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Sample records for rats receiving cums

  1. Chronic antidepressant administration alleviates frontal and hippocampal BDNF deficits in CUMS rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yang; Gu, Fenghua; Chen, Jia; Dong, Wenxin

    2010-12-17

    Stress activates the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, regulates the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the brain, and mediates mood. Antidepressants alleviate stress and up-regulate BDNF gene expression. In this study, we investigated the effect of chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) and the different kinds of antidepressant treatments on the HPA axis and the BDNF expression in the rat brain. Adult Wistar male rats were exposed to a six-week CUMS procedure and received different antidepressant treatments including venlafaxine, mirtazapine, and fluoxetine. Immunohistochemistry and real-time PCR were used to measure BDNF expression levels in the rat brain, and ELISAs were used to investigate the plasma corticosterone (CORT) and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) levels. CUMS significantly decreased the BDNF protein level in the DG, CA1, and CA3 of the hippocampus and increased plasma CORT level. Chronic antidepressant treatments all significantly increased BDNF protein levels in the hippocampus and the pre-frontal cortex. In addition, venlafaxine and mirtazapine inhibited the increase of plasma CORT level. These results suggested that an increase in the BDNF level in the brain could be a pivotal mechanism of various antidepressants to exert their therapeutic effects. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. A simple LC-MS/MS method for quantitative analysis of underivatized neurotransmitters in rats urine: assay development, validation and application in the CUMS rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Xue-jia; Chen, Fen; Zhu, Chao-ran; Lu, Yong-ning

    2015-11-01

    Many amino acid neurotransmitters in urine are associated with chronic stress as well as major depressive disorders. To better understand depression, an analytical LC-MS/MS method for the simultaneous determination of 11 underivatized neurotransmitters (4-aminohippurate, 5-HIAA, glutamate, glutamine, hippurate, pimelate, proline, tryptophan, tyramine, tyrosine and valine) in a single analytical run was developed. The advantage of this method is the simple preparation in that there is no need to deconjugate the urine samples. The quantification range was 25-12,800 ng mL(-1) with >85.8% recovery for all analytes. The nocturnal urine concentrations of the 11 neurotransmitters in chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) model rats and control group (n = 12) were analyzed. A series of significant changes in urinary excretion of neurotransmitters could be detected: the urinary glutamate, glutamine, hippurate and tyramine concentrations were significantly lower in the CUMS group. In addition, the urinary concentrations of tryptophan as well as tyrosine were significantly higher in chronically stressed rats. This method allows the assessment of the neurotransmitters associated with CUMS in rat urine in a single analytical run, making it suitable for implementation as a routine technique in depression research. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. BDNF/TrkB Pathway Mediates the Antidepressant-Like Role of H2S in CUMS-Exposed Rats by Inhibition of Hippocampal ER Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Le; Kan, Li-Yuan; Zeng, Hai-Ying; Tang, Yi-Yun; Huang, Hong-Lin; Xie, Ming; Zou, Wei; Wang, Chun-Yan; Zhang, Ping; Tang, Xiao-Qing

    2018-06-01

    Our previous works have shown that hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) significantly attenuates chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS)-induced depressive-like behaviors and hippocampal endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) generates an antidepressant-like effect by its receptor tyrosine protein kinase B (TrkB). We have previously found that H 2 S upregulates the expressions of BDNF and p-TrkB in the hippocampus of CUMS-exposed rats. Therefore, the present work was to explore whether BDNF/TrkB pathway mediates the antidepressant-like role of H 2 S by blocking hippocampal ER stress. We found that treatment with K252a (an inhibitor of BDNF/TrkB pathway) significantly increased the immobility time in the forced swim test and tail suspension test and increased the latency to feed in the novelty-suppressed feeding test in the rats cotreated with sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS, a donor of H 2 S) and CUMS. Similarly, K252a reversed the protective effect of NaHS against CUMS-induced hippocampal ER stress, as evidenced by increases in the levels of ER stress-related proteins, glucose-regulated protein 78, CCAAT/enhancer binding protein homologous protein and cleaved caspase-12. Taken together, our results suggest that BDNF/TrkB pathway plays an important mediatory role in the antidepressant-like action of H 2 S in CUMS-exposed rats, which is by suppression of hippocampal ER stress. These data provide a novel mechanism underlying the protection of H 2 S against CUMS-induced depressive-like behaviors.

  4. Fifty years of Jaynes-Cummings physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greentree, Andrew D.; Koch, Jens; Larson, Jonas

    2013-11-01

    This special issue commemorates the 50th anniversary of the seminal paper published by E T Jaynes and F W Cummings [1], the fundamental model which they introduced and now carries their names, and celebrates the remarkable host of exciting research on Jaynes-Cummings physics throughout the last five decades. The Jaynes-Cummings model has been taking the prominent stance as the 'hydrogen atom of quantum optics' [2]. Generally speaking, it provides a fundamental quantum description of the simplest form of coherent radiation-matter interaction. The Jaynes-Cummings model describes the interaction between a single electromagnetic mode confined to a cavity, and a two-level atom. Energy is exchanged between the field and the atom, which leads directly to coherent population oscillations (Rabi oscillations) and superposition states (dressed states). Being exactly solvable, the Jaynes-Cummings model serves as a most useful toy model, and as such it is a textbook example of the physicists' popular strategy of simplifying a complex problem to its most elementary constituents. Thanks to the simplicity of the Jaynes-Cummings model, this caricature of coherent light-matter interactions has never lost its appeal. The Jaynes-Cummings model is essential when discussing experiments in quantum electrodynamics (indeed the experimental motivation of the Jaynes-Cummings model was evident already in the original paper, dealing as it does with the development of the maser), and it has formed the starting point for much fruitful research ranging from ultra-cold atoms to cavity quantum electrodynamics. In fact, Jaynes-Cummings physics is at the very heart of the beautiful experiments by S Haroche and D Wineland, which recently earned them the 2012 Nobel Prize in physics. Indeed, as with most significant models in physics, the model is invoked in settings that go far beyond its initial framework. For example, recent investigations involving multi-level atoms, multiple atoms [3, 4], multiple

  5. Concurrence of three Jaynes-Cummings systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiang, Wen-Chao; Sun, Guo-Hua; Dong, Qian; Camacho-Nieto, Oscar; Dong, Shi-Hai

    2018-04-01

    We apply genuine multipartite concurrence to investigate entanglement properties of three Jaynes-Cummings systems. Three atoms are initially put in GHZ-like state and locally interact with three independent cavities, respectively. We present analytical concurrence expressions for various subsystems including three-atom, three-cavity and some atom-cavity mixed systems. We also examine the global system and illustrate the evolution of its concurrence. Except for the sudden death of entanglement, we find for some initial entanglement parameter θ , the concurrence of the global system may maintain unchanged in some time intervals.

  6. [Hematologic indices in different age wistar rats, receiving a balanced semi-synthetic vivary diet].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafina, O K; Trushina, É N; Shumakova, E A; Arianova, E A; Tyshko, N V; Pashorina, V A

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the results of research of hematologic parameters of male Wistar rats 1, 2, 3, 4 and 6 months age, which received a balanced semisynthetic diet. Studies were carried out at the Hematology analyzer Coulter AC TTM 5 diff OV (Beckman Coulter, USA) with the program, specially developed for the study of rats' blood. According to the results of research, was found a statistically significant increased of the number of red blood cells; the concentration of hemoglobin and hematocrit in animals 2-6 months compared with rats, 1 month age. With age, there is a decrease of the mean corpuscular volume and the mean corpuscular hemoglobin. The number of white blood cells in rats of 2-4 months age are significantly higher than in rats of 1 and 6 months age. The number of neutrophils and eosinophils in rats of to the 2 month are of is lover than once in rats of 1 month age, and increases values in animals of 6 months age. The number of lymphocytes has the highest value in the rat of 2-3 months age and the minimum value is that in animals of 6 months age. With increasing of the age of the animals the reduction of contents of monocytes was noted. The content of platelets and the platelet crit in the blood of rats 6 months age is statistically greater than those in 1-month age animals. The average volume of platelet is the stable index, with age does not change.

  7. Economic differential of integrated fish, rice cum piggery and fish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fish, rice cum piggery and fish, rice cum poultry production integration platforms were set up to perfect the ideas of integrated fish farming in Sierra Leone. Water quality parameters measured biweekly included: dissolved oxygen, water temperature, pH, water hardness, water alkalinity, ammonia, nitrate, BOD and nitrite.

  8. Cummings/Ju - Harvard; Emory | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Principal Investigator: Richard D Cummings, PhDInstitution: Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA Principal Investigator: Tongzhong Ju, MD, PhDInstitution: Emory University, Atlanta, GA |

  9. Advanced adsorption cooling cum desalination cycle: A thermodynamic framework

    KAUST Repository

    Chakraborty, Anutosh; Thu, Kyaw; Ng, K. C.

    2011-01-01

    We have developed a thermodynamic framework to calculate adsorption cooling cum desalination cycle performances as a function of pore widths and pore volumes of highly porous adsorbents, which are formulated from the rigor of thermodynamic property

  10. Influence of different doses of octenidine hexafluorosilicate on parodontotium state of rat, which received cariesogenic ration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Yu. Anisimov

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To determine of parodontium state of rat, which received cariesogenic ration and different doses of octenidine hexafluorosilicate (O-HFS. Methods: The octenidine hexafluorosilicate was synthesized by us and was used into mucoso-adgesive gels (Na-CMC in next concentrations: 1 mg/ml, 2 mg/ml and 4 mg/ml. The rats received high-sugar cariesogenic ration and oral applications of gels with O-HFS in doses of 0,3 ml (daily doses of O-HFS were 1,4 mg/kg, 2,8 mg/kg and 5,6 mg/kg. The duration of experiment was 35 days. The activities of urease, lysozyme and elastase were determined into gum. The activities of urease, lysozyme, ALT and alkaline phosphatase (APh were determined into serum. The degree of dysbiosis calculated by ration urease and lysozyme. The degree of atrophy of parodontale bone was determined by Nicolaeva method. Results: The activities of elastase and urease, the degree of atrophy and dysbiosis were raised into gum of rat, which received cariesogenic ration. The activities of ALT and APh, the degree of dysbiosis were raised into serum. The oral application of O-HFS-gels decreased the all these indices. The maximal action made O-HFS-gel in dose 2,8 mg/kg. Conclusion: The oral application of O-HFS-gel make parodontoprotective action.

  11. [Pediamécum: one year of experience].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piñeiro Pérez, R; Martínez Fernández-Llamazares, C; Calvo Rey, C; Piñeiro Pérez, A P; Criado Vega, E A; Bravo Acuña, J; Cabrera García, L; Mellado Peña, M J

    2014-10-01

    In 2011, the Spanish Association of Pediatrics decided to support the most ambitious project of its newly created Committee for Medicinal Products: Pediamécum. This is the first free on-line database with information on medicinal products for pediatric use in Spain. The web page http://pediamecum.es/ started on December 17 December 2012. One year later, Pediamécum includes 580 registered drugs. The website achieved more than one million page views by the end of 2013. Because of the first anniversary of Pediamécum, a survey was performed to request the feeling of users. Four hundred eighty-three responses were obtained. Ninety-five percent believed that it is easy to navigate through the web, and 74% said that their doubts about the use of medicines in children were always resolved. The overall rating of Pediamécum is 7.5/10. The aims of Pediamécum are being accomplished; which is reflected essentially due to it becoming a useful tool for all professionals who care for children in their daily clinical practice. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  12. Generalized Jaynes-Cummings model as a quantum search algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romanelli, A.

    2009-01-01

    We propose a continuous time quantum search algorithm using a generalization of the Jaynes-Cummings model. In this model the states of the atom are the elements among which the algorithm realizes the search, exciting resonances between the initial and the searched states. This algorithm behaves like Grover's algorithm; the optimal search time is proportional to the square root of the size of the search set and the probability to find the searched state oscillates periodically in time. In this frame, it is possible to reinterpret the usual Jaynes-Cummings model as a trivial case of the quantum search algorithm.

  13. Effects of CO(2) pneumoperitoneum on anastomotic healing in rats receiving preoperative 5-fluorouracil neoadjuvant chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulas, Murat; Ozer, Ilter; Ercan, Metin; Ozogul, Yusuf B; Bostanci, E Birol; Keklik, Tulay Temucin; Turkcu, Ummuhani Ozel; Bilgihan, Ayse; Akoglu, Musa

    2009-01-01

    When used separately, antineoplastic agents and carbon dioxide (CO(2)) pneumoperitoneum have been reported to impair anastomotic healing in experimental animals. However, the effects of their combined use have not been previously investigated. The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility that neoadjuvant chemotherapy with 5-fluorouracil followed by CO(2) pneumoperitoneum would affect the healing of anastomoses in the colon. Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 48) were given 5-fluorouracil (20 mg/kg/day) for 5 days, and were then assigned to one of the three groups. Prior to surgery, the control group received no pneumoperitoneum. The other two groups received pneumoperitoneum at 6 and 12 mmHg, respectively, for 2 hr. The large intestine was transected and anastomosis was performed via median laparotomy. On postoperative days 3 and 7, relaparotomy was performed in half of the rats in each group. From the colon, a segment including the anastomosis was excised. Tissue hydroxyproline levels were measured. For histological evaluation, the Verhofstad scale was modified and used. No significant differences in hydroxyproline levels were seen across the groups on postoperative days 3 or 7. However, by postoperative day 7, polymorphonuclear leukocytes and necrosis in the 6-mmHg group had decreased markedly, and granulation had improved. Overall, these findings suggest that preoperative 5-fluorouracil therapy followed by pneumoperitoneum at 6 or 12 mmHg does not impair anastomotic healing.

  14. Gravitational Jaynes–Cummings model beyond the rotating wave

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper, the quantum properties of a two-level atom and the cavity-field in the Jaynes–Cummings model with the gravity beyond the rotating wave approximation are investigated. For this purpose, by solving the Schrödinger equation in the interaction picture, the evolving state of the system is found by which the ...

  15. Evaluation of the pharmacokinetics and cardiotoxicity of doxorubicin in rat receiving nilotinib

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Zhi-yong; Wan, Li-li; Yang, Quan-jun; Han, Yong-long; Li, Yan; Yu, Qi; Guo, Cheng; Li, Xiao

    2013-01-01

    Doxorubicin (DOX) is a potent chemotherapy drug with a narrow therapeutic window. Nilotinib, a small-molecule Bcr-Abl tyrosine kinase inhibitor, was reported to reverse multidrug resistance (MDR) mediated by P-glycoprotein (P-gp) transmembrane transporters. The present study aimed to investigate nilotinib's affection on the steady-state pharmacokinetics, disposition and cardiotoxicity of DOX. A total of 24 male Sprague–Dawley rats were randomized into four groups (6 in each) and received the following regimens: saline, intravenous DOX (5 mg/kg) alone, and DOX co-administrated with either 20 or 40 mg/kg nilotinib. Blood was withdrawn at 12 time points till 72 h after DOX injection and the concentrations of DOX and its metabolite doxorubicinol (DOXol) in serum and cardiac tissue were assayed by LC–MS–MS method. To determine the cardiotoxicity, the following parameters were investigated: creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, malondialdehyde, and superoxide dismutase. Histopathological examination of heart section was carried out to evaluate the extent of cardiotoxicity after treatments. The results showed that pretreatment of 40 mg/kg nilotinib increased the AUC 0–t and C max of DOX and DOXol. However, their accumulation in cardiac tissue was significantly decreased when compared with the group that received DOX alone. In addition, biochemical and histopathological results showed that 40 mg/kg nilotinib reduced the cardiotoxicity induced by DOX administration. In conclusion, co-administration of nilotinib increased serum exposure, but significantly decreased the accumulation of DOX in cardiac tissue. Consistent with in vitro profile, oral dose of 40 mg/kg nilotinib significantly decreased the cardiotoxicity of DOX in rat by enhancing P-gp activity in the heart

  16. Evaluation of the pharmacokinetics and cardiotoxicity of doxorubicin in rat receiving nilotinib

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Zhi-yong [Department of Pharmacy, Affiliated Sixth People' s Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 200233 Shanghai (China); School of Pharmacy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 200240 Shanghai (China); Wan, Li-li; Yang, Quan-jun; Han, Yong-long; Li, Yan; Yu, Qi [Department of Pharmacy, Affiliated Sixth People' s Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 200233 Shanghai (China); Guo, Cheng, E-mail: guochengphd@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Pharmacy, Affiliated Sixth People' s Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 200233 Shanghai (China); School of Pharmacy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 200240 Shanghai (China); Li, Xiao, E-mail: lixiao3326@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Hematology, Affiliated Sixth people' s Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 200233 Shanghai (China)

    2013-10-01

    Doxorubicin (DOX) is a potent chemotherapy drug with a narrow therapeutic window. Nilotinib, a small-molecule Bcr-Abl tyrosine kinase inhibitor, was reported to reverse multidrug resistance (MDR) mediated by P-glycoprotein (P-gp) transmembrane transporters. The present study aimed to investigate nilotinib's affection on the steady-state pharmacokinetics, disposition and cardiotoxicity of DOX. A total of 24 male Sprague–Dawley rats were randomized into four groups (6 in each) and received the following regimens: saline, intravenous DOX (5 mg/kg) alone, and DOX co-administrated with either 20 or 40 mg/kg nilotinib. Blood was withdrawn at 12 time points till 72 h after DOX injection and the concentrations of DOX and its metabolite doxorubicinol (DOXol) in serum and cardiac tissue were assayed by LC–MS–MS method. To determine the cardiotoxicity, the following parameters were investigated: creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, malondialdehyde, and superoxide dismutase. Histopathological examination of heart section was carried out to evaluate the extent of cardiotoxicity after treatments. The results showed that pretreatment of 40 mg/kg nilotinib increased the AUC{sub 0–t} and C{sub max} of DOX and DOXol. However, their accumulation in cardiac tissue was significantly decreased when compared with the group that received DOX alone. In addition, biochemical and histopathological results showed that 40 mg/kg nilotinib reduced the cardiotoxicity induced by DOX administration. In conclusion, co-administration of nilotinib increased serum exposure, but significantly decreased the accumulation of DOX in cardiac tissue. Consistent with in vitro profile, oral dose of 40 mg/kg nilotinib significantly decreased the cardiotoxicity of DOX in rat by enhancing P-gp activity in the heart.

  17. Proceedings of twelfth ISMAS symposium cum workshop on mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alamelu, D.; Jaison, P.G.; Aggarwal, S.K.

    2007-03-01

    Mass Spectrometry is an important analytical tool and has encompassed almost all branches of science and technology including Agricultural, biology, Chemistry, Earth sciences, environment, Forensic Science, Medical Sciences, Hydrology, Nuclear Technology, Oceanography, Physics etc. Recent advancements in the instrumentation of Mass Spectrometry have further strengthened its role for various applications. It is indeed a matter of great pleasure to present this special Issue of ISMAS Bulletin which is brought out on the occasion of the 12th ISMAS Symposium cum Workshop on Mass spectrometry (12th ISMAS-WS 2007) being held at Cidade-de-Goa, Dona Paula, Goa from March 25 to 30, 2007 in association with National Institute of Oceanography, Goa. This Symposium cum Workshop is co-sponsored by Scientific Departments of Government of India. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately

  18. Dispersive regime of the Jaynes–Cummings and Rabi lattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Guanyu; Koch, Jens; Schmidt, Sebastian

    2013-01-01

    Photon-based strongly correlated lattice models like the Jaynes–Cummings and Rabi lattices differ from their more conventional relatives like the Bose–Hubbard model by the presence of an additional tunable parameter: the frequency detuning between the pseudo-spin degree of freedom and the harmonic mode frequency on each site. Whenever this detuning is large compared to relevant coupling strengths, the system is said to be in the dispersive regime. The physics of this regime is well-understood at the level of a single Jaynes–Cummings or Rabi site. Here, we extend the theoretical description of the dispersive regime to lattices with many sites, for both strong and ultra-strong coupling. We discuss the nature and spatial range of the resulting qubit–qubit and photon–photon coupling, demonstrate the emergence of photon-pairing and squeezing and illustrate our results by exact diagonalization of the Rabi dimer. (paper)

  19. Advanced adsorption cooling cum desalination cycle: A thermodynamic framework

    KAUST Repository

    Chakraborty, Anutosh

    2011-01-01

    We have developed a thermodynamic framework to calculate adsorption cooling cum desalination cycle performances as a function of pore widths and pore volumes of highly porous adsorbents, which are formulated from the rigor of thermodynamic property surfaces of adsorbent-adsorbate system and the adsorption interaction potential between them. Employing the proposed formulations, the coefficient of performance (COP) and overall performance ratio (OPR) of adsorption cycle are computed for various pore widths of solid adsorbents. These results are compared with experimental data for verifying the proposed thermodynamic formulations. It is found from the present analysis that the COP and OPR of adsorption cooling cum desalination cycle is influenced by (i) the physical characteristics of adsorbents, (ii) characteristics energy and (iii) the surface-structural heterogeneity factor of adsorbent-water system. The present study confirms that there exists a special type of adsorbents having optimal physical characteristics that allows us to obtain the best performance.

  20. Generalized Tavis-Cummings models and quantum networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorokhov, A. V.

    2018-04-01

    The properties of quantum networks based on generalized Tavis-Cummings models are theoretically investigated. We have calculated the information transfer success rate from one node to another in a simple model of a quantum network realized with two-level atoms placed in the cavities and interacting with an external laser field and cavity photons. The method of dynamical group of the Hamiltonian and technique of corresponding coherent states were used for investigation of the temporal dynamics of the two nodes model.

  1. Dynamics of pairwise entanglement between two Tavis-Cummings atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Jinliang; Song Heshan

    2008-01-01

    We investigate the time evolution of pairwise entanglement between two Tavis-Cummings atoms for various entangled initial states, including pure and mixed states. We find that the phenomenon of entanglement sudden death behaviors is distinct in the evolution of entanglement for different initial states. What deserves mentioning here is that the initial portion of the excited state in the initial state is responsible for the sudden death of entanglement, and the degree of this effect also depends on the initial states

  2. Collision dynamics of the coherent Jaynes-Cummings model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabello, M.L.C.; Toledo Piza, A.F.R. de.

    1985-01-01

    The anatomy of the dynamics of quantum correlations of two interacting subsystems described by the Jaynes-Cummings Model is studied, making use of a natural states decomposition, following an old suggestion by Schroedinger. The amplitude modulation of the fast Rabi oscillations which occur for a strong, coherent initial field is obtained from the spin intrinsic depolarization resulting from corrections to the mean field approximation. (Author) [pt

  3. Bell-Nonlocality Dynamics of Three Remote Atoms in Tavis—Cummings and Jaynes—Cummings Models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhen Xiu-Lan; Yang Qing; Yang Ming; Cao Zhuo-Liang

    2014-01-01

    We study the Bell-nonlocality dynamics of three remote atoms, two of which are trapped in one single-mode cavity and the third atom is trapped in another remote single-mode cavity. The interactions between the atoms and the cavity modes are studied via Tavis Cummings and Jaynes Cummings models. Here, the two single-mode cavities are introduced to simulate two different enviroments of the three atoms. The tripartite nonlocal correlations are studied in terms of the Svetlichny inequality and the WWZB inequality, respectively. The results show that the tripartite Bell-nonlocality sudden death will occur for the W state and GHZ state initial conditions. The detailed results demonstrate that the tripartite nonlocality of GHZ state is more robust than that of W state when suffering from the effect of environments. (general)

  4. Balancing the dynamic Stark shift in a driven Jaynes-Cummings system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mogilevtsev, D; Kilin, S

    2004-01-01

    In this work we discuss the possibility of balancing a dynamic Shark shift in a Jaynes-Cummings system by simultaneously driving the cavity and the atom with classical fields, of the same frequency. For a lossless Jaynes-Cummings system this can lead to unusual atomic population dynamics. For a lossy Jaynes-Cummings system such balancing can lead to complete suppression of resonance fluorescence even for leaky cavities

  5. An algebraic method to solve the Tavis-Cummings problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vadejko, I.P.; Miroshnichenko, G.P.; Rybin, A.V.; Timonen, J.

    2003-01-01

    We study cooperative behaviour of the system of two-level atoms coupled to a single mode of the electromagnetic field in the resonator. We have developed a general procedure allowing one to rewrite a polynomial deformed SU(2) algebra in terms of another polynomial deformation. Using these methods, we have constructed a perturbation series for the Tavis-Cummings Hamiltonian and diagonalized it in the third order. Based on the zero-order Hamiltonian we calculate the intensity of spontaneous emission of N two-level atoms inside a cavity, which are in thermal equilibrium with the reservoir. The atom-atom correlation determining superradiance in the system is analyzed

  6. Qudit quantum computation in the Jaynes-Cummings model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mischuck, Brian; Mølmer, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    We have developed methods for performing qudit quantum computation in the Jaynes-Cummings model with the qudits residing in a finite subspace of individual harmonic oscillator modes, resonantly coupled to a spin-1/2 system. The first method determines analytical control sequences for the one......- and two-qudit gates necessary for universal quantum computation by breaking down the desired unitary transformations into a series of state preparations implemented with the Law-Eberly scheme [ Law and Eberly Phys. Rev. Lett. 76 1055 (1996)]. The second method replaces some of the analytical pulse...

  7. Sex differences in the stress response in SD rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jing; Wu, Xue-Yan; Zhu, Qiong-Bin; Li, Jia; Shi, Li-Gen; Wu, Juan-Li; Zhang, Qi-Jun; Huang, Man-Li; Bao, Ai-Min

    2015-05-01

    Sex differences play an important role in depression, the basis of which is an excessive stress response. We aimed at revealing the neurobiological sex differences in the same study in acute- and chronically-stressed rats. Female Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into 6 groups: chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS), acute foot shock (FS) and controls, animals in all 3 groups were sacrificed in proestrus or diestrus. Male SD rats were randomly divided into 3 groups: CUMS, FS and controls. Comparisons were made of behavioral changes in CUMS and control rats, plasma levels of corticosterone (CORT), testosterone (T) and estradiol (E2), and of the hypothalamic mRNA-expression of stress-related molecules, i.e. estrogen receptor α and β, androgen receptor, aromatase, mineralocorticoid receptor, glucocorticoid receptor, corticotropin-releasing hormone, arginine vasopressin and oxytocin. CUMS resulted in disordered estrus cycles, more behavioral and hypothalamic stress-related molecules changes and a stronger CORT response in female rats compared with male rats. Female rats also showed decreased E2 and T levels after FS and CUMS, while male FS rats showed increased E2 and male CUMS rats showed decreased T levels. Stress affects the behavioral, endocrine and the molecular response of the stress systems in the hypothalamus of SD rats in a clear sexual dimorphic way, which has parallels in human data on stress and depression. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Emergent randomness in the Jaynes-Cummings model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garraway, B M; Stenholm, S

    2008-01-01

    We consider the well-known Jaynes-Cummings model and ask if it can display randomness. As a solvable Hamiltonian system, it does not display chaotic behaviour in the ordinary sense. Here, however, we look at the distribution of values taken up during the total time evolution. This evolution is determined by the eigenvalues distributed as the square roots of integers and leads to a seemingly erratic behaviour. That this may display a random Gaussian value distribution is suggested by an exactly provable result by Kac. In order to reach our conclusion we use the Kac model to develop tests for the emergence of a Gaussian. Even if the consequent double limits are difficult to evaluate numerically, we find definite indications that the Jaynes-Cummings case also produces a randomness in its value distributions. Numerical methods do not establish such a result beyond doubt, but our conclusions are definite enough to suggest strongly an unexpected randomness emerging in a dynamic time evolution

  9. High-order motor cortex in rats receives somatosensory inputs from the primary motor cortex via cortico-cortical pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunori, Nobuo; Takashima, Ichiro

    2016-12-01

    The motor cortex of rats contains two forelimb motor areas; the caudal forelimb area (CFA) and the rostral forelimb area (RFA). Although the RFA is thought to correspond to the premotor and/or supplementary motor cortices of primates, which are higher-order motor areas that receive somatosensory inputs, it is unknown whether the RFA of rats receives somatosensory inputs in the same manner. To investigate this issue, voltage-sensitive dye (VSD) imaging was used to assess the motor cortex in rats following a brief electrical stimulation of the forelimb. This procedure was followed by intracortical microstimulation (ICMS) mapping to identify the motor representations in the imaged cortex. The combined use of VSD imaging and ICMS revealed that both the CFA and RFA received excitatory synaptic inputs after forelimb stimulation. Further evaluation of the sensory input pathway to the RFA revealed that the forelimb-evoked RFA response was abolished either by the pharmacological inactivation of the CFA or a cortical transection between the CFA and RFA. These results suggest that forelimb-related sensory inputs would be transmitted to the RFA from the CFA via the cortico-cortical pathway. Thus, the present findings imply that sensory information processed in the RFA may be used for the generation of coordinated forelimb movements, which would be similar to the function of the higher-order motor cortex in primates. © 2016 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Neomercazole protection against radiation-induced changes in bioamines and testicular metabolism of rats during starvation stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasan, S.S.; Kushwaha, A.K.S.

    1987-01-01

    Effect of X rays was studied on normally fed and starved rats vis-a-vis neomercazole, a sulfur containing carbimazone as a chemical radioprotector. Levels of 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid and vinylmandelic acid which were found rising following exposure to X-rays, were significantly curtailed by the treatment with radioprotector in the protected-cum-irradiated rats. Administration of neomercazole offered protection to the testes against radiation injury by increasing alkaline phophatase and cholesterol contents in the testes of drug-treated-cum-irradiated animals. Pretreatment of neomercazole reduced the rate of mortality in the starvation-cum-irradiated animals as compared to the nontreated starvation-cum-irradiated animals. (author)

  11. Generalized Jaynes-Cummings Hamiltonians by shape-invariant hierarchies and their SUSY partners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussin, V; Kuru, S; Negro, J

    2006-01-01

    A generalization of the matrix Jaynes-Cummings model in the rotating wave approximation is proposed by means of the shape-invariant hierarchies of scalar factorized Hamiltonians. A class of Darboux transformations (sometimes called SUSY transformations in this context) suitable for these generalized Jaynes-Cummings models is constructed. Finally one example is worked out using the methods developed

  12. Treadmill exercise attenuates the severity of physical dependence, anxiety, depressive-like behavior and voluntary morphine consumption in morphine withdrawn rats receiving methadone maintenance treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizadeh, Maryam; Zahedi-Khorasani, Mahdi; Miladi-Gorji, Hossein

    2018-05-30

    This study was designed to examine whether treadmill exercise would attenuate the severity of physical dependence, methadone-induced anxiety, depression and voluntary morphine consumption in morphine withdrawn rats receiving methadone maintenance treatment (MMT). The rats were chronically treated with bi-daily doses (10 mg/kg, at 12 h intervals) of morphine for 14 days. The exercising rats receiving MMT were forced to run on a motorized treadmill for 30 days during morphine withdrawal. Then, rats were tested for the severity of morphine dependence, the elevated plus-maze (EPM), sucrose preference test (SPT) and voluntary morphine consumption using a two-bottle choice (TBC) paradigm. The results showed that naloxone- precipitated opioid withdrawal signs were decreased in exercising morphine-dependent rats receiving MMT than sedentary rats. Also, the exercising morphine-dependent rats receiving MMT exhibited an increased time on open arms, preference for sucrose and a lower morphine preference ratio than sedentary rats. We conclude that treadmill exercise decreased the severity of physical dependence, anxiety/depressive-like behaviors and also the voluntary morphine consumption in morphine withdrawn rats receiving MMT. Thus, exercise may benefit in the treatment of addicts during MMT. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. A quantum heat engine based on Tavis-Cummings model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Kai-Wei; Li, Ran; Zhang, Guo-Feng

    2017-09-01

    This paper will investigate a four-stroke quantum heat engine based on the Tavis-Cummings model. The cycle of the heat engine is similar to the Otto cycle in classical thermodynamics. The relationship between output power as well as cycle efficiency and external physical system parameters are given. Under this condition, the entanglement behavior of the system will be studied. The system can show considerable entanglement by strictly controlling relevant parameters. Unlike common two-level quantum heat engines, efficiency is a function of temperature, showing interesting and unexpected phenomena. Several ways to adjust engine properties by external parameters are proposed, with which the output power and efficiency can be optimized. The heat engine model exhibits high efficiency and output power with the participation of a small number of photons, and decay rapidly as the number of photons increases in entangled area but shows interesting behaviors in non-entangled area of photon numbers.

  14. Jaynes-Cummings model and the deformed-oscillator algebra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crnugelj, J.; Martinis, M.; Mikuta-Martinis, V.

    1994-01-01

    We study the time evolution of the deformed Jaynes-Cummings model (DJCM). It is shown that the standard JCM and its recent non-linear generalizations involving the intensity-dependent coupling and/or the multiphoton coupling are only particular cases of the DJCM. The time evolution of the mean phonon number and the population inversion are evaluated. A special case of the q-deformed JCM is analyzed explicitly. The long time quasi-periodic revival effects of the q-deformed JCM are observed for q∼1 and an initially large mean photon number. For other values of the deformation parameter q we observe chaotic-like behaviour of the population inversion. Photons are assumed to be initially in the deformed coherent state. ((orig.))

  15. Entropy exchange and entanglement in the Jaynes-Cummings model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boukobza, E.; Tannor, D.J.

    2005-01-01

    The Jaynes-Cummings model (JCM) is the simplest fully quantum model that describes the interaction between light and matter. We extend a previous analysis by Phoenix and Knight [Ann. Phys. 186, 381 (1988)] of the JCM by considering mixed states of both the light and matter. We present examples of qualitatively different entropic correlations. In particular, we explore the regime of entropy exchange between light and matter, i.e., where the rate of change of the two are anticorrelated. This behavior contrasts with the case of pure light-matter states in which the rate of change of the two entropies are positively correlated and in fact identical. We give an analytical derivation of the anticorrelation phenomenon and discuss the regime of its validity. Finally, we show a strong correlation between the region of the Bloch sphere characterized by entropy exchange and that characterized by minimal entanglement as measured by the negative eigenvalues of the partially transposed density matrix

  16. Grassmann phase space theory and the Jaynes–Cummings model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalton, B.J.; Garraway, B.M.; Jeffers, J.; Barnett, S.M.

    2013-01-01

    The Jaynes–Cummings model of a two-level atom in a single mode cavity is of fundamental importance both in quantum optics and in quantum physics generally, involving the interaction of two simple quantum systems—one fermionic system (the TLA), the other bosonic (the cavity mode). Depending on the initial conditions a variety of interesting effects occur, ranging from ongoing oscillations of the atomic population difference at the Rabi frequency when the atom is excited and the cavity is in an n-photon Fock state, to collapses and revivals of these oscillations starting with the atom unexcited and the cavity mode in a coherent state. The observation of revivals for Rydberg atoms in a high-Q microwave cavity is key experimental evidence for quantisation of the EM field. Theoretical treatments of the Jaynes–Cummings model based on expanding the state vector in terms of products of atomic and n-photon states and deriving coupled equations for the amplitudes are a well-known and simple method for determining the effects. In quantum optics however, the behaviour of the bosonic quantum EM field is often treated using phase space methods, where the bosonic mode annihilation and creation operators are represented by c-number phase space variables, with the density operator represented by a distribution function of these variables. Fokker–Planck equations for the distribution function are obtained, and either used directly to determine quantities of experimental interest or used to develop c-number Langevin equations for stochastic versions of the phase space variables from which experimental quantities are obtained as stochastic averages. Phase space methods have also been developed to include atomic systems, with the atomic spin operators being represented by c-number phase space variables, and distribution functions involving these variables and those for any bosonic modes being shown to satisfy Fokker–Planck equations from which c-number Langevin equations are

  17. Modulation of radiation injuries in rats receiving multiple doses of Aloe Vera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azab, Kh.SH.

    2007-01-01

    This study has been performed to examine the efficacy of Aloe vera juice (Aloe barbadensis Miller) against radiation injuries of 7 Gy whole body gamma irradiation (single dose). Inductions of lipid peroxidation (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, (TBARS)) of biomembranes lipids as well as the subsequent changes in the activities of subcellular organelle marker enzymes were discussed. Activities of glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH), acid phosphatase and glucose-6-phosphatase (marker enzymes of mitochondria, lysosome and microsomes, respectively) were estimated. The activities of these enzymes were also measured in cytosol. Subcellular fractionation's were performed in liver, heart and spleen tissues. Aloe vera was supplemented daily to rats (0.25 ml/kg body wt/day) by gavage, 5 days before irradiation and treatment was extended for 10 days post irradiation. Experimental investigations were performed on the 3 rd and 10 th day after exposure to radiation. The results obtained indicated that, Aloe vera administration has significantly minimized the radiation-induced increase in the amount of TBARS in different cell fractions as compared with control rats. Significant amelioration in the activities of organelles marker enzymes GDH, acid phosphatase and glucose-6-phosphatase was observed from 3 rd up to 10 th days for the 3 tissues. The results also detected improvement in cytosolic enzyme activities due to Aloe vera intake. It could be suggested that the diverse active constituents of Aloe vera play a significant role in decreasing the peroxidation of subcellular membrane lipids induced by radiation exposure, prevent diffusion of organelle enzymes to cytosol and consequently salvage the integrity of living cell

  18. Transient theory of double slope floating cum tilted - wick type solar still

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balan, R.; Chandrasekaran, J.; Janarthanan, B.; Kumar, S.

    2011-01-01

    A double slope floating cum tilted-wick solar still has been fabricated and transient theory of floating cum tilted-wick type solar still has been proposed. Analytical expressions have been derived for the different temperatures components of the proposed system. For elocution of the analytical results, numerical calculations have been carried out using the meteorological parameters for a typical summer day in Coimbatore. Analytical expression results are found to be in the close agreement with the experimental results. (authors)

  19. E. E. Cummings: From Parenthesis to Personality (Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uroš Mozetič

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the unique oeuvre of E.E. Cummings; who claims an outstanding position in the heritage of American poetry; as a case of Bildungsdichtung. This status is largely due to his highly innovative and iconoclastic approach to poetic composition; starting from his early rebellious endeavours drawing on an astounding variety of non-standard and downright shocking potentialities of the English language (including such peculiar linguistic and stylistic idiosyncracies as drastic changes of the syntactic English word order; shifts at the morphology and word-formation level; unorthodox use of punctuation; extravagant typography and spacing or arrangement of space between the lines; a diversity of meters and rhymes; as well as seemingly eccentric imagery; to his later and invariably maturer poetic diction – the diction of one who has apparently come to terms with the world and his fellow-beings; realising that genuine wisdom resides in the understanding and forgiveness of the inherently fallible human nature rather than in its continuous sardonic scrutiny.

  20. Plasma antioxidant capacity, sexual and thyroid hormones levels, sperm quantity and quality parameters in stressed male rats received nano-particle of selenium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Rezaeian-Tabrizi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the effects of nano-particle of selenium (nSe on plasma antioxidant capacity, sexual and thyroid hormones and spermatogenesis in male rats exposed to oxidative stress.Methods: Forty rats were randomly divided into four treatments with ten replicates. Treatment groups were: C, the control group received normal saline as gavage and injection (i.p.; OS, received tert-butyl hydroperoxide (0.2 mmol/kg body weight for inducing oxidative stress; nSe, received nSe (0.3 mg/kg body weight as gavage, and OS+nSe, received tert-butyl hydroperoxide and nSe. All groups were treated for 28 d and administrations were done each 48 h.Results: Oxidative stress decreased and gavage of nSe to stressed rats increased the antioxidant capacity and activities (P0.05 between rats exposed to oxidative stress and those in the control group for sperm quantity and quality. Gavage of nSe to stressed rats had no effect (P>0.05 on the sperm parameters, except increased viability and progressive percentages.Conclusions: Nano-particle of Selenium administration in stressed rats could ameliorate the negative effects of oxidative stress on the antioxidant capacity and activities, but not on the quantity and quality parameters of sperm.

  1. Effect of methionine load on homocysteine levels, lipid peroxidation and DNA damage in rats receiving ethanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alceu Afonso Jordao Júnior

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Changes in the metabolism of methionine can cause hyperhomocysteinemia, inducing a triad of atherosclerosis, hypertension, and increased oxidative stress. The generation of free radicals and oxidative damage to DNA is important in the liver damage caused by ethanol. In this study, the effect of methionine overload associated or otherwise with acute administration of ethanol on homocysteine values, damage to DNA, lipoperoxidation and vitamin E was evaluated. Thirty rats were divided into 3 groups: Group Ethanol 24 hours (EG24, Group Methionine 24 hours (MG24, and Group Methionine and Ethanol 24 hours (MEG24. TBARS, vitamin E, GS and, homocysteine values were determined and the Comet assay was carried out. Increased GSH, vitamin E and homocysteine levels were observed for MEG24, and increased TBARS were observed in EG24. The Comet assay showed an increase in DNA damage in EG24 and DNA protection in MEG24. The administration of ethanol decreased antioxidant levels and increased TBARS, indicating the occurrence of oxidative stress with possible DNA damage. The combination of methionine and ethanol had a protective effect against the ethanol-induced damage, but increased the levels of homocysteine.Alterações no metabolismo da metionina podem ocasionar hiper-homocisteinemia, quadro indutivo de aterosclerose, hipertensão e aumento do estresse oxidativo. A geração de radicais livres e dano oxidativo ao DNA são importantes na injúria hepática provocada pelo etanol. Neste estudo avaliaram-se os efeitos da sobrecarga de metionina associada ou não à administração aguda de etanol sobre valores de homocisteína, dano ao DNA, lipoperoxidação e vitamina E. Foram utilizados 30 ratos Wistar distribuídos em 3 Grupos: Grupo Etanol 24 horas (GE24, Grupo Metionina 24 horas (GM24 e Grupo Metionina e Etanol 24 horas (GME24. Realizaram-se determinações hepáticas de SRATB, vitamina E, GSH, homocisteína e Teste do Cometa e determinações plasm

  2. Theoria cum Praxi? The (In- Compatibility of Demands in Science and Business World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Kritzmöller

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available The necessity for co-operation between (scientific theory and (management praxis is apparent more than ever. There are countless parallels in the goals and objectives of social and marketing research, for example, learning more about communities—respectively customers—and explaining their behavior. Extending social research services to businesses can create synergistic effects. On the one hand, the scientists can benefit financially in dimensions not feasible at universities and have a fruitful dialogue with business practitioners. On the other hand, the business management have access to the latest scientific results of high quality before these results are available to competitors as official publications. These opportunities and advantages can no longer permit a prejudice-based, mutual ideological rejection, which can still be found in both spheres. In the course of my "Habilitation" at the University of St. Gallen (Switzerland, I created a successful method for combining theory with practice. I developed a sociological theory of social structure, which can be put into practice in order to analyze and comprehend the behavior of target groups in marketing. I co-operated with selected furniture manufacturers and received advanced payments during the entire period of my research. In return, these manufacturers received my consulting services. I applied the research findings directly to their business demands after the end of my project. On the one hand, this procedure requires that a scientist is experienced in business affairs and has the ability and readiness for transferring scientific results into every-day practice. On the other hand, management needs to give up short-term thinking of "KISS" (keep it short and simple and care about understanding things instead of merely describing them. My co-operation in the project and the implementation of "theoria cum praxi" approach was a positive experience, which I will continue using in future

  3. Multi-atom Jaynes-Cummings model with nonlinear effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleixo, Armando Nazareno Faria; Balantekin, Akif Baha; Ribeiro, Marco Antonio Candido

    2001-01-01

    The standard Jaynes-Cummings (JC) model and its extensions, normally used in quantum optics, idealizes the interaction of matter with electromagnetic radiation by a simple Hamiltonian of a two-level atom coupled to a single bosonic mode. This Hamiltonian has a fundamental importance to the field of quantum optics and it is a central ingredient in the quantized description of any optical system involving the interaction between light and atoms. The JC Hamiltonian defines a molecule, a composite system formed from the coupling of a two-state system and a quantized harmonic oscillator. For this Hamiltonian, mostly the single-particle situation has been studied. This model can also be extended for the situation where one has N two-level systems, which interact only with the electromagnetic radiation. In this case the effects of the spatial distribution of the particles it is not taken into account and the spin angular momentum S-circumflex i of each particle contributes to form a total angular momentum J-circumflex of the system. When one considers the effects due to the spatial variation in the field intensity in a nonlinear medium it is necessary to further add a Kerr term to the standard JC Hamiltonian. This kind of nonlinear JC Hamiltonian is used in the study of micro masers. Another nonlinear variant of the JC model takes the coupling between matter and the radiation to depend on the intensity of the electromagnetic field. This model is interesting since this kind of interaction means that effectively the coupling is proportional to the amplitude of the field representing a very simple case of a nonlinear interaction corresponding to a more realistic physical situation. In this work we solve exactly the problem of the interaction of a N two-level atoms with an electromagnetic radiation when nonlinear effects due to the spatial variation in the field intensity in a nonlinear Kerr medium and the dependence on the intensity of the electromagnetic field on the matter

  4. Characterization of upper thoracic spinal neurons receiving noxious cardiac and/or somatic inputs in diabetic rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghorbani, Marie Louise M; Qin, Chao; Wu, Mingyuan

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine spinal processing of cardiac and somatic nociceptive input in rats with STZ-induced diabetes. Type 1 diabetes was induced with streptozotocin (50mg/kg) in 14 male Sprague-Dawley rats and citrate buffer was injected in 14 control rats. After 4-11weeks...

  5. Resveratrol ameliorates chronic unpredictable mild stress-induced depression-like behavior: involvement of the HPA axis, inflammatory markers, BDNF, and Wnt/β-catenin pathway in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang X

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Xin-Hua Yang,1 Su-Qi Song,2 Yun Xu3 1Department of Pharmacy, Hefei Eighth People’s Hospital, Hefei, 2Department of Psychiatry, Chaohu Hospital of Anhui Medical University, Hefei, 3Faculty of Pharmacy, Anhui Medical University, Hefei, China Abstract: Classic antidepressant drugs are modestly effective across the population and most are associated with intolerable side effects. Recently, numerous lines of evidence suggest that resveratrol (RES, a natural polyphenol, possesses beneficial therapeutic activity for depression. The aim of the present study was to explore whether RES exhibits an antidepressant-like effect in a depression model and to explore the possible mechanism. A depression model was established via chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS, after which the model rats in the RES and fluoxetine groups received a daily injection of RES or fluoxetine, respectively. The sucrose preference test, open field test, and forced swimming test were used to explore the antidepressant-like effects of RES. The activity of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA axis was evaluated by detecting the plasma corticosterone concentration and hypothalamic mRNA expression of corticotrophin-releasing hormone. The plasma interleukin-6 (IL-6, C-reactive protein (CRP, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α concentrations were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Hippocampal protein expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF and the Wnt/β-catenin pathway were analyzed by western blot. The results showed that RES relieved depression-like behavior of CUMS rats, as indicated by the increased sucrose preference and the decreased immobile time. Rats that received RES treatment exhibited reduced plasma corticosterone levels and corticotrophin-releasing hormone mRNA expression in the hypothalamus, suggesting that the hyperactivity of the HPA axis in CUMS rats was reversed by RES. Moreover, after RES treatment, the rats exhibited increased

  6. Resveratrol ameliorates chronic unpredictable mild stress-induced depression-like behavior: involvement of the HPA axis, inflammatory markers, BDNF, and Wnt/β-catenin pathway in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xin-Hua; Song, Su-Qi; Xu, Yun

    2017-01-01

    Classic antidepressant drugs are modestly effective across the population and most are associated with intolerable side effects. Recently, numerous lines of evidence suggest that resveratrol (RES), a natural polyphenol, possesses beneficial therapeutic activity for depression. The aim of the present study was to explore whether RES exhibits an antidepressant-like effect in a depression model and to explore the possible mechanism. A depression model was established via chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS), after which the model rats in the RES and fluoxetine groups received a daily injection of RES or fluoxetine, respectively. The sucrose preference test, open field test, and forced swimming test were used to explore the antidepressant-like effects of RES. The activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis was evaluated by detecting the plasma corticosterone concentration and hypothalamic mRNA expression of corticotrophin-releasing hormone. The plasma interleukin-6 (IL-6), C-reactive protein (CRP), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) concentrations were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Hippocampal protein expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and the Wnt/β-catenin pathway were analyzed by western blot. The results showed that RES relieved depression-like behavior of CUMS rats, as indicated by the increased sucrose preference and the decreased immobile time. Rats that received RES treatment exhibited reduced plasma corticosterone levels and corticotrophin-releasing hormone mRNA expression in the hypothalamus, suggesting that the hyperactivity of the HPA axis in CUMS rats was reversed by RES. Moreover, after RES treatment, the rats exhibited increased plasma IL-6, CRP, and TNF-α concentrations. Furthermore, RES treatment upregulated the hippocampal protein levels of BDNF and the relative ratio of p-β-catenin/β-catenin while downregulating the relative ratio of p-GSK-3β/GSK-3β. Our findings suggest that RES improved

  7. From Humans to Rats and Back Again: Bridging the Divide between Human and Animal Studies of Recognition Memory with Receiver Operating Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koen, Joshua D.; Yonelinas, Andrew P.

    2011-01-01

    Receiver operating characteristics (ROCs) have been used extensively to study the processes underlying human recognition memory, and this method has recently been applied in studies of rats. However, the extent to which the results from human and animal studies converge is neither entirely clear, nor is it known how the different methods used to…

  8. Cross-organ sensitization of thoracic spinal neurons receiving noxious cardiac input in rats with gastroesophageal reflux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Chao; Malykhina, Anna P; Thompson, Ann M; Farber, Jay P; Foreman, Robert D

    2010-06-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux (GER) frequently triggers or worsens cardiac pain or symptoms in patients with coronary heart disease. This study aimed to determine whether GER enhances the activity of upper thoracic spinal neurons receiving noxious cardiac input. Gastric fundus and pyloric ligations as well as a longitudinal myelotomy at the gastroesophageal junction induced acute GER in pentobarbital-anesthetized, paralyzed, and ventilated male Sprague-Dawley rats. Manual manipulations of the stomach and lower esophagus were used as surgical controls in another group. At 4-9 h after GER surgery, extracellular potentials of single neurons were recorded from the T3 spinal segment. Intrapericardial bradykinin (IB) (10 microg/ml, 0.2 ml, 1 min) injections were used to activate cardiac nociceptors, and esophageal distensions were used to activate esophageal afferent fibers. Significantly more spinal neurons in the GER group responded to IB compared with the control group (69.1 vs. 38%, P neurons in the superficial laminae of GER animals was significantly different from those in deeper layers (1/8 vs. 46/60, P 0.05). Excitatory responses of spinal neurons to IB in the GER group were greater than in the control group [32.4 +/- 3.5 impulses (imp)/s vs. 13.3 +/- 2.3 imp/s, P neurons responded to cardiac input and ED, which was higher than the control group (61.5%, P neurons in deeper laminae of the dorsal horn to noxious cardiac stimulus.

  9. Exact solution of the generalized time-dependent Jaynes-Cummings Hamiltonian

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruver, J.L.; Aliaga, J.; Cerdeira, H.A.; Proto, A.N.

    1993-04-01

    A time-dependent generalization of the Jaynes-Cummings Hamiltonian is studied using the maximum entropy formalism. The approach, related to a semi-Lie algebra, allows to find three different sets of physical relevant operators which describe the dynamics of the system for any temporal dependence. It is shown how the initial conditions of the operators are determined via the maximum entropy principle density operator, where the inclusion of the temperature turns the description of the problem into a thermodynamical one. The generalized time-independent Jaynes-Cummings Hamiltonian is exactly solved as a particular example. (author). 14 refs

  10. Enhanced Harnessing of the Graviola Bioactive Components Using a Neoteric Sonication Cum Microwave Coadjuvant Extraction Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Se Chul Chun

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Graviola is one of the most accomplished natural anticancer therapists gaining popularity in recent times. Harnessing the full benefit from tapping all of its rich bioactive reservoirs is absolutely worthy and mandatory. It is in this regard that a well optimized extraction methodology gains paramount importance. In case of Graviola, no sophistication in terms of extraction methods is reported. A neoteric sonication cum microwave combined extraction technology was introduced that maximized the extraction process and minimized (7 min the extraction time. The extraction efficiency was validated based on the significant enrichment of bioactive ingredients in Graviola extracts following the sonication cum microwave combined protocol.

  11. Renal structure and function evaluation of rats from dams that received increased sodium intake during pregnancy and lactation submitted or not to 5/6 nephrectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin, Evelyn Cristina Santana; Balbi, Ana Paula Coelho; Francescato, Heloísa Della Coletta; Alves da Silva, Cleonice Giovanini; Costa, Roberto Silva; Coimbra, Terezila M

    2008-01-01

    Adult rats submitted to perinatal salt overload presented renin-angiotensin system (RAS) functional disturbances. The RAS contributes to the renal development and renal damage in a 5/6 nephrectomy model. The aim of the present study was to analyze the renal structure and function of offspring from dams that received a high-salt intake during pregnancy and lactation. We also evaluated the influence of the prenatal high-salt intake on the evolution of 5/6 nephrectomy in adult rats. A total of 111 sixty-day-old rat pups from dams that received saline or water during pregnancy and lactation were submitted to 5/6 nephrectomy (nephrectomized) or to a sham operation (sham). The animals were killed 120 days after surgery, and the kidneys were removed for immunohistochemical and histological analysis. Systolic blood pressure (SBP), albuminuria, and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) were evaluated. Increased SBP, albuminuria, and decreased GFR were observed in the rats from dams submitted to high-sodium intake before surgery. However, there was no difference in these parameters between the groups after the 5/6 nephrectomy. The scores for tubulointerstitial lesions and glomerulosclerosis were higher in the rats from the sham saline group compared to the same age control rats, but there was no difference in the histological findings between the groups of nephrectomized rats. In conclusion, our data showed that the high-salt intake during pregnancy and lactation in rats leads to structural changes in the kidney of adult offspring. However, the progression of the renal lesions after 5/6 nephrectomy was similar in both groups.

  12. Active and passive avoidance conditioning for rats which received x-ray irradiation in their embryonal period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamaki, Yoshitaka; Inoue, Minoru; Kameyama, Yoshiro

    1983-01-01

    Fischer rats at 17 gestational days were given 200 R of x-ray, and their offsprings were subjected to conditioning of active and passive avoidance against a shuttle box stimulation. These rats irradiated in their embryonal period learned active avoidance reaction more rapidly than control rats, but it took time for them to gain passive avoidance reaction. This result seemed to suggest activated reactibility of the irradiated animals in avoiding the shuttle box stimulation. In the irradiated rats, frequency of the passive avoidance reaction increased gradually as they learned with training. (Ueda, J.)

  13. Phosphorylation of histone H2AX as an indicator of received dose of gamma radiation after whole-body irradiation of rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radim Havelek

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to determine whether phosphorylation of histone H2AX can be used as an indicator of received dose of gamma radiation after whole-body irradiation of rats. Wistar rats were irradiated by 1-10 Gy of gamma radiation by 60Co source. Value LD50/60 was 7.37 (4.68-8.05 Gy. Histone H2AX is phosphorylated by ATM kinase on serine 139 (γH2AX quickly after the irradiation. It forms microscopically visible foci in the site of double strand breaks of DNA. Flow-cytometric method was used for quantitative detection. This study is the first one that evaluated dose-dependency of H2AX phosphorylation in peripheral lymphocytes of rats irradiated by whole-body dose 1-10 Gy. Our data show a dose-dependent increase in γH2AX in rat peripheral blood lymphocytes 1 h after whole-body irradiation by the dose of 1-10 Gy. We proved that phosphorylation of histone H2AX is a prompt and reliable indicator of the received radiation dose suitable for rapid measurement before the number of lymphocytes in peripheral blood starts to decrease. It can be used already 1 h after the irradiation for an estimation of the received dose of radiation. Blood samples can be stored in 4 °C for 23 h without significantly affecting the result.

  14. A noble additive cum compatibilizer for dispersion of nanoclay into ethylene octene elastomer

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mondal, S

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a poly(ethylene-co-octene)-poly(ethylene-co-vinyl acetate) double network hybrid as a noble additive cum compatibilizer for poly(ethylene-co-octene) (POE). The addition of only 0.5 mass% of the hybrid into POE has raised...

  15. General sets of coherent states and the Jaynes-Cummings model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daoud, M.; Hussin, V.

    2002-01-01

    General sets of coherent states are constructed for quantum systems admitting a nondegenerate infinite discrete energy spectrum. They are eigenstates of an annihilation operator and satisfy the usual properties of standard coherent states. The application of such a construction to the quantum optics Jaynes-Cummings model leads to a new understanding of the properties of this model. (author)

  16. Plea bargaining and the religious cum socio-cultural concept of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Plea bargaining and the religious cum socio-cultural concept of Yoruba ọmọlúàbí in the Nigerian political landscape. ... Ilorin Journal of Religious Studies ... It therefore, attempts to define what is meant by plea bargaining, introduction as to its ...

  17. Application of Singh et al., unbiased estimator in a dual to ratio-cum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper applied an unbiased estimator in a dual to ratio–cum-product estimator in sample surveys to double sampling design. Its efficiency over the conventional biased double sampling design estimator was determined based on the conditions attached to its supremacy. Three different data sets were used to testify to ...

  18. Measurement Induced Enhancement of Squeezing in Nondegenerate Two-Photon Jaynes-Cummings Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye Saiyun

    2006-01-01

    Squeezing properties in the nondegenerate two-photon Jaynes-Cummings model are investigated. The effects of direct selective atomic measurement and the application of the classical field followed by atomic measurement are analyzed. Different values of the parameters of the classical field are taken into account. It is found that the field squeezing can be enhanced by measurement.

  19. Advertisement for the position of “Copy Editor cum Proof Reader ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    user

    Advertisement for the position of “Copy Editor cum. Proof Reader”. Indian Academy of Sciences (IASc), an institution under the. Department of Science & Technology, Government of India publishes scholarly journals, thematic books and other publications. The. Academy currently publishes 10 journals in various disciplines ...

  20. Liver morphology and morphometry and plasma biochemical parameters of Wistar rats that received leaf infusion of Rudgea viburnoides Benth. (Rubiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Castro Monteiro

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Rudgea viburnoides leaves are widely used in popular Brazilian medicine as a diuretic, antirheumatic, hypotensive and blood depurative tea. The present study was carried out to investigate the effects of this infusion on the liver and on the plasma biochemical parameters of Wistar rats. Two groups received the R. viburnoides leaf infusion at a daily dose of 10 or 20g dry-leaves/L water, during 40 days. The histopathological analysis did not show degenerated areas or infiltration of leucocytes. Hepatic morphometry showed accumulation of fat in the hepatocytes of the treated groups. There was no significant change in the plasma levels of urea, creatinin, uric acid, direct bilirubin, cholesterol, total proteins, albumin, gamma glutamyl tranferase (gamma-GT, alanine transaminase (ALT, aspartate transaminase (AST, chlorine, phosphate and calcium. A significant reduction in the plasma levels of triacylglycerol (TAG occurred in the group that received the higher dose.As folhas de Rudgea viburnoides Benth. são utilizadas na medicina popular como diuréticas, hipotensoras, anti-reumáticas, depurativas do sangue e em regimes de emagrecimento. O presente estudo foi delineado para avaliar o efeito da infusão das folhas de R. viburnoides nos parâmetros bioquímicos plasmáticos e na morfologia e morfometria hepática de ratos Wistar adultos. Dois grupos receberam a infusão das folhas, diariamente, nas dosagens de 10 e 20 g de folhas secas/L de água, durante 40 dias. O grupo controle recebeu a mesma quantidade de água. As análises histopatológicas não mostraram áreas degeneradas e infiltrados inflamatórios. A morfometria hepática mostrou acúmulo significativo de gordura nos hepatócitos dos animais tratados, principalmente no grupo que recebeu a maior dose da infusão (8,75% de gotículas lipídicas, comparado com 0,25% delas encontradas nos animais controles. Não foram observadas alterações nos níveis plasmáticos de uréia, creatinina,

  1. Antidepressant-Like Effect of Lipid Extract of Channa striatus in Chronic Unpredictable Mild Stress Model of Depression in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Saleem Abdul Shukkoor

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the antidepressant-like effect of lipid extract of C. striatus in chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS model of depression in male rats and its mechanism of action. The animals were subjected to CUMS for six weeks by using variety of stressors. At the end of CUMS protocol, animals were subjected to forced swimming test (FST and open field test followed by biochemical assay. The CUMS protocol produced depressive-like behavior in rats by decreasing the body weight, decreasing the sucrose preference, and increasing the duration of immobility in FST. The CUMS protocol increased plasma corticosterone and decreased hippocampal and prefrontal cortex levels of monoamines (serotonin, noradrenaline, and dopamine and brain-derived neurotrophic factor. Further, the CUMS protocol increased interleukin-6 (in hippocampus and prefrontal cortex and nuclear factor-kappa B (in prefrontal cortex but not in hippocampus. The lipid extract of C. striatus (125, 250, and 500 mg/kg significantly (p<0.05 reversed all the above parameters in rats subjected to CUMS, thus exhibiting antidepressant-like effect. The mechanism was found to be mediated through decrease in plasma corticosterone, increase in serotonin levels in prefrontal cortex, increase in dopamine and noradrenaline levels in hippocampus and prefrontal cortex, increase in BDNF in hippocampus and prefrontal cortex, and decrease in IL-6 and NF-κB in prefrontal cortex.

  2. Berry phase in a two-atom Jaynes-Cummings model with Kerr medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bu Shenping; Zhang Guofeng; Liu Jia; Chen Ziyu

    2008-01-01

    The Jaynes-Cummings model (JCM) is an very important model for describing interaction between quantized electromagnetic fields and atoms in cavity quantum electrodynamics (QED). This model is generalized in many different directions since it predicts many novel quantum effects that can be verified by modern physics experimental technologies. In this paper, the Berry phase and entropy of the ground state for arbitrary photon number n of a two-atom Jaynes-Cummings model with Kerr-like medium are investigated. It is found that there is some correspondence between their images, especially the existence of a curve in the Δ-ε plane along which the energy, Berry phase and entropy all reach their special values. So it is available for detecting entanglement by applying Berry phase.

