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Sample records for rats received subcutaneous

  1. [Subcutaneous transplants of juvenile rat testicular tissues continue to develop and secret androgen in adult rats].

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    Yu, Zhou; Wang, Tong; Cui, Jiangbo; Song, Yajuan; Ma, Xianjie; Su, Yingjun; Peng, Pai

    2017-12-01

    Objective To explore the effects of subcutaneous microenvironment of adult rats on survival, development and androgen secretion of Leydig cells of transplanted juvenile rat testis. Methods Healthy adult SD rats were randomly divided into control group, sham group, castrated group and non-castrated group. Rats in the control group were kept intact, no testis was transplanted subcutaneously after adult recipients were castrated in the sham group; 5-7-day juvenile rat testes were transplanted subcutaneously in the castrated group, with one testis per side; Testes resected from juvenile rats were directly transplanted subcutaneously on both sides of the recipients in the non-castrated group. The grafts were obtained and weighed 4 weeks later. Then the histological features of the grafts were examined by HE staining; the expression and distribution of hydroxysteroid 17-beta dehydrogenase 1 (HSD-17β1) were investigated by immunohistochemistry; and the serum androgen level was determined by ELISA. Results The average mass of grafts obtained from the castrated group was significantly higher than that of the non-castrated group. Immunohistochemistry indicated that Leydig cells were visible in the tissues from both the castrated and non-castrated groups, but the number of HSD-17β1-posotive cells in the castrated group was larger than that in the non-castrated group. ELISA results showed that the serum androgen level was higher in the control group and non-castrated group than in the sham group and castrated group, and compared with the sham group, the serum androgen level in the castrated group was significantly higher. Conclusion The juvenile rat testis subcutaneously transplanted could further develop under the adult recipient rat skin, and the Leydig cells of grafts harbored the ability to produce and secret androgen.

  2. Comparison of Mucosal, Subcutaneous and Intraperitoneal Routes of Rat Leptospira Infection

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    Zilber, Anne-Laure; Belli, Patrick; Grezel, Delphine; Artois, Marc; Kodjo, Angeli; Djelouadji, Zoheira

    2016-01-01

    Leptospirosis is a zoonosis found worldwide that is caused by a spirochete. The main reservoirs of Leptospira, which presents an asymptomatic infection, are wild rodents, including the brown rat (Rattus norvegicus). Experimental studies of the mechanisms of its renal colonization in rats have previously used an intraperitoneal inoculation route. However, knowledge of rat-rat transmission requires the use of a natural route of inoculation, such as a mucosal or subcutaneous route. We investigated for the first time the effects of subcutaneous and mucosal inoculation routes compared to the reference intraperitoneal route during Leptospira infection in adult rats. Infection characteristics were studied using Leptospira renal isolation, serology, and molecular and histological analyses. Leptospira infection was asymptomatic using each inoculation route, and caused similar antibody production regardless of renal colonization. The observed renal colonization rates were 8 out of 8 rats, 5 out of 8 rats and 1 out of 8 rats for the intraperitoneal, mucosal and subcutaneous inoculation routes, respectively. Thus, among the natural infection routes studied, mucosal inoculation was more efficient for renal colonization associated with urinary excretion than the subcutaneous route and induced a slower-progressing infection than the intraperitoneal route. These results can facilitate understanding of the infection modalities in rats, unlike the epidemiological studies conducted in wild rats. Future studies of other natural inoculation routes in rat models will increase our knowledge of rat-rat disease transmission and allow the investigation of infection kinetics. PMID:27031867

  3. Biocompatibility of a new nanomaterial based on calcium silicate implanted in subcutaneous connective tissue of rats

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    Petrović Violeta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate rat connective tissue response to a new calcium silicate system 7, 15, 30 and 60 days after implantation. Twenty Wistar albino male rats received two tubes half-filled with a new calcium silicate system (NCSS or MTA in subcutaneous tissue. The empty half of the tubes served as controls. Five animals were sacrificed after 7, 15, 30 and 60 days and samples of the subcutaneous tissue around implanted material were submitted to histological analysis. The intensity of inflammation was evaluated based on the number of inflammatory cells present. Statistical analysis was performed using one way ANOVA and Holm Sidak's multiple comparison tests. Mild to moderate inflammatory reaction was observed after 7, 15 and 30 days around a NCSS while mild inflammatory reaction was detected after 60 days of implantation. In the MTA group, mild to moderate inflammatory reaction was found after 7 and 15 days while mild inflammatory reaction was present after 30 and 60 days. There was no statistically significant difference in the intensity of inflammatory reactions between the tested materials and control groups in any experimental period (ANOVA p>0.05. Regarding the intensity of inflammatory reactions at different experimental periods, a statistically significant difference was observed between 7 and 30 days, 7 and 60 days and 15 to 60 days for both materials. For the controls, a statistically significant difference was found between 7 and 60 days and 15 and 60 days of the experiment (Holm Sidak < p 0.001. Subcutaneous tissue of rats showed good tolerance to a new calcium silicate system. Inflammatory reaction was similar to that caused by MTA. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 172026

  4. Temperature of cutaneous and subcutaneous tissue during the application of aerosols in rats

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    Andre de Oliveira Teixeira; Cassio Noronha Martins; Antônio Marcos Vargas da Silva; Alexandro Marques Tozetti; Rodrigo Della Méa Plentz; Luis Ulisses Signori

    2014-01-01

    This study compared the thermal changes of cutaneous and subcutaneous tissues exposed to different aerosols. Thirty-six adults Wistar rats were arranged in two treatment groups, one exposed to methyl salicylate (GSM; n = 9 skin and n = 9 subcutaneous) and the other exposed to diclofenac diethylammonium (GDD; n = 9 skin and n = 9 subcutaneous) aerosols. Five jets were applied for one-second through an apparatus to reduce spray dispersion (3 cmdiameter) in the lateral left thigh of the animals....

  5. Fear of repeated injections in children younger than 4 years receiving subcutaneous allergy immunotherapy.

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    de Vos, Gabriele; Shankar, Viswanathan; Nazari, Ramin; Kooragayalu, Shravan; Smith, Mitchell; Wiznia, Andrew; Rosenstreich, David

    2012-12-01

    Allergy immunotherapy during early childhood may have potential benefits for the prevention of asthma and allergy morbidity. However, subcutaneous immunotherapy has not yet been prospectively researched in children younger than 4 years, primarily because of safety concerns, including the fear and psychological distress young children may experience with repeated needle injections. To quantify fear in atopic children younger than 4 years with a history of wheezing who are receiving subcutaneous immunotherapy. Fear of injection was graded during a total of 788 immunotherapy injection visits in 18 children (age, 37 months; SD, 9 months) receiving subcutaneous allergy immunotherapy. The parent and the injection nurse assigned fear scores on a scale of 0 to 10 after each injection visit. At the time of analysis, children had a median of 49 injection visits (range, 12-88) during a median study period of 81.5 weeks (range, 15-165 weeks). Fifteen children (83%) lost their fear of injections during the study. A fear score of 0 was achieved after a mean of 8.4 visits (SD, 7.4). The more injection visits were missed, the more likely children were to retain fear of injections (hazard ratio, 0.13; 95% confidence interval, 0.02-1.02; P=.05). Age, adverse events, number of injections at each visit, and change of injection personnel were not associated with increased fear. Our analysis suggests that most children receiving weekly subcutaneous immunotherapy lose their fear of injections during the treatment course. Children with increased intervals between visits may be at higher risk of experiencing fear of injections. clinicaltrial.gov identifier NCT01028560. Copyright © 2012 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Differential Activation of Peritoneal Cells by Subcutaneous Treatment of Rats with Cryptococcal Antigens▿

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    Baronetti, José L.; Chiapello, Laura S.; Garro, Ana P.; Masih, Diana T.

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies in our laboratory have shown that the subcutaneous pretreatment of rats with heat-killed cells (HKC) of Cryptococcus neoformans emulsified in complete Freund adjuvant (CFA) promotes protective immunity against an intraperitoneal challenge with C. neoformans. In contrast, subcutaneous treatment with the capsular polysaccharide (PSC) emulsified in CFA exacerbates the cryptococcal infection. The purpose of this study was to analyze the mechanisms involved in these phenomena. Adh...

  7. Comparison of Subcutaneous Regular Insulin and Lispro Insulin in Diabetics Receiving Continuous Nutrition: A Numerical Study.

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    Stull, Mamie C; Strilka, Richard J; Clemens, Michael S; Armen, Scott B

    2015-06-30

    Optimal management of non-critically ill patients with diabetes maintained on continuous enteral feeding (CEN) is poorly defined. Subcutaneous (SQ) lispro and SQ regular insulin were compared in a simulated type 1 and type 2 diabetic patient receiving CEN. A glucose-insulin feedback mathematical model was employed to simulate type 1 and type 2 diabetic patients on CEN. Each patient received 25 SQ injections of regular insulin or insulin lispro, ranging from 0-6 U. Primary endpoints were the change in mean glucose concentration (MGC) and change in glucose variability (GV); hypoglycemic episodes were also reported. The model was first validated against patient data. Both SQ insulin preparations linearly decreased MGC, however, SQ regular insulin decreased GV whereas SQ lispro tended to increase GV. Hourly glucose concentration measurements were needed to capture the increase in GV. In the type 2 diabetic patient, "rebound hyperglycemia" occurred after SQ lispro was rapidly metabolized. Although neither SQ insulin preparation caused hypoglycemia, SQ lispro significantly lowered MGC compared to SQ regular insulin. Thus, it may be more likely to cause hypoglycemia. Analyses of the detailed glucose concentration versus time data suggest that the inferior performance of lispro resulted from its shorter duration of action. Finally, the effects of both insulin preparations persisted beyond their duration of actions in the type 2 diabetic patient. Subcutaneous regular insulin may be the short-acting insulin preparation of choice for this subset of diabetic patients. Clinical trial is required before a definitive recommendation can be made. © 2015 Diabetes Technology Society.

  8. Comparison of Subcutaneous Regular Insulin and Lispro Insulin in Diabetics Receiving Continuous Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stull, Mamie C.; Strilka, Richard J.; Clemens, Michael S.; Armen, Scott B.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Optimal management of non–critically ill patients with diabetes maintained on continuous enteral feeding (CEN) is poorly defined. Subcutaneous (SQ) lispro and SQ regular insulin were compared in a simulated type 1 and type 2 diabetic patient receiving CEN. Method: A glucose-insulin feedback mathematical model was employed to simulate type 1 and type 2 diabetic patients on CEN. Each patient received 25 SQ injections of regular insulin or insulin lispro, ranging from 0-6 U. Primary endpoints were the change in mean glucose concentration (MGC) and change in glucose variability (GV); hypoglycemic episodes were also reported. The model was first validated against patient data. Results: Both SQ insulin preparations linearly decreased MGC, however, SQ regular insulin decreased GV whereas SQ lispro tended to increase GV. Hourly glucose concentration measurements were needed to capture the increase in GV. In the type 2 diabetic patient, “rebound hyperglycemia” occurred after SQ lispro was rapidly metabolized. Although neither SQ insulin preparation caused hypoglycemia, SQ lispro significantly lowered MGC compared to SQ regular insulin. Thus, it may be more likely to cause hypoglycemia. Analyses of the detailed glucose concentration versus time data suggest that the inferior performance of lispro resulted from its shorter duration of action. Finally, the effects of both insulin preparations persisted beyond their duration of actions in the type 2 diabetic patient. Conclusions: Subcutaneous regular insulin may be the short-acting insulin preparation of choice for this subset of diabetic patients. Clinical trial is required before a definitive recommendation can be made. PMID:26134836

  9. Histological study of subcutaneous fat at NIR laser treatment of the rat skin in vivo

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    Yanina, I. Y.; Svenskaya, Yu. I.; Navolokin, N. A.; Matveeva, O. V.; Bucharskaya, A. B.; Maslyakova, G. N.; Gorin, D. A.; Sukhorukov, G. B.; Tuchin, V. V.

    2015-07-01

    The goal of this work is to quantify impact of in vivo photochemical treatment using indocyanine green (ICG) or encapsulated ICG and NIR laser irradiation through skin of rat with obesity by the follow up tissue sampling and histochemistry. After 1 hour elapsed since 1-min light exposure samples of rat skin with subcutaneous tissue of thickness of 1.5-2.5 mm were taken by surgery from rats within marked 4-zones of the skin site. For hematoxylin-eosin histological examination of excised tissue samples, fixation was carried out by 10%-formaldehyde solution. For ICG and encapsulated ICG subcutaneous injection and subsequent 1-min diode laser irradiation with power density of 8 W/cm2, different necrotic regions with lipolysis of subcutaneous fat were observed. The obtained data can be used for safe layer-by-layer laser treatment of obesity and cellulite.

  10. Impact on survival of warfarin in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension receiving subcutaneous treprostinil.

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    Ascha, Mona; Zhou, Xuan; Rao, Youlan; Minai, Omar A; Tonelli, Adriano R

    2017-10-01

    Anticoagulation is a common treatment modality in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Further studies are needed to appropriately assess the risk/benefit ratio of anticoagulation, particularly in PAH patients receiving PAH-specific therapies. We use observational long-term data on PAH patients treated with subcutaneous (SQ) treprostinil from a large open-label study. Patients were followed for up to 4 years. The use of warfarin and bleeding events were recorded. At total of 860 patients (age [mean±SD] 46±15 years, 76% female, 83% Caucasian, 49% idiopathic PAH, and 76% New York Heart Association [NYHA] functional class III) were included. All patients received SQ treprostinil (15% also other pulmonary hypertension [PH]-therapies) and 590 (69%) received warfarin during the study. The proportions of women, African American, and idiopathic pulmonary hypertension (IPAH) patients were higher in the group receiving warfarin. A higher proportion of patients with congenital heart disease and portopulmonary hypertension did not receive warfarin. There were no differences in unadjusted long-term survival between PAH patients receiving warfarin or not (log-rank test, P value=.69), even when only considering idiopathic PAH (P=.32). In addition, no difference was found in adjusted long-term survival both in PAH (P=.84) and idiopathic PAH patients (P=.44) based on the use of warfarin. Furthermore, no survival difference based on the use of warfarin were noted between propensity score-matched PAH patients (P=.37). Long-term anticoagulation with warfarin was not associated with any significant effect on survival in PAH or idiopathic PAH patients treated with SQ treprostinil. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Temperature of cutaneous and subcutaneous tissue during the application of aerosols in rats

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    Andre de Oliveira Teixeira

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study compared the thermal changes of cutaneous and subcutaneous tissues exposed to different aerosols. Thirty-six adults Wistar rats were arranged in two treatment groups, one exposed to methyl salicylate (GSM; n = 9 skin and n = 9 subcutaneous and the other exposed to diclofenac diethylammonium (GDD; n = 9 skin and n = 9 subcutaneous aerosols. Five jets were applied for one-second through an apparatus to reduce spray dispersion (3 cmdiameter in the lateral left thigh of the animals. Temperatures were measured every minute (min. during 30 min., with a digital thermometer. In the skin tissue the sensor was positioned manually, in the subcutaneous tissue it was surgically inserted through the rear face and positioned in the lateral thigh. The skin temperature has homogeneously reduced in both groups. In the subcutaneous tissue the GDD has induced hypothermia from the 2nd to 20th min., the lowest temperature was recorded on the 7th min. (-3.6 ± 0.2ºC in relation to basal. Lowering the temperature by GSM took place from the 1st to 21st min, and the lowest temperature occurred on the 1st min (-9.7 ± 0.5ºC in relation to basal. In the three initial minutes the GSM had temperatures 25, 10 and 5% lower than the GDD. Aerosols have induced hypothermia in the tissues, while the GSM has decreased faster and reached lower values of temperature shown in the subcutaneous tissue.

  12. Effects on the reproductive system of young male rats of subcutaneous exposure to n-butylparaben.

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    Garcia, Tania; Schreiber, Elga; Kumar, Vikas; Prasad, Raju; Sirvent, Juan J; Domingo, Jose L; Gómez, Mercedes

    2017-08-01

    This study was aimed at determining whether an in vivo subcutaneous exposure to n-butylparaben (n-ButP) during one complete spermatogenic cycle could be harmful to the reproductive system of young male rats. Animals were subcutaneously given 0, 150, 300 and 600 mg/kg/day of n-ButP with vehicle (peanut oil). Body and organ weights, n-ButP excretion, biochemical parameters, sperm and spermatid count, sperm motility, viability, maturity and morphology were examined. Results showed that after a completed spermatogenic cycle, although n-ButP did not induce dose-related changes in the different biochemical parameters, a significant decrease of triacylglicerides (TAG) -due to the vehicle-was found. Furthermore, no effects of n-ButP on body weight gain and relative organ weight changes were noted. Regarding sexual organs, prostate relative weight was significantly increased at the high dose of n-ButP. On the other hand, a significant increase of abnormal sperm morphology due to n-ButP exposure, accompanied by different alterations in sexual organs histopathology, was found. The current results indicate that subcutaneous exposure of n-ButP in young male rats induced toxic effects on the reproductive system, which could affect the capacity of fertilization of animals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Encapsulation of interleukin-2 in murine erythrocytes and subsequent deposition in mice receiving a subcutaneous injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeLoach, J.R.; Andrews, K.; Sheffield, C.L.

    1988-01-01

    Radiolabeled recombinant human interleukin-2 (IL-2) was successfully encapsulated in both mouse and sheep erythrocytes. Of the added IL-2, 70% was recovered bound to or encapsulated within the carrier cells. Erythrocytes containing IL-2 were stable in vitro and most of the IL-2 remained associated with the cells following a 16-h incubation at 37 degrees C. When carrier erythrocytes containing IL-2 were injected subcutaneously into mice, intact [ 35 S]IL-2 was detectable in a number of tissues 3 days after injection

  14. Subcutaneous tissue reaction to castor oil bean and calcium hydroxide in rats

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    Samira Esteves Afonso Camargo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Castor oil bean cement (COB is a new material that has been used as an endodontic sealer, and is a candidate material for direct pulp capping. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the biocompatibility of a new formulation of COB compared to calcium hydroxide cement (CH and a control group without any material, in the subcutaneous tissue of rats. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The materials were prepared, packed into polyethylene tubes, and implanted in the rat dorsal subcutaneous tissue. Animals were sacrificed at the 7th and 50th days after implantation. A quantitative analysis of inflammatory cells was performed and data were subjected to ANOVA and Tukey's tests at 5% significance level. RESULTS: Comparing the mean number of inflammatory cells between the two experimental groups (COB and CH and the control group, statistically significant difference (p=0.0001 was observed at 7 and 50 days. There were no significant differences (p=0.111 between tissue reaction to CH (382 inflammatory cells and COB (330 inflammatory cells after 7 days. After 50 days, significantly more inflammatory cells (p=0.02 were observed in the CH group (404 inflammatory cells than in the COB group (177 inflammatory cells. CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrate that the COB cement induces less inflammatory response within long periods.

  15. Safety assessments of subcutaneous doses of aragonite calcium carbonate nanocrystals in rats

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    Jaji, Alhaji Zubair; Zakaria, Zuki Abu Bakar; Mahmud, Rozi; Loqman, Mohamad Yusof; Hezmee, Mohamad Noor Mohamad; Abba, Yusuf; Isa, Tijani; Mahmood, Saffanah Khuder

    2017-05-01

    Calcium carbonate nanoparticles have shown promising potentials in the delivery of drugs and metabolites. There is however, a paucity of information on the safety of their intentional or accidental over exposures to biological systems and general health safety. To this end, this study aims at documenting information on the safety of subcutaneous doses of biogenic nanocrystals of aragonite polymorph of calcium carbonate derived from cockle shells (ANC) in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. ANC was synthesized using the top-down method, characterized using the transmission electron microscopy and field emission scanning electron microscope and its acute and repeated dose 28-day trial toxicities were evaluated in SD rats. The results showed that the homogenous 30 ± 5 nm-sized spherical pure aragonite nanocrystals were not associated with mortality in the rats. Severe clinical signs and gross and histopathological lesions, indicating organ toxicities, were recorded in the acute toxicity (29,500 mg/m2) group and the high dose (5900 mg/m2) group of the repeated dose 28-day trial. However, the medium- (590 mg/m2 body weight) and low (59 mg/m2)-dose groups showed moderate to mild lesions. The relatively mild lesions observed in the low toxicity dosage group marked the safety margin of ANC in SD rats. It was concluded from this study that the toxicity of CaCO3 was dependent on the particulate size (30 ± 5 nm) and concentration and the route of administration used.

  16. Effects of chelating agent CBMIDA on the toxicity of depleted uranium administered subcutaneously in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuda, Satoshi; Ikeda, Mizuyo; Nakamaura, Mariko

    2008-01-01

    We examined the acute toxicity of depleted uranium (DU) after subcutaneous injection as a simulated wounds model, and the effects of the chelating agent catechol-3,6-bis(methyliminodiacetic acid) (CBMIDA), by local treatment in rats. First, to examine the initial behavior and toxicity of uranium of different chemical forms, male Wistar rats were subcutaneously injected with 4 and 16 mg/kg DU (pH 1) in a solution of pH 1 and 7, respectively, and were killed 1, 3, 6 and 24 hours later. After the injection of DU(pH1), about 60% of the uranium was retained for first 1-3 hours at the injected sites, and then decreased to 16% at 24 hours in the 4 mg/kg DU group; however, the uranium did not change significantly in the 16 mg/kg DU group. Urinary excretion rates of uranium increased in a time-independent manner after the injection Depositions of uranium in the liver, kidneys and femur were found at 1 hour after DU injection, with significant increases in serum and urinary biochemical markers indicating acute and severe damage. The results of the DU (pH 7) injection were useful for estimating the toxicity of uranium by the chemical changes in the body. Second, CBMIDA (480 mg/kg) was infused into the DU-injected site at 0, 10, 30, 60 min and 24 hours after the subcutaneous injection of 4 mg/kg DU (pH 1 and 7). When CBMIDA was administered within 120 min after DU (pH 1) injection, the uranium at the injected sites decreased to 4-17% of that in the no-treatment DU (pH 1) group, and was excreted effectively in the urine and feces, with decreased levels in the kidneys and femur. The results indicated that the subcutaneously injected uranium acutely induced severe damage in the DU-injected sites and organs after DU intake, relating to chemical forms of uranium by pH and that local treatment of CBMIDA was effective in decreasing the acute toxicity of uranium if carried out as early as possible (at least within 2 hours) after DU administration. (author)

  17. Biocompatibility of RealSeal, its primer and AH Plus implanted in subcutaneous connective tissue of rats

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    Fabiana Soares Grecca

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study tested rat connective tissue response to RealSeal, RealSeal primer or AH Plus after 7, 15, 30, 60 and 90 days of implantation. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Thirty Wistar rats had subcutaneous sockets created on their back and received four implants each of polyethylene tubes containing one of the materials tested according to the groups: AH (AH Plus Sealer; RS (RealSeal Sealer; RP (RealSeal Primer; CG (control group - empty tube. After histological processing, sections were analyzed to identify the presence of neutrophils, lymphocytes and plasma cells, eosinophils, macrophages and giant cells, as well as fibrous capsule and abscesses, by an examiner using light microscope. Kruskal-Wallis and multiple-comparisons test were used for statistical analysis. Significance level was set at 5%. RESULTS: Lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate scores significantly higher than those of the control group were observed at 14 and 60 days in AH group, and at 90 days in RS group (p<0.05. There were no differences in terms of presence of macrophages, giant cells, eosinophils, neutrophils or fibrosis. AH Plus group scored higher for abscesses at 7 days than after any other period (p=0.031. RP group scored higher for lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate at 14 days than at 90 days (p=0.04. CONCLUSION: The main contribution of this study was to demonstrate that issues involved with tissue tolerance of a Resilon-containing sealer, RealSeal Sealer, cannot be attributed to its primer content.

  18. Reaction of rat subcutaneous tissue to mineral trioxide aggregate and Portland cement: a secondary level biocompatibility test.

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    Karanth, P; Manjunath, M K; Kuriakose, E S

    2013-01-01

    This secondary-level animal study was conducted to assess and compare the subcutaneous tissue reaction to implantation of white mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) and white Portland cement. Polyethylene tubes filled with either freshly mixed white MTA (Group I) or white Portland cement (Group II) were implanted subcutaneously into 12 Wistar Albino rats. Each animal also received an empty polyethylene tube as the control (Group III). After 7, 14, 21 and 30 days, the implants, together with surrounding tissues were excised. Two pathologists blinded to the experimental procedure, evaluated sections taken from the biopsy specimens for the severity of the inflammatory response, calcification and the presence and thickness of fibrous capsule surrounding the implant. Statistical analysis was performed using the Cross-tabs procedure, Univariate analysis of the variance two-way and the Pearson product moment correlation to assess inter-rater variability between the two evaluators. At 7 days, there was no significant difference in the severity of inflammation between the control group, white MTA, and white Portland cement groups. In the 14 day, 21 day and 30 day test periods, control group had significantly less inflammation than white MTA and white Portland cement. There was no significant difference in the grading of inflammation between white MTA and white Portland cement. All materials exhibited thick capsule at 7 days and thin capsule by 30 days. Both white MTA and white Portland cement were not completely non-irritating at the end of 30 days as evidenced by the presence of mild inflammation. However, the presence of a thin capsule around the materials, similar to the control group, indicates good tissue tolerance. White MTA and white Portland cement seem to be materials of comparable biocompatibility.

  19. Rat subcutaneous tissue response to MTA Fillapex® and Portland cement.

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    Marques, Nádia Carolina Teixeira; Lourenço Neto, Natalino; Fernandes, Ana Paula; Rodini, Camila de Oliveira; Duarte, Marco Antônio Hungaro; Oliveira, Thais Marchini

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the response of rat subcutaneous tissue to MTA Fillapex® (Angelus), an experimental root canal filling material based on Portland cement and propylene glycol (PCPG), and a zinc oxide, eugenol and iodoform (ZOEI) paste. These materials were placed in polyethylene tubes and implanted into the dorsal connective tissue of Wistar rats for 7 and 15 days. The specimens were stained with hematoxylin and eosin, and evaluated regarding inflammatory reaction parameters by optical microscopy. The intensity of inflammatory response against the sealers was analyzed by two blinded and previously calibrated examiners for all experimental periods (kappa=0.96). The histological evaluation showed that all materials caused a moderate inflammatory reaction at 7 days, which subsided with time. A greater inflammatory reaction was observed at 7 days in the tubes filled with ZOEI paste. Tubes filled with MTA Fillapex presented some giant cells, macrophages and lymphocytes after 7 days. At 15 days, the presence of fibroblasts and collagen fibers was observed indicating normal tissue healing. The tubes filled with PCPG showed similar results to those observed in MTA Fillapex. At 15 days, the inflammatory reaction was almost absent at the tissue, with several collagen fibers indicating normal tissue healing. Data were analyzed by the nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis test (α=0.05). Statistically significant difference (p0.05). MTA Fillapex and Portland cement added with propylene glycol had greater tissue compatibility than the PCPG paste.

  20. Warfarin affects acute inflammatory response induced by subcutaneous polyvinyl sponge implantation in rats.

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    Mirkov, Ivana; Popov Aleksandrov, Aleksandra; Demenesku, Jelena; Ninkov, Marina; Mileusnic, Dina; Kataranovski, Dragan; Kataranovski, Milena

    2017-09-01

    Warfarin (WF) is an anticoagulant which also affects physiological processes other than hemostasis. Our previous investigations showed the effect of WF which gained access to the organism via skin on resting peripheral blood granulocytes. Based on these data, the aim of the present study was to examine whether WF could modulate the inflammatory processes as well. To this aim the effect of WF on the inflammatory response induced by subcutaneous sponge implantation in rats was examined. Warfarin-soaked polyvinyl sponges (WF-sponges) were implanted subcutaneously and cell infiltration into sponges, the levels of nitric oxide (NO) and inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) production by sponge cells were measured as parameters of inflammation. T cell infiltration and cytokine interferon-γ (IFN-γ), interleukin-17 (IL-17) and interleukin-10 (IL-10) were measured at day 7 post implantation. Warfarin exerted both stimulatory and suppressive effects depending on the parameter examined. Flow cytometry of cells recovered from sponges showed higher numbers of granulocytes (HIS48 + cells) at days 1 and 3 post implantation and CD11b + cells at day 1 compared to control sponges. Cells from WF-sponges had an increased NO production (Griess reaction) at days 1 and 7. In contrast, lower levels of TNF (measured by ELISA) production by cells recovered from WF-soaked sponges were found in the early (day one) phase of reaction with unchanged levels at other time points. While IL-6 production by cells recovered from WF-soaked sponges was decreased at day 1, it was increased at day 7. Higher T cell numbers were noted in WF sponges at day 7 post implantation, and recovered cells produced more IFN-γ and IL-17, while IL-10 production remained unchanged. Warfarin affects some of the parameters of inflammatory reaction induced by subcutaneous polyvinyl sponge implantation. Differential (both stimulatory as well as inhibitory) effects of WF on

  1. Subcutaneous L-tyrosine elicits cutaneous analgesia in response to local skin pinprick in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Ching-Hsia; Chiu, Chong-Chi; Liu, Kuo-Sheng; Chen, Yu-Wen; Wang, Jhi-Joung

    2015-10-15

    The purpose of the study was to estimate the ability of L-tyrosine to induce cutaneous analgesia and to investigate the interaction between L-tyrosine and the local anesthetic lidocaine. After subcutaneously injecting the rats with L-tyrosine and lidocaine in a dose-dependent manner, cutaneous analgesia (by blocking the cutaneous trunci muscle reflex-CTMR) was evaluated in response to the local pinprick. The drug-drug interaction was analyzed by using an isobolographic method. We showed that both L-tyrosine and lidocaine produced dose-dependent cutaneous analgesia. On the 50% effective dose (ED50) basis, the rank of drug potency was lidocaine (5.09 [4.88-5.38] μmol)>L-tyrosine (39.1 [36.5-41.8] μmol) (Ptyrosine lasted longer than that caused by lidocaine (Ptyrosine exhibited an additive effect on infiltrative cutaneous analgesia. Our pre-clinical study demonstrated that L-tyrosine elicits the local/cutaneous analgesia, and the interaction between L-tyrosine and lidocaine is additive. L-tyrosine has a lower potency but much greater duration of cutaneous analgesia than lidocaine. Adding L-tyrosine to lidocaine preparations showed greater duration of cutaneous analgesia compared with lidocaine alone. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. NEUROPROTECTIVE EFFICACY OF SUBCUTANEOUS INSULIN-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR-I ADMINISTRATION IN NORMOTENSIVE AND HYPERTENSIVE RATS WITH AN ISCHEMIC STROKE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Geyter, D.; Stoop, W.; Sarre, S.; de Keyser, J.; Kooijman, R.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test the insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) as a neuroprotective agent in a rat model for ischemic stroke and to compare its neuroprotective effects in conscious normotensive and spontaneously hypertensive rats. The effects of subcutaneous IGF-I injection were

  3. Host inflammatory response to polypropylene implants: insights from a quantitative immunohistochemical and birefringence analysis in a rat subcutaneous model

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    Alessandro Prudente

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objectives To describe acute and sub acute aspects of histological and immunohistochemical response to PP implant in a rat subcutaneous model based on objective methods. Materials and Methods Thirty rats had a PP mesh subcutaneously implanted and the same dissection on the other side of abdomen but without mesh (sham. The animals were euthanized after 4 and 30 days. Six slides were prepared using the tissue removed: one stained with hematoxylin-eosin (inflammation assessment; one unstained (birefringence evaluation and four slides for immunohistochemical processing: IL-1 and TNF-α (pro-inflammatory cytokines, MMP-2 (collagen metabolism and CD-31 (angiogenesis. The area of inflammation, the birefringence index, the area of immunoreactivity and the number of vessels were objectively measured. Results A larger area of inflammatory reaction was observed in PP compared to sham on the 4th and on the 30th day (p=0.0002. After 4 days, PP presented higher TNF (p=0.0001 immunoreactivity than sham and no differences were observed in MMP-2 (p=0.06 and IL-1 (p=0.08. After 30 days, a reduction of IL-1 (p=0.010 and TNF (p=0.016 for PP and of IL-1 (p=0.010 for sham were observed. Moreover, area of MMP-2 immunoreactivity decreased over time for PP group (p=0.018. Birefringence index and vessel counting showed no differences between PP and sham (p=0.27 and p=0.58, respectively. Conclusions The implantation of monofilament and macroporous polypropylene in the subcutaneous of rats resulted in increased inflammatory activity and higher TNF production in the early post implant phase. After 30 days, PP has similar cytokines immunoreactivity, vessel density and extracellular matrix organization.

  4. Effect of dental adhesives on the exudative phase of the inflammatory process in subcutaneous tissue of rats

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    Nagem-Filho Halim

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The vascular changes in the subcutaneous connective tissue of rats induced by dentin bonding systems (one step was studied and compared to those induced by saline solution (negative control and Furacin (positive control, during the exudative phase of the inflammatory process. Twenty mg/kg of Evan's blue were injected intravenously in the vein of the rats' penises; 0.1 ml of each substance tested was inoculated in the subcutaneous tissue. After a 3 hour period the animals were sacrificed and their skins were excised and punched out with a standard steel 2.5 cm in diameter. The specimens were immediately immersed in 8 ml of formamide and taken to a double boiler for 72 hours at 37ºC, to remove the dye. The liquid containing the overflowed dye was filtered, analyzed in the spectrophotometer (620 nm and classified according to the criteria established by Nagem-Filho, Pereira (1976. After statistical analysis, the irritative potential of the substances was ranked as follows: Furacin (severe > Single Bond and Bond 1 (moderate - no significant differences between the dentin bonding systems tested > saline solution (not significant as regards the irritation degree.

  5. Efficacy and Safety of Subcutaneous Amifostine in Minimizing Radiation-Induced Toxicities in Patients Receiving Combined-Modality Treatment for Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Law, Amy; Kennedy, Thomas; Pellitteri, Phillip; Wood, Craig; Christie, Douglas; Yumen, Omar

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To report long-term data from a prospective trial of subcutaneous (s.c.) amifostine in patients who received chemoradiotherapy for squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN). Methods and Materials: Patients ≥18 years of age with previously untreated Stage III/IV SCCHN received fractionated radiotherapy, 1.8-2.0 Gy/day, 5 days per week, to a total dose of 70-72 Gy, plus weekly paclitaxel (40 mg/m 2 ) and carboplatin (100 mg/m 2 ) administered intravenously (i.v.) for 6 weeks. All patients received 500 mg s.c. amifostine 30-60 min before radiotherapy with antihistamine and antiemetic prophylaxis. Results: Twenty patients were evaluable (median age, 55 years). The incidence of Grade 2 xerostomia was 42% and 29% at 12 and 18 months, respectively; there were no reports of Grade ≥3 xerostomia. Grade ≥3 mucositis occurred in 30% of patients, with median time to resolution of 12.5 weeks (range, 5-17 weeks). Survival estimates at 1 and 2 years were 95% and 71%, respectively. All patients experienced Grade 2 weight loss; 7 patients (35%) experienced Grade ≤2 nausea/vomiting. There were no reports of Grade ≥3 amifostine-related adverse events. Conclusions: Subcutaneous amifostine was well tolerated by patients receiving chemoradiotherapy for SCCHN, with lower rates of nausea/vomiting than reported in trials with i.v. amifostine. Xerostomia and mucositis rates were similar to those reported in trials with i.v. amifostine

  6. A comparative biocompatibility study of micropheres based on crosslinked dextran or poly(lactic-co-glycolic)acid after subcutaneous injection in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cadee, JA; Brouwer, LA; den Otter, W; Hennink, WE; van Luyn, MJA

    2001-01-01

    Microspheres based on methacrylated dextran (dex-MA), dextran derivatized with lactate-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (dex-lactate-HEMA) or derivatized with HEMA (dex-HEMA) were prepared. The microspheres were injected subcutaneously in rats and the effect of the particle size and network characteristics

  7. The rat subcutaneous air sac model. A new and simple method for in vivo screening of antiangiogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lichtenberg, J.; Abildgaard Hansen, C.; Skak-Nielsen, T.; Bay, C.; Thing Mortensen, J.; Binderup, L.

    1997-01-01

    An experimental rat model, the Subcutaneous Air Sac (SAS) model, was developed to provide an animal model in which neo-vascularisation can be easily assessed in situ and quantified using a radiolabelled plasma marker. The SAS model was designed to replace a previous model where neo-vascularisation was induced by chemical injury of rat or rabbit cornea or by implantation of tumour cells intracorneally, a methodology which is believed to cause severe pain to the animals. In the SAS model the air sac replaces the cornea as a transparent avascular substratum in which vascularisation can be observed. The air sac is induced by injection of air subcutaneously on the back of the animal. After 8 to 10 days a sufficient air sac has been established. The animal is anaesthesized and by a minor operation the cellulose sponge is implanted upon the air sac under the skin. The vaso-proliferative effect of the cellulose sponge caused formation of new vessels which are macroscopically visible 10 days after implantation. The ability of the in vivo SAS model to show an anti-angiogenic effect of a systemically applied test compound was investigated using the fumagilline analogue TNP-470 (o-chloro-acetylcarbomoyl-fumagillol) as a positive control at dose levels of 0, 1, 2.5, 5 and 10 mg/kg/day given subcutaneously for 10 days. The neo-angio genesis was scored both in situ using a subjective point system and by measuring the 125 I-activity of the implant and the membrane after an intravenous injection of 125 I-labelled antibodies. The neo-angio genesis was reduced by approximately 45-50% in animals treated with 5 or 10 mg/kg/day of TNP-470 compared to animals treated with the vehicle. The animals treated with 10 mg/kg/day TNP-470 showed signs of toxicity. The SAS model is considered highly relevant for in vivo testing of potential anti-angiogenci drugs on humane grounds. The high reproducibility, the low cost and the technical simplicity of the method makes it attractive. (au)

  8. Effect of X-rays combined with ACNU and O sup 6 -ethylguanine on rat subcutaneous gliomas

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    Takahashi, Kou; Katakura, Rhuichi; Mashiyama, Shoji; Yoshimoto, Takashi; Suzuki, Jiro (Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). School of Medicine); Sasaki, Takehito

    1991-06-01

    Rat gliomas of subcutaneously transplanted RGc-6 cells were irradiated with X-ray either alone, or combined with ACNU, and the cell-survival was assayed in vitro. Cell-survival curve composed of two components by X-irradiation alone indicated the presence of a hypoxic cell fraction. We have previously shown that combined treatment with ACNU apparently made the effect of X-ray on spheroids in vitro of the same cell line of RGc-6 more powerful. Although treatment of rat gliomas with ACNU administered at 2 hrs prior to X-irradiation was most effective, it resulted in only the additive effect of the independent action of the two agents. Further treatment by O{sup 6}-ethylguanine prior to ACNU administration and X-irradiation apparently increased the strength of the effect of ACNU combined with X-ray to the dose-modifying factor for X-ray of 1.8. The result indicated that the combination of O{sup 6}-ethylguanine prior to ACNU administration and X-irradiation may clinically enhance the effect of X-ray against apparent ACNU-resistant glioma cells such as RGc-6 cells. (author).

  9. Hemodynamic changes in rats after radioprotective combination of cystamine administered subcutaneously and 5-methoxytryptamine injected intramuscularly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuna, P.

    1976-01-01

    Administration of cystamine (20 mg base/kg s.c.) and 5-methoxytryptamine (10 mg base/kg i.m.) with 12 minutes delay to anesthetized rats induced the depression of whole cardiovascular system, hemoconcentration and great blood flow decrease in the radiosensitive tissues. Distribution of lowered cardiac output preferred the fractions to brain, heart, liver and lungs. Hemodynamic responses to protective combination may participate in its radioprotective action. (orig.) [de

  10. A single subcutaneous bolus of erythropoietin normalizes cerebral blood flow autoregulation after subarachnoid haemorrhage in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Springborg, Jacob Bertram; Ma, XiaoDong; Rochat, Per

    2002-01-01

    the intracarotid (133)Xe method. CBF autoregulation was preserved in both sham-operated groups (lower limits of mean arterial blood pressure: 91+/-3 and 98+/-3 mmHg in groups A and B, respectively). In the vehicle treated SAH-group, autoregulation was abolished and the relationship between CBF and blood pressure...... administered recombinant EPO on impaired cerebral blood flow (CBF) autoregulation after experimental subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH). Four groups of male Sprague-Dawley rats were studied: group A, sham operation plus vehicle; group B, sham operation plus EPO; group C, SAH plus vehicle; group D, SAH plus EPO...

  11. Efficacy of Carbazole Alkaloids, Essential Oil and Extract of Murraya koenigii in Enhancing Subcutaneous Wound Healing in Rats

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    Thilahgavani Nagappan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The traditional use of Murraya koenigii as Asian folk medicine prompted us to investigate its wound healing ability. Three carbazole alkaloids (mahanine (1, mahanimbicine (2, mahanimbine (3, essential oil and ethanol extract of Murraya koenigii were investigated for their efficacy in healing subcutaneous wounds. Topical application of the three alkaloids, essential oil and crude extract on 8 mm wounds created on the dorsal skin of rats was monitored for 18 days. Wound contraction rate and epithelialization duration were calculated, while wound granulation and collagen deposition were evaluated via histological method. Wound contraction rates were obvious by day 4 for the group treated with extract (19.25% and the group treated with mahanimbicine (2 (12.60%, while complete epithelialization was achieved on day 18 for all treatment groups. Wounds treated with mahanimbicine (2 (88.54% and extract of M. koenigii (91.78% showed the highest rate of collagen deposition with well-organized collagen bands, formation of fibroblasts, hair follicle buds and with reduced inflammatory cells compared to wounds treated with mahanine (1, mahanimbine (3 and essential oil. The study revealed the potential of mahanimbicine (2 and crude extract of M. koenigii in facilitation and acceleration of wound healing.

  12. Effect of polyurethane scaffold architecture on ingrowth speed and collagen orientation in a subcutaneous rat pocket model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Mulder, E L W; Hannink, G; Verdonschot, N; Buma, P

    2013-01-01

    Clinically used scaffolds are suboptimal in regenerating the highly oriented meniscus fiber structure in full meniscal defects. The objective of this study was to test whether anisotropic porous scaffolds with channels resulted in a more meniscus like matrix organization compared to isotropic porous scaffolds. Isotropic polyurethane scaffolds were made via standard solvent leaching techniques. Anisotropic porous scaffolds with channels were made via modified thermal induced phase separation. Both scaffold types were analyzed with light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and computed nano-tomography. Finally, isotropic and anisotropic scaffolds were bilaterally and subcutaneously implanted on the back of 32 Wistar rats for 1, 4, 8 and 24 weeks to assess tissue ingrowth and matrix organization. Isotropic scaffolds had a pore diameter of 35±14.7 μm and a degree of anisotropy of 0.18, while anisotropic scaffolds had a channel diameter of 20±6.0 μm and a degree of anisotropy of 0.39. After implantation full tissue ingrowth was achieved after 8 and 24 weeks for isotropic and anisotropic, respectively. Isotropic scaffolds had a random tissue infiltration with unorganized collagen deposition, whereas anisotropic scaffolds showed tissue infiltration and collagen alignment in the direction of the channels. Anisotropic scaffolds resulted in a matrix organization that resembled the tissue in the vascularized zone of the meniscus, while isotropic scaffolds resembled the tissue in the avascular zone of the meniscus. (paper)

  13. Effect of polyurethane scaffold architecture on ingrowth speed and collagen orientation in a subcutaneous rat pocket model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Mulder, E L W; Hannink, G; Verdonschot, N; Buma, P

    2013-04-01

    Clinically used scaffolds are suboptimal in regenerating the highly oriented meniscus fiber structure in full meniscal defects. The objective of this study was to test whether anisotropic porous scaffolds with channels resulted in a more meniscus like matrix organization compared to isotropic porous scaffolds. Isotropic polyurethane scaffolds were made via standard solvent leaching techniques. Anisotropic porous scaffolds with channels were made via modified thermal induced phase separation. Both scaffold types were analyzed with light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and computed nano-tomography. Finally, isotropic and anisotropic scaffolds were bilaterally and subcutaneously implanted on the back of 32 Wistar rats for 1, 4, 8 and 24 weeks to assess tissue ingrowth and matrix organization. Isotropic scaffolds had a pore diameter of 35±14.7 μm and a degree of anisotropy of 0.18, while anisotropic scaffolds had a channel diameter of 20±6.0 μm and a degree of anisotropy of 0.39. After implantation full tissue ingrowth was achieved after 8 and 24 weeks for isotropic and anisotropic, respectively. Isotropic scaffolds had a random tissue infiltration with unorganized collagen deposition, whereas anisotropic scaffolds showed tissue infiltration and collagen alignment in the direction of the channels. Anisotropic scaffolds resulted in a matrix organization that resembled the tissue in the vascularized zone of the meniscus, while isotropic scaffolds resembled the tissue in the avascular zone of the meniscus.

  14. Subcutaneous Injections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Maria

    This thesis is about visualization and characterization of the tissue-device interaction during subcutaneous injection. The tissue pressure build-up during subcutaneous injections was measured in humans. The insulin pen FlexTouchr (Novo Nordisk A/S) was used for the measurements and the pressure ...

  15. Repeated subcutaneous administrations of krokodil causes skin necrosis and internal organs toxicity in Wistar rats: putative human implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Emanuele Amorim; Brandão, Pedro; Neves, João Filipe; Cravo, Sara Manuela; Soares, José Xavier; Grund, Jean-Paul C; Duarte, José Alberto; Afonso, Carlos M M; Pereira Netto, Annibal Duarte; Carvalho, Félix; Dinis-Oliveira, Ricardo Jorge

    2017-05-01

    "Krokodil" is the street name for an impure homemade drug mixture used as a cheap substitute for heroin, containing desomorphine as the main opioid. Abscesses, gangrene, thrombophlebitis, limb ulceration and amputations, jaw osteonecrosis, skin discoloration, ulcers, skin infections, and bleeding are some of the typical reported signs in humans. This study aimed to understand the toxicity of krokodil using Wistar male rats as experimental model. Animals were divided into seven groups and exposed subcutaneously to NaCl 0.9% (control), krokodil mixture free of psychotropic substances (blank krokodil), pharmaceutical grade desomorphine 1 mg/kg, and four different concentrations of krokodil (containing 0.125, 0.25, 0.5, and 1 mg/kg of desomorphine) synthesized accordingly to a "domestic" protocol followed by people who inject krokodil (PWIK). Daily injections for five consecutive days were performed, and animals were sacrificed 24 hr after the last administration. Biochemical and histological analysis were carried out. It was shown that the continuous use of krokodil may cause injury at the injection area, with formation of necrotic zones. The biochemical results evidenced alterations on cardiac and renal biomarkers of toxicity, namely, creatine kinase, creatine kinase-MB, and uric acid. Significant alteration in levels of reduced and oxidized glutathione on kidney and heart suggested that oxidative stress may be involved in krokodil-mediated toxicity. Cardiac congestion was the most relevant finding of continuous krokodil administration. These findings contribute notably to comprehension of the local and systemic toxicological impact of this complex drug mixture on major organs and will hopefully be useful for the development of appropriate treatment strategies towards the human toxicological effects of krokodil. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Antioxidative and Neuroprotective Effects of Curcumin in an Alzheimer's Disease Rat Model Co-Treated with Intracerebroventricular Streptozotocin and Subcutaneous D-Galactose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Han-Chang; Zheng, Bo-Wen; Guo, Yu; Zhao, Jian; Zhao, Jiang-Yan; Ma, Xiao-Wei; Jiang, Zhao-Feng

    2016-04-05

    Epidemiological data imply links between the increasing incidences of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and type 2 diabetes mellitus. In this study, an AD rat model was established by combining treatments with intracerebroventricular streptozotocin (icv-STZ) and subcutaneous D-galactose, and the effects of curcumin on depressing AD-like symptoms were investigated. In the AD model group, rats were treated with icv-STZ in each hippocampus with 3.0 mg/kg of bodyweight once and then were subcutaneously injected with D-galactose daily (125 mg/kg of bodyweight) for 7 weeks. In the curcumin-protective group, after icv-STZ treatment, rats were treated with D-galactose (the same as in the AD model group) and intraperitoneally injected with curcumin daily (10 mg/kg of bodyweight) for 7 weeks. Vehicle-treated rats were treated as control. Compared with the vehicle control, the amount of protein carbonylation and glutathione in liver, as well as malondialdehyde in serum, were upregulated but glutathione peroxidase activity in blood was downregulated in the AD model group. The shuttle index and locomotor activity of rats in the AD model group were decreased compared with the vehicle control group. Furthermore, AD model rats showed neuronal damage and neuron loss with formation of amyloid-like substances and neurofibrillary tangles, and the levels of both β-cleavage of AβPP and phosphorylation of tau (Ser396) were significantly increased compared with the vehicle control group. Notably, compared with the AD model group, oxidative stress was decreased and the abilities of active avoidance and locomotor activity were improved, as well as attenuated neurodegeneration, in the curcumin-protective group. These results imply the applications of this animal model for AD research and of curcumin in the treatment of AD.

  17. The Pharmacokinetics and Biodistribution of a 64 kDa PolyPEG Star Polymer After Subcutaneous and Pulmonary Administration to Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khor, Song Yang; Hu, Jinming; McLeod, Victoria M; Quinn, John F; Porter, Christopher J H; Whittaker, Michael R; Kaminskas, Lisa M; Davis, Thomas P

    2016-01-01

    PolyPEG star polymers have potential utility as cost-effective polymeric drug delivery vehicles, and as such, it is important to develop an understanding of their biopharmaceutical behavior. Moreover, although a number of studies have evaluated the utility of PolyPEG stars in vitro, investigation of these novel materials in vivo has been limited. Herein, we evaluated the pharmacokinetics of a 64 kDa tritiated PEG-based star polymer after subcutaneous and pulmonary administration in rats. After subcutaneous administration, the star polymer showed near complete bioavailability (∼80%) and a similar organ biodistribution profile to the polymer after intravenous administration. After intratracheal instillation to the lungs, the star polymer showed limited bioavailability (∼3%), and most of the administered radiolabel was recovered in lung tissue and feces after 6 d. The data reported here suggest that star polymers display similar pharmaceutical behavior to PEGylated dendrimers after subcutaneous and inhaled delivery and may therefore be used as similar, but more cost-effective drug delivery vehicles. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Evaluating the efficacy of subcutaneous C1-esterase inhibitor administration for use in rat models of inflammatory diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emmens, Reindert W.; Naaijkens, Benno A.; Roem, Dorina; Kramer, Klaas; Wouters, Diana; Zeerleder, Sacha; van Ham, Marieke S.; Niessen, Hans W.; Krijnen, Paul A.

    2014-01-01

    Context: C1-esterase inhibitor (C1-inh) therapy is currently administered to patients with C1-inh deficiency through intravenous injections. The possibility of subcutaneous administration is currently being explored since this would alleviate need for hospitalization and increase mobility and

  19. The role of subcutaneous adipose tissue in supporting the copper balance in rats with a chronic deficiency in holo-ceruloplasmin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina Y Ilyechova

    Full Text Available We have previously shown that (1 an acute deficiency in blood serum holo-ceruloplasmin (Cp developed in rats that were fed fodder containing silver ions (Ag-fodder for one month and (2 the deficiency in holo-Cp was compensated by non-hepatic holo-Cp synthesis in rats that were chronically fed Ag-fodder for 6 months (Ag-rats. The purpose of the present study is to identify the organ(s that compensate for the hepatic holo-Cp deficiency in the circulation. This study was performed on rats that were fed Ag-fodder (40 mg Ag·kg-1 body mass daily for 6 months. The relative expression levels of the genes responsible for copper status were measured by RT-PCR. The in vitro synthesis and secretion of [14C]Cp were analyzed using a metabolic labeling approach. Oxidase activity was determined using a gel assay with o-dianisidine. Copper status and some hematological indexes were measured. Differential centrifugation, immunoblotting, immunoelectrophoresis, and atomic absorption spectrometry were included in the investigation. In the Ag-rats, silver accumulation was tissue-specific. Skeletal muscles and internal (IAT and subcutaneous (SAT adipose tissues did not accumulate silver significantly. In SAT, the mRNAs for the soluble and glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored ceruloplasmin isoforms were expressed, and their relative levels were increased two-fold in the Ag-rats. In parallel, the levels of the genes responsible for Cp metallation (Ctr1 and Atp7a/b increased correspondingly. In the SAT of the Ag-rats, Cp oxidase activity was observed in the Golgi complex and plasma membrane. Moreover, full-length [14C]Cp polypeptides were released into the medium by slices of SAT. The possibilities that SAT is part of a system that controls the copper balance in mammals, and it plays a significant role in supporting copper homeostasis throughout the body are discussed.

  20. [Hematologic indices in different age wistar rats, receiving a balanced semi-synthetic vivary diet].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafina, O K; Trushina, É N; Shumakova, E A; Arianova, E A; Tyshko, N V; Pashorina, V A

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the results of research of hematologic parameters of male Wistar rats 1, 2, 3, 4 and 6 months age, which received a balanced semisynthetic diet. Studies were carried out at the Hematology analyzer Coulter AC TTM 5 diff OV (Beckman Coulter, USA) with the program, specially developed for the study of rats' blood. According to the results of research, was found a statistically significant increased of the number of red blood cells; the concentration of hemoglobin and hematocrit in animals 2-6 months compared with rats, 1 month age. With age, there is a decrease of the mean corpuscular volume and the mean corpuscular hemoglobin. The number of white blood cells in rats of 2-4 months age are significantly higher than in rats of 1 and 6 months age. The number of neutrophils and eosinophils in rats of to the 2 month are of is lover than once in rats of 1 month age, and increases values in animals of 6 months age. The number of lymphocytes has the highest value in the rat of 2-3 months age and the minimum value is that in animals of 6 months age. With increasing of the age of the animals the reduction of contents of monocytes was noted. The content of platelets and the platelet crit in the blood of rats 6 months age is statistically greater than those in 1-month age animals. The average volume of platelet is the stable index, with age does not change.

  1. Testosterone replacement alters the cell size in visceral fat but not in subcutaneous fat in hypogonadal aged male rats as a late-onset hypogonadism animal model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelhamed A

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Amr Abdelhamed,1,2 Shin-ichi Hisasue,1 Masato Shirai,3 Kazuhito Matsushita,1 Yoshiaki Wakumoto,1 Akira Tsujimura,1 Taiji Tsukamoto,4 Shigeo Horie1 1Department of Urology, Juntendo University, Graduate School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan; 2Department of Dermatology, Venereology and Andrology, Sohag University, Graduate School of Medicine, Sohag, Egypt; 3Department of Urology, Juntendo University Urayasu Hospital, Urayasu, Japan; 4Department of Urology, School of Medicine, Sapporo Medical University, Sapporo, Japan Background: Patients with late-onset hypogonadism (LOH benefit from testosterone replacement by improvement in the parameters of the metabolic syndrome, but fat cell morphology in these patients is still unclear. This study aims to determine the effect of testosterone replacement on the morphology of fat cells in subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue and on erectile function in hypogonadal aged male rats as a model of LOH. Methods: Ten male Sprague-Dawley rats aged 20–22 months were randomly allocated to two groups, ie, aged male controls (control group, n=5 and aged males treated with testosterone replacement therapy (TRT group, n=5. Testosterone enanthate 25 mg was injected subcutaneously every 2 weeks for 6 weeks. At 6 weeks, the intracavernous pressure (ICP and mean arterial blood pressure (MAP ratio was assessed. Visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue specimens were collected and analyzed using Image-J software. Results: Body weight at 2, 4, and 6 weeks after TRT was 800.0±35.4 g, 767.5±46.3 g, and 780±40.4 g, respectively (not statistically significant. The ICP/MAP ratio was 0.341±0.015 in the TRT group and 0.274±0.049 in the control group (not statistically significant. The median subcutaneous fat cell size was 4.85×103 (range 0.85–12.53×103 µm2 in the control group and 4.93×103 (range 6.42–19.7×103 µm2 in the TRT group (not statistically significant. In contrast, median visceral fat cell size was significantly

  2. Effect of sodium nitroprusside-induced hypotension on the blood flow in subcutaneous and intramuscular BT4An tumors and normal tissues in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krossnes, Baard Kronen; Mella, Olav; Tyssebotn, Ingvald

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the effect of infusion of the vasodilator sodium nitroprusside (SNP) on the blood flow in normal tissues and BT 4 An tumors growing subcutaneously or intramusculary in BD IX rats. Methods and Materials: Sodium nitroprusside was given as a continuous intravenous infusion to keep the mean arterial pressure stable at 60 mmHg. The cardiac output, organ blood flow, and perfusion of the BT 4 An tumors were measured by injection of radiolabelled microspheres at control conditions and after 20 min SNP infusion in each animal. Two series of experiments were performed with two anesthetics with different mechanisms of action, Inactin and the midazolam-fentanyl-fluanisone combination (MFF), to secure reliable conclusions. Results: Cardiac output, heart rate, and blood flow to the skeletal muscles, heart, and liver increased during SNP infusion in either anesthetic group. In the kidneys and particularly in the skin, decreased blood flow by SNP was observed. When located subcutaneously on the foot, the blood flow in the tumor fell to 23.4% and 21.4% of the control values in the MFF- and Inactin-anesthetized animals, respectively. This was accompanied by a similar fall in the blood flow in the foot (tumor bed) itself. In the intramuscular tumor the blood flow fell to 24.8% of the control value in the MFF group, whereas the corresponding figure was 36.2% in the Inactin group. In the surrounding muscle (tumor bed) the blood flow increased significantly, most pronounced in the MFF experiment, where it was tripled. Conclusion: The fall in the tumor perfusion by SNP may be exploited therapeutically to increase the tumor temperature during hyperthermia. Predominant heating of the tumor compared to the tumor bed can be expected if the tumor is growing in or near skeletal muscles

  3. Biodegradable in situ gelling system for subcutaneous administration of ellagic acid and ellagic acid loaded nanoparticles: evaluation of their antioxidant potential against cyclosporine induced nephrotoxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, G; Italia, J L; Sonaje, K; Tikoo, K; Ravi Kumar, M N V

    2007-03-12

    Ellagic acid (EA) is a potent antioxidant marketed as a nutritional supplement. Its pharmacological activity has been reported in wide variety of disease models; however its use has been limited owing to its poor biopharmaceutical properties, thereby poor bioavailability. The objective of the current study was to develop chitosan-glycerol phosphate (C-GP) in situ gelling system for sustained delivery of ellagic acid (EA) via subcutaneous route. EA was incorporated in the system employing propylene glycol (PG) and triethanolamine (TEA) as co-solvents; on the other hand EA loaded PLGA nanoparticles (np) were dispersed in the gelling system using water. These in situ gelling systems were thoroughly characterized for mechanical, rheological and swelling properties. These systems are liquid at room temperature and gels at 37 degrees C. The EA C-GP system showed an initial burst release in vitro with about 85% drug released in 12 h followed by a steady release till 160 h, on the other hand EA nanoparticles entrapped in the C-GP system displayed sustained release till 360 h. The histopathological analysis indicates the absence of inflammation on administration, suggesting that these formulations are safe during the studied period. Furthermore, the antioxidant potential of EA C-GP and EA np C-GP gels has been evaluated against cyclosporine induced nephrotoxicity in rats. The data indicates that formulations were effective against cyclosporine induced nephrotoxicity, where the EA C-GP gels showed activity at 10 times lower dose and the EA np C-GP gels at 150 times lower dose when compared to orally given EA. Formulating nanoparticles of EA and incorporating them in C-GP system results in 15 times lowering of dose in comparison EA C-GP gels which is quite significant. Together, these results indicate that the bioavailability of ellagic acid can be improved by subcutaneous formulations administered as simple EA or EA nps.

  4. Higher levels of ethyl paraben and butyl paraben in rat amniotic fluid than in maternal plasma after subcutaneous administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Hanne; Taxvig, Camilla; Hass, Ulla

    2008-01-01

    to obtain more knowledge about the distribution of ethyl paraben and butyl paraben in pregnant rats and pups after perinatal exposure, the presented study was designed. The data show response and distribution of ethyl paraben and butyl paraben in maternal rat plasma, pools of amniotic fluids, placenta......, whole-body fetuses, and in fetal liver after dosing of dams with 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg body weight (bw)/day from gestational day 7 to 21. After cesarean section of dams, the fluids and tissues were collected, deconjugated, and purified by solid-phase extraction, and ethyl paraben and butyl paraben...... were analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Markedly higher levels of ethyl paraben compared to butyl paraben were found in all fluids and tissues. Both ethyl paraben and butyl paraben in maternal plasma, livers, and whole-body tissues from fetus seemed to be saturated after dosing...

  5. Influence of different doses of octenidine hexafluorosilicate on parodontotium state of rat, which received cariesogenic ration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Yu. Anisimov

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To determine of parodontium state of rat, which received cariesogenic ration and different doses of octenidine hexafluorosilicate (O-HFS. Methods: The octenidine hexafluorosilicate was synthesized by us and was used into mucoso-adgesive gels (Na-CMC in next concentrations: 1 mg/ml, 2 mg/ml and 4 mg/ml. The rats received high-sugar cariesogenic ration and oral applications of gels with O-HFS in doses of 0,3 ml (daily doses of O-HFS were 1,4 mg/kg, 2,8 mg/kg and 5,6 mg/kg. The duration of experiment was 35 days. The activities of urease, lysozyme and elastase were determined into gum. The activities of urease, lysozyme, ALT and alkaline phosphatase (APh were determined into serum. The degree of dysbiosis calculated by ration urease and lysozyme. The degree of atrophy of parodontale bone was determined by Nicolaeva method. Results: The activities of elastase and urease, the degree of atrophy and dysbiosis were raised into gum of rat, which received cariesogenic ration. The activities of ALT and APh, the degree of dysbiosis were raised into serum. The oral application of O-HFS-gels decreased the all these indices. The maximal action made O-HFS-gel in dose 2,8 mg/kg. Conclusion: The oral application of O-HFS-gel make parodontoprotective action.

  6. The in vivo situation of 3H-Aescin which had been administered orally and subcutaneously to rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suga, Tetsuya; Matsumoto, Yoshio; Hayase, Shigeru.

    1975-01-01

    The in vivo situation of the Aescin, a product of aesculus hippocastanum, was examined by administering the 3 H labelled compounds to rats. The following results were obtained: 1) The intestinal absorption from oral administration was not so fast. The blood concentration was low, and its combination with plasma protein was slight. 2) As for the distribution in the organs after an oral administration, the affinity was relatively high in the following organs: Pancreas>heart>kidney>adrenal>gland>lung>muscle>liver. However, the concentrations were extremely low being shown by a ng unit per g tissue in the organs. 3) When it was administered orally to the pregnant rats, the concentrations which were transmitted to the fetuses were low. 4) On the 7th day after oral administration, excretion into the urine was less than 3% and in the feces was more than 70%. The bile excretion was also observed. 5) The metabolic products in the excretion after the oral administration were examined by the method. A large amount of Aescin was excreted in an unchanged form or in compounds. From this, Aescin is presumed to be metabolised by the activity of intestinal bacterial enzymes. 6) The absorption of this drug into the body was low when it was intracutaneously administered. (Saito, K.)

  7. In vivo situation of /sup 3/H-Aescin which had been administered orally and subcutaneously to rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suga, T; Matsumoto, Y [Tokyo Coll. of Pharmacy (Japan); Hayase, S

    1975-08-01

    The in vivo situation of the Aescin, a product of aesculus hippocastanum, was examined by administering the /sup 3/H labelled compounds to rats. The following results were obtained: (1) The intestinal absorption from oral administration was not so fast. The blood concentration was low, and its combination with plasma protein was slight. (2) As for the distribution in the organs after an oral administration, the affinity was relatively high in the following organs: Pancreas(3)heart>kidney>adrenal>gland>lung>muscle>liver. However, the concentrations were extremely low being shown by a ng unit per g tissue in the organs. 3) When it was administered orally to the pregnant rats, the concentrations which were transmitted to the fetuses were low. (4) On the 7th day after oral administration, excretion into the urine was less than 3% and in the feces was more than 70%. The bile excretion was also observed. (5) The metabolic products in the excretion after the oral administration were examined by the method. A large amount of Aescin was excreted in an unchanged form or in compounds. From this, Aescin is presumed to be metabolised by the activity of intestinal bacterial enzymes. (6) The absorption of this drug into the body was low when it was intracutaneously administered.

  8. In vivo 31P and 1H NMR studies of rat brain tumor pH and blood flow during acute hyperglycemia: Differential effects between subcutaneous and intracerebral locations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, B.D.; Mitchell, S.L.; Merkle, H.; Garwood, M.

    1989-01-01

    Surface coil NMR spectroscopy was used to monitor the hyperglycemia-induced alterations in pH and blood flow in vivo in C6 gliomas implanted both subcutaneously and intracerebrally in rats. Tumor pH was calculated from the chemical shift difference between PCr and Pi in the 31 P NMR spectra. Subcutaneous glioma pH decreased 0.8 units by 1 h after intraperitoneal administration of an aqueous 50% glucose solution (6 g glucose per kg body weight). In contrast, hyperglycemia failed to significantly alter the pH of intracerebral gliomas which were monitored for 90 min following administration of glucose. Tumor blood flow (TBF) was determined both pre- and post-glucose administration using deuterium NMR by monitoring the time course of D2O washout following intratumoral injection of saline D2O. Subcutaneous and intracerebral TBF were found to have an average change of -78.1% (range -47.4 to -93.3%, n = 5) and -21.1% (range +6.0 to -37.8%, n = 9), respectively. In addition, laser Doppler blood flow measurements of rat skin and subcutaneous glioma revealed a dramatic reduction in blood flow in both tissues following glucose administration. These results indicate that the effects of acute hyperglycemia are site dependent and that hyperglycemia alone is not beneficial for inducing intracellular acidosis in intracerebral tumors

  9. Histological and histomorphometrical analysis of a silica matrix embedded nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite bone substitute using the subcutaneous implantation model in Wistar rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghanaati, Shahram; Orth, Carina; Barbeck, Mike; Kirkpatrick, Charles James [Institute of Pathology, University Medical Center of the Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, Langenbeckstrasse 1, 55101 Mainz (Germany); Willershausen, Ines [Institute for Dental Material Sciences and Technology, University Medical Center of the Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, Anselm-Franz-von-Bentzel-Weg 14, 55128 Mainz (Germany); Thimm, Benjamin W [Institute for Biomechanics, ETH Zuerich, Wolfgang-Pauli-Str.10, 8093 Zuerich (Switzerland); Booms, Patrick [Leeds Institute of Molecular Medicine, Section of Medicine, Surgery and Anaesthesia, University of Leeds (United Kingdom); Stuebinger, Stefan; Landes, Constantin; Sader, Robert Anton, E-mail: ghanaati@uni-mainz.d [Department for Oral, Cranio-Maxillofacial and Facial Plastic Surgery, Medical Center of the Goethe University Frankfurt, Theodor-Stein-Kai 7, 60596 Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2010-06-01

    The clinical suitability of a bone substitute material is determined by the ability to induce a tissue reaction specific to its composition. The aim of this in vivo study was to analyze the tissue reaction to a silica matrix-embedded, nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite bone substitute. The subcutaneous implantation model in Wistar rats was chosen to assess the effect of silica degradation on the vascularization of the biomaterial and its biodegradation within a time period of 6 months. Already at day 10 after implantation, histomorphometrical analysis showed that the vascularization of the implantation bed reached its peak value compared to all other time points. Both vessel density and vascularization significantly decreased until day 90 after implantation. In this time period, the bone substitute underwent a significant degradation initiated by TRAP-positive and TRAP-negative multinucleated giant cells together with macrophages and lymphocytes. Although no specific tissue reaction could be related to the described silica degradation, the biomaterial was close to being fully degraded without a severe inflammatory response. These characteristics are advantageous for bone regeneration and remodeling processes.

  10. Histological and histomorphometrical analysis of a silica matrix embedded nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite bone substitute using the subcutaneous implantation model in Wistar rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghanaati, Shahram; Orth, Carina; Barbeck, Mike; Kirkpatrick, Charles James; Willershausen, Ines; Thimm, Benjamin W; Booms, Patrick; Stuebinger, Stefan; Landes, Constantin; Sader, Robert Anton

    2010-01-01

    The clinical suitability of a bone substitute material is determined by the ability to induce a tissue reaction specific to its composition. The aim of this in vivo study was to analyze the tissue reaction to a silica matrix-embedded, nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite bone substitute. The subcutaneous implantation model in Wistar rats was chosen to assess the effect of silica degradation on the vascularization of the biomaterial and its biodegradation within a time period of 6 months. Already at day 10 after implantation, histomorphometrical analysis showed that the vascularization of the implantation bed reached its peak value compared to all other time points. Both vessel density and vascularization significantly decreased until day 90 after implantation. In this time period, the bone substitute underwent a significant degradation initiated by TRAP-positive and TRAP-negative multinucleated giant cells together with macrophages and lymphocytes. Although no specific tissue reaction could be related to the described silica degradation, the biomaterial was close to being fully degraded without a severe inflammatory response. These characteristics are advantageous for bone regeneration and remodeling processes.

  11. Subcutaneous Injection of Adalimumab Trial compared with Control (SCIATiC): a randomised controlled trial of adalimumab injection compared with placebo for patients receiving physiotherapy treatment for sciatica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Nefyn H; Jenkins, Alison; Goulden, Nia; Hoare, Zoe; Hughes, Dyfrig A; Wood, Eifiona; Foster, Nadine E; Walsh, David A; Carnes, Dawn; Sparkes, Valerie; Hay, Elaine M; Isaacs, John; Konstantinou, Kika; Morrissey, Dylan; Karppinen, Jaro; Genevay, Stephane; Wilkinson, Clare

    2017-10-01

    Biological treatments such as adalimumab (Humira ® ; AbbVie Ltd, Maidenhead, UK) are antibodies targeting tumour necrosis factor alpha, released from ruptured intervertebral discs, which might be useful in sciatica. Recent systematic reviews concluded that they might be effective, but that a definitive randomised controlled trial was needed. Usual care in the NHS typically includes a physiotherapy intervention. To test whether or not injections of adalimumab plus physiotherapy are more clinically effective and cost-effective than injections of saline plus physiotherapy for patients with sciatica. Pragmatic, parallel-group, randomised controlled trial with blinded participants and clinicians, and an outcome assessment and statistical analysis with concurrent economic evaluation and internal pilot. Participants were referred from primary care and musculoskeletal services to outpatient physiotherapy clinics. Adults with persistent symptoms of sciatica of 1-6 months' duration and with moderate to high levels of disability. Eligibility was assessed by research physiotherapists according to clinical criteria for diagnosing sciatica. After a second eligibility check, trial participants were randomised to receive two doses of adalimumab (80 mg and then 40 mg 2 weeks later) or saline injections. Both groups were referred for a course of physiotherapy. Outcomes were measured at the start, and after 6 weeks' and 6 months' follow-up. The main outcome measure was the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI). Other outcomes: leg pain version of the Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire, Sciatica Bothersomeness Index, EuroQol-5 Dimensions, 5-level version, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, resource use, risk of persistent disabling pain, pain trajectory based on a single question, Pain Self-Efficacy Questionnaire, Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia and adverse effects. To detect an effect size of 0.4 with 90% power, a 5% significance level for a two-tailed t -test and 80% retention

  12. Characterization of poly (L-co-D,L Lactic Acid and a study of polymer-tissue interaction in subcutaneous implants in wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuliano Serafino Ciambelli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Poly (L-co-D,L lactic acid (PLDLA is an important biomaterial because of its biocompatibility properties that promote cellular regeneration and growth. The aim of this study was to evaluate the polymer-tissue interaction of PLDLA implants in the dorsal subcutaneous tissue of male Wistar rats at various intervals (2, 7, 15, 30, 60 and 90 days after implantation. Physical properties such as the glass transition point (Tg, degradation behavior and other mechanical properties were characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, gel permeation chromatography (GPC, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and tension tests. Analysis of the degradation of PLDLA membranes in vitro showed that the polymer became crystalline as a function of the degradation time. Mechanical tension tests showed that the polymer behaved like a ductile material: when subjected to constant tension it initially suffered deformation, then elongation and finally ruptured. TGA/MEV provided evidence of PLDLA membrane degradation. For histological analysis, samples from each group were processed in xylol/paraffin, except for the 60 - and 90 - day samples. Each of the latter samples was divided in two: one half was treated with xylol/paraffin and the other with historesin. Light microscopy showed the adhesion of cells to the biomaterial, the formation of a conjunctive capsule around the implant, the presence of epithelioid cells, the formation of foreign body giant cells and angiogenesis. During degradation, the polymer showed a 'lace' - like appearance when processed in xylol/paraffin compared to the formation of "centripetal cracks in the form of glove fingers" when embedded in historesin.

  13. Effects of CO(2) pneumoperitoneum on anastomotic healing in rats receiving preoperative 5-fluorouracil neoadjuvant chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulas, Murat; Ozer, Ilter; Ercan, Metin; Ozogul, Yusuf B; Bostanci, E Birol; Keklik, Tulay Temucin; Turkcu, Ummuhani Ozel; Bilgihan, Ayse; Akoglu, Musa

    2009-01-01

    When used separately, antineoplastic agents and carbon dioxide (CO(2)) pneumoperitoneum have been reported to impair anastomotic healing in experimental animals. However, the effects of their combined use have not been previously investigated. The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility that neoadjuvant chemotherapy with 5-fluorouracil followed by CO(2) pneumoperitoneum would affect the healing of anastomoses in the colon. Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 48) were given 5-fluorouracil (20 mg/kg/day) for 5 days, and were then assigned to one of the three groups. Prior to surgery, the control group received no pneumoperitoneum. The other two groups received pneumoperitoneum at 6 and 12 mmHg, respectively, for 2 hr. The large intestine was transected and anastomosis was performed via median laparotomy. On postoperative days 3 and 7, relaparotomy was performed in half of the rats in each group. From the colon, a segment including the anastomosis was excised. Tissue hydroxyproline levels were measured. For histological evaluation, the Verhofstad scale was modified and used. No significant differences in hydroxyproline levels were seen across the groups on postoperative days 3 or 7. However, by postoperative day 7, polymorphonuclear leukocytes and necrosis in the 6-mmHg group had decreased markedly, and granulation had improved. Overall, these findings suggest that preoperative 5-fluorouracil therapy followed by pneumoperitoneum at 6 or 12 mmHg does not impair anastomotic healing.

