Sample records for rats received egcg

  1. Resveratrol, but not EGCG, in the diet suppresses DMBA-induced mammary cancer in rats

    Whitsett Timothy


    Full Text Available Abstract Despite the advent of new and aggressive therapeutics, breast cancer remains a leading killer among women; hence there is a need for the prevention of this disease. Several naturally occurring polyphenols have received much attention for their health benefits, including anti-carcinogenic properties. Two of these are resveratrol, a component of red grapes, and epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG, the major catechin found in green tea. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that these two polyphenols protect against chemically-induced mammary cancer by modulating mammary gland architecture, cell proliferation, and apoptosis. Female Sprague-Dawley CD rats were exposed to either resveratrol (1 g/kg AIN-76A diet, EGCG (0.065% in the drinking water, or control diet (AIN-76A for the entirety of their life starting at birth. At 50 days postpartum, rats were treated with 60 mg dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA/kg body weight to induce mammary cancer. Resveratrol, but not EGCG, suppressed mammary carcinogenesis (fewer tumors per rat and longer tumor latency. Analysis of mammary whole mounts from 50-day-old rats revealed that resveratrol, but not EGCG, treatment resulted in more differentiated lobular structures. Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU incorporation studies showed that resveratrol treatment caused a significant reduction in proliferative cells in mammary terminal ductal structures at 50 days postpartum, making them less susceptible to carcinogen insult. The epithelial cells of terminal end buds in the mammary glands of resveratrol-treated rats also showed an increase in apoptotic cells compared to the control or EGCG-treated rats as measured by a DNA fragmentation assay. At the given doses, resveratrol treatment resulted in a serum resveratrol concentration of 2.00 μM, while treatment with EGCG resulted in a serum EGCG concentration of 31.06 nM. 17β-Estradiol, progesterone, and prolactin concentrations in the serum were not significantly affected

  2. [Study on inhibitory effect of EGCG on Calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis in rats and its related mechanism].

    Zhou, Yong; Wang, Shuo; Tang, Chun-bo


    In the study, the inhibitory effect of epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) on Calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis and its possible mechanism were investigated. The rat Calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis model was induced through the combined oral administration of ethylene glycol and ammonium chloride, which was intervened with EGCG. Rat blood samples were collected to detect blood creatinine (Cr), blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and blood calcium. Rat urine samples were collected to observe and compare 24-hour urine volume, oxalic acid (Ox) and calcium in urine. Renal samples were collected to prepare tissue slices and observe the pathological changes in Calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis. The expression of osteopontin (OPN) in renal tissues was evaluated by Real-time PCR and Western blot. According to the results, compared with normal rats, rats in the nephrolithiasis model showed significant increases in Cr, BUN, urine Calcium, urine Ox and renal OPN expression (P nephrolithiasis, those processed with EGCG revealed remarkable declines in Cr, BUN, urine Calcium and urine Ox (P nephrolithiasis rats showed significant pathological changes in Calcium oxalate calculus. After ECCG treatment, the renal pathological changes and OPN expression attenuated significantly in a concentration-dependent manner. The results showed that EGCG inhibits the formation of calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis in rats and shows a notable protective effect on renal functions.

  3. Effect of EGCG on lipid absorption and plasma lipid levels in rats.

    Raederstorff, Daniel G; Schlachter, Manfred F; Elste, Volker; Weber, Peter


    Catechins, compounds derived from green tea, have been shown to reduce plasma cholesterol levels and the rate of cholesterol absorption. We investigated the dose response and the mechanism of action of epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) on these parameters in rats. Wistar rats were fed a diet high in cholesterol and fat containing either none, 0.25% (0.2 g/day/kg BW), 0.5% (0.4 g/day/kg/BW) or 1.0% (0.7 g/day/kg BW) of EGCG. After 4 weeks of treatment, total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein plasma levels were significantly reduced in the group fed 1% EGCG when compared to the no treatment group. Plasma triglycerides and high-density lipoprotein levels did not change significantly. Following a single oral application of a liquid test-meal, intestinal cholesterol absorption in Wistar rats was 79.3% in the control group. In the group treated with 0.1 g/kg BW EGCG intestinal cholesterol absorption decreased to 73.7% and in the group treated with 0.5 g/kg BW of EGCG intestinal cholesterol absorption fell significantly to 62.7% (P = 0.005). Total fat absorption was very efficient in the control group (99.5% of the applied dose) and decreased significantly but moderately in the group treated with the highest doses of EGCG (0.75, 1 g/kg BW). In an in-vitro biliary micelle model, the addition of 55 microM to 1300 microM EGCG not only decreased cholesterol solubility dose-dependently in these micelles but also altered the size of the mixed lecithin/taurocholate/cholesterol micelles as demonstrated by light scattering. This study provides evidence suggesting that the cholesterol-lowering effect of green tea is mainly elicited by EGCG, one of the most abundant catechins contained in green tea. It is suggested that one of the underlying mechanisms by which EGCG affects lipid metabolism is by interfering with the micellar solubilization of cholesterol in the digestive tract, which then in turn decreased cholesterol absorption.

  4. EGCG inhibits cardiomyocyte apoptosis in pressure overload-induced cardiac hypertrophy and protects cardiomyocytes from oxidative stress in rats

    Rui SHENG; Zhen-lun GU; Mei-lin XIE; Wen-xuan ZHOU; Ci-yi GUO


    Aim: To investigate the effects of epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) on pressure overload and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) induced cardiac myocyte apoptosis. Methods: Cardiac hypertrophy was established in rats by abdominal aortic constriction. EGCG 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg were administered intragastrically (ig). Cultured newborn rat cardiomyocytes were preincubated with EGCG, and oxidative stress injury was induced by H2O2. Results: In cardiac hypertrophy induced by AC in rats, relative to the model group, EGCG 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg ig for 6weeks dose-dependently reduced systolic blood pressure (SBP) and heart weight indices, decreased malondialdehyde (MDA) content, and increased superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX) activity, both in serum and in the myocardium. Also, treatment with EGCG 50 and 100 mg/kg markedly improved cardiac structure and inhibited fibrosis in HE and van Gieson (VG) stain, and reduced apoptotic myocytes in the hypertrophic myocardium detected by terminal transferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end-labeling (TUNEL) assay. Inthe Western blot analysis, EGCG significantly inhibited pressure overload-inducedp53 increase and bcl-2 decrease. In H2O2-induced cardiomyocyte injury, when preincubated with myocytes for 6-48 h, EGCG 12.5-200 mg/L increased cell viability determined by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide(MTT) assay. EGCG also attenuated H2O2-induced lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release and MDA formation. Meanwhile, EGCG 50 and 100 mg/L significantly inhibited the cardiomyocyte apoptotic rate in flow cytometry. Conclusion: EGCG inhibits cardiac myocyte apoptosis and oxidative stress in pressure overload in-duced cardiac hypertrophy. Also, EGCG prevented cardiomyocyte apoptosis from oxidative stress in vitro. The mechanism might be related to the inhibitory effects of EGCG on p53 induction and bcl-2 decrease.

  5. (-) Epigallocatechin Gallate (EGCG) Prevents Lipid Changes and Collagen Abnormalities in Chronic Ethanol-Fed Rats.

    Kaviarasan, S; Viswanathan, P; Ravichandran, M K; Anuradha, C V


    ABSTRACT The objective of the study is to examine the influence of (-) epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), a green tea component, on lipid and collagen abnormalities in chronic ethanol-fed rats. Solubility properties, aldehyde content, fluorescence, and peroxidation were analyzed in collagen samples isolated from liver. Chronic alcoholism (6 g/kg/day x 60 days) was associated with fatty liver and collagen accumulation. Significant alterations in the levels of lipids (cholesterol, phospholipids, free fatty acids, and triglycerides) and total collagen were observed in liver. Collagen obtained from ethanol-fed rats showed alterations in solubility properties, increased fluorescence, peroxidation, and aldehyde content. Coadministration of EGCG along with ethanol significantly reduced the levels of liver lipids and collagen, improved the solubility properties of collagen, and caused a reduction in cross-linking as evidenced by a decrease in fluorescence, peroxidation, and aldehyde content. Histology of liver sections of ethanol-fed rats showed accumulation of fat and collagen, which were largely prevented by EGCG administration. The possible mechanisms in the protective action of EGCG in alcoholic liver disease are suggested and discussed.

  6. Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis and preneoplastic lesions develop in the liver of obese and hypertensive rats: suppressing effects of EGCG on the development of liver lesions.

    Kochi, Takahiro; Shimizu, Masahito; Terakura, Daishi; Baba, Atsushi; Ohno, Tomohiko; Kubota, Masaya; Shirakami, Yohei; Tsurumi, Hisashi; Tanaka, Takuji; Moriwaki, Hisataka


    Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), which involves hepatic inflammation and fibrosis, is associated with liver carcinogenesis. The activation of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), which plays a key role in blood pressure regulation, promotes hepatic fibrogenesis. In this study, we investigated the effects of (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), a major component of green tea catechins, on the development of glutathione S-transferase placental form (GST-P)-positive (GST-P(+)) foci, a hepatic preneoplastic lesion, in SHRSP.Z-Lepr(fa)/IzmDmcr (SHRSP-ZF) obese and hypertensive rats. Male 7-week-old SHRSP-ZF rats and control non-obese and normotensive WKY rats were fed a high fat diet and received intraperitoneal injections of carbon tetrachloride twice a week for 8weeks. The rats were also provided tap water containing 0.1% EGCG during the experiment. SHRSP-ZF rats presented with obesity, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, an imbalance of adipokines in the serum, and hepatic steatosis. The development of GST-P(+) foci and liver fibrosis was markedly accelerated in SHRSP-ZF rats compared to that in control rats. Additionally, in SHRSP-ZF rats, RAS was activated and inflammation and oxidative stress were induced. Administration of EGCG, however, inhibited the development of hepatic premalignant lesions by improving liver fibrosis, inhibiting RAS activation, and attenuating inflammation and oxidative stress in SHRSP-ZF rats. In conclusion, obese and hypertensive SHRSP-ZF rats treated with a high fat diet and carbon tetrachloride displayed the histopathological and pathophysiological characteristics of NASH and developed GST-P(+) foci hepatic premalignant lesions, suggesting the model might be useful for the evaluation of NASH-related liver tumorigenesis. EGCG might also be able to prevent NASH-related liver fibrosis and tumorigenesis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) modulates neurological function when intravenously infused in acute and, chronically injured spinal cord of adult rats.

    Renno, Waleed M; Al-Khaledi, Ghanim; Mousa, Alyaa; Karam, Shaima M; Abul, Habib; Asfar, Sami


    Spinal cord injury (SCI) causes severe and long lasting motor and sensory deficits, chronic pain, and autonomic dysreflexia. (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) has shown to produce neuroprotective effect in a broad range of neurodegenerative disease animal models. This study designed to test the efficacy of intravenous infusion of EGCG for 36 h, in acutely injured rats' spinal cord: within first 4 h post-injury and, in chronically SC injured rats: after one year of injury. Functional outcomes measured using standard BBB scale, The Louisville Swim Scale (LSS) and, pain behavior assessment tests. 72 Female adult rats subjected to moderate thoracic SCI using MASCIS Impactor, blindly randomized as the following: (I) Acute SCI + EGCG (II) Acute SCI + saline. (III) Chronic SCI + EGCG. (IV) Chronic SCI + saline and, sham SCI animals. EGCG i.v. treatment of acute and, chronic SCI animals resulted in significantly better recovery of motor and sensory functions, BBB and LSS (P spinal cord increased (P < 0.001). Percent areas of GAP-43 and GFAP immunohistochemistry showed significant (P < 0.05) increase. We conclude that the therapeutic window of opportunity for EGCG to depict neurological recovery in SCI animals, is viable up to one year post SCI when intravenously infused for 36 h.

  8. Evaluation of plasma antioxidant activity in rats given excess EGCg with reference to endogenous antioxidants concentrations and assay methods.

    Yokotani, Kaori; Umegaki, Keizo


    The contribution of (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCg) intake to in vivo antioxidant activity is unclear, even with respect to plasma. In this study, we examined how administration of EGCg contributes to plasma antioxidant activity, relative to its concentration, endogenous antioxidants, and assay methods, namely oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP). Administration of EGCg (500 mg/kg) to rats increased plasma EGCg (4μmol/L as free form) and ascorbic acid (1.7-fold), as well as ORAC (1.2-fold) and FRAP (3-fold) values. The increase in plasma ascorbic acid following EGCg administration was accompanied by its relocation from the adrenal glands and lymphocytes into plasma, and was related to the increase in FRAP. Plasma deproteinization and assays in plasma model solutions revealed that protein levels significantly contributed to ORAC values, where plasma ascorbic acid was not influenced by deproteinization, differences in FRAP values with and without deproteinization were estimated to determine the contribution of enhanced ascorbic acid attributable to EGCg administration. These results will help to understand the points that should be considered when evaluating EGCg antioxidant activity in plasma.

  9. Impact of EGCG Supplementation on the Progression of Diabetic Nephropathy in Rats: An Insight into Fibrosis and Apoptosis.

    Mohan, Thangarajeswari; Velusamy, Prema; Chakrapani, Lakshmi Narasimhan; Srinivasan, Ashok Kumar; Singh, Abhilasha; Johnson, Thanka; Periandavan, Kalaiselvi


    Apoptosis is an active response of cells to altered microenvironments, which is characterized by cell shrinkage, chromatin condensation, and DNA fragmentation, in a variety of cell types such as renal epithelial cells, endothelial cells, mesangial cells, and podocytes. Hyperglycemia is among the microenvironmental factors that may facilitate apoptosis, which plays a decisive role in the initiation of diabetic nephropathy. Transforming growth factor-β emerges as a powerful fibrogenic factor in the development of renal hypertrophy. Although, a number of potential treatment strategies exist for diabetic nephropathy, considering the ease of use and bioavailability, phytochemicals stands distinct as the preeminent option. EGCG, a green tea catechin is one such phytochemical which possesses hypoglycemic and antifibrotic activity. The present study aims to explore the potential of EGCG to prevent apoptosis in a high-fat diet and STZ induced diabetic nephropathy rats by assessing renal function, pro-fibrotic marker, and the expression of apoptotic and antiapoptotic proteins. Our results validate EGCG as a potential antiapoptotic agent evidently by improving renal function via down regulating TGF-β, consequently ameliorating diabetic nephropathy. In accordance with this, EGCG might be regarded as a prospective therapeutic candidate in modulating diabetic nephropathy, thus being a promising treatment.

  10. A reversed-phase HPLC-UV assay for simultaneous analysis of EGCG and ECG of tea polyphenols in rat plasma

    FU Ting; LIANG Jun; HAN Guo-zhu; L(U) Li; LI Nan


    Objective To develop a simple and specific reversed-phase HPLC-UV method for simultaneous determination of (-) Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) and (-) Epicatechin-3-gallate (ECG), the main active ingredients of tea polyphenols (TP), in rat plasma. Methods EGCG and ECG were eluted on a Kromasil C18 analytical column (150 mm×4.6 mm, 5μm) protected by a C18 pre-column (4.6 mm×20 mm, 10μm) with a linear gradient mobile phase composed of CH3CN (A)-0.1% citric acid (B), which was run from initial 14 % A and 86 % B to 20 % A and 80 % B at a flow rate of 1.0 mL·min-1 in 14 min, then changed to 14% A and 86% B at a gradient flow rate of 1.0-1.5 mL·min-1 during 14-18 min, and then maintained until 22 min at a gradient flow rate of 1.5-1.0 mL·min-1. The UV detector was set at 280 nm. Plasma samples (200 μL each) were prepared by liquid-liquid extraction procedure with double volumes of EtoAc and then evaporation of organic phase under N2 stream to dry, followed by reconstitution with 100 μL of 20 % CH3CN aqueous solution. The peak area ratios of analytes to vanillin as internal standard vs concentration of analytes to construct calibration curves. Results The HPLC resulted in base-line separation of vanillin, EGCG, ECG and other components; there was no interference from blank plasma. The linear range was 0.5-300 μg·mL-1 for EC, CG (r=0.9999) and 0.1-60 μg·mL-1 for ECG (r = 0.9999). The intra-and inter-day precision (RSD) was better than 6.1% and 12.6%, respectively, and the average accuracy was between 86.25%-103.14%. The extraction recovery of EGCG and ECG was 79.80%-84.64% and 75.22 %-91.39 %, respectively. The plasma samples were stable for at least 30 days at -20 ℃ and 8 h at room temperature;EGCG, ECG and IS stock solutions 2 months at -20 ℃, and the EtoAc-extracted plasma samples 24 h at 4 ℃. Application of the method to the determination of EGCG and ECG in plasma of rats receiving iv 100 mg·kg-1 of TP showed that these 2 compounds

  11. Long-Term Effects of (--Epigallocatechin Gallate (EGCG on Pristane-Induced Arthritis (PIA in Female Dark Agouti Rats.

    Anna Leichsenring

    Full Text Available Rheumatoid arthritis (RA--a widespread chronic inflammatory disease in industrialized countries--is characterized by a persistent and progressive joint destruction. The chronic pro-inflammatory state results from a mutual activation of the innate and the adaptive immune system, while the exact pathogenesis mechanism is still under discussion. New data suggest a role of the innate immune system and especially polymorphonuclear granulocytes (PMNs, neutrophils not only during onset and the destructive phase of RA but also at the chronification of the disease. Thereby the enzymatic activity of myeloperoxidase (MPO, a peroxidase strongly abundant in neutrophils, may be important: While its peroxidase activity is known to contribute to cartilage destruction at later stages of RA the almost MPO-specific oxidant hypochlorous acid (HOCl is also discussed for certain anti-inflammatory effects. In this study we used pristane-induced arthritis (PIA in Dark Agouti rats as a model for the chronic course of RA in man. We were able to shown that a specific detection of the HOCl-producing MPO activity provides a sensitive new marker to evaluate the actual systemic inflammatory status which is only partially detectable by the evaluation of clinical symptoms (joint swelling and redness measurements. Moreover, we evaluated the long-term pharmacological effect of the well-known anti-inflammatory flavonoid epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG. Thereby only upon early and continuous oral application of this polyphenol the arthritic symptoms were considerably diminished both in the acute and in the chronic phase of the disease. The obtained results were comparable to the treatment control (application of methotrexate, MTX. As revealed by stopped-flow kinetic measurements, EGCG may regenerate the HOCl-production of MPO which is known to be impaired at chronic inflammatory diseases like RA. It can be speculated that this MPO activity-promoting effect of EGCG may contribute to

  12. The antioxidant effect of Green Tea Mega EGCG against electromagnetic radiation-induced oxidative stress in the hippocampus and striatum of rats.

    Ahmed, Nawal A; Radwan, Nasr M; Aboul Ezz, Heba S; Salama, Noha A


    Electromagnetic radiation (EMR) of cellular phones may affect biological systems by increasing free radicals and changing the antioxidant defense systems of tissues, eventually leading to oxidative stress. Green tea has recently attracted significant attention due to its health benefits in a variety of disorders, ranging from cancer to weight loss. Thus, the aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of EMR (frequency 900 MHz modulated at 217 Hz, power density 0.02 mW/cm(2), SAR 1.245 W/kg) on different oxidative stress parameters in the hippocampus and striatum of adult rats. This study also extends to evaluate the therapeutic effect of green tea mega EGCG on the previous parameters in animals exposed to EMR after and during EMR exposure. The experimental animals were divided into four groups: EMR-exposed animals, animals treated with green tea mega EGCG after 2 months of EMR exposure, animals treated with green tea mega EGCG during EMR exposure and control animals. EMR exposure resulted in oxidative stress in the hippocampus and striatum as evident from the disturbances in oxidant and antioxidant parameters. Co-administration of green tea mega EGCG at the beginning of EMR exposure for 2 and 3 months had more beneficial effect against EMR-induced oxidative stress than oral administration of green tea mega EGCG after 2 months of exposure. This recommends the use of green tea before any stressor to attenuate the state of oxidative stress and stimulate the antioxidant mechanism of the brain.

  13. Inhibition of Leishmania (Leishmania amazonensis and rat arginases by green tea EGCG, (+-catechin and (--epicatechin: a comparative structural analysis of enzyme-inhibitor interactions.

    Matheus Balduíno Goncalves dos Reis

    Full Text Available Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG, a dietary polyphenol (flavanol from green tea, possesses leishmanicidal and antitrypanosomal activity. Mitochondrial damage was observed in Leishmania treated with EGCG, and it contributed to the lethal effect. However, the molecular target has not been defined. In this study, EGCG, (+-catechin and (--epicatechin were tested against recombinant arginase from Leishmania amazonensis (ARG-L and rat liver arginase (ARG-1. The compounds inhibit ARG-L and ARG-1 but are more active against the parasite enzyme. Enzyme kinetics reveal that EGCG is a mixed inhibitor of the ARG-L while (+-catechin and (--epicatechin are competitive inhibitors. The most potent arginase inhibitor is (+-catechin (IC50 = 0.8 µM followed by (--epicatechin (IC50 = 1.8 µM, gallic acid (IC50 = 2.2 µM and EGCG (IC50 = 3.8 µM. Docking analyses showed different modes of interaction of the compounds with the active sites of ARG-L and ARG-1. Due to the low IC50 values obtained for ARG-L, flavanols can be used as a supplement for leishmaniasis treatment.

  14. The Effect of Epigalloca-techin-3-gallate(EGCG) on Expression of GLUT4 in Skeletal Muscle Tissue of Goto-kakizaki Rats%EGCG对Goto-kakizaki大鼠骨骼肌组织GLUT4表达的影响

    赵先哲; 张江; 乔伟伟; 陈立新; 顾坚忠


    目的 研究表没食子儿茶素没食子酸酯(EGCG)对自发性Ⅱ型糖尿病GK大鼠的作用及对骨骼肌组织葡萄糖转运蛋白4(GLUT4)表达的影响.方法 自发性2型糖尿病大鼠GK大鼠40只,同系健康对照Wistar大鼠10只,大鼠随机分为:正常对照组、Ⅱ型糖尿病组、Ⅱ型糖尿病低剂量EGCG(50 mg/kg)治疗组、中剂量(100 mg/kg)EGCG、高剂量EGCG(300 mg/kg)治疗组,6周后测血糖、血脂和骨骼肌GLUT4的水平.结果 EGCG可明显改善GK大鼠的OGTT及血脂,增加大鼠模型骨骼肌胞膜上GLUT4蛋白表达.结论 EGCG可降低TIIDM大鼠血糖水平,其机制与提高糖尿病大鼠骨骼肌中GLUT4表达有关.%Objective To investigate the effect of epigalloca-techin-3-gallate(EGCG)on expression of GLUT4 in the skeletal muscle tissue of Goto-kakizaki rats. Methods Goto-kakizaki diabetic rats (GK, n=40) were observed and Wistar rat (n=10) as control. Rats were randomly divided into five groups: normal control group, TIIDM model group , diabetic model plus EGCG of 50mg/kg, 100mg/kg and 300mg/kg therapy group .After 6 weeks,blood glucose,serum lipids and the expression of GLUT4 were detected. Results EGCG obviously improved the OGTT and serum lipids, and increased the expression of GLUT4 in skeletal muscle membrane fraction. Conclusion EGCG can decrease the levels of blood glucose in type II diabetic rats, and its mechanisms might be closely related to the elevation of the level of GLUT4 in the skeletalmuscle tissues of rats.

  15. The therapeutic effects of EGCG on vitiligo.

    Zhu, Yiping; Wang, Suiquan; Lin, Fuquan; Li, Qing; Xu, Aie


    Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) is one of the main chemical constituents of green tea, which has been used as an important traditional Chinese medicine. Green tea has anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, and immunomodulatory properties. However, the effects of EGCG on vitiligo are not known. We assessed the role of EGCG in vitiligo induced by monobenzone in mice. We demonstrated that EGCG: delayed the time of depigmentation; reduced the prevalence of depigmentation; and decreased the area of depigmentation. Examination of depigmented skin treated with EGCG by reflectance confocal microscopy suggested increased numbers of epidermal melanocytes and histologic examination showed decreased perilesional accumulation of CD8(+) T cells. To further investigate the mechanism of the anti-inflammatory effects of EGCG, levels of inflammatory mediator tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interferon (IFN)-γ and interleukin (IL)-6 were tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Serum cytokine levels were significantly decreased after administration of EGCG compared with the model group. These results suggested that EGCG may have protective effects against vitiligo, and that it could contribute to suppression of activation of CD8(+) T cells and inflammatory mediators. Based on these results, 5% EGCG was considered to be the most suitable concentration for treating vitiligo, and was used for further study. In addition, we investigated the gene-expression profile of this model in relation to EGCG. Using a 4×44K whole genome oligo microarray assay, 1264 down-regulated genes and 1332 up-regulated genes were recorded in the 5% EGCG group compared with the model group, and selected genes were validated by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Our study demonstrated that EGCG administration was significantly associated with a decreased risk of vitiligo. EGCG could be a new preventive agent against vitiligo in the clinical setting.

  16. (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate (EGCG) attenuates the hemodynamics stimulated by caffeine through decrease of catecholamines release.

    Han, Jin-Yi; Moon, Yong-Jin; Han, Jong-Hyun; Kim, Jong-Hoon; Woo, Jae-Hoon; Yoo, Hwan-Soo; Hong, Jin Tae; Ahn, Hee-Yul; Hong, Jong-Myeon; Oh, Ki-Wan


    A human study of the effects on hemodynamics of caffeine and epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate (EGCG) was performed. Caffeine tablets (200 mg) were orally administered to healthy males aged between 25 and 35 years 30 min after oral administration of EGCG tablets (100 and 200 mg). The increase in BP induced by caffeine was inhibited when co-administrated with EGCG. We found that caffeine slightly decreased heart rate (HR) in the volunteers. Although EGCG enhanced HR reduction, the effect was not significant. In addition, caffeine increased blood catecholamine levels, but EGCG inhibited the increase in noradrenaline, adrenaline and dopamine levels induced by caffeine. Whether EGCG decreases the elevated HR and systolic perfusion pressure, and ventricular contractility induced by adrenergic agonists in the isolated rat heart was investigated. The modified Krebs-Henseleit solution was perfused through a Langendorff apparatus to the isolated hearts of rats. HR, systolic perfusion pressure, and developed maximal rates of contraction (+dP/dtmax) and relaxation (-dP/dtmax) were increased by epinephrine (EP) and isoproterenol (IP). In contrast, EGCG decreased the elevated HR, systolic perfusion pressure, and left ventricular ±dp/dtmax induced by EP and/or IP. In conclusion, EGCG could attenuate the hemodynamics stimulated by caffeine through decreasing catecholamine release.

  17. Certain (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) auto-oxidation products (EAOPs) retain the cytotoxic activities of EGCG.

    Wei, Yaqing; Chen, Pingping; Ling, Tiejun; Wang, Yijun; Dong, Ruixia; Zhang, Chen; Zhang, Longjie; Han, Manman; Wang, Dongxu; Wan, Xiaochun; Zhang, Jinsong


    (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) from green tea has anti-cancer effect. The cytotoxic actions of EGCG are associated with its auto-oxidation, leading to the production of hydrogen peroxide and formation of numerous EGCG auto-oxidation products (EAOPs), the structures and bioactivities of them remain largely unclear. In the present study, we compared several fundamental properties of EGCG and EAOPs, which were prepared using 5mg/mL EGCG dissolved in 200mM phosphate buffered saline (pH 8.0 at 37°C) and normal oxygen partial pressure for different periods of time. Despite the complete disappearance of EGCG after the 4-h auto-oxidation, 4-h EAOPs gained an enhanced capacity to deplete cysteine thiol groups, and retained the cytotoxic effects of EGCG as well as the capacity to produce hydrogen peroxide and inhibit thioredoxin reductase, a putative target for cancer prevention and treatment. The results indicate that certain EAOPs possess equivalent cytotoxic activities to EGCG, while exhibiting simultaneously enhanced capacity for cysteine depletion. These results imply that EGCG and EAOPs formed extracellularly function in concert to exhibit cytotoxic effects, which previously have been ascribed to EGCG alone.

  18. EGCG mediated downregulation of NF-AT and macrophage infiltration in experimental hepatic steatosis.

    Krishnan, Thulasi Raman; Velusamy, Prema; Srinivasan, Ashokkumar; Ganesan, Thellamudhu; Mangaiah, Suresh; Narasimhan, Kishorekumar; Chakrapani, Lakshmi Narasimhan; J, Thanka; Walter, Charles Emmanuel Jebaraj; Durairajan, Sankari; Nathakattur Saravanabavan, Sanddhya; Periandavan, Kalaiselvi


    Increased fat consumption in industrialized countries has resulted in hepatic steatosis that upregulates atherogenic aspirant genes, leading to atherosclerosis and mortality. Although extensive studies have been carried out to elucidate the atheroprotective efficacy of epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), the effect of EGCG on hepatic steatosis has not been studied comprehensively. Hence, the current study was designed to find out the effect of EGCG on hepatic events that prelude atherosclerosis with special reference to macrophage infiltration. Male albino rats of Wistar strain were used in this study. Basic biochemical assays along with the protein expression of CAMs, NF-κB, TNF-α and NF-AT were assayed in the current study. EGCG supplementation significantly reverted the alterations in both biochemical and histological parameters and is shown to reduce the TNF-α mediated NF-AT expression and thereby its downstream targets like ICAM-1 and E-selectin expression to a greater extent than NF-κB mediated downstream targets like VCAM-1 and P-selectin in hypercholesterolemic rat liver. Our results suggest that EGCG influences the early events of atherosclerosis that occur; thereby modulating the NF-AT pathway and thereby mitigating the hypercholesterolemic stress. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Synthesis and Biological Testing of Novel Glucosylated Epigallocatechin Gallate (EGCG Derivatives

    Xin Zhang


    Full Text Available Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG is the most abundant component of green tea catechins and has strong physiological activities. In this study, two novel EGCG glycosides (EGCG-G1 and EGCG-G2 were chemoselectively synthesized by a chemical modification strategy. Each of these EGCG glycosides underwent structure identification, and the structures were assigned as follows: epigallocatechin gallate-4′′-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (EGCG-G1, 2 and epigallocatechin gallate-4′,4′′-O-β-d-gluco-pyranoside (EGCG-G2, 3. The EGCG glycosides were evaluated for their anticancer activity in vitro against two human breast cell lines (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 using MTT assays. The inhibition rate of EGCG glycosides (EGCG-G1 and EGCG-G2 is not obvious. The EGCG glycosides are more stable than EGCG in aqueous solutions, but exhibited decreasing antioxidant activity in the DPPH radical-scavenging assay (EGCG > EGCG-G2 > EGCG-G1. Additionally, the EGCG glycosides exhibited increased water solubility: EGCG-G2 and EGCG-G1 were 15 and 31 times as soluble EGCG, respectively. The EGCG glycosides appear to be useful, and further studies regarding their biological activity are in progress.