  3. Berry phase in a two-atom Jaynes-Cummings model with Kerr medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bu Shenping; Zhang Guofeng; Liu Jia; Chen Ziyu [Department of Physics, School of Science, BeiHang University, Xueyuan Road, Beijing 100083 (China)], E-mail: chenzy@buaa.edu.cn

    2008-12-15

    The Jaynes-Cummings model (JCM) is an very important model for describing interaction between quantized electromagnetic fields and atoms in cavity quantum electrodynamics (QED). This model is generalized in many different directions since it predicts many novel quantum effects that can be verified by modern physics experimental technologies. In this paper, the Berry phase and entropy of the ground state for arbitrary photon number n of a two-atom Jaynes-Cummings model with Kerr-like medium are investigated. It is found that there is some correspondence between their images, especially the existence of a curve in the {delta}-{epsilon} plane along which the energy, Berry phase and entropy all reach their special values. So it is available for detecting entanglement by applying Berry phase.

  4. The squeezing properties in the Jaynes-Cummings model with arbitrary intensity-dependent coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhui-Hua, X.; Dun-Huan, L.; Gong-Ou, X.

    1996-01-01

    It is studied the squeezing properties of the atom and the radiation field in arbitrary intensity-dependent-coupling Jaynes-Cummings model when it is restricted to the following initial condition: the atom in its coherent state and the field in the vacuum state. The influence of virtual-photon processes on the atomic squeezing predicted by the Jaynes-Cummings model (JCM) has been examined. The relationship between the field and atomic squeezing in the resonant multi-photon JCM has been discussed. The symmetry between the field and atomic squeezing (SFAS) has been exposed in the resonant vacuum one-photon JCM, and the influence of non-resonant interaction and virtual-photon processes on the SFAS has also been discussed

  5. [Open-field behavioral study in rat hyperlipidemia combined with chronic unpredictable mild stress model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Hua; Zhang, Yingchun; Xu, Yeqing; Liu, Chunfeng; Wang, Liwei

    2015-06-16

    To investigate behavioral changes in a rat hyperlipidemia model induced by high lipid feed combined with depression by Chronic Unpredictable Mild Stress (CUMS). A total of 40 rats were randomly divided into control (CON), control feed for 9 weeks followed by CUMS for 4 weeks (CON + CUMS), high fat diet (HFD) and high lipid feed for 9 weeks followed by CUMS for 4 weeks (HFD + CUMS) (n = 10 each). Open-field test was individually measured at baseline, week 9 and week 13. (1) Serum lipids: total cholesterol [(2.67 ± 0.04) mmol/L, (2.68 ± 0.02) mmol/L] and low density lipoprotein [(1.08 ± 0.03) mmol/L, (1.06 ± 0.01) mmol/L] of HFD and HFD + CUMS were both significantly higher than those of CON and CON + CUMS [(1.78 ± 0.12) mmol/L, (0.79 ± 0.04) mmol/L; (1.76 ± 0.09) mmol/L, (0.76 ± 0.06) mmol/L, all P Open-field test: at week 13, compared to CON rats, CON + CUMS rats exhibited enhanced locomotor activity during the first minute, reduced activity in the center squares and rearing, and increased the number of grooming and defecation (all P < 0.05). In comparison to the CON rats, a decrease in total squares in 5 min, central squares and peripheral squares was observed in HFD rats at week 13 (all P < 0.05). However, compared with HFD, CON, CON + CUMS rats, when high lipid feed for 9 weeks combined with depression, significant decrease activities in total squares in 5 min, central squares and peripheral squares were observed in HFD + CUMS rats at week 13. Besides these, the number of rearing was reduced, however, locomotor activity during the first minute and the number of grooming and defecation was significantly increased (all P < 0.001). Under uncontrolled hyperlipidemia, severe depressive symptoms will present more early once exposure to a series of chronic stressors followed by significant autonomic nervous dysfunctional symptoms.

  6. A generalized Jaynes-Cummings model: The relativistic parametric amplifier and a single trapped ion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ojeda-Guillén, D., E-mail: dojedag@ipn.mx [Escuela Superior de Cómputo, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Av. Juan de Dios Bátiz esq. Av. Miguel Othón de Mendizábal, Col. Lindavista, Delegación Gustavo A. Madero, C.P. 07738 Ciudad de México (Mexico); Mota, R. D. [Escuela Superior de Ingeniería Mecánica y Eléctrica, Unidad Culhuacán, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Av. Santa Ana No. 1000, Col. San Francisco Culhuacán, Delegación Coyoacán, C.P. 04430 Ciudad de México (Mexico); Granados, V. D. [Escuela Superior de Física y Matemáticas, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Ed. 9, Unidad Profesional Adolfo López Mateos, Delegación Gustavo A. Madero, C.P. 07738 Ciudad de México (Mexico)

    2016-06-15

    We introduce a generalization of the Jaynes-Cummings model and study some of its properties. We obtain the energy spectrum and eigenfunctions of this model by using the tilting transformation and the squeezed number states of the one-dimensional harmonic oscillator. As physical applications, we connect this new model to two important and novelty problems: the relativistic parametric amplifier and the quantum simulation of a single trapped ion.

  7. A CATASTROPHIC-CUM-RESTORATIVE QUEUING SYSTEM WITH CORRELATED BATCH ARRIVALS AND VARIABLE CAPACITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh Kumar

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we study a catastrophic-cum-restorative queuing system with correlated batch arrivals and service in batches of variable sizes. We perform the transient analysis of the queuing model. We obtain the Laplace Transform of the probability generating function of system size. Finally, some particular cases of the model have been derived and discussed. Keywords: Queue length, Catastrophes, Correlated batch arrivals, Broadband services, Variable service capacity, and Restoration.

  8. X-linked ocular albinism in Blacks. Ocular albinism cum pigmento.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, F E; Green, W R; Fleischman, J A; Hambrick, G W

    1978-07-01

    X-linked ocular albinism can be an unsuspected cause of congenital nystagmus in blacks. In this study, eight of ten black ocular albinos from two kindreds had nonalbinotic, moderately pigmented fundi and no transillumination of the iris. We refer to this paradoxical condition as "ocular albinism cum pigmento." The only constant ophthalmoscopic feature was a foveal hypoplasia. Biopsy of clinically normal skin to demonstrate giant pigment granules is the most accurate means of diagnosis.

  9. Roles de los Centros Universitarios Municipales (CUM en el desarrollo local de los municipios cubanos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A. Hernández M.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Se conceptualiza en el aporte de la Educación Superior al Desarrollo Local en los municipios, cómo se inserta en el proceso, las amenazas a su participación y las oportunidades generadas por su inclusión. Se analiza la situación actual y perspectiva y las Estrategias a seguir por la Educación Superior en los municipios. Se define como se trabaja la seguridad alimentaria en función del Desarrollo Local, la superación de Postgrado en el CUM, la formación y superación de los cuadros, la participación en proyectos pertinentes en energía, medio ambiente, servicios a la población, industrias locales y problemas socio - comunitarios y la formación vocacional y articulación pertinente con la Enseñanza Técnico Profesional. Por último se hace una propuesta de Indicadores y herramientas para medir el impacto de la Gestión del Conocimiento y la Innovación dentro del Programa de Desarrollo Local dividida en 2 grupos: Indicadores de funcionamiento interno del CUM e Indicadores de funcionamiento del CUM hacia el Desarrollo Local del Municipio.

  10. Cum se traduce ‘rușinea’. Abordare traductologică (I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magda Jeanrenaud

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Pornind de la sfera semantică și lexicală a conceptelor honte (limba franceză și, respectiv, rușine (limba română, îmi propun să examinez modul cum se traduce acesta în limba română pornind de la un studiu de caz. În acest scop, voi încerca să elaborez un studiu traductologic comparativ al lucrării lui Boris Cyrulnik, intitulată Mourir de dire. La honte (Éditions Odile Jacob, Paris, 2010 și a traducerii sale în limba română, intitulată Mai bine mor decît să spun. Rușinea (traducere din limba franceză de Valentin Protopopescu, Editura Trei, col. „Psihologia pentru toți”, București, 2012. Textul lui Cyrulnik are o particularitate: oscilează între factura literară și cea a unui text specializat. Din acest punct de vedere, transpunerea lui pune la încercare teoriile funcționaliste ale traducerii și, mai ales, teoria skopos-ului elaborată de Katharina Reiss și Hans Vermeer: este interesant de analizat cum „decodează” traducătorul „intenționalitatea” acestui tip de text, totuși specializat, cum decide el să transpună sfera sa semantică și lexicală în limba română.

  11. Entre Lilith y Eva: Björk canta E. E. Cummings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Mas López

    2016-05-01

    del poeta norteamericano en Sun In My Mouth y el resto de composiciones de Vespertine. Frente a la inequívoca exaltación del héroe solar de Cummings, Björk utiliza una mirada femenina que duda entre los referentes de Lilith, la mujer que encuentra su libertad fuera de la sociedad, y Eva, aquella cuya sumisión es socialmente productiva. El resultado es un discurso de gran valor artístico, pero sujeto, en lo ideológico, a las limitaciones que imponen los motivos de partida

  12. Cavity losses for the dissipative Jaynes-Cummings Hamiltonian beyond rotating wave approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scala, M; Militello, B; Messina, A; Maniscalco, S; Piilo, J; Suominen, K-A

    2007-01-01

    A microscopic derivation of the master equation for the Jaynes-Cummings model with cavity losses is given, taking into account the terms in the dissipator which vary with frequencies of the order of the vacuum Rabi frequency. Our approach allows us to single out physical contexts wherein the usual phenomenological dissipator turns out to be fully justified and constitutes an extension of our previous analysis (Scala et al 2007 Phys. Rev. A 75 013811), where a microscopic derivation was given in the framework of the rotating wave approximation

  13. Dynamics of atom-field entanglement for Tavis-Cummings models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashkirov, Eugene K.

    2018-04-01

    An exact solution of the problem of two-atom one- and two-mode Jaynes-Cummings model with intensity- dependent coupling is presented. Asymptotic solutions for system state vectors are obtained in the approximation of large initial coherent fields. The atom-field entanglement is investigated on the basis of the reduced atomic entropy dynamics. The possibility of the system being initially in a pure disentangled state to revive into this state during the evolution process for both models is shown. Conditions and times of disentanglement are derived.

  14. Adverse effects of melatonin on rat pups of Wistar-Kyoto dams receiving melatonin supplementation during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Harbindar Jeet; Keah, Lee Siew; Kumar, Arun; Sirajudeen, K N S

    2012-11-01

    This report documents an incidental finding during a study investigating the effects of melatonin supplementation on the development of blood pressure in SHR. Administration of 10 mg/kg/day of melatonin in drinking water during pregnancy to Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) dams caused a loss of more than 50% of the pups by the age of three weeks and 95% by the age of 6 weeks. There was no maternal morbidity or mortality in the two strains or death of any of the SHR pups. No obvious physical defects were present but mean body weight was lower in the surviving WKY rats when compared to that of melatonin supplemented SHR or non-supplemented WKY pups. The reason for the high mortality in WKY pups is uncertain and appears to be strain if not batch specific. There is a need for caution in its use, particularly during pregnancy, and clearly necessitates more detailed studies. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  15. Dynamics of Entanglement in Jaynes–Cummings Nodes with Nonidentical Qubit-Field Coupling Strengths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Tuo Shen

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available How to analytically deal with the general entanglement dynamics of separate Jaynes–Cummings nodes with continuous-variable fields is still an open question, and few analytical approaches can be used to solve their general entanglement dynamics. Entanglement dynamics between two separate Jaynes–Cummings nodes are examined in this article. Both vacuum state and coherent state in the initial fields are considered through the numerical and analytical methods. The gap between two nonidentical qubit-field coupling strengths shifts the revival period and changes the revival amplitude of two-qubit entanglement. For vacuum-state fields, the maximal entanglement is fully revived after a gap-dependence period, within which the entanglement nonsmoothly decreases to zero and partly recovers without exhibiting sudden death phenomenon. For strong coherent-state fields, the two-qubit entanglement decays exponentially as the evolution time increases, exhibiting sudden death phenomenon, and the increasing gap accelerates the revival period and amplitude decay of the entanglement, where the numerical and analytical results have an excellent coincidence.

  16. Gastric and renal effects of COX-2 selective and non-selective NSAIDs in rats receiving low-dose aspirin therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcella Goetz MORO

    Full Text Available Abstract The consumption of low-dose aspirin (LDA to prevent cardiovascular disease continues to increase worldwide. Consequently, the number of chronic LDA users seeking dental procedures that require complementary acute anti-inflammatory medication has also grown. Considering the lack of literature evaluating this interaction, we analyzed the gastric and renal effects caused by a selective COX-2 inhibitor (etoricoxib and a non-selective COX-2 inhibitor (ibuprofen nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID in rats receiving chronic LDA therapy. Male Wistar rats were divided into six experimental groups (carboxymethylcellulose (CMC - vehicle; LDA; LDA + ibuprofen; ibuprofen; LDA + etoricoxib; and etoricoxib and submitted to long-term LDA therapy with a subsequent NSAID administration for three days by gavage. After the experimental period, we analyzed gastric and renal tissues and quantified serum creatinine levels. The concomitant use of LDA with either NSAID induced the highest levels of gastric damage when compared to the CMC group (F = 20.26, p 0.05. These results suggest that even the acute use of an NSAID (regardless of COX-2 selectivity can induce gastric damage when combined with the long-term use of low-dose aspirin in an animal model. Additional studies, including clinical assessments, are thus needed to clarify this interaction, and clinicians should be careful of prescribing NSAIDs to patients using LDA.

  17. Radiation effect on pregnant rats receiving progesterone and Biochemical changes during pregnancy in rats under effect of gamma rays. Vol. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Wahab, M.F.; Abdel-Aziz, S.M.; Abdel-Gawad, I.I.

    1996-01-01

    The following terms were carried out to provide a comprehensive picture of the radiation induced biochemical changes in pregnant rats with and without progesterone injections. 1- serum total proteins. Animals irradiated on the third day and sacrificed on day 8, 14, 18, and 21 showed non-significant increase in serum total proteins on the day 8 of gestation in irradiated animals as compared to control animals, while on the other days serum total proteins increased significantly in irradiated animals compared to control animals. 2- serum total lipids. Animals irradiated on the third day of gestation and 8 th day all showed significant increase in serum total lipids with exception of those on the 14 th which showed nonsignificant change. Those on the 21 st showed a reverse effect of decrease. 3- serum progesterone. It is evident that animals irradiated on third day sacrificed on day 8, 14, 18, and 21 showed non-significant change in serum progesterone on the day 8, but on the other days it is significantly decreased compared to control levels. 4-Calcium. Animals irradiated on the third day and sacrificed on the 8 th day change in calcium level, others showed a significant decrease compared to control level. 8 figs., 2 tabs

  18. Radiation effect on pregnant rats receiving progesterone and Biochemical changes during pregnancy in rats under effect of gamma rays. Vol. 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdel-Wahab, M F; Abdel-Aziz, S M; Abdel-Gawad, I I [Radioisotope Department, Atomic Energy Authority, Dokki, (Egypt)

    1996-03-01

    The following terms were carried out to provide a comprehensive picture of the radiation induced biochemical changes in pregnant rats with and without progesterone injections. 1- serum total proteins. Animals irradiated on the third day and sacrificed on day 8, 14, 18, and 21 showed non-significant increase in serum total proteins on the day 8 of gestation in irradiated animals as compared to control animals, while on the other days serum total proteins increased significantly in irradiated animals compared to control animals. 2- serum total lipids. Animals irradiated on the third day of gestation and 8{sup th} day all showed significant increase in serum total lipids with exception of those on the 14{sup th} which showed nonsignificant change. Those on the 21{sup st} showed a reverse effect of decrease. 3- serum progesterone. It is evident that animals irradiated on third day sacrificed on day 8, 14, 18, and 21 showed non-significant change in serum progesterone on the day 8, but on the other days it is significantly decreased compared to control levels. 4-Calcium. Animals irradiated on the third day and sacrificed on the 8{sup th} day change in calcium level, others showed a significant decrease compared to control level. 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Resveratrol exerts anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects to prevent memory deficits in rats exposed to chronic unpredictable mild stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazir, Yusufhan; Utkan, Tijen; Gacar, Nejat; Aricioglu, Feyza

    2015-01-01

    A number of studies have recently focused on the neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory effects of resveratrol. In prior studies, we described its beneficial effects on scopolamine-induced learning deficits in rats. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of resveratrol on emotional and spatial cognitive functions, neurotropic factor expression, and plasma levels of proinflammatory cytokines in rats exposed to chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS), which is known to induce cognitive deficits. Resveratrol (5 or 20mg/kg) was administered intraperitoneally for 35 days. Rats in the CUMS group and in the 5mg/kg resveratrol+CUMS group performed poorly in tasks designed to assess emotional and spatial learning and memory. The 20mg/kg resveratrol+CUMS group showed improved performance compared to the CUMS group. In addition, the CUMS procedure induced lower expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and c-Fos in hippocampal CA1 and CA3 and in the amygdala of stressed rats. These effects were reversed by chronic administration of resveratrol (20mg/kg). In addition, plasma levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-1 beta were increased by CUMS, but were restored to normal by resveratrol. These results indicate that resveratrol significantly attenuates the deficits in emotional learning and spatial memory seen in chronically stressed rats. These effects may be related to resveratrol-mediated changes in neurotrophin factor expression in hippocampus and in levels of proinflammatory cytokines in circulation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of atomic spontaneous decay on entanglement in the generalized Jaynes-Cummings model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hessian, H.A.; Obada, A.-S.F.; Mohamed, A.-B.A.

    2010-01-01

    Some aspects of the irreversible dynamics of a generalized Jaynes-Cummings model are addressed. By working in the dressed-state representation, it is possible to split the dynamics of the entanglement and coherence. The exact solution of the master equation in the case of a high-Q cavity with atomic decay is found. Effects of the atomic spontaneous decay on the temporal evolution of partial entropies of the atom or the field and the total entropy as a quantitative measure entanglement are elucidated. The degree of entanglement, through the sum of the negative eigenvalues of the partially transposed density matrix and the negative mutual information has been studied and compared with other measures.

  1. Entanglement generation and entropy growth due to intrinsic decoherence in the Jaynes-Cummings model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obada, A.-S.F.; Hessian, Hosny A.

    2004-01-01

    We study how intrinsic decoherence leads to growing entropy and a strong degradation of the maximal generated entanglement in the multiquanta Jaynes-Cummings model. We find an exact solution of the Milburn equation in multiquanta precesses and calculate the partial entropy of the particle (atom or trapped ion) and field subsystem as well as total entropy. As the total entropy is not conserved, and it is shown to increase as time develops, one cannot use the partial field or atomic entropy as a direct measure of particle-field entanglement. For a good entropy measure, we also calculate the negativity of the eigenvalues of the partially transposed density matrix. We find that, at least qualitatively, the difference of the total entropy to the sum of field and atom partial entropies can be also used as an entanglement measure. Our results show that the degree of entanglement is very sensitive to any change in the intrinsic decoherence parameter

  2. Dynamics of the Jaynes-Cummings and Rabi models: old wine in new bottles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larson, Jonas [ICFO-Institut de Ciencies Fotoniques, E-08860 Castelldefels, Barcelona (Spain)

    2007-08-15

    By using a wavepacket approach, this paper reviews the Jaynes-Cummings model with and without the rotating wave approximation (RWA) in a non-standard way. This gives new insight, not only of the two models themselves, but of the RWA as well. Expressing the models by field quadrature operators, instead of the typically used boson ladder operators, wavepacket simulations are presented. Several known phenomena of these systems, such as collapse-revivals, Rabi oscillation, squeezing and entanglement, are reviewed and explained in this new picture, either in an adiabatic or diabatic frame. The harmonic shape of the potential curves that the wavepackets evolve on and the existence of a level crossing make these results interesting in a broader sense not only for models in quantum optics, but especially in atomic and molecular physics.

  3. Competitive-cum-cooperative interfirm relations and dynamics in the Japanese semiconductor industry

    CERN Document Server

    Okada, Yoshitaka

    2000-01-01

    Japanese semiconductor firms are well known for obtaining dynamics in a short period of time and achieving even global leadership. A significant portion of their success are attributable to cooperative interfirm relations and the development of intermediate organizational structure based on long-term relationship between firms. The purpose of this book is to explain how interfirm relations contributed to their dynamics during the golden age of the semiconductor industry. Meanwhile this book clarifies the real source of dynamics in interfirm relations and how the firms have interacted. The author concludes that the competitive-cum-cooperative (CCC) interfirm interaction are observed. Quantitative and qualitative findings show that firms enjoy not only flexible cooperation based synergy effects, but also dynamics market-like effects by creating competition among partners through CCC interaction.

  4. Sexual behaviour and HIV knowledge among Dermatology cum Genitourinary Clinic attendees, Johor Bahru, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choon, S E; Sapiah, W; Ismail, Z; Balan, V

    1997-12-01

    A study was conducted in the Dermatology cum Genitourinary Clinic, Hospital Sultanah Aminah Johor Bahru to determine a local population's knowledge of HIV and their sexual behaviour in relation to it. A total of 231 men and 217 women were interviewed. The sexual culture seen is one of relatively late age of first sexual intercourse, low level of partner change and low level of condom use. Men reported a higher involvement in risk behaviour. Nearly all the respondents (95.8%) have heard of HIV/AIDS but had incorrect perceptions of its mode of transmission and its associations with risk groups. This study enable us to gain background information about our patients sexual behaviour and HIV knowledge. There is a need to continue HIV education to improve our public's HIV knowledge and the results of this study provides a baseline against which future educational interventions can be gauged.

  5. Nonlinear Jaynes–Cummings model for two interacting two-level atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos-Sánchez, O de los; González-Gutiérrez, C; Récamier, J

    2016-01-01

    In this work we examine a nonlinear version of the Jaynes–Cummings model for two identical two-level atoms allowing for Ising-like and dipole–dipole interplays between them. The model is said to be nonlinear in the sense that it can incorporate both a general intensity-dependent interaction between the atomic system and the cavity field and/or the presence of a nonlinear medium inside the cavity. As an example, we consider a particular type of atom-field coupling based upon the so-called Buck–Sukumar model and a lossless Kerr-like cavity. We describe the possible effects of such features on the evolution of some quantities of current interest, such as atomic excitation, purity, concurrence, the entropy of the field and the evolution of the latter in phase space. (paper)

  6. Vacuum Rabi Splitting and Dynamics of the Jaynes—Cummings Model for Arbitrary Coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yu-Yu; Chen Qing-Hu; Zhu Shi-Yao

    2013-01-01

    The effects of counter-rotating terms (CRTs) on Rabi splitting and the dynamic evolution of atomic population in the Jaynes—Cummings model are studied with a coherent-state approach. When the coupling strength increases, the Rabi splitting becomes of multi-Rabi frequencies for the initial state of an excited atom in a vacuum field, and the collapses and revivals gradually disappear, and then reappear with quite good periodicity. Without the rotating-wave approximation (RWA), the initial excited state contains many eigenstates rather than two eigenstates under the RWA, which results in the multi-peak emission spectrum. An analytical approximate solution for the strong coupling regime is obtained, which gives a new oscillation frequency and explains the recovery of collapses and revivals due to the equal energy spacing

  7. [Correlation research of photosynthetic characteristics and medicinal materials production with 4 Uncariae Cum Uncis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Min; Song, Zhi-Qin; Yang, Ping-Fei; Liu, Hai; Yang, Zai-Gang; Wu, Ming-Kai

    2017-01-01

    Using four Uncariae Cum Uncis materials including Uncaria sinensis (HGT), U. hirsutea (MGT), Jianhe U. rhynchophylla (JHGT) and U. rhynchophylla(GT) as the research objects, the correlations between medicinal materials' yield and photosynthetic ecophysiology-factors in the plant exuberant growth period were studied. Results showed that the Uncaria plants net photosynthetic rate (Pn) changed by unimodal curve. There was not "midday depression" phenomenon. There was a different relationship among the photosynthetic ecophysiology-factors and between photosynthetic ecophysiology-factors and medicinal materials' yield. Pn,Tl,Gs had a significant correlation with medicinal materials' yield(M)and were the most important factors of growth. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  8. Design, construction and experimental study of Electric Cum Solar Oven-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nandwani, S.S.

    1987-11-01

    As in many developing countries, 35-40% of the population of Costa Rica still use firewood for domestic cooking. Considering the fact that Costa Rica is blessed with good sunshine, good hydroelectric potential, and a good electric network, a hybrid solar oven was thought to be useful. In the present paper the construction and working of a new type of Electric Cum Solar Oven (ECSO) has been described. This oven can be used for cooking and baking any type of meal at any time during the year employing solar and/or electric energy but consuming the minimum quantity of electric energy in case it is required. (author). 9 refs, 6 figs, 1 tab

  9. Books Received

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education. Books Received. Articles in Resonance – Journal of Science Education. Volume 1 Issue 1 January 1996 pp 118-118 Books Received. Books Received · More Details Fulltext PDF. Volume 1 Issue 2 February 1996 pp 120-120 Books Received. Books Received.

  10. BDNF and COX-2 participate in anti-depressive mechanisms of catalpol in rats undergoing chronic unpredictable mild stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun-Ming; Yang, Lian-He; Zhang, Yue-Yue; Niu, Chun-Ling; Cui, Ying; Feng, Wei-Sheng; Wang, Gui-Fang

    2015-11-01

    Catalpol, a major compound in Rehmannia glutinosa with both medicinal and nutritional values, has been previously confirmed to shorten the duration of immobility in mice exposed to tail suspension and forced swimming tests. This study attempted to examine the anti-depressive mechanisms of catalpol in rats undergoing chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) by involving brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). CUMS-exposed rats were given catalpol daily (5, 10, and 20mg/kg, ig) or a reference drug, fluoxetine hydrochloride (FH, 10mg/kg, ig), at 5 weeks after starting the CUMS procedure. Sucrose preference test was performed to observe depression-like behavior, and serum and brain tissues were used for neurochemical and fluorescent quantitative reverse transcription PCR analysis. CUMS induced depression-like behavior, whereas catalpol and FH administration attenuated this symptom. Moreover, CUMS caused excessively elevated levels of serum corticosterone, an index of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis hyperactivation, in a manner attenuated by catalpol and FH administration. Catalpol administration also further decreased BDNF activities, downregulated the mRNA expression of BDNF and tropomyosin-related kinase B (TrkB), and reversed the excessive elevation in the activities and mRNA expression levels of COX-2 and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in the hippocampus and frontal cortex of rats undergoing CUMS. Results indicate that catalpol can ameliorate CUMS-induced depression-like behavior, and suggest its mechanisms may partially be ascribed to restoring HPA axis dysfunctions, upregulating BDNF expression and its cognate receptor TrkB, and downregulating COX-2 expression, thereby reducing PGE2 levels in the brain. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Cummings, Merrill, and Borrelli’s Inquiry into Small Screen Use by Academic Library Users: Timing is Everything

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catharine Bomhold

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A Review of: Cummings, J., Merrill, A., & Borrelli, S. (2010. The use of handheld mobile devices: Their impact and implications for library services. Library Hi Tech, (281, 22-40. https://doi.org/10.1108/07378831011026670 Abstract Objective – The authors undertook this study to understand the relatively new phenomenon of handheld computing and the use of small-screen devices among academic library users. They sought to determine if users would be inclined to search the online library catalogue on their devices and, by extension, if there would be a growing demand for small-screen compatible library services. Design – Online and paper surveys were used with both closed and open questions. Respondents included students, faculty, and staff at Washington State University (WSU. Setting – Washington State University Library, Pullman, Washington, United States of America. Subjects – The survey was open to any user of the Washington State University (Pullman Library. The 206 respondents included 126 (61.2% undergraduates, 26 (12.6% graduate or professional students, 32 (15.3% WSU employees, and 15 (7.3% faculty members. Methods – A survey was distributed both online and on paper. The online version used Surveymonkey.com and participation was solicited through various social media. It was open for three months during the Spring semester, 2007. The paper version was distributed to all library users on two days in June 2007. Eighty-four online and 122 paper responses were received. Main Results – Most of the respondents (58.4% who owned a personal digital assistant (PDA or Web-enabled cell phone (WECP indicated that they would search the library catalogue on a small-screen device. Responses to the open question “How would you use the OPAC [online public access catalogue] if it was available on a PDA or WECP?” were mixed, both positive and negative. The positive responders noted the possible time savings associated with the availability of

  12. Seminar Cum Meeting Report: Codata Task Group for Exchangeable Material Data Representation to Support Research and Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Ashino

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available On March 4-5, 2008, the CODATA Task Group for Exchangeable Material Data Representation to Support Research and Education held a two day seminar cum meeting at the National Physical Laboratory (NPL, New Delhi, India, with NPL materials researchers and task group members representing material activities and databases from seven countries: European Union (The Czech Republic, France, and the Netherlands, India, Korea, Japan, and the United States. The NPL seminar included presentations about the researchers' work. The Task Group meeting included presentations about current data related activities of the members. Joint discussions between NPL researchers and CODATA task group members began an exchange of viewpoints among materials data producers, users, and databases developers. The seminar cum meeting included plans to continue and expand Task Group activities at the 2008 CODATA 21st Meeting in Kyiv, Ukraine.

  13. Influence of relaxation on emission and excitation of coherent states of electromagnetic field in the Jaynes-Cummings model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verlan, E.M.

    2003-01-01

    A two-level atom interacting with a field mode is considered. The field frequency is assumed to be equal to the atom transition frequency. The relaxation equations of the atom - field system are written in the basis of dressed states of the Jaynes - Cummings model taking into account quasi-resonant pumping. Their solutions are derived for a stationary regime. The average amplitude of a coherent electromagnetic field is found

  14. A novel magnetic suspension cum linear actuator system for satellite cryo coolers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivadasan, K.K.

    1994-01-01

    Stirling cycle cryogenic coolers have been widely used for device cooling in satellites. Various types of magnetic bearings and linear actuators find application in such systems. The most widely used configurations have two-axis-radially-active suspension stations placed at either ends of a reciprocating shaft in the compression and expansion sections. Separate or integral liner motors are provided in each section for axial shaft movement. It may be noted that such configurations are rather complicated and less reliable because of the presence of numerous electro-mechanical components, sensors and electronic servo channels. In this paper, a simple and reliable scheme is suggested which axially stabilizes and linearly perturbs the piston so that the need for a separate motor for axial actuation can be totally dispensed with. The piston is radially supported by passive repulsive bearings. In the axial direction, a servo actuator ''balances'' the piston and also actuates it bi-directionally. Implemented of this ''bearing cum motor theme,'' reduces the number of electromechanical and electronic components required to operate the system and hence minimizes the chances of system failure. Apart from this, the system's power consumption is reduced and efficiency is improved as electrical heating losses caused by quiescent-operating currents are removed and electromagnetic losses on the moving parts are minimized. The necessary system parameters have been derived using finite element analysis techniques. Finally, the proposed design is validated by computer-aided system simulation

  15. Design and fabrication of a Czerny-Turner monochromator-cum-spectrograph

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murty, M.V.R.K.; Shukla, R.P.; Bhattacharya, S.S.; Krishnamurthy, G.

    1987-01-01

    The design and fabrication of a Czerny-Turner monochromator cum spectrograph is described. It consists of a classically ruled grating having 1200 grooves/mm. The collimator is a concave spherical mirror having a radius of curvature 1.025 metre while the focusing element is a concave spherical mirror of radius of curvature 0.925 metre. The design of two unequal radii of curvature for collimating and focusing mirrors is chosen to eliminate the chromatic aberration at the wavelength of 5000A. The linear reciprocal dispersion on the focal surface is about 8A/mm. The resolution of the instrument at the coma corrected wavelength i.e. 5000A is 0.1A. The resolution at the other wavelengths is limited by the residual chromatic aberration which increases linearly with wavelength on either side of the 5000A. Therefore the resolution at the wavelength 2000A and 8000A is about 0.2A. 7 figures. (author)

  16. Quasiperiodicity in time evolution of the Bloch vector under the thermal Jaynes-Cummings model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azuma, Hiroo; Ban, Masashi

    2014-07-01

    We study a quasiperiodic structure in the time evolution of the Bloch vector, whose dynamics is governed by the thermal Jaynes-Cummings model (JCM). Putting the two-level atom into a certain pure state and the cavity field into a mixed state in thermal equilibrium at initial time, we let the whole system evolve according to the JCM Hamiltonian. During this time evolution, motion of the Bloch vector seems to be in disorder. Because of the thermal photon distribution, both a norm and a direction of the Bloch vector change hard at random. In this paper, taking a different viewpoint compared with ones that we have been used to, we investigate quasiperiodicity of the Bloch vector’s trajectories. Introducing the concept of the quasiperiodic motion, we can explain the confused behaviour of the system as an intermediate state between periodic and chaotic motions. More specifically, we discuss the following two facts: (1) If we adjust the time interval Δt properly, figures consisting of plotted dots at the constant time interval acquire scale invariance under replacement of Δt by sΔt, where s(>1) is an arbitrary real but not transcendental number. (2) We can compute values of the time variable t, which let |Sz(t)| (the absolute value of the z-component of the Bloch vector) be very small, with the Diophantine approximation (a rational approximation of an irrational number).

  17. Proceedings of the workshop cum symposium on applications of neural networks in nuclear science and industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The Workshop cum Symposium on Application of Neural Networks in Nuclear Science and Industry was held at Bombay during November 24-26. 1993. The past decade has seen many important advances in the design and technology of artificial neural networks in research and industry. Neural networks is an interdisciplinary field covering a broad spectrum of applications in surveillance, diagnosis of nuclear power plants, nuclear spectroscopy, speech and written text recognition, robotic control, signal processing etc. The objective of the symposium was to promote awareness of advances in neural network research and applications. It was also aimed at conducting the review of the present status and giving direction for future technological developments. Contributed papers have been organized into the following groups: a) neural network architectures, learning algorithms and modelling, b) computer vision and image processing, c) signal processing, d) neural networks and fuzzy systems, e) nuclear applications and f) neural networks and allied applications. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately. (M.K.V.)

  18. Ethanol extract of Rehmannia glutinosa exerts antidepressant-like effects on a rat chronic unpredictable mild stress model by involving monoamines and BDNF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun-Ming; Pei, Li-Xin; Zhang, Yue-Yue; Cheng, Yong-Xian; Niu, Chun-Ling; Cui, Ying; Feng, Wei-Sheng; Wang, Gui-Fang

    2018-06-01

    The dried roots of Rehmannia glutinosa Libosch. (Scrophulariaceae) are of both medicinal and nutritional importance. Our previous study has found that the 80% ethanol extract of R. glutinosa (RGEE) produced antidepressant-like activities in mouse behavioral despair depression models. However, its mechanisms are still unclear. The present study aimed to observe the antidepressant-like mechanisms of RGEE on a rat chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) model by involving monoaminergic neurotransmitters and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). CUMS-stressed rats were orally given RGEE daily (150, 300, and 600 mg/kg) or fluoxetine hydrochloride (FH) for 3 weeks after starting the CUMS procedure. Sucrose preference test was carried out to observe depression-like behavior, and serum and brain tissues were used for neurochemical and fluorescent quantitative reverse transcription PCR analysis. Results demonstrated that CUMS induced depression-like behavior, whereas RGEE and FH administration inhibited this symptom. Furthermore, CUMS caused excessively elevated levels of serum corticosterone (CORT), an index of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis hyperactivity, in a manner attenuated by RGEE and FH administration. RGEE administration also further elevated monoamine neurotransmitters and BDNF levels, up-regulated the mRNA expression of BDNF and tropomyosin-related kinase B (TrkB) in hippocampus of rats suffering CUMS. Together, our findings suggest that RGEE can improve CUMS-evoked depression-like behavior, and indicate its mechanisms may partially be associated with restoring HPA axis dysfunctions, enhancing monoamineergic nervous systems, and up-regulating BDNF and TrkB expression.

  19. Revivals and entanglement from initially entangled mixed states of a damped Jaynes-Cummings model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rendell, R.W.; Rajagopal, A.K.

    2003-01-01

    An exact density matrix of a phase-damped Jaynes-Cummings model (JCM) with entangled Bell-like initial states formed from a model two-state atom and sets of adjacent photon number states of a single-mode radiation field is presented. The entanglement of the initial states and the subsequent time evolution is assured by finding a positive lower bound on the concurrence of local 2x2 projections of the full 2x∞ JCM density matrix. It is found that the time evolution of the lower bound of the concurrence systematically captures the corresponding collapse and revival features in atomic inversion, relative entropies of atomic and radiation, mutual entropy, and quantum deficit. The atom and radiation subsystems exhibit alternating sets of collapses and revivals in a complementary fashion due to the initially mixed states of the atom and radiation employed here. This is in contrast with the result obtained when the initial state of the dissipationless system is a factored pure state of the atom and radiation, where the atomic and radiation entropies are necessarily the same. The magnitudes of the entanglement lower bound and the atomic and radiation revivals become larger as both the magnitude and phase of the Bell-like initial state contribution increase. The time evolution of the entropy difference of the total system and that of the radiation subsystem exhibit negative regions called 'supercorrelated' states which do not appear in the atomic subsystem. Entangled initial states are found to enhance this supercorrelated feature. Finally, the effect of phase damping is to randomize both the subsystems for asymptotically long times. It may be feasible to experimentally investigate the results presented here using the Rabi oscillation methods of microwave and optical cavity quantum electrodynamics since pure photon number states have recently been produced and observed

  20. "Sentire cum Ecclesia" –Archbishop Oscar Romero in a crossfire of dissent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Dobrzyński

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The article Sentire cum Ecclesia Archbishop Romero caught between the fires of division: presents a clear picture of the difficult situation the Archbishop was involved in while ministering the war torn politically explosive Archdiocese of San Salvador (1977-1998 and the importance of maintaining his relationship with Rome. He lived his life between two burning fires: the cold war and the revolution, right and left wing factions, the unity of the Church and Liberation theology, and at the same time bearing within the strain of the dichotomy between the tendency for the mystic and his prophetic gift. The Archbishop was committed to put into practice the teaching of Vatican II, the social doctrine of the Church, and to the documents written by the Latin American Bishops in the conferences of Medellin (1968 and Puebla (1979. Paying attention to the circumstances of the Archdiocese and to the needs of Salvadorian society as a whole, Romero searched for solutions, taking into account his conscience and the Magisterium of the Church, while living a deeply spiritual life. His Episcopal motto, “To be of one mind with the Church” signifies his dedication and compassion with the suffering poor and disenfranchised, and the Church as an institution. Proof of this stems from always referring his feelings back to Rome and his dedication to the poor and persecuted. Even though it is not easy to draw any conclusions or make any judgments regarding Oscar Romero’s mission of the Church in the midst of the countries crisis, the article underlines the Historical-Ecclesiastical perspective that allows the avoidance of myths that continue to exist, in both liberal and conservative Catholic surroundings.

  1. Diversity receiver

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2005-01-01

    The invention is directed to the reception of high rate radio signals (for example DVB-T signals) while the receiver is moving at a high speed (for example in or with a car). Two or more antennas (12, 16) are closely spaced and arranged behind each other in the direction of motion (v) for receiving

  2. Entropy squeezing for a two-level atom in the Jaynes-Cummings model with an intensity-depend coupling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李春先; 方卯发

    2003-01-01

    We study the squeezing for a two-level atom in the Jaynes-Cummings model with intensity-dependent coupling using quantum information entropy, and examine the influences of the initial state of the system on the squeezed component number and direction of the information entropy squeezing. Our results show that, the squeezed component number depends on the atomic initial distribution angle, while the squeezed direction is determined by both the phases of the atom and the field for the information entropy squeezing. Quantum information entropy is shown to be a remarkable precision measure for atomic squeezing.

  3. Entanglement dynamics of a double two-photon Jaynes–Cummings model with Kerr-like medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xi-Cheng, Ouyang; Mao-Fa, Fang; Guo-Dong, Kang; Xiao-Juan, Deng; Li-Yuan, Huang

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, the entanglement dynamics of a double two-photon Jaynes–Cummings model with Kerr-like medium is investigated. It is shown that initial entanglement has an interesting subsequent time evolution, including the so-called entanglement sudden death effect. It is also shown analytically that the Kerr-like medium can repress entanglement sudden death and enhance the degree of atom-atom entanglement. A more interesting fact is that the Kerr effect is more obvious when each of the two cavities with have the Kerr-like medium than only one of them with the Kerr-like medium

  4. Properties influencing cracking and separation of palm nuts in a mechanical cracker cum separator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOSHUA OLANREWAJU OLAOYE

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Experimental studies of some properties influencing cracking and separation of palm kernel from the shell was conducted in a palm kernel dual processing machine. A mechanical cracking cum separating machine was developed for the study. The cracking unit consists of feed hopper, impeller shaft, cracking drum and impeller blade. The nut falls by gravity through the hopper channel into the cracking drum where the cracking process takes place through the help of impeller blades that flip the palm nut against the walls of cylindrical cracking drum. The mass of cracked nut flows through the separating unit that separates the kernel from the shell. The separation is induced by high current of air mass generated by an axial fan. A dura palm variety was selected and a total sample of eighteen thousand (18000 palm nuts were obtained and divided into two groups (feed rates, A and B, of eight thousand and ten thousand palm nuts respectively. Sample groups A and B were further divided into five sub – groups of four hundred (400 and five hundred (500 palm kernel nuts. Each sub group (feed rate was replicated four times at different shaft speeds (600, 900, 1200, 1500 and 1800 rpm. Results showed that cracking efficiencies increased with respect to speed. Un-cracked nuts percentage ranged from 1.3 to 5.3% at 7.1% moisture content, and 1.6 to 4.5% for 400 and 500 feed rates, respectively. Cracking time for both feed rates decreased with shaft speed. Throughput capacity of 11.49 kg/h was observed to be the lowest at 600 rpm and moisture content of 7.1% for both 400 feed rates and the highest throughput capacity of 37.16 kg/h was recorded at 1800 rpm at moisture contents of 9.3% and 16.1%. The results of this study shows that moisture content, engine speed and feed rate are significant parameters that influence cracking of nuts and separation of palm kernel from the shell.

  5. Response of the sensorimotor cortex of cerebral palsy rats receiving transplantation of vascular endothelial growth factor 165-transfected neural stem cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jielu Tan; Xiangrong Zheng; Shanshan Zhang; Yujia Yang; Xia Wang; Xiaohe Yu; Le Zhong

    2014-01-01

    Neural stem cells are characterized by the ability to differentiate and stably express exogenous ge-nes. Vascular endothelial growth factor plays a role in protecting local blood vessels and neurons of newborn rats with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. Transplantation of vascular endothelial growth factor-transfected neural stem cells may be neuroprotective in rats with cerebral palsy. In this study, 7-day-old Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into ifve groups: (1) sham operation (control), (2) cerebral palsy model alone or with (3) phosphate-buffered saline, (4) vascular en-dothelial growth factor 165 + neural stem cells, or (5) neural stem cells alone. hTe cerebral palsy model was established by ligating the letf common carotid artery followed by exposure to hypox-ia. Phosphate-buffered saline, vascular endothelial growth factor + neural stem cells, and neural stem cells alone were administered into the sensorimotor cortex using the stereotaxic instrument and microsyringe. Atfer transplantation, the radial-arm water maze test and holding test were performed. Immunohistochemistry for vascular endothelial growth factor and histology using hematoxylin-eosin were performed on cerebral cortex. Results revealed that the number of vas-cular endothelial growth factor-positive cells in cerebral palsy rats transplanted with vascular endothelial growth factor-transfected neural stem cells was increased, the time for ifnding water and the ifnding repetitions were reduced, the holding time was prolonged, and the degree of cell degeneration or necrosis was reduced. hTese ifndings indicate that the transplantation of vascu-lar endothelial growth factor-transfected neural stem cells alleviates brain damage and cognitive deifcits, and is neuroprotective in neonatal rats with hypoxia ischemic-mediated cerebral palsy.

  6. Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey Kondrashov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to perform a chemical analysis of both Alibernet red wine and an alcohol-free Alibernet red wine extract (AWE and to investigate the effects of AWE on nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species production as well as blood pressure development in normotensive Wistar Kyoto (WKY and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs. Total antioxidant capacity together with total phenolic and selected mineral content was measured in wine and AWE. Young 6-week-old male WKY and SHR were treated with AWE (24,2 mg/kg/day for 3 weeks. Total NOS and SOD activities, eNOS and SOD1 protein expressions, and superoxide production were determined in the tissues. Both antioxidant capacity and phenolic content were significantly higher in AWE compared to wine. The AWE increased NOS activity in the left ventricle, aorta, and kidney of SHR, while it did not change NOS activity in WKY rats. Similarly, increased SOD activity in the plasma and left ventricle was observed in SHR only. There were no changes in eNOS and SOD1 expressions. In conclusion, phenolics and minerals included in AWE may contribute directly to increased NOS and SOD activities of SHR. Nevertheless, 3 weeks of AWE treatment failed to affect blood pressure of SHR.

  7. Design and Development of Maize Dehusker cum Sheller: A Technology for Northern Transition Zone of Karnataka, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilur, Rudragouda; Kumar, Sushilendra

    2018-06-01

    The Maize ( Zea mays L.) crop is one of the most important cereal in agricultural production systems of Northern Transition Zone (Hyderabad-Karnataka region) in India. These Hyderabad Karnataka farmers (small-medium) are lack of economic technologies with maize dehusking and shelling, which fulfils the two major needs as crops and as livestock in farming. The portable medium size (600 kg/h capacity) electric motor (2.23 kW) operated Maize Dehusker cum Sheller (MDS) was designed to resolve the issue by considering engineering properties of maize. The developed trapezium shaped MDS machine having overall dimensions (length × (top and bottom) × height) of 1200 × (500 and 610) × 810 mm. The selected operational parameters viz, cylinder peripheral speed (7.1 m/s), concave clearance (25 mm) and feed rate (600 kg/h) were studied for machine-performance and seed-quality parameters. The performance of machine under these parameters showed the dehusking efficiency of 99.56%, shelling efficiency of 98.01%, cleaning efficiency of 99.11%, total loss of 3.63% machine capacity of 527.11 kg/kW-h and germination percentage of 98.93%. Overall machine performance was found satisfactory for maize dehusking cum shelling operation as well as to produce the maize grains for seeding purpose.

  8. Bridging the gap between the Jaynes–Cummings and Rabi models using an intermediate rotating wave approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yimin; Haw, Jing Yan

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The intermediate rotating wave approximation (IRWA) is introduced. • The co-rotating and counter-rotating terms in Rabi model are expressed separately. • IRWA is applied to the near resonance case and the large detuning case. • The continuity between the Jaynes–Cummings model and the Rabi model is established. - Abstract: We present a novel approach called the intermediate rotating wave approximation (IRWA), which employs a time-averaging method to encapsulate the dynamics of light-matter interaction from strong to ultrastrong coupling regime. In contrast to the ordinary rotating wave approximation, this method addresses the co-rotating and counter-rotating terms separately to trace their physical consequences individually, and thus establishes the continuity between the Jaynes–Cummings model and the quantum Rabi model. We investigate IRWA in near resonance and large detuning cases. Our IRWA not only agrees well with both models in their respective coupling strengths, but also offers a good explanation of their differences

  9. Design and Development of Maize Dehusker cum Sheller: A Technology for Northern Transition Zone of Karnataka, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilur, Rudragouda; Kumar, Sushilendra

    2018-02-01

    The Maize (Zea mays L.) crop is one of the most important cereal in agricultural production systems of Northern Transition Zone (Hyderabad-Karnataka region) in India. These Hyderabad Karnataka farmers (small-medium) are lack of economic technologies with maize dehusking and shelling, which fulfils the two major needs as crops and as livestock in farming. The portable medium size (600 kg/h capacity) electric motor (2.23 kW) operated Maize Dehusker cum Sheller (MDS) was designed to resolve the issue by considering engineering properties of maize. The developed trapezium shaped MDS machine having overall dimensions (length × (top and bottom) × height) of 1200 × (500 and 610) × 810 mm. The selected operational parameters viz, cylinder peripheral speed (7.1 m/s), concave clearance (25 mm) and feed rate (600 kg/h) were studied for machine-performance and seed-quality parameters. The performance of machine under these parameters showed the dehusking efficiency of 99.56%, shelling efficiency of 98.01%, cleaning efficiency of 99.11%, total loss of 3.63% machine capacity of 527.11 kg/kW-h and germination percentage of 98.93%. Overall machine performance was found satisfactory for maize dehusking cum shelling operation as well as to produce the maize grains for seeding purpose.

  10. The Effects of Aloe Vera on TNF-a Levels, the Percentage of Nk Cells and Th 17 Cells in Rat That Received Izoniazid and Rifampycin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mawarti, Herin; Rajin, Mukhamad; Asumta, Zulfikar

    2017-10-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate the hepatoprotective effect of Aloe vera against side effect of antituberculosis drug. Twenty-five rats will be divided into five groups, namely the control group (without any treatment), the group of rats treated with anti-tuberculosis drugs, and a group of rats were treated antituberculosis drugs and got Aloe vera extract at a dose of 40; 80; and 120 mg/kg body weight. Antituberculosis drugs are isoniazid and rifampicin a dose of 50 mg/kg body weight. Antituberculosis treated group showed significantly increase levels of TNF-a, the percentage of NK cells and the number of Th17 cells compared with the control group ( p 0.05). Aloe vera at first and the third dose lower the number of NK cells compared to the antituberculosis group, although it has not yet reached a significant difference ( p > 0.05). The first dose of Aloe vera was significantly decreased the percentage of Th17 cells compared to the antituberculosis drug group ( p 0.05). It was concluded that administration of Aloe vera can suppress the production of TNF-a and the percentage of Th17 cells as a result of antituberculosis drug administration. Thus, Aloe vera can be a useful alternative to natural materials in the successful treatment of tuberculosis through the inhibition of side effect.

  11. Long-term treatment with peony glycosides reverses chronic unpredictable mild stress-induced depressive-like behavior via increasing expression of neurotrophins in rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Qing-Qiu; Xian, Yan-Fang; Ip, Siu-Po; Tsai, Sam-Hip; Che, Chun-Tao

    2010-07-11

    The root part of Paeonia lactiflora Pall., commonly known as peony, is a commonly used Chinese herb for the treatment of depression-like disorders. Previous studies in our laboratory have showed that total glycosides of peony (TGP) produced antidepressant-like action in various mouse models of behavioral despair. The present study aimed to investigate the mechanism(s) underlying the antidepressant-like action of TGP by measuring neurotrophins including brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and nerve growth factor (NGF) in non-stressed and chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS)-treated rats. TGP (80 or 160 mg/kg/day) was administered by oral gavage to the animals for 5 weeks. The results showed that CUMS caused depression-like behavior in rats, as indicated by the significant decreases in sucrose consumption and locomotor activity (assessed by open-field test). In addition, it was found that BDNF contents in the hippocampus and frontal cortex were significantly decreased in CUMS-treated rats. CUMS treatment also significantly decreased the level of NGF in the frontal cortex of the animals. Daily intragastric administration of TGP (80 or 160 mg/kg/day) during the five weeks of CUMS significantly suppressed behavioral and biochemical changes induced by CUMS. Treating non-stressed animals with TGP (160 mg/kg) for 5 weeks also significantly increased BDNF contents in the hippocampus and frontal cortex, and NGF contents in the frontal cortex. The results suggest that the antidepressant-like action of TGP is mediated, at least in part, by increasing the expression of BDNF and NGF in selective brain tissues. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Isolation and identification of flavonoids, including flavone rotamers, from the herbal drug 'Crataegi folium cum flore' (hawthorn).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayyan, S; Fossen, T; Solheim Nateland, H; Andersen, O M

    2005-01-01

    Twelve flavonoids, including seven flavones, four flavonols and one flavanone, were isolated from methanolic extract of the herbal drug 'Crataegi folium cum flore' (hawthorn leaves and flowers) by a combination of CC (over Amberlite XAD-7 and Sephadex LH-20) and preparative HPLC. Their structures, including that of the novel flavonol 8-methoxykaempferol 3-O-(6"-malonyl-beta-glucopyranoside), were elucidated by homo- and heteronuclear NMR and electrospray/MS. The 1H- and 13C-NMR of all compounds, including rotameric pairs of five flavone C-glycosides, were assigned. The presence and relative proportion of each rotamer was shown by various NMR experiments, including two-dimensional nuclear Overhauser and exchange spectroscopy, to depend on solvent, linkage position and structure of the C-glycosyl substituent.

  13. Effects of cavity-cavity interaction on the entanglement dynamics of a generalized double Jaynes-Cummings model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandit, Mahasweta; Das, Sreetama; Singha Roy, Sudipto; Shekhar Dhar, Himadri; Sen, Ujjwal

    2018-02-01

    We consider a generalized double Jaynes-Cummings model consisting of two isolated two-level atoms, each contained in a lossless cavity that interact with each other through a controlled photon-hopping mechanism. We analytically show that at low values of such a mediated cavity-cavity interaction, the temporal evolution of entanglement between the atoms, under the effects of cavity perturbation, exhibits the well-known phenomenon of entanglement sudden death (ESD). Interestingly, for moderately large interaction values, a complete preclusion of ESD is achieved, irrespective of its value in the initial atomic state. Our results provide a model to sustain entanglement between two atomic qubits, under the adverse effect of cavity induced perturbation, by introducing a non-intrusive inter-cavity photon exchange that can be physically realized through cavity-QED setups in contemporary experiments.

  14. Properties of Linear Entropy in k-Photon Jaynes-Cummings Model with Stark Shift and Kerr-Like Medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao Qinghong; Wang Yueyuan; Liu Shutian; Ahmad, Muhammad Ashfaq

    2010-01-01

    The time evolution of the linear entropy of an atom in k-photon Jaynes-Cummings model is investigated taking into consideration Stark shift and Kerr-like medium. The effect of both the Stark shift and Kerr-like medium on the linear entropy is analyzed using a numerical technique for the field initially in coherent state and in even coherent state. The results show that the presence of the Kerr-like medium and Stark shift has an important effect on the properties of the entropy and entanglement. It is also shown that the setting of the initial state plays a significant role in the evolution of the linear entropy and entanglement. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)

  15. Glucemia, insulinemia y secreción de insulina en ratas prepúberes hiperandrogenizadas e hiperestrogenizadas Glycemia, insulinemia and insulin secretion in prepubescent rats receiving high doses of androgens and strogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aimée Álvarez Álvarez

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió el efecto de una sobredosis de enantato de testosterona y de benzoato de estradiol en ratas machos prepúberes, sobre el comportamiento de la glucemia y la insulinemia in vivo, durante una prueba de tolerancia a la glucosa. Adicionalmente se exploró, in vitro, la capacidad de secreción de insulina estimulada por glucosa de los islotes de Langerhans de estas ratas hiperandrogenizadas e hiperestrogenizadas. Se encontró que la hiperandrogenización se acompañaba de un deterioro de la sensibilidad a la insulina, con hiperinsulinemia, que no se corresponde con un aumento de la capacidad de secreción de insulina de los islotes de Langerhans. Sin embargo, se comprobó que la hiperestrogenización no indujo cambios en los perfiles de glucemia, ni de insulinemia, ni en la capacidad de secreción de insulina de los islotes de Langerhans de este grupo de ratas hiperestrogenizadas.The effect of an overdose of testosterone heptanoate and estradiol in male prepubescent rats on the behavior of glycemia and insulinemia was studied in vivo during a glucose tolerance test. The capacity of insulin secretion stimulated by glucose from the islets of Langerhans of these rats that were administered a high dose of androgens and estrogens was explored in vitro. It was found that the high level of circulating androgens was accompanied by a deterioration of sensitivity to insulin with hyperinsulinemia that does not correspond to an increase of the insulin secreting capacity of the islets of Langerhans. However, it was demonstrated that the high level of circulating estrogens did not produce changes either in the glycemia and insulinemia profiles or in the insulin secreting capacity of the islets of Langerhans in this group of rats that received an elevated dose of estrogens.

  16. Differential regulation of catecholamine synthesis and transport in rat adrenal medulla by fluoxetine treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spasojevic, Natasa; Jovanovic, Predrag; Dronjak, Sladjana

    2015-03-01

    We have recently shown that chronic fluoxetine treatment acted significantly increasing plasma norepinephrine and epinephrine concentrations both in control and chronically stressed adult male rats. However, possible effects of fluoxetine on catecholamine synthesis and re-uptake in adrenal medulla have been largely unknown. In the present study the effects of chronic fluoxetine treatment on tyrosine hydroxylase, a rate-limiting enzyme in catecholamine synthesis, as well as a norepinephrine transporter and vesicular monoamine transporter 2 gene expressions in adrenal medulla of animals exposed to chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) for 4 weeks, were investigated. Gene expression analyses were performed using a real-time quantitative reverse transcription-PCR. Chronically stressed animals had increased tyrosine hydroxylase mRNA levels and decreased expression of both transporters. Fluoxetine increased tyrosine hydroxylase and decreased norepinephrine transporter gene expression in both unstressed and CUMS rats. These findings suggest that chronic fluoxetine treatment increased plasma catecholamine levels by affecting opposing changes in catecholamine synthesis and uptake.

  17. Melatonin mediated antidepressant-like effect in the hippocampus of chronic stress-induced depression rats: Regulating vesicular monoamine transporter 2 and monoamine oxidase A levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanovic, Bojana; Spasojevic, Natasa; Jovanovic, Predrag; Jasnic, Nebojsa; Djordjevic, Jelena; Dronjak, Sladjana

    2016-10-01

    The hippocampus is sensitive to stress which activates norepinephrine terminals deriving from the locus coeruleus. Melatonin exerts positive effects on the hippocampal neurogenic process and on depressive-like behaviour. Thus, in the present study, an examination was made of the effect of chronic melatonin treatment on norepinephrine content, synthesis, uptake, vesicular transport and degradation in the hippocampus of rats exposed to CUMS. This entailed quantifying the norephinephrine, mRNA and protein levels of DBH, NET, VMAT 2, MAO-A and COMT. The results show that CUMS evoked prolonged immobility. Melatonin treatment decreased immobility in comparison with the placebo group, reflecting an antidepressant-like effect. Compared with the placebo group, a dramatic decrease in norepinephrine content, decreased VMAT2 mRNA and protein and increased MAO-A protein levels in the hippocampus of the CUMS rats were observed. However, no significant differences in the levels of DBH, NET, COMT mRNA and protein and MAO-A mRNA levels between the placebo and the stressed groups were found. The results showed the restorative effects of melatonin on the stress-induced decline in the norepinephrine content of the hippocampus. It was observed that melatonin treatment in the CUMS rats prevented the stress-induced decrease in VMAT2 mRNA and protein levels, whereas it reduced the increase of the mRNA of COMT and protein levels of MAO-A. Chronic treatment with melatonin failed to alter the gene expression of DBH or NET in the hippocampus of the CUMS rats. Additionally, the results show that melatonin enhances VMAT2 expression and norepinephrine storage, whilst it reduces norepinephrine degrading enzymes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  18. Dynamics of single photon transport in a one-dimensional waveguide two-point coupled with a Jaynes-Cummings system

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Yuwen

    2016-09-22

    We study the dynamics of an ultrafast single photon pulse in a one-dimensional waveguide two-point coupled with a Jaynes-Cummings system. We find that for any single photon input the transmissivity depends periodically on the separation between the two coupling points. For a pulse containing many plane wave components it is almost impossible to suppress transmission, especially when the width of the pulse is less than 20 times the period. In contrast to plane wave input, the waveform of the pulse can be modified by controlling the coupling between the waveguide and Jaynes-Cummings system. Tailoring of the waveform is important for single photon manipulation in quantum informatics. © The Author(s) 2016.

  19. Deciphering the Differential Effective and Toxic Responses of Bupleuri Radix following the Induction of Chronic Unpredictable Mild Stress and in Healthy Rats Based on Serum Metabolic Profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoxia Gao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The petroleum ether fraction of Bupleuri Radix which is contained in the traditional Chinese medicine prescription of Xiaoyaosan (XYS may have a therapeutic effect in depressed subjects based on the results of our previous study. It has been reported that Bupleuri Radix can cause liver toxicity following overdosing or long-term use. Therefore, this study aimed to decipher the differential effective and toxic responses of Bupleuri Radix in chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS (with depression and healthy rats based on serum metabolic profiles. Serum metabolic profiles were obtained using the UHPLC- Q Exactive Orbitrap-MS technique. Our results demonstrated that the petroleum ether fraction of Bupleuri Radix (PBR produces an antidepressant effect through regulating glycometabolism, amino acid metabolism, sphingolipid metabolism, glycerophospholipid metabolism, and fatty acid metabolism. It also induces more severe toxic reactions in the liver or kidney in healthy rats than in CUMS rats, which exhibited a comparatively mild drug-induced toxic reaction. The altered lysine degradation, sphingolipid metabolism, glycerophospholipid metabolism, fatty acid metabolism, and bile acid metabolism could be at least partly responsible for the PBR toxic responses in healthy rats. The differential effective and toxic response of PBR in CUMS rats and healthy rats provide a new standard for the more rational and safer application of clinical drugs in the future.

  20. What can we learn from the dynamics of entanglement and quantum discord in the Tavis-Cummings model?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restrepo, Juliana; Rodriguez, Boris A.

    We revisit the problem of the dynamics of quantum correlations in the exact Tavis-Cummings model. We show that many of the dynamical features of quantum discord attributed to dissipation are already present in the exact framework and are due to the well known non-linearities in the model and to the choice of initial conditions. Through a comprehensive analysis, supported by explicit analytical calculations, we find that the dynamics of entanglement and quantum discord are far from being trivial or intuitive. In this context, we find states that are indistinguishable from the point of view of entanglement and distinguishable from the point of view of quantum discord, states where the two quantifiers give opposite information and states where they give roughly the same information about correlations at a certain time. Depending on the initial conditions, this model exhibits a fascinating range of phenomena that can be used for experimental purposes such as: Robust states against change of manifold or dissipation, tunable entanglement states and states with a counterintuitive sudden birth as the number of photons increase. We furthermore propose an experiment called quantum discord gates where discord is zero or non-zero depending on the number of photons. This work was supported by the Vicerrectoria de Investigacion of the Universidad Antonio Narino, Colombia under Project Number 20141031 and by the Departamento Administrativo de Ciencia, Tecnologia e Innovacion (COLCIENCIAS) of Colombia under Grant Number.