  14. Massive Preperitoneal Hematoma after a Subcutaneous Injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideki Katagiri

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Preperitoneal hematomas are rare and can develop after surgery or trauma. A 74-year-old woman, receiving systemic anticoagulation, developed a massive preperitoneal hematoma after a subcutaneous injection of teriparatide using a 32-gauge, 4 mm needle. In this patient, there were two factors, the subcutaneous injection of teriparatide and systemic anticoagulation, associated with development of the hematoma. These two factors are especially significant, because they are widely used clinically. Although extremely rare, physicians must consider this potentially life-threatening complication after subcutaneous injections, especially in patients receiving anticoagulation.

  15. Evaluation of the pharmacokinetics and cardiotoxicity of doxorubicin in rat receiving nilotinib

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Zhi-yong; Wan, Li-li; Yang, Quan-jun; Han, Yong-long; Li, Yan; Yu, Qi; Guo, Cheng; Li, Xiao

    2013-01-01

    Doxorubicin (DOX) is a potent chemotherapy drug with a narrow therapeutic window. Nilotinib, a small-molecule Bcr-Abl tyrosine kinase inhibitor, was reported to reverse multidrug resistance (MDR) mediated by P-glycoprotein (P-gp) transmembrane transporters. The present study aimed to investigate nilotinib's affection on the steady-state pharmacokinetics, disposition and cardiotoxicity of DOX. A total of 24 male Sprague–Dawley rats were randomized into four groups (6 in each) and received the following regimens: saline, intravenous DOX (5 mg/kg) alone, and DOX co-administrated with either 20 or 40 mg/kg nilotinib. Blood was withdrawn at 12 time points till 72 h after DOX injection and the concentrations of DOX and its metabolite doxorubicinol (DOXol) in serum and cardiac tissue were assayed by LC–MS–MS method. To determine the cardiotoxicity, the following parameters were investigated: creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, malondialdehyde, and superoxide dismutase. Histopathological examination of heart section was carried out to evaluate the extent of cardiotoxicity after treatments. The results showed that pretreatment of 40 mg/kg nilotinib increased the AUC 0–t and C max of DOX and DOXol. However, their accumulation in cardiac tissue was significantly decreased when compared with the group that received DOX alone. In addition, biochemical and histopathological results showed that 40 mg/kg nilotinib reduced the cardiotoxicity induced by DOX administration. In conclusion, co-administration of nilotinib increased serum exposure, but significantly decreased the accumulation of DOX in cardiac tissue. Consistent with in vitro profile, oral dose of 40 mg/kg nilotinib significantly decreased the cardiotoxicity of DOX in rat by enhancing P-gp activity in the heart

  16. Evaluation of the pharmacokinetics and cardiotoxicity of doxorubicin in rat receiving nilotinib

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Zhi-yong [Department of Pharmacy, Affiliated Sixth People' s Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 200233 Shanghai (China); School of Pharmacy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 200240 Shanghai (China); Wan, Li-li; Yang, Quan-jun; Han, Yong-long; Li, Yan; Yu, Qi [Department of Pharmacy, Affiliated Sixth People' s Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 200233 Shanghai (China); Guo, Cheng, E-mail: guochengphd@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Pharmacy, Affiliated Sixth People' s Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 200233 Shanghai (China); School of Pharmacy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 200240 Shanghai (China); Li, Xiao, E-mail: lixiao3326@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Hematology, Affiliated Sixth people' s Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 200233 Shanghai (China)

    2013-10-01

    Doxorubicin (DOX) is a potent chemotherapy drug with a narrow therapeutic window. Nilotinib, a small-molecule Bcr-Abl tyrosine kinase inhibitor, was reported to reverse multidrug resistance (MDR) mediated by P-glycoprotein (P-gp) transmembrane transporters. The present study aimed to investigate nilotinib's affection on the steady-state pharmacokinetics, disposition and cardiotoxicity of DOX. A total of 24 male Sprague–Dawley rats were randomized into four groups (6 in each) and received the following regimens: saline, intravenous DOX (5 mg/kg) alone, and DOX co-administrated with either 20 or 40 mg/kg nilotinib. Blood was withdrawn at 12 time points till 72 h after DOX injection and the concentrations of DOX and its metabolite doxorubicinol (DOXol) in serum and cardiac tissue were assayed by LC–MS–MS method. To determine the cardiotoxicity, the following parameters were investigated: creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, malondialdehyde, and superoxide dismutase. Histopathological examination of heart section was carried out to evaluate the extent of cardiotoxicity after treatments. The results showed that pretreatment of 40 mg/kg nilotinib increased the AUC{sub 0–t} and C{sub max} of DOX and DOXol. However, their accumulation in cardiac tissue was significantly decreased when compared with the group that received DOX alone. In addition, biochemical and histopathological results showed that 40 mg/kg nilotinib reduced the cardiotoxicity induced by DOX administration. In conclusion, co-administration of nilotinib increased serum exposure, but significantly decreased the accumulation of DOX in cardiac tissue. Consistent with in vitro profile, oral dose of 40 mg/kg nilotinib significantly decreased the cardiotoxicity of DOX in rat by enhancing P-gp activity in the heart.

  17. Subcutaneous granuloma annulare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhar Sandipan

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Two cases of subcutaneous granuloma annulare are reported. Clinical presentation was in the form of hard subcutaneous nodules, histopathology confirmed the clinical diagnosis. The cases were unique because of onset in adult age, occurrence over unusual sites and absence of classical lesions of granuloma annulare elsewhere.

  18. The comparison of the intestinal adaptation effects of subcutaneous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: Insulin has been reported to have positive effects on intestinal adaptation after short bowel syndrome when applicated oral or subcutaneously. The purpose of this study is to compare the intestinal adaptation effects of subcutaneous and oral routes of insulin in rats with short bowel syndrome. Materials and Methods: ...

  19. High-order motor cortex in rats receives somatosensory inputs from the primary motor cortex via cortico-cortical pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunori, Nobuo; Takashima, Ichiro

    2016-12-01

    The motor cortex of rats contains two forelimb motor areas; the caudal forelimb area (CFA) and the rostral forelimb area (RFA). Although the RFA is thought to correspond to the premotor and/or supplementary motor cortices of primates, which are higher-order motor areas that receive somatosensory inputs, it is unknown whether the RFA of rats receives somatosensory inputs in the same manner. To investigate this issue, voltage-sensitive dye (VSD) imaging was used to assess the motor cortex in rats following a brief electrical stimulation of the forelimb. This procedure was followed by intracortical microstimulation (ICMS) mapping to identify the motor representations in the imaged cortex. The combined use of VSD imaging and ICMS revealed that both the CFA and RFA received excitatory synaptic inputs after forelimb stimulation. Further evaluation of the sensory input pathway to the RFA revealed that the forelimb-evoked RFA response was abolished either by the pharmacological inactivation of the CFA or a cortical transection between the CFA and RFA. These results suggest that forelimb-related sensory inputs would be transmitted to the RFA from the CFA via the cortico-cortical pathway. Thus, the present findings imply that sensory information processed in the RFA may be used for the generation of coordinated forelimb movements, which would be similar to the function of the higher-order motor cortex in primates. © 2016 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Treadmill exercise attenuates the severity of physical dependence, anxiety, depressive-like behavior and voluntary morphine consumption in morphine withdrawn rats receiving methadone maintenance treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizadeh, Maryam; Zahedi-Khorasani, Mahdi; Miladi-Gorji, Hossein

    2018-05-30

    This study was designed to examine whether treadmill exercise would attenuate the severity of physical dependence, methadone-induced anxiety, depression and voluntary morphine consumption in morphine withdrawn rats receiving methadone maintenance treatment (MMT). The rats were chronically treated with bi-daily doses (10 mg/kg, at 12 h intervals) of morphine for 14 days. The exercising rats receiving MMT were forced to run on a motorized treadmill for 30 days during morphine withdrawal. Then, rats were tested for the severity of morphine dependence, the elevated plus-maze (EPM), sucrose preference test (SPT) and voluntary morphine consumption using a two-bottle choice (TBC) paradigm. The results showed that naloxone- precipitated opioid withdrawal signs were decreased in exercising morphine-dependent rats receiving MMT than sedentary rats. Also, the exercising morphine-dependent rats receiving MMT exhibited an increased time on open arms, preference for sucrose and a lower morphine preference ratio than sedentary rats. We conclude that treadmill exercise decreased the severity of physical dependence, anxiety/depressive-like behaviors and also the voluntary morphine consumption in morphine withdrawn rats receiving MMT. Thus, exercise may benefit in the treatment of addicts during MMT. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Subcutaneous encapsulated fat necrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aydin, Dogu; Berg, Jais O

    2016-01-01

    We have described subcutaneous encapsulated fat necrosis, which is benign, usually asymptomatic and underreported. Images have only been published on two earlier occasions, in which the necrotic nodules appear "pearly" than the cloudy yellow surface in present case. The presented image may help...

  2. Subcutaneous granuloma annulare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhar Sandipan

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Two cases of subcutaneos granuloma annulare are reported. Clinical presentation was in the form of hard subcutaneous nodules; histopathology confirmed the clinical diagnosis. The cases were unique because of onset in adult hood, occurrence over unusual sites and absence of classical lesions of granuloma annulare elsewhere.

  3. Subcutaneous administration of insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-II/IGF binding protein-2 complex stimulates bone formation and prevents loss of bone mineral density in a rat model of disuse osteoporosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conover, Cheryl A.; Johnstone, Edward W.; Turner, Russell T.; Evans, Glenda L.; John Ballard, F. John; Doran, Patrick M.; Khosla, Sundeep

    2002-01-01

    Elevated serum levels of insulin-like growth factor binding protein-2 (IGFBP-2) and a precursor form of IGF-II are associated with marked increases in bone formation and skeletal mass in patients with hepatitis C-associated osteosclerosis. In vitro studies indicate that IGF-II in complex with IGFBP-2 has high affinity for bone matrix and is able to stimulate osteoblast proliferation. The purpose of this study was to determine the ability of the IGF-II/IGFBP-2 complex to increase bone mass in vivo. Osteopenia of the femur was induced by unilateral sciatic neurectomy in rats. At the time of surgery, 14-day osmotic minipumps containing vehicle or 2 microg IGF-II+9 microg IGFBP-2/100g body weight/day were implanted subcutaneously in the neck. Bone mineral density (BMD) measurements were taken the day of surgery and 14 days later using a PIXImus small animal densitometer. Neurectomy of the right hindlimb resulted in a 9% decrease in right femur BMD (Ploss in BMD was completely prevented by treatment with IGF-II/IGFBP-2. On the control limb, there was no loss of BMD over the 14 days and IGF-II/IGFBP-2 treatment resulted in a 9% increase in left femur BMD (Ploss of BMD associated with disuse osteoporosis and stimulate bone formation in adult rats. Furthermore, they provide proof of concept for a novel anabolic approach to increasing bone mass in humans with osteoporosis.

  4. Evaluation of Subcutaneous Phenobarbital Administration in Hospice Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosgood, Jessica Richards; Kimbrel, Jason M; McCrate Protus, Bridget; Grauer, Phyllis A

    2016-04-01

    Phenobarbital is used in hospice and palliative care to treat refractory symptoms. In end-of-life care, Food and Drug Administration approved routes of administration may be unreasonable based on patients' status. In these cases, phenobarbital may be administered subcutaneously for symptom management. However, according to the American Hospital Formulary Service, subcutaneous administration of commercially available injectable phenobarbital is cautioned due to possible skin reactions. This study evaluates the tolerability of phenobarbital administered subcutaneously. Of 69 patients and 774 distinct subcutaneous phenobarbital injections, 2 site reactions were recorded (2.9% of patients; 0.3% of injections). Both were mild, grade 1 reactions. Each patient continued to receive subcutaneous phenobarbital via newly placed ports with no additional reactions. Based on these findings, phenobarbital appears to be well tolerated when administered subcutaneously. © The Author(s) 2014.

  5. Modulation of radiation injuries in rats receiving multiple doses of Aloe Vera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azab, Kh.SH.

    2007-01-01

    This study has been performed to examine the efficacy of Aloe vera juice (Aloe barbadensis Miller) against radiation injuries of 7 Gy whole body gamma irradiation (single dose). Inductions of lipid peroxidation (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, (TBARS)) of biomembranes lipids as well as the subsequent changes in the activities of subcellular organelle marker enzymes were discussed. Activities of glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH), acid phosphatase and glucose-6-phosphatase (marker enzymes of mitochondria, lysosome and microsomes, respectively) were estimated. The activities of these enzymes were also measured in cytosol. Subcellular fractionation's were performed in liver, heart and spleen tissues. Aloe vera was supplemented daily to rats (0.25 ml/kg body wt/day) by gavage, 5 days before irradiation and treatment was extended for 10 days post irradiation. Experimental investigations were performed on the 3 rd and 10 th day after exposure to radiation. The results obtained indicated that, Aloe vera administration has significantly minimized the radiation-induced increase in the amount of TBARS in different cell fractions as compared with control rats. Significant amelioration in the activities of organelles marker enzymes GDH, acid phosphatase and glucose-6-phosphatase was observed from 3 rd up to 10 th days for the 3 tissues. The results also detected improvement in cytosolic enzyme activities due to Aloe vera intake. It could be suggested that the diverse active constituents of Aloe vera play a significant role in decreasing the peroxidation of subcellular membrane lipids induced by radiation exposure, prevent diffusion of organelle enzymes to cytosol and consequently salvage the integrity of living cell

  6. Subcutaneous administration of insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-II/IGF binding protein-2 complex stimulates bone formation and prevents loss of bone mineral density in a rat model of disuse osteoporosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conover, Cheryl A.; Johnstone, Edward W.; Turner, Russell T.; Evans, Glenda L.; John Ballard, F. John; Doran, Patrick M.; Khosla, Sundeep

    2002-01-01

    Elevated serum levels of insulin-like growth factor binding protein-2 (IGFBP-2) and a precursor form of IGF-II are associated with marked increases in bone formation and skeletal mass in patients with hepatitis C-associated osteosclerosis. In vitro studies indicate that IGF-II in complex with IGFBP-2 has high affinity for bone matrix and is able to stimulate osteoblast proliferation. The purpose of this study was to determine the ability of the IGF-II/IGFBP-2 complex to increase bone mass in vivo. Osteopenia of the femur was induced by unilateral sciatic neurectomy in rats. At the time of surgery, 14-day osmotic minipumps containing vehicle or 2 microg IGF-II+9 microg IGFBP-2/100g body weight/day were implanted subcutaneously in the neck. Bone mineral density (BMD) measurements were taken the day of surgery and 14 days later using a PIXImus small animal densitometer. Neurectomy of the right hindlimb resulted in a 9% decrease in right femur BMD (P<0.05 vs. baseline). This loss in BMD was completely prevented by treatment with IGF-II/IGFBP-2. On the control limb, there was no loss of BMD over the 14 days and IGF-II/IGFBP-2 treatment resulted in a 9% increase in left femur BMD (P<0.05). Bone histomorphometry indicated increases in endocortical and cancellous bone formation rates and in trabecular thickness. These results demonstrate that short-term administration of the IGF-II/IGFBP-2 complex can prevent loss of BMD associated with disuse osteoporosis and stimulate bone formation in adult rats. Furthermore, they provide proof of concept for a novel anabolic approach to increasing bone mass in humans with osteoporosis.

  7. Pharmacokinetics and Bioavailability of the GnRH Analogs in the Form of Solution and Zn2+-Suspension After Single Subcutaneous Injection in Female Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suszka-Świtek, Aleksandra; Ryszka, Florian; Dolińska, Barbara; Dec, Renata; Danch, Alojzy; Filipczyk, Łukasz; Wiaderkiewicz, Ryszard

    2017-04-01

    Although many synthetic gonadoliberin analogs have been developed, only a few of them, including buserelin, were introduced into clinical practice. Dalarelin, which differs from buserelin by just one aminoacid in the position 6 (D-Ala), is not widely used so far. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) analogs are used to treat many different illnesses and are available in different forms like solution for injection, nasal spray, microspheres, etc. Unfortunately, none of the above drug formulations can release the hormones for 24 h. We assumed that classical suspension could solve this problem. Two sets of experiments were performed. In the first one, buserelin and dalarelin were injected into mature female rats in two forms: suspension, in which the analogs are bounded by Zn 2+ ions and solution. The pharmacokinetic parameters and bioavailability of the analogs were calculated, based on their concentration in the plasma measured by high-performance liquid chromatography method (HPLC). In the second experiment, the hormones in two different forms were injected into superovulated immature female rats and then the concentration of Luteinizing hormone (LH), Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and 17β-estradiol in the serum was measured by radioimmunological method. The Extent of Biological Availability (EBA), calculated on the base of AUC 0-∞ , showed that in the form of solution buserelin and dalarelin display, respectively, only 13 and 8 % of biological availability of their suspension counterparts. Comparing both analogs, the EBA of dalarelin was half (53 %) that of buserelin delivered in the form of solution and 83 % when they were delivered in the form of suspension. The injection of buserelin or dalarelin, in the form of solution or suspension, into superovulated female rats increased LH, FSH and estradiol concentration in the serum. However, after injection of the analogs in the form of suspension, the high concentration of LH and FSH in the serum persisted

  8. Plasma antioxidant capacity, sexual and thyroid hormones levels, sperm quantity and quality parameters in stressed male rats received nano-particle of selenium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Rezaeian-Tabrizi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the effects of nano-particle of selenium (nSe on plasma antioxidant capacity, sexual and thyroid hormones and spermatogenesis in male rats exposed to oxidative stress.Methods: Forty rats were randomly divided into four treatments with ten replicates. Treatment groups were: C, the control group received normal saline as gavage and injection (i.p.; OS, received tert-butyl hydroperoxide (0.2 mmol/kg body weight for inducing oxidative stress; nSe, received nSe (0.3 mg/kg body weight as gavage, and OS+nSe, received tert-butyl hydroperoxide and nSe. All groups were treated for 28 d and administrations were done each 48 h.Results: Oxidative stress decreased and gavage of nSe to stressed rats increased the antioxidant capacity and activities (P0.05 between rats exposed to oxidative stress and those in the control group for sperm quantity and quality. Gavage of nSe to stressed rats had no effect (P>0.05 on the sperm parameters, except increased viability and progressive percentages.Conclusions: Nano-particle of Selenium administration in stressed rats could ameliorate the negative effects of oxidative stress on the antioxidant capacity and activities, but not on the quantity and quality parameters of sperm.

  9. Subcutaneous adipose tissue classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sbarbati

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The developments in the technologies based on the use of autologous adipose tissue attracted attention to minor depots as possible sampling areas. Some of those depots have never been studied in detail. The present study was performed on subcutaneous adipose depots sampled in different areas with the aim of explaining their morphology, particularly as far as regards stem niches. The results demonstrated that three different types of white adipose tissue (WAT can be differentiated on the basis of structural and ultrastructural features: deposit WAT (dWAT, structural WAT (sWAT and fibrous WAT (fWAT. dWAT can be found essentially in large fatty depots in the abdominal area (periumbilical. In the dWAT, cells are tightly packed and linked by a weak net of isolated collagen fibers. Collagenic components are very poor, cells are large and few blood vessels are present. The deep portion appears more fibrous then the superficial one. The microcirculation is formed by thin walled capillaries with rare stem niches. Reinforcement pericyte elements are rarely evident. The sWAT is more stromal; it is located in some areas in the limbs and in the hips. The stroma is fairly well represented, with a good vascularity and adequate staminality. Cells are wrapped by a basket of collagen fibers. The fatty depots of the knees and of the trochanteric areas have quite loose meshes. The fWAT has a noteworthy fibrous component and can be found in areas where a severe mechanic stress occurs. Adipocytes have an individual thick fibrous shell. In conclusion, the present study demonstrates evident differences among subcutaneous WAT deposits, thus suggesting that in regenerative procedures based on autologous adipose tissues the sampling area should not be randomly chosen, but it should be oriented by evidence based evaluations. The structural peculiarities of the sWAT, and particularly of its microcirculation, suggest that it could represent a privileged source for

  10. Effect of methionine load on homocysteine levels, lipid peroxidation and DNA damage in rats receiving ethanol

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    Alceu Afonso Jordao Júnior

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Changes in the metabolism of methionine can cause hyperhomocysteinemia, inducing a triad of atherosclerosis, hypertension, and increased oxidative stress. The generation of free radicals and oxidative damage to DNA is important in the liver damage caused by ethanol. In this study, the effect of methionine overload associated or otherwise with acute administration of ethanol on homocysteine values, damage to DNA, lipoperoxidation and vitamin E was evaluated. Thirty rats were divided into 3 groups: Group Ethanol 24 hours (EG24, Group Methionine 24 hours (MG24, and Group Methionine and Ethanol 24 hours (MEG24. TBARS, vitamin E, GS and, homocysteine values were determined and the Comet assay was carried out. Increased GSH, vitamin E and homocysteine levels were observed for MEG24, and increased TBARS were observed in EG24. The Comet assay showed an increase in DNA damage in EG24 and DNA protection in MEG24. The administration of ethanol decreased antioxidant levels and increased TBARS, indicating the occurrence of oxidative stress with possible DNA damage. The combination of methionine and ethanol had a protective effect against the ethanol-induced damage, but increased the levels of homocysteine.Alterações no metabolismo da metionina podem ocasionar hiper-homocisteinemia, quadro indutivo de aterosclerose, hipertensão e aumento do estresse oxidativo. A geração de radicais livres e dano oxidativo ao DNA são importantes na injúria hepática provocada pelo etanol. Neste estudo avaliaram-se os efeitos da sobrecarga de metionina associada ou não à administração aguda de etanol sobre valores de homocisteína, dano ao DNA, lipoperoxidação e vitamina E. Foram utilizados 30 ratos Wistar distribuídos em 3 Grupos: Grupo Etanol 24 horas (GE24, Grupo Metionina 24 horas (GM24 e Grupo Metionina e Etanol 24 horas (GME24. Realizaram-se determinações hepáticas de SRATB, vitamina E, GSH, homocisteína e Teste do Cometa e determinações plasm

  11. stausartikel: behandling af subcutane abscesser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hardgrib, Nina; Petersen, Klaus Kjær

    2017-01-01

    Simple subcutaneous abscesses are common, and we have examined the literature concerning the ideal treatment of subcutaneous abscesses. We recommend radical debridement with removal of all pus, the abscess wall and any necrosis. If primary suture is chosen, preoperative antibiotics should be admi...

  12. The histological and histometrical effects of Urtica dioica extract on rat?s prostate hyperplasia

    OpenAIRE

    Moradi, Hamid Reza; Erfani Majd, Naeem; Esmaeilzadeh, Saleh; Fatemi Tabatabaei, Sayed Reza

    2015-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a common disease in human that gradual overgrowth of the prostate gland leads to impinge on the urethra with impairment in urinary function. Numerous plants improve uncontrolled growth of the prostate gland and improve urinary tract symptoms associated with BPH. In this study, 25 healthy adult male Wistar rats were divided randomly in five groups: G1 (Control group) received ordinary feed without any treatment, G2 received 10 mg kg-1 testosterone subcutan...

  13. Influence of erythropoiesis stimulation on 54Mn distribution in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziecik, A.

    1976-01-01

    The experiments were carried out on animals in which erythropoiesis was stimulated. The rats were anaemized by blood letting or they received subcutaneous injections of erythropoietic filtrate of anaemized sheep plasma. The investigations demonstated that enhanced 54 Mn incorporation into the erytrocytes and bone marrow is induced by stimulation of the erythropoiesis process, whereas the raised 54 Mn level in the plasma of anaemized rats is associated with blood loss and not with erythropoiesis. (author)

  14. Recombinant human hyaluronidase-enabled subcutaneous pediatric rehydration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Coburn H; Etzwiler, Lisa S; Miller, Melissa K; Maher, George; Mace, Sharon; Hostetler, Mark A; Smith, Sharon R; Reinhardt, Neil; Hahn, Barry; Harb, George

    2009-11-01

    The Increased Flow Utilizing Subcutaneously-Enabled (INFUSE)-Pediatric Rehydration Study was designed to assess efficacy, safety, and clinical utility of recombinant human hyaluronidase (rHuPH20)-facilitated subcutaneous rehydration in children 2 months to 10 years of age. Patients with mild/moderate dehydration requiring parenteral treatment in US emergency departments were eligible for this phase IV, multicenter, single-arm study. They received subcutaneous injection of 1 mL rHuPH20 (150 U), followed by subcutaneous infusion of 20 mL/kg isotonic fluid over the first hour. Subcutaneous rehydration was continued as needed for up to 72 hours. Rehydration was deemed successful if it was attributed by the investigator primarily to subcutaneous fluid infusion and the child was discharged without requiring an alternative method of rehydration. Efficacy was evaluated in 51 patients (mean age: 1.9 years; mean weight: 11.2 kg). Initial subcutaneous catheter placement was achieved with 1 attempt for 46/51 (90.2%) of patients. Rehydration was successful for 43/51 (84.3%) of patients. Five patients (9.8%) were hospitalized but deemed to be rehydrated primarily through subcutaneous therapy, for a total of 48/51 (94.1%) of patients. No treatment-related systemic adverse events were reported, but 1 serious adverse event occurred (cellulitis at infusion site). Investigators found the procedure easy to perform for 96% of patients (49/51 patients), and 90% of parents (43/48 parents) were satisfied or very satisfied. rHuPH20-facilitated subcutaneous hydration seems to be safe and effective for young children with mild/moderate dehydration. Subcutaneous access is achieved easily, and the procedure is well accepted by clinicians and parents.

  15. Characterization of upper thoracic spinal neurons receiving noxious cardiac and/or somatic inputs in diabetic rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghorbani, Marie Louise M; Qin, Chao; Wu, Mingyuan

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine spinal processing of cardiac and somatic nociceptive input in rats with STZ-induced diabetes. Type 1 diabetes was induced with streptozotocin (50mg/kg) in 14 male Sprague-Dawley rats and citrate buffer was injected in 14 control rats. After 4-11weeks...

  16. From Humans to Rats and Back Again: Bridging the Divide between Human and Animal Studies of Recognition Memory with Receiver Operating Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koen, Joshua D.; Yonelinas, Andrew P.

    2011-01-01

    Receiver operating characteristics (ROCs) have been used extensively to study the processes underlying human recognition memory, and this method has recently been applied in studies of rats. However, the extent to which the results from human and animal studies converge is neither entirely clear, nor is it known how the different methods used to…

  17. Cross-organ sensitization of thoracic spinal neurons receiving noxious cardiac input in rats with gastroesophageal reflux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Chao; Malykhina, Anna P; Thompson, Ann M; Farber, Jay P; Foreman, Robert D

    2010-06-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux (GER) frequently triggers or worsens cardiac pain or symptoms in patients with coronary heart disease. This study aimed to determine whether GER enhances the activity of upper thoracic spinal neurons receiving noxious cardiac input. Gastric fundus and pyloric ligations as well as a longitudinal myelotomy at the gastroesophageal junction induced acute GER in pentobarbital-anesthetized, paralyzed, and ventilated male Sprague-Dawley rats. Manual manipulations of the stomach and lower esophagus were used as surgical controls in another group. At 4-9 h after GER surgery, extracellular potentials of single neurons were recorded from the T3 spinal segment. Intrapericardial bradykinin (IB) (10 microg/ml, 0.2 ml, 1 min) injections were used to activate cardiac nociceptors, and esophageal distensions were used to activate esophageal afferent fibers. Significantly more spinal neurons in the GER group responded to IB compared with the control group (69.1 vs. 38%, P neurons in the superficial laminae of GER animals was significantly different from those in deeper layers (1/8 vs. 46/60, P 0.05). Excitatory responses of spinal neurons to IB in the GER group were greater than in the control group [32.4 +/- 3.5 impulses (imp)/s vs. 13.3 +/- 2.3 imp/s, P neurons responded to cardiac input and ED, which was higher than the control group (61.5%, P neurons in deeper laminae of the dorsal horn to noxious cardiac stimulus.

  18. Renal structure and function evaluation of rats from dams that received increased sodium intake during pregnancy and lactation submitted or not to 5/6 nephrectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin, Evelyn Cristina Santana; Balbi, Ana Paula Coelho; Francescato, Heloísa Della Coletta; Alves da Silva, Cleonice Giovanini; Costa, Roberto Silva; Coimbra, Terezila M

    2008-01-01

    Adult rats submitted to perinatal salt overload presented renin-angiotensin system (RAS) functional disturbances. The RAS contributes to the renal development and renal damage in a 5/6 nephrectomy model. The aim of the present study was to analyze the renal structure and function of offspring from dams that received a high-salt intake during pregnancy and lactation. We also evaluated the influence of the prenatal high-salt intake on the evolution of 5/6 nephrectomy in adult rats. A total of 111 sixty-day-old rat pups from dams that received saline or water during pregnancy and lactation were submitted to 5/6 nephrectomy (nephrectomized) or to a sham operation (sham). The animals were killed 120 days after surgery, and the kidneys were removed for immunohistochemical and histological analysis. Systolic blood pressure (SBP), albuminuria, and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) were evaluated. Increased SBP, albuminuria, and decreased GFR were observed in the rats from dams submitted to high-sodium intake before surgery. However, there was no difference in these parameters between the groups after the 5/6 nephrectomy. The scores for tubulointerstitial lesions and glomerulosclerosis were higher in the rats from the sham saline group compared to the same age control rats, but there was no difference in the histological findings between the groups of nephrectomized rats. In conclusion, our data showed that the high-salt intake during pregnancy and lactation in rats leads to structural changes in the kidney of adult offspring. However, the progression of the renal lesions after 5/6 nephrectomy was similar in both groups.

  19. Active and passive avoidance conditioning for rats which received x-ray irradiation in their embryonal period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamaki, Yoshitaka; Inoue, Minoru; Kameyama, Yoshiro

    1983-01-01

    Fischer rats at 17 gestational days were given 200 R of x-ray, and their offsprings were subjected to conditioning of active and passive avoidance against a shuttle box stimulation. These rats irradiated in their embryonal period learned active avoidance reaction more rapidly than control rats, but it took time for them to gain passive avoidance reaction. This result seemed to suggest activated reactibility of the irradiated animals in avoiding the shuttle box stimulation. In the irradiated rats, frequency of the passive avoidance reaction increased gradually as they learned with training. (Ueda, J.)

  20. Phosphorylation of histone H2AX as an indicator of received dose of gamma radiation after whole-body irradiation of rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radim Havelek

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to determine whether phosphorylation of histone H2AX can be used as an indicator of received dose of gamma radiation after whole-body irradiation of rats. Wistar rats were irradiated by 1-10 Gy of gamma radiation by 60Co source. Value LD50/60 was 7.37 (4.68-8.05 Gy. Histone H2AX is phosphorylated by ATM kinase on serine 139 (γH2AX quickly after the irradiation. It forms microscopically visible foci in the site of double strand breaks of DNA. Flow-cytometric method was used for quantitative detection. This study is the first one that evaluated dose-dependency of H2AX phosphorylation in peripheral lymphocytes of rats irradiated by whole-body dose 1-10 Gy. Our data show a dose-dependent increase in γH2AX in rat peripheral blood lymphocytes 1 h after whole-body irradiation by the dose of 1-10 Gy. We proved that phosphorylation of histone H2AX is a prompt and reliable indicator of the received radiation dose suitable for rapid measurement before the number of lymphocytes in peripheral blood starts to decrease. It can be used already 1 h after the irradiation for an estimation of the received dose of radiation. Blood samples can be stored in 4 °C for 23 h without significantly affecting the result.

  1. Subcutaneous fat necrosis of the newborn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oswalt, G C; Montes, L F; Cassady, G

    1978-08-01

    Subcutaneous fat necrosis of the newborn (SFNN) developed in a 1-week-old black boy. His mother had received numerous medications for eclampsia. Birth was by Caesarean section and complicated by meconium aspiration. There were numerous nodules over the back, buttocks and extremities that yielded a caseous-like material. Microscopically, these nodules showed crystallization and necrosis of the fat. Hypoglycemia, pneumonia, oliguria, thrombocytopenia, seizures and urinary infection were associated with the cutaneous problem and led to a fatal outcome 2 weeks after birth.

  2. Liver morphology and morphometry and plasma biochemical parameters of Wistar rats that received leaf infusion of Rudgea viburnoides Benth. (Rubiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Castro Monteiro

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Rudgea viburnoides leaves are widely used in popular Brazilian medicine as a diuretic, antirheumatic, hypotensive and blood depurative tea. The present study was carried out to investigate the effects of this infusion on the liver and on the plasma biochemical parameters of Wistar rats. Two groups received the R. viburnoides leaf infusion at a daily dose of 10 or 20g dry-leaves/L water, during 40 days. The histopathological analysis did not show degenerated areas or infiltration of leucocytes. Hepatic morphometry showed accumulation of fat in the hepatocytes of the treated groups. There was no significant change in the plasma levels of urea, creatinin, uric acid, direct bilirubin, cholesterol, total proteins, albumin, gamma glutamyl tranferase (gamma-GT, alanine transaminase (ALT, aspartate transaminase (AST, chlorine, phosphate and calcium. A significant reduction in the plasma levels of triacylglycerol (TAG occurred in the group that received the higher dose.As folhas de Rudgea viburnoides Benth. são utilizadas na medicina popular como diuréticas, hipotensoras, anti-reumáticas, depurativas do sangue e em regimes de emagrecimento. O presente estudo foi delineado para avaliar o efeito da infusão das folhas de R. viburnoides nos parâmetros bioquímicos plasmáticos e na morfologia e morfometria hepática de ratos Wistar adultos. Dois grupos receberam a infusão das folhas, diariamente, nas dosagens de 10 e 20 g de folhas secas/L de água, durante 40 dias. O grupo controle recebeu a mesma quantidade de água. As análises histopatológicas não mostraram áreas degeneradas e infiltrados inflamatórios. A morfometria hepática mostrou acúmulo significativo de gordura nos hepatócitos dos animais tratados, principalmente no grupo que recebeu a maior dose da infusão (8,75% de gotículas lipídicas, comparado com 0,25% delas encontradas nos animais controles. Não foram observadas alterações nos níveis plasmáticos de uréia, creatinina,

  3. Subcutaneous granuloma annulare: radiologic appearance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kransdorf, M.J.; Murphey, M.D.; Temple, H.T.

    1998-01-01

    Objective. Granuloma annulare is an uncommon benign inflammatory dermatosis characterized by the formation of dermal papules with a tendency to form rings. There are several clinically distinct forms. The subcutaneous form is the most frequently encountered by radiologists, with the lesion presenting as a superficial mass. There are only a few scattered reports of the imaging appearance of this entity in the literature. We report the radiologic appearance of five cases of subcutaneous granuloma annulare. Design and patients. The radiologic images of five patients (three male, two female) with subcutaneous granuloma annulare were retrospectively studied. Mean patient age was 6.4 years (range, 2-13 years). The lesions occurred in the lower leg (two), foot, forearm, and hand. MR images were available for all lesions, gadolinium-enhanced imaging in three cases, radiographs in four, and bone scintigraphy in one. Results. Radiographs showed unmineralized nodular masses localized to the subcutaneous adipose tissue. The size range, in greatest dimension on imaging studies, was 1-4 cm. MR images show a mass with relatively decreased signal intensity on all pulse sequences, with variable but generally relatively well defined margins. There was extensive diffuse enhancement following gadolinium administration. Conclusion. The radiologic appearance of subcutaneous granuloma annulare is characteristic, typically demonstrating a nodular soft-tissue mass involving the subcutaneous adipose tissue. MR images show a mass with relatively decreased signal intensity on all pulse sequences and variable but generally well defined margins. There is extensive diffuse enhancement following gadolinium administration. Radiographs show a soft-tissue mass or soft-tissue swelling without evidence of bone involvement or mineralization. This radiologic appearance in a young individual is highly suggestive of subcutaneous granuloma annulare. (orig.)

  4. [Cellular subcutaneous tissue. Anatomic observations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquart-Elbaz, C; Varnaison, E; Sick, H; Grosshans, E; Cribier, B

    2001-11-01

    We showed in a companion paper that the definition of the French "subcutaneous cellular tissue" considerably varied from the 18th to the end of the 20th centuries and has not yet reached a consensus. To address the anatomic reality of this "subcutaneous cellular tissue", we investigated the anatomic structures underlying the fat tissue in normal human skin. Sixty specimens were excised from the surface to the deep structures (bone, muscle, cartilage) on different body sites of 3 cadavers from the Institut d'Anatomie Normale de Strasbourg. Samples were paraffin-embedded, stained and analysed with a binocular microscope taking x 1 photographs. Specimens were also excised and fixed after subcutaneous injection of Indian ink, after mechanic tissue splitting and after performing artificial skin folds. The aspects of the deep parts of the skin greatly varied according to their anatomic localisation. Below the adipose tissue, we often found a lamellar fibrous layer which extended from the interlobular septa and contained horizontally distributed fat cells. No specific tissue below the hypodermis was observed. Artificial skin folds concerned either exclusively the dermis, when they were superficial or included the hypodermis, but no specific structure was apparent in the center of the fold. India ink diffused to the adipose tissue, mainly along the septa, but did not localise in a specific subcutaneous compartment. This study shows that the histologic aspects of the deep part of the skin depend mainly on the anatomic localisation. Skin is composed of epidermis, dermis and hypodermis and thus the hypodermis can not be considered as being "subcutaneous". A difficult to individualise, fibrous lamellar structure in continuity with the interlobular septa is often found under the fat lobules. This structure is a cleavage line, as is always the case with loose connective tissues, but belongs to the hypodermis (i.e. fat tissue). No specific tissue nor any virtual space was

  5. Penile Subcutaneous Fibrolipoma Postaugmentative Phalloplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrizio Vicini

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Fibrolipomas are a rare subtype of lipomas. We describe a case of a man suffering from subcutaneous penile fibrolipoma, who three months earlier has been submitted to an augmentative phalloplasty due to aesthetic dysmorphophobia. After six months from the excision of the mass, the penile elongation and penile enlargement were stable, and the patient was satisfied with his sexual intercourse and sexual life. To our knowledge, this is the first reported penile subcutaneous fibrolipoma case in the literature. The diagnostics and surgical features of this case are discussed.

  6. The effects of dexketoprofen on duration of analgesia to a thermal stimulus when compared with a systemic control in a rat sciatic nerve block with levobupivacaine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kara, Inci; Apiliogullari, Seza; Bagcı Taylan, Sengal; Bariskaner, Hulagu; Celik, Jale Bengi

    2014-04-01

    This study was designed to investigate whether dexketoprofen added to perineuraly or subcutaneously alters the effects of levobupivacaine in a rat model of sciatic nerve blockade. Thirty-six rats received unilateral sciatic nerve blocks along with a subcutaneous injection by a blinded investigator assigned at random. Combinations were as follows: Group 1 (sham) perineural and subcutaneous saline; Group 2, perineural levobupivacaine alone and subcutaneous saline; Group 3, perineural levobupivacaine plus dexketoprofen and subcutaneous saline; Group 4, perineural levobupivacaine and subcutaneous dexketoprofen; Group 5, perineural dexketoprofen and subcutaneous saline; and Group 6, perineural saline and subcutaneous dexketoprofen. The levobupivacaine concentration was fixed at 0.05%, and the dose of dexketoprofen was 1 mg kg(-1) . Sensory analgesia was assessed by paw withdrawal latency to a thermal stimulus every 30 min. The unblocked paw served as the control for the assessment of systemic, centrally mediated analgesia. Perineural and subcutaneous dexketoprofen coadministered with perineural levobupivacaine did not enhance the duration of sensory blockade when compared with levobupivacaine alone. There were significant differences between the operative and control paws for time points 30-90 min in the perineural levobupivacaine alone, levobupivacaine + dexketoprofen and subcutaneous dexketoprofen added levobupivacaine group. Significant differences were not determined between the levobupivacaine alone group and dexketoprofen added groups in operative paw. The effects of dexketoprofen are unknown for perineural administration. There is no significant difference between the analgesic effects of peripheral nerve blocks using levobupivacaine alone and plus subcutaneous or perineural dexketoprofen. © 2012 The Authors Fundamental and Clinical Pharmacology © 2012 Société Française de Pharmacologie et de Thérapeutique.

  7. Injectable agents affecting subcutaneous fats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, David Lk; Cohen, Joel L; Green, Jeremy B

    2015-09-01

    Mesotherapy is an intradermal or subcutaneous injection of therapeutic agents to induce local effects, and was pioneered in Europe during the 1950s. For the past 2 decades, there has been significant interest in the use of mesotherapy for minimally invasive local fat contouring. Based on the theorized lipolytic effects of the agent phosphatidylcholine, initial attempts involved its injection into subcutaneous tissue. With further studies, however, it became apparent that the activity attributed to phosphatidylcholine mesotherapy was due to the adipolytic effects of deoxycholate, a detergent used to solubilize phosphatidylcholine. Since then, clinical trials have surfaced that demonstrate the efficacy of a proprietary formulation of deoxycholate for local fat contouring. Current trials on mesotherapy with salmeterol, a b-adrenergic agonist and lipolysis stimulator, are underway-with promising preliminary results as well. ©2015 Frontline Medical Communications.

  8. Principles of subcutaneous port placement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonda, Shaun J; Li, Ruizong

    2011-12-01

    The introduction of totally implantable subcutaneous devices in the early 1980s provided patients with secure, reliable venous access and also gave them the ability to move more freely and have a more normal lifestyle with these devices in place. The most common totally implantable device used today is the subcutaneous port. These ports consist of an injection port connected to a catheter. Ports provide a number of advantages compared with other venous catheters; the most important is the reduced risk of infection. These devices have significantly lower rates of infection than nontunneled and tunneled catheters. Additional advantages include less frequent irrigation and minimal home care, and they are less prone to environmental or cutaneous contamination when not being accessed. This article will focus on the placement of these ports. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Subcutaneous sarcoidosis associated with sarcoid tenosynovitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enzenauer, R J; Waterhouse, W J; West, S G

    1996-10-01

    Subcutaneous sarcoidosis and sarcoid tenosynovitis are unusual manifestations of systemic sarcoidosis. We report two Japanese women with disseminated sarcoidosis presenting with subcutaneous and tenosynovial involvement demonstrated by computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. Sarcoidosis must be considered in the differential diagnosis of unexplained subcutaneous nodulosis or tenosynovitis in patients with or without a previous diagnosis of sarcoidosis.

  10. Subcutaneous emphysema during status astmaticus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwarz, E.

    1985-01-01

    Spontaneous subcutaneous accumulations of air in the soft parts of the thorax during an asthmatic crisis (status asthmaticus) are rarely seen. The pathomechanism of the phenomenon, which may lead to the formation of an emphysema of the soft parts via the pneumomediastinum, is discussed, and the possible complications which must be taken into account are pointed out. The value of radiological examination of the thorax in children suffering from asthma bronchiale, is explained briefly. (orig.) [de

  11. Switching between intravenous and subcutaneous trastuzumab

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gligorov, Joseph; Curigliano, Giuseppe; Müller, Volkmar

    2017-01-01

    AIM: To assess the safety and tolerability of switching between subcutaneous (SC) and intravenous (IV) trastuzumab in the PrefHer study (NCT01401166). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with HER2-positive early breast cancer completed (neo)adjuvant chemotherapy and were randomised to receive four...... cycles of SC trastuzumab, via single-use injection device (SID; Cohort 1) or hand-held syringe (Cohort 2), followed by four cycles of IV, or vice versa (the crossover period presented here) as part of their 18 standard cycles of adjuvant trastuzumab treatment. Adverse events (AEs) were reported using....... Rates of clinically important events, including grade ≥3 AEs, serious AEs, AEs leading to study drug discontinuation and cardiac AEs, were low and similar between treatment arms (trastuzumab were observed. CONCLUSIONS: PrefHer revealed...

  12. Subcutaneous blood flow in psoriasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klemp, P.

    1985-01-01

    The simultaneously recorded disappearance rates of 133 xe from subcutaneous adipose tissue in the crus were studied in 10 patients with psoriasis vulgaris using atraumatic labeling of the tissue in lesional skin (LS) areas and symmetrical, nonlesional skin (NLS) areas. Control experiments were performed bilaterally in 10 younger, healthy subjects. The subcutaneous washout rate constant was significantly higher in LS, 0.79 +/- 0.05 min-1 x 10(2) compared to the washout rate constant of NLS, 0.56 +/- 0.07 min-1. 10(2), or the washout rate constant in the normal subjects, 0.46 +/- 0.17 min-1 x 10(2). The mean washout rate constant in NLS was 25% higher than the mean washout rate constant in the normal subjects. The difference was, however, not statistically significant. Differences in the washout rate constants might be due to abnormal subcutaneous tissue-to-blood partition (lambda) in the LS--and therefore not reflecting the real differences in the subcutaneous blood flow (SBF). The lambda for 133 Xe was therefore measured--using a double isotope washout method ( 133 Xe and [ 131 I]antipyrine)--in symmetrical sites of the lateral crus in LS and NLS of 10 patients with psoriasis vulgaris and in 10 legs of normal subjects. In LS the lambda was 4.52 +/- 1.67 ml/g, which was not statistically different from that of NLS, 5.25 +/- 2.19 ml/g, nor from that of normal subcutaneous tissue, 4.98 +/- 1.04 ml/g. Calculations of the SBF using the obtained lambda values gave a significantly higher SBF in LS, 3.57 +/- 0.23 ml/100 g/min, compared to SBF in the NLS, 2.94 +/- 0.37 ml/100 g/min. There was no statistically significant difference between SBF in NLS and SBF in the normal subjects. The increased SBF in LS of psoriatics might be a secondary phenomenon to an increased heat loss in the lesional skin

  13. Intermittent subcutaneous methadone administration in the management of cancer pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centeno, Carlos; Vara, Francisco

    2005-01-01

    Methadone is a strong opioid analgesic that has been used successfully in cancer pain management. The oral route of administration is generally preferred for opioid analgesics. However that route sometimes cannot be used. Experience with continuous subcutaneous methadone infusions has produced local intolerance. The aim of this study was to analyze the use of intermittent subcutaneous methadone injections. Ten patients whose pain was well-controlled with oral methadone (average dose 30 mg, range 10 to 120 mg) participated in the study. A subcutaneous small vein needle (butterfly) was used exclusively for administration of methadone. Over a period of seven days the local discomfort of each injection was evaluated by means of a Verbal Numerical Rating Scale (NRS) and the site of infusion was observed. When any degree of erythema or inflammation was seen, the infusion site was changed. The initial subcutaneous dose was the same as the previously administered oral dose. A daily record was kept of the dose used, level of pain, and toxicity symptoms. This close vigilance was aimed at avoiding dosage errors due to variations among individuals in acceptance to previous oral medication. Changes in dosage were allowed according to standard medical criteria. Two patients were withdrawn from the study due to non-painful irritation at the infusion point. Another eight patients tolerated repeated administration of subcutaneous methadone over seven days. Any local irritation from subcutaneous methadone that occurred was managed satisfactorily by changing the infusion site and limiting doses to 30 mg. In seven of 182 repeat administration, injection site changes were necessitated by local irritation. The NRS for local discomfort was 2/10. The two patients who were intolerant of the subcutaneous injections were receiving injected doses which were significantly higher than the others (42 mg as compared to 25 mg). Dose adjustments needed when changing from the oral to the

  14. Skeletal Muscle Sorbitol Levels in Diabetic Rats with and without Insulin Therapy and Endurance Exercise Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, O. A.; Walseth, T. F.; Snow, L. M.; Serfass, R. C.; Thompson, L. V.

    2009-01-01

    Sorbitol accumulation is postulated to play a role in skeletal muscle dysfunction associated with diabetes. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of insulin and of endurance exercise on skeletal muscle sorbitol levels in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Rats were assigned to one experimental group (control sedentary, control exercise, diabetic sedentary, diabetic exercise, diabetic sedentary no-insulin). Diabetic rats received daily subcutaneous insulin. The exercise-trained rats ran on a treadmill (1 hour, 5X/wk, for 12 weeks). Skeletal muscle sorbitol levels were the highest in the diabetic sedentary no-insulin group. Diabetic sedentary rats receiving insulin had similar sorbitol levels to control sedentary rats. Endurance exercise did not significantly affect sorbitol levels. These results indicate that insulin treatment lowers sorbitol in skeletal muscle; therefore sorbitol accumulation is probably not related to muscle dysfunction in insulin-treated diabetic individuals. Endurance exercise did not influence intramuscular sorbitol values as strongly as insulin. PMID:20016800

  15. PHAEOHYPHOMYCOSIS: CUTANEOUS, SUBCUTANEOUS, NASOPHARYNGEAL LESIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rasoolinejad

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Phaeohyphomycosis is an amalgam of clinical diseases caused by a wide variety of dematiaceous fungi. We are reporting on a 16 year-old patient from Amol with subcutaneous cervical nodes and nasopharyngeal lesions of phaeohypho"nmycosis that were confirmed by pathological examination, direct smear, and culture. After treatment with an oral triazole (Itraconazole for 4 months, all nodes and lesions disappeared and treatment was stopped A new lesion appeared on his chest wall 8 months, therapy with itraconazole was restarted and commuted for a long time.

  16. Adverse effects of melatonin on rat pups of Wistar-Kyoto dams receiving melatonin supplementation during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Harbindar Jeet; Keah, Lee Siew; Kumar, Arun; Sirajudeen, K N S

    2012-11-01

    This report documents an incidental finding during a study investigating the effects of melatonin supplementation on the development of blood pressure in SHR. Administration of 10 mg/kg/day of melatonin in drinking water during pregnancy to Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) dams caused a loss of more than 50% of the pups by the age of three weeks and 95% by the age of 6 weeks. There was no maternal morbidity or mortality in the two strains or death of any of the SHR pups. No obvious physical defects were present but mean body weight was lower in the surviving WKY rats when compared to that of melatonin supplemented SHR or non-supplemented WKY pups. The reason for the high mortality in WKY pups is uncertain and appears to be strain if not batch specific. There is a need for caution in its use, particularly during pregnancy, and clearly necessitates more detailed studies. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. Symptomatic Tarlov Cysts: Surgical Treatment by Subcutaneous Infusion Port.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ying; Zhu, Tong; Lin, Hongyi; Li, Jing; Zeng, Tao; Lin, Jian

    2018-05-01

    The treatment of Tarlov cysts is challenging and difficult. The objective of our study was to describe the security and efficacy of the subcutaneous infusion port for drainage of symptomatic Tarlov cysts. The authors executed a retrospective review of data from 5 symptomatic Tarlov cysts patients who were treated using a subcutaneous infusion port from June 2014 to July 2017. Numerical Rating Scale scores and the Japanese Orthopedic Association scores of back pain were analyzed. Complications and adverse effects on postoperative days 1, 7, 14, and 28 were also analyzed. The mean follow-up was 12.6 months. Five adults (3 females and 2 males) who had been symptomatic received a subcutaneous infusion port. After treatment, all patients experienced pain relief and pain alleviation lasted from 1 day to 3 years without complications and adverse effects. A subcutaneous infusion port is a useful treatment option for symptomatic Tarlov cysts. When the patients' symptoms returned and the cysts repressurized, we quickly and simply drained the cysts by using the infusion port. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Treatment of diabetic rats with encapsulated islets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweet, Ian R; Yanay, Ofer; Waldron, Lanaya; Gilbert, Merle; Fuller, Jessica M; Tupling, Terry; Lernmark, Ake; Osborne, William R A

    2008-12-01

    Immunoprotection of islets using bioisolator systems permits introduction of allogeneic cells to diabetic patients without the need for immunosuppression. Using TheraCyte immunoisolation devices, we investigated two rat models of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), BB rats and rats made diabetic by streptozotocin (STZ) treatment. We chose to implant islets after the onset of diabetes to mimic the probable treatment of children with T1DM as they are usually diagnosed after disease onset. We encapsulated 1000 rat islets and implanted them subcutaneously (SQ) into diabetic biobreeding (BB) rats and STZ-induced diabetic rats, defined as two or more consecutive days of blood glucose>350 mg/dl. Rats were monitored for weight and blood glucose. Untreated BB rats rapidly lost weight and were euthanized at >20% weight loss that occurred between 4 and 10 days from implantation. For period of 30-40 days following islet implantation weights of treated rats remained steady or increased. Rapid weight loss occurred after surgical removal of devices that contained insulin positive islets. STZ-treated rats that received encapsulated islets showed steady weight gain for up to 130 days, whereas untreated control rats showed steady weight loss that achieved >20% at around 55 days. Although islet implants did not normalize blood glucose, treated rats were apparently healthy and groomed normally. Autologous or allogeneic islets were equally effective in providing treatment. TheraCyte devices can sustain islets, protect allogeneic cells from immune attack and provide treatment for diabetic-mediated weight loss in both BB rats and STZ-induced diabetic rats.

  19. Gastric and renal effects of COX-2 selective and non-selective NSAIDs in rats receiving low-dose aspirin therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcella Goetz MORO

    Full Text Available Abstract The consumption of low-dose aspirin (LDA to prevent cardiovascular disease continues to increase worldwide. Consequently, the number of chronic LDA users seeking dental procedures that require complementary acute anti-inflammatory medication has also grown. Considering the lack of literature evaluating this interaction, we analyzed the gastric and renal effects caused by a selective COX-2 inhibitor (etoricoxib and a non-selective COX-2 inhibitor (ibuprofen nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID in rats receiving chronic LDA therapy. Male Wistar rats were divided into six experimental groups (carboxymethylcellulose (CMC - vehicle; LDA; LDA + ibuprofen; ibuprofen; LDA + etoricoxib; and etoricoxib and submitted to long-term LDA therapy with a subsequent NSAID administration for three days by gavage. After the experimental period, we analyzed gastric and renal tissues and quantified serum creatinine levels. The concomitant use of LDA with either NSAID induced the highest levels of gastric damage when compared to the CMC group (F = 20.26, p 0.05. These results suggest that even the acute use of an NSAID (regardless of COX-2 selectivity can induce gastric damage when combined with the long-term use of low-dose aspirin in an animal model. Additional studies, including clinical assessments, are thus needed to clarify this interaction, and clinicians should be careful of prescribing NSAIDs to patients using LDA.

  20. Radiation effect on pregnant rats receiving progesterone and Biochemical changes during pregnancy in rats under effect of gamma rays. Vol. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Wahab, M.F.; Abdel-Aziz, S.M.; Abdel-Gawad, I.I.

    1996-01-01

    The following terms were carried out to provide a comprehensive picture of the radiation induced biochemical changes in pregnant rats with and without progesterone injections. 1- serum total proteins. Animals irradiated on the third day and sacrificed on day 8, 14, 18, and 21 showed non-significant increase in serum total proteins on the day 8 of gestation in irradiated animals as compared to control animals, while on the other days serum total proteins increased significantly in irradiated animals compared to control animals. 2- serum total lipids. Animals irradiated on the third day of gestation and 8 th day all showed significant increase in serum total lipids with exception of those on the 14 th which showed nonsignificant change. Those on the 21 st showed a reverse effect of decrease. 3- serum progesterone. It is evident that animals irradiated on third day sacrificed on day 8, 14, 18, and 21 showed non-significant change in serum progesterone on the day 8, but on the other days it is significantly decreased compared to control levels. 4-Calcium. Animals irradiated on the third day and sacrificed on the 8 th day change in calcium level, others showed a significant decrease compared to control level. 8 figs., 2 tabs

  1. Radiation effect on pregnant rats receiving progesterone and Biochemical changes during pregnancy in rats under effect of gamma rays. Vol. 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdel-Wahab, M F; Abdel-Aziz, S M; Abdel-Gawad, I I [Radioisotope Department, Atomic Energy Authority, Dokki, (Egypt)

    1996-03-01

    The following terms were carried out to provide a comprehensive picture of the radiation induced biochemical changes in pregnant rats with and without progesterone injections. 1- serum total proteins. Animals irradiated on the third day and sacrificed on day 8, 14, 18, and 21 showed non-significant increase in serum total proteins on the day 8 of gestation in irradiated animals as compared to control animals, while on the other days serum total proteins increased significantly in irradiated animals compared to control animals. 2- serum total lipids. Animals irradiated on the third day of gestation and 8{sup th} day all showed significant increase in serum total lipids with exception of those on the 14{sup th} which showed nonsignificant change. Those on the 21{sup st} showed a reverse effect of decrease. 3- serum progesterone. It is evident that animals irradiated on third day sacrificed on day 8, 14, 18, and 21 showed non-significant change in serum progesterone on the day 8, but on the other days it is significantly decreased compared to control levels. 4-Calcium. Animals irradiated on the third day and sacrificed on the 8{sup th} day change in calcium level, others showed a significant decrease compared to control level. 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Modelling the Molecular Transportation of Subcutaneously Injected Salubrinal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy Chen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available For the subcutaneous administration of a chemical agent (salubrinal, we constructed a mathematical model of molecule transportation and subsequently evaluated the kinetics of diffusion, convection, and molecular turnover. Salubrinal is a potential therapeutic agent that can reduce cellular damage and death. The understanding of its temporal profiles in local tissue as well as in a whole body is important to develop a proper strategy for its administration. Here, the diffusion and convection kinetics was formulated using partial and ordinary differential equations in one- and three-dimensional (semi-spherical coordinates. Several key parameters including an injection velocity, a diffusion coefficient, thickness of subcutaneous tissue, and a permeability factor at the tissue-blood boundary were estimated from experimental data in rats. With reference to analytical solutions in a simplified model without convection, numerical solutions revealed that the diffusion coefficient and thickness of subcutaneous tissue determined the timing of the peak concentration in the plasma, and its magnitude was dictated by the permeability factor. Furthermore, the initial velocity, induced by needle injection, elevated an immediate transport of salubrinal at t < 1h. The described analysis with a combination of partial and ordinary differential equations contributes to the prediction of local and systemic effects and the understanding of the transportation mechanism of salubrinal and other agents.

  3. A CMOS self-powered front-end architecture for subcutaneous event-detector devices

    CERN Document Server

    Colomer-Farrarons, Jordi

    2011-01-01

    A CMOS Self-Powered Front-End Architecture for Subcutaneous Event-Detector Devices presents the conception and prototype realization of a Self-Powered architecture for subcutaneous detector devices. The architecture is designed to work as a true/false (event detector) or threshold level alarm of some substances, ions, etc. that are detected through a three-electrodes amperometric BioSensor approach. The device is conceived as a Low-Power subcutaneous implantable application powered by an inductive link, one emitter antenna at the external side of the skin and the receiver antenna under the ski

  4. Facilitated subcutaneous immunoglobulin administration (fSCIg)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blau, Igor-Wolfgang; Conlon, Niall; Petermann, Robert

    2016-01-01

    and diverse medical needs that treatments for SID management should strive to meet. In this special report, we study the opportunities provided by facilitated subcutaneous immunoglobulin administration (fSCIg) to treat patients for whom the conventional routes (intravenous and subcutaneous) are sub...

  5. Intramuscular versus Subcutaneous Administration of Iron Dextran in Suckling Piglets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Svoboda

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to compare the development of red blood cell indices after subcutaneous versus intramuscular administration of iron dextran to suckling piglets during early postnatal period. The piglets in group I (n = 17 were injected subcutaneously (into groin with 200 mg Fe3+ as iron dextran on day 3 of life. In group II (n = 16, the piglets received intramuscular injection (into gluteal muscles of 200 mg Fe3+ as iron dextran on day 3 of life. In group III (n = 10, the piglets did not receive any iron till the age of 3 days. The blood was taken and analyzed (Hb, PCV, RBC, MCV, MCH, MCHC, Fe on days 3, 7, 14, 21, 28 and 35. Haematological indices of piglets in group III were characteristic for hypochromic anaemia. Anaemia in group III had a detrimental effect on the growth rate of piglets. The development of red blood cell indices and iron concentration in blood plasma in subcutaneously treated piglets did not differ significantly from that of intramuscularly-treated group. Both treatments prevented development of anaemia.

  6. The first reported case of canine subcutaneous Cryptococcus flavescens infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kano, Rui; Ishida, Rinei; Nakane, Shinsuke; Sekiguchi, Maiko; Hasegawa, Atsuhiko; Kamata, Hiroshi

    2012-03-01

    This report describes the first documented case of subcutaneous infection due to Cryptococcus flavescens in a dog. The chief symptoms of the patient dog were abscessed lesions on the dorsal muzzle, right eyelid, and lower jaw. Biopsy specimens from the lesions on the dorsal muzzle and lower jaw showed pyogranulomatous inflammation with numerous yeast cells. The patient dog was diagnosed with a subcutaneous fungal infection and orally received 5 mg/kg itraconazole once a day for 2 months, the abscesses disappeared. After 1 month at the end of treatment, the skin lesions did not redevelop. Isolates from the biopsy specimens were identified as C. flavescens by molecular analysis as well as morphologic and biochemical examination, indicating that C. flavescens is a potential canine pathogen.

  7. Lack of effect of Pitressin on the learning ability of Brattleboro rats with diabetes insipidus using positively reinforced operant conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laycock, J F; Gartside, I B

    1985-08-01

    Brattleboro rats with hereditary hypothalamic diabetes insipidus (BDI) received daily subcutaneous injections of vasopressin in the form of Pitressin tannate (0.5 IU/24 hr). They were initially deprived of food and then trained to work for food reward in a Skinner box to a fixed ratio of ten presses for each pellet received. Once this schedule had been learned the rats were given a discrimination task daily for seven days. The performances of these BDI rats were compared with those of rats of the parent Long Evans (LE) strain receiving daily subcutaneous injections of vehicle (arachis oil). Comparisons were also made between these two groups of treated animals and untreated BDI and LE rats studied under similar conditions. In the initial learning trial, both control and Pitressin-treated BDI rats performed significantly better, and manifested less fear initially, than the control or vehicle-injected LE rats when first placed in the Skinner box. Once the initial task had been learned there was no marked difference in the discrimination learning between control or treated BDI and LE animals. These results support the view that vasopressin is not directly involved in all types of learning behaviour, particularly those involving positively reinforced operant conditioning.

  8. MRI allows for longitudinal quantitative analysis of body fat composition in rats: an analysis of sibutramine-associated changes at the group level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Hans-Peter; Niessen, Heiko G; Kaulisch, Thomas; Ludolph, Albert C; Kassubek, Jan; Stiller, Detlef

    2013-09-01

    Body fat distribution changes are associated with multiple alterations in metabolism. Therefore, the assessment of body fat compartments by MRI in animal models is a promising approach to obesity research. Standard T1-weighted (T1w) whole body MRI was used here to quantify different effects in the subcutaneous and visceral fat compartments in rats under treatment with an anorexiant. Twenty rats on a high caloric diet were investigated by the identical MRI protocol at baseline and after seven weeks. Ten rats received a treatment with sibutramine, 10 rats served as vehicle control group. To longitudinally assess body fat components, MRI analysis was used with two approaches: 2D slicewise graphic analysis (SGA) was compared with an automated 3D analysis algorithm (3DA). At the group level, fat volume differences showed a longitudinal increase of subcutaneous and visceral fat volumes for the control group, whereas the sibutramine group showed stable subcutaneous fat volumes and decrease in visceral fat volumes. SGA and 3DA volume determination showed significant correlations for subcutaneous fat volume (C=0.85, psibutramine separate on the fat compartments in rats. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Subcutaneous phaeohyphomycosis caused by cladophialophora boppii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pereira Rickson

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Subcutaneous phaeohyphomycosis is an infection of the skin and subcutaneous tissue, caused by dematiaceous fungi. An adult male presented with a history of multiple reddish nodules over the face and hands. Histopathological examination of the skin biopsies showed a dense granulomatous infiltrate of macrophages, containing intracytoplasmic basophilic bodies throughout the dermis. Gomori methenamine-silver stained sections revealed yeast cells within macrophages. Multiple cultures on Sabouraud′s dextrose agar grew Cladophialophora boppii. The patient was treated with oral itraconazole for a year and the response monitored with dermal ultrasound. This is the first case report of subcutaneous phaeohyphomycosis caused by Cl. boppii in India.

  10. Books Received

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education. Books Received. Articles in Resonance – Journal of Science Education. Volume 1 Issue 1 January 1996 pp 118-118 Books Received. Books Received · More Details Fulltext PDF. Volume 1 Issue 2 February 1996 pp 120-120 Books Received. Books Received.

  11. Primary Kaposi sarcoma of the subcutaneous tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dezube Bruce J

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Involvement of the subcutis by Kaposi sarcoma (KS occurs primarily when cutaneous KS lesions evolve into deep penetrating nodular tumors. Primary KS of the subcutaneous tissue is an exceptional manifestation of this low-grade vascular neoplasm. Case presentation We present a unique case of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS-associated KS manifesting primarily in the subcutaneous tissue of the anterior thigh in a 43-year-old male, which occurred without overlying visible skin changes or concomitant KS disease elsewhere. Radiological imaging and tissue biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of KS. Conclusion This is the first documented case of primary subcutaneous KS occurring in the setting of AIDS. The differential diagnosis of an isolated subcutaneous lesion in an human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-infected individual is broad, and requires both imaging and a histopathological diagnosis to guide appropriate therapy.

  12. Effects of hyperbaric oxygen on crystalline lens and retina in nicotine-exposed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ari, Seyhmus; Nergiz, Yusuf; Cingü, Abdullah Kürşat; Atay, Ahmet Engin; Sahin, Alparslan; Cinar, Yasin; Caca, Ihsan

    2013-03-01

    To determine histopathological changes on crystalline lens and retina of rats after subcutaneous injection of nicotine and to examine the effects of hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) on these changes related to nicotine exposure. Twenty-eight female Sprague-Dawley rats were enrolled in the study and the rats were divided into four equal sized groups randomly (Group N: the rats exposed only to nicotine, group HB: the rats received only HBO, group N+HB: the rats that underwent to nicotine injection and subsequently received HBO, group C: the control group that neither exposed to nicotine nor received HBO). The rats were sacrificed by decapitation method and all were enucleated immediately after scarification. Tissue samples from crystalline lens, lens capsule, and the retina from the right eyes of the rats were examined by light microscopy. While the histological appearances of the retina and the lens was similar in group HB, group N+HB, and the control group; group N showed some pathological changes like decrement in the retinal ganglion cell density, atrophy of the retinal nerve fiber layer, congestion of the vessels in the optic nerve head, thinning of the internal plexiform layer, thinning of the lens capsule, and transformation of the anterior subcapsular epithelium into squamous epithelia. Subcutaneous injection of nicotine was found to be related with some pathological changes in the retina and lens of the Sprague-Dawley rats. However HBO caused no significant negative effect. Furthermore, the histopathological changes related to nicotine exposure in the lens and retina of the rats recovered by the application of HBO.

  13. Recurrent, giant subcutaneous leiomyosarcoma of the thigh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Chuanping, MD

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of recurrent, massive subcutaneous leiomyosarcoma involving the left thigh in a 29-year-old male from Madagascar. The patient had earlier undergone local resection of subcutaneous leiomyosarcoma a half year before. After surgical intervention, local recurrence developed at this site and was rapidly growing. The patient was surgically treated with a 2-cm-wide margin local excision in our hospital. The patient has remained recurrence free at 1-year follow-up.

  14. Frontal subcutaneous blood flow, and epi- and subcutaneous temperatures during scalp cooling in normal man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bülow, J; Friberg, L; Gaardsting, O

    1985-01-01

    Cooling of the scalp has been found to prevent hair loss following cytostatic treatment, but in order to obtain the hair preserving effect the subcutaneous temperature has to be reduced below 22 degrees C. In order to establish the relationship between epicutaneous and subcutaneous temperatures...... epicutaneous and subcutaneous temperatures could be demonstrated with the regression equation: s = 0.9 c + 4.9 (r = 0.99). In eight of the 10 subjects the subcutaneous temperature could be reduced below 22 degrees C with the applied technique. It is concluded that the hair preserving effect of scalp cooling...

  15. Surgical Management of Gynecomastia: Subcutaneous Mastectomy and Liposuction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dae Hwa; Byun, Il Hwan; Lee, Won Jai; Rah, Dong Kyun; Kim, Ji Ye; Lee, Dong Won

    2016-12-01

    The treatment of gynecomastia depends on multiple factors, and the best modality is controversial. In this study, we aimed to determine the best management approach by comparing outcomes of two groups of patients with gynecomastia who received subcutaneous mastectomy combined with liposuction and liposuction only. We conducted a retrospective analysis of 64 patients who underwent surgery for gynecomastia. We divided the patients into two groups: group A, patients who underwent liposuction only; and group B, patients who underwent liposuction and subcutaneous mastectomy. The serial photographs of all patients were clinically evaluated with respect to size, shape, scarring, and overall outcome by three plastic surgeons, and patient satisfaction was surveyed with regard to palpable lumps, size, shape, scarring, and overall outcome. Of the 64 subjects, 16 received liposuction only, and 48 received the combination procedure. A total of 125 breasts were involved. The doctors' scores for size and overall outcome were significantly better in the combination group, whereas scarring was better in the liposuction-only group. Similarly, patient satisfaction regarding size was significantly higher in the combination group, and satisfaction regarding scarring was significantly higher in the liposuction-only group. The scores for scarring in the combination treatment group were acceptable. Our study shows that combination treatment with liposuction and subcutaneous mastectomy results in satisfactory outcomes, including the extent of scarring. We conclude that this combination treatment should be recommended as the standard surgical treatment for gynecomastia and can provide excellent results in cases where glandular tissue needs to be removed. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www

  16. Cutaneous and subcutaneous Ewing's sarcoma: an indolent disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chow, Edward; Merchant, Thomas E.; Pappo, Alberto; Jenkins, Jesse J.; Shah, Amit B.; Kun, Larry E.

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: The occurrence of extraosseous Ewing's sarcoma (ES) in deep soft tissues has been well described, but cases in which this tumor occurs in a primary cutaneous or subcutaneous site have rarely been reported. The superficial variant may be less aggressive than are the more common bony and deep soft tissue counterparts with an apparently favorable outcome. A retrospective review of patients with cutaneous or subcutaneous ES was conducted to analyze outcome and patterns of failure. Methods and Materials: Between July 1985 and March 1997, 14 patients with cutaneous or subcutaneous ES were treated at St. Jude Children's Research Hospital. The median age at presentation was 16 years (range 7-21 years). Anatomic locations included trunk and pelvis (7), upper or lower extremity (4), and head and neck (3). The median size of the lesion was 3 cm (range, 1-12 cm). Thirteen had definitive surgical resections, and one had biopsy of the mass at the time of referral. They were enrolled on institutional (12) or cooperative group (2) protocols. All patients received chemotherapy, composed of vincristine, doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide, ifosfamide, etoposide, and dactinomycin. Patients on institutional protocols received radiation (36 Gy) to the operative bed (150-180 cGy/fraction/day). Postoperative radiotherapy was omitted for 2 patients who had complete resection on the cooperative group study. Results: No patients had metastatic disease at presentation. Thirteen patients had wide local excision of the primary tumors prior to enrollment on chemotherapy; surgical margins were negative (10), microscopically positive (2), and indeterminate (1). Eleven patients received radiotherapy to the tumor bed; 2 with clear surgical margins were treated without irradiation. The patient who had biopsy only received induction chemotherapy followed by definitive surgical resection and postoperative radiotherapy. The median follow-up was 77 months (range 17-111 months). None of the patients

  17. Preventive effects of ACTICOA powder, a cocoa polyphenolic extract, on experimentally induced prostate hyperplasia in Wistar-Unilever rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisson, Jean-François; Hidalgo, Sophie; Rozan, Pascale; Messaoudi, Michaël

    2007-12-01

    Plant extracts are useful in the management of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). This study investigates whether ACTICOA (Barry Callebaut France, Louviers, France) powder (AP), a cocoa polyphenolic extract, could prevent prostate hyperplasia induced by testosterone propionate (TP) in rats. Male Wistar-Unilever rats were randomly divided in four groups of 12 rats: one negative control group receiving subcutaneous injections of corn oil and treated with vehicle and three groups injected subcutaneously with TP and treated with the vehicle (positive control) or AP at 24 (AP24) and 48 (AP48) mg/kg/day. Treatments were given orally and started 2 weeks before the induction of prostate hyperplasia. The influence of TP and AP on body weights and food and water consumption of rats was examined. On day 36, rats were sacrificed, and the prostates were removed, cleaned, and weighed. The prostate size ratio (prostate weight/rat body weight) was then calculated. TP significantly influenced the body weight gain of the rats and their food and water consumption, while AP at both doses tested reduced significantly these differences. TP significantly increased prostate size ratio (P < .001), and this induced increase was significantly inhibited in AP-treated rats in comparison with positive controls (P < .001) in a dose-dependent manner. We conclude that AP can prevent TP-induced prostate hyperplasia and therefore may be beneficial in the management of BPH.

  18. Subcutaneous infusion in palliative care: a focus on the neria soft 90 infusion set.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, Janice

    2014-11-01

    Subcutaneous administration of medications and/or fluids can play a crucial part in supporting patients at home and thereby avoiding the need for hospitalisation. It is an area of patient care that has received little attention compared with other types of parenteral therapies. However, it is an effective and safe route for continuous administration for individuals requiring palliative care. Technological advancements have led to improved subcutaneous infusion devices, such as fine-gauge cannulae with integral sharps protection, as well as integral hypoallergenic dressings. These design features not only help to increase patient comfort but also minimise the potential for needlestick injuries, as well as providing the health professional with one sterile package containing all of the components needed to establish subcutaneous infusion. However, technological developments alone are insufficient to improve patient outcomes. Knowledge of the individual patient, together with their diagnosis and intended treatment, will influence the choice of subcutaneous infusion device, with the overall aim of minimising the potential for complications and improving comfort. This paper provides an overview of subcutaneous infusion, including the importance of patient assessment and the education and training needs of health professionals, and then focuses on one specific subcutaneous infusion device: the neria soft 90 infusion set.

  19. Subcutaneous tissue flaps for hallux covering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaienti, Luca; Urzola, Victor; Scotti, Andrea; Masetto, L

    2010-03-01

    With the understanding of the extensive vascular supply of the subcutaneous tissue, of its efficacy in the protection of the anatomical structures and of its capability of promoting the adequate functioning of very stressed regions of the human body, the use of subcutaneous adipose flaps has become a valid and sometimes the only reasonable therapeutic weapon in the treatment of small and medium-sized tissue loss. Such a defect represents a common complication of great toe injuries and surgery. Here subcutaneous flap reconstruction is proposed for the treatment of dorsal and medial soft tissue losses of the hallux complicated with infection. Two case are reported. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this application has not been reported in this anatomical site so far. The technique might be worth knowing both for orthopedic and plastic surgeons, as it may represent a safe, less invasive solution for most tegumentary problems of the dorso-medial side of the first ray.