  20. Role of Dryk1A-ASF-CaMKⅡδ signaling pathway in EGCG preventing myocardial hypertrophy in rats with coarctation of abdominal aorta%Dyrk1A-ASF-CaMKⅡδ信号通路在EGCG预防腹主动脉缩窄大鼠心肌肥厚中的作用

    陆晓晨; 姚健; 盛红专; 顾青青; 朱健华


    Objective To investigate the role and underlying mechanism of epigallocatechin gallate( EGCG) in preventing myocardial hypertrophy in rats with abdominal aortic constrictioa Methods Thirty SD rats were equally randomized into three groups of A (coarctation of suprarenal abdominal aorta) ,B(coarctation of suprarenal abdominal aorta and fed with EGCG 100 mg · kg-1· d-1) and C(sham operated). The ratio of left ventricular weight to body weight(LVW/BW) was calculated for judging the degree of myocardial hypertrophy. The protein expressions of dual-specificity tyrosine phosphorylated and regulated kinase lA(DyrklA) and alternative splicing factor(ASF) were detected by Western blot, and the mRNA expression of calmodulin-dependent protein kinase Ⅱδ (CaMK Ⅱδ) was measured by RT-PCR. Results Compared with group C,the ratio of LVW/BW, protein expression of DyrklA and mRNA expressions of CaMKⅡδ A and B were significantly increased, while the protein expression of ASF and mRNA expression of CaMK US C were decreased in group A(P<0. 05) , which were all obviously reversed in group B(P<0. 05). Conclusion EGCG can prevent myocardial hypertrophy in rats with abdominal aortic constriction via inhibiting Dryk1A-ASF-CaMKⅡδ signaling pathways.%目的 探讨表没食子儿茶素没食子酸酯(EGCG)对腹主动脉缩窄大鼠心肌肥厚的影响及可能机制.方法 30只SD大鼠随机均分为腹主动脉缩窄组(A组)、腹主动脉缩窄+EGCG组(B组)和假手术组(C组).4周后,计算左室重量/体重(LVW/BW)比值以判断大鼠心肌肥厚程度,Western blot法检测双特异性酪氨酸磷酸化调控激酶1A(Dyrk1A)和可变剪接因子(ASF)蛋白表达,RT-PCR法检测钙调素依赖蛋白激酶Ⅱδ(CaMKⅡδ)mRNA表达.结果 与C组相比,A组大鼠LVW/BW升高,心肌中Dyrk1A蛋白及CaMKⅡδA、B亚型mRNA表达增加,ASF蛋白及CaMKⅡδC亚型mRNA表达下降(P<0.05);而B组能明显逆转A组上述指标的变化(P<0.05).结论 EGCG

  1. Study on the pharmacokinetics of tea polyphenols injection in rat plasma

    FU Ting; LIANG Jun; HAN Guo-zhu; L(U) Li; LI Nan


    Objective To study pharmacokinetics of the main active ingredients (-) Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) and (-) Epicatechin-3-gallate (ECG) of tea polyphenols (TP) injection in rats. Methods EGCG and ECG in rat plasma were analyzed by reversed-phase HPLC, by which EGCG and ECG were eluted from a Kromasil C18 column with a linear gradient mobile phase consisting of CH3CN -0.1% citric acid at a gradient flow rate of 1.0-1.5 mL·min-1 and monitored at a wavelength of 280 nm. Fifteen rats were randomly divided into 3 groups of 5 animals receiving iv administration of TP injection, formulated with catechins-containing extract from green tea, at doses of 150,100 and 50 mL·min-1, respectively. Blood samples were collected pre-dosing and 2, 5, 10, 20, 40, 60, 90, 120,180,240,300 min postdosing. Aliquots of obtained plasma (200 μL) were cleaned up by liquid-liquid extraction with double volumes of EtoAe and were reconstituted with 100 μL of 10 96 CH3CN aqueous solution before injecting to chromatograph. Results The time course of EGCG and ECG concentrations in rat plasma decayed in a biexponential fashion. Their iv pharmacokinetics could be described by the two-compartment model and first-order kinetics with t1/2β 112.39-145.20 min and 46.63-61.48 min, Vd 6.28-7.96 L·kg-1 and 0.90-1.22 L·kg-1, CL 0.034-0.044 L·kg-1·min-1 and 0.010-0.015 L·kg-1·min-1 for EGCG and ECG, respectively. Conclusions The EGCG and ECG in plasma of rats administered i. v. TP injection pharmacokinetically behaved with linear kinetics over dose range studied. The two catechin derivatives undergo rapid elimination from rat body. As compared with ECG, EGCG eliminates at a relatively slow rate, and is distributed very widely with a Vd greatly exceeding the volume of total body water, suggesting that EGCG is likely to enter the tissue cells or strongly bind to some tissues to exert its potent antioxidant effects.The aforementioned characteristics of EGCG may be due to its high lipophilicity.

  2. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG): chemical and biomedical perspectives.

    Nagle, Dale G; Ferreira, Daneel; Zhou, Yu-Dong


    The compound (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) is the major catechin found in green tea [Camellia sinensis L. Ktze. (Theaceae)]. This polyphenolic compound and several related catechins are believed to be responsible for the health benefits associated with the consumption of green tea. The potential health benefits ascribed to green tea and EGCG include antioxidant effects, cancer chemoprevention, improving cardiovascular health, enhancing weight loss, protecting the skin from the damage caused by ionizing radiation, and others. The compound EGCG has been shown to regulate dozens of disease-specific molecular targets. Many of these molecular targets are only affected by concentrations of EGCG that are far above the levels achieved by either drinking green tea or consuming moderate doses of green tea extract-based dietary supplements. In spite of this, well-designed double-blinded controlled clinical studies have recently demonstrated the efficacy of green tea extracts and purified EGCG products in patients. Therefore, this review highlights results from what the authors believe to be some of the most clinically significant recent studies and describes current developments in the stereoselective total synthesis of EGCG.

  3. The green tea catechin epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG blocks cell motility, chemotaxis and development in Dictyostelium discoideum.

    Kyle J McQuade

    Full Text Available Catechins, flavanols found at high levels in green tea, have received significant attention due to their potential health benefits related to cancer, autoimmunity and metabolic disease, but little is known about the mechanisms by which these compounds affect cellular behavior. Here, we assess whether the model organism Dictyostelium discoideum is a useful tool with which to characterize the effects of catechins. Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG, the most abundant and potent catechin in green tea, has significant effects on the Dictyostelium life cycle. In the presence of EGCG aggregation is delayed, cells do not stream and development is typically stalled at the loose aggregate stage. The developmental effects very likely result from defects in motility, as EGCG reduces both random movement and chemotaxis of Dictyostelium amoebae. These results suggest that catechins and their derivatives may be useful tools with which to better understand cell motility and development in Dictyostelium and that this organism is a useful model to further characterize the activities of catechins.

  4. The effects of EGCG on fat oxidation and endurance performance in male cyclists.

    Dean, Sara; Braakhuis, Andrea; Paton, Carl


    Researchers have long been investigating strategies that can increase athletes' ability to oxidize fatty acids and spare carbohydrate, thus potentially improving endurance capacity. Green-tea extract (epigallocatechin-3-gallate; EGCG) has been shown to improve endurance capacity in mice. If a green-tea extract can stimulate fat oxidation and as a result spare glycogen stores, then athletes may benefit through improved endurance performance. Eight male cyclists completed a study incorporating a 3-way crossover, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded, diet-controlled research design. All participants received 3 different treatments (placebo 270 mg, EGCG 270 mg, and placebo 270 mg + caffeine 3 mg/kg) over a 6-day period and 1 hr before exercise testing. Each participant completed 3 exercise trials consisting of 60 min of cycling at 60% maximum oxygen uptake (VO2(max)) immediately followed by a self-paced 40-km cycling time trial. The study found little benefit in consuming green-tea extract on fat oxidation or cycling performance, unlike caffeine, which did benefit cycling performance. The physiological responses observed during submaximal cycling after caffeine ingestion were similar to those reported previously, including an increase in heart rate (EGCG 147 +/- 17, caffeine 146 +/- 19, and placebo 144 +/- 15 beats/min), glucose at the 40-min exercise time point (placebo 5.0 +/- 0.8, EGCG 5.4 +/- 1.0, and caffeine 5.8 +/- 1.0 mmol/L), and resting plasma free fatty acids and no change in the amount of carbohydrate and fat being oxidized. Therefore, it was concluded that green-tea extract offers no additional benefit to cyclists over and above those achieved by using caffeine.

  5. Better Management of Alcohol Liver Disease Using a ‘Microstructured Synbox’ System Comprising L. plantarum and EGCG

    Rishi, Praveen; Arora, Sumeha; Kaur, Ujjwal Jit; Chopra, Kanwaljit; Kaur, Indu Pal


    Synergistic combination of probiotics with carbohydrate based prebiotics is widely employed for the treatment of various gut related disorders. However, such carbohydrate based prebiotics encourage the growth of pathogens and probiotics, equally. Aim of the study was (i) to explore the possibility of using epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) a phenolic compound, as a prebiotic for L.plantarum; (ii) to develop and evaluate a microstructured synbox (microencapsulating both probiotic and EGCG together) in rat model of alcohol liver disease (ALD); and, (iii) to confirm whether the combination can address issues of EGCG bioavailability and probiotic survivability in adverse gut conditions. Growth enhancing effect of EGCG on L. plantarum (12.8±0.5 log 10 units) was significantly (p≤0.05) better than inulin (11.4±0.38 log 10 units), a natural storage carbohydrate. The formulated synbox significantly modulated the levels of alcohol, endotoxin, hepatic enzymes and restored the hepatoarchitecture in comparison to simultaneous administration of free agents. Additionally, using a battery of techniques, levels of various cellular and molecular markers viz. NF-kB/p50, TNF-α, IL12/p40, and signalling molecules TLR4, CD14, MD2, MyD88 and COX-2 were observed to be suppressed. Developed microbead synbox, as a single delivery system for both the agents showed synergism and hence, holds promise as a therapeutic option for ALD management. PMID:28060832

  6. Effects of green tea extract and (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate on pharmacokinetics of nadolol in rats.

    Misaka, S; Miyazaki, N; Fukushima, T; Yamada, S; Kimura, J


    Green tea catechins have been shown to affect the activities of drug transporters in vitro, including P-glycoprotein and organic anion transporting polypeptides. However, it remains unclear whether catechins influence the in vivo disposition of substrate drugs for these transporters. In the present study, we investigated effects of green tea extract (GTE) and (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) on pharmacokinetics of a non-selective hydrophilic β-blocker nadolol, which is reported to be a substrate for several drug transporters and is not metabolized by cytochrome P450 enzymes. Male Sprague-Dawley rats received GTE (400 mg/kg), EGCG (150 mg/kg) or saline (control) by oral gavage, 30 min before a single intragastric administration of 10 mg/kg nadolol. Plasma and urinary concentrations of nadolol were determined using high performance liquid chromatography. Pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated by a noncompartmental analysis. Pretreatment with GTE resulted in marked reductions in the maximum concentration (Cmax) and area under the time-plasma concentration curve (AUC) of nadolol by 85% and 74%, respectively, as compared with control. In addition, EGCG alone significantly reduced Cmax and AUC of nadolol. Amounts of nadolol excreted into the urine were decreased by pretreatments with GTE and EGCG, while the terminal half-life of nadolol was not different among groups. These results suggest that the coadministration with green tea catechins, particularly EGCG, causes a significant alteration in the pharmacokinetics of nadolol, possibly through the inhibition of its intestinal absorption mediated by uptake transporters.

  7. EGCG attenuates atherosclerosis through the Jagged-1/Notch pathway.

    Yin, Jianguo; Huang, Fang; Yi, Yuhong; Yin, Liang; Peng, Daoquan


    Atherosclerosis is the most common cause of cardiovascular diseases worldwide. Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) is a particularly important risk factor in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Accumulating evidence has indicated that epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG; a catechin found in the popular beverage, greent tea) protects against ox-LDL-induced atherosclerosis. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. In the present study, ox-LDL (100 mg/l) induced damage to, and the apoptosis of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) by reducing endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) expression and promoting inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression; these effects were abrogated by the addition of 50 µM EGCG. Furthermore, ox-LDL rapidly activated the membrane translocation of p22phox, and altered the protein expression of Jagged-1 and Notch pathway-related proteins [Math1, hairy and enhancer of split (HES)1 and HES5]; these effects were also prevented by pre-treatment with 50 µM EGCG. In addition, Jagged-1 played a significant role in the EGCG-mediated protection against ox-LDL-induced apoptosis and ox-LDL‑diminished cell adhesion in the HUVECs. Finally, EGCG inhibited high-fat diet (HFD)-induced atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E (ApoE) knockout (ApoE-KO) mice through the Jagged-1/Notch pathway. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that 50 µM EGCG protects against ox-LDL-induced endothelial dysfunction through the Jagged-1/Notch signaling pathway. Moreover, our data provide insight into the possible molecular mechanisms through which EGCG attenuates ox-LDL‑induced vascular endothelial dysfunction.

  8. Changes in oxidative status of the heart in rats receiving vitamin C supplements

    Đurašević S.F.


    Full Text Available We studied the oxidative status of the heart in rats receiving by two doses of vitamin C over a period of four weeks. The activities of copper zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD, manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD, and catalase, hydrogen peroxide concentration, the level of lipid peroxidation, and total vitamin C content were determined in the heart of the experimental animals, as well as the concentration of vitamin C in their serum. Our results indicate that, apart from the ability of rats to synthesize vitamin C, supplementation leads to additional antioxidative protection.

  9. Localization of Sonic hedgehog secreting and receiving cells in the developing and adult rat adrenal cortex.

    Guasti, Leonardo; Paul, Alex; Laufer, Ed; King, Peter


    Sonic hedgehog signaling was recently demonstrated to play an important role in murine adrenal cortex development. The organization of the rat adrenal differs from that of the mouse, with the zona glomerulosa and zona fasciculata separated by an undifferentiated zone in the rat, but not in the mouse. In the present study we aimed to determine the mRNA expression patterns of Sonic hedgehog and the hedgehog signaling pathway components Patched-1 and Gli1 in the developing and adult rat adrenal. Sonic hedgehog expression was detected at the periphery of the cortex in cells lacking CYP11B1 and CYP11B2 expression, while signal-receiving cells were localized in the overlying capsule mesenchyme. Using combined in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry we found that the cells expressing Sonic hedgehog lie between the CYP11B2 and CYP11B1 layers, and thus Sonic hedgehog expression defines one cell population of the undifferentiated zone.

  10. Epigallocatechin-3-Gallate (EGCG), a Green Tea Polyphenol, Stimulates Hepatic Autophagy and Lipid Clearance

    Jin Zhou; Benjamin Livingston Farah; Rohit Anthony Sinha; Yajun Wu; Brijesh Kumar Singh; Boon-Huat Bay; Yang, Chung S.; Paul Michael Yen


    Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) is a major polyphenol in green tea that has been shown to have anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, anti-steatotic effects on the liver. Autophagy also mediates similar effects; however, it is not currently known whether EGCG can regulate hepatic autophagy. Here, we show that EGCG increases hepatic autophagy by promoting the formation of autophagosomes, increasing lysosomal acidification, and stimulating autophagic flux in hepatic cells and in vivo. EGCG also increa...

  11. Can EGCG reduce abdominal fat in obese subjects?

    Hill, Alison M; Coates, Alison M; Buckley, Jonathan D; Ross, Robert; Thielecke, Frank; Howe, Peter R C


    To evaluate metabolic effects of epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) supplementation when combined with a program of regular aerobic exercise in overweight/obese post-menopausal women. Thirty-eight overweight or obese postmenopausal women exercised at moderate intensity, viz. walking three times per week for 45 min at 75% of age-predicted maximum heart rate (HR), and took a 150 mg capsule of EGCG (Teavigo) or placebo (lactose) twice daily for 12 weeks. Blood parameters (lipids, glucose and insulin), blood pressure, heart rate, arterial function and anthropometry were assessed at 0, 6 and 12 wk. At wk 0 and 12, body composition was assessed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and abdominal fat was assessed by DXA and computed tomography (CT). Waist circumference (p fat (p fat (by DXA) (p EGCG can improve the health status of overweight individuals undergoing regular exercise by reducing HR and plasma glucose concentrations. Loss of body fat, however, may require a higher intake of EGCG, other catechins or addition of metabolic stimulants.

  12. Metabolic parameters in rats receiving different levels of oral glycerol supplementation.

    Lisenko, K G; Andrade, E F; Lobato, R V; Orlando, D R; Damin, D H C; Costa, A C; Lima, R R; Alvarenga, R R; Zangeronimo, M G; Sousa, R V; Pereira, L J


    The use of glycerol in the diets for animals is of interest because it is a residue of biodiesel production and rich in energy. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate metabolic and physiological parameters of rats receiving supplemental pure glycerol by gavage. We used 30 Wistar rats (initial weight 202.7 ± 29.98 g) receiving 0 (control/saline), 200, 400, 800 and 1600 mg glycerol/kg of body weight (bidistilled glycerine, 99.85% glycerol) beside food and water ad libitum for 28 days. We used a completely randomised design with five treatments and six replicates. At the end of the experiment, the animals were killed, and the results showed that there was no change (p > 0.05) in the intake and excretion of water, the average daily weight gain, dry matter, ash and crude protein in the carcass or plasma triacylglycerols. There was a beneficial effect (p < 0.05) up to a dose of 800 mg/kg glycerol on feed intake, percentage of carcass fat, plasma levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), high-density lipoprotein (HDLc) and low-/very low-density lipoprotein (LDLc + VLDLc). The levels of total cholesterol and glucose were increased with up to a dose of 800 mg/kg glycerol (but remained within the normal range); they were reduced with the dose of 1600 mg/kg. The total leucocyte count tended to be reduced, although it was within the reference values for rats. There were no renal or pancreatic lesions. In conclusion, glycerol presented as a safe supplement at the studied doses, even having some beneficial effects in a dose-dependent manner in rats.

  13. Four-week histologic evaluation of grafted calvarial defects with adjunctive hyperbaric oxygen therapy in rats


    Purpose The aim of this study was to characterize the healing in the grafted calvarial defects of rats after adjunctive hyperbaric oxygen therapy. Methods Twenty-eight male Sprague-Dawley rats (body weight, 250–300 g) were randomly divided into two treatment groups: with hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBO; n=14) and without HBO (NHBO; n=14). Each group was further subdivided according to the bone substitute applied: biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP; n=7) and surface-modified BCP (mBCP; n=7). The mBCP comprised BCP coated with Escherichia-coli-derived recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (ErhBMP-2) and epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG). Two symmetrical circular defects (6-mm diameter) were created in the right and left parietal bones of each animal. One defect was assigned as a control defect and received no bone substitute, while the other defect was filled with either BCP or mBCP. The animals were allowed to heal for 4 weeks, during which those in the HBO group underwent 5 sessions of HBO. At 4 weeks, the animals were sacrificed, and the defects were harvested for histologic and histomorphometric analysis. Results Well-maintained space was found in the grafted groups. Woven bone connected to and away from the defect margin was formed. More angiogenesis was found with HBO and EGCG/BMP-2 (Pbone formation with HBO or EGCG/BMP-2 was evident in histologic evaluation, but it did not reach statistical significance in histometric analysis. A synergic effect between HBO and EGCG/BMP-2 was not found. Conclusions Within the limitations of this study, the present findings indicate that adjunctive HBO and EGCG/BMP-2 could be beneficial for new bone formation in rat calvarial defects. PMID:27588214

  14. Hyaluronic Acid/PLGA Core/Shell Fiber Matrices Loaded with EGCG Beneficial to Diabetic Wound Healing.

    Shin, Yong Cheol; Shin, Dong-Myeong; Lee, Eun Ji; Lee, Jong Ho; Kim, Ji Eun; Song, Sung Hwa; Hwang, Dae-Youn; Lee, Jun Jae; Kim, Bongju; Lim, Dohyung; Hyon, Suong-Hyu; Lim, Young-Jun; Han, Dong-Wook


    During the last few decades, considerable research on diabetic wound healing strategies has been performed, but complete diabetic wound healing remains an unsolved problem, which constitutes an enormous biomedical burden. Herein, hyaluronic acid (HA)/poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid, PLGA) core/shell fiber matrices loaded with epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate (EGCG) (HA/PLGA-E) are fabricated by coaxial electrospinning. HA/PLGA-E core/shell fiber matrices are composed of randomly-oriented sub-micrometer fibers and have a 3D porous network structure. EGCG is uniformly dispersed in the shell and sustainedly released from the matrices in a stepwise manner by controlled diffusion and PLGA degradation over four weeks. EGCG does not adversely affect the thermomechanical properties of HA/PLGA-E matrices. The number of human dermal fibroblasts attached on HA/PLGA-E matrices is appreciably higher than that on HA/PLGA counterparts, while their proliferation is steadily retained on HA/PLGA-E matrices. The wound healing activity of HA/PLGA-E matrices is evaluated in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. After two weeks of surgical treatment, the wound areas are significantly reduced by the coverage with HA/PLGA-E matrices resulting from enhanced re-epithelialization/neovascularization and increased collagen deposition, compared with no treatment or HA/PLGA. In conclusion, the HA/PLGA-E matrices can be potentially exploited to craft strategies for the acceleration of diabetic wound healing and skin regeneration.

  15. Factors influencing adverse skin responses in rats receiving repeated subcutaneous injections and potential impact on neurobehavior

    Levoe, S. Nikki; Flannery, Brenna M.; Brignolo, Laurie; Imai, Denise M.; Koehne, Amanda; Austin, Adam T.; Bruun, Donald A.; Tancredi, Daniel J.; Lein, Pamela J.


    Repeated subcutaneous (s.c.) injection is a common route of administration in chronic studies of neuroactive compounds. However, in a pilot study we noted a significant incidence of skin abnormalities in adult male Long-Evans rats receiving daily s.c. injections of peanut oil (1.0 ml/kg) in the subscapular region for 21 d. Histopathological analyses of the lesions were consistent with a foreign body reaction. Subsequent studies were conducted to determine factors that influenced the incidence or severity of skin abnormalities, and whether these adverse skin reactions influenced a specific neurobehavioral outcome. Rats injected daily for 21 d with food grade peanut oil had an earlier onset and greater incidence of skin abnormalities relative to rats receiving an equal volume (1.0 ml/kg/d) of reagent grade peanut oil or triglyceride of coconut oil. Skin abnormalities in animals injected daily with peanut oil were increased in animals housed on corncob versus paper bedding. Comparison of animals obtained from different barrier facilities exposed to the same injection paradigm (reagent grade peanut oil, 1.0 ml/kg/d s.c.) revealed significant differences in the severity of skin abnormalities. However, animals from different barrier facilities did not perform differently in a Pavlovian fear conditioning task. Collectively, these data suggest that environmental factors influence the incidence and severity of skin abnormalities following repeated s.c. injections, but that these adverse skin responses do not significantly influence performance in at least one test of learning and memory. PMID:25705100

  16. Computational and Biochemical Discovery of RSK2 as a Novel Target for Epigallocatechin Gallate (EGCG.

    Hanyong Chen

    Full Text Available The most active anticancer component in green tea is epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG. Protein interaction with EGCG is a critical step for mediating the effects of EGCG on the regulation of various key molecules involved in signal transduction. By using computational docking screening methods for protein identification, we identified a serine/threonine kinase, 90-kDa ribosomal S6 kinase (RSK2, as a novel molecular target of EGCG. RSK2 includes two kinase catalytic domains in the N-terminal (NTD and the C-terminal (CTD and RSK2 full activation requires phosphorylation of both terminals. The computer prediction was confirmed by an in vitro kinase assay in which EGCG inhibited RSK2 activity in a dose-dependent manner. Pull-down assay results showed that EGCG could bind with RSK2 at both kinase catalytic domains in vitro and ex vivo. Furthermore, results of an ATP competition assay and a computer-docking model showed that EGCG binds with RSK2 in an ATP-dependent manner. In RSK2+/+ and RSK2-/- murine embryonic fibroblasts, EGCG decreased viability only in the presence of RSK2. EGCG also suppressed epidermal growth factor-induced neoplastic cell transformation by inhibiting phosphorylation of histone H3 at Ser10. Overall, these results indicate that RSK2 is a novel molecular target of EGCG.

  17. Production of monodisperse epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) microparticles by spray drying for high antioxidant activity retention.

    Fu, Nan; Zhou, Zihao; Jones, Tyson Byrne; Tan, Timothy T Y; Wu, Winston Duo; Lin, Sean Xuqi; Chen, Xiao Dong; Chan, Peggy P Y


    Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) originated from green tea is well-known for its pharmaceutical potential and antiproliferating effect on carcinoma cells. For drug delivery, EGCG in a micro-/nanoparticle form is desirable for their optimized chemopreventive effect. In this study, first time reports that EGCG microparticles produced by low temperature spray drying can maintain high antioxidant activity. A monodisperse droplet generation system was used to realize the production of EGCG microparticles. EGCG microparticles were obtained with narrow size distribution and diameter of 30.24 ± 1.88 μM and 43.39 ± 0.69 μM for pure EGCG and lactose-added EGCG, respectively. The EC50 value (the amount of EGCG necessary to scavenge 50% of free radical in the medium) of spray dried pure EGCG particles obtained from different temperature is in the range of 3.029-3.075 μM compared to untreated EGCG with EC50 value of 3.028 μM. Varying the drying temperatures from 70°C and 130°C showed little detrimental effect on EGCG antioxidant activity. NMR spectrum demonstrated the EGCG did not undergo chemical structural change after spray drying. The major protective mechanism was considered to be: (1) the use of low temperature and (2) the heat loss from water evaporation that kept the particle temperature at low level. With further drier optimization, this monodisperse spray drying technique can be used as an efficient and economic approach to produce EGCG micro-/nanoparticles.

  18. On Preparation of High EGCG Catechinsby Means of Polyamide Adsorption%聚酰胺吸附法制备高 EGCG 儿茶素

    罗赛; 龚正礼


    通过聚酰胺吸附法制备高 EGCG 儿茶素.以绿茶茶末为原料,经热水浸提,离心除渣,聚酰胺分离,浓缩干燥,得到 EGCG 儿茶素.结果表明,500 mL 聚酰胺吸附13.75 g EGCG 达到饱和;70%乙醇洗脱物中 EGCG 质量分数为63.200%;产品质量分数高于有机溶剂萃取产物;中试产品质量指标儿茶素超过75%,EGCG 超过55%,得率超过10%.得出该实验方法效果显著,工艺条件可行.%High EGCG catechins has been prepared by means of the polyamide adsorption .Firstly ,with the dust tea as raw materials ,extraction has been conducted by hot water and centrifugal cleaning .Secondly , the preparation has been done by means of polyamide adsorption .Lastly ,dryness has been concentrated and EGCG catechins got .Results show that 500 ml polyamide adsorption of 13 .75 g EGCG hasreached satu-ration .The EGCG content in the 70% ethanol elution is 63 .200% .The product is higher than that in organic sol-vent extracts .Pilot product quality in dicators catechin exceed 75% ,EGCG exceed 55% ,yield exceed 10% .It is concluded that the experimental method has led to significant results ,and that the process conditions is feasible .

  19. Evaluation of the pharmacokinetics and cardiotoxicity of doxorubicin in rat receiving nilotinib

    Zhou, Zhi-yong [Department of Pharmacy, Affiliated Sixth People' s Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 200233 Shanghai (China); School of Pharmacy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 200240 Shanghai (China); Wan, Li-li; Yang, Quan-jun; Han, Yong-long; Li, Yan; Yu, Qi [Department of Pharmacy, Affiliated Sixth People' s Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 200233 Shanghai (China); Guo, Cheng, E-mail: [Department of Pharmacy, Affiliated Sixth People' s Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 200233 Shanghai (China); School of Pharmacy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 200240 Shanghai (China); Li, Xiao, E-mail: [Department of Hematology, Affiliated Sixth people' s Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 200233 Shanghai (China)


    Doxorubicin (DOX) is a potent chemotherapy drug with a narrow therapeutic window. Nilotinib, a small-molecule Bcr-Abl tyrosine kinase inhibitor, was reported to reverse multidrug resistance (MDR) mediated by P-glycoprotein (P-gp) transmembrane transporters. The present study aimed to investigate nilotinib's affection on the steady-state pharmacokinetics, disposition and cardiotoxicity of DOX. A total of 24 male Sprague–Dawley rats were randomized into four groups (6 in each) and received the following regimens: saline, intravenous DOX (5 mg/kg) alone, and DOX co-administrated with either 20 or 40 mg/kg nilotinib. Blood was withdrawn at 12 time points till 72 h after DOX injection and the concentrations of DOX and its metabolite doxorubicinol (DOXol) in serum and cardiac tissue were assayed by LC–MS–MS method. To determine the cardiotoxicity, the following parameters were investigated: creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, malondialdehyde, and superoxide dismutase. Histopathological examination of heart section was carried out to evaluate the extent of cardiotoxicity after treatments. The results showed that pretreatment of 40 mg/kg nilotinib increased the AUC{sub 0–t} and C{sub max} of DOX and DOXol. However, their accumulation in cardiac tissue was significantly decreased when compared with the group that received DOX alone. In addition, biochemical and histopathological results showed that 40 mg/kg nilotinib reduced the cardiotoxicity induced by DOX administration. In conclusion, co-administration of nilotinib increased serum exposure, but significantly decreased the accumulation of DOX in cardiac tissue. Consistent with in vitro profile, oral dose of 40 mg/kg nilotinib significantly decreased the cardiotoxicity of DOX in rat by enhancing P-gp activity in the heart.

  20. Epigallocatechin-3-Gallate Ameliorates Alcohol-Induced Liver Injury in Rats

    Xi Li


    Full Text Available Endotoxemia is a common event in alcoholic liver disease. Elevated intestinalpermeability is the major factor involved in the mechanism of alcoholic endotoxemia andthe pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease. This study examined the effect ofepigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG on alcohol-induced gut leakiness, and explored therelated mechanisms involved in its protection against alcohol-induced liver injury in rats.Four groups of female Sprague-Dawley rats were studied. Alcohol and alcohol/EGCGgroups rats received fish oil along with alcohol daily via gastrogavage for 6 weeks, anddextrose and dextrose/EGCG groups rats were given fish oil along with isocaloric dextroseinstead of alcohol. The dextrose/EGCG and alcohol/EGCG groups received additionaltreatment of EGCG ( body weight daily intragastrically by gavage. Intestinalpermeability was assessed by urinary excretion of lactulose and mannitol (L/M ratio. Liverinjury was evaluated histologically and by serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT. Plasmaendotoxin and serum tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α levels were assayed; livermalondialdehyde (MDA contents determined. CD14 and inflammatory factors, such asTNF-α, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS mRNAs inthe liver were analyzed by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. Ratsgiven fish oil plus alcohol had gut leakiness (L/M ratio was increased, which wasassociated with both endotoxemia and liver injury. The above responses were accompaniedby increased CD14, TNF-α, COX-2 and iNOS mRNA expressions in the liver. EGCGsupplementation partly blocked the gut leakiness, reduced endotoxemia and lipidperoxidation, and blunted the elevated expressions of CD14, TNF-α, COX-2 and iNOS, allof which were associated with improved liver injury. These results show that EGCG can block alcohol-induced gut leakiness, reduce endotoxemia, and inhibit inflammatory factors expressions in

  1. A new update for radiocontrast-induced nephropathy aggravated with glycerol in rats: the protective potential of epigallocatechin-3-gallate.

