvegicus (brown rat) and Rattus rattus (black rat) are known carriers of bacteria, viruses, and parasites of zoonotic and veterinary importance. Moreover, rats may play a role in the transmission of muscle larvae of the zoonotic nematode Trichinella spiralis to farm animals. We

  17. Stress-sensitive arterial hypertension, haemodynamic changes and brain metabolites in hypertensive ISIAH rats: MRI investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seryapina, A A; Shevelev, O B; Moshkin, M P; Markel, A L; Akulov, A E

    2017-05-01

    What is the central question of this study? Stress-sensitive arterial hypertension is considered to be controlled by changes in central and peripheral sympathetic regulating mechanisms, which eventually result in haemodynamic alterations and blood pressure elevation. Therefore, study of the early stages of development of hypertension is of particular interest, because it helps in understanding the aetiology of the disease. What is the main finding and its importance? Non-invasive in vivo investigation in ISIAH rats demonstrated that establishment of sustainable stress-sensitive hypertension is accompanied by a decrease in prefrontal cortex activity and mobilization of hypothalamic processes, with considerable correlations between haemodynamic parameters and individual metabolite ratios. The study of early development of arterial hypertension in association with emotional stress is of great importance for better understanding of the aetiology and pathogenesis of the hypertensive disease. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was applied to evaluate the changes in haemodynamics and brain metabolites in 1- and 3-month-old inherited stress-induced arterial hypertension (ISIAH) rats (10 male rats) with stress-sensitive arterial hypertension and in control normotensive Wistar Albino Glaxo (WAG) rats (eight male rats). In the 3-month-old ISIAH rats, the age-dependent increase in blood pressure was associated with increased blood flow through the renal arteries and decreased blood flow in the lower part of the abdominal aorta. The renal vascular resistance in the ISIAH rats decreased during ageing, although at both ages it remained higher than the renal vascular resistance in WAG rats. An integral metabolome portrait demonstrated that development of hypertension in the ISIAH rats was associated with an attenuation of the excitatory and energetic activity in the prefrontal cortex, whereas in the WAG rats the opposite age-dependent changes were observed. In contrast, in the

  18. Reduced motivation in the BACHD rat model of Huntington disease is dependent on the choice of food deprivation strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansson, Erik Karl Håkan; Clemens, Laura Emily; Riess, Olaf; Nguyen, Huu Phuc

    2014-01-01

    Huntington disease (HD) is an inherited neurodegenerative disease characterized by motor, cognitive, psychiatric and metabolic symptoms. Animal models of HD show phenotypes that can be divided into similar categories, with the metabolic phenotype of certain models being characterized by obesity. Although interesting in terms of modeling metabolic symptoms of HD, the obesity phenotype can be problematic as it might confound the results of certain behavioral tests. This concerns the assessment of cognitive function in particular, as tests for such phenotypes are often based on food depriving the animals and having them perform tasks for food rewards. The BACHD rat is a recently established animal model of HD, and in order to ensure that behavioral characterization of these rats is done in a reliable way, a basic understanding of their physiology is needed. Here, we show that BACHD rats are obese and suffer from discrete developmental deficits. When assessing the motivation to lever push for a food reward, BACHD rats were found to be less motivated than wild type rats, although this phenotype was dependent on the food deprivation strategy. Specifically, the phenotype was present when rats of both genotypes were deprived to 85% of their respective free-feeding body weight, but not when deprivation levels were adjusted in order to match the rats' apparent hunger levels. The study emphasizes the importance of considering metabolic abnormalities as a confounding factor when performing behavioral characterization of HD animal models.

  19. Expression of S100A6 in Rat Hippocampus after Traumatic Brain Injury Due to Lateral Head Acceleration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Fang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In a rat model of traumatic brain injury (TBI, we investigated changes in cognitive function and S100A6 expression in the hippocampus. TBI-associated changes in this protein have not previously been reported. Rat S100A6 was studied via immunohistochemical staining, Western blot, and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR after either lateral head acceleration or sham. Reduced levels of S100A6 protein and mRNA were observed 1 h after TBI, followed by gradual increases over 6, 12, 24, and 72 h, and then a return to sham level at 14 day. Morris water maze (MWM test was used to evaluate animal spatial cognition. TBI- and sham-rats showed an apparent learning curve, expressed as escape latency. Although TBI-rats displayed a relatively poorer cognitive ability than sham-rats, the disparity was not significant early post-injury. Marked cognitive deficits in TBI-rats were observed at 72 h post-injury compared with sham animals. TBI-rats showed decreased times in platform crossing in the daily MWM test; the performance at 72 h post-injury was the worst. In conclusion, a reduction in S100A6 may be one of the early events that lead to secondary cognitive decline after TBI, and its subsequent elevation is tightly linked with cognitive improvement. S100A6 may play important roles in neuronal degeneration and regeneration in TBI.

  20. Reduced motivation in the BACHD rat model of Huntington disease is dependent on the choice of food deprivation strategy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Karl Håkan Jansson

    Full Text Available Huntington disease (HD is an inherited neurodegenerative disease characterized by motor, cognitive, psychiatric and metabolic symptoms. Animal models of HD show phenotypes that can be divided into similar categories, with the metabolic phenotype of certain models being characterized by obesity. Although interesting in terms of modeling metabolic symptoms of HD, the obesity phenotype can be problematic as it might confound the results of certain behavioral tests. This concerns the assessment of cognitive function in particular, as tests for such phenotypes are often based on food depriving the animals and having them perform tasks for food rewards. The BACHD rat is a recently established animal model of HD, and in order to ensure that behavioral characterization of these rats is done in a reliable way, a basic understanding of their physiology is needed. Here, we show that BACHD rats are obese and suffer from discrete developmental deficits. When assessing the motivation to lever push for a food reward, BACHD rats were found to be less motivated than wild type rats, although this phenotype was dependent on the food deprivation strategy. Specifically, the phenotype was present when rats of both genotypes were deprived to 85% of their respective free-feeding body weight, but not when deprivation levels were adjusted in order to match the rats' apparent hunger levels. The study emphasizes the importance of considering metabolic abnormalities as a confounding factor when performing behavioral characterization of HD animal models.

  1. Ethanol consumption and pineal melatonin daily profile in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peres, Rafael; do Amaral, Fernanda Gaspar; Madrigrano, Thiago Cardoso; Scialfa, Julieta Helena; Bordin, Silvana; Afeche, Solange Castro; Cipolla-Neto, José

    2011-10-01

    It is well known that melatonin participates in the regulation of many important physiological functions such as sleep-wakefulness cycle, motor coordination and neural plasticity, and cognition. However, as there are contradictory results regarding the melatonin production diurnal profile under alcohol consumption, the aim of this paper was to study the phenomenology and mechanisms of the putative modifications on the daily profile of melatonin production in rats submitted to chronic alcohol intake. The present results show that rats receiving 10% ethanol in drinking water for 35 days display an altered daily profile of melatonin production, with a phase delay and a reduction in the nocturnal peak. This can be partially explained by a loss of the daily rhythm and the 25% reduction in tryptophan hydroxylase activity and, mainly, by a phase delay in arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase gene expression and a 70% reduction in its peak activity. Upstream in the melatonin synthesis pathway, the results showed that noradrenergic signaling is impaired as well, with a decrease in β1 and α1 adrenergic receptors' mRNA contents and in vitro sustained loss of noradrenergic-stimulated melatonin production by glands from alcohol-treated rats. Together, these results confirm the alterations in the daily melatonin profile of alcoholic rats and suggest the possible mechanisms for the observed melatonin synthesis modification. © 2011 The Authors, Addiction Biology © 2011 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  2. Studies on estradiol-2/4-hydroxylase activity in rat brain and liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theron, C.N.

    1985-03-01

    A sensitive and specific radio-enzymatic assay was used to study estradiol-2/4-hydroxylase activity in rat liver microsomes and in microsomes obtained from 6 discrete brain areas of the rat. Kinetic parameters were determined for these enzyme activities. The effects of different P-450 inhibitors on estradiol-2/4-hydroxylase activity in brain and liver microsomes were also studied. In both organs these enzyme activities were found to be located mainly in the microsomal fraction and were inhibited by the 3 P-450 inhibitors tested. The hepatic estradiol-2/4-hydroxylase activity in adult male rats was significantly higher than that of females, but the enzyme activity in the brain did not exhibit a similar sex difference. Furthermore, estradiol-2/4-hydroxylase activity in rat liver was strongly induced by phenobarbitone treatment, but not in the brain. The phenobarbitone-induced activity in male and female rats exhibited significant kinetic differences. In female rats sexual maturation was associated with significant changes in the apparent Km of estradiol-2/4-hydroxylases in the liver and hypothalamus. Evidence was found that the in vitro estradiol-2/4-hydroxylase activity in rat brain and liver is due to more than one form of microsomal P-450. Kinetic studies showed important differences between the estradiol-2/4-hydroxylase activities in the hippocampus and hypothalamus. Significant differences in estradiol-2/4-hydroxylase activities were observed in the 6 brain areas studied, with the hippocampus showing the highest, and the hypothalamus the lowest activity at all developmental stages in both male and female rats

  3. Enteric neurons show a primary cilium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luesma, Ma José; Cantarero, Irene; Castiella, Tomás; Soriano, Mario; Garcia-Verdugo, José Manuel; Junquera, Concepción

    2013-01-01

    The primary cilium is a non-motile cilium whose structure is 9+0. It is involved in co-ordinating cellular signal transduction pathways, developmental processes and tissue homeostasis. Defects in the structure or function of the primary cilium underlie numerous human diseases, collectively termed ciliopathies. The presence of single cilia in the central nervous system (CNS) is well documented, including some choroid plexus cells, neural stem cells, neurons and astrocytes, but the presence of primary cilia in differentiated neurons of the enteric nervous system (ENS) has not yet been described in mammals to the best of our knowledge. The enteric nervous system closely resembles the central nervous system. In fact, the ultrastructure of the ENS is more similar to the CNS ultrastructure than to the rest of the peripheral nervous system. This research work describes for the first time the ultrastructural characteristics of the single cilium in neurons of rat duodenum myenteric plexus, and reviews the cilium function in the CNS to propose the possible role of cilia in the ENS cells. © 2012 The Authors. Published by Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine/Blackwell Publishing Ltd. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

  4. Cerveau isolé and pretrigeminal rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zernicki, B; Gandolfo, G; Glin, L; Gottesmann, C

    1984-01-01

    Cortical and hippocampal EEG activity was analysed in 14 cerveau isole and 8 pretrigerninal rats. In the acute stage, waking EEG patterns were absent in the cerveau isole, whereas sleep EEG patterns were absent in the pretrigeminal preparations. However, already on the second day the EEG waking-sleep cycle recovered in the majority of rats. Paradoxically, stimuli directed to the caudal part of preparations evoked stronger cortical and hippocampal EEG arousal than olfactory and visual stimuli. The behavior of the caudal part was observed in 25 preparations. Although in abortive form, the rats did show some locomotor and grooming behavior, and could be fed orally. The peripheral events of paradoxical sleep appeared only on the fourth or fifth day of survival of the cerveau isole rats. It is concluded that the activity of the isolated cerebrum of the rat is similar to that of cat preparations, but that functions of the caudal neuraxis are superior in rats.

  5. Effects of heroin on rat prosocial behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomek, Seven E; Stegmann, Gabriela M; Olive, M Foster

    2018-05-04

    Opioid use disorders are characterized in part by impairments in social functioning. Previous research indicates that laboratory rats, which are frequently used as animal models of addiction-related behaviors, are capable of prosocial behavior. For example, under normal conditions, when a 'free' rat is placed in the vicinity of rat trapped in a plastic restrainer, the rat will release or 'rescue' the other rat from confinement. The present study was conducted to determine the effects of heroin on prosocial behavior in rats. For 2 weeks, rats were given the opportunity to rescue their cagemate from confinement, and the occurrence of and latency to free the confined rat was recorded. After baseline rescuing behavior was established, rats were randomly selected to self-administer heroin (0.06 mg/kg/infusion i.v.) or sucrose pellets (orally) for 14 days. Next, rats were retested for rescuing behavior once daily for 3 days, during which they were provided with a choice between freeing the trapped cagemate and continuing to self-administer their respective reinforcer. Our results indicate that rats self-administering sucrose continued to rescue their cagemate, whereas heroin rats chose to self-administer heroin and not rescue their cagemate. These findings suggest that rats with a history of heroin self-administration show deficits in prosocial behavior, consistent with specific diagnostic criteria for opioid use disorder. Behavioral paradigms providing a choice between engaging in prosocial behavior and continuing drug use may be useful in modeling and investigating the neural basis of social functioning deficits in opioid addiction. © 2018 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  6. Biotransformation, distribution and toxicity of carbon disulfide in immature rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, E.C.

    1984-01-01

    The 24-hour LD-50 values of CS 2 in 1-, 5-, 10-, 20-, 30-, and 40-day-old rats were 583, 974, 1119, 1545, 1237, and 1183 mg/kg, respectively. Twenty-four hours after CS 2 exposure, decreases in aniline hydroxylation and cytochrome P-450 were observed in rats older than one day of age. Hepatic microsomes from rats of all ages biotransformed CS 2 to COS in vitro in the presence of NADPH. Inhibition of the hepatic mixed-function oxidase enzyme system (HMFOES) was observed after incubation of hepatic microsomes from rats as young as one day of age with CS 2 and NADPH. Studies with radiolabelled CS 2 showed that a covalently binding sulfur metabolite, free from the carbon atom of CS 2 , was formed in vitro during the metabolism of CS 2 to COS which appeared to be responsible for the inhibition of the HMFOES. Three hours after 14 C-CS 2 administration in vivo to rats, between 58 and 83% of the dose of 14 C-CS 2 was expired; 4-9% of the dose was expired as 14 C-CO 2 depending on age. One to 2% of the dose of 14 C-CS 2 , and 1 to 6% of the dose of 35 S-CS 2 remained as biotransformation products in tissues. Biotransformation products of CS 2 were identified as either acid-labile or covalently bound. The results of the study implicated CS 2 biotransformation to sulfur metabolites as an important mechanism of CS 2 toxicity, particularly to 1-day-old rats which had the lowest capacity to eliminate these metabolites

  7. Dietary salt restriction improves cardiac and adipose tissue pathology independently of obesity in a rat model of metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattori, Takuya; Murase, Tamayo; Takatsu, Miwa; Nagasawa, Kai; Matsuura, Natsumi; Watanabe, Shogo; Murohara, Toyoaki; Nagata, Kohzo

    2014-12-02

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) enhances salt sensitivity of blood pressure and is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The effects of dietary salt restriction on cardiac pathology associated with metabolic syndrome remain unclear. We investigated whether dietary salt restriction might ameliorate cardiac injury in DahlS.Z-Lepr(fa)/Lepr(fa) (DS/obese) rats, which are derived from a cross between Dahl salt-sensitive and Zucker rats and represent a model of metabolic syndrome. DS/obese rats were fed a normal-salt (0.36% NaCl in chow) or low-salt (0.0466% NaCl in chow) diet from 9 weeks of age and were compared with similarly treated homozygous lean littermates (DahlS.Z-Lepr(+)/Lepr(+), or DS/lean rats). DS/obese rats fed the normal-salt diet progressively developed hypertension and showed left ventricular hypertrophy, fibrosis, and diastolic dysfunction at 15 weeks. Dietary salt restriction attenuated all of these changes in DS/obese rats. The levels of cardiac oxidative stress and inflammation and the expression of cardiac renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system genes were increased in DS/obese rats fed the normal-salt diet, and dietary salt restriction downregulated these parameters in both DS/obese and DS/lean rats. In addition, dietary salt restriction attenuated the increase in visceral adipose tissue inflammation and the decrease in insulin signaling apparent in DS/obese rats without reducing body weight or visceral adipocyte size. Dietary salt restriction did not alter fasting serum glucose levels but it markedly decreased the fasting serum insulin concentration in DS/obese rats. Dietary salt restriction not only prevents hypertension and cardiac injury but also ameliorates insulin resistance, without reducing obesity, in this model of metabolic syndrome. © 2014 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  8. Modulation of rat behaviour by using a rat-like robot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Qing; Ishii, Hiroyuki; Kinoshita, Shinichi; Takanishi, Atsuo; Okabayashi, Satoshi; Iida, Naritoshi; Kimura, Hiroshi; Shibata, Shigenobu

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we study the response of a rat to a rat-like robot capable of generating different types of behaviour (stressful, friendly, neutral). Experiments are conducted in an open-field where a rat-like robot called WR-4 is put together with live rats. The activity level of each rat subject is evaluated by scoring its locomotor activity and frequencies of performing rearing (rising up on its hind limbs) and body grooming (body cuddling and head curling) actions, whereas the degree of preference of that is indicated by the robot–rat distance and the frequency of contacting WR-4. The moving speed and behaviour of WR-4 are controlled in real-time based on the feedback from rat motion. The activity level and degree of preference of rats for each experimental condition are analysed and compared to understand the influence of robot behaviour. The results of this study show that the activity level and degree of preference of the rat decrease when exposed to a stressful robot, and increase when the robot exhibit friendly behaviour, suggesting that a rat-like robot can modulate rat behaviour in a controllable, predictable way. (paper)

  9. Same-Different Categorization in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasserman, Edward A.; Castro, Leyre; Freeman, John H.

    2012-01-01

    Same-different categorization is a fundamental feat of human cognition. Although birds and nonhuman primates readily learn same-different discriminations and successfully transfer them to novel stimuli, no such demonstration exists for rats. Using a spatial discrimination learning task, we show that rats can both learn to discriminate arrays of…

  10. Chronic ethanol tolerance as a result of free-choice drinking in alcohol-preferring rats of the WHP line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyr, Wanda; Taracha, Ewa

    2012-01-01

    The development of tolerance to alcohol with chronic consumption is an important criterion for an animal model of alcoholism and may be an important component of the genetic predisposition to alcoholism. The aim of this study was to determine whether the selectively bred Warsaw High Preferring (WHP) line of alcohol-preferring rats would develop behavioral and metabolic tolerance during the free-choice drinking of ethanol. Chronic tolerance to ethanol-induced sedation was tested. The loss of righting reflex (LRR) paradigm was used to record sleep duration in WHP rats. Ethanol (EtOH)-naive WHP rats received a single intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of 5.0 g ethanol/kg body weight (b.w.), and sleep duration was measured. Subsequently, rats had access to a 10% ethanol solution under a free-choice condition with water and food for 12 weeks. After 12 weeks of the free-choice intake of ethanol, the rats received another single i.p. injection of 5.0 g ethanol/kg b.w., and sleep duration was reassessed. The blood alcohol content (BAC) for each rat was determined after an i.p. injection of 5 g/kg of ethanol in naive rats and again after chronic alcohol drinking at the time of recovery of the righting reflex (RR). The results showed that the mean ethanol intake was 9.14 g/kg/24 h, and both sleep duration and BAC were decreased after chronic ethanol intake. In conclusion, WHP rats exposed to alcohol by free-choice drinking across 12 weeks exhibited increased alcohol elimination rates. Studies have demonstrated that WHP rats after chronic free-choice drinking (12 weeks) of alcohol develop metabolic tolerance. Behavioral tolerance to ethanol was demonstrated by reduced sleep duration, but this decrease in sleep duration was not significant.

  11. Importance of bestrophin-4 protein for vasomotion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matchkov, Vladimir; Larsen, Per; Bouzinova, Elena V.

    2008-01-01

    We have recently characterized a cGMP-dependent Ca2+-activated Cl- current (ICl,cGMP) with unique characteristics in smooth muscle cells (SMCs) and suggested that this could be important for vasomotion. In SMCs this current co-exists with the "classical" Ca2+-activated Cl- current. We hypothesized......). In this study we tested the hypotheses that ICl,cGMP is mediated by bestrophin-4 and that bestrophin-4 is important for vasomotion. Bestrophin-4 was downregulated with small interference (siRNA) in A7r5 cells and in rat mesenteric small arteries in vivo. siRNAs targeting different exons of bestrophin-4 were...... that at least one bestrophin family member - bestrophin-4 - is essential for ICl,cGMP and for generation of vasomotion in rat mesenteric small arteries....

  12. Potential neuroprotective effects of acupuncture stimulation on diabetes mellitus in a global ischemic rat model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Samjin; Lee, Gi-Ja; Chae, Su-Jin; Kang, Sung Wook; Park, Hun-Kuk; Yin, Chang-Shik; Lee, Seung-Hoon; Choi, Seok Keun

    2010-01-01

    Acupuncture (ACU) is known to be effective in ischemia treatment, and glutamate (GLU) excitotoxicity is an important factor in neuronal cell death. We observed the effect of ACU on cerebral blood flow (%CBF) and ΔGLU (the changes in GLU release) in the ischemic stroke rat model of diabetic mellitus (DM). A global ischemia was induced using the eleven-vessel occlusion (11-VO) method in 14 Sprague-Dawley rats (DM), which were randomly divided into two groups: the control group and the ACU-treatment group. Extracellular ΔGLU was assessed using an intra-cerebral biosensor system measuring 256 samples per second, simultaneously with %CBF and electroencephalogram. ACU stimulation was applied to ACU points GB34 and GB39 during the ischemic period. Twenty-three diagnostic parameters were proposed first for a detailed analysis of changes in %CBF and GLU release during ischemia/reperfusion. ACU rats showed a significant decrease in ischemic (p < 0.05) and reperfusion %CBF (p < 0.0001) than control rats, and a significantly larger decrease in ischemic ΔGLU (p < 0.05) and peak level of reperfusion ΔGLU (p < 0.005) than control rats. From these results, we suggest that ACU stimulation is responsible for the potential protection of neurons through suppression of %CBF response in the increased plasma osmolality and extracellular ΔGLU in diabetic rats under ischemic conditions

  13. Hypophosphatemia occurs with insulin administration during refeeding by total parenteral nutrition in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamura, Hiromi; Tanaka, Sarasa; Uenami, Yuri; Tani, Mariko; Ishitani, Midori; Morii, Saeko; Sakaue, Motoyoshi; Ito, Mikiko

    2018-01-01

    Refeeding syndrome (RFS) is characterized by the metabolic and clinical changes that occur following aggressive nutritional supplementation in malnourished patients. Hypophosphatemia is the hallmark of RFS and is key to its prevention and treatment in clinical practice. However, the mechanism of hypophosphatemia during RFS is unclear because of the lack of an animal model. In this study, we developed a rat RFS model as a first step to clarifying the molecular mechanism. After establishing the parenteral route, rats were fasted for 5 days and refeeding was started using total parenteral nutrition. The animals were infused with a high calorie solution with or without insulin administration. Results showed that plasma phosphate levels did not decrease in rats infused with the high calorie solution alone;in contrast, a 20% reduction compared to baseline was observed in rats administered insulin. In addition, rats infused with the high calorie solution containing added phosphate did not present with hypophosphatemia. Thus, we developed a rat RFS model with hypophosphatemia by tube feeding and insulin administration, and demonstrated the importance of phosphate in preventing refeeding hypophosphatemia. J. Med. Invest. 65:50-55, February, 2018.

  14. Protective effects of isorhynchophylline on cardiac arrhythmias in rats and guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Runtao; Dong, Guo; Yu, Jiangbo; Wang, Xu; Fu, Songbin; Yang, Shusen

    2011-09-01

    As one important constituent extracted from a traditional Chinese medicine, Uncaria Rhynchophylla Miq Jacks, isorhynchophylline has been used to treat hypertension, epilepsy, headache, and other illnesses. Whether isorhynchophylline protects hearts against cardiac arrhythmias is still incompletely investigated. This study was therefore aimed to examine the preventive effects of isorhynchophylline on heart arrhythmias in guinea pigs and rats and then explore their electrophysiological mechanisms. In vivo, ouabain and calcium chloride were used to establish experimental arrhythmic models in guinea pigs and rats. In vitro, the whole-cell patch-lamp technique was used to study the effect of isorhynchophylline on action potential duration and calcium channels in acutely isolated guinea pig and rat cardiomyocytes. The dose of ouabain required to induce cardiac arrhythmias was much larger in guinea pigs administered with isorhynchophylline. Additionally, the onset time of cardiac arrhythmias induced by calcium chloride was prolonged, and the duration was shortened in rats pretreated with isorhynchophylline. The further study showed that isorhynchophylline could significantly decrease action potential duration and inhibit calcium currents in isolated guinea pig and rat cardiomyocytes in a dose-dependent manner. In summary, isorhynchophylline played a remarkably preventive role in cardiac arrhythmias through the inhibition of calcium currents in rats and guinea pigs. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  15. Effect of Urtica dioica Leaf Alcoholic and Aqueous Extracts on the Number and the Diameter of the Islets in Diabetic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qujeq, Durdi; Tatar, Mohsen; Feizi, Farideh; Parsian, Hadi; Sohan Faraji, Alieh; Halalkhor, Sohrab

    2013-01-01

    Urtica dioica has been known as a plant that decreases blood glucose. Despite the importance of this plant in herbal medicine, relatively little research has been down on effects of this plant on islets yet. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the effect of dried Urtica dioica leaf alcoholic and aqueous extracts on the number and the diameter of the islets and histological parameters in streptozocin-induced diabetic rats. Six rats were used in each group. Group I: Normal rats were administered saline daily for 8 weeks. Group II: Diabetic rats were administered streptozotocin, 50 mg/kg of body weight; Group III: Diabetic rats were administered dried Urtica dioica leaf aqueous extracts for 8 weeks; Group IV: Diabetic rats were administered dried Urtica dioica leaf alcoholic extracts for 8 weeks. The animals, groups of diabetic and normal, were sacrificed by ether anaesthesia. Whole pancreas was dissected. The tissue samples were formalin fixed and paraffin embedded for microscopic examination. Histologic examination and grading were carried out on hematoxylin-eosin stained sections. The effects of administration of dried Urtica dioica leaf alcoholic and aqueous extracts to diabetic rats were determined by histopathologic examination. The pancreas from control rats showed normal pancreatic islets histoarchitecture. Our results also, indicate that the pancreas from diabetic rats show injury of pancreas tissue while the pancreas from diabetic rats treated with dried Urtica dioica leaf alcoholic and aqueous extracts show slight to moderate rearrangement of islets. According to our findings, dried Urtica dioica leaf alcoholic and aqueous extracts can cause a suitable repair of pancreatic tissue in streptozocin-induced diabetic experimental model.

  16. Sleep Deprivation Alters Rat Ventral Prostate Morphology, Leading to Glandular Atrophy: A Microscopic Study Contrasted with the Hormonal Assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel P. Venâncio

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effect of 96 h paradoxical sleep deprivation (PSD and 21-day sleep restriction (SR on prostate morphology using stereological assays in male rats. After euthanasia, the rat ventral prostate was removed, weighed, and prepared for conventional light microscopy. Microscopic analysis of the prostate reveals that morphology of this gland was altered after 96 h of PSD and 21 days of SR, with the most important alterations occurring in the epithelium and stroma in the course of both procedures compared with the control group. Both 96 h PSD and 21-day SR rats showed lower serum testosterone and higher corticosterone levels than control rats. The significance of our result referring to the sleep deprivation was responsible for deep morphological alterations in ventral prostate tissue, like to castration microscopic modifications. This result is due to the marked alterations in hormonal status caused by PSD and SR.

  17. Sleep Deprivation Alters Rat Ventral Prostate Morphology, Leading to Glandular Atrophy: A Microscopic Study Contrasted with the Hormonal Assays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venâncio, Daniel P.; Andersen, Monica L.; Vilamaior, Patricia S. L.; Santos, Fernanda C.; Zager, Adriano; Tufik, Sérgio; Taboga, Sebastião R.; De Mello, Marco T.

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the effect of 96 h paradoxical sleep deprivation (PSD) and 21-day sleep restriction (SR) on prostate morphology using stereological assays in male rats. After euthanasia, the rat ventral prostate was removed, weighed, and prepared for conventional light microscopy. Microscopic analysis of the prostate reveals that morphology of this gland was altered after 96 h of PSD and 21 days of SR, with the most important alterations occurring in the epithelium and stroma in the course of both procedures compared with the control group. Both 96 h PSD and 21-day SR rats showed lower serum testosterone and higher corticosterone levels than control rats. The significance of our result referring to the sleep deprivation was responsible for deep morphological alterations in ventral prostate tissue, like to castration microscopic modifications. This result is due to the marked alterations in hormonal status caused by PSD and SR. PMID:22927719

  18. Hypofunctional TrkA Accounts for the Absence of Pain Sensitization in the African Naked Mole-Rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omerbašić, Damir; Smith, Ewan St J; Moroni, Mirko; Homfeld, Johanna; Eigenbrod, Ole; Bennett, Nigel C; Reznick, Jane; Faulkes, Chris G; Selbach, Matthias; Lewin, Gary R

    2016-10-11

    The naked mole-rat is a subterranean rodent lacking several pain behaviors found in humans, rats, and mice. For example, nerve growth factor (NGF), an important mediator of pain sensitization, fails to produce thermal hyperalgesia in naked mole-rats. The sensitization of capsaicin-sensitive TRPV1 ion channels is necessary for NGF-induced hyperalgesia, but naked mole-rats have fully functional TRPV1 channels. We show that exposing isolated naked mole-rat nociceptors to NGF does not sensitize TRPV1. However, the naked mole-rat NGF receptor TrkA displays a reduced ability to engage signal transduction pathways that sensitize TRPV1. Between one- and three-amino-acid substitutions in the kinase domain of the naked mole-rat TrkA are sufficient to render the receptor hypofunctional, and this is associated with the absence of heat hyperalgesia. Our data suggest that evolution has selected for a TrkA variant that abolishes a robust nociceptive behavior in this species but is still compatible with species fitness. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Hypofunctional TrkA Accounts for the Absence of Pain Sensitization in the African Naked Mole-Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damir Omerbašić

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The naked mole-rat is a subterranean rodent lacking several pain behaviors found in humans, rats, and mice. For example, nerve growth factor (NGF, an important mediator of pain sensitization, fails to produce thermal hyperalgesia in naked mole-rats. The sensitization of capsaicin-sensitive TRPV1 ion channels is necessary for NGF-induced hyperalgesia, but naked mole-rats have fully functional TRPV1 channels. We show that exposing isolated naked mole-rat nociceptors to NGF does not sensitize TRPV1. However, the naked mole-rat NGF receptor TrkA displays a reduced ability to engage signal transduction pathways that sensitize TRPV1. Between one- and three-amino-acid substitutions in the kinase domain of the naked mole-rat TrkA are sufficient to render the receptor hypofunctional, and this is associated with the absence of heat hyperalgesia. Our data suggest that evolution has selected for a TrkA variant that abolishes a robust nociceptive behavior in this species but is still compatible with species fitness.

  20. Toluene effects on the motor activity of adolescent, young-adult, middle-age and senescent male Brown Norway rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacPhail, R C; Farmer, J D; Jarema, K A

    2012-01-01

    Life stage is an important risk factor for toxicity. Children and aging adults, for example, are more susceptible to certain chemicals than are young adults. In comparison to children, relatively little is known about susceptibility in older adults. Additionally, few studies have compared toxicant susceptibility across a broad range of life stages. Results are presented for behavioral evaluations of male Brown Norway rats obtained as adolescents (1 month), or young (4 months), middle-age (12 months) and senescent (24 months) adults. Motor activity was evaluated in photocell devices during 30-min sessions. Age-related baseline characteristics and sensitivity to toluene (0, 300, 650, or 1000mg/kg, p.o.) were determined. In Experiment 1, young-adult, middle-age and senescent rats were treated with corn-oil vehicle before five weekly test sessions. Baselines of horizontal and vertical activity decreased with age, but each age-group's averages remained stable across weeks of testing. Baseline activity of older rats was more variable than that of the young adults; older rats were also more variable individually from week to week. Toluene (1000mg/kg) increased horizontal activity proportionately more in senescent rats (ca. 300% of control) than in middle-age or young-adult rats (ca.145-175% of control). Experiment 2 established toluene dose-effect functions in individual adolescent, young-adult, middle-age and senescent rats; each rat received all treatments, counterbalanced across four weekly sessions. Toluene produced dose-related increases in horizontal activity that increased proportionately with age. Experiment 3 replicated the effects of toluene (1000mg/kg) in Experiment 1, showing that toluene-induced increases in horizontal activity were greatest in the oldest rats. Collectively, the results show that aging increased susceptibility to toluene and also increased variability in toluene response. Given the rapid growth of the aged population, further research is

  1. Thyroid hormone modulates food intake and glycemia via ghrelin secretion in Zucker fatty rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, K; Joharapurkar, A; Dhanesha, N; Patel, V; Kshirsagar, S; Raval, P; Raval, S; Jain, M R

    2014-10-01

    Hyperthyroidism is known to increase food intake and central administration of thyroid hormone shows acute orexigenic effects in rodents. We investigated whether T3 influences appetite and glucose homeostasis by modulating circulating ghrelin, an important orexigenic hormone, in Zucker fatty rats. The acute anorectic effects of T3 and ghrelin mimetic MK-0677 were studied in rats trained for fasting induced food intake. The serum concentration of T3, ghrelin, glucose, triglycerides, and liver glycogen were estimated. The involvement of sympathetic nervous system was evaluated by conducting similar experiments in vagotomized rats. T3 increased food intake and glucose in rats over 4 h, with increase in serum T3 and decrease in liver glycogen. T3 treatment was associated with increase in serum ghrelin. An additive effect on appetite and glucose was observed when T3 (oral) was administered with central (intracerebroventricular) administration of a ghrelin mimetic, MK-0677. Ghrelin antagonist, compound 8a, antagonized the hyperglycemic and hyperphagic effects of T3. In vagotomized rats, T3 did not show increase in appetite as well as glucose. Serum ghrelin levels were unchanged in these animals after T3 treatment. However, T3 showed increase in serum triglyceride levels indicating its peripheral lipolytic effect, in vagotomized as well as sham treated animals. To conclude, acute orexigenic and hyperglycemic effects of T3 are associated with ghrelin secretion and activity. This effect seems to be mediated via vagus nerves, and is independent of glucoregulatory hormones. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  2. Teaching Adult Rats Spinalized as Neonates to Walk Using Trunk Robotic Rehabilitation: Elements of Success, Failure, and Dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udoekwere, Ubong I; Oza, Chintan S; Giszter, Simon F

    2016-08-10

    Robot therapy promotes functional recovery after spinal cord injury (SCI) in animal and clinical studies. Trunk actions are important in adult rats spinalized as neonates (NTX rats) that walk autonomously. Quadrupedal robot rehabilitation was tested using an implanted orthosis at the pelvis. Trunk cortical reorganization follows such rehabilitation. Here, we test the functional outcomes of such training. Robot impedance control at the pelvis allowed hindlimb, trunk, and forelimb mechanical interactions. Rats gradually increased weight support. Rats showed significant improvement in hindlimb stepping ability, quadrupedal weight support, and all measures examined. Function in NTX rats both before and after training showed bimodal distributions, with "poor" and "high weight support" groupings. A total of 35% of rats initially classified as "poor" were able to increase their weight-supported step measures to a level considered "high weight support" after robot training, thus moving between weight support groups. Recovered function in these rats persisted on treadmill with the robot both actuated and nonactuated, but returned to pretraining levels if they were completely disconnected from the robot. Locomotor recovery in robot rehabilitation of NTX rats thus likely included context dependence and/or incorporation of models of robot mechanics that became essential parts of their learned strategy. Such learned dependence is likely a hurdle to autonomy to be overcome for many robot locomotor therapies. Notwithstanding these limitations, trunk-based quadrupedal robot rehabilitation helped the rats to visit mechanical states they would never have achieved alone, to learn novel coordinations, and to achieve major improvements in locomotor function. Neonatal spinal transected rats without any weight support can be taught weight support as adults by using robot rehabilitation at trunk. No adult control rats with neonatal spinal transections spontaneously achieve similar changes

  3. BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF MICROWAVE RADIATION ON BRAIN TISSUE IN RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Đinđić

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to microwave radiation induces multiple organ dysfunctions, especially in CNS.The aim of this work was investigation of biological effects of microwave radiation on rats' brain and determination of increased oxidative stress as a possible pathogenetic's mechanism.Wis tar rats 3 months old were divided in experimental (4 female and 4 male animal and control group (5 female and 4 male. This experimental group was constantly exposed to a magnetic field of 5 mG. We simulated using of mobile phones 30 min every day. The source of NIR emitted MF that was similar to mobile phones at 900 MHz. The rats were killed after 2 months. Biological effects were determined by observation of individual and collective behavior and body mass changes. Lipid per oxidation was determined by measuring quantity of malondialdehyde (MDA in brain homogenate.The animals in experimental group exposed to EMF showed les weight gain. The most important observations were changing of basic behavior models and expression of aggressive or panic behavior. The content of MDA in brain tissue is singificantly higher (1.42 times in rats exposed to electromagnetic fields (3,82±0.65 vs. control 2.69±0.42 nmol/mg proteins, p<0.01.Increased oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation after exposition in EM fields induced disorders of function and structure of brain.

  4. Hyperthyroidism differentially regulates neuropeptide S system in the rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Carmen R; Martínez de Morentin, Pablo B; Martínez-Sánchez, Noelia; Gómez-Díaz, Consuelo; Lage, Ricardo; Varela, Luis; Diéguez, Carlos; Nogueiras, Rubén; Castaño, Justo P; López, Miguel

    2012-04-23

    Thyroid hormones play an important role in the regulation of energy balance, sleep and emotional behaviors. Neuropeptide S (NPS) is a recently discovered neuropeptide, regulating feeding, sleep and anxiety. Here, we examined the effect of hyperthyroidism on the gene and protein expression of neuropeptide S and its receptor (NPS-R) in the hypothalamus, brainstem and amygdala of rats. Our results showed that the expression of NPS and NPS-R was differentially modulated by hyperthyroidism in the rat brain. NPS and NPS-R mRNA and protein levels were decreased in the hypothalamus of hyperthyroid rats. Conversely NPS-R expression was highly increased in the brainstem and NPS and NPS-R expression were unchanged in the amygdala of these rats. These data suggest that changes in anxiety and food intake patterns observed in hyperthyroidism could be associated with changes in the expression of NPS and NPS-R. Thus, the NPS/NPS-R system may be involved in several hyperthyroidism-associated comorbidities. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Rat bite fever without fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stehle, P; Dubuis, O; So, A; Dudler, J

    2003-09-01

    Rat bite fever is a rarely reported acute febrile bacterial illness caused by Streptobacillus moniliformis or Spirillum minus following a rat bite. It is classically characterised by abrupt onset of fever with rigors, myalgias, headache, and the appearance of a generalised maculopapular petechial skin rash. Polyarthritis complicates the course of the disease in up to 50% of infected patients, and numerous hurdles can make the diagnosis particularly difficult in the absence of fever or rash, as in the present case. A high degree of awareness is necessary to make the correct diagnosis in such cases. Diagnosis has important prognostic implications as the disease is potentially lethal, but easily treatable.

  6. Hemodynamic, morphometric and autonomic patterns in hypertensive rats - renin-angiotensin system modulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda S. Zamo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Spontaneously hypertensive rats develop left ventricular hypertrophy, increased blood pressure and blood pressure variability, which are important determinants of heart damage, like the activation of renin-angiotensin system. AIMS: To investigate the effects of the time-course of hypertension over 1 hemodynamic and autonomic patterns (blood pressure; blood pressure variability; heart rate; 2 left ventricular hypertrophy; and 3 local and systemic Renin-angiotensin system of the spontaneously hypertensive rats. METHODS: Male spontaneously hypertensive rats were randomized into two groups: young (n=13 and adult (n=12. Hemodynamic signals (blood pressure, heart rate, blood pressure variability (BPV and spectral analysis of the autonomic components of blood pressure were analyzed. LEFT ventricular hypertrophy was measured by the ratio of LV mass to body weight (mg/g, by myocyte diameter (μm and by relative fibrosis area (RFA, %. ACE and ACE2 activities were measured by fluorometry (UF/min, and plasma renin activity (PRA was assessed by a radioimmunoassay (ng/mL/h. Cardiac gene expressions of Agt, Ace and Ace2 were quantified by RT-PCR (AU. RESULTS: The time-course of hypertension in spontaneously hypertensive rats increased BPV and reduced the alpha index in adult spontaneously hypertensive rats. Adult rats showed increases in left ventricular hypertrophy and in RFA. Compared to young spontaneously hypertensive rats, adult spontaneously hypertensive rats had lower cardiac ACE and ACE2 activities, and high levels of PRA. No change was observed in gene expression of Renin-angiotensin system components. CONCLUSIONS: The observed autonomic dysfunction and modulation of Renin-angiotensin system activity are contributing factors to end-organ damage in hypertension and could be interacting. Our findings suggest that the management of hypertensive disease must start before blood pressure reaches the highest stable levels and the consequent

  7. Carriage of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus by wild urban Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chelsea G Himsworth

    Full Text Available Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA is an important cause of multi-drug-resistant infections in people, particularly indigent populations. MRSA can be transmitted between people and domestic animals, but the potential for transmission between people and commensal pests, particularly rodents, had not been investigated. The objective of this study was to identify the presence and characterize the ecology of MRSA in rats (Rattus spp. from in an impoverished, inner-city neighborhood. Oropharyngeal swabs were collected from rats trapped in 33 city blocks and one location within the adjacent port. Bacterial culture was performed and MRSA isolates were characterized using a variety of methods, including whole-genome sequencing (WGS. The ecology of MRSA in rats was described using phylogenetic analysis, geospatial analysis, and generalized linear mixed models. MRSA was identified 22 of 637 (3.5% rats tested, although prevalence varied from 0 - 50% among blocks. Isolates belonged to 4 clusters according to WGS, with the largest cluster (n = 10 containing isolates that were genetically indistinguishable from community-acquired USA300 MRSA strains isolated from people within the study area. MRSA strains demonstrated both geographic clustering and dispersion. The odds of an individual rat carrying MRSA increased with increased body fat (OR = 2.53, 95% CI = 1.33-4.82, and in the winter (OR = 5.29, 95% CI = 1.04-26.85 and spring (OR = 5.50, 95% CI = 1.10-27.58 compared to the fall. The results show that urban rats carried the same MRSA lineages occurring in local human and/or animal populations, supporting recent transmission from external sources. MRSA carriage was influenced by season, most likely as a result of temporal variation in rat behavior and rat-human interactions.