  20. Cyclophosphamide Enhances Human Tumor Growth in Nude Rat Xenografted Tumor Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingjen Jeffrey Wu

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the immunomodulatory chemotherapeutic agent cyclophosphamide (CTX on tumor growth was investigated in primary and metastatic intracerebral and subcutaneous rat xenograft models. Nude rats were treated with CTX (100 mg/kg, intraperitoneally 24 hours before human ovarian carcinoma (SKOV3, small cell lung carcinoma (LX-1 SCLC, and glioma (UW28, U87MG, and U251 tumor cells were inoculated subcutaneously, intraperitoneally, or in the right cerebral hemisphere or were infused into the right internal carotid artery. Tumor development was monitored and recorded. Potential mechanisms were further investigated. Only animals that received both CTX and Matrigel showed consistent growth of subcutaneous tumors. Cyclophosphamide pretreatment increased the percentage (83.3% vs 0% of animals showing intraperitoneal tumors. In intracerebral implantation tumor models, CTX pretreatment increased the tumor volume and the percentage of animals showing tumors. Cyclophosphamide increased lung carcinoma bone and facial metastases after intra-arterial injection, and 20% of animals showed brain metastases. Cyclophosphamide transiently decreased nude rat white blood cell counts and glutathione concentration, whereas serum vascular endothelial growth factor was significantly elevated. Cyclophosphamide also increased CD31 reactivity, a marker of vascular endothelium, and macrophage (CD68-positive infiltration into glioma cell-inoculated rat brains. Cyclophosphamide may enhance primary and metastatic tumor growth through multiple mechanisms, including immune modulation, decreased response to oxidative stress, increased tumor vascularization, and increased macrophage infiltration. These findings may be clinically relevant because chemotherapy may predispose human cancer subjects to tumor growth in the brain or other tissues.

  1. Electron transfer processes occurring on platinum neural stimulating electrodes: pulsing experiments for cathodic-first, charge-balanced, biphasic pulses for 0.566  ⩽  k  ⩽  2.3 in rat subcutaneous tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumsa, Doe W.; Bhadra, Narendra; Hudak, Eric M.; Mortimer, J. Thomas

    2017-10-01

    Objective. Our mission is twofold: (1) find a way to safely inject more charge through platinum electrodes than the Shannon limit (k  =  1.75) permits and (2) nurture an interest in the neural stimulation community to understand the electron transfer process occurring on neural stimulating electrodes. Approach. We report here on measurements of the electrode potential, performed on platinum neural stimulating electrodes in the subcutaneous space of an anesthetized rat under neural stimulation conditions. Main results. The results for six platinum electrodes with areas ranging from 0.2 mm2 to 12.7 mm2 were similar to prior results in sulfuric acid, except that the measured potentials were shifted negative 0.36 V because of the pH difference between the two media. The anodic ‘end’ potential, measured at t  =  20 ms after the onset of the biphasic current pulse, was the primary focus of the data collected because previous results had shown that as charge injection crosses the Shannon limit (k  =  1.75), this potential moves into a range where platinum surface oxidation and dissolution is likely to occur. The behavior of V e(t  =  20 ms) over a range of electrode surface areas studied was consistent with our sulfuric acid study. Implicit, but little noticed, in Shannon’s formulation is that small and large platinum electrodes behave the same in terms of k value; our data supports this idea. Significance. We hypothesize that the k  =  1.75 Shannon limit for safe stimulation designates a charge-injection boundary above which platinum toxicity becomes a relevant consideration for living cells around an electrode, a possibility that can be directly tested, and is a vital step forward in mission (1).

  2. Ultrasonographic Findings of Subcutaneous and Muscular Sparganosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Hee Jin; Park, Noh Hyuck; Lee, Eun Ja; Park, Chan Sub; Lee, Sung Moon; Park, Sung Il

    2009-01-01

    This study was deigned to evaluate the ultrasonographic findings of subcutaneous and intramuscular sparganosis. Nine cases of histologically proven subcutaneous and intramuscular sparganosis lesions in seven patients (mean patient age, 59 years; M:F = 6:1) were reviewed retrospectively. Two patients had recurrent sparganosis. A color Doppler examination was performed in all cases. A prior history of ingestion of raw snake meat was noted for two patients. Patients presented with a palpable mass and induration (n = 7) and dull pain (n = 4). Lesion locations were in the thigh (n = 4), lower leg (n = 2), chest wall (n = 1), an inguinal location (n = 1) and the neck (n = 1). Five lesions were in the subcutaneous fat layer and four lesions had intramuscular locations. Calcification was noted in two cases. All cases showed heterogeneous hypoechoic serpiginous tubular-and-oval lesions. The lesions were conglomerated or discrete in appearance. All nine cases showed the presence of lesions with a multi-layered wall with variable intraluminal echogenicity, at least in one segment of the lesion. Increased vascularity was noted on color Doppler examinations in two patients with pain. Subcutaneous or intramuscular sparganosis should be included in the differential diagnosis when a serpiginous tubular-and-oval lesion is noted that is seen with a multi-layered wall with variable intraluminal echogenicity

  3. Case Report Pneumomediastinum and Subcutaneous Emphysema ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    oxygen may enhance faster absorption of air from extra-pulmonary tissues while needle aspiration and/ or surgical decompression may be useful if mediastinal structures are compressed [2,9,]. Conclusion. Extra-pulmonary extravasations of air manifested as subcutaneous emphysema and pneumomediastinum.

  4. Subcutaneous fibrosis after whole neck irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirota, Saeko; Tsujino, Kayoko; Oshitani, Takashi; Hishikawa, Yoshio; Takada, Yoshiki; Kono, Michio; Abe, Mitsuyuki

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: To identify the risk factors for moderate to severe subcutaneous fibrosis after whole neck irradiation. Methods and Materials: We analyzed 233 cases of patients who had undergone whole neck irradiation with 4-MV X-ray or 8-10-MeV electrons, or both, and had been followed with regard to their skin condition for at least 1 year. The prescribed dose to the whole neck ranged from 19.2 to 72.4 Gy (median 50). The skin-absorbed dose was specified as that at a depth of 4.1 mm (d4.1-mm depth ), and a biologically equivalent dose (BED) of d4.1-mm depth was also estimated (BED 1.8 4.1-mm depth ). Results: Univariate analysis revealed that previous neck dissection, concurrent chemotherapy, corticosteroid administration as a part of chemotherapy, fractionation, and BED 1.8 4.1-mm depth were significant prognostic variables. Multivariate analysis showed that BED 1.8 4.1-mm depth and previous neck dissection were the only prognostic variables for moderate to severe subcutaneous fibrosis. Conclusion: A high dose to a 4.1-mm depth of the skin and a history of neck dissection were identified as the predominant risk factors for moderate to severe subcutaneous fibrosis after whole neck irradiation. A subcutaneous dose should be considered in radiotherapy treatment planning involving the whole neck, especially in cases in which patients have undergone previous neck dissection

  5. Subcutaneous endoscopically assisted ligation using miniport for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    miniport for the treatment of girls with inguinal hernia. Akinari Hinoki*, Ikeda ... method using subcutaneous endoscopically assisted ligation (SEAL) for the ... the open technique and an additional 2 mm miniport). A ... (unilateral, n = 9) or 42 ± 8 min (bilateral, n = 5). The mean .... Methods of laparoscopic repair have recently ...

  6. Subcutaneous emphysema, a different way to diagnose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno José da Costa Medeiros

    Full Text Available Summary Introduction: Subcutaneous emphysema (SE is a clinical condition that occurs when air gets into soft tissues under the skin. This can occur in any part of the body depending on the type of pathology. The most common site is under the skin that covers the chest wall or neck. It is characterized by painless swelling of tissues. The classic clinical sign is a crackling sensation upon touch, resembling that of touching a sponge beneath your fingers. Objective: To describe a new way to diagnose subcutaneous emphysema. Method: Our finding was a matter of serendipity while inspecting a patient with subcutaneous emphysema using a stethoscope. Instead only hearing the patient's chest, the stethoscope was gently pressed against the skin with SE and so we were able to detect a different sound. Results: This new way to diagnose subcutaneous emphysema consists in pressing the diaphragm part of stethoscope against the patient's skin where SE is supposed to be. Thus, we are able to hear a sound of small bubbles bursting. Crackle noise has an acoustic emission energy that varies between 750-1,200 Hz, considered high frequency. Conclusion: Although currently the use of imaging methods is widespread worldwide, we would like to strengthen the value of clinical examination. Auscultation is an essential diagnostic method that has become underestimated with the advances of healthcare and medicine as a whole. We therefore propose a different approach to diagnose SE.

  7. Elephantine but not elephantiasis: Subcutaneous zygomycosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girish, Meenakshi; Arora, Amit; Bhalla, Lucky; Salodkar, Atul

    2011-09-01

    Subcutaneous zygomycosis is an unusual disorder caused by a rare fungus, Basidiobolus ranarum. We report this entity in a 4- yr- old boy. Biopsy showed the Splendore Hoeppli phenomenon and the culture yielded Basidiobolus ranarum. The child responded to saturated solution of potassium iodide within 1 month of starting treatment.

  8. Subcutaneous endoscopically assisted ligation using miniport for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background This report describes the first miniport method using subcutaneous endoscopically assisted ligation (SEAL) for the treatment of girls with inguinal hernia. To validate its safety and efficacy, the authors evaluated their early experiences. Methods Between April 2014 and December 2014, 19 SEALs using miniport ...

  9. Case Report: Pneumomediastinum and subcutaneous cervical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The occurrence of pneumomediastinum and subcutaneous cervical emphysema as complications of childhood pneumonia is very unusual. They results most often from respiratory manoeuvres that produce high intrathoracic pressure. Although they are largely benign, pneumomediastinum can cause compression of major ...

  10. Anthropometrical Profile, Skinfold Tickness and Subcutaneous Fat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The threatening health problems resulting from excess subcutaneous fat depositions have been reported by the world Health Organization. Also noteworthy is that childhood obesity is a pointer to adult obesity. This necessitated a study on the anthropometrical profiles of adolescents of Southeast Nigeria using ...

  11. Diversity receiver

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2005-01-01

    The invention is directed to the reception of high rate radio signals (for example DVB-T signals) while the receiver is moving at a high speed (for example in or with a car). Two or more antennas (12, 16) are closely spaced and arranged behind each other in the direction of motion (v) for receiving

  12. A Case of Spontaneous Pneumomediastinum with Subcutaneous Emphysema in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Said Benlamkaddem

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous pneumomediastinum is defined as free air or gas contained within the mediastinum, which almost invariably originates from the alveolar space or the conducting airways. It is rare in pediatric patients; however, occasional cases are reported to result from forced Valsalva’s maneuver due to cough, emesis, a first attack of wheeze, or asthma exacerbations. We report the case of a 7-year-old previously healthy girl, with a history of persistent dry cough one day before, who was brought to our unit with face, neck and chest swelling. The chest X-ray and computed tomography (CT scan showed subcutaneous emphysema with pneumomediastinum and pneumopericardium without evidence of the origin of this air leak. Laboratory tests and the bronchoscopy were normal. The patient was admitted in the pediatric critical care and received noninvasive monitoring, analgesia, oxygen, and omeprazole as a prophylaxis for a gastric ulcer. The patient improved, subcutaneous emphysema resolved, and she was discharged on the third day.

  13. Role of Liposuction Combined with Subcutaneous Mastectomy in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    deformity in two other patients. Conclusions: Liposuction combined with subcutaneous mastectomy is a reliable, versatile, less time consuming and valid procedure for the treatment of gynecomastia. This procedure provides satisfactory aesthetic results. KEY WORDS: Gynecomastia, liposuction, subcutaneous mastectomy.

  14. Administration of cyclosporine a (CyA) to rats from birth: increased mortality and NK activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clancy, J. Jr.; Tseng, G.; Kodali, S.; Love, S.

    1986-01-01

    Neonatal DA and LEW rats received 15, 7.5, and 3.75 mg/Kg of CyA or saline subcutaneously 3x each week for 1-12 weeks. In animals receiving 15 and 7.5 mg/Kg a significant (p 51 Cr release from YAC-1 target cells. Also, SPL cells stained with propidium iodide from the 3.75 mg/Kg group demonstrated a 1.5-2x increase in cells within the S phase of their cell cycle by flow cytometry. Thus, prolonged administration of CyA may have selective enhancing effects on certain lymphoid compartments and subpopulations of neonatal rats as well as a selective toxic effects on neonatal rat development

  15. Subcutaneous emphysema in cavitary pulmonary tuberculosis without pneumothorax or pneumomediastinum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramakant Dixit

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Extra-alveolar air in the form of subcutaneous tissue emphysema is observed in a variety of clinical settings. Spontaneous subcutaneous emphysema in the absence of pneumothorax or pneumomediastinum is very rare. We report a case of spontaneous subcutaneous emphysema secondary to cavitary pulmonary tuberculosis in the absence of pneumothorax or pneumomediastinum.

  16. Cervicofacial subcutaneous air emphysema after dental extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reznick, J B; Ardary, W C

    1990-04-01

    A patient was seen by a general practitioner for surgical removal of his third molar. A standard high-speed handpiece was used to remove the tooth. During the procedure, subcutaneous emphysema developed. Later the same day, the patient's swelling increased and his airway was compromised. The patient's condition, the differential diagnosis, etiological factors, and treatment of this condition are all detailed within this clinical report.

  17. Posttransplant oxygen inhalation improves the outcome of subcutaneous islet transplantation: A promising clinical alternative to the conventional intrahepatic site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komatsu, H; Rawson, J; Barriga, A; Gonzalez, N; Mendez, D; Li, J; Omori, K; Kandeel, F; Mullen, Y

    2018-04-01

    Subcutaneous tissue is a promising site for islet transplantation, due to its large area and accessibility, which allows minimally invasive procedures for transplantation, graft monitoring, and removal of malignancies as needed. However, relative to the conventional intrahepatic transplantation site, the subcutaneous site requires a large number of islets to achieve engraftment success and diabetes reversal, due to hypoxia and low vascularity. We report that the efficiency of subcutaneous islet transplantation in a Lewis rat model is significantly improved by treating recipients with inhaled 50% oxygen, in conjunction with prevascularization of the graft bed by agarose-basic fibroblast growth factor. Administration of 50% oxygen increased oxygen tension in the subcutaneous site to 140 mm Hg, compared to 45 mm Hg under ambient air. In vitro, islets cultured under 140 mm Hg oxygen showed reduced central necrosis and increased insulin release, compared to those maintained in 45 mm Hg oxygen. Six hundred syngeneic islets subcutaneously transplanted into the prevascularized graft bed reversed diabetes when combined with postoperative 50% oxygen inhalation for 3 days, a number comparable to that required for intrahepatic transplantation; in the absence of oxygen treatment, diabetes was not reversed. Thus, we show oxygen inhalation to be a simple and promising approach to successfully establishing subcutaneous islet transplantation. © 2017 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  18. Response of the sensorimotor cortex of cerebral palsy rats receiving transplantation of vascular endothelial growth factor 165-transfected neural stem cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jielu Tan; Xiangrong Zheng; Shanshan Zhang; Yujia Yang; Xia Wang; Xiaohe Yu; Le Zhong

    2014-01-01

    Neural stem cells are characterized by the ability to differentiate and stably express exogenous ge-nes. Vascular endothelial growth factor plays a role in protecting local blood vessels and neurons of newborn rats with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. Transplantation of vascular endothelial growth factor-transfected neural stem cells may be neuroprotective in rats with cerebral palsy. In this study, 7-day-old Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into ifve groups: (1) sham operation (control), (2) cerebral palsy model alone or with (3) phosphate-buffered saline, (4) vascular en-dothelial growth factor 165 + neural stem cells, or (5) neural stem cells alone. hTe cerebral palsy model was established by ligating the letf common carotid artery followed by exposure to hypox-ia. Phosphate-buffered saline, vascular endothelial growth factor + neural stem cells, and neural stem cells alone were administered into the sensorimotor cortex using the stereotaxic instrument and microsyringe. Atfer transplantation, the radial-arm water maze test and holding test were performed. Immunohistochemistry for vascular endothelial growth factor and histology using hematoxylin-eosin were performed on cerebral cortex. Results revealed that the number of vas-cular endothelial growth factor-positive cells in cerebral palsy rats transplanted with vascular endothelial growth factor-transfected neural stem cells was increased, the time for ifnding water and the ifnding repetitions were reduced, the holding time was prolonged, and the degree of cell degeneration or necrosis was reduced. hTese ifndings indicate that the transplantation of vascu-lar endothelial growth factor-transfected neural stem cells alleviates brain damage and cognitive deifcits, and is neuroprotective in neonatal rats with hypoxia ischemic-mediated cerebral palsy.

  19. Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey Kondrashov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to perform a chemical analysis of both Alibernet red wine and an alcohol-free Alibernet red wine extract (AWE and to investigate the effects of AWE on nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species production as well as blood pressure development in normotensive Wistar Kyoto (WKY and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs. Total antioxidant capacity together with total phenolic and selected mineral content was measured in wine and AWE. Young 6-week-old male WKY and SHR were treated with AWE (24,2 mg/kg/day for 3 weeks. Total NOS and SOD activities, eNOS and SOD1 protein expressions, and superoxide production were determined in the tissues. Both antioxidant capacity and phenolic content were significantly higher in AWE compared to wine. The AWE increased NOS activity in the left ventricle, aorta, and kidney of SHR, while it did not change NOS activity in WKY rats. Similarly, increased SOD activity in the plasma and left ventricle was observed in SHR only. There were no changes in eNOS and SOD1 expressions. In conclusion, phenolics and minerals included in AWE may contribute directly to increased NOS and SOD activities of SHR. Nevertheless, 3 weeks of AWE treatment failed to affect blood pressure of SHR.

  20. Subcutaneous versus subcutaneous and intraperitoneal local anaesthetic in the management of post appendicectomy pain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qureshi, K.Z.; Gondal, Z.I.; Raza, A.

    2014-01-01

    To compare the efficacy of subcutaneous only and combined subcutaneous and peritoneal infiltration of 0.5% bupivacaine during appendicectomy for the management of early post operative pain. Study Design: Randomized controlled study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Surgery, CMH Kohat from 13th December 2007 to 20th December 2008. Patients and Methods: Sixty patients of a cute appendicitis, divided into two groups of 30 each, were included in the study. Group A was given 0.5% bupivacaine subcutaneously, whereas group B was given the anaesthetic subcutaneously as well as intraperitoneally during appendectomy. Results: In group A, 24 (80%) were VAS (visual analoguescoring) 3 (uncomfortable) and 6 (20%) were VAS 2 (mild pain) whereas in study group B, 11 (36.6%) were VAS 3, 19 (63.3%) were VAS 2 and 19 (63.3%) were VAS 2 during 1st 12 hrs postoperatively (p=0.001). In 12-24 hrs post operatively, 15 (50%) patients were VAS 3 in group A and same number was VAS 2 and in group B, only 3 (10%) were in VAS 3 and 27 (90%) were VAS 2 (p=0.001). Conclusion: A combination of subcutaneous and peritoneal infiltration with bupivacaine is superior in relieving post appendectomy pain so patients require less dosage of analgesics in early post operative period along with early mobilization. (author)

  1. The Effects of Aloe Vera on TNF-a Levels, the Percentage of Nk Cells and Th 17 Cells in Rat That Received Izoniazid and Rifampycin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mawarti, Herin; Rajin, Mukhamad; Asumta, Zulfikar

    2017-10-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate the hepatoprotective effect of Aloe vera against side effect of antituberculosis drug. Twenty-five rats will be divided into five groups, namely the control group (without any treatment), the group of rats treated with anti-tuberculosis drugs, and a group of rats were treated antituberculosis drugs and got Aloe vera extract at a dose of 40; 80; and 120 mg/kg body weight. Antituberculosis drugs are isoniazid and rifampicin a dose of 50 mg/kg body weight. Antituberculosis treated group showed significantly increase levels of TNF-a, the percentage of NK cells and the number of Th17 cells compared with the control group ( p 0.05). Aloe vera at first and the third dose lower the number of NK cells compared to the antituberculosis group, although it has not yet reached a significant difference ( p > 0.05). The first dose of Aloe vera was significantly decreased the percentage of Th17 cells compared to the antituberculosis drug group ( p 0.05). It was concluded that administration of Aloe vera can suppress the production of TNF-a and the percentage of Th17 cells as a result of antituberculosis drug administration. Thus, Aloe vera can be a useful alternative to natural materials in the successful treatment of tuberculosis through the inhibition of side effect.

  2. Gigantic subcutaneous lipoma – A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Lyngsaa Lang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Lipomas are the most common benign mesenchymal tumour. The solitary subcutaneous lipoma accounts for approximately one-quarter to one-half of all soft tissue tumours. The preferred locations include the trunk, shoulder, upper arm, and the neck. In this case report, we present a gigantic axillary lipoma weighing 23.35 kg. Due to the tumour mass and its long-term presence, the lipoma caused anatomical changes in the axilla making its removal challenging and difficult.

  3. Prolonged hypoglycemic effect in diabetic dogs due to subcutaneous administration of insulin in liposomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevenson, R.W.; Patel, H.M.; Parsons, J.A.; Ryman, B.E.

    1982-01-01

    The biologic action of insulin entrapped in liposomes (phospholipid vesicles) has been investigated following subcutaneous injection to dogs made diabetic with a combination of alloxan and streptozotocin. The fate of the liposomally entrapped material was determined by injecting rats subcutaneously with either 125 I-insulin or the labeled polysaccharide 14 C-inulin, incorporated in liposomes labeled with 3 H-cholesterol. Injection of liposome insulin (0.75 U/kg) to five diabetic dogs resulted in a mean (+/- SEM) blood glucose fall from 16.4 +/- 0.8 to 2.9 +/- 0.4 mmol/L. The glucose level had still not returned to baseline after 24 h and, correspondingly, immunoreactive insulin (IRI) could still be detected in frozen and thawed plasma 24 h after injection. In contrast, the hypoglycemic effect of the same dose of free insulin with or without empty liposomes virtually ended within 8 h and IRI levels returned to baseline by 3 h after injection. In experiments on rats with liposomally entrapped 125 I-insulin or 14 C-inulin the proportion of the injected dose of tracer recoverable by excision of the injection site remained constant after about 1 h and 70% of the dose was still fixed in subcutaneous tissue for at least 5 h thereafter. When the plasma collected 3 h after subcutaneous injection of labeled liposomes containing 125 I-insulin was passed through a column of Sepharose 6B, 50-75% of the 125 I-activity was found in the fractions associated with intact liposomes. One possibility for the persistence of the hypoglycemic effect and of measurable IRI following injection of liposome insulin could be the presence of intact liposomes in the circulation for many hours after adsorption had ceased

  4. Protective effects of ebselen on sodium-selenite-induced experimental cataract in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydemir, Orhan; Güler, Mete; Kaya, Mehmet Kaan; Deniz, Nurettin; Üstündağ, Bilal

    2012-12-01

    To determine whether ebselen has a protective effect or antioxidative potential in a sodium-selenite-induced experimental cataract model. Fırat University, Elazığ, Turkey. Experimental study. Twenty-one Sprague-Dawley rat pups were randomly divided into a control group, a sodium-selenite-induced-cataract group, and an ebselen-treated group; each group contained 7 rat pups. Rats in the control group received dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) intraperitoneally only and rats in the sodium-selenite-induced-cataract group received 30 nmol/g body weight sodium selenite subcutaneously and DMSO intraperitoneally 10 days postpartum. Rats in the ebselen group received 30 nmol/g body weight sodium selenite subcutaneously 10 days postpartum and were treated with 5 mg/kg body weight ebselen once a day for 4 consecutive days. Cataract development was assessed weekly for 3 weeks by slitlamp examination and graded using a scale. Reduced glutathione (GSH), total nitrite, and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in lens supernatants were measured at the end of 3 weeks. In the control group, all lenses were clear. In the ebselen-treated group, the mean cataract stage was significantly lower than in the sodium-selenite-induced-cataract group (P = .022). The GSH levels were significantly lower in the sodium-selenite-induced-cataract group than in the control and ebselen groups (P ebselen group than in the sodium-selenite-induced-cataract group (P ebselen group (P = .001). Ebselen had a protective effect on cataract development in a sodium-selenite-induced experimental model. The protective effect of ebselen appears to be due to inhibition of oxidative stress. No author has a financial or proprietary interest in any material or method mentioned. Copyright © 2012 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Histological Evidence of Nephroprotective Effect of Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera Root Extract against Gentamicin Induced Nephrotoxicity in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadia Choudhury Shimmi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Kidney damage can occur due to exposure to nephrotoxic drugs, chemicals, toxins and infectious agents, ultimately leading to renal failure, management of which is a great challenge. So, efforts have been focused on traditional and herbal medicines for the treatment of renal failure. Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera may have free radical scavenging activity and can be used for the prevention and treatment of kidney damage. Objective: To observe the histological evidence of nephroprotective effect of Ashwagandha root against gentamicin induced nephrotoxicity in rats. Materials and Methods: This study was done in the department of Physiology, Sir Salimullah Medical College, Dhaka. A total number of 31 male Wistar albino rats were acclimatized for 14 days. Then, these were divided into two groups, control group consisted of 18 rats (Group A and Ashwagandha pretreated and gentamicin-treated group consisted of 13 rats (Group B. Control group was again subdivided into baseline control and gentamicin-treated control groups (A1 and A2 ─ each group contained 9 rats. All the animals received basal diet for 22 consecutive days. In addition to this, animals of Group A2 received gentamicin subcutaneously (100 mg/kg body weight/day from 15th to 22nd day and animals of Group B received Ashwagandha root extract (500 mg/kg body weight/day orally for 22 consecutive days and gentamicin subcutaneously (100 mg/kg body weight/day from 15th to 22nd day. All the animals were sacrificed on 23rd day. Then kidney samples were collected and histology was done by using standard laboratory procedure. Results: Histological examination of kidney revealed abnormal histological findings in 100% of gentamicin-treated rats. But 92.31% of rats in Ashwagandha pretreated and gentamicin-treated group showed almost normal structure and 7.69% showed mild histological changes. Conclusion: Ashwagandha root may have some nephroprotective effect against gentamicin induced

  6. Recurrent subcutaneous emphysema of the face: a challenging clinical problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hojjati, Hossein; Davani, Sam Zeraatian Nejad; Johari, Hamed Ghoddusi

    2007-01-01

    In the neck or face, there are different causes for subcutaneous emphysema such as injury to the sinuses, the hypopharynx, the laryngotracheal complex, the pulmonary parenchyma, the esophagus or the presence of gas-forming organisms. However, factitious subcutaneous emphysema, a rare cause, must be considered in the differential diagnosis. In this clinical report, we discuss a 20-year-old girl who was under follow-up because of recurrent subcutaneous emphysema of the face and periorbital area. After 2 years of work-ups, including a period of close observation in the intensive care unit, self air injection by syringe was found as the cause of recurrent subcutaneous emphysema of the face, and the patient was labeled as having factitious recurrent subcutaneous emphysema. Therefore, when a patient presents with unexplained recurrent subcutaneous emphysema, one should suspect self-infliction and examine for puncture marks.

  7. Use of paracoxib by continuous subcutaneous infusion for cancer pain in a hospice population

    OpenAIRE

    Armstrong, Peter; Wilkinson, Pauline; McCorry, Noleen

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: To characterise the use of the parenteral non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug parecoxib when given by continuous subcutaneous infusion (CSCI) in a hospice population. Clinical experience suggests parecoxib CSCI may be of benefit in this population, but empirical evidence in relation to its safety and efficacy is lacking.Methods: Retrospective chart review of patients with a cancer diagnosis receiving parecoxib CSCI from 2008 to 2013 at the Marie Curie Hospice, Belfast. Data were ...

  8. Neonatal hyperthyroidism on rat heart: interrelation with nitric oxide and sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, L; Detomaso, F; Braga, P; Prendes, M; Perosi, F; Cernadas, G; Balaszczuk, A; Fellet, A

    2015-06-01

    To clarify the mechanism mediating the effect of hyperthyroidism on cardiac function during the second month of life in rats. Male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to a control or to a triiodothyronine (T3)-treated group. Treatment of each group was started on the third day after birth. Control rats (Eut) received 0.9 NaCl [0.1 ml/100 g body weight (BW)] every second day during 60 days and T3-treated rats (Hyper) received subcutaneous (SC) T3 injections every second day during 60 days. Hyperthyroidism decreased left ventricle volume only in male rats. Female euthyroid rats presented higher atrial nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity than male rats and hormonal treatment decreased this enzyme's activity in both sexes. Euthyroid male and female rats had similar atrial NOS protein levels, but females had higher caveolin (cav) 3 protein levels. T3 treatment increased this protein only in males. Female rats had lower ventricular NOS activity than male rats; hyperthyroidism increased NOS activity in both sexes but this effect was associated with lower cav 3 protein levels. Hyperthyroidism did not change cav 1 protein levels in both male and female rats. The results of this study demonstrating clinically relevant sex-related differences in the pathophysiology of the hyperthyroid heart have raised new questions regarding the mechanisms responsible for the observed differences. This study suggests that sex-related intrinsic factors such as nitric oxide may modulate the response to hyperthyroidism that leads to cardiovascular dysfunction.

  9. Beneficial Effect of Leptin on Spatial Learning and Memory in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Ghasemi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease which may be accompanied by cognitive impairments. The expression of the obesity gene (ob is decreased in insulin-deficient diabetic animals and increased after the administration of insulin or leptin. Plasma leptin levels are reduced in the streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetic rats. Therefore, the deleterious effects of diabetes on memory may be due to the reduction of leptin. Aims: Investigate the effect of subcutaneous injection of leptin on spatial learning and memory in STZ-induced diabetic rats. Study Design: Animal experimentation. Methods: The rats were divided into three groups: 1- control, 2- diabetic, and 3- diabetic-leptin. Diabetes was induced in groups 2 and 3 by STZ injection (55 mg/kg intraperitoneally (i.p. The animals received leptin (0.1 mg/kg or saline subcutaneously (s.c for 10 days before behavioral studies. Then, they were examined in the Morris water maze over 3 blocks after 3 days of the last injection of leptin. Results: The travelled path length and time spent to reach the platform significantly increased in the diabetic group (p<0.001 and decreased with leptin treatment (p<0.01 & p<0.001 respectively; also, a significant increase in path length and time was observed between the diabetic-leptin group and the diabetic group (p<0.01, p<0.001, respectively in the probe test. Conclusion: Leptin can exert positive effects on memory impairments in diabetic rats.

  10. Glucemia, insulinemia y secreción de insulina en ratas prepúberes hiperandrogenizadas e hiperestrogenizadas Glycemia, insulinemia and insulin secretion in prepubescent rats receiving high doses of androgens and strogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aimée Álvarez Álvarez

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió el efecto de una sobredosis de enantato de testosterona y de benzoato de estradiol en ratas machos prepúberes, sobre el comportamiento de la glucemia y la insulinemia in vivo, durante una prueba de tolerancia a la glucosa. Adicionalmente se exploró, in vitro, la capacidad de secreción de insulina estimulada por glucosa de los islotes de Langerhans de estas ratas hiperandrogenizadas e hiperestrogenizadas. Se encontró que la hiperandrogenización se acompañaba de un deterioro de la sensibilidad a la insulina, con hiperinsulinemia, que no se corresponde con un aumento de la capacidad de secreción de insulina de los islotes de Langerhans. Sin embargo, se comprobó que la hiperestrogenización no indujo cambios en los perfiles de glucemia, ni de insulinemia, ni en la capacidad de secreción de insulina de los islotes de Langerhans de este grupo de ratas hiperestrogenizadas.The effect of an overdose of testosterone heptanoate and estradiol in male prepubescent rats on the behavior of glycemia and insulinemia was studied in vivo during a glucose tolerance test. The capacity of insulin secretion stimulated by glucose from the islets of Langerhans of these rats that were administered a high dose of androgens and estrogens was explored in vitro. It was found that the high level of circulating androgens was accompanied by a deterioration of sensitivity to insulin with hyperinsulinemia that does not correspond to an increase of the insulin secreting capacity of the islets of Langerhans. However, it was demonstrated that the high level of circulating estrogens did not produce changes either in the glycemia and insulinemia profiles or in the insulin secreting capacity of the islets of Langerhans in this group of rats that received an elevated dose of estrogens.

  11. Pharmacological TLR4 Inhibition Protects against Acute and Chronic Fat-Induced Insulin Resistance in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ning; Liang, Hanyu; Farese, Robert V; Li, Ji; Musi, Nicolas; Hussey, Sophie E

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate whether pharmacological TLR4 inhibition protects against acute and chronic fat-induced insulin resistance in rats. For the acute experiment, rats received a TLR4 inhibitor [TAK-242 or E5564 (2x5 mg/kg i.v. bolus)] or vehicle, and an 8-h Intralipid (20%, 8.5 mg/kg/min) or saline infusion, followed by a two-step hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp. For the chronic experiment, rats were subcutaneously implanted with a slow-release pellet of TAK-242 (1.5 mg/d) or placebo. Rats then received a high fat diet (HFD) or a low fat control diet (LFD) for 10 weeks, followed by a two-step insulin clamp. Acute experiment; the lipid-induced reduction (18%) in insulin-stimulated glucose disposal (Rd) was attenuated by TAK-242 and E5564 (the effect of E5564 was more robust), suggesting improved peripheral insulin action. Insulin was able to suppress hepatic glucose production (HGP) in saline- but not lipid-treated rats. TAK-242, but not E5564, partially restored this effect, suggesting improved HGP. Chronic experiment; insulin-stimulated Rd was reduced ~30% by the HFD, but completely restored by TAK-242. Insulin could not suppress HGP in rats fed a HFD and TAK-242 had no effect on HGP. Pharmacological TLR4 inhibition provides partial protection against acute and chronic fat-induced insulin resistance in vivo.

  12. Subcutaneous blood flow during insulin-induced hypoglycaemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilsted, J; Madsbad, S; Sestoft, L

    1982-01-01

    Subcutaneous blood flow was measured preceding insulin-induced hypoglycaemia, at the onset of hypoglycaemic symptoms and 2 h later in juvenile diabetics with and without autonomic neuropathy and in normal males. In all groups subcutaneous blood flow decreased at the onset of hypoglycaemic symptom...

  13. Unsupervised Assessment of Subcutaneous and Visceral Fat by MRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Peter Stanley; Larsen, Rasmus; Wraae, Kristian

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a. method for unsupervised assessment of visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue in the abdominal region by MRI. The identification of the subcutaneous and the visceral regions were achieved by dynamic programming constrained by points acquired from an active shape model...

  14. Cost-minimization of mabthera intravenous versus subcutaneous administration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bax, P.; Postma, M.J.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To identify and compare all costs related to preparing and administrating MabThera for the intravenous and subcutaneous formulations in Dutch hematological patients. The a priori notion is that the costs of subcutaneous MabThera injections are lower compared to intravenous infusion due

  15. Absorption Kinetics of Subcutaneously Administered Ceftazidime in Hypoperfused Guinea Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsuyoshi Ebihara, MS

    2015-12-01

    Conclusions: The application of MWCs or WCs enhanced subcutaneous CAZ absorption by increasing blood flow. MWCs and WCs are considered to be safe and routine methods to induce defecation after surgery on the digestive system; thus, the combination of these methods and subcutaneous CAZ administration is a potential method for treating pneumonia in patients with SMID.

  16. Immunohistochemical Analysis of Platelet Extract Effects on Liver Injury Induced by CCl4 in Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Hesami

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Backgrounds & objectives: Liver damage results in a large accumulation of external cellular matrix that affects the function of this important body organ in a long term and finally stops its function completely. The growth factors existing in platelet extract are more cost-effective, available, and stable than recombinant ones. To determine whether the platelet extract effects on histological changes in liver injury induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4, we used immunohistochemical analysis in male rats. Methods: In this project the 28 male Wistar rats (250-300 g were randomly divided into 4 groups, each consisting of 7 animals. The rats were divided into four experimental groups as follows: the first group (sham intraperitoneally received only olive oil as the solvent of carbon tetrachloride; second group (CCl4 intraperitoneally received carbon tetrachloride dissolved in olive oil (ratio of about 1: 1 at a concentration of 1 ml/kg and a twice a week for eight weeks; third group subcutaneously received only platelet extract at a concentration of 0.5 ml/kg twice a week for three weeks; and fourth group received both CCl4 intraperitoneally for eight weeks and platelet extract subcutaneously for last three weeks. After 8 weeks of trial blood and liver sampling were done. Blood samples sent for enzymatic (AST, ALT tests and liver samples tested for histological and immunohistochemical studies. The data were analyzed using  one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey test by Graph pad Prism 5 software and data were considered significant at p≤ 0.05. Results: The results show that platelet extract causes a significant (p≤ 0.001 decrease in liver enzymes and albumin improves the function of liver. The level of alfa smooth muscle actin (α-SMA as an index of hepatic stellate cell activation was decreased by platelet extract administration which eventually reduced the necrosis and fibrosis induced by carbon tetrachloride in studied rats

  17. Substitution effects of a carbonated hydroxyapatite biomaterial against intoxication chloride nickel-exposed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulila, Salha; Elfeki, Abdelfattah; Oudadesse, Hassane; Elfeki, Hafed

    2015-03-01

    This study aimed to investigate the potential effects of a synthetic apatite (carbonated hydroxyapatite) on the detoxification of a group of male "Wistar" rats exposed to nickel chloride. Toxicity was evaluated by rats' bioassay of nickel chloride. Wistar rats received this metal daily by gavage for seven days (4 mg/ml nickel chloride/200 g body weight, BW). To detoxify this organism, a subcutaneous implantation of the apatite is made. The results revealed that exposure to nickel induced oxidative stress, disorders in the balances of ferric phosphocalcic, renal failures, liver toxicity and significant increase in nickel rates in the bones of intoxicated rats. The application of the carbonated hydroxyapatite presented in this study restored those disorders back to normal. The synthetic apatite protected the rats against the toxic effects of nickel by lowering the levels of lipid peroxidation markers and improving the activities of defense enzymes. It also amended ferric and phosphocalcic equilibriums, protected liver and kidney functions and reduced the nickel rate in the bones of the rats. Overall, the results provided strong support for the protective role of carbonated hydroxyapatite in the detoxification of rats exposed to nickel. Those beneficial effects were further confirmed by physico-chemical characterization (X-ray diffraction and infrared spectroscopy), which revealed its property of anionic and cationic substitution, thus supporting its promising candidacy for future biomedical application. The hydroxyapatite is an effective biomaterial to solve health problems, particularly detoxification against metals (nickel).

  18. Plasma concentrations of midazolam during continuous subcutaneous administration in palliative care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleasel, M D; Peterson, G M; Dunne, P F

    1994-01-01

    We have investigated the steady-state plasma concentrations of midazolam during continuous subcutaneous administration in palliative care. Using a sensitive gas chromatography with electron capture detector assay, plasma concentrations of midazolam were measured in 11 patients (median age 68 years; range 47-82 years; six females) receiving the drug by continuous subcutaneous infusion (median rate 20 mg/day; range 10-60 mg/day). While not significant, the infusion rate tended to decrease with increasing age of the patient (Spearman's p = -0.51; p = 0.11). The steady-state plasma concentration range was 10-147 ng/ml, with a median of 30 ng/ml. Infusion rates and plasma concentrations of midazolam were correlated (Spearman's p = 0.71; p < 0.05). No other significant relationships were found between plasma concentrations and the variables of age, sex and liver function.

  19. Safety of subcutaneous microinjections (mesotherapy) in musicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarte, Danik Arana; Rosset-Llobet, Jaume

    2011-06-01

    Determine the safety and tolerance of mesotherapy as a technique for the treatment of musculoskeletal complaints in musicians. 67 patients (55.2% women) were subjected to a total of 267 mesotherapy sessions. A mesotherapy needle or normal needle was used randomly. The drugs employed were thiocolchicoside and diazepam as muscular relaxants, pentoxifylline or buflomedil as vasodilators, and piroxicam as an anti-inflammatory, as directed. A visual analogue scale was used to quantify the pain produced by the microinjections as well as the degree of immediate and midterm side effects as reported on a standard questionnaire. A mean of 155.5 microinjections were performed per session, of which 45.6% were perceived as painful by the patient with a mean severity of 4.3 out of 10. The pain reduced to 0.5 out of 10 after 24 hours. The most sensitive areas were the levator scapulae and splenius muscles. Systemic symptoms were reported by 5.99% of the musicians after the mesotherapy sessions (muscular weakness 1.5%, rash 1.5%, drowsiness 1.1% and itching 1.1%, being the most frequent). The mean severity of these symptoms was 2.77 out of 10. In all cases the symptoms had completely disappeared after 24 hours. No patient referred to signs of local or systemic infection. The application of drugs by means of subcutaneous injections (mesotherapy) in musicians is a technique that is safe, well tolerated, and without any severe complications.

  20. A novel continuous subcutaneous lactate monitoring system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poscia, A; Messeri, D; Moscone, D; Ricci, F; Valgimigli, F

    2005-05-15

    A novel continuous lactate monitoring system has been developed modifying the GlucoDay portable medical device (A. Menarini Diagnostics), already present in the European market, and used to continuously measure glucose levels. Lactate oxidase based biosensors have been developed immobilising the enzyme on nylon net and placing it on a Pt electrode. The biosensor was connected to the portable device provided with a micro-pump and coupled to a microdialysis system. It is capable to record subcutaneous lactate every 3 min. In vitro analytical results confirmed that the sensors respond linearly in the interval of concentration between 0.1 and 10 mmol/L, covering the whole physiological range. During prolonged monitoring periods, the response of the biosensors remained stable, showing a limited drift of 8%, within 60 h. Stability tests are still on route. However, preliminary results have shown a shelf life of about 10 months. In vivo experiments performed on healthy rabbits have demonstrated the good accuracy and reproducibility of the system. A correlation coefficient equal to 0.9547 (N=80) was found, which represents a good correlation between the GlucoDay and the laboratory reference analyser. A 16 h in vivo monitoring on a healthy volunteer has been also performed.

  1. Subcutaneous phaeohyphomycosis due to Pyrenochaeta romeroi mimicking a synovial cyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurelien Dinh

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Opportunistic subcutaneous fungal infections are increasing nowadays due to the growing number of medical conditions causing immunosuppression, especially organ transplant. The incidence rate of subcutaneous phaeohyphomycosis is very low. Most studies found are case reports. They showed a wide variation of clinical presentations. Pyrenochaeta romeroi, a fungus from the Dematiaceae group is a saprophyte found in soil and plants and a possible causative agent of phaeohyphomycosis. We present a rare case of subcutaneous phaeohyphomycosis caused by P. romeroi mimicking a synovial cyst in a diabetic patient.

  2. The histological and histometrical effects of Urtica dioica extract on rat's prostate hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi, Hamid Reza; Erfani Majd, Naeem; Esmaeilzadeh, Saleh; Fatemi Tabatabaei, Sayed Reza

    2015-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a common disease in human that gradual overgrowth of the prostate gland leads to impinge on the urethra with impairment in urinary function. Numerous plants improve uncontrolled growth of the prostate gland and improve urinary tract symptoms associated with BPH. In this study, 25 healthy adult male Wistar rats were divided randomly in five groups: G1 (Control group) received ordinary feed without any treatment, G2 received 10 mg kg(-1) testosterone subcutaneously, G3 received 50 mg kg(-1) nettle root extract orally, G4 received 50 mg kg(-1) nettle root extract orally and 10 mg kg(-1) testosterone, G5 received 10 mg kg(-1) almond oil (Almond oil was used as testosterone solvent) subcutaneously. After six weeks, volume and weight of each lobe were measured and samples were taken. The 5 to 6 µm thickness sections were made using paraffin embedding method and stained by hematoxylin and eosin and periodic acid-Schiff. The results showed that prostate volume and ratio of prostate to body weight were increased significantly in the testosterone. Histological and histometrical results showed that dorsal and lateral type 1 and 2 lobes were not changed significantly but the ventral and anterior lobes have changed significantly. Over all, the nettle root could prevent from some of prostatic hyperplasia effects, so that percentage of folded alveoli in ventral lobe reduced insignificantly.

  3. Chordoma with postoperative subcutaneous implantation and meningeal dissemination: MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinoshita, T.; Okudera, T.; Shimosegawa, E.; Hatazawa, J.; Yoshida, Y.; Yasui, N.; Ogawa, T.

    2001-01-01

    Chordomas are histologically benign tumours which are locally invasive. We present an unusual case of recurrent chordoma with subcutaneous implantation and widespread meningeal dissemination after surgery. Contrast-enhanced MRI was useful for determining the extent of the tumour. (orig.)

  4. Subcutaneous and intrahepatic growth of human hepatoblastoma in immunodeficient mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schnater, J. Marco; Bruder, Elisabeth; Bertschin, Sibylle; Woodtli, Thomas; de Theije, Chiel; Pietsch, Torsten; Aronson, Daniel C.; von Schweinitz, Dietrich; Lamers, Wouter H.; Köhler, Eleonore S.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS: Hepatoblastoma is the most frequent malignant pediatric liver tumor. Approximately 25% of hepatoblastoma patients cannot be cured with current treatment protocols. Additional treatment options must, therefore, be developed. Subcutaneous animal models for hepatoblastoma exist, but a

  5. combined with either subcutaneous or intravenous administration of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the time of sponge withdrawal, PMSG was administered either subcutaneously or ... Only the season of treatment had an effect on the percentage ... gestogen and Pregnant Mare Serum Gonackttrophin. (PMSG). ... artificial insemination.

  6. Pneumothorax and subcutaneous emphysema secondary to blunt chest injury

    OpenAIRE

    Porhomayon, Jahan; Doerr, Ralph

    2011-01-01

    This is the case of a patient with a history of blunt chest trauma associated with subcutaneous emphysema and pneumothorax. The patient complained of inspiratory stridor on presentation. Anatomical relationships can explain the pathophysiological process.

  7. Subcutaneous metastasis from endometrial cancer; case report and literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Nicolae Bacalbasa; Irina Balescu; Alexandru Filipescu

    2018-01-01

    Subcutaneous metastases from endometrial cancer are rare situations, only few cases being described so far. The main incriminated mechanisms leading to the apparition of such lesions include hematogenous and lymphatic spread. We present the case of a 66-year-old patient known with previous history of stage IIIA endometroid endometrial carcinoma initially treated by surgery and adjuvant chemotherapy who developed at 18 months follow-up a distant subcutaneous oligometastasis. At this time the p...

  8. Pharmacokinetics of enrofloxacin following oral and subcutaneous administration in the common ringtail possum (Pseudocheirus peregrinus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheelings, T F; Devi, J L; Woodward, A P; Whittem, T

    2015-10-01

    [Correction added on 23 March 2015, after first online publication: Terminal half-life values of enrofloxacin is corrected in the fourth sentence of the abstract] Clinically healthy common ringtail possums (n = 5) received single doses of 10 mg/kg enrofloxacin orally and then 2 weeks later subcutaneously. Serial plasma samples were collected over 24 h for each treatment phase, and enrofloxacin concentrations were determined using a validated HPLC assay. Pharmacokinetic parameters were determined by noncompartmental analysis. Following oral administration, plasma concentrations were of therapeutic relevance (Cmax median 5.45 μg/mL, range 2.98-6.9 μg/mL), with terminal-phase half-life (t½ ) shorter than in other species (median 3.09 h, range 1.79-5.30 h). In contrast, subcutaneous administration of enrofloxacin did not achieve effective plasma concentrations, with plasma concentrations too erratic to fit the noncompartmental model except in one animal. On the basis of the AUC:MIC, enrofloxacin administered at 10 mg/kg orally, but not subcutaneously, is likely to be effective against a range of bacterial species that have been reported in common ringtail possums. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Continuous subcutaneous use of levetiracetam: a retrospective review of tolerability and clinical effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rémi, Constanze; Lorenzl, Stefan; Vyhnalek, Birgit; Rastorfer, Karin; Feddersen, Berend

    2014-12-01

    To evaluate the tolerability and clinical effects of subcutaneous (SC) levetiracetam for the treatment of epileptic seizures in a palliative care setting, we conducted a retrospective chart review of patients treated with subcutaneous levetiracetam in the Department of Palliative Medicine at the University Munich, between September 2006 and March 2013. The following parameters were extracted from the charts: reason for antiepileptic drug treatment, daily dose, concentration, infusion rate, co-administration of other drugs, and clinical effects. Furthermore, the charts were screened for signs of adverse drug reactions, e.g., irritation or pain at the infusion site. We identified 20 patients that were treated with levetiracetam SC in the inpatient (n = 7) and outpatient (n = 13) settings. Most patients (n = 17) tolerated the subcutaneous infusion well. Nineteen patients (95%) received levetiracetam in combination with other drugs. These were mainly metamizol (80%), midazolam (75%), and morphine (45%). The median dose of levetiracetam was 95.8 mg/h (SD 37 mg/h), median osmolarity of the infusion solution 2203 mOsmol/L (SD 717 mOsmol/L), and infusion rate 2 mL/h (SD 2.4 ml/h). In 16 patients (80%), seizures were controlled and status epilepticus were interrupted, respectively. We conclude that SC levetiracetam is an effective treatment and well tolerated in the palliative care setting.

  10. Comparison of Intra-arterial and Subcutaneous Testicular Hyaluronidase Injection Treatments and the Vascular Complications of Hyaluronic Acid Filler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Muyao; Li, Wei; Zhang, Yan; Tian, Weidong; Wang, Hang

    2017-02-01

    Hyaluronidase is a key preventative treatment against vascular complications of hyaluronic acid (HA) filler injection, but the degradation profile of HA to hyaluronidase is limited, and the comparison between intra-arterial and subcutaneous injections of hyaluronidase has not been studied. To evaluate HA degradation to hyaluronidase and compare different treatments between intra-arterial and subcutaneous testicular hyaluronidase injections. The authors observed HA degradation to hyaluronidase in vitro via microscopic examination and particle analysis. Rabbit ears were used for the in vivo study. There were 2 control groups receiving ligation or HA-induced embolism in the arteries, respectively, and 2 intervention groups receiving hyaluronidase treatments in different regions. The laser Doppler blood perfusion monitoring measurements were made at defined time points, and biopsies were taken on Day 2. Nearly, all of the HAs degraded in vitro at the 1-hour time point. Subcutaneous hyaluronidase treatment showed better recovery of blood perfusion. Histology showed severe inflammation in the embolism group and mild inflammation in the intervention groups. A complete enzymatic degradation of HA filler to hyaluronidase needs a certain time, and subcutaneous hyaluronidase treatment may be the better option.

  11. Free Fatty Acid Storage in Human Visceral and Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Asem H.; Koutsari, Christina; Mundi, Manpreet; Stegall, Mark D.; Heimbach, Julie K.; Taler, Sandra J.; Nygren, Jonas; Thorell, Anders; Bogachus, Lindsey D.; Turcotte, Lorraine P.; Bernlohr, David; Jensen, Michael D.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Because direct adipose tissue free fatty acid (FFA) storage may contribute to body fat distribution, we measured FFA (palmitate) storage rates and fatty acid (FA) storage enzymes/proteins in omental and abdominal subcutaneous fat. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Elective surgery patients received a bolus of [1-14C]palmitate followed by omental and abdominal subcutaneous fat biopsies to measure direct FFA storage. Long chain acyl-CoA synthetase (ACS) and diacylglycerol acyltransferase activities, CD36, fatty acid-binding protein, and fatty acid transport protein 1 were measured. RESULTS Palmitate tracer storage (dpm/g adipose lipid) and calculated palmitate storage rates were greater in omental than abdominal subcutaneous fat in women (1.2 ± 0.8 vs. 0.7 ± 0.4 μmol ⋅ kg adipose lipid−1 ⋅ min−1, P = 0.005) and men (0.7 ± 0.2 vs. 0.2 ± 0.1, P < 0.001), and both were greater in women than men (P < 0.0001). Abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue palmitate storage rates correlated with ACS activity (women: r = 0.66, P = 0.001; men: r = 0.70, P = 0.007); in men, CD36 was also independently related to palmitate storage rates. The content/activity of FA storage enzymes/proteins in omental fat was dramatically lower in those with more visceral fat. In women, only omental palmitate storage rates were correlated (r = 0.54, P = 0.03) with ACS activity. CONCLUSIONS Some adipocyte FA storage factors correlate with direct FFA storage, but sex differences in this process in visceral fat do not account for sex differences in visceral fatness. The reduced storage proteins in those with greater visceral fat suggest that the storage factors we measured are not a predominant cause of visceral adipose tissue accumulation. PMID:21810594

  12. Delay discounting of oral morphine and sweetened juice rewards in dependent and non-dependent rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey-Lewis, Colin; Perdrizet, Johnna; Franklin, Keith B J

    2014-07-01

    Opioid-dependent humans are reported to show accelerated delay discounting of opioid rewards when compared to monetary rewards. It has been suggested that this may reflect a difference in discounting of consumable and non-consumable goods not specific to dependent individuals. Here, we evaluate the discounting of similar morphine and non-morphine oral rewards in dependent and non-dependent rats We first tested the analgesic and rewarding effects of our morphine solution. In a second experiment, we assigned rats randomly to either dependent or non-dependent groups that, 30 min after daily testing, received 30 mg/kg subcutaneous dose of morphine, or saline, respectively. Delay discounting of drug-free reward was examined prior to initiation of the dosing regimen. We tested discounting of the morphine reward in half the rats and retested the discounting of the drug-free reward in the other half. All tests were run 22.5 h after the daily maintenance dose. Rats preferred the morphine cocktail to the drug-free solution and consumed enough to induce significant analgesia. The control quinine solution did not produce these effects. Dependent rats discounted morphine rewards more rapidly than before dependence and when compared to discounting drug-free rewards. In non-dependent rats both reward types were discounted similarly. These results show that morphine dependence increases impulsiveness specifically towards a drug reward while morphine experience without dependence does not.

  13. Doping dose of salbutamol and exercise training: impact on the skeleton of ovariectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnet, N; Laroche, N; Beaupied, H; Vico, L; Dolleans, E; Benhamou, C L; Courteix, D

    2007-08-01

    Previous studies in healthy rats have demonstrated a deleterious bone impact of beta-agonist treatment. The purpose of this study was to examine the trabecular and cortical effects of beta(2)-agonists at doping dose on treadmill exercising rats with estrogen deficiency. Adult female rats were ovariectomized (OVX; n = 44) or sham operated (n = 12). Then, OVX rats received a subcutaneous injection of salbutamol (SAB) or vehicle with (EXE) or without treadmill exercise for 10 wk. Bone mineral density (BMD) was analyzed by densitometry. Microcomputed tomography and histomorphometric analysis were performed to study trabecular bone structure and bone cell activities. After 10 wk, SAB rats presented a much more marked decrease of BMD and trabecular parameters. Exercise did not change the high level of bone resorption in OVX EXE SAB compared with OVX SAB group (both on COOH-terminal collagen cross-links and osteoclast number). These results confirm the deleterious effect of beta(2)-agonists on bone quantity (femoral BMD gain: OVX EXE, +6.8%, vs. OVX EXE SAB, -1.8%; P exercise was mainly localized in the tibia. These findings indicate the presence of a bone alteration threshold below which there is no more alteration in structural bone quantity and quality. The negative effects of SAB on bone observed in this study in trained rats may indicate potential complications in doping female athletes with exercise-induced amenorrhea.

  14. Subcutaneous Fentanyl Administration: A Novel Approach for Pain Management in a Rural and Suburban Prehospital Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebon, Johann; Fournier, Francis; Bégin, François; Hebert, Denise; Fleet, Richard; Foldes-Busque, Guilaume; Tanguay, Alain

    2016-01-01

    To determine the feasibility, safety, and effectiveness of the subcutaneous route of fentanyl administration by Basic Life Support-Emergency Medical Technicians (BLS-EMT) in a rural and suburban region, with the support of an online pain management medical control center. Retrospective study of patients who received subcutaneous fentanyl and were transported by BLS-EMT to the emergency department (ED) of an academic hospital between July 1, 2013 and January 1, 2014, inclusively. Fentanyl orders were obtained from emergency physicians via an online medical control (OLMC) center. Effectiveness was defined by changes in pain scores 15 minutes, 30 minutes, and 45+ minutes after initial fentanyl administration. Safety was evaluated by measuring vital signs, Ramsay sedation scores, and adverse events subsequent to fentanyl administration. Feasibility was defined as successful fentanyl administration by BLS-EMT. SPSS-20 was used for descriptive statistics, and independent t-tests and Mann-Whitney U tests were used to determine inter- and intra-group differences based on transport time. Two hundred and eighty-eight patients (288; 14 to 93 years old) with pain scores ≥7 were eligible for the study. Of the 284 (98.6%) who successfully received subcutaneous fentanyl, 35 had missing records or data, and 249 (86.5%) were included in analyses. Average pain score pre-fentanyl was 8.9 ± 1.1. Patients fentanyl than those ≥70 years old (1.4 ± 0.3 vs, 0.8 ± 0.2 mcg/kg, p fentanyl administration and the proportion of patients achieving pain relief increased significantly (p 3 (n = 1; 0.4%). Prehospital subcutaneous fentanyl administration by BLS-EMT with the support of an OLMC center is a safe and feasible approach to pain relief in prehospital settings, and is not associated with major adverse events. Effectiveness, subsequent to subcutaneous fentanyl administration is characterized by a decrease in pain over the course of transport to ED. Further studies are needed to

  15. Distinct modulation of allergic T cell responses by subcutaneous versus sublingual allergen-specific immunotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schulten, Véronique; Tripple, Victoria; Andersen, Kristian Aasbjerg

    2016-01-01

    mechanisms involved have not been fully explored. OBJECTIVE: To compare changes in the allergen-specific T cell response induced by subcutaneous versus sublingual administration of allergen-specific immunotherapy (AIT). METHODS: Grass pollen allergic patients were randomized into groups receiving either SCIT...... injections, or SLIT tablets or neither. PBMC were tested for Timothy grass (TG)-specific cytokine production by ELISPOT after in vitro expansion with TG peptide pools. Phenotypic characterization of cytokine producing cells was performed by FACS. RESULTS: In the SCIT group, decreased IL-5 production...

  16. Switching between intravenous and subcutaneous trastuzumab: safety results from the PrefHer trial

    OpenAIRE

    Gligorov, Joseph; Curigliano, Giuseppe; Müller, Volkmar; Knoop, Ann; Jenkins, Valerie; Verma, Sunil; Osborne, Stuart; Lauer, Sabine; Machackova, Zuzana; Fallowfield, Lesley; Pivot, Xavier

    2017-01-01

    Aim: To assess the safety and tolerability of switching between subcutaneous (SC) and intravenous (IV) trastuzumab in the PrefHer study (NCT01401166).\\ud \\ud Patients and methods: Patients with HER2-positive early breast cancer completed (neo)adjuvant chemotherapy and were randomised to receive four cycles of SC trastuzumab, via single-use injection device (SID; Cohort 1) or hand-held syringe (Cohort 2), followed by four cycles of IV, or vice versa (the crossover period presented here) as par...

  17. Involvement of sensory neurons in bone defect repair in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henmi, Akiko; Nakamura, Megumi; Echigo, Seishi; Sasano, Yasuyuki

    2011-01-01

    We investigated bone repair in sensory-denervated rats, compared with controls, to elucidate the involvement of sensory neurons. Nine-week-old male Wistar rats received subcutaneous injections of capsaicin to denervate sensory neurons. Rats treated with the same amount of vehicle served as controls. A standardized bone defect was created on the parietal bone. We measured the amount of repaired bone with quantitative radiographic analysis and the mRNA expressions of osteocalcin and cathepsin K with real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Quantitative radiographic analysis showed that the standard deviations and coefficients of variation for the amount of repaired bone were much higher in the capsaicin-treated group than in the control group at any time point, which means that larger individual differences in the amount of repaired bone were found in capsaicin-treated rats than controls. Furthermore, radiographs showed radiolucency in pre-existing bone surrounding the standardized defect only in the capsaicin-treated group, and histological observation demonstrated some multinuclear cells corresponding to the radiolucent area. Real-time PCR indicated that there was no significant difference in the mRNA expression levels of osteocalcin and cathepsin K between the control group and the capsaicin-treated group. These results suggest that capsaicin-induced sensory denervation affects the bone defect repair. (author)

  18. Resveratrol Is Not as Effective as Physical Exercise for Improving Reproductive and Metabolic Functions in Rats with Dihydrotestosterone-Induced Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Benrick

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is a reproductive and metabolic disorder associated with obesity and insulin resistance that often precedes the development of type-2 diabetes. Rats continuously exposed to dihydrotestosterone from prepuberty display typical reproductive and metabolic PCOS characteristics including anovulation, polycystic ovaries, insulin resistance, and obesity. Our aim was to investigate if resveratrol improves reproductive and metabolic functions in PCOS rats. The effect was compared to exercise. Control and PCOS rats were treated with vehicle or resveratrol (400 mg · kg−1 · day−1 for 5-6 weeks. Another group of PCOS rats received vehicle treatment and exercised for 5-6 weeks. Insulin sensitivity was determined by euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp. The glucose infusion rate was lower in the PCOS-vehicle group compared to control-vehicle rats (P<0.05. Exercise increased insulin sensitivity compared with PCOS-vehicle rats (P<0.05, but resveratrol did not. Resveratrol treatment and exercise resulted in smaller adipocytes, upregulated estrogen-related receptor α gene expression in subcutaneous fat, and improved estrus cyclicity in the previously acyclic PCOS rats. Although resveratrol had positive effects on adiposity and cyclicity in a similar manner to exercise, resveratrol does not seem to be a good candidate for treating insulin resistance associated with PCOS because no improvement in insulin sensitivity was observed in PCOS rats on normal chow.

  19. [Effect of compound hypertonic saline solution on septic rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Fang; Xu, Liang; Xu, Gang; Wang, Huabing; Lu, Huizhi; Cai, Liping

    2015-01-01

    To study the effect of compound hypertonic saline solution ( HSD ) on sepsis. 133 male Wistar rats were divided into four groups, sham operation group ( n = 15 ), cecal ligation and puncture ( CLP ) group ( n = 45 ), CLP plus normal saline ( NS ) group ( n = 45 ), and CLP plus HSD group ( n = 28 ). A rat model of sepsis was reproduced by CLP, and the rats in sham operation group received celiotomy without ligation and puncture. All rats in four groups received subcutaneous injection of 30 mL/kg 0.9% sodium chloride after laparotomy. The rats in CLP plus NS group and CLP plus HSD group received infusion of 5 mL/kg 0.9% sodium chloride or 7.5% sodium chloride/6% dextran post CLP via jugular vein for 3 hours, with the infusion rate of 0.4 mL×kg(-1)×min(-1). The survival rate of each group was observed 9 hours and 18 hours after laparotomy. Mean arterial pressure ( MAP ) at 0, 9, 18 hours were monitored. Blood specimens were collected from all rats 0, 9 and 18 hours after laparotomy, respectively, for measurement of the plasma levels of tumor necrosis factor-α ( TNF-α), interleukin-1β ( IL-1β ), and procalcitonin ( PCT ). The rats were all sacrificed, and their lung tissues were harvested for the neutrophil count in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid ( BALF ), myeloperoxidase ( MPO ) activity in lung tissue, wet/dry weight ratio ( W/D ) of lung, and pathological changes in lung tissue. There was no death in the sham operation group. The survival rates at 9 hours and 18 hours were 62.2% and 31.1% in the CLP group, 57.8% and 35.6% in the CLP plus NS group, 85.7% and 64.3% in the CLP plus HSD group, and they were all significantly higher compared with those of the CLP group and the CLP plus NS group ( Pmicroscope, no pathobiological changes were found in sham operation group. The lung tissues in the CLP group and the CLP plus NS group showed congestion, edema, infiltrating inflammatory changes, while the inflammatory changes in the lung tissue in the CLP plus HSD group

  20. Pharmacokinetics of chloramphenicol following administration of intravenous and subcutaneous chloramphenicol sodium succinate, and subcutaneous chloramphenicol, to koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, L A; McLachlan, A J; Griffith, J E; Higgins, D P; Gillett, A; Krockenberger, M B; Govendir, M

    2013-10-01

    Clinically normal koalas (n = 19) received a single dose of intravenous (i.v.) chloramphenicol sodium succinate (SS) (25 mg/kg; n = 6), subcutaneous (s.c.) chloramphenicol SS (60 mg/kg; n = 7) or s.c. chloramphenicol base (60 mg/kg; n = 6). Serial plasma samples were collected over 24-48 h, and chloramphenicol concentrations were determined using a validated high-performance liquid chromatography assay. The median (range) apparent clearance (CL/F) and elimination half-life (t(1/2)) of chloramphenicol after i.v. chloramphenicol SS administration were 0.52 (0.35-0.99) L/h/kg and 1.13 (0.76-1.40) h, respectively. Although the area under the concentration-time curve was comparable for the two s.c. formulations, the absorption rate-limited disposition of chloramphenicol base resulted in a lower median C(max) (2.52; range 0.75-6.80 μg/mL) and longer median tmax (8.00; range 4.00-12.00 h) than chloramphenicol SS (C(max) 20.37, range 13.88-25.15 μg/mL; t(max) 1.25, range 1.00-2.00 h). When these results were compared with susceptibility data for human Chlamydia isolates, the expected efficacy of the current chloramphenicol dosing regimen used in koalas to treat chlamydiosis remains uncertain and at odds with clinical observations. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Electronic warfare receivers and receiving systems

    CERN Document Server

    Poisel, Richard A

    2014-01-01

    Receivers systems are considered the core of electronic warfare (EW) intercept systems. Without them, the fundamental purpose of such systems is null and void. This book considers the major elements that make up receiver systems and the receivers that go in them.This resource provides system design engineers with techniques for design and development of EW receivers for modern modulations (spread spectrum) in addition to receivers for older, common modulation formats. Each major module in these receivers is considered in detail. Design information is included as well as performance tradeoffs o

  2. Age-related accumulation of advanced glycation end-products-albumin, S100β, and the expressions of advanced glycation end product receptor differ in visceral and subcutaneous fat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Son, Kuk Hui; Son, Myeongjoo; Ahn, Hyosang; Oh, Seyeon; Yum, Yoonji; Choi, Chang Hu; Park, Kook Yang; Byun, Kyunghee

    2016-01-01

    Visceral fat induces more inflammation by activating macrophages than subcutaneous fat, and inflammation is an underlying feature of the pathogeneses of various diseases, including cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Advanced glycation end products (AGEs), S100β, and their receptors, the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE), lead to macrophage activation. However, little information is available regarding the differential accumulations of AGE-albumin (serum albumin modified by AGEs), S100β, or expressions of RAGE in different adipocyte types in fat tissues. In this study, the authors investigated whether age-related AGE-albumin accumulations S100β level, and RAGE expressions differ in subcutaneous and visceral fat tissues. Subcutaneous and visceral fat were harvested from 3- and 28-week-old rats. Macrophage activation was confirmed by Iba1 staining, and AGE-albumin accumulations and RAGE expressions were assessed by confocal microscopy. S100β were analyzed by immunoblotting. It was found that activated macrophage infiltration, AGE-albumin accumulation, and S100β in visceral fat was significantly greater in 28-week-old rats than in 3-week-old rats, but similar in subcutaneous fat. The expression of RAGE in visceral fat was much greater in 28-week-old rats, but its expression in subcutaneous fat was similar in 3- and 28-week-old rats. Furthermore, inflammatory signal pathways (NFκB, TNF-α) and proliferation pathways (FAK) in visceral fat were more activated in 28-week-old rats. These results imply that age-related AGE-albumin accumulation, S100β, and RAGE expression are more prominent in visceral than in subcutaneous fat, suggesting that visceral fat is involved in the pathogenesis of inflammation-induced diseases in the elderly. - Highlights: • The age-related AGE-albumin accumulation and S100β were more prominent in visceral than subcutaneous fat. • The age-related RAGE expression were more prominent in visceral than subcutaneous fat.

  3. Age-related accumulation of advanced glycation end-products-albumin, S100β, and the expressions of advanced glycation end product receptor differ in visceral and subcutaneous fat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Son, Kuk Hui [Department of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, Gachon University Gil Medical Center, Gachon University, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Son, Myeongjoo [Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Gachon University Graduate School of Medicine, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Functional Cellular Networks Laboratory, Lee Gil Ya Cancer and Diabetes Institute, Gachon University, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Hyosang; Oh, Seyeon; Yum, Yoonji [Functional Cellular Networks Laboratory, Lee Gil Ya Cancer and Diabetes Institute, Gachon University, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Chang Hu [Department of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, Gachon University Gil Medical Center, Gachon University, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Kook Yang, E-mail: kkyypark@ghil.com [Department of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, Gachon University Gil Medical Center, Gachon University, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Byun, Kyunghee, E-mail: khbyun1@gachon.ac.kr [Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Gachon University Graduate School of Medicine, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Functional Cellular Networks Laboratory, Lee Gil Ya Cancer and Diabetes Institute, Gachon University, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-08-19

    Visceral fat induces more inflammation by activating macrophages than subcutaneous fat, and inflammation is an underlying feature of the pathogeneses of various diseases, including cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Advanced glycation end products (AGEs), S100β, and their receptors, the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE), lead to macrophage activation. However, little information is available regarding the differential accumulations of AGE-albumin (serum albumin modified by AGEs), S100β, or expressions of RAGE in different adipocyte types in fat tissues. In this study, the authors investigated whether age-related AGE-albumin accumulations S100β level, and RAGE expressions differ in subcutaneous and visceral fat tissues. Subcutaneous and visceral fat were harvested from 3- and 28-week-old rats. Macrophage activation was confirmed by Iba1 staining, and AGE-albumin accumulations and RAGE expressions were assessed by confocal microscopy. S100β were analyzed by immunoblotting. It was found that activated macrophage infiltration, AGE-albumin accumulation, and S100β in visceral fat was significantly greater in 28-week-old rats than in 3-week-old rats, but similar in subcutaneous fat. The expression of RAGE in visceral fat was much greater in 28-week-old rats, but its expression in subcutaneous fat was similar in 3- and 28-week-old rats. Furthermore, inflammatory signal pathways (NFκB, TNF-α) and proliferation pathways (FAK) in visceral fat were more activated in 28-week-old rats. These results imply that age-related AGE-albumin accumulation, S100β, and RAGE expression are more prominent in visceral than in subcutaneous fat, suggesting that visceral fat is involved in the pathogenesis of inflammation-induced diseases in the elderly. - Highlights: • The age-related AGE-albumin accumulation and S100β were more prominent in visceral than subcutaneous fat. • The age-related RAGE expression were more prominent in visceral than subcutaneous fat.

  4. Fabrication of subcutaneous veins phantom for vessel visualization system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Kai; Narita, Kazuyuki; Morita, Yusuke; Nakamachi, Eiji; Honda, Norihiro; Awazu, Kunio

    2013-09-01

    The technique of subcutaneous veins imaging by using NIR (Near Infrared Radiation) is widely used in medical applications, such as the intravenous injection and the blood sampling. In the previous study, an automatic 3D blood vessel search and automatic blood sampling system was newly developed. In order to validate this NIR imaging system, we adopted the subcutaneous vein in the human arm and its artificial phantom, which imitate the human fat and blood vessel. The human skin and subcutaneous vein is characterized as the uncertainty object, which has the individual specificity, non-accurate depth information, non-steady state and hardly to be fixed in the examination apparatus. On the other hand, the conventional phantom was quite distinct from the human's characteristics, such as the non-multilayer structure, disagreement of optical property. In this study, we develop a multilayer phantom, which is quite similar with human skin, for improvement of NIR detection system evaluation. The phantom consists of three layers, such as the epidermis layer, the dermis layer and the subcutaneous fat layer. In subcutaneous fat layer, we built a blood vessel. We use the intralipid to imitate the optical scattering characteristics of human skin, and the hemoglobin and melanin for the optical absorption characteristics. In this study, we did two subjects. First, we decide the fabrication process of the phantom. Second, we compared newly developed phantoms with human skin by using our NIR detecting system, and confirm the availability of these phantoms.

  5. An experimental study on tissue damage following subcutaneous injection of water soluble contrast media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seung Hyup; Park, Jae Hyung; Kang, Heung Sik; Kim, Chu Wan; Han, Man Chung; Kim, Yong Il

    1989-01-01

    The water soluble contrast media cause tissue necrosis infrequently by extravasation during intravenous injection in various radiological examinations. However, it has not been well documented that what kind and what concentration of contrast media can cause tissue necrosis. And also, the mechanism of tissue necrosis by extravasated contrast media has not been well known. The purpose of this experimental study was to evaluate the frequency and severity of tissue damage following subcutaneous injection of various water soluble contrast media to investigate the characteristics of the contrast media acting on the tissue damage, and to provide the basic data for the clinical application. Meglumine ioxithalamate,sodium and meglumine ioxithalamate, iopromide, iopamidol, ioxaglate,meglumine diatrizoate and sodium diatrizoate of various iodine content and osmolality were injected into subcutaneous tissue of the dorsum of 970 feet of 485 rats. The tissue reaction of injection sites were grossly examined with period from 1 day to 8 weeks after the injection. Representative gross changes were correlated with histologic findings. The results were as follows; 1. The basic tissue damage by extravasated contrast media was acute and chronic inflammatory reaction of the soft tissue with subsequent progress into the hemorrhagic and necrotizing lesion. 2. Lager volume of contrast media caused more severe tissue damage. 3. Contrast media of higher osmolality caused more severe tissue damage. 4. At same osmolality, contrast media of higher iodine content caused more severe tissue damage

  6. An experimental model of acute encephalopathy after total body irradiation in the rat: effect of liposome-entrapped Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamproglou, Ioannis; Magdelenat, Henri; Boisserie, Gilbert; Baillet, Francois; Mayo, Willy; Fessi, Hatem; Puisieux, Francis; Perderau, Bernard; Colas-Linhart, Nicole; Delattre, Jean-Yves

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: To develop an experimental model of acute encephalopathy following total body irradiation in rats and to define the therapeutic effect of liposome-entrapped Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase. Methods and Materials: A total of 120 4-month-old rats received 4.5 Gy total body irradiation (TBI) while 120 rats received sham irradiation. A behavioral study based on a conditioning test of negative reinforcement, the one-way avoidance test, was performed 5 hours before irradiation and repeated the following days. Subcutaneous treatment was started 1 hour after irradiation and repeated daily for 2 weeks. In both the irradiated and sham group, three subgroups were defined according to the treatment received: liposome-entrapped Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (0.5 mg/kg), liposomes only, normal saline. Results: This work comprised two consecutive studies. In study A (90 rats) the one-way avoidance test was administered daily from day 0 to day 4 with a recall session at day 14. In study B (validation phase in 150 rats) the behavioral test was performed only from day 0 to day 6. Before irradiation, all rats showed a similar behavioral response. Study A (6 groups of 15 rats): Following TBI, irradiated rats treated with liposomes only or saline demonstrated a significant delay in learning the one-way avoidance test in comparison with sham-irradiated rats (0.05 < p <0.001 depending upon the day of evaluation and the subgroup type). In contrast, irradiated rats treated with liposome-entrapped Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase did not differ from sham-irradiated rats. Study B (6 groups of 25 rats): The results were the same as those in study A, demonstrating a significant delay in the learning of the test in the liposome and saline-treated irradiated rats in comparison with sham-irradiated rats (0.02 < p < 0.001). The irradiated rats, treated with liposome-entrapped Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase did not differ from the sham-irradiated controls. Conclusion: This study indicates that a relatively

  7. Dietary fish oil modulates the effect of dimethylhydrazine-induced colon cancer in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasmy, G. E.; Khalil, W. K. B.; Moharib, S. A.; Kawab, A. A.; Jwanny, E. W.