    Palabiyik, Saziye Sezin; Dincer, Busra; Cadirci, Elif; Cinar, Irfan; Gundogdu, Cemal; Polat, Beyzagul; Yayla, Muhammed; Halici, Zekai


    Contrast media (CM) is known to have nephrotoxic adverse effects. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) is the most abundant and active catechin in green tea, and has strong antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. This study investigated whether EGCG can reduce contrast-induced nephrotoxicity (CIN), alone or with glycerol (GLY)-induced renal damage, and to understand its mechanisms of protection against toxicity, using models of GLY and CIN in rats. The rats were separated into eight groups (n = 6 in each), as follows: Healthy, GLY, CM, GLY + CM, CM + EGCG 50 mg/kg (po), GLY + CM + EGCG 50 mg/kg (po), CM + EGCG 100 mg/kg (po), and GLY + CM + EGCG 100 mg/kg (po). Both doses of EGCG protected against CM-induced renal dysfunction, as measured by serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen (BUN). In addition, EGCG treatment markedly improved CIN-induced oxidative stress, and resulted in a significant down-regulatory effect on tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and nuclear factor (NF)-κB mRNA expression. Moreover, histopathological analysis showed that EGCG also attenuated CM-induced kidney damage. Considering the potential clinical use of CM and the numerous health benefits of EGCG, this study showed the protective role of multi-dose EGCG treatment on CIN and GLY-aggravated CIN through different mechanisms.

  2. EGCG Protects against 6-OHDA-Induced Neurotoxicity in a Cell Culture Model

    Dan Chen


    Full Text Available Background. Parkinson’s disease (PD is a progressive neurodegenerative disease that causes severe brain dopamine depletion. Disruption of iron metabolism may be involved in the PD progression. Objective. To test the protective effect of (−-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG against 6-hydroxydopamine- (6-OHDA- induced neurotoxicity by regulating iron metabolism in N27 cells. Methods. Protection by EGCG in N27 cells was assessed by SYTOX green assay, MTT, and caspase-3 activity. Iron regulatory gene and protein expression were measured by RT-PCR and Western blotting. Intracellular iron uptake was measured using 55Fe. The EGCG protection was further tested in primary mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons by immunocytochemistry. Results. EGCG protected against 6-OHDA-induced cell toxicity. 6-OHDA treatment significantly (p<0.05 increased divalent metal transporter-1 (DMT1 and hepcidin and decreased ferroportin 1 (Fpn1 level, whereas pretreatment with EGCG counteracted the effects. The increased 55Fe (by 96%, p<0.01 cell uptake confirmed the iron burden by 6-OHDA and was reduced by EGCG by 27% (p<0.05, supporting the DMT1 results. Pretreatment with EGCG and 6-OHDA significantly increased (p<0.0001 TH+ cell count (~3-fold and neurite length (~12-fold compared to 6-OHDA alone in primary mesencephalic neurons. Conclusions. Pretreatment with EGCG protected against 6-OHDA-induced neurotoxicity by regulating genes and proteins involved in brain iron homeostasis, especially modulating hepcidin levels.

  3. Influence of Aluminium and EGCG on Fibrillation and Aggregation of Human Islet Amyloid Polypeptide

    Xu, Zhi-Xue; Zhang, Qiang; Ma, Gong-Li; Chen, Cong-Heng; He, Yan-Ming; Xu, Li-Hui; Zhang, Yuan; Zhou, Guang-Rong; Li, Zhen-Hua


    The abnormal fibrillation of human islet amyloid polypeptide (hIAPP) has been implicated in the development of type II diabetes. Aluminum is known to trigger the structural transformation of many amyloid proteins and induce the formation of toxic aggregate species. The (−)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) is considered capable of binding both metal ions and amyloid proteins with inhibitory effect on the fibrillation of amyloid proteins. However, the effect of Al(III)/EGCG complex on hIAPP fibrillation is unclear. In the present work, we sought to view insight into the structures and properties of Al(III) and EGCG complex by using spectroscopic experiments and quantum chemical calculations and also investigated the influence of Al(III) and EGCG on hIAPP fibrillation and aggregation as well as their combined interference on this process. Our studies demonstrated that Al(III) could promote fibrillation and aggregation of hIAPP, while EGCG could inhibit the fibrillation of hIAPP and lead to the formation of hIAPP amorphous aggregates instead of the ordered fibrils. Furthermore, we proved that the Al(III)/EGCG complex in molar ratio of 1 : 1 as Al(EGCG)(H2O)2 could inhibit the hIAPP fibrillation more effectively than EGCG alone. The results provide the invaluable reference for the new drug development to treat type II diabetes. PMID:28074190

  4. Influence of Aluminium and EGCG on Fibrillation and Aggregation of Human Islet Amyloid Polypeptide

    Zhi-Xue Xu


    Full Text Available The abnormal fibrillation of human islet amyloid polypeptide (hIAPP has been implicated in the development of type II diabetes. Aluminum is known to trigger the structural transformation of many amyloid proteins and induce the formation of toxic aggregate species. The (−-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG is considered capable of binding both metal ions and amyloid proteins with inhibitory effect on the fibrillation of amyloid proteins. However, the effect of Al(III/EGCG complex on hIAPP fibrillation is unclear. In the present work, we sought to view insight into the structures and properties of Al(III and EGCG complex by using spectroscopic experiments and quantum chemical calculations and also investigated the influence of Al(III and EGCG on hIAPP fibrillation and aggregation as well as their combined interference on this process. Our studies demonstrated that Al(III could promote fibrillation and aggregation of hIAPP, while EGCG could inhibit the fibrillation of hIAPP and lead to the formation of hIAPP amorphous aggregates instead of the ordered fibrils. Furthermore, we proved that the Al(III/EGCG complex in molar ratio of 1 : 1 as Al(EGCG(H2O2 could inhibit the hIAPP fibrillation more effectively than EGCG alone. The results provide the invaluable reference for the new drug development to treat type II diabetes.

  5. A 3-day EGCG-supplementation reduces interstitial lactate concentration in skeletal muscle of overweight subjects.

    Most, Jasper; van Can, Judith G P; van Dijk, Jan-Willem; Goossens, Gijs H; Jocken, Johan; Hospers, Jeannette J; Bendik, Igor; Blaak, Ellen E


    Green tea, particularly epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), may affect body weight and composition, possibly by enhancing fat oxidation. The aim of this double-blind, randomized placebo-controlled cross-over study was to investigate whether 3-day supplementation with EGCG (282 mg/day) stimulates fat oxidation and lipolysis in 24 overweight subjects (age = 30 ± 2 yrs, BMI = 27.7 ± 0.3 kg/m(2)). Energy expenditure, substrate metabolism and circulating metabolites were determined during fasting and postprandial conditions. After 6 h, a fat biopsy was collected to examine gene expression. In 12 subjects, skeletal muscle glycerol, glucose and lactate concentrations were determined using microdialysis. EGCG-supplementation did not alter energy expenditure and substrate oxidation compared to placebo. Although EGCG reduced postprandial circulating glycerol concentrations (P = 0.015), no difference in skeletal muscle lipolysis was observed. Fasting (P = 0.001) and postprandial (P = 0.003) skeletal muscle lactate concentrations were reduced after EGCG-supplementation compared to placebo, despite similar tissue blood flow. Adipose tissue leptin (P = 0.05) and FAT/CD36 expression (P = 0.08) were increased after EGCG compared to placebo. In conclusion, 3-day EGCG-supplementation decreased postprandial plasma glycerol concentrations, but had no significant effects on skeletal muscle lipolysis and whole-body fat oxidation in overweight individuals. Furthermore, EGCG decreased skeletal muscle lactate concentrations, which suggest a shift towards a more oxidative muscle phenotype.

  6. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), a green tea polyphenol, stimulates hepatic autophagy and lipid clearance.

    Zhou, Jin; Farah, Benjamin Livingston; Sinha, Rohit Anthony; Wu, Yajun; Singh, Brijesh Kumar; Bay, Boon-Huat; Yang, Chung S; Yen, Paul Michael


    Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) is a major polyphenol in green tea that has been shown to have anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, anti-steatotic effects on the liver. Autophagy also mediates similar effects; however, it is not currently known whether EGCG can regulate hepatic autophagy. Here, we show that EGCG increases hepatic autophagy by promoting the formation of autophagosomes, increasing lysosomal acidification, and stimulating autophagic flux in hepatic cells and in vivo. EGCG also increases phosphorylation of AMPK, one of the major regulators of autophagy. Importantly, siRNA knockdown of AMPK abrogated autophagy induced by EGCG. Interestingly, we observed lipid droplet within autophagosomes and autolysosomes and increased lipid clearance by EGCG, suggesting it promotes lipid metabolism by increasing autophagy. In mice fed with high-fat/western style diet (HFW; 60% energy as fat, reduced levels of calcium, vitamin D3, choline, folate, and fiber), EGCG treatment reduces hepatosteatosis and concomitantly increases autophagy. In summary, we have used genetic and pharmacological approaches to demonstrate EGCG induction of hepatic autophagy, and this may contribute to its beneficial effects in reducing hepatosteatosis and potentially some other pathological liver conditions.

  7. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG, a green tea polyphenol, stimulates hepatic autophagy and lipid clearance.

    Jin Zhou

    Full Text Available Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG is a major polyphenol in green tea that has been shown to have anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, anti-steatotic effects on the liver. Autophagy also mediates similar effects; however, it is not currently known whether EGCG can regulate hepatic autophagy. Here, we show that EGCG increases hepatic autophagy by promoting the formation of autophagosomes, increasing lysosomal acidification, and stimulating autophagic flux in hepatic cells and in vivo. EGCG also increases phosphorylation of AMPK, one of the major regulators of autophagy. Importantly, siRNA knockdown of AMPK abrogated autophagy induced by EGCG. Interestingly, we observed lipid droplet within autophagosomes and autolysosomes and increased lipid clearance by EGCG, suggesting it promotes lipid metabolism by increasing autophagy. In mice fed with high-fat/western style diet (HFW; 60% energy as fat, reduced levels of calcium, vitamin D3, choline, folate, and fiber, EGCG treatment reduces hepatosteatosis and concomitantly increases autophagy. In summary, we have used genetic and pharmacological approaches to demonstrate EGCG induction of hepatic autophagy, and this may contribute to its beneficial effects in reducing hepatosteatosis and potentially some other pathological liver conditions.

  8. EGCG, a major green tea catechin suppresses breast tumor angiogenesis and growth via inhibiting the activation of HIF-1α and NFκB, and VEGF expression.

    Gu, Jian-Wei; Makey, Kristina L; Tucker, Kevan B; Chinchar, Edmund; Mao, Xiaowen; Pei, Ivy; Thomas, Emily Y; Miele, Lucio


    The role of EGCG, a major green tea catechin in breast cancer therapy is poorly understood. The present study tests the hypothesis that EGCG can inhibit the activation of HIF-1α and NFκB, and VEGF expression, thereby suppressing tumor angiogenesis and breast cancer progression. Sixteen eight-wk-old female mice (C57BL/6 J) were inoculated with 10^6 E0771 (mouse breast cancer) cells in the left fourth mammary gland fat pad. Eight mice received EGCG at 50-100 mg/kg/d in drinking water for 4 weeks. 8 control mice received drinking water only. Tumor size was monitored using dial calipers. At the end of the experiment, blood samples, tumors, heart and limb muscles were collected for measuring VEGF expression using ELISA and capillary density (CD) using CD31 immunohistochemistry. EGCG treatment significantly reduced tumor weight over the control (0.37 ± 0.15 vs. 1.16 ± 0.30 g; P < 0.01), tumor CD (109 ± 20 vs. 156 ± 12 capillary #/mm^2; P < 0.01), tumor VEGF expression (45.72 ± 1.4 vs. 59.03 ± 3.8 pg/mg; P < 0.01), respectively. But, it has no effects on the body weight, heart weight, angiogenesis and VEGF expression in the heart and skeletal muscle of mice. EGCG at 50 μg/ml significantly inhibited the activation of HIF-1α and NFκB as well as VEGF expression in cultured E0771 cells, compared to the control, respectively. These findings support the hypothesis that EGCG, a major green tea catechin, directly targets both tumor cells and tumor vasculature, thereby inhibiting tumor growth, proliferation, migration, and angiogenesis of breast cancer, which is mediated by the inhibition of HIF-1α and NFκB activation as well as VEGF expression.

  9. Effects of physiological levels of the green tea extract Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG on breast cancer cells

    Li eZeng


    Full Text Available Physiological concentrations of the green tea extract EGCG caused growth inhibition in oestrogen receptor α (ERα-positive MCF7 cells, that was associated with down-regulation of the ERα and reduced insulin-like growth factor (IGF binding protein-2 (IGFBP-2 abundance and increased protein abundance of the tumour suppressor genes p53/p21. In contrast to MCF7 cells that have wt p53, EGCG alone did not change cell proliferation or death significantly in another ERα-positive cell line T47D that possesses mutant p53. EGCG increased ERα protein levels and as a consequence, the cells responded significantly better to an ERα antagonist Tamoxifen (TAM in the presence of EGCG. EGCG significantly increased cell death in an ERα-negative cell line, MDA-MB-231 that also possesses mutant p53. EGCG significantly increased the ERα and IGF-I receptor (IGF-IR levels and thereby enhanced the sensitivities of the cells to Tamoxifen and a blocking antibody targeting the IGF-1R (αIR3. In contrast to MCF7, T47D and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells that exhibited significant changes in key molecules involved in breast growth and survival upon treatment with physiological levels of EGCG, the growth, survival and levels of these proteins in non-malignant breast epithelial cells, MCF10A cells, were not affected.

  10. Green tea polyphenol epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) induced intermolecular cross-linking of membrane proteins.

    Chen, Rong; Wang, Jian-Bo; Zhang, Xian-Qing; Ren, Jing; Zeng, Cheng-Ming


    Increasing evidence has demonstrated that EGCG possesses prooxidant potential in biological systems, including modifying proteins, breaking DNA strands and inducing the generation of reactive oxygen species. In the present study, the prooxidant effect of EGCG on erythrocyte membranes was investigated. SDS-PAGE and NBT-staining assay were utilized to detect the catechol-protein adducts that generated upon treating the membranes with EGCG. The results indicated that EGCG was able to bind covalently to sulfhydryl groups of membrane proteins, leading to the formation of protein aggregates with intermolecular cross-linking. We suggested that the catechol-quinone originated from the oxidation of EGCG acted as a cross-linker on which peptide chains were combined through thiol-S-alkylation at the C2- and C6-sites of the gallyl ring. EGC showed similar effects as EGCG on the ghost membranes, whereas ECG and EC did not, suggesting that a structure with a gallyl moiety is a prerequisite for a catechin to induce the aggregation of membrane proteins and to deplete membrane sulfhydryls. EDTA and ascorbic acid inhibited the EGCG-induced aggregation of membrane proteins by blocking the formation of catechol-quinone. The information of the present study may provide a fresh insight into the prooxidant effect and cytotoxicity of tea catechins.

  11. Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) suppresses lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory bone resorption, and protects against alveolar bone loss in mice.

    Tominari, Tsukasa; Matsumoto, Chiho; Watanabe, Kenta; Hirata, Michiko; Grundler, Florian M W; Miyaura, Chisato; Inada, Masaki


    Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), a major polyphenol in green tea, possesses antioxidant properties and regulates various cell functions. Here, we examined the function of EGCG in inflammatory bone resorption. In calvarial organ cultures, lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced bone resorption was clearly suppressed by EGCG. In osteoblasts, EGCG suppressed the LPS-induced expression of COX-2 and mPGES-1 mRNAs, as well as prostaglandin E2 production, and also suppressed RANKL expression, which is essential for osteoclast differentiation. LPS-induced bone resorption of mandibular alveolar bones was attenuated by EGCG in vitro, and the loss of mouse alveolar bone mass was inhibited by the catechin in vivo.

  12. EGCG attenuates autoimmune arthritis by inhibition of STAT3 and HIF-1α with Th17/Treg control.

    Eun-Ji Yang

    Full Text Available Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG is a green tea polyphenol exerting potent anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory effects by inhibiting signaling and gene expression. The objective of the study was to evaluate the effect of EGCG on interleukin (IL-1 receptor antagonist knockout (IL-1RaKO autoimmune arthritis models. IL-1RaKO arthritis models were injected intraperitoneally with EGCG three times per week after the first immunization. EGCG decreased the arthritis index and showed protective effects against joint destruction in the IL-1RaKO arthritis models. The expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, oxidative stress proteins, and p-STAT3 (Y705 and p-STAT3 (S727, mTOR and HIF-1α were significantly lower in mice treated with EGCG. EGCG reduced osteoclast markers in vivo and in vitro along with anti-osteoclastic activity was observed in EGCG-treated IL-1RaKO mice. The proportion of Foxp3(+ Treg cells increased in the spleens of mice treated with EGCG, whereas the proportion of Th17 cells reduced. In vitro, p-STAT3 (Y705 and p-STAT3 (S727, HIF1α and glycolytic pathway molecules were decreased by EGCG. EGCG suppressed the activation of mTOR and subsequently HIF-1α, which is considered as a metabolic check point of Th17/Treg differentiation supporting the therapeutic potential of EGCG in autoimmune arthritis.

  13. Evaluation of epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) cross-linked collagen membranes and concerns on osteoblasts

    Chu, Chenyu; Deng, Jia [State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases, West China Hospital of Stomatology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China); Xiang, Lin; Wu, Yingying [State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases, West China Hospital of Stomatology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China); Department of Oral Implantology, West China Hospital of Stomatology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China); Wei, Xiawei [State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy and Laboratory for Aging Research, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, and Collaborative Innovation Center for Biotherapy, Chengdu, Sichuan 610041 (China); Qu, Yili [State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases, West China Hospital of Stomatology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China); Department of Oral Implantology, West China Hospital of Stomatology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China); Man, Yi, E-mail: [State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases, West China Hospital of Stomatology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China); Department of Oral Implantology, West China Hospital of Stomatology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China)


    Collagen membranes have ideal biological and mechanical properties for supporting infiltration and proliferation of osteoblasts and play a vital role in guided bone regeneration (GBR). However, pure collagen can lead to inflammation, resulting in progressive bone resorption. Therefore, a method for regulating the level of inflammatory cytokines at surgical sites is paramount for the healing process. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) is a component extracted from green tea with numerous biological activities including an anti-inflammatory effect. Herein, we present a novel cross-linked collagen membrane containing different concentrations of EGCG (0.0064%, 0.064%, and 0.64%) to regulate the level of inflammatory factors secreted by pre-osteoblast cells; improve cell proliferation; and increase the tensile strength, wettability, and thermal stability of collagen membranes. Scanning electron microscope images show that the surfaces of collagen membranes became smoother and the collagen fiber diameters became larger with EGCG treatment. Measurement of the water contact angle demonstrated that introducing EGCG improved membrane wettability. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analyses indicated that the backbone of collagen was intact, and the thermal stability was significant improved in differential scanning calorimetry. The mechanical properties of 0.064% and 0.64% EGCG-treated collagen membranes were 1.5-fold greater than those of the control. The extent of cross-linking was significantly increased, as determined by a 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid solution assay. The Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) and live/dead assays revealed that collagen membrane cross-linked by 0.0064% EGCG induced greater cell proliferation than pure collagen membranes. Additionally, real-time polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay results showed that EGCG significantly affected the production of inflammatory factors secreted by MC3T3-E1 cells. Taken together, our

  14. Effects of beta-glucans ingestion (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) on metabolism of rats receiving high-fat diet.

    de Araújo, T V; Andrade, E F; Lobato, R V; Orlando, D R; Gomes, N F; de Sousa, R V; Zangeronimo, M G; Pereira, L J


    We investigated the effects of beta-glucans (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) ingestion on metabolic parameters of Wistar rats receiving high-fat diet. The experimental period was divided into two stages: in the first one, the animals were divided into two groups containing 12 animals each. The first group received commercial feed and the second received high-fat diet containing 20% of pork fat during 60 days. At the end of this period, body weight, blood glucose and Lee index were assessed. In the second stage, those 24 animals were redivided into four groups: (C) - control diet; (CB) - control diet and treated with Beta-glucan (BG); (O) - obese animals and (OB) - obese animals treated with BG. Animals from groups CB and OB received 30 mg/kg of BG dissolved in saline solution by gavage. Animals from groups C and O received only saline solution for 28 days. The design used was totally randomized in 2 × 2 factorial scheme. Data were submitted to analysis of variance (anova). Animals from OB group showed inferior levels (p < 0.05) of total cholesterol (13.33%), triacylglycerols (16.77%) and blood glucose (23.97%) when compared to the animals from group O. The use of BG has provided smaller increase in Lee index (p < 0.05), without promoting alteration in feed and water consumption, organs weight, HDL-C, LDL+VLDL-C, carcass composition, villus/crypt ratio, and pancreas, kidney and stomach histology. BG from S. cerevisiae promoted beneficial metabolic effects in rats receiving high-fat diet.

  15. Increase of insulin sensitivity in diabetic rats received Die-Huang-Wan, a herbal mixture used in Chinese traditional medicine

    WU Yang-Chang; HSU Jen-Hao; LIU I-Min; LIOU Shorong-Shii; SU Hui-Chen; CHENG Juei-Tang


    AIM: Effects on insulin sensitivity of Die-Huang-Wan, the herbal mixture widely used to treat diabetic disorder in Chinese traditional medicine, were investigated in vivo. METHODS: The obese Zucker rats were employed as insulin-resistant animal model. Also, insulin-resistance was induced by the repeated intraperitoneal injections of long-acting human insulin at 0.5 U/kg three times daily into adult male Wistar rats. Insulin resistance was identified using the loss of tolbutamide (10 mg/kg) or electroacupuncture (EA)-induced plasma glucose lowering action. The plasma glucose concentration was examined by glucose oxidase assay. RESULTS: The plasma glucose-lowering action induced by tolbutamide was significantly enhanced in obese Zucker rats receiving the repeated administration of Die-Huang-Wan at dosage of 26 mg/kg for 3 d. Furthermore, administration of Die-Huang-Wan delayed the formation of insulin resistance in rats that were induced by the daily repeated injection of human long-acting insulin at 0.5 U/kg three times daily and identified by the loss of tolbutamide- or EA-induced hypoglycemia. In streptozotocininduced diabetic rats, oral administration of metformin at 320 mg/kg once daily made an increase of the response to exogenous short-acting human insulin 15 d later. This is consistent with the view that metformin can increase insulin sensitivity. Similar treatment with Die-Huang-Wan at an effective dose (26.0 mg/kg) also increased the plasma glucose lowering action of exogenous insulin at 10 d later. The effect of Die-Huang-Wan on insulin sensitivity seems to produce more rapidly than that of metformin. CONCLUSION: The present study found that oral administration of Die-Huang-Wan increased insulin sensitivity and delayed the development of insulin resistance in rats.

  16. Mechanisms for epigallocatechin gallate induced inhibition of drug metabolizing enzymes in rat liver microsomes.

    Weng, Zuquan; Greenhaw, James; Salminen, William F; Shi, Qiang


    Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) inhibits drug metabolizing enzymes by unknown mechanisms. Here we examined if the inhibition is due to covalent-binding of EGCG to the enzymes or formation of protein aggregates. EGCG was incubated with rat liver microsomes at 1-100μM for 30min. The EGCG-binding proteins were affinity purified using m-aminophenylboronic acid agarose and probed with antibodies against glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), actin, cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A1, CYP1A2, CYP2B1/2, CYP2E1, CYP3A, catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) and microsomal glutathione transferase 1 (MGST1). All but actin and soluble COMT were positively detected at ≥1μM EGCG, indicating EGCG selectively bound to a subset of proteins including membrane-bound COMT. The binding correlated well with inhibition of CYP activities, except for CYP2E1 whose activity was unaffected despite evident binding. The antioxidant enzyme MGST1, but not cytosolic GSTs, was remarkably inhibited, providing novel evidence supporting the pro-oxidative effects of EGCG. When microsomes incubated with EGCG were probed on Western blots, all but the actin and CYP2E1 antibodies showed a significant reduction in binding at ≥1μM EGCG, suggesting that a fraction of the indicated proteins formed aggregates that likely contributed to the inhibitory effects of EGCG but were not recognizable by antibodies against the intact proteins. This raised the possibility that previous reports on EGCG regulating protein expression using GAPDH as a reference should be revisited for accuracy. Remarkable protein aggregate formation in EGCG-treated microsomes was also observed by analyzing Coomassie Blue-stained SDS-PAGE gels. EGCG effects were partially abolished in the presence of 1mM glutathione, suggesting they are particularly relevant to the in vivo conditions when glutathione is depleted by toxicant insults.

  17. In Vitro Toxicity of Epigallocatechin Gallate in Rat Liver Mitochondria and Hepatocytes

    Otto Kucera


    Full Text Available Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG is the main compound of green tea with well-described antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and tumor-suppressing properties. However, EGCG at high doses was reported to cause liver injury. In this study, we evaluated the effect of EGCG on primary culture of rat hepatocytes and on rat liver mitochondria in permeabilized hepatocytes. The 24-hour incubation with EGCG in concentrations of 10 μmol/L and higher led to signs of cellular injury and to a decrease in hepatocyte functions. The effect of EGCG on the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS was biphasic. While low doses of EGCG decreased ROS production, the highest tested dose induced a significant increase in ROS formation. Furthermore, we observed a decline in mitochondrial membrane potential in cells exposed to EGCG when compared to control cells. In permeabilized hepatocytes, EGCG caused damage of the outer mitochondrial membrane and an uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation. EGCG in concentrations lower than 10 μmol/L was recognized as safe for hepatocytes in vitro.

  18. The spectral properties of (--epigallocatechin 3-O-gallate (EGCG fluorescence in different solvents: dependence on solvent polarity.

    Vladislav Snitsarev

    Full Text Available (--Epigallocatechin 3-O-gallate (EGCG a molecule found in green tea and known for a plethora of bioactive properties is an inhibitor of heat shock protein 90 (HSP90, a protein of interest as a target for cancer and neuroprotection. Determination of the spectral properties of EGCG fluorescence in environments similar to those of binding sites found in proteins provides an important tool to directly study protein-EGCG interactions. The goal of this study is to examine the spectral properties of EGCG fluorescence in an aqueous buffer (AB at pH=7.0, acetonitrile (AN (a polar aprotic solvent, dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO (a polar aprotic solvent, and ethanol (EtOH (a polar protic solvent. We demonstrate that EGCG is a highly fluorescent molecule when excited at approximately 275 nm with emission maxima between 350 and 400 nm depending on solvent. Another smaller excitation peak was found when EGCG is excited at approximately 235 nm with maximum emission between 340 and 400 nm. We found that the fluorescence intensity (FI of EGCG in AB at pH=7.0 is significantly quenched, and that it is about 85 times higher in an aprotic solvent DMSO. The Stokes shifts of EGCG fluorescence were determined by solvent polarity. In addition, while the emission maxima of EGCG fluorescence in AB, DMSO, and EtOH follow the Lippert-Mataga equation, its fluorescence in AN points to non-specific solvent effects on EGCG fluorescence. We conclude that significant solvent-dependent changes in both fluorescence intensity and fluorescence emission shifts can be effectively used to distinguish EGCG in aqueous solutions from EGCG in environments of different polarity, and, thus, can be used to study specific EGCG binding to protein binding sites where the environment is often different from aqueous in terms of polarity.

  19. Homeostasis of chosen bioelements in organs of rats receiving lithium and/or selenium.

    Kiełczykowska, Małgorzata; Musik, Irena; Żelazowska, Renata; Lewandowska, Anna; Kurzepa, Jacek; Kocot, Joanna


    Lithium is an essential trace element, widely used in medicine and its application is often long-term. Despite beneficial effects, its administration can lead to severe side effects including hyperparathyroidism, renal and thyroid disorders. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the influence of lithium and/or selenium treatment on magnesium, calcium and silicon levels in rats' organs as well as the possibility of using selenium as an adjuvant in lithium therapy. The study was performed on rats divided into four groups (six animals each): control-treated with saline; Li-treated with Li2CO3 (2.7 mg Li/kg b.w.); Se-treated with Na2SeO3·H2O (0.5 mg Se/kg b.w.); Se + Li-treated simultaneously with Li2CO3 and Na2SeO3·H2O (2.7 mg Li/kg b.w. and of 0.5 mg Se/kg b.w., respectively). The administration was performed in form of water solutions by stomach tube once a day for 3 weeks. In the organs (liver, kidney, brain, spleen, heart, lung and femoral muscle) the concentrations of magnesium, calcium and silicon were determined. Magnesium was increased in liver of Se and Se + Li given rats. Lithium decreased tissue Ca and co-administration of selenium reversed this effect. Silicon was not affected by any treatment. The beneficial effect of selenium on disturbances of calcium homeostasis let suggest that further research on selenium application as an adjuvant in lithium therapy is worth being performed.

  20. Oxidant balance in brain of rats receiving different compounds of selenium.

    Musik, Irena; Kiełczykowska, Małgorzata; Kocot, Joanna


    The influence of two organic selenocompounds and sodium selenite on oxidant processes in rat brain tissue was investigated. The study was performed on male Wistar rats. The animals were divided into four groups: I-control; II-administered with sodium selenite; III-provided with selenoorganic compound A of chain structure 4-(o-tolyl-)-selenosemicarbazide of 2-chlorobenzoic acid and IV-provided with selenoorganic compound B of ring structure 3-(2-chlorobenzoylamino-)-2-(o-tolylimino-)-4-methyl-4-selenazoline. Rats were treated by stomach tube at a dose of 5 × 10(-4) mg of selenium/g of b.w. once a day for a period of 10 days. In brain homogenates total antioxidant status (TAS), activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), concentrations of ascorbic acid (AA) and reduced glutathione (GSH) as well as concentration of malonyl dialdehyde (MDA) were determined. TAS was insignificantly diminished in all selenium-supplemented groups versus control. SOD was not significantly influenced by administration of selenium. GPx was markedly decreased in group III versus control, whereas increased in group IV versus control and group III. Selenosemicarbazide depleted AA in well-marked way versus group II. GSH was significantly depressed in group III versus both control and group II and diminished in group IV versus group II. MDA was significantly decreased in group III versus both control and group II, whereas in group IV increased versus group III. As selenazoline A did not decrease elements of antioxidant barrier and increased GPx activity, it seems to be a promising agent for future studies concerning its possible application as a selenium supplement.