  8. Testosterone potentiates the hypoxic ventilatory response of adult male rats subjected to neonatal stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, Sébastien; Gulemetova, Roumiana; Joseph, Vincent; Kinkead, Richard

    2014-05-01

    Neonatal stress disrupts development of homeostatic systems. During adulthood, male rats subjected to neonatal maternal separation (NMS) are hypertensive and show a larger hypoxic ventilatory response (HVR), with greater respiratory instability during sleep. Neonatal stress also affects sex hormone secretion; hypoxia increases circulating testosterone of NMS (but not control) male rats. Given that these effects of NMS are not observed in females, we tested the hypothesis that testosterone elevation is necessary for the stress-related increase of the HVR in adult male rats. Pups subjected to NMS were placed in an incubator for 3 h per day from postnatal day 3 to 12. Control pups remained undisturbed. Rats were reared until adulthood, and the HVR was measured by plethysmography (fractional inspired O2 = 0.12, for 20 min). We used gonadectomy to evaluate the effects of reducing testosterone on the HVR. Gonadectomy had no effect on the HVR of control animals but reduced that of NMS animals below control levels. Immunohistochemistry was used to quantify androgen receptors in brainstem areas involved in the HVR. Androgen receptor expression was generally greater in NMS rats than in control rats; the most significant increase was noted in the caudal region of the nucleus tractus solitarii. We conclude that the abnormal regulation of testosterone is important in stress-related augmentation of the HVR. The greater number of androgen receptors within the brainstem may explain why NMS rats are more sensitive to testosterone withdrawal. Based on the similarities of the cardiorespiratory phenotype of NMS rats and patients suffering from sleep-disordered breathing, these results provide new insight into its pathophysiology, especially sex-based differences in its prevalence. © 2014 The Authors. Experimental Physiology © 2014 The Physiological Society.

  9. Effects of leucine supplemented diet on intestinal absorption in tumor bearing pregnant rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Mello Maria

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is known that amino acid oxidation is increased in tumor-bearing rat muscles and that leucine is an important ketogenic amino acid that provides energy to the skeletal muscle. Methods To evaluate the effects of a leucine supplemented diet on the intestinal absorption alterations produced by Walker 256, growing pregnant rats were distributed into six groups. Three pregnant groups received a normal protein diet (18% protein: pregnant (N, tumor-bearing (WN, pair-fed rats (Np. Three other pregnant groups were fed a diet supplemented with 3% leucine (15% protein plus 3% leucine: leucine (L, tumor-bearing (WL and pair-fed with leucine (Lp. Non pregnant rats (C, which received a normal protein diet, were used as a control group. After 20 days, the animals were submitted to intestinal perfusion to measure leucine, methionine and glucose absorption. Results Tumor-bearing pregnant rats showed impairment in food intake, body weight gain and muscle protein content, which were less accentuated in WL than in WN rats. These metabolic changes led to reduction in both fetal and tumor development. Leucine absorption slightly increased in WN group. In spite of having a significant decrease in leucine and methionine absorption compared to L, the WL group has shown a higher absorption rate of methionine than WN group, probably due to the ingestion of the leucine supplemented diet inducing this amino acid uptake. Glucose absorption was reduced in both tumor-bearing groups. Conclusions Leucine supplementation during pregnancy in tumor-bearing rats promoted high leucine absorption, increasing the availability of the amino acid for neoplasic cells and, mainly, for fetus and host utilization. This may have contributed to the better preservation of body weight gain, food intake and muscle protein observed in the supplemented rats in relation to the non-supplemented ones.

  10. Effects of leucine supplemented diet on intestinal absorption in tumor bearing pregnant rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ventrucci, Gislaine; Mello, Maria Alice Roston de; Gomes-Marcondes, Maria Cristina Cintra

    2002-01-01

    It is known that amino acid oxidation is increased in tumor-bearing rat muscles and that leucine is an important ketogenic amino acid that provides energy to the skeletal muscle. To evaluate the effects of a leucine supplemented diet on the intestinal absorption alterations produced by Walker 256, growing pregnant rats were distributed into six groups. Three pregnant groups received a normal protein diet (18% protein): pregnant (N), tumor-bearing (WN), pair-fed rats (Np). Three other pregnant groups were fed a diet supplemented with 3% leucine (15% protein plus 3% leucine): leucine (L), tumor-bearing (WL) and pair-fed with leucine (Lp). Non pregnant rats (C), which received a normal protein diet, were used as a control group. After 20 days, the animals were submitted to intestinal perfusion to measure leucine, methionine and glucose absorption. Tumor-bearing pregnant rats showed impairment in food intake, body weight gain and muscle protein content, which were less accentuated in WL than in WN rats. These metabolic changes led to reduction in both fetal and tumor development. Leucine absorption slightly increased in WN group. In spite of having a significant decrease in leucine and methionine absorption compared to L, the WL group has shown a higher absorption rate of methionine than WN group, probably due to the ingestion of the leucine supplemented diet inducing this amino acid uptake. Glucose absorption was reduced in both tumor-bearing groups. Leucine supplementation during pregnancy in tumor-bearing rats promoted high leucine absorption, increasing the availability of the amino acid for neoplasic cells and, mainly, for fetus and host utilization. This may have contributed to the better preservation of body weight gain, food intake and muscle protein observed in the supplemented rats in relation to the non-supplemented ones

  11. IEA Shows Concerns Over China's Oil Stockpiling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ Reportedly, China's oil imports accounted for nearly one third of the world's total oil supply in 2003. The country's oil imports are estimated at 110~120 million tons in 2004,equal to 2.2~2.4 million barrels per day, much higher than 91 million tons in 2003. International Energy Agency has helped the Chinese government with the country's strategic oil stockpiling plan by offering the training. The Paris-based IEA has urged China to take into consideration how to operate and maintain the national strategic oil stockpiling system and clarify the roles of the enterprises and the State in oil stockpiling.

  12. Mitochondrial dynamics in the hippocampus is influenced by antidepressant treatment in a genetic rat model of depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, F.; Wegener, Gregers; Madsen, T. M.

    2013-01-01

    Post-mortem, genetic, brain imaging, and peripheral cell studies showed that mitochondria may play an important role in the pathophysiology of depression and effects of antidepressant therapy. Here we investigated whether chronic antidepressant treatment on rats induce changes of the mitochondria...

  13. What's important to a game?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Debus, Michael S.; Grabarczyk, Pawel

    2017-01-01

    , as well as visual representation, of the model suggests an equal importance of these three dimensions. We claim that such symmetry is unattainable. Through the exploration of the three dimensions relationships to one another, we will show that the mechanical system has a higher importance to games than...

  14. Employee no-shows: managing library absenteeism.

    OpenAIRE

    Wygant, L J

    1988-01-01

    Employee absenteeism is a problem faced by all library administrators. This paper describes the development, implementation, and results of a program to discourage absenteeism at the Moody Medical Library of the University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston. The important role of library administrators and supervisors in controlling absenteeism is emphasized.

  15. Impact of Iodinated Contrast on Renal Function and Hemodynamics in Rats with Chronic Hyperglycemia and Chronic Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Sheila Marques; Martins, Daniel Malisani; da Fonseca, Cassiane Dezoti; Watanabe, Mirian; Vattimo, Maria de Fátima Fernandes

    2016-01-01

    Iodinated contrast (IC) is clinically used in diagnostic and interventional procedures, but its use can result in contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI). Chronic kidney disease (CKD) and chronic hyperglycemia (CH) are important predisposing factors to CI-AKI. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of iodinated contrast on the renal function and hemodynamics in rats with chronic hyperglycemia and chronic kidney disease. A total of 30 rats were divided into six groups; Sham: control of chronic renal disease; Citrate: control of chronic hyperglycemia (CH); Nx5/6: rats with 5/6 nephrectomy; Chronic Hyperglycemia: rats receiving Streptozotocin 65 mg/kg; Nx5/6 + IC: rats Nx5/6 received 6 mL/kg of IC; CH + IC: Chronic hyperglycemia rats receiving 6 mL/kg of IC. Renal function (inulin clearance; urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin, NGAL) and hemodynamics (arterial blood pressure; renal blood flow; renal vascular resistance) were evaluated. Iodinated contrast significantly increased urinary NGAL and reduced inulin clearance, while the hemodynamics parameters showed changes in arterial blood pressure, renal blood flow, and renal vascular resistance in both CKD and CH groups. The results suggest that the iodinated contrast in risk factors models has important impact on renal function and hemodynamics. NGAL was confirmed to play a role of highlight in diagnosis of CI-AKI. PMID:27034930

  16. Impact of Iodinated Contrast on Renal Function and Hemodynamics in Rats with Chronic Hyperglycemia and Chronic Kidney Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila Marques Fernandes

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Iodinated contrast (IC is clinically used in diagnostic and interventional procedures, but its use can result in contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI. Chronic kidney disease (CKD and chronic hyperglycemia (CH are important predisposing factors to CI-AKI. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of iodinated contrast on the renal function and hemodynamics in rats with chronic hyperglycemia and chronic kidney disease. A total of 30 rats were divided into six groups; Sham: control of chronic renal disease; Citrate: control of chronic hyperglycemia (CH; Nx5/6: rats with 5/6 nephrectomy; Chronic Hyperglycemia: rats receiving Streptozotocin 65 mg/kg; Nx5/6 + IC: rats Nx5/6 received 6 mL/kg of IC; CH + IC: Chronic hyperglycemia rats receiving 6 mL/kg of IC. Renal function (inulin clearance; urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin, NGAL and hemodynamics (arterial blood pressure; renal blood flow; renal vascular resistance were evaluated. Iodinated contrast significantly increased urinary NGAL and reduced inulin clearance, while the hemodynamics parameters showed changes in arterial blood pressure, renal blood flow, and renal vascular resistance in both CKD and CH groups. The results suggest that the iodinated contrast in risk factors models has important impact on renal function and hemodynamics. NGAL was confirmed to play a role of highlight in diagnosis of CI-AKI.

  17. UV Photography Shows Hidden Sun Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... mcat1=de12", ]; for (var c = 0; c UV photography shows hidden sun damage A UV photograph gives ... developing skin cancer and prematurely aged skin. Normal photography UV photography 18 months of age: This boy's ...

  18. Efficient gene targeting by homology-directed repair in rat zygotes using TALE nucleases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remy, Séverine; Tesson, Laurent; Menoret, Séverine; Usal, Claire; De Cian, Anne; Thepenier, Virginie; Thinard, Reynald; Baron, Daniel; Charpentier, Marine; Renaud, Jean-Baptiste; Buelow, Roland; Cost, Gregory J; Giovannangeli, Carine; Fraichard, Alexandre; Concordet, Jean-Paul; Anegon, Ignacio

    2014-08-01

    The generation of genetically modified animals is important for both research and commercial purposes. The rat is an important model organism that until recently lacked efficient genetic engineering tools. Sequence-specific nucleases, such as ZFNs, TALE nucleases, and CRISPR/Cas9 have allowed the creation of rat knockout models. Genetic engineering by homology-directed repair (HDR) is utilized to create animals expressing transgenes in a controlled way and to introduce precise genetic modifications. We applied TALE nucleases and donor DNA microinjection into zygotes to generate HDR-modified rats with large new sequences introduced into three different loci with high efficiency (0.62%-5.13% of microinjected zygotes). Two of these loci (Rosa26 and Hprt1) are known to allow robust and reproducible transgene expression and were targeted for integration of a GFP expression cassette driven by the CAG promoter. GFP-expressing embryos and four Rosa26 GFP rat lines analyzed showed strong and widespread GFP expression in most cells of all analyzed tissues. The third targeted locus was Ighm, where we performed successful exon exchange of rat exon 2 for the human one. At all three loci we observed HDR only when using linear and not circular donor DNA. Mild hypothermic (30°C) culture of zygotes after microinjection increased HDR efficiency for some loci. Our study demonstrates that TALE nuclease and donor DNA microinjection into rat zygotes results in efficient and reproducible targeted donor integration by HDR. This allowed creation of genetically modified rats in a work-, cost-, and time-effective manner. © 2014 Remy et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  19. Identification of a nutrient-sensing transcriptional network in monocytes by using inbred rat models on a cafeteria diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neus Martínez-Micaelo

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Obesity has reached pandemic levels worldwide. The current models of diet-induced obesity in rodents use predominantly high-fat based diets that do not take into account the consumption of variety of highly palatable, energy-dense foods that are prevalent in Western society. We and others have shown that the cafeteria (CAF diet is a robust and reproducible model of human metabolic syndrome with tissue inflammation in the rat. We have previously shown that inbred rat strains such as Wistar Kyoto (WKY and Lewis (LEW show different susceptibilities to CAF diets with distinct metabolic and morphometric profiles. Here, we show a difference in plasma MCP-1 levels and investigate the effect of the CAF diet on peripheral blood monocyte transcriptome, as powerful stress-sensing immune cells, in WKY and LEW rats. We found that 75.5% of the differentially expressed transcripts under the CAF diet were upregulated in WKY rats and were functionally related to the activation of the immune response. Using a gene co-expression network constructed from the genes differentially expressed between CAF diet-fed LEW and WKY rats, we identified acyl-CoA synthetase short-chain family member 2 (Acss2 as a hub gene for a nutrient-sensing cluster of transcripts in monocytes. The Acss2 genomic region is significantly enriched for previously established metabolism quantitative trait loci in the rat. Notably, monocyte expression levels of Acss2 significantly correlated with plasma glucose, triglyceride, leptin and non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA levels as well as morphometric measurements such as body weight and the total fat following feeding with the CAF diet in the rat. These results show the importance of the genetic background in nutritional genomics and identify inbred rat strains as potential models for CAF-diet-induced obesity.

  20. The TetO rat as a new translational model for type 2 diabetic retinopathy by inducible insulin receptor knockdown.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichhart, Nadine; Crespo-Garcia, Sergio; Haase, Nadine; Golic, Michaela; Skosyrski, Sergej; Rübsam, Anne; Herrspiegel, Christina; Kociok, Norbert; Alenina, Natalia; Bader, Michael; Dechend, Ralf; Strauss, Olaf; Joussen, Antonia M

    2017-01-01

    Although the renin-angiotensin system plays an important role in the progression of diabetic retinopathy, its influence therein has not been systematically evaluated. Here we test the suitability of a new translational model of diabetic retinopathy, the TetO rat, for addressing the role of angiotensin-II receptor 1 (AT1) blockade in experimental diabetic retinopathy. Diabetes was induced by tetracycline-inducible small hairpin RNA (shRNA) knockdown of the insulin receptor in rats, generating TetO rats. Systemic treatment consisted of an AT1 blocker (ARB) at the onset of diabetes, following which, 4-5 weeks later the retina was analysed in vivo and ex vivo. Retinal function was assessed by Ganzfeld electroretinography (ERG). Retinal vessels in TetO rats showed differences in vessel calibre, together with gliosis. The total number and the proportion of activated mononuclear phagocytes was increased. TetO rats presented with loss of retinal ganglion cells (RGC) and ERG indicated photoreceptor malfunction. Both the inner and outer blood-retina barriers were affected. The ARB treated group showed reduced gliosis and an overall amelioration of retinal function, alongside RGC recovery, whilst no statistically significant differences in vascular and inflammatory features were detected. The TetO rat represents a promising translational model for the early neurovascular changes associated with type 2 diabetic retinopathy. ARB treatment had an effect on the neuronal component of the retina but not on the vasculature.

  1. 2008 LHC Open Days Physics: the show

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    A host of events and activities await visitors to the LHC Open Days on 5 and 6 April. A highlight will be the physics shows funded by the European Physical Society (EPS), which are set to surprise and challenge children and adults alike! School children use their experience of riding a bicycle to understand how planets move around the sun (Copyright : Circus Naturally) Participating in the Circus Naturally show could leave a strange taste in your mouth! (Copyright : Circus Naturally) The Rino Foundation’s experiments with liquid nitrogen can be pretty exciting! (Copyright: The Rino Foundation)What does a bicycle have in common with the solar system? Have you ever tried to weigh air or visualise sound? Ever heard of a vacuum bazooka? If you want to discover the answers to these questions and more then come to the Physics Shows taking place at the CERN O...

  2. Online Italian fandoms of American TV shows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora Benecchi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Internet has changed media fandom in two main ways: it helps fans connect with each other despite physical distance, leading to the formation of international fan communities; and it helps fans connect with the creators of the TV show, deepening the relationship between TV producers and international fandoms. To assess whether Italian fan communities active online are indeed part of transnational online communities and whether the Internet has actually altered their relationship with the creators of the original text they are devoted to, qualitative analysis and narrative interviews of 26 Italian fans of American TV shows were conducted to explore the fan-producer relationship. Results indicated that the online Italian fans surveyed preferred to stay local, rather than using geography-leveling online tools. Further, the sampled Italian fans' relationships with the show runners were mediated or even absent.

  3. Effects of resveratrol, an important component of red wine, on intestinal cancer development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoying Zhang

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Xiaoying Zhang1, Jan Anderson1, Radhey S Kaushik2,3, Chandradhar Dwivedi11Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences; 2Department of Veterinary Sciences; 3Department of Biology/Microbiology, South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD, USAAbstract: Resveratrol, a natural product derived from grapes and an important component of red wine, has been shown to inhibit cyclooxygenase and prevent various cancers. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of dietary grape extract, a source of resveratrol on intestinal cancer development in rats and to determine effects of resveratrol on cell growth in human colonic adenocarcinoma (Caco-2 cells, thus elucidating possible mechanisms of action of resveratrol. Results showed that dietary grape extract (5%, about 7 μg resveratrol consumed daily significantly decreased the incidence and multiplicity of tumors in small intestine in rats and resveratrol significantly inhibited cell viability and cell proliferation in Caco-2 cells.Keywords: resveratrol, grapes, colonic adenocarcinoma, Caco-2 cells

  4. Cognitive bias in rats evoked by ultrasonic vocalizations suggests emotional contagion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Yumi; Yuki, Shoko; Seki, Yoshimasa; Kagawa, Hiroko; Okanoya, Kazuo

    2016-11-01

    Emotional contagion occurs when an individual acquires the emotional state of another via social cues, and is an important component of empathy. Empathic responses seen in rodents are often explained by emotional contagion. Rats emit 50kHz ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) in positive contexts, and emit 22kHz USVs in negative contexts. We tested whether rats show positive or negative emotional contagion after hearing conspecific USVs via a cognitive bias task. We hypothesized that animals in positive emotional states would perceive an ambiguous cue as being good (optimistic bias) whereas animals in negative states would perceive the same cue as being bad (pessimistic bias). Rats were trained to respond differently to two sounds with distinct pitches, each of which signaled either a positive or a negative outcome. An ambiguous cue with a frequency falling between the two stimuli tested whether rats interpreted it as positive or negative. Results showed that rats responded to ambiguous cues as positive when they heard the 50kHz USV (positive vocalizations) and negative when they heard the 22kHz USV (negative vocalizations). This suggests that conspecific USVs can evoke emotional contagion, both for positive and negative emotions, to change the affective states in receivers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Expression of Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress-Related Factors in the Retinas of Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu Yan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent reports show that ER stress plays an important role in diabetic retinopathy (DR, but ER stress is a complicated process involving a network of signaling pathways and hundreds of factors, What factors involved in DR are not yet understood. We selected 89 ER stress factors from more than 200, A rat diabetes model was established by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ. The expression of 89 ER stress-related factors was found in the retinas of diabetic rats, at both 1- and 3-months after development of diabetes, by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction arrays. There were significant changes in expression levels of 13 and 12 ER stress-related factors in the diabetic rat retinas in the first and third month after the development of diabetes, Based on the array results, homocysteine- inducible, endoplasmic reticulum stress-inducible, ubiquitin-like domain member 1(HERP, and synoviolin(HRD1 were studied further by immunofluorescence and Western blot. Immunofluorescence and Western blot analyses showed that the expression of HERP was reduced in the retinas of diabetic rats in first and third month. The expression of Hrd1 did not change significantly in the retinas of diabetic rats in the first month but was reduced in the third month.

  6. Prolactin prevents acute stress-induced hypocalcemia and ulcerogenesis by acting in the brain of rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujikawa, Takahiko; Soya, Hideaki; Tamashiro, Kellie L K; Sakai, Randall R; McEwen, Bruce S; Nakai, Naoya; Ogata, Masato; Suzuki, Ikukatsu; Nakashima, Kunio

    2004-04-01

    Stress causes hypocalcemia and ulcerogenesis in rats. In rats under stressful conditions, a rapid and transient increase in circulating prolactin (PRL) is observed, and this enhanced PRL induces PRL receptors (PRLR) in the choroid plexus of rat brain. In this study we used restraint stress in water to elucidate the mechanism by which PRLR in the rat brain mediate the protective effect of PRL against stress-induced hypocalcemia and ulcerogenesis. We show that rat PRL acts through the long form of PRLR in the hypothalamus. This is followed by an increase in the long form of PRLR mRNA expression in the choroid plexus of the brain, which provides protection against restraint stress in water-induced hypocalcemia and gastric erosions. We also show that PRL induces the expression of PRLR protein and corticotropin-releasing factor mRNA in the paraventricular nucleus. These results suggest that the PRL levels increase in response to stress, and it moves from the circulation to the cerebrospinal fluid to act on the central nervous system and thereby plays an important role in helping to protect against acute stress-induced hypocalcemia and gastric erosions.

  7. Ultrasound method applied to characterize healthy femoral diaphysis of Wistar rats in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fontes-Pereira, A.; Matusin, D.P.; Rosa, P.; Schanaider, A.; Krüger, M.A. von; Pereira, W.C.A.

    2014-01-01

    A simple experimental protocol applying a quantitative ultrasound (QUS) pulse-echo technique was used to measure the acoustic parameters of healthy femoral diaphyses of Wistar rats in vivo. Five quantitative parameters [apparent integrated backscatter (AIB), frequency slope of apparent backscatter (FSAB), time slope of apparent backscatter (TSAB), integrated reflection coefficient (IRC), and frequency slope of integrated reflection (FSIR)] were calculated using the echoes from cortical and trabecular bone in the femurs of 14 Wistar rats. Signal acquisition was performed three times in each rat, with the ultrasound signal acquired along the femur's central region from three positions 1 mm apart from each other. The parameters estimated for the three positions were averaged to represent the femur diaphysis. The results showed that AIB, FSAB, TSAB, and IRC values were statistically similar, but the FSIR values from Experiments 1 and 3 were different. Furthermore, Pearson's correlation coefficient showed, in general, strong correlations among the parameters. The proposed protocol and calculated parameters demonstrated the potential to characterize the femur diaphysis of rats in vivo. The results are relevant because rats have a bone structure very similar to humans, and thus are an important step toward preclinical trials and subsequent application of QUS in humans

  8. RatMap--rat genome tools and data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Greta; Johnson, Per; Andersson, Lars; Klinga-Levan, Karin; Gómez-Fabre, Pedro M; Ståhl, Fredrik

    2005-01-01

    The rat genome database RatMap (http://ratmap.org or http://ratmap.gen.gu.se) has been one of the main resources for rat genome information since 1994. The database is maintained by CMB-Genetics at Goteborg University in Sweden and provides information on rat genes, polymorphic rat DNA-markers and rat quantitative trait loci (QTLs), all curated at RatMap. The database is under the supervision of the Rat Gene and Nomenclature Committee (RGNC); thus much attention is paid to rat gene nomenclature. RatMap presents information on rat idiograms, karyotypes and provides a unified presentation of the rat genome sequence and integrated rat linkage maps. A set of tools is also available to facilitate the identification and characterization of rat QTLs, as well as the estimation of exon/intron number and sizes in individual rat genes. Furthermore, comparative gene maps of rat in regard to mouse and human are provided.

  9. Aqueous extract of lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) improves the spatial performance of a rat model of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashani, Masoud Soheili; Tavirani, Mostafa Rezaei; Talaei, Sayyed Alireza; Salami, Mahmoud

    2011-04-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is one of the most important neurodegenerative disorders. It is characterized by dementia including deficits in learning and memory. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of aqueous extract of lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) on spatial performance of AD rats. Male Wistar rats were first divided into control and AD groups. Rat model of AD was established by intracerebroventricular injection of 10 μg Aβ1-42 20 d prior to administration of the lavender extract. Rats in both groups were then introduced to 2 stages of task learning (with an interval of 20 d) in Morris water maze, each followed by one probe test. After the first stage of spatial learning, control and AD animals received different doses (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg) of the lavender extract. In the first stage of experiment, the latency to locate the hidden platform in AD group was significantly higher than that in control group. However, in the second stage of experiment, control and AD rats that received distilled water (vehicle) showed similar performance, indicating that the maze navigation itself could improve the spatial learning of AD animals. Besides, in the second stage of experiment, control and AD rats that received lavender extract administration at different doses (50, 100, and 200 mg/ kg) spent less time locating the platform (except for the AD rats with 50 mg/kg extract treatment), as compared with their counterparts with vehicle treatment, respectively. In addition, lavender extract significantly improved the performance of control and AD rats in the probe test, only at the dose of 200 mg/kg, as compared with their counterparts with vehicle treatment. The lavender extract can effectively reverse spatial learning deficits in AD rats.

  10. Adult naked mole-rat brain retains the NMDA receptor subunit GluN2D associated with hypoxia tolerance in neonatal mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Bethany L; Park, Thomas J; Larson, John

    2012-01-11

    Adult naked mole-rats show a number of systemic adaptations to a crowded underground habitat that is low in oxygen and high in carbon dioxide. Remarkably, brain slice tissue from adult naked mole-rats also is extremely tolerant to oxygen deprivation as indicated by maintenance of synaptic transmission under hypoxic conditions as well as by a delayed neuronal depolarization during anoxia. These characteristics resemble hypoxia tolerance in brain slices from neonates in a variety of mammal species. An important component of neonatal tolerance to hypoxia involves the subunit composition of NMDA receptors. Neonates have a high proportion of NMDA receptors with GluN2D subunits which are protective because they retard calcium entry into neurons during hypoxic episodes. Therefore, we hypothesized that adult naked mole-rats retain a protective, neonatal-like, NMDA receptor subunit profile. We used immunoblotting to assess age-related changes in NMDA receptor subunits in naked mole-rats and mice. The results show that adult naked mole-rat brain retains a much greater proportion of the hypoxia-protective GluN2D subunit compared to adult mice. However, age-related changes in other subunits (GluN2A and GluN2B) from the neonatal period to adulthood were comparable in mice and naked mole-rats. Hence, adult naked mole-rat brain only retains the neonatal NMDA receptor subunit that is associated with hypoxia tolerance. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Autophagy in muscle of glucose-infusion hyperglycemia rats and streptozotocin-induced hyperglycemia rats via selective activation of m-TOR or FoxO3.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengfei Lv

    Full Text Available Autophagy is a conserved process in eukaryotes required for metabolism and is involved in diverse diseases. To investigate autophagy in skeletal muscle under hyperglycemia status, we established two hyperglycemia-rat models that differ in their circulating insulin levels, by glucose infusion and singe high-dose streptozotocin injection. We then detected expression of autophagy related genes with real-time PCR and western blot. We found that under hyperglycemia status induced by glucose-infusion, autophagy was inhibited in rat skeletal muscle, whereas under streptozotocin-induced hyperglycemia status autophagy was enhanced. Meanwhile, hyperglycemic gastrocnemius muscle was more prone to autophagy than soleus muscle. Furthermore, inhibition of autophagy in skeletal muscle in glucose-infusion hyperglycemia rats was mediated by the m-TOR pathway while m-TOR and FoxO3 both contributed to enhancement of autophagy in gastrocnemius muscle in streptozotocin-induced hyperglycemia rats. These data shows that insulin plays a relatively more important role than hyperglycemia in regulating autophagy in hyperglycemia rat muscle through selectively activating the m-TOR or FoxO3 pathway in a fiber-selective manner.

  12. IDENTIFICATION OF RATS AND SHREW IN ARGASOKA AND KUTABANJAR VILLAGE BANJARNEGARA SUB DISTRICT BANJARNEGARA DISTRICT 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendri Anggi Widayani

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAKTikus (Ordo Rodentia merupakan hewan yang mempunyai peranan penting dalam kehidupan manusia baik bersifatmenguntungkan maupun merugikan. Spesies tikus mempunyai habitat masing-masing untuk berkembangbiak. Pemukimanmerupakan habitat tikus untuk memperoleh makanan. Tujuan penelitian untuk menggambarkan keberhasilan penangkapantikus dan mengidentifikasi tikus yang tertangkap di Kelurahan Argasoka dan Kutabanjarnegara. Metode penelitianmenggunakan survei dengan pendekatan cross sectional. Populasi adalah tikus yang berada di Kelurahan Argasoka danKelurahan Kutabanjarnegara. Sampel adalah tikus yang tertangkap menggunakan perangkap sebanyak 100 perangkapyang dipasang di lokasi penelitian selama 2 malam,dengan menggunakan umpan kelapa bakar dan ikan asin. Analisis datasecara deskriptif disajikan dalam bentuk narasi dan tabel distribusi frekuensi. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan keberhasilanpenangkapan tikus di Kelurahan Argasoka sebesar 10,5% dan di Kelurahan Kutabanjarnegara sebesar 6%. Tikus yangtertangkap 25 ekor Rattus tanezumi (75,76%, 1ekor R. tiomanicus (3,03%, dan 7 ekor Suncus murinus (21,21%. Tikus dancecurut berjenis kelamin jantan lebih banyak ditemukan (54,54 % daripada betina (45,45 %.Kata kunci: tikus, keberhasilan penangkapan, identifikasiABSTRACTRat is an animal that have important role to human being, even its profitable or adverse. This species have their own habitatto each depression. The community settlement is one of rat habitat to get food. The research purpose is to measure the trapsuccess of rat and to identify rat species in Argasoka and Kutabanjar Village, Banjarnegara. The research used surveymethod with cross sectional approach. Population were rats those lived in Argasoka and Kutabanjar Village. The samplewere rats those caught using single live traps in Argasoka and Kutabanjar Village, Banjarnegara. Rat trapping wasconducted for 2 nights using 100 single live traps with the roasted coconut and salted fish. Technical

  13. Wheat Germ Oil Attenuates Gamma Radiation- Induced Skeletal Muscles Damage in Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Said, U.Z.; Saada, H.N.; Shedid, Sh.M.; Mahdy, E.M.E.; Shousha, W.Gh.

    2008-01-01

    Muscular strength is important in sport as well as in daily activities. Exposure to ionizing radiation is thought to increase oxidative stress and damage muscle tissue. Wheat germ oil is a natural unrefined vegetable oil. It is an excellent source of vitamin E, octacosanol, linoleic and linolenic essential fatty acids, which may be beneficial in neutralizing the free oxygen radicals. The present study was designed to investigate the efficacy of wheat germ oil, on radiation-induced oxidative damage in rats skeletal muscle. Wheat germ oil was supplemented orally via gavages to rats at a dose of 54 mg/ kg body weight/day for 14 successive days pre- and 7 post-exposure to 5 Gy (one shot dose) of whole body gamma irradiation. Animals were sacrificed 7, 14 and 21 days post radiation exposure. The results revealed that whole body gamma-irradiation of rats induces oxidative stress in skeletal muscles obvious by significant elevation in the level of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) associated with significant decreases in the content of reduced glutathione (GSE1), as well as decreases in superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities. Irradiated rats showed, also, significant decreases in creatine phosphokinase (CPK), glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PD) activities. Furthermore, total iron, total copper and total calcium levels were significantly increased in skeletal muscles of irradiated rats group compared to control group. Wheat germ oil treated-irradiated rats showed significantly less sever damage and remarkable improvement in all the measured parameters, compared to irradiated rats. It could be concluded that wheat germ oil by attenuating radiation induced oxidative stress might play a role in maintaining skeletal muscle integrity

  14. Effects of female gonadal hormones and LPS on depressive-like behavior in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitić Miloš

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Considerable evidence shows an association of depression with the immune system and emphasizes the importance of gender in the etiology of the disease and the response to inflammatory stimuli. We examined the influence of immune-challenged systems on depressive-like behavior in female rats in the context of gonadal hormones. We used a neuroinflammatory model of depression elicited by lipopolysaccharide (LPS administration on naive and ovariectomized (OVX female rats, and examined the effects of estradiol (E2 and/or progesterone (P4 replacement therapy on animal behavior, as assessed by the forced swimming test (FST. We found that LPS and OVX increase immobility in the FST, while LPS also decreased body weight in naive female rats. Further, even though P4 application alone showed beneficial effects on the behavioral profile (it reduced immobility and increased climbing, supplementation of both hormones (E2 and P4 together to OVX rats failed to do so. When OVX rats were exposed to LPS-induced immune challenge, neither hormone individually nor their combination had any effect on immobility, however, their joint supplementation increased climbing behavior. In conclusion, our study confirmed that both LPS and OVX induced depressive-like behavior in female rats. Furthermore, our results potentiate P4 supplementation in relieving the depressive-like symptomatology in OVX rats, most likely through fine-tuning of different neurotransmitter systems. In the context of an activated immune system, the application of E2 and/or P4 does not provide any advantageous effects on depressive-like behavior.

  15. Duchenne muscular dystrophy models show their age

    OpenAIRE

    Chamberlain, Jeffrey S.

    2010-01-01

    The lack of appropriate animal models has hampered efforts to develop therapies for Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). A new mouse model lacking both dystrophin and telomerase (Sacco et al., 2010) closely mimics the pathological progression of human DMD and shows that muscle stem cell activity is a key determinant of disease severity.

  16. Show Them You Really Want the Job

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlmutter, David D.

    2012-01-01

    Showing that one really "wants" the job entails more than just really wanting the job. An interview is part Broadway casting call, part intellectual dating game, part personality test, and part, well, job interview. When there are 300 applicants for a position, many of them will "fit" the required (and even the preferred) skills listed in the job…

  17. A Talk Show from the Past.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Arlene F.

    1991-01-01

    Describes a two-day activity in which elementary students examine voting rights, the right to assemble, and women's suffrage. Explains the game, "Assemble, Reassemble," and a student-produced talk show with five students playing the roles of leaders of the women's suffrage movement. Profiles Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Lucretia Mott, Susan…

  18. Laser entertainment and light shows in education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabaratnam, Andrew T.; Symons, Charles

    2002-05-01

    Laser shows and beam effects have been a source of entertainment since its first public performance May 9, 1969, at Mills College in Oakland, California. Since 1997, the Photonics Center, NgeeAnn Polytechnic, Singapore, has been using laser shows as a teaching tool. Students are able to exhibit their creative skills and learn at the same time how lasers are used in the entertainment industry. Students will acquire a number of skills including handling three- phase power supply, operation of cooling system, and laser alignment. Students also acquire an appreciation of the arts, learning about shapes and contours as they develop graphics for the shows. After holography, laser show animation provides a combination of the arts and technology. This paper aims to briefly describe how a krypton-argon laser, galvanometer scanners, a polychromatic acousto-optic modulator and related electronics are put together to develop a laser projector. The paper also describes how students are trained to make their own laser animation and beam effects with music, and at the same time have an appreciation of the operation of a Class IV laser and the handling of optical components.

  19. The Last Great American Picture Show

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elsaesser, Thomas; King, Noel; Horwath, Alexander

    2004-01-01

    The Last Great American Picture Show brings together essays by scholars and writers who chart the changing evaluations of the American cinema of the 1970s, sometimes referred to as the decade of the lost generation, but now more and more recognized as the first New Hollywood, without which the

  20. Sex differences in methamphetamine seeking in rats: impact of oxytocin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Brittney M; Young, Amy B; See, Ronald E; Reichel, Carmela M

    2013-10-01

    Previous evidence in an animal model of drug self-administration and drug seeking showed that acute oxytocin decreased methamphetamine (meth) seeking in male rats, suggesting potential clinical efficacy for the treatment of psychostimulant addiction. However, based on the well-established role of oxytocin in reproduction and pair bond formation, it is important to know how this effect extrapolates to females. Here, we tested whether oxytocin (1mg/kg, IP) would decrease meth seeking in female rats across various stages of the estrous cycle (Experiment 1). Freely cycling Long Evans female rats self-administered meth (IV) in 2-h daily sessions, followed by daily extinction sessions. Following extinction, rats received oxytocin (0, 0.3, or 1mg/kg, IP) 30min before a meth priming injection (1mg/kg, IP) to assess reinstatement of meth seeking. Next, we examined the effects of oxytocin on motivated meth- and sucrose-taking and seeking in male and female rats. In separate experiments, males and females self-administered meth (Experiment 2) or sucrose (Experiment 3) until responding was stabilized along a fixed ratio (FR) 5 schedule of reinforcement. Subsequently, rats received either oxytocin or vehicle prior to self-administration along a progressive ratio (PR) schedule of reinforcement. Rats were subsequently tested for cue-, meth-, and stress-induced reinstatement after pretreatment with oxytocin or vehicle. While oxytocin reduced meth seeking in females, we found that estrous cycle stage (as determined from vaginal cytology) did not influence meth-primed reinstatement or the ability of oxytocin to decrease reinstatement of meth seeking. Oxytocin reduced PR responding for meth only in females. Females responded more than males during cue-induced reinstatement of meth and sucrose seeking, and oxytocin reduced this responding only in meth females. In both sexes, oxytocin attenuated meth seeking in response to a meth prime and yohimbine (a pharmacological stressor). The

  1. CCl4 cirrhosis in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer-Nielsen, A; Poulsen, H E; Hansen, B A

    1991-01-01

    Cirrhosis of the rat liver was induced by a 12 week individualized CCl4/phenobarbital treatment. After treatment, all surviving animals (81%) showed cirrhosis of the liver. The cirrhosis induced was irreversible when evaluated 24 weeks after cessation of treatment. Quantitative liver function...

  2. Validation of a radioimmunoassay for the determination of total corticosterone in rat plasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Tine Karen Hjort

    2000-01-01

    Abstract A radioimmunoassay (RIA) for total corticosterone (CORT) in rat plasma requiring a plasma volume of 2 μl was established. The importance of inactivating plasma corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG), denatured by heat, before measuring CORT was shown. The method was evaluated and shown...... the blood sampling procedure. The result showed that the method had a capacity to detect CORT concentrations comparable with previous reported basal concentrations. Finally, the possible stress inducing effect of the blood sampling procedure was examined using two groups of male rats housed under either...... conventional or enriched environmental conditions. The result indicated that conventional environment housing induces slightly stressed animals compared to enriched housing. Enriched housing may provide an environment that makes it possible for rats to compensate for a stressful situation, i.e., the blood...

  3. Reality, ficción o show

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Ruíz Moreno

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Para tener un punto de vista claro y objetivo frente a la polémica establecida en torno al programa “Protagonistas de novela” y la tendiente proliferación de los reality show en las parrillas de programación de la televisión colombiana, se realizó un análisis de texto y contenido de dicho programa, intentando definirlo desde sus posibilidades de realidad, ficción y show. Las unidades de análisis y el estudio de su tratamiento arrojaron un alto contenido que gira en torno a las emociones del ser humano relacionadas con la convivencia, tratadas a manera de show y con algunos aportes textuales de ficción, pero sin su elemento mediador básico, el actor, quitándole toda la posibilidad de tener un tratamiento con la profundidad, distancia y ética que requieren los temas de esta índole. El resultado es un formato que sólo busca altos índices de sintonía y que pertenece más a la denominada televisión “trash”, que a una búsqueda de realidad del hombre y mucho menos de sociedad.

  4. Social dominance in rats: effects on cocaine self-administration, novelty reactivity and dopamine receptor binding and content in the striatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jupp, Bianca; Murray, Jennifer E; Jordan, Emily R; Xia, Jing; Fluharty, Meg; Shrestha, Saurav; Robbins, Trevor W; Dalley, Jeffrey W

    2016-02-01

    Studies in human and non-human primates demonstrate that social status is an important determinant of cocaine reinforcement. However, it is unclear whether social rank is associated with other traits that also predispose to addiction and whether social status similarly predicts cocaine self-administration in rats. The objective of this study is to investigate whether social ranking assessed using a resource competition task affects (i) the acquisition, maintenance and reinstatement of cocaine self-administration; (ii) the dopaminergic markers in the striatum; and (iii) the expression of ancillary traits for addiction. Social ranking was determined in group-housed rats based upon drinking times during competition for a highly palatable liquid. Rats were then evaluated for cocaine self-administration and cue-induced drug reinstatement or individual levels of impulsivity, anxiety and novelty-induced locomotor activity. Finally, dopamine content, dopamine transporter (DAT) and dopamine D2/D3 (D2/3) receptor binding were measured postmortem in the dorsal and ventral striatum. Rats deemed socially dominant showed enhanced novelty reactivity but were neither more impulsive nor anxious compared with subordinate rats. Dominant rats additionally maintained higher rates of cocaine self-administration but showed no differences in the acquisition, extinction and reinstatement of this behaviour. D2/3 binding was elevated in the nucleus accumbens shell and dorsal striatum of dominant rats when compared to subordinate rats, and was accompanied by elevated DAT and reduced dopamine content in the nucleus accumbens shell. These findings show that social hierarchy influences the rate of self-administered cocaine but not anxiety or impulsivity in rats. Similar to non-human primates, these effects may be mediated by striatal dopaminergic systems.