    2011-07-01

    This study was conducted to examine the efficacy of fish oil supplementation in male wistar rat colon carcinogenesis. In order to induce colon cancer, the rats were given a weekly subcutaneous injection of 1,2-Dimethylhydrazine (DMH) at a dose of 20 mg/kg b.w. for five weeks. Afterwards, some of the rats ingested fish oil for either 4 weeks (DMH-FO4 group), or 17 weeks (DMH-FO17 group). The remaining rats continued without any supplementation for the same 4 weeks (DMH4 group), or 17 weeks (DMH17 group). Another two groups of rats did not receive the DMH and were given fish oil (FO17 group) or a normal diet only and considered as the control group (CN group). At the end of the experiment, the rats were sacrificed; and were subsequently subjected to biochemical and molecular biological analyses as well as histopathological examinations. The results showed increased levels of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), malondialdehyde (MDA) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities in the DMH rats compared to the control. The liver and colonic changes that were induced by DMH were significantly improved through fish oil supplementation in the DMH-FO17 group. The molecular analysis revealed that DMH treatment induced the expression alterations of genes p53, p27 and p21 and increased DNA band patterns related to cancer, while both FO17 and DMH-FO17 groups showed much better results. A histopathological examination of the DMH17 group revealed colon adenocarcinoma and several lesions in rat liver tissues. An improvement in the histopathological picture was seen in the livers and colons of groups DMHFO17. In conclusion, the present results demonstrated the anti-carciongenic effect of herring fish oil against DMH induced colon carcinogenesis in rats. The inhibitory effect of FO was due to the modulation of elevated biochemical parameters, DNA damage, gene expression and histopathological lesions caused by DMH. (Author) 70 refs.

  8. Subcutaneous mercury injection by a child: A histopathology case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepti Sukheeja

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Intentional subcutaneous injection of mercury by mentally healthy children is rare. Usually, it is seen as a part of suicidal attempt in severely depressed patients or by athletes to enhance their performance. We report a case of a 15-year-old child, inspired by a movie, who deliberately self-injected mercury subcutaneously into his forearm that led to the formation of a non-healing ulcer. Histopathology of the biopsy confirmed the diagnosis. A surgical procedure was thereby performed to treat the ulcer and reduce the blood and urinary levels of mercury. However, the patient did not develop clinical signs of chronic poisoning, proving that subcutaneous mercury injection has a low risk of systemic toxicity, and that histopathology plays an important role in diagnosis.

  9. Changes in cardiac aldosterone and its synthase in rats with chronic heart failure: an intervention study of long-term treatment with recombinant human brain natriuretic peptide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, X.Q. [Fujian Medical University Union Hospital, Fuzhou, Fujian (China); Department of Cardiology, The Central Hospital of Enshi Autonomous Prefecture, Enshi, Hubei (China); Hong, H.S. [Department of Geriatrics, Fujian Medical University Union Hospital, Fuzhou, Fujian (China); Lin, X.H. [Department of Emergency Medicine, Fujian Medical University Union Hospital, Fuzhou, Fujian (China); Chen, L.L. [Department of Cardiology, Fujian Medical University Union Hospital, Fuzhou, Fujian (China); Li, Y.H. [Department of Cardiology, The Central Hospital of Enshi Autonomous Prefecture, Enshi, Hubei (China)

    2014-07-11

    The physiological mechanisms involved in isoproterenol (ISO)-induced chronic heart failure (CHF) are not fully understood. In this study, we investigated local changes in cardiac aldosterone and its synthase in rats with ISO-induced CHF, and evaluated the effects of treatment with recombinant human brain natriuretic peptide (rhBNP). Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 4 different groups. Fifty rats received subcutaneous ISO injections to induce CHF and the control group (n=10) received equal volumes of saline. After establishing the rat model, 9 CHF rats received no further treatment, rats in the low-dose group (n=8) received 22.5 μg/kg rhBNP and those in the high-dose group (n=8) received 45 μg/kg rhBNP daily for 1 month. Cardiac function was assessed by echocardiographic and hemodynamic analysis. Collagen volume fraction (CVF) was determined. Plasma and myocardial aldosterone concentrations were determined using radioimmunoassay. Myocardial aldosterone synthase (CYP11B2) was detected by quantitative real-time PCR. Cardiac function was significantly lower in the CHF group than in the control group (P<0.01), whereas CVF, plasma and myocardial aldosterone, and CYP11B2 transcription were significantly higher than in the control group (P<0.05). Low and high doses of rhBNP significantly improved hemodynamics (P<0.01) and cardiac function (P<0.05) and reduced CVF, plasma and myocardial aldosterone, and CYP11B2 transcription (P<0.05). There were no significant differences between the rhBNP dose groups (P>0.05). Elevated cardiac aldosterone and upregulation of aldosterone synthase expression were detected in rats with ISO-induced CHF. Administration of rhBNP improved hemodynamics and ventricular remodeling and reduced myocardial fibrosis, possibly by downregulating CYP11B2 transcription and reducing myocardial aldosterone synthesis.

  10. Continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion preserves axonal function in type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwai, Natalie; Arnold, Ria; Poynten, Ann M; Lin, Cindy S-Y; Kiernan, Matthew C; Krishnan, Arun V

    2015-02-01

    Diabetic peripheral neuropathy is a common and debilitating complication of diabetes mellitus. Although strict glycaemic control may reduce the risk of developing diabetic peripheral neuropathy, the neurological benefits of different insulin regimens remain relatively unknown. In the present study, 55 consecutive patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus underwent clinical neurological assessment. Subsequently, 41 non-neuropathic patients, 24 of whom were receiving multiple daily insulin injections (MDII) and 17 receiving continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII), underwent nerve excitability testing, a technique that assesses axonal ion channel function and membrane potential in human nerves. Treatment groups were matched for glycaemic control, body mass index, disease duration and gender. Neurophysiological parameters were compared between treatment groups and those taken from age and sex-matched normal controls. Prominent differences in axonal function were noted between MDII-treated and CSII-treated patients. Specifically, MDII patients manifested prominent abnormalities when compared with normal controls in threshold electrotonus (TE) parameters including depolarizing TE(10-20ms), undershoot and hyperpolarizing TE (90-100 ms) (P type 1 diabetes is maintained within normal limits in patients treated with continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion and not with multiple daily insulin injections. This raises the possibility that CSII therapy may have neuroprotective potential in patients with type 1 diabetes. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Chronic treatment with epidermal growth factor causes esophageal epithelial hyperplasia in pigs and rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, C O; Vinter-Jensen, Lars; Poulsen, Steen Seier

    1995-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) is an important factor for maintaining the esophageal functional integrity. Goettingen minipigs were treated with either placebo or subcutaneous EGF (30 micrograms/kg/day) for four weeks. Wistar rats were treated with either placebo or subcutaneous EGF (150 microgram...

  12. Subcutaneous administration of carrier erythrocytes: slow release of entrapped agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeLoach, J.R.; Corrier, D.E.

    1988-01-01

    Carrier erythrocytes administered subcutaneously in mice release encapsulated molecules at the injection site and through cells that escape the injection site. One day postinjection, the efflux of encapsulated [ 14 C]sucrose, [ 3 H]inulin, and 51 Cr-hemoglobin from the injection site was 45, 55, and 65%, respectively. Intact carrier erythrocytes escaped the injection site and entered the blood circulation carrying with them the encapsulated molecules. Most of the encapsulated [ 3 H]inulin that reached whole blood circulated within erythrocytes. Small but measurable numbers of encapsulated molecules were trapped within lymph nodes. Subcutaneous injection of carrier erythrocytes may allow for limited extravascular tissue targeting of drugs

  13. Downregulation of natriuretic peptide system and increased steroidogenesis in rat polycystic ovary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Virginia M; Honorato-Sampaio, Kinulpe; Martins, Almir S; Reis, Fernando M; Reis, Adelina M

    2014-10-01

    Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) is known to regulate ovarian functions, such as follicular growth and steroid hormone production. The aim of the present study was to investigate the natriuretic peptide system in a rat model of chronic anovulation, the rat polycystic ovary. Adult female Wistar rats received a single subcutaneous injection of 2mg estradiol valerate to induce polycystic ovaries, while the control group received vehicle injection. Two months later, their ovaries were quickly removed and analyzed. Polycystic ovaries exhibited marked elevation of testosterone and estradiol levels compared to control ovaries. The levels of ANP and the expression of ANP mRNA were highly reduced in the polycystic ovaries compared to controls. By immunohistochemistry, polycystic ovaries showed weaker ANP staining in stroma, theca cells and oocytes compared to controls. Polycystic ovaries also had increased activity of neutral endopeptidase, the main proteolytic enzyme that degrades natriuretic peptides. ANP receptor C mRNA was reduced and ANP binding to this receptor was absent in polycystic ovaries. Collectively, these results indicate a downregulation of the natriuretic peptide system in rat polycystic ovary, an established experimental model of anovulation with high ovarian testosterone and estradiol levels. Together with previous evidence demonstrating that ANP inhibits ovarian steroidogenesis, these findings suggest that low ovarian ANP levels may contribute to the abnormal steroid hormone balance in polycystic ovaries. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Management of experimental benign prostatic hyperplasia in rats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The usefulness of diet containing Telfairia occidentalis seeds, in managing benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) in rats was studied. Twenty male Wistar rats were divided into four equal groups. BPH was induced by sub-cutaneous injection of dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and estradiol valerate (ratio, 10:1) every other day for ...

  15. Beneficial effects of Acer okamotoanum sap on L-NAME-induced hypertension-like symptoms in a rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hyun; Hwang, Inho; Koo, Tae-Hyoung; Ahn, Hyo-Jin; Kim, Sun; Park, Mi-Jin; Choi, Won-Sil; Kang, Ha-Young; Choi, In-Gyu; Choi, Kyung-Chul; Jeung, Eui-Bae

    2012-02-01

    The sap of Acer okamotoanum has been termed 'bone-benefit-water' in Korea owing to its mineral and sugar content. In particular, the calcium (Ca) and potassium (K) concentrations of the sap of Acer okamotoanum are 40- and 20-times higher, respectively, than commercial spring water. In the present study, we examined whether Acer okamotoanum sap improves or prevents hypertension-like symptoms in a rat model. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (8-weeks-old) were provided commercial spring water supplemented with 25, 50 or 100% Acer okamotoanum sap, 3% potassium ions (K+) or captopril, and treated daily for 2 weeks with NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME; 100 mg/kg/day) by subcutaneous injection, in order to induce hypertensive symptoms. Rats were euthanized 6 h following the final injection. To assess the effect of the sap on hypertension-like symptoms, we examined the mean blood pressure (BP), protein levels and localization of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) in the descending aorta of the rats. BP levels were significantly lower in hypertensive rats received 25, 50 and 100% sap compared with rats who were administered only commercial spring water. Protein levels of eNOS were repressed in L-NAME-only-treated rats, but were elevated in the descending aorta of rats administered captopril, K+ water and Acer okamotoanum sap (25, 50 and 100%) up to the level of the sham group provided commercial spring water, and then injected with dimethyl sulfoxide for the same period of time. Localized eNOS protein was abundantly expressed in the perivascular descending aorta adipose tissue of the rats. Taken together, these results demonstrated that the sap of Acer okamotoanum ameliorated high BP induced by L-NAME treatment in a rat model.

  16. Massive subcutaneous emphysema after carbon dioxide mesotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calonge, Wenceslao M; Lesbros-Pantoflickova, Drahoslava; Hodina, Marina; Elias, Badwi

    2013-02-01

    The authors report the observation of a 43-year-old woman with severe pain on her right upper abdominal quadrant. Differential diagnoses included acute cholecystitis, spontaneous pneumothorax, perforated appendicitis and a recidive of renal calculus. CT-scan showed a huge subdermal gas bubble along her right flank and anterior abdominal wall up to the submammary fold. Only at this point, the patient admitted to have undergone a carboxytherapy procedure on both thighs one day before onset of pain in a paramedical facility. As some of the injection trajects were still patent on CT-scan, she received prophylactic antibiotic coverage. Though there was a complete resorption of gas after 10 days, dysesthesias and muscle contracture persisted for 3 weeks. To the authors' knowledge this migration and coalescence of injected gas in a single bubble has not been previously reported. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors http://www.springer.com/00266 .

  17. Allergic anaphylaxis due to subcutaneously injected heparin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders Diana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Heparins are one of the most used class of anticoagulants in daily clinical practice. Despite their widespread application immune-mediated hypersensitivity reactions to heparins are rare. Among these, the delayed-type reactions to s.c. injected heparins are well-known usually presenting as circumscribed eczematous plaques at the injection sites. In contrast, potentially life-threatening systemic immediate-type anaphylactic reactions to heparins are extremely rare. Recently, some cases of non-allergic anaphylaxis could be attributed to undesirable heparin contaminants. A 43-year-old patient developed severe anaphylaxis symptoms within 5–10 minutes after s.c. injection of enoxaparin. Titrated skin prick testing with wheal and flare responses up to an enoxaparin dilution of 1:10.000 indicated a probable allergic mechanism of the enoxaparin-induced anaphylaxis. The basophil activation test as an additional in-vitro test method was negative. Furthermore, skin prick testing showed rather broad cross-reactivity among different heparin preparations tested. In the presented case, history, symptoms, and results of skin testing strongly suggested an IgE-mediated allergic hypersensitivity against different heparins. Therefore, as safe alternative anticoagulants the patient could receive beneath coumarins the hirudins or direct thrombin inhibitors. Because these compounds have a completely different molecular structure compared with the heparin-polysaccharides.

  18. Minocycline added to subcutaneous interferon β-1a in multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, P S; Sellebjerg, F; Lycke, J

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Combining different therapies may improve disease control in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). This study assessed the efficacy and safety of minocycline added to subcutaneous (sc) interferon (IFN) β-1a therapy. METHODS: This was a double......-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled multicentre study. Within 3 months (±1 month) of starting sc IFN β-1a 44 μg three times weekly, patients with RRMS were randomized to minocycline 100 mg twice daily or placebo, added to sc IFN β-1a, for 96 weeks. The primary efficacy endpoint was the time to first qualifying...... were assessed. RESULTS: One hundred and forty-nine patients received minocycline and 155 received placebo; MRI data were available for 23 and 27 patients, respectively. The time to first qualifying relapse did not differ significantly for minocycline versus placebo (hazard ratio 0.85; 95% confidence...

  19. Subcutaneous golimumab for children with active polyarticular-course juvenile idiopathic arthritis : results of a multicentre, double-blind, randomised-withdrawal trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brunner, Hermine I; Ruperto, Nicolino; Tzaribachev, Nikolay; Horneff, Gerd; Chasnyk, Vyacheslav G.; Panaviene, Violeta Vladislava; Abud-Mendoza, Carlos; Reiff, Andreas; Alexeeva, Ekaterina; Rubio-Pérez, Nadina; Keltsev, Vladimir; Kingsbury, Daniel J.; Del Rocio Maldonado Velázquez, Maria; Nikishina, Irina; Silverman, Earl D.; Joos, Rik; Smolewska, Elzbieta; Bandeira, Márcia; Minden, Kirsten; van Royen-Kerkhof, Annet; Emminger, Wolfgang; Foeldvari, Ivan; Lauwerys, Bernard R.; Sztajnbok, Flavio; Gilmer, Keith E.; Xu, Zhenhua; Leu, Jocelyn H.; Kim, Lilianne; Lamberth, Sarah L.; Loza, Matthew J.; Lovell, Daniel J.; Martini, Alberto

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This report aims to determine the safety, pharmacokinetics (PK) and efficacy of subcutaneous golimumab in active polyarticular-course juvenile idiopathic arthritis (polyJIA). METHODS: In this three-part randomised double-blinded placebo-controlled withdrawal trial, all patients received

  20. Inappropriate shocks in the subcutaneous ICD: Incidence, predictors and management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olde Nordkamp, Louise R. A.; Brouwer, Tom F.; Barr, Craig; Theuns, Dominic A. M. J.; Boersma, Lucas V. A.; Johansen, Jens B.; Neuzil, Petr; Wilde, Arthur A. M.; Carter, Nathan; Husby, Michael; Lambiase, Pier D.; Knops, Reinoud E.

    2015-01-01

    The entirely subcutaneous implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (S-ICD) eliminates the need for transvenous leads, and therefore has the potential to improve lead-longevity and reduce lead-related complications. The S-ICD has a morphology-based sensing algorithm of which inappropriate shocks have

  1. Worldwide experience with a totally subcutaneous implantable defibrillator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lambiase, Pier D; Barr, Craig; Theuns, Dominic A M J

    2014-01-01

    AIMS: The totally subcutaneous implantable-defibrillator (S-ICD) is a new alternative to the conventional transvenous ICD system to minimize intravascular lead complications. There are limited data describing the long-term performance of the S-ICD. This paper presents the first large internationa...

  2. miRNAs in Human Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Malene M.; Davidsen, Peter K.; Vigelso, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    Objective Obesity is central in the development of insulin resistance. However, the underlying mechanisms still need elucidation. Dysregulated microRNAs (miRNAs; post-transcriptional regulators) in adipose tissue may present an important link. Methods The miRNA expression in subcutaneous adipose ...

  3. Subcutaneous face and neck surgical emphysema secondary to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Subcutaneous face and neck surgical emphysema secondary to presumed spider bite. W Mulwafu. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians ...

  4. Subcutaneous metastasis from endometrial cancer; case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolae Bacalbasa

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Subcutaneous metastases from endometrial cancer are rare situations, only few cases being described so far. The main incriminated mechanisms leading to the apparition of such lesions include hematogenous and lymphatic spread. We present the case of a 66-year-old patient known with previous history of stage IIIA endometroid endometrial carcinoma initially treated by surgery and adjuvant chemotherapy who developed at 18 months follow-up a distant subcutaneous oligometastasis. At this time the patient was resubmitted to surgery, the lesion being successfully removed. The histopathological result confirmed the endometrial cancer origin of this lesion. Subcutaneous and cutaneous metastases from endometrial cancer are rare eventualities which are usually diagnosed as part of systemic dissemination of this malignancy; in these cases, the patient is only candidate for oncological treatment with palliative intent. In some cases, in which the lesions occur as oligometastatic disease, surgery might be performed with curative intent. In our case the diagnostic of the subcutaneous lesion as oligometastatic disease transformed the patient in a perfect candidate for curative oncological surgery.

  5. Continuous subcutaneous infusion of opiates at end-of-life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Stacey L; Shreve, Scott T

    2004-06-01

    To review pertinent controlled trials using the continuous subcutaneous infusion of opioids (CSIO) at end-of-life and offer insight to pharmacists and clinicians into the appropriate use of this route of administration. A MEDLINE search for information regarding the subcutaneous administration of opioids in terminally ill patients (1975-December 2002) was conducted using the key words subcutaneous, narcotics, morphine, hydromorphone, fentanyl, pain, hospices, and palliative care. Additional references were located through review of bibliographies of the articles cited. Case reports and postsurgical studies were excluded. Searches were limited to English-language studies using humans. Experimental and observational studies were evaluated, using prospective trials as the evidence base for conclusions and including pertinent retrospective trials as they relate to the subcutaneous infusion of opioids at end-of-life. CSIO is effective and safe for use in terminal illness. Appropriate situations for consideration of CSIO are when difficulties arise in using the oral route, standard oral opiate therapy has failed adequate trials, the patient has limited intravenous access, adequate supervision of the CSIO is present, and CSIO will not unduly limit the functional activity of the patient. CSIO has a proven role in the management of pain at end-of-life. CSIO should not be considered the first route for administration of opiates, but does offer distinct advantages in the appropriate setting. CSIO continues to be a choice for end-of-life patients and is gradually becoming a standard practice in palliative medicine.

  6. Subcutaneous emphysema during third molar surgery: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeo, Umberto; Galanakis, Alexandros; Lerario, Francesco; Daniele, Gabriele Maria; Tenore, Gianluca; Palaia, Gaspare

    2011-01-01

    Extraction of third molars is the most common surgical procedure performed in oral surgery on a daily basis and, despite surgical skills and expertise, complications may occur. Complications observed during or after third molar removal may include pain, swelling, bleeding, infection, sinus perforation and nerve damage. Fortunately, with a proper management and a good surgical technique, the incidence of such events is low. Subcutaneous emphysema associated with dental extraction occurs when the air from the high-speed dental handpiece is forced into the soft tissue through the reflected flap and invades the adjacent tissues, leading to swelling, crepitus on palpation and occasionally spreading through the tissue spaces of the fascial planes. Although rare, iatrogenic subcutaneous emphysema can have serious and potentially life-threatening consequences. Care should be taken when using air-driven handpieces. The access of air into the facial tissues is not limited to tooth extractions, but may also occur through other portals of entrance, such as endodontically treated teeth, periodontium and lacerations of intraoral soft tissues. When subcutaneous emphysema occurs, it must be quickly diagnosed and properly managed to reduce the risk of further complications. This report presents a case of subcutaneous emphysema occurred during extraction of a mandibular third molar extraction with the use of an air turbine handpiece. Case management is described and issues relative to the diagnosis and prevention of this surgical complication are discussed.

  7. Pneumoperitoneum with Subcutaneous Emphysema after Percutaneous Endoscopic Gastrostomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yalin Iscan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy is a safe way for enteral nutrition in selected patients. Generally, complications of this procedure are very rare but due to patients general health condition, delayed diagnosis and treatment of complications can be life threatening. In this study, we present a PEG-related massive pneumoperitoneum and subcutaneous emphysema in a patient with neuro-Behçet.

  8. The effect of breed on fatty acid composition of subcutaneous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2015-02-23

    Feb 23, 2015 ... FA, total polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) and n-6PUFA contents were observed in the subcutaneous adipose .... frozen at −20 ºC, pending FA analysis. Samples of the .... The synthesis and metabolism of FAs in the ruminant ...

  9. Fatty acid composition of subcutaneous and kidney fat depots of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    60. Fatty acid composition of subcutaneous and kidney fat depots of Boer goats and the response to varying levels of maize meal. N.H. Casey" and W.A. van Niekerk. Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture,. University of Pretoria, Pretoria, 0002 Republic of South Africa. xTo whom correspondence should be ...

  10. Microcosting Study of Rituximab Subcutaneous Injection Versus Intravenous Infusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mihajloviç, Jovan; Bax, Pieter; van Breugel, Erwin; Blommestein, Hedwig M.; Hoogendoorn, Mels; Hospes, Wobbe; Postma, Maarten J.

    Purpose: The goal of this study is to identify and compare all direct costs of intravenous and subcutaneous rituximab given to patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma in the Netherlands.  Methods: Using a prospective, observational, bottom-up microcosting study, we collected primary data on the

  11. Receiver Test Selection Criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-12

    The DOT requests that GPS manufacturers submit receivers for test in the following TWG categories: - Aviation (non-certified), cellular, general location/navigation, high precision, timing, networks, and space-based receivers - Each receiver should b...

  12. Influence of circulating epinephrine on absorption of subcutaneously injected insulin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernqvist, E.; Gunnarsson, R.; Linde, B.

    1988-01-01

    Effects of epinephrine (Epi) infusion on the absorption of subcutaneously injected 125I-labeled soluble human insulin (10 U) from the thigh or the abdomen were studied in 16 healthy subjects and from the thigh in 10 insulin-dependent diabetic (IDDM) patients. Epi was infused at 0.3 (high dose) or 0.1 (low dose; healthy subjects) nmol.kg-1.min-1 i.v., resulting in arterial plasma Epi levels of approximately 6 and 2 nM, respectively. Saline was infused on a control day. Insulin absorption was measured as disappearance of radioactivity from the injection site and as appearance of plasma immunoreactive insulin (IRI). Adipose tissue blood flow was measured with the 133Xe clearance technique. First-order disappearance rate constants of 125I from the thigh depot decreased approximately 40-50% during the high dose of Epi compared with control (P less than .001). The corresponding decrease from the abdominal depot was approximately 40% (P less than .001), whereas no significant change was found during the low Epi dose. IRI fell compared with control in all groups at the high Epi dose. The Epi-induced depression of insulin absorption occurred despite unaltered or even slightly increased subcutaneous blood flow. The results indicate that circulating Epi at levels seen during moderate physical stress depresses the absorption of soluble insulin from subcutaneous injection sites to an extent that might be important for glycemic control in IDDM patients. Furthermore, dissociation is found between changes in insulin absorption and subcutaneous blood flow during Epi infusion, suggesting that factors other than blood flow may also influence the absorption of subcutaneously injected insulin

  13. Subcutaneous Fascial Bands—A Qualitative and Morphometric Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weihui; Ahn, Andrew C.

    2011-01-01

    Background Although fascial bands within the subcutaneous (SQ) layer are commonly seen in ultrasound images, little is known about their functional role, much less their structural characteristics. This study's objective is to describe the morphological features of SQ fascial bands and to systematically evaluate the bands using image analyses tools and morphometric measures. Methods In 28 healthy volunteers, ultrasound images were obtained at three body locations: the lateral aspect of the upper arm, medial aspect of the thigh and posterior aspect of lower leg. Using image analytical techniques, the total SQ band area, fascial band number, fascial band thickness, and SQ zone (layer) thickness were determined. In addition, the SQ spatial coherence was calculated based on the eigenvalues associated with the largest and smallest eigenvectors of the images. Results Fascial bands at these sites were contiguous with the dermis and the epimysium forming an interconnected network within the subcutaneous tissue. Subcutaneous blood vessels were also frequently encased by these fascial bands. The total SQ fascial band area was greater at the thigh and calf compared to the arm and was unrelated to SQ layer (zone) thickness. The thigh was associated with highest average number of fascial bands while calf was associated with the greatest average fascial band thickness. Across body regions, greater SQ zone thickness was associated with thinner fascial bands. SQ coherence was significantly associated with SQ zone thickness and body location (calf with statistically greater coherence compared to arm). Conclusion Fascial bands are structural bridges that mechanically link the skin, subcutaneous layer, and deeper muscle layers. This cohesive network also encases subcutaneous vessels and may indirectly mediate blood flow. The quantity and morphological characteristics of the SQ fascial band may reflect the composite mechanical forces experienced by the body part. PMID:21931632

  14. Ultrasound and Histologic Examination after Subcutaneous Injection of Two Volumizing Hyaluronic Acid Fillers: A Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besse, Stéphanie; Sarazin, Didier; Quinodoz, Pierre; Elias, Badwi; Safa, Marva; Vandeputte, Joan

    2017-01-01

    Background: This study examined the influence of hyaluronic acid (HA) crosslinking technology on the ultrasound and histologic behavior of HA fillers designed for subcutaneous injection. Methods: One subject received subcutaneous injections of 0.25 ml Cohesive Polydensified Matrix (CPM) and Vycross volumizing HA in tissue scheduled for abdominoplasty by bolus and retrograde fanning techniques. Ultrasound analyses were performed on days 0 and 8 and histologic analyses on days 0 and 21 after injection. A series of simple rheologic tests was also performed. Results: Day 0 ultrasound images after bolus injection showed CPM and Vycross as hypoechogenic papules in the hypodermis. CPM appeared little changed after gentle massage, whereas Vycross appeared more hyperechogenic and diminished in size. Ultrasound images at day 8 were similar. On day 0, both gels appeared less hypoechogenic after retrograde fanning than after bolus injection. Vycross was interspersed with hyperechogenic areas (fibrous septa from the fat network structure) and unlike CPM became almost completely invisible after gentle massage. On day 8, CPM appeared as a hypoechogenic pool and Vycross as a long, thin rod. Day 0 histologic findings confirmed ultrasound results. Day 21 CPM histologic findings showed a discrete inflammatory reaction along the injection row after retrograde fanning. Vycross had a more pronounced inflammatory reaction, particularly after retrograde fanning, with macrophages and giant cells surrounding the implant. Rheologic tests showed CPM to have greater cohesivity and resistance to traction forces than Vycross. Conclusions: CPM HA volumizer appears to maintain greater tissue integrity than Vycross after subcutaneous injection with less inflammatory activity. PMID:28280664

  15. The Role of Clomipramine in Potentiating the Teratogenic Effects of Caffeine in Pregnant Rats: A Histopathological Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Nikoui

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Since little is known about the teratogenic effects of clomipramine used concurrently with caffeine during the organogenesis period, the aim of this study was to test the teratogenic effects of a coadministration of caffeine and clomipramine on rat fetuses. We divided 42 pregnant rats into seven groups, randomly. The first group (control received 0.5 mL of normal saline. Clomipramine was injected at 40 mg/kg and 80 mg/kg to the second and third groups, respectively. The fourth and fifth groups received caffeine in doses of 60 mg/kg and 120 mg/kg, respectively. The sixth group received a combination of 40 mg/kg clomipramine and 60 mg/kg caffeine, and the seventh group was given clomipramine and caffeine at 80 mg/kg and 120 mg/kg, respectively. The fetuses were removed on the 17th day of pregnancy and studied in terms of microscopic and macroscopic morphological features. Fetuses of rats receiving high doses of caffeine or combinations of caffeine and clomipramine showed a significant rate of cleft palate development, open eyelids, mortality, torsion anomalies, shrinkage of skin, and subcutaneous haemorrhage (P≤0.001. This study concludes that caffeine in high doses or the simultaneous administration of caffeine and clomipramine leads to teratogenicity.

  16. Status epilepticus during early development disrupts sexual behavior in adult female rats: recovery with sexual experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coria-Avila, Genaro Alfonso; Paredes-Ramos, Pedro; Galán, Ricardo; Herrera-Covarrubias, Deissy; López-Meraz, Maria-Leonor

    2014-05-01

    Female sexual behavior is sensitive to stress and diseases. Some studies have shown that status epilepticus (SE) can affect sexual proceptivity and receptivity in female rats and also increases reject responses towards males. However, epidemiologic studies indicate that SE is more frequent in young individuals. Herein, we assessed the effects of SE in infant females on their sexual behavior during adulthood. Thirteen-day-old (P13) rat pups received intraperitoneal injections of lithium chloride (3 mEq/kg). Twenty hours later, at P14, SE was induced by subcutaneous injection of pilocarpine hydrochloride (100 mg/kg s.c.). Control animals were given an equal volume of saline subcutaneously. The animals were weaned at P21 and, later in adulthood, were ovariectomized and hormone-primed with estradiol+progesterone, and their sexual behavior assessed during 4 separate trials of 30 min each with a stud male. Our results indicate that proceptive behaviors (solicitations and hops and darts) were impaired during the first trial, but no alterations were observed for receptivity and attractivity. By trial 3, all SE females displayed normal proceptivity. These results indicate that SE in infancy readily affects proceptivity in a reversible manner. We discuss the role of sexual experience in recovery. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Teratogenic effects of caffeine and clomipramine on rat fetus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takzare N

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obsessive-compulsive disorders and depression have a high prevalence during pregnancy therefore, pregnant women may take clomipramine and also take other drugs or consume foods that contain caffeine. As investigations about the teratogenic effects of clomipramine and its concurrent administration with caffeine during organogenesis period are scarce, we aimed to study the teratogenicity of simultaneous administration of clomipramine and caffeine in rat fetus.Methods: After dividing 42 pregnant rats to several case and control groups, we injected different doses of caffeine and clomipramine to the animals. All the injections were performed on the eighth until the 15th day of pregnancy. We removed the fetuses on the 17th day of pregnancy and studied the morphological features and apparent anomalies of the fetuses macroscopically. Results: We found a significant rate of mortality, apparent anomalies, abnormal torsion, shrinkage of skin and subcutaneous bleeding in fetuses of rats receiving high doses of caffeine or a combination of caffeine and clomipramine. Statistical analysis of the data revealed a significant increase (P?0.001 in teratogenicity of high doses of caffeine and its combination with clomipramine. Conclusion: This study implies simultaneous intake of high amounts of caffeine and clomipramine lead to teratogenicity. We recommend pregnant women to avoid uncontrolled consumption of foods that contain caffeine or drugs that contain high amounts of this substance. They should not also take clomipramine with caffeine in the first trimester of pregnancy.

  18. 5α-reductase activity in rat adipose tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zyirek, M.; Flood, C.; Longcope, C.

    1987-01-01

    We measured the 5 α-reductase activity in isolated cell preparations of rat adipose tissue using the formation of [ 3 H] dihydrotestosterone from [ 3 H] testosterone as an endpoint. Stromal cells were prepared from the epididymal fat pad, perinephric fat, and subcutaneous fat of male rats and from perinephric fat of female rats. Adipocytes were prepared from the epididymal fat pad and perinephric fat of male rats. Stromal cells from the epididymal fat pad and perinephric fat contained greater 5α-reductase activity than did the adipocytes from these depots. Stromal cells from the epididymal fat pad contained greater activity than those from perinephric and subcutaneous depots. Perinephric stromal cells from female rats were slightly more active than those from male rats. Estradiol (10 -8 M), when added to the medium, caused a 90% decrease in 5α-reductase activity. Aromatase activity was minimal, several orders of magnitude less than 5α-reductase activity in each tissue studied

  19. Simulation and qualitative analysis of glucose variability, mean glucose, and hypoglycemia after subcutaneous insulin therapy for stress hyperglycemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strilka, Richard J; Stull, Mamie C; Clemens, Michael S; McCaver, Stewart C; Armen, Scott B

    2016-01-27

    The critically ill can have persistent dysglycemia during the "subacute" recovery phase of their illness because of altered gene expression; it is also not uncommon for these patients to receive continuous enteral nutrition during this time. The optimal short-acting subcutaneous insulin therapy that should be used in this clinical scenario, however, is unknown. Our aim was to conduct a qualitative numerical study of the glucose-insulin dynamics within this patient population to answer the above question. This analysis may help clinicians design a relevant clinical trial. Eight virtual patients with stress hyperglycemia were simulated by means of a mathematical model. Each virtual patient had a different combination of insulin resistance and insulin deficiency that defined their unique stress hyperglycemia state; the rate of gluconeogenesis was also doubled. The patients received 25 injections of subcutaneous regular or Lispro insulin (0-6 U) with 3 rates of continuous nutrition. The main outcome measurements were the change in mean glucose concentration, the change in glucose variability, and hypoglycemic episodes. These end points were interpreted by how the ultradian oscillations of glucose concentration were affected by each insulin preparation. Subcutaneous regular insulin lowered both mean glucose concentrations and glucose variability in a linear fashion. No hypoglycemic episodes were noted. Although subcutaneous Lispro insulin lowered mean glucose concentrations, glucose variability increased in a nonlinear fashion. In patients with high insulin resistance and nutrition at goal, "rebound hyperglycemia" was noted after the insulin analog was rapidly metabolized. When the nutritional source was removed, hypoglycemia tended to occur at higher Lispro insulin doses. Finally, patients with severe insulin resistance seemed the most sensitive to insulin concentration changes. Subcutaneous regular insulin consistently lowered mean glucose concentrations and glucose

  20. Subcutaneous immunoglobulin as first-line therapy in treatment-naive patients with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markvardsen, L H; Sindrup, S H; Christiansen, I

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Subcutaneous immunoglobulin (SCIG) is effective as maintenance treatment in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP). We investigated whether multiple subcutaneous infusions are as effective as conventional therapy with intravenous loading doses in treatment...... treatment arm and followed for a further 10 weeks. All participants were evaluated at weeks 0, 2, 5 and 10 during both therapies. Primary outcome was combined isokinetic muscle strength (cIKS). Secondary outcomes were disability, clinical evaluation of muscle strength and the performance of various function...... tests. RESULTS: All participants received both therapies, 14 completing the protocol. Overall, cIKS increased by 7.4 ± 14.5% (P = 0.0003) during SCIG and by 6.9 ± 16.8% (P = 0.002) during IVIG, the effect being similar (P = 0.80). Improvement of cIKS peaked 2 weeks after IVIG and 5 weeks after SCIG...

  1. Subcutaneous immunization with inactivated bacterial components and purified protein of Escherichia coli, Fusobacterium necrophorum and Trueperella pyogenes prevents puerperal metritis in Holstein dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Vinícius Silva; Bicalho, Marcela Luccas de Souza; Meira Junior, Enoch Brandão de Souza; Rossi, Rodolfo; Ribeiro, Bruno Leonardo; Lima, Svetlana; Santos, Thiago; Kussler, Arieli; Foditsch, Carla; Ganda, Erika Korzune; Oikonomou, Georgios; Cheong, Soon Hon; Gilbert, Robert Owen; Bicalho, Rodrigo Carvalho

    2014-01-01

    In this study we evaluate the efficacy of five vaccine formulations containing different combinations of proteins (FimH; leukotoxin, LKT; and pyolysin, PLO) and/or inactivated whole cells (Escherichia coli, Fusobacterium necrophorum, and Trueperella pyogenes) in preventing postpartum uterine diseases. Inactivated whole cells were produced using two genetically distinct strains of each bacterial species (E. coli, F. necrophorum, and T. pyogenes). FimH and PLO subunits were produced using recombinant protein expression, and LKT was recovered from culturing a wild F. necrophorum strain. Three subcutaneous vaccines were formulated: Vaccine 1 was composed of inactivated bacterial whole cells and proteins; Vaccine 2 was composed of proteins only; and Vaccine 3 was composed of inactivated bacterial whole cells only. Two intravaginal vaccines were formulated: Vaccine 4 was composed of inactivated bacterial whole cells and proteins; and Vaccine 5 was composed of PLO and LKT. To evaluate vaccine efficacy, a randomized clinical trial was conducted at a commercial dairy farm; 371 spring heifers were allocated randomly into one of six different treatments groups: control, Vaccine 1, Vaccine 2, Vaccine 3, Vaccine 4 and Vaccine 5. Late pregnant heifers assigned to one of the vaccine groups were each vaccinated twice: at 230 and 260 days of pregnancy. When vaccines were evaluated grouped as subcutaneous and intravaginal, the subcutaneous ones were found to significantly reduce the incidence of puerperal metritis. Additionally, subcutaneous vaccination significantly reduced rectal temperature at 6±1 days in milk. Reproduction was improved for cows that received subcutaneous vaccines. In general, vaccination induced a significant increase in serum IgG titers against all antigens, with subcutaneous vaccination again being more effective. In conclusion, subcutaneous vaccination with inactivated bacterial components and/or protein subunits of E. coli, F. necrophorum and T. pyogenes

  2. Pharmacokinetics of a new subcutaneous diclofenac formulation administered to three body sites: quadriceps, gluteus, and abdomen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomone, Salvatore; Piazza, Cateno; Vitale, Daniela Cristina; Cardì, Francesco; Gugliotta, Barbara; Drago, Filippo

    2014-02-01

    To assess the relative bioavailability of a new subcutaneous (SC) diclofenac hydroxypropyl b-cyclodextrin (HPbCD) formulation administered to three body sites: quadriceps, gluteus, and abdomen. This was a pilot, single-dose, randomized, three-way crossover relative bioavailability study. A total of 12 healthy subjects received a single SC injection of diclofenac HPbCD 50 mg/1 mL in the quadriceps, gluteus, or abdomen. The AUC was comparable after SC diclofenac HPbCD in the quadriceps, gluteus, and abdomen. The Cmax was comparable after SC administration in the quadriceps or abdomen, and ~ 17% higher in the gluteus. The absorption was rapid (30 minutes) after administration of the treatment at any site. The treatment was well tolerated. The relative bioavailability of SC diclofenac HPbCD was comparable when administered to the quadriceps, gluteus, and abdomen. The new diclofenac formulation can therefore be administered subcutaneously to any of these sites without clinically significant differences. A further adequately powered study would be necessary to reveal any differences among injection sites in terms of peak plasma concentration.

  3. Subcutaneous Infiltration of Carbon Dioxide (Carboxytherapy) for Abdominal Fat Reduction: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Murad; Sadhwani, Divya; Geisler, Amelia; Aslam, Imran; Makin, Inder Raj S; Schlessinger, Daniel I; Disphanurat, Wareeporn; Pongprutthipan, Marisa; Voravutinon, Nataya; Weil, Alexandra; Chen, Brian R; West, Dennis P; Veledar, Emir; Poon, Emily

    2018-04-23

    Non-invasive fat removal is preferred because of decreased downtime and lower perceived risk. It is important to seek new non-invasive fat removal treatments that are both safe and efficacious. To assess the extent to which carboxytherapy, the insufflation of carbon dioxide gas into subcutaneous fat, results in reduction of fat volume. Randomized, sham-controlled, split-body study. Adults (BMI 22-29) were randomized to receive five weekly infusions of 1000 cc CO 2 to one side of the abdomen, and five sham treatments to the contralateral side. Primary outcome measures were ultrasound measurement of fat layer thickness, as well as total circumference before and after treatment. Sixteen participants completed the study. Ultrasound measurement indicated less fat volume on the sides treated with carboxytherapy one week after the last treatment, (p=0.011), but was not maintained at 28 weeks. Total circumference decreased nominally but not significantly at Week 5 compared to baseline (p=0.0697). Participant body weights did not change over the entire course of the study (p=1.00) LIMITATIONS: Limitations included modest sample size and some sources of error in circumference and fat layer measurements. Carboxytherapy provides a transient decrease in subcutaneous fat that may not persist. Treatment is well-tolerated. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Treatment of frozen shoulder with subcutaneous TNF-alpha blockade compared with local glucocorticoid injection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schydlowsky, Pierre; Szkudlarek, Marcin; Madsen, Ole Rintek

    2012-01-01

    We compared the effect of subcutaneous adalimumab injections with intraarticular glucocorticoid injections on frozen shoulder of 18 patients with unilateral joint involvement. Ten patients were randomised to subcutaneous injections with adalimumab and eight to intraarticular glucocorticoid inject...

  5. The Effect of Subcutaneous Ketamine Infiltration on Postoperative Pain in Elective Cesarean Section under Spinal Anesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Manouchehrian

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Appropriate analgesia after cesarean section helps women feel more comfortable and increase the mobility of the mother's and also their ability to take better care of their newborns. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of subcutaneous infiltration of ketamine on postoperative pain reduction and hemodynamic status of patients after elective cesarean section. Materials & Methods: This study was designed as a double blinded prospective, randomized clinical trial and 60 cases of women undergoing elective cesarean section under spinal anes-thesia were randomly assigned into two groups. For 30 cases in the ketamine group, infiltra-tion of subcutaneous ketamine 0.5 mg / kg was administered after closure of surgical inci-sion. 30 patients in the placebo group received subcutaneous infiltration of saline. During the patient's recovery time and after transferring to the ward, the VAS of pain and vital signs were continuously assessed. if VAS ? 3, 100 mg diclofenac suppository was administered and if there were no response, 30 mg intravenous pethidine was also administered. Prescribed number of suppositories and pethidine dosage were compared. The complications, such as hallucination, nystagmus, nausea, vomiting and drowsiness in patients were also recorded and compared. Statistical analysis was performed by SPSS16 software and ?2 and t-test. P< 0.05 was considered statistically significant in all of the cases. Results: In the course of systolic blood pressure, heart rate and arterial blood oxygen satura-tion during the first 24 hours, no significant differences were mentioned between the two groups. At the time of arrival to the recovery room and 30 minutes later, the mean VAS was not significantly different in the groups. However, the mean VAS at 1, 2 , 4 , 6 , 8 and 12 hours after surgery were significantly lower in the ketamine group (0.61±059 than in the sa-line group (3.37±096 (P<0.001. The mean

  6. Subanesthetic, Subcutaneous Ketamine Infusion Therapy in the Treatment of Chronic Nonmalignant Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zekry, Olfat; Gibson, Stephen B; Aggarwal, Arun

    2016-06-01

    This study was designed to describe the efficacy and toxicity of subcutaneous ketamine infusions and sublingual ketamine lozenges for the treatment of chronic nonmalignant pain. Data were collected prospectively on 70 subjects managed in an academic, tertiary care hospital between 2007 and 2012 who received between 3 and 7 days of subanesthetic, subcutaneous ketamine infusion. Data were analyzed for efficacy, adverse effects, and reduction in use of opioid medication. We also analyzed whether subsequent treatment with sublingual ketamine lozenges resulted in longer-term efficacy of the beneficial effects of the initial ketamine infusion. There was a significant reduction in pain intensity measured by numerical rating scale (NRS) from mean of 6.38 before ketamine to 4.60 after ketamine (P ketamine infusion from a mean morphine equivalent dose (MMED) of 216 mg/day before ketamine to 89 mg/day after ketamine (P ketamine infusion was 59%. No subjects increased their use of opioids during their hospitalization for the ketamine infusion. A small proportion of subjects who responded to the infusion were continued on ketamine lozenges. This group was followed for between 3 months and 2 years. The use of ketamine lozenges after the infusion resulted in 31% of these subjects being able to cease their use of opioids compared with only 6% who did not receive ketamine lozenges. Eleven percent of subjects who received lozenges subsequently increased their opioid usage. Adverse effects were fairly common, but only mild, with 46% of patients experiencing light-headedness and dizziness, 25% tiredness and sedation, 12% headaches, 12% hallucinations, and 8% vivid dreams. Adverse effects were easily managed by reducing the rate of the ketamine infusion. The administration of subanesthetic, subcutaneous ketamine infusion was well tolerated, with mostly mild adverse effects and no serious adverse effects. The infusion provided significant pain relief in subjects who had failed a wide

  7. The effects of date consumption on serumic levels of glucose, lipids and lipoproteins in diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Amouoghli Tabrizi

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is an important problem amongst human and animals. In veterinary medicine too, diabetes mellitus occurs in many animals particularly household pets. This study was conducted in order to evaluate the effect of date consumption on serumic levels of glucose, triglyceride, cholesterol, LDL, VLDL and HDL in rats suffering from experimental diabetes mellitus. Thirty male wistar rats with the age of 8 weeks and mean body weight of 200±20 gr were selected and divided into 5 groups so that there were 6 rats per group. The groups consisted of day one healthy control, final day healthy control, healthy treatment consuming date, diabetic treatment consuming date and diabetic control group. Diabetic treatment and control groups received 100 mg/kg of alloxan subcutaneously to create experimental diabetes. The two healthy control groups also received equal amounts of normal saline solution subcutaneously. The injections were repeated a week later in all groups. After observing the diabetes symptoms including polydipsia, polyuria, glucosuria and hyperglycemia in groups that were given alloxan, feeding of healthy and diabetic treatment groups with equal ratio of date and pellet was initiated. Final day healthy control group and diabetic control group were fed only with pellet. The groups were fed for 10 days following the start of diabetes symptoms. Blood samples were collected from all groups on day 10. Evaluation of the serumic levels of glucose, cholesterol and LDL revealed statistically significant increase in diabetic control group in comparison with the healthy control groups and also in healthy and  diabetic treatment groups consuming date as compared with diabetic control and healthy groups (p

  8. Prenatal testosterone exposure worsen the reproductive performance of male rat at adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramezani Tehrani, Fahimeh; Noroozzadeh, Mahsa; Zahediasl, Saleh; Ghasemi, Asghar; Piryaei, Abbas; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2013-01-01

    The reproductive system is extremely susceptible to environmental insults, for example exogenous steroids during gestational development and differentiation. Experimental induction of androgen excess during prenatal life in female animal models reprograms their reproductive physiology, however the fetal programming of the male reproductive system by androgen excess has not been well studied. We aimed to determine the effect of prenatal exposure of two different doses of testosterone on different gestational days, on the male reproductive system using a rat model. Sixteen pregnant rats were randomly divided into two experimental groups and two control groups. Experimental group І were subcutaneously injected with 3 mg free testosterone on gestational days 16-19 and its controls received solvent for that time; experimental group П were subcutaneously injected with 20 mg free testosterone on day 20 of gestational period and its controls received solvent at the same time. The reproductive system morphology and function of 32 male offspring of these study groups were compared at days 6-30-60 of age and after puberty. The anogenital distance of the male offspring of both experimental groups had no significant differences on the different days of measurement, compared with controls. In the offspring of experimental group І, the testes weight, number of Sertoli, Spermatocyte and Spermatid cells, sperm count and motility and the serum concentration of testosterone after puberty were significantly decreased; except for reduction of sperm motility (pmale rat fetuses to excess testosterone disrupted reproductive function, an effect highly dependent on the time, duration and level of exposure. It seems that the reproductive system in individuals exposed to high levels of androgens during fetal life should be evaluated at puberty and likely to be treated.

  9. Effect of continuous subcutaneous insulin pump infusion on glucolipid metabolism as well as inflammation and oxidative stress in placenta of patients with GDM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Jie

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the effect of continuous subcutaneous insulin pump infusion on glucolipid metabolism as well as inflammation and oxidative stress in placenta of patients with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM. Methods: Patients with GDM who received insulin therapy between March 2013 and May 2016 were selected as the research subjects and randomly divided into multiple subcutaneous insulin injection (MSII group and continuous subcutaneous insulin pump infusion (CSII group. Before and after treatment, serum glucolipid metabolism as well as inflammation and oxidative stress inexes in placenta were determined respectively. Results: 2 weeks and 4 weeks after treatment, FBG, 1hPBG, 2hPBG, Chemerin, Vaspin and Visfatin levels of both groups of patients were significantly lower than those before treatment and FBG, 1hPBG, 2hPBG, Chemerin, Vaspin and Visfatin levels of CSII group were significantly lower than those of MSII group; after delivery, TNF-α, IL-6, ROS and AGEs levels in placenta of CSII group were significantly lower than those of MSII group. Conclusion: Continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion can more effectively improve the glucolipid metabolism and inhibit the inflammation and oxidative stress in placenta of patients with GDM than multiple subcutaneous insulin injection.

  10. Subcutaneous emphysema as a complication of tooth extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vacić Aca

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Subcutaneous emphysema is a rare complication in dentistry, which may lead to diagnostic errors and inadequate therapy. A 17 years old female patient, in whom the separation of tooth roots was performed by the use of air-powered drill during the extraction of the first right lower molar, is presented in this paper. During the intervention, swelling of the right half of the face and the lower eyelid suddenly occurred, accompanied with simultaneous feeling of choking, and pressure in the neck and chest. Because of the suspicion of the allergic reaction, the patient was administered antihistaminic agent, together with parenteral corticosteroid, and was sent to an institution where she was treated as an in-patient. During hospitalization, subcutaneous emphysema of the face and neck was diagnosed by physical and x-ray examination. The emphysema completely disappeared after the use of oxygen and antibiotics.

  11. A Rare Case Report of Subcutaneous Mycoses by Rhytidhysteron Rufulum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadav Sarita

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Phaeohyphomycosis is a term to describe cutaneous and systemic or disseminated mycoses caused by a variety of dematiaceous fungi. Rhytidhysteron rufulum is a poorly known, common, pantropical phaeoid fungal species, and are rare human pathogens. Here, we describe a clinical case report of subcutaneous phaeohyphomycosis; to the best of our knowledge, this is the fourth report of infection with the Rhytidhysteron rufulum. A 54-year-old male presented to medicine outpatient department with complaints of respiratory distress. The patient was diagnosed as a case of chronic bronchitis with acute exacerbation. On examination, a well-defined soft subcutaneous swelling was detected on anterior aspect of right leg. The molecular identification revealed its homology with Rhytidhysteron rufulum. The phaeohyphomycotic infections are increasingly reported globally. This case highlights the need of awareness and high degree of suspicion for fungal aetiology, so that an early and adequate treatment can be given in such cases.

  12. Protein 53 expression in a mixed Labrador subcutaneous lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annahita Rezaie

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available An 11 year – old mixed female Labrador was presented with two masses in trunk and neck. The tumoral masses were excised and sent for histopathological and immunohistochemical analyses. Histopathological examination of masses revealed diffuse infiltration of small sized lymphoid cells in subcutaneous tissue which were intense around the blood vessels. More than 10% lymphoid cells were CD3 positive in the immunohistochemical staining and most of them were accumulated around vessels. Protein 53 (p53 expression was detected by brown nuclei in immunohistochemical staining. Subcutaneous lymphoma was diagnosed according to histopathological results. After 6 months the case was referred with multicentric lymphoma and based on the owner request euthanasia was performed. These findings emphasize on poor prognosis for tumors with p53 mutation.

  13. Localized Subcutaneous Acute Febrile Neutrophilic Dermatosis in a Dog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolin Schoellhorn

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A two-year-old spayed female mixed-breed dog was presented with a five-day history of hemorrhagic gastroenteritis and fever. On physical examination, the dog was lethargic and clinically dehydrated. The skin of the entire ventral abdomen extending to both flanks was erythematous, swollen and painful on palpation. Histopathological examination of skin biopsies revealed a severe diffuse neutrophilic dermatitis and panniculitis, resembling the subcutaneous form of Sweet’s syndrome in humans. A large part of the skin lesion developed full-thickness necrosis. After intensive care, three surgical wound debridements and wound adaptations, the wound healed by secondary intention within ten weeks. In the absence of infection of the skin or neoplasia, a diagnosis of neutrophilic dermatosis and panniculitis, resembling the subcutaneous form of acute febrile neutrophilic dermatosis, was made.

  14. The effect of breed on fatty acid composition of subcutaneous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted to evaluate the fatty acid (FA) profile of subcutaneous adipose tissue and tailfat of two fat-tailed sheep breeds under identical feeding conditions. Twelve male lambs from two breeds, Sanjabi (n = 6), weighing 23.3 ± 0.48 kg, and Mehraban (n = 6), weighing 26.1 ± 2.14 kg, were used in this ...

  15. Subcutaneous panniculitis-like T-cell lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis Abel

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This case report describes a 38 year-old lady with the clinical, histopathological, and immunohistochemical (IHC changes of subcutaneous panniculitis-like T-cell lymphoma (SPTCL. The IHC findings revealed CD8 + and CD56 - cells, which are indicative of tumors which have an indolent course. Our patient is being managed with tapering doses of corticosteroids for the last nine months with good improvement.

  16. Subcutaneous emphysema during third molar surgery: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Romeo, Umberto; Galanakis, Alexandros; Lerario, Francesco; Daniele, Gabriele Maria; Tenore, Gianluca; Palaia, Gaspare

    2011-01-01

    Extraction of third molars is the most common surgical procedure performed in oral surgery on a daily basis and, despite surgical skills and expertise, complications may occur. Complications observed during or after third molar removal may include pain, swelling, bleeding, infection, sinus perforation and nerve damage. Fortunately, with a proper management and a good surgical technique, the incidence of such events is low. Subcutaneous emphysema associated with dental extraction occurs when t...

  17. Contrast of artificial subcutaneous hematomas in MRI over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassler, Eva Maria; Ogris, Kathrin; Petrovic, Andreas; Neumayer, Bernhard; Widek, Thomas; Yen, Kathrin; Scheurer, Eva

    2015-03-01

    In clinical forensic medicine, hematomas and other externally visible injuries build the basis for the reconstruction of events. However, dating of subcutaneous hematomas based on their external aspect is difficult. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has proven its use in dating intracranial hemorrhage. Thus, the aim was to investigate if MRI can also be used for dating subcutaneous hematomas and to analyze an eventual influence of the hematoma shape. In 20 healthy volunteers (11 females, 9 males, aged 26.9 ± 3.8 years), 4 ml of autologous blood were injected subcutaneously in the thigh. The hematoma was scanned immediately after the injection, after 3 and 24 h and 3, 7, and 14 days using three sequences with different contrast. Data was analyzed by measuring signal intensities of the hematoma, the muscle, and the subcutaneous tissue over time, and the Michelson contrast coefficients between the tissues were calculated. In the analysis, hematoma shape was considered. Signal intensity of blood in the proton density-weighted sequence reached its maximum 3 h after the injection with a subsequent decrease, whereas the signal intensities of muscle and fatty tissue remained constant. The time course of the Michelson coefficient of blood versus muscle decreased exponentially with a change from hyperintensity to hypointensity at 116.9 h, depending on hematoma shape. In the other sequences, either variability was large or contrast coefficients stayed constant over time. The observed change of contrast of blood versus muscle permits a quick estimate of a hematoma's age. The consideration of the hematoma shape is expected to further enhance dating using MRI.

  18. Browning of Subcutaneous White Adipose Tissue in Humans

    OpenAIRE

    Sidossis, Labros S.; Porter, Craig; Saraf, Manish K.; Børsheim, Elisabet; Radhakrishnan, Ravi S.; Chao, Tony; Ali, Arham; Chondronikola, Maria; Mlcak, Ronald; Finnerty, Celeste C.; Hawkins, Hal K.; Toliver-Kinsky, Tracy; Herndon, David N.

    2015-01-01

    Since the presence of brown adipose tissue (BAT) was confirmed in adult humans, BAT has become a therapeutic target for obesity and insulin resistance. We examined whether human subcutaneous white adipose tissue (sWAT) can adopt a BAT-like phenotype using a clinical model of prolonged and severe adrenergic stress. sWAT samples were collected from severely burned and healthy individuals. A subset of burn victims were prospectively followed during their acute hospitalization. Browning of sWAT w...

  19. Nursing knowledge and practices regarding subcutaneous fluid administration

    OpenAIRE

    Gomes, Nathália Silva; Silva, Andrea Mara Bernardes da; Zago, Luana Barbosa; Silva, Érica Carneiro de Lima e; Barichello, Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To describe the evidence in the literature regarding the knowledge and practices of the nursing team about subcutaneous administration of drugs and fluids in adults. Method: Integrative review of the literature using the descriptors “nursing”, “hypodermoclysis”, “drug administration routes”, “adult health,” and “knowledge,” in English, Spanish, and Portuguese, with no publication deadline. Of the 569 articles found, eight made up the sample. Results: A predominance of i...

  20. Meckel’s diverticulum manifested by a subcutaneous abscess

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karatepe, Oguzhan; Adas, Gokhan; Altıok, Merih; Ozcan, Deniz; Kamali, Sedat; Karahan, Servet

    2009-01-01

    This case report describes an extremely rare complication of a Meckel’s diverticulum: enterocutaneous fistula of the diverticulum. The presence of Meckel’s diverticulum is a well known entity, but subcutaneous perforation of the diverticulum is very rare. Here we report the case of a patient with the complaint of a right lower quadrant abscess, preoperatively diagnosed as enterocutaneous fistula, which was determined intraoperatively to be a fistula resulting from Meckel’s diverticulum. PMID:20027688

  1. Diffuse-type giant cell tumor of the subcutaneous thigh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanghvi, D.A.; Purandare, N.C.; Jambhekar, N.A.; Agarwal, A.; Agarwal, M.G.

    2007-01-01

    Diffuse-type giant cell tumor is an extra-articular form of pigmented villonodular synovitis. The localized form of this lesion (tenosynovial giant cell tumor) is frequent, representing the most common subset arising from the synovium of a joint, bursa or tendon sheath, with 85% of cases occurring in the fingers. The less frequent diffuse-type giant cell tumors are commonly located in the periarticular soft tissues, but on rare occasions these lesions can be purely intramuscular or subcutaneous We report the case of a 26-year-old female with diffuse-type giant cell tumor of the subcutaneous thigh, remote from a joint, bursa or tendon sheath. A review of the literature did not reveal any similar description of a diffuse-type giant cell tumor completely within the subcutaneous thigh, remote from a joint, bursa or tendon sheath. These lesions were initially regarded as inflammatory or reactive processes, but since the identification of clonal abnormalities in these patients, and in view of their capacity for autonomous growth, they are now widely considered to represent benign neoplasms. (orig.)

  2. Immune response and reactogenicity of intradermal administration versus subcutaneous administration of varicella-zoster virus vaccine: an exploratory, randomised, partly blinded trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beals, Chan R; Railkar, Radha A; Schaeffer, Andrea K; Levin, Yotam; Kochba, Efrat; Meyer, Brian K; Evans, Robert K; Sheldon, Eric A; Lasseter, Kenneth; Lang, Nancy; Weinberg, Adriana; Canniff, Jennifer; Levin, Myron J

    2016-08-01

    The licensed live, attenuated varicella-zoster virus vaccine prevents herpes zoster in adults older than 50 years. We aimed to determine whether intradermal administration of zoster vaccine could enhance vaccine immunogenicity compared with conventional needle subcutaneous administration. In this randomised, dose-ranging study, adults aged 50 years or older who had a history of varicella or who had resided in a country with endemic varicella-zoster virus infection for 30 years or more were eligible. Participants received the approved full or a 1/3 dose of zoster vaccine given subcutaneously or one of four intradermal doses (full, 1/3, 1/10, or 1/27 dose) using the MicronJet600 device. The two subcutaneous doses and the four intradermal doses were randomised (1·5:1:1:1:1:1) by computer generated sequence with randomisation stratified by age (50-59 years or 60 years or older). The primary immunogenicity endpoint was the change from baseline in IgG antibody to varicella-zoster virus-specific glycoproteins (gpELISA) measured at 6 weeks. All patients were included in the primary and safety analyses. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01385566. Between Sept 2, 2011, and Jan 13, 2012, 224 participants were enrolled from three clinics in the USA and 223 were randomly assigned: 52 to receive the full dose subcutaneous zoster vaccine, 34 to receive the 1/3 dose subcutaneous zoster vaccine, 34 to receive the full dose intradermal zoster vaccine, 35 to receive the 1/3 dose intradermal zoster vaccine, 34 to receive the 1/10 dose intradermal zoster vaccine, and 34 to receive the 1/27 dose intradermal zoster vaccine. Full dose zoster vaccine given subcutaneously resulted in a gpELISA geometric mean fold-rise (GMFR) of 1·74 (90% CI 1·48-2·04) at 6 weeks post-vaccination compared with intradermal administration which resulted in a significantly higher gpELISA GMFR of 3·25 (2·68-3·94; p<0·0001), which also remained high at 18 months. An apparent dose

  3. Low-level laser treatment accelerated hair regrowth in a rat model of chemotherapy-induced alopecia (CIA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wikramanayake, Tongyu Cao; Villasante, Alexandra C; Mauro, Lucia M; Nouri, Keyvan; Schachner, Lawrence A; Perez, Carmen I; Jimenez, Joaquin J

    2013-05-01

    Chemotherapy-induced alopecia (CIA) is one of the most distressing side effects of antineoplastic chemotherapy for which there is no effective interventional approach. A low-level laser (LLL) device, the HairMax LaserComb®, has been cleared by the FDA to treat androgenetic alopecia. Its effects may be extended to other settings; we have demonstrated that LaserComb treatment induced hair regrowth in a mouse model for alopecia areata. In the current study, we tested whether LLL treatment could promote hair regrowth in a rat model for CIA. Chemotherapy agents cyclophosphamide, etoposide, or a combination of cyclophosphamide and doxorubicin were administered in young rats to induce alopecia, with or without LLL treatment. As expected, 7-10 days later, all the rats developed full body alopecia. However, rats receiving laser treatment regrew hair 5 days earlier than rats receiving chemotherapy alone or sham laser treatment (with the laser turned off). The accelerated hair regrowth in laser-treated rats was confirmed by histology. In addition, LLL treatment did not provide local protection to subcutaneously injected Shay chloroleukemic cells. Taken together, our results demonstrated that LLL treatment significantly accelerated hair regrowth after CIA without compromising the efficacy of chemotherapy in our rat model. Our results suggest that LLL should be explored for the treatment of CIA in clinical trials because LLL devices for home use (such as the HairMax LaserComb®) provide a user-friendly and noninvasive approach that could be translated to increased patient compliance and improved efficacy.

  4. Effects of intra-VMN mianserin and IL-1ra on meal number in anorectic tumor-bearing rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laviano, A; Gleason, J R; Meguid, M M; Yang, Z J; Cangiano, C; Rossi Fanelli, F

    2000-01-01

    Tumor growth in animals and humans is associated with the onset of anorexia and reduced food intake. We previously demonstrated that the ventromedial nucleus of hypothalamus (VMN) plays a contributory role in mediating cancer anorexia. Because serotonin and interleukin-1 (IL-1) are putative mediators of cancer anorexia, we hypothesized that their influence on food intake during tumor growth might occur via their action within the VMN. To test this hypothesis, 12 Fischer rats injected subcutaneously with 10(6) viable MCA sarcoma cells (TB rats) and their nontumor-bearing controls (NTB, n = 13) were studied. When anorexia developed, TB and NTB rats received bilateral intra-VMN microinjections of the serotonin antagonist mianserin (200 nmol) or the IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra, 25 ng). Food intake and its determinants of meal number and size were continuously recorded via a computerized device. In NTB rats, intra-VMN mianserin did not affect food intake, whereas after IL-1ra or vehicle a momentary decrease in food intake due to a predominant reduction of meal size occurred. In TB rats, intra-VMN mianserin or IL-1ra selectively increased meal number, leading to improved food intake. Data suggest that intra-VMN serotonin and IL-1 are involved in influencing cancer related anorexia.

  5. Immunological comparison of allergen immunotherapy tablet treatment and subcutaneous immunotherapy against grass allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aasbjerg, K; Backer, V; Lund, G

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: IgE-mediated allergic rhinitis to grass pollen can successfully be treated with either allergen immunotherapy tablets (SLIT tablet) or SQ-standardized subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT). The efficacy of these two treatment modalities for grass allergy is comparable, but the immunological...... mechanisms may differ. ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT01889875. OBJECTIVES: To compare the immunological changes induced by SQ-standardized SCIT and SLIT tablet. METHODS: We randomized 40 individuals with grass pollen rhinitis into groups receiving SCIT, SLIT tablet, or neither and followed them for 15 months...... differed significantly in both SCIT and SLIT-tablet treatment groups when compared to the control group. Both SCIT and SLIT-tablet groups were significantly different from the control group after 1–3 months of treatment. In general, the changes induced by SCIT reached twice that of SLIT tablet...

  6. The number of FceRI receptors on basophils decreases during subcutaneous immunotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmid, J. M.; Dahl, R.; Hoffmann, H. J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Allergen specific immunotherapy is the only disease modifying treatment of allergic diseases. It induces complex cellular and humoral changes leading to an inhibition of type-1 allergic reactions. Method: Twenty four young grass pollen allergic adults suffering from seasonal rhino......-conjunctivitis were randomized to receive standard subcutaneous immunotherapy (n = 18) or to an open control group (n = 6). The number of FceRI receptors on basophils was measured by quantitative analysis of indirect immunofluorescence by flow cytometry. Grass binding to basophils was measured by staining with grass......)/basophil in the treatment group (n = 0.016), while it remained constant in the control group (pre: 102424; post: 103753). We found only minor changes in maximal grass binding on the basophils. The allergen concentration leading to halfmaximum grass binding decreased slightly during SCIT, whereas the EC50...

  7. Dexamethasone prolongs local analgesia after subcutaneous infiltration of bupivacaine microcapsules in human volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holte, Kathrine; Werner, Mads U; Lacouture, Peter G

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The addition of small amounts of dexamethasone to extended-release formulations of bupivacaine in microcapsules has been found to prolong local analgesia in experimental studies, but no clinical data are available. METHODS: In a double-blinded study, 12 healthy male volunteers were...... randomized to receive simultaneous subcutaneous injections of bupivacaine microcapsules with dexamethasone and bupivacaine microcapsules without dexamethasone in each calf. Local analgesia was assessed with a validated human pain model; main parameters evaluated were thermal, mechanical, and pain detection...... curve [AUC]) were considered best estimate of analgesia. Safety evaluations were performed daily for the first week and at 2 weeks, 6 weeks, and 6 months after injection. RESULTS: The addition of dexamethasone significantly prolonged local analgesia of bupivacaine microcapsules without influence...

  8. Metabolic profile and genotoxicity in obese rats exposed to cigarette smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damasceno, Debora C; Sinzato, Yuri K; Bueno, Aline; Dallaqua, Bruna; Lima, Paula H; Calderon, Iracema M P; Rudge, Marilza V C; Campos, Kleber E

    2013-08-01

    Experimental studies have shown that exposure to cigarette smoke has negative effects on lipid metabolism and oxidative stress status. Cigarette smoke exposure in nonpregnant and pregnant rats causes significant genotoxicity (DNA damage). However, no previous studies have directly evaluated the effects of obesity or the association between obesity and cigarette smoke exposure on genotoxicity. Therefore, the aim of the present investigation was to evaluate DNA damage levels, oxidative stress status and lipid profiles in obese Wistar rats exposed to cigarette smoke. Female rats subcutaneously (s.c.) received a monosodium glutamate solution or vehicle (control) during the neonatal period to induce obesity. The rats were randomly distributed into three experimental groups: control, obese exposed to filtered air, and obese exposed to tobacco cigarette smoke. After a 2-month exposure period, the rats were anesthetized and killed to obtain blood samples for genotoxicity, lipid profile, and oxidative stress status analyses. The obese rats exposed to tobacco cigarette smoke presented higher DNA damage, triglycerides, total cholesterol, free fatty acids, VLDL-c, HDL-c, and LDL-c levels compared to control and obese rats exposed to filtered air. Both obese groups showed reduced SOD activity. These results showed that cigarette smoke enhanced the effects of obesity. In conclusion, the association between obesity and cigarette smoke exposure exacerbated the genotoxicity, negatively impacted the biochemical profile and antioxidant defenses and caused early glucose intolerance. Thus, the changes caused by cigarette smoke exposure can trigger the earlier onset of metabolic disorders associated with obesity, such as diabetes and metabolic syndrome. Copyright © 2012 The Obesity Society.

  9. Sustained glucagon-like peptide 1 expression from encapsulated transduced cells to treat obese diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moralejo, Daniel; Yanay, Ofer; Kernan, Kelly; Bailey, Adam; Lernmark, Ake; Osborne, William

    2011-04-01

    Obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D) are two prevalent chronic diseases that have become a major public health concern in industrialized countries. T2D is characterized by hyperglycemia and islet beta cell dysfunction. Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) promotes β cell proliferation and neogenesis and has a potent insulinotropic effect. Leptin receptor deficient male rats are obese and diabetic and provide a model of T2D. We hypothesized that their treatment by sustained expression of GLP-1 using encapsulated cells may prevent or delay diabetes onset. Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) retrovirally transduced to secrete GLP-1 were seeded into TheraCyte(TM) encapsulation devices, implanted subcutaneously and rats were monitored for diabetes. Rats that received cell implants showed mean plasma GLP-1 level of 119.3 ± 10.2pM that was significantly elevated over control values of 32.4 ± 2.9pM (P<0.001). GLP-1 treated rats had mean insulin levels of 45.9 ± 2.3ng/ml that were significantly increased over control levels of 7.3±1.5ng/ml (P<0.001). In rats treated before diabetes onset elevations in blood glucose were delayed and rats treated after onset became normoglycemic and showed improved glucose tolerance tests. Untreated diabetic rats possess abnormal islet structures characterized by enlarged islets with α-cell infiltration and multifocal vacuolization. GLP-1 treatment induced normalization of islet structures including a mantle of α-cells and increased islet mass. These data suggest that encapsulated transduced cells may offer a potential long term treatment of patients. Copyright © 2010 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. A flexible WLAN receiver

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schiphorst, Roelof; Hoeksema, F.W.; Slump, Cornelis H.

    2003-01-01

    Flexible radio receivers are also called Software Defined Radios (SDRs) [1], [2]. The focus of our SDR project [3] is on designing the front end, from antenna to demodulation in bits, of a °exible, multi-standard WLAN receiver. We try to combine an instance of a (G)FSK receiver (Bluetooth) with an

  11. [Effect of insulin on burn wound healing in aging diabetes mellitus rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jian; Xue, Xiaodong; Liu, Junling; Si, Xiaoqiang; Yang, Guohu

    2009-12-01

    To investigate the effect of topical application of insulin on the burn wound healing in aging diabetes mellitus (DM) rats and to explore its mechanism. Seventy-five SPF Wistar rats (female and/or male), aged 12-24 months and weighing 300-350 g, were selected and randomly divided into group A (burn control group, n=25), group B (DM burn control group, n=25), and group C (DM insulin treatment group, n=25). The rats in group B and group C were fed with high-fat, high-protein, and high-sugar forage for 1 month and received intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ) to establish experimental model of aging DM. The rats were fed with high-fat, high-protein, and high-sugar forage for another 8 weeks. Then, the deep second-degree burn model was established in the rats of group B and group C. The wounds in group A and B underwent local subcutaneous injection of 2 mL isotonic saline and group C received local subcutaneous injection of 0.1 U insulin. The rate of wound healing was calculated 7, 14, and 21 days after burn injury. At 1, 3, 7, 14, and 21 days after burn injury, HE staining observation, immunohistochemistry staining for CD34, detection of sugar and hydroxyproline (HOP) content in wound tissue, and microvessel density (MVD) calculation were performed. At 7, 14, and 21 days after burn injury, the wound healing rates of group A and group C was significantly higher than that of group B (P 0.05). Histology observation at 21 days after burn injury: in group A, certain degree of epithelization was evident in the wound epithelium; in group B, large quantity of necrotic tissue was evident; in group C, complete epithelization occurred in the wound epithelium with better epithelial cell differentiation and more neonatal collagen. For the sugar content in the wound tissue, group A was significantly lower than group B or group C at 1, 3, 7, 14, and 21 days (P wound tissue and the MVD count, group A or group C was significantly higher than group B (P 0.05). CD34

  12. Highly Sensitive Optical Receivers

    CERN Document Server

    Schneider, Kerstin

    2006-01-01

    Highly Sensitive Optical Receivers primarily treats the circuit design of optical receivers with external photodiodes. Continuous-mode and burst-mode receivers are compared. The monograph first summarizes the basics of III/V photodetectors, transistor and noise models, bit-error rate, sensitivity and analog circuit design, thus enabling readers to understand the circuits described in the main part of the book. In order to cover the topic comprehensively, detailed descriptions of receivers for optical data communication in general and, in particular, optical burst-mode receivers in deep-sub-µm CMOS are presented. Numerous detailed and elaborate illustrations facilitate better understanding.