  1. The effects of two Lactobacillus plantarum strains on rat lipid metabolism receiving a high fat diet.

    Salaj, Rastislav; Stofilová, Jana; Soltesová, Alena; Hertelyová, Zdenka; Hijová, Emília; Bertková, Izabela; Strojný, Ladislav; Kružliak, Peter; Bomba, Alojz


    The aim of our study was to evaluate the effects of the different probiotic strains, Lactobacillus plantarum LS/07 and Lactobacillus plantarum Biocenol LP96, on lipid metabolism and body weight in rats fed a high fat diet. Compared with the high fat diet group, the results showed that Lactobacillus plantarum LS/07 reduced serum cholesterol and LDL cholesterol, but Lactobacillus plantarum Biocenol LP96 decreased triglycerides and VLDL, while there was no change in the serum HDL level and liver lipids. Both probiotic strains lowered total bile acids in serum. Our strains have no significant change in body weight, gain weight, and body fat. These findings indicate that the effect of lactobacilli on lipid metabolism may differ among strains and that the Lactobacillus plantarum LS/07 and Lactobacillus plantarum Biocenol LP96 can be used to improve lipid profile and can contribute to a healthier bowel microbial balance.

  2. (-)Epigallocatechin-3-gallate decreases the stress-induced impairment of learning and memory in rats.

    Soung, Hung-Sheng; Wang, Mao-Hsien; Tseng, Hsiang-Chien; Fang, Hsu-Wei; Chang, Kuo-Chi


    Stress induces reactive oxygen species (ROS) and causes alterations in brain cytoarchitecture and cognition. Green tea has potent antioxidative properties especially the tea catechin (-) epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG). These powerful antioxidative properties are able to protect against various oxidative damages. In this study we investigated the impact of stress on rats' locomotor activity, learning and memory. Many tea catechins, including EGCG, were examined for their possible therapeutic effects in treating stress-induced impairment. Our results indicated that locomotor activity was decreased, and the learning and memory were impaired in stressed rats (SRs). EGCG treatment was able to prevent the decreased locomotor activity as well as improve the learning and memory in SRs. EGCG treatment was also able to reduce the increased oxidative status in SRs' hippocampi. The above results suggest a therapeutic effect of EGCG in treating stress-induced impairment of learning and memory, most likely by means of its powerful antioxidative properties.

  3. Y-27632 Increases Sensitivity of PANC-1 Cells to Epigallocatechin Gallate (EGCG) in Regulating Cell Proliferation and Migration

    Liu, Xing; Bi, Yongyi


    Background The study aimed to investigate the inhibitory effect of (1R,4r)-4-((R)-1-aminoethyl)-N-(pyridin-4-yl) cyclohexanecarboxamide (Y-27632) and (−)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) on the proliferation and migration of PANC-1 cells. EGCG, found in green tea, has been previously shown to be one of the most abundant and powerful catechins in cancer prevention and treatment. Y-27632, a selective inhibitor of rho-associated protein kinase 1, is widely used in treating cardiovascular disease, inflammation, and cancer. Material/Methods PANC-1 cells, maintained in Dulbecco’s Modified Eagle’s Medium, were treated with dimethyl sulfoxide (control) as well as different concentrations (20, 40, 60, and 80 μg/mL) of EGCG for 48 h. In addition, PANC-1 cells were treated separately with 60 μg/mL EGCG, 20 μM Y-27632, and EGCG combined with Y-27632 (60 μg/mL EGCG + 20 μM Y-27632) for 48 h. The effect of EGCG and Y-27632 on the proliferation and migration of PANC-1 cells was evaluated using Cell Counting Kit-8 and transwell migration assays. The expression of peroxisome proliferator–activated receptor alpha (PPARα) and Caspase-3 mRNA was determined by Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). Results EGCG (20–80 μg/mL) inhibited cell viability in a dose-dependent manner. Y-27632 enhanced the sensitivity of PANC-1 cells to EGCG (by increasing the expression of PPARα and Caspase-3 mRNA) and suppressed cell proliferation. PANC-1 cell migration was inhibited by treatment with a combination of EGCG and Y-27632. Conclusions Y-27632 increases the sensitivity of PANC-1 cells to EGCG in regulating cell proliferation and migration, which is likely to be related to the expression of PPARα mRNA and Caspase-3 mRNA. PMID:27694793

  4. Study on Expression Conditions of EGCG-O-Methyltransferase in Recombinant Escherichia coli Bacteria%EGCG-O-甲基转移酶(EOMT)在重组大肠杆菌中的表达条件研究

    费冬梅; 林智; 吕海鹏; 张悦; 谭俊峰; 郭丽


    EGCG3"Me could be produced from EGCG catalyzed by EGCG-O-Methyltransferase. Taken the yield of EGCG3"Me as main index, the present study focused on the producing conditions of EGCG-O-Methyltransferase induced by IPTG in recombinant E. Coli bacteria. Results showed that the optimum producing conditions were as follows: the concentration of IPTG was 0.05 mmol/L, the induction time was 20 h, the initial pH of medium was 7.0 and the induction temperature was 20℃.%本研究以EGCG-O-甲基转移酶(EOMT)催化EGCG生成EGCG3”Me的产量为主要指标,探讨了重组大肠杆菌内EGCG-O-甲基转移酶的诱导表达条件.结果表明,当诱导剂IPTG终浓度为0.05 mmol/L,诱导时间为20h,培养基初始pH为7.0,以及诱导温度为20℃时,EOMT的表达效果最佳.

  5. Potential Role of (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) in the Secondary Prevention of Alzheimer Disease.

    Xicota, Laura; Rodríguez-Morató, Jose; Dierssen, Mara; de la Torre, Rafael


    Medical advances in the last decades have increased the average life expectancy, but also the incidence and prevalence of age-associated neurodegenerative diseases. Alzheimer disease (AD) is one of the most common neurodegenerative diseases and the most prevalent type of dementia. A plethora of different mechanisms contribute to AD, among which oxidative stress plays a key role in its development and progression. So far, there are no pharmacological treatments available and the current medications are mainly symptomatic. In the last years, dietary polyphenols have gained research attention due to their interesting biological activities, and more specifically their antioxidant properties. (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) is a natural flavanol that has been extensively studied regarding its potential effects in AD. In this review we present the current in vitro and in vivo experimentation regarding the use of EGCG in AD. We also review the complex mechanisms of action of EGCG, not only limited to its antioxidant activity, which may explain its beneficial health effects.

  6. EGCG ameliorates diet-induced metabolic syndrome associating with the circadian clock.

    Mi, Yashi; Qi, Guoyuan; Fan, Rong; Ji, Xiaohua; Liu, Zhigang; Liu, Xuebo


    In response to the daily light-dark (LD) cycle, organisms on Earth have evolved with the approximately 24-h endogenous oscillations to coordinate behavioral and physiological processes, including feeding, sleep, and metabolism homeostasis. Circadian desynchrony triggered by an energy-dense diet rich in fats and fructose is intimately connected with a series of metabolic disorders. Previous studies revealed that (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) could mitigate metabolic misalignment; however, only a few reports have focused on its potential effect on directly manipulating circadian rhythms to ameliorate metabolic syndrome. Our goal was to investigate the regulating effect of EGCG treatment on metabolic misalignment triggered by a high-fat and high-fructose diet (HFFD) associating with the circadian clock. Our results indicated that HFFD treatment partially exhibited poor circadian oscillations of the core clock gene and the clock-controlled gene in the liver and fat relative to the control group. EGCG administration may ameliorate the diet-dependent decline in circadian function by controlling the Sirt1-PGC1αloop, implying the existence of an EGCG-entrainable oscillator. Subsequently, reducing fatty acid synthesis and elevating β-oxidation in the liver coupled with the increasing brown adipose tissue (BAT) energy expenditure observed in the EGCG group of mice prevented the adipocyte hypertrophy and fat accumulations common to BAT and white adipose tissue (WAT) derived from the HFFD mice. This study is the first to provide compelling evidences that EGCG may ameliorate diet-induced metabolic misalignment by regulating the rhythmic expression of the circadian clock genes in the liver and fat. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Protective effect of ketamine against hemorrhagic cystitis in rats receiving ifosfamide

    Ozguven, Ali A.; Yılmaz, Omer; Taneli, Fatma; Ulman, Cevval; Vatansever, Seda; Onag, Ali


    Objective: To investigate the possible protective effect of a single dose of ketamine and the synergistic effect between ketamine and 2-mercaptoethane sulfonate (mesna) against ifosfamide-induced hemorrhagic cystitis. Materials and Methods: 35 adult female wistar rats were divided into five groups and pretreated with ketamine at 10 mg/kg and/or mesna 400 mg/kg 30 minutes before intraperitoneal injection of IFS (400 mg/kg) or with saline (control group). Hemorrhagic cystitis was evaluated 24 hours after IFS injection according to bladder wet weight (BWW), and microscopic changes, i.e. edema, hemorrhage, cellular infiltration, and urothelial desquamation. The markers of oxidative damage including nitric oxide (NO) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and the expressions of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin 1-beta (IL-1β), inducible nitric oxide synthase (i-NOS) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (e-NOS) were also assayed in the bladder tissues. Results: Pretreatment with ketamine alone or ketamine in combination with mesna reduced the IFS-induced increase of BWW (58,47% and 63,33%, respectively, P 0,05). The parameters of oxidative stress, the NO and the MDA contents of the bladder tissues of the study groups were not different. Conclusion: The results of the present study suggest that a single dose of ketamine pretreatment attenuates experimental IFS-induced bladder damage. It is therefore necessary to investigate ketamine locally and systematically with various dosing schedulesin order to reduce the bladder damage secondary to oxazaphosphorine-alkylating agents and these results may widen the spectrum of ketamine. PMID:24741183

  8. Curcumin and EGCG Suppress Apurinic/Apyrimidinic Endonuclease 1 and Induce Complete Remission in B-cell Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma Patients

    Hashem M. Neenaa


    Full Text Available ABSTRACT:Background: Follicular lymphoma (FL is the most common subtype of indolent lymphoma. FL is still considered to be an incurable disease and palliation of symptoms is an acceptable approach to the expected pattern of repeated relapses due to developing resistance to chemotherapy agents. Apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease/redox factor-1 (APE1/Ref-1 is a multifunctional protein involved in DNA base excision repair (BER of oxidative DNA damage and in redox regulation of a number of transcription factors. It was observed that cytoplasmic APE1 induced COX-2 expression through NF-êB activation. It has been shown that chemopreventive agents potentiate the efficacy of chemotherapy through the regulation of multiple signaling pathways, including NF-êB, c-Myc, cyclooxygenase-2, apoptosis, and others, suggesting a multitargeted nature of chemopreventive agents. We hypothesized that curcumin, a polyphenolic antioxidant derived from the spice turmeric, and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG from green tea would potentiate the effect of chemotherapy in B-cell lymphoma.Objective: We examined the role of human apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1 (APE1 in resistance and prognosis in patients with FL. Our major objective was to update the safety and efficacy results of the antitumor effect of combination of curcumin and EGCG therapy in relapsed or resistant indolent or transformed non-Hodgkin follicular lymphoma patients and their peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs compared with healthy donors’ controls.Methods: Thirty patients with FL with over-expression of constitutive active NF-êB in their PBMCs received regular CHOP and consumed capsules compatible with curcumin doses between 0.9 and 5.4 g daily for up to 9 months and 9.0 g/day green tea whole extract "1000 mg tablets of green tea whole extract containing 200 mg EGCG. We designed a dose-escalation Functional Foods in Health and Disease 2011, 1(12:525-544 study to explore the efficacy of CHOP

  9. A 3-day EGCG-supplementation reduces interstitial lactate concentration in skeletal muscle of overweight subjects

    Jasper Most; van Can, Judith G P; Jan-Willem van Dijk; Goossens, Gijs H.; Johan Jocken; Hospers, Jeannette J.; Igor Bendik; Ellen E. Blaak


    Green tea, particularly epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), may affect body weight and composition, possibly by enhancing fat oxidation. The aim of this double-blind, randomized placebo-controlled cross-over study was to investigate whether 3-day supplementation with EGCG (282mg/day) stimulates fat oxidation and lipolysis in 24 overweight subjects (age = 30 ± 2yrs, BMI = 27.7 ± 0.3 kg/m2). Energy expenditure, substrate metabolism and circulating metabolites were determined during fasting and p...

  10. Separation and purification of epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) from green tea using combined macroporous resin and polyamide column chromatography.

    Jin, Xin; Liu, Mingyan; Chen, Zaixing; Mao, Ruikun; Xiao, Qinghuan; Gao, Hua; Wei, Minjie


    Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) is a major bioactive ingredient of green tea that produces beneficial neuroprotective effects. In this paper, to optimize the EGCG enrichment, thirteen macroporous resins with different chemical and physical properties were systemically evaluated. Among the thirteen tested resins, the H-bond resin HPD826 exhibited best adsorption/desorption capabilities and desorption ratio, as well as weakest affinity for caffeine. The absorption of EGCG on the HPD826 resin followed the pseudo-second-order kinetics and Langmuir isotherm model. The separation parameters of EGCG were optimized by dynamic adsorption/desorption experiments with the HPD826 resin column. Under the optimal condition, the content of EGCG in the 30% ethanol eluent increased by 5.8-fold from 7.7% to 44.6%, with the recovery yield of 72.1%. After further purification on a polyamide column, EGCG with 74.8% purity was obtained in the 40-50% ethanol fraction with a recovery rate of 88.4%. In addition, EGCG with 95.1% purity could be easily obtained after one-step crystallization in distilled water. Our study suggests that the combined macroporous resin and polyamide column chromatography is a simple method for large-scale separation and purification of EGCG from natural plants for food and pharmaceutical applications.

  11. A Fast Assembly of (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate [(-)-EGCG] via Intra-and Inter-molecular Mitsunobu Reaction

    DING Tong-Jian; WANG Xiao-Long; CAO Xiao-Ping


    This paper described a concise construction of (-)-EGCG (1f) (with an overall yield of 20% for seven steps based on the starting cinnamyl alcohol derivative 3), featuring asymmetric dihydroxylation (ADH), intra- and intermolecular Mitsunobu reaction as key steps. Our strategy disclosed herein constitutes a new effective general synthetic approach toward the analogues of (-)-EGCG (1f).

  12. Relationship between the biological activities of methylated derivatives of (-)-epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate (EGCG) and their cell surface binding activities.

    Yano, Satomi; Fujimura, Yoshinori; Umeda, Daisuke; Miyase, Toshio; Yamada, Koji; Tachibana, Hirofumi


    It was previously reported that (-)-epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate (EGCG) suppresses the expression of the high-affinity IgE receptor FcepsilonRI in human basophilic cells and that this suppressive effect is associated with EGCG binding to the cell surface. This study examined the effects of five methylated derivatives of EGCG, (-)-epigallocatechin-3-O-(3-O-methyl)gallate (EGCG 3' 'Me), (-)-epigallocatechin-3-O-(4-O-methyl)gallate (EGCG 4' 'Me), (-)-4'-O-methyl-epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate (EGCG 4'Me), (-)-epigallocatechin-3-O-(3,4-O-methyl)gallate (EGCG 3' '4' 'diMe), and (-)-4'-O-methyl-epigallocatechin-3-O-(4-O-methyl)gallate (EGCG 4'4' 'diMe) on FcepsilonRI expression and ERK1/2 phosphorylation, and each of their cell surface binding activities was measured. Of these five methylated derivatives, three that are methylated at the 3' '- and/or 4' '-position, EGCG 3' 'Me, EGCG 4' 'Me, and EGCG 3' '4' 'diMe, suppressed FcepsilonRI expression and ERK1/2 phosphorylation, although the suppressive effects were lower than that of EGCG. EGCG 4'Me and EGCG 4'4' 'diMe, both of which are methylated at the 4'-position, did not demonstrate a suppressive effect. Furthermore, it was found that EGCG 3' 'Me, EGCG 4' 'Me, EGCG 3' '4' 'diMe, and EGCG 4'Me, which are methylated at the 3' '- and/or 4' '-positions or the 4'-position, could bind to the cell surface even though their binding activities were lower than that of EGCG. Only EGCG 4'4' 'diMe, which is methylated at both the 4'- and 4' '-positions, could not bind. These results suggest that the trihydroxyl structure of the B ring is essential for EGCG to exert the suppressive effects and that the hydroxyl groups on both the 4'-position in the B ring and the 4' '-position in the gallate are crucial for the cell surface binding activity of EGCG.

  13. Cardioprotective effect of epigallocatechin-3-gallate against myocardial infarction in hypercholesterolemic rats.

    Zhong, Wei; Huan, Xiao-Dong; Cao, Qian; Yang, Jun


    Cardiovascular diseases are closely associated with a high-cholesterol or high-fat diet. The aim of the present study was to investigate the cadioprotective effect of epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) in high-fat diet-fed rats, with special emphasis on myocardial infarction. A high-fat diet was administered to male Wistar rats for 45 days and the rats of the treatment group were administered EGCG via intraperitoneal injection for the last 15 days. The serum lipid profile, antioxidant enzyme activity, lipid peroxidation, lipid metabolic proteins and cardiac tissue markers were assessed. The myocardium and aorta were also histopathologically examined. The high-fat diet-fed rats were found to be hypercholesterolemic or exhibited abnormal values in the selected parameters. However, these abnormalities were reversed to near-normal values in the rats administered EGCG. Similarly, the enzymatic antioxidant activity and non-enzymatic antioxidant levels were improved with EGCG treatment in high-fat diet-fed rats. In addition, EGCG activated sirtuin 1, endothelial nitric oxide synthase and AMP-activated protein kinase α, which suggests that its protective effect is mediated through the stimulation of lipid metabolism. The histopathological examination further revealed that EGCG significantly prevented the development of tissue abnormalities and improved the morphology of myocardial tissue. Taken together, our results suggested that EGCG plays a significant role in the protection of the cardiovascular system against the high-fat diet. This is a preliminary study, emphasizing on the cardioprotective properties of EGCG. We are currently analyzing the molecular mechanism underlying the protective effects of EGCG.

  14. Tea polyphenols inhibit rat osteoclast formation and differentiation.

    Oka, Yoshiomi; Iwai, Shinichi; Amano, Hitoshi; Irie, Yuko; Yatomi, Kentaro; Ryu, Kakei; Yamada, Shoji; Inagaki, Katsunori; Oguchi, Katsuji


    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) play an important role in degeneration of the matrix associated with bone and cartilage. Regulation of osteoclast activity is essential in the treatment of bone disease, including osteoporosis and rheumatoid arthritis. Polyphenols in green tea, particularly epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), inhibit MMPs expression and activity. However, the effects of the black tea polyphenol, theaflavin-3,3'-digallate (TFDG), on osteoclast and MMP activity are unknown. Therefore, we examined whether TFDG and EGCG affect MMP activity and osteoclast formation and differentiation in vitro. TFDG or EGCG (10 and 100 µM) was added to cultures of rat osteoclast precursors cells and mature osteoclasts. Numbers of multinucleated osteoclasts and actin rings decreased in polyphenol-treated cultures relative to control cultures. MMP-2 and MMP-9 activities were lower in TFDG- and EGCG-treated rat osteoclast precursor cells than in control cultures. MMP-9 mRNA levels declined significantly in TFDG-treated osteoclasts in comparison to control osteoclasts. TFDG and EGCG inhibited the formation and differentiation of osteoclasts via inhibition of MMPs. TFDG may suppress actin ring formation more effectively than EGCG. Thus, TFDG and EGCG may be suitable agents or lead compounds for the treatment of bone resorption diseases.

  15. Effect of methionine load on homocysteine levels, lipid peroxidation and DNA damage in rats receiving ethanol

    Alceu Afonso Jordao Júnior


    Full Text Available Changes in the metabolism of methionine can cause hyperhomocysteinemia, inducing a triad of atherosclerosis, hypertension, and increased oxidative stress. The generation of free radicals and oxidative damage to DNA is important in the liver damage caused by ethanol. In this study, the effect of methionine overload associated or otherwise with acute administration of ethanol on homocysteine values, damage to DNA, lipoperoxidation and vitamin E was evaluated. Thirty rats were divided into 3 groups: Group Ethanol 24 hours (EG24, Group Methionine 24 hours (MG24, and Group Methionine and Ethanol 24 hours (MEG24. TBARS, vitamin E, GS and, homocysteine values were determined and the Comet assay was carried out. Increased GSH, vitamin E and homocysteine levels were observed for MEG24, and increased TBARS were observed in EG24. The Comet assay showed an increase in DNA damage in EG24 and DNA protection in MEG24. The administration of ethanol decreased antioxidant levels and increased TBARS, indicating the occurrence of oxidative stress with possible DNA damage. The combination of methionine and ethanol had a protective effect against the ethanol-induced damage, but increased the levels of homocysteine.Alterações no metabolismo da metionina podem ocasionar hiper-homocisteinemia, quadro indutivo de aterosclerose, hipertensão e aumento do estresse oxidativo. A geração de radicais livres e dano oxidativo ao DNA são importantes na injúria hepática provocada pelo etanol. Neste estudo avaliaram-se os efeitos da sobrecarga de metionina associada ou não à administração aguda de etanol sobre valores de homocisteína, dano ao DNA, lipoperoxidação e vitamina E. Foram utilizados 30 ratos Wistar distribuídos em 3 Grupos: Grupo Etanol 24 horas (GE24, Grupo Metionina 24 horas (GM24 e Grupo Metionina e Etanol 24 horas (GME24. Realizaram-se determinações hepáticas de SRATB, vitamina E, GSH, homocisteína e Teste do Cometa e determinações plasm

  16. Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), a major component of green tea, is a dual phosphoinositide-3-kinase/mTOR inhibitor

    Van Aller, Glenn S., E-mail: [Department of Cancer Research, GlaxoSmithKline, Collegeville, PA 19426 (United States); Carson, Jeff D. [Department of Cancer Research, GlaxoSmithKline, Collegeville, PA 19426 (United States); Tang, Wei; Peng, Hao; Zhao, Lin [Discovery Biology, BioDuro, No. 29 Life Science Park Road, Changping, Beijing (China); Copeland, Robert A.; Tummino, Peter J. [Department of Cancer Research, GlaxoSmithKline, Collegeville, PA 19426 (United States); Luo, Lusong [Discovery Biology, BioDuro, No. 29 Life Science Park Road, Changping, Beijing (China)


    Research highlights: {yields} Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) is an ATP-competitive inhibitor of PI3K and mTOR with Ki values around 300 nM. {yields} EGCG inhibits cell proliferation and AKT phosphorylation at Ser473 in MDA-MB-231and A549 cells. {yields} Molecular docking studies show that EGCG binds well to the PI3K kinase domain active site. {yields} These results suggest another important molecular mechanism for the anticancer activities of EGCG. -- Abstract: The PI3K signaling pathway is activated in a broad spectrum of human cancers, either directly by genetic mutation or indirectly via activation of receptor tyrosine kinases or inactivation of the PTEN tumor suppressor. The key nodes of this pathway have emerged as important therapeutic targets for the treatment of cancer. In this study, we show that (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), a major component of green tea, is an ATP-competitive inhibitor of both phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) with K{sub i} values of 380 and 320 nM respectively. The potency of EGCG against PI3K and mTOR is within physiologically relevant concentrations. In addition, EGCG inhibits cell proliferation and AKT phosphorylation at Ser473 in MDA-MB-231 and A549 cells. Molecular docking studies show that EGCG binds well to the PI3K kinase domain active site, agreeing with the finding that EGCG competes for ATP binding. Our results suggest another important molecular mechanism for the anticancer activities of EGCG.

  17. Green tea EGCG suppresses T cell proliferation by impairing IL-2/IL-2R signaling leading to inhibition of cell cycle

    Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), an active ingredient of green tea, has been indicated to have various health benefits. However, little is known about the effect of EGCG on immune function. In this study, we investigated the effect of in vitro EGCG supplementation at physiologically relevant level...

  18. Green tea EGCG suppresses T cell proliferation through impairment of IL-2/IL-2 receptor signaling

    Studies have suggested a benefit of consuming green tea in promoting general health and reducing the risk of certain diseases. However, little is known about the effect of green tea on immune function. In this study we determined the effect of epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), the major active comp...

  19. Epigallocatechin gallate prevents inflammation by reducing macrophage infiltration and inhibiting tumor necrosis factor-α signaling in the pancreas of rats on a high-fat diet.

    Cao, Yanli; Bao, Suqing; Yang, Wanli; Zhang, Jin; Li, Lin; Shan, Zhongyan; Teng, Weiping


    In this study, we hypothesized that epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) would suppress inflammation in the pancreas, and thus, we investigated the effects that EGCG administration had in the pancreas of rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD). To test our hypothesis, 30 male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 2 groups: normal diet (control) group and HFD group. When there was a significant difference in body weight between the 2 groups (P pancreas of HFD rats.

  20. EGCG debilitates the persistence of EBV latency by reducing the DNA binding potency of nuclear antigen 1

    Chen, Ya-Lin; Tsai, Hsing-Lyn [Department of Life Sciences, Tzu-Chi University, 701 Chung-Yang Rd. Sec 3, Hualien 97004, Taiwan (China); Peng, Chih-Wen, E-mail: [Department of Life Sciences, Tzu-Chi University, 701 Chung-Yang Rd. Sec 3, Hualien 97004, Taiwan (China)


    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Two cell-based reporter platforms were established for screening of EBNA1 inhibitors. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer EGCG acts as an inhibitor to block EBNA1 binding with the cognate oriP sequence. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer EGCG debilitates EBNA1-dependent transcription enhancement and episome maintenance. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer EGCG impairs persistence of EBV latency. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer EGCG is a potent anti-EBV agent for targeting the latent cascade of EBV. -- Abstract: Because the expression of EBNA1 is prevalent in all EBV-associated tumors, it has become one of the most attractive drug targets for the discovery of anti-EBV compounds. In a cell-based reporter system, EBNA1 consistently upregulated the transcription of an oriP-Luc mini-EBV episome by 6- to 8-fold. The treatment of cells with 50 {mu}M EGCG effectively blocked the binding of EBNA1 to oriP-DNA both in vivo and in vitro, which led to the abrogation of EBNA1-dependent episome maintenance and transcriptional enhancement. Importantly, the anti-EBNA1 effects caused by EGCG ultimately impaired the persistence of EBV latent infection. Our data suggest that the inhibition of EBNA1 activity by EGCG could be a promising starting point for the development of new protocols for anti-EBV therapy.

  1. Superficially projecting principal neurons in layer V of medial entorhinal cortex in the rat receive excitatory retrosplenial input.

    Czajkowski, Rafał; Sugar, Jørgen; Zhang, Sheng-Jia; Couey, Jonathan J; Ye, Jing; Witter, Menno P


    Principal cells in layer V of the medial entorhinal cortex (MEC) have a nodal position in the cortical-hippocampal network. They are the main recipients of hippocampal output and receive inputs from several cortical areas, including a prominent one from the retrosplenial cortex (RSC), likely targeting basal dendrites of layer V neurons. The latter project to extrahippocampal structures but also relay information to the superficial layers of MEC, closing the hippocampal-entorhinal loop. In the rat, we electrophysiologically and morphologically characterized RSC input into MEC and conclude that RSC provides an excitatory input to layer V pyramidal cells. Ultrastructural analyses of anterogradely labeled RSC projections showed that RSC axons in layer V of MEC form predominantly asymmetrical, likely excitatory, synapses on dendritic spines (90%) or shafts (8%), with 2% symmetrical, likely inhibitory, synapses on shafts and spines. The overall excitatory nature of the RSC input was confirmed by an optogenetic approach. Patterned laser stimulation of channelrhodopsin-expressing presynaptic RSC axons evoked exclusively EPSPs in recorded postsynaptic layer V cells. All responding layer V pyramidal cells had an axon extending toward the white matter. Half of these neurons also sent an axon to superficial layers. Confocal imaging of RSC synapses onto MEC layer V neurons shown to project superficially by way of retrogradely labeling from superficial layers confirmed that proximal dendrites of superficially projecting cells are among the targets of inputs from RSC. The excitatory RSC input thus interacts with both entorhinal-cortical and entorhinal-hippocampal circuits.

  2. The effect of zinc deficiency on erythrocyte membrane lipids of force-fed rats receiving a diet containing coconut oil or fish oil.

    Eder, K; Kirchgessner, M


    In the present study, the effect of zinc deficiency on erythrocyte membrane lipids of force-fed rats that received either a diet with coconut oil and safflower oil (86:14, w/w) or a diet with fish oil and safflower oil (91:9, w/w) was investigated. Zinc deficiency caused in the rats fed both types of dietary fat an increase in the amounts of total phospholipids and individual phospholipid classes in erythrocyte membranes. In the rats fed the coconut oil diet, zinc deficiency caused an increase in the proportion of docosahexaenoic acid (22:6) in phosphatidylcholine (PC), diacyl phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), phosphatidylserine (PS), and in total erythrocyte membrane fatty acids. In contrast, in the rats fed the fish oil diet, zinc deficiency caused an increase in the proportion of docosahexaenoic acid only in PC, but not in the other phospholipids. However, in these rats, changes in the ratio between eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5) and the n-3 fatty acids with 20 and 22 carbon atoms were observed in PC, diacyl PE and plasmalogen PE. The most pronounced changes in fatty acid composition due to zinc deficiency in the rats fed both types of fat occurred in PC. There was a relationship between the changes in the composition of plasma total fatty acids and the changes in fatty acid composition of erythrocyte membrane PC caused by zinc deficiency in the rats fed both types of dietary fat. The amount of cholesterol was similar in all treatment groups. However, zinc-deficient rats fed the coconut oil diet-but not those fed the fish oil diet-had an increased ratio between total phospholipids and cholesterol. Thus, the study shows that the effect of zinc deficiency on erythrocyte membrane lipids is to some degree similar for rats fed a coconut oil diet and rats fed a fish oil diet, and to some degree different.

  3. Epigallocatechin gallate and caffeine differentially inhibit the intestinal absorption of cholesterol and fat in ovariectomized rats.

    Wang, Shu; Noh, Sang K; Koo, Sung I


    We conducted this study to determine whether green tea constituents, (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and caffeine, affect the intestinal absorption of cholesterol (CH), fat, and other fat-soluble compounds. Ovariectomized rats with lymph cannula were infused intraduodenally with a lipid emulsion containing 14C-labeled CH (14C-CH), alpha-tocopherol (alpha TOH), triolein, and sodium taurocholate, without (control) or with EGCG, caffeine, or EGCG plus caffeine, in PBS, pH 6.5. The lymphatic total 14C-CH was significantly lowered by EGCG (21.1 +/- 2.1% dose), caffeine (27.9 +/- 1.7% dose), and EGCG plus caffeine (19.3 +/- 0.9% dose), compared with the control (32.4 +/- 1.6% dose). The lymphatic output of esterified CH also was significantly lower in rats infused with EGCG (7.9 +/- 0.7 micromol), caffeine (7.6 +/- 0.2 micromol), and EGCG plus caffeine (7.5 +/- 0.6 micromol) than rats in the control group (11.6 +/- 1.7 micromol). Also, EGCG and caffeine significantly lowered the absorption of alpha TOH, another highly hydrophobic lipid. However, the lymphatic outputs of oleic acid (exogenous fatty acid marker) and other fatty acids of endogenous origin were not affected by EGCG but were markedly lowered by caffeine and EGCG plus caffeine. Caffeine significantly lowered the amount of lymph flow, regardless of whether it was infused alone (14.2 +/- 3.9 mL) or with EGCG (18.6 +/- 2.0 mL), compared with EGCG (22.2 +/- 2.2 mL) alone and the control group (23.2 +/- 3.8 mL). The caffeine-induced decline in lymph flow was associated with the lowering of lipid absorption. The results indicate that both EGCG and caffeine inhibit lipid absorption and that the inhibitory effects of the 2 tea constituents are not synergistic but mediated by distinctly different mechanisms.