  1. Extraction Optimization, Characterization, and Bioactivities of Polysaccharides from Pinelliae Rhizoma Praeparatum Cum Alumine Employing Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu-Jie; Mo, Xue-Lin; Tang, Xiao-Zhang; Li, Jiang-Hua; Hu, Mei-Bian; Yan, Dan; Peng, Wei; Wu, Chun-Jie

    2017-06-09

    In this study, the ultrasound-assisted extraction of polysaccharides (PSA) from Pinelliae Rhizoma Praeparatum Cum Alumine (PRPCA) was optimized by response surface methodology (RSM). The structural characteristics of PSA were analyzed by UV-vis spectroscopy, infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, high performance gel permeation chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography, respectively. In addition, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of PSA were studied by different in vitro assays. Results indicated that the optimal extraction conditions were as follows: the ratio of water to raw of 30 mL/g, extraction time of 46.50 min, ultrasonic temperature of 72.00 °C, and ultrasonic power of 230 W. Under these conditions, the obtained PSA yield (13.21 ± 0.37%) was closely agreed with the predicted yield by the model. The average molecular weights of the PSA were estimated to be 5.34 × 10³ and 6.27 × 10⁵ Da. Monosaccharide composition analysis indicated that PSA consisted of mannose, galactose uronic acid, glucose, galactose, arabinose with a molar ratio of 1.83:0.55:75.75:1.94:0.45. Furthermore, PSA exhibited moderate antioxidant and antibacterial activities in vitro. Collectively, this study provides a promising strategy to obtain bioactive polysaccharides from processed products of herbal medicines.

  2. Infinite set of relevant operators for an exact solution of the time-dependent Jaynes-Cummings Hamiltonian

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruver, J.L.; Aliaga, J.; Cerdeira, H.A.; Proto, A.N.

    1995-03-01

    The dynamics and thermodynamics of a quantum time-dependent field coupled to a two-level system, well known as the Jaynes-Cummings Hamiltonian, is studied, using the maximum entropy principle. In the framework of this approach we found three different infinite sets of relevant operators that describe the dynamics of the system for any temporal dependence. These sets of relevant operators are connected by isomorphisms, which allow us to consider the case of mixed initial conditions. A consistent set of initial conditions is established using the maximum entropy principle density operator, obtaining restrictions to the physically feasible initial conditions of the system. The behaviour of the population inversion is shown for different time dependencies of the Hamiltonian and initial conditions. For the time-independent case, an explicit solution for the population inversion in terms of the relevant operators of one of the sets is given. It is also shown how the well-known formulas for the population inversion are recovered for the special cases where the initial conditions correspond to a pure, coherent, and thermal field. (author). 35 refs, 9 figs

  3. The Impacts of Swimming Exercise on Hippocampal Expression of Neurotrophic Factors in Rats Exposed to Chronic Unpredictable Mild Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei Jiang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Depression is associated with stress-induced neural atrophy in limbic brain regions, whereas exercise has antidepressant effects as well as increasing hippocampal synaptic plasticity by strengthening neurogenesis, metabolism, and vascular function. A key mechanism mediating these broad benefits of exercise on the brain is induction of neurotrophic factors, which instruct downstream structural and functional changes. To systematically evaluate the potential neurotrophic factors that were involved in the antidepressive effects of exercise, in this study, we assessed the effects of swimming exercise on hippocampal mRNA expression of several classes of the growth factors (BDNF, GDNF, NGF, NT-3, FGF2, VEGF, and IGF-1 and peptides (VGF and NPY in rats exposed to chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS. Our study demonstrated that the swimming training paradigm significantly induced the expression of BDNF and BDNF-regulated peptides (VGF and NPY and restored their stress-induced downregulation. Additionally, the exercise protocol also increased the antiapoptotic Bcl-xl expression and normalized the CUMS mediated induction of proapoptotic Bax mRNA level. Overall, our data suggest that swimming exercise has antidepressant effects, increasing the resistance to the neural damage caused by CUMS, and both BDNF and its downstream neurotrophic peptides may exert a major function in the exercise related adaptive processes to CUMS.

  4. Electronic warfare receivers and receiving systems

    CERN Document Server

    Poisel, Richard A

    2014-01-01

    Receivers systems are considered the core of electronic warfare (EW) intercept systems. Without them, the fundamental purpose of such systems is null and void. This book considers the major elements that make up receiver systems and the receivers that go in them.This resource provides system design engineers with techniques for design and development of EW receivers for modern modulations (spread spectrum) in addition to receivers for older, common modulation formats. Each major module in these receivers is considered in detail. Design information is included as well as performance tradeoffs o

  5. Receiver Test Selection Criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-12

    The DOT requests that GPS manufacturers submit receivers for test in the following TWG categories: - Aviation (non-certified), cellular, general location/navigation, high precision, timing, networks, and space-based receivers - Each receiver should b...

  6. Stress-induced endocrine response and anxiety: the effects of comfort food in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortolani, Daniela; Garcia, Márcia Carvalho; Melo-Thomas, Liana; Spadari-Bratfisch, Regina Celia

    2014-05-01

    The long-term effects of comfort food in an anxiogenic model of stress have yet to be analyzed. Here, we evaluated behavioral, endocrine and metabolic parameters in rats submitted or not to chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS), with access to commercial chow alone or to commercial chow and comfort food. Stress did not alter the preference for comfort food but decreased food intake. In the elevated plus-maze (EPM) test, stressed rats were less likely to enter/remain in the open arms, as well as being more likely to enter/remain in the closed arms, than were control rats, both conditions being more pronounced in the rats given access to comfort food. In the open field test, stress decreased the time spent in the centre, independent of diet; neither stress nor diet affected the number of crossing, rearing or grooming episodes. The stress-induced increase in serum corticosterone was attenuated in rats given access to comfort food. Serum concentration of triglycerides were unaffected by stress or diet, although access to comfort food increased total cholesterol and glucose. It is concluded that CUMS has an anorexigenic effect. Chronic stress and comfort food ingestion induced an anxiogenic profile although comfort food attenuated the endocrine stress response. The present data indicate that the combination of stress and access to comfort food, common aspects of modern life, may constitute a link among stress, feeding behavior and anxiety.

  7. A flexible WLAN receiver

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schiphorst, Roelof; Hoeksema, F.W.; Slump, Cornelis H.

    2003-01-01

    Flexible radio receivers are also called Software Defined Radios (SDRs) [1], [2]. The focus of our SDR project [3] is on designing the front end, from antenna to demodulation in bits, of a °exible, multi-standard WLAN receiver. We try to combine an instance of a (G)FSK receiver (Bluetooth) with an

  8. Highly Sensitive Optical Receivers

    CERN Document Server

    Schneider, Kerstin

    2006-01-01

    Highly Sensitive Optical Receivers primarily treats the circuit design of optical receivers with external photodiodes. Continuous-mode and burst-mode receivers are compared. The monograph first summarizes the basics of III/V photodetectors, transistor and noise models, bit-error rate, sensitivity and analog circuit design, thus enabling readers to understand the circuits described in the main part of the book. In order to cover the topic comprehensively, detailed descriptions of receivers for optical data communication in general and, in particular, optical burst-mode receivers in deep-sub-µm CMOS are presented. Numerous detailed and elaborate illustrations facilitate better understanding.

  9. Learning and memory alterations are associated with hippocampal N-acetylaspartate in a rat model of depression as measured by 1H-MRS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangjun Xi

    Full Text Available It is generally accepted that cognitive processes, such as learning and memory, are affected in depression. The present study used a rat model of depression, chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS, to determine whether hippocampal volume and neurochemical changes were involved in learning and memory alterations. A further aim was to determine whether these effects could be ameliorated by escitalopram treatment, as assessed with the non-invasive techniques of structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS. Our results demonstrated that CUMS had a dramatic influence on spatial cognitive performance in the Morris water maze task, and CUMS reduced the concentration of neuronal marker N-acetylaspartate (NAA in the hippocampus. These effects could be significantly reversed by repeated administration of escitalopram. However, neither chronic stress nor escitalopram treatment influenced hippocampal volume. Of note, the learning and memory alterations of the rats were associated with right hippocampal NAA concentration. Our results indicate that in depression, NAA may be a more sensitive measure of cognitive function than hippocampal volume.

  10. Xiao Yao San Improves Depressive-Like Behavior in Rats through Modulation of β-Arrestin 2-Mediated Pathways in Hippocampus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoxia Zhu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Xiao Yao San (XYS is a classical Chinese medicine formula that has been widely used to treat mood disorders for hundreds of years. To confirm the effect of XYS and better understand its underlying mechanism, high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis-based quality control of XYS extracts and proteomics-based identification of differential proteins in the hippocampus were adopted in social isolation and chronic unpredictable mild stress- (CUMS- treated rats. The depressive-like behavior of rats induced by CUMS resembled the manifestation of human depression. The upregulated corticosterone (CORT and urocortin 2 (UCN2 levels demonstrated the existence of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis hyperactivity. XYS was effective in ameliorating the depressive-like behavior and downregulating UCN2 and CORT. XYS decreased the expression of serine/threonine-protein phosphatase 2A subunit B and increased the expression of β-arrestin 2. The expressions of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF, tyrosine receptor kinase B (TrkB, and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR were also elevated by XYS. In conclusion, XYS improves social isolation and CUMS-induced depressive-like behavior and ameliorates HPA hyperactivation through the downregulation of corticotrophin releasing hormone (CRH receptor 2. The upregulation of BDNF/TrkB and the phosphorylation of mTOR require β-arrestin 2 as a scaffold to regulate stress signaling.

  11. The Effects of High-fat-diet Combined with Chronic Unpredictable Mild Stress on Depression-like Behavior and Leptin/LepRb in Male Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jin Ling; Liu, De Xiang; Jiang, Hong; Pan, Fang; Ho, Cyrus Sh; Ho, Roger Cm

    2016-10-14

    Leptin plays a key role in the pathogenesis of obesity and depression via the long form of leptin receptor (LepRb). An animal model of comorbid obesity and depression induced by high-fat diet (HFD) combined with chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) was developed to study the relationship between depression/anxiety-like behavior, levels of plasma leptin and LepRb in the brains between four groups of rats, the combined obesity and CUMS (Co) group, the obese (Ob) group, the CUMS group and controls. Our results revealed that the Co group exhibited most severe depression-like behavior in the open field test (OFT), anxiety-like behavior in elevated plus maze test (EMT) and cognitive impairment in the Morris water maze (MWM). The Ob group had the highest weight and plasma leptin levels while the Co group had the lowest levels of protein of LepRb in the hypothalamus and hippocampus. Furthermore, depressive and anxiety-like behaviors as well as cognitive impairment were positively correlated with levels of LepRb protein and mRNA in the hippocampus and hypothalamus. The down-regulation of leptin/LepRb signaling might be associated with depressive-like behavior and cognitive impairment in obese rats facing chronic mild stress.

  12. Delphi Accounts Receivable Module -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Delphi accounts receivable module contains the following data elements, but are not limited to customer information, cash receipts, line of accounting details, bill...

  13. Solar energy receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Jacob

    1978-01-01

    An improved long-life design for solar energy receivers provides for greatly reduced thermally induced stress and permits the utilization of less expensive heat exchanger materials while maintaining receiver efficiencies in excess of 85% without undue expenditure of energy to circulate the working fluid. In one embodiment, the flow index for the receiver is first set as close as practical to a value such that the Graetz number yields the optimal heat transfer coefficient per unit of pumping energy, in this case, 6. The convective index for the receiver is then set as closely as practical to two times the flow index so as to obtain optimal efficiency per unit mass of material.

  14. Cryogenic microwave channelized receiver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rauscher, C.; Pond, J.M.; Tait, G.B.

    1996-01-01

    The channelized receiver being presented demonstrates the use of high temperature superconductor technology in a microwave system setting where superconductor, microwave-monolithic-integrated-circuit, and hybrid-integrated-circuit components are united in one package and cooled to liquid-nitrogen temperatures. The receiver consists of a superconducting X-band four-channel demultiplexer with 100-MHz-wide channels, four commercial monolithically integrated mixers, and four custom-designed hybrid-circuit detectors containing heterostructure ramp diodes. The composite receiver unit has been integrated into the payload of the second-phase NRL high temperature superconductor space experiment (HTSSE-II). Prior to payload assembly, the response characteristics of the receiver were measured as functions of frequency, temperature, and drive levels. The article describes the circuitry, discusses the key issues related to design and implementation, and summarizes the experimental results

  15. Alexandrite Lidar Receiver

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wilkerson, Thomas

    2000-01-01

    ...". The chosen vendor, Orca Photonics, In. (Redmond, WA), in close collaboration with USU personnel, built a portable, computerized lidar system that not only is suitable as a receiver for a near IR alexandrite laser, but also contains an independent Nd...

  16. Receiver Gain Modulation Circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Hollis; Racette, Paul; Walker, David; Gu, Dazhen

    2011-01-01

    A receiver gain modulation circuit (RGMC) was developed that modulates the power gain of the output of a radiometer receiver with a test signal. As the radiometer receiver switches between calibration noise references, the test signal is mixed with the calibrated noise and thus produces an ensemble set of measurements from which ensemble statistical analysis can be used to extract statistical information about the test signal. The RGMC is an enabling technology of the ensemble detector. As a key component for achieving ensemble detection and analysis, the RGMC has broad aeronautical and space applications. The RGMC can be used to test and develop new calibration algorithms, for example, to detect gain anomalies, and/or correct for slow drifts that affect climate-quality measurements over an accelerated time scale. A generalized approach to analyzing radiometer system designs yields a mathematical treatment of noise reference measurements in calibration algorithms. By treating the measurements from the different noise references as ensemble samples of the receiver state, i.e. receiver gain, a quantitative description of the non-stationary properties of the underlying receiver fluctuations can be derived. Excellent agreement has been obtained between model calculations and radiometric measurements. The mathematical formulation is equivalent to modulating the gain of a stable receiver with an externally generated signal and is the basis for ensemble detection and analysis (EDA). The concept of generating ensemble data sets using an ensemble detector is similar to the ensemble data sets generated as part of ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD) with exception of a key distinguishing factor. EEMD adds noise to the signal under study whereas EDA mixes the signal with calibrated noise. It is mixing with calibrated noise that permits the measurement of temporal-functional variability of uncertainty in the underlying process. The RGMC permits the evaluation of EDA by

  17. The Australian Dollar's Long-Term Fluctuations and Trend: The Commodity Prices-cum-Economic Cycles Hypothesis

    OpenAIRE

    Sanidas, Elias

    2005-01-01

    The Australian dollar’s exchange rate (mainly in relation to the American dollar) has received a considerable attention in research and several models have been proposed to explain its trend and fluctuations. Thus, as a conclusion of this research we can say that this commodity currency very much depends on the terms of trade which in turn depend on commodity prices. The present paper is based on this conclusion and hence proposes the possibility that the Australian dollar’s behavior is overw...

  18. Demographic characteristics and prevalence of other sexually transmitted diseases in HIV-positive patients seen in the Dermatology cum Genitourinary Clinic, Hospital Sultanah Aminah, Johor Bahru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choon, S E; Mathew, M; Othman, B S

    2000-06-01

    The demographic characteristics, risk behaviourand prevalence of other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) were determined in 132 HIV-infected individuals seen in a Dermatology cum Genitourinary Clinic, Hospital Sultanah Aminah Johor Bahru. Sixty-one (46.2%) were Malays, 37.9% Chinese, 10.6% Indians and 5.3% were of other ethnic groups. The male to female ratio was 4.5:1. Most of the patients (82.5%) were between 20 to 40 years-old. Seventy (53.0%) were single, 34.1% were married and 7.5% were divorcees. The majority of them (97.7%) were heterosexual. Fifty seven (53.3%) of our male patients patronised commercial workers. Eighty-one (61.8%) were not intravenous drug users (IVDU). Of the 50 IVDUs, 24 had multiple sexual exposures. Fifty-three (48.2%) of the 109 patients screened for STDs had one or more other STDs. Thirty-four patients (31.9%) reported one STD in the past and 3.6% reported two STDs in the past. Fifty-six patients (42.4%) had developed AIDS. Thirteen had passed away. The main mode of transmission of HIV infection in this population is through heterosexual intercourse and the prevalence of STDs is high. These findings indicate a need to advocate responsible sexual behaviour and to detect as well as treat STDs early to prevent the sexual transmission of HIV.

  19. The Blood-Brain Barrier Permeability of Six Indole Alkaloids from Uncariae Ramulus Cum Uncis in the MDCK-pHaMDR Cell Monolayer Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Nan Zhang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Uncariae Ramulus Cum Uncis (URCU is a widely used traditional Chinese medicine, and is reported to have various central nervous system effects. Alkaloids have been demonstrated to be the predominant pharmacological active components of URCU. In order to evaluate the blood-brain barrier (BBB permeability and transport mechanism of six typical indole alkaloids from URCU, the MDCK-pHaMDR cell monolayer model was used as an in vitro surrogate model for BBB. The samples were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography, and the apparent permeability coefficients (Papp were calculated. Among the six alkaloids, isorhynchophylline (2, isocorynoxeine (4, hirsutine (5 and hirsuteine (6 showed high permeability, with Papp values at 10−5 cm/s level in bidirectional transport. For rhynchophylline (1 and corynoxeine (3, they showed moderate permeability, with Papp values from the apical (AP side to the basolateral (BL side at 10−6 cm/s level and efflux ratio (Papp BL→AP/Papp AP→BL above 2. The time- and concentration-dependency experiments indicated that the main mechanism for 2, 4, 5 and 6 through BBB was passive diffusion. The efflux mechanism involved in the transports of compounds 1 and 3 could be reduced significantly by verapamil, and molecular docking screening also showed that 1 and 3 had strong bindings to P-glycoprotein. This study provides useful information for predicting the BBB permeability for 1–6, as well as better understanding of their central nervous system pharmacological activities.

  20. Desigualdades de género en la medicación: un tortuoso recorrido por el Vademécum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourdes Pérez González

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Análisis de las diferencias de género en la medicalización —entendida como la apropiación de parcelas de la vida cotidiana por el ámbito médico/farmacéutico— y sus repercusiones en la vida y la salud de las mujeres. Este análisis utiliza como referencia fundamental el Vademécum, base de datos que nos ha permitido la búsqueda de los fármacos (centrándonos en los efectos adversos y las interacciones que se expiden sin receta y están destinados fundamentalmente, o únicamente, a las mujeres ―sanas Analysis of gender differences in medicalization - understood as the appropriation of daily life areas by the medical/pharmaceutical field - and their impact on women’s health and lives. This study relies on the Vademecum as the main reference, database that has allowed us the search of drugs (focusing on the adverse effects and the interactions that are given without a prescription and are basically, or only, addressed to ―healthy‖ women.

  1. miR-16 and Fluoxetine Both Reverse Autophagic and Apoptotic Change in Chronic Unpredictable Mild Stress Model Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Yang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In the clinic selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs, like Fluoxetine, remain the primary treatment for major depression. It has been suggested that miR-16 regulates serotonin transporters (SERT via raphe nuclei and hippocampal responses to antidepressants. However, the underlying mechanism and regulatory pathways are still obtuse. Here, a chronic unpredicted mild stress (CUMS depression model in rats was established, and then raphe nuclei miR-16 and intragastric Fluoxetine injections were administered for a duration of 3 weeks. An open field test and sucrose preference quantification displayed a significant decrease in the CUMS groups when compare to the control groups, however these changes were attenuated by both miR-16 and Fluoxetine treatments. A dual-luciferase reporter assay system verified that hsa-miR-16 inhibitory effects involve the targeting of 3′UTR on the 5-HTT gene. Expression levels of miR-16 and BDNF in the hippocampus were examined with RT-PCR, and it was found that increased 5-HT2a receptor expression induced by CUMS can be decreased by miR-16 and Fluoxetine administration. Immunofluorescence showed that expression levels of neuron NeuN and MAP-2 in CUMS rats were lower. Apoptosis and autophagy levels were evaluated separately through relative expression of Bcl-2, Caspase-3, Beclin-1, and LC3II. Furthermore, CUMS was found to decrease levels of hippocampal mTOR, PI3K, and AKT. These findings indicate that apoptosis and autophagy related pathways could be involved in the effectiveness of antidepressants, in which miR-16 participates in the regulation of, and is likely to help integrate rapid therapeutic strategies to alleviate depression clinically. These findings indicate that miR-16 participates in the regulation of apoptosis and autophagy and could account for some part of the therapeutic effect of SSRIs. This discovery has the potential to further the understanding of SSRIs and accelerate the development of new

  2. The Antidepressant Effect of Angelica sinensis Extracts on Chronic Unpredictable Mild Stress-Induced Depression Is Mediated via the Upregulation of the BDNF Signaling Pathway in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Shen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Angelica sinensis (AS, a traditional Chinese herbal medicine, has pharmaceutical effects on menstrual illness, cerebrovascular diseases, cardiovascular diseases, and cognitive impairments. However, until recently, few studies had explored its antidepressant effect. The current study attempts to investigate the effect of AS extracts on chronic unpredictable mild stress- (CUMS- induced depression in rats. Male SD rats were exposed to a CUMS-inducing procedure for 5 weeks, resulting in rodent depressive behaviors that included reduced sucrose consumption and lessened sucrose preference ratios in sucrose preference test, prolonged immobility times and decreased struggling time in force swim test, and decreased locomotor activity in open field test. Moreover, the expression of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF and the phosphorylation of cAMP-response element binding protein (CREB and extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK 1/2 were markedly decreased in the hippocampus in depressed rats. However, chronically treating the depressed rats with AS (1 g/kg normalized their depression-related behaviors and molecular profiles. In conclusion, in the present study, we show that AS extracts exerted antidepressant effects that were mediated by the BDNF signaling pathway: in AS-treated depressed rats, the expression of the BDNF protein and the phosphorylation of its downstream targets (ERK 1/2, CREB were upregulated in the hippocampus.

  3. 'Chaos' in superregenerative receivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Commercon, Jean-Claude; Badard, Robert

    2005-01-01

    The superregenerative principle has been known since the early 1920s. The circuit is extremely simple and extremely sensitive. Today, superheterodyne receivers generally supplant superregenerative receivers in most applications because there are several undesirable characteristics: poor selectivity, reradiation, etc. Superregenerative receivers undergo a revival in recent papers for wireless systems, where low cost and very low power consumption are relevant: house/building meters (such as water, energy, gas counter), personal computer environment (keyboard, mouse), etc. Another drawback is the noise level which is higher than that of a well-designed superheterodyne receiver; without an antenna input signal, the output of the receiver hears in an earphone as a waterfall noise; this sound principally is the inherent input noise amplified and detected by the circuit; however, when the input noise is negligible with respect of an antenna input signal, we are faced to an other source of 'noise' self-generated by the superregenerative working. The main objective of this paper concerns this self-generated noise coming from an exponential growing followed by a re-injection process for which the final state is a function of the phase of the input signal

  4. Role of hypothalamic cannabinoid receptors in post-stroke depression in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shanshan; Sun, Hong; Liu, Sainan; Wang, Ting; Guan, Jinqun; Jia, Jianjun

    2016-03-01

    One of the most common psychological consequences of stroke is post-stroke depression (PSD). While more than 30 percent of stroke patients eventually develop PSD, the neurobiological mechanisms underlying such a phenomenon have not been well investigated. Given the critical involvement of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and endocannabinoid system in response to stressful stimuli, we evaluated the hypothesis that cannabinoid receptors in the hypothalamus are critical for modulation of post-stroke depression-like behaviors in rats. To this end, rats were treated with middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) followed by chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) treatment procedure. We then assessed the expression of CB1 and CB2 receptors in the hypothalamus, and evaluated the effects of pharmacological stimulations of CB1 or CB2 receptors on the expression and development of depression-like behaviors in PSD rats. We found that PSD rats exhibited decreased the expression of CB1 receptor, but not CB2 receptor, in the ventral medial hypothalamus (VMH). Such an effect was not observed in the dorsally adjacent brain regions. Furthermore, intra-VMH injections of CB2 receptor agonist, but not CB1 receptor agonist, attenuated the expression of depression-like behaviors in PSD rats. Finally, repeated intraperitoneal injections of CB1 or CB2 receptor agonists during CUMS treatment inhibited the development of depression-like behaviors in PSD rats. Taken together, these results suggest that decreased CB1 receptor expression is likely associated with the development of post-stroke depression, and CB2 receptor may be a potential therapeutic target for the treatment post-stroke depressive disorders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Regulation of the kynurenine metabolism pathway by Xiaoyao San and the underlying effect in the hippocampus of the depressed rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiajia; Li, Xiaofang; He, Shugui; Hu, Lijun; Guo, Jiewen; Huang, Xiangning; Hu, Jinqing; Qi, Yaoqun; Chen, Bin; Shang, Dewei; Wen, Yuguan

    2018-03-25

    Xiaoyao San (XYS) is a classic Chinese herbal formula for treatment of depression. The present study aimed to investigate the antidepressant effects of XYS in a rat model of chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) and the underlying mechanisms. A CUMS rat model of depression was established via 4 weeks of unpredictable stimulation. Then the rats were orally administered paroxetine and XYS for 2 weeks with continued stress. Behavioral assessments, including an open field test (OFT), sucrose preference test (SPT) and forced swim test (FST), were conducted to evaluate the antidepressant effects of XYS. The concentrations in rat plasma of tryptophan (Trp) and its metabolic products, including kynurenine (Kyn) and quinolinic acid (QUIN), were determined using high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry with electrochemical detection (HPLC-MS/MS). The mRNA and protein levels in rat hippocampus of depression-related brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), cyclic AMP response element binding protein (CREB) and nerve cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) were determined by real-time qPCR and Western blot, respectively. Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) was used to detect the activities of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) and kynurenine-3-monooxygenase (KMO) in rat plasma. The results showed that a successful CUMS rat model was established through 4 weeks of continuous unpredictable stimulation, as indicated by the significant decrease in locomotor activity and increase in immobility time in the OFT, reduction in body weight and food intake etc. Compared with the normal group, the concentrations of Kyn and QUIN had significantly (p KMO. Compared with the normal group, the mRNA of NCAM, CREB and BDNF were significantly down-regulated (p < 0.001) in the control group, BDNF gene was up-regulated by paroxetine or XYS treatment, NCAM and CREB gene did not change in XYS group, protein expressions of BDNF and CREB were significantly increased, and NCAM was

  6. Solar thermal central receivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vant-Hull, L.L.

    1993-01-01

    Market issues, environmental impact, and technology issues related to the Solar Central Receiver concept are addressed. The rationale for selection of the preferred configuration and working fluid are presented as the result of a joint utility-industry analysis. A $30 million conversion of Solar One to an external molten salt receiver would provide the intermediate step to a commercial demonstration plant. The first plant in this series could produce electricity at 11.2 cents/kWhr and the seventh at 8.2 cents/kWhr, completely competitive with projected costs of new utility plants in 1992

  7. Wideband CMOS receivers

    CERN Document Server

    Oliveira, Luis

    2015-01-01

    This book demonstrates how to design a wideband receiver operating in current mode, in which the noise and non-linearity are reduced, implemented in a low cost single chip, using standard CMOS technology.  The authors present a solution to remove the transimpedance amplifier (TIA) block and connect directly the mixer’s output to a passive second-order continuous-time Σ∆ analog to digital converter (ADC), which operates in current-mode. These techniques enable the reduction of area, power consumption, and cost in modern CMOS receivers.

  8. Receiver gain function: the actual NMR receiver gain

    OpenAIRE

    Mo, Huaping; Harwood, John S.; Raftery, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    The observed NMR signal size depends on the receiver gain parameter. We propose a receiver gain function to characterize how much the raw FID is amplified by the receiver as a function of the receiver gain setting. Although the receiver is linear for a fixed gain setting, the actual gain of the receiver may differ from what the gain setting suggests. Nevertheless, for a given receiver, we demonstrate that the receiver gain function can be calibrated. Such a calibration enables accurate compar...

  9. Integration of ¹H NMR and UPLC-Q-TOF/MS for a comprehensive urinary metabonomics study on a rat model of depression induced by chronic unpredictable mild stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Mei Jia

    Full Text Available Depression is a type of complex psychiatric disorder with long-term, recurrent bouts, and its etiology remains largely unknown. Here, an integrated approach utilizing (1H NMR and UPLC-Q-TOF/MS together was firstly used for a comprehensive urinary metabonomics study on chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS treated rats. More than twenty-nine metabolic pathways were disturbed after CUMS treatment and thirty-six potential biomarkers were identified by using two complementary analytical technologies. Among the identified biomarkers, nineteen (10, 11, 16, 17, 21-25, and 27-36 were firstly reported as potential biomarkers of CUMS-induced depression. Obviously, this paper presented a comprehensive map of the metabolic pathways perturbed by CUMS and expanded on the multitude of potential biomarkers that have been previously reported in the CUMS model. Four metabolic pathways, including valine, leucine and isoleucine biosynthesis; phenylalanine, tyrosine and tryptophan biosynthesis; tryptophan metabolism; synthesis and degradation of ketone bodies had the deepest influence in the pathophysiologic process of depression. Fifteen potential biomarkers (1-2, 4-6, 15, 18, 20-23, 27, 32, 35-36 involved in the above four metabolic pathways might become the screening criteria in clinical diagnosis and predict the development of depression. Moreover, the results of Western blot analysis of aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase (DDC and indoleamine 2, 3-dioxygenase (IDO in the hippocampus of CUMS-treated rats indicated that depletion of 5-HT and tryptophan, production of 5-MT and altered expression of DDC and IDO together played a key role in the initiation and progression of depression. In addition, none of the potential biomarkers were detected by NMR and LC-MS simultaneously which indicated the complementary of the two kinds of detection technologies. Therefore, the integration of (1H NMR and UPLC-Q-TOF/MS in metabonomics study provided an approach to identify

  10. Campus Projects Receiving "Earmarks."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schonberger, Benjamin

    1991-01-01

    Specific campus projects that Congress has directed federal agencies to support this year at over 120 colleges and universities are listed. The agencies neither requested support nor sponsored merit-based competitions for the awards. In some cases, the institutions have a history of receiving special federal treatment. (MSE)

  11. Differential regulation of catecholamine synthesis and transport in rat adrenal medulla by fluoxetine treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NATASA SPASOJEVIC

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We have recently shown that chronic fluoxetine treatment acted significantly increasing plasma norepinephrine and epinephrine concentrations both in control and chronically stressed adult male rats. However, possible effects of fluoxetine on catecholamine synthesis and re-uptake in adrenal medulla have been largely unknown. In the present study the effects of chronic fluoxetine treatment on tyrosine hydroxylase, a rate-limiting enzyme in catecholamine synthesis, as well as a norepinephrine transporter and vesicular monoamine transporter 2 gene expressions in adrenal medulla of animals exposed to chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS for 4 weeks, were investigated. Gene expression analyses were performed using a real-time quantitative reverse transcription-PCR. Chronically stressed animals had increased tyrosine hydroxylase mRNA levels and decreased expression of both transporters. Fluoxetine increased tyrosine hydroxylase and decreased norepinephrine transporter gene expression in both unstressed and CUMS rats. These findings suggest that chronic fluoxetine treatment increased plasma catecholamine levels by affecting opposing changes in catecholamine synthesis and uptake.

  12. Paecilomyces tenuipes extract prevents depression-like behaviors in chronic unpredictable mild stress-induced rat model via modulation of neurotransmitters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chungang; Wang, Juan; Xu, Shiqi; An, Shengshu; Tang, Siying; He, Jian; Liu, Yang; Lee, Robert J; Wang, Di

    2017-08-01

    The medicinal fungus Paecilomyces tenuipes exhibits a variety of pharmacological effects, including antidepressive effects. The chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS)‑induced rat model has served an important role in studies involving antidepressants screening. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antidepressant‑like activity of P. tenuipes N45 aqueous extract (PTNE) in a CUMS‑induced rat model of behavioral despair depression. Following 4 weeks of PTNE treatment, behavioral tests were conducted to investigate the antidepressant‑like activities, and the levels of neurotransmitters and hormones in blood and hypothalamus were measured. The results demonstrated that PTNE treatment significantly increased movement in the forced running test, whereas the immobility time was reduced in the hotplate test and the forced swim test in depression‑model rats. PTNE treatment was able to normalize the levels of hormones and neurotransmitters in serum and hypothalamus of CUMS rats. The data demonstrated that PTNE treatment may be a potential pharmaceutical agent in treatment‑resistant depression, and the effects of PTNE may be partly mediated through normalizing the levels of neurotransmitters.

  13. cAMP/PKA-CREB-BDNF signaling pathway in hippocampus mediates cyclooxygenase 2-induced learning/memory deficits of rats subjected to chronic unpredictable mild stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Ying; Kuang, Shengnan; Li, Huan; Ran, Dongzhi; Yang, Junqing

    2017-05-30

    To investigate the mechanism of cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2) in learning and memory impairments in rats subjected to chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS), meloxicam was used intragastrically to inhibit the activity of cyclooxygenase 2. Moreover, cyclooxygenase 2 over-expressing or RNA interfere lentivirus was injected intraventricularly to increase or decrease the enzyme's expression, respectively. The body weights and sucrose consumption were used to analyze depressive behaviors, while the Morris water maze and step-down-type passive avoidance tests were carried out to evaluate the learning-memory functions. The levels of inflammatory cytokines were measured to estimate inflammation and the contents of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) were used to measure the levels of the second messenger. Changes in cyclooxygenase 2 mRNA levels were analyzed using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Moreover, the expression of cyclooxygenase 2, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), prostaglandins receptor 3 (EP3), protein kinase A (PKA), cAMP response element binding protein (CREB), and phosphorylated CREB were estimated using immunohistochemical staining or western blotting. The results showed that CUMS led to significant depressive-like behaviors and learning and memory dysfunctions. Also, the cAMP levels decreased significantly, while levels of inflammatory cytokines and prostaglandins E2 increased significantly. The expressions of PKA, BDNF, phosphorylated CREB/CREB declined and cyclooxygenase 2 was increased. Meloxicam and cyclooxygenase 2 RNA interfere lentivirus reversed the changes caused by CUMS while cyclooxygenase 2-overexpressing lentivirus worsened these abnormalities. The findings also showed that CUMS increased cyclooxygenase 2 expression, which can cause learning and memory impairments, mainly through activating the hippocampal neuronal cAMP/PKA-CREB-BDNF signaling pathways.

  14. Digital Receiver Phase Meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcin, Martin; Abramovici, Alexander

    2008-01-01

    The software of a commercially available digital radio receiver has been modified to make the receiver function as a two-channel low-noise phase meter. This phase meter is a prototype in the continuing development of a phase meter for a system in which radiofrequency (RF) signals in the two channels would be outputs of a spaceborne heterodyne laser interferometer for detecting gravitational waves. The frequencies of the signals could include a common Doppler-shift component of as much as 15 MHz. The phase meter is required to measure the relative phases of the signals in the two channels at a sampling rate of 10 Hz at a root power spectral density measurements in laser metrology of moving bodies. To illustrate part of the principle of operation of the phase meter, the figure includes a simplified block diagram of a basic singlechannel digital receiver. The input RF signal is first fed to the input terminal of an analog-to-digital converter (ADC). To prevent aliasing errors in the ADC, the sampling rate must be at least twice the input signal frequency. The sampling rate of the ADC is governed by a sampling clock, which also drives a digital local oscillator (DLO), which is a direct digital frequency synthesizer. The DLO produces samples of sine and cosine signals at a programmed tuning frequency. The sine and cosine samples are mixed with (that is, multiplied by) the samples from the ADC, then low-pass filtered to obtain in-phase (I) and quadrature (Q) signal components. A digital signal processor (DSP) computes the ratio between the Q and I components, computes the phase of the RF signal (relative to that of the DLO signal) as the arctangent of this ratio, and then averages successive such phase values over a time interval specified by the user.

  15. Targeting Oxidative Stress, Cytokines and Serotonin Interactions Via Indoleamine 2, 3 Dioxygenase by Coenzyme Q10: Role in Suppressing Depressive Like Behavior in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuelezz, Sally A; Hendawy, Nevien; Magdy, Yosra

    2017-06-01

    Depression is a major health problem in which oxidative stress and inflammation are inextricably connected in its pathophysiology. Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) is an important anti-oxidant compound with anti-inflammatory and neuro-protective properties. This study was designed to investigate the hypothesis that CoQ10 by its anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory potentials can alleviate depressive- like behavior by restoring the balance of the tryptophan catabolites kynurenine/serotonin toward the serotonin pathway by down-regulation of hippocampal indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO-1). Depressive-like behavior was induced by chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) protocol including food or water deprivation, cage tilting, reversed light cycle etc. Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups; Control, CUMS, CUMS and CoQ10 (50,100 and 200 mg/kg/day i.p. respectively) groups. CoQ10 effects on different behavioral and biochemical tests were analyzed. CoQ10 showed significant antidepressant efficacy, as evidenced by significantly decreased stress induced changes to forced swimming challenge and open field test, as well as attenuating raised corticosterone level and adrenal glands weight. The anti-oxidant effect of CoQ10 was exhibited by its ability to significantly reduce hippocampal elevated malondialdehyde and 4-hydroxynonenal levels and elevate the reduced glutathione and catalase levels. CoQ10 significantly reduced different pro-inflammatory cytokines levels including interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-2, IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α. It suppressed hippocampal IDO-1 and subsequent production of kynurenine and enhanced the hippocampal contents of tryptophan and serotonin. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that CoQ10 was able to attenuate the elevated microglial CD68 and elevate the astrocyte glial fibrillary acidic protein compared to CUMS group. CoQ10 exhibited antidepressant-like effects on rats exposed to CUMS. This could be attributed to its ability to reduce

  16. Pressure difference receiving ears

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michelsen, Axel; Larsen, Ole Næsbye

    2007-01-01

    Directional sound receivers are useful for locating sound sources, and they can also partly compensate for the signal degradations caused by noise and reverberations. Ears may become inherently directional if sound can reach both surfaces of the eardrum. Attempts to understand the physics...... of the eardrum. The mere existence of sound transmission to the inner surface does not ensure a useful directional hearing, since a proper amplitude and phase relationship must exist between the sounds acting on the two surfaces of the eardrum. The gain of the sound pathway must match the amplitude and phase...... of the sounds at the outer surfaces of the eardrums, which are determined by diffraction and by the arrival time of the sound, that is by the size and shape of the animal and by the frequency of sound. Many users of hearing aids do not obtain a satisfactory improvement of their ability to localize sound sources...

  17. Solar thermal energy receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Karl W. (Inventor); Dustin, Miles O. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A plurality of heat pipes in a shell receive concentrated solar energy and transfer the energy to a heat activated system. To provide for even distribution of the energy despite uneven impingement of solar energy on the heat pipes, absence of solar energy at times, or failure of one or more of the heat pipes, energy storage means are disposed on the heat pipes which extend through a heat pipe thermal coupling means into the heat activated device. To enhance energy transfer to the heat activated device, the heat pipe coupling cavity means may be provided with extensions into the device. For use with a Stirling engine having passages for working gas, heat transfer members may be positioned to contact the gas and the heat pipes. The shell may be divided into sections by transverse walls. To prevent cavity working fluid from collecting in the extensions, a porous body is positioned in the cavity.

  18. 中药钩藤不同药用部位异钩藤碱含量分析%Analysis of the contents of isorhynchophylline in different medicinal parts of Ramulus Uncariae Cum Uncis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王盟; 赵亚鑫

    2015-01-01

    目的:测定钩藤的不同药用部位中异钩藤碱的含量。方法应用高效液相色谱法(HPLC)测定8批不同产地钩藤的不同药用部位中异钩藤碱含量。采用Waters Symmetry C18色谱柱(250 mm×4.6 mm,5μm),流动相为甲醇-0.01 mol/L醋酸铵缓冲液(pH 8.0)(60∶40),柱温25℃,进样量20μl,流速1.0 ml/min,检测波长246 nm。结果8批不同产地钩藤药材中均能检测出异钩藤碱,但产地间差异较大;不同药用部位中异钩藤碱的含量:主杆>带钩茎枝>无钩茎枝>无茎枝钩>叶。结论钩藤不同药用部位大部分含异钩藤碱成分,为扩展钩藤植物的药用部位提供试验依据。%ObjectiveTo explore the content of isorhynchophylline in different medicinal parts of Ramulus Uncariae Cum Uncis.MethodsHPLC was adopted to determine 8 batches of different Ramulus Uncariae Cum Uncis of different origin and different medicinal parts. The Waters Symmetry C18 color(4.6 mm×250 mm, 5μm) was used with mobile phase of methanol -0.01 mol/L ammonium acetate buffer(pH 8.0)(60∶40), column temperature of 25℃ , 20μl sample volume, velocity of 1.0 ml/min, and detection wavelength of 246 nm. ResultsIsorhynchophylline can be detected in all 8 batchs of Ramulus Uncariae Cum Uncis in different regions, and different content were found among different origins. The content of isorhynchophylline in different parts of the same origin showed a decreasing sequence of the rhabd, stem with hook, stem without hook, and twig without hook and leaves.ConclusionMost of medicinal part of Ramulus Uncariae Cum Uncis contains isorhynchophylline, which provide a lab basis for exploring medicinal parts of this herbal medicine.

  19. CERN apprentice receives award

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    Another CERN apprentice has received an award for the quality of his work. Stéphane Küng (centre), at the UIG ceremony last November, presided over by Geneva State Councillor Pierre-François Unger, Head of the Department of Economics and Health. Electronics technician Stéphane Küng was honoured in November by the Social Foundation of the Union Industrielle Genevoise (UIG) as one of Geneva’s eight best apprentices in the field of mechatronics. The 20-year-old Genevan obtained his Federal apprentice’s certificate (Certificat fédéral de capacité - CFC) in June 2007, achieving excellent marks in his written tests at the Centre d’Enseignement Professionnel Technique et Artisanal (CEPTA). Like more than 200 youngsters before him, Stéphane Küng spent part of his four-year sandwich course working at CERN, where he followed many practical training courses and gained valuable hands-on experience in various technical groups and labs. "It’ always very gr...

  20. GNSS Software Receiver for UAVs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Daniel Madelung; Jakobsen, Jakob; von Benzon, Hans-Henrik

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the current activities of GPS/GNSS Software receiver development at DTU Space. GNSS Software receivers have received a great deal of attention in the last two decades and numerous implementations have already been presented. DTU Space has just recently started development of ...... of our own GNSS software-receiver targeted for mini UAV applications, and we will in in this paper present our current progress and briefly discuss the benefits of Software Receivers in relation to our research interests....

  1. Effect of dietary soy isoflavones on bone loss in ovariectomized rats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To determine the effect of dietary soy isoflavone supplementation on bone loss in ovariectomized (OVX) rats. Methods: Forty-eight rats were assigned randomly to groups of OVX rats receiving soy isoflavones (20, 30, or 40 mg/kg of body weight daily), untreated OVX rats, or untreated intact rats. After 8 weeks, bone ...

  2. Solar advanced internal film receiver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torre Cabezas, M. de la

    1990-01-01

    In a Solar Central Internal Film Receiver, the heat absorbing fluid (a molten nitrate salt) flows in a thin film down over the non illuminated side of an absorber panel. Since the molten salt working fluid is not contained in complicated tube manifolds, the receiver design is simples than a conventional tube type-receiver resulting in a lower cost and a more reliable receiver. The Internal Film Receiver can be considered as an alternative to the Direct Absorption Receiver, in the event that the current problems of the last one can not be solved. It also describes here the test facility which will be used for its solar test, and the test plans foreseen. (Author) 17 refs

  3. Communications receivers principles and design

    CERN Document Server

    Rohde, Ulrich L; Zahnd, Hans

    2017-01-01

    This thoroughly updated guide offers comprehensive explanations of the science behind today’s radio receivers along with practical guidance on designing, constructing, and maintaining real-world communications systems. You will explore system planning, antennas and antenna coupling, amplifiers and gain control, filters, mixers, demodulation, digital communication, and the latest software defined radio (SDR) technology. Written by a team of telecommunication experts, Communications Receivers: Principles and Design, Fourth Edition, features technical illustrations, schematic diagrams, and detailed examples. Coverage includes: • Basic radio considerations • Radio receiver characteristics • Receiver system planning • Receiver implementation considerations • RF and baseband techniques for Software-Defined Radios • Transceiver SDR considerations • Antennas and antenna coupling • Mixers • Frequency sources and control • Ancillary receiver circuits • Performance measurement

  4. Histological Evaluation of Radioprotection by Silymarin and Brassica Oleracea Extract on Eye of Albino Rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naguib, N.I.

    2011-01-01

    The present study was performed to evaluate the effects of two different antioxidant agents (an ethanolic seed extract of cabbage B rassica oleracea a nd silymarin) on irradiated rat eye tissues. Silymarin, known for its potent antioxidant activity, was used as a reference. Rats were divided into 6 groups; group I contained control rats, group II rats received gamma radiation (6 Gy) in three fractionated doses for 3 consecutive days, group III rats received silymarin orally through the experiment , group IV rats received ethanolic extract of brassica seeds orally through the experiment, group V rats received silymarin one week before radiation, during radiation and one week after radiation, and group VI rats received brassica extract one week before radiation, during radiation and one week after radiation . The histological study revealed that ethanolic extract of brassica seeds alleviated the manifestations of radiation injury in the eye tissues as compared with the untreated animals and also with those who received the silymarin.

  5. Stability of heterodyne terahertz receivers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooi, J.W.; Baselmans, J.J.A.; Baryshev, A.; Schieder, R.; Hajenius, M.; Gao, J.R.; Klapwijk, T.M.; Voronov, B.; Gol'tsman, G.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the stability of heterodyne terahertz receivers based on small volume NbN phonon cooled hot electron bolometers (HEBs). The stability of these receivers can be broken down in two parts: the intrinsic stability of the HEB mixer and the stability of the local oscillator (LO)

  6. High Gain Advanced GPS Receiver

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brown, Alison; Zhang, Gengsheng

    2006-01-01

    NAVSYS High Gain Advanced GPS Receiver (HAGR) uses a digital beam-steering antenna array to enable up to eight GPS satellites to be tracked, each with up to 10 dBi of additional antenna gain over a conventional receiver solution...

  7. UWB delay and multiply receiver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dallum, Gregory E.; Pratt, Garth C.; Haugen, Peter C.; Romero, Carlos E.

    2013-09-10

    An ultra-wideband (UWB) delay and multiply receiver is formed of a receive antenna; a variable gain attenuator connected to the receive antenna; a signal splitter connected to the variable gain attenuator; a multiplier having one input connected to an undelayed signal from the signal splitter and another input connected to a delayed signal from the signal splitter, the delay between the splitter signals being equal to the spacing between pulses from a transmitter whose pulses are being received by the receive antenna; a peak detection circuit connected to the output of the multiplier and connected to the variable gain attenuator to control the variable gain attenuator to maintain a constant amplitude output from the multiplier; and a digital output circuit connected to the output of the multiplier.

  8. Effect of Cocoa Butter and Sunflower Oil Supplementation on Performance, Immunoglobulin, and Antioxidant Vitamin Status of Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Ebru Yıldırım; Miyase Çınar; İlkay Yalçınkaya; Hüsamettin Ekici; Nurgül Atmaca; Enes Güncüm

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of cocoa butter and sunflower oil alone and in combination on performance, some biochemical parameters, immunoglobulin, and antioxidant vitamin status in Wistar rats. Forty-eight male rats were assigned to four groups, consisting of 12 rats with 3 replicates. Control received balanced rat diet without oil, cocoa butter group received 3.5% cocoa butter, sunflower oil group received 3.5% sunflower oil, the last group received 1.75% sunflower oil + 1.75% cocoa...

  9. FKBP5 and specific microRNAs via glucocorticoid receptor in the basolateral amygdala involved in the susceptibility to depressive disorder in early adolescent stressed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jingjing; Wang, Rui; Liu, Yuan; Liu, Dexiang; Jiang, Hong; Pan, Fang

    2017-12-01

    Exposure to stressful events induces depressive-like symptoms and increases susceptibility to depression. However, the molecular mechanisms are not fully understood. Studies reported that FK506 binding protein51 (FKBP5), the co-chaperone protein of glucocorticoid receptors (GR), plays a crucial role. Further, miR-124a and miR-18a are involved in the regulation of FKBP5/GR function. However, few studies have referred to effects of early life stress on depressive-like behaviours, GR and FKBP5, as well as miR-124a and miR-18a in the basolateral amygdala (BLA) from adolescence to adulthood. This study aimed to examine the dynamic alternations of depressive-like behaviours, GR and FKBP5, as well as miR-124a and miR-18a expressions in the BLA of chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) rats and dexamethasone administration rats during the adolescent period. Meanwhile, the GR antagonist, RU486, was used as a means of intervention. We found that CUMS and dexamethasone administration in the adolescent period induced permanent depressive-like behaviours and memory impairment, decreased GR expression, and increased FKBP5 and miR-124a expression in the BLA of both adolescent and adult rats. However, increased miR-18a expression in the BLA was found only in adolescent rats. Depressive-like behaviours were positively correlated with the level of miR-124a, whereas GR levels were negatively correlated with those in both adolescent and adult rats. Our results suggested FKBP5/GR and miR-124a in the BLA were associated with susceptibility to depressive disorder in the presence of stressful experiences in early life. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Customizable Digital Receivers for Radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moller, Delwyn; Heavey, Brandon; Sadowy, Gregory

    2008-01-01

    Compact, highly customizable digital receivers are being developed for the system described in 'Radar Interferometer for Topographic Mapping of Glaciers and Ice Sheets' (NPO-43962), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 31, No. 7 (August 2007), page 72. The receivers are required to operate in unison, sampling radar returns received by the antenna elements in a digital beam-forming (DBF) mode. The design of these receivers could also be adapted to commercial radar systems. At the time of reporting the information for this article, there were no commercially available digital receivers capable of satisfying all of the operational requirements and compact enough to be mounted directly on the antenna elements. A provided figure depicts the overall system of which the digital receivers are parts. Each digital receiver includes an analog-to-digital converter (ADC), a demultiplexer (DMUX), and a field-programmable gate array (FPGA). The ADC effects 10-bit band-pass sampling of input signals having frequencies up to 3.5 GHz. The input samples are demultiplexed at a user-selectable rate of 1:2 or 1:4, then buffered in part of the FPGA that functions as a first-in/first-out (FIFO) memory. Another part of the FPGA serves as a controller for the ADC, DMUX, and FIFO memory and as an interface between (1) the rest of the receiver and (2) a front-panel data port (FPDP) bus, which is an industry-standard parallel data bus that has a high data-rate capability and multichannel configuration suitable for DBF. Still other parts of the FPGA in each receiver perform signal-processing functions. The digital receivers can be configured to operate in a stand-alone mode, or in a multichannel mode as needed for DBF. The customizability of the receiver makes it applicable to a broad range of system architectures. The capability for operation of receivers in either a stand-alone or a DBF mode enables the use of the receivers in an unprecedentedly wide variety of radar systems.

  11. On the impact of receiver imperfections on the MMSE-IRC receiver performance in 5G networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tavares, Fernando Menezes Leitão; Berardinelli, Gilberto; Mahmood, Nurul Huda

    2014-01-01

    The usage of Minimum Mean Square Error - Interference Rejection Combining (MMSE-IRC) receivers is expected to be a significant performance booster in the ultra-dense deployment of small cells envisioned by an upcoming 5th generation (5G) Radio Access Technology (RAT). However, hardware limitation...... simulation results confirm that a realistic MMSE-IRC receiver can achieve throughput gains close to ideal, provided a reasonably high resolution Analog-to-Digital Converter (ADC) as well as a supportive radio frame format design are used....

  12. HIGH-EFFICIENCY INFRARED RECEIVER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Esman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent research and development show promising use of high-performance solid-state receivers of the electromagnetic radiation. These receivers are based on the low-barrier Schottky diodes. The approach to the design of the receivers on the basis of delta-doped low-barrier Schottky diodes with beam leads without bias is especially actively developing because for uncooled receivers of the microwave radiation these diodes have virtually no competition. The purpose of this work is to improve the main parameters and characteristics that determine the practical relevance of the receivers of mid-infrared electromagnetic radiation at the operating room temperature by modifying the electrodes configuration of the diode and optimizing the distance between them. Proposed original design solution of the integrated receiver of mid-infrared radiation on the basis of the low-barrier Schottky diodes with beam leads allows to effectively adjust its main parameters and characteristics. Simulation of the electromagnetic characteristics of the proposed receiver by using the software package HFSS with the basic algorithm of a finite element method which implemented to calculate the behavior of electromagnetic fields on an arbitrary geometry with a predetermined material properties have shown that when the inner parts of the electrodes of the low-barrier Schottky diode is performed in the concentric elliptical convex-concave shape, it can be reduce the reflection losses to -57.75 dB and the standing wave ratio to 1.003 while increasing the directivity up to 23 at a wavelength of 6.09 μm. At this time, the rounded radii of the inner parts of the anode and cathode electrodes are equal 212 nm and 318 nm respectively and the gap setting between them is 106 nm. These parameters will improve the efficiency of the developed infrared optical-promising and electronic equipment for various purposes intended for work in the mid-infrared wavelength range. 

  13. Disposition of 14C-erythritol in germfree and conventional rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ommen, B. van; Bie, B. de; Bar, A.

    1996-01-01

    The metabolism and disposition of U-14C-erythritol was examined in four groups of three male and three female, nonfasted rats each. The rats of groups A and D were germfree; the rats of groups B and C were kept under conventional conditions. The rats of group B received an erythritol-supplemented

  14. Possible hypocholesterolemic effect of ginger and rosemary oils in rats

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Group (Ic): rats received i.p 2.5 g/Kg b.w of rosemary oil. Group (Id): Rats received i.p 5 g/Kg b.w mixture of ginger oil and rosemary oil (1:1). The second main ... Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL ...

  15. Attenuation of cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The rats received a single dose injection of 10 mg/kg cisplatin. Other groups of rats received zerumbone (100 and 200 mg/kg), corn oil or the vehicle, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) intraperitoneally for 4 days prior to cisplatin-injections. All animals were decapitated 16 h after cisplatin injection. Trunk blood was collected and ...

  16. GIVING AND RECEIVING CONSTRUCTIVE FEEDBACK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ірина Олійник

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The article scrutinizes the notion of feedback applicable in classrooms where team teaching is provided. The experience of giving and receiving feedback has been a good practice in cooperation between a U.S. Peace Corps volunteer and a Ukrainian counterpart. Giving and receiving feedback is an effective means of classroom observation that provides better insight into the process of teaching a foreign language. The article discusses the stages of feedback and explicates the notion of sharing experience between two teachers working simultaneously in the same classroom. The guidelines for giving and receiving feedback have been provided as well as the most commonly used vocabulary items have been listed. It has been proved that mutual feedback leads to improving teaching methods and using various teaching styles and techniques.

  17. Receiver-exciter controller design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansma, P. A.

    1982-01-01

    A description of the general design of both the block 3 and block 4 receiver-exciter controllers for the Deep Space Network (DSN) Mark IV-A System is presented along with the design approach. The controllers are designed to enable the receiver-exciter subsystem (RCV) to be configured, calibrated, initialized and operated from a central location via high level instructions. The RECs are designed to be operated under the control of the DMC subsystem. The instructions are in the form of standard subsystem blocks (SSBs) received via the local area network (LAN). The centralized control provided by RECs and other DSCC controllers in Mark IV-A is intended to reduce DSN operations costs from the Mark III era.

  18. Stability of heterodyne terahertz receivers

    OpenAIRE

    Kooi, J. W.; Baselmans, J. J. A.; Baryshev, A.; Schieder, R.; Hajenius, M.; Gao, J. R.; Klapwijk, T. M.; Voronov, B.; Gol'tsman, G.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the stability of heterodyne terahertz receivers based on small volume NbN phonon cooled hot electron bolometers (HEBs). The stability of these receivers can be broken down in two parts: the intrinsic stability of the HEB mixer and the stability of the local oscillator (LO) signal injection scheme. Measurements show that the HEB mixer stability is limited by gain fluctuations with a 1/f spectral distribution. In a 60 MHz noise bandwidth this results in an Allan varian...

  19. Autoprotection in acetaminophen intoxication in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalhoff, K; Laursen, H; Bangert, K

    2001-01-01

    and liver tissue were collected before and 12, 24, 36, and 48 hr after the toxic dose and were analysed for hepatic glutathione and cysteine contents, hepatic glutathione-S-transferase and blood alanine aminotransferase activity, as well as acetaminophen concentration in plasma. Steady-state mRNA levels......Autoprotection by acetaminophen, i.e. increased resistance to toxic effects caused by pretreatment, is a well-known phenomenon. The purpose of the present work was to identify mechanisms for increased acetaminophen tolerance induced by pretreatment of rats. One group of female Wistar rats...... (pretreated rats) received acetaminophen orally in increasing doses (1 to 4.3 g/kg) twice a week for 3 weeks, one group (naïve rats) received the vehicle. At time zero pretreated rats received a toxic dose of 7.5 g/kg (100% lethal in naïve rats), and naïve rats received a toxic dose of 4.3 g/kg. Blood...

  20. Femtosecond Photon-Counting Receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krainak, Michael A.; Rambo, Timothy M.; Yang, Guangning; Lu, Wei; Numata, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    An optical correlation receiver is described that provides ultra-precise distance and/or time/pulse-width measurements even for weak (single photons) and short (femtosecond) optical signals. A new type of optical correlation receiver uses a fourth-order (intensity) interferometer to provide micron distance measurements even for weak (single photons) and short (femtosecond) optical signals. The optical correlator uses a low-noise-integrating detector that can resolve photon number. The correlation (range as a function of path delay) is calculated from the variance of the photon number of the difference of the optical signals on the two detectors. Our preliminary proof-of principle data (using a short-pulse diode laser transmitter) demonstrates tens of microns precision.

  1. Scintillation-Hardened GPS Receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Donald R.

    2015-01-01

    CommLargo, Inc., has developed a scintillation-hardened Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver that improves reliability for low-orbit missions and complies with NASA's Space Telecommunications Radio System (STRS) architecture standards. A software-defined radio (SDR) implementation allows a single hardware element to function as either a conventional radio or as a GPS receiver, providing backup and redundancy for platforms such as the International Space Station (ISS) and high-value remote sensing platforms. The innovation's flexible SDR implementation reduces cost, weight, and power requirements. Scintillation hardening improves mission reliability and variability. In Phase I, CommLargo refactored an open-source GPS software package with Kalman filter-based tracking loops to improve performance during scintillation and also demonstrated improved navigation during a geomagnetic storm. In Phase II, the company generated a new field-programmable gate array (FPGA)-based GPS waveform to demonstrate on NASA's Space Communication and Navigation (SCaN) test bed.

  2. Treatment of diabetic rats with encapsulated islets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweet, Ian R; Yanay, Ofer; Waldron, Lanaya; Gilbert, Merle; Fuller, Jessica M; Tupling, Terry; Lernmark, Ake; Osborne, William R A

    2008-12-01

    Immunoprotection of islets using bioisolator systems permits introduction of allogeneic cells to diabetic patients without the need for immunosuppression. Using TheraCyte immunoisolation devices, we investigated two rat models of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), BB rats and rats made diabetic by streptozotocin (STZ) treatment. We chose to implant islets after the onset of diabetes to mimic the probable treatment of children with T1DM as they are usually diagnosed after disease onset. We encapsulated 1000 rat islets and implanted them subcutaneously (SQ) into diabetic biobreeding (BB) rats and STZ-induced diabetic rats, defined as two or more consecutive days of blood glucose>350 mg/dl. Rats were monitored for weight and blood glucose. Untreated BB rats rapidly lost weight and were euthanized at >20% weight loss that occurred between 4 and 10 days from implantation. For period of 30-40 days following islet implantation weights of treated rats remained steady or increased. Rapid weight loss occurred after surgical removal of devices that contained insulin positive islets. STZ-treated rats that received encapsulated islets showed steady weight gain for up to 130 days, whereas untreated control rats showed steady weight loss that achieved >20% at around 55 days. Although islet implants did not normalize blood glucose, treated rats were apparently healthy and groomed normally. Autologous or allogeneic islets were equally effective in providing treatment. TheraCyte devices can sustain islets, protect allogeneic cells from immune attack and provide treatment for diabetic-mediated weight loss in both BB rats and STZ-induced diabetic rats.

  3. Communication received from South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-02-01

    The document reproduces the press release with a statement by Dr. J.W.L. de Villiers, Executive Chairman of the Atomic Energy Corporation of South Africa Limited, issued on 31 January 1984 and included in the letter received by the Director General of the IAEA from the Resident Representative of South Africa to the Agency on 31 January 1984. This statement refers to the transfer of nuclear material equipment and technology by South Africa to other countries and the Non-Proliferation Treaty

  4. Absorption Efficiency of Receiving Antennas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jørgen Bach; Frandsen, Aksel

    2005-01-01

    A receiving antenna with a matched load will always scatter some power. This paper sets an upper and a lower bound on the absorption efficiency (absorbed power over sum of absorbed and scattered powers), which lies between 0 and 100% depending on the directivities of the antenna and scatter...... patterns. It can approach 100% as closely as desired, although in practice this may not be an attractive solution. An example with a small endfire array of dipoles shows an efficiency of 93%. Several examples of small conical horn antennas are also given, and they all have absorption efficiencies less than...