  5. Passive stiffness of rat skeletal muscle undernourished during fetal development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Elisa Toscano

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of fetal undernutrition on the passive mechanical properties of skeletal muscle of weaned and young adult rats. INTRODUCTION: A poor nutrition supply during fetal development affects physiological functions of the fetus. From a mechanical point of view, skeletal muscle can be also characterized by its resistance to passive stretch. METHODS: Male Wistar rats were divided into two groups according to their mother's diet during pregnancy: a control group (mothers fed a 17% protein diet and an isocaloric low-protein group (mothers fed a 7.8% protein diet. At birth, all mothers received a standardized meal ad libitum. At the age of 25 and 90 days, the soleus muscle and extensor digitorum longus (EDL muscles were removed in order to test the passive mechanical properties. A first mechanical test consisted of an incremental stepwise extension test using fast velocity stretching (500 mm/s enabling us to measure, for each extension stepwise, the dynamic stress (σd and the steady stress (σs. A second test consisted of a slow velocity stretch in order to calculate normalized stiffness and tangent modulus from the stress-strain relationship. RESULTS: The results for the mechanical properties showed an important increase in passive stiffness in both the soleus and EDL muscles in weaned rat. In contrast, no modification was observed in young adult rats. CONCLUSIONS: The increase in passive stiffness in skeletal muscle of weaned rat submitted to intrauterine undernutrition it is most likely due to changes in muscle passive stiffness.

  6. Steroid-associated osteonecrosis animal model in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Zhen Zheng

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Objective: Established preclinical disease models are essential for not only studying aetiology and/or pathophysiology of the relevant diseases but more importantly also for testing prevention and/or treatment concept(s. The present study proposed and established a detailed induction and assessment protocol for a unique and cost-effective preclinical steroid-associated osteonecrosis (SAON in rats with pulsed injections of lipopolysaccharide (LPS and methylprednisolone (MPS. Methods: Sixteen 24-week-old male Sprague–Dawley rats were used to induce SAON by one intravenous injection of LPS (0.2 mg/kg and three intraperitoneal injections of MPS (100 mg/kg with a time interval of 24 hour, and then, MPS (40 mg/kg was intraperitoneally injected three times a week from week 2 until sacrifice. Additional 12 rats were used as normal controls. Two and six weeks after induction, animals were scanned by metabolic dual energy X-ray absorptiometry for evaluation of tissue composition; serum was collected for bone turnover markers, Microfil perfusion was performed for angiography, the liver was collected for histopathology and bilateral femora and bilateral tibiae were collected for histological examination. Results: Three rats died after LPS injection, i.e., with 15.8% (3/19 mortality. Histological evaluation showed 100% incidence of SAON at week 2. Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry showed significantly higher fat percent and lower lean mass in SAON group at week 6. Micro-computed tomography (Micro-CT showed significant bone degradation at proximal tibia 6 weeks after SAON induction. Angiography illustrated significantly less blood vessels in the proximal tibia and significantly more leakage particles in the distal tibia 2 weeks after SAON induction. Serum amino-terminal propeptide of type I collagen and osteocalcin were significantly lower at both 2 and 6 weeks after SAON induction, and serum carboxy-terminal telopeptide was significantly

  7. Prospects of N-Acetylcysteine and Melatonin as Treatments for Tramadol-Induced Renal Toxicity in Albino Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elias Adikwu, Bonsome Bokolo

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tramadol (TD has played an important role in the treatment of pain. However, renal toxicity due to TD abuse is a serious clinical challenge. This study assessed the effects of n-acetylcysteine (NAC and melatonin (MT on TD-induced renal toxicity in albino rats. Methods: Rats were randomized into groups and treated with MT (10mg/kg/day, NAC (10mg/kg/day and TD (15, 30, and 45mg/kg/day respectively. Rats were pretreated with MT (10mg/kg/day and NAC (10mg/kg/day prior to treatment with TD (15, 30, and 45mg/kg/day intraperitonialy for 7days respectively. Rats were sacrificed, serum extracted and evaluated for creatinine, urea and uric acid. The kidneys were evaluated for malondialdehyde (MDA, superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase, (CAT, and glutathione (GSH levels. Results: Treatment with MT and NAC did not produce significant (P>0.05 effects on serum creatinine, urea, uric acid and kidney MDA, SOD, CAT, and GSH levels when compare to saline control. In contrast, serum creatinine, urea, uric acid and kidney MDA levels were increased while kidney SOD, CAT, and GSH levels were decreased significantly (P<0.05 and in a dose-dependent manner in TD-treated rats. Kidneys of TD-treated rats showed varying degrees of damage which were dose-dependent. However, in all evaluated parameters, TD-induced alterations were abrogated in NAC and MT pretreated rats. Abrogations were most evident in rats pretreated with combined doses of NAC and MT. Conclusion: The present study showed prospects of n-acetylcysteine and melatonin as remedies for tramadol associated renal toxicity.

  8. Identification of a Major Locus Contributing to Erythrocyte 2,3-Diphosphoglycerate Variability in Hooded (Long-Evans) Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, N. A.; Brewer, G. J.

    1977-01-01

    The erythrocyte glycolytic intermediate 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (DPG) and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) play an important role in oxygen transport and delivery by binding to hemoglobin (Hb) and reducing its affinity for oxygen. Considerable quantitative variability in the levels of DPG and ATP exists in human populations and in a population of hooded (Long-Evans) rats we have studied. This paper presents the results of studies on the genetic component of DPG-level variation in an outbred population of hooded rats. Beginning with about 100 rats, a two-way selection experiment was initiated. Pairs of rats with the highest DPG levels were mated to produce a High-DPG rat strain and animals with the lowest DPG levels were mated to produce a Low-DPG strain. Mean DPG levels responded rapidly to selection and, from generation 3 on, the differences between strain means were highly significant. Ten High-DPG strain rats were intercrossed with 10 Low-DPG strain rats of generation 10 to produce an F1 generation in which the DPG levels were almost as high as those of High-DPG animals. This indicates partial dominance of High-DPG alleles. The F2 DPG-level distribution showed two distinct subpopulations. The high DPG subpopulation contained three times as many animals as the low DPG subpopulation. From these results and the statistical analyses performed, it was concluded that the DPG differences between strains were due to an allelic difference at one major locus, the allele carried by the High-DPG strain showing partial dominance over the allele carried by the Low-DPG strain. It appears that this locus may also effect ATP levels to a large extent and is polymorphic in hooded rat populations. Identification of this locus gives us a useful tool for studies of the physiological effects of DPG variability, as well as providing an example of a major gene effect in a quantitatively varying trait. PMID:863239

  9. Myopes show increased susceptibility to nearwork aftereffects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciuffreda, K J; Wallis, D M

    1998-09-01

    Some aspects of accommodation may be slightly abnormal (or different) in myopes, compared with accommodation in emmetropes and hyperopes. For example, the initial magnitude of accommodative adaptation in the dark after nearwork is greatest in myopes. However, the critical test is to assess this initial accommodative aftereffect and its subsequent decay in the light under more natural viewing conditions with blur-related visual feedback present, if a possible link between this phenomenon and clinical myopia is to be considered. Subjects consisted of adult late- (n = 11) and early-onset (n = 13) myopes, emmetropes (n = 11), and hyperopes (n = 9). The distance-refractive state was assessed objectively using an autorefractor immediately before and after a 10-minute binocular near task at 20 cm (5 diopters [D]). Group results showed that myopes were most susceptible to the nearwork aftereffect. It averaged 0.35 D in initial magnitude, with considerably faster posttask decay to baseline in the early-onset (35 seconds) versus late-onset (63 seconds) myopes. There was no myopic aftereffect in the remaining two refractive groups. The myopes showed particularly striking accommodatively related nearwork aftereffect susceptibility. As has been speculated and found by many others, transient pseudomyopia may cause or be a precursor to permanent myopia or myopic progression. Time-integrated increased retinal defocus causing axial elongation is proposed as a possible mechanism.

  10. Celecoxib Alleviates Memory Deficits by Downregulation of COX-2 Expression and Upregulation of the BDNF-TrkB Signaling Pathway in a Diabetic Rat Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ying; Gao, Ling

    2017-06-01

    Previous studies conveyed that diabetes causes learning and memory deficits. Data also suggest that celecoxib exerts an anti-hyperalgesic, anti-allodynic, and a plethora of other beneficial effects in diabetic rats. However, whether celecoxib could alleviate memory deficit in diabetic rat is unknown. In the present study, we aimed to examine the potential of celecoxib to counter memory deficits in diabetes. Experimental diabetes was induced by streptozotocin (STZ, 60 mg/kg) in male SD rats. Rats were divided into three groups (n = 16/group): normal control group injected with normal saline, diabetes group injected with STZ, and diabetes + celecoxib group in which diabetic rats were administered with celecoxib by gavage in drinking water (10 mg/kg) for 10 days in terms of which memory performance in animals was measured, hippocampal tissue harvested, and long-term potentiation assessed. Western blotting and immunohistochemical staining were performed to determine cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) expression in hippocampus. The results showed that a rat model of STZ-induced diabetes was successfully established and that celecoxib treatment significantly improved the associated nephropathy and inflammation. Moreover, spatial memory and hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) were impaired in diabetic model (P memory deficit and hippocampal LTP in the diabetic rats. To understand the underlying mechanisms, the expression of some important pathways involved in memory impairment was determined. We found that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and phosphorylated tropomyosin-related kinase (p-TrkB) were decreased in diabetic rats but were effectively reversed by celecoxib treatment. As evidenced by western blotting and immunohistochemical staining, the expression of COX-2 in hippocampus was significantly upregulated in diabetic rat (P memory deficits via probable downregulation of hippocampal COX-2 expression and upregulation of the BDNF-TrkB signaling pathway in a

  11. Study of Okra Powder (Abelmoscus Esculentus Effects on Histology of Liver Tissue and Sero-Biochemical Parameters in Diabetic Rats (HFD/STZ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N erfani majd

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Type 2 diabete is a kind of metabolic disease that it is associated with hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia and disturbed liver function.  The aim of the present study was to evaluate the protective effects of Okra Powder on liver damage in high fat diet fed / streptozotocin (HFD-STZ-induced type 2 diabetic rats. Methods: In this experimental study, 25 Wistar Albino female rats with an average weight of (200–220 g were randomly divided  into 5 groups: Group I: (control group rats were fed the standard diet, Group II: healthy rats that received Okra Powder (200 mg/kg for 4 weeks; Group III (HFD/STZ group: Rats were fed with high-fat diet (HFD (60% fat for 4 weeks  and then injected low dose of STZ (35 mg/kg, Group IV:  Diabetic rats that received Okra Powder (200 mg/kg for 4 weeks. GroupV: Diabetic rats that received metformin (200 mg/kg for 4 weeks. At the end of experiment, biochemical parameters were measured. Liver samples were removed and 5-6 µ sections were made and stained by H&E and Sudan black staining. Results: The results showed that all the biochemical parameters, except HDL-C and serum insulin were increased in diabetic rats, while they were decreased in Okra supplementation group compared  to diabetic rats (p<0.05. The liver structure alterations were improved in treated diabetic rats with Okra Powder and metformin.  Conclusion: Our findings confirmed the potential anti-hyperglycemic and hypolipidemic effects of Okra Powder. Thus, it seems it has an important role in the management of type 2 diabete.

  12. Electricity production shows improvement across Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    In the first half of 1991, electricity production from Canadian utilities improved substantially compared to the first half of 1990. Canada was a net importer of 5332 GWh in January-June 1990 while it was a net exporter of 5250 GWh in January-June 1991. The largest single factor in this reversal is the improved performance of Ontario Hydro's CANDU reactors. Total acid gas emissions by Ontario Hydro for 1991 are expected to total 240,000 tonnes, about the same as 1990, but at much higher capacity factors. A combination of recession, private power generation, and the startup of the Seabrook nuclear station have put a brake on power exports to the USA. New Brunswick Power exports were not only affected by the new capacity at Seabrook but also because of low water conditions at its hydroelectric plants. Hydro-Quebec generated 300 GWh more hydraulic energy in June 1991 than in June 1990 and its Gentilly-2 nuclear station has been operating at 96.7% capacity. The Quebec utility exported 1215 GWh to the USA and 2121 GWh to other Canadian utilities in January-June 1991, compared to 1602 GWh and 2232 GWh resspectively in January-June 1990. 1 tab

  13. Ancient bacteria show evidence of DNA repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnson, Sarah Stewart; Hebsgaard, Martin B; Christensen, Torben R

    2007-01-01

    -term survival of bacteria sealed in frozen conditions for up to one million years. Our results show evidence of bacterial survival in samples up to half a million years in age, making this the oldest independently authenticated DNA to date obtained from viable cells. Additionally, we find strong evidence...... geological timescales. There has been no direct evidence in ancient microbes for the most likely mechanism, active DNA repair, or for the metabolic activity necessary to sustain it. In this paper, we couple PCR and enzymatic treatment of DNA with direct respiration measurements to investigate long...... that this long-term survival is closely tied to cellular metabolic activity and DNA repair that over time proves to be superior to dormancy as a mechanism in sustaining bacteria viability....

  14. Effects of electroconvulsive seizures on depression-related behavior, memory and neurochemical changes in Wistar and Wistar-Kyoto rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyeremanteng, C; MacKay, J C; James, J S; Kent, P; Cayer, C; Anisman, H; Merali, Z

    2014-10-03

    Investigations in healthy outbred rat strains have shown a potential role for brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in the antidepressant and memory side effects of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT, or ECS in animals). The Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rat strain is used as a genetic model of depression yet no studies to date have directly compared the impact of ECS on the WKY strain to its healthy outbred control (Wistar). The objective of this study is to examine behavioral (antidepressant and retrograde memory) and neurochemical (BDNF and HPA axis) changes immediately (1day) and at a longer delay (7days) after repeated ECS (5 daily administrations) in WKY and Wistar rats. Male Wistar and WKY rats received 5days of repeated ECS or sham treatment and were assessed 1 and 7days later for 1) depression-like behavior and mobility; 2) retrograde memory; and 3) brain BDNF protein, brain corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and plasma corticosterone levels. Both strains showed the expected antidepressant response and retrograde memory impairments at 1day following ECS, which were sustained at 7days. In addition, at 1day after ECS, Wistar and WKY rats showed similar elevations in brain BDNF and extra-hypothalamic CRF and no change in plasma corticosterone. At 7days after ECS, Wistar rats showed sustained elevations of brain BDNF and CRF, whereas WKY rats showed a normalization of brain BDNF, despite sustained elevations of brain CRF. The model of 5 daily ECS was effective at eliciting behavioral and neurochemical changes in both strains. A temporal association was observed between brain CRF levels, but not BDNF, and measures of antidepressant effectiveness of ECS and retrograde memory impairments suggesting that extra-hypothalamic CRF may be a potential important contributor to these behavioral effects after repeated ECS/ECT. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Genetic profiling of two phenotypically distinct outbred rats derived from a colony of the Zucker fatty rats maintained at Tokyo Medical University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi, Satoshi; Kuramoto, Takashi; Kashiwazaki, Naomi; Yokoi, Norihide

    2016-01-01

    The Zucker fatty (ZF) rat is an outbred rat and a well-known model of obesity without diabetes, harboring a missense mutation (fatty, abbreviated as fa) in the leptin receptor gene (Lepr). Slc:Zucker (Slc:ZF) outbred rats exhibit obesity while Hos:ZFDM-Leprfa (Hos:ZFDM) outbred rats exhibit obesity and type 2 diabetes. Both outbred rats have been derived from an outbred ZF rat colony maintained at Tokyo Medical University. So far, genetic profiles of these outbred rats remain unknown. Here, we applied a simple genotyping method using Ampdirect reagents and FTA cards (Amp-FTA) in combination with simple sequence length polymorphisms (SSLP) markers to determine genetic profiles of Slc:ZF and Hos:ZFDM rats. Among 27 SSLP marker loci, 24 loci (89%) were fixed for specific allele at each locus in Slc:ZF rats and 26 loci (96%) were fixed in Hos:ZFDM rats, respectively. This indicates the low genetic heterogeneity in both colonies of outbred rats. Nine loci (33%) showed different alleles between the two outbred rats, suggesting considerably different genetic profiles between the two outbred rats in spite of the same origin. Additional analysis using 72 SSLP markers further supported these results and clarified the profiles in detail. This study revealed that genetic profiles of the Slc:ZF and Hos:ZFDM outbred rats are different for about 30% of the SSLP marker loci, which is the underlying basis for the phenotypic difference between the two outbred rats. PMID:27795491

  16. Importance analysis for reconfigurable systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Si, Shubin; Levitin, Gregory; Dui, Hongyan; Sun, Shudong

    2014-01-01

    Importance measures are used in reliability engineering to rank the system components according to their contributions to proper functioning of the entire system and to find the most effective ways of reliability enhancement. Traditionally, the importance measures do not consider the possible change of system structure with the improvement of specific component reliability. However, if a component's reliability changes, the optimal system structure/configuration may also change and the importance of the corresponding component will depend on the chosen structure. When the most promising component reliability improvement is determined, the component importance should be taken into account with respect to the possible structure changes. This paper studies the component reliability importance indices with respect to the changes of the optimal component sequencing. This importance measure indicates the critical components in providing the system reliability enhancement by both enhancing the component's reliability and reconfiguring the system. Examples of linear consecutive-k-out-of-n: F and G systems are considered to demonstrate the change of the component Birnbaum importance with the optimal system reconfiguration. The results show that the change of the importance index corresponds to the change of the system optimal configuration and the importance index can change not monotonically with the variation of the component reliability

  17. Palaeo-poo: date from rat scats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearson, S.; Department of Geography.

    1997-01-01

    AMS dating has allowed a detailed study of the stratigraphy of stick-nest rat (Leporillus spp.) middens. The results of multiple dates on apparently the same layers of the middens show that the taphonomy of the midden is complex. Nevertheless, the information recovered from this source is an exciting addition to understanding arid ecosystems. Information about the local and regional vegetation, possible CO 2 -induced changes in stomata, distribution of mammals and their predator-prey relations has been recovered from the middens. Palaeoecological information coming from the arid zone has been limited but this source provides a breakthrough in providing direct and detailed ecological information. This helps contextualise the late Holocene increase in arid zone archaeological site visibility. It emphasises the pattern of arid zone mammal losses. It provides important corroborating evidence to other palaeoecological records. It is emphasised that the deposits containing pollen and macrofossils are datable using radiocarbon but there are some serious problems in providing ecological information from stick-nest rat middens

  18. NASA GIBS Use in Live Planetarium Shows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmart, C. B.

    2015-12-01

    The American Museum of Natural History's Hayden Planetarium was rebuilt in year 2000 as an immersive theater for scientific data visualization to show the universe in context to our planet. Specific astrophysical movie productions provide the main daily programming, but interactive control software, developed at AMNH allows immersive presentation within a data aggregation of astronomical catalogs called the Digital Universe 3D Atlas. Since 2006, WMS globe browsing capabilities have been built into a software development collaboration with Sweden's Linkoping University (LiU). The resulting Uniview software, now a product of the company SCISS, is operated by about fifty planetariums around that world with ability to network amongst the sites for global presentations. Public presentation of NASA GIBS has allowed authoritative narratives to be presented within the range of data available in context to other sources such as Science on a Sphere, NASA Earth Observatory and Google Earth KML resources. Specifically, the NOAA supported World Views Network conducted a series of presentations across the US that focused on local ecological issues that could then be expanded in the course of presentation to national and global scales of examination. NASA support of for GIBS resources in an easy access multi scale streaming format like WMS has tremendously enabled particularly facile presentations of global monitoring like never before. Global networking of theaters for distributed presentations broadens out the potential for impact of this medium. Archiving and refinement of these presentations has already begun to inform new types of documentary productions that examine pertinent, global interdependency topics.

  19. Abstract numerical discrimination learning in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniuchi, Tohru; Sugihara, Junko; Wakashima, Mariko; Kamijo, Makiko

    2016-06-01

    In this study, we examined rats' discrimination learning of the numerical ordering positions of objects. In Experiments 1 and 2, five out of seven rats successfully learned to respond to the third of six identical objects in a row and showed reliable transfer of this discrimination to novel stimuli after being trained with three different training stimuli. In Experiment 3, the three rats from Experiment 2 continued to be trained to respond to the third object in an object array, which included an odd object that needed to be excluded when identifying the target third object. All three rats acquired this selective-counting task of specific stimuli, and two rats showed reliable transfer of this selective-counting performance to test sets of novel stimuli. In Experiment 4, the three rats from Experiment 3 quickly learned to respond to the third stimulus in object rows consisting of either six identical or six different objects. These results offer strong evidence for abstract numerical discrimination learning in rats.

  20. Rat Genome Database (RGD)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Rat Genome Database (RGD) is a collaborative effort between leading research institutions involved in rat genetic and genomic research to collect, consolidate,...

  1. The importance of coughs

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-03-14

    Mar 14, 2012 ... how important it can be. It is at best ... e. rise of intrathoracic pressure up to 200mm Hg., f. glottic opening and ... The differential diagnosis may be reviewed from knowledge .... cigarette smoking is an important example. 3.

  2. Effect of red maca (Lepidium meyenii) on prostate zinc levels in rats with testosterone-induced prostatic hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, C; Leiva-Revilla, J; Rubio, J; Gasco, M; Gonzales, G F

    2012-05-01

    Lepidium meyenii (maca) is a plant that grows exclusively above 4000 m in the Peruvian central Andes. Red maca (RM) extract significantly reduced prostate size in rats with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) induced by testosterone enanthate (TE). Zinc is an important regulator of prostate function. This study aimed to determine the effect of RM on prostate zinc levels in rats with BPH induced by TE. Also, the study attempted to determine the best marker for the effect of RM on sex accessory glands. Rats treated with RM extract from day 1 to day 14 reversed the effect of TE administration on prostate weight and zinc levels. However, RM administered from day 7 to day 14 did not reduce the effect of TE on all studied variables. Finasteride (FN) reduced prostate, seminal vesicle and preputial gland weights in rats treated with TE. Although RM and FN reduced prostate zinc levels, the greatest effect was observed in TE-treated rats with RM from day 1 to day 14. In addition, prostate weight and zinc levels showed the higher diagnosis values than preputial and seminal vesicle weights. In conclusion, RM administered from day 1 to day 14 reduced prostate size and zinc levels in rats where prostatic hyperplasia was induced with TE. Also, this experimental model could be used as accurately assay to determine the effect of maca obtained under different conditions and/or the effect of different products based on maca. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  3. Exposure to Music and Noise During Pregnancy Influences Neurogenesis and Thickness in Motor and Somatosensory Cortex of Rat Pups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Hee Kim

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose Prenatal environmental conditions affect the development of the fetus. In the present study, we investigated the effects of exposure to music and noise during pregnancy on neurogenesis and thickness in the motor and somatosensory cortex of rat pups. Methods The pregnant rats in the music-applied group were exposed to 65 dB of comfortable music for 1 hour, once per day, from the 15th day of pregnancy until delivery. The pregnant rats in the noise-applied group were exposed to 95 dB of sound from a supersonic sound machine for 1 hour, once per day, from the 15th day of pregnancy until delivery. After birth, the offspring were left undisturbed together with their mother. The rat pups were sacrificed at 21 days after birth. Results Exposure to music during pregnancy increased neurogenesis in the motor and somatosensory cortex of rat pups. In contrast, rat pups exposed to noise during pregnancy showed decreased neurogenesis and thickness in the motor and somatosensory cortex. Conclusions Our study suggests that music and noise during the developmental period are important factors influencing brain development and urogenital disorders.

  4. [Effects of reversing the feeding cycle and the light period on the spontaneous activity of the rat (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ticca, M

    1976-01-01

    The amount and the circadian distribution of spontaneous activity in the rat are influenced by a number of factors, whose importance and interrelationships are still deeply discussed. In order to check the reliability of previous studies about the effects of meal-eating on the spontaneous activity (wheel running) of rats of our Sprague-Dawley strain, the adjustment to the modifications of the normal day-night cycle and of the normal nocturnal feeding rhythm have been controlled. Reversing the normal light and dark periods caused the rats, after a 24 hours period, to lower and to irregularly distribute their spontaneous activity. Rats shifted their pattern of maximal activity by 12 hours in the new period of darkness in about five days, and showed to have completely fixed the new reversed running habit. Also feeding habits changed in a similar way, but more slowly. The levels of mean daily activity did not change. In a second experiment, rats, received food during light hours, and were deprived during dark hours. Their activity increased considerably and irregularly during dark hours, while a very slight rise of wheel running was shown during light hours. Body weight gain and food consumption were similar to those of the control group. These results slightly differ from those obtained using other rat strains, and are an interesting example of reinforcement of a spontaneous behavior resulting more from the light-dark cycle than from cues provided by food deprivation.

  5. Announced reward counteracts the effects of chronic social stress on anticipatory behavior and hippocampal synaptic plasticity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamal, Amer; Van der Harst, Johanneke E; Kapteijn, Chantal M; Baars, Annemarie J M; Spruijt, Berry M; Ramakers, Geert M J

    2010-04-01

    Chronic stress causes insensitivity to rewards (anhedonia) in rats, reflected by the absence of anticipatory behavior for a sucrose-reward, which can be reversed by antidepressant treatment or repeated announced transfer to an enriched cage. It was, however, not clear whether the highly rewarding properties of the enriched cage alone caused this reversal or whether the anticipation of this reward as such had an additional effect. Therefore, the present study compared the consequences of the announcement of a reward to the mere effect of a reward alone with respect to their efficacy to counteract the consequences of chronic stress. Two forms of synaptic plasticity, long-term potentiation and long-term depression were investigated in area CA1 of the hippocampus. This was done in socially stressed rats (induced by defeat and subsequent long-term individual housing), socially stressed rats that received a reward (short-term enriched housing) and socially stressed rats to which this reward was announced by means of a stimulus that was repeatedly paired to the reward. The results were compared to corresponding control rats. We show that announcement of enriched housing appeared to have had an additional effect compared to the enriched housing per se as indicated by a significant higher amount of LTP. In conclusion, announced short-term enriched housing has a high and long-lasting counteracting efficacy on stress-induced alterations of hippocampal synaptic plasticity. This information is important for counteracting the consequences of chronic stress in both human and captive rats.

  6. Antihyperlipidemic activities of Pleurotus ferulae on biochemical and histological function in hypercholesterolemic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuhu Alam

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pleurotus ferulae is an edible mushroom has been widely used for nutritional and medicinal purposes. Irrespective of the medicinal importance or therapeutic potentials of P. ferulae, there have not been studies on anti-hyperlipidemic properties. Therefore, the present study investigates the effects of dietary P. ferulae fruiting bodies on plasma and feces biochemical and on the liver histological status in hypercholesterolemic rats. Methods: Six weeks old female Sprague-Dawley albino rats were divided into three groups of 10 rats each. Then biochemical and histological examinations were performed. Results: Feeding of a diet containing 5% P. ferulae fruiting bodies to hypercholesterolemic rat reduced plasma total cholesterol, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein (LDL, total lipid, phospholipids, and LDL/high-density lipoprotein ratio by 30.02, 49.31, 71.15, 30.23, 21.93, and 65.31%, respectively. Mushroom also significantly reduced body weight in hypercholesterolemic rats. However, it had no adverse effects on plasma albumin, total bilirubin, direct bilirubin, creatinin, blood urea nitrogen, uric acid, glucose, total protein, calcium, sodium, potassium, chloride, inorganic phosphate, magnesium, and enzyme profiles. Feeding mushroom increased total lipid and cholesterol excretion in feces. The plasma lipoprotein fraction, separated by agarose gel electrophoresis, indicated that P. ferulae significantly reduced plasma β and pre-β-lipoprotein, while increased the α-lipoprotein. A histological study of hepatic cells by conventional hematoxylin-eosin and oil red O staining showed normal findings for mushroom-fed hypercholesterolemic rats. Conclusions: The present study suggests that 5% P. ferulae diet supplement provides health benefits, at least partially, by acting on the atherogenic lipid profile in hypercholesterolemic rats.

  7. A gut reaction: the combined influence of exercise and diet on gastrointestinal microbiota in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batacan, R B; Fenning, A S; Dalbo, V J; Scanlan, A T; Duncan, M J; Moore, R J; Stanley, D

    2017-06-01

    Intestinal microbiota modulates the development of clinical conditions, including metabolic syndrome and obesity. Many of these conditions are influenced by nutritional and exercise behaviours. This study aimed to investigate the ability of exercise to re-shape the intestinal microbiota and the influence of the diet on the process. A rat model was used to examine the intestinal microbiota responses to four activity conditions, including: high-intensity interval training (HIIT), light-intensity training (LIT), sedentary and normal control, each containing two nutritional conditions: high-fat high-fructose diet (HF) and standard chow (SC) diet. No significant differences in microbiota were apparent between activity conditions in rats fed a HF diet but changes in the presence/absence of phylotypes were observed in the LIT and HIIT groups. In rats fed SC, significant differences in intestinal microbiota were evident between exercised and nonexercised rats. Both LIT and HIIT induced significant differences in intestinal microbiota in SC-fed rats compared to their respective SC-fed controls. Characterization of the exercise-induced bacterial phylotypes indicated an increase in bacteria likely capable of degrading resistant polysaccharides and an increase in short chain fatty acid producers. While a significant effect of exercise on microbiota composition occurred in SC-fed rats, the HF-fed rats microbiota showed little response. These data suggest that a HF diet prevented microbiota differentiation in response to exercise. The importance of diet-exercise interaction is extended to the level of intestinal bacteria and gut health. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  8. Effect of vitamin D3 on behavioural and biochemical parameters in diabetes type 1-induced rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calgaroto, Nicéia Spanholi; Thomé, Gustavo Roberto; da Costa, Pauline; Baldissareli, Jucimara; Hussein, Fátima Abdala; Schmatz, Roberta; Rubin, Maribel A; Signor, Cristiane; Ribeiro, Daniela Aymone; Carvalho, Fabiano Barbosa; de Oliveira, Lizielle Souza; Pereira, Luciane Belmonte; Morsch, Vera Maria; Schetinger, Maria Rosa Chitolina

    2014-08-01

    Diabetes is associated with long-term complications in the brain and reduced cognitive ability. Vitamin D3 (VD3 ) appears to be involved in the amelioration of hyperglycaemia in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Our aim was to analyse the potential of VD3 in avoiding brain damage through evaluation of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), Na(+) K(+) -adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) and delta aminolevulinate dehydratase (δ-ALA-D) activities and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) levels from cerebral cortex, as well as memory in STZ-induced diabetic rats. Animals were divided into eight groups (n = 5): control/saline, control/metformin (Metf), control/VD3 , control/Metf + VD3 , diabetic/saline, diabetic/Metf, diabetic/VD3 and diabetic/Metf + VD3 . Thirty days after treatment, animals were submitted to contextual fear-conditioning and open-field behavioural tests, after which they were sacrificed and the cerebral cortex was dissected. Our results demonstrate a significant memory deficit, an increase in AChE activity and TBARS levels and a decrease in δ-ALA-D and Na(+) K(+) -ATPase activities in diabetic rats when compared with the controls. Treatment of diabetic rats with Metf and VD3 prevented the increase in AChE activity when compared with the diabetic/saline group. In treated diabetic rats, the decrease in Na(+) K(+) -ATPase was reverted when compared with non-treated rats, but the increase in δ-ALA-D activity was not. VD3 prevented diabetes-induced TBARS level and improved memory. Our results show that VD3 can avoid cognitive deficit through prevention of changes in important enzymes such as Na(+) K(+) -ATPase and AChE in cerebral cortex in type 1 diabetic rats. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. 17β Estradiol increases resilience and improves hippocampal synaptic function in helpless ovariectomized rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bredemann, Teruko M.; McMahon, Lori L.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Memory impairment is the most commonly reported cognitive symptom associated with major depressive disorder. Decreased hippocampal volume and neurogenesis in depression link hippocampal dysfunction with deficits in memory. Stress decreases hippocampal dendritic spine density and long-term potentiation (LTP) at glutamate synapses, a cellular correlate of learning and memory. However, elevated plasma levels of 17β estradiol (E2) during proestrus increase hippocampal structure and function, directly opposing the negative consequences of stress. In women, significant fluctuations in ovarian hormones likely increase vulnerability of hippocampal circuits to stress, potentially contributing to the greater incidence of depression compared to men. Using the learned helplessness model of depression and ovariectomized female rats, we investigated whether acquisition of helplessness and hippocampal synaptic dysfunction is differentially impacted by the presence or absence of plasma E2. We find that inescapable shock induces a greater incidence of helplessness in vehicle- versus E2-treated OVX rats. In the vehicle-treated group, LTP was absent at CA3-CA1 synapses in slices only from helpless rats, and CA1 spine density was decreased compared to resilient rats. In contrast, significant LTP was observed in slices from E2-treated helpless rats; importantly, spine density was not different between E2-treated helpless and resilient rats, dissociating spine density from the LTP magnitude. We also find that E2 replacement can reverse previously established helpless behavior. Thus, our results show that E2 replacement in OVX rats increases resilience and improves hippocampal plasticity, suggesting that E2 therapy may increase resilience to stress and preserve hippocampal function in women experiencing large fluctuations in plasma estrogen levels. PMID:24636504

  10. Healing potential of Iranian traditional medicinal plants on burn wounds in alloxan-induced diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Ghasemi Pirbalouti

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Malva sylvestris, Punica granatum, Amygdalus communis, Arnebia euchroma and Scrophularia deserti are important medicinal plants in Iranian traditional medicine (Unani whose have been used as remedy against edema, burn, and wound and for their carminative, antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activities. The ethanol extracts of M. sylvestris and P. granatum flowers, A. communis leaves, A. euchroma roots and S. deserti stems were used to evaluate the burn healing activity in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Burns were induced in Wistar rats divided into nine groups as following; Group-I: normal rats were treated with simple ointment base (control, Group-II: diabetic rats were treated with simple ointment base (control, Groups-III and -VII: diabetic rats were treated with simple ointment base containing of extracts (diabetic animals, Groups VIII: diabetic rats were treated with simple ointment base containing of mixed extracts, Group-IX: diabetic rats received the standard drug (Silver Sulfadiazine. The efficacy of treatments was evaluated based on wound area, epithelialization time and histopathological characteristics. Wound contraction showed that there is high significant difference between the different groups (p<0.001. At the 18th day, A. euchroma, S. deserti, A. communis and mixed extract ointment treated groups healed 80-90%. At the 9th and 18th days the experiment, the best results were obtained with A. communis and standard drug, when compared to the other groups as well as to the controls. It may be concluded that almond leaves (sweet and bitter formulated in the simple ointment base is effective in the treatment of burns and thus supports its traditional use.

  11. Two chronic motor training paradigms differentially influe nce acute instrume ntal learning in spinally transected rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigbee, Allison J.; Crown, Eric D.; Ferguson, Adam R.; Roy, Roland R.; Tillakaratne, Niranjala J.K.; Grau, James W.; Edgerton, V. Reggie

    2008-01-01

    The effect of two chronic motor training paradigms on the ability of the lumbar spinal cord to perform an acute instrumental learning task was examined in neonatally (postnatal day 5; P5) spinal cord transected (i.e., spinal) rats. At ∼P30, rats began either unipedal hindlimb stand training (Stand-Tr; 20-25 min/day, 5 days/wk), or bipedal hindlimb step training (Step-Tr; 20 min/day; 5 days/wk) for 7 wks. Non-trained spinal rats (Non-Tr) served as controls. After 7 wks all groups were tested on the flexor-biased instrumental learning paradigm. We hypothesized that 1) Step-Tr rats would exhibit an increased capacity to learn the flexor-biased task relative to Non-Tr subjects, as locomotion involves repetitive training of the tibialis anterior (TA), the ankle flexor whose activation is important for successful instrumental learning, and 2) Stand-Tr rats would exhibit a deficit in acute motor learning, as unipedal training activates the ipsilateral ankle extensors, but not flexors. Results showed no differences in acute learning potential between Non-Tr and Step-Tr rats, while the Stand-Tr group showed a reduced capacity to learn the acute task. Further investigation of the Stand-Tr group showed that, while both the ipsilateral and contralateral hindlimbs were significantly impaired in their acute learning potential, the contralateral, untrained hindlimbs exhibited significantly greater learning deficits. These results suggest that different types of chronic peripheral input may have a significant impact on the ability to learn a novel motor task, and demonstrate the potential for experience-dependent plasticity in the spinal cord in the absence of supraspinal connectivity. PMID:17434606

  12. Expression of NUCB2/nesfatin-1 in the taste buds of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xun; Zhou, Xiao; Cao, Yang; Liu, Xiao-Min; Zhou, Li-Hong

    2016-01-01

    Nesfatin-1, an anorexigenic peptide derived from nucleobindin 2 (NUCB2), is closely involved in feeding behavior, glycometabolism, and satiety regulation. Some studies show that NUCB2/nesfatin-1 is highly expressed and interacts with many appetite-regulating peptides that are co-expressed in the gastrointestinal tract. However, it remains unclear whether nesfatin-1 is expressed and interacts similarly in taste buds. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), a well-known appetite down-regulating peptide, is associated with changes in the expression of nesfatin-1. Therefore, we measured the expression of the NUCB2 gene and the distribution of nesfatin-1-immunoreactive cells and investigated whether these variables change in taste buds of circumvallate papillae (CV) from rats with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) after treatment with liraglutide, a GLP-1 receptor agonist. The results showed that nesfatin-1 immunoreactive cells were localized in the taste buds of rat CV. Quantitative RT-PCR showed a significantly lower expression of NUCB2 mRNA in the taste buds of diabetic control rats (T2DM-C) than in those of the normal control group (NC) and a higher level of NUCB2 in the liraglutide treated group (T2DM + LIR) than either the T2DM-C or the NC groups. Changes in the expression of NUCB2 in the rat hypothalamus were opposite to those in CV taste buds. In summary, we found that rat CV taste buds express NUCB2/nesfatin-1, and that this expression decreases significantly in T2DM and increases after treatment with liraglutide in rat CV. This indicates that nesfatin-1 could be an important factor in the regulation of gustatory function, feeding and perhaps energy homeostasis.

  13. Aging-Dependent Changes in the Radiation Response of the Adult Rat Brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schindler, Matthew K.; Forbes, M. Elizabeth; Robbins, Mike E.; Riddle, David R.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the impact of aging on the radiation response in the adult rat brain. Methods and Materials: Male rats 8, 18, or 28 months of age received a single 10-Gy dose of whole-brain irradiation (WBI). The hippocampal dentate gyrus was analyzed 1 and 10 weeks later for sensitive neurobiologic markers associated with radiation-induced damage: changes in density of proliferating cells, immature neurons, total microglia, and activated microglia. Results: A significant decrease in basal levels of proliferating cells and immature neurons and increased microglial activation occurred with normal aging. The WBI induced a transient increase in proliferation that was greater in older animals. This proliferation response did not increase the number of immature neurons, which decreased after WBI in young rats, but not in old rats. Total microglial numbers decreased after WBI at all ages, but microglial activation increased markedly, particularly in older animals. Conclusions: Age is an important factor to consider when investigating the radiation response of the brain. In contrast to young adults, older rats show no sustained decrease in number of immature neurons after WBI, but have a greater inflammatory response. The latter may have an enhanced role in the development of radiation-induced cognitive dysfunction in older individuals

  14. Intra-articular injection of dexketoprofen in rat knee joint: histopathologic assessment of cartilage & synovium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekici, Aycan Guner; Akyol, Onat; Ekici, Murat; Sitilci, Tolga; Topacoglu, Hakan; Ozyuvaci, Emine

    2014-08-01

    Effective pain control following outpatient surgical procedures is an important aspect of patient discharge. This study was carried out with an aim to investigate the histopathological effects of intra-articular dexketoprofen trometamol injection in knee joint on synovium and cartilage in an experimental rat model. In each of 40 rats, the right knee was designated as the study group and the left knee as the control group (NS group). Under aseptic conditions, 35 rats received an injection of 0.25 ml (6.25 mg) dexketoprofen trometamol into the right knee joint and an injection of 0.25 ml 0.9 per cent normal saline solution into the left knee joint. On the 1st, 2nd, 7th, 14th, and 21st days after intra-articular injection, rats in specified groups were sacrificed by intraperitoneal injection of 120 mg/kg sodium thiopental. Knee joints were separated and sectioned for histopathological examination. Inflammatory changes in the joints were recorded according to a grade scale. No significant difference in terms of pathological changes both in synovium and cartilage was observed between the NS group and the study group on days 1, 2, 7, 14 and 21 after intra-articular injection of dexketoprofen or saline in the knee joint. The findings showed no evidence of significant histopathological damage to the cartilage and synovia for a period up to 21 days following intra-articular administration of dexketoprofen trometamol in the knee joints of rats.