  4. Effect of EGCG on treatment and prevention of cancer%EGCG在肿瘤防治中的作用

    李晶晶; 胡成平


    表没食子儿茶素没食子酸酯(EGCG)是绿茶的主要组成成分,国内外多年的研究表明其对多种肿瘤均有防治作用.本文将从EGCG在肿瘤的发生发展、肿瘤的转移浸润、肿瘤的血管生成及肿瘤的耐药等方面来阐述EGCG的肿瘤防治作用.%(-)-Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG),is the major component of green tea.According to many investigations from home and abroad,EGCG has the effect on treatment and prevention of a variety of cancers.This article concerns the following aspects of anticancer effect of EGCG: tumor development,metastasis,invasion,angiogenesis,drug resistance,and others.

  5. Liver morphology and morphometry and plasma biochemical parameters of Wistar rats that received leaf infusion of Rudgea viburnoides Benth. (Rubiaceae

    Juliana Castro Monteiro


    Full Text Available Rudgea viburnoides leaves are widely used in popular Brazilian medicine as a diuretic, antirheumatic, hypotensive and blood depurative tea. The present study was carried out to investigate the effects of this infusion on the liver and on the plasma biochemical parameters of Wistar rats. Two groups received the R. viburnoides leaf infusion at a daily dose of 10 or 20g dry-leaves/L water, during 40 days. The histopathological analysis did not show degenerated areas or infiltration of leucocytes. Hepatic morphometry showed accumulation of fat in the hepatocytes of the treated groups. There was no significant change in the plasma levels of urea, creatinin, uric acid, direct bilirubin, cholesterol, total proteins, albumin, gamma glutamyl tranferase (gamma-GT, alanine transaminase (ALT, aspartate transaminase (AST, chlorine, phosphate and calcium. A significant reduction in the plasma levels of triacylglycerol (TAG occurred in the group that received the higher dose.As folhas de Rudgea viburnoides Benth. são utilizadas na medicina popular como diuréticas, hipotensoras, anti-reumáticas, depurativas do sangue e em regimes de emagrecimento. O presente estudo foi delineado para avaliar o efeito da infusão das folhas de R. viburnoides nos parâmetros bioquímicos plasmáticos e na morfologia e morfometria hepática de ratos Wistar adultos. Dois grupos receberam a infusão das folhas, diariamente, nas dosagens de 10 e 20 g de folhas secas/L de água, durante 40 dias. O grupo controle recebeu a mesma quantidade de água. As análises histopatológicas não mostraram áreas degeneradas e infiltrados inflamatórios. A morfometria hepática mostrou acúmulo significativo de gordura nos hepatócitos dos animais tratados, principalmente no grupo que recebeu a maior dose da infusão (8,75% de gotículas lipídicas, comparado com 0,25% delas encontradas nos animais controles. Não foram observadas alterações nos níveis plasmáticos de uréia, creatinina,

  6. Relationships between silicon content and glutathione peroxidase activity in tissues of rats receiving lithium in drinking water.

    Kiełczykowska, Małgorzata; Musik, Irena; Pasternak, Kazimierz


    Lithium salts are widely used in psychiatry, but their presence in organism can result in both beneficial and adverse effects. Silicon, the third most abundant trace element in humans as well as antioxidant enzyme glutathione peroxidase (GPx) play important roles in organism. The disturbance of their level can cause severe disorders. The aim of our work was to evaluate the influence of Li2CO3 administration in drinking water for a period of 4 weeks on Si content and GPx activity in the tissues of liver, kidney, brain and femoral muscle in rats. The concentrations of provided solutions were 0.7, 1.4, 2.6, 3.6, 7.1 and 10.7 mmol Li+ x dm-3. GPx activity was decreased versus control as a consequence of Li treatment, particularly in kidney and brain. This effect could be suggested to contribute to renal abnormalities which could occur during Li therapy. Si tissue level was significantly enhanced versus control in liver and femoral muscle in groups receiving high Li doses. In brain no well-marked changes were observed, whereas in kidney we observed the depletion in low-Li-groups, restoration of Si level in higher-Li-groups and unexpected decrease in the highest-Li-group. Positive correlations between Si content and GPx activity in the tissues of kidney (r = 0.677) and brain (r = 0.790) as well as negative correlation (r = -0.819) in femoral muscle were found. We consider that our results give some reason for suggesting that monitoring of silicon level in patients undergoing Li therapy could be recommended. However, more investigations should be performed, particularly regarding the relationships between Si and GPx in blood and urine Si excretion during lithium administration.

  7. Human cathelicidin LL-37 enhance the antibiofilm effect of EGCG on Streptococcus mutans

    Guo, Yi-jie; Zhang, Bo; Feng, Xue-song; Ren, Hui-xun; Xu, Ji-ru


    Background Streptococcus mutans forms biofilms as a resistance mechanism against antimicrobial agents in the human oral cavity. We recently showed that human cathelicidin LL-37 exhibits inhibitory effects on biofilm formation of S. mutans through interaction with lipoteichoic acid (LTA), but without antibacterial or biofilm dispersal abilities. (−)-Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) is the most abundant constituent of tea catechins that has the greatest anti-infective potential to inhibit the gr...

  8. Green tea polyphenol EGCG reverse cisplatin resistance of A549/DDP cell line through candidate genes demethylation.

    Zhang, Youwei; Wang, Xiang; Han, Liang; Zhou, Yizhou; Sun, Sanyuan


    Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), the major polyphenol in green tea, has been extensively studied as a potential demethylating agent. Our hypothesis is that EGCG could resensitize non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells to cisplatin (DDP) through candidate genes demethylation. The A549/DDP cell line was established by continuous exposure of A549 cells to increasing concentrations of DDP. MTT, colony formation assay, flow cytometric analysis, Hoechst staining, real time-PCR, quantitative methylation-specific PCR and in vivo experiments were performed in this study. EGCG+DDP treatment significantly caused proliferation inhibition, cell cycle arrest in G1 phase, increase of apoptosis in A549/DDP cells, along with inhibition of DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) activity and histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity, reversal of hypermethylated status and downregulated expression of GAS1, TIMP4, ICAM1 and WISP2 gene in A549/DDP cells. Furthermore, pre-treatment with EGCG followed by DDP caused significant tumor inhibition in vivo. Methylation levels of GAS1, TIMP4, ICAM1 and WISP2 were decreased and their expression levels were increased in EGCG-treatment groups, but only combinatorial treatment group caused growth inhibition. In conclusion, we identified EGCG pretreatment resensitized cells to DDP, along with the demethylation and restoration of expression of candidate genes.

  9. Green tea polyphenol EGCG suppresses lung cancer cell growth through upregulating miR-210 expression caused by stabilizing HIF-1α.

    Wang, Hong; Bian, Shengjie; Yang, Chung S


    (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) has been reported to affect many cellular regulatory pathways. This study aims to determine whether EGCG could target microRNA (miRNA), one of the mechanisms for cells to achieve subtle change in multiple targets. We found that, in both human and mouse lung cancer cells in culture, EGCG specifically upregulated the expression of miR-210, a major miRNA regulated by HIF-1α. Furthermore, we found that overexpression of miR-210 led to reduced cell proliferation rate and anchorage-independent growth as well as reduced sensitivity to EGCG. On the mechanisms of miR-210 regulation by EGCG, we demonstrated that the regulation was mediated through the hypoxia-response element in miR-210 promoter. Consistently, the upregulation of miR-210 was found to be correlated with the stabilized HIF-1α in lung cancer cell lines after EGCG treatment. This EGCG-induced stabilization of HIF-1α was further shown by the stabilization of HA-tagged HIF-1α but not the P402A/P564A-mutated HIF-1α by EGCG, suggesting that EGCG targets the oxygen-dependent degradation (ODD) domain. Direct evidence was obtained by affinity binding assay showing that EGCG specifically binds HIF-1α with a K(d) = 3.47 μM. This result suggests that EGCG binding interferes with the hydroxylation of key Pro residues in the ODD domain, preventing HIF-1α from the Pro hydroxylation-dependent ubiquitination and subsequent proteosome-mediated degradation. In summary, our results demonstrated, for the first time, the elevation of miR-210 by EGCG in lung cancer cell lines and this is mediated by the stabilization of HIF-1α. This event contributes to the anticancer activity of EGCG.

  10. Green tea compound epigallo-catechin-3-gallate (EGCG) increases neuronal survival in adult hippocampal neurogenesis in vivo and in vitro.

    Ortiz-López, L; Márquez-Valadez, B; Gómez-Sánchez, A; Silva-Lucero, M D C; Torres-Pérez, M; Téllez-Ballesteros, R I; Ichwan, M; Meraz-Ríos, M A; Kempermann, G; Ramírez-Rodríguez, G B


    Epigallo-catechin-3-gallate (EGCG), found in the leaves of Camellia sinensis (green tea), has antioxidant- and scavenger-functions and acts neuroprotectively. It has been publicized as anti-aging remedy but data on potential cellular mechanisms are scarce. Recent studies claimed that EGCG specifically promotes neural precursor cell proliferation in the dentate gyrus of C57Bl/6 mice, without changes at the level of immature and mature new neurons. We here analyzed the effects of EGCG on adult hippocampal neurogenesis in male Balb/C mice and saw a different pattern. Two weeks of treatment with EGCG (0, 0.625, 1.25, 2.5, 5 and 10mg/kg) showed a dose-response curve that peaked at 2.5mg/kg of EGCG with significantly increased cell survival without affecting cell proliferation but decreasing apoptotic cells. Also, EGCG increased the population of doublecortin-(DCX)-expressing cells that comprises the late intermediate progenitor cells (type-2b and -3) as well as immature neurons. After EGCG treatment, the young DCX-positive neurons showed more elaborated dendritic trees. EGCG also significantly increased net neurogenesis in the adult hippocampus and increased the hippocampal levels of phospho-Akt. Ex vivo, EGCG exerted a direct effect on survival and neuronal differentiation of adult hippocampal precursor cells, which was absent, when PI3K, a protein upstream of Akt, was blocked. Our results thus support a pro-survival and a pro-neurogenic role of EGCG. In the context of the conflicting published results, however, potential genetic modifiers must be assumed. These might help to explain the overall variability of study results with EGCG. Our data do indicate, however, that natural compounds such as EGCG can in principle modulate brain plasticity.

  11. Metabolism of (-)-epigallocatechin gallate by rat intestinal flora.

    Takagaki, Akiko; Nanjo, Fumio


    Anaerobic metabolism of (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCg) by rat intestinal bacteria was investigated in vitro. First, intestinal bacteria which are capable of hydrolyzing EGCg to (-)-epigallocatechin (EGC) and gallic acid (2) were screened with 169 strains of enteric bacteria. As a result, Enterobacter aerogenes, Raoultella planticola, Klebsiella pneumoniae susp. pneumoniae, and Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis were found to hydrolyze EGCg. Subsequent steps of EGCg metabolism are degradation of EGC (1) by intestinal bacteria. Then, EGC was incubated with rat intestinal bacteria in 0.1 M phosphate buffer (pH 7.1) and the degradation products were analyzed with time by HPLC or LC-MS. Further, the products formed from EGC were isolated and identified by LC-MS and NMR analyses. The results revealed that EGC was converted first to 1-(3',4',5'-trihydroxyphenyl)-3-(2'',4'',6''-trihydroxyphenyl)propan-2-ol (3) by reductive cleavage between 1 and 2 positions of EGC, and subsequently metabolite 3 was converted to 1-(3',5'-dihydroxyphenyl)-3-(2'',4'',6''-trihydroxyphenyl)propan-2-ol (4) followed by the conversion to 5-(3,5-dihydroxyphenyl)-4-hydroxyvaleric acid (5) by decomposition of the phloroglucinol ring in metabolite 4. This degradation pathway was considered to be the major route of EGCg metabolism in the in vitro study, but two minor routes were also found. In addition to the in vitro experiments, metabolites 3, 4, 5, and 6 were detected as the metabolites after direct injection of EGC into rat cecum. When EGCg was administered orally to the rats, metabolites 4, 5, 6, 11, and 12 were found in the feces. Among the metabolites detected, metabolite 5 was dominant both in the cecal contents and feces. These findings suggested that the metabolic pathway of EGCg found in the in vitro study may be regarded as reflecting its metabolism in vivo.

  12. Chinese green tea ameliorates lung injury in cigarette smoke-exposed rats

    Koo, MWL; Ip, MSM; Man, RYK; Mak, JCW; Chan, KH; Ho, SP; Yeung, SC; So, WHL; Cho, CH; Lam, WK


    Background: Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), which has been shown to have potent antioxidant effect, comprises 80% of catechins in Chinese green tea. This study was to investigate whether cigarette smoke (CS) exposure would induce lung morphological changes and oxidative stress in the CS-exposed rat model, and whether Chinese green tea (Lung Chen tea with EGCG as its main active ingredient) consumption would alter oxidative stress in sera and lung leading to protection of CS-induced lung da...

  13. Combination of erlotinib and EGCG induces apoptosis of head and neck cancers through posttranscriptional regulation of Bim and Bcl-2.

    Haque, Abedul; Rahman, Mohammad Aminur; Chen, Zhuo Georgia; Saba, Nabil F; Khuri, Fadlo R; Shin, Dong M; Ruhul Amin, A R M


    Combinatorial approaches using two or more compounds are gaining increasing attention for cancer therapy. We have previously reported that the combination of the EGFR-TKI erlotinib and epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) exhibited synergistic chemopreventive effects in head and neck cancers by inducing the expression of Bim, p21, p27, and by inhibiting the phosphorylation of ERK and AKT and expression of Bcl-2. In the current study, we further investigated the mechanism of regulation of Bim, Bcl-2, p21 and p27, and their role in apoptosis. shRNA-mediated silencing of Bim significantly inhibited apoptosis induced by the combination of erlotinib and EGCG (p = 0.005). On the other hand, overexpression of Bcl-2 markedly protected cells from apoptosis (p = 0.003), whereas overexpression of constitutively active AKT only minimally protected cells from apoptosis induced by the combination of the two compounds. Analysis of mRNA expression by RT-PCR revealed that erlotinib, EGCG and their combination had no significant effects on the mRNA expression of Bim, p21, p27 or Bcl-2 suggesting the post-transcriptional regulation of these molecules. Furthermore, we found that erlotinib or the combination of EGCG and erlotinib inhibited the phosphorylation of Bim and stabilized Bim after inhibition of protein translation by cycloheximide. Taken together, our results strongly suggest that the combination of erlotinib and EGCG induces apoptosis of SCCHN cells by regulating Bim and Bcl-2 at the posttranscriptional level.

  14. Laminin Receptor-Avid Nanotherapeutic EGCg-AuNPs as a Potential Alternative Therapeutic Approach to Prevent Restenosis

    Menka Khoobchandani


    Full Text Available In our efforts to develop new approaches to treat and prevent human vascular diseases, we report herein our results on the proliferation and migration of human smooth muscles cells (SMCs and endothelial cells (ECs using epigallocatechin-3-gallate conjugated gold nanoparticles (EGCg-AuNPs as possible alternatives to drug coated stents. Detailed in vitro stability studies of EGCg-AuNPs in various biological fluids, affinity and selectivity towards SMCs and ECs have been investigated. The EGCg-AuNPs showed selective inhibitory efficacy toward the migration of SMCs. However, the endothelial cells remained unaffected under similar experimental conditions. The cellular internalization studies have indicated that EGCg-AuNPs internalize into the SMCs and ECs within short periods of time through laminin receptor mediated endocytosis mode. Favorable toxicity profiles and selective affinity toward SMCs and ECs suggest that EGCg-AuNPs may provide attractive alternatives to drug coated stents and therefore offer new therapeutic approaches in treating cardiovascular diseases.

  15. Blockade of the formation of insoluble ubiquitinated protein aggregates by EGCG3"Me in the alloxan-induced diabetic kidney.

    Shuxian Cai

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Renal accumulation of reactive carbonyl compounds (RCCs has been linked to the progression of diabetic nephropathy. We previously demonstrated that carbonyl stress induces the formation of amino-carbonyl cross-links and sharply increases the content of β-sheet-rich structures, which is the seed of insoluble aggregates formation, and tea catechin (--epigallocatechin 3-gallate (EGCG can reverse this process in vitro and in vivo. In this study, methylated derivative (--epigallocatechin-3-O-(3-O-methyl-gallate (EGCG3"Me was hypothesized to neutralize carbonyl stress mediating the formation of insoluble ubiquitinated protein (IUP aggregates, and reduce the early development of diabetic nephropathy. METHODS AND RESULTS: Diabetes was induced in mice by intraperitoneally injecting alloxan monohydrate (200 mg/kg/d twice and administering EGCG3"Me by gavage for 15 d. Reagent case and western blot results showed that, in diabetic kidneys, the carbonyl proteins in the serum increased; and in insoluble protein fraction, 4-hydroxynonenal-modified proteins, IUP aggregates and p62 accumulated; FT-IR study demonstrated that the lipid content, anti-parallel β-sheet structure and aggregates increased. EGCG3"Me treatment could effectively reverse this process, even better than the negative control treatment. CONCLUSIONS: EGCG3"Me exhibiting anti-β-sheet-rich IUP aggregate properties, maybe represents a new strategy to impede the progression of diabetic nephropathy and other diabetic complications.

  16. EGCG Enhances Cisplatin Sensitivity by Regulating Expression of the Copper and Cisplatin Influx Transporter CTR1 in Ovary Cancer.

    Xuemin Wang

    Full Text Available Cisplatin is one of the first-line platinum-based chemotherapeutic agents for treatment of many types of cancer, including ovary cancer. CTR1 (copper transporter 1, a transmembrane solute carrier transporter, has previously been shown to increase the cellular uptake and sensitivity of cisplatin. It is hypothesized that increased CTR1 expression would enhance the sensitivity of cancer cells to cisplatin (cDDP. The present study demonstrates for the first time that (--epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG, a major polyphenol from green tea, can enhance CTR1 mRNA and protein expression in ovarian cancer cells and xenograft mice. EGCG inhibits the rapid degradation of CTR1 induced by cDDP. The combination of EGCG and cDDP increases the accumulation of cDDP and DNA-Pt adducts, and subsequently enhances the sensitivity of ovarian cancer SKOV3 and OVCAR3 cells to the chemotherapeutic agent. In the OVCAR3 ovarian cancer xenograft nude mice model, the combination of the lower concentration of cDDP and EGCG strongly repressed the tumor growth and exhibited protective effect on the nephrotoxicity induced by cisplatin. Overall, these findings uncover a novel chemotherapy mechanism of EGCG as an adjuvant for the treatment of ovarian cancer.

  17. The tissue distribution of diazinon and the inhibition of blood cholinesterase activities in rats and mice receiving a single intraperitoneal dose of diazinon.

    Tomokuni, K; Hasegawa, T; Hirai, Y; Koga, N


    The tissue distribution of diazinon and the inhibition of cholinesterase (ChE) activities in plasma, erythrocyte and brain were investigated using male rats and mice which received a single intraperitoneal (i.p.) dose of diazinon (20 or 100 mg/kg body wt) in olive oil. The blood diazinon level was estimated to reach a maximum at 1-2 h after the i.p. administration. It was demonstrated that the diazinon residue levels are the highest in the kidney, when comparing the distribution of diazinon among liver, kidney and brain in the animals after dosing. It was indicated that the ChE inhibition by diazinon exposure is greater in the plasma than in the erythrocytes for male mice, while its inhibition is greater in the erythrocytes for male rats. Brain ChE activity was also inhibited markedly in the mice after dosing.

  18. Electroanalysis of the interaction between (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) and amyloid-β in the presence of copper.

    Zhang, Biao; Cheng, Xin R; da Silva, Iranaldo S; Hung, Vinci W S; Veloso, Anthony J; Angnes, Lúcio; Kerman, Kagan


    The misfolding of amyloid-beta (Aβ) peptide is one of the pathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Polyphenols are strong antioxidants and metal chelators, with characteristics that are of beneficial therapeutic values for their development as candidates targeting neurodegenerative and metal-induced diseases. We have demonstrated here the electrochemical properties of a green tea component, (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), and its potent activity on Aβ peptides. Characterization of early interactions (≤48 h) between EGCG and Aβ was conducted using square wave voltammetry (SWV). The interaction of Cu(ii) ions with the Tyr-10 residue of Aβ was shown to be affected by surrounding His residues. Morphological changes due to the binding of EGCG and Cu(II) were also elucidated using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Electroanalytical techniques are promising for facilitating the investigation of metals and flavonoids in drug screening studies.

  19. Green tea polyphenols inhibit testosterone production in rat Leydig cells

    Marina S.Figueiroa; Juliany S.B.Cesar Vieira; Disleide S.Leite; Ruben C.O.Andrade Filho; Fabiano Ferreira; Patricia S.Gouveia; Daniel P.Udrisar; Maria I.Wanderley


    This study investigated the acute effects of green tea extract (GTE) and its polyphenol constituents, (-)-epigal-locatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) and (-)-epicatechin (EC), on basal and stimulated testosterone production by rat Leydig cells in vitro. Leydig cells purified in a Percoll gradient were incubated for 3 h with GTE, EGCG or EC and the testosterone precursor androstenedione, in the presence or absence of either protein kinase A (PKA) or protein kinase C (PKC) activators. The reversibility of the effect was studied by pretreating cells for 15 min with GTE or EGCG, allowing them to recover for 1 h and challenging them for 2 h with human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), luteinizing hormone releasing hormone (LHRH), 22(R)-hydroxycholesterol or androstenedione. GTE and EGCG, but not EC, inhibited both basal and kinase-stimulated testosterone production. Under the pretreatment conditions, the inhibitory effect of the higher concentration of GTE/EGCG on hCG/LHRH-stimulated or 22(R)-hydroxycholesterol-induced testosterone production was maintained, whereas androstenedione-supported testosterone production returned to control levels. At the lower concentration of GTE/EGCG, the inhibitory effect of these polyphenols on 22(R)-hydroxycholesterol-supported testosterone production was reversed. The inhibitory effects of GTE may be explained by the action of its principal component, EGCG, and the presence of a gallate group in its structure seems important for its high efficacy in inhibiting testosterone production. The mechanisms underlying the effects of GTE and EGCG involve the inhibition of the PKA/PKC signalling pathways, as well as the inhibition of P450 side-chain cleavage enzyme and 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase function.

  20. Autophagy inhibition contributes to the synergistic interaction between EGCG and doxorubicin to kill the hepatoma Hep3B cells.

    Li Chen

    Full Text Available (--Epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate(EGCG, the highest catechins from green tea, has promisingly been found to sensitize the efficacy of several chemotherapy agents like doxorubicin (DOX in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC treatment. However, the detailed mechanisms by which EGCG augments the chemotherapeutic efficacy remain unclear. Herein, this study was designed to determine the synergistic impacts of EGCG and DOX on hepatoma cells and particularly to reveal whether the autophagic flux is involved in this combination strategy for the HCC. Electron microscopy and fluorescent microscopy confirmed that DOX significantly increased autophagic vesicles in hepatoma Hep3B cells. Western blot and trypan blue assay showed that the increasing autophagy flux by DOX impaired about 45% of DOX-induced cell death in these cells. Conversely, both qRT-PCR and western blotting showed that EGCG played dose-dependently inhibitory role in autophagy signaling, and that markedly promoted cellular growth inhibition. Amazingly, the combined treatment caused a synergistic effect with 40 to 60% increment on cell death and about 45% augmentation on apoptosis versus monotherapy pattern. The DOX-induced autophagy was abolished by this combination therapy. Rapamycin, an autophagic agonist, substantially impaired the anticancer effect of either DOX or combination with EGCG treatment. On the other hand, using small interference RNA targeting chloroquine autophagy-related gene Atg5 and beclin1 to inhibit autophagy signal, hepatoma cell death was dramatically enhanced. Furthermore, in the established subcutaneous Hep3B cells xenograft tumor model, about 25% reduction in tumor growth as well as 50% increment of apoptotic cells were found in combination therapy compared with DOX alone. In addition, immunohistochemistry analysis indicated that the suppressed tendency of autophagic hallmark microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 (LC3 expressions was consistent with thus combined

  1. Heart function in magnetic resonance imaging and the mesenteric artery reactivity in rats receiving lead-contaminated drinking water.

    Skoczynska, A; Skórka, T; Wojakowska, A; Nowacki, D; Turczyn, B; Poręba, R; Tyrankiewicz, U; Byk, K; Szuba, A


    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of lead (Pb)-contaminated drinking water on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-estimated cardiac function, vascular reactivity, and serum lipids in rats. For 3 months, male Wistar rats, aged 4-6 weeks, were given drinking water with the addition of lead acetate at a concentration of 100 ppm Pb (10 rats) or water free from Pb (8 control rats). The cardiac MRI was performed at rest and under β-adrenergic stimulation on a 4.7 T scanner using electrocardiogram-triggered gradient echo (FLASH) cine sequence. After 1-2 weeks of the MRI test, experiments were performed ex vivo. After stabilization of perfusion pressure (PP), norepinephrine at doses from 0.01 to 5.0 μg was dissolved in Krebs solution, injected in a volume of 100 μl, and next infused at a concentration of 0.5 μg/ml into the isolated mesenteric artery. In this manner, preconstricted mesenteric bed was used to determine PP changes induced by acetylcholine, given at doses from 0.05 to 5.0 μg, before and during the infusion of nitric oxide synthase inhibitor (1.0 μg/ml). At the end, dobutamine (5 mg), followed by potassium chloride (10.5 mg), was injected. Lipid levels were determined enzymatically, blood Pb level was measured by the atomic absorption spectrophotometer. This study showed that Pb impairs the left ventricular systolic and diastolic function. Pb-induced changes in response to resistance of vessels to vasoactive agents may be secondary to the reduced left ventricular ejection fraction. The high-density lipoprotein subfraction 2 (HDL2) is involved in the cardiovascular effect of Pb.

  2. Evaluation of immunohistochemical expression of ghrelin-producing rectal cells in Wistar rats receiving the cafeteria diet.

    Lyra, Humberto Fenner; Schiavon, Leonardo de Lucca; Vieira, Daniella Serafin Couto; Teive, André Muller; Costa, Aline; Onzi, Tiago Rafael; Nau, Angélica Luciana; d'Acampora, Armando José


    To investigate the impact of cafeteria diet on ghrelin expression in rectal tissue and identify the morphologic cell type. Twenty-four male Wistar rats were divided into four subgroups of six animals each: RC1 (rat chow 1) and CAF1 (cafeteria diet 1) for a period of 30 days; RC2 (rat chow 2) and CAF2 (cafeteria diet 2) for a period of 60 days. The animal and rectal weight, the number and the type of immunoreactive ghrelin cells were recorded and compared between the subgroups. The statistical study was established by ANOVA and Student's t test. There was no difference in the total of immunoreactive cells (p=0.685) between the subgroups nor between weight and presence or absence of ghrelin expression (p=0.993). All the immunoreactive cells identified were closed-type. The cafeteria diet did not have influence on the amount of immunoreactive rectal cells of ghrelin and only one type (closed-type) of immunoreactive cells was expressed in the rectum.

  3. Evaluation of the Bitter-Masking Potential of Food Proteins for EGCG by a Cell-Based Human Bitter Taste Receptor Assay and Binding Studies

    Bohin, M.C.; Roland, W.S.U.; Gruppen, H.; Gouka, R.J.; Hijden, H.T.W.M.; Dekker, P.; Smit, G.; Vincken, J.P.


    Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) has been ascribed to several health benefits, but its bitter taste influences the liking of products with high concentrations of this compound. ß-Casein, in particular, and several gelatins are known as strong binders of EGCG, contrary to ß-lactoglobulin. The current

  4. Green Tea Extract Ameliorates Learning and Memory Deficits in Ischemic Rats via Its Active Component Polyphenol Epigallocatechin-3-gallate by Modulation of Oxidative Stress and Neuroinflammation

    Kuo-Jen Wu


    Full Text Available Ischemic stroke results in brain damage and behavioral deficits including memory impairment. Protective effects of green tea extract (GTex and its major functional polyphenol (−-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG on memory were examined in cerebral ischemic rats. GTex and EGCG were administered 1 hr before middle cerebral artery ligation in rats. GTex, EGCG, and pentoxifylline (PTX significantly improved ishemic-induced memory impairment in a Morris water maze test. Malondialdehyde (MDA levels, glutathione (GSH, and superoxide dismutase (SOD activity in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus were increased by long-term treatment with GTex and EGCG. Both compounds were also associated with reduced cerebral infraction breakdown of MDA and GSH in the hippocampus. In in vitro experiments, EGCG had anti-inflammatory effects in BV-2 microglia cells. EGCG inhibited lipopolysaccharide- (LPS- induced nitric oxide production and reduced cyclooxygenase-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase expression in BV-2 cells. GTex and its active polyphenol EGCG improved learning and memory deficits in a cerebral ischemia animal model and such protection may be due to the reduction of oxidative stress and neuroinflammation.

  5. Epigallocatechin gallate exacerbates fluoride-induced oxidative stress mediated testicular toxicity in rats through the activation of Nrf2 signaling pathway

    S. Thangapandiyan; S. Miltonprabu


    Objective:To explore the ameliorative potential of epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) by evaluating markers of oxidative stress, apoptosis, and inflammation and antioxidant competence in Fl intoxicated rats.Methods:The animals were divided in to four groups that is control, EGCG alone, NaF, and EGCG with NaF. Group III animal were exposed to Fl as sodium Fluoride (NaF) (25 mg/kg BW) for 4 weeks. After the completion of the treatment, the testis tissues has been removed and used for the experimental observations.Results:Pre-administration of EGCG to Fl intoxicated rats showed a significant normalization in the levels of steroidogenic enzymes, testosterone, sperm functions, oxidative stress markers and antioxidant status. The altered levels of proinflammatory cytokines and apoptotic markers were also relapsed in close proximity to control. In addition, EGCG significantly improved antioxidant status and reduced the oxidative stress and pathological changes in testes. The mRNA and protein analysis also substantiated that EGCG pre-treatment markedly enhanced the expression of Nrf2 and its target genes HO-1, NQO1 andγGCS and suppressed the expression of Keap1 in testis.Conclusion: Altogether, our findings supports that EGCG attenuates Fl toxicity in testis through Nrf2 activation.

  6. The Protective Effects of Epigallocatechin Gallate Against Distant Organ Damage After Severe Skin Burns--Experimental Study Using a Rat Model of Thermal Trauma.