  5. Effects of Refined Xiaoyaosan on Depressive-Like Behaviors in Rats with Chronic Unpredictable Mild Stress through Neurosteroids, Their Synthesis and Metabolic Enzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoling Guo

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: To observe the effects of refined Xiaoyaosan (XYS on the depressive-like behaviors in rats with chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS, and to explore the relationship between the changes of neurosteroids and mRNA expressions of their synthesis and metabolic enzymes, and the mechanism of XYS in the treatment of depression. Methods: Eighty-four healthy male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into normal group, model group, XYS group and fluoxetine group. The latter three groups were subjected to 21 days of CUMS to prepare the stress depression model. Rats in the XYS group, and fluoxetine group were given intragastric administration with refined XYS and fluoxetine, respectively. The behavioral changes of the rats were observed after 21 days. The contents of pregnenolone (PREG, progesterone (PROG and alloprognanolone (ALLO in the plasma of rats were measured by ELISA. The levels of PREG, PROG and ALLO in the hippocampus and amygdala tissues were measured by LC-MS/MS. The mRNA expressions of 3α-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3α-HSD, 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3β-HSD, cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc and 5α-reductase (5a-R in the hippocampus and amygdala were detected by RT-qPCR methods. Results: There were changes in the model rats. The contents of PREG, PROG and ALLO changed similarly, which reflected in the decrease of PROG and ALLO, and the increase of PREG. The mRNA expression of P450scc was increased, and the mRNA expressions of 3α-HSD, 3β-HSD and 5a-R were decreased. Refined XYS could improve the behaviors of rats and the biological indicators. Conclusions: There is a neurosteroid dysfunction in the brain region of depression rat model animals, and the mechanism of refined XYS depression treatment may be related to the regulation of the control of mRNA expression of related synthesis and metabolic enzymes in the hippocampus and amygdala, further affecting the contents of neurosteroids.

  6. Solar receiver with integrated optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Lun; Winston, Roland

    2012-10-01

    The current challenge for PV/Thermal (PV/T) systems is the reduction of radiation heat loss. Compared to solar thermal selective coating, the solar cells cannot be used as an efficient thermal absorber due to their large emissivity of the encapsulation material. Many commercial PV/T products therefore require a high concentration (more than 10x) to reach an acceptable thermal efficiency for their receivers. Such a concentration system inevitably has to track or semi-track, which induces additional cost and collects only the direct radiation from the sun. We propose a new PV/T design using a vacuum encapsulated thin film cell to solve this problem. The proposed design also collects the diffuse sun light efficiently by using an external compound parabolic concentrator (XCPC). Since the transparent electrode (TCO) of thin film cell is inherently transparent in visible light and reflective beyond infrared, this design uses this layer instead of the conventional solar cell encapsulation as the outmost heat loss surface. By integrating such a vacuum design with a tube shaped absorber, we reduce the complexity of conducting the heat energy and electricity out of the device. A low concentration standalone non-tracking solar collector is proposed in this paper. We also analyzed the thermosyphon system configuration using heat transfer and ray tracing models. The economics of such a receiver are presented.

  7. Broadband direct RF digitization receivers

    CERN Document Server

    Jamin, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    This book discusses the trade-offs involved in designing direct RF digitization receivers for the radio frequency and digital signal processing domains.  A system-level framework is developed, quantifying the relevant impairments of the signal processing chain, through a comprehensive system-level analysis.  Special focus is given to noise analysis (thermal noise, quantization noise, saturation noise, signal-dependent noise), broadband non-linear distortion analysis, including the impact of the sampling strategy (low-pass, band-pass), analysis of time-interleaved ADC channel mismatches, sampling clock purity and digital channel selection. The system-level framework described is applied to the design of a cable multi-channel RF direct digitization receiver. An optimum RF signal conditioning, and some algorithms (automatic gain control loop, RF front-end amplitude equalization control loop) are used to relax the requirements of a 2.7GHz 11-bit ADC. A two-chip implementation is presented, using BiCMOS and 65nm...

  8. CERN physicist receives Einstein Medal

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    On 29 June the CERN theorist Gabriele Veneziano was awarded the prestigious Albert Einstein Medal for significant contributions to the understanding of string theory. This award is given by the Albert Einstein Society in Bern to individuals whose scientific contributions relate to the work of Einstein. Former recipients include exceptional physicists such as Murray Gell-Mann last year, but also Stephen Hawking and Victor Weisskopf. Gabriele Veneziano, a member of the integrated CERN Theory Team since 1977, led the Theory Division from 1994 to 1997 and has already received many prestigious prizes for his outstanding work, including the Enrico Fermi Prize (see CERN Courier, November 2005), the Dannie Heineman Prize for mathematical physics of the American Physical Society in 2004 (see Bulletin No. 47/2003), and the I. Ya. Pomeranchuk Prize of the Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics (Moscow) in 1999.

  9. Laughing rats are optimistic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafal Rygula

    Full Text Available Emotions can bias human decisions- for example depressed or anxious people tend to make pessimistic judgements while those in positive affective states are often more optimistic. Several studies have reported that affect contingent judgement biases can also be produced in animals. The animals, however, cannot self-report; therefore, the valence of their emotions, to date, could only be assumed. Here we present the results of an experiment where the affect-contingent judgement bias has been produced by objectively measured positive emotions. We trained rats in operant Skinner boxes to press one lever in response to one tone to receive a food reward and to press another lever in response to a different tone to avoid punishment by electric foot shock. After attaining a stable level of discrimination performance, the animals were subjected to either handling or playful, experimenter-administered manual stimulation - tickling. This procedure has been confirmed to induce a positive affective state in rats, and the 50-kHz ultrasonic vocalisations (rat laughter emitted by animals in response to tickling have been postulated to index positive emotions akin to human joy. During the tickling and handling sessions, the numbers of emitted high-frequency 50-kHz calls were scored. Immediately after tickling or handling, the animals were tested for their responses to a tone of intermediate frequency, and the pattern of their responses to this ambiguous cue was taken as an indicator of the animals' optimism. Our findings indicate that tickling induced positive emotions which are directly indexed in rats by laughter, can make animals more optimistic. We demonstrate for the first time a link between the directly measured positive affective state and decision making under uncertainty in an animal model. We also introduce innovative tandem-approach for studying emotional-cognitive interplay in animals, which may be of great value for understanding the emotional

  10. Iron appetite and latent learning in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, S C; Vasselli, J R; Milam, K M

    1977-11-01

    Two experiments are reported which show that rats are capable of forming an association between the presence of iron in a solution when it is not specifically needed and a subsequent state of iron deficiency. Specifically, rats were trained to lever press for water while thirsty. One group received ferrous ions in addition to the water. When these rats were subsequently rendered iron deficient, they lever pressed more under extinction conditions as a graded function of lower hemoglobin levels. Controls that either did not receive ferrous ions during training or received solutions other than ferrous solutions during training did not respond this way under extinction conditions. This is therefore a type of latent learning previously demonstrated only for sodium appetite.

  11. Renal cortical calcification in syngeneic intact rats and those receiving an infrarenal thoracic aortic graft: possible etiological roles of endothelin, nitrate and minerals, and different preventive effects of long-term oral treatment with magnesium, citrate and alkali-containing preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmiedl, A; Schmiedl, P O; Bonucci, E; Seitz, T; Schwille, R M; Manoharan, M

    2001-08-01

    Renal cortical nephrocalcinosis (C-NC) is a rare disorder of uncertain etiology. Using highly inbred (syngeneic) male Lewis rats, we describe the spontaneous occurrence of histologically detectable C-NC in sham operated control rats (Sham; n=12), its aggravation following grafting of the ascending thoracic aorta from a donor rat to the infrarenal aorta of a recipient (ATx; n=12), and differences in C-NC inhibition after 12 weeks of oral administration of magnesium (Mg), citrate and alkali. C-NC is characterized by Kossa-positive areas located in cells of the proximal tubule close to blood vessels and also, to a lesser extent, within glomeruli. After ATx there was vascular overproduction of endothelin (ET-1) but decreased production of nitrate; in renal cortical tissue there was an excess of calcium over Mg and phosphorus and oxalate over citrate. In plasma there was an increase in calcium and creatinine within the normal range. Calcification of tubular cells was eliminated by a preparation containing potassium, sodium and bases (from citrate degradation and bicarbonate) in addition to Mg. Less effective than the latter was Mg-potassium citrate and least effective, Mg citrate. The former treatment also normalized calcemia and urinary nitrate, but only incompletely suppressed ET-1 and had no significant effect on glomerular calcification or tissue and urinary oxalate. Urinary ET-1 excess appeared directly related to the cortical tissue calcium/Mg ratio, and urinary excretion of Mg, citrate and total protein appeared to be inversely related to the severity of C-NC. It was concluded that (1) the highly inbred rat is prone to precipitation of calcium phosphate in the renal cortex; (2) this type of C-NC occurs in close proximity to and within renal vascular tissue and is associated with an imbalance of vasoconstrictors and vasodilators of endothelial origin; (3) effective inhibition of C-NC can be achieved by an alkalinizing combination of Mg, potassium, sodium and

  12. treated rats

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    aghomotsegin

    2014-01-08

    Jan 8, 2014 ... nucleus, bizarre segmentation; (I) shows hypersegmentation, bizarre segmentation of neutrophils in the shape of ring nucleus with polychromatophilic RBCs. 1998; Muller and Tobin, 1980). The current study shows that rats administered C. edulis hydro-ethanol extract, orally for 28 days, developed anemia, ...

  13. Impact of organic hydroperoxides on rat testicular tissue and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of hydroperoxides on testicular tissue and epididymal sperm were investigated. Male Wistar rats aged 10 - 12 weeks were randomly placed in groups and received standard rat chow and water ad libitum. Animals were injected intraperitoneally with saline (0.5 ml), t-butyl hydroperoxide (5, 10, 20 and 40 ìM; 0.5 ...

  14. Influence of Chloramphenicol and Amoxicillin on Rat Liver ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined the effect of chloramphenicol and amoxicillin on liver microsomal enzymes Ca2+-ATPase and Glucose-6-Phosphatase (G-6-P) and lipid peroxidation in rats. Male Wistar strain rats weighing 120 – 195 g were divided into four groups. Group one, the control group, received physiological saline, group ...

  15. Effect of nitrate poisoning on some biochemical parameters in rats

    OpenAIRE

    M. B. Mahmood; O. H. Azeez; J. S. Hassan

    2011-01-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the toxicity of potassium nitrate on glucose, cholesterol, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and the possible ameliorative effect of ascorbic acid (Vitamin C). Male Wister rats are used as experimental model divided into three groups (each of 6-8 rats) and treated for six weeks as follows: Group 1: served as control; Group 2: received 2 % potassium nitrate added to the forage and Group 3: received 2 % potassium nit...

  16. Water jacket for solid particle solar receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasyluk, David T.

    2018-03-20

    A solar receiver includes: water jacket panels each having a light-receiving side and a back side with a watertight sealed plenum defined in-between; light apertures passing through the watertight sealed plenums to receive light from the light-receiving sides of the water jacket panels; a heat transfer medium gap defined between the back sides of the water jacket panels and a cylindrical back plate; and light channeling tubes optically coupled with the light apertures and extending into the heat transfer medium gap. In some embodiments ends of the light apertures at the light receiving side of the water jacket panel are welded together to define at least a portion of the light-receiving side. A cylindrical solar receiver may be constructed using a plurality of such water jacket panels arranged with their light-receiving sides facing outward.

  17. Cum grano salis - NAA of selected salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinhauser, G.; Sterba, J.H.; Poljanc, K.; Bichler, M.; Buchtela, K.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the trace element concentrations of salt samples from different regions, in particular Austria, Germany, Pakistan, Poland, Switzerland, and Ukraine. Investigated types of salt were Rock-, Sea-, Lake-, and Evaporated Salt. The main objective was to find out whether the consumption of salt can contribute significantly to the daily human requirements of trace elements. Therefore, trace element concentrations in the untreated samples were compared to those of specially treated samples, simulating digestive uptake using a simple model. Salt is a non-trivial matrix for Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) because of very high background activities from 38 Cl and 24 Na, as well as the bremsstrahlung of 32 P (originating from 35 Cl(n,α) 32 P). Because of this fact, detection limits in salt are higher compared to other matrices. Nevertheless, several elements could be detected, namely Al, Ba, Br, (Ca), Ce, Cl, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, La, Mn, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc, Sm, Sr, Ta, Tb, Th, and Zn, some of them only in single samples. In most samples the concentrations of trace elements in salt were too low to show biological effects. Salt can therefore only significantly contribute the essential elements sodium, chlorine, and, if added on purpose, fluorine and iodine to human nutrition. The contribution of all other traces in salt to the average daily human requirements can be neglected. Thus, from an analytical point of view, there is no health reason to use unpurified salt. There are, however, a few drawbacks to the use of unpurified salt, as hygroscopic compounds like MgCl 2 , and even toxic heavy metals like chromium or thorium. Especially rare earth element (REE) concentrations can often be used to obtain a chemical fingerprint, which can be used to identify the origin of an unknown sample. In the case of this study, the sample number from each region was too small to collect significant data. Therefore more analytical information is needed for a conclusive result in this respect. (author)

  18. Thirteenth ISMAS symposium cum workshop on spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aggarwal, S.K.; Jaison, P.G.; Alamelu, D.

    2008-01-01

    Mass spectrometry is an important analytical tool and finds applications in almost all branches of science and technology like Physics, Chemistry, Biology, Material Science, Geology, Nuclear Science, Industry, Oceanography, Environment etc. Innovations in the designs of mass spectrometers coupled with new ionization techniques have further strengthened the capabilities of mass spectrometry for analyzing all types of molecules including thermally labile and non-volatile at concentrations down to femto gram levels. The applications of mass spectrometry to the biomedical sciences have provided a unique, easy and fast approach to genomics, proteomics and metabolomics. The availability of different types of mass spectrometers for inorganic elemental and isotopic composition determination have strengthened the role of mass spectrometry for analyzing all elements starting from hydrogen onwards. It is now possible to carry out speciation analysis using electrospray mass spectrometry. The individual conference papers in the proceedings covers fundamentals of mass spectrometry, qualitative and quantitative aspects and data interpretation, maintenance of mass spectrometers, selection of mass spectrometer, and recent advances in the field. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately

  19. SOCIO CUM LINGUISTIC INTERPLAY IN LANGUAGE CHOICE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sir George

    2016-06-02

    Jun 2, 2016 ... learn to speak a language by force, or refuse to speak it. This is a ... circumstances such as the effects of linguistic deprivation, how bilingual children can learn ..... the other; the effects of books, movies and so on. Out.

  20. Design of double capacitances infrasonic receiver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Changhai; Han Kuixia; Wang Fei

    2003-01-01

    The article introduces the theory of infrasonic generation and reception of nuclear explosion. An idea of the design of double capacitances infrasonic receiver using CPLD technology is given in it. Compare with the single capacitance infrasonic receiver, sensitivity of the improved receiver can be improved scores of times, dynamic range can be improved largely, and the whole performance gets improvement a lots

  1. 29 CFR 1917.155 - Air receivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... This section applies to compressed air receivers and equipment used for operations such as cleaning... transportation applications as railways, vehicles or cranes. (b) Gauges and valves. (1) Air receivers shall be... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Air receivers. 1917.155 Section 1917.155 Labor Regulations...

  2. 49 CFR 393.88 - Television receivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Television receivers. 393.88 Section 393.88... NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION Miscellaneous Parts and Accessories § 393.88 Television receivers. Any motor vehicle equipped with a television viewer, screen or other means of visually receiving a television...

  3. 21 CFR 1020.10 - Television receivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Television receivers. 1020.10 Section 1020.10 Food...) RADIOLOGICAL HEALTH PERFORMANCE STANDARDS FOR IONIZING RADIATION EMITTING PRODUCTS § 1020.10 Television receivers. (a) Applicability. The provisions of this section are applicable to television receivers...

  4. Increased radiosensitivity of cerebral capillaries in neonatal Gunn rats as compared to Sprague-Dawley rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landolt, R.; Arn, D.

    1979-01-01

    The extent of petechial haemorrhages of the cerebral cortex examined between 14 hours and 4 days after X-irradiation to the head was compared in Sprague-Dawley and homozygous Gunn rats with congenital hyperbilirubinaemia. Animals 1 to 2 days old received single doses of either 250, 500 or 750 rad. By means of a special scoring scale the degree of the damage to the micro vasculature was semi-quantitatively estimated. In both strains a significant difference in effect was obtained between 250 and 500 rad, but not between 500 and 750 rad. The shape of the dose-effect curve in Gunn rats was similar to that of Sprague-Dawley rats, but displaced upwards. In Gunn rats the effect of 250 rad was greater that that of 750 rad in Sprague-Dawley rats. Possible radiosensitizing mechanisms are discussed with reference to the literature and these results. (author)

  5. Evaluation of hydroxypropyl-b-cyclodextrin in the treatment of aldicarb poisoning in rats : short communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.S. Verster

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Cyclodextrins are ring-shaped oligosaccharides with a hydrophilic exterior and a hydrophobic interior. The interior cavity is capable of complexing fat-soluble molecules small enough to fit inside. Sprague-Dawley rats were used to evaluate the efficacy of hydroxypropyl-b-cyclodextrin as treatment of aldicarb poisoning in rats. Survival times in the majority of rats dosed with aldicarb and receiving intravenous cyclodextrin were longer compared with the control rats only dosed with aldicarb per os.

  6. More Efficient Solar Thermal-Energy Receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dustin, M. O.

    1987-01-01

    Thermal stresses and reradiation reduced. Improved design for solar thermal-energy receiver overcomes three major deficiencies of solar dynamic receivers described in literature. Concentrator and receiver part of solar-thermal-energy system. Receiver divided into radiation section and storage section. Concentrated solar radiation falls on boiling ends of heat pipes, which transmit heat to thermal-energy-storage medium. Receiver used in number of applications to produce thermal energy directly for use or to store thermal energy for subsequent use in heat engine.

  7. Effect of Iron Enriched Bread Intake on the Oxidative Stress Indices in Male Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharareh Heidari

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Contrary to the proven benefits of iron, few concerns in producing the oxidative stress is remained problematic. Objectives The aim of the study was to evaluate the oxidative stress in the male Wistar rats fed bread supplemented with iron in different doses i.e., 35 (basic, 70 (two fold, 140 (four fold, and 210 mg/kg (six fold with or without NaHCO3 (250 mg/kg. Methods In this experimental study Iron, ceruloplasmin, ferritin, total iron binding capacity (TIBC, albumin, total protein, uric acid and plasma superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GPX, catalase (CAT, malondialdehyde (MDA, and total antioxidant capacity (TAC, were evaluated in 30 rats at the first and last day of the experiment (day 30. In addition, phytic acid levels were detected in all baked breads. The data were analyzed by ANOVA and t test procedure though SPSS statistical software version 20. Results Serum iron level in rats that received basic level of iron plus NaHCO3 decreased significantly in the last day of the trial. Higher level of serum iron was seen in rats that received iron twofold, fourfold and sixfold and rats that received iron fourfold plus NaHCO3. Serum ceruloplasmin and ferritin in groups of rats that received fourfold level of iron plus NaHCO3 and rats that received iron sixfold showed a significant increase (P ≤ 0.05. Serum total protein and uric acid in rats that received basic level of iron plus NaHCO3 and rats that received twofold level of iron showed a significant decrease. Serum total protein levels in rats that received fourfold level of iron showed a significant decrease. Bread with NaHCO3 showed higher phytic acid levels than other groups. Conclusions These results indicate that oxidative stress was not induced, whereas some antioxidant activities were significantly changed in rats that received iron-enriched bread.

  8. Juvenile female rats, but not male rats, show renewal, reinstatement, and spontaneous recovery following extinction of conditioned fear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chun Hui J; Ganella, Despina E; Kim, Jee Hyun

    2017-12-01

    Anxiety disorders emerge early, and girls are significantly more likely to develop anxiety compared to boys. However, sex differences in fear during development are poorly understood. Therefore, we investigated juvenile male and female rats in the relapse behaviors following extinction of conditioned fear. In all experiments, 18-d-old rats first received three white-noise-footshock pairings on day 1. On day 2, extinction involved 60 white-noise alone trials. In experiment 1, we examined renewal by testing the rats in either the same or different context as extinction on day 3. Male rats did not show renewal, however, female rats showed renewal. Experiment 2 investigated reinstatement by giving rats either a mild reminder footshock or context exposure on day 3. When tested the next day, male rats did not show reinstatement, whereas female rats showed reinstatement. Experiment 3 investigated spontaneous recovery by testing the rats either 1 or 5 d following extinction. Male rats did not show any spontaneous recovery whereas female rats did. Taken together, fear regulation appear to be different in males versus females from early in development, which may explain why girls are more prone to suffer from anxiety disorders compared to boys. © 2017 Park et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  9. Concentrated solar power generation using solar receivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Bruce N.; Treece, William Dean; Brown, Dan; Bennhold, Florian; Hilgert, Christoph

    2017-08-08

    Inventive concentrated solar power systems using solar receivers, and related devices and methods, are generally described. Low pressure solar receivers are provided that function to convert solar radiation energy to thermal energy of a working fluid, e.g., a working fluid of a power generation or thermal storage system. In some embodiments, low pressure solar receivers are provided herein that are useful in conjunction with gas turbine based power generation systems.

  10. RF subsystem design for microwave communication receivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickford, W. J.; Brodsky, W. G.

    A system review of the RF subsystems of (IFF) transponders, tropscatter receivers and SATCOM receivers is presented. The quantity potential for S-band and X-band IFF transponders establishes a baseline requirement. From this, the feasibility of a common design for these and other receivers is evaluated. Goals are established for a GaAs MMIC (monolithic microwave integrated circuit) device and related local oscillator preselector and self-test components.

  11. Receiver function estimated by maximum entropy deconvolution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴庆举; 田小波; 张乃铃; 李卫平; 曾融生

    2003-01-01

    Maximum entropy deconvolution is presented to estimate receiver function, with the maximum entropy as the rule to determine auto-correlation and cross-correlation functions. The Toeplitz equation and Levinson algorithm are used to calculate the iterative formula of error-predicting filter, and receiver function is then estimated. During extrapolation, reflective coefficient is always less than 1, which keeps maximum entropy deconvolution stable. The maximum entropy of the data outside window increases the resolution of receiver function. Both synthetic and real seismograms show that maximum entropy deconvolution is an effective method to measure receiver function in time-domain.

  12. Effects of Oxytocin Administration on Receiving Help.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human, Lauren J; Woolley, Joshua D; Mendes, Wendy Berry

    2017-11-27

    Receiving help can be a "mixed blessing." Despite the many psychosocial benefits it can carry, it sometimes has negative psychological consequences, such as loss in self-esteem or enhanced guilt. It is, therefore, important to understand the factors that modify responses to receiving help from others. We explored the role of the hormone oxytocin (OT) on affective and social responses to receiving help, given the putative role of OT in social bonding and attunement. To this end, we manipulated whether help was received from a same-sex interaction partner (confederate) versus a control condition, crossed with a double-blind administration of intranasal OT (vs. placebo), and examined subjective and observer-rated participant responses to help. We observed significant interactions between OT and the help manipulation. In the placebo condition, receiving help from the interaction partner compared with the control condition had negative consequences, such that participants reported greater negative affect and came to view themselves and their interaction partners more negatively after interacting together on several tasks. What is important, however, is that OT administration buffered against these negative subjective responses to receiving help. Further, outside observers rated participants who received OT administration as expressing greater happiness and gratitude in response to help, relative to those who received placebo. In sum, in the context of receiving help from a stranger, oxytocin administration fostered more positive affective and social responses. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Shipping/Receiving and Quality Control

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Shipping receiving, quality control, large and precise inspection and CMM machines. Coordinate Measuring Machines, including "scanning" probes, optical comparators,...

  14. Compressive Sensing for Spread Spectrum Receivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fyhn, Karsten; Jensen, Tobias Lindstrøm; Larsen, Torben

    2013-01-01

    With the advent of ubiquitous computing there are two design parameters of wireless communication devices that become very important: power efficiency and production cost. Compressive sensing enables the receiver in such devices to sample below the Shannon-Nyquist sampling rate, which may lead...... the bit error rate performance is degraded by the subsampling in the CS-enabled receivers, this may be remedied by including quantization in the receiver model.We also study the computational complexity of the proposed receiver design under different sparsity and measurement ratios. Our work shows...

  15. Reduced Incidence of Slowly Progressive Heymann Nephritis in Rats Immunized With a Modified Vaccination Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arpad Z. Barabas

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A slowly progressive Heymann nephritis (SPHN was induced in three groups of rats by weekly injections of a chemically modified renal tubular antigen in an aqueous medium. A control group of rats received the chemically unmodified version of the antigen in an aqueous solution. One group of SPHN rats were pre- and post-treated with weekly injections of IC made up of rKF3 and rarKF3 IgM antibody at antigen excess (MIC (immune complexes [ICs] containing sonicated ultracentrifuged [u/c] rat kidney fraction 3 [rKF3] antigen and IgM antibodies specific against the antigen, at slight antigen excess. One group of SPHN rats were post-treated with MIC 3 weeks after the induction of the disease and one group of SPHN animals received no treatment. The control group of rats received pre- and post-treatment with sonicated u/c rKF3.

  16. An SDR based AIS receiver for satellites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jesper Abildgaard; Mortensen, Hans Peter; Nielsen, Jens Frederik Dalsgaard

    2011-01-01

    For a few years now, there has been a high interest in monitoring the global ship traffic from space. A few satellite, capable of listening for ship borne AIS transponders have already been launched, and soon the AAUSAT3, carrying two different types of AIS receivers will also be launched. One...... of the AIS receivers onboard AAUSAT3 is an SDR based AIS receiver. This paper serves to describe the background of the AIS system, and how the SDR based receiver has been integrated into the AAUSAT3 satellite. Amongst some of the benefits of using an SDR based receiver is, that due to its versatility, new...... detection algorithms are easily deployed, and it is easily adapted the new proposed AIS transmission channels....

  17. Heat receiving plates in thermonuclear device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitamura, Kazunori.

    1988-01-01

    Purpose: To obtain a heat receiving plate structure capable of withstanding sputtering wear and retaining the thermal deformation and residual stress low upon junction and available at a reduced cost. Constitution: Junction structures between heat sinks and armours are the same as usual, whereas high melting armour (for example, made of tungsten) are used at the portion on a heat receiving plate where the thermal load and particle load are higher while materials having a heat expansion coefficient similar to that of the heat sink (stainless steel) are used at the portion where the thermal load and particle load are lower on a heat receiving plate depending on the thermal load and particle load distribution. This can reduce the thermal deformation for the entire divertor heat receiving plate to obtain a heat receiving plate of a good surface dimensional accuracy. (Takahashi, M.)

  18. High thermal load receiving heat plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibutani, Jun-ichi; Shibayama, Kazuhito; Yamamoto, Keiichi; Uchida, Takaho.

    1993-01-01

    The present invention concerns a high thermal load heat receiving plate such as a divertor plate of a thermonuclear device. The high thermal load heat receiving plate of the present invention has a cooling performance capable of suppressing the temperature of an armour tile to less than a threshold value of the material against high thermal loads applied from plasmas. Spiral polygonal pipes are inserted in cooling pipes at a portion receiving high thermal loads in the high temperature load heat receiving plate of the present invention. Both ends of the polygonal pipes are sealed by lids. An area of the flow channel in the cooling pipes is thus reduced. Heat conductivity on the cooling surface of the cooling pipes is increased in the high thermal load heat receiving plate having such a structure. Accordingly, temperature elevation of the armour tile can be suppressed. (I.S.)

  19. Essential fatty acid supplemented diet increases renal excretion of prostaglandin E and water in essential fatty acid deficient rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Harald S.

    1981-01-01

    Weanling male rats were fed an essential fatty acid (EFA)-deficient diet for 25 weeks and then switched to an EFA-supplemented diet for 3 weeks. Control rats received the EFA-supplemented diet for 25 weeks and then the EFA-deficient diet for 3 weeks. Throughout the last 19 weeks, the rats were...

  20. RatMap--rat genome tools and data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Greta; Johnson, Per; Andersson, Lars; Klinga-Levan, Karin; Gómez-Fabre, Pedro M; Ståhl, Fredrik

    2005-01-01

    The rat genome database RatMap (http://ratmap.org or http://ratmap.gen.gu.se) has been one of the main resources for rat genome information since 1994. The database is maintained by CMB-Genetics at Goteborg University in Sweden and provides information on rat genes, polymorphic rat DNA-markers and rat quantitative trait loci (QTLs), all curated at RatMap. The database is under the supervision of the Rat Gene and Nomenclature Committee (RGNC); thus much attention is paid to rat gene nomenclature. RatMap presents information on rat idiograms, karyotypes and provides a unified presentation of the rat genome sequence and integrated rat linkage maps. A set of tools is also available to facilitate the identification and characterization of rat QTLs, as well as the estimation of exon/intron number and sizes in individual rat genes. Furthermore, comparative gene maps of rat in regard to mouse and human are provided.

  1. Extremely decreased release of prostaglandin E-like activity from chopped lung of ethyl linolenate-supplemented rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Harald S.; Jensen, B.; Fjalland, B.

    1983-01-01

    Three groups of weanling male rats were reared on a fat-free diet for 13 weeks. One group received only the fat-free diet (FF rats), the other 2 groups received the fat-free diet and a daily supplement of 2 energy% ethyl linoleate ([n-6] rats), or 2 energy% ethyl linolenate ([n-3] rats). The chop......). The chopped lung preparation was used to illustrate an in vitro prostaglandin formation. PGE-like activity was quantified on rat stomach strip. The release of PGE-like activity expressed as ng PGE-equivalent per g lung tissue (mean±SD) was 23±7,...

  2. Antidepressant-like effect of the water extract of the fixed combination of Gardenia jasminoides, Citrus aurantium and Magnolia officinalis in a rat model of chronic unpredictable mild stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Hang; Zhang, Kuo; Zhang, Ruowen; Shi, Huiyan; Bi, Kaishun; Chen, Xiaohui

    2015-12-01

    Water extract of the fixed combination of Gardenia jasminoides Ellis fruit, Citrus aurantium L. fruit and Magnolia officinalis Rehd. et Wils. bark, traditional name - Zhi-Zi-Hou-Po (ZZHPD) is used for treatment of depressive-like symptoms in traditional Chinese medicine for centuries. The present study aimed to explore antidepressant-like effects and potential mechanisms of ZZHPD in a rat model of chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS). Antidepressant-like effects of ZZHPD were investigated through behavioral tests, and potential mechanism was assessed by neuroendocrine system, neurotrophin and hippocampal neurogenesis. Antidepressant-like effects of ZZHPD (3.66, 7.32 and 14.64 g/kg/day) were estimated through coat state test, sucrose preference test, forced swimming test and open-field test. Effects of ZZHPD on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis were evaluated by hormones measurement and dexamethasone suppression test. In addition, the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in hippocampus was measured, as well as hippocampal neurogenesis was investigated by doublecortin (DCX) and 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine/neuronal nuclei (BrdU/NeuN). The results demonstrated that ZZHPD significantly reversed the depressive-like behaviors, normalized the levels of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and corticosterone (CORT), restored the negative feedback loop of HPA axis and improved the levels of BDNF, DCX and BrdU/NeuN compared with those in CUMS-induced rats. The above results revealed that ZZHPD exerted antidepressant-like effects possibly by normalizing HPA axis function, increasing expression of BDNF in hippocampus and promoting hippocampal neurogenesis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. Fundamentals of GPS Receivers A Hardware Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Doberstein, Dan

    2012-01-01

    While much of the current literature on GPS receivers is aimed at those intimately familiar with their workings, this volume summarizes the basic principles using as little mathematics as possible, and details the necessary specifications and circuits for constructing a GPS receiver that is accurate to within 300 meters. Dedicated sections deal with the features of the GPS signal and its data stream, the details of the receiver (using a hybrid design as exemplar), and more advanced receivers and topics including time and frequency measurements. Later segments discuss the Zarlink GPS receiver chip set, as well as providing a thorough examination of the TurboRogue receiver, one of the most accurate yet made. Guiding the reader through the concepts and circuitry, from the antenna to the solution of user position, the book’s deployment of a hybrid receiver as a basis for discussion allows for extrapolation of the core ideas to more complex, and more accurate designs. Digital methods are used, but any analogue c...

  4. Synchrotron Based Phase Contrast Tomography of Hyper cholesteromic Rat Liver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatima A

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available X-ray phase contrast imaging technique has been applied for the study of morphological variations in soft tissues. The effect of an antioxidant, α-lipoic acid in reducing hypercholesterolemia in rats is investigated. The experiment was conducted to measure serum lipid profile and diameter of vessels in rat liver, as liver is the most vital organ in hypolipidemic activity studies. Methods: Four groups of male Wistar rats, control (Group I, hyperlipidemic (Group II, positive control (Group III and treated Group IV were studied for serum lipid profile and liver vessels with synchrotron X-ray phase tomography. The Group I rats received chow diet, in Group II rats, administration of 20% butter rich diet induced hyperlipidemia. Group III, treated rats received hypolipidemic drug Atorvastatin and Group IV animals received a potent antioxidant DL-α-Lipoic acid. The excised liver tissue immersed in 10% formalin. X-ray phase contrast tomography was performed for comparison of diameter of liver vessels. Results: Among the four group of animals, the diameter of liver vessels was much larger in hypercholesterolemic rat (Group II. The liver vessel diameter comparison with X-ray phase contrast tomography and the lipid profile shows reduction in serum lipids and lipoproteins by ALA treatment.

  5. GPU Acceleration of DSP for Communication Receivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunther, Jake; Gunther, Hyrum; Moon, Todd

    2017-09-01

    Graphics processing unit (GPU) implementations of signal processing algorithms can outperform CPU-based implementations. This paper describes the GPU implementation of several algorithms encountered in a wide range of high-data rate communication receivers including filters, multirate filters, numerically controlled oscillators, and multi-stage digital down converters. These structures are tested by processing the 20 MHz wide FM radio band (88-108 MHz). Two receiver structures are explored: a single channel receiver and a filter bank channelizer. Both run in real time on NVIDIA GeForce GTX 1080 graphics card.

  6. Global Positioning System receiver evaluation results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byrne, R.H.

    1993-09-01

    A Sandia project currently uses an outdated Magnavox 6400 Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver as the core of its navigation system. The goal of this study was to analyze the performance of the current GPS receiver compared to newer, less expensive models and to make recommendations on how to improve the performance of the overall navigation system. This paper discusses the test methodology used to experimentally analyze the performance of different GPS receivers, the test results, and recommendations on how an upgrade should proceed. Appendices contain detailed information regarding the raw data, test hardware, and test software.

  7. Decoding algorithm for vortex communications receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupferman, Judy; Arnon, Shlomi

    2018-01-01

    Vortex light beams can provide a tremendous alphabet for encoding information. We derive a symbol decoding algorithm for a direct detection matrix detector vortex beam receiver using Laguerre Gauss (LG) modes, and develop a mathematical model of symbol error rate (SER) for this receiver. We compare SER as a function of signal to noise ratio (SNR) for our algorithm and for the Pearson correlation algorithm. To our knowledge, this is the first comprehensive treatment of a decoding algorithm of a matrix detector for an LG receiver.

  8. Exploiting Redundancy in an OFDM SDR Receiver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Palenik

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Common OFDM system contains redundancy necessary to mitigate interblock interference and allows computationally effective single-tap frequency domain equalization in receiver. Assuming the system implements an outer error correcting code and channel state information is available in the receiver, we show that it is possible to understand the cyclic prefix insertion as a weak inner ECC encoding and exploit the introduced redundancy to slightly improve error performance of such a system. In this paper, an easy way to implement modification to an existing SDR OFDM receiver is presented. This modification enables the utilization of prefix redundancy, while preserving full compatibility with existing OFDM-based communication standards.

  9. The histological and histometrical effects of Urtica dioica extract on rat?s prostate hyperplasia

    OpenAIRE

    Moradi, Hamid Reza; Erfani Majd, Naeem; Esmaeilzadeh, Saleh; Fatemi Tabatabaei, Sayed Reza

    2015-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a common disease in human that gradual overgrowth of the prostate gland leads to impinge on the urethra with impairment in urinary function. Numerous plants improve uncontrolled growth of the prostate gland and improve urinary tract symptoms associated with BPH. In this study, 25 healthy adult male Wistar rats were divided randomly in five groups: G1 (Control group) received ordinary feed without any treatment, G2 received 10 mg kg-1 testosterone subcutan...

  10. 29 CFR 1926.306 - Air receivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... transportation vehicles such as steam railroad cars, electric railway cars, and automotive equipment. (2) New and... manholes therein are easily accessible. Under no circumstances shall an air receiver be buried underground...

  11. 29 CFR 1910.169 - Air receivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... and equipment used on transportation vehicles such as steam railroad cars, electric railway cars, and... therein are easily accessible. Under no circumstances shall an air receiver be buried underground or...

  12. 47 CFR 32.1170 - Receivables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.1170 Receivables. (a... of interest accrued to the date of the balance sheet on bonds, notes, and other commercial paper...

  13. Optical Coherent Receiver Enables THz Wireless Bridge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Xianbin; Liu, Kexin; Zhang, Hangkai

    2016-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrated a 45 Gbit/s 400 GHz photonic wireless communication system enabled by an optical coherent receiver, which has a high potential in fast recovery of high data rate connections, for example, in disaster....

  14. Storage rack for fuel cell receiving shrouds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mollon, L.

    1978-01-01

    Disclosed is a rack for receiving a multiplicity of vertical tubular shrouds or tubes for storing spent nuclear fuel cells. The rack comprises a plurality of horizontally reticulated frames interconnected by tension rods and spacing tubes surrounding the rods

  15. List of Nuclear Materials Licensing Actions Received

    Data.gov (United States)

    Nuclear Regulatory Commission — A catalog of all Materials Licensing Actions received for review. The catalog lists the name of the entity submitting the license application, their city and state,...

  16. Factors influencing zinc bioavailability in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahalko, J.R.; Johnson, P.E.; Swan, P.B.

    1986-01-01

    The amount of Zn fed, its source, and the Zn status of experimental animals may affect Zn bioavailability. To test this, rats were fed doses of Zn from ZnCl 2 or from various foods labeled extrinsically. Three weeks before and after the test meal, rats were fed an AIN diet modified in Zn content. Absorption was calculated by monitoring whole body retention and extrapolating to zero time. In rats fed 12 ppm Zn and test doses of 6 to 275 μg, absorption decreased from 80 to 50%, and the amount absorbed increased quadratically (r 2 = 0.998), but turnover was unaffected. Rats fed 38 or 77 ppm Zn absorbed less of test doses of 290, 613, or 1700 μg Zn than did those fed 12 ppm, and their Zn turnover rate was higher. In two 2 x 7 factorial experiments, rats fed 12 or 38 ppm Zn were given 16 or 98 μg Zn from 7 Zn sources. Bioavailability from some foods was higher than from ZnCl 2 except in rats eating only 12 ppm Zn and receiving the small dose. There were greater differences in bioavailability among foods when tested at the higher Zn status or dose. This may explain inconsistencies seen in comparing Zn bioavailability by traditional growth assay with that seen in 65 Zn tracer studies. The authors conclude that Zn status of the experimental animal, as well as the amount of Zn and its source, will affect Zn bioavailability

  17. Reproductive toxicity of Samanea tubulosa on rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Rafaella Luz de Araújo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Samanea tubulosa is a plant used for medicinal and feeding purposes. However, ingestion of S. tubulosa pods has been associated with bovine abortion. Thus, the aim of this work was to investigate the effects of diet containing 5% of S. tubulosa pod meal on male and female Wistar rats. Diet was administered to male rats (n = 10 for 60 days before mating. Female rats (n = 10 received the treatment for 30 days, during cohabitation and from gestational day (GD 0 to GD20. Treated animals were mated with untreated rats. In male rats, plant consumption caused decreased food consumption and 20% fertility index reduction. Litters from treated males presented lower body weight and crown–rump length. Female rats treated with the plant increased water and food intake and body weight. Decreases in fertility, fecundity and gestation indices and increase of placenta weight and mean number of corpora lutea were found. Thus, owing to the possible general and reproductive toxic effects, long-term consumption of S. tubulosa is not recommended for phytotherapic or food purposes.

  18. Evaluation of lipid profile and oxidative stress in STZ-induced rats treated with antioxidant vitamin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Ayr Tavares de Almeida

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the effect of supplementation of vitamin E on streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetic rats by measuring blood glucose, changes in body weight, food and water intake, lipid profile, serum urea and creatinine level, and antioxidant enzyme activity. Male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: control rats (GI; rats receiving vitamin E (GII; STZ-induced diabetic rats (GIII and STZ-induced diabetic rats treated with vitamin E (GIV. Vitamin E reduced (p<0.05 blood glucose and urea, improved the lipid profile (decreased the serum levels of total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, VLDL cholesterol and triacylglycerols, and increased HDL cholesterol and increased total protein in STZ-induced diabetic rats (GIV. Vitamin prevented changes in the activity of SOD and GSH-Px and in the concentration of lipid hydroperoxide. These results suggested that vitamin E improved hyperglycaemia and dyslipidaemia while inhibiting the progression of oxidative stress in STZ-induced diabetic rats.

  19. Single-Receiver GPS Phase Bias Resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertiger, William I.; Haines, Bruce J.; Weiss, Jan P.; Harvey, Nathaniel E.

    2010-01-01

    Existing software has been modified to yield the benefits of integer fixed double-differenced GPS-phased ambiguities when processing data from a single GPS receiver with no access to any other GPS receiver data. When the double-differenced combination of phase biases can be fixed reliably, a significant improvement in solution accuracy is obtained. This innovation uses a large global set of GPS receivers (40 to 80 receivers) to solve for the GPS satellite orbits and clocks (along with any other parameters). In this process, integer ambiguities are fixed and information on the ambiguity constraints is saved. For each GPS transmitter/receiver pair, the process saves the arc start and stop times, the wide-lane average value for the arc, the standard deviation of the wide lane, and the dual-frequency phase bias after bias fixing for the arc. The second step of the process uses the orbit and clock information, the bias information from the global solution, and only data from the single receiver to resolve double-differenced phase combinations. It is called "resolved" instead of "fixed" because constraints are introduced into the problem with a finite data weight to better account for possible errors. A receiver in orbit has much shorter continuous passes of data than a receiver fixed to the Earth. The method has parameters to account for this. In particular, differences in drifting wide-lane values must be handled differently. The first step of the process is automated, using two JPL software sets, Longarc and Gipsy-Oasis. The resulting orbit/clock and bias information files are posted on anonymous ftp for use by any licensed Gipsy-Oasis user. The second step is implemented in the Gipsy-Oasis executable, gd2p.pl, which automates the entire process, including fetching the information from anonymous ftp

  20. Flexible receiver adapter formal design review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krieg, S.A.

    1995-01-01

    This memo summarizes the results of the Formal (90%) Design Review process and meetings held to evaluate the design of the Flexible Receiver Adapters, support platforms, and associated equipment. The equipment is part of the Flexible Receiver System used to remove, transport, and store long length contaminated equipment and components from both the double and single-shell underground storage tanks at the 200 area tank farms

  1. Anatomy of a digital coherent receiver

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borkowski, Robert; Zibar, Darko; Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso

    2014-01-01

    , orthonormaliation, chromatic dispersion compensation/nonlinear compensation, resampling a nd timing recovery, polarization demultiplexing and equalization, frequency and phase recovery, digital demodulation. We also describe novel subsystems of a digital coherent receiver: modulation format recognition......Digital coherent receivers have gained significant attention in the last decade. The reason for this is that coherent detection, along with digital signal processing (DSP) allows for substantial increase of the channel capacity by employing advanced detection techniques. In this paper, we first...

  2. Efficient receiver tuning using differential evolution strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Caleb H.; Toland, Trevor G.

    2016-08-01

    Differential evolution (DE) is a powerful and computationally inexpensive optimization strategy that can be used to search an entire parameter space or to converge quickly on a solution. The Kilopixel Array Pathfinder Project (KAPPa) is a heterodyne receiver system delivering 5 GHz of instantaneous bandwidth in the tuning range of 645-695 GHz. The fully automated KAPPa receiver test system finds optimal receiver tuning using performance feedback and DE. We present an adaptation of DE for use in rapid receiver characterization. The KAPPa DE algorithm is written in Python 2.7 and is fully integrated with the KAPPa instrument control, data processing, and visualization code. KAPPa develops the technologies needed to realize heterodyne focal plane arrays containing 1000 pixels. Finding optimal receiver tuning by investigating large parameter spaces is one of many challenges facing the characterization phase of KAPPa. This is a difficult task via by-hand techniques. Characterizing or tuning in an automated fashion without need for human intervention is desirable for future large scale arrays. While many optimization strategies exist, DE is ideal for time and performance constraints because it can be set to converge to a solution rapidly with minimal computational overhead. We discuss how DE is utilized in the KAPPa system and discuss its performance and look toward the future of 1000 pixel array receivers and consider how the KAPPa DE system might be applied.

  3. Protective effect of Kombucha tea on brain damage induced by transient cerebral ischemia and reperfusion in rat

    OpenAIRE

    Najmeh Kabiri; Mahbubeh Setorki

    2016-01-01

    The aim of study was to investigate the potential neuroprotective effects of Kombucha on cerebral damage induced by ischemia in rats (n=99). Cerebral infarct volume in the ischemic rats received Kombucha solution showed no significance alteration. However, the permeability of blood-brain barrier significantly decreased in both ischemic rats received 15 mg/kg Kombucha tea and Sham group. In addition, brain water content in the ischemic groups treated with Kombucha solution was significantly hi...

  4. Effects of acute and chronic administration of methylprednisolone on oxidative stress in rat lungs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronaldo Lopes Torres

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the effects of acute and chronic administration of methylprednisolone on oxidative stress, as quantified by measuring lipid peroxidation (LPO and total reactive antioxidant potential (TRAP, in rat lungs. Methods: Forty Wistar rats were divided into four groups: acute treatment, comprising rats receiving a single injection of methylprednisolone (50 mg/kg i.p.; acute control, comprising rats i.p. injected with saline; chronic treatment, comprising rats receiving methylprednisolone in drinking water (6 mg/kg per day for 30 days; and chronic control, comprising rats receiving normal drinking water. Results: The levels of TRAP were significantly higher in the acute treatment group rats than in the acute control rats, suggesting an improvement in the pulmonary defenses of the former. The levels of lung LPO were significantly higher in the chronic treatment group rats than in the chronic control rats, indicating oxidative damage in the lung tissue of the former. Conclusions: Our results suggest that the acute use of corticosteroids is beneficial to lung tissue, whereas their chronic use is not. The chronic use of methylprednisolone appears to increase lung LPO levels.

  5. Modification of sympathetic neuronal function in the rat tail artery by dietary lipid treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panek, R.L.; Dixon, W.R.; Rutledge, C.O.

    1985-01-01

    The effect of dietary lipid treatment on sympathetic neuronal function was examined in isolated perfused tail arteries of adult rats. The hypothesis that dietary manipulations alter the lipid environment of receptor proteins which may result in the perturbation of specific membrane-associated processes that regulate peripheral adrenergic neurotransmission in the vasculature was the basis for this investigation. In the present study, rats were fed semisynthetic diets enriched in either 16% coconut oil (saturated fat) or 16% sunflower oil (unsaturated fat). The field stimulation-evoked release of endogenous norepinephrine and total 3 H was decreased significantly in rats receiving the coconut oil diet when compared to either sunflower oil- or standard lab chow-fed rats. Norepinephrine content in artery segments from coconut oil-treated rats was significantly higher compared to either sunflower oil- or standard lab chow-fed rats. Tail arteries from rats receiving the coconut oil diet displayed significantly lower perfusion pressure responses to nerve stimulation at all frequencies tested when compared to the sunflower oil- or standard lab chow-fed rats. Vasoconstrictor responses of perfused tail arteries exposed to exogenous norepinephrine resulted in an EC50 for norepinephrine that was not changed by the dietary treatment, but adult rats receiving the sunflower oil diet displayed a significantly greater maximum response to exogenous norepinephrine (10(-5) M) compared to arteries from either coconut oil- or standard lab chow-fed rats

  6. Rat Genome Database (RGD)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Rat Genome Database (RGD) is a collaborative effort between leading research institutions involved in rat genetic and genomic research to collect, consolidate,...

  7. ASTRID© - Advanced Solar Tubular ReceIver Design: A powerful tool for receiver design and optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frantz, Cathy; Fritsch, Andreas; Uhlig, Ralf

    2017-06-01

    In solar tower power plants the receiver is one of the critical components. It converts the solar radiation into heat and must withstand high heat flux densities and high daily or even hourly gradients (due to passage of clouds). For this reason, the challenge during receiver design is to find a reasonable compromise between receiver efficiency, reliability, lifetime and cost. There is a strong interaction between the heliostat field, the receiver and the heat transfer fluid. Therefore, a proper receiver design needs to consider these components within the receiver optimization. There are several design and optimization tools for receivers, but most of them focus only on the receiver, ignoring the heliostat field and other parts of the plant. During the last years DLR developed the ASTRIDcode for tubular receiver concept simulation. The code comprises both a high and a low-detail model. The low-detail model utilizes a number of simplifications which allow the user to screen a high number of receiver concepts for optimization purposes. The high-detail model uses a FE model and is able to compute local absorber and salt temperatures with high accuracy. One key strength of the ASTRIDcode is its interface to a ray tracing software which simulates a realistic heat flux distributions on the receiver surface. The results generated by the ASTRIDcode have been validated by CFD simulations and measurement data.

  8. Euthanasia of rats with two concentrations of pentobarbitone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bollen, Peter; Saxtorph, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Euthanasia of laboratory animals should be quick, painless and with a minimum of distress to the animal. Methods of euthanasia are the topic of an ongoing discussion, especially with respect to the degree of pain and distress associated with different methods. A common method of euthanasia of rats...... a reduced nociception, in the spine of rats receiving a mixture of pentobarbital and lidocaine, compared to rats receiving pentobarbital alone. However, it is our experience that visible signs of pain are not always observable during euthanasia. For this reason we performed a study comparing two...... concentrations of pentobarbitone (50 mg/ml vs. 200 mg/ml) for euthanasia in rats (n=12). The time point of loss of balance, immobility and respiratory stop were registered, and the behaviour was assessed from video recordings of the procedure. Our study revealed no differences between the two concentrations...

  9. 'Chaos' in superregenerative receivers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Commercon, Jean-Claude [INSA, Department d' Informatiques, Ba-hat t B. Pascal, 20 Avenue Albert Einsten, 69621 Villeurbaune (France)]. E-mail: jean-claude.commercon@insa-lyon.fr; Badard, Robert [INSA, Department d' Informatiques, Bat B. Pascal, 20 Avenue Albert Einsten, 69621 Villeurbaune (France)]. E-mail: robert.badard@insa-lyon.fr

    2005-02-01

    The superregenerative principle has been known since the early 1920s. The circuit is extremely simple and extremely sensitive. Today, superheterodyne receivers generally supplant superregenerative receivers in most applications because there are several undesirable characteristics: poor selectivity, reradiation, etc. Superregenerative receivers undergo a revival in recent papers for wireless systems, where low cost and very low power consumption are relevant: house/building meters (such as water, energy, gas counter), personal computer environment (keyboard, mouse), etc. Another drawback is the noise level which is higher than that of a well-designed superheterodyne receiver; without an antenna input signal, the output of the receiver hears in an earphone as a waterfall noise; this sound principally is the inherent input noise amplified and detected by the circuit; however, when the input noise is negligible with respect of an antenna input signal, we are faced to an other source of 'noise' self-generated by the superregenerative working. The main objective of this paper concerns this self-generated noise coming from an exponential growing followed by a re-injection process for which the final state is a function of the phase of the input signal.

  10. Dish/stirling hybrid-receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehos, Mark S.; Anselmo, Kenneth M.; Moreno, James B.; Andraka, Charles E.; Rawlinson, K. Scott; Corey, John; Bohn, Mark S.

    2002-01-01

    A hybrid high-temperature solar receiver is provided which comprises a solar heat-pipe-receiver including a front dome having a solar absorber surface for receiving concentrated solar energy, a heat pipe wick, a rear dome, a sidewall joining the front and the rear dome, and a vapor and a return liquid tube connecting to an engine, and a fossil fuel fired combustion system in radial integration with the sidewall for simultaneous operation with the solar heat pipe receiver, the combustion system comprising an air and fuel pre-mixer, an outer cooling jacket for tangentially introducing and cooling the mixture, a recuperator for preheating the mixture, a burner plenum having an inner and an outer wall, a porous cylindrical metal matrix burner firing radially inward facing a sodium vapor sink, the mixture ignited downstream of the matrix forming combustion products, an exhaust plenum, a fossil-fuel heat-input surface having an outer surface covered with a pin-fin array, the combustion products flowing through the array to give up additional heat to the receiver, and an inner surface covered with an extension of the heat-pipe wick, a pin-fin shroud sealed to the burner and exhaust plenums, an end seal, a flue-gas diversion tube and a flue-gas valve for use at off-design conditions to limit the temperature of the pre-heated air and fuel mixture, preventing pre-ignition.

  11. The Communication Between Designer and Design Receiver

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dai, Zheng; Dai, Yan

    2009-01-01

    When people think about a product,the first impression always mainly influences the result.Product is the medium of communication between designer and designer receiver.Because both of them have varied different experience and background,the information would be biased during the transferring...... process.The common symbols which can be recognized by both of designer and receiver are the key tools for communication.In some case,the same symbol in one product would be leads to different receiver impression.Generally,impression includes 3 aspects:aesthetics,function, and emotion.Designer needs...... to create an attractive and accurate impression in product from these 3 aspects.For facing the dilemma of communication,some experimental approaches can help designer deal with unique and diversity situations.Solving the detail problem in each step could keep the original meaning of designer....

  12. The ARSQ: the athletes' received support questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Paul; Coffee, Pete; Moll, Tjerk; Rees, Tim; Sammy, Nadine

    2014-04-01

    To address calls for context-specific measurement of social support, this article reports the development of the Athletes' Received Support Questionnaire (ARSQ) and demonstrates initial evidence for its validity. Across four studies there was support for a four-dimensional structure reflecting emotional, esteem, informational, and tangible received support. There was also support for unidimensional and higher-order models. Further, Study 3 provided some support for convergent validity, with significant correlations between the corresponding dimensions of the ARSQ and the Inventory of Socially Supportive Behaviors. Study 4 provided evidence for the nomological validity of the ARSQ. Emotional and esteem support significantly predicted self-confidence and positive affect, and tangible support significantly moderated the relationship between stress and negative affect. Collectively, these results provide initial evidence for the validity of the ARSQ, and offer researchers flexibility to adopt either a multidimensional or aggregated approach to measuring received support.

  13. Precision Continuum Receivers for Astrophysical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollack, Edward J.

    2011-01-01

    Cryogenically cooled HEMT (High Electron Mobility Transistor) amplifiers find widespread use in radioastronomy receivers. In recent years, these devices have also been commonly employed in broadband receivers for precision measurements of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) radiation. In this setting, the combination of ultra-low-noise and low-spectral-resolution observations reinforce the importance achieving suitable control over the device environment to achieve fundamentally limited receiver performance. The influence of the intrinsic amplifier stability at low frequencies on data quality (e.g., achievable noise and residual temporal correlations), observational and calibration strategies, as well as architectural mitigation approaches in this setting will be discussed. The implications of device level 1/f fluctuations reported in the literature on system performance will be reviewed.

  14. Merit of Ginseng in the Treatment of Heart Failure in Type 1-Like Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Chia Tsai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the merit of ginseng in the improvement of heart failure in diabetic rats and the role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors δ (PPARδ. We used streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat (STZ-rat to screen the effects of ginseng on cardiac performance and PPARδ expression. Changes of body weight, water intake, and food intake were compared in three groups of age-matched rats; the normal control (Wistar rats received vehicle, STZ-rats received vehicle and ginseng-treated STZ-rats. We also determined cardiac performances in addition to blood glucose level in these animals. The protein levels of PPARδ in hearts were identified using Western blotting analysis. In STZ-rats, cardiac performances were decreased but the food intake, water intake, and blood glucose were higher than the vehicle-treated control. After a 7-day treatment of ginseng in STZ-rats, cardiac output was markedly enhanced without changes in diabetic parameters. This treatment with ginseng also increased the PPARδ expression in hearts of STZ-rats. The related signal of cardiac contractility, troponin I phosphorylation, was also raised. Ginseng-induced increasing of cardiac output was reversed by the cotreatment with PPARδ antagonist GSK0660. Thus, we suggest that ginseng could improve heart failure through the increased PPARδ expression in STZ-rats.

  15. Rectal dexmedetomidine in rats: evaluation of sedative and mucosal effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volkan Hanci

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: In this study, we investigated the anesthetic and mucosal effects of the rectal application of dexmedetomidine to rats. METHODS: Male Wistar albino rats weighing 250-300 g were divided into four groups: Group S (n = 8 was a sham group that served as a baseline for the normal basal values; Group C (n = 8 consisted of rats that received the rectal application of saline alone; Group IPDex (n = 8 included rats that received the intraperitoneal application of dexmedetomidine (100 µg kg-1; and Group RecDex (n = 8 included rats that received the rectal application of dexmedetomidine (100 µg kg-1. For the rectal drug administration, we used 22 G intravenous cannulas with the stylets removed. We administered the drugs by advancing the cannula 1 cm into the rectum, and the rectal administration volume was 1 mL for all the rats. The latency and anesthesia time (min were measured. Two hours after rectal administration, 75 mg kg-1 ketamine was administered for intraperitoneal anesthesia in all the groups, followed by the removal of the rats' rectums to a distal distance of 3 cm via an abdominoperineal surgical procedure. We histopathologically examined and scored the rectums. RESULTS: Anesthesia was achieved in all the rats in the Group RecDex following the administration of dexmedetomidine. The onset of anesthesia in the Group RecDex was significantly later and of a shorter duration than in the Group IPDEx (p < 0.05. In the Group RecDex, the administration of dexmedetomidine induced mild-moderate losses of mucosal architecture in the colon and rectum, 2 h after rectal inoculation. CONCLUSION: Although 100 µg kg-1 dexmedetomidine administered rectally to rats achieved a significantly longer duration of anesthesia compared with the rectal administration of saline, our histopathological evaluations showed that the rectal administration of 100 µg kg-1 dexmedetomidine led to mild-moderate damage to the mucosal structure of the

  16. Influence of erythropoiesis stimulation on 54Mn distribution in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziecik, A.

    1976-01-01

    The experiments were carried out on animals in which erythropoiesis was stimulated. The rats were anaemized by blood letting or they received subcutaneous injections of erythropoietic filtrate of anaemized sheep plasma. The investigations demonstated that enhanced 54 Mn incorporation into the erytrocytes and bone marrow is induced by stimulation of the erythropoiesis process, whereas the raised 54 Mn level in the plasma of anaemized rats is associated with blood loss and not with erythropoiesis. (author)

  17. BIOMATERIAL IMPLANTS IN BONE FRACTURES PRODUCED IN RATS FIBULAS

    OpenAIRE

    Shirane, Henrique Yassuhiro; Oda, Diogo Yochizumi; Pinheiro, Thiago Cerizza; Cunha, Marcelo Rodrigues da

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the importance of collagen and hydroxyapatite in the regeneration of fractures experimentally induced in the fibulas of rats. Method: 15 rats were used. These were subjected to surgery to remove a fragment from the fibula. This site then received a graft consisting of a silicone tubes filled with hydroxyapatite and collagen. Results: Little bone neoformation occurred inside the tubes filled with the biomaterials. There was more neoformation in the tubes with collagen. Conclusion: ...

  18. Multistandard Receiver Design for Telemedicine Monitoring System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongmei Wang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In short-distance wireless communications for telemedicine monitoring, different medical data measurement equipment has different wireless transmission modes. A multistandard receiver is designed that can adapt to different medical data measuring equipment. Using a second-order bandpass sampling for the design of antialiasing filters, two aliasing signals can be separated. Simultaneously, constraint conditions for sampling frequency are not as critical. The design is useful for a multistandard receiver in a telemedicine monitoring system and has the advantages such as saving spectrum resources and facilitating spectrum planning.

  19. Analog fourier transform channelizer and OFDM receiver

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    An OFDM receiver having an analog multiplier based I-Q channelizing filter, samples and holds consecutive analog I-Q samples of an I-Q baseband, the I-Q basebands having OFDM sub-channels. A lattice of analog I-Q multipliers and analog I-Q summers concurrently receives the held analog I-Q samples, performs analog I-Q multiplications and analog I-Q additions to concurrently generate a plurality of analog I-Q output signals, representing an N-point discrete Fourier transform of the held analog ...

  20. Building and Testing a Portable VLF Receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Robert; Krause, L.

    2014-01-01

    Unwanted emissions or signal noise is a major problem for VLF radio receivers. These can occur from man made sources such as power line hum, which can be prevalent for many harmonics after the fundamental 50 or 60 Hz AC source or from VLF radio transmissions such as LORAN, used for navigation and communications. Natural emissions can also be detrimental to the quality of recordings as some of the more interesting natural emissions such as whistlers or auroral chorus may be drowned out by the more common sferic emissions. VLF receivers must selectively filter out unwanted emissions and amplify the filtered signal to a record-able level without degrading the quality.

  1. Billing and accounts receivable: fundamentals for improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizon, M M

    1993-07-01

    If a healthcare facility's accounts receivable operation is experiencing problems, the patient accounts manager should survey all areas of his or her responsibility to determine the best method of resolving the difficulties. One effective technique to reduce billing problems is to take a proactive--not reactive--approach. If mistakes can be corrected before they get out of control, and if the patient accounts manager can ensure that claims will not be denied, a healthcare facility's accounts receivable should remain in good condition.

  2. Improved timing recovery in wireless mobile receivers

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Olwal, TO

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available are transmitted to the receiver. In the proposed method, the receiver exploits the soft decisions computed at each turbo decoding iteration to provide reliable estimates of a soft timing signal, which in turn, improves the decoding time. The derived method... as ( ) ( )( )1 2 1 2, ,..., , ,...,Q Qk k k k k k k k ka a x x x P a x x xη∗ ∗∈Β= ∑ (29) where ( )1 2, ,..., Qk k kx x x are the Q coded bits in a multilevel symbol modulation scheme [32]. According to [29], the soft information demapper computes posteriori...

  3. Measuring Balance Across Multiple Radar Receiver Channels.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doerry, Armin W.; Bickel, Douglas L.