  13. Effect of Syzygium Aromaticum (CLOVE) Extract on Blood Glucose Level in Streptozotocin induced Diabetic Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudhry, Z. R.; Chaudhry, S. R.; Naseer, A.; Chaudhry, F. R.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the glucose lowering effect of 50% ethanol extract of Syzygium aromaticum in comparison with that of standard insulin in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Study Design: Randomized control trial. Place and Duration of Study: National Institute of Health Islamabad. Jul 2011- Dec 2011 Material and Methods: It was carried out on 48 adult rats of Sprague dawley specie. Rats were equally divided into 6 groups (I-VI). Group - I served as control. Diabetes was induced by giving single intraperitoneal injection of STZ in Group II to VI. Group-II served as diabetic control, while groups III, IV, V and VI served as experimental groups. Group III, IV and V rats received 50% ethanol extract of Syzygium aromaticum at a dose of 250, 500 and 750 mg/kg body weight respectively for sixty days. Group VI (standard) received humulin insulin 70/30 at dose of 0.6 units<-kg body weight subcutaneously bid for sixty days. Fasting blood samples were taken at zero day, 15 day, 30 day and 60 day after giving injection STZ. Although Syzygium aromaticum with the doses of 250, 500 and 750 mg/kg body weight and insulin reduced the level of glucose in rats but on comparison Syzygium aromaticum 750 mg=kg dose reduced glucose more effectively than 250 and 500 mg/kg dose. While in group III, IV subjects, blood glucose levels remained above normal level. In group VI receiving insulin the level of this parameter remained almost closer to group IV rats. On studying the weight of the animals after receiving STZ there was initial reduction in the weight of all the experimental groups but after receiving the extract of plant improvement was seen and the weight of group V getting 750 mg=kg/body weight of Syzygium aromaticum became almost closer to the weight of control group. Conclusion: Syzygium aromaticum extract has glucose lowering effect in STZ induced diabetic rats and this effect is dose related and the dose of 750 mg/kg body weight has produced maximum effect. (author)

  14. Long-term survival of subcutaneous anti-tumor necrosis factor biological drugs administered between 2008 and 2012 in a cohort of rheumatoid arthritis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez Rivas, Noelia; Vazquez Rodriguez, Tomas R; Miranda Filloy, Jose A; Garcia-Porrua, Carlos; Sanchez-Andrade Fernández, Amalia

    2017-05-25

    To compare the survival of subcutaneous anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) drugs used between 2008 and 2012 prescribed in accordance with clinical practice. Retrospective, observational study of the patients in our center diagnosed with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We included patients who had received a subcutaneous anti-TNF agent for at least 6 months. The data were analyzed using the SPSS V17.0 statistical package. Forty-nine RA patients started subcutaneous biological treatment with an anti-TNF agent (32 with etanercept and 17 with adalimumab). The mean age was 45.94 years (75.5% female). The mean disease duration prior to starting anti-TNF administration was 2.67 years. The mean age at the start of treatment was 51.84 years, and the average Disease Activity Score 28 was 4.93. The median survival of the anti-TNF treatment was 8.40 years; the survival of etanercept was the longer of the two. The main reason for discontinuation was secondary failure (90.9%). In routine clinical practice, the survival of subcutaneous anti-TNF treatment was extensive and was independent of whether or not the patients received concomitant immunosuppressive therapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Reumatología y Colegio Mexicano de Reumatología. All rights reserved.

  15. Microwave non-contact imaging of subcutaneous human body tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kletsov, Andrey; Chernokalov, Alexander; Khripkov, Alexander; Cho, Jaegeol; Druchinin, Sergey

    2015-10-01

    A small-size microwave sensor is developed for non-contact imaging of a human body structure in 2D, enabling fitness and health monitoring using mobile devices. A method for human body tissue structure imaging is developed and experimentally validated. Subcutaneous fat tissue reconstruction depth of up to 70 mm and maximum fat thickness measurement error below 2 mm are demonstrated by measurements with a human body phantom and human subjects. Electrically small antennas are developed for integration of the microwave sensor into a mobile device. Usability of the developed microwave sensor for fitness applications, healthcare, and body weight management is demonstrated.

  16. Surgical treatment of gynecomastia: liposuction combined with subcutaneous mastectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boljanovic, S; Axelsson, C K; Elberg, J J

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of the present work has been to evaluate surgical treatment of gynecomastia performed by liposuction combined with subcutaneous mastectomy. It was designed as a prospective consecutive registration of 21 patients (28 breasts) operated in a four month period. Treatment was done in local anaesthesia in the out-patient clinic. Treatment was in one patient complicated with a haematoma. In 86% of cases the patients were satisfied with the postoperative result. Liposuction combined with surgical excision of the gland performed as an out-patient treatment in local anaesthesia is followed by few complications and good cosmetic results.

  17. Orthorexia nervosa with hyponatremia, subcutaneous emphysema, pneumomediastimum, pneumothorax, and pancytopenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sang Won; Kim, Jeong Yup; Go, Gang Ji; Jeon, Eun Sil; Pyo, Heui Jung; Kwon, Young Joo

    2011-06-01

    30-year-old male was admitted with general weakness and drowsy mental status. He had eaten only 3-4 spoons of brown rice and fresh vegetable without salt for 3 months to treat his tic disorder, and he had been in bed-ridden state. He has had weight loss of 14 kg in the last 3 months. We report a patient with orthorexia nervosa who developed hyponatremia, metabolic acidosis, subcutaneous emphysema, mediastinal emphysema, pneumothorax, and pancytopenia and we will review the literature. Also, we mention to prevent refeeding syndrome, and to start and maintain feeding in malnourished patients.

  18. Subcutaneous drug infusions: a review of problems and solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitten, T

    2001-02-01

    Subcutaneous drug infusion using a portable syringe driver has had a significant impact on patient comfort in palliative care. It permits the continuous delivery of a range of drug therapies, so bypassing problems of dysphagia, weakness and the inability of many patients in the terminal phase to take oral medication. The devices are not problem-free, however. Mechanical problems, reactions at the infusion site and difficulties with the mixing of drugs in the syringe are all widely recognized. This article reviews some general issues with the operation of portable syringe drivers, and discusses a range of potential problems and their solutions.

  19. Delphi Accounts Receivable Module -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Delphi accounts receivable module contains the following data elements, but are not limited to customer information, cash receipts, line of accounting details, bill...

  20. Evaluation of the Effects of Curcumin on Palm Inflammation and Level of Acute Phase Proteins in Arthritic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Aghaei Borashan

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and ObjectivesRheumatoid arthritis (RA is a chronic inflammatory disease which is characterized by joint swelling, and synovial inflammation. C reactive protein (CRP and ceruloplasmin (CP are identified as important biomarkers of RA and various inflammatory diseases. Curcumin, a widely used yellow color spice is the most active component of Curcuma longa L (Turmeric. Curcumin contains potent anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. The goal of this study is evaluation of the anti-inflammatory effect of curcumin on arthritic palm of rats and levels of the CRP and CP in the blood samples of arthritis induced male albino Wistar rats.Methods Arthritis was induced by subcutaneous injection of Freund’s Complete Adjuvant (FCA into the palm of right rear foot of 8 different male albino Wistar rats. The rats were randomly divided into five groups after the injection. These groups were as follow: Group Ι, control normal rats Group II, carrier arthritic rats Group III, arthritic rats which were given 30mg/ kg of curcumin orally seven days prior to FCA injectionGroup IV, arthritic rats treated with 30mg/kg of curcumin Group V, arthritic rats treated with 3 mg/kg of indomethacin.All the groups except group III received oral treatment with curcumin seven days after FCA injection and the treatment was continued fourteen days thereafter. The rear foot thicknesses of all the rats were measured on days 1, 5, 10, 15, 20 after FCA injection. The rats were destroyed after 20th day and their blood samples were collected.ResultsThe results of this study indicate that curcumin significantly decreases swelling of the rats rear foot (p<0.05, and levels of the CRP and CP as compared to carrier arthritic rats (p<0.05. One-way variance analysis by ANOVA program and post test analysis by Tukey were used for analysis of the collected data. ConclusionEvaluation of the results of this experiment supports the anti-inflammatory, and possibly anti

  1. Evaluation of the Effects of Curcumin on Palm Inflammation and Level of Acute Phase Proteins in Arthritic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Aghaei Borashan

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available

    Background and Objectives

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA is a chronic inflammatory disease which is characterized by joint swelling, and synovial inflammation. C reactive protein (CRP and ceruloplasmin (CP are identified as important biomarkers of RA and various inflammatory diseases. Curcumin, a widely used yellow color spice is the most active component of Curcuma longa L (Turmeric. Curcumin contains potent anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. The goal of this study is evaluation of the anti-inflammatory effect of curcumin on arthritic palm of rats and levels of the CRP and CP in the blood samples of arthritis induced male albino Wistar rats.

     

    Methods

    Arthritis was induced by subcutaneous injection of Freund’s Complete Adjuvant (FCA into the palm of right rear foot of 8 different male albino Wistar rats. The rats were randomly divided into five groups after the injection. These groups were as follow:

    Group Ι, control normal rats

    Group II, carrier arthritic rats

    Group III, arthritic rats which were given 30mg/ kg of curcumin orally seven days prior to FCA injection

    Group IV, arthritic rats treated with 30mg/kg of curcumin

    Group V, arthritic rats treated with 3 mg/kg of indomethacin.

    All the groups except group III received oral treatment with curcumin seven days after FCA injection and the treatment was continued fourteen days thereafter. The rear foot thicknesses of all the rats were measured on days 1, 5, 10, 15, 20 after FCA injection. The rats were destroyed after 20th day and their blood samples were collected.

     

    Results

    The results of this study indicate that curcumin significantly decreases swelling of the rats rear foot (p<0.05, and levels of the CRP and CP as compared to carrier arthritic rats (p<0.05.

    One-way variance analysis

  2. CT densimetry for graduating subcutaneous fibrosis after photon/neutron therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eich, H.T.; Eich, P.D.; Mueller, R.D.; Stuschke, M.; Sack, H.

    1999-01-01

    Background: To evaluate alternative treatment regimen e.g. neutron therapy determination of treatment efficacy as well as side effects is important. Sensitivity of computed tomography (CT) in detecting changes of connective tissue after neutron therapy was examined. Patients and Methods: In the course of their follow-up period (median 45 months) 12 patients with malignant salivary gland tumors who had postoperatively received neutron (1/12) or photon/neutron therapy (11/12) were examined by means of CT densimetry on 3 representative scans in the area of radiotherapy. In 3 ROI (regions of interest) in subcutaneous fatty tissue the density at the irradiated and the non-irradiated side was determined according to Hounsfield units (HU) and the average density was calculated. The average density of both sides was compared and correlated with the clinical grade of fibrosis according to LENT SOMA. Results: All CT measurements (216 ROI, 18 ROI per patient) showed higher density levels on the irradiated side than on the non-irradiated side. The average density on the irradiated side was -57.7±4.7 HU and on the non-irradiated side -69.4±5.8 HU (p=0.002). In 3/12 patients a clinical fibrosis was not seen; however, the relative density measured on the irradiated and non-irradiated side deviated by up to 8%. This could have been caused by minimal changes not being noticed by either patient and examiner. In patients with determined fibrosis Grade 1 (8/12) the relative density deviation was 4 to 39%. In 1/12 patients with determined fibrosis Grade 2 the relative density deviation was 50%. Fibrosis Grade 3 and 4 did not occur. Conclusions: Fibrosis is correlated with an increasing value of HU of the tissue density in CT. With the described method it is possible to graduate radiation induced subcutaneous fibrosis in correlation to the clinical fibrosis grade according to LENT SOMA. In the patients we examined subcutaneous fibroses after photon/neutron therapy were moderate

  3. (−-Epicatechin Reduces Blood Pressure and Improves Left Ventricular Function and Compliance in Deoxycorticosterone Acetate-Salt Hypertensive Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Jackson

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available (−-Epicatechin (E is a flavanol found in green tea and cocoa and has been shown to attenuate tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α-mediated inflammation, improve nitric oxide levels, promote endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS activation and inhibit NADPH oxidase. This study investigated the effect of 28 days of low epicatechin dosing (1 mg/kg/day on the cardiovascular function of deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA-salt hypertensive rats. Wistar rats (n = 120, 8 weeks of age underwent uninephrectomy and were randomised into four groups (uninephrectomy (UNX, UNX + E, DOCA, DOCA + E. DOCA and DOCA + E rats received 1% NaCl drinking water along with subcutaneous injections of 25 mg deoxycorticosterone-acetate (in 0.4 mL of dimethylformamide every fourth day. UNX + E and DOCA + E rats received 1 mg/kg/day of epicatechin by oral gavage. Single-cell micro-electrode electrophysiology, Langendorff isolated-heart assessment and isolated aorta and mesenteric organ baths were used to assess cardiovascular parameters. Serum malondialdehyde concentration was used as a marker of oxidative stress. Myocardial stiffness was increased and left ventricular compliance significantly diminished in the DOCA control group, and these changes were attenuated by epicatechin treatment (p < 0.05. Additionally, the DOCA + E rats showed significantly reduced blood pressure and malondialdehyde concentrations; however, there was no improvement in left ventricular hypertrophy, electrophysiology or vascular function. This study demonstrates the ability of epicatechin to reduce blood pressure, prevent myocardial stiffening and preserve cardiac compliance in hypertrophied DOCA-salt rat hearts.

  4. Subcutaneous oxyntomodulin analogue administration reduces body weight in lean and obese rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y-L; Ford, H E; Druce, M R; Minnion, J S; Field, B C T; Shillito, J C; Baxter, J; Murphy, K G; Ghatei, M A; Bloom, S R

    2010-12-01

    To determine the efficacy of a long-acting oxyntomodulin (OXM) analogue, OXM6421, in inhibiting food intake and decreasing body weight in lean and diet-induced obese (DIO) rodents. The glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor binding affinity and efficacy, sensitivity to enzymatic degradation in vitro and persistence in the circulation after peripheral administration were investigated for OXM6421 and compared with native OXM. The chronic effect of OXM6421 on food intake, body weight and energy expenditure was examined in lean rats, and its anti-obesity potential was evaluated in DIO mice. OXM6421 showed enhanced GLP-1 receptor binding affinity and cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) stimulation, and higher resistance to enzymatic degradation by dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV) and neutral endopeptidase (NEP) compared with native OXM. OXM6421 persisted longer in the circulation than OXM after peripheral administration. Acute administration of OXM6421 potently inhibited food intake in lean rodents, with cumulative effects lasting up to 24 h. In lean rats, daily subcutaneous (s.c.) administration of OXM6421 caused greater weight loss than the pair-fed animals, and a higher rate of oxygen consumption than both the pair-fed and the saline controls. In DIO mice, continuous s.c. infusion of OXM6421 resulted in a significant weight loss, accompanied by an improvement in glucose homeostasis and an increase in circulating adiponectin levels. Once-daily s.c. administration of OXM6421 for 21 days caused sustained weight loss in DIO mice. OXM6421 induces negative energy balance in both lean and obese rodents, suggesting that long-acting OXM analogues may represent a potential therapy for obesity.

  5. Augmented reality based real-time subcutaneous vein imaging system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Danni; Yang, Jian; Fan, Jingfan; Zhao, Yitian; Song, Xianzheng; Shen, Jianbing; Shao, Ling; Wang, Yongtian

    2016-07-01

    A novel 3D reconstruction and fast imaging system for subcutaneous veins by augmented reality is presented. The study was performed to reduce the failure rate and time required in intravenous injection by providing augmented vein structures that back-project superimposed veins on the skin surface of the hand. Images of the subcutaneous vein are captured by two industrial cameras with extra reflective near-infrared lights. The veins are then segmented by a multiple-feature clustering method. Vein structures captured by the two cameras are matched and reconstructed based on the epipolar constraint and homographic property. The skin surface is reconstructed by active structured light with spatial encoding values and fusion displayed with the reconstructed vein. The vein and skin surface are both reconstructed in the 3D space. Results show that the structures can be precisely back-projected to the back of the hand for further augmented display and visualization. The overall system performance is evaluated in terms of vein segmentation, accuracy of vein matching, feature points distance error, duration times, accuracy of skin reconstruction, and augmented display. All experiments are validated with sets of real vein data. The imaging and augmented system produces good imaging and augmented reality results with high speed.

  6. Pneumomediastinum, pneumothorax and subcutaneous emphysema complicating MIS herniorrhaphy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Browne, J

    2012-02-03

    PURPOSE: Videoscopic herniorrhaphy is being performed more frequently with advantages claimed over the conventional open approach. This clinical report describes a pneumothorax, pneumomediastinum and subcutaneous emphysema occurring at the end of an extraperitoneal videoscopic herniorrhaphy. CLINICAL FEATURES: A 25 yr old ASA I man presented for elective extraperitoneal videoscopic hernia repair. Following intravenous induction with fentanyl, midazolam and propofol a balanced anesthetic technique using enflurane in N2O and O2 was used. Apart from a prolonged operating time (195 min), the procedure and anesthetic was uneventful. At the conclusion of the operation, prior to reversal of neuromuscular blockade extensive subcutaneous emphysema was noted on removal of the surgical drapes. Chest radiography revealed a pneumomediastinum and pneumothorax. A 25 FG intercostal tube was inserted and connected to an underwater seal drain. Sedation and positive pressure ventilation was maintained overnight to permit resolution and avoid airway compromise. The clinical and radiological features had resolved by the next morning and the patient\\'s trachea was extubated. His subsequent recovery was uneventful. CONCLUSION: Pneumothorax and pneumomediastinum are well recognised complications of laparoscopic techniques but have not been described following extraperitoneal herniorrhaphy. In this report we postulate possible mechanisms which may have contributed to their development, including inadvertent breach of the peritoneum and leakage of gas around the diaphragmatic herniae or tracking of gas retroperitoneally. The case alerts us to the possibility of this complication occurring in patients undergoing videoscopic herniorrhaphy.

  7. Newly developed controlled release subcutaneous formulation for tramadol hydrochloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Mabrouk

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a drug delivery system of poly (Ɛ-caprolactone (PCL ribbons to optimize the pharmaceutical action of tramadol for the first time according to our knowledge. PCL ribbons were fabricated and loaded with tramadol HCl. Ribbons were prepared by slip casting technique and coated with dipping technique with β-cyclodextrin. The chemical integrity and surface morphology of the ribbons were confirmed using FTIR and SEM coupled with EDX. In addition, thermodynamic behavior of the fabricated ribbons was investigated using DSC/TGA. Tramadol loading into PCL ribbons, biodegradation of ribbons and tramadol release kinetics were studied in PBS.The results revealed that the formulated composition did not affect the chemical integrity of the drug. Furthermore, SEM/EDX confirmed the inclusion of tramadol into the PCL matrix in homogenous distribution pattern without any observation of porous structure. The particle size of loaded tramadol was found to be in the range of (2–4 nm. The formulated composition did not affect the chemical integrity of the drug and should be further investigated for bioavailability. Tramadol exhibited controlled release behavior from PCL ribbons up to 45 days governed mainly by diffusion mechanism. The fabricated ribbons have a great potentiality to be implemented in the long term subcutaneous delivery of tramadol. Keywords: Tramadol, Polycaprolcatone, Subcutaneous membrane, Ribbons, β-Cyclodextrin, Controlled release

  8. Measurement of subcutaneous adipose tissue thickness by near-infrared

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yu; Ying, Zeqiang; Hao, Dongmei; Zhang, Song; Yang, Yimin; Zeng, Yanjun

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is strongly associated with the risks of diabetes and cardiovascular disease, and there is a need to measure the subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) layer thickness and to understand the distribution of body fat. A device was designed to illuminate the body parts by near-infrared (NIR), measure the backscattered light, and predict the SAT layer thickness. The device was controlled by a single-chip microcontroller (SCM), and the thickness value was presented on a liquid crystal display (LCD). There were 30 subjects in this study, and the measurements were performed on 14 body parts for each subject. The paper investigated the impacts of pressure and skin colour on the measurement. Combining with principal component analysis (PCA) and support vector regression (SVR), the measurement accuracy of SAT layer thickness was 89.1 % with a mechanical caliper as reference. The measuring range was 5–11 mm. The study provides a non-invasive and low-cost technique to detect subcutaneous fat thickness, which is more accessible and affordable compared to other conventional techniques. The designed device can be used at home and in community.

  9. Effects of diet supplementation with Camu-camu (Myrciaria dubia HBK McVaugh fruit in a rat model of diet-induced obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozanildo V Nascimento

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Amazonian Camu-camu fruit (Myrciaria dubia HBK Mc Vaugh has attracted interest from food and cosmetics industries because of its rich content of vitamin C, flavonoids and anthocyanins. The goal of this study was investigates the antiobesity action of the ingestion of the Camu-camu pulp in a rat model of diet-induced obesity. Wistar rats with obesity induced by subcutaneous injection of monosodium glutamate receiving diet ad libitum. The rats were divided in two groups: an experimental group that ingested 25 mL/day of Camu-camu pulp (CCG and a non treated group (CG. After 12 weeks, the animals were sacrificed. Blood, liver, heart, white adipose tissues were collected and weighted, biochemical and inflammatory profiles were determinate as well. Animals that received the pulp of Camu-camu reduced their weights of the fat in white adipose tissues, glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL-c and insulin blood levels. There was an increase in HDL-c levels. No change was observed in inflammatory markers and liver enzymes. Camu-camu pulp was able to improve the biochemical profile of obesity in rats suggesting that this Amazonian fruit can be further used such a functional food ingredient in control of chronic diseases linked to obesity.

  10. Effects of diet supplementation with Camu-camu (Myrciaria dubia HBK McVaugh) fruit in a rat model of diet-induced obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Ozanildo V; Boleti, Ana P A; Yuyama, Lucia K O; Lima, Emerson S

    2013-03-01

    Amazonian Camu-camu fruit (Myrciaria dubia HBK Mc Vaugh) has attracted interest from food and cosmetics industries because of its rich content of vitamin C, flavonoids and anthocyanins. The goal of this study was investigates the antiobesity action of the ingestion of the Camu-camu pulp in a rat model of diet-induced obesity. Wistar rats with obesity induced by subcutaneous injection of monosodium glutamate receiving diet ad libitum. The rats were divided in two groups: an experimental group that ingested 25 mL/day of Camu-camu pulp (CCG) and a non treated group (CG). After 12 weeks, the animals were sacrificed. Blood, liver, heart, white adipose tissues were collected and weighted, biochemical and inflammatory profiles were determinate as well. Animals that received the pulp of Camu-camu reduced their weights of the fat in white adipose tissues, glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL-c and insulin blood levels. There was an increase in HDL-c levels. No change was observed in inflammatory markers and liver enzymes. Camu-camu pulp was able to improve the biochemical profile of obesity in rats suggesting that this Amazonian fruit can be further used such a functional food ingredient in control of chronic diseases linked to obesity.

  11. Naked DNA Immunization for Prevention of Prostate Cancer in a Dunning Rat Prostate Tumor Model

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mincheff, Milcho

    2003-01-01

    ...: H-PSMA-T, R-"PSMA"-T, H-PSA, H-PSA-T, H-PAP-T and R"PSMA"-S. Preliminary studies using the Copenhagen rat tumor prostate model showed uniform tumor development in rats that were injected subcutaneously with 100 000 AT3B-lPSMA,PSA cells...

  12. Anti-hyperprolactinemic effect of Ficus pumila Linn extract in rats

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the anti-hyperprolactinemic effect of Ficus pumila Linn. extract (FPLE) in rats. Methods: Hyperprolactinemic rats were generated by subcutaneous injection of metoclopramide dihydrochloride (50 mg/kg). A high dose (800 mg/kg), moderate dose (400 mg/kg), or low dose (200 mg/kg) of FPLE was ...

  13. C2 subcutaneous stimulation for failed back surgery syndrome: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Ridder, Dirk; Plazier, Mark; Menovsky, Tomas; Kamerling, Niels; Vanneste, Sven

    2013-01-01

    Failed back surgery syndrome (FBSS) is a term embracing a constellation of conditions that describes persistent or recurring low back pain, with or without sciatica following one or more spine surgeries. It has been shown in animals that electrical stimulation of the high cervical C2 area can suppress pain stimuli derived from the L5-S1 dermatome. It is unknown whether C2 electrical stimulation in humans can be used to treat pain derived from the L5-S1 area, and a case is reported in which subcutaneous C2 is applied to treat FBSS. A patient presents to the neuromodulation clinic because of FBSS (after three lumbar diskectomies) and noninvasive neuromodulation is performed consisting of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) at C2. The C2 TENS stimulation is successful in improving pain. It induces paresthesias in the C2 dermatome above a certain amplitude threshold, but does not generate paresthesias in the pain area. However, the patient becomes allergic to the skin-applied TENS electrodes and therefore a new treatment strategy is discussed with the patient. A subcutaneous C2 electrode is inserted under local anesthesia, and attached to an external pulse generator. Three stimulation designs are tested: a classical tonic stimulation, consisting of 40 Hz stimulation, a placebo, and a burst stimulation, consisting of 40 Hz burst mode, with five spikes delivered at 500 Hz at 1000 μsec pulse width and 1000 μsec interspike interval. The patient's stimulation results demonstrate that burst mode is superior to placebo and tonic mode, and she receives a fully implanted C2 electrode connected to an internal pulse generator via an extension wire. The burst design is capable of both suppressing the least and worst pain effectively, and she has remained almost pain-free for over three years. © 2012 International Neuromodulation Society.

  14. Metformin Mitigates Fibrosis and Glucose Intolerance Induced by Doxorubicin in Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luana A. Biondo

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Doxorubicin (DX is a chemotherapeutic drug that is used in clinical practice that promotes deleterious side effects in non-tumor tissues such as adipose tissue. We showed that DX leads to extensive damage in adipose tissue via a disruption in 5′-adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK and PPAR-gamma signaling. Thus, we investigated whether co-treatment with the biguanide drug metformin (MET could prevent the side effects of DX through the activation of AMPK in adipose tissue. The goal of the present study was to verify the effects of DX and adjuvant MET treatment in subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT and to determine whether MET could protect against chemotherapy-induced side effects. C57/BL6 mice received DX hydrochloride (2.5 mg/kg intraperitoneally 2 times per week for 2 weeks (DX, concomitantly or not, with MET administration (300 mg/kg oral daily (DX + MET. The control group (CTRL was pair-fed according to the food consumption of the DX group. After euthanasia, adipose tissue fat pads were collected, and SAT was extracted so that adipocytes could be isolated. Glucose uptake was then measured, and histological, gene, and protein analyses were performed. One-way analysis of variance was also performed, and significance was set to 5%. DX reduced retroperitoneal fat mass and epididymal pads and decreased glycemia. In cultured primary subcutaneous adipocytes, mice in the DX group had lower glucose uptake when stimulated with insulin compared with mice in the CTRL group. Adipocytes in the DX group exhibited a reduced area, perimeter, and diameter; decreased adiponectin secretion; and decreased fatty acid synthase gene expression. SAT from MET-treated mice also showed a reduction in collagen deposition. Treatment with MET prevented fibrosis and restored glucose uptake in SAT after insulin stimulation, yet the drug was unable to prevent other side effects of DX such as tissue loss and inflammatory response.

  15. Benzyl alcohol increases voluntary ethanol drinking in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etelälahti, T J; Eriksson, C J P

    2014-09-01

    The anabolic steroid nandrolone decanoate has been reported to increase voluntary ethanol intake in Wistar rats. In recent experiments we received opposite results, with decreased voluntary ethanol intake in both high drinking AA and low drinking Wistar rats after nandrolone treatment. The difference between the two studies was that we used pure nandrolone decanoate in oil, whereas in the previous study the nandrolone product Deca-Durabolin containing benzyl alcohol (BA) was used. The aims of the present study were to clarify whether the BA treatment could promote ethanol drinking and to assess the role of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-gonadal axes (HPAGA) in the potential BA effect. Male AA and Wistar rats received subcutaneously BA or vehicle oil for 14 days. Hereafter followed a 1-week washout and consecutively a 3-week voluntary alcohol consumption period. The median (± median absolute deviation) voluntary ethanol consumption during the drinking period was higher in BA-treated than in control rats (4.94 ± 1.31 g/kg/day vs. 4.17 ± 0.31 g/kg/day, p = 0.07 and 1.01 ± 0.26 g/kg/day vs. 0.38 ± 0.27 g/kg/day, p = 0.05, for AA and Wistar rats, respectively; combined effect p < 0.01). The present results can explain the previous discrepancy between the two nandrolone studies. No significant BA effects on basal and ethanol-mediated serum testosterone and corticosterone levels were observed in blood samples taken at days 1, 8 and 22. However, 2h after ethanol administration significantly (p = 0.02) higher frequency of testosterone elevations was detected in high drinking AA rats compared to low drinking Wistars, which supports our previous hypotheses of a role of testosterone elevation in promoting ethanol drinking. Skin irritation and dermatitis were shown exclusively in the BA-treated animals. Altogether, the present results indicate that earlier findings obtained with Deca-Durabolin containing BA need to be re-evaluated. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All

  16. Modulation of Immune Disorders Induced-Arthritis in γ- Irradiated Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thabet, N.M.S.

    2013-01-01

    This study was to evaluate the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory capability of a laboratory preparation mixture Nano Selenium-lovastatin (Lov-Se) against oxidative stress and inflammatory cascade in irradiated and/or adjuvant arthritic rats. The experimental animals were divided into: adjuvant free groups and adjuvant induced groups. Rats were exposed to whole body γ-radiation (2 Gy every 3 days up to total dose of 8 Gy) and received oral administration of 1 ml Lov-Se mixture (≈ 20 mg kg - 1 Lov and 0.1 mg kg - 1 day - 1 Se) for 14 successive days. Animal model of arthritis was organized by subcutaneous injection of complete freund’s adjuvant. The antioxidant parameters (heart GSH-Px, CAT, SOD, XDH, GSH and blood Se), and oxidant markers (heart XO, NO, protein carbonyls and TBARS) and Also, the inflammatory molecules (serum TNF-α, CRP and RF) were determined. In irradiated Lov-Se rats, the results obtained reveals that, TBARS, protein carbonyl, TNF-α, CRP levels, and XO, CAT and SOD activities were significantly ameliorated as compared to irradiated rats. Also, heart GSH, NO levels, XDH, GSH-Px activities and blood Se level were significantly improved. In addition, the administration of Lov-Se to the arthritic and arthritic irradiated rats ameliorates the disturbance occurs in oxidative stress, inflammatory cascades and antioxidant indicators when compared to control rats. In conclusion, the proper administration of Lov-Se mixture might reduce the radiation-induced heart injury via amending the antioxidant molecules and decreasing lipid and protein oxidation. Also, it could be suggested that Lov-Se mixture might posses a considerable anti-inflammatory properties

  17. Bone Marrow Cell Therapy on 1,2-Dimethylhydrazine (DMH)-Induced Colon Cancer in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Khadragy, Manal F; Nabil, Heba M; Hassan, Basmaa N; Tohamy, Amany A; Waaer, Hanaa F; Yehia, Hany M; Alharbi, Afra M; Moneim, Ahmed Esmat Abdel

    2018-01-01

    Stem cell based therapies are being under focus due to their possible role in treatment of various tumors. Bone marrow stem cells believed to have anticancer potential and are preferred for their activities by stimulating the immune system, migration to the site of tumor and ability for inducting apoptosis in cancer cells. The current study was aimed to investigate the tumor suppressive effects of bone marrow cells (BMCs) in 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH)-induced colon cancer in rats. The rats were randomly allocated into four groups: control, BMCs alone, DMH alone and BMCs with DMH. BMCs were injected intrarectally while DMH was injected subcutaneously at 20 mg/kg body weight once a week for 15 weeks. Histopathological examination and gene expression of survivin, β-catenin and multidrug resistance-1 (MDR-1) by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in rat colon tissues. This is in addition to oxidative stress markers in colon were performed across all groups. The presence of aberrant crypt foci was reordered once histopathological examination of colon tissue from rats which received DMH alone. Administration of BMCs into rats starting from zero-day of DMH injection improved the histopathological picture which showed a clear improvement in mucosal layer, few inflammatory cells infiltration periglandular and in the lamina propria. Gene expression in rat colon tissue demonstrated that BMCs down-regulated survivin, β-catenin, MDR-1 and cytokeratin 20 genes expression in colon tissues after colon cancer induction. Amelioration of the colon status after administration of MSCs has been evidenced by a major reduction of lipid peroxidation, nitric oxide, and increasing of glutathione content and superoxide dismutase along with catalase activities. Our findings demonstrated that BMCs have tumor suppressive effects in DMH-induced colon cancer as evidenced by down-regulation of survivin, β-catenin, and MDR-1 genes and enhancing the antioxidant

  18. Elevation of transforming growth factor beta (TGFbeta) and its downstream mediators in subcutaneous foreign body capsule tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Allen G; Quinn, Matthew J; Siddiqui, Yasmin; Wood, Michael D; Federiuk, Isaac F; Duman, Heather M; Ward, W Kenneth

    2007-08-01

    Foreign body encapsulation represents a chronic fibrotic response and has been a major obstacle that reduces the useful life of implanted biomedical devices. The precise mechanism underlying such an encapsulation is still unknown. We hypothesized that, considering its central role in many other fibrotic conditions, transforming growth factor beta (TGFbeta) may play an important role during the formation of foreign body capsule (FBC). In the present study, we implanted mock sensors in rats subcutaneously and excised FBC samples at day 7, 21, and 48-55 postimplantation. The most abundant TGFbeta isoform in all tissues was TGFbeta1, which was expressed minimally in control tissue. The expression of both TGFbeta1 RNA and protein was significantly increased in FBC tissues at all time points, with the highest level in day 7 FBC. The number of cells stained for phosphorylated Smad2, an indication of activated TGFbeta signaling, paralleled the expression of TGFbeta. A similar dynamic change was also observed in the numbers of FBC myofibroblasts, which in response to TGFbeta, differentiate from quiescent fibroblasts and synthesize collagen. Type I collagen, the most prominent downstream target of TGFbeta in fibrosis, was found in abundance in the FBC, especially during the latter time periods. We suggest that TGFbeta plays an important role in the FBC formation. Inhibition of TGFbeta signaling could be a promising strategy in the prevention of FBC formation, thereby extending the useful life of subcutaneous implants.

  19. Corticosterone-responsive and -unresponsive metabolic characteristics of adrenalectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamelink, C R; Currie, P J; Chambers, J W; Castonguay, T W; Coscina, D V

    1994-09-01

    Glucocorticoids are important in influencing substrate flux through the metabolic pathways. This study was designed to answer the question "Does adrenalectomy (ADX) cause a shift toward fat metabolism as measured by a decrease in respiratory quotient (RQ)?" Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups, ADX, ADX + 20% corticosterone (Cort) (ADX-20%), ADX + 40% Cort (ADX-40%), or sham-operated controls (Sham). ADX-20% received 50 mg and ADX-40% 100 mg Cort dissolved in 250-mg cholesterol pellets and placed subcutaneously. Each rat was monitored for 90 min four times both during a preoperative period and again after a 1-wk postsurgical recovery period in an indirect calorimeter. Cort prevented ADX-induced suppression of weight gain and food intake. ADX decreased motoric activity in both the light and dark periods. Cort restored activity to Sham levels. ADX decreased RQ only in the dark (0.858 ADX vs. 0.891 Sham) and was reversed only in the ADX-40% group. Energy expenditure (EE) was depressed in both the light and dark by ADX; Cort partially restored EE to Sham values in the light period.

  20. Alteration in follistatin gene expression detected in prenatally androgenized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi Jahromi, Marziyeh; Ramezani Tehrani, Fahimeh; Hill, Jennifer W; Noroozzadeh, Mahsa; Zarkesh, Maryam; Ghasemi, Asghar; Zadeh-Vakili, Azita

    2017-06-01

    Impaired ovarian follicle development, the hallmark of polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), is believed to be due to the changes in expression of related genes such as follistatin (FST). Expression of FST gene and methylation level of its promoter in theca cells from adult female rats, prenatally exposed to androgen excess, during different phases of the estrus cycle was determined and compared with controls. Eight pregnant Wistar rats (experimental group) were treated by subcutaneous injection of 5 mg free testosterone on day 20 of pregnancy, while controls (n = 8) received 500 ml solvent. Based on observed vaginal smear, adult female offspring of mothers were divided into three groups. Levels of serum steroidogenic sexual hormones and gonadotropins, expression and promoter methylation of the FST gene were measured using ELISA, cyber-green real-time PCR and bisulfite sequence PCR (BSP), respectively. Compared to controls, the relative expression of FST gene in the treated group decreased overall by 0.85 fold; despite significant changes in different phases, but no significant differences in methylation of FST promoter. Our results reveal that manifestation of PCOS-like phenotype following prenatal exposure to excess androgen is associated with irregularity in expression of the FST gene during the estrus cycle.

  1. Diphenyl diselenide ameliorates monosodium glutamate induced anxiety-like behavior in rats by modulating hippocampal BDNF-Akt pathway and uptake of GABA and serotonin neurotransmitters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Suzan Gonçalves; Quines, Caroline Brandão; Stangherlin, Eluza Curte; Nogueira, Cristina Wayne

    2016-03-01

    Monosodium glutamate (MSG), a flavor enhancer used in food, administered to neonatal rats causes neuronal lesions and leads to anxiety when adulthood. We investigated the anxiolytic-like effect of diphenyl diselenide (PhSe)2 and its mechanisms on anxiety induced by MSG. Neonatal male and female Wistar rats received a subcutaneous injection of saline (0.9%) or MSG (4 g/kg/day) from the 1st to 10th postnatal day. At 60 days of life, the rats received (PhSe)2 (1mg/kg/day) or vehicle by the intragastric route for 7 days. The spontaneous locomotor activity (LAM), elevated plus maze test (EPM) and contextual fear conditioning test (CFC) as well as neurochemical ([(3)H]GABA and [(3)H]5-HT uptake) and molecular analyses (Akt and p-Akt and BDNF levels) were carried out after treatment with (PhSe)2. Neonatal exposure to MSG increased all anxiogenic parameters in LAM, EPM and CFC tests. MSG increased GABA and 5-HT uptake in hippocampus of rats, without changing uptake in cerebral cortex. The levels of BDNF and p-Akt were reduced in hippocampus of rats treated with MSG. The administration of (PhSe)2 to rats reversed all behavioral anxiogenic parameters altered by MSG. The increase in hippocampal GABA and 5-HT uptake induced by MSG was reversed by (PhSe)2. (PhSe)2 reversed the reduction in hippocampal BDNF and p-Akt levels induced by MSG. In conclusion, the anxiolytic-like action of (PhSe)2 in rats exposed to MSG during their neonatal period is related to its modulation of hippocampal GABA and 5-HT uptake as well as the BDNF-Akt pathway. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Latent-time estimation for late cutaneous and subcutaneous radiation reactions in a single-follow-up clinical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thames, H.D.; Bentzen, S.M.; Overgaard, M.; Danish Cancer Society, Aarhus

    1989-01-01

    In this paper, an analysis of the fractionation sensitivity and latency of subcutaneous fibrosis and telangiectasia in a clinical series is presented. The series comprised 163 breast cancer patients who, from 1978 to 1980, received postmastectomy irradiation delivered in 12 fractions, with 2 fractions per week over a period of 37 to 46 days. The total dose was specified either as a maximum absorbed dose of 51.36 Gy, or as a minimum target dose of 36.6 Gy specified at the level of the mid-axilla. from 1981 to 1982, 66 patients received a minimum target dose of 40.92 Gy in 22 fractions administered as 5 fractions per week over 29 to 35 days. Late complications were evaluated prospectively at a single follow-up after a minimum observation time of 16 months. The clinical endpoints analyzed were subcutaneous fibrosis and telangiectasia. The data were analyzed using a mixture model that incorporates both dose fractionation and latency effects. The length of time to expression of 90% of the ultimate frequency of moderate or severe complications was 3.2 years (95% confidence limits (c.l.) [2.3,3.9] years) and 4.7 years (95% c.l. [4.0,.8] years) for fibrosis and telangiectasia respectively, while the α/β ratios were 1.9 Gy (95% c.l. [0.8,3.0] Gy) and 3.7 Gy (95% c.l. [0.2,47] Gy), respectively. For subcutaneous fibrosis the time to reach a specific grade of reaction increases with the grade, thus being consistent with the clinical impression that fibrosis proresses in severity over time. If latency and censoring effects are unaccounted for, serious underestimates of the ultimate frequency of radiation complications in groups with incomplete follow-up may result. (author). 13 refs.; 4 figs.; 5 tabs

  3. Continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion in diabetes: patient populations, safety, efficacy, and pharmacoeconomics

    OpenAIRE

    Pozzilli, Paolo; Battelino, Tadej; Danne, Thomas; Hovorka, Roman; Jarosz?Chobot, Przemyslawa; Renard, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Summary The level of glycaemic control necessary to achieve optimal short?term and long?term outcomes in subjects with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) typically requires intensified insulin therapy using multiple daily injections or continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion. For continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion, the insulins of choice are the rapid?acting insulin analogues, insulin aspart, insulin lispro and insulin glulisine. The advantages of continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion ...

  4. Solar energy receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Jacob

    1978-01-01

    An improved long-life design for solar energy receivers provides for greatly reduced thermally induced stress and permits the utilization of less expensive heat exchanger materials while maintaining receiver efficiencies in excess of 85% without undue expenditure of energy to circulate the working fluid. In one embodiment, the flow index for the receiver is first set as close as practical to a value such that the Graetz number yields the optimal heat transfer coefficient per unit of pumping energy, in this case, 6. The convective index for the receiver is then set as closely as practical to two times the flow index so as to obtain optimal efficiency per unit mass of material.

  5. Cryogenic microwave channelized receiver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rauscher, C.; Pond, J.M.; Tait, G.B.

    1996-01-01

    The channelized receiver being presented demonstrates the use of high temperature superconductor technology in a microwave system setting where superconductor, microwave-monolithic-integrated-circuit, and hybrid-integrated-circuit components are united in one package and cooled to liquid-nitrogen temperatures. The receiver consists of a superconducting X-band four-channel demultiplexer with 100-MHz-wide channels, four commercial monolithically integrated mixers, and four custom-designed hybrid-circuit detectors containing heterostructure ramp diodes. The composite receiver unit has been integrated into the payload of the second-phase NRL high temperature superconductor space experiment (HTSSE-II). Prior to payload assembly, the response characteristics of the receiver were measured as functions of frequency, temperature, and drive levels. The article describes the circuitry, discusses the key issues related to design and implementation, and summarizes the experimental results

  6. Alexandrite Lidar Receiver

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wilkerson, Thomas

    2000-01-01

    ...". The chosen vendor, Orca Photonics, In. (Redmond, WA), in close collaboration with USU personnel, built a portable, computerized lidar system that not only is suitable as a receiver for a near IR alexandrite laser, but also contains an independent Nd...

  7. Receiver Gain Modulation Circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Hollis; Racette, Paul; Walker, David; Gu, Dazhen

    2011-01-01

    A receiver gain modulation circuit (RGMC) was developed that modulates the power gain of the output of a radiometer receiver with a test signal. As the radiometer receiver switches between calibration noise references, the test signal is mixed with the calibrated noise and thus produces an ensemble set of measurements from which ensemble statistical analysis can be used to extract statistical information about the test signal. The RGMC is an enabling technology of the ensemble detector. As a key component for achieving ensemble detection and analysis, the RGMC has broad aeronautical and space applications. The RGMC can be used to test and develop new calibration algorithms, for example, to detect gain anomalies, and/or correct for slow drifts that affect climate-quality measurements over an accelerated time scale. A generalized approach to analyzing radiometer system designs yields a mathematical treatment of noise reference measurements in calibration algorithms. By treating the measurements from the different noise references as ensemble samples of the receiver state, i.e. receiver gain, a quantitative description of the non-stationary properties of the underlying receiver fluctuations can be derived. Excellent agreement has been obtained between model calculations and radiometric measurements. The mathematical formulation is equivalent to modulating the gain of a stable receiver with an externally generated signal and is the basis for ensemble detection and analysis (EDA). The concept of generating ensemble data sets using an ensemble detector is similar to the ensemble data sets generated as part of ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD) with exception of a key distinguishing factor. EEMD adds noise to the signal under study whereas EDA mixes the signal with calibrated noise. It is mixing with calibrated noise that permits the measurement of temporal-functional variability of uncertainty in the underlying process. The RGMC permits the evaluation of EDA by

  8. Mobilization of stem cell with granulocyte-colony stimulating factor promotes recovery after traumatic brain injury in rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Marzban

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This study was designed to investigate the effects of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF administration in rats for 6 weeks after traumatic brain injury (TBI. Methods: Adult male Wistar rats (n = 30 were injured with controlled cortical impact device and divided into four groups. The treatment groups (n = 10 each were injected subcutaneously with recombinant human G-CSF. Vehicle group (n=10 received phosphate buffered saline (PBS and only Brdu intraperitoneally. Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU was used for mitotic labeling. Experimental rats were injected intraperitoneally with BrdU. Rats were killed at 6th week after traumatic brain injury. Neurological functional evaluation of animals was performed before and after injury using neurological severity scores (NSS. Animals were sacrificed 42 days after TBI and brain sections were stained using Brdu immunohistochemistry. Results: Statistically significant improvement in functional outcome was observed in treatment groups when compared with control (p<0.01. This benefit was visible 7 days after TBI and persisted until 42 days (end of trial. Histological analysis showed that Brdu cell positive was more in the lesion boundary zone at treatment animal group than all injected animals. Discussion: We believe that G-CSF therapeutic protocol reported here represents an attractive strategy for the development of a clinically significant noninvasive traumatic brain injury therapy.

  9. Corn silk extract improves benign prostatic hyperplasia in experimental rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, So Ra; Ha, Ae Wha; Choi, Hyun Ji; Kim, Sun Lim; Kang, Hyeon Jung; Kim, Myung Hwan; Kim, Woo Kyoung

    2017-10-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effect of a corn silk extract on improving benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). The experimental animals, 6-week-old male Wistar rats, were divided into sham-operated control (Sham) and experimental groups. The experimental group, which underwent orchiectomy and received subcutaneous injection of 10 mg/kg of testosterone propionate to induce BPH, was divided into a Testo Only group that received only testosterone, a Testo+Fina group that received testosterone and 5 mg/kg finasteride, a Testo+CSE10 group that received testosterone and 10 mg/kg of corn silk extract, and a Testo+CSE100 group that received testosterone and 100 mg/kg of corn silk extract. Prostate weight and concentrations of dihydrotestosterone (DHT), 5α-reductase 2 (5α-R2), and prostate specific antigen (PSA) in serum or prostate tissue were determined. The mRNA expressions of 5α-R2 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) in prostate tissue were also measured. Compared to the Sham group, prostate weight was significantly higher in the Testo Only group and decreased significantly in the Testo+Fina, Testo+CSE10, and Testo+CSE100 groups ( P corn silk extract treatment improved BPH symptoms by inhibiting the mRNA expression of 5α-R2 and decreasing the amount of 5α-R2, DHT, and PSA in serum and prostate tissue.

  10. Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) does not reduce subcutaneous adipose tissue by local adipocyte injury but rather by modulation of systemic lipid metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankowski, Marek; Gawrych, Mariusz; Adamska, Urszula; Ciescinski, Jakub; Serafin, Zbigniew; Czajkowski, Rafal

    2017-02-01

    Low-level laser (light) therapy (LLLT) has been applied recently to body contouring. However the mechanism of LLLT-induced reduction of subcutaneous adipose tissue thickness has not been elucidated and proposed hypotheses are highly controversial. Non-obese volunteers were subject to 650nm LLLT therapy. Each patient received 6 treatments 2-3 days apart to one side of the abdomen. The contralateral side was left untreated and served as control. Subjects' abdominal adipose tissue thickness was measured by ultrasound imaging at baseline and 2 weeks post-treatment. Our study is to the best of our knowledge, the largest split-abdomen study employing subcutaneous abdominal fat imaging. We could not show a statistically significant reduction of abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue by LLLT therapy. Paradoxically when the measurements of the loss of fat thickness on treated side was corrected for change in thickness on non treated side, we have observed that in 8 out of 17 patients LLLT increased adipose tissue thickness. In two patients severe side effect occurred as a result of treatment: one patient developed ulceration within appendectomy scar, the other over the posterior superior iliac spine. The paradoxical net increase in subcutaneous fat thickness observed in some of our patients is a rationale against liquefactive and transitory pore models of LLLT-induced adipose tissue reduction. LLLT devices with laser diode panels applied directly on the skin are not as safe as devices with treatment panels separated from the patient's skin.

  11. The Relation between Visceral and Subcutaneous Fat to Bone Mass among Egyptian Children and Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahar A. El-Masry

    2014-12-01

    CONCLUSIONS: Visceral and subcutaneous fat had significant positive association with bone mass in children; males and females respectively. On the contrary such association disappeared during adolescence.

  12. Subcutaneous Administration of Bortezomib in Combination with Thalidomide and Dexamethasone for Treatment of Newly Diagnosed Multiple Myeloma Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shenghao Wu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To investigate the efficacy and safety of the treatment of the newly diagnosed multiple myeloma (MM patients with the therapy of subcutaneous (subQ administration of bortezomib and dexamethasone plus thalidomide (VTD regimen. Methods. A total of 60 newly diagnosed MM patients were analyzed. 30 patients received improved VTD regimen (improved VTD group with the subQ injection of bortezomib and the other 30 patients received conventional VTD regimen (VTD group.The efficacy and safety of two groups were analyzed retrospectively. Results. The overall remission (OR after eight cycles of treatment was 73.3% in the VTD group and 76.7% in the improved VTD group (P>0.05. No significant differences in time to 1-year estimate of overall survival (72% versus 75%, P=0.848 and progression-free survival (median 22 months versus 25 months; P=0.725 between two groups. The main toxicities related to therapy were leukopenia, neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, asthenia, fatigue, and renal and urinary disorders. Grade 3 and higher adverse events were significantly less common in the improved VTD group (50% than VTD group (80%, P=0.015. Conclusions. The improved VTD regimen by changing bortezomib from intravenous administration to subcutaneous injection has noninferior efficacy to standard VTD regimen, with an improved safety profile and reduced adverse events.

  13. Subcutaneous immunoglobulin preserves muscle strength in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markvardsen, Lars Høj; Harbo, Thomas; Sindrup, Søren Hein

    2014-01-01

    evaluated after 3, 6 and 12 months. Primary end-points were changes in muscle strength evaluated by isokinetic dynamometry in four affected muscle groups and a composite score of muscle performance and function tests, including Medical Research Council (MRC) score, grip strength, 40-m walking test (40-MWT......BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Subcutaneous immunoglobulin (SCIG) is superior to placebo treatment for maintenance of muscle strength during 12 weeks in patients with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP). The present study evaluated whether SCIG preserves muscle strength for 1 year......) and nine-hole peg test (9-HPT). Secondary end-points were changes of each of the listed parameters at each time point as well as an overall disability sum score (ODSS). RESULTS: The dose of SCIG was significantly unaltered during the follow-up period. Overall the isokinetic dynamometry value increased by 7...

  14. Subcutaneous blood flow in early male pattern baldness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klemp, P.; Peters, K.; Hansted, B.

    1989-01-01

    The subcutaneous blood flow (SBF) was measured by the 133 Xe washout method in the scalp of 14 patients with early male pattern baldness. Control experiments were performed in 14 normal haired men matched for age. The SBF in the scalp of the normal individuals was about 10 times higher than previously reported SBF values in other anatomical regions. In patients with early male pattern baldness, SBF was 2.6 times lower than the values found in the normal individuals (13.7 +/- 9.6 vs 35.7 +/- 10.5 ml/100 g/min-1). This difference was statistically significant (p much less than 0.001). A reduced nutritive blood flow to the hair follicles might be a significant event in the pathogenesis of early male pattern baldness

  15. Medical image of the week: subcutaneous calcification in dermatomyositis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natt B

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A 36-year old woman was referred to our Interstitial Lung Disease (ILD clinic for evaluation of dyspnea. A high-resolution CT scan of the chest showed perivascular reticular and ground glass opacities with air trapping, consistent with non-specific interstitial pneumonitis (Figure 1. She was diagnosed with connective tissue associated ILD. On review of previous images extensive subcutaneous calcifications were seen (Figure 2. Calcinosis is an uncommon manifestation of dermatomyositis in adults (1. It is usually seen around areas of frequent trauma like the hands and elbows. In her case, a pelvic inflammatory disease may have been a trigger for this calcinosis. Calcinosis is a difficult complication to treat with some success seen with diltiazem, aluminum hydroxide, and even alendronate in children. Surgical excision may be required in some cases.

  16. Testosterone therapy decreases subcutaneous fat and adiponectin in aging men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, L.; Højlund, K.; Hougaard, D. M.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Testosterone therapy increases lean body mass and decreases total fat mass in aging men with low normal testosterone levels. The major challenge is, however, to determine whether the metabolic consequences of testosterone therapy are overall positive. We have previously reported that 6......-month testosterone therapy did not improve insulin sensitivity. We investigated the effect of testosterone therapy on regional body fat distribution and on the levels of the insulin-sensitizing adipokine, adiponectin, in aging men with low normal bioavailable testosterone levels. DESIGN: A randomized......, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study on 6-month testosterone treatment (gel) in 38 men, aged 60–78 years, with bioavailable testosterone 94 cm. METHODS: Central fat mass (CFM) and lower extremity fat mass (LEFM) were measured by dual X-ray absorptiometry. Subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (SAT...

  17. Subcutaneous infection by Ochroconis mirabilis in an immunocompetent patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongmei Shi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the taxonomy of Ochroconis (Ascomycota, Pezizomycotina, Venturiales, Sympoventuriaceae has been revised with the recognition of an additional genus, Verruconis. Ochroconis comprises mesophilic saprobes that occasionally infect vertebrates which mostly are cold-blooded, while Verruconis contains thermophilic species which is a neurotrope in humans and birds. On the basis of molecular data it is noted that only a single Ochroconis species regularly infects immunocompetent human hosts. Here we report a subcutaneous infection due to Ochroconis mirabilis in a 50-year-old immunocompetent female patient. In vitro antifungal susceptibility tests revealed that terbinafine was the most effective drug. The patient was successfully cured with oral administration of terbinafine 250 mg daily in combination with 3 times of topical ALA-photodynamic therapy for 9 months.

  18. [Value of aspiration biopsy of subcutaneous fat in amyloidosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponce, P; Carvalho, F; Coelho, A

    1986-01-01

    Fine-needle aspiration of subcutaneous fat (FNAF) was performed in 24 patients, 12 with previously diagnosed amyloidosis presenting with proteinuria or nephrotic syndrome, and 12 presenting a nephrotic syndrome without amyloidosis on renal biopsy. FNAF was positive in 10 of 12 patients with amyloidosis (sensitivity: 83%) and negative in 12 of 12 patients with non-amyloid nephrotic syndrome (specificity: 100%). Considering a 2.5 to 10% prevalence of amyloidosis in adult patients with proteinuria or nephrotic syndrome, a positive FNAF is diagnostic of amyloidosis, and a negative FNAF rules out the diagnosis with a probability of 98 to 99%. FNAF is a simple and safe method which can be useful in patients who cannot undergo a renal biopsy.

  19. Subcutaneous mucor zygomycosis with potential life-threatening visceral complication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angeline

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A mass in right supraclavicular fossa in a diabetic patient mimicking tuberculosis (TB adenitis that ultimately proved to be subcutaneous zygomycosis. A high degree of clinical suspicion is needed for diagnosis especially when these lesions occur at typical sites for the more common indolent infections like TB. This case is being presented not only because of its rarity, but to emphasize the role of early diagnosis and appropriate treatment to prevent serious complications due to proximity to major structures. Fluconazole was used despite not being the ideal drug, solely due to cost constraints. Our patient responded well. However, we do emphasize that response to fluconazole is the exception rather than the rule.

  20. Single subcutaneous dosing of cefovecin in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bakker, J.; Thuesen, Line Risager; Braskamp, G.

    2011-01-01

    was to determine whether cefovecin is a suitable antibiotic to prevent skin wound infection in rhesus monkeys. Therefore, the pharmacokinetics (PK) of cefovecin after a single subcutaneous injection at 8 mg/kg bodyweight in four rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) and sensitivity of bacterial isolates from fresh skin...... wounds were determined. After administration, blood, urine, and feces were collected, and concentrations of cefovecin were determined. Further, the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) for bacteria isolated from fresh skin wounds of monkeys during a health control program were determined. The mean...... maximum plasma concentration (C(max) ) of cefovecin was 78 µg/mL and was achieved after 57 min. The mean apparent long elimination half-life (t½) was 6.6 h and excretion occurred mainly via urine. The MIC for the majority of the bacteria examined was >100 µg/mL. The PK of cefovecin in rhesus monkeys...

  1. Guiding principles of subcutaneous immunotherapy for allergic rhinitis in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Yoshitaka; Ohta, Nobuo; Okano, Mitsuhiro; Kamijo, Atsushi; Gotoh, Minoru; Suzuki, Motohiko; Takeno, Sachio; Terada, Tetsuya; Hanazawa, Toyoyuki; Horiguchi, Shigetoshi; Honda, Kohei; Matsune, Shoji; Yamada, Takechiyo; Yuta, Atsushi; Nakayama, Takeo; Fujieda, Shigeharu

    2014-02-01

    In anticipation of the development of guidelines for antigen-specific subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT), we present recommendations that can serve as guiding principles based on a review of the scientific literature. Clinical questions (CQs) concerning SCIT were prepared. Literature searches for publications between January 1990 and February 2011 were performed in PubMed, the Cochrane Library, and Japana Centra Revuo Medicina Web version 4. Qualified studies were analyzed and the results were evaluated, consolidated, and codified. We present answers for 13 CQs on the indications, methods, effectiveness and mechanisms of SCIT, with evidence-based recommendations. The guiding principles are intended to be applied to children (≤15 years old) and adults (≥16 years old) with allergic rhinitis (AR). These principles can be used by otorhinolaryngologists for diagnosis of AR, evaluation of severity and rhinoscopic findings, performance of antigen challenge tests, and management of systemic anaphylactic reactions associated with SCIT. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. [Continuous subcutaneous infusion in palliative care, an undervalued method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Marum, R J; de Vogel, E M; Zylicz, Z

    2002-11-23

    Three patients, 2 men aged 55 and 54 years and a woman aged 86 years, were admitted to hospital for treatment of symptoms resulting from terminal disease (pain, agitation, nausea etc.). In all three patients, continuous subcutaneous infusion (CSI) of medication was successfully used to control the symptoms. Compared with intravenous infusion, the technique of CSI is easy to learn and is associated with fewer complications. Its reliability and ease-of-use make it a technique that can be used not only in a hospital setting, but also in general practice and nursing homes. Medication used in palliative care (e.g. morphine, haloperidol, metoclopramide, levomepromazine, midazolam) can often be administered safely by CSI. In palliative care, where goals should be accomplished with minimal burden to the patient, CSI must be considered the technique of choice in patients who are unable to swallow their medication.

  3. Involvement of the cervical sympathetic nervous system in the changes of calcium homeostasis during turpentine oil-induced stress in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, J E; Ladizesky, M G; Keller Sarmiento, M I; Cardinali, D P

    1993-03-01

    Hypocalcemia is a common finding during stress. The objective of this study was to examine: (a) the changes in circulating calcium, parathyroid hormone (PTH) and calcitonin (CT) concentration in rats stressed by being given a subcutaneous injection of turpentine oil, and (b) the involvement of the sympathetic cervical pathway in stress-induced changes of calcium homeostasis. Four hours after receiving turpentine oil or vehicle, rats were subjected either to hypocalcemia, by being given EDTA intraperitoneally, or to hypercalcemia, by being injected CaCl2 intraperitoneally. Significant changes in serum calcium (10% decrease), serum PTH (28% increase) and CT levels (40% decrease) were observed in stressed rats. EDTA administration brought about a significantly greater hypocalcemia, and a higher PTH secretory response in turpentine oil-stressed rats. During stress, the increase of serum calcium after CaCl2 was significantly smaller, and the rise of CT was greater than in controls. In the case of CT the changes were still observed in rats subjected to superior cervical ganglionectomy (SCGx) 14 days earlier. In the case of PTH, the increase found in stressed rats, but not the augmented response after EDTA, was blunted by SCGx. The potentiation of hypocalcemia brought about by turpentine oil was no longer observed in SCGx rats. In vehicle-treated controls, SCGx delayed PTH response to hypocalcemia, but did not affect the increased response of CT to CaCl2 challenge. The results indicate that a number of changes in calcium homeostasis arise during turpentine oil stress in rats. SCGx was effective to modify the set point for PTH release, but played a minor role in affecting the augmentation of CT release during stress.

  4. Neuroprotective effects of recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) in a rat model of anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (rAION).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chung-Hsing; Huang, Tzu-Lun; Huang, Shun-Ping; Tsai, Rong-Kung

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the neuroprotective effects of recombinant human granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF), as administered in a rat model of anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (rAION). Using laser-induced photoactivation of intravenously administered Rose Bengal in the optic nerve head of 60 adult male Wistar rats, an anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (rAION) was inducted. Rats either immediately received G-CSF (subcutaneous injections) or phosphate buffered saline (PBS) for 5 consecutive days. Rats were euthanized at 4 weeks post infarct. Density of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) was counted using retrograde labeling of Fluoro-gold. Visual function was assessed by flash visual-evoked potentials (FVEP) at 4 weeks. TUNEL assay in the retinal sections and immunohistochemical staining of ED1 (marker of macrophage/microglia) were investigated in the optic nerve (ON) specimens. The RGC densities in the central and mid-peripheral retinas in the G-CSF treated rats were significantly higher than those of the PBS-treated rats (survival rate was 71.4% vs. 33.2% in the central retina; 61.8% vs. 22.7% in the mid-peripheral retina, respectively; both p optic nerve sections of G-CSF-treated rats (16 ± 6/HPF vs. 35 ± 10/HPF; p = 0.016). In conclusion, administration of G-CSF is neuroprotective in the rat model of anterior ischemic optic neuropathy, as demonstrated both structurally by RGC density and functionally by FVEP. G-CSF may work via the dual actions of anti-apoptosis for RGC surviving as well as anti-inflammation in the optic nerves as evidenced by less infiltration of ED1-povitive cells. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Side effects during subcutaneous immunotherapy in children with allergic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tophof, Max A; Hermanns, Anne; Adelt, Thomas; Eberle, Peter; Gronke, Christine; Friedrichs, Frank; Knecht, Roland; Mönter, Ernst; Schöpfer, Helmut; Schwerk, Nicolaus; Steinbach, Jörg; Umpfenbach, Hans-Ulrich; Weißhaar, Christian; Wilmsmeyer, Brigitte; Bufe, Albrecht

    2018-05-01

    Allergen-specific immunotherapy is the only causal form of therapy for IgE-mediated allergic diseases. Subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT) is considered safe and well tolerated in adults, yet there is less evidence of safety in the pediatric population. A non-interventional prospective observing longitudinal study was carried out to determine the incidence of local and systemic side effects by SCIT, routinely performed in pediatric patients. A total of 581 pediatric patients were observed in 18 study centers between March 2012 and October 2014, recording 8640 treatments and 10 015 injections. A total of 54.6% of the patients experienced immediate local side effects at least once; delayed local side effects were seen in 56.1%. Immediate systemic adverse reactions occurred in 2.2% of patients; 7.4% experienced delayed systemic side effects. However, severe systemic side effects (grade III in the classification of Ring and Messmer) were seen in 0.03% of all treatments, all appearing within 30 minutes after the injections. No grade IV reactions were observed. In addition, many potential risk factors were investigated, yet only a few were found to be associated with the occurrence of side effects. Subcutaneous immunotherapy is a safe form of therapy in pediatric patients, with similar rates of local side effects compared to adult patients and low rates of severe systemic side effects. However, local and systemic reactions occurring later than 30 minutes after injection were observed more often than expected, which makes it essential to be attentive on behalf of pediatricians, patients, and parents. © 2017 EAACI and John Wiley and Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley and Sons Ltd.

  6. 'Chaos' in superregenerative receivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Commercon, Jean-Claude; Badard, Robert

    2005-01-01

    The superregenerative principle has been known since the early 1920s. The circuit is extremely simple and extremely sensitive. Today, superheterodyne receivers generally supplant superregenerative receivers in most applications because there are several undesirable characteristics: poor selectivity, reradiation, etc. Superregenerative receivers undergo a revival in recent papers for wireless systems, where low cost and very low power consumption are relevant: house/building meters (such as water, energy, gas counter), personal computer environment (keyboard, mouse), etc. Another drawback is the noise level which is higher than that of a well-designed superheterodyne receiver; without an antenna input signal, the output of the receiver hears in an earphone as a waterfall noise; this sound principally is the inherent input noise amplified and detected by the circuit; however, when the input noise is negligible with respect of an antenna input signal, we are faced to an other source of 'noise' self-generated by the superregenerative working. The main objective of this paper concerns this self-generated noise coming from an exponential growing followed by a re-injection process for which the final state is a function of the phase of the input signal

  7. Effect of Nimodipine on Morphine-related Withdrawal Syndrome in Rat Model: An Observational Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Pravash Ranjan; Barik, Mayadhar; Ray, Subrata Basu

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To observe the effect of L-type calcium channel blocker like nimodipine on morphine's withdrawal when it was administered continuously along with morphine versus a single bolus dose of nimodipine, which was administered at the end of the experiment before the precipitation of withdrawal reaction in morphine-dependent rats. Materials and Methods: Four groups of adult male Wistar rats were rendered morphine dependent by subcutaneous injections of morphine at a dose of 10 mg/kg for 10 days. Nimodipine 10 mg/kg intraperitoneally (ip) administered to one group once daily before morphine administration in the entire experimental period, and another group received nimodipine only once at the end of the experiment as a single bolus dose 2 mg/kg before the administration of naloxone. Naloxone 3 mg/kg was administered ip to all the groups to precipitate withdrawal reactions. The withdrawal reactions were evaluated and scored as per the Gellert and Holtzman global withdrawal rating scale. Results: Nimodipine when administered as a single bolus dose before naloxone administration in morphine-dependant rats reduced the features of withdrawal reactions more effectively than continuous administration of nimodipine along with morphine throughout the experimental period. Conclusion: We discovered that nimodipine helps in attenuating the severity of morphine withdrawal having potential role encountered during pharmacotherapy with morphine management of opioid dependence, well memory, impairement, cell signaling and phosphorylation of neuron. PMID:28553371

  8. Methotrexate-induced intestinal mucositis delays gastric emptying and gastrointestinal transit of liquids in awake rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro M. G. Soares

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Methotrexate and other anticancer agents can induce intestinal mucositis, which is one of the most common limiting factor that prevent further dose escalation of the methotrexate. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the gastric emptying and gastrointestinal transit of liquids in methotrexate-induced intestinal mucositis. METHODS: Wistar rats received methotrexate (2.5 mg/kg/day for 3 days, subcutaneously or saline. After 1, 3 and 7 days, sections of duodenum, jejunum and ileum were removed for assessment of epithelial damage and myeloperoxidase activity (biochemical marker of granulocyte infiltration. Others rats were pre-treated with methotrexate or saline, gavage-fed after 3 or 7 days with a standard test liquid meal, and sacrificed 10, 20 or 30-min later. Gastric and small intestine dye recoveries were measured by spectrophotometry. RESULTS: After 3 days of methotrexate, there was an epithelial intestinal damage in all segments, with myeloperoxidase activity increase in both in duodenum and ileum. Seven days after methotrexate, we observed a complete reversion of this intestinal damage. There was an increase in gastric dye recoveries after 10, 20, and 30-min post-prandial intervals after 3 days, but not after 7 days, of methotrexate. Intestine dye recoveries were decreased in the first and second segments at 10 min, in the third at 20 min, and in the second and third at 30 min, only after 3 days of methotrexate treatment. CONCLUSION: Methotrexate-induced intestinal mucositis delays gastric emptying and gastrointestinal transit of liquids in awake rats.

  9. Erythromycin potentiates PR interval prolonging effect of verapamil in the rat: A pharmacodynamic drug interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dakhel, Yaman; Jamali, Fakhreddin

    2006-01-01

    Calcium channel blockers and macrolide antibiotics account for many drug interactions. Anecdotal reports suggest interactions between the two resulting in severe side effects. We studied the interaction between verapamil and erythromycin in the rat to see whether it occurs at the pharmacokinetics or pharmacodynamic level. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats received doses of 1 mg/kg verapamil or 100 mg/kg erythromycin alone or in combination (n = 6/group). Serial blood samples (0-6 h) were taken for determination of the drug concentrations using HPLC. Electrocardiograms were recorded (0-6 h) through subcutaneously inserted lead II. Binding of the drugs to plasma proteins was studied using spiked plasma. Verapamil prolonged PR but not QT interval. Erythromycin prolonged QT but not PR interval. The combination resulted in a significant increase in PR interval prolongation and AV node blocks but did not further prolong QT interval. Pharmacokinetics and protein binding of neither drug were altered by the other. Our rat data confirm the anecdotal human case reports that combination of erythromycin and verapamil can result in potentiation of the cardiovascular response. The interaction appears to be at the pharmacodynamic rather than pharmacokinetic level hence may be extrapolated to other calcium channel antagonists

  10. Treatment with subcutaneous and transdermal fentanyl: results from a population pharmacokinetic study in cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oosten, Astrid W; Abrantes, João A; Jönsson, Siv; de Bruijn, Peter; Kuip, Evelien J M; Falcão, Amílcar; van der Rijt, Carin C D; Mathijssen, Ron H J

    2016-04-01

    Transdermal fentanyl is effective for the treatment of moderate to severe cancer-related pain but is unsuitable for fast titration. In this setting, continuous subcutaneous fentanyl may be used. As data on the pharmacokinetics of continuous subcutaneous fentanyl are lacking, we studied the pharmacokinetics of subcutaneous and transdermal fentanyl. Furthermore, we evaluated rotations from the subcutaneous to the transdermal route. Fifty-two patients treated with subcutaneous and/or transdermal fentanyl for moderate to severe cancer-related pain participated. A population pharmacokinetic model was developed and evaluated using non-linear mixed-effects modelling. For rotations from subcutaneous to transdermal fentanyl, a 1:1 dose conversion ratio was used while the subcutaneous infusion was continued for 12 h (with a 50 % tapering after 6 h). A 6-h scheme with 50 % tapering after 3 h was simulated using the final model. A one-compartment model with first-order elimination and separate first-order absorption processes for each route adequately described the data. The estimated apparent clearance of fentanyl was 49.6 L/h; the absorption rate constant for subcutaneous and transdermal fentanyl was 0.0358 and 0.0135 h(-1), respectively. Moderate to large inter-individual and inter-occasion variability was found. Around rotation from subcutaneous to transdermal fentanyl, measured and simulated plasma fentanyl concentrations rose and increasing side effects were observed. We describe the pharmacokinetics of subcutaneous and transdermal fentanyl in one patient cohort and report several findings that are relevant for clinical practice. Further research is warranted to study the optimal scheme for rotations from the subcutaneous to the transdermal route.

  11. Mexamine used to decrease radiation damage to Wistar rat embryogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palyga, G.F.; Zakoshchikov, K.F.

    1987-01-01

    In experiments with 330 Wistar rats experiencing their pregnancy and 1430 neonatal rats of the first generation a study was made on the toxicity and radioprotective efficiency of a single subcutaneous injection of 10 mg/kg mexamine on days 3, 11 and 19 pregnancy. The agent caused various abnormalities in pregnancy, delivery and postnatal development of the offspring of nonirradiated animals, and it was almost ineffective when used for the prevention of radiation damages during the anrnatal ontogenesis

  12. In Vitro Toxicity of Aluminum Nanoparticles in Rat Alveolar Macrophages

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-03-01

    including intravenous, intramuscular , and subcutaneous injections, and including oral and ocular administration (Kreuter, 1991). NPs allow delivery of... NANOPARTICLES IN RAT ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES THESIS Andrew J Wagner, 1st Lt, USAF AFIT/GES/ENV/06M-06 DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE AIR UNIVERSITY ORCE...TOXICITY OF ALUMINUM NANOPARTICLES IN RAT ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES THESIS Presented to the Faculty Department of Systems and Engineering

  13. Interaction of salicylate and noise results in mortality of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, J F; Jastreboff, P J

    1989-08-15

    Survival as a function of salicylate dose and the intensity of environmental noise was investigated in 150 adult female pigmented rats. Rats were assigned to groups (n = 6/group) defined by combinations of salicylate levels from 0-(saline) to 300 mg/kg, injected subcutaneously, and noise levels from ambient noise to 98 dB SPL, presented daily for 10-h periods for up to 17 days. Mortality occurred in groups exposed to the higher combinations of salicylate and noise.

  14. Solar thermal central receivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vant-Hull, L.L.

    1993-01-01

    Market issues, environmental impact, and technology issues related to the Solar Central Receiver concept are addressed. The rationale for selection of the preferred configuration and working fluid are presented as the result of a joint utility-industry analysis. A $30 million conversion of Solar One to an external molten salt receiver would provide the intermediate step to a commercial demonstration plant. The first plant in this series could produce electricity at 11.2 cents/kWhr and the seventh at 8.2 cents/kWhr, completely competitive with projected costs of new utility plants in 1992

  15. Wideband CMOS receivers

    CERN Document Server

    Oliveira, Luis

    2015-01-01

    This book demonstrates how to design a wideband receiver operating in current mode, in which the noise and non-linearity are reduced, implemented in a low cost single chip, using standard CMOS technology.  The authors present a solution to remove the transimpedance amplifier (TIA) block and connect directly the mixer’s output to a passive second-order continuous-time Σ∆ analog to digital converter (ADC), which operates in current-mode. These techniques enable the reduction of area, power consumption, and cost in modern CMOS receivers.

  16. The adverse reaction of chitooligosaccharides in rats | Liu | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The adverse reaction of chitooligosaccharides in rats. A Liu, K Sun, C Si, Z Zhu, W Zhang. Abstract. In this study, hair removal effect after subcutaneous injection of chitooligosaccharides in mice was investigated. Different methods of observation of hair removal, tissue slices and detection of hematological parameters, like ...

  17. Receiver gain function: the actual NMR receiver gain

    OpenAIRE

    Mo, Huaping; Harwood, John S.; Raftery, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    The observed NMR signal size depends on the receiver gain parameter. We propose a receiver gain function to characterize how much the raw FID is amplified by the receiver as a function of the receiver gain setting. Although the receiver is linear for a fixed gain setting, the actual gain of the receiver may differ from what the gain setting suggests. Nevertheless, for a given receiver, we demonstrate that the receiver gain function can be calibrated. Such a calibration enables accurate compar...