    Hosnuter, Mubin; Melikoglu, Cenk; Aslan, Cem; Saglam, Gulcan; Sutcu, Recep


    Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), a green tea polyphenol, has potent antioxidant properties. The purpose of the present study was to examine the possible preventative effects of EGCG against internal organ injury due to large-surface skin burns in a rat model. The study design involved three groups of rats: a sham group and two groups with 25-30% full-thickness burns: (a) the sham group without burns or treatment (n=18); (b) the control burn group (burns+sterile saline, n=18); and (c) the burn treatment group (burns+treatment with EGCG, n=18). EGCG was administered intraperitoneally immediately after the thermal injury, and daily in 100 μmol/kg doses. Kidney and lung tissue samples were taken to determine the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) after the first, third and seventh post-burn days. In the EGCG-treated burn group, SOD and GPX activity were significantly higher than in the burn control group. Additionally, MDA and TNF-α levels were significantly lower in the EGCG-treated burn group. Based on this study, it might be anticipated that EGCG treatment may be beneficial in burn injury cases.

  7. Investigating the enteroenteric recirculation of apixaban, a factor Xa inhibitor: administration of activated charcoal to bile duct-cannulated rats and dogs receiving an intravenous dose and use of drug transporter knockout rats.

    Zhang, Donglu; Frost, Charles E; He, Kan; Rodrigues, A David; Wang, Xiaoli; Wang, Lifei; Goosen, Theunis C; Humphreys, W Griffith


    The study described here investigated the impact of intestinal excretion (IE; excretion of drug directly from circulation to intestinal lumen), enteroenteric recirculation (EER), and renal tubule recirculation (RTR) on apixaban pharmacokinetics and disposition. The experimental approaches involve integrating apixaban elimination pathways with pharmacokinetic profiles obtained from bile duct-cannulated (BDC) rats and dogs receiving i.v. doses together with oral administration of activated charcoal (AC). Additionally, the role of P-gp (P-glycoprotein; abcb1) and BCRP (breast cancer resistance protein; abcg2) in apixaban disposition was evaluated in experiments using transporter inhibitors and transporter knockout (KO) rats. Approximately 20-50% of an apixaban i.v. dose was found in feces of BDC rats and dogs, suggesting IE leading to fecal elimination and intestinal clearance (IC). The fecal elimination, IC, and systemic clearance of apixaban were increased upon AC administration in both BDC rats and dogs and were decreased in BDC rats dosed with GF-120918, a dual BCRP and P-gp inhibitor). BCRP appeared to play a more important role for absorption and intestinal and renal elimination of apixaban than P-gp in transporter-KO rats after oral and i.v. dosing, which led to a higher level of active renal excretion in rat than other species. These data demonstrate that apixaban undergoes IE, EER, and RTR that are facilitated by efflux transporters. Intestinal reabsorption of apixaban could be interrupted by AC even at 3 hours post-drug dose in dogs (late charcoal effect). This study demonstrates that the intestine is an organ for direct clearance and redistribution of apixaban. The IE, EER, and RTR contribute to overall pharmacokinetic profiles of apixaban. IE as a clearance pathway, balanced with metabolism and renal excretion, helps decrease the impacts of intrinsic (renal or hepatic impairment) and extrinsic (drug-drug interactions) factors on apixaban disposition.

  8. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced mastitis in rats via suppressing MAPK mediated inflammatory responses and oxidative stress.

    Chen, Jinglou; Xu, Jun; Li, Jingjing; Du, Lifen; Chen, Tao; Liu, Ping; Peng, Sisi; Wang, Mingwei; Song, Hongping


    Green tea (Camellia sinensis) is an extremely popular beverage worldwide. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) is one of the major catechins isolated from green tea and contributes to its beneficial therapeutic functions including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer effects. However, the effect of EGCG on mastitis is not yet known. This study was to investigate the protective potential of EGCG against mastitis in rats. The rat mastitis model was induced by injecting lipopolysaccharide (LPS) into the duct of mammary gland. The mammary gland was collected after the experimental period. The levels of mammary oxidative stress and inflammatory responses were assessed by measuring the local activities of antioxidant enzymes and the levels of inflammatory cytokines. The mammary expressions of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), nuclear factor κB-p65 (NFκB-p65) and hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) were evaluated by western blot analysis. It was found that EGCG obviously normalized LPS-induced low activities of antioxidant enzymes as well as decreased the high levels of inflammatory cytokines. Additionally, EGCG inhibited the mammary over-expression of MAPKs, NFκB-p65 and HIF-1α. These results indicated that EGCG was able to attenuate LPS-induced mastitis in rats by suppressing MAPK related oxidative stress and inflammatory responses. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Epigallocatechin-gallate (EGCG) regulates autophagy in human retinal pigment epithelial cells: A potential role for reducing UVB light-induced retinal damage

    Li, Chao-Peng; Yao, Jin; Tao, Zhi-Fu; Li, Xiu-Miao; Jiang, Qin, E-mail:; Yan, Biao, E-mail:


    Highlights: •UVB irradiation induces RPE autophagy. •EGCG treatment represses UVB-mediated autophagy. •EGCG regulates UVB-mediated autophagy through mTOR signaling pathway. •EGCG sensitizes RPE cells to UVB-induced damage in an autophagy-dependent manner. -- Abstract: Autophagy is an intracellular catabolic process involved in protein and organelle degradation via the lysosomal pathway that has been linked in the pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). UVB irradiation-mediated degeneration of the macular retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells is an important hallmark of AMD, which is along with the change in RPE autophagy. Thus, pharmacological manipulation of RPE autophagy may offer an alternative therapeutic target in AMD. Here, we found that epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), a polyphenolic compound from green tea, plays a regulatory role in UVB irradiation-induced autophagy in RPE cells. UVB irradiation results in a marked increase in the amount of LC3-II protein in a dose-dependent manner. EGCG administration leads to a significant reduction in the formation of LC3-II and autophagosomes. mTOR signaling activation is required for EGCG-induced LC3-II formation, as evidenced by the fact that EGCG-induced LC3-II formation is significantly impaired by rapamycin administration. Moreover, EGCG significantly alleviates the toxic effects of UVB irradiation on RPE cells in an autophagy-dependent manner. Collectively, our study reveals a novel role of EGCG in RPE autophagy. EGCG may be exploited as a potential therapeutic reagent for the treatment of pathological conditions associated with abnormal autophagy.

  10. EGCG Inhibits Proliferation, Invasiveness and Tumor Growth by Up-Regulation of Adhesion Molecules, Suppression of Gelatinases Activity, and Induction of Apoptosis in Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Cells

    Chih-Yeu Fang


    Full Text Available (−-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG, a major green tea polyphenol, has been shown to inhibit the proliferation of a variety of tumor cells. Epidemiological studies have shown that drinking green tea can reduce the incidence of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC, yet the underlying mechanism is not well understood. In this study, the inhibitory effect of EGCG was tested on a set of Epstein Barr virus-negative and -positive NPC cell lines. Treatment with EGCG inhibited the proliferation of NPC cells but did not affect the growth of a non-malignant nasopharyngeal cell line, NP460hTert. Moreover, EGCG treated cells had reduced migration and invasive properties. The expression of the cell adhesion molecules E-cadherin and β-catenin was found to be up-regulated by EGCG treatment, while the down-regulation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-2 and MMP-9 were found to be mediated by suppression of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK phosphorylation and AP-1 and Sp1 transactivation. Spheroid formation by NPC cells in suspension was significantly inhibited by EGCG. Oral administration of EGCG was capable of suppressing tumor growth in xenografted mice bearing NPC tumors. Treatment with EGCG was found to elevate the expression of p53 and p21, and eventually led to apoptosis of NPC cells via caspase 3 activation. The nuclear translocation of NF-κB and β-catenin was also suppressed by EGCG treatment. These results indicate that EGCG can inhibit the proliferation and invasiveness, and induce apoptosis, of NPC cells, making it a promising agent for chemoprevention or adjuvant therapy of NPC.

  11. Cardioprotective effect of epigallocatechin-3-gallate against myocardial infarction in hypercholesterolemic rats

    Zhong,Wei; HUAN, XIAO-DONG; Cao, Qian; YANG, Jun


    Cardiovascular diseases are closely associated with a high-cholesterol or high-fat diet. The aim of the present study was to investigate the cadioprotective effect of epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) in high-fat diet-fed rats, with special emphasis on myocardial infarction. A high-fat diet was administered to male Wistar rats for 45 days and the rats of the treatment group were administered EGCG via intraperitoneal injection for the last 15 days. The serum lipid profile, antioxidant enzyme a...

  12. Adverse effects of melatonin on rat pups of Wistar-Kyoto dams receiving melatonin supplementation during pregnancy.

    Singh, Harbindar Jeet; Keah, Lee Siew; Kumar, Arun; Sirajudeen, K N S


    This report documents an incidental finding during a study investigating the effects of melatonin supplementation on the development of blood pressure in SHR. Administration of 10 mg/kg/day of melatonin in drinking water during pregnancy to Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) dams caused a loss of more than 50% of the pups by the age of three weeks and 95% by the age of 6 weeks. There was no maternal morbidity or mortality in the two strains or death of any of the SHR pups. No obvious physical defects were present but mean body weight was lower in the surviving WKY rats when compared to that of melatonin supplemented SHR or non-supplemented WKY pups. The reason for the high mortality in WKY pups is uncertain and appears to be strain if not batch specific. There is a need for caution in its use, particularly during pregnancy, and clearly necessitates more detailed studies.

  13. Differences in maturation of the jaw-opening reflex between rats that received early-and late-masticatory stimulation.

    Changsiripun, C; Yabushita, T; Soma, K


    The jaw-opening reflex (JOR) plays an important role in the regulation of jaw movement during mastication. Previous study showed that altered masticatory function during growth impedes JOR maturation and thus may affect masticatory performance in adults. However, no studies have compared the benefit of early and delayed correction in terms of functional development. Therefore, this study tested the hypothesis that early-stimulation of masticatory function during growth can promote JOR maturation better than late-stimulation during adulthood. Soon after weaning, 120 female Wistar rats were divided into two groups and fed either solid (control group) or liquid (experimental group) diets. The experimental group was further divided into early-, late-, and non-stimulation subgroups. Early- and late-stimulation groups were fed a solid diet instead of a liquid diet at 5- and 11-week-old, respectively, whereas non-stimulation group was fed only a liquid diet until the end of the experiment. At 3, 5, 7, 9, 11 and 13 weeks, JOR recordings were conducted in anaesthetised rats of all groups. Latency and peak-to-peak amplitude of the JOR were compared between the groups. From 7 to 13 weeks, early-stimulation group showed a JOR with short latency and high amplitude similar to that of control group. In contrast, late- and non-stimulation groups showed significantly longer latency and smaller amplitude of the JOR than in control group. We demonstrated that early masticatory stimulation within the critical period for programming mastication may have greater potential to restore JOR maturation to values close to those in normal adults. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. (--Epigallocatechin-3-gallate Reduces Cigarette Smoke-Induced Airway Neutrophilic Inflammation and Mucin Hypersecretion in Rats

    Yingmin Liang


    Full Text Available Background: Cigarette smoking is the leading cause of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. (--Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG, the major catechins in Chinese green tea, has been studied for its anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory properties in cell and animal models. In this study, we aimed to analyze the effects of EGCG on cigarette smoke (CS-induced airway inflammation and mucus secretion in the CS-exposed rat model.Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into either sham air (SA or CS exposure. EGCG (50 mg/kg b.wt. was given by oral gavage every other day in both SA and CS-exposed animals. Oxidative stress and inflammatory markers were determined in serum and/or bronchoalveolar lavage fluid by biochemical assays or ELISA. Lung morphological changes were examined by Periodic Acid-Schiff, Masson’s Trichrome staining and immunohistochemical analysis. Western blot analysis was performed to explore the effects of EGCG on epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR-mediated signaling pathway.Results: (--Epigallocatechin-3-gallate treatment attenuated CS-induced oxidative stress, lung cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant-1 release and neutrophil recruitment. CS exposure caused an increase in the number of goblet cells in line with MUC5AC upregulation, and increased lung collagen deposition, which were alleviated in the presence of EGCG. In addition, CS-induced phosphorylation of EGFR in rat lung was abrogated by EGCG treatment.Conclusion: (--Epigallocatechin-3-gallate treatment ameliorated CS-induced oxidative stress and neutrophilic inflammation, as well as airway mucus production and collagen deposition in rats. The present findings suggest that EGCG has a therapeutic effect on chronic airway inflammation and abnormal airway mucus production probably via inhibition of EGFR signaling pathway.

  15. Chronic treatment with epigallocatechin gallate reduces motor hyperactivity and affects in vitro tested intestinal motility of spontaneously hypertensive rats

    Maria Assunta Potenza


    Full Text Available Background: Green tea catechins seem to contribute toward reducing body weight and fat. Objective: We aimed to investigate whether chronic administration of (–-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG, the most abundant catechin of green tea, reduces weight gain in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR, an animal model of metabolic syndrome, by increasing motor activity and/or by altering gastrointestinal motility. Design: Nine-week-old SHR were randomly assigned to two groups and treated by gavage for 3 weeks with vehicle dimethyl sulfoxide or EGCG (200 mg/kg/day. Age-matched Wistar-Kyoto (WKY control rats were treated with vehicle alone. The effect of chronic administration of EGCG was evaluated on open-field motor activity and on ex vivo colonic and duodenal motility. Moreover, in vitro acute effect of 20-min incubation with EGCG (100 µM or vehicle was evaluated in colonic and duodenal specimens from untreated WKY rats and SHR. Results: Vehicle-treated SHR were normoglycemic and hyperinsulinemic, and showed a reduction of plasma adiponectin when compared to vehicle-treated WKY rats. In addition, consistent with fasting glucose and insulin values, vehicle-treated SHR were more insulin resistant than age-matched vehicle-treated WKY rats. Chronic treatment for 3 weeks with EGCG improved insulin sensitivity, raised plasma adiponectin levels, and reduced food intake and weight gain in SHR. Vehicle-treated SHR showed increased open-field motor activity (both crossings and rearings when tested after each week of treatment. The overall hyperactivity of vehicle-treated SHR was significantly reduced to the levels of vehicle-treated WKY rats after 2 and 3 weeks of EGCG treatment. Colonic and duodenal preparations obtained from SHR chronically treated in vivo with EGCG showed reduced responses to carbachol (0.05–5 µM and increased inhibitory response to electrical field stimulation (EFS, 1–10 Hz, 13 V, 1 msec, 10-sec train duration, respectively. In vitro

  16. Chronic treatment with epigallocatechin gallate reduces motor hyperactivity and affects in vitro tested intestinal motility of spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    Potenza, Maria Assunta; Montagnani, Monica; Nacci, Carmela; De Salvia, Maria Antonietta


    Green tea catechins seem to contribute toward reducing body weight and fat. We aimed to investigate whether chronic administration of (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), the most abundant catechin of green tea, reduces weight gain in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), an animal model of metabolic syndrome, by increasing motor activity and/or by altering gastrointestinal motility. Nine-week-old SHR were randomly assigned to two groups and treated by gavage for 3 weeks with vehicle dimethyl sulfoxide or EGCG (200 mg/kg/day). Age-matched Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) control rats were treated with vehicle alone. The effect of chronic administration of EGCG was evaluated on open-field motor activity and on ex vivo colonic and duodenal motility. Moreover, in vitro acute effect of 20-min incubation with EGCG (100 µM) or vehicle was evaluated in colonic and duodenal specimens from untreated WKY rats and SHR. Vehicle-treated SHR were normoglycemic and hyperinsulinemic, and showed a reduction of plasma adiponectin when compared to vehicle-treated WKY rats. In addition, consistent with fasting glucose and insulin values, vehicle-treated SHR were more insulin resistant than age-matched vehicle-treated WKY rats. Chronic treatment for 3 weeks with EGCG improved insulin sensitivity, raised plasma adiponectin levels, and reduced food intake and weight gain in SHR. Vehicle-treated SHR showed increased open-field motor activity (both crossings and rearings) when tested after each week of treatment. The overall hyperactivity of vehicle-treated SHR was significantly reduced to the levels of vehicle-treated WKY rats after 2 and 3 weeks of EGCG treatment. Colonic and duodenal preparations obtained from SHR chronically treated in vivo with EGCG showed reduced responses to carbachol (0.05-5 µM) and increased inhibitory response to electrical field stimulation (EFS, 1-10 Hz, 13 V, 1 msec, 10-sec train duration), respectively. In vitro acute EGCG incubation (100 µM, 20 min) of colonic and

  17. Optimization on condition of epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) nanoliposomes by response surface methodology and cellular uptake studies in Caco-2 cells

    Luo, Xiaobo; Guan, Rongfa; Chen, Xiaoqiang; Tao, Miao; Ma, Jieqing; Zhao, Jin


    The major component in green tea polyphenols, epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), has been demonstrated to prevent carcinogenesis. To improve the effectiveness of EGCG, liposomes were used as a carrier in this study. Reverse-phase evaporation method besides response surface methodology is a simple, rapid, and beneficial approach for liposome preparation and optimization. The optimal preparation conditions were as follows: phosphatidylcholine-to-cholesterol ratio of 4.00, EGCG concentration of 4.88 mg/mL, Tween 80 concentration of 1.08 mg/mL, and rotary evaporation temperature of 34.51°C. Under these conditions, the experimental encapsulation efficiency and size of EGCG nanoliposomes were 85.79% ± 1.65% and 180 nm ± 4 nm, which were close with the predicted value. The malondialdehyde value and the release test in vitro indicated that the prepared EGCG nanoliposomes were stable and suitable for more widespread application. Furthermore, compared with free EGCG, encapsulation of EGCG enhanced its inhibitory effect on tumor cell viability at higher concentrations.

  18. Preparation and characterization of (−)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG)-loaded nanoparticles and their inhibitory effects on Human breast cancer MCF-7 cells

    Zeng, Liang; Yan, Jingna; Luo, Liyong; Ma, Mengjun; Zhu, Huiqun


    We were employing nanotechnology to improve the targeting ability of (−)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) towards MCF-7 cells, and two kinds of EGCG nanoparticles (FA-NPS-PEG and FA-PEG-NPS) were obtained, besides, their characteristics and effects on MCF-7 cells were studied. The results indicated that (i) both FA-NPS-PEG and FA-PEG-NPS have high stabilities; (ii) their particles sizes were 185.0 ± 13.5 nm and 142.7 ± 7.2 nm, respectively; (iii) their encapsulation efficiencies of EGCG were 90.36 ± 2.20% and 39.79 ± 7.54%, respectively. (iv) there was no cytotoxicity observed in EGCG, FA-NPS-PEG and FA-PEG-NPS toward MCF-7 cells over all concentrations (0~400 μg/mL) tested; (v) EGCG, FA-NPS-PEG and FA-PEG-NPS inhibited MCF-7 cells proliferation in dose-dependent manners, with the average IC50 of 470.5 ± 33.0, 65.9 ± 0.4 and 66.6 ± 0.6 μg/mL; (vi) EGCG, FA-NPS-PEG and FA-PEG-NPS could modulated the expressions of several key regulatory proteins in PI3K-Akt pathway such as up-regulation of PTEN, p21 and Bax, and down-regulation of p-PDK1, p-AKT, CyclinD1 and Bcl-2, which gave an illustration about the mechanism by which EGCG nanoparticles inhibited MCF-7 cells proliferation. In this study, EGCG nanoparticles can significantly enhance the targeting ability and efficacy of EGCG, which is considered to an experimental foundation for further research on its activity, targeting ability and metabolism in vivo.

  19. Physiological effects of epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) on energy expenditure for prospective fat oxidation in humans: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Kapoor, Mahendra P; Sugita, Masaaki; Fukuzawa, Yoshitaka; Okubo, Tsutomu


    Green tea catechins (GTCs) are known to improve fat oxidation (FOX) during fasted, rested and exercise conditions wherein epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) is thought to be the most pharmacologically active and has been studied extensively. From the available data of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on EGCG, we carried out a systematic review and meta-analysis to elucidate whether EGCG consumption indeed increase energy expenditure (EE) and promote FOX. A systematic review of the literature was conducted using electronic databases (PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, CINAHL, JICST, JSTPLUS, and JMEDPLUS and others) and eight RCTs were included. RCTs were reviewed using Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines and methodological quality was assessed. After data extraction, results were aggregated using fixed- and random-effect approaches and expressed to quantify the relationship between the dose of EGCG for respiratory quotient (RQ), EE and rate of FOX to compare the EGCG and placebo treatments. The meta-analysis results of verities of studies in terms of dose and length of duration revealed that EGCG supplementation provided significant mean difference (MD) when compared with placebo for RQ [MD: -0.02; 95% confidence intervals (95% CI), -0.04 to 0.00; I(2)=67%; P=.01] and EE [MD: 158.05 kJ/day; 95% CI, 4.72 to 311.38; I(2)=0%; P=.04] in fixed-effect approach. Changes in FOX did not reach the level of statistical significance. Meta-analyses of EGCG influence on the body mass index, waist circumference and total body fat mass (TBFM) were also examined and their impact on the promotion of FOX is reported. Effect of EGCG doses was also systematically reviewed. Finding showed that EGCG intake moderately accelerates EE and reduces RQ. The analyses revealed that the EGCG resulted in difference in RQ and EE but the effect on the other measures of energy metabolism was relatively mild. Possibly, EGCG alone has the potential to increase

  20. Epigallocatechin gallate improves insulin signaling by decreasing toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) activity in adipose tissues of high-fat diet rats.

    Bao, Suqing; Cao, Yanli; Fan, Chenling; Fan, Yuxin; Bai, Shuting; Teng, Weiping; Shan, Zhongyan


    In this study, we investigated the beneficial effects and the underlying mechanism of epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) in adipose tissues of rats fed with a high-fat diet (HFD). Fasting plasma insulin, epididymal fat coefficient and free fatty acids, homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance index, and the average glucose infusion rate were determined. EGCG significantly decreased free fatty acids, fasting insulin, homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance index, and epididymal fat coefficient, and increased glucose infusion rate in HFD group. The levels of toll-like receptor 4, TNF receptor associated factor 6, inhibitor-kappa-B kinase β, p-nuclear factor κB, tumor necrosis factor α, and IL-6 in the EGCG group were all significantly lower than the HFD control group. EGCG also decreased the level of phosphorylated insulin receptor substrate 1 and increased phosphoinositide-3-kinase and glucose transporter isoform 4 in the HFD group. Decreased macrophage infiltration was in EGCG group versus HFD group, and the protein level of CD68 in EGCG group was also significantly lower than that of HFD group. EGCG attenuated inflammation by decreasing the content of macrophages, interfered the toll-like receptor 4 mediated inflammatory response pathway, thus, improving insulin signaling in adipose tissues. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Green tea polyphenol epigallocatechin-3-gallate suppresses rat hepatic stellate cell invasion by inhibition of MMP-2 expression and its activation

    Mao-chuan ZHEN; Xiao-hui HUANG; Qian WANG; Kai SUN; Yun-jian LIU; Wen LI; Long-Juan ZHANG; Liang-qi CAO; Xi-ling CHEN


    Aim: Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) is the major component of green tea polyphenols, whose wide range of biological properties includes anti-fibrogenic activity. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) that participate in extracellular matrix degradation are involved in the development of hepatic fibrosis. The present study investigates whether EGCG inhibits activation of the major gelatinase matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) in rat hepatic stellate cells (HSC). Methods: The expression of MMP-2, tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases-2 (TIMP-2), and membrane-type 1-MMP (MT1-MMP) was assessed by RT-PCR and Western blot analyses. MMP-2 activity was evaluated by zymography and MT1-MMP activity was assessed by an enzymatic assay. HSC migration was measured by a wound healing assay and cell invasion was performed using Transwell cell culture chambers. Results: The expression of MMP-2 mRNA and protein in HSC was substantially reduced by EGCG treatment. EGCG treatment also reduced con-canavalin A (ConA)-induced activation of secreted MMP-2 and reduced MT1-MMP activity in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, EGCG inhibited either HSC migration or invasion. Conclusion: The abilities of EGCG to suppress MMP-2 activation and HSC invasiveness suggest that EGCG may be useful in the treatment and prevention of hepatic fibrosis.

  2. Epigallocatechin gallate supplementation protects against renal injury induced by fluoride intoxication in rats: Role of Nrf2/HO-1 signaling

    S. Thangapandiyan


    Full Text Available Fluoride intoxication generates free radicals, causing oxidative stress that plays a critical role in the progression of nephropathy. In the present study, we hypothesized that epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG, found in green tea, protects the kidneys of rats treated with fluoride by preventing oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis. Pretreatment of fluoride-treated rats with EGCG resulted in a significant normalization of creatinine clearance and levels of urea, uric acid, and creatinine. Fluoride intoxication significantly increased renal oxidative stress markers and decreased the levels of renal enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants. In addition, renal NO, TNF-α, IL-6 and NF-κB were also increased in the renal tissue of fluoride-treated rats. Further, EGCG pretreatment produced a significant improvement in renal antioxidant status and reduced lipid peroxidation, protein carbonylation and the levels of inflammatory markers in fluoride-treated kidney. Similarly, mRNA and protein analyses showed that EGCG pretreatment normalized the renal expression of Nrf2/Keap1 and its downstream regulatory proteins in fluoride-treated rat kidney. EGCG also effectively attenuated fluoride-induced renal apoptosis by the up-regulation of anti-apoptotic proteins such as Bcl-2 and down-regulation of Bax, caspase-3, caspase-9 and cytochrome c. Histology and immunohistochemical observations of Kim-1 provided further evidence that EGCG effectively protects the kidney from fluoride-mediated oxidative damage. These results suggest that EGCG ameliorates fluoride-induced oxidative renal injury by activation of the Nrf2/HO-1 pathway.

  3. A method for fast determination of epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG, epicatechin (EC, catechin (C and caffeine (CAF in green tea using HPLC Método rápido para determinação de galato de epigalocatequina (EGCG, epicatequina (EC, catequina (C e cafeína (CAF em chá verde usando CLAE

    Samuel T. Saito


    Full Text Available Tea has been considered a medicine and a healthy beverage since ancient times, but recently it has received a great deal of attention because of its antioxidant properties. Green tea polyphenols have demonstrated to be an effective chemopreventive agent. Recently, investigators have found that EGCG, one of the green tea catechins, could have anti-HIV effects when bound to CD4 receptor. Many factors can constitute important influences on the composition of tea, such as species, season, age of the leaf, climate, and horticultural practices (soil, water, minerals, fertilizers. This paper presents an HPLC analytical methodology development, using column RP-18 and mobile phase composed by water, acetonitrile, methanol, ethyl acetate, glacial acetic acid (89:6:1:3:1 v/v/v/v/v for simultaneous determination and quantification of caffeine (CAF, catechin (C, epicatechin (EC and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG in samples of Camellia sinensis (green tea grown in Brazil and harvested in spring, in summer and in autumn, in comparison to Brazilian black tea, to samples of Japanese and Chinese green tea and to two standardized dry extracts of green tea. The method has been statistically evaluated and has proved to be adequate to qualitative and quantitative determination of the samples.O chá vem sendo considerado uma bebida saudável e com propriedades medicinais desde tempos bem remotos, mas recentemente tem ganhado grande interesse no meio científico devido a suas atividades como antioxidante. Os polifenóis do chá verde vêm demonstrando possuir atividades quimiopreventivas. Recentemente, pesquisadores descobriram que o EGCG, a principal catequina do chá verde, poderia ter efeito anti-HIV quando acoplado ao receptor CD4. Muitos fatores podem influenciar de forma significativa na composição do chá, como sua espécie, estação que foi colhida, idade da folha, clima e técnicas de cultura (solo, irrigação e fertilizantes. Este artigo vem apresentar

  4. The green tea extract epigallocatechin-3-gallate inhibits irradiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis in adult rats

    You, Hua; Wei, Li; Sun, Wan-Liang; Wang, Lei; YANG, ZAI-LIANG; Liu, Yuan; Zheng, Ke; Wang, Ying; Zhang, Wei-Jing


    The present study evaluated the effect of epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), the most abundant catechin in green tea, on irradiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis and elucidated its mechanism of action. A rat model of irradiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis was generated using a 60Co irradiator and a dose of 22 Gy. Rats were intraperitoneally injected with EGCG (25 mg/kg) or dexamethasone (DEX; 5 mg/kg) daily for 30 days. Mortality rates and lung index values were calculated. The severity of fibr...

  5. The Research Progress of Epigallocatechin Gallate (EGCG) on Weight Loss Mechanism%表没食子儿茶素没食子酸酯(EGCG)减肥机制的研究进展

    魏冰; 白厚增; 杨则宜


    In recent years, obesity has become a major social problem in developed and developing countries. As the main component of green tea catechins, more and more studies showed that as a safe diet supplement, epigallocate-chin gallate (EGCG) can reduce obesity induced by high fat diet through reducing the lipid absorption, increasing energy metabolism and fatty acid oxidation, inhibiting adipocyte differentiation and lipid formation. The effect of EGCG administration on fat reducing and it's mechanism was reviewed in this paper.%近年来,肥胖已经成为困扰发达国家和发展中国家的一个重大社会问题.作为绿茶儿茶素类的主要成分,越来越多的研究证明了表没食子儿茶素没食子酸酯(EGCG)可通过减少脂质吸收,增加能量代谢和脂肪酸氧化,抑制脂肪细胞分化和脂肪生成等机制改善高脂饮食诱导的肥胖,该方法安全可靠.本文就EGCG减肥及其可能机制作一综述.

  6. Green tea, black tea, and epigallocatechin modify body composition, improve glucose tolerance, and differentially alter metabolic gene expression in rats fed a high-fat diet.

    Chen, Nora; Bezzina, Rebecca; Hinch, Edward; Lewandowski, Paul A; Cameron-Smith, David; Mathai, Michael L; Jois, Markandeya; Sinclair, Andrew J; Begg, Denovan P; Wark, John D; Weisinger, Harrison S; Weisinger, Richard S


    The mechanisms of how tea and epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) lower body fat are not completely understood. This study investigated long-term administration of green tea (GT), black tea (BT), or isolated EGCG (1 mg/kg per day) on body composition, glucose tolerance, and gene expression related to energy metabolism and lipid homeostasis; it was hypothesized that all treatments would improve the indicators of metabolic syndrome. Rats were fed a 15% fat diet for 6 months from 4 weeks of age and were supplied GT, BT, EGCG, or water. GT and BT reduced body fat, whereas GT and EGCG increased lean mass. At 16 weeks GT, BT, and EGCG improved glucose tolerance. In the liver, GT and BT increased the expression of genes involved in fatty acid synthesis (SREBP-1c, FAS, MCD, ACC) and oxidation (PPAR-alpha, CPT-1, ACO); however, EGCG had no effect. In perirenal fat, genes that mediate adipocyte differentiation were suppressed by GT (Pref-1, C/EBP-beta, and PPAR-gamma) and BT (C/EBP-beta), while decreasing LPL, HSL, and UCP-2 expression; EGCG increased expression of UCP-2 and PPAR-gamma genes. Liver triacylglycerol content was unchanged. The results suggest that GT and BT suppressed adipocyte differentiation and fatty acid uptake into adipose tissue, while increasing fat synthesis and oxidation by the liver, without inducing hepatic fat accumulation. In contrast, EGCG increased markers of thermogenesis and differentiation in adipose tissue, while having no effect on liver or muscle tissues at this dose. These results show novel and separate mechanisms by which tea and EGCG may improve glucose tolerance and support a role for these compounds in obesity prevention.