    2018-03-01

    When radar receivers employ multiple channels, the general intent is for the receive channels to be as alike as possible, if not as ideal as possible. This is usually done via prudent hardware design, supplemented by system calibration. Towards this end, we require a quality metric for ascertaining the goodness of a radar channel, and the degree of match to sibling channels. We propose a relevant and useable metric to do just that. Acknowledgements This report was the result of an unfunded research and development activity.

  4. Skeletal Muscle Sorbitol Levels in Diabetic Rats with and without Insulin Therapy and Endurance Exercise Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, O. A.; Walseth, T. F.; Snow, L. M.; Serfass, R. C.; Thompson, L. V.

    2009-01-01

    Sorbitol accumulation is postulated to play a role in skeletal muscle dysfunction associated with diabetes. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of insulin and of endurance exercise on skeletal muscle sorbitol levels in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Rats were assigned to one experimental group (control sedentary, control exercise, diabetic sedentary, diabetic exercise, diabetic sedentary no-insulin). Diabetic rats received daily subcutaneous insulin. The exercise-trained rats ran on a treadmill (1 hour, 5X/wk, for 12 weeks). Skeletal muscle sorbitol levels were the highest in the diabetic sedentary no-insulin group. Diabetic sedentary rats receiving insulin had similar sorbitol levels to control sedentary rats. Endurance exercise did not significantly affect sorbitol levels. These results indicate that insulin treatment lowers sorbitol in skeletal muscle; therefore sorbitol accumulation is probably not related to muscle dysfunction in insulin-treated diabetic individuals. Endurance exercise did not influence intramuscular sorbitol values as strongly as insulin. PMID:20016800

  5. Simvastatin Exposure and Rotator Cuff Repair in a Rat Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deren, Matthew E; Ehteshami, John R; Dines, Joshua S; Drakos, Mark C; Behrens, Steve B; Doty, Stephen; Coleman, Struan H

    2017-03-01

    Simvastatin is a common medication prescribed for hypercholesterolemia that accelerates local bone formation. It is unclear whether simvastatin can accelerate healing at the tendon-bone interface after rotator cuff repair. This study was conducted to investigate whether local and systemic administration of simvastatin increased tendon-bone healing of the rotator cuff as detected by maximum load to failure in a controlled animal-based model. Supraspinatus tendon repair was performed on 120 Sprague-Dawley rats. Sixty rats had a polylactic acid membrane overlying the repair site. Of these, 30 contained simvastatin and 30 did not contain medication. Sixty rats underwent repair without a polylactic acid membrane. Of these, 30 received oral simvastatin (25 mg/kg/d) and 30 received a regular diet. At 4 weeks, 5 rats from each group were killed for histologic analysis. At 8 weeks, 5 rats from each group were killed for histologic analysis and the remaining 20 rats were killed for biomechanical analysis. One rat that received oral simvastatin died of muscle necrosis. Average maximum load to failure was 35.2±6.2 N for those receiving oral simvastatin, 36.8±9.0 N for oral control subjects, 39.5±12.8 N for those receiving local simvastatin, and 39.1±9.3 N for control subjects with a polylactic acid membrane. No statistically significant differences were found between any of the 4 groups (P>.05). Qualitative histologic findings showed that all groups showed increased collagen formation and organization at 8 weeks compared with 4 weeks, with no differences between the 4 groups at each time point. The use of systemic and local simvastatin offered no benefit over control groups. [Orthopedics. 2017; 40(2):e288-e292.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  6. Hepato-toxic effect of diuron in albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, R C; Kumar, S

    1999-05-01

    Tumour initiating/promoting effect of diuron, a widely used substituted urea herbicide, was studied in rats using liver tumour model. Chronic exposure to diuron at a dose of 250 mg/kg body wt resulted in high mortality and weight loss in treated animals. The animals which received diuron + HCH treatment showed an increase in size and weight of liver as compared to controls. Liver tumours were not observed in any of the treated group whereas some significant histological changes were seen in diuron treated rat liver. Diuron thus has been found to be hepatotoxic albeit neither tumour initiating nor promoting in rat liver tumorigenesis assay system.

  7. Brain biochemistry of infant mice and rats exposed to lead

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berber, G.B.; Maes, J.; Gilliavod, N.; Casale, G.

    1978-05-01

    Brains of rats and mice exposed to lead from birth receive biochemical examinations. Mice are given drinking water with lead and are studied until they are 17 days old. Rats ae given lead in the diet and followed for more than a year. In mice a retardation in body growth and development in brain DNA is found. In rats, cathepsin is enhanced at almost all times. An important role of proteolytic processes and biogenic animes is suggested in lead encephalopathy. (33 references, 7 tables)

  8. Effects of Burn Injury on Markers of Hypermetabolism in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Izamis, Maria-Louisa; Uygun, Korkut; Uygun, Basak; Yarmush, Martin L.; Berthiaume, François

    2009-01-01

    The basic metrics of hypermetabolism have not been thoroughly characterized in rat burn injury models. We examined three models expected to differ in sensitivity to burn injury to identify that which group(s) exhibited the most clinically relevant metabolic response. Six and 12 weeks old male CD (6 week mCD and 12 week mCD) rats, and 12 weeks old female Fischer (12 week fFI) rats received a 20% total body surface area burn, followed by saline resuscitation. Activity, core body temperature, he...

  9. Biological effects of fractionated administration of radioactive phosphorus in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takizawa, Shoichi; Ohtsuka, Shoichiro; Morii, Kazuyo; Hirose, Fumio

    1978-01-01

    Female rats were given 1 μCi per g body weight of 32 P intraperitoneally four or eight times at intervals of two weeks, and half the rats received ovariectomy after two weeks. Various damages in the rats which received ovariectomy were compared with those in rats which did not receive ovariectomy. As to a change of body weight, an increase of body weight observed through the whole observation term after desexualization (for 11 months after the administration) was inhibited, and there was not any difference between ovariectomized and not-ovariectomized rats. The number of leukocytes decreased just after the administration. It took one month and a half in 4 times administration and three months and a half in 8 times administration to recover the number of leukocytes to normal values. There was no effect of desexualization. On the group administered 32 P 8 times the number of erythrocytes tended to decrease markely, but it recovered to a normal condition rapidly after the finish of the administration. As to onset of tumors, osteosarcoma occurred with high incidence (63%) regardless of presence of desexualization and frequency of the administration. The incidence of leukemia was about 15%. One case of breast tumor was recognized in nonovariectomized rats. Malignant tumors were not recognized in cases with normal sexual cycle for 8 to 10 months after the beginning of the administration. (Kanao, N.)

  10. Richard W. Ziolkowski Receives Honorary Doctorate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breinbjerg, Olav

    2012-01-01

    At the annual Commemoration of the Technical University of Denmark (DTU) on April 27, 2012, Prof. Richard W. Ziolkowski, University of Arizona (UoA), received DTU's highest academic degree, the Honorary Doctor degree: Doctor Technices Honoris Causa (Figure 1). Prof. Ziolkowski has been a close...

  11. Howard Feiertag receives hospitality industry award

    OpenAIRE

    Ho, Sookhan

    2004-01-01

    Howard Feiertag, of Blacksburg, an instructor in hospitality and tourism management at Virginia Tech's Pamplin College of Business, received the inaugural Excellence in Sales and Marketing Strategy Award at the Hospitality Sales and Marketing Association/New York University Strategy Conference in New York recently.

  12. 7 CFR 966.124 - Approved receiver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... limited to, the following information: (1) Name, address, contact person, telephone number, and e-mail... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Approved receiver. 966.124 Section 966.124 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements...

  13. Optimization of Passive Coherent Receiver System Placement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    spheroid object with a constant radar cross section (RCS). Additionally, the receiver and transmitters are assumed to be notional isotropic antennae...software- defined radio for equatorial plasma instability studies,” Radio Science, vol. 48, pp. 1–11. Aug. 2013. [2] P. C. Zhang and B. Y. Li, “Passive

  14. A 24GHz Radar Receiver in CMOS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwok, K.C.

    2015-01-01

    This thesis investigates the system design and circuit implementation of a 24GHz-band short-range radar receiver in CMOS technology. The propagation and penetration properties of EM wave offer the possibility of non-contact based remote sensing and through-the-wall imaging of distance stationary or

  15. 8. Prevalence of Epistaxis among Patients Receiving ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    The aim of this study was thus to determine the prevalence, aetiology and treatment modalities of epistaxis among patients receiving otorhinolaryngology services at MNH and MOI. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional, hospital based study was done to 427 patients at Muhimbili. National Hospital (MNH) and Muhimbili.

  16. Receiving Assistance and Local Food System Participation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca L. Som Castellano

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A body of literature has noted that local food systems (LFSs may not involve active participation by individuals with lower incomes. This is, in part, a function of racial and class hegemony, as well as physical and financial accessibility of LFSs. LFS institutions, such as farmers’ markets, have been working to facilitate receipt of food assistance programs, such as the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP. Charitable assistance programs, such as food banks, have also been actively working to engage in LFSs, for example, by making local foods available. However, little research has explored the role that receiving public or charitable assistance can play in influencing LFS participation. In this article, I utilize quantitative and qualitative data collected from across the state of Ohio to examine the relationship between receiving assistance and LFS participation for women, who remain predominately responsible for food provisioning in the U.S., including among those who participate in LFSs. Quantitative results suggest that receiving assistance can increase participation in LFSs. Qualitative data provides more nuanced information about the importance of food assistance for women who want to participate in LFSs, and suggest that it is essential that food cooperatives and farmers’ markets are equipped to receive food assistance programs, such as SNAP, in order for women with lower incomes to participate in LFSs.

  17. Reasons Parents Exempt Children from Receiving Immunizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luthy, Karlen E.; Beckstrand, Renea L.; Callister, Lynn C.; Cahoon, Spencer

    2012-01-01

    School nurses are on the front lines of educational efforts to promote childhood vaccinations. However, some parents still choose to exempt their children from receiving vaccinations for personal reasons. Studying the beliefs of parents who exempt vaccinations allows health care workers, including school nurses, to better understand parental…

  18. Lupine Alleviate Hyperglycemia in Streptozotocin Diabetic gamma- Irradiated Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Sayed, S.M.

    2010-01-01

    This study was to examine the regulatory effect of lupine on the diabetic profile developed in Streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic albino rats. The effectiveness of lupine against diabetes in gamma irradiated rats was purposed in the present study. Rats were received lupine seeds powder suspension (1 g/kg body weight for 14 consecutive days) before whole body exposure to 8 Gy of gamma radiation and /or STZ (55 mg/kg body weight, single dose) injection. The results pointed out that radiation exposure sustained the diabetic profile in rats received STZ comparing with STZ diabetic not irradiated rats. The prolonged administration of lupine suspension before STZ induction of diabetic and/or irradiated rats reduced the changes in the level of blood glucose, insulin concentration, liver glycogen, and the activity of glucose-6-phosphatase associated with significant amelioration in blood antioxidant status (superoxide dismutase, SOD; catalase, CAT; glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, G-6-PD activities and reduced glutathione concentration GSH). Also, the level of blood lipid peroxides (TBARS) were reduced greatly when compared with its matched value in diabetic and /or gamma irradiated rats. It could be postulated that lupine powder suspension might be attenuate the diabetic profile development throughout reducing oxidative damages and modulating the antioxidant status. In addition, lupine could be considered as one of a remarkable radio protective agent owing to its antioxidants property

  19. Synergistic Effect of Quercetin and α-Lipoic Acid on Aluminium Chloride Induced Neurotoxicity in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sooad Saud Al-Otaibi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The present study was carried out to study the protective effects of quercetin and α-lipoic acid alone and in combination against aluminum chloride induced neurotoxicity in rats. Materials and Methods. The study consisted of eight groups, namely, Group 1: control rats, Group 2: rats receiving aluminium chloride 7 mg/kg body weight intraperitoneal route (i.p for two weeks, Group 3: rats receiving quercetin 50 mg/kg body weight i.p. for two weeks, Group 4: rats receiving quercetin 50 mg/kg body weight followed by aluminium chloride 7 mg/kg body weight i.p. for two weeks, Group 5: rats receiving α-lipoic acid 20 mg/kg body weight i.p. for two weeks, Group 6: rats receiving lipoic acid 20 mg/kg body weight followed by aluminium chloride 7 mg/kg body weight i.p. for two weeks, Group 7: rats receiving α-lipoic acid 20 mg/kg body weight and quercetin 50 mg/kg body weight i.p. for two weeks, and Group 8: rats receiving α-lipoic acid 20 mg/kg body weight and quercetin 50 mg/kg body weight followed by aluminium chloride 7 mg/kg body weight i.p. for two weeks. The animals were killed after 24 hours of the last dose by cervical dislocation. Results. Aluminium chloride treatment of rats resulted in significant increases in lipid peroxidation, protein carbonyl levels, and acetylcholine esterase activity in the brain. This was accompanied with significant decreases in reduced glutathione, activities of the glutathione reductase, and superoxide dismutase. Pretreatment of AlCl3 exposed rats to either quercetin or α-lipoic acid also restored altered lipid peroxidation and superoxide dismutase to near normal levels. Quercetin or α-lipoic acid pretreatment of AlCl3 exposed rats improved the protein carbonyl and reduced glutathione, glutathione reductase, and acetylcholine esterase activities in rat brains towards normal levels. Combined pretreatment of AlCl3 exposed rats with quercetin and α-lipoic acid resulted in a

  20. Social effects of migration in receiving countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohndorf, W

    1989-06-01

    This paper examines the impact of post-1945 migration into Western, Middle, and Northern Europe from Southern Europe, Turkey, and Northern Africa, and migration to the traditional immigration countries by Asian and Latin American immigrants, on the social structures of receiving countries. Between 1955 and 1974, 1) traditional migration to the US and Australia became less important for European countries while traditional receiving countries accepted many immigrants from developing countries; and 2) rapid economic revival in Western and Northern Europe caused a considerable labor shortage which was filled by migrant workers especially from Southern Europe, Turkey, and Northern Africa, who stayed only until they reached their economic goals. Since 1974, job vacancies have declined and unemployment has soared. This employment crisis caused some migrants 1) to return to their countries of origin, 2) to bring the rest of their families to the receiving country, or 3) to lengthen their stay considerably. The number of refugees has also significantly increased since the mid-970s, as has the number of illegal migrants. After the mid-1970s, Europe began to experience integration problems. The different aspects of the impact of migration on social structures include 1) improvement of the housing situation for foreigners, 2) teaching migrants the language of the receiving country, 3) solving the unemployment problem of unskilled migrants, 4) improvement of educational and vocational qualifications of 2nd generation migrants, 5) development of programs to help unemployed wives of migrants to learn the language and meet indigenous women, 6) encouraging migrants to maintain their cultural identity and assisting them with reintegration if they return to their original country, 7) coping with the problems of refugees, and 8) solving the problems of illegal migration. Almost all receiving countries now severely restrict further immigration. [Those policies should result in

  1. Prenatal Caffeine Exposure Impairs Pregnancy in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Yadegari

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: In recent years, concerns have been raised about human reproductive disorders. Caffeine consumption is increasing by the world’s population and there is a relationship between caffeine intake and adverse reproductive outcomes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of caffeine on implantation sites, number of live births, birth weight, crown-rump length (CRL and abnormality in pregnant rats. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 40 female albino rats (170-190 g were randomly divided into two experimental and two control groups (n=10/each group. In both experimental groups, animals received caffeine intraperitoneally (IP: 150 mg/kg/day on days 1-5 of pregnancy. In experimental group 1, treated animals were euthanized on day 7of pregnancy and the number of implantation sites was counted. In experimental group 2, treated animals maintained pregnant and after delivery, the number of live births, birth weight, CRL and abnormality of neonates were investigated. In control group, animals received IP injections of distilled water. Data were analyzed by independent t test. Results: Results showed that administration of caffeine significantly decreased the number of implantation sites, number of live births and CRL as compared with control group (P<0.05. There were no significant differences regarding birth weight and abnormality of neonate rats between experimental and control groups. Conclusion: These results suggest that caffeine caused anti-fertility effect and significantly decreased CRL in neonate rats.

  2. Action of ionizing radiation on catalase synthesis in the rat liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komov, V.P.; Strelkova, M.A.

    1975-01-01

    3-amino-1,2,4-triazole was used to study the effect of total-body X-ray irradiation on the rates of catalase synthesis and breakdown in rat liver. It was found that in the interval between hour 22 and hour 144 of radiation sickness, the average rate of catalase synthesis in the liver was 2.6 times lower in rats that received a dose of 800 rads than in control rats

  3. Opiates and cerebral functional activity in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trusk, T.C.

    1986-01-01

    Cerebral activity was measured using the free-fatty acid [1- 14 C] octanoate as a fast functional tracer in conscious, unrestrained rats 5 minutes after intravenous injection of heroin, cocaine or saline vehicle. Regional changes of octanoate labeling density in the autoradiograms relative to saline-injected animals were used to determine the functional activity effects of each drug. Heroin and cocaine each produced a distinctive pattern of activity increases and suppression throughout the rat brain. Similar regional changes induced by both drugs were found in limbic brain regions implicated in drug reinforcement. Labeled octanoate autoradiography was used to measure the cerebral functional response to a tone that had previously been paired to heroin injections. Rats were trained in groups of three consisting of one heroin self-administration animal, and two animals receiving yoked infusion of heroin or saline. A tone was paired with each infusion during training. Behavioral experiments in similarly trained rats demonstrated that these training conditions impart secondary reinforcing properties to the tone in animals previously self-administering heroin, while the tone remains behaviorally neutral in yoked-infusion rats. Cerebral functional activity was measured during presentation of the tone without drug infusion. Octanoate labeling density changed in fifteen brain areas in response to the tone previously paired to heroin without response contingency. Labeling density was significantly modified in sixteen regions as a result of previously pairing the tone to response-contingent heroin infusions

  4. Opiates and cerebral functional activity in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trusk, T.C.

    1986-01-01

    Cerebral activity was measured using the free-fatty acid (1-/sup 14/C) octanoate as a fast functional tracer in conscious, unrestrained rats 5 minutes after intravenous injection of heroin, cocaine or saline vehicle. Regional changes of octanoate labeling density in the autoradiograms relative to saline-injected animals were used to determine the functional activity effects of each drug. Heroin and cocaine each produced a distinctive pattern of activity increases and suppression throughout the rat brain. Similar regional changes induced by both drugs were found in limbic brain regions implicated in drug reinforcement. Labeled octanoate autoradiography was used to measure the cerebral functional response to a tone that had previously been paired to heroin injections. Rats were trained in groups of three consisting of one heroin self-administration animal, and two animals receiving yoked infusion of heroin or saline. A tone was paired with each infusion during training. Behavioral experiments in similarly trained rats demonstrated that these training conditions impart secondary reinforcing properties to the tone in animals previously self-administering heroin, while the tone remains behaviorally neutral in yoked-infusion rats. Cerebral functional activity was measured during presentation of the tone without drug infusion. Octanoate labeling density changed in fifteen brain areas in response to the tone previously paired to heroin without response contingency. Labeling density was significantly modified in sixteen regions as a result of previously pairing the tone to response-contingent heroin infusions.

  5. Vitamins C and E attenuate lipid dystrophy in tissues of rats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To investigate the effects of aluminum chloride (AlCl3) in the deviation of tissue lipid profiles and ways to reduce its effect using antioxidant vitamins C and E, thirty-six male albino rats (120-150g) were divided into six groups with six rats each. Group (1) received normal saline and served as control, Group (2) was ...

  6. Turnover time of Leydig cells and other interstitial cells in testes of adult rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teerds, K. J.; de rooij, D. G.; Rommerts, F. F.; van der Tweel, I.; Wensing, C. J.

    1989-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the turnover of Leydig cells and other interstitial cells in the adult rat testis. Normal adult rats received injections of [3H]thymidine at 9:00 and 21:00 for 2, 5, or 8 days. The percentage of labeled Leydig cells, which was initially low (0.8% +/- 0.2%),

  7. Effect of total lymphoid irradiation on pancreatic islet xenograft survival in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, Y.; Lie, T.S.; Nakauo, H.; Nakagawa, K.; Segawa, M.

    1984-01-01

    Before transplantation of Syrian hamster pancreatic islet xenografts to diabetic rats the recipients received total lymphatic system irradiation and cyclosporin A treatment after transplantation for immunosuppression. The xenograft survival times were measured and the rat anti-hamster lymphocytotoxic titers were determined by 51 Cr release assay

  8. Effect of total lymphoid irradiation on pancreatic islet xenograft survival in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakajima, Y; Lie, T S [Bonn Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Chirurgische Klinik und Poliklinik; Nakauo, H; Nakagawa, K; Segawa, M [Nara Women' s Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Physics

    1984-01-01

    Before transplantation of Syrian hamster pancreatic islet xenografts to diabetic rats the recipients received total lymphatic system irradiation and cyclosporin A treatment after transplantation for immunosuppression. The xenograft survival times were measured and the rat anti-hamster lymphocytotoxic titers were determined by /sup 51/Cr release assay.

  9. Mechanism of Restoration of Forelimb Motor Function after Cervical Spinal Cord Hemisection in Rats: Electrophysiological Verification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takumi Takeuchi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to electrophysiologically assess the corticospinal tracts of adult rats and the recovery of motor function of their forelimbs after cervical cord hemisection. Of 39 adult rats used, compound muscle action potentials (CMAPs of the forelimbs of 15 rats were evaluated, before they received left C5 segmental hemisection of the spinal cord, by stimulating the pyramid of the medulla oblongata on one side using an exciting microelectrode. All 15 rats exhibited contralateral electrical activity, but their CMAPs disappeared after hemisection. The remaining 24 rats received hemisection first, and CMAPs of 12 rats were assessed over time to study their recovery time. All of them exhibited electrical activity of the forelimbs in 4 weeks after surgery. The remaining 12 rats received additional right C2 segmental hemisection, and variation of CMAPs between before and after surgery was examined. The right side of the 12 rats that received the additional hemisection exhibited no electrical activity in response to the stimulation of the pyramids on both sides. These results suggest that changes in path between the resected and healthy sides, activation of the ventral corticospinal tracts, and propriospinal neurons were involved in the recovery of motor function after cervical cord injury.

  10. Age, Dose, and Time-Dependency of Plasma and Tissue Distribution of Deltamethrine in Immature Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    The major objective of this project was to characterize the systemic disposition of the pyrethroid, deltamethrin (DLT), in immature rats, with emphasis on the age-dependence of target organ (brain) dosimetry. Postnatal day (PND) 10, 21, and 40 male Sprague-Dawley rats received 0...

  11. CERN Press Office receives award from Euroscience

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    The CERN Communication group has received an award for its efforts in communicating the LHC first beam to the media and the public. James Gillies, head of the Communication group was presented the AlphaGalileo Research Public Relations Award on Wednesday, 14 October during the Euroscience Media Award Ceremony in Hannover. "It’s great to receive this recognition," said Gillies. "Of course, we had great material to work with: the LHC is a fantastic story and one that is going to get even better. Angels, Demons and black holes also had their roles to play, but behind the media interest there’s been a lot of hard work by my team. This is for them." The CERN Communication group also works with communication professionals in all the CERN Member States and major physics labs around the world through the European Particle Physics Communication Network, and the InterAction collaboration. "Without them," says Gillies, &am...

  12. Nutritional survey of neoplasm patients receiving radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xinli; Zhu Shengtao

    2001-01-01

    Objective: In order to know the nutriture of neoplasm patients receiving radiotherapy and give nutritional guidance properly, the authors make the following survey. Methods: A dietary survey of twenty-four-hour retrospective method was used; The patients' activity was recorded and their twenty-four hours caloric consumption was calculated. Results: Of all the patients, the intake of protein is more than recommended, percentage of calorific proportion is about 15%-19% of gross caloric. A larger portion of patients' caloric intake, especially female patients, is lower than caloric consumption. Among all the patients, the intake of vegetables is not enough; The consumption of milk and milky products is lower; it is common and serious that neoplasm patients receiving radiotherapy have vitamine and mineral's scarcity. Conclusions: Nutriture of neoplasm patients is not optimistic, it is imperative to improve their nutriture

  13. Graphene radio frequency receiver integrated circuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Shu-Jen; Garcia, Alberto Valdes; Oida, Satoshi; Jenkins, Keith A; Haensch, Wilfried

    2014-01-01

    Graphene has attracted much interest as a future channel material in radio frequency electronics because of its superior electrical properties. Fabrication of a graphene integrated circuit without significantly degrading transistor performance has proven to be challenging, posing one of the major bottlenecks to compete with existing technologies. Here we present a fabrication method fully preserving graphene transistor quality, demonstrated with the implementation of a high-performance three-stage graphene integrated circuit. The circuit operates as a radio frequency receiver performing signal amplification, filtering and downconversion mixing. All circuit components are integrated into 0.6 mm(2) area and fabricated on 200 mm silicon wafers, showing the unprecedented graphene circuit complexity and silicon complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor process compatibility. The demonstrated circuit performance allow us to use graphene integrated circuit to perform practical wireless communication functions, receiving and restoring digital text transmitted on a 4.3-GHz carrier signal.

  14. Radiation-induced cognitive dysfunction in 4-month old male wistar rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamproglou, I.; Bok, B.; Vranckx, R.; Delattre, J.Y.; Boisserie, G.; Mazeron, J.J.; Baillet, F.

    1997-01-01

    Behavioral dysfunction of memory process arising 4 months after whole brain irradiation (30 Gy/10 fractions/12 days) has been demonstrated in 16-27 month old rats, as compared with non irradiated rats. This study was therefore aimed at delivering the same irradiation in young rats and comparing results with those previously obtained in old rats. Thirty-three 4-month old rats were included into the study. Eighteen received whole brain irradiation (30 Gy/10 fractions/12 days), and 18 were given sham irradiation. Sequential behavior studies were done before irradiation and during the 7 months following irradiation. Significant decrease in memory function was observed in irradiated rats 1 month (p<0.001), 3 months (p<0.013), and 6 months (p=0.007) post-irradiation. This was accompanied by learning deficit 1 month (p=0.01), 4.5 months (p=0.003), and 7 months (p=0.009) post-irradiation. Response to radiation therapy observed in young rats differed from that observed in old rats. Young rats showed earlier decrease in memory function than old rats, but this deficit also arose earlier in young rats than in old rats. In two cases this deficit was permanent. (authors)

  15. Zinc deficient diet consequences for pregnancy andoffsprings of Wistar rats

    OpenAIRE

    Solé, Dirceu; Rieckmann, Brigitte; Lippelt, Raquel Mattos Costa; Lippelt, Ronaldo Tadeu Tucci; Amâncio, Olga Maria Silverio; Queiroz, Suzana de Souza; Naspitz, Charles Kirov

    1995-01-01

    Adult female Wistar rats (90 days old; weight 180 to 220 grams) were submitted to different zinc deficient diets (Zn; severe = 2.6 ppm; mild = 9.0 ppm and normal diet = 81.6 ppm), during 6 weeks. After this time they were coupled with normal male Wistar rats. No differences regarding fecundity and sterility were observed between the groups. During pregnancy, part of the animals from severe and mild Zn deficient groups received the same diet and the others received normal diet. The animals fro...

  16. Hypersensitivity reactions in patients receiving hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butani, Lavjay; Calogiuri, Gianfranco

    2017-06-01

    To describe hypersensitivity reactions in patients receiving maintenance hemodialysis. PubMed search of articles published during the past 30 years with an emphasis on publications in the past decade. Case reports and review articles describing hypersensitivity reactions in the context of hemodialysis. Pharmacologic agents are the most common identifiable cause of hypersensitivity reactions in patients receiving hemodialysis. These include iron, erythropoietin, and heparin, which can cause anaphylactic or pseudoallergic reactions, and topical antibiotics and anesthetics, which lead to delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions. Many hypersensitivity reactions are triggered by complement activation and increased bradykinin resulting from contact system activation, especially in the context of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor use. Several alternative pharmacologic preparations and dialyzer membranes are available, such that once an etiology for the reaction is established, recurrences can be prevented without affecting the quality of care provided to patients. Although hypersensitivity reactions are uncommon in patients receiving hemodialysis, they can be life-threatening. Moreover, considering the large prevalence of the end-stage renal disease population, the implications of such reactions are enormous. Most reactions are pseudoallergic and not mediated by immunoglobulin E. The multiplicity of potential exposures and the complexity of the environment to which patients on dialysis are exposed make it challenging to identify the precise cause of these reactions. Great diligence is needed to investigate hypersensitivity reactions to avoid recurrence in this high-risk population. Copyright © 2017 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. TDRSS S-shuttle unique receiver equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberg, A.; Schwartz, J. J.; Spearing, R.

    1985-01-01

    Beginning with STS-9, the Tracking and Date Relay Satellite system (TDRSS) will start providing S- and Ku-band communications and tracking support to the Space Shuttle and its payloads. The most significant element of this support takes place at the TDRSS White Sands Ground Terminal, which processes the Shuttle return link S- and Ku-band signals. While Ku-band hardware available to other TDRSS users is also applied to Ku-Shuttle, stringent S-Shuttle link margins have precluded the application of the standard TDRSS S-band processing equipment to S-Shuttle. It was therfore found necessary to develop a unique S-Shuttle Receiver that embodies state-of-the-art digital technology and processing techniques. This receiver, developed by Motorola, Inc., enhances link margins by 1.5 dB relative to the standard S-band equipment and its bit error rate performance is within a few tenths of a dB of theory. An overview description of the Space Shuttle Receiver Equipment (SSRE) is presented which includes the presentation of block diagrams and salient design features. Selected, measured performance results are also presented.

  18. A Decentralized Receiver in Gaussian Interference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian D. Chapman

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Bounds are developed on the maximum communications rate between a transmitter and a fusion node aided by a cluster of distributed receivers with limited resources for cooperation, all in the presence of an additive Gaussian interferer. The receivers cannot communicate with one another and can only convey processed versions of their observations to the fusion center through a Local Array Network (LAN with limited total throughput. The effectiveness of each bound’s approach for mitigating a strong interferer is assessed over a wide range of channels. It is seen that, if resources are shared effectively, even a simple quantize-and-forward strategy can mitigate an interferer 20 dB stronger than the signal in a diverse range of spatially Ricean channels. Monte-Carlo experiments for the bounds reveal that, while achievable rates are stable when varying the receiver’s observed scattered-path to line-of-sight signal power, the receivers must adapt how they share resources in response to this change. The bounds analyzed are proven to be achievable and are seen to be tight with capacity when LAN resources are either ample or limited.

  19. Multifunction waveform generator for EM receiver testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kai; Jin, Sheng; Deng, Ming

    2018-01-01

    In many electromagnetic (EM) methods - such as magnetotelluric, spectral-induced polarization (SIP), time-domain-induced polarization (TDIP), and controlled-source audio magnetotelluric (CSAMT) methods - it is important to evaluate and test the EM receivers during their development stage. To assess the performance of the developed EM receivers, controlled synthetic data that simulate the observed signals in different modes are required. In CSAMT and SIP mode testing, the waveform generator should use the GPS time as the reference for repeating schedule. Based on our testing, the frequency range, frequency precision, and time synchronization of the currently available function waveform generators on the market are deficient. This paper presents a multifunction waveform generator with three waveforms: (1) a wideband, low-noise electromagnetic field signal to be used for magnetotelluric, audio-magnetotelluric, and long-period magnetotelluric studies; (2) a repeating frequency sweep square waveform for CSAMT and SIP studies; and (3) a positive-zero-negative-zero signal that contains primary and secondary fields for TDIP studies. In this paper, we provide the principles of the above three waveforms along with a hardware design for the generator. Furthermore, testing of the EM receiver was conducted with the waveform generator, and the results of the experiment were compared with those calculated from the simulation and theory in the frequency band of interest.

  20. Russian institute receives CMS Gold Award

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2003-01-01

    The Snezhinsk All-Russian Institute of Scientific Research for Technical Physics (VNIITF) of the Russian Federal Nuclear Centre (RFNC) is one of twelve CMS suppliers to receive awards for outstanding performance this year. The CMS Collaboration took the opportunity of the visit to CERN of the Director of VNIITF and his deputy to present the CMS Gold Award, which the institute has received for its exceptional performance in the assembly of steel plates for the CMS forward hadronic calorimeter. This calorimeter consists of two sets of 18 wedge-shaped modules arranged concentrically around the beam-pipe at each end of the CMS detector. Each module consists of steel absorber plates with quartz fibres inserted into them. The institute developed a special welding technique to assemble the absorber plates, enabling a high-quality detector to be produced at relatively low cost.RFNC-VNIITF Director Professor Georgy Rykovanov (right), is seen here receiving the Gold Award from Felicitas Pauss, Vice-Chairman of the CMS ...

  1. Submillimeter heterodyne receiver for the CSO telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulkis, S.

    1988-01-01

    This task is to build a cryogenically cooled 620 to 700 GHz astronomical receiver that will be used as a facility instrument at the CalTech Submillimeter Observatory (CSO) on Mauna Kea, Hawaii. The receiver will have applications as a very high resolution spectrometer to investigate spectral lines in planetary and satellite atmospheres, and comets. The receiver will also be used to make continuum measurements of planets, satellites, and asteroids. During FY88, a scale model (200 GHz) SIS mixer radiometer was built and intrgrated into a cryostat designed for use on the CSO telescope. This system will serve as a model to guide the work on the higher frequency mixer. A solid state local oscillator source that covers two bands in the 600 to 700 GHz has been developed under contract JPL and will be delivered before the end of the year. Work has continued on the SIS materials needed for the 620 to 700 GHz mixer. Test hardware has been developed which allow the 1 to 5 curves for SIS material to be easily measured

  2. Towards Self-Clocked Gated OCDMA Receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idris, S.; Osadola, T.; Glesk, I.

    2013-02-01

    A novel incoherent OCDMA receiver with incorporated all-optical clock recovery for self-synchronization of a time gate for the multi access interferences (MAI) suppression and minimizing the effect of data time jitter in incoherent OCDMA system was successfully developed and demonstrated. The solution was implemented and tested in a multiuser environment in an out of the laboratory OCDMA testbed with two-dimensional wavelength-hopping time-spreading coding scheme and OC-48 (2.5 Gbp/s) data rate. The self-clocked all-optical time gate uses SOA-based fibre ring laser optical clock, recovered all-optically from the received OCDMA traffic to control its switching window for cleaning the autocorrelation peak from the surrounding MAI. A wider eye opening was achieved when the all-optically recovered clock from received data was used for synchronization if compared to a static approach with the RF clock being generated by a RF synthesizer. Clean eye diagram was also achieved when recovered clock is used to drive time gating.

  3. Ground receiving station (GRS) of UMS - receiving and processing the electromagnetic wave data from satellite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammad Syahmi Nordin; Fauziah Abdul Aziz

    2007-01-01

    The low resolution Automatic Picture Transmission (APT) data from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) polar-orbiting satellites Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) is being received and recorded in real-time mode at ground receiving station in School of Science and Technology, Universiti Malaysia Sabah. The system is suitable for the developing and undeveloped countries in south and Southeast Asia and is said to be acceptable for engineering, agricultural, climatological and environmental applications. The system comprises a personal computer attached with a small APT receiver. The data transmission between the ground receiving station and NOAA satellites is using the electromagnetic wave. The relation for receiving and processing the electromagnetic wave in the transmission will be discussed. (Author)

  4. Antioxidant Effects of Biochanin A in Streptozotocin Induced Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamideh Sadri

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Bioflavonoid-containing diets have been reported to be beneficial in diabetes. In the current study, the effect of Biochanin A (BCA on blood glucose, antioxidant enzyme activities and oxidative stress markers in diabetic rats were investigated. 30 male Wistar rats were divided into five groups. Two of them were selected as control; group1: control (receiving 0.5%DMSO, and group2: Control+BCA (receiving 10 mg/kg.bw BCA. Diabetes was induced in other rats with injection of (55 mg/kg.bw streptozotocin; group3: diabetic control (receiving 0.5%DMSO, groups 4 and 5 were treated with 10 and 15 mg/kg.bw BCA respectively. After 6 weeks the following results were obtained. Fasting blood glucose (FBG, Triglyceride (TG, total cholesterol (TC, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C and malondialdehyde (MDA levels significantly increased and body weight, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase (CAT activity and total antioxidant status (TAS significantly decreased in diabetic rats as compared to control rats. Oral administration of BCA in 10 and 15 mg/kg.bw, FBG, TG, TC, LDL-C, VLDL-C were decreased significantly in all treated rats. MDA was decreased in all treated rats but it was significant just in 15 mg/kg.bw BCA. HDL, CAT, SOD, and TAS were significantly increased in treated group with 15 mg/kg.bw. The obtained results indicated hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effect of BCA. Also BCA reduced oxidative stress in diabetic rats.

  5. Morphologic and biochemical changes in male rat lung after surgical and pharmacological castration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.S. Ojeda

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available The morphology of the rat lung was studied by light microscopy in different situations: after surgical and pharmacological castration and after administration of testosterone to the castrated rat to determine if the androgen is required to maintain the normal morphology of the lung. We also determined the effect of flutamide on the phospholipid composition of both the surfactant and microsomes of the lung. Rats were separated into five groups: I - control non-castrated rats, II - castrated rats sacrificed 21 days after castration, III - castrated rats that received testosterone daily from day 2 to day 21 after castration, IV - castrated rats that received testosterone from day 15 to day 21 after castration, and V - control rats injected with flutamide for 7 days. The amount of different phospholipids in the surfactant and microsomes of the lung was measured in group I and V rats. At the light microscopy level, the surgical and pharmacological castration provoked alterations in the morphology of the lung, similar to that observed in human lung emphysema. The compositions of surfactant and microsomes of the lung were similar to those previously reported by us for the surgically castrated rats. These results indicate that androgens are necessary for the normal morphology as well as for some metabolic aspects of the lung.

  6. Curcumin administration suppress acetylcholinesterase gene expression in cadmium treated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinyemi, Ayodele Jacob; Oboh, Ganiyu; Fadaka, Adewale Oluwaseun; Olatunji, Babawale Peter; Akomolafe, Seun

    2017-09-01

    Curcumin, the main polyphenolic component of turmeric (Curcuma longa) rhizomes have been reported to exert anticholinesterase potential with limited information on how they regulate acetylcholinesterase (AChE) gene expression. Hence, this study sought to evaluate the effect of curcumin on cerebral cortex acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity and their mRNA gene expression level in cadmium (Cd)-treated rats. Furthermore, in vitro effect of different concentrations of curcumin (1-5μg/mL) on rat cerebral cortex AChE activity was assessed. Animals were divided into six groups (n=6): group 1 serve as control (without Cd) and receive saline/vehicle, group 2 receive saline plus curcumin at 25mg/kg, group 3 receive saline plus curcumin 50mg/kg, group 4 receive Cd plus vehicle, group 5 receive Cd plus curcumin at 25mg/kg and group 6 receive Cd plus curcumin at 50mg/kg. Rats received Cd (2.5mg/kg) and curcumin (25 and 50mg/kg, respectively) by oral gavage for 7days. Acetylcholinesterase activity was measured by Ellman's method and AChE expression was carried out by a quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) assay. We observed that acute administration of Cd increased acetylcholinesterase activity and in addition caused a significant (Pcurcumin inhibited AChE activity and alters AChE mRNA levels when compared to Cd-treated group. In addition, curcumin inhibits rat cerebral cortex AChE activity in vitro. In conclusion, curcumin exhibit anti-acetylcholinesterase activity and suppressed AChE mRNA gene expression level in Cd exposed rats, thus providing some biochemical and molecular evidence on the therapeutic effect of this turmeric-derived compound in treating neurological disorders including Alzheimer's disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Progression of nephropathy after islet of langerhans transplantation in alloxan-induced diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Tadeu Spadella

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available We studied the effects of islet of Langerhans transplantation (IT on the kidney lesions of rats with alloxan-induced diabetes. Forty-five inbred male Lewis rats were randomly assigned to 3 experimental groups: group Gl included 15 non-diabetic control rats (NC, group GIT included 15 alloxan-induced diabetic rats (DC, and group III included 15 alloxan-induced diabetic rats that received pancreatic islet transplantation prepared by nonenzymatic method from normal donor Lewis rats and injected into the portal vein (IT. Each group was further divided into 3 subgroups of 5 rats which were sacrificed at 1, 3, and 6 months of follow-up, respectively. Clinical and laboratorial parameters were recorded in the mentioned periods in the 3 experimental groups. For histology, the kidneys of all rats of each subgroup were studied and 50 glomeruli and 50 tubules of each kidney were analyzed using light microscopy by two different investigators in a double blind study. The results showed progressive glomerular basement membrane thickening (GBMT, mesangial enlargement (ME, and Bowman's capsule thickening (BCT in the 3 experimental groups throughout the follow-up. These alterations were significantly more severe in DC rats at 6 months when compared to NC rats (p < 0.01. However, the degree of GBMT, ME, and BCT observed in DC rats was not statistically different from IT rats at 1, 3, and 6 months. In addition, Armanni-Ebstein lesions of the tubules (AE and tubular lumen protein (PRO observed in DC rats were also observed in IT rats all over the study. These lesions were never present in NC rats. We conclude that IT did not prevent progression of kidney lesions in alloxan-induced diabetic rats within 6 months after transplantation.

  8. Medial prefrontal cortex activation facilitates re-extinction of fear in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Chun-hui; Maren, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    It has been suggested that reduced infralimbic (IL) cortical activity contributes to impairments of fear extinction. We therefore explored whether pharmacological activation of the IL would facilitate extinction under conditions it normally fails (i.e., immediate extinction). Rats received auditory fear conditioning 1 h before extinction training. Immediately prior to extinction, rats received microinfusions into the IL of the GABAA receptor antagonist, picrotoxin, or the NMDA receptor partia...

  9. CHRONIC ALCOHOLISM ON THE SEMINAL VESICLE AND TESTIS WEIGHT OF ADULT RATS (Rattus norvegicus)

    OpenAIRE

    Martinez, F. E.; Martinez, M.; Cagnon, V. H. A.; Mello Junior, W.; Padovani, C. R.; Garcia, P. J.

    1997-01-01

    Effects of experimental chronic alcoholism on the accessory sexual glands weight and testes weight were studied. Male adult albino rats received only sugar cane brandy at 30 Gay Lussac (v/v), while the controls received tap water. After periods of 60, 120, 180 and 240 days, rats from each group were anesthetized, weighed and sacrificed. Alterations in mean daily solid food intake and liquid, mean daily weight gain, mean prostate weight, mean seminal vesicle and coagulating gland weights and t...

  10. Prosocial choice in rats depends on rewards received and food-seeking behaviour displayed by recipients

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, Diana Paula Ferreira da

    2014-01-01

    Dissertação de mestrado em Biologia Celular e Molecular, apresentada ao Departamento de Ciências da Vida da Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia da Universidade de Coimbra Na ultima década, a complexidade cognitiva da cooperação animal tem suscitado interesse em evolucionistas e psicólogos, mais concretamente no que diz respeito à compreensão das implicações cognitivas deste comportamento em Humanos. A crescente acumulação de dados têm vindo a revelar que, empiricamente, animais não-human...

  11. Superconducting Submm Integrated Receiver for TELIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koshelets, V P [Institute of Radio Engineering and Electronics (IREE) (Russian Federation); Ermakov, A B [Institute of Radio Engineering and Electronics (IREE) (Russian Federation); Filippenko, L V [Institute of Radio Engineering and Electronics (IREE) (Russian Federation); Koryukin, O V [Institute of Radio Engineering and Electronics (IREE) (Russian Federation); Khudchenko, A V [Institute of Radio Engineering and Electronics (IREE) (Russian Federation); Sobolev, A S [Institute of Radio Engineering and Electronics (IREE) (Russian Federation); Torgashin, M Yu [Institute of Radio Engineering and Electronics (IREE) (Russian Federation); Yagoubov, P A [SRON National Institute for Space Research (Netherlands); Hoogeveen, R W M [SRON National Institute for Space Research (Netherlands); Vreeling, W J [SRON National Institute for Space Research (Netherlands); Wild, W [SRON National Institute for Space Research (Netherlands); Pylypenko, O M [State Research Center of Superconducting Electronics ' Iceberg' (Ukraine)

    2006-06-01

    In this report we present design and first experimental results for development of the submm superconducting integrated receiver spectrometer for Terahertz Limb Sounder (TELIS). TELIS is a collaborative European project to build up a three-channel heterodyne balloon-based spectrometer for measuring a variety of atmospheric constituents of the stratosphere. The 550 - 650 GHz channel of TELIS is based on a phase-locked Superconducting Integrated Receiver (SIR). SIR is an on-chip combination of a low-noise Superconductor-Insulator-Superconductor (SIS) mixer with quasioptical antenna, a superconducting Flux Flow Oscillator (FFO) acting as Local Oscillator (LO), and SIS harmonic mixer (HM) for FFO phase locking. A number of new solutions were implemented in the new generation of SIR chips. To achieve the wide-band performance of the spectrometer, a side-feed twin-SIS mixer and balanced SIS mixer with 0.8 {mu}m{sup 2} junctions integrated with a double-dipole (or double-slot) antenna is used. An improved design of the FFO for TELIS has been developed and optimized providing a free-running linewidth between 10 and 2 MHz in the frequency range 500 - 700 GHz. It is important to ensure that tuning of a phase-locked (PL) SIR can be performed remotely by telecommand. For this purpose a number of approaches for the PL SIR automatic computer control have been developed. All receiver components (including input optical elements and Martin-Puplett polarization rotating interferometer for single side band operation) will be mounted on a single 4.2 K plate inside a 40 x 180 x 80 mm{sup 3} box. First measurements give an uncorrected double side band (DSB) noise temperature below 250 K measured with the phase-locked FFO; more detailed results are presented at the conference.

  12. Superconducting Submm Integrated Receiver for TELIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koshelets, V P; Ermakov, A B; Filippenko, L V; Koryukin, O V; Khudchenko, A V; Sobolev, A S; Torgashin, M Yu; Yagoubov, P A; Hoogeveen, R W M; Vreeling, W J; Wild, W; Pylypenko, O M

    2006-01-01

    In this report we present design and first experimental results for development of the submm superconducting integrated receiver spectrometer for Terahertz Limb Sounder (TELIS). TELIS is a collaborative European project to build up a three-channel heterodyne balloon-based spectrometer for measuring a variety of atmospheric constituents of the stratosphere. The 550 - 650 GHz channel of TELIS is based on a phase-locked Superconducting Integrated Receiver (SIR). SIR is an on-chip combination of a low-noise Superconductor-Insulator-Superconductor (SIS) mixer with quasioptical antenna, a superconducting Flux Flow Oscillator (FFO) acting as Local Oscillator (LO), and SIS harmonic mixer (HM) for FFO phase locking. A number of new solutions were implemented in the new generation of SIR chips. To achieve the wide-band performance of the spectrometer, a side-feed twin-SIS mixer and balanced SIS mixer with 0.8 μm 2 junctions integrated with a double-dipole (or double-slot) antenna is used. An improved design of the FFO for TELIS has been developed and optimized providing a free-running linewidth between 10 and 2 MHz in the frequency range 500 - 700 GHz. It is important to ensure that tuning of a phase-locked (PL) SIR can be performed remotely by telecommand. For this purpose a number of approaches for the PL SIR automatic computer control have been developed. All receiver components (including input optical elements and Martin-Puplett polarization rotating interferometer for single side band operation) will be mounted on a single 4.2 K plate inside a 40 x 180 x 80 mm 3 box. First measurements give an uncorrected double side band (DSB) noise temperature below 250 K measured with the phase-locked FFO; more detailed results are presented at the conference

  13. Compressed Sensing-Based Direct Conversion Receiver

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pierzchlewski, Jacek; Arildsen, Thomas; Larsen, Torben

    2012-01-01

    Due to the continuously increasing computational power of modern data receivers it is possible to move more and more processing from the analog to the digital domain. This paper presents a compressed sensing approach to relaxing the analog filtering requirements prior to the ADCs in a direct......-converted radio signals. As shown in an experiment presented in the article, when the proposed method is used, it is possible to relax the requirements for the quadrature down-converter filters. A random sampling device and an additional digital signal processing module is the price to pay for these relaxed...

  14. Radiation Doses Received by the Irish Population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colgan, P.A.; Organo, C.; Hone, C.; Fenton, D.

    2008-05-01

    Some chemical elements present in the environment since the Earth was formed are naturally radioactive and exposure to these sources of radiation cannot be avoided. There have also been additions to this natural inventory from artificial sources of radiation that did not exist before the 1940s. Other sources of radiation exposure include cosmic radiation from outer space and the use of radiation in medical diagnosis and treatment. There can be large variability in the dose received by invividual members of the population from any given source. Some sources of radiation expose every member of the population while, in other cases, only selected individuals may be exposed. For example, natural radioactivity is found in all soils and therefore everybody receives some radiation dose from this activity. On the other hand, in the case of medical exposures, only those who undergo a medical procedure using radiation will receive a radiation dose. The Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland (RPII) has undertaken a comprehensive review of the relevant data on radiation exposure in Ireland. Where no national data have been identified, the RPII has either undertaken its own research or has referred to the international literature to provide a best estimate of what the exposure in Ireland might be. This has allowed the relative contribution of each source to be quantified. This new evaluation is the most up-to-date assessment of radiation exposure and updates the assessment previously reported in 2004. The dose quoted for each source is the annual 'per caput' dose calculated on the basis of the most recently available data. This is an average value calculated by adding the doses received by each individual exposed to a given radiation source and dividing the total by the current population of 4.24 million. All figures have been rounded, consistent with the accuracy of the data. In line with accepted international practice, where exposure takes place both indoors and

  15. Fetal rat pancreas transplantation in BB rats: immunohistochemical and functional evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yderstræde, Knud Bonnet; Starklint, Henrik; Steinbrüchel, Daniel Andreas

    1993-01-01

    Spontaneously diabetic BB/Wor rats received either a syngeneic fetal pancreas transplant or adult islets. In the former, 4-8 fetal pancreases were transplanted, and in the latter, 3-5000 islets. Transplantation was performed by transferring a blood clot containing the pancreases or islets...... to the renal subcapsular space. Insulin therapy was undertaken postoperatively, except in one experiment with adult islets. Of the fetal pancreas transplanted BB rats, 52% became normoglycaemic, and 21% remained so throughout an observation period of 10 months. Nephrectomy caused a prompt return of diabetes...... that recurrent diabetes is not inevitable following syngeneic fetal pancreas transplantation to spontaneously diabetic BB rats. Recurrent diabetes was only occasionally associated with mononuclear cell infiltration. Transplanted tissue was well-preserved and vascularized; mega-islets were a constant finding....

  16. Immunology taught by rats

    OpenAIRE

    Klenerman, P; Barnes, EJ

    2017-01-01

    Immunology may be best taught by viruses, and possibly by humans, but the rats of New York City surprisingly also have plenty to offer. A survey published in 2014 of the pathogens carried by rats trapped in houses and parks in Manhattan identified a huge burden of infectious agents in these animals, including several novel viruses. Among these are Norway rat hepaciviruses (NrHVs), which belong to the same family as hepatitis C virus (HCV). NrHVs were found in rat livers, raising the possibili...

  17. Superconductor Digital-RF Receiver Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhanov, Oleg A.; Kirichenko, Dmitri; Vernik, Igor V.; Filippov, Timur V.; Kirichenko, Alexander; Webber, Robert; Dotsenko, Vladimir; Talalaevskii, Andrei; Tang, Jia Cao; Sahu, Anubhav; Shevchenko, Pavel; Miller, Robert; Kaplan, Steven B.; Sarwana, Saad; Gupta, Deepnarayan

    Digital superconductor electronics has been experiencing rapid maturation with the emergence of smaller-scale, lower-cost communications applications which became the major technology drivers. These applications are primarily in the area of wireless communications, radar, and surveillance as well as in imaging and sensor systems. In these areas, the fundamental advantages of superconductivity translate into system benefits through novel Digital-RF architectures with direct digitization of wide band, high frequency radio frequency (RF) signals. At the same time the availability of relatively small 4K cryocoolers has lowered the foremost market barrier for cryogenically-cooled digital electronic systems. Recently, we have achieved a major breakthrough in the development, demonstration, and successful delivery of the cryocooled superconductor digital-RF receivers directly digitizing signals in a broad range from kilohertz to gigahertz. These essentially hybrid-technology systems combine a variety of superconductor and semiconductor technologies packaged with two-stage commercial cryocoolers: cryogenic Nb mixed-signal and digital circuits based on Rapid Single Flux Quantum (RSFQ) technology, room-temperature amplifiers, FPGA processing and control circuitry. The demonstrated cryocooled digital-RF systems are the world's first and fastest directly digitizing receivers operating with live satellite signals in X-band and performing signal acquisition in HF to L-band at ˜30GHz clock frequencies.

  18. Melatonin Alleviates Liver Apoptosis in Bile Duct Ligation Young Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheen, Jiunn-Ming; Chen, Yu-Chieh; Hsu, Mei-Hsin; Tain, You-Lin; Huang, Ying-Hsien; Tiao, Mao-Meng; Li, Shih-Wen; Huang, Li-Tung

    2016-08-20

    Bile duct ligation (BDL)-treated rats display cholestasis and liver damages. The potential protective activity of melatonin in young BDL rats in terms of apoptosis, mitochondrial function, and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) homeostasis has not yet been evaluated. Three groups of young male Sprague-Dawley rats were used: one group received laparotomy (Sham), a second group received BDL for two weeks (BDL), and a third group received BDL and intraperitoneal melatonin (100 mg/day) for two weeks (BDL + M). BDL group rats showed liver apoptosis, increased pro-inflamamtory mediators, caspases alterations, anti-apoptotic factors changes, and dysfunction of ER homeostasis. Melatonin effectively reversed apoptosis, mainly through intrinsic pathway and reversed ER stress. In addition, in vitro study showed melatonin exerted its effect mainly through the melatonin 2 receptor (MT2) in HepG2 cells. In conclusion, BDL in young rats caused liver apoptosis. Melatonin rescued the apoptotic changes via the intrinsic pathway, and possibly through the MT2 receptor. Melatonin also reversed ER stress induced by BDL.

  19. Hematological Parameters and the State of Liver Cells of Rats After Oral Administration of Aflatoxin B1 Alone and Together with Nanodiamonds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baron AV

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Hematological parameters and the state of liver cells of rats were examined in vivo after the animals received aflatoxin B1 (AfB1 alone and together with modified nanodiamonds (MND synthesized by detonation. The rats that had received the MND hydrosol had elevated leukocyte levels, mainly due to higher granulocyte counts and somewhat increased monocyte counts compared to control rats. Hematological parameters of the rats that had received AfB1 alone differed from those of the control rats in another way: total white blood cell counts were significantly lower due to the decreased lymphocyte counts. In rats that had consumed AfB1 with the MND hydrosol, changes in hematological parameters were less pronounced than in rats that had consumed either AfB1 or MND. Electron microscopy showed that hepatocytes of the rats that had received the MND hydrosol or AfB1 with the MND hydrosol contained elevated levels of lipid inclusions and lysosomes. Hyperplasia of the smooth endoplasmic reticulum (EPR was revealed in liver specimens of the rats that had received AfB1. Results of the study suggest the conclusion about mutual mitigation of the effects of nanoparticles and the mycotoxin on rats blood and liver cells after AfB1 has adsorbed on MND.

  20. Survival of rats subjected to acute anemia at different levels of erythrocyte 2,3-diphosphoglycerate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arturson, G; Westman, M

    1975-12-01

    An experimental procedure was worked out in which rats were subjected to an exchange of erythrocytes, followed by acute anemia by means of hemodilution. One group of rats received erythrocytes with a high concentration of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (DPG), and the other group was given erythrocytes with a low DPG concentration. The survival rate was equal in the two groups. Irrespective of DPG concentration, the rats whose hemoglobin concentration reached the lowest level died. The rats that died were also more acidotic than the others. The results indicate that the hemoglobin concentration and the pH value were more important determinants for survival than the DPG concentrations.

  1. Ascorbic acid deficiency aggravates stress-induced gastric mucosal lesions in genetically scorbutic ODS rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, Y; Chiba, S; Imai, Y; Kamiya, Y; Arisawa, T; Kitagawa, A

    2006-12-01

    We examined whether ascorbic acid (AA) deficiency aggravates water immersion restraint stress (WIRS)-induced gastric mucosal lesions in genetically scorbutic ODS rats. ODS rats received scorbutic diet with either distilled water containing AA (1 g/l) or distilled water for 2 weeks. AA-deficient rats had 12% of gastric mucosal AA content in AA-sufficient rats. AA-deficient rats showed more severe gastric mucosal lesions than AA-sufficient rats at 1, 3 or 6 h after the onset of WIRS, although AA-deficient rats had a slight decrease in gastric mucosal AA content, while AA-sufficient rats had a large decrease in that content. AA-deficient rats had more decreased gastric mucosal nonprotein SH and vitamin E contents and increased gastric mucosal lipid peroxide content than AA-sufficient rats at 1, 3 or 6 h of WIRS. These results indicate that AA deficiency aggravates WIRS-induced gastric mucosal lesions in ODS rats by enhancing oxidative damage in the gastric mucosa.

  2. Eosinophils increase in animals that received biotherapic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Gilberto Silva Morais

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Dairy industry is an important Brazilian economic activity participating of income generation. European breeds cattle aren’t adapted to parasites found in the tropics, like the Rhipicephalus microplus tick. Parasites can acquire resistance to allopathic products, but not to homeopathic products. We evaluate the efficacy of an antiparasiticide biotherapic against the R. microplus tick. The biotherapic was prepared according to the homeopathic pharmacopoeia recommendations from vegetable (Abrotanum and animal products (Rhipicephalus microplus, Amblyomma cajenennense, Haematobia irritans, Musca domestica, Dermatobia hominis, all diluted and vigorous shaken (dynamized in water or alcohol at a ratio of 1:99, in the 12th Centesimal Hahnemann (CH12, with limestone as the carrier. This homeophatic product found in veterinary pharmacies of Ituiutaba’s region, Minas Gerais State, is registered at Ministério da Agricultura, Pecuária e Abastecimento (MAPA. Natural tick infestation was accessed in thirty Girolando (Gir x Holstein cows with 7 to 13 year-old, by monthly counting of tick female bigger than 6 mm, from October/2009 to July/2011. Cows were divided in three groups of 10 similar animals. The treated group (T1 received roughage, concentrate and biotherapic. The placebo group (T2 received roughage, concentrate and limestone and the control group (T3 received only roughage and concentrate. T1 and T2 groups were managed together and remained in the same paddock. T3 group was separed from T1 and T2 by a wire fence. From October 2009 to September 2010 blood cell counts and serum biochemical tests were performed monthly only in T1 and T2, but visual clinical observations were made in all animals. Any group was treated with acaricide when the count’s average reached 50 or more ticks. It was necessary 7 baths with acaricide in T1 and T2, while in T3 group (control group it was necessary 19 acaricide baths to control the cattle tick. We verified

  3. Radioactive contamination in monitors received for calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dias, Paulo S.; Santos, Gilvan C. dos; Brunelo, Maria Antonieta G.; Paula, Tiago C. de; Pires, Marina A.; Borges, Jose C.

    2013-01-01

    The Calibration Laboratory - LABCAL, from the Research Center for Metrology and Testing - METROBRAS, MRA Comercio de Instrumentos Eletronicos Ltda., began activities in October 2008 and, in August 2009, decided to establish a procedure for monitoring tests, external and internal, of all packages received from customers, containing instruments for calibration. The aim was to investigate possible contamination radioactive on these instruments. On July 2011, this procedure was extended to packagings of personal thermoluminescent dosemeters - TLD, received by the newly created Laboratory Laboratorio de Dosimetria Pessoal - LDP . In the monitoring procedure were used monitors with external probe, type pancake, MRA brand, models GP - 500 and MIR 7028. During the 37 months in which this investigation was conducted, were detected 42 cases of radioactive contamination, with the following characteristics: 1) just one case was personal dosimeter, TLD type; 2) just one case was not from a packing from nuclear medicine service - was from a mining company; 3) contamination occurred on packs and instruments, located and/or widespread; 4) contamination values ranged from slightly above the level of background radiation to about a thousand fold. Although METROBRAS has facilities for decontamination, in most cases, especially those of higher contamination, the procedure followed was to store the contaminated material in a room used for storage of radioactive sources. Periodically, each package and/or instrument was monitored, being released when the radiation level matched the background radiation. Every contamination detected, the client and/or owner of the instrument was informed. The Brazilian National Energy Commission - CNEN, was informed, during your public consultation for reviewing the standard for nuclear medicine services, held in mid-2012, having received from METROBRAS the statistical data available at the time. The high frequency of contamination detected and the high

  4. Microarray analysis of thioacetamide-treated type 1 diabetic rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devi, Sachin S.; Mehendale, Harihara M.

    2006-01-01

    It is well known that diabetes imparts high sensitivity to numerous hepatotoxicants. Previously, we have shown that a normally non-lethal dose of thioacetamide (TA, 300 mg/kg) causes 90% mortality in type 1 diabetic (DB) rats due to inhibited tissue repair allowing progression of liver injury. On the other hand, DB rats exposed to 30 mg TA/kg exhibit delayed tissue repair and delayed recovery from injury. The objective of this study was to investigate the mechanism of impaired tissue repair and progression of liver injury in TA-treated DB rats by using cDNA microarray. Gene expression pattern was examined at 0, 6, and 12 h after TA challenge, and selected mechanistic leads from microarray experiments were confirmed by real-time RT-PCR and further investigated at protein level over the time course of 0 to 36 h after TA treatment. Diabetic condition itself increased gene expression of proteases and decreased gene expression of protease inhibitors. Administration of 300 mg TA/kg to DB rats further elevated gene expression of proteases and suppressed gene expression of protease inhibitors, explaining progression of liver injury in DB rats after TA treatment. Inhibited expression of genes involved in cell division cycle (cyclin D1, IGFBP-1, ras, E2F) was observed after exposure of DB rats to 300 mg TA/kg, explaining inhibited tissue repair in these rats. On the other hand, DB rats receiving 30 mg TA/kg exhibit delayed expression of genes involved in cell division cycle, explaining delayed tissue repair in these rats. In conclusion, impaired cyclin D1 signaling along with increased proteases and decreased protease inhibitors may explain impaired tissue repair that leads to progression of liver injury initiated by TA in DB rats

  5. Signal Processing for Improved Wireless Receiver Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Lars P.B.

    2007-01-01

    This thesis is concerned with signal processing for improving the performance of wireless communication receivers for well-established cellular networks such as the GSM/EDGE and WCDMA/HSPA systems. The goal of doing so, is to improve the end-user experience and/or provide a higher system capacity...... by allowing an increased reuse of network resources. To achieve this goal, one must first understand the nature of the problem and an introduction is therefore provided. In addition, the concept of graph-based models and approximations for wireless communications is introduced along with various Belief...... Propagation (BP) methods for detecting the transmitted information, including the Turbo principle. Having established a framework for the research, various approximate detection schemes are discussed. First, the general form of linear detection is presented and it is argued that this may be preferable...