  15. Effect of retinoic acid on midkine gene expression in rat anterior pituitary cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maliza, Rita; Fujiwara, Ken; Azuma, Morio; Kikuchi, Motoshi; Yashiro, Takashi

    2017-06-29

    Retinoic acid (RA) is converted from retinal by retinaldehyde dehydrogenases (RALDHs) and is an essential signaling molecule in embryonic and adult tissue. We previously reported that RALDH1 was produced in the rat anterior pituitary gland and hypothesized that RA was generated in the gland. Midkine (MK) is an RA-inducible growth factor, and MK production in the rat anterior pituitary gland was recently reported. However, the mechanism that regulates gene expression of MK in the pituitary gland has not been determined. To investigate regulation of MK production in the anterior pituitary gland, we analyzed changes in MK mRNA in cultured rat anterior pituitary cells. We identified MK-expressing cells by double-staining with in situ hybridization and immunohistochemical techniques for RALDH1. MK mRNA was expressed in RALDH1-producing cells in the anterior pituitary gland. Using isolated anterior pituitary cells of rats, we examined the effect of RA on gene expression of MK. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed that 72 h exposure to a concentration of 10 -6 M of retinal and all-trans retinoic acid increased MK mRNA levels by about 2-fold. Moreover, the stimulatory effect of all-trans retinoic acid was mimicked by the RA receptor agonist Am80. This is the first report to show that RA is important in regulating MK expression in rat anterior pituitary gland.

  16. Immunomodulatory Effects of CP-25 on Splenic T Cells of Rats with Adjuvant Arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yang; Han, Chen-Chen; Cui, Dongqian; Luo, Ting-Ting; Li, Yifan; Zhang, Yuwen; Ma, Yang; Wei, Wei

    2018-06-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease in which T cells play an important role. Paeoniflorin-6-oxy-benzenesulfonate (CP-25) shows a strong anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effect in the joint of adjuvant arthritis (AA) rats, but the role of the spleen function is still unclear. The aim of this study was to research how CP-25 regulated spleen function of AA rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were administered with CP-25 (50 mg/kg) orally from day 17 to 29 after immunization. The spleen histopathological changes were analyzed by hematoxylin-eosin staining. G protein-coupled receptor kinases (GRKs) and prostaglandin receptor subtypes (EPs) were screened by Western blot and immunohistochemistry. The co-expression of GRK2 and EP2 as well as GRK2 and EP4 was measured by immunofluorescence and co-immunoprecipitation. The expression of GRK2 and EP4 in splenic T cells was further detected by immunofluorescence. CP-25 was found to relieve the secondary paw swelling, attenuate histopathologic changes, and downregulate GRK2, EP2 and EP4 expression in AA rats. Additionally, CP-25 not only downregulated the co-expression of GRK2 and EP4 but also downregulated GRK2, EP4 expression in splenic T cells of AA rats. From these results, we can infer that CP-25 play an anti-inflammatory and immune function by affecting the function of the splenic T cells.

  17. Diabetes enhances dental caries and apical periodontitis in caries-susceptible WBN/KobSlc rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodama, Yasushi; Matsuura, Masahiro; Sano, Tomoya; Nakahara, Yutaka; Ozaki, Kiyokazu; Narama, Isao; Matsuura, Tetsuro

    2011-02-01

    Many epidemiologic studies have suggested that diabetes may be an important risk factor for periodontal disease. To determine whether diabetes induces or enhances periodontal disease or dental caries, dental tissue from diabetic male and nondiabetic female WBN/KobSlc rats and male and female age-matched nondiabetic F344 rats was analyzed morphologically and morphometrically for these 2 types of lesions. Soft X-ray examination revealed that the incidence and severity of both molar caries and alveolar bone resorption were much higher in male WBN/KobSlc rats with chronic diabetes than in nondiabetic female rats of the same strain. Histopathologic examination showed that dental caries progressed from acute to subacute inflammation due to bacterial infections and necrosis in the pulp when the caries penetrated the dentin. In the most advanced stage of dental caries, inflammatory changes caused root abscess and subsequent apical periodontitis, with the formation of granulation tissue around the dental root. Inflammatory changes resulted in resorption of alveolar bone and correlated well with the severity of molar caries. Our results suggest that diabetic conditions enhance dental caries in WBN/KobSlc rats and that periodontal lesions may result from the apical periodontitis that is secondary to dental caries.

  18. Local extinction of the Asian tiger mosquito (Aedes albopictus) following rat eradication on Palmyra Atol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafferty, Kevin D.; McLaughlin, John P.; Gruner, Daniel S.; Bogar, Taylor A.; Bui, An; Childress, Jasmine N.; Espinoza, Magaly; Forbes, Elizabeth S.; Johnston, Cora A.; Klope, Maggie; Kuile, Ana Miller-ter; Lee, Michelle; Plummer, Katherine A.; Weber, David A.; Young, Ronald T.; Young, Hillary S.

    2018-01-01

    The Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus, appears to have been extirpated from Palmyra Atoll following rat eradication. Anecdotal biting reports, collection records, and regular captures in black-light traps showed the species was present before rat eradication. Since then, there have been no biting reports and no captures over 2 years of extensive trapping (black-light and scent traps). By contrast, the southern house mosquito, Culex quinquefasciatus, was abundant before and after rat eradication. We hypothesize that mammals were a substantial and preferred blood meal for Aedes, whereas Culex feeds mostly on seabirds. Therefore, after rat eradication, humans and seabirds alone could not support positive population growth or maintenance of Aedes. This seems to be the first documented accidental secondary extinction of a mosquito. Furthermore, it suggests that preferred host abundance can limit mosquito populations, opening new directions for controlling important disease vectors that depend on introduced species like rats.

  19. Development of mPMab-1, a Mouse-Rat Chimeric Antibody Against Mouse Podoplanin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Shinji; Kaneko, Mika K; Nakamura, Takuro; Ichii, Osamu; Konnai, Satoru; Kato, Yukinari

    2017-04-01

    Podoplanin (PDPN), the ligand of C-type lectin-like receptor-2, is used as a lymphatic endothelial marker. We previously established clone PMab-1 of rat IgG 2a as a specific monoclonal antibody (mAb) against mouse PDPN. PMab-1 is also very sensitive in immunohistochemical analysis; however, rat mAbs seem to be unfavorable for pathologists because anti-mouse IgG and anti-rabbit IgG are usually used as secondary antibodies in commercially available kits for immunohistochemical analysis. In this study, we develop a mouse-rat chimeric antibody, mPMab-1 of mouse IgG 2a , which was derived from rat PMab-1 mAb. Immunohistochemical analysis shows that mPMab-1 detects podocytes of the kidney, lymphatic endothelial cells of the colon, and type I alveolar cells of the lung. Importantly, mPMab-1 is more sensitive than PMab-1. This conversion strategy from rat mAb to mouse mAb could be applicable to other mAbs.

  20. Is rosuvastatin protective against on noise-induced oxidative stress in rat serum?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emine Rabia Koc

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Noise, one of the main components of modern society, has become an important environmental problem. Noise is not only an irritating sound, but also a stress factor leading to serious health problems. In this study, we have investigated possible effects of rosuvastatin, a 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase inhibitor, thought to have an antioxidant effect, on noise-induced oxidative stress in the serum of rat models. Thirty-two male Wistar albino rats were used. In order to ease their adaptation, 2 weeks before the experiment, the rats were divided into four groups (with eight rats per each group: Noise exposure plus rosuvastatin usage, only noise exposure, only rosuvastatin usage and control. After the data had been collected, oxidant (Malondialdehyde, nitric oxide [NO], protein carbonyl [PC] and antioxidant (superoxide dismutase [SOD], glutathione peroxidase [GSH-PX], catalase [CAT] parameters were analyzed in the serum. Results indicated that SOD values were found to be significantly lower, while PC values in serum were remarkably higher in the group that was exposed to only noise. GSH-Px values in serum dramatically increased in the group on which only rosuvastatin was used. During noise exposure, the use of rosuvastatin caused significantly increased CAT values, whereas it resulted in reduced PC and NO values in serum. In conclusion, our data show that noise exposure leads to oxidative stress in rat serum; however, rosuvastatin therapy decreases the oxidative stress caused by noise exposure.

  1. Bacteriophages show promise as antimicrobial agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alisky, J; Iczkowski, K; Rapoport, A; Troitsky, N

    1998-01-01

    The emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria has prompted interest in alternatives to conventional drugs. One possible option is to use bacteriophages (phage) as antimicrobial agents. We have conducted a literature review of all Medline citations from 1966-1996 that dealt with the therapeutic use of phage. There were 27 papers from Poland, the Soviet Union, Britain and the U.S.A. The Polish and Soviets administered phage orally, topically or systemically to treat a wide variety of antibiotic-resistant pathogens in both adults and children. Infections included suppurative wound infections, gastroenteritis, sepsis, osteomyelitis, dermatitis, empyemas and pneumonia; pathogens included Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, Klebsiella, Escherichia, Proteus, Pseudomonas, Shigella and Salmonella spp. Overall, the Polish and Soviets reported success rates of 80-95% for phage therapy, with rare, reversible gastrointestinal or allergic side effects. However, efficacy of phage was determined almost exclusively by qualitative clinical assessment of patients, and details of dosages and clinical criteria were very sketchy. There were also six British reports describing controlled trials of phage in animal models (mice, guinea pigs and livestock), measuring survival rates and other objective criteria. All of the British studies raised phage against specific pathogens then used to create experimental infections. Demonstrable efficacy against Escherichia, Acinetobacter, Pseudomonas and Staphylococcus spp. was noted in these model systems. Two U.S. papers dealt with improving the bioavailability of phage. Phage is sequestered in the spleen and removed from circulation. This can be overcome by serial passage of phage through mice to isolate mutants that resist sequestration. In conclusion, bacteriophages may show promise for treating antibiotic resistant pathogens. To facilitate further progress, directions for future research are discussed and a directory of authors from the reviewed

  2. Metabolism of methylphenidate in dog and rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egger, H.; Bartlett, F.; Dreyfuss, R.; Karliner, J.

    1981-01-01

    The urinary metabolites of methylphenidate in the dog and rat were investigated. After oral administration of 14C-labeled methylphenidate, approximately 86% and 63% of the dose was recovered in the urine of the dog and rat, respectively. Less than 1% of the dose was excreted as unchanged drug. Metabolism involved oxidation, hydrolysis, and conjugation processes. The primary hydrolytic product was alpha-phenyl-2-piperidineacetic acid (24%, dog; 35-40%, rat). The primary metabolites of oxidation were methyl 6-oxo-alpha-phenyl-2-piperidineacetate (3%, dog; 1.5%, rat) and the glucuronide of alpha-(p-hydroxyphenyl)-2-piperidineacetic acid (10%, rat). The former also underwent extensive biotransformation, including: 1) hydrolysis to the lactam acid (27%, dog; 7-10%, rat) and subsequent carboxylic acid O-glucuronidation (15%, dog); or 2) hydroxylation at the 5-position (1%, dog; 2%, rat) and subsequent hydrolysis (4%, dog; 15-17%, rat); or 3) 5-O-glucuronidation (12%, dog). Additional minor metabolites from methyl-6-oxo-alpha-phenyl-2-piperidineacetate were the phenolic O-glucuronide of methyl alpha-(p-hydroxyphenyl)-6-oxo-2-piperidineacetate (1%, dog), and the 4-O-glucuronide of methyl 4-hydroxy-6-oxo-alpha-phenyl-2-piperidineacetate (1%, dog), and the taurine amide conjugate of alpha-(p-hydroxyphenyl)-6-oxo-2-piperidineacetic acid (1%, dog). Additional products from methylphenidate conjugation included methyl 1-carbamoyl-alpha-phenyl-2-piperidineacetate (1%, dog or rat) and its carboxylic acid hydrolysis product (1%, rat). The chirality of the major metabolites isolated from dog urine showed that metabolism was partially stereoselective in all investigated cases, except in the formation of alpha-phenyl-2-piperidineacetic acid

  3. Ranitidine reduced levodopa-induced dyskinesia in a rat model of Parkinson’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cui G

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Guiyun Cui,1,* Xinxin Yang,1,* Xiaoying Wang,2,* Zunsheng Zhang,1 Xuanye Yue,1 Hongjuan Shi,1 Xia Shen11Department of Neurology, 2Department of Ultrasound, the Affiliated Hospital of Xuzhou Medical College, Jiangsu, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this workBackground: Chronic administration of levodopa in Parkinson’s disease leads to debilitating involuntary movements, termed levodopa-induced dyskinesia (LID. The pathogenesis of LID is poorly understood. Previous research has shown that histamine H2 receptors are highly expressed in the input (striatum and output (globus pallidus, substantia nigra regions of the basal ganglia, particularly in the GABAergic striatopallidal and striatonigral pathways. Therefore, a histamine H2 receptor antagonist could be used to reduce LID. In the present work, we investigated whether ranitidine has the potential to diminish LID in rats with dyskinesia and explored the underlying mechanisms involved.Methods: A rat model of PD was induced by 6-hydroxydopamine. Valid PD rats were then treated with levodopa (25 mg/kg, intraperitoneally and benserazide (12.5 mg/kg, intraperitoneally for 21 days to induce a rat model of LID. The acute and chronic effects of administration of ranitidine at different doses (5 mg/kg, 10 mg/kg, and 20 mg/kg on abnormal involuntary movements, levodopa-induced rotations, and the forelimb adjusting steps test were investigated in LID rats. The chronic effect of ranitidine (10 mg/kg on the expression of Arc and proenkephalin was also evaluated.Results: Levodopa elicited increased dyskinesia in PD rats. Acute ranitidine treatment had no effect on LID, but chronic ranitidine administration (10 mg/kg, 20 mg/kg reduced LID in rats with dyskinesia. Importantly, levodopa-induced rotations were not affected by chronic treatment with ranitidine. In addition, chronic ranitidine (10 mg/kg, 20 mg/kg significantly improved stepping of the lesioned forepaw. Real

  4. Nitric oxide-induced signalling in rat lacrimal acinar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Looms, Dagnia Karen; Tritsaris, K.; Dissing, S.

    2002-01-01

    -adrenergic stimulation and not by a rise in [Ca2+]i alone.   We show that in rat lacrimal acinar cells, NO and cGMP induce Ca2+ release from intracellular stores via G kinase activation. However, the changes in [Ca2+]i are relatively small, suggesting that this pathway plays a modulatory role in Ca2+ signalling, thus...... not by itself causing fast transient increases in [Ca2+]i. In addition, we suggest that endogenously produced NO activated by ß-adrenergic receptor stimulation, plays an important role in signalling to the surrounding tissue....

  5. Diuron-induced rat bladder epithelial cytotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Rocha, Mitscheli S; Arnold, Lora L; Pennington, Karen L; Muirhead, David; Dodmane, Puttappa R; Anwar, Muhammad M; Battalora, Michael; De Camargo, João Lauro V; Cohen, Samuel M

    2012-12-01

    Diuron, a substituted urea herbicide, is carcinogenic to the rat urinary bladder at high dietary levels (2500 ppm). To further elucidate the mode of action, this study aimed to determine the time course and sequence of bladder cytotoxic and proliferative changes induced by diuron treatment of male Wistar rats. Rats were randomized into two groups (control and 2500 ppm diuron) and treated for 28 days. Ten rats from each group were terminated on each of study days 1, 3, 7, or 28. Scanning electron micro scopy (SEM) showed urothelial cell swelling beginning on day 1, and by day 28, showed extensive necrosis, exfoliation and piling up of cells suggestive of hyperplasia. No difference in the bromo deoxyuridine labeling index was detected. In a second experiment, rats were randomized into control and diuron-treated groups and treated for 7 days or 8 weeks. After 7 days, transmission electron microscopy showed cell degenerative changes and distention of the cytoplasm, organelles, and nuclei characteristic of cytolysis. This resulted in protrusion of the superficial cells into the lumen, corresponding to the cell swelling observed previously by SEM. After 8 weeks, bladders in the diuron-treated group showed an increased incidence of simple hyperplasia by light microscopy (6/10, p diuron exposure in rats.

  6. Antidiabetic effects of Mangifera indica Kernel Flour?supplemented diet in streptozotocin?induced type 2 diabetes in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Irondi, Emmanuel A.; Oboh, Ganiyu; Akindahunsi, Afolabi A.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Our previous report showed that Mangifera indica kernel flour (MIKF) is a rich source of pharmacologically important flavonoids and phenolic acids; and that its methanolic extract inhibits some key enzymes linked to the pathology and complications of type 2 diabetes (T2D) in vitro. Hence, this study evaluated the antidiabetic effects of 10% and 20% MIKF?supplemented diets in T2D in rats. T2D was induced in rats using a high?fat diet (HFD), low?dose streptozotocin (HFD/STZ) model, by ...

  7. Optimising import phytosanitary inspection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Surkov, I.

    2007-01-01

    Keywords: quarantine pest, plant health policy, optimization, import phytosanitary inspection, ‘reduced checks’, optimal allocation of resources, multinomial logistic regression, the Netherlands World trade is a major vector of spread of quarantine plant pests. Border phytosanitary inspection

  8. Rats demonstrate helping behavior toward a soaked conspecific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Nobuya; Tan, Ling; Tate, Kazushi; Okada, Maya

    2015-09-01

    Helping behavior is a prosocial behavior whereby an individual helps another irrespective of disadvantages to him or herself. In the present study, we examined whether rats would help distressed, conspecific rats that had been soaked with water. In Experiment 1, rats quickly learned to liberate a soaked cagemate from the water area by opening the door to allow the trapped rat into a safe area. Additional tests showed that the presentation of a distressed cagemate was necessary to induce rapid door-opening behavior. In addition, it was shown that rats dislike soaking and that rats that had previously experienced a soaking were quicker to learn how to help a cagemate than those that had never been soaked. In Experiment 2, the results indicated that rats did not open the door to a cagemate that was not distressed. In Experiment 3, we tested behavior when rats were forced to choose between opening the door to help a distressed cagemate and opening a different door to obtain a food reward. Irrespective of how they learned to open the door, in most test trials, rats chose to help the cagemate before obtaining a food reward, suggesting that the relative value of helping others is greater than the value of a food reward. These results suggest that rats can behave prosocially and that helper rats may be motivated by empathy-like feelings toward their distressed cagemate.

  9. Morphological aspects of the rat kidney preserved by cold storage. III. Ultrastructural aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neagu, S; Gabrielescu, E; Codorean, E; Chirculescu, A R

    1983-01-01

    The ultrastructural changes of the white Wistar rat kidney, preserved by cold storage into two preservation media (Sacks and Plasmagel) are reported. For each medium two groups of kidney were used; for one of them the medium was used without additives and for the other stabilizing additives were added. The results showed the favourable effects of additives on the maintenance of the cellular ultrastructure during preservation, and more important the damages incurred when Plasmagel was used.

  10. Monoamine levels in the nucleus accumbens correlate with male sexual behavior in middle-aged rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Houng-Wei; Shui, Hao-Ai; Liu, Hang-Shen; Tai, Mei-Yun; Tsai, Yuan-Feen

    2006-02-01

    The correlation between monoamine levels in the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) and male sexual behavior was studied in middle-aged rats. Male rats (18-19months) were assigned to three groups: (1) Group MIE consisted of rats showing mounts, intromissions, and ejaculations; (2) Group MI was composed of rats showing mounts and intromissions, but no ejaculation; and (3) Group NC were non-copulators showing no sexual behavior. Young adult rats (4-5months), displaying complete copulatory behavior, were used as the control group. Levels of dopamine (DA), serotonin, and norepinephrine and their metabolites in the NAcc were measured by high-pressure liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. No difference was seen in DA levels between MIE rats and young controls, whereas DA levels in NC rats were significantly lower than those in both MIE and MI rats. Serotonin levels in NC rats were significantly higher than those in MIE and MI rats. Conversely, norepinephrine levels in NC rats were lower than those in MIE rats. These results suggest that monoamine levels in the NAcc correlate with sexual performance in male rats and that changes in NAcc monoamine levels might affect male sexual behavior in middle-aged rats.

  11. Combretum lanceolatum flowers extract shows antidiabetic activity through activation of AMPK by quercetin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Roberto Porto Dechandt

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluated the antidiabetic activity of the Combretum lanceolatum Pohl ex Eichler, Combretaceae, flowers extract (ClEtOH in diabetic rats. Streptozotocin-diabetic rats were divided into four groups: diabetic control, diabetic treated with 500 mg/kg of metformin and diabetic treated with 250 or 500 mg/kg of ClEtOH for 21 days. The treatment of diabetic rats with 500 mg/kg of ClEtOH promoted an increase in the weight of liver, white adipose tissues and skeletal muscles, improving body weight gain. Diabetic rats treated with 500 mg/kg of ClEtOH also presented reduction in glycemia, glycosuria and urinary urea levels, and increase in liver glycogen content. HPLC chromatogram showed that quercetin is the major compound in the extract. The phosphorylation levels of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase were increased in liver slices incubated in vitro with 50 µg/mL of ClEtOH, similarly to the incubation with metformin (50 µg/mL or quercetin (10 µg/mL. The antihyperglycemic effect of ClEtOH was similar to that of metformin and appears to be through inhibition of gluconeogenesis, since urinary urea was reduced and skeletal muscle mass was increased. These data indicate that the antidiabetic activity of the Combretum lanceolatum extract could be mediated, at least in part, through activation of adenosine monophosphateactivated protein kinase by quercetin.

  12. BAY 41-2272 Treatment Improves Acetylcholine-Induced Aortic Relaxation in L-NAME Hypertensive Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prawez, Shahid; Ahanger, Azad Ahmad; Singh, Thakur Uttam; Mishra, Santosh Kumar; Sarkar, Souvendra Nath; Kumar, Dinesh

    2016-12-01

    Hypertension, an emerging problem of recent era, and many pathophysiological factors are participating to produce the disease. Nitric oxide (NO) is an important constituent to ameliorate hypertensive condition. Inhibition of endogenous NO synthase by L-N G -Nitroarginine methyl ester (L-NAME) was responsible for generating hypertension in rats. BAY 41-2272 (5-cyclopropyl-2-[1-(2-fluoro-benzyl)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridine-3-yl]-pyrimidin-4-ylamine), a soluble guanylyl cyclase activator, restricts rise of blood pressure and shows cardioprotective activity. The aim of the present study was to analyze effect of short-term BAY 41-2272 treatment on blood pressure and vascular function. Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups such as control (group-A), hypertensive (group-B), and BAY 41-2272-treated hypertensive (group-C) rats. Normal saline was administered intramuscularly to control rats for last 3 days (days 40, 41, and 42) of total 42 days treatment, whereas rats of group-B and group-C were treated with L-NAME hydrochloride in drinking water at 50 mg/kg body weight daily for 42 days. Also, normal saline and BAY 41-2272 were administered for last 3 days at two different dosages at 1 and 3 mg/kg body weight/day intramuscularly to group-B and group-C rats, respectively. Administration of BAY 41-2272 for 3 days was not sufficient enough to decrease mean arterial pressure of hypertensive rats significantly. BAY at both the treatment dosages significantly ameliorate acetylcholine-induced maximal aortic relaxation compared with BAY-untreated hypertensive rats. Findings of the present study indicate that even shorter period of BAY 41-2272 treatment (3 days) improves vascular relaxation.

  13. Multiple geographic origins of commensalism and complex dispersal history of Black Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aplin, Ken P; Suzuki, Hitoshi; Chinen, Alejandro A; Chesser, R Terry; Ten Have, José; Donnellan, Stephen C; Austin, Jeremy; Frost, Angela; Gonzalez, Jean Paul; Herbreteau, Vincent; Catzeflis, Francois; Soubrier, Julien; Fang, Yin-Ping; Robins, Judith; Matisoo-Smith, Elizabeth; Bastos, Amanda D S; Maryanto, Ibnu; Sinaga, Martua H; Denys, Christiane; Van Den Bussche, Ronald A; Conroy, Chris; Rowe, Kevin; Cooper, Alan

    2011-01-01

    The Black Rat (Rattus rattus) spread out of Asia to become one of the world's worst agricultural and urban pests, and a reservoir or vector of numerous zoonotic diseases, including the devastating plague. Despite the global scale and inestimable cost of their impacts on both human livelihoods and natural ecosystems, little is known of the global genetic diversity of Black Rats, the timing and directions of their historical dispersals, and the risks associated with contemporary movements. We surveyed mitochondrial DNA of Black Rats collected across their global range as a first step towards obtaining an historical genetic perspective on this socioeconomically important group of rodents. We found a strong phylogeographic pattern with well-differentiated lineages of Black Rats native to South Asia, the Himalayan region, southern Indochina, and northern Indochina to East Asia, and a diversification that probably commenced in the early Middle Pleistocene. We also identified two other currently recognised species of Rattus as potential derivatives of a paraphyletic R. rattus. Three of the four phylogenetic lineage units within R. rattus show clear genetic signatures of major population expansion in prehistoric times, and the distribution of particular haplogroups mirrors archaeologically and historically documented patterns of human dispersal and trade. Commensalism clearly arose multiple times in R. rattus and in widely separated geographic regions, and this may account for apparent regionalism in their associated pathogens. Our findings represent an important step towards deeper understanding the complex and influential relationship that has developed between Black Rats and humans, and invite a thorough re-examination of host-pathogen associations among Black Rats.

  14. Leptospira Species in Feral Cats and Black Rats from Western Australia and Christmas Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dybing, Narelle A; Jacobson, Caroline; Irwin, Peter; Algar, David; Adams, Peter J

    2017-05-01

    Leptospirosis is a neglected, re-emerging bacterial disease with both zoonotic and conservation implications. Rats and livestock are considered the usual sources of human infection, but all mammalian species are capable of carrying Leptospira spp. and transmitting pathogenic leptospires in their urine, and uncertainty remains about the ecology and transmission dynamics of Leptospira in different regions. In light of a recent case of human leptospirosis on tropical Christmas Island, this study aimed to investigate the role of introduced animals (feral cats and black rats) as carriers of pathogenic Leptospira spp. on Christmas Island and to compare this with two different climatic regions of Western Australia (one island and one mainland). Kidney samples were collected from black rats (n = 68) and feral cats (n = 59) from Christmas Island, as well as feral cats from Dirk Hartog Island (n = 23) and southwest Western Australia (n = 59). Molecular (PCR) screening detected pathogenic leptospires in 42.4% (95% confidence interval 29.6-55.9) of cats and 2.9% (0.4-10.2) of rats from Christmas Island. Sequencing of cat- and rat-positive samples from Christmas Island showed 100% similarity for Leptospira interrogans. Pathogenic leptospires were not detected in cats from Dirk Hartog Island or southwest Western Australia. These findings were consistent with previous reports of higher Leptospira spp. prevalence in tropical regions compared with arid and temperate regions. Despite the abundance of black rats on Christmas Island, feral cats appear to be the more important reservoir species for the persistence of pathogenic L. interrogans on the island. This research highlights the importance of disease surveillance and feral animal management to effectively control potential disease transmission.

  15. Parietal lesions produce illusory conjunction errors in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond PIERRE Kesner

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available When several different objects are presented, visual objects are perceived correctly only if their features are identified and then bound together. Illusory-conjunction errors result when an object is correctly identified but is combined incorrectly. The parietal cortex (PPC has been shown repeatedly to play an important role in feature binding. The present study builds on a series of recent studies that have made use of visual search paradigms to elucidate the neural system involved in feature binding. This experiment attempts to define the role the PPC plays in binding the properties of a visual object that varies on the features of color and size in rats. Rats with PPC lesions or control surgery were exposed to three blocks of 20 trials administered over a 1-week period, with each block containing ten-one feature and ten-two feature trials. The target object consisted of one color object (e.g. black and white and one size object (e.g. short and tall. Of the ten one feature trials, five of the trials were tailored specifically for size discrimination and five for color discrimination. In the two-feature condition, the animal was required to locate the targeted object among four objects with two objects differing in size and two objects differing in color. The results showed a significant decrease in learning the task for the PPC lesioned rats compared to controls, especially for the two-feature condition. Based on a subsequent error analysis for color and size, the results showed a significant increase in illusory conjunction errors for the PPC lesioned rats relative to controls for color and relative to color discrimination, suggesting that the PPC may support feature binding as it relates to color. There was an increase in illusory conjunctions errors for both the PPC lesioned and control animals for size, but this appeared to be due to a difficulty with size discrimination.

  16. Intracolonic hydrogen sulfide lowers blood pressure in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasova, Lenka; Dobrowolski, Leszek; Jurkowska, Halina; Wróbel, Maria; Huc, Tomasz; Ondrias, Karol; Ostaszewski, Ryszard; Ufnal, Marcin

    2016-11-30

    Research suggests that hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) is an important biological mediator involved in various physiological processes including the regulation of arterial blood pressure (BP). Although H 2 S is abundant in the colon, the effects of gut-derived H 2 S on the circulatory system have not yet been investigated. We studied the effects of intracolonic administration of Na 2 S, a H 2 S donor, on systemic hemodynamics. Hemodynamics were recorded in anesthetized, normotensive Wistar Kyoto and spontaneously hypertensive rats at baseline and after intracolonic injection of either saline (controls) or Na 2 S·9H 2 O saline solution at a dose range of 10-300 mg/kg of BW. The H 2 S donor produced a significant, dose-dependent decrease in mean arterial blood pressure (MABP), which lasted several times longer than previously reported after parenteral infusions (>90 min). The effect was more pronounced in hypertensive than in normotensive rats. The Na 2 S-induced decrease in MABP was reduced by pretreatment with glibenclamide, an inhibitor of ATP-sensitive potassium-channels. Na 2 S did not affect mesenteric vein blood flow. Rats treated with Na 2 S showed increased portal blood levels of thiosulfate and sulfane sulfur, products of H 2 S oxidation. In contrast, rats treated with neomycin, an antibiotic, showed significantly decreased levels of thiosulfate and sulfane sulfur, and a tendency for greater hypotensive response to Na 2 S. The H 2 S donor decreased heart rate but did not affect ECG morphology and QTc interval. In conclusion the gut-derived H 2 S may contribute to the control of BP and may be one of the links between gut microbiota and hypertension. Furthermore, gut-derived H 2 S may be a therapeutic target in hypertension. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Can Urtica dioica supplementation attenuate mercury intoxication in Wistar rats?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wafa Siouda

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The objective of this study was to investigate the possible protective role of nettle Urtica dioica (UD against Hg-induced toxicity. Materials and Methods: A total of 28 rats were equally divided into four groups: the control, the Hg (0.8 g HgCl2/kg in the diet, the UD (1.5 ml UD/rat by gavage, and the Hg+UD group. HgCl2 was daily dissolved in distilled water and immediately mixed with the standard diet. A solution of daily infused fresh nettle leaves in boiling water (16 g in 25 ml was obtained and then it was administrated by gavage. Biochemical and reproductive markers, in addition to glutathione (GSH level (liver, kidney and testis and the histological profiles (testis and epididymis were evaluated after 1 month exposure. Results: Compared to the control, the levels of glucose, triglycerides, urea, creatinine, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP were significantly raised in the Hg group. In the latter group, the concentrations of Mg, Fe, and Ca were significantly decreased. Besides, Hg+UD group has only showed raised AST activity and reduced Mg level. Concerning the fertility markers, Hg has provoked a significant decrease in the spermatozoa’s concentration and motility and in plasma testosterone level as well. Furthermore, hepatic, renal and testicular GSH concentrations have declined significantly in the Hg treated rat compared to the control. A remarkable enhancement of the GSH level was observed in all organs of the UD group. The histological examinations of the Hg group have revealed marked testicular degeneration of the most seminiferous tubules, and showed few sperms in the lumen of epididymis ducts. However, the Hg+UD rats have demonstrated an improved histological structure with the presence of important numbers of sperms in the lumen. In addition, a clear stabilization of organized seminiferous tubules and an increased sperms’ numbers were noted in the UD

  18. Can Urtica dioica supplementation attenuate mercury intoxication in Wistar rats?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siouda, Wafa; Abdennour, Cherif

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the possible protective role of nettle Urtica dioica (UD) against Hg-induced toxicity. A total of 28 rats were equally divided into four groups: the control, the Hg (0.8 g HgCl2/kg in the diet), the UD (1.5 ml UD/rat by gavage), and the Hg+UD group. HgCl2 was daily dissolved in distilled water and immediately mixed with the standard diet. A solution of daily infused fresh nettle leaves in boiling water (16 g in 25 ml) was obtained and then it was administrated by gavage. Biochemical and reproductive markers, in addition to glutathione (GSH) level (liver, kidney and testis) and the histological profiles (testis and epididymis) were evaluated after 1 month exposure. Compared to the control, the levels of glucose, triglycerides, urea, creatinine, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were significantly raised in the Hg group. In the latter group, the concentrations of Mg, Fe, and Ca were significantly decreased. Besides, Hg+UD group has only showed raised AST activity and reduced Mg level. Concerning the fertility markers, Hg has provoked a significant decrease in the spermatozoa's concentration and motility and in plasma testosterone level as well. Furthermore, hepatic, renal and testicular GSH concentrations have declined significantly in the Hg treated rat compared to the control. A remarkable enhancement of the GSH level was observed in all organs of the UD group. The histological examinations of the Hg group have revealed marked testicular degeneration of the most seminiferous tubules, and showed few sperms in the lumen of epididymis ducts. However, the Hg+UD rats have demonstrated an improved histological structure with the presence of important numbers of sperms in the lumen. In addition, a clear stabilization of organized seminiferous tubules and an increased sperms' numbers were noted in the UD supplemented rats. Nettle leaves have not only played a clear

  19. Effect Of Using Black Cumin (Nigella Sativa) As Natural Antioxidant On Hyperlipidaemia And Antioxidant Activities In Senile Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HAMZA, R.G.; MAHMOUD, K.A.

    2009-01-01

    The black cumin (Nigella sativa) is one of the important herbal plants that used widely in most of human diseases and food preservation. Chemical composition of irradiated black cumin (10 kGy); moisture, ash, crude protein, crude lipid, total carbohydrate and crude fiber, were evaluated. The GC for analysis of fatty acids showed that the number of identified fatty acids was 9; the important one was linoleic (natural antioxidant). GC/MS used for analysis of essential oil showed that the number of identified compounds was 16; the important ones were thymoquinone, eugenol and linalool (natural antioxidants). Also, this study was performed to examine the efficacy of the black cumin to ameliorate the induced hyperlipidemia in senile rats. Twenty eight male rats were equally and randomly categorized into four groups. High fat diet (20g fat / 100g diet) was daily administered to rats for 6 weeks. Other animals where fed daily on either raw or irradiated black cumin diet (1% w/w) for 6 weeks. The results revealed that high fat diet fed to rats significantly induced an increase in serum phospholipids, TG, TC, LDL-C, atherogenic index and lipid peroxides (MDA). Significant decrease was observed in HDL-C, blood antioxidant enzymes activity (superoxide dismutase and catalase) and concentration of reduced glutathione (GSH). The results obtained revealed that feeding rats on diet containing either raw or irradiated black cumin (1% w/w) induced significant improvement in the above mentioned parameters. There was non- significant difference between non-irradiated and irradiated black cumin. Moreover, supplementation of black cumin in diet of rats can offer protection against free radicals generated through oxidative stress as a consequence of hyperlipidemic food.

  20. Effect Of Using Black Cumin (Nigella Sativa) As Natural Antioxidant On Hyperlipidaemia And Antioxidant Activities In Senile Rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HAMZA, R G; MAHMOUD, K A [Food Irradiation Research Dept., National Centre for Radiation Research and Technology, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt)

    2009-07-01

    The black cumin (Nigella sativa) is one of the important herbal plants that used widely in most of human diseases and food preservation. Chemical composition of irradiated black cumin (10 kGy); moisture, ash, crude protein, crude lipid, total carbohydrate and crude fiber, were evaluated. The GC for analysis of fatty acids showed that the number of identified fatty acids was 9; the important one was linoleic (natural antioxidant). GC/MS used for analysis of essential oil showed that the number of identified compounds was 16; the important ones were thymoquinone, eugenol and linalool (natural antioxidants). Also, this study was performed to examine the efficacy of the black cumin to ameliorate the induced hyperlipidemia in senile rats. Twenty eight male rats were equally and randomly categorized into four groups. High fat diet (20g fat / 100g diet) was daily administered to rats for 6 weeks. Other animals where fed daily on either raw or irradiated black cumin diet (1% w/w) for 6 weeks. The results revealed that high fat diet fed to rats significantly induced an increase in serum phospholipids, TG, TC, LDL-C, atherogenic index and lipid peroxides (MDA). Significant decrease was observed in HDL-C, blood antioxidant enzymes activity (superoxide dismutase and catalase) and concentration of reduced glutathione (GSH). The results obtained revealed that feeding rats on diet containing either raw or irradiated black cumin (1% w/w) induced significant improvement in the above mentioned parameters. There was non- significant difference between non-irradiated and irradiated black cumin. Moreover, supplementation of black cumin in diet of rats can offer protection against free radicals generated through oxidative stress as a consequence of hyperlipidemic food.

  1. Total parenteral nutrition in diabetic rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norcross, E.D.; Stein, T.P.

    1986-01-01

    Parenteral Nutrition with hypertonic glucose is frequently given to diabetic patients. Large amounts of insulin can be required. The purpose of this investigation was to develop a totally parenterally nourished diabetic rat model. 200 g Female Sprague Dawley rats were made diabetic by i.v. injection of streptozotocin (50 mg/kg). Rats were then allowed to recover for at least 1 week before undergoing surgical insertion of a central venous catheter for parenteral feeding. TPN was begun 3 days after surgery. Prior to this they were allowed unlimited access to food and water. Control (non-streptozotocin treated) rats were run at the same time. Protein turnover was investigated by using 15 N glycine. Preliminary results: diabetic rats given mostly fat as a calorie source survived well in the absence of exogenous insulin whereas those that were given glucose only as their non-protein calorie source showed poor survival even with exogenous insulin. N balance and protein turnover in the lipid treated diabetic rats were comparable to the non-diabetic control rats

  2. Niceritrol prevents the decrease in red blood cell 2,3-diphosphoglycerate and neuropathy in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotta, N; Nakamura, J; Kakuta, H; Fukasawa, H; Koh, N; Sakakibara, F; Mori, K; Sakamoto, N

    1995-01-01

    Nerve ischemia/hypoxia has been linked to the pathogenesis of diabetic complications. Red blood cell 2,3-diphosphoglycerate is an important regulator of peripheral tissue oxygenation; however, the relationship between 2,3-diphosphoglycerate concentration and diabetic complications has not been studied in detail. This investigation focused on the relationship between red blood cell 2,3-diphosphoglycerate and diabetic neuropathy, by measuring motor nerve conduction velocity and sciatic nerve blood flow in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. The effect of treatment with niceritrol, a nicotinic acid derivative that acts as a vasodilator and reduces serum lipid concentrations, on 2,3-diphosphoglycerate concentration and diabetic neuropathy was also examined. Untreated diabetic rats had significantly lower concentrations of red blood cell 2,3-diphosphoglycerate, higher concentrations of serum total cholesterol and triglyceride, as well as reduced motor nerve conduction velocity and sciatic nerve blood flow, compared to untreated normal rats. Niceritrol prevented these abnormalities without correcting hyperglycemia in diabetic rats, but had no effect on these parameters in normal rats. Red blood cell 2,3-diphosphoglycerate concentration and motor nerve conduction velocity showed a positive correlation with sciatic nerve blood flow and 2,3-diphosphoglycerate, respectively. These observations suggest that ischemia/hypoxia plays an important role in the development of diabetic neuropathy, and that niceritrol has a therapeutic effect on this condition by improving endoneurial ischemia/hypoxia.

  3. Optimal coal import strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, C.Y.; Shih, L.H.

    1992-01-01

    Recently, the main power company in Taiwan has shifted the primary energy resource from oil to coal and tried to diversify the coal supply from various sources. The company wants to have the imported coal meet the environmental standards and operation requirements as well as to have high heating value. In order to achieve these objectives, establishment of a coal blending system for Taiwan is necessary. A mathematical model using mixed integer programming technique is used to model the import strategy and the blending system. 6 refs., 1 tab

  4. The major histocompatibility complex genes impact pain response in DA and DA.1U rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yuan; Yao, Fan-Rong; Cao, Dong-Yuan; Li, Li; Wang, Hui-Sheng; Xie, Wen; Zhao, Yan

    2015-08-01

    Our recent studies have shown that the difference in basal pain sensitivity to mechanical and thermal stimulation between Dark-Agouti (DA) rats and a novel congenic DA.1U rats is major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes dependent. In the present study, we further used DA and DA.1U rats to investigate the role of MHC genes in formalin-induced pain model by behavioral, electrophysiological and immunohistochemical methods. Behavioral results showed biphasic nociceptive behaviors increased significantly following the intraplantar injection of formalin in the hindpaw of DA and DA.1U rats. The main nociceptive behaviors were lifting and licking, especially in DA rats (PDA rats were significantly higher than those in DA.1U rats in both phases of the formalin test (PDA rats was significantly higher than that of DA.1U rats (PDA was greater than that in DA.1U rats (PDA rats was significantly higher than that in DA.1U rats in the respective experimental group (PDA and DA.1U rats exhibited nociceptive responses in formalin-induced pain model and DA rats were more sensitive to noxious chemical stimulus than DA.1U rats, indicating that MHC genes might contribute to the difference in pain sensitivity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Inactivated ORF virus shows antifibrotic activity and inhibits human hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) replication in preclinical models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulsen, Daniela; Urban, Andreas; Knorr, Andreas; Hirth-Dietrich, Claudia; Siegling, Angela; Volk, Hans-Dieter; Mercer, Andrew A; Limmer, Andreas; Schumak, Beatrix; Knolle, Percy; Ruebsamen-Schaeff, Helga; Weber, Olaf

    2013-01-01

    Inactivated orf virus (iORFV), strain D1701, is a potent immune modulator in various animal species. We recently demonstrated that iORFV induces strong antiviral activity in animal models of acute and chronic viral infections. In addition, we found D1701-mediated antifibrotic effects in different rat models of liver fibrosis. In the present study, we compare iORFV derived from two different strains of ORFV, D1701 and NZ2, respectively, with respect to their antifibrotic potential as well as their potential to induce an antiviral response controlling infections with the hepatotropic pathogens hepatitis C virus (HCV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV). Both strains of ORFV showed anti-viral activity against HCV in vitro and against HBV in a transgenic mouse model without signs of necro-inflammation in vivo. Our experiments suggest that the absence of liver damage is potentially mediated by iORFV-induced downregulation of antigen cross-presentation in liver sinus endothelial cells. Furthermore, both strains showed significant anti-fibrotic activity in rat models of liver fibrosis. iORFV strain NZ2 appeared more potent compared to strain D1701 with respect to both its antiviral and antifibrotic activity on the basis of dosages estimated by titration of active virus. These results show a potential therapeutic approach against two important human liver pathogens HBV and HCV that independently addresses concomitant liver fibrosis. Further studies are required to characterize the details of the mechanisms involved in this novel therapeutic principle.