  7. Amelioration of lipid profile and level of antioxidant activities by epigallocatechin-gallate in a rat model of atherogenesis.

    Xu, Xuelian; Pan, Jianxing; Zhou, Xiaoli


    Improperly balanced, highly processed diets rich in calories, carbohydrates and fat are considered to contribute to oxidative stress induced hypercholesterolaemic atherosclerosis. The aim of our study was to test whether the antioxidant component epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) may ameliorate the atherosclerotic effect of high fat diet in rats. A disease model for atherosclerosis was designed by formulating atherogenic diet and fed to Wistar rats for 30 days. The treatment trial was made by administration of EGCG (100 mg/kg) for six or 12 days. The lipid profile, antioxidant status and tissue morphometric analysis were performed. A significant increase in serum levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides and lipoprotein cholesterol fractions and cardiac risk ratio were observed in atherogenic diet fed rats than that of normal diet-fed rats. EGCG treated atherogenic diet fed rats resulted a reduction in total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density and very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol fractions, and an increase in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol compared to untreated-atherogenic diet fed rats. A significant decrease in lipid peroxidation, increased mean levels of non-enzymatic antioxidants and enzymatic antioxidants was measured in EGCG administered rats, compared with those in untreated-disease model. Morphometric analysis and the activity of cardiac marker enzymes demonstrated that EGCG was effective in limiting atherogenic tissue damage in aortic layers, and ameliorated the lipid profile. This preliminary study suggests EGCG may be useful as a novel therapeutic component for treating atherosclerosis and thus warrants further detailed investigation. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. SHP-2 tyrosine phosphatase inhibits p73-dependent apoptosis and expression of a subset of p53 target genes induced by EGCG


    Green tea polyphenol, epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) differentially regulates the cellular growth of cancer cells in a p53-dependent manner through apoptosis and/or cell cycle arrest. In an effort to further elucidate the mechanism of differential growth regulation by EGCG, we have investigated the role of the tyrosine phosphatase, SHP-2. Comparing the responses of mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs), expressing either WT or functionally inactive/truncated SHP-2, we find that inactivation o...

  9. Novel epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG derivative as a new therapeutic strategy for reducing neuropathic pain after chronic constriction nerve injury in mice.

    Xavier Xifró

    Full Text Available Neuropathic pain is common in peripheral nerve injury and often fails to respond to ordinary medication. Here, we investigated whether the two novel epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG polyphenolic derivatives, compound 23 and 30, reduce the neuropathic pain in mice chronic constriction nerve injury (CCI. First, we performed a dose-response study to evaluate nociceptive sensation after administration of EGCG and its derivatives 23 and 30, using the Hargreaves test at 7 and 21 days after injury (dpi. We daily administered EGCG, 23 and 30 (10 to 100 mg/Kg; i.p. during the first week post-CCI. None of the doses of compound 23 caused significant pain diminution, whereas 50mg/kg was optimal for both EGCG and 30 to delay the latency of paw withdrawal. With 50 mg/Kg, we showed that EGCC prevented the thermal hyperalgesia from 7 to 21 dpi and compound 30 from 14 to 56 dpi. To evaluate the molecular mechanisms underpinning why EGCG and compound 30 differentially prevented the thermal hyperalgesia, we studied several biochemical parameters in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord at 14 and 56 dpi. We showed that the effect observed with EGCG and compound 30 was related to the inhibition of fatty acid synthase (FASN, a known target of these polyphenolic compounds. Additionally, we observed that EGCG and compound 30 reduced the expression of CCI-mediated inflammatory proteins and the nuclear localization of nuclear factor-kappa B at 14 dpi, but not at 56 dpi. We also strongly detected a decrease of synaptic plasma membrane levels of N-methyl-D-asparte receptor 2B in CCI-mice treated with compound 30 at 56 dpi. Altogether, compound 30 reduced the chronic thermal hyperalgesia induced by CCI better than the natural compound EGCG. Thus, our findings provide a rationale for the preclinical development of compound 30 as an agent to treat neuropathic pain.

  10. Data in support of the negative influence of divalent cations on (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG)-mediated inhibition of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2).

    Deb, Gauri; Batra, Sahil; Limaye, Anil M


    In this data article we have provided evidence for the negative influence of divalent cations on (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG)-mediated inhibition of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) activity in cell-free experiments. Chelating agents, such as EDTA and sodium citrate alone, did not affect MMP-2 activity. While EDTA enhanced, excess of divalent cations interfered with EGCG-mediated inhibition of MMP-2.

  11. Synthesis of Gelatin-γ-Polyglutamic Acid-Based Hydrogel for the In Vitro Controlled Release of Epigallocatechin Gallate (EGCG from Camellia sinensis

    John Philip Domondon Garcia


    Full Text Available The antioxidant property and other health benefits of the most abundant catechin, epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG, are limited because of poor stability and permeability across intestine. Protecting the EGCG from the harsh gastrointestinal tract (GIT environment can help to increase its bioavailability following oral administration. In this study, EGCG was loaded to hydrogel prepared from ionic interaction between an optimized concentration of gelatin and γ-polyglutamic acid (γ-PGA, with ethylcarbodiimide (EDC as the crosslinker. Physicochemical characterization of hydrogel was done using Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The dependence of the swelling degree (SD of the hydrogel to the amount of gelatin, γ-PGA, EDC, swelling time and pH was determined. A high SD of the crosslinked hydrogel was noted at pH 4.5, 6.8 and 9.0 compared to pH 7.4, which describes pH-responsiveness. Approximately 67% of the EGCG from the prepared solution was loaded to the hydrogel after 12 h post-loading, in which loading efficiency was related to the amount of EDC. The in vitro release profile of EGCG at pH 1.2, 6.8 and 7.4, simulating GIT conditions, resulted in different sustained release curves. Wherein, the released EGCG was not degraded instantly compared to free-EGCG at controlled temperature of 37 °C at different pH monitored against time. Therefore, this study proves the potential of pH-responsive gelatin-γ-PGA-based hydrogel as a biopolymer vehicle to deliver EGCG.

  12. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) as a pro-osteogenic agent to enhance osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells from human bone marrow: an in vitro study.

    Jin, Pan; Wu, Huayu; Xu, Guojie; Zheng, Li; Zhao, Jinmin


    The proliferation and osteogenic capacity of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) needs to be improved for their use in cell-based therapy for osteoporosis. (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), one of the green tea catechins, has been widely investigated in studies of osteoblasts and osteoclasts. However, no consensus on its role as an osteogenic inducer has been reached, possibly because of the various types of cell lines examined and the range of concentrations of EGCG used. In this study, the osteogenic effects of EGCG are studied in primary human bone-marrow-derived MSCs (hBMSCs) by detecting cell proliferation, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and the expression of relevant osteogenic markers. Our results show that EGCG has a strong stimulatory effect on hBMSCs developing towards the osteogenic lineage, especially at a concentration of 5 μM, as evidenced by an increased ALP activity, the up-regulated expression of osteogenic genes and the formation of bone-like nodules. Further exploration has indicated that EGCG directes osteogenic differentiation via the continuous up-regulation of Runx2. The underlying mechanism might involve EGCG affects on osteogenic differentiation through the modulation of bone morphogenetic protein-2 expression. EGCG has also been found to promote the proliferation of hBMSCs in a dose-dependent manner. This might be associated with its antioxidative effect leading to favorable amounts of reactive oxygen species in the cellular environment. Our study thus indicates that EGCG can be used as a pro-osteogenic agent for the stem-cell-based therapy of osteoporosis.

  13. Dietary supplementation with a low dose of (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate reduces pro-inflammatory responses in peripheral leukocytes of non-obese type 2 diabetic GK rats.

    Uchiyama, Yumiko; Suzuki, Takuji; Mochizuki, Kazuki; Goda, Toshinao


    (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), which is largely found in green tea, is known to eliminate reactive oxygen species and associated inflammatory responses in vitro and in cells. However, the in vivo mechanisms underlying the effects of EGCG on the amelioration of metabolic disorders are not fully understood. In this study, we examined whether dietary supplementation with EGCG reduces inflammatory responses in peripheral leukocytes of a non-obese type 2 diabetes animal model, Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats. GK rats at 9 wk of age were fed a control high-fat diet (46 energy % from lard and corn oil) or a high-fat diet containing 0.1%, 0.2%, or 0.5% EGCG (w/w) for 25 wk. The oxidative stress markers 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (OHdG) and total malondialdehyde (MDA) were reduced by supplementation with EGCG at 0.1%, but not at 0.2% or more. Significant reductions in the mRNA levels of genes related to inflammatory responses (TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-18, MCP-1, CD11b, and S100a6), 8-OHdG, and total MDA were induced in peripheral leukocytes of GK rats by EGCG supplementation at 0.1%, but not at 0.2% or more, compared with rats fed the control diet. The present results suggest that supplementation with a low dose of EGCG reduces oxidative stress and the expressions of genes involved in inflammation in peripheral leukocytes of GK rats.

  14. Implication of Akt, ERK1/2 and alternative p38MAPK signalling pathways in human colon cancer cell apoptosis induced by green tea EGCG.

    Cerezo-Guisado, María Isabel; Zur, Rafal; Lorenzo, María Jesús; Risco, Ana; Martín-Serrano, Miguel A; Alvarez-Barrientos, Alberto; Cuenda, Ana; Centeno, Francisco


    We investigated apoptosis induced by the green tea component the epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) and the pathways underlying its activity in a colon cancer cell line. A complete understanding of the mechanism(s) and molecules targeted by green tea polyphenols could be useful in developing novel therapeutic approaches for cancer treatment. EGCG, which is the major polyphenol in green tea, has cytotoxic effects and induced cell death in HT-29 cell death. In this study, we evaluated the effect EGCG on mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and Akt pathways. EGCG treatment increased phospho-ERK1/2, -JNK1/2 and -p38α, -p38γ and -p38δ, as well as phospho-Akt levels. Using a combination of kinase inhibitors, we found that EGCG-induced cell death is partially blocked by inhibiting Akt, ERK1/2 or alternative p38MAPK activity. Our data suggest that these kinase pathways are involved in the anti-cancer effects of EGCG and indicate potential use of this compound as chemotherapeutic agent for colon cancer treatment.

  15. Low dose EGCG treatment beginning in adolescence does not improve cognitive impairment in a Down syndrome mouse model.

    Stringer, Megan; Abeysekera, Irushi; Dria, Karl J; Roper, Randall J; Goodlett, Charles R


    Down syndrome (DS) or Trisomy 21 causes intellectual disabilities in humans and the Ts65Dn DS mouse model is deficient in learning and memory tasks. DYRK1A is triplicated in DS and Ts65Dn mice. Ts65Dn mice were given up to ~20mg/kg/day epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), a Dyrk1a inhibitor, or water beginning on postnatal day 24 and continuing for three or seven weeks, and were tested on a series of behavioral and learning tasks, including a novel balance beam test. Ts65Dn as compared to control mice exhibited higher locomotor activity, impaired novel object recognition, impaired balance beam and decreased spatial learning and memory. Neither EGCG treatment improved performance of the Ts65Dn mice on these tasks. Ts65Dn mice had a non-significant increase in Dyrk1a activity in the hippocampus and cerebellum. Given the translational value of the Ts65Dn mouse model, further studies will be needed to identify the EGCG doses (and mechanisms) that may improve cognitive function.

  16. Anterior and posterior parts of the rat ventral tegmental area and the rostromedial tegmental nucleus receive topographically distinct afferents from the lateral habenular complex.

    Petzel, Anja; Bernard, René; Poller, Wolfram C; Veh, Rüdiger W


    That activation of the reward system involves increased activity of dopaminergic (DA) neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) is widely accepted. In contrast, the lateral habenular complex (LHb), which is known as the center of the anti-reward system, directly and indirectly inhibits DA neurons in the VTA. The VTA, however, is not a homogenous entity. Instead, it displays major functional differences between its anterior (aVTA) and posterior (pVTA) regions. It is not precisely known, whether habenular input to the aVTA, pVTA, and the newly recognized rostromedial tegmental nucleus (RMTg) are similarly or differently organized. Consequently, the present investigation addressed the connections between LHb and aVTA, pVTA, and RMTg using retrograde and anterograde tracing techniques in the rat. Our experiments disclosed strictly reciprocal and conspicuously focal interconnections between LHbM (LHbMPc/LHbMC) and PN, as well as between RLi and LHbLO. In addition, we found that LHb inputs to the aVTA are dorsoventrally ordered. Dorsal parts of the aVTA receive afferents from LHbL and LHbM, whereas ventral parts of the aVTA are preferentially targeted by the LHbM. LHb afferents to the pVTA are distinct from those to the RMTg, given that the RMTg is primarily innervated from the LHbL, whereas pVTA receives afferents from LHbM and LHbL. These data indicate the existence of two separate pathways from the LHb to the VTA, a direct and an indirect one, which may subserve distinct biological functions. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Study of the mechanisms involved in the vasorelaxation induced by (−)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate in rat aorta

    Álvarez, Ezequiel; Campos-Toimil, Manuel; Justiniano-Basaran, Hélène; Lugnier, Claire; Orallo, Francisco


    This study investigated several mechanisms involved in the vasorelaxant effects of (−)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG). EGCG (1 μM–1 mM) concentration dependently relaxed, after a transient increase in tension, contractions induced by noradrenaline (NA, 1 μM), high extracellular KCl (60 mM), or phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA, 1 μM) in intact rat aortic rings. In a Ca2+-free solution, EGCG (1 μM–1 mM) relaxed 1 μM PMA-induced contractions, without previous transient contraction. However, EGCG (1 μM–1 mM) did not affect the 1 μM okadaic acid-induced contractions. Removal of endothelium and/or pretreatment with glibenclamide (10 μM), tetraethylammonium (2 mM) or charybdotoxin (100 nM) plus apamin (500 nM) did not modify the vasorelaxant effects of EGCG. In addition, EGCG noncompetitively antagonized the contractions induced by NA (in 1.5 mM Ca2+-containing solution) and Ca2+ (in depolarizing Ca2+-free high KCl 60 mM solution). In rat aortic smooth muscle cells (RASMC), EGCG (100 μM) reduced increases in cytosolic free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) induced by angiotensin II (ANG II, 100 nM) and KCl (60 mM) in 1.5 mM CaCl2-containing solution and by ANG II (100 nM) in the absence of extracellular Ca2+. In RASMC, EGCG (100 μM) did not modify basal generation of cAMP or cGMP, but significantly reversed the inhibitory effects of NA (1 μM) and high KCl (60 mM) on cAMP and cGMP production. EGCG inhibited the enzymatic activity of all the cyclic nucleotide PDE isoenzymes present in vascular tissue, being more effective on PDE2 (IC50∼17) and on PDE1 (IC50∼25). Our results suggest that the vasorelaxant effects of EGCG in rat aorta are mediated, at least in part, by an inhibition of PDE activity, and the subsequent increase in cyclic nucleotide levels in RASMC, which, in turn, can reduce agonist- or high KCl concentration-induced increases in [Ca2+]i. PMID:16299547

  18. EGCG protects endothelial cells against PCB 126-induced inflammation through inhibition of AhR and induction of Nrf2-regulated genes

    Han, Sung Gu [Superfund Research Program, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Department of Animal and Food Sciences, College of Agriculture, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Han, Seong-Su [Department of Pathology, College of Medicine, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States); Toborek, Michal [Department of Neurosurgery, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Hennig, Bernhard, E-mail: [Superfund Research Program, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Department of Animal and Food Sciences, College of Agriculture, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States)


    Tea flavonoids such as epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) protect against vascular diseases such as atherosclerosis via their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory functions. Persistent and widespread environmental pollutants, including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), can induce oxidative stress and inflammation in vascular endothelial cells. Even though PCBs are no longer produced, they are still detected in human blood and tissues and thus considered a risk for vascular dysfunction. We hypothesized that EGCG can protect endothelial cells against PCB-induced cell damage via its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. To test this hypothesis, primary vascular endothelial cells were pretreated with EGCG, followed by exposure to the coplanar PCB 126. Exposure to PCB 126 significantly increased cytochrome P450 1A1 (Cyp1A1) mRNA and protein expression and superoxide production, events which were significantly attenuated following pretreatment with EGCG. Similarly, EGCG also reduced DNA binding of NF-κB and downstream expression of inflammatory markers such as monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) and vascular cell adhesion protein-1 (VCAM-1) after PCB exposure. Furthermore, EGCG decreased endogenous or base-line levels of Cyp1A1, MCP-1 and VCAM-1 in endothelial cells. Most of all, treatment of EGCG upregulated expression of NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)-controlled antioxidant genes, including glutathione S transferase (GST) and NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1), in a dose-dependent manner. In contrast, silencing of Nrf2 increased Cyp1A1, MCP-1 and VCAM-1 and decreased GST and NQO1 expression, respectively. These data suggest that EGCG can inhibit AhR regulated genes and induce Nrf2-regulated antioxidant enzymes, thus providing protection against PCB-induced inflammatory responses in endothelial cells. -- Highlights: ► PCBs cause endothelial inflammation and subsequent atherosclerosis. ► Nutrition can modulate toxicity by environmental pollutants. ► We

  19. EGCG ameliorates high-fat- and high-fructose-induced cognitive defects by regulating the IRS/AKT and ERK/CREB/BDNF.

    Mi, Yashi; Qi, Guoyuan; Fan, Rong; Qiao, Qinglian; Sun, Yali; Gao, Yuqi; Liu, Xuebo


    Obesity, which is caused by an energy imbalance between calorie intake and consumption, has become a major international health burden. Obesity increases the risk of insulin resistance and age-related cognitive decline, accompanied by peripheral inflammation. (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), the major polyphenol in green tea, possesses antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and cardioprotective activities; however, few reports have focused on its potential effect on cognitive disorders. In this study, our goal was to investigate the protective effects of EGCG treatment on insulin resistance and memory impairment induced by a high-fat and high-fructose diet (HFFD). We randomly assigned 3-mo-old C57BL/6J mice to 3 groups with different diets: control group, HFFD group, and HFFD plus EGCG group. Memory loss was assessed by using the Morris water maze test, during which EGCG was observed to prevent HFFD-elicited memory impairment and neuronal loss. Consistent with these results, EGCG attenuated HFFD-induced neuronal damage. Of note, EGCG significantly ameliorated insulin resistance and cognitive disorder by up-regulating the insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1)/AKT and ERK/cAMP response element binding protein (CREB)/brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) signaling pathways. Long-term HFFD-triggered neuroinflammation was restored by EGCG supplementation by inhibiting the MAPK and NF-κB pathways, as well as the expression of inflammatory mediators, such as TNF-α. EGCG also reversed high glucose and glucosamine-induced insulin resistance in SH-SY5Y neuronal cells by improving the oxidized cellular status and mitochondrial function. To our knowledge, this study is the first to provide compelling evidence that the nutritional compound EGCG has the potential to ameliorate HFFD-triggered learning and memory loss.-Mi, Y., Qi, G., Fan, R., Qiao, Q., Sun, Y., Gao, Y., Liu, X. EGCG ameliorates high-fat- and high-fructose-induced cognitive defects by regulating the IRS/AKT and

  20. In vitro effects of EGCG on Schistosoma japonicum cercariae%表没食子儿茶素没食子酸酯(EGCG)体外抗日本血吸虫尾蚴作用的研究

    冯金梅; 袁发浒; 刘锴; 张泽华; 胡松; 邱文洪; Stephen Hsu; 宋文剑


    目的 观察表没食子儿茶素3-没食子酸酯(Epigallocatechin-3-gallate,EGCG)对日本血吸虫尾蚴的体外杀伤作用及其超微组织结构的变化,探讨EGCG预防日本血吸虫尾蚴感染的效果,为进一步开展血吸虫尾蚴感染预防措施的研究提供实验数据. 方法 将日本血吸虫尾蚴分别置于空白对照组蒸馏水、药物处理组0.2% EGCG和 1%EGCG溶液中,各处理0、30和60 min,解剖镜下观察并摄像;分别选取以上3组处理30 min的尾蚴进行扫描电镜观察.设置蒸馏水对照组、0.1%和1%EGCG溶液处理30 min组尾蚴感染小白鼠,饲养43 d后解剖小鼠,冲虫,观察感染情况. 结果 解剖镜下观察,蒸馏水对照组在0 min和30 min时尾蚴体念柔和,自由运动;60 min时尾蚴虫体完整,蜷缩成团,活动停止.0.2%和1% EGCG处理组在30 min时尾蚴剧烈运动,尾部急剧摆动、挛缩,体部发生变形,且1% EGCG处理组比0.2% EGCG处理组尾蚴运动更为剧烈,形态变形更明显;60 min时,两组尾蚴尾部都已脱落且死亡.扫描电镜观察对照组尾蚴形态修长且虫体完整,口吸盘、头器和腹吸盘的结构正常,体部与尾部连接紧密,尾蚴体被表面光滑,体棘遍布全身,且头部和躯干部体棘的排列和棘的尖端都朝向身体后方.0.2%和1% EGCG处理30 min组尾蚴体部高度收缩且皱褶不平,尾蚴口吸盘变形、肿大,腹吸盘肿胀、变窄,其中1% EGCG处理组比0.2% EGCG处理组尾蚴体部的收缩皱褶和腹吸盘变形更明显;两组EGCG处理组尾蚴体部与尾部连接松弛,尾端呈皱褶状变化,其中1% EGCG处理30 min组尾蚴的尾部都已脱落,体表体棘散在分布,体棘紊乱、朝向不一,部分体棘脱落.动物感染试验显示对照组和0.1%EGCG处理组尾蚴感染小鼠的感染率均为100%,但0.1% EGCG处理组的减虫率为33.52%;1% EGCG处理组尾蚴感染小鼠的感染率为1 6.7%,减虫率81.87%. 结论 EGCG

  1. Epigallocatechin gallate attenuates fibrosis, oxidative stress, and inflammation in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease rat model through TGF/SMAD, PI3 K/Akt/FoxO1, and NF-kappa B pathways.

    Xiao, Jia; Ho, Chi Tat; Liong, Emily C; Nanji, Amin A; Leung, Tung Ming; Lau, Thomas Yue Huen; Fung, Man Lung; Tipoe, George L


    To investigate the protective mechanisms of an 85 % pure extract of (-) epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) in the development of fibrosis, oxidative stress and inflammation in a recently developed dietary-induced animal model of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed with either normal rat diet or high-fat diet for 8 weeks to develop NAFLD. For both treatments, rats were treated with or without EGCG (50 mg/kg, i.p. injection, 3 times per week). At the end, blood and liver tissue samples were obtained for histology, molecular, and biochemical analyses. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) rats showed significant amount of fatty infiltration, necrosis, fibrosis, and inflammation. This was accompanied by a significant expressional increase in markers for fibrosis, oxidative stress, and inflammation. TGF/SMAD, PI3 K/Akt/FoxO1, and NF-κB pathways were also activated. Treatment with EGCG improved hepatic histology (decreased number of fatty score, necrosis, and inflammatory foci), reduced liver injury (from ~0.5 to ~0.3 of ALT/AST ratio), attenuated hepatic changes including fibrosis (reduction in Sirius Red and synaptophysin-positive stain) with down-regulation in the expressions of key pathological oxidative (e.g. nitrotyrosine formation) and pro-inflammatory markers (e.g. iNOS, COX-2, and TNF-α). EGCG treatment also counteracted the activity of TGF/SMAD, PI3 K/Akt/FoxO1, and NF-κB pathways. Treatment with EGCG did not affect the healthy rats. Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) reduced the severity of liver injury in an experimental model of NAFLD associated with lower concentration of pro-fibrogenic, oxidative stress, and pro-inflammatory mediators partly through modulating the activities of TGF/SMAD, PI3 K/Akt/FoxO1, and NF-κB pathways. Therefore, green tea polyphenols and EGCG are useful supplements in the prevention of NAFLD.

  2. 绿茶910EGCG的提取工艺%Optimization of the extraction technology of EGCG from green tea

    陈团生; 程祖锌; 杨志坚; 郑金贵


    In order to prepare epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) from tea by caffeine precipitation and solvent partition, the experiment of technology optimization for EGCG extraction from tea was carried out with the design of the rotation-regression-orthogonal combination. The parameter models with the purity of EGCG as target functions were established. The optimization parameters for the extraction of EGCG from tea in caffeine precipitation and solvent partition system were as follows; water temperature, caffeine concentration, the number of partition with chloroform, with ethyl hexanoate, and with propyl acetate. Additionally, the mathematic model was well established to estimate the purity of EGCG within the investigated range. By the extraction parameters, the EGCG production system was obtained. The product was gained and then measured by high performance liquid chromatography ( HPLC). The results indicated that the best EGCG extraction parameters were water temperature, 80 °C ; caffeine concentration, 30 mmol · L-1; the number of partition with chloroform, 5; with ethyl hexanoate, 3; and with propyl acetate, 3. Under these extraction parameters, the product was obtained, finally its purity was more than 80.3% , as judged by HPLC.%以绿茶910为原料,采用咖啡碱沉淀—溶剂萃取法对茶叶表没食子儿茶素没食子酸酯( EGCG)进行提取,运用二次回归正交旋转组合设计方法分析各影响因子对EGCG提取纯度的影响.结果表明,各因子对EGCG提取纯度影响程度的大小为:氯仿萃取次数>乙酸丙酯萃取次数>水浸提温度>咖啡碱浓度>己酸乙酯萃取次数.EGCG提取的最佳条件为:水浸提温度80℃,咖啡碱浓度30 mmol·L-1,氯仿萃取次数为5,己酸乙酯、乙酸丙酯萃取次数均为3.根据最佳条件提取EGCG,得到纯度为80.3%的EGCG产品.

  3. EGCG inhibits growth of human pancreatic tumors orthotopically implanted in Balb C nude mice through modulation of FKHRL1/FOXO3a and neuropilin.

    Shankar, Sharmila; Marsh, Luke; Srivastava, Rakesh K


    Human pancreatic cancer is currently one of the fourth leading causes of cancer-related mortality with a 5-year survival rate of less than 5 %. Since pancreatic carcinoma is largely refractory to conventional therapies, there is a strong medical need for the development of novel and innovative cancer preventive strategies. The forkhead transcription factors of the O class (FOXO) play a major role in cell proliferation, angiogenesis, metastasis, and tumorigenesis. The objectives of this study were to examine whether FKHRL1/FOXO3a modulates antitumor activity of (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), an active ingredient in green tea, in pancreatic cancer model in vivo. PANC-1 cells were orthotopically implanted into Balb c nude mice and gavaged with EGCG after tumor formation. Cell proliferation and apoptosis were measured by Ki67 and TUNEL staining, respectively. The expression of PI3K, AKT, ERK, and FOXO3a/FKHRL1 and its target genes were measured by the western blot analysis and/or q-RT-PCR. FOXO-DNA binding was measured by gel shift assay. EGCG-treated mice showed significant inhibition in tumor growth which was associated with reduced phosphorylation of ERK, PI3K, AKT, and FKHRL1/FOXO3a, and modulation of FOXO target genes. EGCG induced apoptosis by upregulating Bim and activating caspase-3. EGCG modulated markers of cell cycle (p27/KIP1), angiogenesis (CD31, VEGF, IL-6, IL-8, SEMA3F, and HIF1α), and metastasis (MMP2 and MMP7). The inhibition of VEGF by EGCG was associated with suppression of neuropilin. EGCG inhibited epithelial-mesenchymal transition by upregulating the expression of E-cadherin and inhibiting the expression of N-cadherin and Zeb1. These data suggest that EGCG inhibits pancreatic cancer orthotopic tumor growth, angiogenesis, and metastasis which are associated with inhibition of PI3K/AKT and ERK pathways and activation of FKHRL1/FOXO3a. As a conclusion, EGCG can be used for the prevention and/or treatment of pancreatic cancer.

  4. Curcumin inhibits prosurvival pathways in chronic lymphocytic leukemia B cells and may overcome their stromal protection in combination with EGCG.

    Ghosh, Asish K; Kay, Neil E; Secreto, Charla R; Shanafelt, Tait D


    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is incurable with current chemotherapy treatments. Curcumin (diferuloylmethane), an active ingredient in the spice turmeric, inhibits tumor metastasis, invasion, and angiogenesis in tumor cell lines. We evaluated the effects of curcumin on the viability of primary CLL B cells and its ability to overcome stromal mediated protection. The in vitro effect of curcumin on primary CLL B cells was evaluated using fluorescence activated cell sorter analysis and Western blotting. For some experiments, CLL B cells were cocultured with human stromal cells to evaluate the effects of curcumin on leukemia cells cultured in their microenvironment. Finally, the effect of curcumin in combination with the green tea extract epigallocatechin-3 gallate (EGCG) was evaluated. Curcumin induced apoptosis in CLL B cells in a dose-dependent (5-20 micromol/L) manner and inhibited constitutively active prosurvival pathways, including signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (STAT3), AKT, and nuclear factor kappaB. Moreover, curcumin suppressed expression of the anti-apoptotic proteins Mcl-1 and X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP), and up-regulated the pro-apoptotic protein BIM. Coculture of CLL B cells with stromal cells resulted in elevated levels of STAT3, increased expression of Mcl-1 and XIAP, and decreased sensitivity to curcumin. When curcumin was administered simultaneously with EGCG, antagonism was observed for most patient samples. In contrast, sequential administration of these agents led to substantial increases in CLL B-cell death and could overcome stromal protection. Curcumin treatment was able to overcome stromal protection of CLL B cells on in vitro testing and to synergize with EGCG when administered in a sequential fashion. Additional evaluation of curcumin as a potential therapeutic agent for treatment of CLL seems warranted.

  5. EGCG对果蝇寿命的影响%Effect of EGCG on the Life of Drosophila melanogaster

    陈粉粉; 周杰珑; 张蕊; 谢正华


    以野生型黑腹果蝇为对象,用含不同浓度EGCG(20、40、80μL/L)的培养基对果蝇进行生存试验。统计果蝇存活数和死亡数,计算半数死亡时间、最高寿命和平均寿命,观察EGCG对雌、雄果蝇寿命的影响。结果表明,随着EGCG作用浓度的提高,能有效延长雌雄果蝇半数死亡时间、最高寿命以及平均寿命,当EGCG浓度为40μL/L时为延长雌果蝇寿命的最佳浓度。%Wild-type Drosophila melanogaster was cultured with different concentrations of EGCG (20, 40 and 80 μL/L) of medium for the survival experiments. The numbers of survival and death of Drosophila melanogaster were recorded, and the median death time, the maximum life span and average life were calculated. Results showed that the median death time, the maximum life span and average life of male and female Drosophila melanogaster could be prolonged effectively with the increase of EGCG concentration, and 40 μL/L was the optimum concentration of EGCG to prolong the life-span of female Drosophila melanogaster.