  6. The BINP receives its Golden Hadron award

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    On Thursday, 14 September, the LHC Project Leader, Lyn Evans, handed over a Golden Hadron award to Alexander Skrinsky of Russia's Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics (BINP). The prize is awarded in recognition of exceptional performances by suppliers and this year prizes were awarded to two firms, Cockerill-Sambre (Belgium) and Wah-Chang (United States), and to the Budker Institute, which was unable to receive the award at the same time as the two other recipients (see Bulletin No 34/2002, of 19 August 2002). The Russian institute has been rewarded for the particularly high-quality production of 360 dipole magnets and 185 quadrupole magnets for the LHC proton beam transfer lines.

  7. Humboldt SK pilot biodigester receives funding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2005-09-30

    The Canada-Saskatchewan Western Economic Partnership Agreement (WEPA) will provide funding for Canada's first pilot-scale biodigester to be built in Humboldt, Saskatchewan. The $208,138 pilot facility will use household garbage as well as agricultural waste such as manure and livestock operations, abattoirs and food processing to create heat or power and fertilizer. Support for this bio-energy facility, which could also reduce greenhouse gases, will come from the Prairie Agricultural Machinery Institute which has received $186,138 from Canada and Saskatchewan in the form of cost-shared federal-provincial funding. The pilot plant will test different combinations of waste material feedstocks and the characteristics of the resulting gas end products. The pilot facility will also provide design information for full-scale biodigester manufacturers in Canada. It is expected that 25 full-scale biodigesters will be constructed in Canada in the near future.

  8. Receiver based PAPR reduction in OFDMA

    KAUST Repository

    Ali, Anum Z.; Al-Zahrani, Ali Y.; Al-Naffouri, Tareq Y.; Naguib, Ayman F.

    2014-01-01

    High peak-to-average power ratio is one of the major drawbacks of orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM). Clipping is the simplest peak reduction scheme, however, it requires clipping mitigation at the receiver. Recently compressed sensing has been used for clipping mitigation (by exploiting the sparse nature of clipping signal). However, clipping estimation in multi-user scenario (i.e., OFDMA) is not straightforward as clipping distortions overlap in frequency domain and one cannot distinguish between distortions from different users. In this work, a collaborative clipping removal strategy is proposed based on joint estimation of the clipping distortions from all users. Further, an effective data aided channel estimation strategy for clipped OFDM is also outlined. Simulation results are presented to justify the effectiveness of the proposed schemes. © 2014 IEEE.

  9. Fast digitization and digital receiver technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimball, Ralph C.

    2002-01-01

    The potentially lucrative wireless market has led to technological advances in mixed signal devices such as high speed, high resolution A/D and D/A converters. This same market has also driven the development of high performance multi-channel digital receiver and digital transmitter ICs. Similarly, advances in semiconductor processes, coupled with the need for reduced time-to-market, has led to the development of large, enhanced performance, in-circuit programmable logic devices. A review of the key characteristics of these mixed-signal, signal processing and programmable logic devices is presented. The application of these devices and technologies to the instrumentation of Accelerators and Storage Rings is discussed and presented by way of examples. Issues relating to the requirements associated with real-time processing, I/O throughput, reconfigurability, reliability, maintainability and packaging requirements are also addressed

  10. Morel Receives 2005 Maurice Ewing Medal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrag, Daniel P.; Morel, François M. M.

    2006-02-01

    François M. M. Morel received the Ewing Medal at the AGU Fall Meeting Honors Ceremony, which was held on 7 December 2005, in San Francisco, Calif. The medal is given for significant original contributions to the scientific understanding of the processes in the ocean; for the advancement of oceanographic engineering, technology, and instrumentation; and for outstanding service to marine sciences. François Morel has led the search to understand the role of metals in the ocean, starting with a focus on inorganic processes and aquatic chemistry, and leading to a blend of geochemistry, microbiology, biochemistry, and genetics. His influence comes from his research and from the way he has educated an entire community of scientists with his textbooks, with his teaching, and through his former students and postdocs who hold faculty positions at universities throughout the world.

  11. Receiver operator characteristic (ROC) analysis without truth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henkelman, R.M.; Kay, I.; Bronskill, M.J.

    1990-01-01

    Receiver operator characteristic (ROC) analysis, the preferred method of evaluating diagnostic imaging tests, requires an independent assessment of the true state of disease, which can be difficult to obtain and is often of questionable accuracy. A new method of analysis is described which does not require independent truth data and which can be used when several accurate tests are being compared. This method uses correlative information to estimate the underlying model of multivariate normal distributions of disease-positive and disease-negative patients. The method is shown to give results equivalent to conventional ROC analysis in a comparison of computed tomography, radionuclide scintigraphy, and magnetic resonance imaging for liver metastasis. When independent truth is available, the method can be extended to incorporate truth data or to evaluate the consistency of the truth data with the imaging data

  12. Received View of Addiction, Relapse and Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndasauka, Yamikani; Wei, Zhengde; Zhang, Xiaochu

    2017-01-01

    It is important to highlight that attempts at understanding and explaining addiction have been made for centuries. It is, however, just five decades ago, with the growth of science and technology that more interest has been observed in this field. This chapter examines different views and theories that have been posited to understand and explain addiction. More attention will be given to prominent views that seem to draw consensus among researchers and medical practitioners. The first section of the chapter introduces the addiction debate, the different theories that have been provided to explain it from different perspectives and disciplines such as neurosciences, philosophy and psychology. Then, the chapter discusses different views on the role of relapse and what it entails in understanding addiction. The second section discusses different proposed and used forms of treating addiction. Thus, the chapter discusses the received view of addiction, the understanding of relapse as a critical element in addiction and treatments.

  13. MRI in children receiving total parenteral nutrition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quaghebeur, G.; Taylor, W.J.; Kingsley, D.P.E.; Fell, J.M.E.; Reynolds, A.P.; Milla, P.J.

    1996-01-01

    Cranial MRI was obtained in 13 of a group of 57 children receiving long-term parenteral nutrition, who were being investigated for hypermanganasaemia. Increased signal intensity on T1-weighted images has been reported in adult patients on long-term parenteral nutrition and with encephalopathy following chronic manganese exposure in arc welding. It has been postulated that these changes are due to deposition of the paramagnetic trace element manganese. In excess manganese is hepato- and neurotoxic and we present the correlation of whole blood manganese levels with imaging findings. The age range of our patients was 6 months to 10 years, and the duration of therapy 3 months to 10 years. In 7 children we found characteristic increased signal intensity on T1-weighted images, with no abnormality on T2-weighted images. All patients had elevated whole blood manganese levels, suggesting that the basis for this abnormality is indeed deposition of manganese within the tissues. (orig.). With 3 figs

  14. New Packing Structure of Concentration Solar Receiver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsai, Shang-Yu; Lee, Yueh-Mu; Shih, Zun-Hao; Hong, Hwen-Fen; Shin, Hwa-Yuh; Kuo, Cherng-Tsong

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a solution to the temperature issue in High Concentration Photovoltaic (HCPV) module device by using different thermal conductive material and packing structure. In general, the open-circuited voltage of a device reduces with the increase of temperature and therefore degrades its efficiency. The thermal conductive material we use in this paper, silicon, has a high thermal conductive coefficient (149 W/m·K) and steady semiconductor properties which are suitable for the application of solar receiver in HCPV module. Solar cell was soldered on a metal-plated Si substrate with a thicker SiO 2 film which acts as an insulating layer. Then it was mounted on an Al-based plate to obtain a better heat dissipating result.

  15. Receiver based PAPR reduction in OFDMA

    KAUST Repository

    Ali, Anum Z.

    2014-05-01

    High peak-to-average power ratio is one of the major drawbacks of orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM). Clipping is the simplest peak reduction scheme, however, it requires clipping mitigation at the receiver. Recently compressed sensing has been used for clipping mitigation (by exploiting the sparse nature of clipping signal). However, clipping estimation in multi-user scenario (i.e., OFDMA) is not straightforward as clipping distortions overlap in frequency domain and one cannot distinguish between distortions from different users. In this work, a collaborative clipping removal strategy is proposed based on joint estimation of the clipping distortions from all users. Further, an effective data aided channel estimation strategy for clipped OFDM is also outlined. Simulation results are presented to justify the effectiveness of the proposed schemes. © 2014 IEEE.

  16. Therapeutic effect of bone marrow transplantation plue previous blood transfusion on rats with total body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Yongtang; Ran Xinze; Wei Shuqing

    1988-01-01

    Therapeutic effect of bone marrow transplantation (BMT) and blood transfusion on different groups of rats subjected to various doses of total body irradiation (TBI) was studied. In the control group, 80 rats that received TBI of 8,9,10,11 and 12 Gy died between 3∼14 days. In the second group, 67 rats that received the same doses of irradiation were treated with BMT. Except that 8 rats died from lung hemorrhages at 4∼6 days after TBI. 85% of these animals (500/59) showed hemopoietic engraftment. The survival rates of 8, 9, 10, 11 and 12 Gy subgroups at 90 days after BMT were 90%, 56%, 56%, 25% and 0% respectively. In the third group, 82 rats receive TBI and blood transfusion prior to BMT. Except that 8 rats subjected to 11∼12 Gy irradiation died from lung hemorrhage at 4∼6 days after BMT, 97% of these animals (72/74) showed hemopoietic engraftment. The 90-day survival rates of 8, 9, 10, 11 and 12 Gy subgroups were 93%, 80%, 80%, 60% and 6% respectively. The 90-day survival rate of 50 rats subjected to 9∼11 Gy TBI and treated with blood transfusion and BMT, was 72%, while that 47 rats treated simply with BMT was only 42%. These results showed clearly that previous blood transfusion could increase the rate of hemopoietic engraftment, reduce the incidence if rejection, and raise the survival rate

  17. IAEA receives Iraq's nuclear-related declaration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The Director General of the International Atomic Energy Agency, Mohamed ElBaradei, announced that the IAEA received this evening, Sunday, 8 December 2002, at its Headquarters in Vienna, an approximately 2400 page declaration on Iraq's nuclear programme. The declaration consists of about 2100 pages in English and 300 pages in Arabic. The declaration was submitted by the Government of Iraq in response to paragraph 3 of Security Council resolution 1441 (8 November 2002), which requires Iraq to provide to UNMOVIC, the IAEA and to the Security Council, not later than 30 days of the date of that resolution, with 'currently accurate, full, and complete declaration of all aspects of its programmes to develop chemical, biological, and nuclear weapons, ballistic missiles, and other delivery systems... as well as all other chemical, biological, and nuclear programmes, including any which it claims are for purposes not related to weapon production or material'. 'The IAEA will immediately begin to assess this important new document,' said Mr. ElBaradei, 'including the painstaking and systematic cross-checking of the information provided by Iraq against information which the IAEA already has, information that it expects to receive from other Member States, as contemplated in resolution 1441, and results of past and present Agency verification activities.' Complete assessment of the declaration will be time consuming, particularly in light of the need to translate the 300 pages of Arabic text into English. However, the IAEA expects to be able to provide a preliminary analysis of the document to the Security Council within the next ten days, with a fuller assessment to be provided when it reports to the Council at the end of January. (IAEA)

  18. Transmit-receive eddy current probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obrutsky, L.S.; Sullivan, S.P.; Cecco, V.S.

    1997-01-01

    In the last two decades, due to increased inspection demands, eddy current instrumentation has advanced from single-frequency, single-output instruments to multifrequency, computer-aided systems. This has significantly increased the scope of eddy current testing, but, unfortunately, it has also increased the cost and complexity of inspections. In addition, this approach has not always improved defect detectability or signal-to-noise. Most eddy current testing applications are still performed with impedance probes, which have well known limitations. However, recent research at AECL has led to improved eddy current inspections through the design and development of transmit-receive (T/R) probes. T/R eddy current probes, with laterally displaced transmit and receive coils, present a number of advantages over impedance probes. They have improved signal-to-noise ratio in the presence of variable lift-off compared to impedance probes. They have strong directional properties, permitting probe optimization for circumferential or axial crack detection, and possess good phase discrimination to surface defects. They can significantly increase the scope of eddy current testing permitting reliable detection and sizing of cracks in heat exchanger tubing as well as in welded areas of both ferritic and non-ferromagnetic components. This presentation will describe the operating principles of T/R probes with the help of computer-derived normalized voltage diagrams. We will discuss their directional properties and analyze the advantages of using single and multiple T/R probes over impedance probes for specific inspection cases. Current applications to surface and tube testing and some typical inspection results will be described. (author)

  19. Influence of creatine supplementation on indicators of glucose metabolism in skeletal muscle of exercised rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Barbosa de Araújo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of creatine supplementation in the diet on indicators of glucose metabolism in skeletal muscle of exercised rats. Forty Wistar adult rats were distributed into four groups for eight weeks: 1 Control: sedentary rats that received balanced diet; 2 Creatine control: sedentary rats that received supplementation of 2% creatine in the balanced diet; 3 Trained: rats that ran on a treadmill at the Maximal Lactate Steady State and received balanced diet; and 4 Supplemented-trained: rats that ran on a treadmill at the Maximal Lactate Steady State and received creatine supplementation (2% in the balanced diet. The hydric intake increased and the body weight gain decreased in the supplemented-trained group. In the soleus muscle, the glucose oxidation increased in both supplemented groups. The production of lactate and glycemia during glucose tolerance test decreased in the supplemented-trained group. Creatine supplementation in conjunction with exercise training improved muscular glycidic metabolism of rats.

  20. Ultrastructural apoptotic lesions induced in rat thymocytes after borax ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylvain, I C; Berry, J P; Galle, P

    1998-01-01

    Apoptosis has gained increasing attention in recent years. Several chemical compounds induce apoptotic lesions in the thymus. Male Wistar rats received 2000 ppm of borax (Na2B4O7.10H2O) in their food for 16 days. The rats were sacrificed 2, 5, 9, 12, 19, 21, 26 and 28 days after the beginning of treatment. Thymus samples of all rats were taken. A Philips EM 300 electron microscopy was used to study the ultrastructural morphology. Serious nuclear and cytoplasmic lesions were observed. Moreover, numerous macrophages containing apoptotic cells were present in the thymus. The alterations were observed from the 2nd to the 28th day. The extent of damage was much more important in the rats sacrificed 21, 26 and 28 days after borax ingestion.

  1. EFFECT OF FLUMETHRIN ON HEMATOLOGICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL CHANGES IN RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aruna K. Singh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of daily oral administration of flumethrin on the blood and tissue enzyme activity in albino rats was investigated. In the present study 12 (6 female and 6 male rats were used and divided in to two groups. The first group served as the control group; the second group received flumethrin (1% pour on formulation at dose rate of 2 mg/kg bw orally daily for 14 days. On 15th day, animals were sacrificed and blood and liver samples were collected. Flumethrin neither altered the hemoglobin level significantly nor the blood cell counts of rats. Flumethrin significantly altered the enzymatic activity of serum and liver tissue and also the serum and tissue protein. Flumethrin leads to increased MDA level, SOD and catalase activity in liver and blood samples of rats. The present study suggests that flumethrin is having toxic effect, producing oxidative stress in animal's body.

  2. Full-wave receiver architecture for the homodyne motion sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haugen, Peter C; Dallum, Gregory E; Welsh, Patrick A; Romero, Carlos E

    2013-11-19

    A homodyne motion sensor or detector based on ultra-wideband radar utilizes the entire received waveform through implementation of a voltage boosting receiver. The receiver includes a receiver input and a receiver output. A first diode is connected to the receiver output. A first charge storage capacitor is connected from between the first diode and the receiver output to ground. A second charge storage capacitor is connected between the receiver input and the first diode. A second diode is connected from between the second charge storage capacitor and the first diode to ground. The dual diode receiver performs voltage boosting of a RF signal received at the receiver input, thereby enhancing receiver sensitivity.

  3. Full-wave receiver architecture for the homodyne motion sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haugen, Peter C.; Dallum, Gregory E.; Welsh, Patrick A.; Romero, Carlos E.

    2015-09-29

    A homodyne motion sensor or detector based on ultra-wideband radar utilizes the entire received waveform through implementation of a voltage boosting receiver. The receiver includes a receiver input and a receiver output. A first diode is connected to the receiver output. A first charge storage capacitor is connected from between the first diode and the receiver output to ground. A second charge storage capacitor is connected between the receiver input and the first diode. A second diode is connected from between the second charge storage capacitor and the first diode to ground. The dual diode receiver performs voltage boosting of a RF signal received at the receiver input, thereby enhancing receiver sensitivity.

  4. RatMap—rat genome tools and data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Greta; Johnson, Per; Andersson, Lars; Klinga-Levan, Karin; Gómez-Fabre, Pedro M.; Ståhl, Fredrik

    2005-01-01

    The rat genome database RatMap (http://ratmap.org or http://ratmap.gen.gu.se) has been one of the main resources for rat genome information since 1994. The database is maintained by CMB–Genetics at Göteborg University in Sweden and provides information on rat genes, polymorphic rat DNA-markers and rat quantitative trait loci (QTLs), all curated at RatMap. The database is under the supervision of the Rat Gene and Nomenclature Committee (RGNC); thus much attention is paid to rat gene nomenclature. RatMap presents information on rat idiograms, karyotypes and provides a unified presentation of the rat genome sequence and integrated rat linkage maps. A set of tools is also available to facilitate the identification and characterization of rat QTLs, as well as the estimation of exon/intron number and sizes in individual rat genes. Furthermore, comparative gene maps of rat in regard to mouse and human are provided. PMID:15608244

  5. SWEEP Project RAT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Lars Bo; Madsen, Søren; Petersen, L. B.

    This report presents the results from the design analyses made for the clustered suction caisson used as foundation for a Riser Access Tower (RAT). The RAT is intended built next to the K15-FA-1 Platform in the Dutch Sector of the North Sea....

  6. Colon of the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindstroem, C.G.; Rosengren, J.-E.; Fork, F.-T.

    1979-01-01

    The anatomy and radiologic appearance of the colon in rats are described on the basis of 300 animals treated with carcinogenic agents and 40 normal rats. The macroscopic and microscopic appearance of the mucosa varies in the different parts of the colon. Lymphoid plaques are normal structures. The results justify a new anatomic nomenclature. (Auth.)

  7. Effect of osteoporosis on fixation of osseointegrated implants in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yunfeng; He, Sheng; Hua, Yunwei; Hu, Jing

    2017-11-01

    The effect of osteoporosis on implant osseointegration has been widely investigated, whereas osteoporosis may also newly occur in patient with previously osseointegrated implant. This study was designed to investigate the effect of osteoporosis on implant fixation in rats after successful osseointegration had been obtained. Seventy female Sprague-Dawley rats were included, and each animal received two titanium implants in the distal metaphysis of femur bilaterally. Eight weeks later, ten rats were sacrificed to confirm the establishment of implant osseointegration. All left rats were randomly subjected to bilateral ovariectomy (OVX) or sham operation. Three, six, and twelve weeks later, implant osseointegration, peri-implant bone tissue, and biomechanical properties of implant were analyzed. Right femurs with implants were used for micro-CT and histological analysis, and left femurs with implants were used for biomechanical test. Micro-CT, histology, and biomechanical test confirmed the destructive effect of OVX on previously osseointegrated implant in rats; when compared to sham-operated rats, peri-implant bone volume, trabecular architecture, bone-to-implant contact ratio, as well as biomechanical parameters decreased progressively within 12 weeks. Results also indicated that the effect of OVX on undisturbed bone (proximal tibiae) was much stronger than that on peri-implant bone. Osteoporosis produced a progressive negative effect on previously osseointegrated implant in distal femora of rats during 12 weeks. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 105B: 2426-2432, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Conditioned insulin secretion and meal feeding in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, S C; Vasselli, J R; Kaestner, E; Szakmary, G A; Milburn, P; Vitiello, M V

    1977-02-01

    Previous researchers have reported that rats placed upon a feeding regimen such that they receive only 2 hr of food per day (meal-fed rats) develop hyperinsulinemia at the time of the day associated with feeding, even in the absence of food. Controls fed ad lib had no such response. In a series of several experiments, meal-fed rats had elevated insulin levels at only the specific time of the day associated with feeding, and the increment of insulin at that time could be eliminated with atropine. Free-feeding controls, on the other hand, always had higher insulin levels than the meal-fed rats, did not have an elevation of insulin at the time of the day that the meal-fed rats normally ate, and had insulin values that were unaffected by atropine. Further experimentation showed that hyperinsulinemia could become associated with arbitrary stimuli always associated with eating for meal-fed rats. It is concluded that the hyperinsulinemia of meal-fed rats associated with their feeding time is a learned response.

  9. Phase Noise Tolerant QPSK Receiver Using Phase Sensitive Wavelength Conversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Da Ros, Francesco; Xu, Jing; Lei, Lei

    2013-01-01

    A novel QPSK receiver based on a phase noise reduction pre-stage exploiting PSA in a HNLF and balanced detection is presented. Receiver sensitivity improvement over a conventional balanced receiver is demonstrated.......A novel QPSK receiver based on a phase noise reduction pre-stage exploiting PSA in a HNLF and balanced detection is presented. Receiver sensitivity improvement over a conventional balanced receiver is demonstrated....

  10. Liver Iron Contents in Rats after Administration of Certain Iron ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of consumption of certain iron compounds on liver iron deposition was ... extra iron probably depends on the type of food prepared, .... main groups. Each main group consisted of 4 subgroups. (8 rats per subgroup) which received the same basic diet but differing amounts of iron of a specific type. Each animal was ...

  11. Histological changes of the adult albino rats entorhinal cortex under ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ibrahim K. Ragab

    2016-06-03

    Jun 3, 2016 ... Treated group received 50 mg/kg/day of tramadol intraperitoneally for 4 weeks. All ani- ... withdrawal reactions include restlessness, agitation, anxiety, ... (in particular, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and ... out in rats, dogs and rabbits. ... tionally accepted principles for laboratory animal use and care.

  12. Effects of Lactobacillus paracasei CNCM I-4034, Bifidobacterium breve CNCM I-4035 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus CNCM I-4036 on hepatic steatosis in Zucker rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaza-Diaz, Julio; Gomez-Llorente, Carolina; Abadia-Molina, Francisco; Saez-Lara, Maria Jose; Campaña-Martin, Laura; Muñoz-Quezada, Sergio; Romero, Fernando; Gil, Angel; Fontana, Luis

    2014-01-01

    We have previously described the safety and immunomodulatory effects of Lactobacillus paracasei CNCM I-4034, Bifidobacterium breve CNCM I-4035 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus CNCM I-4036 in healthy volunteers. The scope of this work was to evaluate the effects of these probiotic strains on the hepatic steatosis of obese rats. We used the Zucker rat as a genetic model of obesity. Zucker-Lepr(fa/fa) rats received one of three probiotic strains, a mixture of L. paracasei CNCM I-4034 and B. breve CNCM I-4035, or a placebo for 30 days. An additional group of Zucker-lean+/fa rats received a placebo for 30 days. No alterations in intestinal histology, in the epithelial, lamina propria, muscular layers of the ileal or colonic mucosa, or the submucosae, were observed in any of the experimental groups. Triacylglycerol content decreased in the liver of Zucker-Lepr(fa/fa) rats that were fed L. rhamnosus, B. breve, or the mixture of B. breve and L. paracasei. Likewise, the area corresponding to neutral lipids was significantly smaller in the liver of all four groups of Zucker-Lepr(fa/fa) rats that received probiotics than in rats fed the placebo. Zucker-Lepr(fa/fa) rats exhibited significantly greater serum LPS levels than Zucker-lean+/fa rats upon administration of placebo for 30 days. In contrast, all four groups of obese Zucker-Lepr(fa/fa) rats that received LAB strains exhibited serum LPS concentrations similar to those of Zucker-lean+/fa rats. Serum TNF-α levels decreased in the Zucker-Lepr(fa/fa) rats that received B. breve, L. rhamnosus, or the mixture, whereas L. paracasei feeding decreased IL-6 levels in the serum of Zucker-Lepr(fa/fa) rats. In conclusion, the probiotic strains reduced hepatic steatosis in part by lowering serum LPS, and had an anti-inflammatory effect in obese Zucker rats.

  13. Effects of Lactobacillus paracasei CNCM I-4034, Bifidobacterium breve CNCM I-4035 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus CNCM I-4036 on hepatic steatosis in Zucker rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Plaza-Diaz

    Full Text Available We have previously described the safety and immunomodulatory effects of Lactobacillus paracasei CNCM I-4034, Bifidobacterium breve CNCM I-4035 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus CNCM I-4036 in healthy volunteers. The scope of this work was to evaluate the effects of these probiotic strains on the hepatic steatosis of obese rats. We used the Zucker rat as a genetic model of obesity. Zucker-Lepr(fa/fa rats received one of three probiotic strains, a mixture of L. paracasei CNCM I-4034 and B. breve CNCM I-4035, or a placebo for 30 days. An additional group of Zucker-lean+/fa rats received a placebo for 30 days. No alterations in intestinal histology, in the epithelial, lamina propria, muscular layers of the ileal or colonic mucosa, or the submucosae, were observed in any of the experimental groups. Triacylglycerol content decreased in the liver of Zucker-Lepr(fa/fa rats that were fed L. rhamnosus, B. breve, or the mixture of B. breve and L. paracasei. Likewise, the area corresponding to neutral lipids was significantly smaller in the liver of all four groups of Zucker-Lepr(fa/fa rats that received probiotics than in rats fed the placebo. Zucker-Lepr(fa/fa rats exhibited significantly greater serum LPS levels than Zucker-lean+/fa rats upon administration of placebo for 30 days. In contrast, all four groups of obese Zucker-Lepr(fa/fa rats that received LAB strains exhibited serum LPS concentrations similar to those of Zucker-lean+/fa rats. Serum TNF-α levels decreased in the Zucker-Lepr(fa/fa rats that received B. breve, L. rhamnosus, or the mixture, whereas L. paracasei feeding decreased IL-6 levels in the serum of Zucker-Lepr(fa/fa rats. In conclusion, the probiotic strains reduced hepatic steatosis in part by lowering serum LPS, and had an anti-inflammatory effect in obese Zucker rats.

  14. The effects of silver ions on copper metabolism in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilyechova, E Yu; Saveliev, A N; Skvortsov, A N; Babich, P S; Zatulovskaia, Yu A; Pliss, M G; Korzhevskii, D E; Tsymbalenko, N V; Puchkova, L V

    2014-10-01

    The influence of short and prolonged diet containing silver ions (Ag-diet) on copper metabolism was studied. Two groups of animals were used: one group of adult rats received a Ag-diet for one month (Ag-A1) and another group received a Ag-diet for 6 months from birth (Ag-N6). In Ag-A1 rats, the Ag-diet caused a dramatic decrease of copper status indexes that was manifested as ceruloplasmin-associated copper deficiency. In Ag-N6 rats, copper status indexes decreased only 2-fold as compared to control rats. In rats of both groups, silver entered the bloodstream and accumulated in the liver. Silver was incorporated into ceruloplasmin (Cp), but not SOD1. In the liver, a prolonged Ag-diet caused a decrease of the expression level of genes, associated with copper metabolism. Comparative spectrophotometric analysis of partially purified Cp fractions has shown that Cp from Ag-N6 rats was closer to holo-Cp by specific enzymatic activities and tertiary structure than Cp from Ag-A1 rats. However, Cp of Ag-N6 differs from control holo-Cp and Cp of Ag-A1 in its affinity to DEAE-Sepharose and in its binding properties to lectins. In the bloodstream of Ag-N6, two Cp forms are present as shown in pulse-experiments on rats with the liver isolated from circulation. One of the Cp isoforms is of hepatic origin, and the other is of extrahepatic origin; the latter is characterized by a faster rate of secretion than hepatic Cp. These data allowed us to suggest that the disturbance of holo-Cp formation in the liver was compensated by induction of extrahepatic Cp synthesis. The possible biological importance of these effects is discussed.

  15. The stability of a terahertz receiver based on a superconducting integrated receiver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozhegov, R V; Gorshkov, K N; Gol'tsman, G N; Kinev, N V; Koshelets, V P

    2011-01-01

    We present the results of stability testing of a terahertz radiometer based on a superconducting receiver with a SIS tunnel junction as the mixer and a flux-flow oscillator as the local oscillator. In the continuum mode, the receiver with a noise temperature of 95 K at 510 GHz measured over the intermediate frequency (IF) passband of 4-8 GHz offered a noise equivalent temperature difference of 10 ± 1 mK at an integration time of 1 s. We offer a method to significantly increase the integration time without the use of complex measurement equipment. The receiver observed a strong signal over a final detection bandwidth of 4 GHz and offered an Allan time of 5 s.

  16. The stability of a terahertz receiver based on a superconducting integrated receiver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozhegov, R V; Gorshkov, K N; Gol' tsman, G N [Department of Physics, Moscow State Pedagogical University, Moscow 119992 (Russian Federation); Kinev, N V; Koshelets, V P, E-mail: Ozhegov@rplab.ru [Institute of Radio Engineering and Electronics, 125009 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2011-03-15

    We present the results of stability testing of a terahertz radiometer based on a superconducting receiver with a SIS tunnel junction as the mixer and a flux-flow oscillator as the local oscillator. In the continuum mode, the receiver with a noise temperature of 95 K at 510 GHz measured over the intermediate frequency (IF) passband of 4-8 GHz offered a noise equivalent temperature difference of 10 {+-} 1 mK at an integration time of 1 s. We offer a method to significantly increase the integration time without the use of complex measurement equipment. The receiver observed a strong signal over a final detection bandwidth of 4 GHz and offered an Allan time of 5 s.

  17. Efficacy of Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Suppression of Hepatocarcinorigenesis in Rats: Possible Role of Wnt Signaling

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Abdel Aziz, Mohamed T

    2011-05-05

    Abstract Background The present study was conducted to evaluate the tumor suppressive effects of bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in an experimental hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) model in rats and to investigate the possible role of Wnt signaling in hepato-carcinogenesis. Methods Ninety rats were included in the study and were divided equally into: Control group, rats which received MSCs only, rats which received MSCs vehicle only, HCC group induced by diethylnitroseamine (DENA) and CCl 4 , rats which received MSCs after HCC induction, rats which received MSCs before HCC induction. Histopathological examination and gene expression of Wnt signaling target genes by real time, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in rat liver tissue, in addition to serum levels of ALT, AST and alpha fetoprotein were performed in all groups. Results Histopathological examination of liver tissue from animals which received DENA-CCl4 only, revealed the presence of anaplastic carcinoma cells and macro-regenerative nodules type II with foci of large and small cell dysplasia. Administration of MSCs into rats after induction of experimental HCC improved the histopathological picture which showed minimal liver cell damage, reversible changes, areas of cell drop out filled with stem cells. Gene expression in rat liver tissue demonstrated that MSCs downregulated β-catenin, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), cyclin D and survivin genes expression in liver tissues after HCC induction. Amelioration of the liver status after administration of MSCs has been inferred by the significant decrease of ALT, AST and Alpha fetoprotein serum levels. Administration of MSCs before HCC induction did not show any tumor suppressive or protective effect. Conclusions Administration of MSCs in chemically induced HCC has tumor suppressive effects as evidenced by down regulation of Wnt signaling target genes concerned with antiapoptosis, mitogenesis, cell proliferation

  18. Depression of nocturnal pineal serotonin N-acetyltransferase activity in castrate male rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudeen, P.K.; Reiter, R.J.; Texas Univ., San Antonio

    1980-01-01

    Pineal serotonin N-acetyltransferase (NAT) activity was examined in intact rats, castrated rats, and in rats that had been castrated and had received testosterone proprionate. Castration resulted in significantly depressing nocturnal levels of pineal NAT (p<0.05) when compared to enzyme activity in intact rats. Testosterone proprionate administration restored plasma LH levels to normal values in castrate rats but did not induce nocturnal pineal enzyme activity to levels seen in the pineal glands of intact rats. The data substantiate the existence of a feedback control of pineal biosynthetic activity by the hypophyseal-gonadal system, but the identity of the hormone(s) responsible for regulation of pineal NAT activity is not known. (author)

  19. Apparatus for delivering and receiving radioactive gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dansky, B.; Epifano, L.; Farella, R.

    1980-01-01

    An apparatus for delivering and receiving gas to and from a patient, such as for lung ventilation studies. In accordance with the invention there is provided a restrictive breathing chamber adapted for coupling to the patient's breathing organs. A system, including a first check valve, is provided for coupling the breathing chamber to an inflatable gas receptacle so as to allow flow only toward the inflatable gas receptacle. Active gas input apparatus, including a second check valve, is also coupled to the breathing chamber, the second check valve allowing flow only toward the breathing chamber means. First and second auxiliary tubes and a gas filter are also provided. A system is provided for coupling the first auxiliary tube from the inflatable receptacle through the gas filter and to an ambient air environment. The second auxiliary tube is coupled from the inflatable receptacle to an ambient air environment. Finally, a gas pump is switchably coupled as between the first and second auxiliary tubes and operative to selectively cause gas flow in the first auxiliary tube toward the ambient environment, and in the second auxiliary tube toward the inflatable receptacle. A gas trap structure is also disclosed

  20. Patrick Janot receives the CNRS silver medal

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    Patrick Janot during the award ceremony. (Photo Schwemling, Paris) On 25 November, Patrick Janot of the CERN Physics Department received the CNRS silver medal for IN2P3 (Institut national de physique nucléaire et de physique des particules). This prize, one of the most prestigious awarded by the French research centre, is given to scientists for the 'originality, quality and importance of their work, as recognised both nationally and internationally'. Patrick Janot joined the ALEPH collaboration, one of the four experiments at LEP, then under construction, in 1987. First a CERN Fellow, he went on to work for the CNRS at LAL in 1989. Together with his team, he developed innovative algorithms for the reconstruction of events. This work and others earned him the bronze CNRS medal in 1993, which is awarded to scientists for their first achievements. In 1997, he became a permanent physicist at CERN, where he continued to work for ALEPH. He was appointed LEP scientific co-ordinator for the last two years of the ac...

  1. CERN safety expert receives international award

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    On 18 December 2004, the President of the Swiss Electro-technical Committee, Martin Reichle (left), presented the award to Helmut Schönbacher. Helmut Schönbacher, of the Safety Commission at CERN, has received, the "1906 Award" of the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) for his standardisation work on the influence of ionizing radiation on insulating materials. From 1986 until 2004, Schönbacher was leader of a working group on radiation composed of internationally recognised experts. It edited standards of the IEC 60544 series on the determination of the effects of ionizing radiation on electrical insulating materials. The working group also edited three IEC Technical Reports on the determination of long-term radiation ageing in polymers. This standardisation work and long-term experience from CERN on the radiation ageing of materials also contributed to research coordination programmes of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). From 1968 until 1988, Schönbacher was a member of the Rad...

  2. Paterson Receives 2004 Walter H. Bucher Medal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Ian

    2005-01-01

    Mervyn S. Paterson received the Bucher Medal at the 2004 Fall Meeting Honors Ceremony on 15 December, in San Francisco, California. The medal is given for original contributions to the basic knowledge of the crust and lithosphere. Citation. It is the nature of modern research in the Earth sciences that observations of natural phenomena are often made and interpreted through the prism provided by the enabling sciences and technologies. Thus it has been with Mervyn Paterson's career. His undergraduate training in engineering in Adelaide formed the basis for his Ph.D. study of X-ray line-broadening in cold-worked metals under Orowan at Cambridge. This interest in the deformation of metals was fostered during his employment at the Aeronautical Research Laboratories in Melbourne and by postdoctoral experience at the Institute of Metals at the University of Chicago. Mervyn's general background in engineering and his particular interest in mechanical behavior have underpinned a distinguished career at the Australian National University in the experimental deformation of rocks, providing fundamental new insight into the mechanical behavior of the Earth's crust.

  3. Every second cancer patient receives radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ojala, A.

    1996-01-01

    Radiotherapy to treat cancer was given for the first time exactly one hundred years ago. Today, radiotherapy and surgery are the two main modes of treating cancer. One in two cancer patients receives radiotherapy at some point during the course of treatment for the disease. Radiotherapy is applied most commonly in cases where surgery is not possible. Moreover, these two modes of treatment are often used together to supplement each other. About half of new cancer cases detected today can be ordered. The estimate given by the EU for cancers cured is 45 per cent, which is divided between the various treatment modes as follows: surgery 22 %, radiotherapy 12 %, surgery plus radiotherapy 6 %, and drug therapy 6 %. In addition to curative treatment, radiotherapy plays a crucial role in palliative treatment, i.e. treatment that alleviates symptoms. The sensitivity of malignant tumours to radiotherapy varies over a wide range; the same is true for healthy tissues. Radiotherapy can only be used to cure a tumour that is more sensitive to radiation than the surrounding healthy tissue. The tumour must also be sufficiently small in size and limited to a relatively small area. (orig.)

  4. Comparison of hydrogenated vegetable shortening and nutritionally complete high fat diet on limited access-binge behavior in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, Jon F.; Melhorn, Susan J.; Heiman, Justin U.; Tschöp, Matthias H.; Clegg, Deborah J.; Benoit, Stephen C.

    2007-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that intermittent exposure to hydrogenated vegetable shortening yields a binge/compensate pattern of feeding in rats. The present study was designed to assess whether rats would exhibit similar patterns of intake when given intermittent access to a nutritionally complete high-fat diet. Four groups of rats received varying exposure to either hydrogenated vegetable shortening or high-fat diet for 8 consecutive weeks. Animals were given daily and intermittent acce...

  5. Design and simulation analysis of non-receiver aware and receiver ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We present multicast extensions to our recently proposed Location Prediction Based Routing (LPBR) protocol, referred to as NR-MLPBR and R-MLPBR, to simultaneously reduce the number of multicast tree discoveries and number of links per tree and/or the hop count per source-receiver path in mobile ad hoc networks ...

  6. Qualification test for the flexible receiver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keller, C.M.

    1994-01-01

    This document provides the test plan and procedures to certify and design verify the 42 inch and 4--6 inch Flexible Receiver (FR) is a safety class 3 system. Verification of the design will be handled in two parts. The first part will be to show that it meets design requirements set forth by documents and the second part will perform test(s) to verify its operational aspects. To qualify the design of the FR systems for field use this test will demonstrate environmentally safe removal of a Tank Farm pump mock-up from a Tank Farm riser mock-up. Testing will also demonstrate the performance of supporting equipment. The FR and the Secondary Bagging (SB) equipment shall be tested to verify successful operation of the equipment to the following criteria: The FR can be placed on a riser and connections made to the supporting equipment; The FR bag can accept equipment and be successfully sealed; The SB system encases the seal of the primary FR bag; The flexible bag(s) do not tear and maintain integrity during the entire test; The FR control system operates in the fail safe forced sequence mode; The FR control system will operate in the manual override mode (out of sequence operations); The CCTV Video system monitors and records the removal of the test item; The spray wash system operates without leaks and effectively provides coverage; The item being removed can be reinserted to a depth of 8 feet and the bag reinstalled onto the vertical bag supports; and The system prohibits momentary mechanical fluctuations due to the application of system power, including power interruptions

  7. Crustal Structure beneath Alaska from Receiver Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y.; Li, A.

    2017-12-01

    The crustal structure in Alaska has not been well resolved due to the remote nature of much of the state. The USArray Transportable Array (TA), which is operating in Alaska and northwestern Canada, significantly increases the coverage of broadband seismic stations in the region and allows for a more comprehensive study of the crust. We have analyzed P-receiver functions from earthquake data recorded by 76 stations of the TA and AK networks. Both common conversion point (CCP) and H-K methods are used to estimate the mean crustal thickness. The results from the CCP stacking method show that the Denali fault marks a sharp transition from thick crust in the south to thin crust in the north. The thickest crust up to 52 km is located in the St. Elias Range, which has been formed by oblique collision between the Yakutat microplate and North America. A thick crust of 48 km is also observed beneath the eastern Alaska Range. These observations suggest that high topography in Alaska is largely compensated by the thick crust root. The Moho depth ranges from 28 km to 35 km beneath the northern lowlands and increases to 40-45 km under the Books Range. The preliminary crustal thickness from the H-K method generally agrees with that from the CCP stacking with thicker crust beneath high mountain ranges and thinner crust beneath lowlands and basins. However, the offshore part is not well constrained due to the limited coverage of stations. The mean Vp/Vs ratio is around 1.7 in the Yukon-Tanana terrane and central-northern Alaska. The ratio is about 1.9 in central and southern Alaska with higher values at the Alaska Range, Wrangell Mountains, and St. Elias Range. Further data analyses are needed for obtaining more details of the crustal structure in Alaska to decipher the origin and development of different tectonic terranes.

  8. Hypoglycaemia monitoring in a medical receiving ward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Ryan

    2015-01-01

    It has been suggested that current care for diabetes inpatients remains inadequate and that greater attention is required for high quality management. In this project the aspect of hypoglycaemia was studied in a busy medical receiving ward at the Glasgow Royal Infirmary. A large proportion of inpatients have diabetes and episodes of hypoglycaemia experienced by this population can delay discharge and indeed be detrimental to health. Thus it is important from both an organisational and patient perspective to manage this population well. In this project BM machine data was analysed to identify patients who were hypoglycaemic. These patients were then tracked down to study the subsequent management and compared this against recommended guidance. Following this an intervention was made to promote identification, management, documentation, and prevention of hypoglycaemia. This was deliberately a simple intervention involving discussions with staff and provision of basic documented guidance next to every BM machine. In the first phase 17 patients were identified and in a second and third phase 16 patients each time were further identified. Patients in the study were both type 1 and type 2 diabetics. Initial results in phase I were compared to results in phase II and III respectively. This intervention produced significant improvements in management with correct monitoring of low BMs (i.e. upon identification of low BM repeat within 1 hour) improving from 47% to 100% (for Phase II and III). Also, recording of preventative measures of hypoglycaemia improved from 35% to 88% and 94% with an improvement from 24% to 69% and 75% in recording of treatment given if needed. In conclusion, the study successfully demonstrated that simple measures can significantly improve the quality care of inpatient diabetic patients in relation to hypoglycaemia management.

  9. Investigation of the receivability of VLF standard time and frequency ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study is on the receivability of some standard time and frequency signals in the VLF range in Zaria, Nigeria. Signal field strengths of various stations were estimated, and a suitable radio receiving system was set up to receive them. Using the assembled receiver, some of the transmissions, including the Omega W/L at ...

  10. 37 CFR 1.412 - The United States Receiving Office.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Information § 1.412 The United States Receiving Office. (a) The United States Patent and Trademark Office is a Receiving Office only for applicants who are residents or nationals of the United States of America. (b) The... “United States Receiving Office” or by the abbreviation “RO/US.” (c) The major functions of the Receiving...

  11. Hypertension after bilateral kidney irradiation in young and adult rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jongejan, H.T.; van der Kogel, A.J.; Provoost, A.P.; Molenaar, J.C.

    1987-01-01

    The mechanism of a rise in blood pressure after kidney irradiation is unclear but most likely of renal origin. We have investigated the role of the renin-angiotensin system and dietary salt restriction in the development of systolic hypertension after bilateral kidney irradiation in young and adult rats. Three to 12 months after a single X-ray dose of 7.5 or 12.5 Gy to both kidneys of young and adult rats, the systolic blood pressure (SBP) and plasma renin concentration (PRC) were measured regularly. A single X-ray dose of 12.5 Gy caused a moderate rise in SBP and a slight reduction in PRC in both young and adult rats. A dose of 7.5 Gy did not significantly alter the SBP or PRC during the follow-up period of 1 year. In a second experiment, the kidneys of young rats received an X-ray dose of 20 Gy. Subsequently, rats were kept on a standard diet (110 mmol sodium/kg) or a sodium-poor diet (10 mmol sodium/kg). On both diets, SBP started to rise rapidly 3 months after kidney irradiation. Sodium balance studies carried out at that time revealed an increased sodium retention in the irradiated rats compared to controls on the same diet. In rats on a low sodium intake, there was neither a delay nor an alleviation in the development of hypertension. Compared to controls, the PRC tended to be lower in irradiated rats up to 4 months after irradiation. Subsequently, malignant hypertension developed in all 20 Gy rats, resulting in pressure natriuresis, stimulating the renin-angiotensin system. Our findings indicated that hypertension after bilateral kidney irradiation was not primarily the result of an activation of the renin-angiotensin system. Although there were some indications that sodium retention played a role, dietary sodium restriction did not influence the development of hypertension

  12. [Effect of vitamin sufficiency on adaptation syndrome in growing rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidorova, Iu S; Beketova, N A; Vrzhesinskaia, O A; Kodentsova, V M; Kosheleva, O V; Zorin, S N; Selifanov, A V; Mazo, V K

    2014-01-01

    The influence of vitamin supply of growing male -Wistar rats (n=21) with an initial body weight 53,5±0,9 g on their resistance to a single distress induced by the electric shock has been investigated. Control rats within 21 days received a complete semisynthetic diet,providingadequate amounts of vitamins. Combined vitamin deficiency in experimental rats was caused by 5-fold decrease of vitamin mixture amount in the feed and the total vitamin E exclusion from the mixture. On the 21st day, one day before the end of the experiment, both groups of rats were subjected to stress impact (electrocutaneous irritation on paws, 0,4 mA for 8 sec) and then animals were placed in metabolic cages to collect urine. By the end of the experiment, the animals with the combined vitamin deficiency lag behind in growth. Vitamin B2, A, B1 and E liver content decreased in experimental rats by 1,6, 2,3, 4,4 and 15 fold accordingly. Retinol plasma concentration was significantly reduced by 18%, α-tocopherol level - by 5 fold, urinary excretionof riboflavin and 4-pyridoxic acid (vitamin B6 metabolite) was significantly reduced by 6,5 and 2,46 times accordingly. MDA blood plasma concentration and the urinary ratio of oxidized and not oxidized form of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxy-guanosine did not differ in both groups of rats. Urinary excretion of stress biomarker corticosterone in rats with combined vitamin deficit was 2,5-fold higher than in control rats. Thus, reducing of vitamins supply resulted in an increase of urine corticosterone in stressed rats, that characterized the intensity of general adaptation syndrome. This fact shows the importance of optimal sufficiency with vitamins in nonspecific (general) resistance to stress.

  13. Effects of the antituberculous drug ethambutol on zinc absorption, turnover and distribution in rats fed diet marginal and adequate in zinc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, A.B.; Schwartz, R.

    1987-04-01

    Ethambutol, (CH/sub 3/CH/sub 2/-CH(CH/sub 2/OH)-NH-CH/sub 2/)/sub 2/ (EMB), is an oral antituberculous agent that is administered therapeutically over extended time periods. It has chelating properties and may affect mineral metabolism. Male weanling Sprague-Dawley rats received 0, 400 or 600 mg EMB per kilogram body weight daily by gavage for 30 d. They were fed a casein-based diet with either adequate (49 ppm) or marginal (11 ppm) zinc. Both adequate-Zn (AZn) and marginal-Zn (MZn) rats receiving EMB showed alopecia and dose-dependent reductions in feed intake, weight gain and feed efficiency. None of these changes was seen in rats fed the MZn diet without EMB. Serum and tissue zinc levels were similar in rats not receiving EMB, regardless of the dietary zinc level. Serum zinc was consistently lower in AZn and MZn rats receiving EMB than in rats without EMB. Apparent zinc absorption, measured by /sup 65/Zn balance, was higher in AZn rats receiving EMB than in AZn rats without EMB. Thus, changes in absorption could not account for lower serum zinc levels in EMB-treated rats. However, /sup 65/Zn turnover was also higher in EMB groups. This suggests that EMB may have increased urinary zinc losses resulting in reduced circulating zinc and a consequent increase in zinc absorption.

  14. Effects of the antituberculous drug ethambutol on zinc absorption, turnover and distribution in rats fed diet marginal and adequate in zinc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, A.B.; Schwartz, R.

    1987-01-01

    Ethambutol, [CH 3 CH 2 -CH(CH 2 OH)-NH-CH 2 ] 2 (EMB), is an oral antituberculous agent that is administered therapeutically over extended time periods. It has chelating properties and may affect mineral metabolism. Male weanling Sprague-Dawley rats received 0, 400 or 600 mg EMB per kilogram body weight daily by gavage for 30 d. They were fed a casein-based diet with either adequate (49 ppm) or marginal (11 ppm) zinc. Both adequate-Zn (AZn) and marginal-Zn (MZn) rats receiving EMB showed alopecia and dose-dependent reductions in feed intake, weight gain and feed efficiency. None of these changes was seen in rats fed the MZn diet without EMB. Serum and tissue zinc levels were similar in rats not receiving EMB, regardless of the dietary zinc level. Serum zinc was consistently lower in AZn and MZn rats receiving EMB than in rats without EMB. Apparent zinc absorption, measured by 65 Zn balance, was higher in AZn rats receiving EMB than in AZn rats without EMB. Thus, changes in absorption could not account for lower serum zinc levels in EMB-treated rats. However, 65 Zn turnover was also higher in EMB groups. This suggests that EMB may have increased urinary zinc losses resulting in reduced circulating zinc and a consequent increase in zinc absorption

  15. Transfer of milk prolactin ro the plasma of neonatal rats by intestinal absorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitworth, N S; Grosvenor, C E [Tennessee Univ., Memphis (USA). Dept. of Physiology and Biophysics

    1978-11-01

    Prolactin passes from the systemic circulation of lactating rats into the milk where it can be consumed by the young rats during suckling. /sup 131/- labelled rat prolactin was detected in the plasma of 9- to 14-day-old rats after being nursed by mothers previously injected with /sup 131/I-labelled rat prolactin and after the pups had received /sup 131/I-labelled rat prolactin by gastric intubation. It was estimated that 16% of the /sup 131/I-labelled rat prolactin given by gastric intubation subsequently appeared in the plasma of the neonate. Gastric administration of 10.5 or 21.0 ..mu..g B-1 rat prolactin significantly raised the level of prolactin in the plasma of 13-day-old pups, but a similar increase was not observed when 27-day-old rats were given 46.2 ..mu..g B-1 prolactin by gastric intubation. The concentration of prolactin in the plasma of 13-to 14-day-old rats rose to 55 ng/ml 30 min after the onset of nursing by mothers whose mammary glands were full of milk, whereas the concentration in the plasma of mothers with empty mammary glands remained at basal values. It is concluded that the intestine of the newborn is permeable to prolactin and that milk may constitute an exogeneous source of prolactin for the suckled offspring.

  16. Effect of pregabalin on apoptotic regulatory genes in hippocampus of rats with chronic temporal lobe epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Yi-dan

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective To observe the effect of pregabalin on the expression of Bcl-2 and Bax in hippocampus of chronic epileptic rats induced by pilocarpine, to explore the anti-epileptic pharmacology mechanism of pregabalin, and its anti-apoptotic effect on hippocampal neurons of rats. Methods The model of chronic temporal lobe epileptic rats induced by lithium-pilocarpine was established, then the rats in pregabalin treatment group received intraperitoneal injection of pregabalin (40 mg/kg once daily for three weeks. The expression of Bcl-2 and Bax in hippocampus of all rats was detected by immunohistochemical technique and Western blotting. Results Compared with normal saline group rats, the expression of Bcl-2 and Bax in hippocampus of rats with chronic temporal lobe epilepsy was significantly increased (P = 0.000, for all. Pregabalin can down-regulate the expression of Bax and up-regulate the expression of Bcl-2 in hippocampus of rats compared to model group rats (P = 0.000, for all. Conclusion Pregabalin may have the effects of inhibiting cell apoptosis and protecting neurons through lowing Bax level and increasing Bcl-2 level in hippocampus of chronic temporal lobe epileptic rats.

  17. High-NaCl intake impairs dynamic autoregulation of renal blood flow in ANG II-infused rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saeed, Aso; Dibona, Gerald F; Marcussen, Niels

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate dynamic autoregulation of renal blood flow (RBF) in ANG II-infused rats and the influence of high-NaCl intake. Sprague-Dawley rats received ANG II (250 ng·kg(-1)·min(-1) sc) or saline vehicle (sham) for 14 days after which acute renal clearance experiments...

  18. Evaluation of toxicity after one-months treatment with Bauhinia forficata decoction in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepato, Maria Teresa; Baviera, Amanda Martins; Vendramini, Regina Célia; Brunetti, Iguatemy Lourenço

    2004-01-01

    Background Previous experiments have shown that a decoction of Bauhinia forficata leaves reduces the changes in carbohydrate and protein metabolism that occur in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes. In the present investigation, the serum activities of enzymes known to be reliable toxicity markers were monitored in normal and streptozotocin-diabetic rats to discover whether the use of B. forficata decoction has toxic effects on liver, muscle or pancreas tissue or on renal microcirculation. Methods An experimental group of normal and streptozotocin-diabetic rats received an aqueous decoction of fresh B. forficata leaves (150 g/L) by mouth for 33 days while a control group of normal and diabetic rats received water for the same length of time. The serum activity of the toxicity markers lactate dehydrogenase, creatine kinase, amylase, angiotensin-converting enzyme and bilirubin were assayed before receiving B. forficata decoction and on day 19 and 33 of treatment. Results The toxicity markers in normal and diabetic rats were not altered by the diabetes itself nor by treatment with decoction. Whether or not they received B. forficata decoction the normal rats showed a significant increase in serum amylase activity during the experimental period while there was a tendency for the diabetic rats, both treated and untreated with decoction, to have lower serum amylase activities than the normal rats. Conclusions Administration of an aqueous decoction of B. forficata is a potential treatment for diabetes and does not produce toxic effects measurable with the enzyme markers used in our study. PMID:15186500

  19. Effect of aqueous extract of Acacia nilotica ssp adansonii on milk production and prolactin release in the rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lompo, Z.; Heide, van der D.; Beek, van der E.M.; Swarts, J.J.M.; Mattheij, J.A.M.; Sawadogo, L.

    2004-01-01

    In view of the traditional belief that Acacia nilotica ssp adansonii (AN) can stimulate milk production in lactating women, experiments were performed to determine the effect of an aqueous extract of AN on milk production in rats. Female rats that received oral doses of aqueous extract of this plant

  20. Significance of ACTH4-10 in the control of hippocampal corticosterone receptor capacity of hypophysectomized rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldhuis, H D; De Kloet, E R

    1982-01-01

    The effect of hypophysectomy on the number of corticosterone receptor sites was investigated in three rat brain regions and was compared with the effect of long-term adrenalectomy. Subsequently, the effect on receptor capacity was measured after the hypophysectomized rats had received as

  1. Coenzyme Q10 does not prevent oral dyskinesias induced by long-term haloperidol treatment of rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    OA, Andreassen; Weber, Christine; HA, Jorgensen

    1999-01-01

    dyskinesias in rats, a putative analogue to human TD, could be prevented by the antioxidant coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10). Rats received 16 weeks of treatment with haloperidol decanoate (HAL) IM alone or together with orally administered CoQ10, and the behavior was recorded during and after treatment. HAL...

  2. A NEW ANIMAL-MODEL FOR HUMAN PREECLAMPSIA - ULTRA-LOW-DOSE ENDOTOXIN INFUSION IN PREGNANT RATS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    FAAS, MM; SCHUILING, GA; BALLER, JFW; VISSCHER, CA; BAKKER, WW

    OBJECTIVE: An animal model for preeclampsia was developed by means of an ultra-low-dose endotoxin infusion protocol in conscious pregnant rats. STUDY DESIGN: Rats received a permanent jugular vein cannula on day 0 of pregnancy, through which endotoxin (1.0 mu/kg body weight) (n = 10) or saline

  3. ZINC-INDUCED HYPERLEPTINEMIA IN RATS RELATED TO THE AMELIORATION OF SUCROSE-INDUCED OBESITY WITH ZINC REPLETION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HEIBASHY, M.I.; EL-NAHLA, A.M.; ASHOUR, I.; SALEH, SH.Y.A.

    2008-01-01

    Thirty adult albino rats (Rattus rattus) at 6 weeks of age were divided into three groups (ten for each). The first group was fed a standard laboratory diet for 8 weeks (control). The second group was made obese by giving them 32% sucrose solution in addition to the standard laboratory diet .The third group was received zinc supplementation (50 mg zinc acetate/ litre) with their sucrose solution. Body weight of all rats was measured weekly for 8 weeks. At 14 weeks of age, rats were killed and fasting blood samples were obtained. Serum glucose, insulin, cholesterol, triglyceride, leptin, tumour necrosis factor-α and zinc were measured.Results showed remarkable changes in body weights in sucrose fed rats only when compared to control and supplemented zinc rats group. Serum glucose, insulin, cholesterol and triglycerides were significantly increased in sucrose fed rats than both control and sucrose with zinc group. Serum leptin showed significant increase in sucrose fed rats than control and also showed higher significant value in sucrose fed rats supplemented with zinc comparing with sucrose fed rats and control ones. Tumour necrosis factor-? did not show any significant difference between all groups. Serum zinc concentration was decreased significantly in sucrose fed rats as compared to control. On the other hand, it was increased significantly in sucrose fed rats supplemented with zinc than other both groups. It could be concluded that zinc supplementation induced hyperleptinemia caused ameliorating effects in obese rats

  4. Social opportunity and ethanol drinking in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomie, Arthur; Burger, Kelly M; Di Poce, Jason; Pohorecky, Larissa A

    2004-11-01

    Two experiments were designed to evaluate the effects of pairings of ethanol sipper conditioned stimulus (CS) with social opportunity unconditioned stimulus (US) on ethanol sipper CS-directed drinking in rats. In both experiments, rats were deprived of neither food nor water, and initiation of drinking of unsweetened 3% ethanol was evaluated, as were the effects of increasing the concentration of unsweetened ethanol (3-10%) across sessions. In Experiment 1, Group Paired (n=8) received 35 trials per session wherein the ethanol sipper CS was presented for 10 s immediately prior to 15 s of social opportunity US. All rats initiated sipper CS-directed drinking of 3% ethanol. Increasing the concentration of ethanol in the sipper CS [(3%, 4%, 6%, 8%, 10% (vol./vol.)] across sessions induced escalation of daily g/kg ethanol intake. To evaluate the hypothesis that the drinking in Group Paired was due to autoshaping, Experiment 2 included a pseudoconditioning control that received sipper CS and social opportunity US randomly with respect to one another. All rats in Group Paired (n=6) and in Group Random (n=6) initiated sipper CS-directed drinking of 3% ethanol and daily mean g/kg ethanol intake in the two groups was comparable. Also comparable was daily g/kg ethanol intake, which increased for both groups with the availability of higher concentrations of ethanol in the sipper CS, up to a maximum of approximately 0.8 g/kg ethanol intake of 10% ethanol. Results indicate that random presentations of ethanol sipper CS and social opportunity US induced reliable initiation and escalation of ethanol intake, and close temporally contiguous presentations of CS and US did not induce still additional ethanol intake. This may indicate that autoshaping CR performance is not induced by these procedures, or that high levels of ethanol intake induced by factors related to pseudoconditioning produces a ceiling effect. Implications for ethanol drinking in humans are discussed.

  5. Piroxicam decreases postirradiation colonic neoplasia in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northway, M G; Scobey, M W; Cassidy, K T; Geisinger, K R

    1990-12-01

    This study evaluated the effects of the nonsteroidal antiinflammatory agent piroxicam on chronic radiation proctitis in the rat. Forty female Wistar rats received a 2250-cGy dose of irradiation to the distal 2 cm of the colon. Twenty received piroxicam 8.0 mg/kg orally 30 minutes before exposure and 24 hours after exposure; 20 rats served as irradiated controls. All animals were evaluated by colonoscopy 1 and 3 weeks postexposure and every third week until death or killing at 1 year. At killing, colons were removed for light microscopic examination. One year postirradiation results showed no differences in mortality, vascular changes, acute inflammation, colitis cystica profunda, or rectal stricture between the control and piroxicam-treated groups. However, at 1 year postirradiation the control group demonstrated neoplasia in 15 of 19 animals compared with eight of 20 animals in the piroxicam-treated group. The first endoscopic appearance of colonic neoplasm occurred at 15 weeks postirradiation in one control irradiated rat whereas the first evidence of endoscopic neoplasm in the piroxicam-treated group did not occur until 36 weeks postirradiation. Histologic examination documented a tendency toward a greater presence of adenocarcinomas in the control group compared with the piroxicam-treated group. The authors conclude that piroxicam treatment significantly decreased the incidence of colonic neoplasia in general as well as delayed the endoscopic appearance of colonic neoplasia in rats after pelvic irradiation.

  6. Piroxicam decreases postirradiation colonic neoplasia in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Northway, M.G.; Scobey, M.W.; Cassidy, K.T.; Geisinger, K.R.