  18. Campus Projects Receiving "Earmarks."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schonberger, Benjamin

    1991-01-01

    Specific campus projects that Congress has directed federal agencies to support this year at over 120 colleges and universities are listed. The agencies neither requested support nor sponsored merit-based competitions for the awards. In some cases, the institutions have a history of receiving special federal treatment. (MSE)

  19. Carvedilol alleviates adjuvant-induced arthritis and subcutaneous air pouch edema: Modulation of oxidative stress and inflammatory mediators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arab, Hany H.; El-Sawalhi, Maha M.

    2013-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a systemic inflammatory disease with cardiovascular complications as the leading cause of morbidity. Carvedilol is an adrenergic antagonist which has been safely used in treatment of several cardiovascular disorders. Given that carvedilol has powerful antioxidant/anti-inflammatory properties, we aimed to investigate its protective potential against arthritis that may add further benefits for its clinical usefulness especially in RA patients with concomitant cardiovascular disorders. Two models were studied in the same rat; adjuvant arthritis and subcutaneous air pouch edema. Carvedilol (10 mg/kg/day p.o. for 21 days) effectively suppressed inflammation in both models with comparable efficacy to the standard anti-inflammatory diclofenac (5 mg/kg/day p.o.). Notably, carvedilol inhibited paw edema and abrogated the leukocyte invasion to air pouch exudates. The latter observation was confirmed by the histopathological assessment of the pouch lining that revealed mitigation of immuno-inflammatory cell influx. Carvedilol reduced/normalized oxidative stress markers (lipid peroxides, nitric oxide and protein thiols) and lowered the release of inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and IL-6), and eicosanoids (PGE 2 and LTB 4 ) in sera and exudates of arthritic rats. Interestingly, carvedilol, per se, didn't present any effect on assessed biochemical parameters in normal rats. Together, the current study highlights evidences for the promising anti-arthritic effects of carvedilol that could be mediated through attenuation of leukocyte migration, alleviation of oxidative stress and suppression of proinflammatory cytokines and eicosanoids. - Highlights: ► Carvedilol possesses promising anti-arthritic properties. ► It markedly suppressed inflammation in adjuvant arthritis and air pouch edema. ► It abrogated the leukocyte invasion to air pouch exudates and linings. ► It reduced/normalized oxidative stress markers in sera and exudates of arthritic rats

  20. Carvedilol alleviates adjuvant-induced arthritis and subcutaneous air pouch edema: Modulation of oxidative stress and inflammatory mediators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arab, Hany H., E-mail: hany_h_arab@yahoo.com [Biochemistry Division, Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Taif University, Taif (Saudi Arabia); Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University, Cairo (Egypt); El-Sawalhi, Maha M. [Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University, Cairo (Egypt)

    2013-04-15

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a systemic inflammatory disease with cardiovascular complications as the leading cause of morbidity. Carvedilol is an adrenergic antagonist which has been safely used in treatment of several cardiovascular disorders. Given that carvedilol has powerful antioxidant/anti-inflammatory properties, we aimed to investigate its protective potential against arthritis that may add further benefits for its clinical usefulness especially in RA patients with concomitant cardiovascular disorders. Two models were studied in the same rat; adjuvant arthritis and subcutaneous air pouch edema. Carvedilol (10 mg/kg/day p.o. for 21 days) effectively suppressed inflammation in both models with comparable efficacy to the standard anti-inflammatory diclofenac (5 mg/kg/day p.o.). Notably, carvedilol inhibited paw edema and abrogated the leukocyte invasion to air pouch exudates. The latter observation was confirmed by the histopathological assessment of the pouch lining that revealed mitigation of immuno-inflammatory cell influx. Carvedilol reduced/normalized oxidative stress markers (lipid peroxides, nitric oxide and protein thiols) and lowered the release of inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and IL-6), and eicosanoids (PGE{sub 2} and LTB{sub 4}) in sera and exudates of arthritic rats. Interestingly, carvedilol, per se, didn't present any effect on assessed biochemical parameters in normal rats. Together, the current study highlights evidences for the promising anti-arthritic effects of carvedilol that could be mediated through attenuation of leukocyte migration, alleviation of oxidative stress and suppression of proinflammatory cytokines and eicosanoids. - Highlights: ► Carvedilol possesses promising anti-arthritic properties. ► It markedly suppressed inflammation in adjuvant arthritis and air pouch edema. ► It abrogated the leukocyte invasion to air pouch exudates and linings. ► It reduced/normalized oxidative stress markers in sera and exudates of

  1. Development of the mouse dermal adipose layer occurs independently of subcutaneous adipose tissue and is marked by restricted early expression of FABP4.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamila Wojciechowicz

    Full Text Available The laboratory mouse is a key animal model for studies of adipose biology, metabolism and disease, yet the developmental changes that occur in tissues and cells that become the adipose layer in mouse skin have received little attention. Moreover, the terminology around this adipose body is often confusing, as frequently no distinction is made between adipose tissue within the skin, and so called subcutaneous fat. Here adipocyte development in mouse dorsal skin was investigated from before birth to the end of the first hair follicle growth cycle. Using Oil Red O staining, immunohistochemistry, quantitative RT-PCR and TUNEL staining we confirmed previous observations of a close spatio-temporal link between hair follicle development and the process of adipogenesis. However, unlike previous studies, we observed that the skin adipose layer was created from cells within the lower dermis. By day 16 of embryonic development (e16 the lower dermis was demarcated from the upper dermal layer, and commitment to adipogenesis in the lower dermis was signalled by expression of FABP4, a marker of adipocyte differentiation. In mature mice the skin adipose layer is separated from underlying subcutaneous adipose tissue by the panniculus carnosus. We observed that the skin adipose tissue did not combine or intermix with subcutaneous adipose tissue at any developmental time point. By transplanting skin isolated from e14.5 mice (prior to the start of adipogenesis, under the kidney capsule of adult mice, we showed that skin adipose tissue develops independently and without influence from subcutaneous depots. This study has reinforced the developmental link between hair follicles and skin adipocyte biology. We argue that because skin adipocytes develop from cells within the dermis and independently from subcutaneous adipose tissue, that it is accurately termed dermal adipose tissue and that, in laboratory mice at least, it represents a separate adipose depot.

  2. Subcutaneous injections of low-dose veltuzumab (humanized anti-CD20 antibody) are safe and active in patients with indolent non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negrea, George O; Elstrom, Rebecca; Allen, Steven L; Rai, Kanti R; Abbasi, Rashid M; Farber, Charles M; Teoh, Nick; Horne, Heather; Wegener, William A; Goldenberg, David M

    2011-04-01

    Subcutaneous injections of anti-CD20 antibodies may offer benefits to both patients and the healthcare system for treatment of B-cell malignancies. A pilot study was undertaken to evaluate the potential for subcutaneous dosing with 2(nd) generation anti-CD20 antibody veltuzumab in patients with CD20(+) indolent non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Patients with previously untreated or relapsed disease received 4 doses of 80, 160, or 320 mg veltuzumab injected subcutaneously every two weeks. Responses were assessed by computed tomography scans, with other evaluations including adverse events, safety laboratories, B-cell blood levels, serum veltuzumab levels, and human anti-veltuzumab antibody (HAHA) titers. Seventeen patients (14 follicular lymphoma; 13 stage III or IV disease; 5 treatment-naive) completed treatment with only occasional, mild-moderate, transient injection reactions and no other safety issues. Subcutaneous veltuzumab demonstrated a slow release pattern over several days, achieving a mean Cmax of 19, 25 and 63 μg/mL at 80, 160, and 320 mg doses for a total of 4 administrations, respectively. Depletion of circulating B cells occurred after the first injection. The objective response rate (partial responses plus complete responses plus complete responses unconfirmed) was 47% (8/17) with a complete response/complete response unconfirmed rate of 24% (4/17); 4 of 8 objective responses continued for 60 weeks or more. All serum samples evaluated for human anti-veltuzumab antibody were negative. Subcutaneous injections of low-dose veltuzumab are convenient, well tolerated, and capable of achieving sustained serum levels, B-cell depletion, and durable objective responses in indolent non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. (Clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT00546793).

  3. Subcutaneous injections of low-dose veltuzumab (humanized anti-CD20 antibody) are safe and active in patients with indolent non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negrea, George O.; Elstrom, Rebecca; Allen, Steven L.; Rai, Kanti R.; Abbasi, Rashid M.; Farber, Charles M.; Teoh, Nick; Horne, Heather; Wegener, William A.; Goldenberg, David M.

    2011-01-01

    Background Subcutaneous injections of anti-CD20 antibodies may offer benefits to both patients and the healthcare system for treatment of B-cell malignancies. Design and Methods A pilot study was undertaken to evaluate the potential for subcutaneous dosing with 2nd generation anti-CD20 antibody veltuzumab in patients with CD20+ indolent non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. Patients with previously untreated or relapsed disease received 4 doses of 80, 160, or 320 mg veltuzumab injected subcutaneously every two weeks. Responses were assessed by computed tomography scans, with other evaluations including adverse events, safety laboratories, B-cell blood levels, serum veltuzumab levels, and human anti-veltuzumab antibody (HAHA) titers. Results Seventeen patients (14 follicular lymphoma; 13 stage III or IV disease; 5 treatment-naive) completed treatment with only occasional, mild-moderate, transient injection reactions and no other safety issues. Subcutaneous veltuzumab demonstrated a slow release pattern over several days, achieving a mean Cmax of 19, 25 and 63 μg/mL at 80, 160, and 320 mg doses for a total of 4 administrations, respectively. Depletion of circulating B cells occurred after the first injection. The objective response rate (partial responses plus complete responses plus complete responses unconfirmed) was 47% (8/17) with a complete response/complete response unconfirmed rate of 24% (4/17); 4 of 8 objective responses continued for 60 weeks or more. All serum samples evaluated for human anti-veltuzumab antibody were negative. Conclusions Subcutaneous injections of low-dose veltuzumab are convenient, well tolerated, and capable of achieving sustained serum levels, B-cell depletion, and durable objective responses in indolent non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. (Clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT00546793) PMID:21173095

  4. Injection Technique and Pen Needle Design Affect Leakage From Skin After Subcutaneous Injections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Præstmark, Kezia Ann; Stallknecht, Bente; Jensen, Morten Lind

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: After a subcutaneous injection fluid might leak out of the skin, commonly referred to as leakage or backflow. The objective was to examine the influence of needle design and injection technique on leakage after injections in the subcutaneous tissue of humans and pigs. METHOD: Leakage ...

  5. Ultrasound-guided drainage of subcutaneous abscesses on the trunk is feasible

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Søren; Rud, Bo; Bay-Nielsen, Morten

    2013-01-01

    Subcutaneous trunk abscesses are frequent, and current treatment options generally involve incision. By contrast, the standard care for breast abcesses is ultrasound-guided drainage. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of ultrasound-guided drainage combined with antibiotics...... in the treatment of subcutaneous abscesses on the trunk....

  6. Treatment with subcutaneous and transdermal fentanyl: results from a population pharmacokinetic study in cancer patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosten, A.W.; Abrantes, J.A.; Jonsson, S.; Bruijn, P. de; Kuip, E.J.M.; Falcao, A.; Rijt, C.C. van der; Mathijssen, R.H.

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: Transdermal fentanyl is effective for the treatment of moderate to severe cancer-related pain but is unsuitable for fast titration. In this setting, continuous subcutaneous fentanyl may be used. As data on the pharmacokinetics of continuous subcutaneous fentanyl are lacking, we studied the

  7. Treatment with subcutaneous and transdermal fentanyl: Results from a population pharmacokinetic study in cancer patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.W. Oosten (Astrid); J.A. Abrantes (João A.); S. Jönsson (Siv); P. de Bruijn (Peter); E.J.M. Kuip (Evelien); A. Falcão (Amílcar); C.C.D. van der Rijt (Carin); A.H.J. Mathijssen (Ron)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractPurpose: Transdermal fentanyl is effective for the treatment of moderate to severe cancer-related pain but is unsuitable for fast titration. In this setting, continuous subcutaneous fentanyl may be used. As data on the pharmacokinetics of continuous subcutaneous fentanyl are lacking, we

  8. Clinical efficacy of sublingual and subcutaneous birch pollen allergen-specific immunotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khinchi, M S; Poulsen, Lars K.; Carat, F

    2004-01-01

    Both sublingual allergen-specific immunotherapy (SLIT) and subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT) have a documented clinical efficacy, but only few comparative studies have been performed.......Both sublingual allergen-specific immunotherapy (SLIT) and subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT) have a documented clinical efficacy, but only few comparative studies have been performed....

  9. Regional variations in nocturnal fluctuations in subcutaneous blood flow rate in the lower leg of man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sindrup, J H; Kastrup, J; Jørgensen, B

    1991-01-01

    was observed in both series concerning the duration of the period from going to bed until the hyperaemia phase (P less than 0.001). The mechanisms involved in the nightly subcutaneous hyperaemia are at present unknown. The sudden, synchronized increase in nocturnal subcutaneous blood flow points to a central...... nervous or humoral elicitation, although local metabolic factors might participate as well....

  10. Model Study of the Pressure Build-Up during Subcutaneous Injection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Maria; Hernandez Garcia, Anier; Mathiesen, Joachim

    2014-01-01

    In this study we estimate the subcutaneous tissue counter pressure during drug infusion from a series of injections of insulin in type 2 diabetic patients using a non-invasive method. We construct a model for the pressure evolution in subcutaneous tissue based on mass continuity and the flow laws...

  11. Relationship between subcutaneous blood flow and absorption of lente type insulin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hildebrant, P; Mehlsen, J; Birch, K

    1987-01-01

    To study the relationship between the absorption of intermediate acting insulin and the local subcutaneous blood flow (SBF) 8 diabetic patients were given subcutaneous injections of 125I labeled human lente type insulin and 133Xenon in the abdominal wall. External measurements of the tracer...

  12. Extended analysis of AL-amyloid protein from abdominal wall subcutaneous fat biopsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, K E; Sletten, K; Westermark, Per

    1998-01-01

    a subcutaneous fat tissue biopsy and submitted to extended protein separation, typing and amino acid sequence analyses. The AL-protein belonged to the rare immunoglobulin light chain kappa, subtype kappa IV and contained unique amino acid substitutions, mostly in the highly preserved framework regions. The study...... shows that subcutaneous fat biopsies are useful sources of amyloid material for biochemical studies....

  13. Management of extensive surgical emphysema with subcutaneous drain: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quoc Tran

    Full Text Available Introduction: Subcutaneous emphysema (SE is a frequent and often self-limiting complication of tube thoracostomy or other cardiothoracic procedures. On rare occasions, severe and extensive surgical emphysema marked by palpable cutaneous tension, dysphagia, dysphonia, palpebral closure or associated with pneumoperitoneum, airway compromise, “tension phenomenon” and respiratory failure require treatment. Presentation of case: A 67 year old lady presented with a large spontaneous pneumothorax on the background of end-stage chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and newly diagnosed lung cancer, developed extensive surgical emphysema following insertion of a chest drain. Immediate improvement was observed after insertion of a large-bore, 26 French (Fr. intercostal catheter, subcutaneous drain which was maintained under low suction (−5 cm H2O for a further 24 h. Discussion: Several methods have been described in the literature for the treatment of extensive subcutaneous emphysema, including: emergency tracheostomy, multisite subcutaneous drainage, infraclavicular “blow holes” incisions and subcutaneous drains or simply increasing suction on an in situ chest drain. Here a large-bore, fenestrated, subcutaneous drain maintained on low negative pressure also provided the necessary decompression. Conclusion: In the absence of a comparative study to identify the most effective method to manage extensive subcutaneous emphysema, this case highlights an effective, simple and safe management option. Keywords: Pneumothorax, Subcutaneous emphysema, Drain, Low suction, Intercostal catheter, Case report

  14. Histone deacetylase inhibitor, CG200745, attenuates cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis in DOCA-induced hypertensive rats

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Eunjo; Song, Min-ji; Lee, Hae-Ahm; Kang, Seol-Hee; Kim, Mina; Yang, Eun Kyoung; Lee, Do Young; Ro, Seonggu; Cho, Joong Myung; Kim, Inkyeom

    2016-01-01

    CG200745 is a novel inhibitor of histone deacetylases (HDACs), initially developed for treatment of various hematological and solid cancers. Because it is water-soluble, it can be administered orally. We hypothesized that the HDAC inhibitor, CG200745, attenuates cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis in deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-induced hypertensive rats. For establishment of hypertension, 40 mg/kg of DOCA was subcutaneously injected four times weekly into Sprague-Dawley rats. All the rats...

  15. Prenatal zinc reduces stress response in adult rat offspring exposed to lipopolysaccharide during gestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvão, Marcella C; Chaves-Kirsten, Gabriela P; Queiroz-Hazarbassanov, Nicolle; Carvalho, Virgínia M; Bernardi, Maria M; Kirsten, Thiago B

    2015-01-01

    Previous investigations by our group have shown that prenatal treatment with lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 100 μg/kg, intraperitoneally) on gestation day (GD) 9.5 in rats, which mimics infections by Gram-negative bacteria, induces short- and long-term behavioral and neuroimmune changes in the offspring. Because LPS induces hypozincemia, dams were treated with zinc after LPS in an attempt to prevent or ameliorate the impairments induced by prenatal LPS exposure. LPS can also interfere with hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis development; thus, behavioral and neuroendocrine parameters linked to HPA axis were evaluated in adult offspring after a restraint stress session. We prenatally exposed Wistar rats to LPS (100 μg/kg, intraperitoneally, on GD 9.5). One hour later they received zinc (ZnSO4, 2 mg/kg, subcutaneously). Adult female offspring that were in metestrus/diestrus were submitted to a 2 h restraint stress session. Immediately after the stressor, 22 kHz ultrasonic vocalizations, open field behavior, serum corticosterone and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels, and striatal and hypothalamic neurotransmitter and metabolite levels were assessed. Offspring that received prenatal zinc after LPS presented longer periods in silence, increased locomotion, and reduced serum corticosterone and striatal norepinephrine turnover compared with rats treated with LPS and saline. Prenatal zinc reduced acute restraint stress response in adult rats prenatally exposed to LPS. Our findings suggest a potential beneficial effect of prenatal zinc, in which the stress response was reduced in offspring that were stricken with infectious/inflammatory processes during gestation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Phase II multicenter randomized study of amifostine for prevention of acute radiation rectal toxicity: Topical intrarectal versus subcutaneous application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kouloulias, Vassilis E.; Kouvaris, John R.; Pissakas, George; Mallas, Elias; Antypas, Christos; Kokakis, John D.; Matsopoulos, George; Michopoulos, Spyros; Mystakidou, Kyriaki; Vlahos, Lambros J.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the cytoprotective effect of subcutaneous vs. intrarectal administration of amifostine against acute radiation toxicity. Methods and materials: Patients were randomized to receive amifostine either intrarectally (Group A, n = 27) or a 500-mg flat dose subcutaneously (Group B, n = 26) before irradiation. Therapy was delivered using a four-field technique with three-dimensional conformal planning. In Group A, 1,500 mg of amifostine was administered intrarectally as an aqueous solution in 40 mL of enema. Two different toxicity scales were used: the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer/Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) rectal and urologic toxicity criteria and the Subjective-RectoSigmoid scale based on the endoscopic terminology of the World Organization for Digestive Endoscopy. Objective measurements with rectosigmoidoscopy were performed at baseline and 1-2 days after radiotherapy completion. The area under the curve for the time course of mucositis (RTOG criteria) during irradiation represented the mucositis index. Results: Intrarectal amifostine was feasible and well tolerated without any systemic or local side effects. According to the RTOG toxicity scale, Group A had superior results with a significantly lower incidence of Grades I-II rectal radiation morbidity (11% vs. 42%, p 0.04) but inferior results concerning urinary toxicity (48% vs. 15%, p 0.03). The mean rectal mucositis index and Subjective-RectoSigmoid score were significantly lower in Group A (0.44 vs. 2.45 [p = 0.015] and 3.9 vs. 6.0 [p = 0.01], respectively), and the mean urinary mucositis index was lower in Group B (2.39 vs. 0.34, p < 0.028). Conclusions: Intrarectal administration of amifostine (1,500 mg) seemed to have a cytoprotective efficacy in acute radiation rectal mucositis but was inferior to subcutaneous administration in terms of urinary toxicity. Additional randomized studies are needed for definitive decisions concerning the

  17. Iatrogenic Lower Extremity Subcutaneous Emphysema after Prolonged Robotic-Assisted Hysterectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Hagan Vetter

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Subcutaneous emphysema is a known complication of carbon dioxide insufflation, an essential component of laparoscopy. The literature contains reports of hypercarbia, pneumothorax, or pneumomediastinum. However, isolated lower extremity subcutaneous emphysema remains a seldom-reported complication. We report a case of unilateral lower extremity subcutaneous emphysema following robotic-assisted hysterectomy, bilateral salpingooophorectomy, staging, and anterior/posterior colporrhaphy for carcinosarcoma and vaginal prolapse. On postoperative day 1, the patient developed tender crepitus and bruising of her right ankle. Radiography confirmed presence of subcutaneous air. Vital signs and laboratory findings were unremarkable. Her symptoms spontaneously improved over time, and she was discharged in good condition on day 2. In stable patients with postoperative extremity swelling or pain with crepitus on exam, the diagnosis of iatrogenic subcutaneous emphysema must be considered.

  18. Subcutaneous Emphysema, Pneumomediastinum, Pneumoretroperitoneum, and Pneumoscrotum: Unusual Complications of Acute Perforated Diverticulitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Fosi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pneumomediastinum, and subcutaneous emphysema usually result from spontaneous alveolar wall rupture and, far less commonly, from disruption of the upper airways or gastrointestinal tract. Subcutaneous neck emphysema, pneumomediastinum, and retropneumoperitoneum caused by nontraumatic perforations of the colon have been infrequently reported. The main symptoms of spontaneous subcutaneous emphysema are swelling and crepitus over the involved site; further clinical findings in case of subcutaneous cervical and mediastinal emphysema can be neck and chest pain and dyspnea. Radiological imaging plays an important role to achieve the correct diagnosis and extension of the disease. We present a quite rare case of spontaneous subcutaneous cervical emphysema, pneumomediastinum, and pneumoretroperitoneum due to perforation of an occult sigmoid diverticulum. Abdomen ultrasound, chest X-rays, and computer tomography (CT were performed to evaluate the free gas extension and to identify potential sources of extravasating gas. Radiological diagnosis was confirmed by the subsequent surgical exploration.

  19. Subcutaneous Emphysema in Non-Necrotizing Soft Tissue Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Ehsani-Nia

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available History of present illness: 63-year-old male with a history of diabetes mellitus and rheumatoid arthritis who was sent to the emergency department by his primary care provider for further evaluation of left upper extremity crepitus. The patient fell onto his left elbow two days prior to presentation resulting in immediate swelling and a small laceration. He complained of minimal pain and denied fevers or chills. His medications included metformin, tocilizumab, methotrexate and prednisone. In the ED, the patient was well-appearing, afebrile, with a normal heart rate and in no acute distress. Examination of the left upper extremity revealed no tenderness to palpation but marked crepitus with a scabbed laceration over his olecranon process and was neurovascularly intact. White blood cell count (WBC, sodium, glucose, inflammatory markers and lactate were all within normal limits. Significant findings: X-Rays of the elbow revealed diffuse striated lucencies throughout the soft tissue, consistent with extensive subcutaneous air throughout the superficial and deep tissues. There was no evidence of a fracture. Discussion: The initiating mechanism for necrotizing soft tissue infections (NSTIs is a disruption of the fascial planes, most commonly by trauma. The inoculated bacteria rapidly spread and surgical debridement is necessary.1-3 Early recognition and disposition to the operating room in 51 are correlated with increased morbidity and mortality.5 Additionally, it has been found that immunocompromised patients exhibit atypical presentations of NSTIs.6 The Laboratory Risk Indicator for Necrotizing Fasciitis (LRINEC score is often used to risk stratify patients when there is suspicion for an NSTI.7 The patient discussed here had a LRINEC score of 0. However, the physical exam finding of crepitus, coupled with his history of immunocompromised status and subcutaneous air on X-ray made the diagnosis of NSTI seem likely. However, upon surgical exploration

  20. Upregulation of adipose 11-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 expression in ovariectomized rats is due to obesity rather than lack of estrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulsen, Søren K; Nielsen, Maria P; Richelsen, Bjørn; Bruun, Jens M; Flyvbjerg, Allan; Pedersen, Steen B

    2008-04-01

    Increased tissue activity of cortisol induced by the activation of inert cortisone to active cortisol through 11-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11beta-HSD1) may play a role in the metabolic syndrome. We recently found that 11beta-HSD1 in subcutaneous adipose tissue (AT) was lower in lean women compared with lean men. Estrogen suppresses hepatic and renal 11beta-HSD1 in rats; hence we investigated the in vitro effect of estrogen on human and rat AT, and the in vivo effects on rat AT 11beta-HSD1 expression. Wistar rats were divided into four groups of eight animals. One group was sham-operated (controls) and others were ovariectomized (OVX). One OVX group was left untreated (OVX-E), another (OVX+E) received estrogen treatment, and one received a hypo-caloric diet (OVX-E+D), matching the weight gain of the control group. AT from women undergoing liposuction or surgery and from killed male and female rats were incubated with estrogen alone or in the presence of IL-1beta. Gene expressions were determined by real-time reverse transcriptase PCR. Ovariectomy resulted in a 280% increase in adipose 11beta-HSD1 expression P < 0.05). 11beta-HSD1 expression in the (OVX+E)-group was significantly reduced compared with the nonsubstituted group (P < 0.05). 11beta-HSD1 expression in the (OVX-E+D)-group was reduced significantly (P < 0.05) when compared with the level of the estrogen-substituted group. No significant differences between the control group, the (OVX+E)-group, and the (OVX-E+D)-group were found. In the in vitro studies, no direct effect of estrogen on adipose 11beta-HSD1 was found. The upregulation of 11beta-HSD1 in ovariectomized rats was most likely due to changes in body composition rather than lack of estrogen.

  1. Effect of vildagliptin, a dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitor, on cardiac hypertrophy induced by chronic beta-adrenergic stimulation in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Heart failure with left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy is often associated with insulin resistance and inflammation. Recent studies have shown that dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4) inhibitors improve glucose metabolism and inflammatory status. We therefore evaluated whether vildagliptin, a DPP4 inhibitor, prevents LV hypertrophy and improves diastolic function in isoproterenol-treated rats. Methods Male Wistar rats received vehicle (n = 20), subcutaneous isoproterenol (2.4 mg/kg/day, n = 20) (ISO), subcutaneous isoproterenol (2.4 mg/kg/day + oral vildagliptin (30 mg/kg/day, n = 20) (ISO-VL), or vehicle + oral vildagliptin (30 mg/kg/day, n = 20) (vehicle-VL) for 7 days. Results Blood pressure was similar among the four groups, whereas LV hypertrophy was significantly decreased in the ISO-VL group compared with the ISO group (heart weight/body weight, vehicle: 3.2 ± 0.40, ISO: 4.43 ± 0.39, ISO-VL: 4.14 ± 0.29, vehicle-VL: 3.16 ± 0.16, p vildagliptin lowered the elevated LV end-diastolic pressure observed in the ISO group, but other parameters regarding LV diastolic function such as the decreased minimum dp/dt were not ameliorated in the ISO-VL group. Histological analysis showed that vildagliptin attenuated the increased cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and perivascular fibrosis, but it did not affect angiogenesis in cardiac tissue. In the ISO-VL group, quantitative PCR showed attenuation of increased mRNA expression of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, insulin-like growth factor-l, and restoration of decreased mRNA expression of glucose transporter type 4. Conclusions Vildagliptin may prevent LV hypertrophy caused by continuous exposure to isoproterenol in rats. PMID:24521405

  2. Histological evaluation of different biodegradable and non-biodegradable membranes implanted subcutaneously in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, S; Pinholt, E M; Madsen, J E

    2000-01-01

    Different types of biodegradable membranes have become available for guided tissue regeneration. The purpose of this study was to evaluate histologically three different biodegradable membranes (Bio-Gide, Resolut and Vicryl) and one non-biodegradable membrane (expanded polytetrafluoroethylene/e-PTFE...... that e-PTFE was well tolerated and encapsulated by a fibrous connective tissue capsule. There was capsule formation around Resolut and Vicryl and around Bio-Gide in the early phase there was a wide inflammatory zone already. e-PTFE and Vicryl were stable materials while Resolut and Bio-Gide fragmented...

  3. Tissue response to a new type of biomaterial implanted subcutaneously in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boennelycke, Marie; Christensen, Lise; Nielsen, Lene Feldskov

    2011-01-01

    -cellular matrix (ECM) or estrogen. Methods Ten implants of each type were tested for 3 and 8 weeks, respectively. Histological assessment of connective tissue organization, inflammation, vascularization, and thickness of regenerated tissue was undertaken. Results All implants had a high degree of biocompatibility....... ECM-enriched implants had significantly higher inflammatory scores compared to pure implants at 3 weeks. At 8 weeks, neither of the parameters differed significantly. No trace of the implants remained. Conclusions The MPEG-PLGA is highly biocompatible, degrades quickly, and seems inert in the process...

  4. The effect of L-Arginine on the brain tissue of stressed rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batoul Ebadi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This study was conducted to determine the possible beneficial results of L-arginine on prefrontal cortex of rats which impressed by immobilization stress to define the synchronous impression of stress and nitric oxide (NO on evolution of prefrontal cortex of rats after birth. Methods: Forty-eight one month, male Wistar rats were divided into two groups: stressed and non-stressed. L-Arginine (200 mg/kg as a NO synthase (NOS inducer and L-NAME (2O mg/kg were injected intraperitonealy (IP and 7- nitroindazde (25 mg/kg as non-specific was injected subcutaneously (S.C. for 4 weeks. The kind of stress was immobilization for 4 weeks, every other day. The brain was removed after this period and each brain divided into two parts in a coronal section manner. Anterior part used for histological studies with H&E staining and posterior part used for measurement of NO production using spectrophotometer at 540 nm wavelengh. Results: Statistical analysis of microscopic and light microscopic finding showed that thickness of prefrontal cortex and NO production were significantly decreased in stressed rats and especially in groups which received 7- nitroindazole and L-NAME and L-arginine could reverse these results. Discussion: According to this research, we could say that L-arginine decreases the cortical damages in stressed rats and 7-nitroindazole and L-NAME increase this damage in non-stressed group. Although in non stressed groups, L-arginine, L-NAME and 7- nitroindazole were all non-protective and damaging.

  5. The effect of L-Arginine on the brain tissue of stressed rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batoul Ebadi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available   Abstract  Introduction: This study was conducted to determine the possible beneficial results of L-arginine on prefrontal cortex of rats which impressed by immobilization stress to define the synchronous impression of stress and nitric oxide (NO on evolution of prefrontal cortex of rats after birth. Methods: Forty-eight one month, male Wistar rats were divided into two groups: stressed and non-stressed. L-Arginine (200 mg/kg as a NO synthase (NOS inducer and L-NAME (2O mg/kg were injected intraperitonealy (IP and 7- nitroindazde (25 mg/kg as non-specific was injected subcutaneously (S.C. for 4 weeks. The kind of stress was immobilization for 4 weeks, every other day. The brain was removed after this period and each brain divided into two parts in a coronal section manner. Anterior part used for histological studies with H&E staining and posterior part used for measurement of NO production using spectrophotometer at 540 nm wavelengh. Results: Statistical analysis of microscopic and light microscopic finding showed that thickness of prefrontal cortex and NO production were significantly decreased in stressed rats and especially in groups which received 7- nitroindazole and L-NAME and L-arginine could reverse these results. Discussion: According to this research, we could say that L-arginine decreases the cortical damages in stressed rats and 7-nitroindazole and L-NAME increase this damage in non-stressed group. Although in non stressed groups, L-arginine, L-NAME and 7- nitroindazole were all non-protective and damaging.

  6. Ghrelin modulates testicular germ cells apoptosis and proliferation in adult normal rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kheradmand, Arash; Dezfoulian, Omid; Alirezaei, Masoud; Rasoulian, Bahram

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Spermatogenesis is closely associated with the balance between germ cells proliferation and apoptosis. ► Numerous studies have documented the direct action of ghrelin in the modulation of apoptosis in different cell types. ► Ghrelin may be considered as a modulator of spermatogenesis in normal adult rats. ► Ghrelin may be potentially implicated for abnormal spermatogenesis in some testicular germ cell tumors. -- Abstract: Under normal condition in the most mammals, spermatogenesis is closely associated with the balance between germ cells proliferation and apoptosis. The present study was designed to determine the effects of ghrelin treatment on in vivo quality and quantity expression of apoptosis and proliferation specific indices in rat testicular germ cells. Twenty eight adult normal rats were subdivided into equal control and treatment groups. Treatment group received 3 nmol of ghrelin as subcutaneous injection for 30 consecutive days or vehicle to the control animals. The rats from each group (n = 7) were killed on days 10 and 30 and their testes were taken for immunocytochemical evaluation and caspase-3 assay. Immunohistochemical analysis indicated that the accumulations of Bax and PCNA peptides are generally more prominent in spermatocytes and spermatogonia of both groups. Likewise, the mean percentage of immunoreactive spermatocytes against Bax increased (P 0.05). Upstream of Bax substance parallel to down-regulation of PCNA demonstrate that ghrelin may prevent massive accumulation of germ cells during normal spermatogenesis. These observations also indicate that ghrelin may be considered as a modulator of spermatogenesis in normal adult rats and could be potentially implicated for abnormal spermatogenesis in some testicular germ cell tumors.

  7. Tracking of abdominal subcutaneous and preperitoneal fat mass during childhood. The Generation R Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogelezang, S; Gishti, O; Felix, J F; van der Beek, E M; Abrahamse-Berkeveld, M; Hofman, A; Gaillard, R; Jaddoe, V W V

    2016-04-01

    Overweight and obesity in early life tends to track into later life. Not much is known about tracking of abdominal fat. Our objective was to examine the extent of tracking of abdominal fat measures during the first six years of life. We performed a prospective cohort study among 393 Dutch children followed from the age of 2 years (90% range 1.9; 2.3) until the age of 6 years (90% range 5.7; 6.2). At both ages, we performed abdominal ultrasound to measure abdominal subcutaneous and preperitoneal fat distances and areas, and we calculated the preperitoneal/subcutaneous fat distance ratio. High abdominal fat measures were defined as values in the upper 15%. Abdominal subcutaneous fat distance and area, and preperitoneal fat area at 2 years were correlated with their corresponding measures at 6 years (all P-values abdominal subcutaneous fat measures. Preperitoneal fat distance at the age of 2 years was not correlated with the corresponding measure at 6 years. The tracking coefficient for preperitoneal/subcutaneous fat distance ratio from 2 to 6 years was r=0.36 (Pabdominal subcutaneous fat measures at 2 years had increased risk of having high abdominal subcutaneous fat measures at 6 years (odds ratios 9.2 (95% confidence interval (CI) 4.1-20.8) and 12.4 (95% CI 5.4-28.6) for subcutaneous fat distance and area, respectively). These associations were not observed for preperitoneal fat measures. Our findings suggest that both abdominal subcutaneous and preperitoneal fat mass measures track during childhood, but with stronger tracking for abdominal subcutaneous fat measures. An adverse abdominal fat distribution in early life may have long-term consequences.

  8. High negative pressure subcutaneous suction drain for managing debilitating subcutaneous emphysema secondary to tube thoracostomy for an iatrogenic post computed tomography guided transthoracic needle biopsy pneumothorax: Case report and review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeeshan Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Debilitating subcutaneous emphysema which causes distress, anxiety, palpebral closure, dyspnoea or dysphagia requires intervention. High negative pressure subcutaneous suction drain provides immediate and sustained relief in extensive and debilitating SE.

  9. Berberine inhibits hepatic gluconeogenesis via the LKB1-AMPK-TORC2 signaling pathway in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Shu-Jun; Dong, Hui; Li, Jing-Bin; Xu, Li-Jun; Zou, Xin; Wang, Kai-Fu; Lu, Fu-Er; Yi, Ping

    2015-07-07

    To investigate the molecular mechanisms of berberine inhibition of hepatic gluconeogenesis in a diabetic rat model. The 40 rats were randomly divided into five groups. One group was selected as the normal group. In the remaining groups (n = 8 each), the rats were fed on a high-fat diet for 1 mo and received intravenous injection of streptozotocin for induction of the diabetic models. Berberine (156 mg/kg per day) (berberine group) or metformin (184 mg/kg per day) (metformin group) was intragastrically administered to the diabetic rats and 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide1-β-D-ribofuranoside (AICAR) (0.5 mg/kg per day) (AICAR group) was subcutaneously injected to the diabetic rats for 12 wk. The remaining eight diabetic rats served as the model group. Fasting plasma glucose and insulin levels as well as lipid profile were tested. The expressions of proteins were examined by western blotting. The nuclear translocation of CREB-regulated transcription co-activator (TORC)2 was observed by immunohistochemical staining. Berberine improved impaired glucose tolerance and decreased plasma hyperlipidemia. Moreover, berberine decreased fasting plasma insulin and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Berberine upregulated protein expression of liver kinase (LK)B1, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and phosphorylated AMPK (p-AMPK). The level of phophorylated TORC2 (p-TORC2) protein in the cytoplasm was higher in the berberine group than in the model group, and no significant difference in total TORC2 protein level was observed. Immunohistochemical staining revealed that more TORC2 was localized in the cytoplasm of the berberine group than in the model group. Moreover, berberine treatment downregulated protein expression of the key gluconeogenic enzymes (phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and glucose-6-phosphatase) in the liver tissues. Our findings revealed that berberine inhibited hepatic gluconeogenesis via the regulation of the LKB1-AMPK-TORC2

  10. Radionuclide venography of lower limbs by subcutaneous injection; A clinical evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Chung-Chieng; Jong, Shiang-Bin (Kaohsiung Medical Coll., Taiwan (China))

    1993-02-01

    SC-RNV, radionuclide venography by subcutaneous injection of Tc-99m pertechnetate at acupuncture points K-3, a new alternative of lower limb venography, was recently developed in our clinical laboratory. In some of the previous studies, we have proved its superiority to radionuclide venography by intravenous injection. The current investigation was conducted to understand the reliability of SC-RNV in the diagnosis of deep vein thrombosis (DVT). Fifty-seven cases with lower leg edema, from November 1989 through October 1990, received both SC-RNV and duplex US for causative evaluation. As a result of duplex US, 26 were considered normal (non-DVT), 19 were classified as unilateral DVT, and 12 as bilateral DVT. In nineteen cases (61%, 19/31) with DVT also a XCT and/or a CV (contrast venography) was taken, that showed compatible results. All of the non-DVT had a normal pattern of SC-RNV, all of the unilateral DVT had unilateral impairment of deep vein drainage in SC-RNV, and all of the bilateral DVT had impaired deep venous drainage bilaterally in SC-RNV. It is therefore, concluded that SC-RNV is one of the best choices among available non-invasive lower-limb venographic methods. (author).

  11. Concentrations of danofloxacin 18% solution in plasma, milk and tissues after subcutaneous injection in dairy cows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mestorino, N.; Marchetti, M.L.; Turic, E.; Pesoa, J.; Errecalde, J.

    2009-01-01

    Danofloxacin is a fluoroquinolone developed for use in veterinary medicine. Its concentrations and pharmacokinetic profile in plasma, milk and tissues of lactating dairy cows were determined, and its milk withdrawal time (WT) calculated. Twenty-one dairy cows received a single subcutaneous administration of 18% mesylate danofloxacin salt (6 mg kg -1 ). Plasma and milk samples were obtained at different times until 48 h. Groups of three animals were sacrificed at different post-administration times and tissue samples (mammary gland, uterus, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, colon and mesenteric lymph nodes) obtained. Danofloxacin concentrations were determined by liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. The milk WT was calculated by the Time to Safe Concentration method (Software WTM 1.4, EMEA). Danofloxacin was rapidly absorbed and its distribution from plasma to all sampled tissues and milk was extensive. Milk and tissues concentrations were several times above those found in plasma. Plasma area under the curve (AUCp) was 9.69 μg h mL -1 and its elimination half life (T β 1/2 ) was 12.53 h. AUC values for the various tissues and milk greatly exceeded AUCp. T β 1/2 from milk and tissues ranged between 4.57 and 21.91 h and the milk withdrawal time was 73.48 h. The reported results support the potential use of danofloxacin in the treatment of mastitis and other infections in milk cows with 3 days of withdrawal

  12. Continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) therapy at Derby Teaching Hospitals: sustained benefits in glucose control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anyanwagu, U; Olaoye, H; Jennings, P; Ashton-Cleary, S; Sugunendran, S; Hughes, D; Idris, I; Wilmot, E G

    2017-08-01

    In the short term, continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) has been associated with improved glycaemic control, reduced hypoglycaemia and improved quality of life (QOL). However, limited data are available on its long-term benefits, particularly in the UK. We aimed to assess the impact of CSII on longer term outcomes. Patient-level data were obtained for CSII users at Derby Teaching Hospitals, UK. Patient confidence and satisfaction questionnaires using the Likert scale were used to assess confidence in self-management. Comparative statistics were conducted using Pearson's chi-square and Student's t-tests. Some 258 CSII users were identified (60.1% female, mean age 43.9 ± 13.4 years). Overall, there was significant decrease in HbA 1c from 78 mmol/mol (9.3 ± 2.0%) at baseline, to 69 mmol/mol (8.5 ± 1.3%) at 6 months [mean difference (md): -0.64; 95% confidence interval (95% CI): -0.91 to -0.37; P quality of care received in the insulin pump service. CSII therapy led to a sustained long-term improvement in glycaemic control in addition to a reduction in self-reported hypoglycaemia. © 2017 Diabetes UK.

  13. Randomized pharmacokinetic study comparing subcutaneous and intravenous palonosetron in cancer patients treated with platinum based chemotherapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belen Sadaba

    Full Text Available Palonosetron is a potent second generation 5- hydroxytryptamine-3 selective antagonist which can be administered by either intravenous (IV or oral routes, but subcutaneous (SC administration of palonosetron has never been studied, even though it could have useful clinical applications. In this study, we evaluate the bioavailability of SC palonosetron.Patients treated with platinum-based chemotherapy were randomized to receive SC or IV palonosetron, followed by the alternative route in a crossover manner, during the first two cycles of chemotherapy. Blood samples were collected at baseline and 10, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90 minutes and 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 12 and 24 h after palonosetron administration. Urine was collected during 12 hours following palonosetron. We compared pharmacokinetic parameters including AUC0-24h, t1/2, and Cmax observed with each route of administration by analysis of variance (ANOVA.From October 2009 to July 2010, 25 evaluable patients were included. AUC0-24h for IV and SC palonosetron were respectively 14.1 and 12.7 ng × h/ml (p=0.160. Bioavalability of SC palonosetron was 118% (95% IC: 69-168. Cmax was lower with SC than with IV route and was reached 15 minutes following SC administration.Palonosetron bioavailability was similar when administered by either SC or IV route. This new route of administration might be specially useful for outpatient management of emesis and for administration of oral chemotherapy.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01046240.

  14. Lanreotide depot deep subcutaneous injection: a new method of delivery and its associated benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmichael JD

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available John D CarmichaelDepartment of Medicine, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA, USAAbstract: Acromegaly is a rare disease characterized by excessive growth hormone secretion, usually from a pituitary tumor. Treatment options include surgery, medical therapy, and in some cases, radiation therapy. Current medical therapy consists of treatment with somatostatin analog medications or a growth hormone receptor antagonist. There are two somatostatin analogs currently in use, octreotide and lanreotide. Both are supplied in long-acting formulations and are of comparable biochemical efficacy. Lanreotide is supplied in a prefilled syringe and is injected into deep subcutaneous tissue. Studies have been conducted to assess the efficacy of self- or partner administration, and have demonstrated that injection of lanreotide can be accomplished reliably and safely outside a physician's office. For patients who have achieved biochemical control with lanreotide, the FDA has recently approved an extended dosing interval. Selected patients may be able to receive the medication less frequently with injections of 120 mg administered every 6 or 8 weeks. This review focuses on the use of lanreotide in the treatment of acromegaly, the safety and efficacy of the drug, and the benefits afforded to patients because of unique aspects of the delivery of lanreotide.Keywords: acromegaly, treatment, lanreotide, somatostatin analog, pituitary tumor

  15. Radionuclide venography of lower limbs by subcutaneous injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Chung-Chieng; Jong, Shiang-Bin

    1989-01-01

    We have proved that subcutaneous injection (SC) of a small dose of Tc-99m pertechnetate (1 to 2 mCi: 37 to 74 MBq) at acupuncture points (K-3 and B-60) may offer an alternative method of radionuclide venography (RNV) of the lower limbs. In this study, we compared intravenous (IV) RNV and SC-RNV in 22 consecutive cases with typical signs and symptoms suggesting venous abnormality of the lower limb(s) from March to May 1988. They are 11 male and 11 female, aged 47.7±15.7 years. Among the 44 limbs of the 22 cases, 4 were normal, 12 (27.3%) were found to have varicose veins in the legs only, 18 (40.9%) had partial stenosis of the deep veins (14 poplito-tibial and 4 superficial femoral), and 13 (29.6%) had complete stenosis of the deep veins (4 poplito-tibial, 1 superficial femoral and 8 ilio-femoral. SC-RNV showed almost the same results as IV-RNV in 21 (47.7%), superior to IV-RNV in 22 (50%) (including 4.6% failure of IV-RNV), and inferior to IV-RNV in 1 (2.3%). We conclude that SC-RNV is definitely an alternative method of lower-limb venography. Since it is in most cases superior to IV-RNV, we suggest that it can take the place of IV-RNV in routine work. (author) 62 refs

  16. Psychopathology and Continuous Subcutaneous Insulin Infusion in Type 1 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Rotella

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII is used as an option in patients with diabetes failing to multiple daily injections (MDI. Psychological factors may play a relevant role in the failure to attain therapeutic goals in patients on MDI. This could lead to an overrepresentation of psychopathology in patients treated with CSII. Methods. A consecutive series of 100 patients with type 1 diabetes was studied, collecting main clinical parameters and assessing psychopathology with the self-reported questionnaire Symptom Checklist 90-revised. Patients on CSII were then compared with those on MDI. Results. Of the 100 enrolled patients, 44 and 56 were on CSII and MDI, respectively. Among men, those on CSII were younger than those on MDI; conversely, no difference in age was observed in women. Women on CSII showed higher scores on most Symptom Checklist 90 subscales than those on MDI, whereas no differences were observed in men. Conclusion. Women with type 1 diabetes treated with CSII display higher levels of psychopathology than those on MDI. This is probably the consequence of the fact that patients selected for CSII are those failing to MDI. Higher levels of psychopathology could represent a limit for the attainment and maintenance of therapeutic goals with CSII.

  17. Selection of patients for sublingual versus subcutaneous immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larenas Linnemann, Désirée E S; Blaiss, Michael S

    2014-01-01

    Allergen immunotherapy is the sole treatment for IgE-mediated allergic diseases directed at the underlying mechanism. The two widely accepted administration routes are sublingual (SLIT) and subcutaneous (SCIT). We reviewed how patients should best be selected for immunotherapy and how the optimal administration route can be defined. Before deciding SCIT or SLIT, appropriate selection of patients for allergen immunotherapy (AIT) is mandatory. To be eligible for AIT, subjects must have a clear medical history of allergic disease, with exacerbation of symptoms on exposure to one or more allergens and a corresponding positive skin or in vitro test. Then the route of administration should be based on: published evidence of clinical and immunologic efficacy (which varies per allergic disease and per allergen); mono- or multi-allergen immunotherapy, for SLIT multi-allergen immunotherapy was not effective; safety: adverse events with SLIT are more frequent, but less severe; and, costs and patient preferences, closely related to adherence issues. All these are discussed in the article.

  18. A centralized storage system for the delivery of subcutaneous infusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Peter; Lee, Jane; Arnold, Gill; Davis, Melanie

    Symptom control is an important part of maintaining a palliative patient's comfort and dignity, particularly in the end stages of their illness. Within the discipline of palliative care, the use of continuous subcutaneous syringe drivers is an important way of administering drugs at the end stages of a patient's illness to maintain symptom control. This study identified that ward staff had difficulty in obtaining the correct equipment, such as administration sets and Luer-lock syringes, leading to significant delays in patients being given drugs, affecting patient care and, when unable to obtain the correct equipment, the incorrect equipment was used. It was also identified that there was no consistent approach to the use or maintenance of syringe drivers, with a clear risk to patient safety. The study aim was to identify whether the introduction of a centralized storage system of set boxes containing all the relevant equipment would resolve these issues and improve patient care and safety. The audit showed that a centralized storage system enhanced practice by ensuring that there was a standardized approach to the initiation and care of syringe drivers, including equipment when used in the palliative care setting. The system also provided easy access to the correct equipment, reducing in the delay of commencing treatment, as well as the risk of any adverse events.

  19. Subcutaneous blood flow in the temporal region of migraine patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, K.

    1987-01-01

    Subcutaneous blood flow in the temporal region (TSBF) was measured by the local 133 Xenon washout technique in 43 migraine patients; 19 were reexamined in the course of spontaneous attacks. During attacks, TSBF was normal compared to headache-free state. In 13 unilateral attacks, the median ipsilateral to contralateral ratio TSBF was 1: 1.276, (NS). During 30 deg C passive head-up tilt, TSBF descreased by a median of 27% during headache-free intervals and by a median, 21% during migraine attacks. The difference between the 2 occasions was not significant. Head-up tilt resulted in a median 4.5% increase in mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) and a median 5.3% increase in heart rate (HR) during headache-free intervals and 3.4% and 3.2% respectively during migraine attacks. These results are evidence against a vasomotor disturbance of the extracranial tissues during attacks of migraine. The cardio-vascular response to the orthostatic stimulus indicates a normal function of this part of the autonomic nervous system during migraine attacks. (author)

  20. Subcutaneous blood flow in the temporal region of migraine patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, K.

    1987-01-01

    Subcutaneous blood flow in the temporal region (TSBF) was measured by the local 133 Xenon washout technique in 43 migraine patients; 19 were reexamined in the course of spontaneous attacks. During attacks, TSBF was normal compared to headache-free state. In 13 unilateral attacks, the median ipsilateral to contralateral ratio TSBF was 1: 1.276, (NS). During 30 deg C passive head-up tilt, TSBF descreased by a median of 27% during headache-free intervals and by a median, 21% during migraine attacks. The difference between the 2 occasions was not significant. Head-up tilt resulted in a median 4.5% increase in mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) and a median 5.3% increase in heart rate (HR) during headache-free intervals and 3.4% and 3.2% respectively during migraine attacks. These results are evidence against a vasomotor disturbance of the extracranial tissues during attacks of migraine. The cardio-vascular response to the orthostatic stimulus indicates a normal function of this part of the autonomic nervous system during migraine attacks.

  1. Association of subcutaneous testosterone pellet therapy with developing secondary polycythemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotker, Katherine Lang; Alavian, Michael; Nelson, Bethany; Baird, Grayson L; Miner, Martin M; Sigman, Mark; Hwang, Kathleen

    2018-01-01

    A variety of methods for testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) exist, and the major potential risks of TRT have been well established. The risk of developing polycythemia secondary to exogenous testosterone (T) has been reported to range from 0.4% to 40%. Implantable T pellets have been used since 1972, and secondary polycythemia has been reported to be as low as 0.4% with this administration modality. However, our experience has suggested a higher rate. We conducted an institutional review board-approved, single-institution, retrospective chart review (2009–2013) to determine the rate of secondary polycythemia in 228 men treated with subcutaneously implanted testosterone pellets. Kaplan–Meyer failure curves were used to estimate time until the development of polycythemia (hematocrit >50%). The mean number of pellets administered was 12 (range: 6–16). The mean follow-up was 566 days. The median time to development of polycythemia whereby 50% of patients developed polycythemia was 50 months. The estimated rate of polycythemia at 6 months was 10.4%, 12 months was 17.3%, and 24 months was 30.2%. We concluded that the incidence of secondary polycythemia while on T pellet therapy may be higher than previously established. PMID:29205178

  2. Biocompatibility of Subcutaneously Implanted Plant-Derived Cellulose Biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modulevsky, Daniel J; Cuerrier, Charles M; Pelling, Andrew E

    2016-01-01

    There is intense interest in developing novel biomaterials which support the invasion and proliferation of living cells for potential applications in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Decellularization of existing tissues have formed the basis of one major approach to producing 3D scaffolds for such purposes. In this study, we utilize the native hypanthium tissue of apples and a simple preparation methodology to create implantable cellulose scaffolds. To examine biocompatibility, scaffolds were subcutaneously implanted in wild-type, immunocompetent mice (males and females; 6-9 weeks old). Following the implantation, the scaffolds were resected at 1, 4 and 8 weeks and processed for histological analysis (H&E, Masson's Trichrome, anti-CD31 and anti-CD45 antibodies). Histological analysis revealed a characteristic foreign body response to the scaffold 1 week post-implantation. However, the immune response was observed to gradually disappear by 8 weeks post-implantation. By 8 weeks, there was no immune response in the surrounding dermis tissue and active fibroblast migration within the cellulose scaffold was observed. This was concomitant with the deposition of a new collagen extracellular matrix. Furthermore, active blood vessel formation within the scaffold was observed throughout the period of study indicating the pro-angiogenic properties of the native scaffolds. Finally, while the scaffolds retain much of their original shape they do undergo a slow deformation over the 8-week length of the study. Taken together, our results demonstrate that native cellulose scaffolds are biocompatible and exhibit promising potential as a surgical biomaterial.

  3. CT findings of skull tumors forming subcutaneous masses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niida, Hirohito; Takeda, Norio; Onda, Kiyoshi; Tanaka, Ryuichi

    1991-01-01

    Some characteristics of CT findings in 27 patients with skull tumors forming subcutaneous tumors were studied. There were sixteen metastatic skull tumors, six primary skull tumors, and five meningiomas. A CT scan was found to be helpful in the diagnosis of the lesions. Especially, bone-window CT images proved very sensitive in the detection of destructive and permeative lesions of the skull. In 19 of the 27 cases, some lytic lesions were observed. In all cases with skull metastasis from carcinomas, a complete osteolytic change of the skull was observed. Furthermore, all of the metastatic tumors from thyroid carcinoma showed well circumscribed and homogeneously enhanced lesions, in contrast with the other metastatic carcinomas, which usually showed heterogeneously enhanced lesions with irregular margins. Osteoblastic changes were characteristically observed in all cases of meningiomas, osteosarcoma, and chondrosarcoma. Meningiomas were located mainly in the intracranial region and extended extracranially. In one case of malignant lymphoma, one of a neuroblastoma, and one of leukemia, there was little or no gross cortical bone change, despite a large mass. (author)

  4. Perceptions of patients with rheumatic diseases treated with subcutaneous biologicals on their level of information: RHEU-LIFE Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Toro, Javier; Cea-Calvo, Luis; Battle, Enrique; Carmona, Loreto; Arteaga, María J; Fernández, Sabela; González, Carlos M

    2017-12-22

    To investigate, in Spanish patients with rheumatic diseases treated with subcutaneous biological drugs, their sources of information, which sources they consider most relevant, and their satisfaction with the information received in the hospital. Rheumatologists from 50 hospitals handed out an anonymous survey to 20 consecutive patients with rheumatoid arthritis, axial spondyloarthritis or psoriatic arthritis treated with subcutaneous biologicals. The survey was developed ad hoc by 4 rheumatologists and 3 patients, and included questions with closed-ended responses on sources of information and satisfaction. The survey was handed-out to 1,000 patients, 592 of whom completed it (response rate: 59.2%). The rheumatologist was mentioned as the most important source of information (75%), followed by the primary care physician, nurses, and electronic resources; 45.2% received oral and written information about the biological, 46.1% oral only, and 6.0% written only; 8.7% stated that they had not been taught to inject the biological. The percentage of patients satisfied with the information received was high (87.2%), although the satisfaction was lower in relation to safety. If the information came from the rheumatologist, the satisfaction was higher (89.6%) than when coming from other sources (59.6%; P<.001). Satisfaction was also higher if the information was provided orally and written (92.8%) than if provided only orally (86.1%; P=.013); 45.2% reported having sought information from sources outside the hospital. The rheumatologist is key in transmitting satisfactory information on biological treatment to patients. He or she must also act as a guide, since a high percentage of patients seeks information in other different sources. Copyright © 2017. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  5. Ramizol® encapsulation into extended release PLGA micro- and nanoparticle systems for subcutaneous and intramuscular administration: in vitro and in vivo evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Leah; Rao, Shasha; Thomas, Nicky; Boulos, Ramiz A; Prestidge, Clive A

    2018-04-11

    Novel antibiotic Ramizol ® is advancing to clinical trials for the treatment of gastrointestinal Clostridium difficile associated disease. Despite this, previous studies have shown a rapid plasma clearance upon intravenous administration and low oral bioavailability indicating pure drug is unsuitable for systemic infection treatment following oral dosing. The current study aims to investigate the development of poly-lactic-(co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) particles to overcome this limitation and increase the systemic half-life following subcutaneous and intramuscular dosing. The development of new antibiotic treatments will help in combatting the rising incidence of antimicrobial resistance. Ramizol ® was encapsulated into PLGA nano and microparticles using nanoprecipitation and emulsification solvent evaporation techniques. Formulations were analyzed for particle size, loading level and encapsulation efficiency as well as in vitro drug release profiles. Final formulation was advanced to in vivo pharmacokinetic studies in Sprague-Dawley rats. Formulation technique showed major influence on particle size and loading levels with optimal loading of 9.4% and encapsulation efficiency of 92.06%, observed using emulsification solvent evaporation. Differences in formulation technique were also linked with subsequent differences in release profiles. Pharmacokinetic studies in Sprague-Dawley rats confirmed extended absorption and enhanced bioavailability following subcutaneous and intramuscular dosing with up to an 8-fold increase in T max and T 1/2 when compared to the oral and IV routes. Subcutaneous and intramuscular dosing of PLGA particles successfully increased systemic half-life and bioavailability of Ramizol ® . This formulation will allow further development of Ramizol ® for systemic infection eradication.

  6. Ileal Transposition Surgery Decreases Fat Mass and Improves Glucose Metabolism in Diabetic GK Rats: Possible Involvement of FGF21

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kemin Yan

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Ileal transposition (IT surgery has been reported to improve glucose and lipid metabolism, and fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21 is a powerful metabolic regulator. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the effects of IT surgery on metabolism and its possible relationship with the FGF21 signaling pathway in diabetic Goto-Kakizaki (GK rats.Methods: Ten-week-old male GK rats were subjected to IT surgery with translocation of a 10 cm ileal segment to the proximal jejunum (IT group or sham surgery without the ileum transposition (Sham-IT group. Rats in the no surgery group did not receive any surgical intervention. Six weeks later, body weight, fat mass, fasting blood glucose (FBG, and serum levels of FGF21 and leptin were measured. The expression of the FGF21 signaling pathway and white adipose tissue (WAT browning-related genes in the WAT and liver were evaluated by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR and western blot.Results: IT surgery significantly decreased the body weights and FBG levels and increased the insulin sensitivity of GK rats. The total WAT mass of the IT rats showed a 41.5% reduction compared with the Sham-IT rats, and serum levels of FGF21 and leptin of the IT rats decreased by 26.3 and 61.7%, respectively (all P < 0.05. The mRNA levels of fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1 and its co-receptor β klotho (KLB in the perirenal WAT (pWAT of the IT rats were 1.4- and 2.4-fold that of the Sham-IT rats, respectively, and the FGFR1 protein levels were 1.7-fold of the Sham-IT rats (all P < 0.05. In accordance with the pWAT, the protein levels of FGFR1 and KLB in the epididymal WAT (eWAT of the IT rats notably increased to 3.0- and 3.9-fold of the Sham-IT rats (P < 0.05. Furthermore, uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1 protein levels in the eWAT and pWAT of the IT rats also increased to 2.2- and 2.3-fold of the Sham-IT rats (P < 0.05. However, the protein levels of FGFR1 and KLB in the

  7. Xenotransplantation of uterine leiomyoma in Wistar rats: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Willane Bandeira de; Garcia, João Batista Santos; Nogueira Neto, João; Furtado, Pablo Gustavo Ribeiro; Anjos, Jonhnathan Adriano Araújo dos

    2015-07-01

    To evaluate whether xenografts derived from hysterectomized patients would implant successfully and lead to uterine leiomyoma in Wistar rats. This experimental study examined six female Wistar rats implanted with uterine leiomyoma obtained from patients who underwent hysterectomies at the gynecological surgery service of the HUUFMA. The rats were divided into two groups. Group I consisted of three rats in which the uterine leiomyoma had been implanted in the parietal peritoneum, and group II consisted of three rats in which the uterine leiomyoma was implanted in the subcutaneous tissue. The immunosuppressant mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) was administered orally by gavage (at a dose of 40 mg/kg of body weight) to prevent transplant rejection starting 15 days before the transplant and continuing throughout the entire experiment. After four weeks, necrosis and neovascularization were evaluated histologically in both groups and were classified as either absent or present. Lymphocytic inflammatory infiltration was also examined and classified as mild, moderate or intense (by hematoxylin and eosin staining), and fibrosis was classified as grade I-III (by Masson's trichrome staining). Necrosis was absent from all three rats in group I and was observed in only one rat from group II. Neovascularization was present in two rats from group I and in only one rat from group II. The lymphocytic inflammatory infiltrate was mild in two rats and moderate in one rat from group I, and it was moderate in two rats and intense in one rat from group II. Two rats from group 1 exhibited grade III fibrosis, and one rat presented grade I fibrosis. In group II, two rats presented grade I fibrosis and one rat had grade II fibrosis. When necrosis and neovascularization were evaluated as variables, group I demonstrated greater evidence of successful implantation when compared to group II, indicating that the peritoneal implantation technique produces better results than the subcutaneous approach (p

  8. Preference for subcutaneous or intravenous administration of trastuzumab in patients with HER2-positive early breast cancer (PrefHer)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pivot, Xavier; Gligorov, Joseph; Müller, Volkmar

    2013-01-01

    Subcutaneous trastuzumab has shown non-inferior efficacy and a similar pharmacokinetic and safety profile when compared with intravenous trastuzumab in patients with HER2-positive early breast cancer. We assessed patient preference for either subcutaneous or intravenous trastuzumab...

  9. Dose-dependent reduction of 3,2'-dimethyl-4-aminobiphenyl-derived DNA adducts in colon and liver of rats administered celecoxib

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravoori, Srivani [James Graham Brown Cancer Center, University of Louisville School of Medicine, Louisville, KY 40202 (United States); Feng Yi; Neale, Jason R. [James Graham Brown Cancer Center, University of Louisville School of Medicine, Louisville, KY 40202 (United States); Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Louisville School of Medicine, Louisville, KY 40202 (United States); Jeyabalan, Jeyaprakash [James Graham Brown Cancer Center, University of Louisville School of Medicine, Louisville, KY 40202 (United States); Srinivasan, Cidambi [Department of Statistics, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40502 (United States); Hein, David W. [James Graham Brown Cancer Center, University of Louisville School of Medicine, Louisville, KY 40202 (United States); Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Louisville School of Medicine, Louisville, KY 40202 (United States); Gupta, Ramesh C. [James Graham Brown Cancer Center, University of Louisville School of Medicine, Louisville, KY 40202 (United States); Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Louisville School of Medicine, Louisville, KY 40202 (United States)], E-mail: rcgupta@louisville.edu

    2008-02-01

    Colon cancer is second leading cause of cancer-related deaths in Western countries. Diet and smoking, which contain aromatic and heterocyclic amines, are major risk factors for colon cancer. Colorectal cancers have a natural history of long latency and therefore provide ample opportunities for effective chemoprevention. 3,2'-Dimethyl-4-aminobiphenyl (DMABP) is an experimental aromatic amine that causes cancer in rat colon and serves as an experimental model for arylamine and heterocyclic amine mutagens derived from diet and smoking. In this study, we investigated the effects of celecoxib, a selective cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor on DMABP-induced DNA adduct formation in rat liver and colon. Male F-344 rats (5-week old) were provided free access to modified AIN-76A rat chow containing 0 (control), 500, 1000, or 1500 ppm celecoxib. Two weeks later, the rats received a subcutaneous injection of 100 mg/kg DMABP in peanut oil. Two days after DMABP treatment, the rats were killed and DMABP-derived adducts were analyzed in colon and liver DNA by butanol extraction-mediated {sup 32}P-postlabeling. Two major DNA adducts, identified as dG-C8-DMABP and dG-N{sup 2}-DMABP, were detected in liver and colon of rats treated with DMABP. These DNA adducts were diminished approximately 35-40% with 500 ppm and 65-70% with 1,000 ppm celecoxib. In the colon, no further decline in DNA adducts was observed at 1500 ppm. The same DMABP-DNA adducts also were detected in the liver and were also diminished by celecoxib treatment. The reduction in DMABP-DNA adduct levels in celecoxib-treated animals provides further support for celecoxib as a chemopreventive agent for colorectal cancer.

  10. Dose-dependent reduction of 3,2'-dimethyl-4-aminobiphenyl-derived DNA adducts in colon and liver of rats administered celecoxib

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravoori, Srivani; Feng Yi; Neale, Jason R.; Jeyabalan, Jeyaprakash; Srinivasan, Cidambi; Hein, David W.; Gupta, Ramesh C.

    2008-01-01

    Colon cancer is second leading cause of cancer-related deaths in Western countries. Diet and smoking, which contain aromatic and heterocyclic amines, are major risk factors for colon cancer. Colorectal cancers have a natural history of long latency and therefore provide ample opportunities for effective chemoprevention. 3,2'-Dimethyl-4-aminobiphenyl (DMABP) is an experimental aromatic amine that causes cancer in rat colon and serves as an experimental model for arylamine and heterocyclic amine mutagens derived from diet and smoking. In this study, we investigated the effects of celecoxib, a selective cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor on DMABP-induced DNA adduct formation in rat liver and colon. Male F-344 rats (5-week old) were provided free access to modified AIN-76A rat chow containing 0 (control), 500, 1000, or 1500 ppm celecoxib. Two weeks later, the rats received a subcutaneous injection of 100 mg/kg DMABP in peanut oil. Two days after DMABP treatment, the rats were killed and DMABP-derived adducts were analyzed in colon and liver DNA by butanol extraction-mediated 32 P-postlabeling. Two major DNA adducts, identified as dG-C8-DMABP and dG-N 2 -DMABP, were detected in liver and colon of rats treated with DMABP. These DNA adducts were diminished approximately 35-40% with 500 ppm and 65-70% with 1,000 ppm celecoxib. In the colon, no further decline in DNA adducts was observed at 1500 ppm. The same DMABP-DNA adducts also were detected in the liver and were also diminished by celecoxib treatment. The reduction in DMABP-DNA adduct levels in celecoxib-treated animals provides further support for celecoxib as a chemopreventive agent for colorectal cancer

  11. The anti-inflammatory effect of montelukast, a cysteinyl leukotriene receptor-1 antagonist, against estradiol-induced nonbacterial inflammation in the rat prostate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Said, Mahmoud M; Bosland, Maarten C

    2017-02-01

    There is no standard treatment of chronic nonbacterial prostatitis in humans. The current study was aimed to investigate the effect of montelukast, an antagonist of cysteinyl leukotriene receptor-1, against estrogen-induced, nonbacterial lateral lobe-specific prostate inflammation in rats. Male Wistar rats were randomized into five groups of six rats, including sham controls (group 1) and castrated rats (group 2), whereas nonbacterial prostatitis (NBP) was induced in groups 3-5 by castration followed by a daily subcutaneous injection of estradiol (0.25 mg/kg body weight) for 30 days. The rats were left otherwise untreated (group 3) or received a daily oral administration of montelukast (1 and 10 mg/kg body weight for groups 4 and 5, respectively) from the 17th day after castration for two consecutive weeks. Compared with sham controls, induction of NBP led to a significant increase in serum leukotriene B 4 (LTB4), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and interleukin 6 (IL-6) levels, along with a significant upregulation in the transcript level of proinflammatory molecules (nuclear factor kappa beta [NF-κβ] and inducible nitric oxide synthase [iNOS]), chemokines (monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 [MCP-1] and eotaxin), and E-selectin in the lateral prostate. Histological examination revealed intense inflammation in the prostate with leukocyte infiltration and acinar degeneration following estradiol treatment of castrated rats. Montelukast significantly suppressed the increase in serum and prostate proinflammatory mediators/chemokines expression and abolished the histologically inflammatory changes in the lateral prostate. These findings indicate that montelukast inhibits estradiol-induced NBP in a rat model through anti-inflammatory mechanisms, suggesting its future beneficial effect for the treatment of clinical chronic NBP.

  12. Green tea, phytic acid, and inositol in combination reduced the incidence of azoxymethane-induced colon tumors in Fisher 344 male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatiwada, Janak; Verghese, Martha; Davis, Shurrita; Williams, Leonard L

    2011-11-01

    Experimental as well as epidemiologic studies in human populations provide evidence that consumption of phytochemicals reduces the incidence of degenerative diseases. Green tea (GT) catechins are known for their antioxidative potential. Phytic acid (PA) also acts as a natural antioxidant and may have numerous health benefits. This experiment was designed to investigate the inhibitory effects of combinations of 1% and 2% GT, PA, and inositol (I) in reducing the incidence of azoxymethane-induced colon tumors in Fisher 344 male rats. After an acclimatization period of 1 week, nine groups of rats (15 rats per group) were initially assigned to consume AIN 93 G diet and later AIN 93 M diet after 20 weeks of age. Treatments were given in drinking water. All rats received azoxymethane injections (16 mg/kg of body weight) subcutaneously at 7 and 8 weeks of age. Rats were killed at 45 weeks of age by CO(2) euthanasia. Tumor incidence (93.76%) and the number of tumors per tumor-bearing rat ratio (2.25) were significantly (P<.05) higher in the control group compared with treatment groups. Glutathione S-transferase activity was significantly (P<.05) higher in rats fed combinations of 2% GT+PA+I and GT+PA (33.25 ± 1.23 and 29.83 ± 1.10 μmol/mL, respectively) compared with other groups. These findings suggest that the synergistic effect of the 2% level of GT, PA, and I may reduce the incidence of colon tumors and therefore have potential as a chemopreventive agent.

  13. The role of trigeminal nucleus caudalis orexin 1 receptors in orofacial pain transmission and in orofacial pain-induced learning and memory impairment in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooshki, Razieh; Abbasnejad, Mehdi; Esmaeili-Mahani, Saeed; Raoof, Maryam

    2016-04-01

    It is widely accepted that the spinal trigeminal nuclear complex, especially the subnucleus caudalis (Vc), receives input from orofacial structures. The neuropeptides orexin-A and -B are expressed in multiple neuronal systems. Orexin signaling has been implicated in pain-modulating system as well as learning and memory processes. Orexin 1 receptor (OX1R) has been reported in trigeminal nucleus caudalis. However, its roles in trigeminal pain modulation have not been elucidated so far. This study was designed to investigate the role of Vc OX1R in the modulation of orofacial pain as well as pain-induced learning and memory deficits. Orofacial pain was induced by subcutaneous injection of capsaicin in the right upper lip of the rats. OX1R agonist (orexin-A) and antagonist (SB-334867-A) were microinjected into Vc prior capsaicin administration. After recording nociceptive times, learning and memory was investigated using Morris water maze (MWM) test. The results indicated that, orexin-A (150 pM/rat) significantly reduced the nociceptive times, while SB334867-A (80 nM/rat) exaggerated nociceptive behavior in response to capsaicin injection. In MWM test, capsaicin-treated rats showed a significant learning and memory impairment. Moreover, SB-334867-A (80 nM/rat) significantly exaggerated learning and memory impairment in capsaicin-treated rats. However, administration of orexin-A (100 pM/rat) prevented learning and memory deficits. Taken together, these results indicate that Vc OX1R was at least in part involved in orofacial pain transmission and orexin-A has also a beneficial inhibitory effect on orofacial pain-induced deficits in abilities of spatial learning and memory. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Digital Receiver Phase Meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcin, Martin; Abramovici, Alexander

    2008-01-01

    The software of a commercially available digital radio receiver has been modified to make the receiver function as a two-channel low-noise phase meter. This phase meter is a prototype in the continuing development of a phase meter for a system in which radiofrequency (RF) signals in the two channels would be outputs of a spaceborne heterodyne laser interferometer for detecting gravitational waves. The frequencies of the signals could include a common Doppler-shift component of as much as 15 MHz. The phase meter is required to measure the relative phases of the signals in the two channels at a sampling rate of 10 Hz at a root power spectral density measurements in laser metrology of moving bodies. To illustrate part of the principle of operation of the phase meter, the figure includes a simplified block diagram of a basic singlechannel digital receiver. The input RF signal is first fed to the input terminal of an analog-to-digital converter (ADC). To prevent aliasing errors in the ADC, the sampling rate must be at least twice the input signal frequency. The sampling rate of the ADC is governed by a sampling clock, which also drives a digital local oscillator (DLO), which is a direct digital frequency synthesizer. The DLO produces samples of sine and cosine signals at a programmed tuning frequency. The sine and cosine samples are mixed with (that is, multiplied by) the samples from the ADC, then low-pass filtered to obtain in-phase (I) and quadrature (Q) signal components. A digital signal processor (DSP) computes the ratio between the Q and I components, computes the phase of the RF signal (relative to that of the DLO signal) as the arctangent of this ratio, and then averages successive such phase values over a time interval specified by the user.