  6. Inactivated ORF virus shows antifibrotic activity and inhibits human hepatitis B virus (HBV and hepatitis C virus (HCV replication in preclinical models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Paulsen

    Full Text Available Inactivated orf virus (iORFV, strain D1701, is a potent immune modulator in various animal species. We recently demonstrated that iORFV induces strong antiviral activity in animal models of acute and chronic viral infections. In addition, we found D1701-mediated antifibrotic effects in different rat models of liver fibrosis. In the present study, we compare iORFV derived from two different strains of ORFV, D1701 and NZ2, respectively, with respect to their antifibrotic potential as well as their potential to induce an antiviral response controlling infections with the hepatotropic pathogens hepatitis C virus (HCV and hepatitis B virus (HBV. Both strains of ORFV showed anti-viral activity against HCV in vitro and against HBV in a transgenic mouse model without signs of necro-inflammation in vivo. Our experiments suggest that the absence of liver damage is potentially mediated by iORFV-induced downregulation of antigen cross-presentation in liver sinus endothelial cells. Furthermore, both strains showed significant anti-fibrotic activity in rat models of liver fibrosis. iORFV strain NZ2 appeared more potent compared to strain D1701 with respect to both its antiviral and antifibrotic activity on the basis of dosages estimated by titration of active virus. These results show a potential therapeutic approach against two important human liver pathogens HBV and HCV that independently addresses concomitant liver fibrosis. Further studies are required to characterize the details of the mechanisms involved in this novel therapeutic principle.

  7. Dithiobiuret toxicity in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, K.D.

    1985-01-01

    Raising the daily dose of dithiobiuret (DTB) in male rats from 0.5 to 1 to 5 mg/kg shortened the latency to the onset of flaccid muscle tone and associated diminished performance in a treadmill test from 7 to 5 to 3 days, respectively. Concomitant with the development of flaccid muscle tone gastrocnemius muscle contractions elicited by high frequency motor nerve stimulation were lower in peak tension and tended to fade more rapidly in DTB-treated rats than in control rats. Remarkably, rats treated with highly daily doses (10-16 mg/kg) of DTB were resistant to the expected development of DTB-induced flaccid muscle tone, and tetanic contractile abnormalities but a corresponding refractoriness to body weight loss, decreased fed and water intake, diuresis, and depression in water balance was not present. This nonselectivity of the refractory responses supported the results of a histopathological study indicating that DTB-induced neuromuscular toxicity was unlikely to be secondary to effect on other organ systems. It is not known whether the ultimate neurotoxin is DTB or a metabolite. In this regard, two pathways for the metabolism of DTB were proposed based on the results of thin-layer chromatography of urine samples from rats treated with either 14 C- or 35 S-DTB. One pathway involved the reversible oxidation of DTB to the disulfide-containing compound thiuret, and the other involved the replacement of a sulfur atom with oxygen to form monothiobiuret. Thiuret, but not monothiobiuret, possessed comparable toxicity to STB. This further suggested that redox cycling between DTB and thiuret could be an important contributing factor to the toxicity of DTB

  8. Effect of irradiation and of cysteamine on rat liver mitochondria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braquet, Monique.

    1979-06-01

    The aim of this work was to determine: the effects of a cobalt 60 gamma irradiation received by an animal, the biological repercussions of the preliminary administration of cysteamine to the animal exposed. To this end the amount of damage caused by in vivo irradiation of rats was estimated at three levels: on the whole body; on an important organ, the liver; on a specific organite, the mitochondrion. The methods of investigation used fall mainly within the province of biochemical technology. Studies on the effects of ionizing radiations on rats irradiated for ten days at 900 roentgens showed a generalized attack on the whole system, known as the ''Acute Irradiation Syndrome'' and divisible into three phases: stage one, initial phase involving loss of weight and destruction of the liver. These symptoms appear early and reach a paroxysm on the 4th day after irradiation. Stage two, remission phase (from the 5th to the 8th day) when the weight variations become stabilised. Stage three, last phase, often leading to the death between the 9th and 10th days. During the same 10-day period, on the same irradiated rats, the changes in enzymatic systems were followed in order to estimate the magnitude of peroxidative phenomena within a subcellular particle such as the mitochondrion. The results obtained prove a strong disorganisation of the mitochondrial function [fr

  9. Effect of human vascular endothelial growth factor gene transfer on endogenous vascular endothelial growth factor mRNA expression in a rat fibroblast and osteoblast culture model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ru; Li, Claire H; Nauth, Aaron; McKee, Michael D; Schemitsch, Emil H

    2010-09-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) plays an important role in promoting angiogenesis and osteogenesis during fracture repair. Our previous studies have shown that cell-based VEGF gene therapy enhances bone healing of a rabbit tibia segmental bone defect in vivo. The aim of this project was to examine the effect of exogenous human VEGF on the endogenous rat VEGF messenger RNA (mRNA) expression in a cell-based gene transfer model. Rat fibroblasts and osteoblasts were harvested from the dermal tissue and periosteum, respectively, of Fisher 344 rats. The cells were then cultured and transfected with pcDNA-human VEGF using Superfect reagent (Qiagen). Four experimental groups were created: 1) fibroblast-VEGF; 2) osteoblast-VEGF; 3) nontransfected fibroblast controls; and 4) nontransfected osteoblast controls. The cultured cells were harvested at 1, 3, and 7 days after the gene transfection. The total mRNA was extracted (Trizol; Invitrogen); both human VEGF and rat VEGF mRNA were measured by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and quantified by VisionWorksLS. The human VEGF165 mRNA was detected by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction from transfected fibroblasts and osteoblasts at 1, 3, and 7 days after gene transfection. The human VEGF165 levels peaked at Day 1 and then gradually reduced expression in both transfected fibroblasts and osteoblasts. Two endogenous rat VEGF isoforms were detected in this cell culture model: rat VEGF120 and rat VEGF164. We compared the rat VEGF120 and rat VEGF164 expression level of the fibroblasts or osteoblasts that were transfected with human VEGF165, with nontransfected control cells. Both the transfected fibroblasts and osteoblasts showed greater expression of rat VEGF164 than nontransfected controls at Day 1 (peak level) and Day 3, but not at Day 7. The expression of rat VEGF120 was lower in transfected fibroblasts, but higher in transfected osteoblasts, than the relevant control groups at any time point

  10. Role of the vomeronasal organ on the estral cycle reduction by pheromones in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, O A; Sánchez-Criado, J E; Guisado, S

    1985-09-01

    The role of he vomeronasal organ on the estral cycle reduction induced by pheromones is studied in adult female wistar rats. The animals were divided in three groups: I, intact rats; II, vomeronasalectomized rats (VNX); and III, sham operated rats (sham). Each group was submitted to another three distinct conditions from the day they were weaned (21 days old): Isolated female rats; with male odors from two adult males of tested sexual potency, and isolated rats again. The isolated intact rats show mainly 5 day length cycles. The groups I and III (intacts and sham) with male odors, show 4 day length cycles. The VNX animals show 5 day cycles in any one experimental conditions. These results support the idea that the vomeronasal organ is the receptor of the male reducing cycle pheromone in the female rat.

  11. Dolphin shows and interaction programs: benefits for conservation education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, L J; Zeigler-Hill, V; Mellen, J; Koeppel, J; Greer, T; Kuczaj, S

    2013-01-01

    Dolphin shows and dolphin interaction programs are two types of education programs within zoological institutions used to educate visitors about dolphins and the marine environment. The current study examined the short- and long-term effects of these programs on visitors' conservation-related knowledge, attitude, and behavior. Participants of both dolphin shows and interaction programs demonstrated a significant short-term increase in knowledge, attitudes, and behavioral intentions. Three months following the experience, participants of both dolphin shows and interaction programs retained the knowledge learned during their experience and reported engaging in more conservation-related behaviors. Additionally, the number of dolphin shows attended in the past was a significant predictor of recent conservation-related behavior suggesting that repetition of these types of experiences may be important in inspiring people to conservation action. These results suggest that both dolphin shows and dolphin interaction programs can be an important part of a conservation education program for visitors of zoological facilities. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Generation and characterization of rat liver stem cell lines and their engraftment in a rat model of liver failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuijk, Ewart W.; Rasmussen, Shauna; Blokzijl, Francis; Huch, Meritxell; Gehart, Helmuth; Toonen, Pim; Begthel, Harry; Clevers, Hans; Geurts, Aron M.; Cuppen, Edwin

    2016-01-01

    The rat is an important model for liver regeneration. However, there is no in vitro culture system that can capture the massive proliferation that can be observed after partial hepatectomy in rats. We here describe the generation of rat liver stem cell lines. Rat liver stem cells, which grow as cystic organoids, were characterized by high expression of the stem cell marker Lgr5, by the expression of liver progenitor and duct markers, and by low expression of hepatocyte markers, oval cell markers, and stellate cell markers. Prolonged cultures of rat liver organoids depended on high levels of WNT-signalling and the inhibition of BMP-signaling. Upon transplantation of clonal lines to a Fah−/− Il2rg−/− rat model of liver failure, the rat liver stem cells engrafted into the host liver where they differentiated into areas with FAH and Albumin positive hepatocytes. Rat liver stem cell lines hold potential as consistent reliable cell sources for pharmacological, toxicological or metabolic studies. In addition, rat liver stem cell lines may contribute to the development of regenerative medicine in liver disease. To our knowledge, the here described liver stem cell lines represent the first organoid culture system in the rat. PMID:26915950

  13. Role of wheat germ oil in radiation-induced oxidative stress and alteration in energy metabolism in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shedid, S M.E. [National Center for Radiation Research and Technology, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt)

    2008-07-01

    The liver is essential in keeping the body functioning properly while muscular strength is important in sport as well as in daily activities. Exposure to ionizing radiation is thought to increase oxidative stress and damage liver and muscle tissues. Wheat germ oil is a natural unrefined vegetable oil. It is an excellent source of vitamin E, octacosanol, linoleic and linolenic essential fatty acids, which may be beneficial in neutralizing the free oxygen radicals. This study was designed to investigate the efficacy of wheat germ oil, on radiation induced oxidative damage in rat's liver and skeletal muscle. Wheat germ oil was supplemented orally via gavage to rats at a dose of 54 mg/ kg body weight for 14 successive days pre- and 7 days post-exposure to 5 Gy (single dose) of whole body gamma irradiation. Animals were sacrificed 7, 14 and 21 days post radiation exposure. The results revealed that whole body gamma irradiation of rats induces oxidative stress in liver and skeletal muscles obvious by significant elevation in the levels of xanthine oxidase and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) associated with significant decreases in the content of reduced glutathione, as well as decreases in xanthine dehydrogenase, superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities. Irradiated rats showed also significant decreases in creatine phosphokinase, glutamate dehydrogenase and glucose-6- phosphate dehydrogenase activities while lactate dehydrogenase were significantly increased. Total iron, total copper and total calcium levels significantly increased in the liver and skeletal muscles of irradiated rats group compared to control group. Wheat germ oil treated-irradiated rats showed significantly less severe damage and remarkable improvement in all the measured parameters, compared to irradiated rats. It could be concluded that wheat germ oil by attenuating radiation-induced oxidative stress might play a role in maintaining liver and skeletal muscle

  14. Role of wheat germ oil in radiation-induced oxidative stress and alteration in energy metabolism in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shedid, S.M.E.

    2008-01-01

    The liver is essential in keeping the body functioning properly while muscular strength is important in sport as well as in daily activities. Exposure to ionizing radiation is thought to increase oxidative stress and damage liver and muscle tissues. Wheat germ oil is a natural unrefined vegetable oil. It is an excellent source of vitamin E, octacosanol, linoleic and linolenic essential fatty acids, which may be beneficial in neutralizing the free oxygen radicals. This study was designed to investigate the efficacy of wheat germ oil, on radiation induced oxidative damage in rat's liver and skeletal muscle. Wheat germ oil was supplemented orally via gavage to rats at a dose of 54 mg/ kg body weight for 14 successive days pre- and 7 days post-exposure to 5 Gy (single dose) of whole body gamma irradiation. Animals were sacrificed 7, 14 and 21 days post radiation exposure. The results revealed that whole body gamma irradiation of rats induces oxidative stress in liver and skeletal muscles obvious by significant elevation in the levels of xanthine oxidase and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) associated with significant decreases in the content of reduced glutathione, as well as decreases in xanthine dehydrogenase, superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities. Irradiated rats showed also significant decreases in creatine phosphokinase, glutamate dehydrogenase and glucose-6- phosphate dehydrogenase activities while lactate dehydrogenase were significantly increased. Total iron, total copper and total calcium levels significantly increased in the liver and skeletal muscles of irradiated rats group compared to control group. Wheat germ oil treated-irradiated rats showed significantly less severe damage and remarkable improvement in all the measured parameters, compared to irradiated rats. It could be concluded that wheat germ oil by attenuating radiation-induced oxidative stress might play a role in maintaining liver and skeletal muscle

  15. Lewis and Fischer 344 rats as a model for genetic differences in spatial learning and memory: Cocaine effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fole, Alberto; Miguéns, Miguel; Morales, Lidia; González-Martín, Carmen; Ambrosio, Emilio; Del Olmo, Nuria

    2017-06-02

    Lewis (LEW) and Fischer 344 (F344) rats are considered a model of genetic vulnerability to drug addiction. We previously showed important differences in spatial learning and memory between them, but in contrast with previous experiments demonstrating cocaine-induced enhanced learning in Morris water maze (MWM) highly demanding tasks, the eight-arm radial maze (RAM) performance was not modified either in LEW or F344 rats after chronic cocaine treatment. In the present work, chronically cocaine-treated LEW and F344 adult rats have been evaluated in learning and memory performance using the Y-maze, two RAM protocols that differ in difficulty, and a reversal protocol that tests cognitive flexibility. After one of the RAM protocols, we quantified dendritic spine density in hippocampal CA1 neurons and compared it to animals treated with cocaine but not submitted to RAM. LEW cocaine treated rats showed a better performance in the Y maze than their saline counterparts, an effect that was not evident in the F344 strain. F344 rats significantly took more time to learn the RAM task and made a greater number of errors than LEW animals in both protocols tested, whereas cocaine treatment induced deleterious effects in learning and memory in the highly difficult protocol. Moreover, hippocampal spine density was cocaine-modulated in LEW animals whereas no effects were found in F344 rats. We propose that differences in addictive-like behavior between LEW and F344 rats could be related to differences in hippocampal learning and memory processes that could be on the basis of individual vulnerability to cocaine addiction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. [Diagnosing imported helminthiasis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo, Javier; Pérez-Arellano, José Luis; Galindo, Inmaculada; Belhassen, Moncef; Cordero, Miguel; Muro, Antonio

    2007-05-01

    In recent years, there has been an increase in cases of imported helminthiasis in Spain because of two complementary causes: immigration and international travel. Although the prevalence of helminthiasis is high in the immigrant population, the risk of transmission to the Spanish population is low. In this review, we provide clues to aid in the diagnosis of the helminthiasis, highlighting the geographic characteristics, clinical findings and analytical results of the most frequent types. The low sensitivity of the classic parasitological diagnostic test, mainly in tissue helminthiasis, is described. In addition, the advantages and limitations of the common serological methods for detecting related circulating antigens and antibodies are presented. Certain molecular methods used in the diagnosis of imported helminthiasis and the best strategies for screening of this condition are discussed.

  17. [Effect of red maca (Lepidium meyenii) on INF-γ levels in ovariectomized rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiva-Revilla, Johanna; Guerra-Castañon, Félix; Olcese-Mori, Paola; Lozada, Iván; Rubio, Julio; Gonzales, Carla; Gonzales, Gustavo F

    2014-01-01

    Compare the effect of different doses of red maca on gamma interferon (IFN-γ) levels in ovariectomized rats (OVX). Adult female rats were randomly divided into the following six groups: Group 1: pseudo-ovariectomized rats (PO); Group 2: OVX rats; Group 3: OVX rats treated with 4 ug/kg estradiol; and Group 4, 5 and 6: OVX rats treated with red maca extracts with 2.15, 4.3 and 8.6 mg polyphenols/body weight kilogram, respectively. OVX rats showed low levels of IFN-γ compared to PO rats. Estradiol and red maca reversed the effect of ovariectomy on the IFN-γ levels. A positive dose-response effect of red maca on IFN-γ levels was shown (r = 0.57, p maca administration increases levels of IFN-γ in ovariectomized rats.

  18. Autoshaping in micrencephalic rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldstein, L.H.; Oakley, D.A.

    1989-01-01

    An autoshaping procedure in which the illumination of a lever was predictive of food reinforcement was used to compare learning in rats with micrencephaly induced by irradiation on the 16th day of gestation and in sham-irradiated controls. Both groups showed equivalent levels of lever-directed activity, and the micrencephalic animals differentiated as well as the control animals between the predictive lever and a nonpredictive lever. The micrencephalic animals were able to redistribute their lever-directed activity when the significance of the levers was reversed and did so more readily than the control animals. Results support the claim that association learning survives either traumatic or developmental neocortical damage and have implications for remedial procedures following both head injury and developmental cerebral pathology in humans

  19. Autoshaping in micrencephalic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, L H; Oakley, D A

    1989-06-01

    An autoshaping procedure in which the illumination of a lever was predictive of food reinforcement was used to compare learning in rats with micrencephaly induced by irradiation on the 16th day of gestation and in sham-irradiated controls. Both groups showed equivalent levels of lever-directed activity, and the micrencephalic animals differentiated as well as the control animals between the predictive lever and a nonpredictive lever. The micrencephalic animals were able to redistribute their lever-directed activity when the significance of the levers was reversed and did so more readily than the control animals. Results support the claim that association learning survives either traumatic or developmental neocortical damage and have implications for remedial procedures following both head injury and developmental cerebral pathology in humans.

  20. The petit rat (pet/pet), a new semilethal mutant dwarf rat with thymic and testicular anomalies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiba, Junko; Suzuki, Katsushi; Suzuki, Hiroetsu

    2008-12-01

    The petit rat (pet/pet) is a recently discovered semilethal mutant dwarf. The neonatal pet/pet rats had a low body weight and small thymus and testis. During the first 3 d after birth, 50% of the male and 80% of the female pet/pet pups were lost or found dead. Surviving pet/pet rats showed marked retardation of postnatal growth, and their body weights were 41% (female rats) and 32% (male rats) of those of normal rats at the adult stage. The pet/pet rats exhibited proportional dwarfism, and their longitudinal bones were shorter than those of controls without skeletal malformations. Most organs of male pet/pet rats, especially the thymus, testis, adipose tissue surrounding the kidney, and accessory sex organs, weighed markedly less at 140 d of age than did those of their normal counterparts. The thymus of pet/pet rats was small with abnormal thymic follicles. Testes from pet/pet rats exhibited 2 patterns of abnormal histology. Spermatogenesis was present in testes that were only slightly anomalous, but the seminiferous tubules were reduced in diameter. In severely affected testes, most of the seminiferous tubules showed degeneration, and interstitial tissue was increased. Plasma growth hormone concentrations did not differ between pet/pet and normal male rats. The dwarf phenotype of pet/pet rats was inherited as an autosomal recessive trait. These results indicate that the pet/pet rat has a semilethal growth-hormone-independent dwarf phenotype that is accompanied by thymic and testicular anomalies and low birth weight.

  1. Neural correlates of sensorimotor gating: A metabolic positron emission tomography study in awake rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cathrin eRohleder

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Impaired sensorimotor gating occurs in neuropsychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia and can be measured using the prepulse inhibition (PPI paradigm of the acoustic startle response. This assay is frequently used to validate animal models of neuropsychiatric disorders and to explore the therapeutic potential of new drugs. The underlying neural network of PPI has been extensively studied with invasive methods and genetic modifications. However, its relevance for healthy untreated animals and the functional interplay between startle- and PPI-related areas during a PPI session is so far unknown. Therefore, we studied awake rats in a PPI paradigm, startle control and background noise control, combined with behavioral [18F]fluoro-2-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET. Subtractive analyses between conditions were used to identify brain regions involved in startle and PPI processing in well-hearing Black hooded rats. For correlative analysis with regard to the amount of PPI we also included hearing-impaired Lister hooded rats that startled more often, because their hearing threshold was just below the lowest prepulses. Metabolic imaging showed that the brain areas proposed for startle and PPI mediation are active during PPI paradigms in healthy untreated rats. More importantly, we show for the first time that the whole PPI modulation network is active during passive PPI sessions, where no selective attention to prepulse or startle stimulus is required. We conclude that this reflects ongoing monitoring of stimulus significance and constant adjustment of sensorimotor gating.

  2. Expression and significance of HIF-1α and VEGF in rats with diabetic retinopathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong-Tao Yan; Guan-Fang Su

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the expression of hypoxia inducible factor-1α(HIF-1α) and vascular endothelial growth factor(VEGF) in diabetic retinopathy(DR) rats and its effect on theDR occurrence and development.Methods:A total of120SD rats were randomly divided into trial group and control group with60 in each.STZi.p. was used in the trial group to establish theDM model, citrate buffer salt of same amount was usedi.p. to the control group.1,3 and6 months after injection, respective20 rats were sacrificed in each group to observe expression ofHIF-1α andVEGF in the rat retina tissue at different time points.Results:Expression ofHIF-1α andVEGF were negative in the control group; expression ofHIF-1α andVEGF protein in retinal tissue were weak after1 month ofDR mold formation.It showed progressive enhancement along with the progression in different organizations, differences between groups were significant (P<0.05).Conclusions:Expressions ofHIF-1α andVEGF were correlated with disease progression in early diabetic retinopathy.Retinal oxygen can induce over-expression ofHIF-1α andVEGF.It shows thatHIF-1α andVEGF play an important role in the pathogenesis ofDR.

  3. Phosphodiesterases in the rat ovary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Tonny Studsgaard; Stahlhut, Martin; Andersen, Claus Yding

    2015-01-01

    that augmented cAMP levels stimulate primordial follicle growth. The present study examined the gene expression, enzyme activity and immunolocalization of the different cAMP hydrolysing PDEs families in the rat ovary. Further, the effect of PDE4 inhibition on primordial follicle activation in cultured neonatal......Phosphodiesterases (PDEs) are important regulators of the intracellular cAMP concentration, which is a central second messenger that affects a multitude of intracellular functions. In the ovaries, cAMP exerts diverse functions, including regulation of ovulation and it has been suggested...... rat ovaries was also evaluated. We found varied expression of all eight families in the ovary with Pde7b and Pde8a having the highest expression each accounting for more than 20% of the total PDE mRNA. PDE4 accounted for 15-26% of the total PDE activity. Immunoreactive PDE11A was found in the oocytes...

  4. Inhibitory Effects of Two Varieties of Tunisian Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) Extracts on Gastrointestinal Transit in Rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souli, Abdelaziz; Sebai, Hichem; Rtibi, Kais; Chehimi, Latifa; Sakly, Mohsen; Amri, Mohamed; El-Benna, Jamel; Marzouki, Lamjed

    2015-09-01

    The present study was undertaken to determine whether total and methanol juice extracts of two Tunisian Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) varieties (Garsi and Gabsi) protect against diarrhea as well as their effects on gastrointestinal transit (GIT) in healthy rats. In this respect, male Wistar rats were used and divided into control- and pomegranate-treated groups. The antidiarrheal activity was evaluated using the castor oil-induced diarrhea method and the GIT was assessed using charcoal meal. Our results showed that total and methanol P. granatum juice extracts produced a significant dose-dependent protection against castor oil-induced diarrhea. Pomegranate extracts and juice also decreased the GIT significantly and dose dependently. Importantly, the Garsi variety appeared to be more effective than the Gabsi variety on these two parameters. These findings suggest that pomegranate extracts have a potent antidiarrheal property in rats confirming their efficiency in the Tunisian traditional medicine.

  5. Sexual dimorphism in hybrids rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Falgueras, Alicia; Pinos, Helena; Fernández, Rosa; Collado, Paloma; Pasaro, Eduardo; Segovia, Santiago; Guillamon, Antonio

    2006-12-06

    Laboratory rat strains descend from Wistar rats as a consequence of artificial selection. Previously we reported that the medial posterior division of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BSTMP) was sexually dimorphic in Wistar and Long-Evans strains while the medial anterior division (BSTMA) and the locus coeruleus (LC) only showed sex differences in the ancestor Wistar strain. The lateral posterior division (BSTLP) was isomorphic in both strains. The present work studies the number of neurons in the BSTMP, BSTMA, BSTLP and LC of male and female Wistar and Long-Evans rats (F(0)) and their hybrid F(1) and F(2) generations. The BSTMP is sexually dimorphic in the F(0), F(1) and F(2) generations while sex differences in the LC are only seen in F(0) Wistar rats but not in the F(0) Long-Evans or the F(1) and F(2) hybrid generations. Sex differences in the BSTMA are seen in F(0) Wistar but not in F(0) Long-Evans rats and completely disappear in the F(2) generations. The number of neurons in the LC of both males and females decreased in heterozygotic individuals (F(1)) but increased in homozygotic (F(2)). However, the number of neurons in the BSTMP changes significantly over the generations, although the ratio of neurons (female/male) is stable and unaffected in homo- or heterozygosis. Thus, the mechanism that regulates the neuronal female/male ratio would be different from the one that controls the number of neurons. The facts that sex differences in the BSTMP are not affected by homo- or heterozygosis and that they are seen in several mammalian orders suggest the existence of a "fixed" type of brain sex differences in the Mammalia Class.

  6. Establishment of reproducible osteosarcoma rat model using orthotopic implantation technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhe; Sun, Honghui; Fan, Qingyu; Long, Hua; Yang, Tongtao; Ma, Bao'an

    2009-05-01

    In experimental musculoskeletal oncology, there remains a need for animal models that can be used to assess the efficacy of new and innovative treatment methodologies for bone tumors. Rat plays a very important role in the bone field especially in the evaluation of metabolic bone diseases. The objective of this study was to develop a rat osteosarcoma model for evaluation of new surgical and molecular methods of treatment for extremity sarcoma. One hundred male SD rats weighing 125.45+/-8.19 g were divided into 5 groups and anesthetized intraperitoneally with 10% chloral hydrate. Orthotopic implantation models of rat osteosarcoma were performed by injecting directly into the SD rat femur with a needle for inoculation with SD tumor cells. In the first step of the experiment, 2x10(5) to 1x10(6) UMR106 cells in 50 microl were injected intraosseously into median or distal part of the femoral shaft and the tumor take rate was determined. The second stage consisted of determining tumor volume, correlating findings from ultrasound with findings from necropsia and determining time of survival. In the third stage, the orthotopically implanted tumors and lung nodules were resected entirely, sectioned, and then counter stained with hematoxylin and eosin for histopathologic evaluation. The tumor take rate was 100% for implants with 8x10(5) tumor cells or more, which was much less than the amount required for subcutaneous implantation, with a high lung metastasis rate of 93.0%. Ultrasound and necropsia findings matched closely (r=0.942; p<0.01), which demonstrated that Doppler ultrasonography is a convenient and reliable technique for measuring cancer at any stage. Tumor growth curve showed that orthotopically implanted tumors expanded vigorously with time-lapse, especially in the first 3 weeks. The median time of survival was 38 days and surgical mortality was 0%. The UMR106 cell line has strong carcinogenic capability and high lung metastasis frequency. The present rat

  7. Show Horse Welfare: Horse Show Competitors' Understanding, Awareness, and Perceptions of Equine Welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigt, Melissa A; Hiney, Kristina; Richardson, Jennifer C; Waite, Karen; Borron, Abigail; Brady, Colleen M

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to gain a better understanding of stock-type horse show competitors' understanding of welfare and level of concern for stock-type show horses' welfare. Data were collected through an online questionnaire that included questions relating to (a) interest and general understanding of horse welfare, (b) welfare concerns of the horse show industry and specifically the stock-type horse show industry, (c) decision-making influences, and (d) level of empathic characteristics. The majority of respondents indicated they agree or strongly agree that physical metrics should be a factor when assessing horse welfare, while fewer agreed that behavioral and mental metrics should be a factor. Respondent empathy levels were moderate to high and were positively correlated with the belief that mental and behavioral metrics should be a factor in assessing horse welfare. Respondents indicated the inhumane practices that most often occur at stock-type shows include excessive jerking on reins, excessive spurring, and induced excessive unnatural movement. Additionally, respondents indicated association rules, hired trainers, and hired riding instructors are the most influential regarding the decisions they make related to their horses' care and treatment.

  8. Blood donor show behaviour after an invitation to donate : The influence of collection site factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merz, E.-M.; Zijlstra, B.J.H.; de Kort, W.L.A.M.

    2017-01-01

    Background and Objectives Show behaviour after invitation to donate varies considerably across donors. More insight into this variation is important for blood banks in achieving stable stocks. This study examined individual factors determining intended show behaviour. Most importantly, however, this

  9. Blood donor show behavior after an invitation to donate: The influence of collection site factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merz, E.M.; Zijlstra, Bonne; De Kort, Wim L.A.M.

    2017-01-01

    Background and Objectives Show behaviour after invitation to donate varies considerably across donors. More insight into this variation is important for blood banks in achieving stable stocks. This study examined individual factors determining intended show behaviour. Most importantly, however, this

  10. Age Dependent Hypothalamic and Pituitary Responses to Novel Environment Stress or Lipopolysaccharide in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandy Koenig

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Previously, we have shown that the transcription factor nuclear factor interleukin (NF-IL6 can be used as an activation marker for inflammatory lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced and psychological novel environment stress (NES in the rat brain. Here, we aimed to investigate age dependent changes of hypothalamic and pituitary responses to NES (cage switch or LPS (100 μg/kg in 2 and 24 months old rats. Animals were sacrificed at specific time points, blood and brains withdrawn and analyzed using immunohistochemistry, RT-PCR and bioassays. In the old rats, telemetric recording revealed that NES-induced hyperthermia was enhanced and prolonged compared to the young group. Plasma IL-6 levels remained unchanged and hypothalamic IL-6 mRNA expression was increased in the old rats. Interestingly, this response was accompanied by a significant upregulation of corticotropin-releasing hormone mRNA expression only in young rats after NES and overall higher plasma corticosterone levels in all aged animals. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed a significant upregulation of NF-IL6-positive cells in the pituitary after NES or LPS-injection. In another important brain structure implicated in immune-to-brain communication, namely, in the median eminence (ME, NF-IL6-immunoreactivity was increased in aged animals, while the young group showed just minor activation after LPS-stimulation. Interestingly, we found a higher amount of NF-IL6-CD68-positive cells in the posterior pituitary of old rats compared to the young counterparts. Moreover, aging affected the regulation of cytokine interaction in the anterior pituitary lobe. LPS-treatment significantly enhanced the secretion of the cytokines IL-6 and TNFα into supernatants of primary cell cultures of the anterior pituitary. Furthermore, in the young rats, incubation with IL-6 and IL-10 antibodies before LPS-stimulation led to a robust decrease of IL-6 production and an increase of TNFα production by the pituitary

  11. Ethanol extract of Carthamus tinctorius L. shows anti-thrombosis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    TXB2 decreased and 6-keto-PGF1α increased with CTL and aspirin, with an association between 6-keto-PGF1α/TXB2 and arterial or venous thrombus weight for all products, and for occlusion time with CTL but not for aspirin. Conclusion: The experimental effects of CTL on thrombosis in rats were confirmed. Again, further ...

  12. Metabolites derived from omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids are important for cardioprotection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Kim; Malick, Mandy; Madingou, Ness; Touchette, Charles; Bourque-Riel, Valérie; Tomaro, Leandro; Rousseau, Guy

    2015-12-15

    Although controversial, some data suggest that omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are beneficial to cardiovascular diseases, and could reduce infarct size. In parallel, we have reported that the administration of Resolvin D1 (RvD1), a metabolite of docosahexaenoic acid, an omega-3 PUFA, can reduce infarct size. The present study was designed to determine if the inhibition of two important enzymes involved in the formation of RvD1 from omega-3 PUFA could reduce the cardioprotective effect of omega-3 PUFA. Sprague-Dawley rats were fed with a diet rich in omega-3 PUFA during 10 days before myocardial infarction (MI). Two days before MI, rats received a daily dose of Meloxicam, an inhibitor of cyclooxygenase-2, PD146176, an inhibitor of 15-lipoxygenase, both inhibitors or vehicle. MI was induced by the occlusion of the left coronary artery for 40min followed by reperfusion. Infarct size and neutrophil accumulation were evaluated after 24h of reperfusion while caspase-3, -8 and Akt activities were assessed at 30min of reperfusion. Rats receiving inhibitors, alone or in combination, showed a larger infarct size than those receiving omega-3 PUFA alone. Caspase-3 and -8 activities are higher in ischemic areas with inhibitors while Akt activity is diminished in groups treated with inhibitors. Moreover, the study showed that RvD1 restores cardioprotection when added to the inhibitors. Results from this study indicate that the inhibition of the metabolism of Omega-3 PUFA attenuate their cardioprotective properties. Then, resolvins seem to be an important mediator in the cardioprotection conferred by omega-3 PUFA in our experimental model of MI. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Tellurium-123m-labeled isosteres of palmitoleic and oleic acids show high myocardial uptake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Ambrose, K.R.; Callahan, A.P.; Grigsby, R.A.; Irgolic, K.J.

    1979-01-01

    These studies were directed at determining if the telluro fatty acids prepared by the isosteric replacement of the Δ 9 -double bonds of oleic and palmitoleic acids with /sup 123m/Te would show heart uptake in rats. The isostere of palmitoleic acid, 9-tellurapentadecanoic acid(II), was prepared by basic hydrolysis of the product formed by the coupling of /sup 123m/Te-sodium hexyl tellurol with methyl-8-bromooctadecanoate. Similarly, the isostere of oleic acid, 9-telluraheptadecanoic acid(IV), was prepared by the same route beginning with the reaction of /sup 123m/Te-sodium octyl tellurol with methyl-8-bromooctadecanoate. Both /sup 123m/Te-(II) and /sup 123m/Te-(IV) showed remarkably high heart uptake in rats (2 to 3% dose/gm) ten minutes after intravenous administration, and the heart/blood ratios were high (20-30/1). Finally, the hearts of rats injected with /sup 123m/Te-(IV) have been clearly imaged with a rectilinear scanner

  14. Risk communication importance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunha, Raquel Dalledone Siqueira da; Andrade, Delvonei Alves de, E-mail: raqueldalledonesiqueira@gmail.com, E-mail: delvonei@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Risk Communication has shown its importance in the elaboration of emergency plans in the Chemical industry. In the 90's, the UNEP developed the APELL (Awareness and Preparedness for Emergency at Local Level) plan, a risk management methodology used by dangerous chemical facilities. The methodology comprises the commitment of both Government and the community located in the risk area in the development of the emergency plan. In the nuclear sector, there is no similar methodology developed so far. However, establishing a communication channel between the nuclear segment and the community is essential. In Brazil, the construction of Angra 3 and the RMB (Multi Purpose Reactor) project stand as nuclear initiatives that improve the importance of a good communication to the public. Security issues of these projects are natural sources of concernment to the public, which is aggravated by events such as the Fukushima disaster. Without an effective communication about what means the presence of nuclear plants and reactors in a specific area, the interested public will only have an alarmist vision of the subject, given by those against these facilities. (author)

  15. Risk communication importance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunha, Raquel Dalledone Siqueira da; Andrade, Delvonei Alves de

    2013-01-01

    Risk Communication has shown its importance in the elaboration of emergency plans in the Chemical industry. In the 90's, the UNEP developed the APELL (Awareness and Preparedness for Emergency at Local Level) plan, a risk management methodology used by dangerous chemical facilities. The methodology comprises the commitment of both Government and the community located in the risk area in the development of the emergency plan. In the nuclear sector, there is no similar methodology developed so far. However, establishing a communication channel between the nuclear segment and the community is essential. In Brazil, the construction of Angra 3 and the RMB (Multi Purpose Reactor) project stand as nuclear initiatives that improve the importance of a good communication to the public. Security issues of these projects are natural sources of concernment to the public, which is aggravated by events such as the Fukushima disaster. Without an effective communication about what means the presence of nuclear plants and reactors in a specific area, the interested public will only have an alarmist vision of the subject, given by those against these facilities. (author)

  16. Best in show but not best shape: a photographic assessment of show dog body condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Such, Z R; German, A J

    2015-08-01

    Previous studies suggest that owners often wrongly perceive overweight dogs to be in normal condition. The body shape of dogs attending shows might influence owners' perceptions, with online images of overweight show winners having a negative effect. This was an observational in silico study of canine body condition. 14 obese-prone breeds and 14 matched non-obese-probe breeds were first selected, and one operator then used an online search engine to identify 40 images, per breed, of dogs that had appeared at a major national UK show (Crufts). After images were anonymised and coded, a second observer subjectively assessed body condition, in a single sitting, using a previously validated method. Of 1120 photographs initially identified, 960 were suitable for assessing body condition, with all unsuitable images being from longhaired breeds. None of the dogs (0 per cent) were underweight, 708 (74 per cent) were in ideal condition and 252 (26 per cent) were overweight. Pugs, basset hounds and Labrador retrievers were most likely to be overweight, while standard poodles, Rhodesian ridgebacks, Hungarian vizslas and Dobermanns were least likely to be overweight. Given the proportion of show dogs from some breeds that are overweight, breed standards should be redefined to be consistent with a dog in optimal body condition. British Veterinary Association.

  17. Phenotypic Characterization of LEA Rat: A New Rat Model of Nonobese Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadashi Okamura

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Animal models have provided important information for the genetics and pathophysiology of diabetes. Here we have established a novel, nonobese rat strain with spontaneous diabetes, Long-Evans Agouti (LEA rat derived from Long-Evans (LE strain. The incidence of diabetes in the males was 10% at 6 months of age and 86% at 14 months, while none of the females developed diabetes. The blood glucose level in LEA male rats was between 200 and 300 mg/dl at 120 min according to OGTT. The glucose intolerance in correspondence with the impairment of insulin secretion was observed in male rats, which was the main cause of diabetes in LEA rats. Histological examination revealed that the reduction of β-cell mass was caused by progressive fibrosis in pancreatic islets in age-dependent manner. The intracytoplasmic hyaline droplet accumulation and the disappearance of tubular epithelial cell layer associated with thickening of basement membrane were evident in renal proximal tubules. The body mass index and glycaemic response to exogenous insulin were comparable to those of control rats. The unique characteristics of LEA rat are a great advantage not only to analyze the progression of diabetes, but also to disclose the genes involved in type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  18. High prevalence of Leptospira spp. in sewer rats (Rattus norvegicus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krøjgaard, L H; Villumsen, S; Markussen, M D K

    2009-01-01

    Earlier studies on the ecology of leptospirosis in temperate regions focused mainly on free-ranging rats in rural areas. Here we report on the occurrence of Leptospira spp. in Rattus norvegicus living in sewers in a suburban area in Copenhagen, Denmark. In 2006-2007, about 30 rats were captured...... in sewers at each of six different locations. Rat kidneys were screened by PCR for pathogenic Leptospira spp. In one location no infected rats were found, whereas the prevalence in the remaining five locations ranged between 48% and 89%. Micro-agglutination tests showed that serogroup Pomona, Sejroe...

  19. Spreading depression analysis of contact behaviour of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikal, K

    1977-08-01

    Social contact behaviour induced by spreading cortical depression was studied in rats. The controls looked for and remained in contact, whereas between the rats with spreading cortical depression and their other partners there was no contact. This phenomenon is due mainly to the absence of an active urge for contact. The contact behaviour of rats is evidently controlled by the cerebral cortex or by subcortical areas of the brain which are inhibited after the elicitation of spreading depression. The experiments show that the contact behaviour of rats has at least two components - an active urge for contact and passive tolerance of contact.

  20. Effect of moderate exercise on peritoneal neutrophils from juvenile rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braz, Glauber Ruda; Ferreira, Diorginis Soares; Pedroza, Anderson Apolonio; da Silva, Aline Isabel; Sousa, Shirley Maria; Pithon-Curi, Tania Cristina; Lagranha, Claudia

    2015-09-01

    Previous studies showed that moderate exercise in adult rats enhances neutrophil function, although no studies were performed in juvenile rats. We evaluated the effects of moderate exercise on the neutrophil function in juvenile rats. Viability and neutrophils function were evaluated. Moderate exercise did not impair the viability and mitochondrial transmembrane potential of neutrophils, whereas there was greater reactive oxygen species production (164%; p < 0.001) and phagocytic capacity (29%; p < 0.05). Our results suggest that moderate exercise in juvenile rats improves neutrophil function, similar to adults.