    1990-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of the nonsteroidal antiinflammatory agent piroxicam on chronic radiation proctitis in the rat. Forty female Wistar rats received a 2250-cGy dose of irradiation to the distal 2 cm of the colon. Twenty received piroxicam 8.0 mg/kg orally 30 minutes before exposure and 24 hours after exposure; 20 rats served as irradiated controls. All animals were evaluated by colonoscopy 1 and 3 weeks postexposure and every third week until death or killing at 1 year. At killing, colons were removed for light microscopic examination. One year postirradiation results showed no differences in mortality, vascular changes, acute inflammation, colitis cystica profunda, or rectal stricture between the control and piroxicam-treated groups. However, at 1 year postirradiation the control group demonstrated neoplasia in 15 of 19 animals compared with eight of 20 animals in the piroxicam-treated group. The first endoscopic appearance of colonic neoplasm occurred at 15 weeks postirradiation in one control irradiated rat whereas the first evidence of endoscopic neoplasm in the piroxicam-treated group did not occur until 36 weeks postirradiation. Histologic examination documented a tendency toward a greater presence of adenocarcinomas in the control group compared with the piroxicam-treated group. The authors conclude that piroxicam treatment significantly decreased the incidence of colonic neoplasia in general as well as delayed the endoscopic appearance of colonic neoplasia in rats after pelvic irradiation. 41 references

  7. Piroxicam decreases postirradiation colonic neoplasia in the rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Northway, M.G.; Scobey, M.W.; Cassidy, K.T.; Geisinger, K.R. (Wake Forest Univ., Winston Salem, NC (USA))

    1990-12-01

    This study evaluated the effects of the nonsteroidal antiinflammatory agent piroxicam on chronic radiation proctitis in the rat. Forty female Wistar rats received a 2250-cGy dose of irradiation to the distal 2 cm of the colon. Twenty received piroxicam 8.0 mg/kg orally 30 minutes before exposure and 24 hours after exposure; 20 rats served as irradiated controls. All animals were evaluated by colonoscopy 1 and 3 weeks postexposure and every third week until death or killing at 1 year. At killing, colons were removed for light microscopic examination. One year postirradiation results showed no differences in mortality, vascular changes, acute inflammation, colitis cystica profunda, or rectal stricture between the control and piroxicam-treated groups. However, at 1 year postirradiation the control group demonstrated neoplasia in 15 of 19 animals compared with eight of 20 animals in the piroxicam-treated group. The first endoscopic appearance of colonic neoplasm occurred at 15 weeks postirradiation in one control irradiated rat whereas the first evidence of endoscopic neoplasm in the piroxicam-treated group did not occur until 36 weeks postirradiation. Histologic examination documented a tendency toward a greater presence of adenocarcinomas in the control group compared with the piroxicam-treated group. The authors conclude that piroxicam treatment significantly decreased the incidence of colonic neoplasia in general as well as delayed the endoscopic appearance of colonic neoplasia in rats after pelvic irradiation. 41 references.

  8. Choleretic activity of Gentiana lutea ssp. symphyandra in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oztürk, N; Herekman-Demir, T; Oztürk, Y; Bozan, B; Başer, K H

    1998-08-01

    Effects of an ethanolic extract prepared from G. lutea ssp. symphyandra roots on the bile production and liver in rats were investigated. Bile flows of rats which were treated by a single i.p. dose of CCl(4) 24 h prior to experiments were measured after the cannulation of bile duct under urethane anaesthesia. After an equilibration period of 1 h, the lyophilized extract were administered intraduodenally (500 mg/kg i.p.), while control animals received physiological saline only. To monitor the effect of multiple dose therapy, rats received the same dose of G. lutea ssp. symphyandra extract for 3 days (2 days prior to CCl(4) administration) and their bile flows were measured after the cannulation. In all groups, bile samples were collected for 3 h with 15 min intervals. After the completion of bile flow experiment, rat livers were removed and put in neutral formaldehyde solution (10%) for the histological examination. According to results obtained, multiple dose treatment of rats with the plant extract normalized the decreased bile flow due CCl(4), whereas single dose therapy was ineffective on the impaired bile flow. These data indicate that the extract prepared from Gentiana lutea ssp. symphyandra roots has a hepatoprotective activity. Copyright © 1998 Gustav Fischer Verlag. Published by Elsevier GmbH.. All rights reserved.

  9. Thallium kinetics in rat cardiac transplant rejection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barak, J.H.; LaRaia, P.J.; Boucher, C.A.; Fallon, J.T.; Buckley, M.J.

    1988-01-01

    Cardiac transplant rejection is a very complex process involving both cellular and vascular injury. Recently, thallium imaging has been used to assess acute transplant rejection. It has been suggested that changes in thallium kinetics might be a sensitive indicator of transplant rejection. Accordingly, thallium kinetics were assessed in vivo in acute untreated rat heterotopic (cervical) transplant rejection. Male Lewis rats weighing 225-250 g received heterotopic heart transplants from syngeneic Lewis rats (group A; n = 13), or allogeneic Brown Norway rats (group B; n = 11). Rats were imaged serially on the 2nd and the 7th postoperative days. Serial cardiac thallium content was determined utilizing data collected every 150 sec for 2 hr. The data were fit to a monoexponential curve and the decay rate constant (/sec) derived. By day 7 all group B hearts had histological evidence of severe acute rejection, and demonstrated decreased global contraction. Group A hearts showed normal histology and contractility. However, thallium uptakes and washout of the two groups were the same. Peak thallium uptake of group B was +/- 3758 1166 counts compared with 3553 +/- 950 counts in the control group A (P = 0.6395); The 2-hr percentage of washout was 12.1 +/- 1.04 compared with 12.1 +/- 9.3 (P = 1.0000); and the decay constant was -0.00002065 +/- 0.00001799 compared with -0.00002202 +/- 0.00001508 (P = 0.8409). These data indicate that in vivo global thallium kinetics are preserved during mild-to-severe acute transplant rejection. These findings suggest that the complex cellular and extracellular processes of acute rejection limit the usefulness of thallium kinetics in the detection of acute transplant rejection

  10. The anti-oxidant effects of ginger and cinnamon on spermatogenesis dys-function of diabetes rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaki, Arash; Khaki, Amir Afshin; Hajhosseini, Laleh; Golzar, Farhad Sadeghpour; Ainehchi, Nava

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes rats have been linked to reproductive dysfunction and plant medicine has been shown to be effective in its treatment. Antioxidants have distinctive effects on spermatogenesis, sperm biology and oxidative stress, and changes in anti-oxidant capacity are considered to be involved in the pathogenesis of chronic diabetes mellitus. Ginger and cinnamon are strong anti-oxidants and have been shown to reduce oxidative stress in the long-term treatment of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes in animal models. The present study examined the influence of combined ginger and cinnamon on spermatogenesis in STZ-induced diabetes in male Wistar rats. Animals (n = 80) were allocated randomly into eight groups, 10 each: Group 1: Control rats given only 5cc Normal saline (0.9% NaCl) daily;Group2: rats received ginger (100mg/kg/rat) daily; Group 3: rats received cinnamon (75mg/kg) daily; Group 4: rats received ginger and cinnamon, (100mg/kg/rat ginger and 75mg/kg cinnamon) daily; Group 5: Diabetic control rats received only normal saline. Group 6: Diabetic rats received 100mg/kg/day ginger; Group 7: Diabetic rats received 75mg /kg/ day cinnamon; Group 8: Diabetic rats received ginger and cinnamon (100mg/kg/day and 75mg/kg /day). Diabetes was induced with 55 mg/kg, single intra-peritoneal injection of STZ in all groups. At the end of the experiment (56th day), blood samples were taken for determination of testosterone, LH,FSH, total anti-oxidant capacity, and levels of malondialdehyde, SOD, Catalase and GPX. All rats were euthanized, testes were dissected out and spermatozoa were collected from the epididymis for analysis. Sperm numbers, percentages of sperm viability and motility, and total serum testosterone increased in ginger and cinnamon and combined ginger and cinnamon treated diabetic rats compared with control groups. Serum testosterone, LH and FSH were higher compared to control group and also serum anti-oxidants (TAC, SOD, GPX and catalase) all were increased at the

  11. Melatonin, a potential effective protector in whole body γ-irradiated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tawfik, S.S; El-Nashar, D.E; Ahmed, M.M; Hanafy, Z.E

    2010-01-01

    Melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine), the chief hormone of pineal gland, is widely distributed in animal kingdom. It is claimed for its antioxidant and free radical properties. The present study aimed to examine the radio protective potentiality and efficacy of melatonin against damages induced in whole body γ-irradiated rats. Animals received melatonin (10 mg/ kg body wt/ day) for 10 successive days pre-exposure to 3 Gy of γ-radiation (acute dose). Rats sacrificed at 10 and 20 days post the irradiation time. The results revealed that the prolonged administration of melatonin has ameliorated the radiation- induced depletion in brain, testis and serum glutathione (GSH) level and a decrease in serum glutathione peroxidase (GPX) activity when compared with their matched values in irradiated rats. In addition, remarkable decreases in the concentration of lipid peroxidation (LPO) product; malondialdhyde (MDA) was observed in brain, testis and serum of rats received melatonin pre-radiation exposure. As well as, significant decreases in disulphide glutathione (GSSG) were observed in serum.Histopathological examination of brain and testis showed that administration of melatonin pre-irradiation according to the present regimen has attenuated radiation induced tissue damages and improved tissue architecture. Cytogenetically, the chromosomal aberration (CA) assay in bone marrow pointed out a significant difference between rats received melatonin pre-irradiation and γ-irradiated rats in most CA types. Accordingly, it could be postulated the tissue diversity and cytogenetic impact of the administrated melatonin against acute ion syndrome in rat model.

  12. Individually reared rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraeuchi, K.; Gentsch, C.; Feer, H.

    1981-01-01

    The influence of social isolation in rats on postsynaptic alpha 1 - and beta-adrenergic receptors, on the cAMP generating system and on the presynaptic uptake mechanism in the central noradrenergic system was examined in different brain regions. Rearing rats in isolation from the 19th day of life for 12 weeks leads in all regions to a general tendency for a reduction in 3 H-DHA binding, to an enhanced 3 H-WB4101 binding and to a decreased responsiveness of the noradrenaline sensitive cAMP generating system. These changes reach significance only in the pons-medulla-thallamusregion. Isolated rats showed an increased synaptosomal uptake of noradrenaline, most pronounced and significant in the hypothalamus. Our data provide further support for a disturbance in central noradrenergic function in isolated rats. (author)

  13. Fear Expression Suppresses Medial Prefrontal Cortical Firing in Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas F Giustino

    Full Text Available The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC plays a crucial role in emotional learning and memory in rodents and humans. While many studies suggest a differential role for the prelimbic (PL and infralimbic (IL subdivisions of mPFC, few have considered the relationship between neural activity in these two brain regions recorded simultaneously in behaving animals. Importantly, how concurrent PL and IL activity relate to conditioned freezing behavior is largely unknown. Here we used single-unit recordings targeting PL and IL in awake, behaving rats during the acquisition and expression of conditioned fear. On Day 1, rats received either signaled or unsignaled footshocks in the recording chamber; an auditory conditioned stimulus (CS preceded signaled footshocks. Twenty-four hours later, animals were returned to the recording chamber (modified to create a novel context where they received 5 CS-alone trials. After fear conditioning, both signaled and unsignaled rats exhibited high levels of post-shock freezing that was associated with an enduring suppression of mPFC spontaneous firing, particularly in the IL of signaled rats. Twenty-four hours later, CS presentation produced differential conditioned freezing in signaled and unsignaled rats: freezing increased in rats that had received signaled shocks, but decreased in animals in the unsignaled condition (i.e., external inhibition. This group difference in CS-evoked freezing was mirrored in the spontaneous firing rate of neurons in both PL and IL. Interestingly, differences in PL and IL firing rate highly correlated with freezing levels. In other words, in the signaled group IL spontaneous rates were suppressed relative to PL, perhaps limiting IL-mediated suppression of fear and allowing PL activity to dominate performance, resulting in high levels of freezing. This was not observed in the unsignaled group, which exhibited low freezing. These data reveal that the activity of mPFC neurons is modulated by both

  14. Social transmission of avoidance behavior under situational change in learned and unlearned rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira Masuda

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Rats receive information from other conspecifics by observation or other types of social interaction. Such social interaction may contribute to the effective adaptation to changes of environment such as situational switching. Learning to avoid dangerous places or objects rapidly occurs with even a single conditioning session, and the conditioned memory tends to be sustained over long periods. The avoidance is important for adaptation, but the details of the conditions under which the social transmission of avoidance is formed are unknown. We demonstrate that the previous experience of avoidance learning is important for the formation of behaviors for social transmission of avoidance and that the experienced rats adapt to a change of situation determined by the presence or absence of aversive stimuli. We systematically investigated social influence on avoidance behavior using a passive avoidance test in a light/dark two-compartment apparatus. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Rats were divided into two groups, one receiving foot shocks and another with no aversive experience in a dark compartment. Experienced and inexperienced rats were further divided into subjects and partners. In Experiment 1, each subject experienced (1 interaction with an experienced partner, (2 interaction with an inexperienced partner, or (3 no interaction. In Experiment 2, each subject experienced interaction with a partner that received a shock. The entering latency to a light compartment was measured. The avoidance behavior of experienced rats was inhibited by interaction with inexperienced or experienced partners in a safely-changed situation. The avoidance of experienced rats was reinstated in a dangerously-changed situation by interaction with shocked rats. In contrast, the inexperienced rats were not affected by any social circumstances. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results suggest that transmitted information among rats can be updated under a

  15. Effects of hyperbaric oxygen on crystalline lens and retina in nicotine-exposed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ari, Seyhmus; Nergiz, Yusuf; Cingü, Abdullah Kürşat; Atay, Ahmet Engin; Sahin, Alparslan; Cinar, Yasin; Caca, Ihsan

    2013-03-01

    To determine histopathological changes on crystalline lens and retina of rats after subcutaneous injection of nicotine and to examine the effects of hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) on these changes related to nicotine exposure. Twenty-eight female Sprague-Dawley rats were enrolled in the study and the rats were divided into four equal sized groups randomly (Group N: the rats exposed only to nicotine, group HB: the rats received only HBO, group N+HB: the rats that underwent to nicotine injection and subsequently received HBO, group C: the control group that neither exposed to nicotine nor received HBO). The rats were sacrificed by decapitation method and all were enucleated immediately after scarification. Tissue samples from crystalline lens, lens capsule, and the retina from the right eyes of the rats were examined by light microscopy. While the histological appearances of the retina and the lens was similar in group HB, group N+HB, and the control group; group N showed some pathological changes like decrement in the retinal ganglion cell density, atrophy of the retinal nerve fiber layer, congestion of the vessels in the optic nerve head, thinning of the internal plexiform layer, thinning of the lens capsule, and transformation of the anterior subcapsular epithelium into squamous epithelia. Subcutaneous injection of nicotine was found to be related with some pathological changes in the retina and lens of the Sprague-Dawley rats. However HBO caused no significant negative effect. Furthermore, the histopathological changes related to nicotine exposure in the lens and retina of the rats recovered by the application of HBO.

  16. A novel device for studying weight supported, quadrupedal overground locomotion in spinal cord injured rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamlin, Marvin; Traughber, Terence; Reinkensmeyer, David J; de Leon, Ray D

    2015-05-15

    Providing weight support facilitates locomotion in spinal cord injured animals. To control weight support, robotic systems have been developed for treadmill stepping and more recently for overground walking. We developed a novel device, the body weight supported ambulatory rodent trainer (i.e. BART). It has a small pneumatic cylinder that moves along a linear track above the rat. When air is supplied to the cylinder, the rats are lifted as they perform overground walking. We tested the BART device in rats that received a moderate spinal cord contusion injury and in normal rats. Locomotor training with the BART device was not performed. All of the rats learned to walk in the BART device. In the contused rats, significantly greater paw dragging and dorsal stepping occurred in the hindlimbs compared to normal. Providing weight support significantly raised hip position and significantly reduced locomotor deficits. Hindlimb stepping was tightly coupled to forelimb stepping but only when the contused rats stepped without weight support. Three weeks after the contused rats received a complete spinal cord transection, significantly fewer hindlimb steps were performed. Relative to rodent robotic systems, the BART device is a simpler system for studying overground locomotion. The BART device lacks sophisticated control and sensing capability, but it can be assembled relatively easily and cheaply. These findings suggest that the BART device is a useful tool for assessing quadrupedal, overground locomotion which is a more natural form of locomotion relative to treadmill locomotion. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Hydrogen sulfide accelerates wound healing in diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guoguang; Li, Wei; Chen, Qingying; Jiang, Yuxin; Lu, Xiaohua; Zhao, Xue

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the role of hydrogen sulfide on wound healing in diabetic rats. Experimental diabetes in rats was induced by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ) (in 0.1 mol/L citrate buffer, Ph 4.5) at dose of 70 mg/kg. Diabetic and age-matched non-diabetic rats were randomly assigned to three groups: untreated diabetic controls (UDC), treated diabetic administrations (TDA), and non-diabetic controls (NDC). Wound Healing Model was prepared by making a round incision (2.0 cm in diameter) in full thickness. Rats from TDA receive 2% sodium bisulfide ointment on wound, and animals from UDC and NDC receive control cream. After treatment of 21 days with sodium bisulfide, blood samples were collected for determination of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), antioxidant effects. Granulation tissues from the wound were processed for histological examination and analysis of western blot. The study indicated a significant increase in levels of VEGF and ICAM-1 and a decline in activity of coagulation in diabetic rats treated with sodium bisulfide. Sodium bisulfide treatment raised the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) protein expression, and decreased tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) protein expression in diabetic rats. The findings in present study suggested that hydrogen sulfide accelerates the wound healing in rats with diabetes. The beneficial effect of H2S may be associated with formation of granulation, anti-inflammation, antioxidant, and the increased level of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF).

  18. Preventive and Therapeutic Effects of Propolis in Gamma Irradiated Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamza, R.G.; El-Shahat, A.N.

    2011-01-01

    Ionizing radiation is known to stimulate the generation of oxygen radicals which destabilize organic molecules resulting in a decrease of the system's antioxidant potential. Propolis (bee glue) is a complex mixture of natural substances that exhibits a broad spectrum of biological activities. As the possibility exists that it may exert a radio protections role, the present study aimed to examine the preventive and therapeutic effects of propolis on the gamma irradiation-induced changes in antioxidant status and certain biochemical parameters. HPLC chromatography for analysis of propolis showed that the number of identified phenols was 6 compounds (natural antioxidants). Male albino rats were exposed to 6 Gy of gamma radiation. The efficiency of propolis was evaluated when propolis was administered orally to rats at a dose of 200 mg/kg as follow: non-irradiated rats received orally propolis extract for 6 weeks (positive control) and rats received orally propolis extract for 3 weeks before or after gamma irradiation. The obtained results revealed that propolis given to rats before gamma irradiation protect the hazardous effects of gamma irradiation. In addition, administration of propolis to gamma irradiated rats caused significant enhancement in hepatic antioxidant enzymes (glutathion reductase; GR and catalase; CAT) and total antioxidant capacity associated with a remarkable decrease in the level of lipid peroxidation (TBARS). Also, it significantly reduced the changes induced by gamma irradiation in the serum levels of glucose and liver enzymes; aminotransferases (AST, ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP). In addition, a significant improvement was observed in the serum levels of total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low density lipoprotein- cholesterol (LDL-C) and high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C). In conclusion, the positive results obtained in the gamma irradiated rats given propolis indicated that propolis could be considered as effective

  19. Protective effects of Tualang honey on bone structure in experimental postmenopausal rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Sarah Mohamad Zaid

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of Tualang honey on trabecular structure and compare these effects with those of calcium supplementation in ovariectomized rats. METHODS: Forty female, Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into five groups (n =8: four controls and one test arm. The control arm comprised a baseline control, sham-operated control, ovariectomized control, and ovariectomized calcium-treated rats (receiving 1% calcium in drinking water ad libitum. The test arm was composed of ovariectomized, Tualang honey-treated rats (received 0.2 g/kg body weight of Tualang honey. Both the sham-operated control and ovariectomized control groups received vehicle treatment (deionized water, and the baseline control group was sacrificed without treatment. RESULTS: All rats were orally gavaged daily for six weeks after day one post-surgery. The bone structural analysis of rats in the test arm group showed a significant increase in the bone volume per tissue volume (BV/TV, trabecular thickness (Tb.Th and trabecular number (Tb.N and a significant decrease in inter-trabecular space (Tb.Sp compared with the ovariectomized control group. The trabecular thickness (Tb.Th in the test arm group was significantly higher compared with the ovariectomized-calcium treated group, and the inter-trabecular space (Tb.Sp in the test arm group was significantly narrower compared with the ovariectomized-calcium treated group. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, ovariectomized rats that received Tualang honey showed more improvements in trabecular bone structure than the rats that received calcium.

  20. Protective effects of Tualang honey on bone structure in experimental postmenopausal rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaid, Siti Sarah Mohamad; Sulaiman, Siti Amrah; Othman, Nor Hayati; Soelaiman, Ima-Nirwana; Shuid, Ahmad Nazrun; Mohamad, Norazlina; Muhamad, Norliza

    2012-07-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of Tualang honey on trabecular structure and compare these effects with those of calcium supplementation in ovariectomized rats. Forty female, Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into five groups (n =8): four controls and one test arm. The control arm comprised a baseline control, sham-operated control, ovariectomized control, and ovariectomized calcium-treated rats (receiving 1% calcium in drinking water ad libitum). The test arm was composed of ovariectomized, Tualang honey-treated rats (received 0.2 g/kg body weight of Tualang honey). Both the sham-operated control and ovariectomized control groups received vehicle treatment (deionized water), and the baseline control group was sacrificed without treatment. All rats were orally gavaged daily for six weeks after day one post-surgery. The bone structural analysis of rats in the test arm group showed a significant increase in the bone volume per tissue volume (BV/TV), trabecular thickness (Tb.Th) and trabecular number (Tb.N) and a significant decrease in inter-trabecular space (Tb.Sp) compared with the ovariectomized control group. The trabecular thickness (Tb.Th) in the test arm group was significantly higher compared with the ovariectomized-calcium treated group, and the inter-trabecular space (Tb.Sp) in the test arm group was significantly narrower compared with the ovariectomized-calcium treated group. In conclusion, ovariectomized rats that received Tualang honey showed more improvements in trabecular bone structure than the rats that received calcium.

  1. Influence of lead injection on calcium-45 distribution in hard tissues of rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Makoto

    1978-01-01

    This study determines the relationship between calcium distribution in hard tissues and age. The distribution of calcium was examined by using calcium-45 as tracer. Further, influences of such environmental toxic heavy metals as lead, cadmium and mercury upon calcium metabolism were determined. According to checks performed on 3-week-old rats, calcium-45 distributions in hard tissues from 6 hours to 6 days after injection were greater in the following tissues in the order listed: femurs, incisors, molars. In 2-week-old rats, the calcium distributions throughout the body were about the same. In 3-week-old rats, however, they were graded in descending order from femur to incisors, and then to molars. In rats of 18 weeks or more, the distribution of calcium-45 in the femur decreased. A slow increase was noted in calcium-45 deposits in the incisors of rats of four or more weeks; this increase remained constant at a very low level in rats of more than eight weeks. Calcium-45 distribution in rats of 61 weeks of age was graded in this descending order: incisors, femurs, and molars. In the group injected with calcium-45 and lead acetate, calcium-45 distribution was significantly less in 3-week-old than in 3-month-old rats. The following are percentages of calcium-45 distribution in rats to which 100 mg/kg of lead (equivalent of 1/3 of LD 50 were injected, when 100-percent distribution is assumed for controls; 3-week-old rats: femur 48 percent, incisors 49 percent, and molars 40 percent, 3-month-old rats: femurs 73 percent, incisors 67 percent, and molars 71 percent. No difference was observed in calcium-45 uptake between rats to whom injections of cadmium and mercury equivalent to 1/3 of a dose of LD 50 had been administered and rats who received only a single injection of calcium-45. (auth.)

  2. [Effect of heijiang pill on radiation skin ulcer in rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Qi; Yang, Yang; Xu, Yong-Mei

    2008-05-01

    To investigate the relationship between single dosage of 60Co radiation and the degree of radiation-induced skin ulcers, and to evaluate the curative effect of Heijiang Pill (HJP) on skin ulcer induced by various dosages of radiation in rats. Sixty-six Wistar female rats were randomly divided into three groups, the blank control group (n = 6) and the two radiation groups, each 30 rats, with their right hind leg exposed respectively to 60 Gy and 40 Gy of 60 Co radiation. The time of emergence and degree of skin ulcer were recorded. Then rats in the two radiation groups were subdivided into the HJP group, the Ethacridine group and the model group, 10 in each group, they received corresponding treatment after ulceration, and the incidence, pathology, cure rate and cure time of skin ulcer were observed in the 90 days of observation. The incidence of skin ulcer was higher and occurred earlier in rats radiated with 60 Gy than that with 40 Gy (P ulcer healing rate in rats treated with HJP was higher than that treated with Ethacridine (P cure time in the HJP group was shorter (P ulcers. HJP can effectively cure radiation skin ulcer, and the effect is especially significant on the ulcer induced by low dose radiation.

  3. Quantitation of products from riboflavin in rat urine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chastain, J.L.; McCormick, D.B.

    1986-01-01

    When [2- 14 C] riboflavin is injected i.p. into rats, the excreted vitamin in urine and feces has been shown to be the intact vitamin with trace amounts of lumichrome and lumiflavin. Recent findings with 14 C-riboflavin fed to rats indicated higher levels of riboflavin catabolites in urine, e.g., 7- and 8-carboxylumichromes. The authors have determined catabolites in urine from male rats fed 0, 2, and 6 μg riboflavin/g diet/day for six weeks. Two rats from each group were placed weekly in metabolic cages, and urine was collected for 24 hours. On the fourth week, a third animal from each group received an i.p. injection of 14 C-riboflavin and the urine was collected for 48 hours. Urine samples were extracted with phenol for flavin components and with chloroform for derivatives of lumichrome and lumiflavin. Riboflavin was the predominant flavin excreted by all diet groups with trace amounts of coenzymes and 7- and 8-hydroxymethylriboflavin. Riboflavin accounted for 85% of all the radioactivity recovered from the deficient and sufficient rats and 90% in rats fed excess. Lumichrome-type compounds including carboxylumichromes accounted for only a few % of recovered radioactivity. Thus, these components are primarily a product of intestinal microfloral degradation rather than significant tissue catabolites of riboflavin

  4. Basolateral amygdala lesions abolish mutual reward preferences in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Lallement, Julen; van Wingerden, Marijn; Schäble, Sandra; Kalenscher, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    In a recent study, we demonstrated that rats prefer mutual rewards in a Prosocial Choice Task. Here, employing the same task, we show that the integrity of basolateral amygdala was necessary for the expression of mutual reward preferences. Actor rats received bilateral excitotoxic (n=12) or sham lesions (n=10) targeting the basolateral amygdala and were subsequently tested in a Prosocial Choice Task where they could decide between rewarding ("Both Reward") or not rewarding a partner rat ("Own Reward"), either choice yielding identical reward to the actors themselves. To manipulate the social context and control for secondary reinforcement sources, actor rats were paired with either a partner rat (partner condition) or with an inanimate rat toy (toy condition). Sham-operated animals revealed a significant preference for the Both-Reward-option in the partner condition, but not in the toy condition. Amygdala-lesioned animals exhibited significantly lower Both-Reward preferences than the sham group in the partner but not in the toy condition, suggesting that basolateral amygdala was required for the expression of mutual reward preferences. Critically, in a reward magnitude discrimination task in the same experimental setup, both sham-operated and amygdala-lesioned animals preferred large over small rewards, suggesting that amygdala lesion effects were restricted to decision making in social contexts, leaving self-oriented behavior unaffected. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Exercise prevented the lansoprazole-induced reduction of anti-osteoporotic efficacy of alendronate in androgen deficiency rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cegieła, Urszula; Pytlik, Maria; Folwarczna, Joanna; Miozga, Rafał; Piskorz, Szymon; Nowak, Dorota

    2014-01-01

    Clinical studies indicate that proton pump inhibitors (PPIs), used long-term in elderly patients, increase the risk of osteoporotic fractures, and decrease the anti-fracture efficacy of alendronate. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of physical exercise on the anti-osteoporotic efficacy of alendronate administered concurrently with lansoprazole, a PPI, in male rats with androgen deficiency induced by orchidectomy. Male Wistar rats at 3 months of age were divided into: sham-operated control rats, orchidectomized (ORX) control rats, ORX rats receiving alendronate, ORX rats receiving alendronate and lansoprazole, ORX rats receiving alendronate and subjected to exercise, and ORX rats receiving alendronate and lansoprazole and subjected to exercise. The orchidectomy or sham-operation was performed 7-8 days before the start of drug administration. The rats were subjected to the exercise on the treadmill 1 hour/day for 7 weeks (6 days a week). Alendronate sodium (3 mg/kg p.o.) and lansoprazole (4 mg/kg p.o.) were administered once daily for 7 weeks (6 days a week). Mechanical properties of the tibial metaphysis and femoral neck were assessed. Bone turnover markers, histomorphometric parameters, bone mass and mass of bone mineral were also studied. Lansoprazole weakened the anti-osteoporotic efficacy of alendronate. The exercise increased the alendronate effect. Similar changes were observed in the rats treated with lansoprazole and alendronate, subjected to exercise; no deleterious effects of lansoprazole were observed. In conclusion, the exercise prevented the lansoprazole-induced reduction the anti-osteoporotic efficacy of alendronate in orchidectomized rats.

  6. Superior Coherent Receivers for AF Relaying with Distributed Alamouti Code

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Fahd Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    Coherent receivers are derived for a pilot-symbol aided distributed Alamouti-coded system with imperfect channel state information. The derived coherent receivers do not perform channel estimation but rather use the received pilot signals for decoding. The derived receiver metrics use the statistics of the channel to give improved performance. The performance is further improved by using the decision history. Simulation results show that a performance gain of up to 1.8 dB can be achieved for the new receivers with decision history as compared with the conventional mismatched coherent receiver. © 2011 IEEE.

  7. [Effect of compound hypertonic saline solution on septic rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Fang; Xu, Liang; Xu, Gang; Wang, Huabing; Lu, Huizhi; Cai, Liping

    2015-01-01

    To study the effect of compound hypertonic saline solution ( HSD ) on sepsis. 133 male Wistar rats were divided into four groups, sham operation group ( n = 15 ), cecal ligation and puncture ( CLP ) group ( n = 45 ), CLP plus normal saline ( NS ) group ( n = 45 ), and CLP plus HSD group ( n = 28 ). A rat model of sepsis was reproduced by CLP, and the rats in sham operation group received celiotomy without ligation and puncture. All rats in four groups received subcutaneous injection of 30 mL/kg 0.9% sodium chloride after laparotomy. The rats in CLP plus NS group and CLP plus HSD group received infusion of 5 mL/kg 0.9% sodium chloride or 7.5% sodium chloride/6% dextran post CLP via jugular vein for 3 hours, with the infusion rate of 0.4 mL×kg(-1)×min(-1). The survival rate of each group was observed 9 hours and 18 hours after laparotomy. Mean arterial pressure ( MAP ) at 0, 9, 18 hours were monitored. Blood specimens were collected from all rats 0, 9 and 18 hours after laparotomy, respectively, for measurement of the plasma levels of tumor necrosis factor-α ( TNF-α), interleukin-1β ( IL-1β ), and procalcitonin ( PCT ). The rats were all sacrificed, and their lung tissues were harvested for the neutrophil count in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid ( BALF ), myeloperoxidase ( MPO ) activity in lung tissue, wet/dry weight ratio ( W/D ) of lung, and pathological changes in lung tissue. There was no death in the sham operation group. The survival rates at 9 hours and 18 hours were 62.2% and 31.1% in the CLP group, 57.8% and 35.6% in the CLP plus NS group, 85.7% and 64.3% in the CLP plus HSD group, and they were all significantly higher compared with those of the CLP group and the CLP plus NS group ( Pmicroscope, no pathobiological changes were found in sham operation group. The lung tissues in the CLP group and the CLP plus NS group showed congestion, edema, infiltrating inflammatory changes, while the inflammatory changes in the lung tissue in the CLP plus HSD group

  8. A microcontroller-based implantable nerve stimulator used for rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sha, Hong; Zheng, Zheng; Wang, Yan; Ren, Chaoshi

    2005-01-01

    A microcontroller-based stimulator that can be flexible programmed after it has been implanted into a rat was studied. Programmability enables implanted stimulators to generate customized, complex protocols for experiments. After implantation, a coded light pulse train that contains information of specific identification will unlock a certain stimulator. If a command that changing the parameters is received, the microcontroller will update its flash memory after it affirms the commands. The whole size of it is only 1.6 cubic centimeters, and it can work for a month. The devices have been successfully used in animal behavior experiments, especially on rats.

  9. Radioiron utilization and gossypol acetic acid in male rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tone, J.N.; Jensen, D.R.

    1985-01-01

    The 24-h incorporation of 59 Fe into circulating red blood cells, bone marrow, urine, liver, spleen, and skeletal muscle was measured in splenectomized and sham-splenectomized rats which had received a daily, oral dose of gossypol acetic acid (20 mg GAA/kg body wt) for 91 days. A significant decrease in total body weight gain was observed in all GAA treated animals. Splenectomized rats dosed with GAA exhibited a significant decrease in hemoglobin concentration, hematocrit and erythrocyte count. A significant increase in 59 Fe incorporation by red blood cells and a decrease in hepatic incorporation of 59 Fe indicate a preferential utilization of iron in erythropoiesis among GAA treated animals

  10. Neonatal hyperthyroidism on rat heart: interrelation with nitric oxide and sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, L; Detomaso, F; Braga, P; Prendes, M; Perosi, F; Cernadas, G; Balaszczuk, A; Fellet, A

    2015-06-01

    To clarify the mechanism mediating the effect of hyperthyroidism on cardiac function during the second month of life in rats. Male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to a control or to a triiodothyronine (T3)-treated group. Treatment of each group was started on the third day after birth. Control rats (Eut) received 0.9 NaCl [0.1 ml/100 g body weight (BW)] every second day during 60 days and T3-treated rats (Hyper) received subcutaneous (SC) T3 injections every second day during 60 days. Hyperthyroidism decreased left ventricle volume only in male rats. Female euthyroid rats presented higher atrial nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity than male rats and hormonal treatment decreased this enzyme's activity in both sexes. Euthyroid male and female rats had similar atrial NOS protein levels, but females had higher caveolin (cav) 3 protein levels. T3 treatment increased this protein only in males. Female rats had lower ventricular NOS activity than male rats; hyperthyroidism increased NOS activity in both sexes but this effect was associated with lower cav 3 protein levels. Hyperthyroidism did not change cav 1 protein levels in both male and female rats. The results of this study demonstrating clinically relevant sex-related differences in the pathophysiology of the hyperthyroid heart have raised new questions regarding the mechanisms responsible for the observed differences. This study suggests that sex-related intrinsic factors such as nitric oxide may modulate the response to hyperthyroidism that leads to cardiovascular dysfunction.

  11. FFT Based VLSI Digital One Bit Electronic Warfare Receiver

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chien-In, Henry

    1998-01-01

    ... (1 GHz) digital receiver designed for electronic warfare applications. The receiver can process two simultaneous signals and has the potential for fabrication on a single multi-chip module (MCM...

  12. A Correlating Receiver for OFDM at Low SNR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kokkeler, Andre B.J.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria

    By extending OFDM symbols, acceptable BER performance can be achieved at low SNRs. Two alternative differential receiver architectures are presented, a receiver based on a FX correlator (Fourier transformation before correlation) and based on an XF correlator (correlation before Fourier

  13. Initial results for compressive sensing in electronic support receiver systems

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Du Plessis, WP

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available determined by the antenna and microwave system comprising the transmitter and receiver, while the instantaneous bandwidth is mainly determined by the Analog-to-Digital Converter (ADC) in the receiver. A radar can thus operate at any frequency within its... Electronic/Electromagnetic Support Measures (ESM) was used historically [1], [2]. Modern ES receiver systems are based on digital receivers allowing powerful signal processing techniques to be used [3], [4]. Recent developments in sampling technology...

  14. Vitamin C affects the antioxidative/oxidative status in rats irradiated with ultraviolet (UV) and infrared (IR) light

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemiec, T.; Sawosz, E.; Chwalibog, André

    2006-01-01

    Four grups of twenty growing Wistar rats were irradiated with either UV, IR, UV+IR light or were not irradiated (control). Ten rats from each group received a diet supplemented with 0.6% of L-ascorbic acid. The effects of the mega-dose of vitamin C were evaluated by changes in the antioxidative....../oxidative status. UV and IR radiation promoted oxidative DNA degradation in rat livers and supplementation with ascorbic acid strengthened the prooxidative effects on DNA oxidation in rats irradiated with UV or IR light. Vitamin C also increased the tiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) concentration...

  15. Protective Role of Carnitine against the Harmful Biological Effects of Paracetamol and Radiation Exposure in Male Albino Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd El Rahman, N.A.

    2012-01-01

    L-carnitine, a natural component of mammalian tissue, is a necessary factor in the utilization of long-chain fatty acids to produce energy. Furthermore it has been shown to protect cells from per oxidative stress. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of L-carnitine on hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity induced by paracetamol, γ-radiation, and paracetamol + γ-radiation. Male albino rats were divided into 8 groups. 1-Control group: rats not subject to any treatment, 2-Carnitine group: rats received L-carnitine (0.5 ml/Kg body weight) via intraperitoneal injection during 21 days, 3-Paracetamol group: rats received paracetamol (50 mg/kg body) via intraperi-toneal injection during 21 days, 4- Carnitine + Paracetamol group: rats received L-carnitine in parallel to paracetamol treatment, 5- Radiation groups: rats were whole body gamma irradiated with 7 Gy, 6- Carnitine + Radiation group: rats received L-carnitine for 21 days before whole body gamma irradiation with 7Gy, 7- Paracetamol + Radiation group: rats received paracetamol during 21 days before whole body gamma irradiation, 8- Carnitine + Paracetamol + Radiation group: rats received L-carnitine parallel to paracetamol during 21 days before whole body gamma irradiation.The results demonstrated that rats receiving paracetamol, as well as whole body gamma irradiated rats and rats receiving paracetamol and irradiated showed a significant increase of alanine amino transferase (ALT), aspartate amino transferase (AST), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities, and a significant decrease of gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) activity indicating liver injury. A significant increase of urea, creatinine and uric acid levels was recorded also indicating kidney damage. Alteration in liver and kidney functions was accompanied by a significant increase in the content of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) associated with a significant decrease in glutathione (GSH) content and superoxide

  16. 20 CFR 404.1042 - Wages when paid and received.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wages when paid and received. 404.1042... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Employment, Wages, Self-Employment, and Self-Employment Income Wages § 404.1042 Wages when paid and received. (a) In general. Wages are received by an employee at the time they are...

  17. 5 CFR 551.425 - Time spent receiving medical attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Time spent receiving medical attention... Relation to Other Activities § 551.425 Time spent receiving medical attention. (a) Time spent waiting for and receiving medical attention for illness or injury shall be considered hours of work if: (1) The...

  18. THE CORRELATED TRACK RECEIVER OF TONE TRACK CIRCUITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. V. Goncharov

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The work is devoted to further improvement of processing algorithm of checking signals of rail line. The simulation modeling of correlation track receiver of tone rail circuits has been executed; the benchmark analysis of correlation receiver and direct amplifier receiver has been executed.

  19. Noise and intercept point calculation for modern radio receiver planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Christian Rye; Kolding, T. E.

    2001-01-01

    The paper presents analytical expressions for determining noise and intercept points for cascaded radio receiver stages. The theory allows for active receiver stages with frequency selectivity and flexible impedance levels. This makes the method highly usable for planning of modem receivers where...

  20. IMPROVEMENT WAYS OF ACCOUNTING AND INTERNAL AUDIT OF ENTERPRISE RECEIVABLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. D. Zelikman

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Determination and substantiation of ways to improve accounting and internal audit of receivables at the enterprises. Methodology.The basic principles and ways for improvement of accounting and internal audit systems that should help Ukrainian enterprises to optimize receivables are considered. Findings. It is proved that the receivables optimization is possible on the basis of improving its accounting and internal audit. The basic ways for improvement of accounting and internal audit of receivable are determined. They are: improvement of normative coverage of receivables at the enterprises; providing further harmonization of financial and tax accounting in the part of formation of the doubtful debt receivables, accounting of bad and doubtful receivables and etc. The formation of department for internal audit to control the doubtful and bad debts; providing the timely control of the receivables and payables ratio; determination and support of the optimal value of the receivables at the enterprises. Originality. Improvement of accounting and internal audit of receivables at the enterprises by the way of development of internal audit system and optimization of the receivables size. Practical value. The proposed recommendations will improve the accounting and internal audit system of receivables at the enterprises of Ukraine.

  1. 75 FR 26843 - Petition for Exemption; Summary of Petition Received

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-12

    ...] Petition for Exemption; Summary of Petition Received AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of petition for exemption received. SUMMARY: This notice contains a summary of a petition... the legal status of any petition or its final disposition. DATES: Comments on petitions received must...

  2. Communications Satellite Receiver Systems for Public Schools: A Technical Primer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas Education Agency, Austin.

    Designed to aid school districts contemplating use of some of the telecommunications services now available by satellite, this document contains information on home satellite receiving dishes (Television Receive-Only--TVROs), which can receive radio signals carrying television, sound, and data. This information includes: some factors involved in…

  3. Communications/Electronics Receiver Performance Degradation Handbook (Second Edition)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-08-01

    receiver to another in the Rf and IF filter characteristics modify the transfer of inter- forence power through the receiver to the IF output, and so the...modulation system the transmitted and received messages arce in general different bemaus* of small inte, forence or noise perturbations. The probability of

  4. 33 CFR 17.01-10 - Authority to receive gifts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Authority to receive gifts. 17.01... GENERAL UNITED STATES COAST GUARD GENERAL GIFT FUND General Provisions § 17.01-10 Authority to receive gifts. (a) The Commandant, United States Coast Guard, may accept, receive, hold, or administer gifts...

  5. Sideband ratio in double sideband receivers with a Michelson interferometer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romanini, M.; Baryshev, A. M.; Hesper, R.; Mena, F. P.; Wild, W.

    2007-01-01

    Terahertz heterodyne receivers typically use double sideband (DSB) mixers. The precise knowledge of the receiver sideband ratio (SBR) is a fundamental requirement for the calibration of the data taken with this type of receivers. At the moment the spectroscopic techniques developed for submillimeter

  6. [An experimental study on the prevention of enteral bacterial translocation in scalded rats by smectite powder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Hai-tao; Li, Yi-shu; Lu, Shu-liang; Sun, Man; Qing, Chun; Li, Zong-yu; Shao, Tie-bing; Huang, Li-bing; Qu, Bing; Yang, Xin-bo

    2005-04-01

    To explore the preventive and treatment effects of smectite powder on enteral bacterial translocation in scalded rats. Fifty-four Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into three groups, i.e. normal control (A, n = 6), burn control (B, n = 24), and burn treatment (T, n = 24) groups. The rats in B and T groups were fed with tracing bacteria JM109, which was transfected with PUC19 plasmid in advance. The rats were subjected to 30% TBSA scald injury after the plasmid was shown to have colonized in the intestine. Smectite powder (0.6 g/day/kg) was fed to rats of T group immediately after the scalding, while those in B group received no smectite powder. Bacterial translocation in blood and mesenteric lymph nodes in all groups was observed and identified by enzyme digestion at 12 post scald hour (PSH) and on 1, 3 and 5 post-scald days (PSD). The contents of malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were determined in rat intestinal tissue. And the degree of injury to the entire small intestine was observed pathologically. The villus height of intestinal mucosa was measured, and the rate of epithelial nuclear splitting of mucosal crypts was calculated. The number of rats with positive blood bacterial culture in B group was obviously higher than that in A and T groups (P Smectite powder is beneficial to the protection of the intestinal mucosa in scalded rats, and can effectively prevent postburn intestinal bacterial translocation in rats.

  7. Cardio-protective effects of carnitine in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malone Michael A

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Streptozotocin-induced diabetes (STZ-D in rats has been associated with carnitine deficiency, bradycardia and left ventricular enlargement. Aim The purpose of this study was to determine whether oral carnitine supplementation would normalize carnitine levels and cardiac function in STZ-D rats. Methods Wistar rats (48 were made hyperglycemic by STZ at 26 weeks of age. Same age normal Wistar rats (24 were used for comparison. Echocardiograms were performed at baseline 2, 6, 10, and 18 weeks after STZ administration in all animals. HbA1c, serum carnitine and free fatty acids (FFA were measured at the same times. Since STZ-D rats become carnitine deficient, 15 STZ-D rats received supplemental oral carnitine for 16 weeks. Results The heart rates for the STZ-D rats (290 ± 19 bpm were less than control rats (324 ± 20 bpm (p Conclusion Thus, supplemental oral carnitine in STZ-D rats normalized serum carnitine, heart rate regulation and left ventricular size. These findings suggest a metabolic mechanism for the cardiac dysfunction noted in this diabetic animal model.

  8. Aggravation of serum Hepatocyte Growth Factor levels during hepato carcinogenesis in Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdelgawad, M.R.; Ghareeb, N.A.

    2010-01-01

    Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) has an essential role during liver development and it plays an important role in the regeneration and repair of injured tissues and acting as a mitogen, motogen and morphogens for a variety of epithelial cells. The role of HGF in carcinogenesis is in straggle and so, the present study aimed to through light through the level of HGF during different steps of carcinogenesis. Forty male rats were given diethylnitrosamine (DEN) in drinking water (100 mg/l) for up to 16 weeks. Eight rats were sacrificed at 8, 12 and 16 weeks. Besides, 8 hepatoma bearing rats were exposed to a single dose gamma irradiation (3 Gy) were sacrificed after 2 weeks from exposure (2 rats died, 36 hrs post irradiation) and 8 hepatoma bearing rats were sacrificed after 4 weeks from receiving a combined antioxidant (N-acetylcysteine and Lmethionine). Serum HGF was assayed by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Serum HGF level in DEN treated rats and in exposed hepatoma bearing rats was significantly higher than in control rats whereas, serum HGF level after treatment with N acetylcysteine and L-methionine for 4 weeks was significantly decreased than DEN treated rats and concluded that serum HGF may play a role during promotion and progression of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and during treatment

  9. Treatment with low-dose resveratrol reverses cardiac impairment in obese prone but not in obese resistant rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louis, Xavier L; Thandapilly, Sijo J; MohanKumar, Suresh K; Yu, Liping; Taylor, Carla G; Zahradka, Peter; Netticadan, Thomas

    2012-09-01

    We hypothesized that a low-dose resveratrol will reverse cardiovascular abnormalities in rats fed a high-fat (HF) diet. Obese prone (OP) and obese resistant (OR) rats were fed an HF diet for 17 weeks; Sprague-Dawley rats fed laboratory chow served as control animals. During the last 5 weeks of study, treatment group received resveratrol daily by oral gavage at a dosage of 2.5 mg/kg body weight. Assessments included echocardiography, blood pressure, adiposity, glycemia, insulinemia, lipidemia, and inflammatory and oxidative stress markers. Body weight and adiposity were significantly higher in OP rats when compared to OR rats. Echocardiographic measurements showed prolonged isovolumic relaxation time in HF-fed OP and OR rats. Treatment with resveratrol significantly improved diastolic function in OP but not in OR rats without affecting adiposity. OP and OR rats had increased blood pressure which remained unchanged with treatment. OP rats had elevated fasting serum glucose and insulin, whereas OR rats had increased serum glucose and normal insulin concentrations. Resveratrol treatment significantly reduced serum glucose while increasing serum insulin in both OP and OR rats. Inflammatory and oxidative stress markers, serum triglycerides and low-density lipoprotein were higher in OP rats, which were significantly reduced with treatment. In conclusion, HF induced cardiac dysfunction in both OP and OR rats. Treatment reversed abnormalities in diastolic heart function associated with HF feeding in OP rats, but not in OR rats. The beneficial effects of resveratrol may be mediated through regression of hyperglycemia, oxidative stress and inflammation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Histometric study of socket healing after tooth extraction in rats treated with diclofenac

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yugoshi Luciana Ibara

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to investigate if diclofenac administration interferes with the time course of alveolar wound healing in rats. Forty-two Wistar rats were used, 21 rats received 10 mg/kg/day of diclofenac one day before and 4 days after extraction of the right maxillary incisors and 21 rats received saline. The animals were sacrificed 7, 14 and 21 days after tooth extraction. Progressive new bone formation and a decrease in the volume fraction of blood clot and connective tissue from 1 to 3 weeks after tooth extraction was quantified using the histometric point-counting method. Diclofenac treatment caused a significant delay in new bone formation in association with an impairment of blood clot remission/organization.

  11. Effect of coffee drinking on cell proliferation in rat urinary bladder epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lina, B A; Rutten, A A; Woutersen, R A

    1993-12-01

    A possible effect of freshly brewed drip coffee on urinary bladder carcinogenesis was investigated in male Wistar rats using cell proliferation in urinary bladder epithelium as the indicator of tumour promotion. Male rats were given either undiluted coffee brew (100% coffee), coffee diluted 10 times (10% coffee) or tap water (controls), as their only source of drinking fluid for 2 or 6 wk. Uracil, known to induce cell proliferation in urinary bladder epithelium, was included in the study as a positive control. In rats receiving 100% coffee, body weights, liquid intake and urinary volume were decreased. Neither histopathological examination of urinary bladder tissue nor the bromodeoxyuridine labelling index revealed biologically significant differences between rats receiving coffee and the tap water controls. Uracil increased the labelling index and induced hyperplasia of the urinary bladder epithelium, as expected. It was concluded that these results produced no evidence that drinking coffee predisposes to tumour development in the urinary bladder.

  12. 125I-iomazenil - benzodiazepine receptor binding and serum corticosterone level during psychological stress in a rat model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukumitsu, Nobuyoshi; Ogi, Shigeyuki; Uchiyama, Mayuki; Mori, Yutaka

    2004-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that benzodiazepine receptor density decreases in response to stress, we correlated 125 I-iomazenil ( 125 I-IMZ) binding with serum corticosterone levels in a rat model. Wistar male rats were divided into four groups; control group (CON, 10 rats), no physical or psychological stress; and one-, three-, and five-day stress groups of 12 rats each (1-DAY, 3-DAY, and 5-DAY, respectively), receiving psychological stress for the given number of days. Psychological stress were given to rats with a communication box. The standardized uptake value (SUV) of 125 I-iomazenil of the 3-DAY and 5-DAY showed that 125 I-iomazenil - benzodiazepine receptor binding was significantly reduced in the cortices, accumbens nuclei, amygdala and caudate putamen (p 125 I-IMZ is a useful radioligand to reflect received stress and its binding in the cortices, accumbens nuclei, amygdala and caudate putamen is strongly affected by psychological stress

  13. Histometric study of alveolar bone healing in rats treated with the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug nimesulide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teófilo, Juliana Mazzonetto; Giovanini, Gabriela Salgueiro; Fracon, Ricardo Nogueira; Lamano, Teresa

    2011-04-01

    There is extensive experimental and clinical evidence in the orthopedic area that prolonged use of nonselective (inhibitor of both cyclooxygenases 1 and 2) nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs can hinder long bone fracture healing, spinal fusion rate, and new bone formation around implants. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether nimesulide (Nimesulida, Medley S.A., Campinas, SP, Brazil), a preferential cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor, can hinder alveolar bone healing, in rats. Treated rats received oral doses (5 mg/kg/rat/day) of nimesulide from the day of tooth extraction until euthanasia 2 weeks later and control rats received tap water (n = 5 per group). The volume of neoformed bone inside the alveolar socket was estimated in semiserial longitudinal histological sections by a differential point-counting method, and the significance of the difference between groups was analyzed by Student t test (P alveolar bone healing in rats.

  14. Effects of young-coconut juice on increasing mandibular cancellous bone in orchidectomized rats: Preliminary novel findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pranee Suwanpal

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Androgens play a very important role in building the skeleton in young adults and help to prevent bone loss andosteoporosis in aging men. In addition, in hypogonadism or elderly men, bone mass has been related to estrogen levels ratherthan to testosterone. Estrogen replacement therapy has therefore been proposed to prevent bone loss in males as well as infemales. Estrogen, however, has been considered to be one of the hormonal risk factors for benign prostatic hyperplasia andprostate cancer and also has other side effects. Young coconut juice (YCJ presumably containing phytoestrogen was investigatedin the present study for its possible beneficial effects on delaying osteoporosis using a male rat model, and by this totest the possibility that it might be able to replace estrogen replacement therapy without side effects. In this study, mandibularcancellous bone was used as the osteoporotic model. Using the same model, we have previously found that total cartilagethickness particularly the hypertrophic zone of mandibular condylar cartilage was thicker in the sham-operated rats receivingYCJ orally fed for a 14 day period, compared with sham, orchidectomized animal, orchidectomized rats receiving estradiolbenzoate, and orchidectomized rats receiving YCJ. The present study confirmed our former study that mandibular cancellousbone in the sham-operated rats and in the orchidectomized rats receiving YCJ orally fed for a 14–day period were thicker thanthose of the sham and orchidectomized rat groups. This study results are novel and they indicate that YCJ may have beneficialeffects in the treatment of osteoporosis in andropause men.

  15. Mechanism of donor to host tolerance in rat bone marrow chimeras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tutschka, P.; Schwerdtfeger, R.; Slavin, R.; Santos, G.

    1977-01-01

    Lewis rats were conditioned with cyclophosphamide and grafted with AgB incompatible bone marrow. They were examined 250 days after transplantation and demonstrated to be healthy complete chimeras. Marrow cells from these chimeras were infused into lethally irradiated ACI, Lewis and BN recipients. Graft-versus-host disease occurred only in the BN rats. Other chimeric rats were given no treatment, busulfan, CY, or total body irradiation prior to the infusion of normal ACI BM. GvHD occurred only in animals given CY or TBI. Normal Lewis rats were conditioned with TBI and given ACI BM. In addition, they received whole blood, irradiated blood, or serum from chimeric rats. GvHD developed in all animals except those given unirradiated chimeric blood. These studies suggest that suppressor cell populations, sensitive to immunosuppression, are likely the fundamental mechanism of recovery from GvHD

  16. Increased concentration of vasopressin in plasma of essential fatty acid-deficient rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Harald S.; Jensen, B.; Warberg, J.

    1985-01-01

    The effect of essential fatty acid deficiency (EFA-D) on the plasma concentration of arginine-vasopressin (AVP) and the urinary AVP excretion was investigated. Weanling rats were fed a fat-free diet (FF-rats). Control rats received the same diet in which 6% by wt. of sucrose was replaced by arachis...... oil. After 4-6 weeks of feeding, urine and plasma were analysed for AVP, osmolality, sodium and potassium. When compared to control rats FF-rats had decreased urine volume (6.0 ± 1.6 ml/24 hr versus 11.7 ± 3.2 ml/24 hr), increased urine osmolality (2409 ± 691 mOsm/kg versus 1260 ± 434 m...

  17. Fluid resuscitation does not improve renal oxygenation during hemorrhagic shock in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Legrand, Matthieu; Mik, Egbert; Balestra, Gianmarco; Lutter, Rene; Pirracchio, Romain; Payen, Didier; Ince, Can

    2010-01-01

    textabstractBackground: The resuscitation strategy for hemorrhagic shock remains controversial, with the kidney being especially prone to hypoxia. Methods: The authors used a three-phase hemorrhagic shock model to investigate the effects of fluid resuscitation on renal oxygenation. After a 1-h shock phase, rats were randomized into four groups to receive either normal saline or hypertonic saline targeting a mean arterial pressure (MAP) of either 40 or 80 mmHg. After such resuscitation, rats w...

  18. Isoflurane Anesthesia Interferes with the Expression of Cocaine-Induced Sensitization in Female Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Siegal, Nora; Dow-Edwards, Diana

    2009-01-01

    Repeated cocaine administration results in a progressive sensitization of behavior which typically occurs more readily in female rats than in males. Our recent studies of rats undergoing surgical procedures revealed that following anesthesia, females sensitized less than males receiving identical repeated cocaine injections. Since isoflurane acts primarily by increasing the effects of the inhibitory neurotransmitter γ-amino butyric acid (GABA) and reducing the effects of the excitatory amino ...

  19. Functional assessments and histopathology of hepatorenal tissues of rats treated with raw and processed herbs

    OpenAIRE

    Ojiako, Okey A.; Chikezie, Paul C.; Ukairo, Doris I.; Ibegbulem, Chiedozie O.; Nwaoguikpe, Reginald N.

    2017-01-01

    The present study ascertained the functional integrity of hepatic and renal tissues, concurrently with blood lipid patterns, of Wistar rats infused with CCl4 and treated with raw and hydrothermal processed herbs, namely, Monodora myristica, Chromolaena odorata, Buccholzia coriacea and Sphenostylis stenocarpa. Measurement of phytochemical contents of the herbs was according to standard methods. The rats were randomly designated on the bases of diets and treatments received for 28 consecutive d...

  20. Monte Carlo-based dose reconstruction in a rat model for scattered ionizing radiation investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkby, Charles; Ghasroddashti, Esmaeel; Kovalchuk, Anna; Kolb, Bryan; Kovalchuk, Olga

    2013-09-01

    In radiation biology, rats are often irradiated, but the precise dose distributions are often lacking, particularly in areas that receive scatter radiation. We used a non-dedicated set of resources to calculate detailed dose distributions, including doses to peripheral organs well outside of the primary field, in common rat exposure settings. We conducted a detailed dose reconstruction in a rat through an analog to the conventional human treatment planning process. The process consisted of: (i) Characterizing source properties of an X-ray irradiator system, (ii) acquiring a computed tomography (CT) scan of a rat model, and (iii) using a Monte Carlo (MC) dose calculation engine to generate the dose distribution within the rat model. We considered cranial and liver irradiation scenarios where the rest of the body was protected by a lead shield. Organs of interest were the brain, liver and gonads. The study also included paired scenarios where the dose to adjacent, shielded rats was determined as a potential control for analysis of bystander effects. We established the precise doses and dose distributions delivered to the peripheral organs in single and paired rats. Mean doses to non-targeted organs in irradiated rats ranged from 0.03-0.1% of the reference platform dose. Mean doses to the adjacent rat peripheral organs were consistent to within 10% those of the directly irradiated rat. This work provided details of dose distributions in rat models under common irradiation conditions and established an effective scenario for delivering only scattered radiation consistent with that in a directly irradiated rat.

  1. Obesity and the use of antibiotics and probiotics in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sá Del Fiol, Fernando; Tardelli Ferreira, Alessandra Cristina Marciano; Marciano, Jorge José; Marques, Maria Claudia; Sant'Ana, Luciane Lopes

    2014-01-01

    Obesity has become a major public health challenge in recent years. Recent studies suggest that alterations of the gut microbiota by antibiotics could play an important role in obesity. We investigated this topic using 60 Wistar rats, which were divided into 3 experimental groups: rats treated with amoxicillin, rats treated with amoxicillin plus Saccharomyces boulardii and controls. Treatments were administered over the course of 2 weeks. Tetrapolar bioelectric impedance analysis and anthropometric evaluations were conducted. The body mass index was significantly lower for the animals in the control group (p = 0.034). The same result was observed for the Lee index: the control group had a lower index than the 2 groups that received antibiotic treatment (p = 0.0019). The total body water data demonstrated that the control group had the greatest amount of body water (279.1 g, p = 0.0243). The groups treated with the antibiotic exhibited a greater accumulation of body fat than the control group.

  2. The effect of caffeine on orthodontic tooth movement in rats

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    Mohsen Shirazi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: to determine the effect of different doses of caffeine on orthodontic tooth movement (OTM in rats. Materials and Methods: Forty male 250-300 g Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups of ten animals each and received 0 (control, 1 g/l, 2 g/l and 3 g/l caffeine in tap water for 3 days. Orthodontic appliances were ligated between the maxillary first molars and incisors on the 4th day of the study period. All rats were sacrificed after 2 weeks of treatment after which OTM was measured. Hematoxylin/eosin-stained sections of the molars were prepared and the mesial roots were examined for resorption-lacunae depth and osteoclast number. ANOVA was used for statistical analysis (P

  3. Relatedness decreases and reciprocity increases cooperation in Norway rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweinfurth, Manon K; Taborsky, Michael

    2018-03-14

    Kin selection and reciprocity are two mechanisms underlying the evolution of cooperation, but the relative importance of kinship and reciprocity for decisions to cooperate are yet unclear for most cases of cooperation. Here, we experimentally tested the relative importance of relatedness and received cooperation for decisions to help a conspecific in wild-type Norway rats ( Rattus norvegicus ). Test rats provided more food to non-kin than to siblings, and they generally donated more food to previously helpful social partners than to those that had refused help. The rats thus applied reciprocal cooperation rules irrespective of relatedness, highlighting the importance of reciprocal help for cooperative interactions among both related and unrelated conspecifics. © 2018 The Author(s).

  4. Chronic stress does not impair liver regeneration in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Kasper J; Knudsen, Anders Riegels; Wiborg, Ove

    2015-01-01

    a 70 % partial hepatectomy (PHx). The animals were evaluated on postoperative day 2 or 4. Blood samples were collected to examine circulating markers of inflammation and liver cell damage. Additionally, liver tissues were sampled to evaluate liver weight and regeneration rate. RESULTS: None......BACKGROUND: Although wound healing is a simple regenerative process that is critical after surgery, it has been shown to be impaired under psychological stress. The liver has a unique capacity to regenerate through highly complex mechanisms. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects...... of chronic stress, which may induce a depression-like state, on the complex process of liver regeneration in rats. METHODS: Twenty rats were included in this study. The animals received either a standard housing protocol or were subjected to a Chronic Mild Stress (CMS) stress paradigm. All rats underwent...

  5. Sildenafil reduces polyuria in rats with lithium-induced NDI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanches, Talita Rojas; Volpini, Rildo Aparecido; Massola Shimizu, Maria H; Bragança, Ana Carolina de; Oshiro-Monreal, Fabíola; Seguro, Antonio Carlos; Andrade, Lúcia

    2012-01-01

    Lithium (Li)-treated patients often develop urinary concentrating defect and polyuria, a condition known as nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI). In a rat model of Li-induced NDI, we studied the effect that sildenafil (Sil), a phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE5) inhibitor, has on renal expression of aquaporin-2 (AQP2), urea transporter UT-A1, Na(+)/H(+) exchanger 3 (NHE3), Na(+)-K(+)-2Cl(-) cotransporter (NKCC2), epithelial Na channel (ENaC; α-, β-, and γ-subunits), endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), and inducible nitric oxide synthase. We also evaluated cGMP levels in medullary collecting duct cells in suspension. For 4 wk, Wistar rats received Li (40 mmol/kg food) or no treatment (control), some receiving, in weeks 2-4, Sil (200 mg/kg food) or Li and Sil (Li+Sil). In Li+Sil rats, urine output and free water clearance were markedly lower, whereas urinary osmolality was higher, than in Li rats. The cGMP levels in the suspensions of medullary collecting duct cells were markedly higher in the Li+Sil and Sil groups than in the control and Li groups. Semiquantitative immunoblotting revealed the following: in Li+Sil rats, AQP2 expression was partially normalized, whereas that of UT-A1, γ-ENaC, and eNOS was completely normalized; and expression of NKCC2 and NHE3 was significantly higher in Li rats than in controls. Inulin clearance was normal in all groups. Mean arterial pressure and plasma arginine vasopressin did not differ among the groups. Sil completely reversed the Li-induced increase in renal vascular resistance. We conclude that, in experimental Li-induced NDI, Sil reduces polyuria, increases urinary osmolality, and decreases free water clearance via upregulation of renal AQP2 and UT-A1.