  15. The absorption and uptake of recombinant human follicle-stimulating hormone through vaginal subcutaneous injections - a pharmacokinetic study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Chao-Chin; Kuo, Hsin-Chih; Hsu, Chao-Tien; Gu, Qing

    2009-01-01

    Background Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) has been routinely used for ovulation induction. Because of rapid clearance of the hormone, FSH is commonly administered by daily intramuscular or subcutaneous injections in in-vitro fertilization (IVF). To reduce the number of visits to the clinic, an intermittent vaginal injection of rhFSH every 3 days employing the concepts of mesotherapy and uterine first-pass effect was invented and has successfully been applied in women receiving IVF treatment. This study was designed to monitor the pharmacokinetic pattern of rhFSH administered vaginally. Methods Twelve healthy women with regular ovulatory cycles were recruited. All volunteers received gonadotrophin-releasing hormone agonist to suppress pituitary function and were assigned to receive single dose recombinant human FSH (rhFSH, Puregon 300) either using conventional abdominal subcutaneous injection or vaginal subcutaneous injection in a randomized cross-over study. Serum samples were collected at pre- scheduled time intervals after injections of rhFSH to determine immunoreactive FSH levels. Pharmacokinetic parameters characterizing rate [maximal plasma concentrations (Cmax) and time of maximal plasma concentrations (tmax)] and extent [area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) and clearance] of absorption of rhFSH were compared. Results Vaginal injection of rhFSH was well tolerated and no drug-related adverse reaction was noted. Our analysis revealed that tmax was significantly earlier (mean 6.67 versus 13.33 hours) and Cmax was significantly higher (mean 17.77 versus 13.96 IU/L) in vaginal versus abdominal injections. The AUC0-∞ was 1640 versus 1134 IU·hour/L in vaginal and abdominal injections, respectively. Smaller plasma elimination rate constant (0.011 versus 0.016 hour-1), longer mean residence time (106.58 versus 70.47 hours), and slower total body clearance (292.2 versus 400.1 mL/hour) were also found in vaginal injection. Conclusion The vaginal

  16. The absorption and uptake of recombinant human follicle-stimulating hormone through vaginal subcutaneous injections - a pharmacokinetic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuo Hsin-Chih

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH has been routinely used for ovulation induction. Because of rapid clearance of the hormone, FSH is commonly administered by daily intramuscular or subcutaneous injections in in-vitro fertilization (IVF. To reduce the number of visits to the clinic, an intermittent vaginal injection of rhFSH every 3 days employing the concepts of mesotherapy and uterine first-pass effect was invented and has successfully been applied in women receiving IVF treatment. This study was designed to monitor the pharmacokinetic pattern of rhFSH administered vaginally. Methods Twelve healthy women with regular ovulatory cycles were recruited. All volunteers received gonadotrophin-releasing hormone agonist to suppress pituitary function and were assigned to receive single dose recombinant human FSH (rhFSH, Puregon 300 either using conventional abdominal subcutaneous injection or vaginal subcutaneous injection in a randomized cross-over study. Serum samples were collected at pre- scheduled time intervals after injections of rhFSH to determine immunoreactive FSH levels. Pharmacokinetic parameters characterizing rate [maximal plasma concentrations (Cmax and time of maximal plasma concentrations (tmax] and extent [area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC and clearance] of absorption of rhFSH were compared. Results Vaginal injection of rhFSH was well tolerated and no drug-related adverse reaction was noted. Our analysis revealed that tmax was significantly earlier (mean 6.67 versus 13.33 hours and Cmax was significantly higher (mean 17.77 versus 13.96 IU/L in vaginal versus abdominal injections. The AUC0-∞ was 1640 versus 1134 IU·hour/L in vaginal and abdominal injections, respectively. Smaller plasma elimination rate constant (0.011 versus 0.016 hour-1, longer mean residence time (106.58 versus 70.47 hours, and slower total body clearance (292.2 versus 400.1 mL/hour were also found in vaginal injection

  17. Continuous subcutaneous hydrocortisone infusion therapy in Addison's disease: a randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagliardi, Lucia; Nenke, Marni A; Thynne, Tilenka R J; von der Borch, Jenny; Rankin, Wayne A; Henley, David E; Sorbello, Jane; Inder, Warrick J; Torpy, David J

    2014-11-01

    Patients with Addison's disease (AD) report impaired subjective health status (SHS). Since cortisol exhibits a robust circadian cycle that entrains other biological clocks, impaired SHS may be due to the noncircadian cortisol profile achieved with conventional glucocorticoid replacement. Continuous subcutaneous hydrocortisone infusion (CSHI) reproduces a circadian cortisol profile, but its effects on SHS have not been objectively evaluated. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of CSHI on SHS in AD. This was a multicentre, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of CSHI vs oral glucocorticoid therapy. Participants received in random order 4 weeks of: CSHI and oral placebo, and subcutaneous placebo and oral hydrocortisone, separated by a 2-week washout period. SHS was assessed using the Short-Form 36 (SF-36), General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28), Fatigue Scale (FS), Gastrointestinal Symptom Rating Scale (GSRS); and Addison's Quality of Life Questionnaire (AddiQoL). Participants were asked their (blinded) treatment preference. Twenty-four hour urine free cortisol (UFC) and diurnal salivary cortisol collections compared cortisol exposure during each treatment. Ten participants completed the study. Baseline SHS scores (mean ± SE) were consistent with mild impairment: SF-36 physical component summary 48.4 (± 2.4), mental component summary 53.3 (± 3.0); GHQ-28 18.1 (± 3.3); GSRS 3.7 (± 1.6), and AddiQoL 94.7 (± 3.7). FS was similar to other AD cohorts 13.5 (± 1.0) (P = 0.82). UFC between treatments was not different (P = 0.87). The salivary cortisol at 0800 h was higher during CSHI (P = 0.03), but not at any other time points measured. There was no difference between the treatments in the SHS assessments. Five participants preferred CSHI, four oral hydrocortisone, and one was uncertain. Biochemical measurements indicate similar cortisol exposure during each treatment period, although a more circadian pattern was evident during CSHI. CSHI does not

  18. Phase 1 Trial of Subcutaneous rAvPAL-PEG in Subjects with Phenylketonuria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, Nicola; Harding, Cary O.; Burton, Barbara K.; Grange, Dorothy K.; Vockley, Jerry; Wasserstein, Melissa; Rice, Gregory M.; Musson, Donald G.; Gu, Zhonghua; Sile, Saba

    2014-01-01

    Objective Phenylketonuria is an inherited disease caused by impaired activity of phenylalanine hydroxylase, the enzyme that converts phenylalanine to tyrosine, leading to accumulation of phenylalanine and subsequent neurocognitive dysfunction. A phenylalanine-restricted diet initiated early in life can ameliorate the toxic effects of phenylalanine. However, the diet is onerous and compliance is extremely difficult. Phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) is a prokaryotic enzyme that converts phenylalanine to ammonia and trans-cinnamic acid. This Phase 1, multicenter clinical trial evaluated the safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics and efficacy of rAvPAL-PEG (recombinant Anabaena variabilis PAL produced in E. coli conjugated with polyethylene glycol [PEG] to reduce immunogenicity) in reducing phenylalanine levels in subjects with phenylketonuria. Methods Single subcutaneous injections of rAvPAL-PEG in escalating doses (0·001, 0·003, 0·01, 0·03, and 0·1 mg/kg) were administered to 25 adults with phenylketonuria recruited from those attending metabolic clinics in North America whose blood phenylalanine concentrations were ≥600 μmol/L. Results The most frequently reported adverse events were injection-site reactions and dizziness. Reactions were self-limited without sequelae. During the trial, two subjects had adverse reactions to intramuscular (IM) medroxyprogesterone acetate, a drug containing polyethylene glycol as an excipient. Three subjects developed a generalized skin rash at the highest rAvPAL-PEG dose (0·1 mg/kg). Drug levels peaked ∼5 days after the injection. Treatment was effective in reducing blood phenylalanine in all five subjects receiving the highest dose (0·1 mg/kg, mean percent change of -58 from baseline), with a nadir ∼6 days after injection and inverse correlation between drug and phenylalanine concentrations in plasma. Phenylalanine concentrations returned to near-baseline levels ∼20 days after the single injection. Conclusions

  19. Chronic preclinical safety evaluation of EPO-018B, a pegylated peptidic erythropoiesis-stimulating agent in monkeys and rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong, Xue-Lian; Gu, Xiao-Lei; Chen, Yong-Chun; Zhu, Hai; Xia, Zhen-Na; Li, Jian-Zhong; Lu, Guo-Cai

    2016-01-01

    EPO-018B, a synthetic peptide-based erythropoiesis stimulating agent (ESA), is mainly designed for treatment of anemia caused by chronic renal failure and chemotherapy against cancer. It overcomes the deficiencies of currently approved ESA, including the frequent administration of temperature-sensitive recombinant protein and anti-EPO antibody-mediated pure red cell aplasia (PRCA). This study was designed to evaluate the potential chronic toxicity of EPO-018B. Subcutaneous administration doses were designed as 0, 0.2, 1 and 10 mg/kg for six months for 160 rats (20/gender/group) and 0, 0.3, 3 and 20 mg/kg for nine months for 32 monkeys (4/gender/group) once every three weeks. The vehicles received the same volume of physiological saline injection. All animals survived to the scheduled necropsies after six weeks (for rats) and fourteen weeks (for monkeys) recovery period, except for the two high-dose female rats and two high-dose male monkeys, which were considered related to the increased RBCs, chronic blood hyperviscosity and chronic cardiac injury. EPO-018B is supposed to be subcutaneously injected once every month and the intended human therapeutic dose is 0.025 mg/kg. The study findings at 0.2 mg/kg for rats and 0.3 mg/kg for monkeys were considered to be the study NOAEL (the no observed adverse effect level), which were more than ten times the intended human therapeutic dose. Higher doses caused adverse effects related to the liver toxicity, cardiotoxicity, appearance of neutralizing antibodies of EPO-018B and the decrease of serum glucose and cholesterol. Most treatment-induced effects were reversible or revealed ongoing recovery upon the discontinuation of treatment. The sequelae occurred in rats and monkeys were considered secondary to exaggerated pharmacology and would less likely occur in the intended patient population. As to the differences between human beings and animals, the safety of EPO-018B need to be further confirmed in the future clinical

  20. Chronic preclinical safety evaluation of EPO-018B, a pegylated peptidic erythropoiesis-stimulating agent in monkeys and rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gong, Xue-Lian; Gu, Xiao-Lei [Department of Hygiene and Toxicology, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Chen, Yong-Chun [Department of Hygiene and Toxicology, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Department of Pharmacy, No.422 Hospital, Zhanjiang 524005 (China); Zhu, Hai; Xia, Zhen-Na [Department of Hygiene and Toxicology, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Li, Jian-Zhong, E-mail: lijianzhong1234@hotmail.com [Department of Biochemical Pharmacy, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Lu, Guo-Cai, E-mail: newdrug@smmu.edu.cn [Department of Hygiene and Toxicology, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200433 (China)

    2016-09-15

    EPO-018B, a synthetic peptide-based erythropoiesis stimulating agent (ESA), is mainly designed for treatment of anemia caused by chronic renal failure and chemotherapy against cancer. It overcomes the deficiencies of currently approved ESA, including the frequent administration of temperature-sensitive recombinant protein and anti-EPO antibody-mediated pure red cell aplasia (PRCA). This study was designed to evaluate the potential chronic toxicity of EPO-018B. Subcutaneous administration doses were designed as 0, 0.2, 1 and 10 mg/kg for six months for 160 rats (20/gender/group) and 0, 0.3, 3 and 20 mg/kg for nine months for 32 monkeys (4/gender/group) once every three weeks. The vehicles received the same volume of physiological saline injection. All animals survived to the scheduled necropsies after six weeks (for rats) and fourteen weeks (for monkeys) recovery period, except for the two high-dose female rats and two high-dose male monkeys, which were considered related to the increased RBCs, chronic blood hyperviscosity and chronic cardiac injury. EPO-018B is supposed to be subcutaneously injected once every month and the intended human therapeutic dose is 0.025 mg/kg. The study findings at 0.2 mg/kg for rats and 0.3 mg/kg for monkeys were considered to be the study NOAEL (the no observed adverse effect level), which were more than ten times the intended human therapeutic dose. Higher doses caused adverse effects related to the liver toxicity, cardiotoxicity, appearance of neutralizing antibodies of EPO-018B and the decrease of serum glucose and cholesterol. Most treatment-induced effects were reversible or revealed ongoing recovery upon the discontinuation of treatment. The sequelae occurred in rats and monkeys were considered secondary to exaggerated pharmacology and would less likely occur in the intended patient population. As to the differences between human beings and animals, the safety of EPO-018B need to be further confirmed in the future clinical

  1. Oxidative stress induces the decline of brain EPO expression in aging rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xu; Chen, Yubao; Shao, Siying; Tang, Qing; Chen, Weihai; Chen, Yi; Xu, Xiaoyu

    2016-10-01

    Brain Erythropoietin (EPO), an important neurotrophic factor and neuroprotective factor, was found to be associated with aging. Studies found EPO expression was significantly decreased in the hippocampus of aging rat compared with that of the youth. But mechanisms of the decline of the brain EPO during aging remain unclear. The present study utilized a d-galactose (d-gal)-induced aging model in which the inducement of aging was mainly oxidative injury, to explore underlying mechanisms for the decline of brain EPO in aging rats. d-gal-induced aging rats (2months) were simulated by subcutaneously injecting with d-gal at doses of 50mg·kg(-1), 150mg·kg(-1) and 250mg·kg(-1) daily for 8weeks while the control group received vehicle only. These groups were all compared with the aging rats (24months) which had received no other treatment. The cognitive impairment was assessed using Morris water maze (MWM) in the prepared models, and the amount of β-galactosidase, the lipid peroxidation product malondialdehyde (MDA) level and the superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in the hippocampus was examined by assay kits. The levels of EPO, EPOR, p-JAK2 and hypoxia-inducible factor-2α (HIF-2α) in the hippocampus were detected by western blot. Additionally, the correlation coefficient between EPO/EPOR expression and MDA level was analyzed. The MWM test showed that compared to control group, the escape latency was significantly extended and the times of crossing the platform was decreased at the doses of 150mg·kg(-1) and 250mg·kg(-1) (paging rats, the expressions of EPO, EPOR, p-JAK2, and HIF-2αin the brain of d-gal-treated rats were significantly decreased (paging could result in the decline of EPO in the hippocampus and oxidative stress might be the main reason for the decline of brain EPO in aging rats, involved with the decrease of HIF-2α stability. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Qualitative analysis of subcutaneous Lispro and regular insulin injections for stress hyperglycemia: a pilot numerical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strilka, Richard J; Armen, Scott B; Indeck, Matthew C

    2014-09-07

    Increased glucose variability (GV) is an independent risk factor for mortality in the critically ill; unfortunately, the optimal insulin therapy that minimizes GV is not known. We simulate the glucose-insulin feedback system to study how stress hyperglycemia (SH) states, taken to be a non-uniform group of physiologic disorders with varying insulin resistance (IR) and similar levels of hyperglycemia, respond to the type and dose of subcutaneous (SQ) insulin. Two groups of 100 virtual patients are studied: those receiving and those not receiving continuous enteral feeds. Stress hyperglycemia was facilitated by doubling the gluconeogenesis rate and IR was stepwise varied from a borderline to a high value. Lispro and regular insulin were simulated with dosages that ranged from 0 to 6 units; the resulting GV was analyzed after each insulin injection. The numerical model used consists of a set of non-linear differential equations with two time delays and five adjustable parameters. The results show that regular insulin decreased GV in both patient groups and rarely caused hypoglycemia. With continuous enteral feeds and borderline to mild IR, Lispro showed minimal effect on GV; however, rebound hyperglycemia that increased GV occurred when the IR was moderate to high. Without a nutritional source, Lispro worsened GV through frequent hypoglycemia episodes as the injection dose increased. The inferior performance of Lispro is a result of its rapid absorption profile; half of its duration of action is similar to the glucose ultradian period. Clinical trials are needed to examine whether these numerical results represent the glucose-insulin dynamics that occur in intensive care units, and if such dynamics are present, their clinical effects should be evaluated. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Use of parecoxib by continuous subcutaneous infusion for cancer pain in a hospice population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Peter; Wilkinson, Pauline; McCorry, Noleen K

    2018-03-01

    To characterise the use of the parenteral non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug parecoxib when given by continuous subcutaneous infusion (CSCI) in a hospice population. Clinical experience suggests parecoxib CSCI may be of benefit in this population, but empirical evidence in relation to its safety and efficacy is lacking. Retrospective chart review of patients with a cancer diagnosis receiving parecoxib CSCI from 2008 to 2013 at the Marie Curie Hospice, Belfast. Data were collected on treatment regime, tolerability and, in patients receiving at least 7 days treatment, baseline opioid dose and changes in pain scores or opioid rescue medication requirements. Parecoxib CSCI was initiated in 80 patients with a mean administration of 17.9 days (median 11, range 1-94). When used for a period of 7 days, there was a statistically significant reduction in pain scores (p=0.002) and in the number of rescue opioid doses required (p=0.001), but no statistically significant opioid-sparing effect (p=0.222). It was generally well tolerated, although gastrointestinal, renal adverse effects and local site irritation were reported. Parecoxib may have a valuable place in the management of cancer pain, especially towards the end of life when oral administration is no longer possible and CSCI administration is relied on. Further studies into the efficacy and tolerability of parecoxib CSCI are merited. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  4. The pharmacokinetics of cytarabine administered subcutaneously, combined with prednisone, in dogs with meningoencephalomyelitis of unknown etiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastina, B; Early, P J; Bergman, R L; Nettifee, J; Maller, A; Bray, K Y; Waldron, R J; Castel, A M; Munana, K R; Papich, M G; Messenger, K M

    2018-05-15

    The objective of this study was to describe the pharmacokinetics (PK) of cytarabine (CA) after subcutaneous (SC) administration to dogs with meningoencephalomyelitis of unknown etiology (MUE). Twelve dogs received a single SC dose of CA at 50 mg/m 2 as part of treatment of MUE. A sparse sampling technique was used to collect four blood samples from each dog from 0 to 360 min after administration. All dogs were concurrently receiving prednisone (0.5-2 mg kg -1 day -1 ). Plasma CA concentrations were measured by HPLC, and pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated using nonlinear mixed-effects modeling (NLME). Plasma drug concentrations ranged from 0.05 to 2.8 μg/ml. The population estimate (CV%) for elimination half-life and Tmax of cytarabine in dogs was 1.09 (21.93) hr and 0.55 (51.03) hr, respectively. The volume of distribution per fraction absorbed was 976.31 (10.85%) ml/kg. Mean plasma concentration of CA for all dogs was above 1.0 μg/ml at the 30-, 60-, 90-, and 120-min time points. In this study, the pharmacokinetics of CA in dogs with MUE after a single 50 mg/m 2 SC injection in dogs was similar to what has been previously reported in healthy beagles; there was moderate variability in the population estimates in this clinical population of dogs. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Minocycline added to subcutaneous interferon β-1a in multiple sclerosis: randomized RECYCLINE study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, P S; Sellebjerg, F; Lycke, J; Färkkilä, M; Créange, A; Lund, C G; Schluep, M; Frederiksen, J L; Stenager, E; Pfleger, C; Garde, E; Kinnunen, E; Marhardt, K

    2016-05-01

    Combining different therapies may improve disease control in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). This study assessed the efficacy and safety of minocycline added to subcutaneous (sc) interferon (IFN) β-1a therapy. This was a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled multicentre study. Within 3 months (±1 month) of starting sc IFN β-1a 44 μg three times weekly, patients with RRMS were randomized to minocycline 100 mg twice daily or placebo, added to sc IFN β-1a, for 96 weeks. The primary efficacy endpoint was the time to first qualifying relapse. Secondary efficacy endpoints were the annualized relapse rate for qualifying relapses, the number of new/enlarging T2-weighted lesions and change in brain volume [magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed only in a few selected centres]. In addition, a number of tertiary efficacy endpoints were assessed. One hundred and forty-nine patients received minocycline and 155 received placebo; MRI data were available for 23 and 27 patients, respectively. The time to first qualifying relapse did not differ significantly for minocycline versus placebo (hazard ratio 0.85; 95% confidence interval 0.53, 1.35; log-rank = 0.50; P = 0.48). There were no statistically significant differences between the two groups on other efficacy endpoints, although some numerical trends in favour of minocycline were observed. No unexpected adverse events were reported, but more patients discontinued because of adverse events with minocycline versus placebo. Minocycline showed no statistically significant beneficial effect when added to sc IFN β-1a therapy. © 2016 EAN.

  6. Susceptibility of the Siberian polecat to subcutaneous and oral Yersinia pestis exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castle, K.T.; Biggins, D.; Carter, L.G.; Chu, M.; Innes, Kim; Wimsatt, J.

    2001-01-01

    To determine if the Siberian polecat (Mustela eversmannii) represents a suitable model for the study of plague pathogenesis and prevention in the black-footed ferret (Mustela nigripes), polecats were exposed to 103, 107, or 1010 Yersinia pestis organisms by subcutaneous injection; an additional group was exposed to Y. pestis via ingestion of a plague-killed mouse. Plague killed 88% of polecats exposed to Y. pestis (71% mortality in the 103 group, 100% mortality in the 107 and 1010 groups, and 83% mortality in the mouse-fed group). Within the challenged group, mean day of death post-challenge ranged from 3.6 to 7.6 days; all polecats died on or before day 12 post-challenge. Animals receiving the lowest parenteral dose survived significantly longer than those receiving higher parenteral doses. Within challenged animals, mean survival time was lower in those presenting with significant weight loss by day 3, lethargy, and low fecal output; time to onset of lethargy and other signs was also related to risk of dying and/or plague dose. Six polecats developed serum antibody titers to the Y. pestis F1 protein. Three seropositive polecats survived the initial challenge and a subsequent exposure to a plague-killed mouse, while two seropositive animals later died. This study confirms that the Siberian polecat is susceptible to plague and suggests that this species will offer an appropriate surrogate for black-footed ferrets in future plague studies and related vaccine trials.

  7. Real-life compliance and persistence among users of subcutaneous and sublingual allergen immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiel, Menno A; Röder, Esther; Gerth van Wijk, Roy; Al, Maiwenn J; Hop, Wim C J; Rutten-van Mölken, Maureen P M H

    2013-08-01

    Subcutaneous allergen immunotherapy (SCIT) and sublingual allergen immunotherapy (SLIT) are safe and effective treatments of allergic rhinitis, but high levels of compliance and persistence are crucial to achieving the desired clinical effects. Our objective was to assess levels and predictors of compliance and persistence among grass pollen, tree pollen, and house dust mite immunotherapy users in real life and to estimate the costs of premature discontinuation. We performed a retrospective analysis of a community pharmacy database from The Netherlands containing data from 6486 patients starting immunotherapy for 1 or more of the allergens of interest between 1994 and 2009. Two thousand seven hundred ninety-six patients received SCIT, and 3690 received SLIT. Time to treatment discontinuation was analyzed and included Cox proportional hazard models with time-dependent covariates, where appropriate. Overall, only 18% of users reached the minimally required duration of treatment of 3 years (SCIT, 23%; SLIT, 7%). Median durations for SCIT and SLIT users were 1.7 and 0.6 years, respectively (P < .001). Other independent predictors of premature discontinuation were prescriber, with patients of general practitioners demonstrating longer persistence than those of allergologists and other medical specialists; single-allergen immunotherapy, lower socioeconomic status; and younger age. Of the persistent patients, 56% were never late in picking up their medication from the pharmacy. Direct medication costs per nonpersistent patient discontinuing in the third year of treatment were €3800, an amount that was largely misspent. Real-life persistence is better in SCIT users than in SLIT users, although it is low overall. There is an urgent need for further identification of potential barriers and measures that will enhance persistence and compliance. Copyright © 2013 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. A woman with juxta-articular nodules—An uncommon form of subcutaneous granuloma annulare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili Wang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Granuloma annulare is a benign inflammatory dermatosis that is most common in children and young adults. The subcutaneous form of granuloma annulare, which occurs mainly on the extremities in children, is rare. Lesions usually occur as painless subcutaneous nodules without inflammation of the cutaneous surface; the most frequent sites are the legs, buttocks, and scalp. Nevertheless, we present a case of subcutaneous granuloma annulare confined to the dorsa of the hand joints and right knee in a 51-year-old woman.

  9. Imaging features in calcinosis circumscripta, a rare type of subcutaneous calcification in localized scleroderma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pratiksha Yadav

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Calcinosis cutis circumscripta is a rare condition in which abnormal deposition of calcium seen in the dermis and subcutaneous tissue, it is associated with localized scleroderma. A 30-year-old female presented with an area of extensive calcification involving the right gluteal region, lateral aspect of right thigh and a small area on left thigh detected on radiograph with atrophy of subcutaneous tissue. Magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography were done for further evaluation and the findings were of calcification and atrophy involving the skin and subcutaneous tissue.

  10. [Experiences with a subcutaneous, fully resorbable bridge in construction a double loop ileo- and colostomy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wedell, J; Banzhaf, G; Meier zu Eissen, P; Schlageter, M

    1990-01-01

    Our experience with the subcutaneous absorbable bridge for constructing a temporary loop ileostomy and loop colostomy is described. The use of this subcutaneous absorbable bridge in 15 patients - 6 with loop ileostomy and 9 with loop colostomy - was almost without complications. The absorbable bridge is a progress for maturation of the stoma and for immediate postoperative as prospective fitting of a watertight appliance. The actual trend substituting the temporary loop colostomy by the loop ileostomy may be advanced by the unlimited use of the subcutaneous absorbable bridge for constructing a temporary loop ileostomy.

  11. Spontaneous subcutaneous emphysema of the scalp following hair coloring/treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjit O. Tewari, MD

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Subcutaneous emphysema of the scalp is a process often attributed to secondary factors such as trauma, infection, or a myriad of iatrogenic etiologies. Here, we are presenting a case report of an adult patient with spontaneous subcutaneous emphysema of the scalp following a hair coloring/treatment. We performed an extensive review of literature on this topic, however, could not find a single case with similar presentation of subcutaneous emphysema. This case demonstrates an unreported etiology for this diagnosis and is thus being reported for its uniqueness and to raise clinical awareness.

  12. Cutaneous and subcutaneous blood flow measurements in psoriasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klemp, P.

    1987-01-01

    The experiments - published in 7 papers in The Journal of Investigative Dermatology 1983-86 - have demonstrated: 1. The accuracy of the local 133 Xe washout method is about 15% for estimation of the cutaneous blood flow (CBF), and about 10% for subcutaneous blood flow measurements (SBF). In measurements of absolute CBF values a graphic curve resolution of the washout curve should alwaus be performed. Otherwise the CBF might be considerably underestimated. 2. CdTe(Cl) mini-detectors can be attached directly to the skin, and might yield measurements of both CBF and SBF that can substitute for those made with conventional detectors. 3. The laser Doppler measurements could not be correlated to quantitative measurements of the CBF. 4. The tissue-to-blood partition coefficient for 133 Xe of lesional psoriatic skin (LS) is increased. 5. In untreated, LS of patients with active psoriasis the CBF is about a factor of 10 times higher than the CBF of normal individuals. In non-lesional skin (NLS) of patients with active psoriasis the CBF is about a factor of 2 higher than the CBF of normal individuals. However, the CBF did not differ in NLS of patients with minimal skin manifestations. The high CBF decreases gradualy during antipsoriatic treatment. 6. A paradoxical autoregulation of the CBF was observed in LS. 7. The high CBF is not due to a maximally dilated vascular bed. 8. The SBF in LS areas was a factor of higher than the SBF in normal individuals. 9. A normal, local regulation of the SBF was found. (author)

  13. Microstructural inhomogeneity of electrical conductivity in subcutaneous fat tissue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilja L Kruglikov

    Full Text Available Microscopic peculiarities stemming from a temperature increase in subcutaneous adipose tissue (sWAT after applying a radio-frequency (RF current, must be strongly dependent on the type of sWAT. This effect is connected with different electrical conductivities of pathways inside (triglycerides in adipocytes and outside (extra-cellular matrix the cells and to the different weighting of these pathways in hypertrophic and hyperplastic types of sWAT. The application of the RF current to hypertrophic sWAT, which normally has a strongly developed extracellular matrix with high concentrations of hyaluronan and collagen in a peri-cellular space of adipocytes, can produce, micro-structurally, a highly inhomogeneous temperature distribution, characterized by strong temperature gradients between the peri-cellular sheath of the extra-cellular matrix around the hypertrophic adipocytes and their volumes. In addition to normal temperature effects, which are generally considered in body contouring, these temperature gradients can produce thermo-mechanical stresses on the cells' surfaces. Whereas these stresses are relatively small under normal conditions and cannot cause any direct fracturing or damage of the cell structure, these stresses can, under some supportive conditions, be theoretically increased by several orders of magnitude, causing the thermo-mechanical cell damage. This effect cannot be realized in sWAT of normal or hyperplastic types where the peri-cellular structures are under-developed. It is concluded that the results of RF application in body contouring procedures must be strongly dependent on the morphological structure of sWAT.

  14. Pharmacokinetics of insulin following intravenous and subcutaneous administration in canines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravis, W R; Comerci, C; Ganjam, V K

    1986-01-01

    Studies were conducted to examine the absorption and disposition kinetics of insulin in dogs following intravenous (IV) and subcutaneous (SC) administration of commercial preparations. After IV and SC dosing, the plasma levels were described by models which considered basal insulin level contributions. Intersubject variation in the disposition kinetics was small with half-lives of 0.52 +/- 0.05 h and total body clearances of 16.21 +/- 2.08 ml min-1 kg-1. Calculated insulin plasma secretion rates in the canines were 14.4 +/- 3.3 mUh-1 kg-1. Following SC injection of regular insulin, the rate and extent of absorption were noted to be quite variable. The absorption process appeared first-order with half-life values of 2.3 +/- 1.3 h and extents of absorption of 78 +/- 15 per cent with a range of 55-101 per cent. Insulin absorption from SC NPH preparations was evaluated as being composed of two zero-order release phases, a rapid and a slow release phase. With a dose of 1.65 U kg-1, the rapid release phase had an average duration of 1.5 h and a rate of 580 +/- 269 mUh-1 (4.2 per cent of dose) while the slow phase had a zero-order rate of 237 +/- 92 mU h-1 which continued beyond 12 h. The extent of absorption from the NPH preparation was 23.6 +/- 5.1 per cent and was significantly lower than that for the regular injection.

  15. Secretion of autoimmune antibodies in the human subcutaneous adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frasca, Daniela; Diaz, Alain; Romero, Maria; Thaller, Seth; Blomberg, Bonnie B

    2018-01-01

    The adipose tissue (AT) contributes to systemic and B cell intrinsic inflammation, reduced B cell responses and secretion of autoimmune antibodies. In this study we show that adipocytes in the human obese subcutaneous AT (SAT) secrete several pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, which contribute to the establishment and maintenance of local and systemic inflammation, and consequent suboptimal immune responses in obese individuals, as we have previously shown. We also show that pro-inflammatory chemokines recruit immune cells expressing the corresponding receptors to the SAT, where they also contribute to local and systemic inflammation, secreting additional pro-inflammatory mediators. Moreover, we show that the SAT generates autoimmune antibodies. During the development of obesity, reduced oxygen and consequent hypoxia and cell death lead to further release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, "self" protein antigens, cell-free DNA and lipids. All these stimulate class switch and the production of autoimmune IgG antibodies which have been described to be pathogenic. In addition to hypoxia, we have measured cell cytotoxicity and DNA damage mechanisms, which may also contribute to the release of "self" antigens in the SAT. All these processes are significantly elevated in the SAT as compared to the blood. We definitively found that fat-specific IgG antibodies are secreted by B cells in the SAT and that B cells express mRNA for the transcription factor T-bet and the membrane marker CD11c, both involved in the production of autoimmune IgG antibodies. Finally, the SAT also expresses RNA for cytokines known to promote Germinal Center formation, isotype class switch, and plasma cell differentiation. Our results show novel mechanisms for the generation of autoimmune antibody responses in the human SAT and allow the identification of new pathways to possibly manipulate in order to reduce systemic inflammation and autoantibody production in obese individuals.

  16. Nursing knowledge and practices regarding subcutaneous fluid administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Nathália Silva; Silva, Andrea Mara Bernardes da; Zago, Luana Barbosa; Silva, Érica Carneiro de Lima E; Barichello, Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    To describe the evidence in the literature regarding the knowledge and practices of the nursing team about subcutaneous administration of drugs and fluids in adults. Integrative review of the literature using the descriptors "nursing", "hypodermoclysis", "drug administration routes", "adult health," and "knowledge," in English, Spanish, and Portuguese, with no publication deadline. Of the 569 articles found, eight made up the sample. A predominance of international journals (75%) with more than five years of publication (62.5%). The analysis of the methodological characteristics showed a predominance of literature reviews (25%), quantitative studies (62.5%), cross-sectional studies (50%), and non-experimental studies (50%). Although it is an old technique with proven efficacy, hypodermoclysis is still little used, a puzzling fact due to its advantages and indications for any age. descrever as evidências, na literatura, sobre os conhecimentos e as práticas da equipe de enfermagem na administração de medicamentos e de fluidos por via subcutânea no adulto. revisão integrativa da literatura utilizando os descritores enfermagem, hipodermóclise, vias de administração de medicamentos, saúde do adulto e conhecimento; nos idiomas inglês, espanhol e português, sem data limite de publicação. Dos 569 artigos encontrados, oito compuseram a amostra. predomínio de revistas internacionais (75%) e com mais de cinco anos de publicação (62,5%). Ao analisarem-se as características metodológicas, predominaram: revisões de literatura (25%), estudos quantitativos (62,5%), estudos transversais (50%) e não-experimentais (50%). apesar de se tratar de uma técnica antiga com eficácia comprovada, a hipodermóclise ainda é pouco utilizada, fato incoerente pelas suas vantagens e suas indicações para qualquer idade.

  17. Biocompatibility of Subcutaneously Implanted Plant-Derived Cellulose Biomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelling, Andrew E.

    2016-01-01

    There is intense interest in developing novel biomaterials which support the invasion and proliferation of living cells for potential applications in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Decellularization of existing tissues have formed the basis of one major approach to producing 3D scaffolds for such purposes. In this study, we utilize the native hypanthium tissue of apples and a simple preparation methodology to create implantable cellulose scaffolds. To examine biocompatibility, scaffolds were subcutaneously implanted in wild-type, immunocompetent mice (males and females; 6–9 weeks old). Following the implantation, the scaffolds were resected at 1, 4 and 8 weeks and processed for histological analysis (H&E, Masson’s Trichrome, anti-CD31 and anti-CD45 antibodies). Histological analysis revealed a characteristic foreign body response to the scaffold 1 week post-implantation. However, the immune response was observed to gradually disappear by 8 weeks post-implantation. By 8 weeks, there was no immune response in the surrounding dermis tissue and active fibroblast migration within the cellulose scaffold was observed. This was concomitant with the deposition of a new collagen extracellular matrix. Furthermore, active blood vessel formation within the scaffold was observed throughout the period of study indicating the pro-angiogenic properties of the native scaffolds. Finally, while the scaffolds retain much of their original shape they do undergo a slow deformation over the 8-week length of the study. Taken together, our results demonstrate that native cellulose scaffolds are biocompatible and exhibit promising potential as a surgical biomaterial. PMID:27328066

  18. Accelerated subcutaneous immunotherapy in pediatric population – Systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.A. Gomes dos Reis Pimentel

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Accelerated subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT schedules represent an alternative to conventional SCIT, providing immunotherapy benefits in a shorter period of time. The objectives of this systematic review were to assess clinical and immunological efficacy as well as safety of accelerated SCIT build-up schedules for the treatment of respiratory allergy in pediatric patients. Methods: Studies were located by searching PubMed, using “immunotherapy” and “desensitization” as keywords. The selection of studies, published from January 1st, 2006, to December 31th, 2015, was performed in two stages: screening of titles and abstracts, and assessment of the full papers identified as relevant, considering the inclusion criteria. Data were extracted in a standardized way and synthesized qualitatively to assess efficacy and safety of accelerated schedules in respiratory allergy. Results: Eleven trials were included: two evaluated rush SCIT and nine assessed cluster SCIT. This review demonstrated that rush and cluster schedules are clinically and immunological efficacious, with faster effect than conventional schedules. No relevant difference with respect to clinical outcomes was noticed between subgroups (pediatric, adult and mixed populations. Regarding safety, most local adverse reactions were mild and there were neither life-threatening systemic reactions nor fatal events. No relevant differences in the incidence and severity of either local or systemic reactions between the accelerated schedule group and control group were registered. Conclusions: Accelerated SCIT build-up schedules are effective in the treatment of respiratory allergy in pediatric patients, representing a safe alternative to the conventional schedules with the advantage of achieving clinical effectiveness sooner. Keywords: Allergy, Immunotherapy, Pediatrics

  19. Pressure difference receiving ears

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michelsen, Axel; Larsen, Ole Næsbye

    2007-01-01

    Directional sound receivers are useful for locating sound sources, and they can also partly compensate for the signal degradations caused by noise and reverberations. Ears may become inherently directional if sound can reach both surfaces of the eardrum. Attempts to understand the physics...... of the eardrum. The mere existence of sound transmission to the inner surface does not ensure a useful directional hearing, since a proper amplitude and phase relationship must exist between the sounds acting on the two surfaces of the eardrum. The gain of the sound pathway must match the amplitude and phase...... of the sounds at the outer surfaces of the eardrums, which are determined by diffraction and by the arrival time of the sound, that is by the size and shape of the animal and by the frequency of sound. Many users of hearing aids do not obtain a satisfactory improvement of their ability to localize sound sources...

  20. Solar thermal energy receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Karl W. (Inventor); Dustin, Miles O. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A plurality of heat pipes in a shell receive concentrated solar energy and transfer the energy to a heat activated system. To provide for even distribution of the energy despite uneven impingement of solar energy on the heat pipes, absence of solar energy at times, or failure of one or more of the heat pipes, energy storage means are disposed on the heat pipes which extend through a heat pipe thermal coupling means into the heat activated device. To enhance energy transfer to the heat activated device, the heat pipe coupling cavity means may be provided with extensions into the device. For use with a Stirling engine having passages for working gas, heat transfer members may be positioned to contact the gas and the heat pipes. The shell may be divided into sections by transverse walls. To prevent cavity working fluid from collecting in the extensions, a porous body is positioned in the cavity.

  1. Hepatoprotective properties of aqueous leaf extract of Persea Americana, Mill (Lauraceae) 'avocado' against CCL4-induced damage in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brai, Bartholomew I C; Adisa, Rahmat A; Odetola, Adebimpe A

    2014-01-01

    Natural products from plants have received considerable attention in recent years due to their diverse pharmacological properties, including antioxidants and hepatoprotective activities. The protective effects of aqueous extract of Persea americana (AEPA) against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatotoxicity in male albino rats was investigated. Liver damage was induced in rats by administering a 1:1 (v/v) mixture of CCl4 and olive oil [3 ml/kg, subcutaneously (sc)] after pre-treatment for 7 days with AEPA. Hepatoprotective effects of AEPA was evaluated by estimating the activities of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and levels of total bilirubin (TBL). The effects of AEPA on biomarkers of oxidative damage (lipid peroxidation) and antioxidant enzymes namely, catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) were measured in liver post mitochondrial fraction. AEPA and Reducdyn® showed significant (p<0.05) hepatoprotective activity by decreasing the activities of ALT, AST, ALP and reducing the levels of TBL. The activities of antioxidant enzymes, levels of malondialdehyde and protein carbonyls were also decreased dose-dependently in the AEPA-treated rats. Pre-treatment with AEPA also decreased the serum levels of glutathione significantly. These data revealed that AEPA possesses significant hepatoprotective effects against CCl4-induced toxicity attributable to its constituent phytochemicals. The mechanism of hepatoprotection seems to be through modulation of antioxidant enzyme system.

  2. Influence of ovarian hormones on cortical spreading depression and its suppression by L-kynurenine in rat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginie Chauvel

    Full Text Available Migraine is sexually dimorphic and associated in 20-30% of patients with an aura most likely caused by cortical spreading depression (CSD. We have previously shown that systemic L-kynurenine (L-KYN, the precursor of kynurenic acid, suppresses CSD and that this effect depends on the stage of the estrous cycle in female rats. The objectives here are to determine the influence of ovarian hormones on KCl-induced CSD and its suppression after L-KYN by directly modulating estradiol or progesterone levels in ovariectomized rats. Adult female rats were ovariectomized and subcutaneously implanted with silastic capsules filled with progesterone or 17β-estradiol mixed with cholesterol, with cholesterol only or left empty. Two weeks after the ovariectomy/capsule implantation, the animals received an i.p. injection of L-KYN (300 mg/kg or NaCl as control. Thirty minutes later CSDs were elicited by applying KCl over the occipital cortex and recorded by DC electrocorticogram for 1 hour. The results show that both estradiol and progesterone increase CSD frequency after ovariectomy. The suppressive effect of L-KYN on CSD frequency, previously reported in normal cycling females, is not found anymore after ovariectomy, but reappears after progesterone replacement therapy. Taken together, these results emphasize the complex role of sex hormones on cortical excitability. The CSD increase by estradiol and, more surprisingly, progesterone may explain why clinically migraine with aura appears or worsens during pregnancy or with combined hormonal treatments.

  3. Model of the Glucose-Insulin-Glucagon Dynamics after Subcutaneous Administration of a Glucagon Rescue Bolus in Healthy Humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wendt, Sabrina Lyngbye; Møller, Jan Kloppenborg; Haidar, Ahmad

    In healthy individuals, insulin and glucagon work in a complex fashion to maintain blood glucose levels within a narrow range. This regulation is distorted in patients with diabetes. The hepatic glucose response due to an elevated glucagon level depends on the current insulin concentration and thus...... endogenous glucose production (EGP) can not be modelled without knowledge of the concentration of both hormones in plasma. Furthermore, literature suggests an upper limit to EGP irrespective of glucagon levels. We build a simulation model of the glucose-insulin-glucagon dynamics in man including saturation...... effect of EGP. Ten healthy subjects received a 1 mg subcutaneous (SC) glucagon bolus (GlucaGen®). Plasma samples were collected until 300 minutes post dose and analyzed for glucagon, insulin, and glucose concentrations. All observations were used to fit a physiological model of the glucose...

  4. A time and motion study of subcutaneous versus intravenous trastuzumab in patients with HER2-positive early breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Cock, Erwin; Pivot, Xavier; Hauser, Nik

    2016-01-01

    Within PrefHer (NCT01401166), patients and healthcare professionals (HCPs) preferred subcutaneous (SC) over intravenous (IV) trastuzumab. We undertook a prospective, observational time and motion study to quantify patients' time in infusion chairs and active HCP time in PrefHer. Patients with HER2......-positive early breast cancer received four adjuvant cycles of SC trastuzumab (600 mg fixed dose via SC single-use injection device [SID, Cohort 1] or SC handheld syringe [HHS, Cohort 2]) then four cycles of standard IV trastuzumab or the reverse sequence. Generic case report forms for IV and SC management...... (range across countries: 4-16; P trastuzumab, delivered via SID or HHS, saved patient chair and active HCP times versus IV infusion, supporting a transition to either SC method....

  5. Enfisema subcutâneo maciço - Tratamento com drenos subcutâneos Massive subcutaneous emphysema - Management using subcutaneous drains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Sucena

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available O enfisema subcutâneo é uma complicação relativamente comum na sequência de técnicas invasivas, procedimentos cirúrgicos e algumas patologias médicas. Na maior parte dos casos apenas causa sintomatologia minor e o tratamento é habitualmente conservador. Mesmo quando grave, raramente tem consequências patofisiológicas significativas, apesar de ser extremamente desconfortável para o doente. Os autores descrevem um caso clínico de enfisema subcutâneo maciço, de rápida instalação, após saída acidental de tubo de drenagem torácica, em doente com pneumotórax espontâneo secundário e fístula broncopleural. O enfisema foi tratado através da colocação, sob anestesia local, de dois drenos subcutâneos na parede anterossuperior do tórax, conectados a sacos de drenagem. Após a colocação dos drenos subcutâneos verificou-se uma franca melhoria clínica do doente, com descompressão eficaz do enfisema subcutâneo. No presente caso clínico, a técnica de drenagem do enfisema maciço mostrou-se simples, segura e eficaz, permitindo o alívio sintomático imediato.Massive subcutaneous emphysema is a relatively common complication in invasive techniques, surgical practice and some medical conditions. Subcutaneous emphysema is usually treated conservatively and may only cause minimal symptoms. Even when it is severe, subcutaneous emphysema rarely has pathophysiologic consequences, but it is extremely uncomfortable for the patient. The authors report a case of massive and rapid developing subcutaneous emphysema following chest tube displacement in a patient with spontaneous secondary pneumothorax and large air leak. The emphysema was treated with two subcutaneous drains, inserted using local anesthesia, on both sides of the chest (antero-superior thoracic wall, connected to drainage bags. The drains produced a dramatic clinical improvement and provided effective decompression of the subcutaneous emphysema. In this clinical case, the

  6. A Phase II trial of subcutaneous amifostine and radiation therapy in patients with head-and-neck cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anne, Pramila Rani; Machtay, Mitchell; Rosenthal, David I.; Brizel, David M.; Morrison, William H.; Irwin, David H.; Chougule, Prakash B.; Estopinal, Noel C.; Berson, Anthony; Curran, Walter J.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Intravenous amifostine 200 mg/m 2 reduces xerostomia in head-and-neck cancer patients. This Phase II study evaluated subcutaneous (s.c.) amifostine in a similar patient population. Patients and Methods: Patients received amifostine 500 mg, administered as two 250-mg s.c. injections 60 min before once-daily radiation for head-and-neck cancer (50-70 Gy in 5-7 weeks). The primary endpoint was the incidence of ≥Grade 2 acute xerostomia. Results: Fifty-four patients received s.c. amifostine and radiotherapy. The incidence of ≥Grade 2 acute xerostomia was 56% (95% CI, 43-69%) and the incidence of ≥Grade 2 late xerostomia at 1 year was 45% (95% CI, 29-61%). The incidence of acute xerostomia was lower than reported previously with no amifostine in a controlled study; rates of acute xerostomia were similar between s.c. and i.v. amifostine in the two studies. The rate of late xerostomia with s.c. amifostine was intermediate between rates for i.v. amifostine and no amifostine, and not statistically significantly different from either historical control. Grades 1-2 nausea and emesis were the most common amifostine-related adverse events. Grade 3 amifostine-related adverse events reported by >1 patient included: dehydration (11%); rash (6%); and weight decrease, mucositis, dyspnea, and allergic reaction (each 4%). Seven patients (13%) had serious cutaneous adverse events outside the injection site. One-year rates of locoregional control, progression-free survival, and overall survival were 78%, 75%, and 85%, respectively. Conclusions: Subcutaneous amifostine provides a well-tolerated yet simpler alternative to i.v. amifostine for reducing acute xerostomia in head-and-neck cancer patients

  7. Estimation of glucose rate of appearance from cgs and subcutaneous insulin delivery in type 1 diabetes

    KAUST Repository

    Laleg-Kirati, Taous-Meriem

    2017-08-31

    Method and System for providing estimates of Glucose Rate of Appearance from the intestine (GRA) using continuous glucose sensor measurements (CGS) taken from the subcutaneous of a diabetes patient and the amount of insulin administered to the patient.

  8. Mycobacterium fortuitum skin infections after subcutaneous injections with Vietnamese traditional medicine: a case report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lan, Nguyen Phu Huong; Kolader, Marion-Eliëtte; van Dung, Nguyen; Campbell, James I.; Tham, Nguyen Thi; Chau, Nguyen Van Vinh; van Doorn, H. Rogier; Le, Dien Hoa

    2014-01-01

    Iatrogenic skin and soft tissue infections by rapidly growing mycobacteria are described with increasing frequency, especially among immunocompromised patients. Here, we present an immunocompetent patient with extensive Mycobacterium fortuitum skin and soft tissue infections after subcutaneous

  9. Incisional subcutaneous endometrioma of the abdominal wall: report of two cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merran, S.; Karila-Cohen, P.

    2004-01-01

    Endometriosis occurs in up to 15% of menstruating women. Abdominal wall involvement is rare and always secondary to an invasive procedure. The authors report the imaging and clinical findings of two patients with subcutaneous endometrioma following cesarean section. (author)

  10. Anatomy of the subcutaneous tissue of the trunk and lower extremity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markman, B; Barton, F E

    1987-08-01

    Dissections on 8 fresh and 10 embalmed cadavers were used to determine the anatomy of the subcutaneous adipose tissue in the trunk and extremities. These dissections, along with CT scans, confirmed Gray's original description of the subcutaneous tissue consisting of a superficial and deep adipose layer. The superficial adipose layer is contained within organized, compact fascial septa. The deep adipose layer demonstrated regional variations with respect to its fascial framework, but was contained within a relatively loose, less organized, and more widely spaced fascial septa. We observed that the adipose layers are partitioned by a discrete subcutaneous fascia which fuses with the underlying muscle fascia at particular anatomic locations. The deep layer is thus contained by the subcutaneous fascia above and the muscle fascia below to form what we termed the deep adipose compartments. The deep adipose compartments contributed significantly to overall adipose thickness, are bilateral, and are found in the abdomen and paralumbar and gluteal-thigh regions.

  11. FAST: Towards safe and effective subcutaneous immunotherapy of persistent life-threatening food allergies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuidmeer-Jongejan, Laurian; Fernandez-Rivas, Montserrat; Poulsen, Lars K.; Neubauer, Angela; Asturias, Juan; Blom, Lars; Boye, Joyce; Bindslev-Jensen, Carsten; Clausen, Michael; Ferrara, Rosa; Garosi, Paula; Huber, Hans; Jensen, Bettina M.; Koppelman, Stef; Kowalski, Marek L.; Lewandowska-Polak, Anna; Linhart, Birgit; Maillere, Bernard; Mari, Adriano; Martinez, Alberto; Mills, Clare En; Nicoletti, Claudio; Opstelten, Dirk-Jan; Papadopoulos, Nikos G.; Portoles, Antonio; Rigby, Neil; Scala, Enrico; Schnoor, Heidi J.; Sigursdottir, Sigurveig; Stavroulakis, Georg; Stolz, Frank; Swoboda, Ines; Valenta, Rudolf; van den Hout, Rob; Versteeg, Serge A.; Witten, Marianne; van Ree, Ronald

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT: The FAST project (Food Allergy Specific Immunotherapy) aims at the development of safe and effective treatment of food allergies, targeting prevalent, persistent and severe allergy to fish and peach. Classical allergen-specific immunotherapy (SIT), using subcutaneous injections with

  12. The course of diabetic retinopathy during treatment with continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooymans, Johanna Martina Maria

    1986-01-01

    The aim of this prospective study was to investigate the effect of normalization of blood sugar regulation by continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) on the course of diabetic retinopathy in insulin-dependent (type I) diabetic patients. Zie: Summary

  13. Unusual case of life threatening subcutaneous hemorrhage in a blunt trauma patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf F. Hefny

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: Bleeding into the subcutaneous plane in closed degloving injury can cause severe hypovolemic shock. It is important for the clinicians managing trauma patients to be aware this serious injury.

  14. Estimation of glucose rate of appearance from cgs and subcutaneous insulin delivery in type 1 diabetes

    KAUST Repository

    Laleg-Kirati, Taous-Meriem; Al-Matouq, Ali Ahmed

    2017-01-01

    Method and System for providing estimates of Glucose Rate of Appearance from the intestine (GRA) using continuous glucose sensor measurements (CGS) taken from the subcutaneous of a diabetes patient and the amount of insulin administered

  15. CONTINUOUS MONITORING OF LACTATE DURING EXERCISE IN HUMANS USING SUBCUTANEOUS AND TRANSCUTANEOUS MICRODIALYSIS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DEBOER, J; PLIJTERGROENDIJK, H; VISSER, KR; MOOK, GA; KORF, J

    1994-01-01

    We have evaluated the possibility of monitoring the plasma lactate concentration in human volunteers during cycle ergometer exercise using subcutaneous and transcutaneous microdialysis. In transcutaneous microdialysis, the relative increase in dialysate lactate concentration exceeded that of plasma

  16. Subcutaneous emphysema of the upper extremity following penetrating blackthorn injury to the wrist.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tiong, W H C

    2009-02-01

    SUMMARY: Noninfective subcutaneous emphysema of the upper extremity, albeit rare, has to be borne in mind when treating patients with subcutaneous emphysema. The misdiagnosis of this condition as its serious infective counterpart often leads to unnecessary aggressive treatment. Noninfective subcutaneous emphysema often accompanies a patient who has no systemic symptoms of illness. Unfortunately, the distinction is not always easy especially when history of injury suggests involvement of an infective or reactive element. Penetrating blackthorn injury is common, especially in rural communities, and often occurs from farming or gardening activities. Blackthorn penetration can cause numerous tissue reactions once embedded under the skin and they are often contaminated with soil. Here we present, for the first time, a case where penetrating blackthorn injury to the wrist resulted in noninfective subcutaneous emphysema involving the whole upper limb and neck, and its subsequent management.

  17. Role of a Cyclooxygenase Inhibitor and Luteolin in the Regression of Colon Tumors in Irradiated Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, E.S.A.

    2015-01-01

    Colon carcinogenesis is a devastating problem leading to morbidity and mortality in developed countries. Colon cancer is a complex multi-step process involving progressive disruption of homeostatic mechanisms controlling intestinal epithelial proliferation/inflammation, differentiation and programmed cell death. Colon cancer is the third most common malignant neoplasm worldwide. Its incidence strongly varies globally and is closely linked to elements of a so-called western lifestyle. In Egypt reports showed that colon cancer was detected in 11–15% of patients who underwent colonoscopy and diagnosed in 29–31% of patients aged 40 years or younger. The present study was planned to evaluate the effect of a cyclooxygenase inhibitor (aspirin) and a natural product (luteolin) and on colon cancer induced by 1, 2 dimethylhydrazine (DMH), beside studying the effects of luteolin and aspirin either alone or combined with fractionated low doses of γ- irradiation as a route of cancer therapy. Seventy adult male Wistar rats were divided into seven groups 10 animals each and treated as follows: 1. Control group (G1): rats of this group received distilled water via gavages for 15 weeks. 2. Colon tumor induction group (G2): rats of this group were injected subcutaneously with DMH (20 mg/kg body weight) once a week for 15 weeks. 3. Colon tumor + irradiation group (G3): these rats were injected subcutaneously with DMH (20 mg/kg body weight) once a week for 15 weeks then at the beginning of the 8th week they were exposed to γ-radiation at a dose level of 0.5 Gy/week x 8 and continued during DMH treatment. 4. Colon tumor + aspirin treatment group (G4): rats of this group gavaged aspirin (50 mg/kg/ week) and injected subcutaneously with DMH for 15 weeks. 5. Colon tumor + luteolin treatment group (G5): these rats were treated orally with LUT (0.2 mg/kg body weight/ day) and injected subcutaneously with DMH (20 mg/kg body weight/ week) for 15 weeks. 6. Colon tumor + aspirin

  18. Shift from intravenous or 16% subcutaneous replacement therapy to 20% subcutaneous immunoglobulin in patients with primary antibody deficiencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canessa, Clementina; Iacopelli, Jessica; Pecoraro, Antonio; Spadaro, Giuseppe; Matucci, Andrea; Milito, Cinzia; Vultaggio, Alessandra; Agostini, Carlo; Cinetto, Francesco; Danieli, Maria Giovanna; Gambini, Simona; Marasco, Carolina; Trizzino, Antonino; Vacca, Angelo; De Mattia, Domenico; Martire, Baldassarre; Plebani, Alessandro; Di Gioacchino, Mario; Gatta, Alessia; Finocchi, Andrea; Licciardi, Francesco; Martino, Silvana; De Carli, Marco; Moschese, Viviana; Azzari, Chiara

    2017-03-01

    In patients with primary antibody deficiencies, subcutaneous administration of IgG (SCIG) replacement is effective, safe, well-tolerated, and can be self-administered at home. A new SCIG replacement at 20% concentration (Hizentra ® ) has been developed and has replaced Vivaglobin ® (SCIG 16%). An observational prospective multi-centric open-label study, with retrospective comparison was conducted in 15 Italian centers, in order to investigate whether and to what extent switching to Hizentra ® would affect frequency of infusions, number of infusion sites, patients' satisfaction, and tolerability in patients previously treated with Vivaglobin ® or intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIG). Any variations of dosage, frequency and duration of the infusions, and of number of infusion sites induced by Hizentra ® with respect to the former treatment were recorded. Practical advantages and disadvantages of Hizentra ® , with respect to the medicinal product formerly used, and the variations in patients' therapy-related satisfaction were monitored by means of the TSQM (Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire for Medication); number, frequency, and duration of infectious events and adverse effects were recorded. Eighty-two patients switched to Hizentra ® : 19 (23.2%) from IVIG and 63 (76.8%) from Vivaglobin ® . The mean interval between infusions was not affected by the shift (7.0 ± 2.0 days with previous treatment versus 7.1 ± 1.2 during Hizentra ® ). A decrease in the number of infusion sites with Hizentra ® was recorded in 12 out of 56 patients for whom these data were available. At 6 months, 89.7% of patients were satisfied with Hizentra ® ; no difference in terms of effectiveness, side effects, convenience, and global satisfaction was observed. No difference in the incidence of adverse events was reported.

  19. Regulation of local subcutaneous blood flow in patients with psoriasis and effects of antipsoriatic treatment on subcutaneous blood flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klemp, P.

    1985-01-01

    Local regulation of the doubled subcutaneous blood flow (SBF) rates in psoriatic lesional skin was studied in 8 patients using a traumatic epicutaneous 133 Xe labeling washout technique. Venous stasis of 40 mm Hg induced a significant reduction in the SBF (-34%, p less than 0.01), i.e., a normal vasoconstrictor response. Limb elevation of 40 cm above heart level induced no statistical changes in the SBF (p = 0.50), i.e., a normal local autoregulation response. This indicates normal, local regulation mechanisms of SBF in psoriasis. In another 8 patients, the effect on SBF of a 4-week antipsoriatic treatment with tar was studied in lesional and symmetrically nonlesional skin areas. One patient was clear of psoriasis on day 22, and was followed only to that time. The mean pretreatment SBF in lesional skin areas was 3.87 +/- SD 0.78 ml X (100 g X min)-1, which was not statistically different from measurements on days 3, 7, 14, and 21 after treatment had started. Between day 21 and day 28, the SBF decreased significantly to 3.38 +/- SD 0.78 ml X (100 g X min)-1, p less than 0.05. The difference between the pretreatment SBF and SBF at the end of treatment was statistically significant, p less than 0.05. The changes in SBF in symmetrically nonlesional skin areas were statistically nonsignificant during the period of treatment. Pretreatment SBF was 2.60 +/- SD 1.08 (N = 8), and on day 28 was 1.91 +/- SD 0.74 ml X (100 g X min)-1 (N = 7). However, the tendency of a decreasing SBF at the end of treatment was a clear trend, since SBF in 6 of 7 patients decreased during the third week and in the patient who was discharged on day 22, a decrease in the SBF was observed on days 14 and 21

  20. CERN apprentice receives award

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    Another CERN apprentice has received an award for the quality of his work. Stéphane Küng (centre), at the UIG ceremony last November, presided over by Geneva State Councillor Pierre-François Unger, Head of the Department of Economics and Health. Electronics technician Stéphane Küng was honoured in November by the Social Foundation of the Union Industrielle Genevoise (UIG) as one of Geneva’s eight best apprentices in the field of mechatronics. The 20-year-old Genevan obtained his Federal apprentice’s certificate (Certificat fédéral de capacité - CFC) in June 2007, achieving excellent marks in his written tests at the Centre d’Enseignement Professionnel Technique et Artisanal (CEPTA). Like more than 200 youngsters before him, Stéphane Küng spent part of his four-year sandwich course working at CERN, where he followed many practical training courses and gained valuable hands-on experience in various technical groups and labs. "It’ always very gr...

  1. EFFECT OF AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF PUNICA GRANATUM FLOWER ON BIOMARKERS AND ECG CHANGES IN ISOPROTERENOL INDUCED MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION IN RATS

    OpenAIRE

    Khatib N.A; Patel Jignesh; Medi Swathi

    2011-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the effect of aqueous extract of Punica granatum flower (PG) against isoproterenol (ISO) induced myocardial infarction (MI) in rats by studying cardiac markers and electrocardiographic changes. MI was induced in rats by subcutaneous injection of ISO (150mg/kg b.w) at an interval of 24 hours for 2 days. ISO treated rats showed significant increase in cardiac markers such as Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), Creatine kinase (CK-MB), Alanine aminotransfer...

  2. MRI and US findings of subcutaneous fat necrosis of the newborn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasireddy, Syam; Long, Scott D. [Southern Illinois University, Department of Radiology, Springfield, IL (United States); St. John' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Springfield, IL (United States); Sacheti, Bhavna [Medical College of Wisconsin, Department of Pediatric Critical Care, Milwaukee, WI (United States); Children' s Hospital Wisconsin, Department of Critical Care, Milwaukee, WI (United States); Mayforth, Ruth D. [Southern Illinois University, Department of Surgery, Springfield, IL (United States); St. John' s Hospital, Department of Surgery, Springfield, IL (United States)

    2009-01-15

    Subcutaneous fat necrosis of the newborn (SCFN) is an uncommon, benign disorder found in full-term or post-mature neonates. It usually presents in neonates who have experienced perinatal difficulty such as asphyxia, peripheral hypoxemia, hypothermia, meconium aspiration or trauma. We present a newborn with abnormal findings on MRI and US within the axilla, neck, and abdominal walls that were pathologically proved via biopsy to be subcutaneous fat necrosis. (orig.)

  3. Evaluation of pharmacokinetic model designs for subcutaneous infusion of insulin aspart

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mansell, Erin J.; Schmidt, Signe; Docherty, Paul D.

    2017-01-01

    Effective mathematical modelling of continuous subcutaneous infusion pharmacokinetics should aid understanding and control in insulin therapy. Thorough analysis of candidate model performance is important for selecting the appropriate models. Eight candidate models for insulin pharmacokinetics...... included a range of modelled behaviours, parameters and complexity. The models were compared using clinical data from subjects with type 1 diabetes with continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion. Performance of the models was compared through several analyses: R2 for goodness of fit; the Akaike Information...

  4. Subcutaneous mycoses in Peru: a systematic review and meta-analysis for the burden of disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez Soto, Max Carlos; Malaga, German

    2017-10-01

    There is a worrying lack of epidemiological data on the geographical distribution and burden of subcutaneous mycoses in Peru, hindering the implementation of surveillance and control programs. This study aimed to estimate the disease burden of subcutaneous mycoses in Peru and identify which fungal species were commonly associated with these mycoses. We performed a meta-analysis after a systematic review of the published literature in PubMed, LILACS, and SciELO to estimate the burden of subcutaneous mycoses in 25 regions in Peru. The disease burden was determined in terms of prevalence (number of cases per 100,000 inhabitants) and the number of reported cases per year per region. A total of 26 studies were eligible for inclusion. Results showed that sporotrichosis was the most common subcutaneous mycosis (99.7%), whereas lobomycosis, chromoblastomycosis, and subcutaneous phaeohyphomycosis were rare. Cases of eumycetoma and subcutaneous zygomycosis were not found. Of the 25 regions, the burden of sporotrichosis was estimated for four regions classified as endemic; in nine regions, only isolated cases were reported. The highest burden of sporotrichosis was in Apurimac (15 cases/100,000 inhabitants; 57 cases/year), followed by Cajamarca (3/100,000 inhabitants; 30/year), Cusco (0.5/100,000 inhabitants; 4/year), and La Libertad (0.2/100,000 inhabitants; 2/year). In two regions, the mycoses predominantly affected children. Sporotrichosis is the most common subcutaneous mycosis in Peru, with a high disease burden in Apurimac. Chromoblastomycosis, lobomycosis, and subcutaneous phaeohyphomycosis are rare mycoses in Peru. © 2017 The International Society of Dermatology.

  5. MRI of a Subcutaneous Myolipoma in the Ankle: a Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yeon Soo; Park, Sang Eun; Lee, Jung Uee; Choi, Eun Seok [Daejeon St. Mary' s Hospital, The Catholic University of Korea, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-10-15

    Myolipoma is a rare benign tumor, composed of irregularly admixed adipose tissue and smooth muscle fibers. Few literature studies have described the radiologic appearance of myolipoma, especially in the soft tissue. No MRI findings in subcutaneous myolipoma of an extremity have been reported. Here, we report on the case of a 34-year-old woman with myolipoma in the subcutaneous tissue of the ankle and describe MRI features of the lesion.

  6. The Effect of Hemiscorpius lepturus (Scorpionida: Hemiscorpiidae Venom on Leukocytes and the Leukocyte Subgroups in Peripheral Blood of Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehri Ghafourian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Hemiscorpius lepturus venom on leukocytes and the leukocyte subgroups in peripheral blood of rat.Methods: In this experimental study, sixty N-Mari rats were divided into three groups of 20 rats. Then the rats in each group were divided into four subgroups based on the blood sampling time that was 2, 6, 24 and 48 hours after the venom injection, respectively. The control group did not receive anything, however, the first and the second ex­perimental groups received 0.1 and 0.01mg/kg of venom, subcutaneously. In accordance with a designated four sam­pling times, the blood sampling was carried out in three groups. After RBC lysis, the leukocytes and leukocyte sub­populations were determined and counted using appropriate hematological standard methods.Results: The leukocyte and the neutrophil count at two (P<0.05, six (P<0.01 and 24 (P<0.05 hours after the venom injection showed a significant decline compared with the control group, this decrease was significant at the dose of 0.1 mg/kg until 48 hours after the venom injection (P<0.05. The lymphocyte count showed a significant decline throughout the all hours of the experiment, compared with the control group (P<0.05.Conclusion: Leukocytes are probably affected by the cytotoxicity effect of the H. lepturus venom in a dose-dependent manner. This could be a wakeup call for the medical staff to perform quick and accurate treatment in the least time possible.

  7. Posttraining handling facilitates memory for auditory-cue fear conditioning in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Isabel R; Hui, Gabriel K; Roozendaal, Benno; McGaugh, James L; Weinberger, Norman M

    2006-09-01

    A large number of studies have indicated that stress exposure or the administration of stress hormones and other neuroactive drugs immediately after a learning experience modulates the consolidation of long-term memory. However, there has been little investigation into how arousal induced by handling of the animals in order to administer these drugs affects memory. Therefore, the present study examined whether the posttraining injection or handling procedure per se affects memory of auditory-cue classical fear conditioning. Male Sprague-Dawley rats, which had been pre-handled on three days for 1 min each prior to conditioning, received three pairings of a single-frequency auditory stimulus and footshock, followed immediately by either a subcutaneous injection of a vehicle solution or brief handling without injection. A control group was placed back into their home cages without receiving any posttraining treatment. Retention was tested 24 h later in a novel chamber and suppression of ongoing motor behavior during a 10-s presentation of the auditory-cue served as the measure of conditioned fear. Animals that received posttraining injection or handling did not differ from each other but showed significantly less stimulus-induced movement compared to the non-handled control group. These findings thus indicate that the posttraining injection or handling procedure is sufficiently arousing or stressful to facilitate memory consolidation of auditory-cue classical fear conditioning.

  8. Accuracy of a Fourth-Generation Subcutaneous Continuous Glucose Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, Mark P; Garg, Satish K; Brazg, Ronald; Bode, Bruce W; Bailey, Timothy S; Slover, Robert H; Sullivan, Ashley; Huang, Suiying; Shin, John; Lee, Scott W; Kaufman, Francine R

    2017-08-01

    This study evaluated the accuracy and performance of a fourth-generation subcutaneous glucose sensor (Guardian ™ Sensor 3) in the abdomen and arm. Eighty-eight subjects (14-75 years of age, mean ± standard deviation [SD] of 42.0 ± 19.1 years) with type 1 or type 2 diabetes participated in the study. Subjects wore two sensors in the abdomen that were paired with either a MiniMed ™ 640G insulin pump, or an iPhone ® or iPod ® touch ® running a glucose monitoring mobile application (Guardian Connect system) and a third sensor in the arm, which was connected to a glucose sensor recorder (GSR). Subjects were also asked to undergo in-clinic visits of 12-14 h on study days 1, 3, and 7 for frequent blood glucose sample testing using a Yellow Springs Instrument (YSI) reference. The overall mean absolute relative difference (MARD ± SD) between abdomen sensor glucose (SG) and YSI reference values was 9.6% ± 9.0% and 9.4% ± 9.8% for the MiniMed 640G insulin pump and Guardian Connect system, respectively; and 8.7% ± 8.0% between arm SG and YSI reference values. The percentage of SG values within 20% agreement of the YSI reference value (for YSI >80 mg/dL) was 90.7% with the MiniMed 640G insulin pump, 91.8% with the Guardian Connect system, and 93.1% for GSR-connected arm sensors. Mean functional sensor life, when calibrating 3-4 times/day, was 145.9 ± 39.3 h for sensors paired with the MiniMed 640G insulin pump, 146.1 ± 41.6 h for sensors paired with the Guardian Connect system, and 147.6 ± 40.4 h for sensors connected to the GSR. Responses to survey questions regarding sensor comfort and ease of use were favorable. The Guardian Sensor 3 glucose sensor, whether located in abdomen or the arm, provided accurate glucose readings when compared with the YSI reference and demonstrated functional life commensurate with the intended 7-day use. ClinicalTrials.gov : NCT02246582.

  9. Fast and sensitive HPLC/UV method for cefazolin quantification in plasma and subcutaneous tissue microdialysate of humans and rodents applied to pharmacokinetic studies in obese individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palma, Eduardo Celia; Laureano, João Victor; de Araújo, Bibiana Verlindo; Meinhardt, Nelson Guardiola; Stein, Airton Tetelbom; Dalla Costa, Teresa

    2018-04-14

    Antimicrobial prophylactic dosing of morbidly obese patients may differ from normal weighted individuals owing to alterations in drug tissue distribution. Drug subcutaneous tissue distribution can be investigated by microdialysis patients and animals. The need for cefazolin prophylactic dose adjustment in obese patients remains under discussion. The paper describes the validation of an HPLC-UV method for cefazolin quantification in plasma and microdialysate samples from clinical and pre-clinical studies. A C 18 column with an isocratic mobile phase was used for drug separation, with detection at 272 nm. Total and unbound cefazolin lower limit of quantitation was 5 μg/mL in human plasma, 2 μg/mL in rat plasma, and 0.5 and 0.025 μg/mL in human and rat microdialysate samples, respectively. The maximum intra- and inter-day imprecisions were 10.7 and 8.1%, respectively. The inaccuracy was <9.7%. The limit of quantitation imprecision and inaccuracy were < 15%. Cefazolin stability in the experimental conditions was confirmed. Cefazolin plasma concentrations and subcutaneous tissue penetration were determined by microdialysis in morbidly obese patients (2 g i.v. bolus) and diet-induced obese rats (30 mg/kg i.v. bolus) using the method. This method has the main advantages of easy plasma clean-up and practicability and has proven to be useful in cefazolin clinical and pre-clinical pharmacokinetic investigations. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. The utility of midtrimester ultrasound assessment of the subcutaneous space in predicting cesarean wound complications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shainker, Scott A.; Raghuraman, Nandini; Modest, Anna M.; Schnettler, William T.; Hacker, Michele R.; Ralston, Steven J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the association between cesarean wound complications and thickness of the subcutaneous space within the anterior abdomen at the midtrimester fetal anatomical survey. Methods In this case-control study, cases were identified using an ICD9 code for wound complications of cesarean delivery. For each case, we identified the woman with the next consecutive midtrimester ultrasound who had a cesarean delivery without a wound complication, matched on age and race, as the control. A blinded investigator measured subcutaneous space at three distinct suprapubic levels in the midsagital plane. Results Of 7228 women with a cesarean delivery, 123 (1.7%) had a wound complication. Seventy-nine cases were eligible. Midline suprapubic subcutaneous thickness did not differ between cases and controls at the superior, middle or inferior locations (p ≥ 0.35). Body mass index was moderately correlated with ultrasound-derived measurements (r≥ 0.63; p<0.001). The incidence of vertical skin incision, stapled skin closure and classical hysterotomy differed between groups (p≤ 0.046). There was no significant increase in wound complication risk with increasing subcutaneous space thickness, even after adjustment (p≥ 0.34). Conclusion Prenatal ultrasound can quantify the subcutaneous space. Vertical skin incision, stapled wound closure, and a classical hysterotomy were associated with cesarean wound complication, but midtrimester subcutaneous thickness was not. PMID:25302863

  11. An extract from date seeds stimulates endogenous insulin secretion in streptozotocin-induced type I diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed F. El Fouhil

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The efficacy of an extract from date seeds has been tested successfully on the glycemic control of type I diabetes mellitus in rats. A suggestion that date seed extract could stimulate certain cells to differentiate into insulin-secreting cells has been proposed. In order to investigate such a possibility, this study was conducted to measure C-peptide levels in the serum of type 1 diabetic rats treated with date seed extract. Methods: Two hundred rats were divided into 4 groups. Group I served as the control. Group II was given daily ingestions of 10 ml of date seed extract. Groups III and IV were made diabetic by streptozotocin injection and were given daily subcutaneous injections of 3 IU/day of insulin for 8 weeks. Group IV received, in addition, daily ingestions of 10 ml of seed extract. At the end of experiment, blood samples were collected from each rat, and blood glucose and serum Cpeptide levels were measured. Results: No significant differences in the means of blood glucose and serum C-peptide levels were observed between groups I (control group and II (date seed extract-treated control group. Group IV (date seed extract-insulin-treated diabetic group showed a statistically significant reduction in the mean blood glucose level compared to Group III (insulin-treated diabetic group. The mean serum C-peptide level was significantly higher in group IV compared to group III. Conclusion: Biochemical results suggested an increase in endogenous insulin secretion in the case of type 1 diabetic rats treated with date seed extract, which might be the cause of its hypoglycemic effect.

  12. Extensive scarring induced by chronic intrathecal tubing augmented cord tissue damage and worsened functional recovery after rat spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shu-xin; Huang, Fengfa; Gates, Mary; White, Jason; Holmberg, Eric G

    2010-08-30

    Intrathecal infusion has been widely used to directly deliver drugs or neurotrophins to a lesion site following spinal cord injury. Evidence shows that intrathecal infusion is efficient for 7 days but is markedly reduced after 14 days, due to time dependent occlusion. In addition, extensive fibrotic scarring is commonly observed with intrathecal infusion. These anomalies need to be clearly elucidated in histology. In the present study, all adult Long-Evans rats received a 25 mm contusion injury on spinal cord T10 produced using the NYU impactor device. Immediately after injury, catheter tubing with an outer diameter of 0.38 mm was inserted through a small dural opening at L3 into the subdural space with the tubing tip positioned near the injury site. The tubing was connected to an Alzet mini pump, which was filled with saline solution and was placed subcutaneously. Injured rats without tubing served as control. Rats were behaviorally tested for 6 weeks using the BBB locomotor rating scale and histologically assessed for tissue scarring. Six weeks later, we found that the intrathecal tubing caused extensive scarring and inflammation, related to neutrophils, macrophages and plasma cells. The tubing's tip was occluded by scar tissue and inflammatory cells. The scar tissue surrounding the tubing consists of 20-70 layers of fibroblasts and densely compacted collagen fibers, seriously compressing and damaging the cord tissue. BBB scores of rats with intrathecal tubing were significantly lower than control rats (p<0.01) from 2 weeks after injury, implying serious impairment of functional recovery caused by the scarring. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Null activity of selenium and vitamin e as cancer chemopreventive agents in the rat prostate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, David L; Rao, K V N; Johnson, William D; Bosland, Maarten C; Lubet, Ronald A; Steele, Vernon E

    2010-03-01

    To evaluate the potential efficacy of selenium and vitamin E as inhibitors of prostate carcinogenesis, four chemoprevention studies using a common protocol were done in a rat model of androgen-dependent prostate cancer. After stimulation of prostate epithelial cell proliferation by a sequential regimen of cyproterone acetate followed by testosterone propionate, male Wistar-Unilever rats received a single i.v. injection of N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU) followed by chronic androgen stimulation via subcutaneous implantation of testosterone pellets. At 1 week post-MNU, groups of carcinogen-treated rats (39-44/group) were fed either a basal diet or a basal diet supplemented with l-selenomethionine (3 or 1.5 mg/kg diet; study 1), dl-alpha-tocopherol (vitamin E, 4,000 or 2,000 mg/kg diet; study 2), l-selenomethionine + vitamin E (3 + 2,000 mg/kg diet or 3 + 500 mg/kg diet; study 3), or selenized yeast (target selenium levels of 9 or 3 mg/kg diet; study 4). Each chemoprevention study was terminated at 13 months post-MNU, and prostate cancer incidence was determined by histopathologic evaluation. No statistically significant reductions in prostate cancer incidence were identified in any group receiving dietary supplementation with selenium and/or vitamin E. These data do not support the hypotheses that selenium and vitamin E are potent cancer chemopreventive agents in the prostate, and when considered with the recent clinical data reported in the Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial (SELECT), show the predictive nature of this animal model for human prostate cancer chemoprevention.