  1. Vagus nerve contributes to metabolic syndrome in high-fat diet-fed young and adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barella, Luiz F; Miranda, Rosiane A; Franco, Claudinéia C S; Alves, Vander S; Malta, Ananda; Ribeiro, Tatiane A S; Gravena, Clarice; Mathias, Paulo C F; de Oliveira, Júlio C

    2015-01-01

    What is the central question of this study? Different nerve contributes periods of life are known for their differential sensitivity to interventions, and increased parasympathetic activity affects the development and maintenance of obesity. Thus, we evaluated the involvement of the vagus nerve by performing a vagotomy in young or adult rats that were offered an obesogenic high-fat diet. What is the main finding and its importance? Although the accumulation of adipose tissue decreased in both younger and older groups, the younger rats showed a greater response to the effects of vagotomy in general. In addition to the important role of the parasympathetic activity, we suggest that the vagus nerve contributes to the condition of obesity. Obesity has become a global problem, and this condition develops primarily because of an imbalance between energy intake and expenditure. The high complexity involved in the regulation of energy metabolism results from several factors besides endocrine factors. It has been suggested that obesity could be caused by an imbalance in the autonomous nervous system, which could lead to a condition of high parasympathetic activity in counterpart to low sympathetic tonus. High-fat (HF) diets have been used to induce obesity in experimental animals, and their use in animals leads to insulin resistance, hyperinsulinaemia and high parasympathetic activity, among other disorders. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of a vagotomy performed at the initiation of a HF diet at two different stages of life, weaning and adulthood. The vagotomy reduced parasympathetic activity (-32 and -51% in normal fat-fed rats and -43 and -55% in HF diet-fed rats; P fat depots (-17 and -33%, only in HF diet-fed rats; P fat diet-fed rats exhibited fasting hyperinsulinaemia (fivefold higher in young rats and threefold higher in older rats; P diet-fed groups was not altered in the vagotomized rats. We suggest that the vagus nerve, in addition to the

  2. Implications of the Goal Theory on air show programs planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewald Venter

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Events have long played an important role in human society (Shone & Parry, 2010: 3. The toils and efforts of daily lives have often been broken up by events of all kinds as humans seek an escape from the harsh reality of existence and events provide the outlet. Events are classified into four categories according to Shone and Parry (2010: 5 namely leisure (sport, recreation, personal (weddings, birthdays, cultural (art, folklore and organizational (politics, commercial. Successful events either match or exceed visitor motives and goals. It is critical that data be collected from visitors to determine their motives and goals in order to satisfy them and thereby encouraging repeat visits. One such event is the annual air show held at the Zwartkop Air Force Base (AFB in Pretoria, South Africa. Zwartkop AFB is also home to the South African Air Force (SAAF museum that also the hosts of the air show. Much of the museum‟s funds are generated through hosting the air show and sponsor contributions. Visitor goal satisfaction should therefore be of critically importance to the program planners. Military hardware has long held a fascination for those who used them and inspired the imagination of young and old. Such hardware often serves as a remembrance of times passed and as a testament to those who perished. For many visiting museums and air shows, curiosity plays a big role. The particular focus of this article will be on how the goal theory of leisure travel can be utilized by the air show organizers to enhance visitor experience to an air show.

  3. Secretion of hepatic triglycerides into plasma of rats fed retinol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahuja, H.C.; Misra, U.K.

    1975-01-01

    The effect of feeding 33 mg of retinol daily for two days on liver and plasma lipids of rats has been studied. The secretion of liver TG into plasma of retinol fed rats has been measured by the use of palmitic acid-1- 14 C and of Triton WR 1339. Liver and plasma lipids, TG, phospholipids and PC were significantly higher in retinol fed rats as compared to control rats. The incorporation of palmitic acid-1- 14 C into liver TG, PC and PE was significantly higher in retinol fed rats. The labelling pattern with time of liver and plasma TG and PC shows that the secretion of liver TG and PC into plasma was impaired in retinol fed rats. (auth.)

  4. Influence of Dietary Avocado on Gut Health in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paturi, Gunaranjan; Butts, Christine A; Bentley-Hewitt, Kerry L

    2017-09-01

    This study investigated the impact of diets containing various levels of avocado (5, 10 and 15%) on gut health in rats fed for six weeks. Avocado-fed rats had significantly higher food intakes while their body weights remained similar to the control diet-fed rats. No significant changes in intestinal bacterial populations (ileum, cecum and colon) were found in rats fed avocado diets compared to the control diet. Ileum and colon tissues of rats fed avocado diets showed significantly higher expression of genes (β-defensin 1, mucin 3 or mucin 4) and a greater number of mucin-producing goblet cells in the colon. The percentage of avocado in the diet had varying effects in altering the biomarkers, whereby diet containing 15% avocado was the more effective diet. This study delivers new knowledge on the role of avocado on gut health in rats.

  5. Behavioral effects of endogenous or exogenous estradiol and progesterone on cocaine sensitization in female rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, M.F. [Universidade Federal de Ciências da Saúde de Porto Alegre, Laboratório de Neurociência Comportamental, Porto Alegre, RS, Brasil, Laboratório de Neurociência Comportamental, Universidade Federal de Ciências da Saúde de Porto Alegre, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Couto-Pereira, N.S. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Instituto de Ciências Básicas da Saúde, Departamento de Bioquímica, Porto Alegre, RS, Brasil, Departamento de Bioquímica, Instituto de Ciências Básicas da Saúde, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Freese, L.; Costa, P.A.; Caletti, G.; Bisognin, K.M. [Universidade Federal de Ciências da Saúde de Porto Alegre, Laboratório de Neurociência Comportamental, Porto Alegre, RS, Brasil, Laboratório de Neurociência Comportamental, Universidade Federal de Ciências da Saúde de Porto Alegre, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Nin, M.S. [Universidade Federal de Ciências da Saúde de Porto Alegre, Laboratório de Neurociência Comportamental, Porto Alegre, RS, Brasil, Laboratório de Neurociência Comportamental, Universidade Federal de Ciências da Saúde de Porto Alegre, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Instituto Porto Alegre, Centro Metodista do Sul, Curso de Farmácia, Porto Alegre, RS, Brasil, Curso de Farmácia, Centro Metodista do Sul, Instituto Porto Alegre, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Gomez, R. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Instituto de Ciências Básicas da Saúde, Departamento de Farmacologia, Porto Alegre, RS, Brasil, Departamento de Farmacologia, Instituto de Ciências Básicas da Saúde, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Barros, H.M.T. [Universidade Federal de Ciências da Saúde de Porto Alegre, Laboratório de Neurociência Comportamental, Porto Alegre, RS, Brasil, Laboratório de Neurociência Comportamental, Universidade Federal de Ciências da Saúde de Porto Alegre, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2014-05-09

    Cocaine sensitization is a marker for some facets of addiction, is greater in female rats, and may be influenced by their sex hormones. We compared the modulatory effects of endogenous or exogenous estradiol and progesterone on cocaine-induced behavioral sensitization in 106 female rats. Ovariectomized female rats received progesterone (0.5 mg/mL), estradiol (0.05 mg/mL), progesterone plus estradiol, or the oil vehicle. Sham-operated control females received oil. Control and acute subgroups received injections of saline, while the repeated group received cocaine (15 mg/kg, ip) for 8 days. After 10 days, the acute and repeated groups received a challenge dose of cocaine, after which locomotion and stereotypy were monitored. The estrous cycle phase was evaluated and blood was collected to verify hormone levels. Repeated cocaine treatment induced overall behavioral sensitization in female rats, with increased locomotion and stereotypies. In detailed analysis, ovariectomized rats showed no locomotor sensitization; however, the sensitization of stereotypies was maintained. Only females with endogenous estradiol and progesterone demonstrated increased locomotor activity after cocaine challenge. Estradiol replacement enhanced stereotyped behaviors after repeated cocaine administration. Cocaine sensitization of stereotyped behaviors in female rats was reduced after progesterone replacement, either alone or concomitant with estradiol. The behavioral responses (locomotion and stereotypy) to cocaine were affected differently, depending on whether the female hormones were of an endogenous or exogenous origin. Therefore, hormonal cycling appears to be an important factor in the sensitization of females. Although estradiol increases the risk of cocaine sensitization, progesterone warrants further study as a pharmacological treatment in the prevention of psychostimulant abuse.

  6. Neuroprotective effects of phytosterol esters against high cholesterol-induced cognitive deficits in aged rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rui, Xu; Wenfang, Li; Jing, Cheng; Meng, Chen; Chengcheng, Ding; Jiqu, Xu; Shuang, Rong

    2017-03-22

    Accumulating epidemiological and experimental studies have confirmed that a high-cholesterol diet is detrimental to cognitive performance in animal models. Phytosterols, a class of naturally occurring structural components in plant foods, have been demonstrated to possess cholesterol-lowering and antioxidant effects. Phytosterol esters (PSE) are esters of phytosterol. The aim of this study was to evaluate the neuroprotective effects of PSE on cognitive deficit induced by a cholesterol-enriched diet in aged rats, and to explore their underlying mechanisms for these effects. Based on their Morris water maze performance, the latencies differed by <1.5 standard deviations (SDs) on days 3-5 of testing, 60 rats were chosen from 12-month-old female Sprague Dawley aged rats and were randomized into three groups, which were fed either a control diet, a high cholesterol diet (HCD) or a high-cholesterol diet supplemented with 2% PSE (HCD + PSE) for 6 months. In our study, we found that PSE treatment maintained the body weight balance, reduced the serum lipid levels, and improved the cognitive performance of aged rats in the Morris water maze test, as evaluated by shortened escape latencies. Importantly, histological and immunohistochemical results in the brain showed that PSE supplementation may have a neuroprotective effect that alleviates neuroinflammation in aged rats. This neuroprotective effect significantly inhibited degeneration, resulting in a significant increase in the number of pyramidal cells and an apparent decrease in the number of astrocytes compared to rats that were fed only a HCD. Furthermore, PSE improved cholinergic activities by restoring the acetylcholine (ACh) content and decreasing acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in the cerebral cortex, as well as by elevating choline acetyl transferase (ChAT) activity in the hippocampus and the cerebral cortex. These results suggest that PSE can play a useful role in alleviating cognitive deficit induced by a

  7. Transcriptional alterations in the left ventricle of three hypertensive rat models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerutti, Catherine; Kurdi, Mazen; Bricca, Giampiero; Hodroj, Wassim; Paultre, Christian; Randon, Jacques; Gustin, Marie-Paule

    2006-11-27

    Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is commonly associated with hypertension and represents an independent cardiovascular risk factor. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that the cardiac overload related to hypertension is associated to a specific gene expression pattern independently of genetic background. Gene expression levels were obtained with microarrays for 15,866 transcripts from RNA of left ventricles from 12-wk-old rats of three hypertensive models [spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR), Lyon hypertensive rat (LH), and heterozygous TGR(mRen2)27 rat] and their respective controls. More than 60% of the detected transcripts displayed significant changes between the three groups of normotensive rats, showing large interstrain variability. Expression data were analyzed with respect to hypertension, LVH, and chromosomal distribution. Only four genes had significantly modified expression in the three hypertensive models among which a single gene, coding for sialyltransferase 7A, was consistently overexpressed. Correlation analysis between expression data and left ventricular mass index (LVMI) over all rats identified a larger set of genes whose expression was continuously related with LVMI, including known genes associated with cardiac remodeling. Positioning the detected transcripts along the chromosomes pointed out high-density regions mostly located within blood pressure and cardiac mass quantitative trait loci. Although our study could not detect a unique reprogramming of cardiac cells involving specific genes at early stage of LVH, it allowed the identification of some genes associated with LVH regardless of genetic background. This study thus provides a set of potentially important genes contained within restricted chromosomal regions involved in cardiovascular diseases.

  8. Evidence for diffuse central retinal edema in vivo in diabetic male Sprague Dawley rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce A Berkowitz

    Full Text Available Investigations into the mechanism of diffuse retinal edema in diabetic subjects have been limited by a lack of animal models and techniques that co-localized retinal thickness and hydration in vivo. In this study we test the hypothesis that a previously reported supernormal central retinal thickness on MRI measured in experimental diabetic retinopathy in vivo represents a persistent and diffuse edema.In diabetic and age-matched control rats, and in rats experiencing dilutional hyponatremia (as a positive edema control, whole central retinal thickness, intraretinal water content and apparent diffusion coefficients (ADC, 'water mobility' were measured in vivo using quantitative MRI methods. Glycated hemoglobin and retinal thickness ex vivo (histology were also measured in control and diabetic groups. In the dilutional hyponatremia model, central retinal thickness and water content were supernormal by quantitative MRI, and intraretinal water mobility profiles changed in a manner consistent with intracellular edema. Groups of diabetic (2, 3, 4, 6, and 9 mo of diabetes, and age-matched controls were then investigated with MRI and all diabetic rats showed supernormal whole central retinal thickness. In a separate study in 4 mo diabetic rats (and controls, MRI retinal thickness and water content metrics were significantly greater than normal, and ADC was subnormal in the outer retina; the increase in retinal thickness was not detected histologically on sections of fixed and dehydrated retinas from these rats.Diabetic male Sprague Dawley rats demonstrate a persistent and diffuse retinal edema in vivo, providing, for the first time, an important model for investigating its pathogenesis and treatment. These studies also validate MRI as a powerful approach for investigating mechanisms of diabetic retinal edema in future experimental and clinical investigations.

  9. Influence of superior cervical ganglionectomy on hippocampal neurogenesis and learning and memory in adult rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanping Ding; Baoping Shao; Shiyuan Yu; Shanting Zhao; Jianlin Wang

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Studies have shown that neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus plays an important role in learning and memory. However, studies have not determined whether the superior cervical ganglion or the sympathetic nerve system influences hippocampal neurogenesis or learning and memory in adult rats. OBJECTIVE: To observe differences in dentate gyrus neurogenesis, as well as learning and memory, in adult rats following superior cervical ganglionectomy. DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: A randomized, controlled, animal study was performed at the Immunohistochemistry Laboratory of the School of Life Sciences in Lanzhou University from July 2006 to July 2007.MATERIALS: Doublecortin polyclonal antibody was provided by Santa Cruz Biotechnology, USA;avidin-biotin-peroxidase complex was purchased from Zhongshan Goldenbride Biotechnology, China;Morris water maze was bought from Taimeng Technology, China. METHODS: A total of 20 adult, male, Wistar rats were randomly divided into surgery and control groups, with 10 rats in each group. In the surgery group, the bilateral superior cervical ganglions were transected. In the control group, the superior cervical ganglions were only exposed, but no ganglionectomy was performed. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: To examine distribution, morphology, and number of newborn neurons in the dentate gyrus using doublecortin immunohistochemistry at 36 days following surgical procedures. To examine ability of learning and memory in adult rats using the Morris water maze at 30 days following surgical procedures. RESULTS: Doublecortin immunohistochemical results showed that a reduction in the number of doublecortin-positive neurons in the surgery group compared to the control group (P<0.05), while the distribution of doublecortin-positive neurons was identical in the two groups. The surgery group exhibited significantly worse performance in learning and spatial memory tasks compared to the control group (P<0.05). CONCLUSION: Superior cervical ganglionectomy

  10. The influence of gemfibrozil on malondialdehyde level and paraoxonase 1 activity in wistar and fisher rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macan, Marija; Marija, Macan; Konjevoda, Paško; Paško, Konjevoda; Lovric, Jasna; Jasna, Lovrić; Koprivanac, Marijan; Marijan, Koprivanac; Kelava, Marta; Marta, Kelava; Vrkic, Nada; Nada, Vrkić; Bradamante, Vlasta; Vlasta, Bradamante

    2011-06-01

    There are diverse experimental data about the influence of gemfibrozil (GEM) on the production of hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) and antioxidant enzymes. We investigated the influence of GEM treatment on the production of malondialdehyde (MDA) level in tissues of normolipidaemic Wistar and Fisher rats which is an index of lipid peroxidation. Because serum paraoxonase 1 (PON1) is an important enzyme with specific protective function on metabolism of lipid peroxides, we examined the influence of GEM on PON1 activity in liver and serum. MDA level and enzyme activities were also determined 10 days after withdrawal of GEM treatment. The significantly increased levels of MDA in liver, kidney and heart of both rat strains were obtained after 3 weeks of GEM treatment. We propose two possibilities for the increase of MDA levels caused by GEM, induction of peroxisome proliferation and activities of enzymes that participated in occurrence of H(2)O(2) and possible reduction of enzyme activities including in H(2)O(2) metabolism. Ten days after withdrawal of GEM treatment, MDA levels in all tissue levels of both rat strains were less in comparison with GEM treatment. GEM caused a significant drop of PON1 activity in serum and liver of Fisher rats, and in liver of Wistar rats. We suggest that GEM, through induction of lipid peroxidation, caused the damage of hepatocytes with consequent reduction of PON1 synthesis. The increase in PON1 activity in serum and tissues of both rat strains 10 days after withdrawal of GEM treatment shows the fast recovery of enzyme synthesis. © 2011 The Authors. Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology © 2011 Nordic Pharmacological Society.

  11. Behavioral effects of endogenous or exogenous estradiol and progesterone on cocaine sensitization in female rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, M.F.; Couto-Pereira, N.S.; Freese, L.; Costa, P.A.; Caletti, G.; Bisognin, K.M.; Nin, M.S.; Gomez, R.; Barros, H.M.T.

    2014-01-01

    Cocaine sensitization is a marker for some facets of addiction, is greater in female rats, and may be influenced by their sex hormones. We compared the modulatory effects of endogenous or exogenous estradiol and progesterone on cocaine-induced behavioral sensitization in 106 female rats. Ovariectomized female rats received progesterone (0.5 mg/mL), estradiol (0.05 mg/mL), progesterone plus estradiol, or the oil vehicle. Sham-operated control females received oil. Control and acute subgroups received injections of saline, while the repeated group received cocaine (15 mg/kg, ip) for 8 days. After 10 days, the acute and repeated groups received a challenge dose of cocaine, after which locomotion and stereotypy were monitored. The estrous cycle phase was evaluated and blood was collected to verify hormone levels. Repeated cocaine treatment induced overall behavioral sensitization in female rats, with increased locomotion and stereotypies. In detailed analysis, ovariectomized rats showed no locomotor sensitization; however, the sensitization of stereotypies was maintained. Only females with endogenous estradiol and progesterone demonstrated increased locomotor activity after cocaine challenge. Estradiol replacement enhanced stereotyped behaviors after repeated cocaine administration. Cocaine sensitization of stereotyped behaviors in female rats was reduced after progesterone replacement, either alone or concomitant with estradiol. The behavioral responses (locomotion and stereotypy) to cocaine were affected differently, depending on whether the female hormones were of an endogenous or exogenous origin. Therefore, hormonal cycling appears to be an important factor in the sensitization of females. Although estradiol increases the risk of cocaine sensitization, progesterone warrants further study as a pharmacological treatment in the prevention of psychostimulant abuse

  12. Behavioral effects of endogenous or exogenous estradiol and progesterone on cocaine sensitization in female rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.F. Souza

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Cocaine sensitization is a marker for some facets of addiction, is greater in female rats, and may be influenced by their sex hormones. We compared the modulatory effects of endogenous or exogenous estradiol and progesterone on cocaine-induced behavioral sensitization in 106 female rats. Ovariectomized female rats received progesterone (0.5 mg/mL, estradiol (0.05 mg/mL, progesterone plus estradiol, or the oil vehicle. Sham-operated control females received oil. Control and acute subgroups received injections of saline, while the repeated group received cocaine (15 mg/kg, ip for 8 days. After 10 days, the acute and repeated groups received a challenge dose of cocaine, after which locomotion and stereotypy were monitored. The estrous cycle phase was evaluated and blood was collected to verify hormone levels. Repeated cocaine treatment induced overall behavioral sensitization in female rats, with increased locomotion and stereotypies. In detailed analysis, ovariectomized rats showed no locomotor sensitization; however, the sensitization of stereotypies was maintained. Only females with endogenous estradiol and progesterone demonstrated increased locomotor activity after cocaine challenge. Estradiol replacement enhanced stereotyped behaviors after repeated cocaine administration. Cocaine sensitization of stereotyped behaviors in female rats was reduced after progesterone replacement, either alone or concomitant with estradiol. The behavioral responses (locomotion and stereotypy to cocaine were affected differently, depending on whether the female hormones were of an endogenous or exogenous origin. Therefore, hormonal cycling appears to be an important factor in the sensitization of females. Although estradiol increases the risk of cocaine sensitization, progesterone warrants further study as a pharmacological treatment in the prevention of psychostimulant abuse.

  13. Identifikasi Leptin pada Kesembuhan Luka Tikus yang Diberi Pakan Lemak Tinggi dan Aplikasi Zinc Topikal (LEPTIN IDENTIFICATION ON WOUND HEALING OF RAT GIVEN HIGH FAT DIET AND TOPICAL ZINC APPLICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devita Anggraeni

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Leptin is a hormone produced by adipocytes and play an important role in wound healing. The objectiveof this research was to study the role of leptin in wound healing in mice experimentally given high fat dietsand its correlation to zinc. Thirty two male Sprague Dawley rats at three months of age were used in thisstudy. Rats were randomly allotted into four groups (A,B,C and D of 8. Rats in group A and B were fednormal diet, while rats in group C and D were fed high fat diet. After two months of treatment, skin incisionsurgery was performed at the back side of the rat. Incision wound was closed with single interruptedsuture. The wound of rats in group A and C were treated with vaseline, while in the group B and D weretreated with zinc 10%. One day after surgery, blood sample were collected frpm four rats from each groupand analysed for leptin (Rat leptin ELISA Int, Genway Biotech Inc. Wounded skin from all animals werealso taken for histopathological examination (Haematoxylin and Eosin. Three days after the surgery, thesame analysis were done for the remaining rats. Leptin level was analyzed statistically using ANOVA forfactorial experiment, while histopathologic analysis was done descriptively. The results showed that theleptin level was significantly affected by time (P<0.05, as leptin level in blood at three days after surgerywas significantly lower than the level at one day after surgery. Meanwhile, histopathological examinationshowed that the percentage of epidermal closure in animals in group A,B,C,and D were 75%, 100%, 25%and 75%, respectivelly. Therefore, it was concluded that topical application of zinc might have significanteffect on the wound healing of the rats fed normal diets as well as these that given a high fat diet.

  14. Most important human aluminoses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avtsyn, A P

    1986-01-01

    Aluminoses are widespread forms of trace element deficiency of various severity. The organism is protected against a possible pathogenic influence of aluminum by a number of physiological mechanisms the most important among which is a regular urine excretion. A complex of pathological symptoms develops if serious homeostasis disturbances take place e. g. when renal deficiency or direct penetration of the trace element occur. The following forms of aluminosis should be distinguished: 1) simple accumulation in central nervous system which occurs in persons over 65 years; 2) aluminum accumulation in Alzheimer disease, in severe form of presenile and senile dementia; 3) dialysis aluminum encephalopathy; 4) non-dialysis infantile encephalopathy; 5) aluminum encephalopathy in total parenteral nutrition; 6) iatrogenic dialysis aluminum osteodystrophy; 7) jatrogenic peritoneal aluminosis; 8) aluminum pneumoconiosis of an occupational origin; 9) bronchospastic syndrome in aluminum smelter workers.

  15. Immunology taught by rats

    OpenAIRE

    Klenerman, P; Barnes, EJ

    2017-01-01

    Immunology may be best taught by viruses, and possibly by humans, but the rats of New York City surprisingly also have plenty to offer. A survey published in 2014 of the pathogens carried by rats trapped in houses and parks in Manhattan identified a huge burden of infectious agents in these animals, including several novel viruses. Among these are Norway rat hepaciviruses (NrHVs), which belong to the same family as hepatitis C virus (HCV). NrHVs were found in rat livers, raising the possibili...

  16. Mexico: Imports or exports?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estrada, J.

    2002-01-01

    This presentation provides an overview of Mexico's energy sector. Proven oil reserves place Mexico in ninth position in the world and fourth largest in natural gas reserves. Energy is one of the most important economic activities of the country, representing 3 per cent of Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Oil exports represent 8.4 per cent of total exports. Approximately 40 per cent of total public investment is earmarked for energy projects. The author discusses energy resources and energy sector limitations. The energy sector plan for the period 2001-2006 is discussed. Its goals are to ensure energy supply, to develop the energy sector, to stimulate participation of Mexican enterprises, to promote renewable energy sources, and to strengthen international energy cooperation. The regulatory framework is being adapted to increase private investment. Some graphs are presented, displaying the primary energy production and primary energy consumption. Energy sector reforms are reviewed, as are electricity and natural gas reforms. The energy sector demand for 2000-2010 and investment requirements are reviewed, as well as fuel consumption for power generation. The author discusses the National Pipeline System (SNG) and the bottlenecks caused by pressure efficiency in the northeast, flow restriction on several pipeline segments, variability of the Petroleos Mexicanos (PEMEX) own use, and pressure drop on central regions. The entire prospect for natural gas in the country is reviewed, along with the Strategic Gas Program (PEG) consisting of 20 projects, including 4 non-associated natural gas, 9 exploration and 7 optimization. A section dealing with multiple service contracts is included in the presentation. The authors conclude by stating that the priority is a national energy policy to address Mexico's energy security requirements, to increase natural gas production while promoting the diversification of imports, and a regulatory framework to be updated in light of current

  17. The influence of sexual hormones on lipogenesis and lipolysis in rat fat cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Finn Mølgård; Fahmy, N; Nielsen, Jens Høiriis

    1980-01-01

    and prooestrus than in dioestrus. Oestradiol treatment of both female and male rats and testosterone treatment of male rats for three days lowered the fatty acid synthesis and increased the lipolysis. The metabolic oscillation disappeared in ovariectomized rats, and the fat cells from these animals showed...

  18. Daily Rhythms of Feeding in the Genetically Obese and Lean Zucker Rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alingh Prins, Ab; Jong-Nagelsmit, Annemarie de; Keijser, Jan; Strubbe, Jan H.

    1986-01-01

    Feeding patterns were examined in obese (fa/fa) and lean (Fa/-) adult Zucker rats over the light-dark cycle during 14 days. Obese rats eat more than lean rats especially during the dark phase. Light and dark feeding expressed as percentage of 24 hr intake showed no significant differences between

  19. Frequency of polyploid cells in the bone marrow of rats fed irradiated wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, K.P.; Chaubey, R.C.; Sundaram, K.; Gopal-Ayengar, A.R.

    1976-01-01

    Diets containing different proportions of non-irradiated or irradiated wheat were fed to Wistar rats for 1 or 6 wk. Cytological analysis of the bone marrow showed no significant difference in the frequency of polyploid cells in the rats fed non-irradiated or irradiated wheat diets, even when the treated wheat was fed to the rats within 24 hr of irradiation. (author)

  20. Differential effects of hypercaloric choice diets on insulin sensitivity in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diepenbroek, Charlene; Eggels, Leslie; Ackermans, Mariëtte T.; Fliers, Eric; Kalsbeek, Andries; Serlie, Mireille J.; la Fleur, Susanne E.

    2017-01-01

    We showed previously that rats on a free-choice high-fat, high-sugar (fcHFHS) diet become rapidly obese and develop glucose intolerance within a week. Interestingly, neither rats on a free-choice high-fat diet (fcHF), although equally obese and hyperphagic, nor rats on a free-choice high-sugar

  1. Perinatal nicotine treatment induces transient increases in NACHO protein levels in the rat frontal cortex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wichern, Franziska; Jensen, Majbrit M; Christensen, Ditte Z

    2017-01-01

    The nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) regulator chaperone (NACHO) was recently identified as an important regulator of nAChR maturation and surface expression. Here we show that NACHO levels decrease during early postnatal development in rats. This decrease occurs earlier and to a greater...... degree in the frontal cortex (FC) compared with the hippocampus (HIP). We further show that rats exposed to nicotine during pre- and postnatal development exhibit significantly higher NACHO levels in the FC at postnatal day (PND) 21, but not at PND60. Repeated exposure to nicotine selectively during...... a single exposure to a combination of nicotine and the type II α7 nAChR positive allosteric modulator (PAM) PNU-120596, but not the type I PAM AVL-3288. These findings suggest that exposure to nAChR agonism affects NACHO protein levels, and that this effect is more pronounced during pre- or early postnatal...

  2. Prenatal Protein Malnutrition Decreases KCNJ3 and 2DG Activity in Rat Prefrontal Cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, A.C.; Jakovcevski, M.; McGaughy, J.A.; Calderwood, S.K.; Mokler, D.J.; Rushmore, R.J.; Galler, J.R.; Akbarian, S.A.; Rosene, D.L.

    2014-01-01

    Prenatal protein malnutrition (PPM) in rats causes enduring changes in brain and behavior including increased cognitive rigidity and decreased inhibitory control. A preliminary gene microarray screen of PPM rat prefrontal cortex (PFC) identified alterations in KCNJ3 (GIRK1/Kir3.1), a gene important for regulating neuronal excitability. Follow-up with polymerase chain reaction and Western blot showed decreased KCNJ3 expression in PFC, but not hippocampus or brainstem. To verify localization of the effect to the PFC, baseline regional brain activity was assessed with 14C-2-deoxyglucose. Results showed decreased activation in PFC but not hippocampus. Together these findings point to the unique vulnerability of the PFC to the nutritional insult during early brain development, with enduring effects in adulthood on KCNJ3 expression and baseline metabolic activity. PMID:25446346

  3. In vivo imaging of brain androgen receptors in rats: a [18F]FDHT PET study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khayum, M.A.; Doorduin, J.; Antunes, I.F.; Kwizera, C.; Zijlma, R.; Boer, J.A. den; Dierckx, R.A.J.O.; Vries, E.F.J. de

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Steroid hormones like androgens play an important role in the development and maintenance of several brain functions. Androgens can act through androgen receptors (AR) in the brain. This study aims to demonstrate the feasibility of positron emission tomography (PET) with 16β-[ 18 F]fluoro-5α-dihydrotestosterone ([ 18 F]FDHT) to image AR expression in the brain. Methods: Male Wistar rats were either orchiectomized to inhibit endogenous androgen production or underwent sham-surgery. Fifteen days after surgery, rats were subjected to a 90-min dynamic [ 18 F]FDHT PET scan with arterial blood sampling. In a subset of orchiectomized rats, 1 mg/kg dihydrotestosterone was co-injected with the tracer in order to saturate the AR. Plasma samples were analyzed for the presence of radioactive metabolites by radio-TLC. Pharmacokinetic modeling was performed to quantify brain kinetics of the tracer. After the PET scan, the animals were terminated for ex-vivo biodistribution. Results: PET imaging and ex vivo biodistribution studies showed low [ 18 F]FDHT uptake in all brain regions, except pituitary. [ 18 F]FDHT uptake in the surrounding cranial bones was high and increased over time. [ 18 F]FDHT was rapidly metabolized in rats. Metabolism was significantly faster in orchiectomized rats than in sham-orchiectomized rats. Quantitative analysis of PET data indicated substantial spill-over of activity from cranial bones into peripheral brain regions, which prevented further analysis of peripheral brain regions. Logan graphical analysis and kinetic modeling using 1- and 2-tissue compartment models showed reversible and homogenously distributed tracer uptake in central brain regions. [ 18 F]FDHT uptake in the brain could not be blocked by endogenous androgens or administration of dihydrotestosterone. Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that imaging of AR availability in rat brain with [ 18 F]FDHT PET is not feasible. The low AR expression in the brain, the

  4. Biochemical and pathological studies in rats following dietary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biochemical and pathological studies in rats following dietary supplementation with high levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids and vitamin E. ... Furthermore, high dietary supplementation of vitamin E showed no deleterious effects on rats and no pathological changes in the liver, kidney and heart tissues were observed in the ...

  5. The local effect of octreotide on mechanical pain sensitivity is more sensitive in DA rats than DA.1U rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Fan-Rong; Wang, Hui-Sheng; Guo, Yuan; Zhao, Yan

    2016-02-01

    A recent study by the authors indicated that major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes are associated with the differences in basal pain sensitivity and in formalin model between Dark-Agouti (DA) and novel congenic DA.1U rats, which have the same genetic background as DA rats except for the u alleles of MHC. The objective of the present study is to investigate whether there is a difference in the pristane-induced arthritis (PIA) model and local analgesic effect of octreotide (OCT) between DA and DA.1U rats. The hindpaw mechanical withdrawal threshold (MWT) and heat withdrawal latency (HWL) were observed. The C unit firings of the tibial nerve evoked by non-noxious and noxious toe movements were recorded by electrophysiological methods in normal and PIA models in DA and DA.1U rats before and after local OCT administration. The expression of somatostatin receptor 2A (SSTR2A) was observed by immunohistochemistry. The results demonstrate that DA rats have a higher mechanical sensitivity than DA.1U rats after PIA. Local OCT administration significantly elevated MWT in DA rats under normal and PIA sate, but not in DA.1U rats. The electrophysiological experiments showed OCT significantly attenuated the firings of C units evoked by non-noxious and noxious stimulation in DA rats more than those in DA.1U rats both in normal and PIA states. In addition, the expression of SSTR2A in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord was significantly higher in DA than in DA.1U rats. All of the findings suggest a higher local analgesic effect of OCT in DA rats than DA.1U rats, which might be associated with the MHC genes. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  6. Monosodium glutamate induced testicular lesions in rats (histological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aisha D. Alalwani

    2014-12-01

    Conclusions: MSG may have some deleterious effects on the testes of Wistar rats and by extension may contribute to the causes of male infertility. Thus, it is important to reconsider the usage of MSG as a flavor enhancer.

  7. Isolation of rat adrenocortical mitochondria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solinas, Paola [Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States); Department of Medicine, Center for Mitochondrial Disease, School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States); Fujioka, Hisashi [Electron Microscopy Facility, Department of Pharmacology, Center for Mitochondrial Disease, School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States); Tandler, Bernard [Department of Biological Sciences, School of Dental Medicine, Center for Mitochondrial Disease, School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States); Hoppel, Charles L., E-mail: charles.hoppel@case.edu [Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States); Department of Medicine, Center for Mitochondrial Disease, School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States)

    2012-10-12

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A method for isolation of adrenocortical mitochondria from the adrenal gland of rats is described. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The purified isolated mitochondria show excellent morphological integrity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The properties of oxidative phosphorylation are excellent. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The method increases the opportunity of direct analysis of adrenal mitochondria from small animals. -- Abstract: This report describes a relatively simple and reliable method for isolating adrenocortical mitochondria from rats in good, reasonably pure yield. These organelles, which heretofore have been unobtainable in isolated form from small laboratory animals, are now readily accessible. A high degree of mitochondrial purity is shown by the electron micrographs, as well as the structural integrity of each mitochondrion. That these organelles have retained their functional integrity is shown by their high respiratory control ratios. In general, the biochemical performance of these adrenal cortical mitochondria closely mirrors that of typical hepatic or cardiac mitochondria.

  8. Radiation nephropathy in young and adult rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jongejan, H.T.; van der Kogel, A.J.; Provoost, A.P.; Molenaar, J.C.

    1987-01-01

    The effects of bilateral kidney irradiation were compared in young and adult rats. During a 1 year period after a single dose of 0, 7.5, 10, 12.5, or 15 Gy on both kidneys, renal function (glomerular filtration rate and effective renal plasma flow), urine composition, and systolic blood pressure were measured periodically. The first changes after irradiation were observed in the glomerular filtration rate and urine osmolality. One month after 10, 12.5, and 15 Gy, glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and urine osmolality had declined below control values in the young rats. After this initial decline, renal function increased at control rate or even more during the third and fourth month after irradiation but decreased progressively thereafter. In the adult rats, GFR and urine osmolality started to decrease 3 months after 10, 12.5, and 15 Gy. A rise in systolic blood pressure and proteinuria started 2-3 months after 12.5 and 15 Gy in both age groups. Early changes in the glomerular filtration rate with a drop in urine osmolality in young rats, occurring during a period of rapid renal development indicated an irradiation-induced inhibition of glomerular and tubular development. Although renal function deteriorated at a later time in adult rats, dose-response relationships obtained in young and adult rats did not show significant differences

  9. Radio protective effects of selenium on rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakir, A.; Alya, G

    2005-11-01

    Potential radio-protective effects of different selenium supplement concentrations of 4, 8, 15 and 30 ppm were evaluated in rats. Four groups of rats were administered different concentrations of selenium in drinking water for 30 days before irradiation starting from the ablactation which considered as day 0. The results showed that the sodium selenite of 4 ppm and 8 ppm enhance the 30-day survival of irradiated rats at 7 Gy ( sup 6 sup 0 Co source, whole body irradiation dose rate of 1 Gy x min sup - sup 1) compared to the control group. The mean cumulated probability of survival of rats was 69%+-6 (mean+-S.E.) and 77%+-6 in 4 and 8 ppm groups, respectively, versus 42%+-9 for control group (P<0.001). It was also indicated that sodium selenite with concentrations of 15 and 30 ppm had no significant reduction in mortality. The mean cumulated probability of survival of rats was 50%+-12 (P=0.39) and 49%+-14 (P=0.04), respectively. The toxic effects of selenium were observed at 15 ppm and 30 ppm, survivals after 30 days of selenium intake were 76% and 46%, respectively. It was concluded that 4 and 8 ppm sodium selenite have a radio-protective effect. 15 and 30 ppm sodium selenite had no radio-protective effects in rats, this may be due to a synergism of toxicity and radiation effects. (author)

  10. Imported coenurosis in sheep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schweizer, G.; Grünenfelder, F.; Sydler, T.; Rademacher, N.; Braun, U.; Deplazes, P.

    2006-01-01

    Thirteen sheep from a milk producing farm in the Canton of Grisons that presented chronic coenurosis were examined and subjected to treatment trials at the veterinary hospital in Zurich. Symptoms were first observed around two months after the import of two dogs from Italy (Abruzza) of which one was infected with Taenia multiceps and Echinococcus granulosus. The most frequently observed clinical symptoms of the sheep were reduced general condition, circling, reduced menace reflex, apathy, unsteady gait and head tilt. Analyses of cerebrospinal fluid revealed an increased leucocyte count in 3 sheep and eosinophilia in 4 sheep. In 4 animals that underwent computertomography, one or more hypodense, definable lesions were found in the brain. In 2 sheep surgical treatment and in 10 animals medical treatment with either Praziquantel (n=8) or Oxfendazol (n=2) was attempted. Only one animal treated with Praziquantel needed not to be euthanized. At necropsy, one or two coenurus cysts could be found either in a side ventricle (n=2), in the cerebellum (n=3) or in the cerebrum (n=7). The locations corresponded with the clinical findings. Despite Praziquantel or Oxfendazol treatment, living protoscoleces could be found in the parasite cysts [de

  11. Ethanol extracts from Portulaca oleracea L. attenuated ischemia/reperfusion induced rat neural injury through inhibition of HMGB1 induced inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Chenggang; Liu, Chen; Wang, Wanyin; Tang, Gusheng; Dong, Liwei; Zhou, Juan; Zhong, Zhengrong

    2016-01-01

    It is well demonstrated that the high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) mediated inflammation has been implicated as one of the important causes for brain damage induced by cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R). In the present study, we assessed the neuro-protective and anti-inflammation effects of the ethanol extracts from Portulaca oleracea L. (EEPO) against cerebral I/R injury in the rat transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) model. Rats were administrated with their respective treatment for 7 days before the MCA occlusion. After that, rats were intraperitoneal injection with chloral hydrate and sacrificed by decapitation, then the serum and brain tissue were collected. The neurological deficit score, infarct size and brain edema were tested. The levels of serum cytokine as TNF-α, IL-1β, INF-γ, IL-6, and HMGB1 and LDH were detected. The protein level of tissue or nucleus HMGB1, IκB and p-p65 were tested, too. The results showed that pretreatment with EEPO significantly decreased the neurological deficit score, infarct size and brain edema. Moreover, EEPO decreased rat serum cytokine level and rat right cortices p-p65 and IκB protein level. In conclusion all these results suggested that pretreatment with EEFPO provided significant protection against cerebral I/R injury in rats might by virtue of its anti-inflammation property through inhibition of increase of neuleus HMGB1. PMID:27904702

  12. Energy intake of rats fed a cafeteria diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prats, E; Monfar, M; Castellà, J; Iglesias, R; Alemany, M

    1989-02-01

    The proportion of lipid, carbohydrate and protein energy self-selected by male and female rats from a cafeteria diet has been studied for a 48-day period (36-day in female rats). The diet consisted in 12 different items and was offered daily, in excess and under otherwise standard conditions, to rats--caged in groups of three--from weaning to adulthood. Groups of control animals were studied in parallel and compared with the cafeteria groups. Cafeteria diet fed groups of rats ingested more energy and lowered their metabolic efficiency with age. Male rats ate more than females and increased their body weight even after female practically stopped growing. There was a wide variation in the aliments consumed each day by the cafeteria-fed rats. However, the proportion of lipid, protein and carbohydrate the rats ate remained constant. Male rats ingested more lipid than females. Carbohydrate consumption was constant in control and cafeteria fed groups of rats independently of sex. Protein consumption was higher in cafeteria rats than in controls, but the differences were not so important as with liquid. Fiber content of the cafeteria diet was lower than that of the control diet. The cafeteria diet selected by the rats was, thus, hypercaloric and hyperlipidic, with practically the same amount of carbohydrate than the control diet, slightly hyperproteic and, nevertheless, remarkably constant in its composition with respect to time. Cafeteria rats had a higher water intake than controls. All these trends were maintained despite the observed changes in the animals' tastes and their differential consumption of the ailments of the diet.