  6. Taurine Ameliorates Renal Oxidative Damage and Thyroid Dysfunction in Rats Chronically Exposed to Fluoride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adedara, Isaac A; Ojuade, Temini Jesu D; Olabiyi, Bolanle F; Idris, Umar F; Onibiyo, Esther M; Ajeigbe, Olufunke F; Farombi, Ebenezer O

    2017-02-01

    Excessive exposure to fluoride poses several detrimental effects to human health particularly the kidney which is a major organ involved in its elimination from the body. The influence of taurine on fluoride-induced renal toxicity was investigated in a co-exposure paradigm for 45 days using five groups of eight rats each. Group I rats received normal drinking water alone, group II rats were exposed to sodium fluoride (NaF) in drinking water at 15 mg/L alone, group III received taurine alone at a dose of 200 mg/kg group IV rats were co-administered with NaF and taurine (100 mg/kg), while group V rats were co-administered with NaF and taurine (200 mg/kg). Administration of taurine significantly reversed the fluoride-mediated decrease in absolute weight and organo-somatic index of the kidney in the exposed rats. Taurine significantly prevented fluoride-induced elevation in plasma urea and creatinine levels in the exposed rats. Moreover, taurine restored fluoride-mediated decrease in the circulatory concentrations of triiodothyronine, thyroxine, and the ratio of triiodothyronine to thyroxine. Taurine ameliorated fluoride-mediated decrease in renal antioxidant status by significantly enhancing the antioxidant enzyme activities as well as glutathione level in the exposed rats. Additionally, taurine inhibited fluoride-induced renal oxidative damage by markedly decreasing the hydrogen peroxide and malondialdehyde levels as well as improved the kidney architecture in the treated rats. Collectively, taurine protected against fluoride-induced renal toxicity via enhancement of thyroid gland function, renal antioxidant status, and histology in rats.

  7. Exploring acute-to-chronic neuropathic pain in rats after contusion spinal cord injury.

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    Gaudet, Andrew D; Ayala, Monica T; Schleicher, Wolfgang E; Smith, Elana J; Bateman, Emily M; Maier, Steven F; Watkins, Linda R

    2017-09-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) causes chronic pain in 65% of individuals. Unfortunately, current pain management is inadequate for many SCI patients. Rodent models could help identify how SCI pain develops, explore new treatment strategies, and reveal whether acute post-SCI morphine worsens chronic pain. However, few studies explore or compare SCI-elicited neuropathic pain in rats. Here, we sought to determine how different clinically relevant contusion SCIs in male and female rats affect neuropathic pain, and whether acute morphine worsens later chronic SCI pain. First, female rats received sham surgery, or 150kDyn or 200kDyn midline T9 contusion SCI. These rats displayed modest mechanical allodynia and long-lasting thermal hyperalgesia. Next, a 150kDyn (1s dwell) midline contusion SCI was performed in male and female rats. Interestingly, males, but not females showed SCI-elicited mechanical allodynia; rats of both sexes had thermal hyperalgesia. In this model, acute morphine treatment had no significant effect on chronic neuropathic pain symptoms. Unilateral SCIs can also elicit neuropathic pain that could be exacerbated by morphine, so male rats received unilateral T13 contusion SCI (100kDyn). These rats exhibited significant, transient mechanical allodynia, but not thermal hyperalgesia. Acute morphine did not exacerbate chronic pain. Our data show that specific rat contusion SCI models cause neuropathic pain. Further, chronic neuropathic pain elicited by these contusion SCIs was not amplified by our course of early post-trauma morphine. Using clinically relevant rat models of SCI could help identify novel pain management strategies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of a Brazilian regional basic diet on the prevalence of caries in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Pinheiro, J.T.; Couto, G.B.L.; Vasconcelos, M.M.V.B.; Melo, M.M.D.C.; Guedes, R.C.A.; Cordeiro, M.A.C.

    2002-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of a regional basic diet (RBD) on the prevalence of caries in the molar teeth of rats of both sexes aged 23 days. The animals were divided into six groups of 10 rats each receiving the following diets for 30 and 60 days after weaning: RBD, a cariogenic diet, and a commercial diet. The prevalence and penetration of caries in the molar teeth of the rats was then analyzed. The RBD produced caries in 37.5% of the teeth of animals fed 30 day...

  9. Influence of local tetracycline on the microbiota of alveolar osteitis in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Bosco, Joseane Maria Dias; Oliveira, Sérgio Ricardo de; Bosco, Álvaro Francisco; Schweitzer, Christiane Marie; Jardim Júnior, Elerson Gaetti

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of local tetracycline on the occurrence of alveolar osteitis in rats, and on the microbiota associated to this infection. Forty Wistar rats were randomly assigned to 4 groups (n=10): I - the rats had the maxillary right incisor extracted and the alveolar wound did not receive any treatment; II - adrenaline and Ringer-PRAS were introduced into the alveolar wound; III - the alveolar wound was irrigated with sterile saline; and IV - the al...

  10. Autoshaping a leverpress in rats with lateral, medial, or complete septal lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poplawsky, A; Phillips, C L

    1986-05-01

    Rats with either control operations or lateral, medial, or complete septal lesions received 600 trials of leverpress training using an autoshaping procedure, i.e., food delivery followed a 10 s illuminated lever presentation, or occurred immediately after a leverpress. Rats with complete septal lesions acquired the leverpress faster than controls and had more food-tray entries per minute during the first 100 trials than the other groups. Rats with lateral or medial septal lesions had leverpress and food-tray entries equivalent to controls. The facilitation of autoshaping a leverpress may partially be explained by the general increase in motor reactivity to stimuli found following septal lesions.

  11. Studies on amino acid absorption and protein metabolism in the rat following total gastrectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walter, F.; Czarnetzki, H.D.; Albert, H.; Schwokowski, C.; Junghans, P.; Jung, K.; Akademie der Wissenschaften der DDR, Leipzig. Zentralinstitut fuer Isotopen- und Strahlenforschung)

    1982-01-01

    Rats were gastrectomized according to Graham and Longmire/Guetgemann, resp. 6 to 12 weeks after gastrectomy the animals received a single dose of 15 N-glycine with the food. 15 N excretion has been determined every 12 hours for 5 days. All rats revealed a positive N balance. Urinary excretion of 15 N was significantly less in rats operated according to Graham (missing duodenal passage) than in the controls and those operated according to Longmire. The differences seem to be caused by differently fast absorption, but the disturbances in the amino acid absorption are not aggravating and N balance and protein synthesis are normal

  12. Carprofen for perioperative analgesia causes early anastomotic leakage in the rat ileum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Vijver, Rozemarijn J; van Laarhoven, Cees J H M; Lomme, Roger M L M; Hendriks, Thijs

    2012-12-27

    There is increasing evidence that perioperative use of NSAIDs may compromise the integrity of intestinal anastomoses. This study aims to characterize the negative effects of carprofen on early anastomotic healing in the rat ileum. In 159 male Wistar rats an anastomosis was constructed in the ileum. In experiment 1 eighty-four rats were divided over control and experimental groups, which received daily buprenorphine or carprofen, respectively, as an analgesic and were killed on day 1, 2 or 3 after surgery. In experiment 2 three groups of 15 rats received carprofen either immediately after surgery or with a delay of 1 or 2 days. Animals were killed after 3 days of carprofen administration. In experiment 3 three groups of 10 rats received different doses (full, half or quarter) of carprofen from surgery. In significant contrast to buprenorphine, which never did so, carprofen induced frequent signs of anastomotic leakage, which were already present at day 1. If first administration was delayed for 48 hours, the leakage rate was significantly reduced (from 80 to 20%; p = 0.0028). Throughout the study, the anastomotic bursting pressure was lowest in animals who displayed signs of anastomotic leakage. Loss of anastomotic integrity did not coincide with reduced levels of hydroxyproline or increased activity of matrix metalloproteinases. Carprofen interferes with wound healing in the rat ileum at a very early stage. Although the mechanisms responsible remain to be fully elucidated, one should be aware of the potential of NSAIDs to interfere with the early phase of wound repair.

  13. Effects of Pomegranate Seed Oil on the Fertilization Potency of Rat's Sperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikseresht, Mohsen; Fallahzadeh, Ali Reza; Toori, Mehdi Akbartabar; Mahmoudi, Reza

    2015-12-01

    Pomegranate has been taken great scientific attention in recent years due to its health benefits. Pomegranate seed oil is a rich source of 9-cis, and 11-trans conjugate linolenic acid. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of dietary pomegranate seed oil on the fertilization potency of rat's sperm. Twenty-four male Wistar rats were divided into four groups. The first group, which served as the control group, received 1 mL of corn oil for seven weeks. Groups II, III, IV served as the experimental groups received 200, 500 and 1000 mg/kg of pomegranate seed oil, for the same period of time respectively. After seven weeks, all of the rats were sacrificed, and their epididymis sperm was collected and added to IVF medium (T6) containing metaphase II oocytes. Almost 21 oocytes had been removed from every female rat oviduct. In this medium, oocyte fertilization, cleavage rates, and embryo development into blastocysts, were evaluated by inverted microscopy. Levels of LD50 in the oral route in male rats were more than 5000 mg/kg body weight. Our data showed that the rates of fertilization, cleavage and embryo development into blastocysts were higher in the groups that had received 500 and 1000 mg/kg body weight of pomegranate seed oil. This study demonstrated that pomegranate seed oil had a positive effect on the fertilization potency of male rats. These beneficial effects may be useful in assisted reproductive technology.

  14. Comparison of pharyngocutaneous fistula closure with and without bacterial cellulose in a rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, Berat; Sarı, Murat; Binnetoglu, Adem; Yumusakhuylu, Ali Cemal; Filinte, Deniz; Tekin, İshak Özel; Bağlam, Tekin; Batman, Abdullah Çağlar

    2018-04-01

    The present study aimed to compare the effects of bacterial cellulose used for closure of pharyngocutaneous fistulae, a complication of total laryngectomy, with those of primary sutures in a rat model. Thirty female Sprague-Dawley underwent experimental pharyngoesophagotomy and were grouped depending on the material used for pharyngocutaneous fistula closure: group I, which received primary sutures alone, group II, which received bacterial cellulose alone; and group III, which received both. After 7 days, the rats were sacrificed. Pharyngocutaneous fistula development was assessed, the gross wound was inspected, and histological examination was conducted. Pharyngocutaneous fistulae developed in 12 rats (41%) in all: 6 from group I (21%), 4 from group II (14%) and 2 from group III (7%). Fibroblast density and inflammatory cell infiltration were significantly greater in group III than group I. We concluded that bacterial cellulose may be useful for pharyngocutaneous fistula closure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. The Effect of Systemic Amantadine Sulfate on Malondialdehyde and Total Thiol Levels in Rat Corneas

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    Züleyha Yalniz-Akkaya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate the malondialdehyde (MDA and total thiol (sulfhydryl, SH levels in rat corneas after intraperitoneal injection of amantadine sulfate. Methods: A total of 12 Wistar albino rats were divided into two groups: control group (n = 6 and amantadine group (n = 6. Balanced salt solution (1 mL, 0.9% NaCl, twice/day was injected into rats in control group. Amantadine sulfate (2 mg/1 mL, twice/day was injected into rats in amantadine group. In each group, two rats were injected for 1 week, two received injections for 1 month, and two rats received injections for 3 months. The corneas were homogenized and MDA and SH levels were measured spectroflourometrically. Results: In control group, median MDA and SH levels were 2.37 (range, 0.92-3.60 and 25.35 (range, 6.30-54.0 nmol/mg, respectively. In amantadine group, median MDA and SH levels were 3.57 (range, 1.25-5.92 and 32.65 (range, 3.30-48.3 nmol/mg, respectively. The difference between this two groups regarding MDA (P = 0.14 and SH (P = 1.0 levels was statistically insignificant. Conclusion: Systemically administered amantadine sulfate seems not to cause MDA and SH imbalance in rat corneas.

  16. HISTOLOGICAL STUDIES OF THE EFFECTS OF RED PEPPER ON THE STOMACH OF ADULT WISTAR RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josiah O. Adjene

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Histological effects of red pepper commonly used as spice in food on the stomach of adult wistar rats were carefully investigated. The rats of both sexes (n=24, average weight of 200g were randomly assigned into two treatments (n=16 and control (n=6 groups. The rats in the treatments groups received 1g and 2g of red pepper thoroughly mixed with 20g of their feeds for 7 and 14 days, while the control rats received equal amounts of feeds without the red pepper added. The rats were fed with grower's mash purchased from Edo feeds and flour mill Ltd, Ewu, Edo State and were given water liberally. The rats were sacrificed on day eight and fifteen of the experiment respectively.The stomach was carefully dissected out and quickly fixed in 10% formol saline for routine histological procedure after H & E method.The histological findings after H&E methods indicated that the treated sections of the stomach showed some level of cellular hypertrophy, congestion of blood vessels degenerative changes disruption and distortion of the cytoarchitecture of the stomach.These findings indicate that red pepper may have some deleterious effects on the microanatomy of the stomach of adult wistar rat at higher doses. It is recommended that further studies aimed at corroborating these findings be carried out.

  17. HISTOLOGICAL STUDIES OF THE EFFECTS OF MONOSODIUM GLUTAMATE ON THE INFERIOR COLLICULUS OF ADULT WISTAR RATS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.O. Eweka.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Histological effects of Monosodium glutamate (MSG commonly used as food additive on the inferior colliculus (IC of adult Wistar rats were carefully studied. The rats of both sexes (n=24, average weight of 185g were randomly assigned into two treatments (n=16 and control (n=8 groups. The rats in the treatment groups received 3g and 6g of MSG thoroughly mixed with their feeds for fourteen days, while the control rats received equal amounts of feeds without MSG added. The rats were fed with growers' mash purchased from Edo Feeds and Flour Mill Ltd, Ewu, Edo State and were given water liberally. The rats were sacrificed on day fifteen of the experiment. The inferior colliculus was carefully dissected out and quickly fixed in 10% formal saline for routine histological study after H&E method.The histological findings after H&E methods indicated that the treated sections of the inferior colliculus showed some cellular degenerative changes, cellular hypertrophy, and autophagic vacuoles with some intercellular vacuolations appearing in the stroma, and some degree of neuronal hypertrophy when compared to the control sections.These findings indicate that MSG consumption may have a deleterious effect on the neurons of the inferior colliculus (IC. MSG may probably have adverse effects on the auditory sensibilities by its deleterious effects on the nerve cells of the IC of adult Wistar rats. It is recommended that further studies aimed at corroborating these observations be carried out.

  18. Cardioprotective effect of vitamin D2 on isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction in diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Agaty, Sahar M

    2018-03-08

    To assess the effect of vitamin D 2 and to elucidate the underlying mechanisms on acute myocardial injury induced by isoproterenol (ISO) in diabetic rats. Rats were divided into control rats, diabetic rats (DM), diabetic rats received ISO (DM-ISO), and diabetic rats pretreated with vitamin D 2 and received ISO (DM-D 2 -ISO). Vitamin D 2 pretreatment significantly decreased fasting glucose and myocardial malondialdehyde, associated with increased insulin, myocardial glutathione and superoxide dismutase in DM-D 2 -ISO versus DM-ISO. The serum triglycerides, total cholesterol, and LDL were significantly decreased, along with increased HDL and adiponectin. Poly-ADP ribose polymerase, cyclooxygenase-2, tumour necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-6, caspase-3, BAX, and p53 were significantly downregulated in myocardium of DM-D 2 -ISO versus DM-ISO. Histological studies showed diminished inflammatory cells infiltration in myocardium of DM-D 2 -ISO versus DM-ISO. Vitamin D 2 ameliorates hyperglycaemia, dyslipidaemia, redox imbalance, inflammatory and apoptotic processes, protecting the myocardium of diabetic rats against acute myocardial infarction.

  19. Colon Necrosis Due to Sodium Polystyrene Sulfonate with and without Sorbitol: An Experimental Study in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayoub, Isabelle; Oh, Man S; Gupta, Raavi; McFarlane, Michael; Babinska, Anna; Salifu, Moro O

    2015-01-01

    Based on a single rat study by Lillemoe et al, the consensus has been formed to implicate sorbitol rather than sodium polystyrene sulfonate (SPS) as the culprit for colon necrosis in humans treated with SPS and sorbitol. We tested the hypothesis that colon necrosis by sorbitol in the experiment was due to the high osmolality and volume of sorbitol rather than its chemical nature. 26 rats underwent 5/6 nephrectomy. They were divided into 6 groups and given enema solutions under anesthesia (normal saline, 33% sorbitol, 33% mannitol, SPS in 33% sorbitol, SPS in normal saline, and SPS in distilled water). They were sacrificed after 48 hours of enema administration or earlier if they were very sick. The gross appearance of the colon was visually inspected, and then sliced colon tissues were examined under light microscopy. 1 rat from the sorbitol and 1 from the mannitol group had foci of ischemic colonic changes. The rats receiving SPS enema, in sorbitol, normal saline, distilled water, had crystal deposition with colonic necrosis and mucosal erosion. All the rats not given SPS survived until sacrificed at 48 h whereas 11 of 13 rats that received SPS in sorbitol, normal saline or distilled water died or were clearly dying and sacrificed sooner. There was no difference between sorbitol and mannitol when given without SPS. In a surgical uremic rat model, SPS enema given alone or with sorbitol or mannitol seemed to cause colon necrosis and high mortality rate, whereas 33% sorbitol without SPS did not.

  20. Effect of General Anesthesia in Infancy on Long-Term Recognition Memory in Humans and Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stratmann, Greg; Lee, Joshua; Sall, Jeffrey W; Lee, Bradley H; Alvi, Rehan S; Shih, Jennifer; Rowe, Allison M; Ramage, Tatiana M; Chang, Flora L; Alexander, Terri G; Lempert, David K; Lin, Nan; Siu, Kasey H; Elphick, Sophie A; Wong, Alice; Schnair, Caitlin I; Vu, Alexander F; Chan, John T; Zai, Huizhen; Wong, Michelle K; Anthony, Amanda M; Barbour, Kyle C; Ben-Tzur, Dana; Kazarian, Natalie E; Lee, Joyce YY; Shen, Jay R; Liu, Eric; Behniwal, Gurbir S; Lammers, Cathy R; Quinones, Zoel; Aggarwal, Anuj; Cedars, Elizabeth; Yonelinas, Andrew P; Ghetti, Simona

    2014-01-01

    Anesthesia in infancy impairs performance in recognition memory tasks in mammalian animals, but it is unknown if this occurs in humans. Successful recognition can be based on stimulus familiarity or recollection of event details. Several brain structures involved in recollection are affected by anesthesia-induced neurodegeneration in animals. Therefore, we hypothesized that anesthesia in infancy impairs recollection later in life in humans and rats. Twenty eight children ages 6–11 who had undergone a procedure requiring general anesthesia before age 1 were compared with 28 age- and gender-matched children who had not undergone anesthesia. Recollection and familiarity were assessed in an object recognition memory test using receiver operator characteristic analysis. In addition, IQ and Child Behavior Checklist scores were assessed. In parallel, thirty three 7-day-old rats were randomized to receive anesthesia or sham anesthesia. Over 10 months, recollection and familiarity were assessed using an odor recognition test. We found that anesthetized children had significantly lower recollection scores and were impaired at recollecting associative information compared with controls. Familiarity, IQ, and Child Behavior Checklist scores were not different between groups. In rats, anesthetized subjects had significantly lower recollection scores than controls while familiarity was unaffected. Rats that had undergone tissue injury during anesthesia had similar recollection indices as rats that had been anesthetized without tissue injury. These findings suggest that general anesthesia in infancy impairs recollection later in life in humans and rats. In rats, this effect is independent of underlying disease or tissue injury. PMID:24910347

  1. Calcium and magnesium content in hard tissues of rats under condition of subchronic lead intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todorovic, Tatjana; Vujanovic, Dragana; Dozic, Ivan; Petkovic-Curcin, Aleksandra

    2008-03-01

    Lead manifests toxic effects in almost all organs and tissues, especially in: the nervous system, hematopoietic system, kidney and liver. This metal has a special affinity for deposition in hard tissue, i.e., bones and teeth. It is generally believed that the main mechanism of its toxicity relies on its interaction with bioelements, especially with Ca and Mg. This article analyses the influence of Pb poisoning on Ca and Mg content in hard tissues, (mandible, femur, teeth and skull) of female and young rats. Experiments were carried out on 60 female rats, AO breed, and on 80 of their young rats (offspring). Female rats were divided into three groups: the first one was a control group, the second one received 100 mg/kg Pb2+ kg b.wt. per day in drinking water, the third one received 30 mg/kg Pb(2+) kg b.wt. per day in drinking water. Young rats (offspring) were divided into the same respective three groups. Lead, calcium and magnesium content in hard tissues (mandible, femur, teeth-incisors and skull) was determined by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry in mineralized samples. There was a statistically significant Pb deposition in all analyzed female and young rat hard tissues. Ca and Mg contents were significantly reduced in all female and young rat hard tissues. These results show that Pb poisoning causes a significant reduction in Ca and Mg content in animal hard tissues, which is probably the consequence of competitive antagonism between Pb and Ca and Mg.

  2. HISTOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF CHRONIC CONSUMPTION OF NUTMEG ON THE LATERAL GENICULATE BODY OF ADULT WISTAR RATS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.O. Adjene

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of chronic consumption of nutmeg commonly used as a spice in various dishes, as components of teas and soft drinks or mixed in milk and alcohol on the lateral geniculate body of adult wistar rats was studied.The rats of both sexes, with average weight of 200g were randomly assigned into treatment and control groups. The rats in the treatment group (n=8 received 2g of nutmeg thoroughly mixed with the feeds on a daily basis for thirty-two days. The control group (n=8 received equal amount of feeds daily without nutmeg added for thirty-two days. The growers mash feeds was obtained from Edo Feeds and Flour Mill Limited, Ewu, Edo State, Nigeria and the rats were given water liberally. The rats were sacrificed on the thirty-three day of the experiment. The lateral geniculate body was carefully dissected out and quickly fixed in 10% formal saline for histological study.The findings indicate that rats in the treated group showed some cellular degenerative changes like sparse cellular population, pyknotic nuclei with some microcystic changes, edema and vacuolations in the stroma of the treated lateral geniculate body as compared to that of the control group.Chronic consumption of nutmeg may therefore have an adverse effect on the visual sensibilities by affecting the microanatomy of the lateral geniculate body of adult wistar rats. It is recommended for further studies aimed at corroborating these observations.

  3. Structure of the vitreoretinal border region in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR rats)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heegaard, Steffen

    1993-01-01

    Øjenpatologi, vitreoretinal border region, inner limiting membrane of the retina, spontaneously hypertensive rats, SHR rats, ultrastructure......Øjenpatologi, vitreoretinal border region, inner limiting membrane of the retina, spontaneously hypertensive rats, SHR rats, ultrastructure...

  4. Impacts of morphine addiction on spermatogenesis in rats

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    Nasrin Takzare

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: There are numerous investigations on wide range of issues that disrupt regulatory spermatogenesis, individuals who are exposed to drug abuse faced infertility and immature spermatogenesis. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the addiction effects of morphine and its derivatives on rats spermatogenesis. Materials and Methods: 40 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 5 equal groups, which were exposed either with intravenous morphine, naloxone, naloxone and morphine, sham (with normal saline injection and a control group without infusion. Spermatogenesis was assessed after three months via histological sections with hematoxylin and eosin staining, using a light microscope based on measurement of spermatogonia, spermatocyte, spermatid, and spermatozoa. Results: Those rats that received opioids had changes in spermatogenesis function. The population of spermatogenesis cycle cells at spermatogonia, spermatocyte, spermatid, and spermatozoa stages was significantly decreased in those rats that received opioid in comparison to the control group (p<0.05. Histological studies revealed that changes in different groups of opioid application might affect sperm formation. Sperm count in morphine group was (0±0 and in naloxone group, naloxone+morphine, sham and control were 235±3.77, 220±3.81, 247.12±6.10 and 250±6.54, respectively (p<0.001. Conclusion: Morphine could affect all spermatogenesis stages

  5. The Effect of Nicotine Administration on Physical and Psychological Signs of Withdrawal Syndrome Induced by Single or Frequent Doses of Morphine in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Allahtavakoli; Fatemeh Amin; Elham Hakimizadeh; Ali Roohbakhsh; Sayed Ali Haeri Rohani; Ahmad Taghavi Rafsanjani; Abbas Haghparast; Ali Shamsizadeh

    2012-01-01

    Introduction. Morphine addiction and morphine withdrawal syndrome are the two main problems of today’s human society. The present study has investigated the effects of nicotine on the strength of physical and psychological dependency in single and repeated doses morphine administrated rats. Materials and methods. Male Wistar rats were subjected to morphine consumption with single or frequent dose protocols. In the single dose protocol, rats received only one dose of morphine and 24hrs later t...

  6. Histopathological effects of doxorubicin on kidneys in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.A. Ali

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the histolopathological effect of doxorubicin on rat kidney tissue. The drug was administrated by rats at the dose of (1, 2, 3, 4, 5 mg/kg intrapertonial every (84 hr for the three weeks and the doses of (1, 2, 3 mg/kg intrapertonial every 84 hrs for six weeks. The animals were scarified after 48 hr. of last injection. The study revealed congestion, thrombus, blood vessels hemorrhage, vaculation in the cells of glomerular tuft and tubular, tubuo-interstitial degeneration, tubular casts. The injury score revealed significantly increasing in the degree of injury in glomerules in the animals that received 5 mg/kg of doxorubicin for three weeks and also significantly increasing in the degree of injury in glomerules of the animals that received 3 mg/kg of doxorubicin for six weeks as compared with control animals. We concluded that the doxorubicin has histopathological effect on kidney.

  7. The Possible Therapeutic Role of Polyphenyl Constituents in Turmeric and Tamoxifen on Hepatocellular Carcinoma Chemically Induced in Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdelgawad, M.R.

    2017-01-01

    Tamoxifen is a drug wildly used for the adjuvant therapy in the treatment of women with estrogen receptor-positive breast tumors and has a low incidence of serious side-effects. Feeding turmeric ( Curcuma longa L .) to rats has no apparent side effects; reduced the types of inflammation that can cause liver cell damage, blockage and scarring. Turmeric delay the damage caused by progressive inflammatory liver disease. This study was carried out to study the possible therapeutic effect of polyphenyl constituents in turmeric and tamoxifen on hepatocarcinogenesis in rats chemically induced by diethylnitrosamine (DEN). Thirty five male rats were injected with DEN in a single dose i.p. (200mg/kg), 7 rats were sacrificed after ~6 months for histopathological examination for HCC nodules in different lobes and lobules, many nodules were observed by naked eye with a diameter of about ~2-3mm. The remaining 28 hepatoma (HCC) bearing rats chemically induced were randomized divided into 4 groups (each of 7rats): hepatoma bearing rats receiving the control diet; hepatoma bearing rats (supplemented with 4g/kg (wt/wt) turmeric (~200 μg curcumin /rat/day/4weeks; hepatoma bearing rats treated with 50mg/kg (wt/wt) tamoxifen dissolved in 0.1 ml dimethylsulfoxide and diluted with normal saline and drinking water; hepatoma bearing rats treated with 50mg/kg (wt/wt) tamoxifen in 0.1 ml dimethylsulfoxide and diluted with normal saline and drinking water and supplemented with 4g/ kg (wt/wt) turmeric(~200 μg curcumin /rat/day/4weeks; besides, 7 male rats serves as control group. By the end of the experiment at 4 weeks, rats in each group were sacrificed for examination.

  8. The effects of celery leave extract on male hormones in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kooti Wesam

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Celery (Apium graveolens belongs to the Umbelliferae family, and has a plenty of nutritional and pharmaceutical applications. The presence of phytoestrogenic compounds has been reported in this plant. These compounds may affect the pituitary-gonad axis. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of hydro-alcoholic extracts of celery leaves on serum levels of testosterone, LH and FSH in male rats. Methods: In this experimental study, 32 male Wistar rats were divided into four groups, eight rats included in each. The control group did not receive any treatment. The placebo group received distilled water and the case groups received 200 and 300 mg/kg/B.W of hydro-alcoholic celery leaf extract for 20 consecutive days by oral administration. After completion of the treatment, the rats were anesthetized and blood sampling from their heart was carried out. Then, serum levels of testosterone, LH and FSH were measured using immunoassay methods. The obtained data were analyzed by the SPSS using the statistical ANOVA test. Results: The level of LH in the case group receiving 200 mg/kg B.W of celery extract showed a significant decrease compared with the control and placebo groups (P0.05. Conclusion: The result of the present study shows that in the administered dose, celery extract does not have any considerable side effect on the secretion of hormones in male rats.

  9. Mangosteen peel extract reduces formalin-induced liver cell death in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afiana Rohmani

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Formalin is a xenobiotic that is now commonly used as a preservative in the food industry. The liver is an organ that has the highest metabolic capacity as compared to other organs. Mangosteen or Garcinia mangostana Linn (GML peel contains xanthones, which are a source of natural antioxidants. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of mangosteen peel extract on formalin-induced liver cell mortality rate and p53 protein expression in Wistar rats. Methods Eighteen rats received formalin orally for 2 weeks, and were subsequently divided into 3 groups, consisting of the formalin-control group receiving a placebo and treatment groups 1 and 2, which were treated with mangosteen peel extract at doses of 200 and 400 mg/kgBW/day, respectively. The treatment was carried out for 1 week, and finally the rats were terminated. The differences in liver cell mortality rate and p53 protein expression were analyzed. Results One-way ANOVA analysis showed significant differences in liver cell mortality rate among the three groups (p=0.004. The liver cell mortality rate in the treatment group receiving 400 mg/kgBW/day extract was lower than that in the formalin-control group. There was no p53 expression in all groups. Conclusions Garcinia mangostana Linn peel extract reduced the mortality rate of liver cells in rats receiving oral formalin. Involvement of p53 expression in liver cell mortality in rats exposed to oral formalin is presumably negligible.

  10. BPSK Receiver Based on Recursive Adaptive Filter with Remodulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Milosevic

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a new binary phase shift keying (BPSK signal receiver intended for reception under conditions of significant carrier frequency offsets. The recursive adaptive filter with least mean squares (LMS adaptation is used. The proposed receiver has a constant, defining the balance between the recursive and the nonrecursive part of the filter, whose proper choice allows a simple construction of the receiver. The correct choice of this parameter could result in unitary length of the filter. The proposed receiver has performance very close to the performance of the BPSK receiver with perfect frequency synchronization, in a wide range of frequency offsets (plus/minus quarter of the signal bandwidth. The results obtained by the software simulation are confirmed by the experimental results measured on the receiver realized with the universal software radio peripheral (USRP, with the baseband signal processing at personal computer (PC.

  11. Solar advanced internal film receiver; Receptor avanzado de pelicular interna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torre Cabezas, M. de la

    1990-07-01

    In a Solar Central Internal Film Receiver, the heat absorbing fluid (a molten nitrate salt) flows in a thin film down over the non illuminated side of an absorber panel. Since the molten salt working fluid is not contained in complicated tube manifolds, the receiver design is simples than a conventional tube type-receiver resulting in a lower cost and a more reliable receiver. The Internal Film Receiver can be considered as an alternative to the Direct Absorption Receiver, in the event that the current problems of the last one can not be solved. It also describes here the test facility which will be used for its solar test, and the test plans foreseen. (Author) 17 refs.

  12. Ways to rational management of accounts receivable at enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yevtushenko N. O.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This article investigated the principal reasons of management problems an account receivable of enterprises. Credit politics of management is worked out by an account receivable of enterprises. Essence of the stages of construction of rational management an account receivable of enterprises is exposed. In the article are exposed the basic elements of control system for an account receivable such as mission, aims, strategy as politics of management. The basic stages of management politics are described for an account receivable of enterprises: analysis; organization of forming of principles of credit politics, terms of delivery of credit and procedure of collection of accounts receivable; planning of the use of modern forms of refunding, and similarly control.

  13. Does Methylphenidate Affect Cystometric Parameters in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khae Hawn Kim

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Methylphenidate (MPH is one of the most commonly prescribed psychostimulants for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. However, there is limited research on its effects on lower urinary tract function. This study investigated changes in cystometric parameters after intragastric administration of MPH in conscious spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs, an animal model of ADHD. Methods: Fourteen- to 16-week-old male SHRs (n=10, weighing between 280 and 315 g, were used. Three micturition cycles were recorded before administering MPH. One hour after each intragastric MPH injection, three cycles of cystometrogram were obtained in the awake condition. Various cystometric parameters were evaluated, including basal pressure (BP, maximal pressure (MP, threshold pressure (TP, bladder capacity (BC, micturition volume (MV, micturition interval (MI, and residual volume (RV. The data were analyzed using paired Student t-tests. Results: Five SHRs were each administered a dose of 3-mg/kg MPH, and the other five received a dose of 6-mg/kg MPH. BP and MP increased significantly in the rats that received the 3-mg/kg MPH injection, but not in those that received the 6-mg/kg injection. BC, MV, and MI significantly increased in the rats that received the 6-mg/kg MPH injection, but not in those that received the 3-mg/kg injection. There were no significant changes in TP after either injection. Conclusions: Significant increases in BC, MV, and MI after the 6-mg/kg MPH injection suggest that the peripheral and the central nervous systems may play important roles in bladder function in those receiving MPH for ADHD.

  14. Ultrabroadband Phased-Array Receivers Based on Optical Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-26

    bandwidths, and with it receiver noise floors , are unavoidable. Figure 1. SNR of a thermally limited receiver based on Friis equation showing the...techniques for RF and photonic integration based on liquid crystal polymer substrates were pursued that would aid in the realization of potential imaging...These models assumed that sufficient LNA gain was used on the antenna to set the noise floor of the imaging receiver, which necessitated physical

  15. PENENTUAN RECEIVED DATE DENGAN LOAD-ORIENTED MANUFACRURING CONTROL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Hartini

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Salah satu kunci kompetitif sebuah perusahaan make to order adalah ketepatan dalam pemenuhan waktu penerimaan pesanan pada konsumen yang telah dijanjikan perusahaan ( received date. Penentuan received date yang selama ini dilakukan oleh JI  kurang tepat karena hanya memperkirakan waktu sekitar 10 – 12 minggu tanpa mempertimbangkan faktor produksi. Penelitian ini merancang received date dengan model load-oriented manufacturing control dimana penentuan received date didasarkan pada perhitungan manufacturing lead time yang mempertimbangkan waktu pengiriman order ke konsumen, kapasitas yang tersedia pada tiap stasiun kerja, waktu proses pada stasiun kerja dan aliran produksi di lantai produksi. Hasil validasi perhitungan  penentuan received date order sesuai  dengan sistem produksi PT JI dan lebih valid dibanding sistem awal. Kata kunci : make to order, received date, manufacturing leadtime, load-oriented manufacturing control   One of the competitive key of a make to order company is the accuracy in fulfilling orders which has been promised by the company towards the consumers (received date. Determining received date which has been applied by JI recently is not sufficient because it only predicts 10-12 weeks of time without considering production factors. This research designs received date with load-oriented manufacturing control model where determining received date is based on calculating manufacturing lead time that considers the time needed to deliver orders to the consumer, capacity available for each work station, work station process time, and production flow within the production floor.  Validation results from the calculations for determining received date order is adjusted to PT JI  production system and is more valid than the first system. Keywords : make to order, received date, manufacturing leadtime, load-oriented manufacturing control

  16. Recovery of colonic transit following extrinsic nerve damage in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridolfi, Timothy J; Tong, Wei Dong; Kosinski, Lauren; Takahashi, Toku; Ludwig, Kirk A

    2011-06-01

    Injury to pelvic sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves from surgical and obstetrical trauma has long been cited as a cause for abnormal colorectal motility in humans. Using a rat model, acute transaction of these extrinsic nerves has been shown to effect colorectal motility. The aim of this study is to determine in a rat model how transection of these extrinsic nerves affects colonic transit over time. Eighty-two Sprague-Dawley rats underwent placement of a tunneled catheter into the proximal colon. Bilateral hypogastric, pelvic nerves (HGN and PN) or both were transected in 66 rats. The remaining 16 rats received a sham operation. Colonic transit was evaluated at postoperative days (PODs) 1, 3, and 7 by injecting and calculating the geometric center (GC) of the distribution of (51)Cr after 3 h of propagation. At POD 1, transection of PNs significantly delayed colonic transit (GC = 4.9, p < 0.05), while transection of HGNs (GC = 8.5, p < 0.05) or transection of both nerves (GC = 7.8, p < 0.05) significantly accelerated colonic transit, when compared with sham operation (GC = 6.0). A significant trend toward recovery was noted in both the HGN and PN transection groups at POD 7. Damage to the extrinsic sympathetic and/or parasympathetic PNs affects colonic transit acutely. These changes in large bowel motor function normalize over time implicating a compensatory mechanism within the bowel itself.

  17. Unsaturated Fatty Acids Supplementation Reduces Blood Lead Level in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoczyńska, Anna; Wojakowska, Anna; Nowacki, Dorian; Bobak, Łukasz; Turczyn, Barbara; Smyk, Beata; Szuba, Andrzej; Trziszka, Tadeusz

    2015-01-01

    Some dietary factors could inhibit lead toxicity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of dietary compounds rich in unsaturated fatty acids (FA) on blood lead level, lipid metabolism, and vascular reactivity in rats. Serum metallothionein and organs' lead level were evaluated with the aim of assessing the possible mechanism of unsaturated FA impact on blood lead level. For three months, male Wistar rats that were receiving drinking water with (100 ppm Pb) or without lead acetate were supplemented per os daily with virgin olive oil or linseed oil (0.2 mL/kg b.w.) or egg derived lecithin fraction: “super lecithin” (50 g/kg b.w.). Mesenteric artery was stimulated ex vivo by norepinephrine (NE) administered at six different doses. Lecithin supplementation slightly reduced pressor responses of artery to NE. Lead administered to rats attenuated the beneficial effect of unsaturated FA on lipid metabolism and vascular reactivity to adrenergic stimulation. On the other hand, the super lecithin and linseed oil that were characterized by low omega-6 to omega-3 ratio (about 1) reduced the blood lead concentration. This effect was observed in lead poisoned rats (p < 0.0001) and also in rats nonpoisoned with lead (p < 0.05). PMID:26075218

  18. The effect of caffeine on orthodontic tooth movement in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirazi, Mohsen; Vaziri, Hamed; Salari, Behzad; Motahhari, Pouria; Etemad-Moghadam, Shahroo; Dehpour, Ahmad Reza

    2017-01-01

    Objective(s): to determine the effect of different doses of caffeine on orthodontic tooth movement (OTM) in rats. Materials and Methods: Forty male 250-300 g Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups of ten animals each and received 0 (control), 1 g/l, 2 g/l and 3 g/l caffeine in tap water for 3 days. Orthodontic appliances were ligated between the maxillary first molars and incisors on the 4th day of the study period. All rats were sacrificed after 2 weeks of treatment after which OTM was measured. Hematoxylin/eosin-stained sections of the molars were prepared and the mesial roots were examined for resorption-lacunae depth and osteoclast number. ANOVA was used for statistical analysis (Presorption-lacunae depths demonstrated significant differences between each of the caffeine groups and control rats (P0.05). Conclusion: According to our findings, one of the effects of caffeine consumption during orthodontic treatment in rats was decreased root resorption. Additionally, concentrations of 2 g/l and 3 g/l inhibited OTM which seems to be due to its influence on osteoclast numbers. PMID:28392897

  19. Critical analysis and systematization of rat pancreatectomy terminology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eulálio, José Marcus Raso; Bon-Habib, Assad Charbel Chequer; Soares, Daiane de Oliveira; Corrêa, Paulo Guilherme Antunes; Pineschi, Giovana Penna Firme; Diniz, Victor Senna; Manso, José Eduardo Ferreira; Schanaider, Alberto

    2016-10-01

    To critically analyze and standardize the rat pancreatectomy nomenclature variants. It was performed a review of indexed manuscripts in PUBMED from 01/01/1945 to 31/12/2015 with the combined keywords "rat pancreatectomy" and "rat pancreas resection". The following parameters was considered: A. Frequency of publications; B. Purpose of the pancreatectomy in each article; C. Bibliographic references; D. Nomenclature of techniques according to the pancreatic parenchyma resection percentage. Among the 468, the main objectives were to surgically induce diabetes and to study the genes regulations and expressions. Five rat pancreatectomy technique references received 15 or more citations. Twenty different terminologies were identified for the pancreas resection: according to the resected parenchyma percentage (30 to 95%); to the procedure type (total, subtotal and partial); or based on the selected anatomical region (distal, longitudinal and segmental). A nomenclature systematization was gathered by cross-checking information between the main surgical techniques, the anatomic parameters descriptions and the resected parenchyma percentages. The subtotal pancreatectomy nomenclature for parenchymal resection between 80 and 95% establishes a surgical parameter that also defines the total and partial pancreatectomy limits and standardizes these surgical procedures in rats.

  20. Both hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism increase atrial fibrillation inducibility in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Youhua; Dedkov, Eduard I; Teplitsky, Diana; Weltman, Nathan Y; Pol, Christine J; Rajagopalan, Viswanathan; Lee, Bianca; Gerdes, A Martin

    2013-10-01

    Evidence indicates that cardiac hypothyroidism may contribute to heart failure progression. It is also known that heart failure is associated with an increased risk of atrial fibrillation (AF). Although it is established that hyperthyroidism increases AF incidence, the effect of hypothyroidism on AF is unclear. This study investigated the effects of different thyroid hormone levels, ranging from hypothyroidism to hyperthyroidism on AF inducibility in thyroidectomized rats. Thyroidectomized rats with serum-confirmed hypothyroidism 1 month after surgery were randomized into hypothyroid (N=9), euthyroid (N=9), and hyperthyroid (N=9) groups. Rats received placebo, 3.3-mg l-thyroxine (T4), or 20-mg T4 pellets (60-day release form) for 2 months, respectively. At the end of treatment, hypothyroid, euthyroid, and hyperthyroid status was confirmed. Hypothyroid animals showed cardiac atrophy and reduced cardiac systolic and diastolic functions, whereas hyperthyroid rats exhibited cardiac hypertrophy and increased cardiac function. Hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism produced opposite electrophysiological changes in heart rates and atrial effective refractory period, but both significantly increased AF susceptibility. AF incidence was 78% in hypothyroid, 67% in hyperthyroid, and the duration of induced AF was also longer, compared with 11% in the euthyroid group (all Phyperthyroidism lead to increased AF vulnerability in a rat thyroidectomy model. Our results stress that normal thyroid hormone levels are required to maintain normal cardiac electrophysiology and to prevent cardiac arrhythmias and AF.

  1. Both Hypothyroidism and Hyperthyroidism Increase Atrial Fibrillation Inducibility in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Youhua; Dedkov, Eduard I.; Teplitsky, Diana; Weltman, Nathan Y.; Pol, Christine J.; Rajagopalan, Viswanathan; Lee, Bianca; Gerdes, A. Martin

    2014-01-01

    Background Evidence indicates that cardiac hypothyroidism may contribute to heart failure (HF) progression. It is also known that HF is associated with an increased risk of atrial fibrillation (AF). While it is established that hyperthyroidism increases AF incidence, the effect of hypothyroidism on AF is unclear. This study investigated the effects of different thyroid hormone levels, ranging from hypothyroidism to hyperthyroidism on AF inducibility in thyroidectomized rats. Methods and Results Thyroidectomized rats with serum confirmed hypothyroidism 1 month after surgery were randomized into hypothyroid (n=9), euthyroid (n=9) and hyperthyroid (n=9) groups. Rats received placebo, 3.3mg L-thyroxine (T4), or 20 mg T4 pellets (60 day release form) for 2 months, respectively. At the end of treatment, hypothyroid, euthyroid and hyperthyroid status was confirmed. Hypothyroid animals showed cardiac atrophy and reduced cardiac systolic and diastolic function, while hyperthyroid rats exhibited cardiac hypertrophy and increased cardiac function. Hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism produced opposite electrophysiological changes in heart rates and atrial effective refractory period, but both significantly increased AF susceptibility. AF incidence was 78% in hypothyroid, 67% in hyperthyroid, and the duration of induced AF was also longer, compared with 11% in the euthyroid group (all phyperthyroidism lead to increased AF vulnerability in a rat thyroidectomy model. Our results stress that normal thyroid hormone levels are required to maintain normal cardiac electrophysiology and prevent cardiac arrhythmias and AF. PMID:24036190

  2. Reiki improves heart rate homeostasis in laboratory rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Ann Linda; Wagers, Christina; Schwartz, Gary E

    2008-05-01

    To determine whether application of Reiki to noise-stressed rats can reduce their heart rates (HRs) and blood pressures. In a previous study, we showed that exposure of rats to 90 dB white noise for 15 minutes caused their HRs and blood pressures to significantly increase. Reiki has been shown to significantly decrease HR and blood pressure in a small group of healthy human subjects. However, use of humans in such studies has the disadvantage that experimental interpretations are encumbered by the variable of belief or skepticism regarding Reiki. For that reason, noise-stressed rats were used as an animal model to test the efficacy of Reiki in reducing elevated HR and blood pressure. Three unrestrained, male Sprague-Dawley rats implanted with radiotelemetric transducers were exposed daily for 8 days to a 15-minute white noise regimen (90 dB). For the last 5 days, the rats received 15 minutes of Reiki immediately before the noise and during the noise period. The experiment was repeated on the same animals but using sham Reiki. The animals were housed in a quiet room in University of Arizona Animal Facility. Mean HRs and blood pressure were determined before Reiki/sham Reiki, during Reiki/sham Reiki, and during the noise in each case. Reiki, but not sham Reiki, significantly reduced HR compared to initial values. With Reiki, there was a high correlation between change in HR and initial HR, suggesting a homeostatic effect. Reiki, but not sham Reiki, significantly reduced the rise in HR produced by exposure of the rats to loud noise. Neither Reiki nor sham Reiki significantly affected blood pressure. Reiki is effective in modulating HR in stressed and unstressed rats, supporting its use as a stress-reducer in humans.

  3. Increased glucose dependence in resting, iron-deficient rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooks, G.A.; Henderson, S.A.; Dallman, P.R.

    1987-01-01

    Rates of blood glucose and lactate turnover were assessed in resting iron-deficient and iron-sufficient (control) rats to test the hypothesis that dependence on glucose metabolism is increased in iron deficiency. Male Sprague-Dawley rats, 21 days old, were fed a diet containing either 6 mg iron/kg feed (iron-deficient group) or 50 mg iron/kg feed (iron-sufficient group) for 3-4 wk. The iron-deficient group became anemic, with hemoglobin levels of 6.4 ± 0.2 compared with 13.8 ± 0.3 g/dl for controls. Rats received a 90-min primed continuous infusion of D-[6- 3 H]glucose and sodium L-[U- 14 C]lactate via a jugular catheter. Serial samples were taken from a carotid catheter for concentration and specific activity determinations. Iron-deficient rats had significantly higher blood glucose and lactate concentrations than controls. The iron-deficient group had a significantly higher glucose turnover rate than the control group. Significantly more metabolite recycling in iron-deficient rats was indicated by greater incorporation of 14 C into blood glucose. Assuming a carbon crossover correction factor of 2, half of blood glucose arose from lactate in deficient animals. By comparison, only 25% of glucose arose from lactate in controls. Lack of a difference in lactate turnover rates between deficient rats and controls was attributed to 14 C recycling. The results indicate a greater dependence on glucose metabolism in iron-deficient rats

  4. Rat bite fever.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaastra, W.; Boot, R.G.A.; Ho, H.; Lipman, L.J.A.

    2009-01-01

    Rat bite fever (RBF) is a bacterial zoonosis for which two causal bacterial species have been identified: Streptobacillis moniliformis and Spirillum minus. Haverhill fever (HF) is a form of S. moniliformis infection believed to develop after ingestion of contaminated food or water. Here the

  5. Molecular Spectroscopy With a Compact 557-GHz Heterodyne Receiver

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neumaier, Philipp F.-X.; Richter, Heiko; Stake, Jan

    2014-01-01

    We report on a heterodyne terahertz spectrometer based on a fully integrated 557-GHz receiver and a digital fast Fourier transform spectrometer. The receiver consists of a chain of multipliers and power amplifiers, followed by a heterostructure barrier varactor tripler that subharmonically pumps...... a membrane GaAs Schottky diode mixer. All sub-components are newly developed and optimized with regard to the overall receiver performance such as noise temperature, power consumption, weight and physical size. The receiver works at room temperature, has a double sideband noise temperature as low as 2000 K...

  6. List of documents received by the INDC Secretariat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-09-01

    The Nuclear Data Section of the International Atomic Energy Agency receives documents originated by or for the International Nuclear Data Committee for distribution. This list includes all INDC documents received and distributed by the INDC Secretariat during the period January 1984 to March 1986. This list is produced directly from computer printout in two sorts: one ordered by accession number, and the other ordered by document number within each origin series (e.g. listing all INDC(SEC)-documents in one block). In addition to the INDC documents received by the INDC Secretariat for distribution, this document also lists the titles of reports received as single copies for information

  7. Personal monitoring and assessment of doses received by radiation workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swindon, T.N.; Morris, N.D.

    1981-12-01

    The Personal Radiation Monitoring Service operated by the Australian Radiation Laboratory is outlined and the types of monitors used for assessment of doses received by radiation workers are described. The distribution of doses received by radiation workers in different occupational categories is determined. From these distributions, the average doses received have been assessed and the maximum likely additional increase in cancer deaths in Australia as a result of occupational exposure estimated. This increase is shown to be very small. There is, however, a considerable spread of doses received by individuals within occupational groups

  8. Frequency Estimator Performance for a Software-Based Beacon Receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemba, Michael J.; Morse, Jacquelynne Rose; Nessel, James A.; Miranda, Felix

    2014-01-01

    As propagation terminals have evolved, their design has trended more toward a software-based approach that facilitates convenient adjustment and customization of the receiver algorithms. One potential improvement is the implementation of a frequency estimation algorithm, through which the primary frequency component of the received signal can be estimated with a much greater resolution than with a simple peak search of the FFT spectrum. To select an estimator for usage in a QV-band beacon receiver, analysis of six frequency estimators was conducted to characterize their effectiveness as they relate to beacon receiver design.

  9. Accounting for Defense Logistics Agency Supply Management Receivables

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lane, F

    1998-01-01

    .... For this part of the audit, we determined whether Defense Logistics Agency supply management receivables were accurately accounted for, classified, and reported in the Statement of Financial Position...

  10. Effects of acetylcysteine and probucol on contrast medium-induced depression of intrinsic renal glutathione peroxidase activity in diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Hsueh-Wei; Lee, Hsiang-Chun; Lai, Wen-Te; Sheu, Sheng-Hsiung

    2007-04-01

    Antioxidants such as N-acetylcysteine and probucol have been used to protect patients from contrast media-induced nephrotoxicity. The mechanisms underlying these protective effects are not well understood. We hypothesized that acetylcysteine and probucol alter the activity of endogenous antioxidant enzyme activity. Four weeks after induction of diabetes with streptozotocin, diabetic and nondiabetic rats were divided into three groups. Group 1 rats did not receive any antioxidant agents. Group 2 rats were treated with acetylcysteine and group 3 rats with probucol for 1 week before injection of the contrast medium diatrizoate (DTZ). We found that diabetic rats had higher renal glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity than normal rats. DTZ suppressed renal GPx activity significantly in both group 1 diabetic and normal rats. Interestingly, renal GPx activity in both diabetic and normal rats pretreated with acetylcysteine or probucol was not inhibited by DTZ. Renal superoxide dismutase (SOD) increased significantly in normal rats after DTZ injection, but not in diabetic rats. Finally, acetylcysteine or probucol did not significantly influence renal SOD. These findings suggest that the renal protective effects of acetylcysteine and probucol against contrast-induced oxidative stress and nephrotoxicity may be mediated by altering endogenous GPx activity.

  11. Effect of Unripe Plantain (Musa paradisiaca) and Ginger (Zingiber officinale) on Blood Glucose, Body Weight and Feed Intake of Streptozotocin-induced Diabetic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    M, Iroaganachi; C O, Eleazu; P N, Okafor; N, Nwaohu

    2014-01-01

    To determine the effect of unripe plantain (Musa paradisiaca) and ginger (Zingiber officinale) on blood glucose (BG), feed intake (FI) and weight of streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats. Twenty four male albino rats were used and were divided into 4 groups of 6 rats each. Group 1 (non-diabetic) and Group 2 (diabetic) received standard rat feed; Group 3 received unripe plantain incorporated feed (810 /kg body weight) and Group 4 received unripe plantain+ginger incorporated feed (710:100 g/kg body weight). The weights and FI of the rats were measured daily throughout the experimentation. Groups 3 and 4 rats had 159.52% and 71.83% decreases in BG but 24.91% and 35.32% decreases in weights compared with groups 1 and 2 rats that had 2.09% and 22.94% increases in BG with 13.42% increase and 45.36% decrease in weights respectively. The FI of the experimental rats did not differ significantly from each other (P>0.05) at the end of experimentation. The standard rat feed contained higher amounts of Ca but lower amounts of Mg and Fe compared with the unripe plantain and unripe plantain+ginger incorporated feeds. Combination of unripe plantain and ginger at the dose used in the management of diabetes was not very effective compared with unripe plantain alone.

  12. An in vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopy study of the effects of caloric and non-caloric sweeteners on liver lipid metabolism in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssens, S.; Ciapaite, J.; Wolters, J.C.; van Riel, N.A.; Nicolay, K.; Prompers, J.J.

    2017-01-01

    We aimed to elucidate the effects of caloric and non-caloric sweeteners on liver lipid metabolism in rats using in vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) and to determine their roles in the development of liver steatosis. Wistar rats received normal chow and either normal drinking water, or

  13. An In Vivo Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Study of the Effects of Caloric and Non-Caloric Sweeteners on Liver Lipid Metabolism in Rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssens, Sharon; Ciapaite, Jolita; Wolters, Justina C.; van Riel, Natal A.; Nicolay, Klaas; Prompers, Jeanine J.

    2017-01-01

    We aimed to elucidate the effects of caloric and non-caloric sweeteners on liver lipid metabolism in rats using in vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) and to determine their roles in the development of liver steatosis. Wistar rats received normal chow and either normal drinking water, or

  14. Protective Effects of Vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid in Lead Acetate Exposed Diabetic Male Rats: Evaluation of Blood Biochemical Parameters and Testicular Histopathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza AYOUBI

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effects of vitamin C against lead toxicity by measuring the blood parameters and studying histopathology of testis in diabetic male rats. Wister rats (42 were randomly assigned into7 groups: I healthy; II fed lead acetate only; III vitamin C administered only; IV diabetic; V diabetic rats administered by vitamin C; VI diabetic rats given lead acetate and VII diabetic rats received lead acetate and vitamin C. The diabetic and lead groups had higher glucose, cholesterol, LDL, triglycerides and lower insulin and HDL concentration than the control group. It was found that vitamin C administration led to a lower level of blood glucose, cholesterol, LDL and triglycerides and higher HDL concentration in diabetic rats significantly. It was concluded that the antioxidant property of vitamin C resulted in reducing the oxidative stress complications of toxic levels of lead acetate in diabetic rats.

  15. The effects of irradiation on the mandibular bone of rats on the low calcium diet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Eui Whan; Lee, Sang Rae [Dept. of Oral Radiology, College of Dentistry, Kyung Hee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1992-08-15

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the changes of morphology and structure of bone tissue in the irradiated mandibular bone in rats which were fed a low calcium diet. In order to carry out this experiment, 64 seven-week old Sprague- Dawley strain rats weighing about 150gms were selected and equally divided into one experimental group of 32 rats and one control group with the remainder. The experimental group and the group were then subdivided into two groups when the rats reached ten-week old, 16 were assigned rats for each subdivided group, exposed to irradiation. The two irradiation groups received a single dose of 20Gy in the jaws area only and irradiated with a cobalt-60 teletherapy unit. The rats in the control and experimental groups were serially termination, both sides of the dead rats mandibular bodies were removed and fixed with 10% neutral formalin. One side of the mandibular body was radiographed with a soft X-ray apparatus. Thereafter, the obtained microradiographs were observed by a light microscope. The remaining side of the mandibular bone was further decalcified and embedded in paraffin as using the general method. The specimen ectioned and stained with hematoxylin and eosin, and Rabit Anti-Human Tumor Necrosis Factor-{alpha}, observed by a light microscope. The obtained results were as follows: 1. Microradiogram revealed that thinning of the cortex and a decrease in the trabecula of the interradicular bone and mandibular body were observed and noted from the start to finish throughout the experiment in the non-irradiated rats on the low calcium diet rather than in the non-irradiated rats on the normal diet.In microscopic observation, there were marked osteolytic changes in the center of the bone marrow. 2. Microradiogram revealed that thinning of the cortex and a decrease in the trabecula of interradicular bone and mandibular body were more marked after 7 days in the irradiated rats in the low calcium diet rather than in the non

  16. Sex Difference in Oxytocin-Induced Anti-Hyperalgesia at the Spinal Level in Rats with Intraplantar Carrageenan-Induced Inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Lok-Hi; Chen, Yuan-Hao; Wu, Wan-Chuan; Chang, En-Pei; Huang, Eagle Yi-Kung

    2016-01-01

    Previously, we demonstrated intrathecal administration of oxytocin strongly induced anti-hyperalgesia in male rats. By using an oxytocin-receptor antagonist (atosiban), the descending oxytocinergic pathway was found to regulate inflammatory hyperalgesia in our previous study using male rats. The activity of this neural pathway is elevated during hyperalgesia, but whether this effect differs in a sex-dependent manner remains unknown. We conducted plantar tests on adult male and female virgin rats in which paw inflammation was induced using carrageenan. Exogenous (i.t.) application of oxytocin exerted no anti-hyperalgesic effect in female rats, except at an extremely high dose. Female rats exhibited similar extent of hyperalgesia to male rats did when the animals received the same dose of carrageenan. When atosiban was administered alone, the severity of hyperalgesia was not increased in female rats. Moreover, insulin-regulated aminopeptidase (IRAP) was expressed at higher levels in the spinal cords of female rats compared with those of male rats. Oxytocin-induced anti-hyperalgesia exhibits a sex-dependent difference in rats. This difference can partially result from the higher expression of IRAP in the spinal cords of female rats, because IRAP functions as an enzyme that degrades oxytocin. Our study confirms the existence of a sex difference in oxytocin-induced anti-hyperalgesia at the spinal level in rats.

  17. Coadministration of Atorvastatin and Amiodarone Increases the Risk of Pulmonary Fibrosis in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Nasri, Hamid-Reza; Joukar, Siyavash; Kheradmand, Hamid; Poursalehi, Hamid-Reza; Dabiri, Shahriar

    2015-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of atorvastatin administration on amiodarone-induced pulmonary fibrosis in rats. Materials and Methods Thirty-six male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 4 groups. The control group (CTL) received distilled water (0.3 ml intratracheally on days 0 and 2 and 0.5 ml orally from day 0 for 3 weeks). The atorvastatin group (AT), in addition to intratracheal distilled water, received 1 mg/kg of atorvastatin orally from day 0 for 3 we...

  18. Cummings Memorial Lecture - 1975. The market basket: food for thought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deichman, W B

    1975-06-01

    The world food crisis is as critical today as when it was debated at the 1974 World Food Conference in Rome. Since the United States and Canada-and to a lesser extent, Australia and New Zealand-lead in the production of corn, wheat and soybeans, the North American "bread basket" has become the "market basket" of the world. For welfare, economic, and political reasons, our energies, resources, and deliberations must be expanded toward optimum production of wholesome food products. I do not recommend that we permit food additives in "questionably" safe or excessive concentrations in our agricultural products. I do recommend, however, that tolerance limits for food additives be established based on a comprehensive review of all contributing factors-the world food crisis and the rational interpretation of both positive and negative animal data as they relate to man. As Dr. Herbert Stokinger put it so aptly: "Avoid the establishment of unnecessarily severe standards." 2. Funds for research and teaching of food and nutrition should be greatly increased, so that all who can read and write may be made aware of the daily dietary requirements for the maintenance of good health. 3. Unsubstantiated scare tactics in publications of the scientific and lay press can only lead to well-intended but often emotionally-inspired restrictions, ordinances, and laws. Such decisions are likely to either under- or over-define the requirements and standards for food additives and other chemicals which are important to the well-being of the populace.

  19. Accardi contra Bell (cum mundi) : the impossible coupling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gill, R.D.

    2001-01-01

    An experimentally observed violation of Bell s inequality is supposed to show the failure of local realism to deal with quantum reality. However, finite statistics and the time sequential nature of real experiments still allows a loophole for local realism. We show that the randomised design of

  20. Treatment of tributyl phosphate wastes by extraction cum pyrolysis process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deshingkar, D.S.; Ramaswamy, M.; Kartha, P.K.S.; Kutty, P.V.E.; Ramanujam, A.

    1989-01-01

    For the treatment of spent tri n-butyl phospate (TBP) wastes from Purex process, a method involving extraction of TBP with phosphoric acid followed by pyrolysis of TBP - phosphoric acid phase was investigated. The process was examined with respect to simulated waste, process solvent wastes and aged organic waste samples. These studies seem to offer a simple treatment method for the separation of bulk of diluent from spent solvent wastes. The diluent phase needs further purification for reuse in reprocessing plant; otherwise it can be incinerated. (author). 18 refs., 3 tabs., 6 figs