  14. Effects of Nigella sativa L. and Urtica dioica L. on selected mineral status and hematological values in CCl4-treated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meral, Ismail; Kanter, Mehmet

    2003-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the effects of Nigella sativa L. (NS), known as black seed, or/and Urtica dioica L. (UD), known as stinging nettle root, treatments on serum Na, K, Cl, and Ca levels and some hematological values of CCl4-treated rats. Sixty healthy male Sprague-Dawley rats, weighing 250-300 g, were randomly allotted into 1 of 4 experimental groups: A (CCl4-only treated), B (CCl4+UD treated), C (CCl4+NS treated), and D (CCl4+UD+NS treated), each containing 15 animals. All groups received CCl4 (0.8 mL/kg of body weight, subcutaneously, twice a week for 90 d starting d 1). In addition, B, C, and D groups also received the daily ip injection of 0.2 mL/kg NS and/or 2 mL/kg UD oils for 45 d starting d 46. Group A, on the other hand, received only 2 mL/kg normal saline solution for 45 d starting d 46. Blood samples for the biochemical analysis were taken by cardiac puncture from five randomly chosen rats in each treatment group at the beginning, d 45, and d 90 of the experiment. The CCl4 treatment for 45 d significantly (p0.05) the serum Na and Cl levels. NS or UD treatments (alone or combination) for 45 d starting d 46 significantly (p<0.05) decreased the elevated serum K and Ca levels and also increased (p<0.05) the reduced RBC, WBC, PCV, and Hb levels. It is concluded that NS and/or UD treatments might ameliorate the CCl4-induced disturbances of anemia, some minerals, and body's defense mechanism in CCl4-treated rats.

  15. Negligible colon cancer risk from food-borne acrylamide exposure in male F344 rats and nude (nu/nu mice-bearing human colon tumor xenografts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayadev Raju

    Full Text Available Acrylamide, a possible human carcinogen, is formed in certain carbohydrate-rich foods processed at high temperature. We evaluated if dietary acrylamide, at doses (0.5, 1.0 or 2.0 mg/kg diet reflecting upper levels found in human foods, modulated colon tumorigenesis in two rodent models. Male F344 rats were randomized to receive diets without (control or with acrylamide. 2-weeks later, rats in each group received two weekly subcutaneous injections of either azoxymethane (AOM or saline, and were killed 20 weeks post-injections; colons were assessed for tumors. Male athymic nude (nu/nu mice bearing HT-29 human colon adenocarcinoma cells-derived tumor xenografts received diets without (control or with acrylamide; tumor growth was monitored and mice were killed 4 weeks later. In the F344 rat study, no tumors were found in the colons of the saline-injected rats. However, the colon tumor incidence was 54.2% and 66.7% in the control and the 2 mg/kg acrylamide-treated AOM-injected groups, respectively. While tumor multiplicity was similar across all diet groups, tumor size and burden were higher in the 2 mg/kg acrylamide group compared to the AOM control. These results suggest that acrylamide by itself is not a "complete carcinogen", but acts as a "co-carcinogen" by exacerbating the effects of AOM. The nude mouse study indicated no differences in the growth of human colon tumor xenografts between acrylamide-treated and control mice, suggesting that acrylamide does not aid in the progression of established tumors. Hence, food-borne acrylamide at levels comparable to those found in human foods is neither an independent carcinogen nor a tumor promoter in the colon. However, our results characterize a potential hazard of acrylamide as a colon co-carcinogen in association with known and possibly other environmental tumor initiators/promoters.

  16. The effect of weight, body mass index, age, sex , and race on plasma concentrations of subcutaneous sumatriptan: a pooled analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munjal S

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Sagar Munjal,1 Anirudh Gautam,2 Alan M Rapoport,3 Dennis M Fisher4 1Department of Neurology Clinical Development and Medical Affairs, Dr. Reddy’s Laboratories Ltd, Princeton, NJ, USA; 2Pharmacokinetics, Modeling and Simulation & Bioanalysis, Dr. Reddy’s Laboratories Ltd, Hyderabad, India; 3Department of Neurology, The David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, 4P Less Than, San Francisco, CA, USA Objective/background: Factors such as body size (weight and body mass index [BMI], age, sex, and race might influence the clinical response to sumatriptan. We evaluated the impact of these covariates on the plasma concentration (Cp profile of sumatriptan administered subcutaneously. Methods: We conducted three pharmacokinetic studies of subcutaneous sumatriptan in 98 healthy adults. Sumatriptan was administered subcutaneously (236 administrations as either DFN-11 3 mg, a novel 0.5 mL autoinjector being developed by Dr. Reddy’s Laboratories; Imitrex® (Sumatriptan injection 3 mg or 6 mg (6 mg/0.5 mL; or Imitrex STATdose 4 mg or 6 mg (0.5 mL. Blood was sampled for 12 hours to determine sumatriptan Cp. Maximum Cp (Cmax, area under the curve during the first 2 hours (AUC0–2, and total area under the curve (AUC0–∞ were determined using noncompartmental methods. Post hoc analyses were conducted to determine the relationship between these exposure metrics and each of body weight, BMI, age, sex, and race (categorized as white, black, or others. Results: Both weight and BMI correlated negatively with each exposure metric for each treatment group. Across all treatment groups, AUC0–2 for subjects with BMI less than or equal to median value was 1.03–1.12 times the value for subjects with BMI more than median value. For subjects with BMI less than or equal to median value receiving DFN-11, median AUC0–2 was slightly less than that for subjects with BMI more than median value receiving Imitrex

  17. Preincisional analgesia with subcutaneous administration of tramadol reduces postoperative pain in patients after open urologic surgeries: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safavi, M.; Honarmand, A.; Ghaedi, F.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Blockade of parietal nociceptive afferent nerves by wound infiltration with tramadol may be advantageous in the management of postoperative pain. The purpose of the present study was to assess the efficacy of preincisional subcutaneous administration of two doses of tramadol on postoperative pain relief after open urologic surgeries. Methodology: Ninety-six patients scheduled for open urologic surgeries were enrolled in this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Patients were divided into three groups of 32 subjects each, and they received subcutaneous administrations of tramadol at 1 mg.kg/sup -1/ (Group T1) or 2 mg.kg/sup -1 (Group T2) or subcutaneous administrations of 10 mL of normal saline (Group C) before undergoing the surgeries. Visual analog scale (VAS) scores and analgesic use were monitored for 24 h after the operation. Results: VAS scores were significantly lower at 15, 30, and 60 min after arrival at the post anesthesia care unit in Group T2 compared with Group T1 and Group C (P < 0.05). Postoperative VAS scores were significantly lower at 4, 8, 16 and 24 h postoperatively in Group T2 compared with Group T1 and Group C. There were no significant differences between Group T1 and Group C on VAS scores at any time point. The time to first rescue analgesia in the postoperative period was significantly lower in Group T2 compared with Group T1 and Group C. The need for postoperative analgesia was significantly lower in Group T2 compared with Group T1 and Group C. Conclusion: Preincisional subcutaneous administration of tramadol at 2 mg.kg/sup -1/ provides effective analgesia during the first 24 hour after open urologic surgeries and does not produce significant side effects. (author)

  18. GNSS Software Receiver for UAVs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Daniel Madelung; Jakobsen, Jakob; von Benzon, Hans-Henrik

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the current activities of GPS/GNSS Software receiver development at DTU Space. GNSS Software receivers have received a great deal of attention in the last two decades and numerous implementations have already been presented. DTU Space has just recently started development of ...... of our own GNSS software-receiver targeted for mini UAV applications, and we will in in this paper present our current progress and briefly discuss the benefits of Software Receivers in relation to our research interests....

  19. Enzymatic activity of granulations tissues under low doses of radiation. Biochemical analysis in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tosoni, Guilherme Monteiro; Boscolo, Frab Norberto; Cury, Jaime Aparecido; Watanabe, Plauto Christopher Aranha

    1994-01-01

    This paper was designed to investigate in the rat subcutaneous sponge-induced granulation tissue under low doses of X-ray, the activity of alkaline phosphatase, 5'nucleotide phosphodiesterase and adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) enzymes. One hundred and fourteen Wistar rats were divided into three groups, as follows: Group I as control, Group II that received single 7,14 R in split-dosis immediately after sponge-implantation at the third and fifth days postoperatively. Biopsies were taken after 7, 11, 14, 21 and 28 days and the activity of the three enzymes was determined. The results have shown that in Group II alkaline phosphatase had higher activity in the 14th day of tissue evolution when compared to Groups I and III . The 5'nucleotide phosphodiesterase activity in Group I was similar in all days checked, although in Group II the enzyme showed higher activity in 7th day and lower in 21st. In Group III the activity was higher after 14 and 7 days and lower after 28 and 21 days. There was no observation of changing in adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) activity when the three groups were compared. (author)

  20. Hyperthermia improves the antitumour effect of metronomic cyclophosphamide in a rat transplantable brain tumour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahl Borkamo, Erling; Fluge, Oystein; Mella, Olav; Akslen, Lars A.; Bruland, Ove; Dahl, Olav

    2008-01-01

    Background and purpose: As low-dose metronomic cyclophosphamide (CTX) and hyperthermia (HT) both exert antitumour effects in part through antiangiogenic mechanisms, interactive effects of the two modalities were explored. Materials and methods: Subcutaneously implanted rat tumours (BT4An) were treated with CTX 35 mg/kg i.p. three doses a week for two weeks, local water-bath HT yielding mean tumour temperature of 43 o C for one hour at day 0, both modalities combined (CTX-HT 0 ), or saline. TUNEL assays, immunohistochemical staining of thrombospondin 1 (TSP-1) and real time RT-PCR of TSP-1 mRNA were analysed the first three hours after completed treatment day 0. Results: Metronomic dosed CTX (p = 0.006) and HT (p 0 (41%) treated rats. TSP-1 protein was specifically upregulated in the vascular matrix of tumours receiving CTX (weak), HT (moderate) and CTX-HT 0 (strong). In contrast, reduced expression of TSP-1 protein was observed in tumour cells after HT alone and CTX-HT 0 . TUNEL assays indicated induction of apoptosis by HT and CTX-HT 0 90 minutes after end of the first treatment. Conclusion: A single session of local HT enhances the effects of low-dose metronomic CTX, possibly in part mediated through a differential effect on TSP-1 protein levels in tumour cells and tumour vasculature

  1. Glucose-Dependent Insulinotropic Polypeptide Mitigates 6-OHDA-Induced Behavioral Impairments in Parkinsonian Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Wen Yu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the effectiveness of glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP was evaluated by behavioral tests in 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA hemi-parkinsonian (PD rats. Pharmacokinetic measurements of GIP were carried out at the same dose studied behaviorally, as well as at a lower dose used previously. GIP was delivered by subcutaneous administration (s.c. using implanted ALZET micro-osmotic pumps. After two days of pre-treatment, male Sprague Dawley rats received a single unilateral injection of 6-OHDA into the medial forebrain bundle (MFB. The neuroprotective effects of GIP were evaluated by apomorphine-induced contralateral rotations, as well as by locomotor and anxiety-like behaviors in open-field tests. Concentrations of human active and total GIP were measured in plasma during a five-day treatment period by ELISA and were found to be within a clinically translatable range. GIP pretreatment reduced behavioral abnormalities induced by the unilateral nigrostriatal dopamine (DA lesion produced by 6-OHDA, and thus may be a novel target for PD therapeutic development.

  2. Glucose-Dependent Insulinotropic Polypeptide Mitigates 6-OHDA-Induced Behavioral Impairments in Parkinsonian Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yu-Wen; Hsueh, Shih-Chang; Lai, Jing-Huei; Chen, Yen-Hua; Kang, Shuo-Jhen; Hsieh, Tsung-Hsun; Hoffer, Barry J.; Li, Yazhou; Greig, Nigel H.; Chiang, Yung-Hsiao

    2018-01-01

    In the present study, the effectiveness of glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) was evaluated by behavioral tests in 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) hemi-parkinsonian (PD) rats. Pharmacokinetic measurements of GIP were carried out at the same dose studied behaviorally, as well as at a lower dose used previously. GIP was delivered by subcutaneous administration (s.c.) using implanted ALZET micro-osmotic pumps. After two days of pre-treatment, male Sprague Dawley rats received a single unilateral injection of 6-OHDA into the medial forebrain bundle (MFB). The neuroprotective effects of GIP were evaluated by apomorphine-induced contralateral rotations, as well as by locomotor and anxiety-like behaviors in open-field tests. Concentrations of human active and total GIP were measured in plasma during a five-day treatment period by ELISA and were found to be within a clinically translatable range. GIP pretreatment reduced behavioral abnormalities induced by the unilateral nigrostriatal dopamine (DA) lesion produced by 6-OHDA, and thus may be a novel target for PD therapeutic development. PMID:29641447

  3. Neutrotoxic effects of fructose administration in rat brain: implications for fructosemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto A. Macongonde

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Fructose accumulates in tissue and body fluids of patients affected by hereditary fructose intolerance (HFI, a disorder caused by the deficiency of aldolase B. We investigated the effect of acute fructose administration on the biochemical profile and on the activities of the Krebs cycle enzymes in the cerebral cortex of young rats. Rats received a subcutaneous injection of NaCl (0.9 %; control group or fructose solution (5 μmol/g; treated group. Twelve or 24 h after the administration, the animals were euthanized and the cerebral cortices were isolated. Peripheral blood (to obtain the serum and cerebral spinal fluid (CSF from the animals were also collected. It was observed that albumin levels were decreased and cholesterol levels were increased in CSF of animals 12 h after the administration of fructose. In addition, serum lactate levels were increased 12 h after the administration, as compared to control group. Furthermore, malate dehydrogenase activity was increased in cerebral cortex from treated group 24 h after the administration of this carbohydrate. Herein we demonstrate that fructose administration alters biochemical parameters in CSF and serum and bioenergetics parameters in the cerebral cortex. These findings indicate a possible role of fructose on brain alterations found in HFI patients.

  4. Distribution of AAV-TK following intracranial convection-enhanced delivery into rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, J; Oiwa, Y; Nagy, D; Podsakoff, G; Colosi, P; Bankiewicz, K S

    2000-01-01

    Adeno-associated virus (AAV)-based vectors are being tested in animal models as viable treatments for glioma and neurodegenerative disease and could potentially be employed to target a variety of central nervous system disorders. The relationship between dose of injected vector and its resulting distribution in brain tissue has not been previously reported nor has the most efficient method of delivery been determined. Here we report that convection-enhanced delivery (CED) of 2.5 x 10(8), 2.5 x 10(9), or 2.5 x 10(10) particles of AAV-thymidine kinase (AAV-TK) into rat brain revealed a clear dose response. In the high-dose group, a volume of 300 mm3 of brain tissue was partially transduced. Results showed that infusion pump and subcutaneous osmotic pumps were both capable of delivering vector via CED and that total particle number was the most important determining factor in obtaining efficient expression. Results further showed differences in histopathology between the delivery groups. While administration of vector using infusion pump had relatively benign effects, the use of osmotic pumps resulted in notable toxicity to the surrounding brain tissue. To determine tissue distribution of vector following intracranial delivery, PCR analysis was performed on tissues from rats that received high doses of AAV-TK. Three weeks following CED, vector could be detected in both hemispheres of the brain, spinal cord, spleen, and kidney.

  5. A new Subcutaneously Anchored Device for Securing External Cerebrospinal Fluid Catheters: our Preliminary Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frassanito, Paolo; Massimi, Luca; Tamburrini, Gianpiero; Pittiruti, Mauro; Doglietto, Francesco; Nucci, Carlotta Ginevra; Caldarelli, Massimo

    2016-09-01

    Accidental dislocation or removal is a well-known complication of external cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) drainage in daily clinical practice. At present, no data about the incidence of such complications are available in the scientific literature. SecurAcath (Interrad Medical, Plymouth, Minnesota, USA) is a subcutaneously anchored device recently adopted for securement of central venous catheters, known to be highly effective (and cost-effective) in reducing the risk of catheter dislodgement and/or accidental removal. We report our preliminary experience with the use of SecurAcath to secure CSF drainage, either ventricular or spinal, to the skin. SecurAcath was used in 29 consecutive patients (age range: 3 weeks-16 years, median age 6.3 years). In particular, the device was used for 25 ventricular catheters (a patient received 2 catheters in the same procedure for bilateral brain abscess) and 5 spinal drainages. Period in place ranged from 1-4 weeks (median 22 days). No complication related to the use of the device was observed, in particular there was no case of dislocation or accidental removal of the catheter. The removal procedure was extremely easy. The device has proven its utility also in 3 cases requiring an adjustment of the length of the catheter. In our experience, SecurAcath is a safe and effective device to secure CSF external catheters to the skin, with several relevant advantages: its placement and maintenance are easy; it may stay in place for the entire duration of the catheter; it allows a more complete antisepsis of the exit site, thus reducing local skin complications; it eliminates the risk of suture-related needlestick injuries. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Physicochemical characteristics of meat from pantaneiro lambs slaughtered with different of subcutaneous fat thicknesses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália Holtz Alves Pedroso Mora

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-four lambs of the pantaneiro genetic group were used in a completely randomized design with eight replicates, slaughtered with subcutaneous fat thicknesses (SFT of 2.0, 3.0 and 4.0 mm, which was evaluated by ultrasound in the longissimus dorsi muscle to measure the effect of the SFT on the physicochemical properties of the meat. The animals received water ad libitum throughout the experimental period and were fed a complete, pelleted ration formulated to provide an average daily gain of 0.300 kg-1. As the lambs reached the predetermined SFT in the fortnightly evaluation by ultrasound, they were slaughtered the day after the measurements, regardless of weight. The pH values for 0h00 (6.58 and 24h00 (5.50 and cooking loss (23.99% did not differ between treatments. Regarding the meat color, lambs slaughtered with 2.0 mm and 3.0 mm SFT had meat with greater lightness and the meat from those with 3.0 and 4.0 mm SFT showed higher values for the intensity of red and yellow. Lambs slaughtered with 4.0 mm SFT (1.43 kgf had more tender meat than those slaughtered with a SFT of 2.0 mm. Lambs slaughtered with 4.0 mm SFT had the greatest sarcomere length (1.47 ?m. The crude protein (21.15% and moisture (72.38% contents in the 2.0 mm treatment were higher than those in the 4.0 mm treatment. The total lipids (4.84% in the meat from 4.0 mm SFT animals were higher than those in the meat from 2.0 mm SFT lambs. Slaughtering lambs with 3.0 mm of fat thickness in the loin is recommended, as these animals comprise a larger number of favorable characteristics with regard to the meat chemical composition, softness, and color.

  7. Pharmacokinetics of a new diclofenac sodium formulation developed for subcutaneous and intramuscular administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeitlinger, Markus; Rusca, Antonio; Oraha, Alhan Z; Gugliotta, Barbara; Müller, Markus; Ducharme, Murray P

    2012-06-01

    To assess the relative bioavailability of diclofenac sodium hydroxypropyl β-cyclodextrin (HPβCD) administered via the subcutaneous (s.c.) and intramuscular (i.m.) route versus Voltaren® i.m. and to evaluate the dose linearity and pharmacokinetics of the s.c. formulation at three dose levels. Safety and local tolerability were also assessed. One single-dose, randomized, three-way, crossover relative bioavailability study and one linearity single escalating dose, randomized, three-way cross-over pharmacokinetic study were conducted at two different clinical sites. A total of 42 healthy male and female subjects participated in both studies. Subjects received 75 mg/ml diclofenac sodium HPβCD (i.m. and s.c.) and Voltaren® 75 mg/3 ml (i.m.) in Study 1 and 25, 50, or 75 mg/ml diclofenac sodium HPβCD (s.c.) in Study 2. Study 1 demonstrated bioequivalence of the s.c. test formulation with Voltaren® i.m. with respect to Cmax and AUC. Bioequivalence of the test i.m. with Voltaren® i.m. was also demonstrated (except the upper limit of the 90% confidence interval (CI) for Cmax which marginally exceeded the 80 - 125% range (125.78%)). Study 2 demonstrated that after s.c. administration of the test formulation, both Cmax and AUC are linearly related to the tested diclofenac doses. All tested doses were safe and locally well-tolerated with no serious adverse events reported. Bioequivalence of diclofenac HPβCD 75 mg/ml after s.c. and i.m. administration with Voltaren® i.m. was demonstrated, except for the marginal deviation in Cmax when comparing the i.m. test and Voltaren®. Linearity was also demonstrated for the three doses intended for marketing.

  8. Cost-effectiveness of specific subcutaneous immunotherapy in patients with allergic rhinitis and allergic asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brüggenjürgen, Bernd; Reinhold, Thomas; Brehler, Randolf; Laake, Eckard; Wiese, Günther; Machate, Ulrich; Willich, Stefan N

    2008-09-01

    Specific immunotherapy is the only potentially curative treatment in patients with allergic rhinitis and allergic asthma. Health economic evaluations on this treatment, particularly in a German context, are sparse. To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of specific subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT) in addition to symptomatic treatment (ST) compared with ST alone in a German health care setting. The analysis was performed as a health economic model calculation based on Markov models. In addition, we performed a concomitant expert board composed of allergy experts in pediatrics, dermatology, pneumology, and otolaryngology. The primary perspective of the study was societal. Additional sensitivity analyses were performed to prove our results for robustness. The SCIT and ST combination was associated with annual cost savings of Euro140 per patient. After 10 years of disease duration, SCIT and ST reach the breakeven point. The overall incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) was Euro-19,787 per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY), with a range that depended on patient age (adults, Euro-22,196; adolescents, Euro-14,747; children, Euro-12,750). From a third-party payer's perspective, SCIT was associated with slightly additional costs. Thus, the resulting ICER was Euro8,308 per QALY for all patients. Additional SCIT was associated with improved medical outcomes and cost savings compared with symptomatic treatment alone according to a societal perspective. Taking a European accepted ICER threshold of up to Euro50,000 per QALY into account, additional SCIT is considered clearly cost-effective compared with routine care in Germany. The degree of cost-effectiveness is strongly affected by costs related to SCIT and the target population receiving such treatment.

  9. Effect of defibrillation threshold testing on effectiveness of the subcutaneous implantable cardioverter defibrillator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peddareddy, Lakshmi; Merchant, Faisal M; Leon, Angel R; Smith, Paige; Patel, Akshar; El-Chami, Mikhael F

    2018-06-12

    Defibrillation threshold (DFT) testing is recommended with the subcutaneous ICD (SICD). To describe first shock efficacy for appropriate SICD therapies stratified by the presence of implant DFT testing. We reviewed all patients receiving SICDs at our institution and stratified them based on whether implant DFT testing was performed. Appropriate shocks were reviewed to see if ventricular tachycardia/ventricular fibrillation (VT/VF) terminated with a single shock. First shock efficacy was stratified by implant DFT status. 178 patients implanted with SICDs and followed in our center were included in this study. Of these, 135 (76 %) underwent DFT testing (DFT (+) group). In the DFT (+) 80 appropriate shocks were needed to treat 69 episodes of VT/VF. The first shock was effective in 61 out of 69 episodes (88.4 %), whereas multiple shocks were required to terminate VT/VF in the remaining 8 episodes. Among 43 patients without implant DFT testing (DFT (-) group), 20 appropriate shocks to treat 17 episodes of VT/VF occurred in 7 patients. VT/VF was successfully terminated with the first shock in 16 out of 17 episodes (first shock efficacy 94.1 %). There was no significant difference in first shock effectiveness between those with and without implant DFT testing (p = 0.97). A strategy that omits DFT testing at implant did not appear to compromise the effictiveness of the SICD. These data suggest that routine DFT testing at SICD implant might not be necessary. Randomized trials are needed to confirm this finding. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  10. In patients with extensive subcutaneous emphysema, which technique achieves maximal clinical resolution: infraclavicular incisions, subcutaneous drain insertion or suction on in situ chest drain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Charles H N; Lang, Sommer A; Bilal, Haris; Rammohan, Kandadai S

    2014-06-01

    A best evidence topic in cardiac surgery was written according to a structured protocol. The question addressed was: 'In patients with extensive subcutaneous emphysema, which technique achieves maximal clinical resolution: infraclavicular incisions, subcutaneous drain insertion or suction on in situ chest drain?'. Altogether more than 200 papers were found using the reported search, of which 14 represented the best evidence to answer the clinical question. The authors, journal, date and country of publication, patient group studied, study type, relevant outcomes and results of these papers are tabulated. Subcutaneous emphysema is usually a benign, self-limiting condition only requiring conservative management. Interventions are useful in the context of severe patient discomfort, respiratory distress or persistent air leak. In the absence of any comparative study, it is not possible to choose definitively between infraclavicular incisions, drain insertion and increasing suction on an in situ drain as the best method for managing severe subcutaneous emphysema. All the three techniques described have been shown to provide effective relief. Increasing suction on a chest tube already in situ provided rapid relief in patients developing SE following pulmonary resection. A retrospective study showed resolution in 66%, increasing to 98% in those who underwent video-assisted thoracic surgery with identification and closure of the leak. Insertion of a drain into the subcutaneous tissue also provided rapid sustained relief. Several studies aided drainage by using regular compressive massage. Infraclavicular incisions were also shown to provide rapid relief, but were noted to be more invasive and carried the potential for cosmetic defect. No major complications were illustrated. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  11. Subcutaneous interferon β-1a in pediatric patients with multiple sclerosis: Regional differences in clinical features, disease management, and treatment outcomes in an international retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krupp, Lauren B; Pohl, Daniela; Ghezzi, Angelo; Boyko, Alexey; Tenembaum, Silvia; Chen, Liang; Aycardi, Ernesto; Banwell, Brenda

    2016-04-15

    To further understand management of pediatric patients with multiple sclerosis (MS), we examined disease features, clinical practice patterns, and response to treatment in the United States (US) and seven other countries ('rest of World'; ROW). Anonymized data, recorded as part of routine clinical practice, were obtained from medical records (1997-2009) of study participants (who received subcutaneous interferon β-1a before age 18 years) from the US and ROW. Samples were stratified by age (preadolescents [managed differently, compared with ROW patients. Future prospective studies are needed to confirm these observations and ascertain their clinical significance. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of dietary soy isoflavones on bone loss in ovariectomized rats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To determine the effect of dietary soy isoflavone supplementation on bone loss in ovariectomized (OVX) rats. Methods: Forty-eight rats were assigned randomly to groups of OVX rats receiving soy isoflavones (20, 30, or 40 mg/kg of body weight daily), untreated OVX rats, or untreated intact rats. After 8 weeks, bone ...

  13. [Correction of isoproterenol-induced myocardial injury with magnesium salts in magnesium-deficient rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharitonova, M V; Zheltova, A A; Spasov, A A; Smirnov, A V; Pan'shin, N G; Iezhitsa, I N

    2013-01-01

    The effect of Mg L-asparaginate (Mg-L-Asp), Mg chloride (MgCl2) and Mg sulfate (MgSO4) on the severity of isoproterenol-induced myocardial injury in Mg-deficient rats has been evaluated. To induce Mg deficiency, twenty-eight rats were placed on a low Mg diet (Mg content water for 10 weeks. Twelve control rats were fed a basal control diet (Mg content = 500 mg/kg) and water (with Mg content 20 mg/l) for equal duration. On day 49 of low Mg diet, Mg-deficient rats were randomly divided into four groups: 1) group that continued to receive low Mg diet; 2) low Mg diet plus oral MgSO4; 3) low Mg diet plus oral Mg-L-Asp and 4) low Mg diet plus oral MgCl2 (50 mg of Mg per kg of body weight). Isoproterenol was injected subcutaneously (30 mg/kg BW, twice, at an interval of 24 hours) on the day 70 of the study, when plasma and erythrocyte Mg level in rats fed a low Mg diet were significantly decreased by 47% and 45% compared to intact animals. Twenty-four hours after second injection of isoproterenol, tests for activities of creatine kinase (CK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were run and histopathological study was carried out. Administration of isoproterenol to rats resulted in significantly elevated plasma CK, LDH and AST, however analyses in Mg deficient group demonstrated more dramatically increased activity of CK and AST compared to control rats (3,06 and 4,67 fold in Mg-deficient group vs. 1,91 and 3,92 fold in intact group). Increased leakage of cardiac injury markers was concomitant to increased volume of fuchsinophilic cardiomyocytes (54.2 +/- 1.7% in Mg-deficient group and 38.9 +/- 1.9% in intact group, p < 0.05). However, pretreatment with of MgCl2, MgSO4 and Mg-L-Asp during 21 days favorably decreased sensitivity of myocardium to isoproterenol-induced ischemic injury. All evaluated salts significantly decreased myocyte marker enzymes as well as protected myocardium against isoproterenol-induced histopathological perturbations.

  14. Cost-minimization analysis of subcutaneous abatacept in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Ariza

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To compare the cost of treating rheumatoid arthritis patients that have failed an initial treatment with methotrexate, with subcutaneous aba - tacept versus other first-line biologic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs. Method: Subcutaneous abatacept was considered comparable to intravenous abatacept, adalimumab, certolizumab pegol, etanercept, golimumab, infliximab and tocilizumab, based on indirect comparison using mixed treatment analysis. A cost-minimization analysis was therefore considered appropriate. The Spanish Health System perspective and a 3 year time horizon were selected. Pharmaceutical and administration costs (, 2013 of all available first-line biological disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs were considered. Administration costs were obtained from a local costs database. Patients were considered to have a weight of 70 kg. A 3% annual discount rate was applied. Deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were performed. Results: Subcutaneous abatacept proved in the base case to be less costly than all other biologic antirrheumatic drugs (ranging from -831.42 to -9,741.69 versus infliximab and tocilizumab, respectively. Subcutaneous abatacept was associated with a cost of 10,760.41 per patient during the first year of treatment and 10,261.29 in subsequent years. The total 3-year cost of subcutaneous abatacept was 29,953.89 per patient. Sensitivity analyses proved the model to be robust. Subcutaneous abatacept remained cost-saving in 100% of probabilistic sensitivity analysis simulations versus adalimumab, certolizumab, etanercept and golimumab, in more than 99.6% versus intravenous abatacept and tocilizumab and in 62.3% versus infliximab. Conclusions: Treatment with subcutaneous abatacept is cost-saving versus intravenous abatacept, adalimumab, certolizumab, etanercept, golimumab, infliximab and tocilizumab in the management of rheumatoid arthritis patients initiating

  15. Abdominal Subcutaneous Fat Thickness Measured by Ultrasonography Correlates with Hyperlipidemia and Steatohepatitis in Obese Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sung Hyun; Kim, Dongwan; Baek, Min Young; Tchah, Hann; Kim, Yeon Sun; Ryoo, Eell; Kim, Yun Mi

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the relationship between abdominal subcutaneous fat thickness measured by ultrasonography (US) and serum lipid profile and liver transaminases in obese children. One hundred and sixty-six children diagnosed with obesity from May 2001 to December 2013 were included in this study. Data on serum lipid profile and liver transaminases were collected from clinical records. Abdominal subcutaneous fat thickness and grade of hepatic steatosis were evaluated by US. Of the 166 children, 107 were diagnosed with hepatic steatosis by US, 46 with grade I, 56 with grade II, and five children with grade III. According to the grade of hepatic steasosis, the average values of midline abdominal subcutaneous fat thickness and right flank abdominal subcutaneous fat thickness measured 2.9±0.8 cm and 1.9±0.7 cm in the normal group, 3.3±0.8 cm and 2.0±0.7 cm in grade I, 3.8±0.8 cm and 2.3±0.8 cm in grade II, and 4.1±0.8 cm and 2.8±1.4 cm in grade III, respectively. Abdominal subcutaneous fat thickness correlated with grade of hepatic steatosis (pabdominal subcutaneous fat thickness correlated with concentration of serum lipids and liver transaminases in the age group of 12-14 years (pAbdominal subcutaneous fat thickness measured by US can be used as a reliable predictor of possible hyperlipidemia and steatohepatitis in children, especially during the adolescent stage.

  16. Some pharmacological effects of cinnamon and ginger herbs in obese diabetic rats

    OpenAIRE

    Shalaby, Mostafa Abbas; Saifan, Hamed Yahya

    2014-01-01

    Aims: The present study was designed to assess some pharmacological effects of cinnamon (CAE) and ginger (GAE) aqueous extracts in obese diabetic rats, and to elucidate the potential mechanisms. Materials and Methods: Forty-two Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into 6 equal groups. Group 1 was a negative control and the other groups were rendered obese by feeding rats on high-fat diet for 4 weeks. The obese rats were subcutaneously injected with alloxan for 5*days to induce diabetes. Group ...

  17. Drug delivery options to increase patient adherence and satisfaction in the management of rheumatoid arthritis – focus on subcutaneous tocilizumab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakashima Y

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Yasuharu Nakashima,1 Masakazu Kondo,2 Hisaaki Miyahara,3 Yukihide Iwamoto11Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan; 2Kondo Clinic of Rheumatology and Orthopaedic Surgery, Fukuoka, Japan; 3Department of Orthopaedic Surgery and Rheumatology, Clinical Research Institute, National Hospital Organization Kyushu Medical Center, Fukuoka, JapanAbstract: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA is a chronic, progressive, inflammatory disease associated with joint destruction. Tocilizumab (TCZ is a humanized monoclonal anti-interleukin-6 receptor antibody that was initially developed for use as an intravenous (IV infusion. Previous studies have shown that TCZ-IV is an important treatment option in patients with moderate-to-severe RA. A subcutaneous (SC formulation of 162 mg TCZ that was recently developed and approved provides an additional treatment option for RA patients. In the present review, we provide an update on the efficacy and safety of TCZ-SC, compared with TCZ-IV. The TCZ-SC doses of 162 mg every 2 weeks (q2w or weekly (qw were selected based on pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic studies. Both TCZ-SC q2w and qw regimens showed equivalent effects to TCZ-IV in most patients; however, the TCZ-SC qw regimen consistently showed a more rapid effect in terms of C-reactive protein normalization. Randomized controlled studies showed that TCZ-SC monotherapy or combined with disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs demonstrated comparable efficacy to TCZ-IV in patients who were both biologic-naïve and refractory to tumor necrosis factor inhibitors. TCZ-SC at both qw and q2w were generally well-tolerated for up to 24 weeks. There was a low rate of withdrawal due to adverse events, and their incidence was comparable with that seen with TCZ-IV. An injection site reaction was seen in approximately 10% of patients who received the subcutaneous formulation. In conclusion, although clinical results are still limited, the currently available evidence

  18. Role of L-thyroxin in counteracting rotenone induced neurotoxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salama, Mohamed; Helmy, Basem; El-Gamal, Mohamed; Reda, Amr; Ellaithy, Amr; Tantawy, Dina; Mohamed, Mie; El-Gamal, Aya; Sheashaa, Hussein; Sobh, Mohamed

    2013-03-01

    A key feature of Parkinson's disease is the dopaminergic neuronal cell loss in the substantia nigra pars compacta. Many triggering pathways have been incriminated in the pathogenesis of this disease including inflammation, oxidative stress, excitotoxicity and apoptosis. Thyroid hormone is an essential agent for the growth and maturation of neurons; moreover, it has variable mechanisms for neuroprotection. So, we tested the efficacy of (L)-thyroxin as a neuroprotectant in rotenone model of Parkinson's disease in rats. Thirty Sprague Dawley rats aged 3 months were divided into 3 equal groups. The first received daily intraperitoneal injections of 0.5% carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) 3 mL/Kg. The second group received rotenone suspended in 0.5% CMC intraperitoneally at a dose of 3 mg/kg, daily. The third group received the same rotenone regimen subcutaneous l-thyroxine at a dose of 7.5 μg daily. All animals were evaluated regarding locomotor disturbance through blinded investigator who monitored akinesia, catalepsy, tremors and performance in open field test. After 35 days the animals were sacrificed and their brains were immunostained against anti-tyrosine hydroxylase and iba-1. Photomicrographs for coronal sections of the substantia nigra and striatum were taken and analyzed using image J software to evaluate cell count in SNpc and striatal fibers density and number of microglia in the nigrostriatal system. The results were then analyzed statistically. Results showed selective protective effects of thyroxin against rotenone induced neurotoxicity in striatum, however, failed to exert similar protection on SN. Moreover, microglial elevated number in nigrostriatal system that was induced by rotenone injections was diminished selectively in striatum only in the l-thyroxin treated group. One of the possible mechanisms deduced from this work was the selective regulation of microglia in striatal tissues. Thus, this study provides an insight into thyroxin neuroprotection

  19. Interaction of Zinc Chloride with an Aromatase Inhibitor (Letrozole on Anxiety in Adult Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahar Charghan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Aromatase is an enzyme converts androstenedione and testosterone to estrone and estradiol, respectively. According to the role of testosterone and zinc in reducing anxiety and the relation between androgenic system function and zinc supplementations, in this research, the effect of zinc chloride injection was analysed in rats which aromatase enzyme was inhibited by aromatase inhibitor (letrozole. Materials and Methods: Adult male Wistar rats (weighing 225±25 g were used. Animals were divided into 12 groups and based on their weight, aromatase inhibitor (letrozole was injected (subcutaneously, and 30 minutes later, ZnCl2 or its solvent (saline was injected intra-peritoneal. Control group was received both solvents (DMSO and saline respectively. Anxiety levels were tested in the elevated plus maze 30 minutes after the last injection, and thereafter, open field was used for measurement of the locomotors activity of animals. Results: The results showed a significant decrease in the percentage of time spent in open arms in letrozole (1.25 mg/kg treated group as compared to that of solvent group. The locomotors activity significantly decreased between letrozole (1.25 mg/kg with the control group. The combined groups received letrozole (2.5 mg/kg and different amounts of zinc chloride (2.5, 5, 10 mg/kg, significantly reduced (p<0.05 the percentage of time spent in the open arm, comparing to the control group. Groups that received the combination of zinc chloride (2.5 mg/kg and different amounts of letrozole (1.25, 5, 10 mg/kg, showed no significant difference in the percentage of entry and time spent in the open arms. Conclusion: Totally, the present study suggests that letrozole alone increased anxiety and decreased locomotors activity and could interfere with anxiolytic effect of ZnCl2 as well.

  20. A randomized double-blind crossover comparison of continuous and intermittent subcutaneous administration of opioid for cancer pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Sharon; Pereira, Jose; Tarumi, Yoko; Hanson, John; Bruera, Eduardo

    2008-05-01

    ABSTRACT Although the preferred route of opioid administration is oral, patients with cancer often require an alternative route. Options include continuous subcutaneous infusion (CSCI) or regularly scheduled intermittent subcutaneous injections (ISCI). CSCI maintains steady drug levels, theoretically avoiding the "bolus effect" of nausea and sedation immediately post-dose, and breakthrough pain prior to the next dose. However, portable infusion pumps can be costly to use. The Edmonton Injector is an inexpensive portable device for ISCI. CSCI and ISCI have not been directly compared. The objective of this trial was to compare CSCI and ISCI of opioid for treatment of cancer pain. Patients were recruited from two tertiary palliative care units. Eligibility criteria included stable cancer pain requiring opioid therapy, need for parenteral route, and normal cognition. Patients were randomly assigned to receive opioid by CSCI by portable pump or ISCI by Edmonton Injector for 48 hours, followed by crossover to the alternative modality for 48 hours. During each phase, placebo was administered by the alternative modality. The study was closed after 12 patients were entered, due to slow accrual. Eleven patients completed the study. There were no differences between CSCI and ISCI in mean visual analogue score (VAS) for pain, nausea or drowsiness; categorical rating score of pain; number of breakthrough opioid doses per day; global rating of treatment effectiveness; or adverse effects. In all cases, patients and investigators expressed no preference for one modality over another. Further research is required to confirm that opioid administration by CSCI and ISCI provide similar analgesic and adverse effects.

  1. Bleeding risk during treatment of acute thrombotic events with subcutaneous LMWH compared to intravenous unfractionated heparin; a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgio Costantino

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Low Molecular Weight Heparins (LMWH are at least as effective antithrombotic drugs as Unfractionated Heparin (UFH. However, it is still unclear whether the safety profiles of LMWH and UFH differ. We performed a systematic review to compare the bleeding risk of fixed dose subcutaneous LMWH and adjusted dose UFH for treatment of venous thromboembolism (VTE or acute coronary syndromes (ACS. Major bleeding was the primary end point. METHODS: Electronic databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library were searched up to May 2010 with no language restrictions. Randomized controlled trials in which subcutaneous LMWH were compared to intravenous UFH for the treatment of acute thrombotic events were selected. Two reviewers independently screened studies and extracted data on study design, study quality, incidence of major bleeding, patients' characteristics, type, dose and number of daily administrations of LMWH, co-treatments, study end points and efficacy outcome. Pooled odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CI were calculated using the random effects model. RESULTS: Twenty-seven studies were included. A total of 14,002 patients received UFH and 14,635 patients LMWH. Overall, no difference in major bleeding was observed between LMWH patients and UFH (OR = 0.79, 95% CI 0.60-1.04. In patients with VTE LMWH appeared safer than UFH, (OR = 0.68, 95% CI 0.47-1.00. CONCLUSION: The results of our systematic review suggest that the use of LMWH in the treatment of VTE might be associated with a reduction in major bleeding compared with UFH. The choice of which heparin to use to minimize bleeding risk must be based on the single patient, taking into account the bleeding profile of different heparins in different settings.

  2. Subcutaneous blood flow in man during sleep with continous epdural anaesthesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sindrup, JH; Petersen, Lars Jelstrup; Kastrup, Jens

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Subcutaneous blood flow increases during sleep and we evaluated if this increase is affected by epidural anaesthesia. METHODS: Lower leg subcutaneous blood flow was determined by 133Xenon clearance in ten subjects during continous epidural anaesthesia at L2-L3 including eight hours...... of sleep, while the opper abdominal subcutaneous blood flow served as control. RESULTS: Epidural anaesthesia to the level of the umbilicus was followed by an increase in the lower leg subcutaneous blood flow fra 3.4 (1.8-6.3) to 7.8 (3.6-16.9) ml min-1 (median and range; P....4-7.6) ml min-1 100 g-1 after 88 (45-123) min. In contrast, until the period of sleep the upper abdominal region blood flow remained at 5.2 (3.2-6.4) ml min-1 100 g-1. During sleep, lower leg subcutaneous blood flow did not change significantly, but the upper abdominal flow increased to 6.2 (5.2-7.2) ml min...

  3. EEG Signal Quality of a Subcutaneous Recording System Compared to Standard Surface Electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas Duun-Henriksen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. We provide a comprehensive verification of a new subcutaneous EEG recording device which promises robust and unobtrusive measurements over ultra-long time periods. The approach is evaluated against a state-of-the-art surface EEG electrode technology. Materials and Methods. An electrode powered by an inductive link was subcutaneously implanted on five subjects. Surface electrodes were placed at sites corresponding to the subcutaneous electrodes, and the EEG signals were evaluated with both quantitative (power spectral density and coherence analysis and qualitative (blinded subjective scoring by neurophysiologists analysis. Results. The power spectral density and coherence analysis were very similar during measurements of resting EEG. The scoring by neurophysiologists showed a higher EEG quality for the implanted system for different subject states (eyes open and eyes closed. This was most likely due to higher amplitude of the subcutaneous signals. During periods with artifacts, such as chewing, blinking, and eye movement, the two systems performed equally well. Conclusions. Subcutaneous measurements of EEG with the test device showed high quality as measured by both quantitative and more subjective qualitative methods. The signal might be superior to surface EEG in some aspects and provides a method of ultra-long term EEG recording in situations where this is required and where a small number of EEG electrodes are sufficient.

  4. [Using the subcutaneous approach for symptoms control in a health center].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascual López, L; Portaceli Armiñana, A; Ros Sáez, A

    2001-01-01

    To describe the use of the subcutaneous tract for symptoms control in patients those are in phase of palliative treatment of their illness. Observational study. Primary care. Patients seen in a health center, in phase of palliative treatment of their illness, that needed for symptoms control the subcutaneous administration of drugs. Most of the patients were in terminal phase (19), the fundamental cause (17 cases) that justified the use of the subcutaneous tract was the difficulty to take drugs by oral tract in the last days of life, attention on death throes. The infusion continuous through injector type travenol, at an infusion speed of 2 ml/h, it was the most common way of drug administration (19 patients). The drugs and initial average dose most used were: morphine 19 patients dose 100 mg/24 h, hyoscine butylbromide (Buscapina), 13 patients, 60 mg/24 h, haloperidol 12 patients, 4 mg/24 h. The patients death was the main cause that justified the retirement of the continuous infusion (17 people sick), happening in its own home. Symptoms control was good or very good in the most of patients (14). The experience on using the subcutaneous tract for symptoms control in our health center is positive, being the fundamental cause for its use symptoms control in the last days of the patients life. The continuous subcutaneous infusion should be used in primary attention, as an usual technique for the symptoms control in patients that are in phase of palliative treatment of their illness.

  5. Nasal inhalation of butorphanol in combination with ketamine quickly elevates the mechanical pain threshold in the model of chronic constriction injury to the sciatic nerve of rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Feng; Wang, LiQin; Chen, ShuJun; Li, ZhiGao; Chen, ZhouLin; Zhou, XinHua; Zhai, Dong

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to explore the impact of butorphanol in combination with ketamine via nasal inhalation (NI) on neuropathic pain induced by chronic constriction injury (CCI) to the sciatic nerve in a rat model. CCI rats (n = 12) were equally randomized to four groups based on the treatments received as follows: 100 μL of 0.9% normal saline via NI (NS/NI group); 100 μg of butorphanol plus 1 mg of ketamine via NI (B + K/NI group); 100 μg of butorphanol alone via NI (B/NI group); and 100 μg of butorphanol plus 1 mg of ketamine via subcutaneous injection (B + K/SC group). Mechanical pain threshold was measured at 10 min, 30 min, 2 h, 4 h, and 6 h after drug administration. The mechanical pain threshold in the B + K/NI group was improved significantly 4 h after drug administration as compared with that in the B/NI or B + K/SC group (P ketamine quickly elevates the mechanical pain threshold in a rat neuropathic pain model induced by CCI to the sciatic nerve. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of Proton Pump Inhibitor Administration and Intake of a Combination of Yogurt and Galactooligosaccharides on Bone and Mineral Metabolism in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Takasugi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of proton pump inhibitor (PPI, the most potent acid-suppressing drug, administration and intake of a combination of yogurt and galactooligosaccharides (YG on bone and mineral metabolism in adult rats. Twelve-week-old male Wistar rats were divided into three groups: a control group fed the control diet with vehicle administration, a PPI group fed the control diet with PPI administration and a YG + PPI group fed the YG diet with PPI administration. All of the groups received their respective experimental diets and daily subcutaneous injection of the vehicle or PPI for 12 weeks. The PPI group showed significantly lower bone mineral density (BMD of the femur and the lumbar vertebrae and serum fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23 and significantly higher phosphorus absorption and serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH2D than the control group, although PPI did not affect calcium absorption. The PPI + YG group showed significantly higher BMD and serum FGF23 and significantly lower phosphorus absorption and serum 1,25(OH2D than the PPI group. Furthermore, the PPI + YG group showed higher calcium absorption than the control group. These results suggest that although PPI administration did not affect calcium absorption, it adversely affected BMD and influenced phosphorus metabolism in adult rats. Furthermore, the YG diet beneficially affected BMD and attenuated the effects of PPI administration on phosphorus metabolism.

  7. Granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF improves motor recovery in the rat impactor model for spinal cord injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanjew Dittgen

    Full Text Available Granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF improves outcome after experimental SCI by counteracting apoptosis, and enhancing connectivity in the injured spinal cord. Previously we have employed the mouse hemisection SCI model and studied motor function after subcutaneous or transgenic delivery of the protein. To further broaden confidence in animal efficacy data we sought to determine efficacy in a different model and a different species. Here we investigated the effects of G-CSF in Wistar rats using the New York University Impactor. In this model, corroborating our previous data, rats treated subcutaneously with G-CSF over 2 weeks show significant improvement of motor function.

  8. [Rat tissues antioxidant status correction by peptide delta sleep during physiological aging of the organism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondarenko, T I; Kutilin, D S; Mikhaleva, I I

    2014-01-01

    It is shown that exogenous delta-sleep inducing peptide increases glutathione antioxidant system level in rat tissues at different stages of ontogenesis, by subcutaneous injection to rats 2-24 months postnatal development in a dose of 100 mg/kg animal body weight by courses of 5 consecutive days per month, and this effect is especially marked in non-renewable postmitotic tissues.

  9. Hard tissue formation of STRO-1-selected rat dental pulp stem cells in vivo.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, X.; Walboomers, X.F.; Beucken, J.J.J.P van den; Bian, Z.; Fan, M.; Jansen, J.A.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine hard tissue formation of STRO-1-selected rat dental pulp-derived stem cells, seeded into a calcium phosphate ceramic scaffold, and implanted subcutaneously in mice. Previously, STRO-1 selection was used to obtain a mesenchymal stem cell progenitor

  10. Effects of Vitamin C on Kidney and Bone of Rats Exposed to Low ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . Wister rats were exposed to cadmium (as CdSO4.8H2O), by sub-cutaneous injection, at doses of 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0 ìg/kg body weight, with or without vitamin C supplementation, for four weeks. Serum alkaline phosphatase activity of the group of ...

  11. Comparative Study of Histopathologic Characterization of Azoxymethane-induced Colon Tumors in Three Inbred Rat Strains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kobæk Larsen, Morten; Fenger, Claus; Hansen, Ket

    2002-01-01

    To obtain controlled genetic variation, colon cancer was chemically induced by use of four subcutaneous injections of azoxymethane (15 mg/kg of body weight/wk) to rats of 3 inbred strains (BDIX/OrlIco, F344/NHsd, WAG/Rij). The selection was based on the availability of established colon cancer cell...

  12. The effect of adriamycin on dentinogenesis and 3H-thymidine incorporation into the enamel organ of the rat incisor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karim, A.C.

    1990-01-01

    The effect of adriamycin (5 mg/kg) on 3 H-thymidine incorporation and on dentin formation was studied in rat incisors. Male Sprague Dawley rats received an intravenous injection of adriamycin. Some of these also received a subcutaneous injection of 3 H-thymidine at a dose of 2 mCi/kg one day later. One group of control animals received an intravenous injection of a volume of physiological saline equal to that of the adriamycin dose. Another group received physiological saline, and one hour later was given an additional injection of 3 H-thymidine at a similar dose as above. All the animals were killed 1 h, 1 d, 4 d, 8 d, 16 d, 28 d, and 32 d after 3 H-thymidine treatment. Light microscopy revealed irregular dentin deposits between the mantle and circumpulpal layer of the labial dentin at 16 d. Within these deposits were trapped cells. The latter, through radioautographic labelling, appeared to be cells from the odontoblast layer. Also, the labelling pattern of the enamel organ in both the control and experimental groups indicated that the eruption rate of the tooth was not affected. Serial sectioning and examination of the lingual portion of the incisors at 28 d revealed a lack of dentin formation and a failure in the closure of the apical foramen. Electron microscopic observations showed an irregular and random arrangement of collagen fibers within the deposits of irregular dentin, and the presence of twisted odontoblastic processes. Examination of the lingual surface showed the presence of fibroblasts and collagen fibers bridging the gap that resulted from the failure in dentin formation. These cells, which were similar to periodontal ligament cells, appeared to have arisen from that area. (author)

  13. Comparing the therapeutic efficiency of aminoguanidine and 3-aminobenzamide in lung and intestine toxicity caused by nitrogen mustard in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yaren, H.; Korkmaz, A.; Kunak, Z. I.; Uysal, B.; Topal, T.; Kurt, B; Kenar, L.

    2009-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) produced by inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and peroxynitrite are responsible for sulfur mustard (SM) induced toxicity. Since endogenous production of peroxynitrite is known to lead to poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) activation and sometimes ultimately cell death, in this study, it was aimed to compare the therapeutic efficiencies of aminoguanidine (iNOS inhibitor) and 3 aminobenzamide (PARP inhibitor) in lung and intestine toxicity caused by nitrogen mustard in rats. A total of 40 male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 4 groups. Group 1 served as control and given 2 ml saline, three groups received single dose of mechlorethamine (MEC) (3.5 mg/kg subcutaneously) with the same time intervals. Group 2 received MEC only, group 3 received selective iNOS inhibitor aminoguanidine (AG) (100 mg/kg i.p.) and, group 4 received PARP inhibitor 3 aminobenzamide (3-AB) (20 mg/kg i.p.). MEC injection resulted in severe lung toxicity with strong interstitial and alveolar edema, hemorrhage, emphysematous changes, Mild inflammatory cell infiltration and septal thickening. MEC injection also caused mucosal thinning, mild inflammatory cell infiltration, ischemic changes and multifocal, superficial ulcerations (erosions) in small intestine. In AG group, interstitial and alveolar edema, hemorrhage slightly reduced in lung comparing to MEC group. Inflammatory cell infiltration was minimal, septal thickening was similar to MEC group at densely edematous and hemorrhagical areas. In 3 AB group, edematous and hemorrhagic areas were very small, inflammatory cell infiltration was minimal and there were no densly densely edematous and hemorrhagical areas in lung. The results were better than AB group. In intestine, results of AG group were better than MEC group but worse than 3 AB group. These results suggest that both iNOS and PARP inhibitors are effective but PARP inhibitors may be more promising for treatment of SM induced early lung and intestinal toxicity.(author)

  14. The Subcutaneous Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillator: A Practical Review and Real-World Use and Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark E. Panna Jr, MD, FACC, FHRS

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The subcutaneous implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD is a novel technology using a subcutaneous (extrathoracic system for treatment of potential lethal ventricular arrhythmias. It avoids many of the risks of transvenous ICD implantation. It may be considered in patients having an ICD indication who do not have a pacing and/or cardiac resynchronization therapy indication, and who are unlikely to benefit from antitachycardia pacing therapy. We review patient selection, system components, the implantation technique, and screening considerations for subcutaneous ICD implantation. Its uses in specific patient populations, including children, patients with congenital heart disease, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, or end-stage renal disease, and patients with preexisting pacemakers, are highlighted. Areas of future investigation are reviewed, including potential use with leadless pacing and magnetic resonance imaging.

  15. Are there sex differences in Fetal Abdominal Subcutaneous Tissue (FAST) measurements?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Farah, Nadine

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine if Fetal Abdominal Subcutaneous Tissue (FAST) measurements using antenatal ultrasound differ between male and female fetuses. STUDY DESIGN: Women who had an ultrasound examination for fetal growth between 20 and 40 weeks gestation were studied. Women with diabetes mellitus were excluded. The fetal anterior abdominal subcutaneous tissue was measured on the anterior abdominal wall in millimetres anterior to the margins of the ribs, using magnification at the level of the abdominal circumference. The fetal sex was recorded after delivery. RESULTS: A total of 557 fetuses were measured, 290 male and 267 female. The FAST measurements increased with gestational age. The FAST increased at the same rate for both male and female fetuses and at any given week there was no sex difference. CONCLUSIONS: The increased fat composition in females reported after birth was not found in abdominal wall subcutaneous fat measurements using ultrasound during pregnancy. Antenatal centile charts for FAST do not need to be based on sex.

  16. Peripheral subcutaneous vulvar stimulation in the management of severe and refractory vulvodynia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Andres, Jose; Sanchis-Lopez, Nerea; Asensio-Samper, Juan Marcos; Fabregat-Cid, Gustavo; Dolz, Vicente Molsalve

    2013-02-01

    Vulvodynia is a complex and multifactorial clinical condition with severe pain that occurs in the absence of visible infectious, inflammatory, neoplastic, or neurological findings. A 35-year-old woman with 3 years of dysesthetic vulvodynia tried conventional and interventional medical treatment with inadequate relief. She was offered peripheral subcutaneous vulvar field stimulation and underwent implantation of two vulvar subcutaneous electrodes. At 15 days after treatment and during 1-year follow-up, the patient scored 1 out of 15 on Friedrich scale, 1 out of 10 on the visual analog scale, and 1 out of 10 on the tampon test. The patient no longer requires oral medication. Stimulation with subcutaneous electrodes provided relief from vulvodynia to a patient in whom all previous therapeutic approaches had failed.

  17. The effect of irradiation on the subcutaneous fatty layer and the perirectal tissue by computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komatsu, Takashi

    1987-01-01

    Although it has been suggested that the subcutaneous fatty layer is affected by irradiation, the available reports have not been able to find out yet. While, it is reported that the intrapelvic fat increases in volume after whole pelvic irradiation. This paper report a study about the effect of irradiation on subcutaneous fatty layer and intrapelvic fat. The subjects studied were 20 cases treated by whole pelvic irradiation. The x-ray CT film was used to measure the subcutaneous fatty layer and the intrapelvic fat. Three slices, the lower end of sacro-iliac joint, upper end of the femoral head and upper rim of the pubic symphysis, were chosen as the cross section level, and the thickness of subcutaneous fatty layer on 6 points of the body and the presacral space (PS) were measured. Irradiation group was followed by measuring the thickness of fatty layer; before irradiation, 1 month, 3 or 4 months, 6 or 7 months and 12 months after irradiation. At the three of four points, which are included within the irradiation area, the thickness of subcutaneous fatty layer tended to increase after irradiation, though it showed increase or decrease at each period. This tendency was prominent at the lower than the upper slice of the pelvis. The other points, which are out of the irradiation field, showed no significant change and some of them even showed the tendency of decrease. Fatty layer of the presacral space tended to increase following irradiation, but there was no correlation with the irradiation dose. It is considered that the injury of subcutaneous tissue by irradiation results in the disturbance of blood flow and then it accelerates deposition of fat to the irradiated area. (author)

  18. Effect of acetylcholine receptors on the pain-related electrical activities in the hippocampal CA3 region of morphine-addicted rats

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Guan Zeng; Liu, Zhe Hui; Wei, XinYa; Zhao, Pan; Yang, Chun Xiao; Xu, Man Ying

    2015-01-01

    Objective(s): To determine the effect of acetylcholine (ACh), pilocarpine, and atropine on pain evoked responses of pain excited neurons (PEN) and pain inhibited neurons (PIN) in hippocampal CA3 region of morphine addicted rats. Materials and Methods: Female Wistar rats, weighing between 230-260 g were used in this study. Morphine addicted rats were generated by subcutaneous injection of increasing concentrations of morphine hydrochloride for six days. Trains of electrical impulses applied to...

  19. The effect of triiodothyronine on maturation and differentiation of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells during remyelination following induced demyelination in male albino rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Tahry, H; Marei, H; Shams, A; El-Shahat, M; Abdelaziz, H; Abd El-Kader, M

    2016-06-01

    Demyelination was induced by two weeks cuprizone treatment. Rats of +ve control and triiodothyronine (T3) then received three subcutaneous injections of either saline or T3 day after day and sacrificed at the end of the third and fifth weeks. Animals in -ve control group received only standard rodent chow. After one week of cuprizone withdrawal the corpus callosum in +ve control and T3 treated rats was still demyelinated as revealed by MBP immunohistochemistry. The assay of PLP gene showed significant increase of T3 treated group compared to both the -ve control and +ve control groups. After three weeks, significant improvement in myelination was detected in T3-treated group compared to +ve control as detected by both MBP immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy. After one week of cuprizone withdrawal, PDGFRα positive cells and gene expression showed significant increase in +ve control and T3-treated groups as compared to -ve control with insignificant difference in between the former two groups. After three weeks of cuprizone withdrawal, PDGFRα positive cells in T3-treated and +ve control groups decreased to the control levels. These results suggest that T3 was effective in improving remyelination when administered during acute phase and might direct progenitor lineage toward oligodendrocytes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Cutaneous Involvement in the Deep Mycoses: A Literature Review. Part I-Subcutaneous Mycoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco-Zuber, J E; Navarrete-Dechent, C; Bonifaz, A; Fich, F; Vial-Letelier, V; Berroeta-Mauriziano, D

    2016-12-01

    The deep mycoses are uncommon in our setting. These fungal infections occur mainly in immunosuppressed patients or in tropical climates, and include subcutaneous infections and systemic infections. The skin is always involved in the former. In the first part of this review, we describe the main subcutaneous mycoses: sporotrichosis, chromoblastomycosis, mycetoma, phaeohyphomycosis, hyalohyphomycosis, and lacaziosis. Early recognition and treatment is important, as these infections are frequently associated with high morbidity. Copyright © 2016 AEDV. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. Tolerability of continuous subcutaneous octreotide used in combination with other drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercadante, S

    1995-01-01

    Continuous subcutaneous infusion of octreotide combined with other drugs has proved to be useful in some circumstances in palliative care setting when theoral route is no longer available. Forty-four patients were administered octreotide alone or in combination with other drugs in the same syringe driver for symptom control in advanced cancer patients. Good tolerability and compatibility were observed without visual drug precipitation for a period of 48 hours at room temperature, the standard clinical situation in patients' homes. Such a combination of drugs administered by the subcutaneous route makes possible the adequate control of symptoms in the final days of life.

  2. Bilateral pneumothorax with extensive subcutaneous emphysema manifested during third molar surgery. A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekine, J; Irie, A; Dotsu, H; Inokuchi, T

    2000-10-01

    This report describes a case of bilateral pneumothorax with extensive subcutaneous emphysema in a 45-year-old man that occurred during surgery to extract the left lower third molar, performed with the use of an air turbine dental handpiece. Computed tomographic scanning showed severe subcutaneous emphysema extending bilaterally from the cervicofacial region and the deep anatomic spaces (including the pterygomandibular, parapharyngeal, retropharyngeal, and deep temporal spaces) to the anterior wall of the chest. Furthermore, bilateral pneumothorax and pneumomediastinum were present. In our patient, air dissection was probably caused by pressurized air being forced through the operating site into the surrounding connective tissue.

  3. Current state of knowledge and experts' perspective on the subcutaneous implantable cardioverter-defibrillator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santini, Massimo; Cappato, Riccardo; Andresen, Dietrich; Brachmann, Johannes; Davies, D Wyn; Cleland, John; Filippi, Alessandro; Gronda, Edoardo; Hauer, Richard; Steinbeck, Gerhard; Steinhaus, David

    2009-06-01

    ICD implantation is today a well-recognized therapy to prevent sudden cardiac death. The available implantable devices at present need the use of permanent endocavitary leads which may cause, in some instances, serious troubles to the patients (lead dislodgement, ventricular perforation, lead infections, etc.). A new implantable defibrillator provided by only a subcutaneous lead is at present under evaluation. Its potential indications, usefulness benefits, and problems represent an interesting field of investigation and discussion. This paper describes the conclusions recently reached by a panel of experts, with regard to the potential role of an implantable subcutaneous defibrillator in the prevention of sudden cardiac death.

  4. Diet-induced changes in subcutaneous adipose tissue blood flow in man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, L; Bülow, J; Astrup, A

    1990-01-01

    The effect of a carbohydrate-rich meal on subcutaneous adipose tissue blood flow was studied with and without continuous i.v. infusion of propranolol in healthy volunteers. The subcutaneous adipose tissue blood flow was measured with the 133Xe washout method in three different locations......: the forearm, the thigh and the abdomen. The subjects were given a meal consisting of white bread, jam, honey and apple juice (about 2300 kJ). The meal induced a twofold increase in blood flow in the examined tissues. Propranolol abolished the flow increase in the thigh and the abdomen and reduced...

  5. Elemental mercury poisoning caused by subcutaneous and intravenous injection: An unusual self-injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wale, Jaywant; Yadav, Pankaj K; Garg, Shairy

    2010-01-01

    Elemental mercury poisoning most commonly occurs through vapor inhalation as mercury is well absorbed through the lungs. Administering subcutaneous and intravenous elemental mercury is very uncommon but with only a few isolated case reports in the literature. We present an unusual case of elemental mercury poisoning in a 20-year-old young male who presented with chest pain, fever, and hemoptysis. He had injected himself subcutaneously with elemental mercury obtained from a sphygmomanometer. The typical radiographic findings in the chest, forearm, and abdomen are discussed, with a review of the literature

  6. Elemental mercury poisoning caused by subcutaneous and intravenous injection: An unusual self-injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wale Jaywant

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Elemental mercury poisoning most commonly occurs through vapor inhalation as mercury is well absorbed through the lungs. Administering subcutaneous and intravenous elemental mercury is very uncommon but with only a few isolated case reports in the literature. We present an unusual case of elemental mercury poisoning in a 20-year-old young male who presented with chest pain, fever, and hemoptysis. He had injected himself subcutaneously with elemental mercury obtained from a sphygmomanometer. The typical radiographic findings in the chest, forearm, and abdomen are discussed, with a review of the literature.

  7. Solar advanced internal film receiver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torre Cabezas, M. de la

    1990-01-01

    In a Solar Central Internal Film Receiver, the heat absorbing fluid (a molten nitrate salt) flows in a thin film down over the non illuminated side of an absorber panel. Since the molten salt working fluid is not contained in complicated tube manifolds, the receiver design is simples than a conventional tube type-receiver resulting in a lower cost and a more reliable receiver. The Internal Film Receiver can be considered as an alternative to the Direct Absorption Receiver, in the event that the current problems of the last one can not be solved. It also describes here the test facility which will be used for its solar test, and the test plans foreseen. (Author) 17 refs

  8. Communications receivers principles and design

    CERN Document Server

    Rohde, Ulrich L; Zahnd, Hans

    2017-01-01

    This thoroughly updated guide offers comprehensive explanations of the science behind today’s radio receivers along with practical guidance on designing, constructing, and maintaining real-world communications systems. You will explore system planning, antennas and antenna coupling, amplifiers and gain control, filters, mixers, demodulation, digital communication, and the latest software defined radio (SDR) technology. Written by a team of telecommunication experts, Communications Receivers: Principles and Design, Fourth Edition, features technical illustrations, schematic diagrams, and detailed examples. Coverage includes: • Basic radio considerations • Radio receiver characteristics • Receiver system planning • Receiver implementation considerations • RF and baseband techniques for Software-Defined Radios • Transceiver SDR considerations • Antennas and antenna coupling • Mixers • Frequency sources and control • Ancillary receiver circuits • Performance measurement

  9. Preclinical Biodistribution and Safety Evaluation of a pbi-shRNA STMN1 Lipoplex after Subcutaneous Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhaohui; Jay, Christopher M; Evans, Courtney; Kumar, Padmasini; Phalon, Connor; Rao, Donald D; Senzer, Neil; Nemunaitis, John

    2017-02-01

    Stathmin-1 (STMN1) is a microtubule-destabilizing protein which is overexpressed in cancer. Its overexpression is associated with poor prognosis and also serves as a predictive marker to taxane therapy. We have developed a proprietary bi-functional shRNA (bi-shRNA) platform to execute RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated gene silencing and a liposome-carrier complex to systemically deliver the pbi-shRNA plasmids. In vitro and in vivo testing demonstrated efficacy and specificity of pbi-shRNA plasmid in targeting STMN1 (Phadke, A. P., Jay, C. M., Wang, Z., Chen, S., Liu, S., Haddock, C., Kumar, P., Pappen, B. O., Rao, D. D., Templeton, N. S., et al. (2011). In vivo safety and antitumor efficacy of bifunctional small hairpin RNAs specific for the human Stathmin 1 oncoprotein. DNA Cell Biol. 30, 715-726.). Biodistribution and toxicology studies in bio-relevant Sprague Dawley rats with pbi-shRNA STMN1 lipoplex revealed that the plasmid DNA was delivered to a broad distribution of organs after a single subcutaneous injection. Specifically, plasmid was detected within the first week using QPCR (threshold 50 copies plasmid/1 µg genomic DNA) at the injection site, lung, spleen, blood, skin, ovary (limited), lymph nodes, and liver. It was not detected in the heart, testis or bone marrow. No plasmid was detected from any organ 30 days after injection. Treatment was well tolerated. Minimal inflammation/erythema was observed at the injection site. Circulating cytokine response was also examined by ELISA. The IL-6 levels were induced within 6 h then declined to the vehicle control level 72 h after the injection. TNFα induction was transiently observed 4 days after the DNA lipoplex treatment. In summary, the pbi-shRNA STMN1 lipoplex was well tolerated and displayed broad distribution after a single subcutaneous injection. The pre-clinical data has been filed to FDA and the pbi-shRNA STMN1 lipoplex is being investigated in a phase I clinical study. © The Author 2016. Published

  10. Transplanted Adipose-Derived Stem Cells Ameliorate Testicular Dysfunction In A D-Galactose-Induced Aging Rat Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chun; Du, Yi-Kuan; Wang, Jun; Luan, Ping; Yang, Qin-Lao; Huang, Wen-Hua; Yuan, Lin

    2015-10-01

    Glycation product accumulation during aging of slowly renewing tissues may be an important mechanism underlying aging of the testis. Adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) have shown promise in a novel tissue regenerative technique and may have utility in treating sexual dysfunction. ADSCs have also been found to be effective in antiaging therapy, although the mechanism underlying their effects remains unknown. This study was designed to investigate the anti-aging effect of ADSCs in a D-galactose (D-gal)-induced aging animal model and to clarify the underlying mechanism. Randomly selected 6-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were subcutaneously injected with D-gal daily for 8 weeks. Two weeks after completion of treatment, D-gal-induced aging rats were randomized to receive caudal vein injections of 3 × 10(6) 5-bromo 2'deoxy-uridine-labeled ADSCs or an equal volume of phosphate-buffered saline. Serum testosterone level, steroidogenic enzymes (3-β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity decreased significantly in aging rats compared with the control group; serum lipid peroxidation, spermatogenic cell apoptosis, and methane dicarboxylic aldehyde (MDA) expression increased significantly. ADSCs increased the SOD level and reduced the MDA level in the aging animal model and restored levels of serum testosterone, steroidogenic enzymes, and spermatogenic cell apoptosis. These results demonstrate that ADSCs can contribute to testicular regeneration during aging. ADSCs also provide functional benefits through glycation suppression and antioxidant effects in a rat model of aging. Although some ADSCs differentiated into Leydig cells, the paracrine pathway seems to play a main role in this process, resulting in the reduction of apoptosis. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Effect of endogenous androgens on 17beta-estradiol-mediated protection after spinal cord injury in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachadroka, Supatra; Hall, Alicia M; Niedzielko, Tracy L; Chongthammakun, Sukumal; Floyd, Candace L

    2010-03-01

    Several groups have recently shown that 17beta-estradiol is protective in spinal cord injury (SCI). Testosterone can be aromatized to 17beta-estradiol and may increase estrogen-mediated protection. Alternatively, testosterone has been shown to increase excitotoxicity in models of central nervous system (CNS) injury. These experiments test the hypothesis that endogenous testosterone in male rats alters 17beta-estradiol-mediated protection by evaluating a delayed administration over a clinically relevant dose range and manipulating testicular-derived testosterone. Adult male Sprague Dawley rats were either gonadectomized or left gonad-intact prior to SCI. SCI was produced by a midthoracic crush injury. At 30 min post SCI, animals received a subcutaneous pellet of 0.0, 0.05, 0.5, or 5.0 mg of 17beta-estradiol, released over 21 days. Hindlimb locomotion was analyzed weekly in the open field. Spinal cords were collected and analyzed for cell death, expression of Bcl-family proteins, and white-matter sparing. Post-SCI administration of the 0.5- or 5.0-mg pellet improved hindlimb locomotion, reduced urinary bladder size, increased neuronal survival, reduced apoptosis, improved the Bax/Bcl-xL protein ratio, and increased white-matter sparing. In the absence of endogenous testicular-derived androgens, SCI induced greater apoptosis, yet 17beta-estradiol administration reduced apoptosis to the same extent in gonadectomized and gonad-intact male rats. These data suggest that delayed post-SCI administration of a clinically relevant dose of 17beta-estradiol is protective in male rats, and endogenous androgens do not alter estrogen-mediated protection. These data suggest that 17beta-estradiol is an effective therapeutic intervention for reducing secondary damage after SCI in males, which could be readily translated to clinical trials.

  12. Effect of zinc supplementation on E-ADA activity, seric zinc, and cytokines levels of Trypanosoma evansi infected Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottari, Nathieli B; Baldissera, Matheus D; Oliveira, Camila B; Duarte, Thiago; Duarte, Marta M M F; Leal, Marta L R; Thomé, Gustavo R; Zanini, Daniela; Schetinger, Maria Rosa C; Nunes, Matheus A G; Dressler, Valderi L; Monteiro, Silvia G; Tonin, Alexandre A; Da Silva, Aleksandro S

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of zinc supplementation on the ecto-adenosine deaminase activity (E-ADA), zinc seric levels and cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1, IL-6, and IL -10) on rats experimentally infected by Trypanosoma evansi. Four groups with 10 rats each were used as negative controls (groups A and B), while the animals from the groups C and D were infected intraperitoneally with 0.1 mL of cryopreserved blood containing 1.4 × 10(4) of trypanosomes. Animals of groups B and D received two doses of Zinc (Zn) at 5 mg kg(-1), subcutaneously, on the 2nd and 7th day post-infection (PI). Blood samples were collected on days 5 (n = 5) and 15 PI (n = 5). Zn supplementation was able to increase the rat's longevity and to reduce their parasitemia. It was observed that seric Zn levels were increased on infected animals under Zn supplementation. Animals that were infected a