  13. Protein phosphatase 2A regulates central sensitization in the spinal cord of rats following intradermal injection of capsaicin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Li

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intradermal injection of capsaicin into the hind paw of rats induces spinal cord central sensititzation, a process in which the responsiveness of central nociceptive neurons is amplified. In central sensitization, many signal transduction pathways composed of several cascades of intracellular enzymes are involved. As the phosphorylation state of neuronal proteins is strictly controlled and balanced by the opposing activities of protein kinases and phosphatases, the involvement of phosphatases in these events needs to be investigated. This study is designed to determine the influence of serine/threonine protein phosphatase type 2A (PP2A on the central nociceptive amplification process, which is induced by intradermal injection of capsaicin in rats. Results In experiment 1, the expression of PP2A protein in rat spinal cord at different time points following capsaicin or vehicle injection was examined using the Western blot method. In experiment 2, an inhibitor of PP2A (okadaic acid, 20 nM or fostriecin, 30 nM was injected into the subarachnoid space of the spinal cord, and the spontaneous exploratory activity of the rats before and after capsaicin injection was recorded with an automated photobeam activity system. The results showed that PP2A protein expression in the spinal cord was significantly upregulated following intradermal injection of capsaicin in rats. Capsaicin injection caused a significant decrease in exploratory activity of the rats. Thirty minutes after the injection, this decrease in activity had partly recovered. Infusion of a phosphatase inhibitor into the spinal cord intrathecal space enhanced the central sensitization induced by capsaicin by making the decrease in movement last longer. Conclusion These findings indicate that PP2A plays an important role in the cellular mechanisms of spinal cord central sensitization induced by intradermal injection of capsaicin in rats, which may have implications in

  14. Remote ischemic preconditioning differentially attenuates post-ischemic cardiac arrhythmia in streptozotocin-induced diabetic versus nondiabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhaoyang; Chen, Mou; Zhang, Ping; Liu, Jin; Abbott, Geoffrey W

    2017-04-26

    Sudden cardiac death (SCD), a leading cause of global mortality, most commonly arises from a substrate of cardiac ischemia, but requires an additional trigger. Diabetes mellitus (DM) predisposes to SCD even after adjusting for other DM-linked cardiovascular pathology such as coronary artery disease. We previously showed that remote liver ischemia preconditioning (RLIPC) is highly protective against cardiac ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI) linked ventricular arrhythmias and myocardial infarction, via induction of the cardioprotective RISK pathway, and specifically, inhibitory phosphorylation of GSK-3β (Ser 9). We evaluated the impact of acute streptozotocin-induced DM on coronary artery ligation IRI-linked ventricular arrhythmogenesis and RLIPC therapy in rats. Post-IRI arrhythmia induction was similar in nondiabetic and DM rats, but, unexpectedly, DM rats exhibited lower incidence of SCD during reperfusion (41 vs. 100%), suggesting uncontrolled hyperglycemia does not acutely predispose to SCD. RLIPC was highly effective in both nondiabetic and DM rats at reducing incidence and duration of, and increasing latency to, all classes of ventricular tachyarrhythmias. In contrast, atrioventricular block (AVB) was highly responsive to RLIPC in nondiabetic rats (incidence reduced from 72 to 18%) but unresponsive in DM rats. RISK pathway induction was similar in nondiabetic and DM rats, thus not explaining the DM-specific resistance of AVB to therapy. Our findings uncover important acute DM-specific differences in responsiveness to remote preconditioning for ventricular tachyarrhythmias versus AVB, which may have clinical significance given that AVB is a malignant arrhythmia twofold more common in human diabetics than nondiabetics, and correlated to plasma glucose levels >10 mmol/L.

  15. Predictors of ethanol consumption in adult Sprague-Dawley rats: relation to hypothalamic peptides that stimulate ethanol intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karatayev, Olga; Barson, Jessica R; Carr, Ambrose J; Baylan, Jessica; Chen, Yu-Wei; Leibowitz, Sarah F

    2010-06-01

    To investigate mechanisms in outbred animals that increase the propensity to consume ethanol, it is important to identify and characterize these animals before or at early stages in their exposure to ethanol. In the present study, different measures were examined in adult Sprague-Dawley rats to determine whether they can predict long-term propensity to overconsume ethanol. Before consuming 9% ethanol with a two-bottle choice paradigm, rats were examined with the commonly used behavioral measures of novelty-induced locomotor activity and anxiety, as assessed during 15 min in an open-field activity chamber. Two additional measures, intake of a low 2% ethanol concentration or circulating triglyceride (TG) levels after a meal, were also examined with respect to their ability to predict chronic 9% ethanol consumption. The results revealed significant positive correlations across individual rats between the amount of 9% ethanol ultimately consumed and three of these different measures, with high scores for activity, 2% ethanol intake, and TGs identifying rats that consume 150% more ethanol than rats with low scores. Measurements of hypothalamic peptides that stimulate ethanol intake suggest that they contribute early to the greater ethanol consumption predicted by these high scores. Rats with high 2% ethanol intake or high TGs, two measures found to be closely related, had significantly elevated expression of enkephalin (ENK) and galanin (GAL) in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) but no change in neuropeptide Y (NPY) in the arcuate nucleus (ARC). This is in contrast to rats with high activity scores, which in addition to elevated PVN ENK expression showed enhanced NPY in the ARC but no change in GAL. Elevated ENK is a common characteristic related to all three predictors of chronic ethanol intake, whereas the other peptides differentiate these predictors, with GAL enhanced with high 2% ethanol intake and TG measures but NPY related to activity. 2010 Elsevier

  16. Tomato Fruits Show Wide Phenomic Diversity but Fruit Developmental Genes Show Low Genomic Diversity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijee Mohan

    Full Text Available Domestication of tomato has resulted in large diversity in fruit phenotypes. An intensive phenotyping of 127 tomato accessions from 20 countries revealed extensive morphological diversity in fruit traits. The diversity in fruit traits clustered the accessions into nine classes and identified certain promising lines having desirable traits pertaining to total soluble salts (TSS, carotenoids, ripening index, weight and shape. Factor analysis of the morphometric data from Tomato Analyzer showed that the fruit shape is a complex trait shared by several factors. The 100% variance between round and flat fruit shapes was explained by one discriminant function having a canonical correlation of 0.874 by stepwise discriminant analysis. A set of 10 genes (ACS2, COP1, CYC-B, RIN, MSH2, NAC-NOR, PHOT1, PHYA, PHYB and PSY1 involved in various plant developmental processes were screened for SNP polymorphism by EcoTILLING. The genetic diversity in these genes revealed a total of 36 non-synonymous and 18 synonymous changes leading to the identification of 28 haplotypes. The average frequency of polymorphism across the genes was 0.038/Kb. Significant negative Tajima'D statistic in two of the genes, ACS2 and PHOT1 indicated the presence of rare alleles in low frequency. Our study indicates that while there is low polymorphic diversity in the genes regulating plant development, the population shows wider phenotype diversity. Nonetheless, morphological and genetic diversity of the present collection can be further exploited as potential resources in future.

  17. Glucose and Lipid Lowering Potentials of Heliotropium indicum L. Leaves in Alloxan-Induced Hyperglycaemic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasheed Bolaji IBRAHIM

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The antidiabetic potentials of Heliotropium indicum L. leaf aqueous (HILA extract used for the management of diabetes by Traditional Medicinal Practitioners (TMPs in Nigeria was assessed. Alloxan (ALX-induced hyperglycaemic rats were orally administered with known folkloric dosage of 30 and 75 mg/kg b. wt. of HILA extract, once a day, for 14 days. Fasting blood glucose (FBG levels were monitored and pancreatic histology was examined. Net hepatic glycogen (GLY concentration and lipid profiles were also determined. Prior to treatment, ALX-induced hyperglycaemia (>250 mg/dL was established in rats. Oral administration of 30 and 75 mg/kg b. wt. HILA extract to diabetic rats for 14 days caused significant reduction in FBG to baseline values observed in non-diabetic conditions. Treatment with HILA extract also showed improvement in lipid abnormalities observed in hyperglycaemic condition, levels of triglyceride, total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol were significantly reduced and HDL-cholesterol increased resulting in improved artherogenic index. Hepatic GLY concentration was significantly increased in diabetic rat treated with the extract. Histological examinations showed degenerated and sparse pancreatic islets β-cells in non-treated diabetic rat, whereas microscopy of treated rats showed mild to normal architecture with enriched β-cells. Preliminary phytochemical profiling of the extract revealed the presence of alkaloids (2.54 mg/g, saponins (0.28 mg/g, phenols (0.04 mg/g and anthraquinones (0.01 mg/g. Results from this study revealed that the aqueous leaf extract of H. indicum possesses not only antihyperglycaemic, but also antidyslipidemic activities, that may prove to be of clinical importance in the management of diabetes and associated secondary complications.

  18. The effects of abnormalities of glucose homeostasis on the expression and binding of muscarinic receptors in cerebral cortex of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherin, Antony; Peeyush, Kumar T; Naijil, George; Nandhu, Mohan Sobhana; Jayanarayanan, Sadanandan; Jes, Paul; Paulose, Cheramadathikudiyil Skaria

    2011-01-25

    Glucose homeostasis in humans is an important factor for the functioning of nervous system. Both hypo and hyperglycemia contributes to neuronal functional deficit. In the present study, effect of insulin induced hypoglycemia and streptozotocin induced diabetes on muscarinic receptor binding, cholinergic enzymes; AChE, ChAT expression and GLUT3 in the cerebral cortex of experimental rats were analysed. Total muscarinic, muscarinic M(1) receptor showed a significant decrease and muscarinic M(3) receptor subtype showed a significant increased binding in the cerebral cortex of hypoglycemic rats compared to diabetic and control. Real-Time PCR analysis of muscarinic M(1), M(3) receptor subtypes confirmed the receptor binding studies. Immunohistochemistry of muscarinic M(1), M(3) receptors using specific antibodies were also carried out. AChE and GLUT3 expression up regulated and ChAT expression down regulated in hypoglycemic rats compared to diabetic and control rats. Our results showed that hypo/hyperglycemia caused impaired glucose transport in neuronal cells as shown by altered expression of GLUT3. Increased AChE and decreased ChAT expression is suggested to alter cortical acetylcholine metabolism in experimental rats along with altered muscarinic receptor binding in hypo/hyperglycemic rats, impair cholinergic transmission, which subsequently lead to cholinergic dysfunction thereby causing learning and memory deficits. We observed a prominent cholinergic functional disturbance in hypoglycemic condition than in hyperglycemia. Hypoglycemia exacerbated the neurochemical changes in cerebral cortex induced by hyperglycemia. These findings have implications for both therapy and identification of causes contributing to neuronal dysfunction in diabetes. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Regional gene expression of LOX-1, VCAM-1, and ICAM-1 in aorta of HIV-1 transgenic rats.

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    Anne Mette Fisker Hag

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Increased prevalence of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease in HIV-infected patients has been observed. The cause of this accelerated atherosclerosis is a matter of controversy. As clinical studies are complicated by a multiplicity of risk-factors and a low incidence of hard endpoints, studies in animal models could be attractive alternatives. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We evaluated gene expression of lectin-like oxidized-low-density-lipoprotein receptor-1 (LOX-1, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1, and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1 in HIV-1 transgenic (HIV-1Tg rats; these genes are all thought to play important roles in early atherogenesis. Furthermore, the plasma level of sICAM-1 was measured. We found that gene expressions of LOX-1 and VCAM-1 were higher in the aortic arch of HIV-1Tg rats compared to controls. Also, the level of sICAM-1 was elevated in the HIV-1Tg rats compared to controls, but the ICAM-1 gene expression profile did not show any differences between the groups. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: HIV-1Tg rats have gene expression patterns indicating endothelial dysfunction and accelerated atherosclerosis in aorta, suggesting that HIV-infection per se may cause atherosclerosis. This transgenic rat model may be a very promising model for further studies of the pathophysiology behind HIV-associated cardiovascular disease.

  20. Long-term effect of medium-chain triglyceride on hepatic enzymes catalyzing lipogenesis and cholesterogenesis in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takase, Sachiko; Morimoto, Ayami; Nakanishi, Mayumi; Muto, Yasutoshi.

    1977-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the long-term effect of dietary medium-chain triglyceride (MCT) as compared with that of corn oil feeding on lipid metabolism in rats. Both serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels in MCT-fed rats showed significant decrease during the experimental period of eight weeks, although liver cholesterol and triglyceride contents were not distinguishable between the two groups. Significant elevation of the activity of lipogenic enzymes, such as fatty acid synthetase (FAS) and malic enzyme (ME) of the liver, was observed in MCT-fed rats without any fat accumulation of the liver (fatty liver). The increase of lipogenic enzyme activity was accompanied by a significant reduction of essential fatty acids (EFA) such as 18:2 (ωsigma) and 20:4 (ωsigma) in total liver lipid. In contrast, hepatic β-hydroxy-β-methylglutaryl CoA(HMG-CoA) reductase activity was significantly decreased in MCT-fed rats, that would play an important role in achieving hypocholesterolemia. From these results obtained in a long-term experiment, it is concluded that exogenous MCT depresses the key enzyme catalyzing cholesterol synthesis with a concomitant elevation of lipogenic enzyme activity in the rat liver. (auth.)

  1. Protective effect of Psidium guajava leaf extract on altered carbohydrate metabolism in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Haseena Banu Hedayathullah; Shanmugavalli, R; Rajendran, Deepa; Bai, Mookambikai Ramya; Sorimuthu, Subramanian

    2013-12-01

    Psidium guajava is an important plant of high medicinal value and has been used in traditional systems of medicine against various ailments. The antidiabetic effect of the ethanolic extract of Psidium guajava leaves and also its protective effect on altered glucose metabolism was evaluated in streptozotocin (stz)-induced diabetic rat model. Diabetes was induced in rats by means of intraperitoneal injection of 50-mg/kg body weight (b.wt.) of stz. Diabetes-induced rats were randomly divided into two groups. One group of rats was treated with Psidium guajava leaf extract at a dosage of 300-mg/kg b.wt. and the other group of rats was treated with the standard drug glyclazide at a dosage of 5-mg/kg b.wt. for 30 days. The blood glucose levels, plasma insulin, Hb, HbA1c were measured. The effect on the drug on altered glucose metabolizing enzymes were also studied. Treatment with Psidium guajava extract showed a significant reduction in blood glucose and HbA1c levels and a significant increase in plasma insulin levels. The drug also significantly restored the activities of carbohydrate metabolizing enzymes. This suggests that the potential antidiabetic effect of the ethanolic extract of the Psidium guajava leaves may be due to the presence of flavonoids and other phenolic components present in the drug.

  2. IL-4 and IL-5 Secretions Predominate in the Airways of Wistar Rats Exposed to Toluene Diisocyanate Vapor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kouame Kouadio

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available ObjectivesWe established a Wistar rat model of asthma caused by toluene diisocyanate (TDI exposure, and investigated the relationship between TDI exposure concentrations and respiratory hypersensitivity, airway inflammation, and cytokine secretions in animals, to better understand the mechanism of TDI induced occupational asthma.MethodsWistar rats were exposed to two different concentrations of TDI vapor four hours a day for five consecutive days. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL was performed, and differential leucocytes from the BAL fluid were analyzed. Lung histopathological examination was carried out to investigate the inflammatory status in the airways. Production of cytokines interleukin (IL-4 and IL-5 productions in the BAL fluid in vivo was determined with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits.ResultsThe TDI-exposed rats exhibited greater airway hypersensitivity symptoms than the control rats. The BAL differential cell count and lung histopathological examination demonstrated that inflammation reactions were present in both the central and peripheral airways, characterized with marked infiltration of eosinophils in the TDI-exposed rats. The cytokine assay showed that IL-4 and IL-5 were predominantly produced in the BAL fluid in vivo.ConclusionsThese findings imply that TDI exposure concentrations may greatly affect the occurrence and extent of inflammatory events and that Th2 type cytokines may play an important role in the immunopathogenesis of TDI-induced occupational respiratory hypersensitivity.

  3. Beneficial Effects of Phyllanthus amarus Against High Fructose Diet Induced Insulin Resistance and Hepatic Oxidative Stress in Male Wistar Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putakala, Mallaiah; Gujjala, Sudhakara; Nukala, Srinivasulu; Desireddy, Saralakumari

    2017-11-01

    Insulin resistance (IR) is a characteristic feature of obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and cardiovascular diseases. Emerging evidence suggests that the high-fructose consumption is a potential and important factor responsible for the rising incidence of IR. The present study investigates the beneficial effects of aqueous extract of Phyllanthus amarus (PAAE) on IR and oxidative stress in high-fructose (HF) fed male Wistar rats. HF diet (66% of fructose) and PAAE (200 mg/kg body weight/day) were given concurrently to the rats for a period of 60 days. Fructose-fed rats showed weight gain, hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, impaired glucose tolerance, impaired insulin sensitivity, dyslipidemia, hyperleptinemia, and hypoadiponectinemia (P diet significantly ameliorated all these alterations. Regarding hepatic antioxidant status, higher lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation, lower reduced glutathione levels and lower activities of enzymatic antioxidants, and the histopathological changes like mild to severe distortion of the normal architecture as well as the prominence and widening of the liver sinusoids observed in the HF diet-fed rats were significantly prevented by PAAE treatment. These findings indicate that PAAE is beneficial in improving insulin sensitivity and attenuating metabolic syndrome and hepatic oxidative stress in fructose-fed rats.

  4. Forensic importance of jealousy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzinić, Lana; Goreta, Miroslav; Jukić, Vlado; Dordević, Veljko; Koić, Elvira; Herceg, Miroslav

    2003-06-01

    The aim of the investigation is to define as clearly as possible specific forensic psychiatric characteristics of persons who committed homicide and or attempted due to jealousy (the nature and severity of psychopathology, the level of responsibility, danger for the community, intensity and nature of aggression, the victimologic dimension, the relation of alcohol and jealousy). A retrospective method based on forensic psychiatric expertises in the period 1975-1999 was used. They encompassed 200 examinees that committed murder or attempted it. The results show the connection of psychotic jealousy with the highest degree of danger in diagnostic categories of paranoid psychosis and paranoid schizophrenia. The time span from the first manifestations of jealousy until the actual commitment of a crime is the longest in personality disorders and the shortest in schizophrenia. Exogenous provoking situations were dominant for committing homicide due to jealousy in personality disorders. Acute alcohol intoxication has a specific significance in crime due to jealousy in the same diagnostic category. Clear criteria were designed for forensic psychiatric evaluation of murder and attempts of homicide caused by jealousy, which will be of help in everyday practice in the field forensic work and treatment.

  5. RatMap—rat genome tools and data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Greta; Johnson, Per; Andersson, Lars; Klinga-Levan, Karin; Gómez-Fabre, Pedro M.; Ståhl, Fredrik

    2005-01-01

    The rat genome database RatMap (http://ratmap.org or http://ratmap.gen.gu.se) has been one of the main resources for rat genome information since 1994. The database is maintained by CMB–Genetics at Göteborg University in Sweden and provides information on rat genes, polymorphic rat DNA-markers and rat quantitative trait loci (QTLs), all curated at RatMap. The database is under the supervision of the Rat Gene and Nomenclature Committee (RGNC); thus much attention is paid to rat gene nomenclature. RatMap presents information on rat idiograms, karyotypes and provides a unified presentation of the rat genome sequence and integrated rat linkage maps. A set of tools is also available to facilitate the identification and characterization of rat QTLs, as well as the estimation of exon/intron number and sizes in individual rat genes. Furthermore, comparative gene maps of rat in regard to mouse and human are provided. PMID:15608244

  6. The profiles of gamma-H2AX along with ATM/DNA-PKcs activation in the lymphocytes and granulocytes of rat and human blood exposed to gamma rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jing; Yin, Lina; Zhang, Junxiang; Zhang, Yaping; Zhang, Xuxia; Ding, Defang; Gao, Yun; Li, Qiang; Chen, Honghong [Fudan University, Department of Radiation Biology, Institute of Radiation Medicine, Shanghai (China)

    2016-08-15

    Establishing a rat model suitable for γ-H2AX biodosimeter studies has important implications for dose assessment of internal radionuclide contamination in humans. In this study, γ-H2AX, p-ATM and p-DNA-PKcs foci were enumerated using immunocytofluorescence method, and their protein levels were measured by Western blot in rat blood lymphocytes and granulocytes exposed to γ-rays compared with human blood lymphocytes and granulocytes. It was found that DNA double-strand break repair kinetics and linear dose responses in rat lymphocytes were similar to those observed in the human counterparts. Moreover, radiation induced clear p-ATM and p-DNA-PKcs foci formation and an increase in ratio of co-localization of p-ATM or p-DNA-PKcs with γ-H2AX foci in rat lymphocytes similar to those of human lymphocytes. The level of γ-H2AX protein in irradiated rat and human lymphocytes was significantly reduced by inhibitors of ATM and DNA-PKcs. Surprisingly, unlike human granulocytes, rat granulocytes with DNA-PKcs deficiency displayed a rapid accumulation, but delayed disappearance of γ-H2AX foci with essentially no change from 10 h to 48 h post-irradiation. Furthermore, inhibition of ATM activity in rat granulocytes also decreased radiation-induced γ-H2AX foci formation. In comparison, human granulocytes showed no response to irradiation regarding γ-H2AX, p-ATM or p-DNA-PKcs foci. Importantly, incidence of γ-H2AX foci in lymphocytes after total-body radiation of rats was consistent with that of in vitro irradiation of rat lymphocytes. These findings show that rats are a useful in vivo model for validation of γ-H2AX biodosimetry for dose assessment in humans. ATM and DNA-PKcs participate together in DSB repair in rat lymphocytes similar to that of human lymphocytes. Further, rat granulocytes, which have the characteristic of delayed disappearance of γ-H2AX foci in response to radiation, may be a useful experimental system for biodosimetry studies. (orig.)

  7. The profiles of gamma-H2AX along with ATM/DNA-PKcs activation in the lymphocytes and granulocytes of rat and human blood exposed to gamma rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Jing; Yin, Lina; Zhang, Junxiang; Zhang, Yaping; Zhang, Xuxia; Ding, Defang; Gao, Yun; Li, Qiang; Chen, Honghong

    2016-01-01

    Establishing a rat model suitable for γ-H2AX biodosimeter studies has important implications for dose assessment of internal radionuclide contamination in humans. In this study, γ-H2AX, p-ATM and p-DNA-PKcs foci were enumerated using immunocytofluorescence method, and their protein levels were measured by Western blot in rat blood lymphocytes and granulocytes exposed to γ-rays compared with human blood lymphocytes and granulocytes. It was found that DNA double-strand break repair kinetics and linear dose responses in rat lymphocytes were similar to those observed in the human counterparts. Moreover, radiation induced clear p-ATM and p-DNA-PKcs foci formation and an increase in ratio of co-localization of p-ATM or p-DNA-PKcs with γ-H2AX foci in rat lymphocytes similar to those of human lymphocytes. The level of γ-H2AX protein in irradiated rat and human lymphocytes was significantly reduced by inhibitors of ATM and DNA-PKcs. Surprisingly, unlike human granulocytes, rat granulocytes with DNA-PKcs deficiency displayed a rapid accumulation, but delayed disappearance of γ-H2AX foci with essentially no change from 10 h to 48 h post-irradiation. Furthermore, inhibition of ATM activity in rat granulocytes also decreased radiation-induced γ-H2AX foci formation. In comparison, human granulocytes showed no response to irradiation regarding γ-H2AX, p-ATM or p-DNA-PKcs foci. Importantly, incidence of γ-H2AX foci in lymphocytes after total-body radiation of rats was consistent with that of in vitro irradiation of rat lymphocytes. These findings show that rats are a useful in vivo model for validation of γ-H2AX biodosimetry for dose assessment in humans. ATM and DNA-PKcs participate together in DSB repair in rat lymphocytes similar to that of human lymphocytes. Further, rat granulocytes, which have the characteristic of delayed disappearance of γ-H2AX foci in response to radiation, may be a useful experimental system for biodosimetry studies. (orig.)

  8. The profiles of gamma-H2AX along with ATM/DNA-PKcs activation in the lymphocytes and granulocytes of rat and human blood exposed to gamma rays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Yin, Lina; Zhang, Junxiang; Zhang, Yaping; Zhang, Xuxia; Ding, Defang; Gao, Yun; Li, Qiang; Chen, Honghong

    2016-08-01

    Establishing a rat model suitable for γ-H2AX biodosimeter studies has important implications for dose assessment of internal radionuclide contamination in humans. In this study, γ-H2AX, p-ATM and p-DNA-PKcs foci were enumerated using immunocytofluorescence method, and their protein levels were measured by Western blot in rat blood lymphocytes and granulocytes exposed to γ-rays compared with human blood lymphocytes and granulocytes. It was found that DNA double-strand break repair kinetics and linear dose responses in rat lymphocytes were similar to those observed in the human counterparts. Moreover, radiation induced clear p-ATM and p-DNA-PKcs foci formation and an increase in ratio of co-localization of p-ATM or p-DNA-PKcs with γ-H2AX foci in rat lymphocytes similar to those of human lymphocytes. The level of γ-H2AX protein in irradiated rat and human lymphocytes was significantly reduced by inhibitors of ATM and DNA-PKcs. Surprisingly, unlike human granulocytes, rat granulocytes with DNA-PKcs deficiency displayed a rapid accumulation, but delayed disappearance of γ-H2AX foci with essentially no change from 10 h to 48 h post-irradiation. Furthermore, inhibition of ATM activity in rat granulocytes also decreased radiation-induced γ-H2AX foci formation. In comparison, human granulocytes showed no response to irradiation regarding γ-H2AX, p-ATM or p-DNA-PKcs foci. Importantly, incidence of γ-H2AX foci in lymphocytes after total-body radiation of rats was consistent with that of in vitro irradiation of rat lymphocytes. These findings show that rats are a useful in vivo model for validation of γ-H2AX biodosimetry for dose assessment in humans. ATM and DNA-PKcs participate together in DSB repair in rat lymphocytes similar to that of human lymphocytes. Further, rat granulocytes, which have the characteristic of delayed disappearance of γ-H2AX foci in response to radiation, may be a useful experimental system for biodosimetry studies.

  9. SWEEP Project RAT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Lars Bo; Madsen, Søren; Petersen, L. B.

    This report presents the results from the design analyses made for the clustered suction caisson used as foundation for a Riser Access Tower (RAT). The RAT is intended built next to the K15-FA-1 Platform in the Dutch Sector of the North Sea....

  10. Colon of the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindstroem, C.G.; Rosengren, J.-E.; Fork, F.-T.

    1979-01-01

    The anatomy and radiologic appearance of the colon in rats are described on the basis of 300 animals treated with carcinogenic agents and 40 normal rats. The macroscopic and microscopic appearance of the mucosa varies in the different parts of the colon. Lymphoid plaques are normal structures. The results justify a new anatomic nomenclature. (Auth.)

  11. PFGE: importance in food quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernile, Anna; Giammanco, Giovanni; Massa, Salvatore

    2009-11-01

    In late 19 century, great interest has arisen for food quality. This is referred as absence of pathogens in food (safety for consumers) and as nutritional quality of food (organoleptic characteristics). Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) is, among the molecular techniques developed in the last years, one of the most reliable, discriminative and reproducible technique. It can be used in clinical field for the identification of pathogens and the origin of outbreaks, and in food microbiology for the identification of pathogens (food borne disease surveillance) or of microorganisms responsible for the organoleptic characteristics of food. The present article shows some useful patents related to PFGE and importance in food quality.

  12. Amlodipine and Atorvastatin Improved Hypertensive Cardiac Remodeling through Regulation of MMPs/TIMPs in SHR Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingchao Lu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: MMPs/TIMPs system is well known to play important roles in pressure overload-induced cardiac remodeling, and Amlodipine and Atorvastatin have been showed to exert favourable protective effects on cardiovascular disease, however, it is not clear whether Amlodipine and Atorvastatin can improve hypertensive cardiac remodeling and whether the MMPs/TIMPs system is involved. The present study aims to answer these questions. Methods: 36 weeks old male spontaneous hypertension (SHR rats were randomly divided into four groups: 1. SHR control group, 2. Amlodipine alone (10 mg/kg/d group, 3. Atorvastatin alone (10 mg/kg/d group, 4.Combination of Amlodipine and Atorvastatin (10 mg/kg/d for each group. Same gender, weight and age of Wistar-Kyoto (WKY rats with normal blood pressure were used as normal control. Drugs were administered by oral gavage over 12 weeks. The blood pressure and left ventricle mass index were measured. Enzyme activity of MMP-2 and MMP-9 was assessed with Gelatin zymography. MMP-2, MMP-9, TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 mRNA and protein expression was studied by RT-PCR and Western blot. Single factor ANOVA and LSD-t test were used in statistical analysis. Results: Treatment with Amlodipine alone or combination with atorvastatin significantly decreased blood pressure, left ventricle mass index in SHR rats (P Conclusion: Amlodipine and Atorvastatin could improve ventricular remodeling in SHR rats through intervention with the imbalance of MMP-2/TIMP-2 and MMP-9/TIMP-1 system.

  13. Rat brain sagittal organotypic slice cultures as an ex vivo dopamine cell loss system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaughey-Chapman, Amy; Connor, Bronwen

    2017-02-01

    Organotypic brain slice cultures are a useful tool to study neurological function as they provide a more complex, 3-dimensional system than standard 2-dimensional in vitro cell cultures. Building on a previously developed mouse brain slice culture protocol, we have developed a rat sagittal brain slice culture system as an ex vivo model of dopamine cell loss. We show that rat brain organotypic slice cultures remain viable for up to 6 weeks in culture. Using Fluoro-Gold axonal tracing, we demonstrate that the slice 3-dimensional cytoarchitecture is maintained over a 4 week culturing period, with particular focus on the nigrostriatal pathway. Treatment of the cultures with 6-hydroxydopamine and desipramine induces a progressive loss of Fluoro-Gold-positive nigral cells with a sustained loss of tyrosine hydroxylase-positive nigral cells. This recapitulates the pattern of dopaminergic degeneration observed in the rat partial 6-hydroxydopamine lesion model and, most importantly, the progressive pathology of Parkinson's disease. Our slice culture platform provides an advance over other systems, as we demonstrate for the first time 3-dimensional cytoarchitecture maintenance of rat nigrostriatal sagittal slices for up to 6 weeks. Our ex vivo organotypic slice culture system provides a long term cellular platform to model Parkinson's disease, allowing for the elucidation of mechanisms involved in dopaminergic neuron degeneration and the capability to study cellular integration and plasticity ex vivo. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of Iranian Honey bee (Apis Mellifera Venom on Blood Glucose and Insulin in Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyedeh Mahbubeh Mousavi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes is an important disease. This disease is a metabolic disorder characterized by hyperglycemia resulting from perturbation in insulin secretion, insulin action or both. Honey bee venom contains a wide range of polypeptide agents. The principle components of bee venom are mellitin and phospholipase A2. These components increase insulin secretion from the β-cells of pancreas. This study was conducted to show the hypoglycemic effect of honey bee venom on alloxan induced diabetic male rats.Methods: Eighteen adult male rats weighting 200±20 g were placed into 3 randomly groups: control, alloxan monohy­drate-induced diabetic rat and treated group that received honey bee venom daily before their nutrition for four months. Forty eight hours after the last injection, blood was collected from their heart, serum was dissented and blood glucose, insulin, triglyceride and total cholesterol were determined.Results: Glucose serum, triglyceride and total cholesterol level in treated group in comparison with diabetic group was significantly decreased (P< 0.01. On the other hand, using bee venom causes increase in insulin serum in com­parison with diabetic group (P< 0.05.Conclusion: Honeybee venom (apitoxin can be used as therapeutic option to lower blood glucose and lipids in dia­betic rats.

  15. Dietary Iron Supplementation Alters Hepatic Inflammation in a Rat Model of Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Machi Atarashi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is now the most common liver disease in the world. NAFLD can progress to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH, cirrhosis and eventually hepatocellular carcinoma. Acquired hepatic iron overload is seen in a number of patients with NAFLD; however, its significance in the pathology of NAFLD is still debated. Here, we investigated the role of dietary iron supplementation in experimental steatohepatitis in rats. Rats were fed a control, high-fat (HF, high-fat high-iron (HFHI and high-iron (HI diet for 30 weeks. Blood biochemical, histopathological and gut microbiota analyses were performed. Rats in HF and HFHI groups showed an ALT-dominant elevation of serum transaminases, hepatic steatosis, hepatic inflammation, and upregulation of proinflammatory cytokines. The number of large inflammatory foci, corresponding to lobular inflammation in NASH patients, was significantly higher in HFHI than in HF group; within the lesion, macrophages with intense iron staining were observed. Hepatic expression of TNFα was higher in HFHI than that in HF group. There was no significant change in hepatic oxidative stress, gut microbiota or serum endotoxin levels between HF and HFHI groups. These results suggested that dietary iron supplementation enhances experimental steatohepatitis induced by long-term high-fat diet feeding in rats. Iron-laden macrophages can play an important role in the enhancement of hepatic inflammation.

  16. Complete reorganization of the motor cortex of adult rats following long-term spinal cord injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandon, Shashank; Kambi, Niranjan; Mohammed, Hisham; Jain, Neeraj

    2013-07-01

    Understanding brain reorganization following long-term spinal cord injuries is important for optimizing recoveries based on residual function as well as developing brain-controlled assistive devices. Although it has been shown that the motor cortex undergoes partial reorganization within a few weeks after peripheral and spinal cord injuries, it is not known if the motor cortex of rats is capable of large-scale reorganization after longer recovery periods. Here we determined the organization of the rat (Rattus norvegicus) motor cortex at 5 or more months after chronic lesions of the spinal cord at cervical levels using intracortical microstimulation. The results show that, in the rats with the lesions, stimulation of neurons in the de-efferented forelimb motor cortex no longer evokes movements of the forelimb. Instead, movements of the body parts in the adjacent representations, namely the whiskers and neck were evoked. In addition, at many sites, movements of the ipsilateral forelimb were observed at threshold currents. The extent of representations of the eye, jaw and tongue movements was unaltered by the lesion. Thus, large-scale reorganization of the motor cortex leads to complete filling-in of the de-efferented cortex by neighboring representations following long-term partial spinal cord injuries at cervical levels in adult rats. © 2013 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Influence of Samarium on Learning and Memory Function of Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Sixty-four Spraque-Dawley(SD)big rats with weaning weight of (195±15) g were randomly divided into 4 groups with 8 males and 8 females each group. One group drunk with de-ionized water served as control and was also used for analysis of the background. The other three groups rats were raised by de-ionized water containing low, middle and high concentrations of Sm for four months, then learning and memory tests were carried out in Y-electric maze. Compared with the control rats, the learning and memory of rats in low and middle groups shows a deterioration trend, exhibiting the function degradation of rats' brain. It may results from the rare earth elements through blood-brain barrier affecting the normal physiological functions of rats' brain. In addition, the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) in rats' brain decreases, while the content of malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration increases. The decreased SOD activity and the increased MDA mean the degeneration the ability of anti-oxidation in rats' brain, which are accordance with the degradation of learning and memory function of rats in low and middle Sm groups.

  18. Suppressed serum prolactin in sinoaortic-denervated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexander, N.; Melmed, S.; Morris, M.

    1987-01-01

    The authors investigated the effect of arterial baroreceptor deafferentation on serum and pituitary prolactin (PRL) and on catecholamines in median eminence (ME) and anterior and posterior pituitaries. Male Wistar rats were sinoaortic denervated (SAD) or sham operated (SO). Three days after surgery serum prolactin, measured by radioimmunoassay, was suppressed in SAD rats, and dopamine (DA) and norepinephrine (NE) concentrations, measured by radioenzymatic or high-performance liquid chromatography electron capture methods, were significantly reduced in ME of SAD rats. Simultaneously, anterior pituitary of SAD rats had significant increases in both catecholamines, whereas posterior pituitary showed no changes. Four hours after surgery serum PRL was also reduced in SAD rats, but no changes in ME catecholamines were found. Mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate were measured before and after injection of bromocriptine in SAD and SO rats 3 days after surgery. Bromocriptine markedly suppressed serum PRL in both groups and reduced MAP from 144 +/- 10 to 84 +/- 5 and from 116 +/- 2 to 99 +/- 3 in SAD and SO rats, respectively; heart rate was reduced in SAD rats. They conclude that the SAD rat is a model of hypertension with suppressed serum PRL and that interruption of arterial baroreceptor nerves suppresses PRL secretion probably by modulating tuberoinfundibular turnover of catecholamines

  19. Effect of high dietary calcium on weight management in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamad, M.T.

    2012-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to find out a suitable dietary regime to maintain a lower prevalence of overweight or obesity by adjusting the diet components. Therefore, male Swiss albino rats were selected according to their ages and divided into two main groups, i.e., premature and mature groups. Each rat group was divided into 4 subgroups and each subgroup was fed on a diet of varied composition. Serum levels of lipids, calcium, phosphorous and testosterone were determined in addition to body weight measurement. The results indicate non-significant decrease of percentage of body weight gain in premature rats fed on high-calcium diets while significant decrease of percentage of body weight gain in mature rats fed on the same diet composition. The levels of serum HDL-C, LDL-C, triglycerides and testosterone were significantly decreased in premature rats fed high- calcium diets. In premature rats, only rat subgroup fed on high calcium from milk, showed a significant decrease in serum cholesterol levels. Calcium and phosphorus levels exhibited non- significant change between premature rats. In mature rats, LDL-C data demonstrate nonsignificant changes while cholesterol and triglyceride levels were significantly decreased in rats fed high -calcium diet compared to control. HDL-C level revealed a significant decrease in sera of mature rats fed on high calcium from milk. Serum testosterone levels were significantly decreased in mature rats fed low- fat diets or low fat diets supplemented with high- calcium level. In general, one would suggest to consume low fat diet (4%) supplemented with high calcium from dry skimmed milk fortified with hydroxyapatite as suitable dietary program to avoid overweight or obesity.

  20. Double polymer sheathed carbon nanotube supercapacitors show enhanced cycling stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wenqi; Wang, Shanshan; Wang, Chunhui; Wu, Shiting; Xu, Wenjing; Zou, Mingchu; Ouyang, An; Cao, Anyuan; Li, Yibin

    2015-12-01

    Pseudo-materials are effective in boosting the specific capacitance of supercapacitors, but during service their degradation may also be very strong, causing reduced cycling stability. Here, we show that a carbon nanotube sponge grafted by two conventional pseudo-polymer layers in sequence can serve as a porous supercapacitor electrode with significantly enhanced cycling stability compared with single polymer grafting. Creating conformal polymer coatings on the nanotube surface and the resulting double-sheath configuration are important structural factors leading to the enhanced performance. Combining different polymers as double sheaths as reported here might be a potential route to circumvent the dilemma of pseudo-materials, and to simultaneously improve the capacitance and stability for various energy storage devices.Pseudo-materials are effective in boosting the specific capacitance of supercapacitors, but during service their degradation may also be very strong, causing reduced cycling stability. Here, we show that a carbon nanotube sponge grafted by two conventional pseudo-polymer layers in sequence can serve as a porous supercapacitor electrode with significantly enhanced cycling stability compared with single polymer grafting. Creating conformal polymer coatings on the nanotube surface and the resulting double-sheath configuration are important structural factors leading to the enhanced performance. Combining different polymers as double sheaths as reported here might be a potential route to circumvent the dilemma of pseudo-materials, and to simultaneously improve the capacitance and stability for various energy storage devices. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr05978j

  1. Blood Pressure Interventions Affect Acute and Four-Week Diesel Exhaust Induced Pulmonary Injury in Healthy and Hypertensive Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rationale: We recently showed that inhalation exposure of normotensive Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats to whole diesel exhaust (DE) elicits changes in cardiac gene expression that broadly mimics expression in spontaneously hypertensive (SH) rats without DE. We hypothesized that pharmacol...

  2. The Influence of a High Salt Diet on a Rat Model of Isoproterenol-Induced Heart Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rat models of heart failure (HF) show varied pathology and time to disease outcome, dependent on induction method. We found that subchronic (4 weeks) isoproterenol (ISO) infusion exacerbated cardiomyopathy in Spontaneously Hypertensive Heart Failure (SHHF) rats. Others have shown...

  3. hematological and biochemical studies on the effect of some natural antioxidants pre-injection in irradiated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashour, S.E.S.

    2011-01-01

    The present work was carried out in order to evaluate the biological activities of some natural antioxidants such as ziziphus and olive leaves extract as radioprotective agents on male albino rats treated with gamma irradiation. The results showed that the ethanolic extract of ziziphus and olive leaves have high content of phenolic and flavonoid compound. GC-MS showed that ethanolic extracts of ziziphus and olive leaves contains some important phenolic compounds include (Catechin, Chlorogenic,Zizyphine F, Luteolin and Succinylsulfathiazol), (Caffeic acid, Quercetin, Rutin, Diosmetine, Luteolin-7-glucoside and Oleuropein) respectively. γ-irradiation caused a significant decrease in body weight after 2 weeks as compared with control group. Administration of ethanolic extracts of olive and ziziphus leaves to normal rats exhibited a decrease in body weight after 2 weeks as compared with control group.The determination of different biological parameters showed a significant high level of ALT, AST, ALP, creatinine and urea in rat serum treated with gamma radiation. A significant depression in Hb, RBCs, HCT, MCV, WBC and PLT in rats after exposure to gamma radiation was noticed. The ethanolic extracts of ziziphus leaves and olive leaves application have been found to regulate the hematological parameters with narrow range around the normal level. A depressive effect of radiation was noticed on total protein, and albumin. Ethanolic extracts of olive and ziziphus leaves enhanced the accumulation of protein fraction.

  4. 5HT(1A) and 5HT(1B) receptors of medial prefrontal cortex modulate anxiogenic-like behaviors in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solati, Jalal; Salari, Ali-Akbar; Bakhtiari, Amir

    2011-10-31

    Medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) is one of the brain regions which play an important role in emotional behaviors. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the role of 5HT(1A) and 5HT(1B) receptors of the MPFC in modulation of anxiety behaviors in rats. The elevated plus maze (EPM) which is a useful test to investigate the effects of anxiogenic or anxiolytic drugs in rodents, was used. Bilateral intra-MPFC administration of 5HT(1A) receptor agonist, 8-OH-DPAT (5, 10, and 50 ng/rat) decreased the percentages of open arm time (OAT%) and open arm entries (OAE%), indicating an anxiogenic response. Moreover, administration of 5HT(1A) receptor antagonist, NAN-190 (0.25, 0.5, and 1 μg/rat) significantly increased OAT% and OAE%. Pre-treatment administration of NAN-190 (0.5 μg/rat), which was injected into the MPFC, reversed the anxiogenic effects of 8-OH-DPAT (5, 10, and 50 ng/rat). Intra-MPFC microinjection of 5HT(1B) receptor agonist, CGS-12066A (0.25, 0.5, and 1 μg/rat) significantly decreased OAT% and OAE%, without any change in locomotor activity, indicating an anxiogenic effect. However, injection of 5HT(1B) receptor antagonist, SB-224289 (0.5, 1, and 2 μg/rat) into the MPFC showed no significant effect. In conclusion, these findings suggest that 5HT(1A) and 5HT(1B) receptors of the MPFC region modulate anxiogenic-like behaviors in rats. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Effects of Sex Steroids on the Spinal Gastrin-Releasing Peptide System Controlling Male Sexual Function in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oti, Takumi; Takanami, Keiko; Ito, Saya; Ueda, Takashi; Matsuda, Ken Ichi; Kawata, Mitsuhiro; Soh, Jintetsu; Ukimura, Osamu; Sakamoto, Tatsuya; Sakamoto, Hirotaka

    2018-04-01

    The gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) system in the lumbosacral spinal cord controls male sexual function in rats. In contrast, in female rats, GRP neurons could scarcely be detected around puberty when circulating ovarian steroid hormones such as estradiol and progesterone levels are increasing. However, little information is available on feminizing or demasculinizing effects of ovarian steroids on the central nervous system in female puberty and adulthood. In this study, to visualize the spinal GRP neurons in vivo, we generated a GRP-promoter-Venus transgenic (Tg) rat line and studied the effects of the sex steroid hormones on GRP expression in the rat lumbar cord by examining the Venus fluorescence. In these Tg rats, the sexually dimorphic spinal GRP neurons controlling male sexual function were clearly labeled with Venus fluorescence. As expected, Venus fluorescence in the male lumbar cord was markedly decreased after castration and restored by chronic androgen replacement. Furthermore, androgen-induced Venus expression in the spinal cord of adult Tg males was significantly attenuated by chronic treatment with progesterone but not with estradiol. A luciferase assay using a human GRP-promoter construct showed that androgens enhance the spinal GRP system, and more strikingly, that progesterone acts to inhibit the GRP system via an androgen receptor-mediated mechanism. These results demonstrate that circulating androgens may play an important role in the spinal GRP system controlling male sexual function not only in rats but also in humans and that progesterone could be an important feminizing factor in the spinal GRP system in females during pubertal development.

  6. Effects of gamma rays on non-vascular smooth muscles contractions (rat small intestine)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azroony, R.; Ksies, F.; Alya, G.

    2003-03-01

    In this experiment, the contractile response evoked by activating the membranous cholinergic and adrenergic receptors in the smooth muscular fibres isolated from jejunum in rat small intestine is studied. Also the effect of gamma rays on regulating this contractile response after exposing the whole body of the animals to different doses of gamma rays (3, 5 and 7 Gy) emitted from 60 Co source is studied. Results show that irradiation lessens the sensitivity of muscarinic cholinergic receptors to their agonists in a dose dependent manner. And there is an important shift on irradiated rats where the maximum effect of acetylcholine (E max) can be obtained in higher concentrations of acetylcholine. Concerning the effects of gamma rays on adrenergic receptors, our results show that irradiation, also, decreases the sensitivity of α1 adrenergic receptors to their agonists, and this decrease is represented in a decrease of the irradiated muscular fibers response to the inhibitory effect of phenylephrine (more specific to α1 adrenergic receptors than α2 adrenergic receptors) in a dose dependent manner. While we have found that α2 adrenergic receptors have no important effect on regulating the contractile response of the smooth muscular fibers in the rat jejunum neither in smooth muscular fibers isolated from control animals nor in those fibers which where isolated from irradiated animals. (author)

  7. Restoration of CpG Methylation in The Egf Promoter Region during Rat Liver Regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deming, Li; Ziwei, Li; Xueqiang, Guo; Cunshuan, Xu

    2015-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) is an important factor for healing after tissue damage in diverse experimental models. It plays an important role in liver regeneration (LR). The objective of this experiment is to investigate the methylation variation of 10 CpG sites in the Egf promoter region and their relevance to Egf expression during rat liver regenera- tion. As a follow up of our previous study, rat liver tissue was collected after rat 2/3 partial hepatectomy (PH) during the re-organization phase (from days 14 to days 28). Liver DNA was extracted and modified by sodium bisulfate. The methylation status of 10 CpG sites in Egf promoter region was determined using bisulfite sequencing polymerase chain reaction (PCR), as BSP method. The results showed that 3 (sites 3, 4 and 9) out of 10 CpG sites have strikingly methylation changes during the re-organization phase compared to the regeneration phase (from 2 hours to 168 hours, P=0.002, 0.048 and 0.018, respectively). Our results showed that methylation modification of CpGs in the Egf promoter region could be restored to the status before PH operation and changes of methylation didn’t affect Egf mRNA expression during the re-organization phase. PMID:26464832

  8. Macrophage expression in acute radiation colitis in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tadami, Tokuma; Shichijo, Kazuko; Matsuu, Mutsumi; Niino, Daisuke; Nakayama, Toshiyuki; Nakashima, Masahiro; Sekine, Ichiro

    2003-01-01

    Although radiation therapy is important in the treatment of tumors in pelvic and abdominal region, it may cause radiation injury as a side effect. But there is no effective way of preventing or curing the damages. The mechanism of acute radiation colitis has not been elucidated yet. Our previous reports have revealed that X-ray irradiation induce apoptosis of epithelial stem cells in colon. Then a hypothesis of the radiation colitis can be put forward, DNA damage by irradiation, apoptosis of mucosal epithelial stem cells and degeneration of epithelial gland structure, macrophages phagocyte the debris, being activated and secreting various inflammatory cytokines, infiltration of inflammatory cells. Several recent reports show that macrophages may play an important role in the process of inflammatory bowel diseases such ulcerative colitis or Crohn's disease. We studied radiation colitis using rat animal models. Male Wister rats were irradiated by a single fraction dose of 22.5 Gy X-ray at laparotomy, shielding except for an approximately 2.5 cm length of rectum. Histological changes and macrophage accumulation in the rectum mucosa were evaluated by immunohistochemistry and western blot method with the specimens which were taken on the 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 10, and 14th day after irradiation. Severe macrophage accumulation in the lamina propria of the rectum was observed on the 5th day. At the same time, severe destruction of mucosal structure and inflammatory cells infiltration were also observed. Based on the potent pro-inflammatory cytokine producing effects of macrophage in rat and the increased expression in inflammatory bowel disease patients, speculate that intervention in the macrophage-cytokine network could form a future target for the treatment of acute radiation colitis. (author)

  9. Effect of Octreotide on Hepatic Steatosis in Diet-Induced Obesity in Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mao Li

    Full Text Available Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD caused by liver lipid dysregulation is linked to obesity. Somatostatin (SST and its analogs have been used to treat pediatric hypothalamic obesity. However, the application of such drugs for the treatment of NAFLD has not been evaluated.This study aimed to investigate the expression levels of important regulators of hepatic lipid metabolism and the possible effect of the SST analog octreotide on these regulators.SD rats were assigned to a control group and a high-fat diet group. Obese rats from the high-fat diet group were further divided into the obese and octreotide-treated groups. The body weight, plasma SST, fasting plasma glucose (FPG, insulin, triglyceride (TG, total cholesterol (TC, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C and free fatty acid (FFA levels were measured. Hepatic steatosis was evaluated based on the liver TG content, HE staining and oil red O staining. The SREBP-1c, ACC1, FAS, MTP, apoB and ADRP expression levels in the liver were also determined by RT-PCR, qRT-PCR, western blot or ELISA.The obese rats induced by high-fat diet expressed more SREBP-1c, FAS and ADRP but less MTP protein in the liver than those of control rats, whereas octreotide intervention reversed these changes and increased the level of apoB protein. Compared to the control group, obese rats showed increased liver ACC1, SREBP-1c and apoB mRNA levels, whereas octreotide-treated rats showed decreased mRNA levels of apoB and SREBP-1c. This was accompanied by increased body weight, liver TG contents, FPG, TG, TC, LDL-C, FFA, insulin and derived homeostatic model assessment (HOMA values. Octreotide intervention significantly decreased these parameters. Compared to the control group, the obese group showed a decreasing trend on plasma SST levels, which were significantly increased by the octreotide intervention.Octreotide can ameliorate hepatic steatosis in obese rats

  10. Combination of aerobic exercise and Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn. increased nitric oxide in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donna Adriani Kusumadewi Muhammad

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Hypertension and myocardial infarction account for the high rate of mortality globally. Hibiscus sabdariffa (HS Linn. is rich in antioxidants and previous studies have demonstrated its anti-hypertensive effects. Several studies show that regular physical activity is an important component to reduce cardiovascular mortality. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of a combination of aerobic exercise and HS extract on nitric oxide (NO and endothelin-1 (ET-1 in rats.   Methods An experimental study was conducted on 36 male Wistar rats, aged 4 weeks and 60-70 g in weight. The interventions were aerobic exercises and HS at 400 mg/kg BW/day administered for 4, 8 and 12 weeks. The rats were randomized into 12 groups: 3 control groups (C4, C8, C12, 3 aerobic exercise groups (A4, A8, A12, 3 HS groups (H4, H8, H12, and 3 combination groups [aerobic exercise and HS] (HA4, HA8, HA12. After 4, 8, and 12 weeks, the rats were sacrificed and their abdominal aorta was collected for determination of nitric oxide and ET-1 concentrations. One way ANOVA was used to analyze the data.   Results There was a significant difference in NO levels between all groups, with the 4-week aerobic exercise group (A4 showing the highest NO levels compared to the other eleven groups (p<0.05. In contrast, the ET-1 levels were not significantly different between all groups.   Conclusions This study demonstrated that the combination of HS supplementation and aerobic exercise increases NO in rats, and provided further evidence to the traditional use of the plant as an antioxidants agent.

  11. Chronic subordinate colony housing (CSC as a model of chronic psychosocial stress in male rats.

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    Kewir D Nyuyki

    Full Text Available Chronic subordinate colony housing (CSC is an adequate and reliable mouse model of chronic psychosocial stress, resulting in reduced body weight gain, reduced thymus and increased adrenal weight, long-lasting anxiety-like behaviour, and spontaneous colitis. Furthermore, CSC mice show increased corticotrophin (ACTH responsiveness to acute heterotypic stressors, suggesting a general mechanism which allows a chronically-stressed organism to adequately respond to a novel threat. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to extend the CSC model to another rodent species, namely male Wistar rats, and to characterize relevant physiological, immunological, and behavioural consequences; placing particular emphasis on changes in hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis responsiveness to an acute heterotypic stressor. In line with previous mouse data, exposure of Wistar rats to 19 days of CSC resulted in a decrease in body weight gain and absolute thymus mass, mild colonic barrier defects and intestinal immune activation. Moreover, no changes in stress-coping behaviour or social preference were seen; again in agreement with the mouse paradigm. Most importantly, CSC rats showed an increased plasma corticosterone response to an acute heterotypic stressor (open arm, 5 min despite displaying similar basal levels and similar basal and stressor-induced plasma ACTH levels. In contrast to CSC mice, anxiety-related behaviour and absolute, as well as relative adrenal weights remained unchanged in CSC rats. In summary, the CSC paradigm could be established as an adequate model of chronic psychosocial stress in male rats. Our data further support the initial hypothesis that adrenal hyper-responsiveness to ACTH during acute heterotypic stressors represents a general adaptation, which enables a chronically-stressed organism to adequately respond to novel challenges.

  12. Developmental programming of vascular dysfunction by prenatal and postnatal zinc deficiency in male and female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes Garrido Abregú, Facundo; Gobetto, María Natalia; Juriol, Lorena Vanesa; Caniffi, Carolina; Elesgaray, Rosana; Tomat, Analía Lorena; Arranz, Cristina

    2018-06-01

    Micronutrient malnutrition during intrauterine and postnatal growth may program cardiovascular diseases in adulthood. We examined whether moderate zinc restriction in male and female rats throughout fetal life, lactation and/or postweaning growth induces alterations that can predispose to the onset of vascular dysfunction in adulthood. Female Wistar rats were fed low- or control zinc diets from pregnancy to offspring weaning. After weaning, offspring were fed either a low- or a control zinc diet until 81 days. We evaluated systolic blood pressure (SBP), thoracic aorta morphology, nitric oxide (NO) system and vascular reactivity in 6- and/or 81-day-old offspring. At day 6, zinc-deficient male and female offspring showed a decrease in aortic NO synthase (NOS) activity accompanied by an increase in oxidative stress. Zinc-deficient 81-day-old male rats exhibited an increase in collagen deposition in tunica media, as well as lower activity of endothelial NOS (eNOS) that could not be reversed with an adequate zinc diet during postweaning life. Zinc deficiency programmed a reduction in eNOS protein expression and higher SBP only in males. Adult zinc-deficient rats of both sexes showed reduced vasodilator response dependent on eNOS activity and impaired aortic vasoconstrictor response to angiotensin-II associated with alterations in intracellular calcium mobilization. Female rats were less sensitive to the effects of zinc deficiency and exhibited higher eNOS activity and/or expression than males, without alterations in SBP or aortic histology. This work strengthens the importance of a balanced intake of micronutrients during perinatal growth to ensure adequate vascular function in adult life. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Dim light at night increases immune function in Nile grass rats, a diurnal rodent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonken, Laura K; Haim, Achikam; Nelson, Randy J

    2012-02-01

    With the widespread adoption of electrical lighting during the 20th century, human and nonhuman animals became exposed to high levels of light at night for the first time in evolutionary history. This divergence from the natural environment may have significant implications for certain ecological niches because of the important influence light exerts on the circadian system. For example, circadian disruption and nighttime light exposure are linked to changes in immune function. The majority of studies investigating the effects of light exposure and circadian disruption on the immune system use nocturnal rodents. In diurnal species, many hormones and immune parameters vary with secretion patterns 180° out of phase to those of nocturnal rodents. Thus, the authors investigated the effects of nighttime light exposure on immunocompetence in diurnal Nile grass rats (Arvicanthis niloticus). Rats were housed in either standard 14-h light (L):10-h dark (D) cycles with L ∼150 lux and D 0 lux or dim light at night (dLAN) cycles of LD 14:10 with L ∼150 lux and D 5 lux for 3 wks, then tested for plasma bactericidal capacity, as well as humoral and cell-mediated immune responses. Rats exposed to dLAN showed increased delayed-type hypersensitivity pinna swelling, which is consistent with enhanced cell-mediated immune function. dLAN rats similarly showed increased antibody production following inoculation with keyhole lymphocyte hemocyanin (KLH) and increased bactericidal capacity. Daytime corticosterone concentrations were elevated in grass rats exposed to nighttime dim light, which may have influenced immunological measures. Overall, these results indicate nighttime light affects immune parameters in a diurnal rodent.

  14. Efficacy and Safety of Gwakhyangjeonggi-San Retention Enema in Normal Rats and Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats

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    Eunyoung Song

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to establish a protocol of retention-enema experiments and evaluate the antihypertensive effect and the safety of Gwakhyangjeonggi-san retention enema. Normal and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs were divided into treatment and control groups, respectively. We applied the Gwakhyangjeonggi-san extract by decoction and 0.9% NaCl in each group, estimated the blood pressure and body weight, and performed HPLC analysis. ALT, AST, BUN, and creatinine were examined. The systolic blood pressure within each group in normal rats differed significantly in time effect, and so did the diastolic blood pressure in the treatment group of normal rats. The systolic, diastolic, and mean blood pressure showed significant differences in group effect in the treatment group of the SHRs. The time effect of the body weight in both groups of normal rats differed significantly, so did group × time and time effects in both groups of SHRs. AST, ALT, BUN, and creatinine showed no significant difference between groups. We concluded that the Gwakhyangjeonggi-san retention enema has a hypotensive effect in normal rats within the regular range of blood pressure, but an antihypertensive effect in SHRs. Also, the intervention is safe and does not affect the liver and kidney functions in normal rats.

  15. Oval cell response is attenuated by depletion of liver resident macrophages in the 2-AAF/partial hepatectomy rat.

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    Shuai Xiang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND/AIMS: Macrophages are known to play an important role in hepatocyte mediated liver regeneration by secreting inflammatory mediators. However, there is little information available on the role of resident macrophages in oval cell mediated liver regeneration. In the present study we aimed to investigate the role of macrophages in oval cell expansion induced by 2-acetylaminofluorene/partial hepatectomy (2-AAF/PH in rats. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We depleted macrophages in the liver of 2-AAF/PH treated rats by injecting liposome encapsulated clodronate 48 hours before PH. Regeneration of remnant liver mass, as well as proliferation and differentiation of oval cells were measured. We found that macrophage-depleted rats suffered higher mortality and liver transaminase levels. We also showed that depletion of macrophages yielded a significant decrease of EPCAM and PCK positive oval cells in immunohistochemical stained liver sections 9 days after PH. Meanwhile, oval cell differentiation was also attenuated as a result of macrophage depletion, as large foci of small basophilic hepatocytes were observed by day 9 following hepatectomy in control rats whereas they were almost absent in macrophage depleted rats. Accordingly, real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis showed lower expression of albumin mRNA in macrophage depleted livers. Then we assessed whether macrophage depletion may affect hepatic production of stimulating cytokines for liver regeneration. We showed that macrophage-depletion significantly inhibited hepatic expression of tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6, along with a lack of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 phosphorylation during the early period following hepatectomy. CONCLUSIONS: These data indicate that macrophages play an important role in oval cell mediated liver regeneration in the 2-AAF/PH model.

  16. LONG TERM EFFECT OF CHROMIUM ON LIPID PROFILE AND SOME HORMONES IN OBESE RATS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GABR, S.A.; ABDEL-KHALEK, L.G.; GHAREIB, S.A.

    2008-01-01

    In the present study, the long term effect of chromium picolinate (intake 30 and 60 days) on lipid profile, testosterone, thyroid hormones, corticosterone and insulin was studied in obese male rats. A total of 48 male albino rats were arranged into four equal groups. The rats were distributed into four equal main groups: 1- Normal rats left without any treatment and served as a control group. 2- Normal rats treated with chromium picolinate at a dose of 40 μg/kg/day. 3-Obese rats (after the induction of obesity) using fed high fat diet. 4- Obese rats treated with chromium picolinate. The results obtained showed that normal rats treated with chromium picolinate for 30 or 60 days had no changes in total cholesterol, triglycerides, total lipids, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, triiodothyronine (T 3 ) and thyroxine (T 4 ) when compared with the control group. The testosterone and corticosterone levels were significantly decreased in rats treated with chromium picolinate for 60 days. Insulin level was significantly increased in treated rats for 60 days when compared with the control ones. In obese rats, the lipid profile and corticosterone were significantly increased at 30 and 60 days, while the insulin levels were increased in obese rats fed on high fat diet for 30 days as compared with the control rats. The administration of chromium picolinate to obese rats succeeded to decrease the lipid profile, corticosterone (at 60 days) and insuline (at 30 days) when compared with the obese rats. It could be concluded from this study that chromium picolinate possess beneficial effects in decreasing lipid profile in obese rats. Therefore, additional of chromium picolinate may be useful in obese rats to burn excess body fat and in treatment of hypercholesterolemia. Since it cause decrease in testosterone level, its use was advised to restrict to relatively old age

  17. Sodium Orthovanadate and Trigonella Foenum Graecum Prevents Neuronal Parameters Decline and Impaired Glucose Homeostasis in Alloxan Diabetic Rats

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    Pardeep Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hyperglycemia is the most important contributor in the onset and progress of diabetic complications mainly by producing oxidative stress. The present study was carried out to observe, the antihyperglycemic effect of sodium orthovanadate (SOV and Trigonella foenum graecum seed powder (TSP administration on blood glucose and insulin levels, membrane linked enzymes (monoamine oxidase, acetylcholinesterase, Ca2+ATPase, intracellular calcium (Ca2+ levels, lipid peroxidation, membrane fluidity and neurolipofuscin accumulation in brain of the alloxan induced diabetic rats and to see whether the treatment with SOV and TSP was capable of reversing the diabetic effects. Diabetes was induced by administration of alloxan monohydrate (15 mg/100 g body weight and rats were treated with 2 IU insulin, 0.6 mg/ml SOV, 5% TSP in the diet and a combination of 0.2 mg/ml SOV and 5% TSP separately for three weeks. Diabetic rats showed hyperglycemia with almost four fold high blood glucose levels. Activities of acetylcholinesterase and Ca2+ATPase decreased in diabetic rat brain. Diabetic rats exhibited an increased level of intracellular Ca2+ levels, lipid peroxidation, neurolipofuscin accumulations and monoamine oxidase activity. Treatment of diabetic rats with insulin, TSP, SOV and a combined therapy of lower dose of SOV with TSP revived normoglycemia and restored the altered level of membrane bound enzymes, lipid peroxidation and neurolipofuscin accumulation. Our results showed that lower doses of SOV (0.2 mg/ml could be used in combination with TSP in normalization of altered metabolic parameters and membrane linked enzymes without any harmful side effect.

  18. Sodium Orthovanadate and Trigonella Foenum Graecum Prevents Neuronal Parameters Decline and Impaired Glucose Homeostasis in Alloxan Diabetic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Pardeep; Taha, Asia; Kumar, Nitin; Kumar, Vinod; Baquer, Najma Zaheer

    2015-01-01

    Hyperglycemia is the most important contributor in the onset and progress of diabetic complications mainly by producing oxidative stress. The present study was carried out to observe, the antihyperglycemic effect of sodium orthovanadate (SOV) and Trigonella foenum graecum seed powder (TSP) administration on blood glucose and insulin levels, membrane linked enzymes (monoamine oxidase, acetylcholinesterase, Ca2+ATPase), intracellular calcium (Ca2+) levels, lipid peroxidation, membrane fluidity and neurolipofuscin accumulation in brain of the alloxan induced diabetic rats and to see whether the treatment with SOV and TSP was capable of reversing the diabetic effects. Diabetes was induced by administration of alloxan monohydrate (15 mg/100 g body weight) and rats were treated with 2 IU insulin, 0.6 mg/ml SOV, 5% TSP in the diet and a combination of 0.2 mg/ml SOV and 5% TSP separately for three weeks. Diabetic rats showed hyperglycemia with almost four fold high blood glucose levels. Activities of acetylcholinesterase and Ca2+ATPase decreased in diabetic rat brain. Diabetic rats exhibited an increased level of intracellular Ca2+ levels, lipid peroxidation, neurolipofuscin accumulations and monoamine oxidase activity. Treatment of diabetic rats with insulin, TSP, SOV and a combined therapy of lower dose of SOV with TSP revived normoglycemia and restored the altered level of membrane bound enzymes, lipid peroxidation and neurolipofuscin accumulation. Our results showed that lower doses of SOV (0.2 mg/ml) could be used in combination with TSP in normalization of altered metabolic parameters and membrane linked enzymes without any harmful side effect.

  19. Impact of electronic-cigarette refill liquid on rat testis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Golli, N; Rahali, D; Jrad-Lamine, A; Dallagi, Y; Jallouli, M; Bdiri, Y; Ba, N; Lebret, M; Rosa, J P; El May, M; El Fazaa, S

    2016-07-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are becoming the fashionable alternative to decrease tobacco smoking, although their impact on health has not been fully assessed yet. The present study was designed to compare the impact of e-cigarette refill liquid (e-liquid) without nicotine to e-liquid with nicotine on rat testis. For this purpose, e-liquid with nicotine and e-liquid without nicotine (0.5 mg/kg of body weight) were administered to adult male Wistar rats via the intraperitoneally route during four weeks. Results showed that e-liquid with or without nicotine leads to diminished sperm density and viability, such as a decrease in testicular lactate dehydrogenase activity and testosterone level. Furthermore, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis identified a reduction in cytochrome P450 side-chain cleavage (P450 scc) and 17 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17βHSD) mRNA level, two key enzymes of steroidogenesis. Following e-liquid exposure, histopathological examination showed alterations in testis tissue marked by germ cells desquamation, disorganization of the tubular contents of testis and cell deposits in seminiferous tubules. Finally, analysis of oxidative stress status pointed an outbreak of antioxidant enzyme activities such as superoxide dismutase, catalase and gluthatione-S-transferase, as well as an important increase in sulfhydril group content. Taken together, these results indicate that e-liquid per se induces toxicity in Wistar rat testis, similar to e-liquid with nicotine, by disrupting oxidative balance and steroidogenesis.

  20. The Effect of the [mu]-Opioid Receptor Antagonist Naloxone on Extinction of Conditioned Fear in the Developing Rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jee Hyun; Richardson, Rick

    2009-01-01

    Several recent studies report that neurotransmitters that are critically involved in extinction in adult rats are not important for extinction in young rats. Specifically, pretest injection of the [gamma]-aminobutryic acid (GABA) receptor inverse agonist FG7142 has no effect on extinction in postnatal day (P)17 rats, although it reverses…

  1. Agmatine ameliorates adjuvant induced arthritis and inflammatory cachexia in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taksande, Brijesh G; Gawande, Dinesh Y; Chopde, Chandrabhan T; Umekar, Milind J; Kotagale, Nandkishor R

    2017-02-01

    The present study investigated the pharmacological effect of agmatine in Complete Freud Adjuvant (CFA) induced arthritis and cachexia in rats. The rats were injected with CFA (0.1ml/rat) to induced symptoms of arthritis. Day 8 onwards of CFA administration, rats were injected daily with agmatine for next 7days, and arthritis score, body weights and food intake were monitored daily (g). Since cachexia is known to produce severe inflammation, malnutrition and inhibition of albumin gene expression, we have also monitored the total proteins, albumin, TNF-α and IL-6 levels in arthritic rats and its modulation by agmatine. In the present study, CFA treated rats showed a progressive reduction in both food intake and body weight. In addition analysis of blood serum of arthritis animals showed a significant reduction in proteins and albumin and significant elevation in tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and Interleukins (IL)-6. Chronic agmatine (20-40mg/kg, ip) treatment not only attenuated the signs of arthritis but also reverses anorexia and body weight loss in CFA treated rats. In addition, agmatine restored total protein and albumin and reduces TNF-α and IL-6 levels in arthritis rats. These results suggest that agmatine administration can prevent the body weights loss and symptoms of arthritis via inhibition of inflammatory cytokines. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Histopathological changes induced by Electromagnetic Radiation on Rat changes induced by Electromagnetic Radiation on Rat Skin before and after Silymarin and Vitamin E treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, N.F.; Elkady, A.

    2013-01-01

    People in industrial and developing countries are exposed to large variety of environmental influencing agents including chemical, air, water and food pollution. Also physical harmful agents such as ultraviolet radiation, and electromagnetic radiation especially by cell phones. Our aim in this study was to investigate the effect of electromagnetic radiation on the skin of male albino rats and the role of silymarin and Vitamin E as skin protectors. The male rats were grouped into 8 groups :1-Control group, 2-Irradiated group, groups 3,4,5 are irradiated with silymarin administration, irradiated with Vitamin E administration, irradiated with silymarin and Vitamin E administration groups respectively. The remaining three groups (6, 7, 8) served as healthy control with antioxidants administration. Paraffin sections stained with Hematoxylin and Eosin stain was used for showing microscopic changes. Following irradiation, the results showed dystrophic changes in the skin represented by atrophy of epidermal layers with absence of stratum corneum and epidermal vesicles formation. Collagen fibres were disorganized and appeared more eosinophilic and homogenous. Loss of skin appendages, lysis of collagen and edematous tissues were also observed in the dermal layer. Following administration of silymarin and Vitamin E the results showed improvement of the skin texture, while edema was still observed. conclusion: Treatment by silymarin alone or Vitamin E alone did not restore the damaging effect of electromagnetic radiation on rat skin. But when both antioxidants were given following radiation-exposure there were marked improvements on morphological structure of rat skin. These results indicate the importance of both silymarin and Vitamin E as protectors from the harmful effect of electromagnetic radiation on skin.

  3. Daily chronomics of proteomic profile in aging and rotenone-induced Parkinson's disease model in male Wistar rat and its modulation by melatonin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagota, Anita; Mattam, Ushodaya

    2017-08-01

    Aging is associated with changes in several basic parameters of circadian timing system (CTS) in mammals leading to circadian dysfunction. We had reported earlier that upon aging and in rotenone induced Parkinson's disease (RIPD) rat model there were significant alterations in the core clock genes expression levels and daily pulses. To identify biomarkers of aging and PD chronomics of proteomic day-night profiles in suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), pineal and substantia nigra (SN) in 3 month (m), 12, 24 m and RIPD rat model were studied at two time points i.e. Zeitgeber Time (ZT)-6 (mid-day) and ZT-18 (mid-night). Proteome analysis was done by using two dimensional (2-D) electrophoresis and the spots showing robust day-night variations were identified by using MALDI TOF/TOF analysis. In 3 m rats the number of proteins showing day-night variations were relatively more than 12, 24 m and RIPD rat model in SCN and SN. But in pineal there was increase in number of protein spots showing day-night variations in 24 m. Mass spectroscopy of the protein spots showing robust day night variation in aging and RIPD rats were identified. As melatonin, a multitasking molecule, an endogenous synchronizer of rhythm, an antioxidant and an antiaging drug, declines with aging, the effects of melatonin administration on differential alterations in chronomics of 2-D protein profiles in aging and RIPD male Wistar rats were studied. We report here that the melatonin could be playing an important role in modulating the chronomics of 2-D protein profiles. Additionally, various proteins were identified for the first time in this study showing significant day night variation in SCN, pineal and SN may prove useful towards targeting novel treatments for circadian dysfunction, good health and longevity.

  4. Resident intruder paradigm-induced aggression relieves depressive-like behaviors in male rats subjected to chronic mild stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Sheng; Ji, Xiao-wei; Wu, Chun-ling; Li, Zi-fa; Sun, Peng; Wang, Jie-qiong; Zhao, Qi-tao; Gao, Jie; Guo, Ying-hui; Sun, Shi-guang; Qiao, Ming-qi

    2014-01-01

    Background Accumulating epidemiological evidence shows that life event stressors are major vulnerability factors for psychiatric diseases such as major depression. It is also well known that the resident intruder paradigm (RIP) results in aggressive behavior in male rats. However, it is not known how resident intruder paradigm-induced aggression affects depressive-like behavior in isolated male rats subjected to chronic mild stress (CMS), which is an animal model of depression. Material/Methods Male Wistar rats were divided into 3 groups: non-stressed controls, isolated rats subjected to the CMS protocol, and resident intruder paradigm-exposed rats subjected to the CMS protocol. Results In the sucrose intake test, ingestion of a 1% sucrose solution by rats in the CMS group was significantly lower than in control and CMS+RIP rats after 3 weeks of stress. In the open-field test, CMS rats had significantly lower open-field scores compared to control rats. Furthermore, the total scores given the CMS group were significantly lower than in the CMS+RIP rats. In the forced swimming test (FST), the immobility times of CMS rats were significantly longer than those of the control or CMS+RIP rats. However, no differences were observed between controls and CMS+RIP rats. Conclusions Our data show that aggressive behavior evoked by the resident intruder paradigm could relieve broad-spectrum depressive-like behaviors in isolated adult male rats subjected to CMS. PMID:24911067

  5. The effect of chronic nitric oxide inhibition on vascular reactivity and blood pressure in pregnant rats

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    Nilton Hideto Takiuti

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: The exact mechanism involved in changes in blood pressure and peripheral vascular resistance during pregnancy is unknown. OBJECTIVE:To evaluate the importance of endothelium-derivated relaxing factor (EDRF and its main component, nitric oxide, in blood pressure and vascular reactivity in pregnant rats. DESIGN: Clinical trial in experimentation animals. SETTING: University laboratory of Pharmacology. SAMPLE: Female Wistar rats with normal blood pressure, weight (152 to 227 grams and age (90 to 116 days. INTERVENTION: The rats were divided in to four groups: pregnant rats treated with L-NAME (13 rats; pregnant control rats (8 rats; virgin rats treated with L-NAME (10 rats; virgin control rats (12 rats. The vascular preparations and caudal blood pressure were obtained at the end of pregnancy, or after the administration of L-NAME in virgin rats. MAIN MEASUREMENTS: The caudal blood pressure and the vascular response to acetylcholine in pre-contracted aortic rings, both with and without endothelium, and the effect of nitric oxide inhibition, Nw-L-nitro-arginine methyl-ester (L-NAME, in pregnant and virgin rats. The L-NAME was administered in the drinking water over a 10-day period. RESULTS: The blood pressure decreased in pregnancy. Aortic rings of pregnant rats were more sensitive to acetylcholine than those of virgin rats. After L-NAME treatment, the blood pressure increased and relaxation was blocked in both groups. The fetal-placental unit weight of the L-NAME group was lower than that of the control group. CONCLUSION: Acetylcholine-induced vasorelaxation sensitivity was greater in pregnant rats and that blood pressure increased after L-NAME administration while the acetylcholine-induced vasorelaxation response was blocked.

  6. Effect of radiation on rat skin collagen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nogami, Akira

    1980-01-01

    I. Albino male rats were exposed for 16 weeks to ultraviolet light (UVL) which has principle emission at 305 nm. There were no significant changes between control and UVL-exposed skins in the total hydroxyproline content. However, a little increase of citrate-soluble collagen, a little decrease of insoluble collagen and a decrease of aldehyde content in soluble collagen were observed with UVL exposure. Total acid glycosaminoglycan in skin increased 30% or more from control. These results show that the effect of UVL on rat skin in vivo was merely inflammation phenomenon and that the 'aging' process of skin was not caused in our experimental conditions. II. The effects of radiation on the solubility of rat skin collagen were examined under various conditions. 1) When intact rats were exposed to a single dose of radiation from 43 kVp X-ray source, the solubility in skin collagen did not change at 4,000 R dosage, while in irradiation of 40,000 R a decreased solubility in collagen was observed. When rats were given 400 R a week for 12 weeks, there was no changes in the solubility of collagen during experimental period. 2) In vitro exposure to skins, an irradiation of 40,000 R from 43 kVp X-ray source caused a decrease in the solubility of collagen. While an irradiation of 40,000 R of dosage from 200 kVp X-ray source resulted in the increase in soluble collagen and the decrease in insoluble collagen. 3) When intact rats were given a single dose of 40,000 R from 60 Co- gamma -ray, insoluble collagen decreased in both young and adult rats. Similar changes in collagen solubility were observed in vitro gamma -irradiation. (author)

  7. Hyperbaric Oxygen therapy effects on bone regeneration in Type 1 diabetes mellitus in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Pâmella Coelho; Limirio, Pedro Henrique Justino Oliveira; Linhares, Camila Rodrigues Borges; Bergamini, Mariana Lobo; Rocha, Flaviana Soares; Morais, Richarlisson Borges de; Balbi, Ana Paula Coelho; Hiraki, Karen Renata Nakamura; Dechichi, Paula

    2018-01-29

    The aim of this study was evaluate the effect of HBO on diabetic rats. Twenty rats were distributed into four groups (n = 5): Control (C); Control + HBO (CH); Diabetes (D) and Diabetes + HBO (DH). Diabetes was induced by streptozotocin, and bone defects were created in both femurs in all animals. HBO therapy began immediately after surgery and was performed daily in the CH and DH groups. After 7 days, the animals were euthanized. The femurs were removed, demineralized, embedded in paraffin, and histologic images were analyzed. Qualitative histologic analyses showed more advanced stage bone regeneration in control groups (C and CH) compared with diabetic groups (D and DH). Histomorphometric analysis showed significantly increased bone neoformation in CH compared with the other groups (p  0.05). The mast cell population increased in CH compared with the other groups (C, D, and DH) (p < 0.05). The mast cell population did not differ between D and DH Groups. This study showed that HBO therapy improved early bone regeneration in diabetic rats and increased the mast cell population only in non-diabetic animals. HBO was shown to be important treatment for minimizing deleterious effects of diabetes on bone regeneration.

  8. AND/OR Importance Sampling

    OpenAIRE

    Gogate, Vibhav; Dechter, Rina

    2012-01-01

    The paper introduces AND/OR importance sampling for probabilistic graphical models. In contrast to importance sampling, AND/OR importance sampling caches samples in the AND/OR space and then extracts a new sample mean from the stored samples. We prove that AND/OR importance sampling may have lower variance than importance sampling; thereby providing a theoretical justification for preferring it over importance sampling. Our empirical evaluation demonstrates that AND/OR importance sampling is ...

  9. Beneficial effects of enrichment of chicken meat with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, vitamin E and selenium on health parameters: a study on male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konieczka, P; Rozbicka-Wieczorek, A J; Czauderna, M; Smulikowska, S

    2017-08-01

    Consumption of chicken meat enriched with bioactive compounds such as n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAn-3), vitamin E (vE) and selenium (Se) can help prevent many diseases and can be used to deliver those substances to humans. This might be of importance as chicken meat consumption is increasing worldwide. The effects of enriching chicken meat with PUFAn-3, vE and Se through dietary interventions were studied in rats. Four groups of Ross 308 female broilers from day 22 to day 35 of age were fed control diet (L) that contained lard and 80 mg vE and 0.3 mg Se/kg, or diets that contained rape seeds and fish oil with the same level of Se and vE as in the control diet, the same level of Se as in the control and 150 mg vE/kg, or 150 mg of vE and 0.7 mg Se/kg. Broiler carcasses were boiled, deboned, lyophilized and pooled by group. Boiled edible components of chicken carcass (BECC) were included (240 g/kg) in the diets fed to four groups of ten 10-week-old Wistar male rats for 8 weeks. Inclusion of BECCs modulated dietary fatty acid profile in the rat diets. Feeding these diets did not influence parameters related to growth or relative weights of internal organs in the rats. Feeding BECCs with lower PUFAn-6/n-3 decreased the n-6/n-3 ratio in the rat brain and liver, and increased the proportion of docosahexaenoic acid in the brain lipids. Liver cholesterol level was similar among the experimental groups, whereas the concentration of vE in the liver of rats fed BECC with increased vE levels was higher than that in the rats fed BECC with the basal vE level. Haematological and biochemical parameters in blood were within the normal range for rats, but a few rats showed a tendency towards increased levels because of the higher vE and Se level. The health-promoting effect of feeding rats PUFAn-3 enriched BECC was more pronounced when an increased dietary level of vE was used, but the increased level of Se did not provide the rats with additional benefits. Thus, the

  10. The effect of D2 agonist versus D2 antagonist on the fear behavior in the male rats using plus-maze method: the prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabzehkhah S

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: Dopaminergic is the most important neurotransmitter is fear. The dopaminergic mesolimbic pathway has essential role in excitable behavior, and it's role in Parkinson disease. The aim of this research in study, the effect of dopaminergic pathway in fear response. "n"nMethods: The elevated plus maze was used in combination with the percentage of time spent in the open arms of the maze (OAT% and the percentage of entries into the open arms (OAE% to measure fear. Increases in the OAT% and OAE% indicate an anxiolytic effect (reduction in anxiety, whereas decreases in the OAE% and OAT% indicate an anxiogenic effect. After five days, the rats were injected with saline and different doses of sulpiride and Bromocriptine."n"nResults: Results showed that intracerebroventricular administration of sulpiride, in the doses of 5, 20μg/rat and bromocriptine, D2 agonist in doses 65, 95μg/rat produced a significant effect comparing to sham groups (p<0.05. While intracerebroventricular administration of sulpiride 15, 10μg/rat, and bromocriptine 70, 80μg/rat, did not show any significant effect comparing with sham group (p<0.05. In the current research intracerebroventricular administration of sulpiride, D2 antagonist at the doses of 5, 10, 15, 20μg/rat and Bromocriptine, D2 agonist in the doses of 65, 70, 80, 95μg/rat were used and theire effect on the fear behavior were studied. "n"nConclusions: The possible effect of Dopaminergic system in the fear process, especially D2 receptor increase fear.

  11. Circadian rhythms on skin function of hairless rats: light and thermic influences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flo, Ana; Díez-Noguera, Antoni; Calpena, Ana C; Cambras, Trinitat

    2014-03-01

    Circadian rhythms are present in most functions of living beings. We have demonstrated the presence of circadian rhythms in skin variables (transepidermal water loss, TEWL; stratum corneum hydration, SCH; and skin temperature) in hairless rats under different environmental conditions of light and temperature. Circadian rhythms in TEWL and SCH showed mean