  6. The changes of cardioelectrical activity of rat with myocardial infarction receiving sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase gene modified bone marrow stem cell transplantation by microelectrode array technology



    Objective Therapy effects and cardiac electrical activity comparison of bone marrow stem cells (BMSCs) transplantation and sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA2a) gene modified BMSCs transplantation after acute myocardial infarction(AMI) in rats.Methods Rats with AMI were divided

  7. Neurorescue activity, APP regulation and amyloid-beta peptide reduction by novel multi-functional brain permeable iron- chelating- antioxidants, M-30 and green tea polyphenol, EGCG.

    Avramovich-Tirosh, Yael; Reznichenko, Lydia; Mit, Tamar; Zheng, Hailin; Fridkin, Mati; Weinreb, Orly; Mandel, Silvia; Youdim, Moussa B H


    Accumulation of iron at sites where neurons degenerate in Parkinson's disease (PD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) is thought to have a major role in oxidative stress induced process of neurodegeneration. The novel non-toxic lipophilic brain- permeable iron chelators, VK-28 (5- [4- (2- hydroxyethyl) piperazine-1-ylmethyl]- quinoline- 8- ol) and its multi-functional derivative, M-30 (5-[N-methyl-N-propargylaminomethyl]-8-hydroxyquinoline), as well as the main polyphenol constituent of green tea (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), which possesses iron metal chelating, radical scavenging and neuroprotective properties, offer potential therapeutic benefits for these diseases. M-30 and EGCG decreased apoptosis of human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells in a neurorescue, serum deprivation model, via multiple protection mechanisms including: reduction of the pro-apoptotic proteins, Bad and Bax, reduction of apoptosis-associated Ser139 phosphorylated H2A.X and inhibition of the cleavage and activation of caspase-3. M-30 and EGCG also promoted morphological changes, resulting in axonal growth-associated protein-43 (GAP-43) implicating neuronal differentiation. Both compounds significantly reduced the levels of cellular holo-amyloid precursor protein (APP) in SH-SY5Y cells. The ability of theses novel iron chelators and EGCG to regulate APP are in line with the presence of an iron-responsive element (IRE) in the 5'-untranslated region (5'UTR) of APP. Also, EGCG reduced the levels of toxic amyloid-beta peptides in CHO cells over-expressing the APP "Swedish" mutation. The diverse molecular mechanisms and cell signaling pathways participating in the neuroprotective/neurorescue and APP regulation/processing actions of M-30 and EGCG, make these multifunctional compounds potential neuroprotective drugs for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases, such as PD, AD, Huntington's disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

  8. Skin delivery of epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) and hyaluronic acid loaded nano-transfersomes for antioxidant and anti-aging effects in UV radiation induced skin damage.

    Avadhani, Kiran S; Manikkath, Jyothsna; Tiwari, Mradul; Chandrasekhar, Misra; Godavarthi, Ashok; Vidya, Shimoga M; Hariharapura, Raghu C; Kalthur, Guruprasad; Udupa, Nayanabhirama; Mutalik, Srinivas


    The present work attempts to develop and statistically optimize transfersomes containing EGCG and hyaluronic acid to synergize the UV radiation-protective ability of both compounds, along with imparting antioxidant and anti-aging effects. Transfersomes were prepared by thin film hydration technique, using soy phosphatidylcholine and sodium cholate, combined with high-pressure homogenization. They were characterized with respect to size, polydispersity index, zeta potential, morphology, entrapment efficiency, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), X-ray Diffraction (XRD), in vitro antioxidant activity and ex vivo skin permeation studies. Cell viability, lipid peroxidation, intracellular ROS levels and expression of MMPs (2 and 9) were determined in human keratinocyte cell lines (HaCaT). The composition of the transfersomes was statistically optimized by Design of Experiments using Box-Behnken design with four factors at three levels. The optimized transfersome formulation showed vesicle size, polydispersity index and zeta potential of 101.2 ± 6.0 nm, 0.245 ± 0.069 and -44.8 ± 5.24 mV, respectively. FTIR and DSC showed no interaction between EGCG and the selected excipients. XRD results revealed no form conversion of EGCG in its transfersomal form. The optimized transfersomes were found to increase the cell viability and reduce the lipid peroxidation, intracellular ROS and expression of MMPs in HaCaT cells. The optimized transfersomal formulation of EGCG and HA exhibited considerably higher skin permeation and deposition of EGCG than that observed with plain EGCG. The results underline the potential application of the developed transfersomes in sunscreen cream/lotions for improvement of UV radiation-protection along with deriving antioxidant and anti-aging effects.

  9. Effects of green tea and its epigallocatechin (EGCG) content on body weight and fat mass in humans: a systematic review

    Vázquez Cisneros, Lucía Cristina; López-Uriarte, Patricia; López-Espinoza, Antonio; Navarro Meza, Mónica; Espinoza-Gallardo, Ana Cristina; Guzmán Aburto, Martha Beatriz


    The prevalence and incidence of overweight and obesity worldwide continues to increase, as well as diseases related to these conditions. This is attributed to an increase in energy intake and a decrease in energy expenditure. Consumption of green tea has been linked to a reduction in body fat and body weight. However, research on green tea has been very diverse. This review assesses the investigations that have been made with green tea and its epigallocatechin gallato (EGCG) content, evaluating its effect on body fat and body weight in humans. A search was made in the PubMed and Web of the Science databases that gave a first total result of 424 potential articles; 409 were excluded and 15 articles were used for this systematic review. Research has been very varied, however, daily consumption of green tea with doses of EGCG between 100 and 460 mg/day has shown greater effectiveness on body fat and body weight reduction in intervention periods of 12 weeks or more. In addition, the use of caffeine doses between 80 and 300 mg/day has been shown to be an important factor for this effects, when the participants did not have a high caffeine intake (> 300 mg/day) prior to the intervention.

  10. DHA sensitizes FaO cells to tert-BHP-induced oxidative effects. Protective role of EGCG.

    Fernández-Iglesias, Anabel; Quesada, Helena; Díaz, Sabina; Pajuelo, David; Bladé, Cinta; Arola, Lluís; Josepa Salvadó, M; Mulero, Miquel


    The excessive production of reactive oxygen species has been implicated in several pathologies, such as atherosclerosis, obesity, hypertension and insulin resistance. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) may protect against the above mentioned diseases, but paradoxically the main DHA treated pathologies are also associated with increased ROS levels. Therefore, the aim of this study was to explore if in vitro DHA supplementation may increase the sensitivity of cells to tert-BHP induced oxidative stress, and if the green tea polyphenol epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) is able to correct such detrimental effect. We found that DHA-enriched cells exacerbate ROS generation, decrease cell viability and increase Nrf2 nuclear translocation and HO-1 expression. Interestingly, cellular EGCG is able to counteract oxidative damage from either tert-BHP or DHA-enriched cells. In consequence, our results suggest that in a ROS enriched environment DHA could not always be beneficial for cells and can be considered a double-edged sword in terms of its benefits vs. risks. In this sense, our results propose that the supplementation with potent antioxidant molecules could be an appropriate strategy to reduce the risks related with the DHA supplementation in an oxidative stress-associated condition.

  11. Neuroprotective effect of epigallocatechin-3-gallate on hemisection-induced spinal cord injury in rats

    Fengjun Deng; Rubing Li; Yingbao Yang; Dan Zhou; Qian Wang; Jiangping Xu


    Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), a naturally occurring compound in green tea, has been widely used as an antioxidant agent. In the present study, model rats with acute spinal cord injury were intraperitoneally injected with 25, 50, and 100 mg/kg EGCG, and spinal cord ultrastructure, oxidative stress reaction, inflammatory factors, and apoptosis-associated gene expression were observed. Results showed that EGCG attenuated neuronal and axonal injury 24 hours post injury. It also decreased serum interleukin-1β, tumor necrosis factor-α, and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 release, and decreased apoptosis-associated gene expression. Furthermore, it increased the level of the superoxide anion (O2-), superoxide dismutase, and B-cell lymphoma/leukemia-2, and reduced malondialdehyde levels. Furthermore, it reduced the expression of the pro-apoptotic protein Bax. Noticeably, EGCG at the 100 mg/kg dosage exhibited similar effects as methylprednisolone sodium succinate, which has been frequently used for clinical acute spinal cord injury. The results demonstrated that EGCG can significantly inhibit inflammation, suppress oxidation, and reduce apoptosis in acute spinal cord injury.

  12. Response of the sensorimotor cortex of cerebral palsy rats receiving transplantation of vascular endothelial growth factor 165-transfected neural stem cells

    Jielu Tan; Xiangrong Zheng; Shanshan Zhang; Yujia Yang; Xia Wang; Xiaohe Yu; Le Zhong


    Neural stem cells are characterized by the ability to differentiate and stably express exogenous ge-nes. Vascular endothelial growth factor plays a role in protecting local blood vessels and neurons of newborn rats with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. Transplantation of vascular endothelial growth factor-transfected neural stem cells may be neuroprotective in rats with cerebral palsy. In this study, 7-day-old Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into ifve groups: (1) sham operation (control), (2) cerebral palsy model alone or with (3) phosphate-buffered saline, (4) vascular en-dothelial growth factor 165 + neural stem cells, or (5) neural stem cells alone. hTe cerebral palsy model was established by ligating the letf common carotid artery followed by exposure to hypox-ia. Phosphate-buffered saline, vascular endothelial growth factor + neural stem cells, and neural stem cells alone were administered into the sensorimotor cortex using the stereotaxic instrument and microsyringe. Atfer transplantation, the radial-arm water maze test and holding test were performed. Immunohistochemistry for vascular endothelial growth factor and histology using hematoxylin-eosin were performed on cerebral cortex. Results revealed that the number of vas-cular endothelial growth factor-positive cells in cerebral palsy rats transplanted with vascular endothelial growth factor-transfected neural stem cells was increased, the time for ifnding water and the ifnding repetitions were reduced, the holding time was prolonged, and the degree of cell degeneration or necrosis was reduced. hTese ifndings indicate that the transplantation of vascu-lar endothelial growth factor-transfected neural stem cells alleviates brain damage and cognitive deifcits, and is neuroprotective in neonatal rats with hypoxia ischemic-mediated cerebral palsy.

  13. Response of the sensorimotor cortex of cerebral palsy rats receiving transplantation of vascular endothelial growth factor 165-transfected neural stem cells.

    Tan, Jielu; Zheng, Xiangrong; Zhang, Shanshan; Yang, Yujia; Wang, Xia; Yu, Xiaohe; Zhong, Le


    Neural stem cells are characterized by the ability to differentiate and stably express exogenous ge-nes. Vascular endothelial growth factor plays a role in protecting local blood vessels and neurons of newborn rats with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. Transplantation of vascular endothelial growth factor-transfected neural stem cells may be neuroprotective in rats with cerebral palsy. In this study, 7-day-old Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into five groups: (1) sham operation (control), (2) cerebral palsy model alone or with (3) phosphate-buffered saline, (4) vascular endothelial growth factor 165 + neural stem cells, or (5) neural stem cells alone. The cerebral palsy model was established by ligating the left common carotid artery followed by exposure to hypoxia. Phosphate-buffered saline, vascular endothelial growth factor + neural stem cells, and neural stem cells alone were administered into the sensorimotor cortex using the stereotaxic instrument and microsyringe. After transplantation, the radial-arm water maze test and holding test were performed. Immunohistochemistry for vascular endothelial growth factor and histology using hematoxylin-eosin were performed on cerebral cortex. Results revealed that the number of vascular endothelial growth factor-positive cells in cerebral palsy rats transplanted with vascular endothelial growth factor-transfected neural stem cells was increased, the time for finding water and the finding repetitions were reduced, the holding time was prolonged, and the degree of cell degeneration or necrosis was reduced. These findings indicate that the transplantation of vascular endothelial growth factor-transfected neural stem cells alleviates brain damage and cognitive deficits, and is neuroprotective in neonatal rats with hypoxia ischemic-mediated cerebral palsy.

  14. A proprietary topical preparation containing EGCG-stearate and glycerin with inhibitory effects on herpes simplex virus: case study.

    Zhao, Man; Jiang, Jinyan; Zheng, Rongrong; Pearl, Henna; Dickinson, Douglas; Fu, Baiping; Hsu, Stephen


    The effects of a proprietary topical formulation containing EGCG-stearate in 100% glycerin USP were studied in two volunteer patients with recurrent herpes simplex (HSV) type 1. Application during early onset (prodromal stage) in a patient with herpes labialis prevented lesion progression. In a second patient with herpetic stomatitis, application of the formula during a later stage (inflammation stage) led to a remarkably shortened duration of symptoms. In contrast, a third patient provided 100% glycerin USP only as placebo failed to demonstrate any therapeutic or preventive effect against lesion occurrence or duration of lesion and healing time. These results suggest that this proprietary topical preparation could be used effectively to prevent and treat HSV-induced symptoms, and warrants further clinical investigation.

  15. Effects of prolonged ingestion of epigallocatechin gallate on diabetes type 1-induced vascular modifications in the erectile tissue of rats.

    Lombo, C; Morgado, C; Tavares, I; Neves, D


    Diabetes Mellitus type 1 is a metabolic disease that predisposes to erectile dysfunction, partly owing to structural and molecular changes in the corpus cavernosum (CC) vessels. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of early treatment with the antioxidant epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) in cavernous diabetes-induced vascular modifications. Diabetes was induced in two groups of young Wistar rats; one group was treated with EGCG for 10 weeks. A reduction in smooth muscle content was observed in the CC of diabetic rats, which was significantly attenuated with EGCG consumption. No differences were observed among groups, neither in the expression of VEGF assayed by western blotting nor in the immunofluorescent labeling of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its receptors (VEGFR1 and VEGFR2). VEGFR2 was restricted to the endothelium, whereas VEGF and VEGFR1 co-localized in the smooth muscle layer. With regard to the Angiopoietin/Tie-2 system, no quantitative differences in Angiopoietin 1 were observed among the experimental groups. Ang1 localization was restricted to the smooth muscle layer, and receptor Tie2 and Angiopoietin 2 were both expressed in the endothelium. In brief, our results suggest that EGCG consumption prevented diabetes-induced loss of cavernous smooth muscle but does not affect vascular growth factor expression in young rats.

  16. Protective potential of epigallocatechin-3-gallate against benign prostatic hyperplasia in metabolic syndrome rats.

    Chen, Jinglou; Song, Hongping


    Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) is a major catechin in green tea with functions of antioxidant, anti-proliferative, anti-inflammatory and attenuating metabolic syndrome. In this study, rat model of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) accompanied with metabolic syndrome was induced by fed on high-fat diet for 12 weeks combined with testosterone injection (10mg/kg/d) from 9th to 12th weeks. EGCG was orally given from 9th to 12th weeks. Finally, the levels of glucose, total cholesterol, triglyceride, prostate weight, insulin-like growth factors (IGFs), inflammatory cytokines, antioxidant enzymes, and prostatic expression of IGF binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) and peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (PPARs) were evaluated. It was found that EGCG significantly decreased the levels of glucose, total cholesterol, triglyceride, IGFs, and inflammatory cytokines, normalized the activities of antioxidant enzymes, as well as increased the prostatic expression of IGFBP-3 and PPARs. These results indicated that EGCG was able to exert anti-BPH activities in metabolic syndrome rats. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Excretion of Four Catechins in Tea Polyphenols in Rats


    Objective To investigate excretion profiles of the four major anti-oxidant active catechins, (-) epigallo-catechin-3-gallate (EGCG), (-) epicatechin-3-gallate (ECG), (-) epigallocatechin (EGC), and epicatechin (EC) in tea polyphenols (TP) in rats in order to provide experimental data for clinical uses and development of TP as a novel drug. Methods The above four catechins in urine, bile, and feces were simultaneously determined by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with ultraviolet absorption detector (HPLC-UV) assay with a binary gradient elution. The samples were extracted by ethyl acetate prior to HPLC. The quantification was carried out by peak area internal standard method. Following iv dosing TP 100 mg/kg to rats, the samples were collected at different time intervals up to 8 h (urine and bile) and 24 h (feces). Results The urinary Ae, 0-8 h (cumulative excretion amount over 8 h) of EGCG, ECG, EGC, and EC were, on the average, 150.83, 30.75, 116.69, and 254.56 μg, corresponding to fe, 0-8 h (cumulative excretion fraction of dose over 8 h) of 1.45%, 0.84%, 7.88%, and 10.73%, respectively; the biliary Ae, 0-8 h were 12.61, 42.64, 6.61, and 1.24 μg, corresponding to the fe, 0-8 h of 0.12%, 1.16%, 0.45%, and 0.053%,respectively. For fecal excretion, only EGCG and EGC were detected with Ae, 0-24 h of 7.38 μg (fe, 0-24 h of 0.07%) and 157 μg (fe, 0-24 h of 9.99 %), respectively. The fe, total (the total fe of 3 excretory routes) were 18.32%, 10.78%, 2.00%, and 1.64% for EGC, EC, ECG, and EGCG, respectively. Conclusion EGCG and EC are mainly excreted in urine, ECG in bile, and EGC in feces by reference to their Ae and fe. The excretion of the four catechins based on fe, total is ranked in order of EGC > EC > ECG > EGCG. Only small amount of four catechins are recovered in urine, bile, and feces, indicating an extensive metabolic conversion of catechins in the rat body.

  18. Assessment of extraction parameters on antioxidant capacity, polyphenol content, epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), epicatechin gallate (ECG) and iriflophenone 3-C-β-glucoside of agarwood (Aquilaria crassna) young leaves.

    Tay, Pei Yin; Tan, Chin Ping; Abas, Faridah; Yim, Hip Seng; Ho, Chun Wai


    The effects of ethanol concentration (0%-100%, v/v), solid-to-solvent ratio (1:10-1:60, w/v) and extraction time (30-180 min) on the extraction of polyphenols from agarwood (Aquilaria crassna) were examined. Total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC) and total flavanol (TF) assays and HPLC-DAD were used for the determination and quantification of polyphenols, flavanol gallates (epigallocatechin gallate--EGCG and epicatechin gallate--ECG) and a benzophenone (iriflophenone 3-C-β-glucoside) from the crude polyphenol extract (CPE) of A. crassna. 2,2'-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity was used to evaluate the antioxidant capacity of the CPE. Experimental results concluded that ethanol concentration and solid-to-solvent ratio had significant effects (pantioxidant capacity. Extraction time had an insignificant influence on the recovery of EGCG, ECG and iriflophenone 3-C-β-glucoside, as well as radical scavenging capacity from the CPE. The extraction parameters that exhibited maximum yields were 40% (v/v) ethanol, 1:60 (w/v) for 30 min where the TPC, TFC, TF, DPPH, EGCG, ECG and iriflophenone 3-C-β-glucoside levels achieved were 183.5 mg GAE/g DW, 249.0 mg QE/g DW, 4.9 mg CE/g DW, 93.7%, 29.1 mg EGCG/g DW, 44.3 mg ECG/g DW and 39.9 mg iriflophenone 3-C-β-glucoside/g DW respectively. The IC50 of the CPE was 24.6 mg/L.

  19. EGCG Suppresses ERK5 Activation to Reverse Tobacco Smoke-Triggered Gastric Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition in BALB/c Mice

    Ling Lu


    Full Text Available Tobacco smoke is an important risk factor of gastric cancer. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition is a crucial pathophysiological process in cancer development. ERK5 regulation of epithelial-mesenchymal transition may be sensitive to cell types and/or the cellular microenvironment and its role in the epithelial-mesenchymal transition process remain elusive. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG is a promising chemopreventive agent for several types of cancers. In the present study we investigated the regulatory role of ERK5 in tobacco smoke-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition in the stomach of mice and the preventive effect of EGCG. Exposure of mice to tobacco smoke for 12 weeks reduced expression of epithelial markers E-cadherin, ZO-1, and CK5, while the expression of mesenchymal markers Snail-1, Vimentin, and N-cadherin were increased. Importantly, we demonstrated that ERK5 modulated tobacco smoke-mediated epithelial-mesenchymal transition in mice stomach, as evidenced by the findings that tobacco smoke elevated ERK5 activation, and that tobacco smoke-triggered epithelial-mesenchymal transition was reversed by ERK5 inhibition. Treatment of EGCG (100 mg/kg BW effectively attenuated tobacco smoke-triggered activation of ERK5 and epithelial-mesenchymal transition alterations in mice stomach. Collectively, these data suggested that ERK5 was required for tobacco smoke-triggered gastric epithelial-mesenchymal transition and that EGCG suppressed ERK5 activation to reverse tobacco smoke-triggered gastric epithelial-mesenchymal transition in BALB/c mice. These findings provide new insights into the mechanism of tobacco smoke-associated gastric tumorigenesis and the chemoprevention of tobacco smoke-associated gastric cancer.

  20. Assessment of Extraction Parameters on Antioxidant Capacity, Polyphenol Content, Epigallocatechin Gallate (EGCG, Epicatechin Gallate (ECG and Iriflophenone 3-C-β-Glucoside of Agarwood (Aquilaria crassna Young Leaves

    Pei Yin Tay


    Full Text Available The effects of ethanol concentration (0%–100%, v/v, solid-to-solvent ratio (1:10–1:60, w/v and extraction time (30–180 min on the extraction of polyphenols from agarwood (Aquilaria crassna were examined. Total phenolic content (TPC, total flavonoid content (TFC and total flavanol (TF assays and HPLC-DAD were used for the determination and quantification of polyphenols, flavanol gallates (epigallocatechin gallate—EGCG and epicatechin gallate—ECG and a benzophenone (iriflophenone 3-C-β-glucoside from the crude polyphenol extract (CPE of A. crassna. 2,2'-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging activity was used to evaluate the antioxidant capacity of the CPE. Experimental results concluded that ethanol concentration and solid-to-solvent ratio had significant effects (p < 0.05 on the yields of polyphenol and antioxidant capacity. Extraction time had an insignificant influence on the recovery of EGCG, ECG and iriflophenone 3-C-β-glucoside, as well as radical scavenging capacity from the CPE. The extraction parameters that exhibited maximum yields were 40% (v/v ethanol, 1:60 (w/v for 30 min where the TPC, TFC, TF, DPPH, EGCG, ECG and iriflophenone 3-C-β-glucoside levels achieved were 183.5 mg GAE/g DW, 249.0 mg QE/g DW, 4.9 mg CE/g DW, 93.7%, 29.1 mg EGCG/g DW, 44.3 mg ECG/g DW and 39.9 mg iriflophenone 3-C-β-glucoside/g DW respectively. The IC50 of the CPE was 24.6 mg/L.

  1. EGCG Prevents High Fat Diet-Induced Changes in Gut Microbiota, Decreases of DNA Strand Breaks, and Changes in Expression and DNA Methylation of Dnmt1 and MLH1 in C57BL/6J Male Mice

    Marlene Remely


    Full Text Available Obesity as a multifactorial disorder involves low-grade inflammation, increased reactive oxygen species incidence, gut microbiota aberrations, and epigenetic consequences. Thus, prevention and therapies with epigenetic active antioxidants, (--Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG, are of increasing interest. DNA damage, DNA methylation and gene expression of DNA methyltransferase 1, interleukin 6, and MutL homologue 1 were analyzed in C57BL/6J male mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD or a control diet (CD with and without EGCG supplementation. Gut microbiota was analyzed with quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. An induction of DNA damage was observed, as a consequence of HFD-feeding, whereas EGCG supplementation decreased DNA damage. HFD-feeding induced a higher inflammatory status. Supplementation reversed these effects, resulting in tissue specific gene expression and methylation patterns of DNA methyltransferase 1 and MutL homologue 1. HFD feeding caused a significant lower bacterial abundance. The Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio is significantly lower in HFD + EGCG but higher in CD + EGCG compared to control groups. The results demonstrate the impact of EGCG on the one hand on gut microbiota which together with dietary components affects host health. On the other hand effects may derive from antioxidative activities as well as epigenetic modifications observed on CpG methylation but also likely to include other epigenetic elements.

  2. EGCG Prevents High Fat Diet-Induced Changes in Gut Microbiota, Decreases of DNA Strand Breaks, and Changes in Expression and DNA Methylation of Dnmt1 and MLH1 in C57BL/6J Male Mice.

    Remely, Marlene; Ferk, Franziska; Sterneder, Sonja; Setayesh, Tahereh; Roth, Sylvia; Kepcija, Tatjana; Noorizadeh, Rahil; Rebhan, Irene; Greunz, Martina; Beckmann, Johanna; Wagner, Karl-Heinz; Knasmüller, Siegfried; Haslberger, Alexander G


    Obesity as a multifactorial disorder involves low-grade inflammation, increased reactive oxygen species incidence, gut microbiota aberrations, and epigenetic consequences. Thus, prevention and therapies with epigenetic active antioxidants, (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), are of increasing interest. DNA damage, DNA methylation and gene expression of DNA methyltransferase 1, interleukin 6, and MutL homologue 1 were analyzed in C57BL/6J male mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD) or a control diet (CD) with and without EGCG supplementation. Gut microbiota was analyzed with quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. An induction of DNA damage was observed, as a consequence of HFD-feeding, whereas EGCG supplementation decreased DNA damage. HFD-feeding induced a higher inflammatory status. Supplementation reversed these effects, resulting in tissue specific gene expression and methylation patterns of DNA methyltransferase 1 and MutL homologue 1. HFD feeding caused a significant lower bacterial abundance. The Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio is significantly lower in HFD + EGCG but higher in CD + EGCG compared to control groups. The results demonstrate the impact of EGCG on the one hand on gut microbiota which together with dietary components affects host health. On the other hand effects may derive from antioxidative activities as well as epigenetic modifications observed on CpG methylation but also likely to include other epigenetic elements.

  3. EGCG Prevents High Fat Diet-Induced Changes in Gut Microbiota, Decreases of DNA Strand Breaks, and Changes in Expression and DNA Methylation of Dnmt1 and MLH1 in C57BL/6J Male Mice

    Remely, Marlene; Ferk, Franziska; Sterneder, Sonja; Setayesh, Tahereh; Roth, Sylvia; Kepcija, Tatjana; Noorizadeh, Rahil; Rebhan, Irene; Greunz, Martina; Beckmann, Johanna; Wagner, Karl-Heinz; Knasmüller, Siegfried


    Obesity as a multifactorial disorder involves low-grade inflammation, increased reactive oxygen species incidence, gut microbiota aberrations, and epigenetic consequences. Thus, prevention and therapies with epigenetic active antioxidants, (−)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), are of increasing interest. DNA damage, DNA methylation and gene expression of DNA methyltransferase 1, interleukin 6, and MutL homologue 1 were analyzed in C57BL/6J male mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD) or a control diet (CD) with and without EGCG supplementation. Gut microbiota was analyzed with quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. An induction of DNA damage was observed, as a consequence of HFD-feeding, whereas EGCG supplementation decreased DNA damage. HFD-feeding induced a higher inflammatory status. Supplementation reversed these effects, resulting in tissue specific gene expression and methylation patterns of DNA methyltransferase 1 and MutL homologue 1. HFD feeding caused a significant lower bacterial abundance. The Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio is significantly lower in HFD + EGCG but higher in CD + EGCG compared to control groups. The results demonstrate the impact of EGCG on the one hand on gut microbiota which together with dietary components affects host health. On the other hand effects may derive from antioxidative activities as well as epigenetic modifications observed on CpG methylation but also likely to include other epigenetic elements. PMID:28133504

  4. Glucemia, insulinemia y secreción de insulina en ratas prepúberes hiperandrogenizadas e hiperestrogenizadas Glycemia, insulinemia and insulin secretion in prepubescent rats receiving high doses of androgens and strogens

    Aimée Álvarez Álvarez


    Full Text Available Se estudió el efecto de una sobredosis de enantato de testosterona y de benzoato de estradiol en ratas machos prepúberes, sobre el comportamiento de la glucemia y la insulinemia in vivo, durante una prueba de tolerancia a la glucosa. Adicionalmente se exploró, in vitro, la capacidad de secreción de insulina estimulada por glucosa de los islotes de Langerhans de estas ratas hiperandrogenizadas e hiperestrogenizadas. Se encontró que la hiperandrogenización se acompañaba de un deterioro de la sensibilidad a la insulina, con hiperinsulinemia, que no se corresponde con un aumento de la capacidad de secreción de insulina de los islotes de Langerhans. Sin embargo, se comprobó que la hiperestrogenización no indujo cambios en los perfiles de glucemia, ni de insulinemia, ni en la capacidad de secreción de insulina de los islotes de Langerhans de este grupo de ratas hiperestrogenizadas.The effect of an overdose of testosterone heptanoate and estradiol in male prepubescent rats on the behavior of glycemia and insulinemia was studied in vivo during a glucose tolerance test. The capacity of insulin secretion stimulated by glucose from the islets of Langerhans of these rats that were administered a high dose of androgens and estrogens was explored in vitro. It was found that the high level of circulating androgens was accompanied by a deterioration of sensitivity to insulin with hyperinsulinemia that does not correspond to an increase of the insulin secreting capacity of the islets of Langerhans. However, it was demonstrated that the high level of circulating estrogens did not produce changes either in the glycemia and insulinemia profiles or in the insulin secreting capacity of the islets of Langerhans in this group of rats that received an elevated dose of estrogens.

  5. Electronic warfare receivers and receiving systems

    Poisel, Richard A


    Receivers systems are considered the core of electronic warfare (EW) intercept systems. Without them, the fundamental purpose of such systems is null and void. This book considers the major elements that make up receiver systems and the receivers that go in them.This resource provides system design engineers with techniques for design and development of EW receivers for modern modulations (spread spectrum) in addition to receivers for older, common modulation formats. Each major module in these receivers is considered in detail. Design information is included as well as performance tradeoffs o

  6. Alterations in the endometrium of rats, rabbits, and Macaca mulatta that received an implantation of copper/low-density polyethylene nanocomposite

    Hu LX


    Full Text Available Li-Xia Hu,1,* Hong Wang,1,* Meng Rao,1,* Xiao-Ling Zhao,1 Jing Yang,1 Shi-Fu Hu,1 Jing He,1,2 Wei Xia,1 Hefang Liu,1 Bo Zhen,1 Haihong Di,1 Changsheng Xie,3 Xianping Xia,3 Changhong Zhu,11Family Planning Research Institute, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, People's Republic of China; 2Central Hospital of Wuhan, Wuhan, People's Republic of China; 3Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, People's Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: A copper/low-density polyethylene nanocomposite (nano-Cu/LDPE, a potential intrauterine device component material, has been developed from our research. A logical extension of our previous work, this study was conducted to investigate the expression of plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1, substance P (SP, and substance P receptor (SP-R in the endometrium of Sprague Dawley rats, New Zealand White rabbits, and Macaca mulatta implanted with nano-Cu/LDPE composite. The influence of the nano-Cu/LDPE composite on the morphology of the endometrium was also investigated. Animals were randomly divided into five groups: the sham-operated control group (SO group, bulk copper group (Cu group, LDPE group, and nano-Cu/LDPE groups I and II. An expression of PAI-1, SP, and SP-R in the endometrial tissues was examined by immunohistochemistry at day 30, 60, 90, and 180 postimplantation. The significant difference for PAI-1, SP, and SP-R between the nano-Cu/LDPE groups and the SO group (P<0.05 was identified when the observation period was terminated, and the changes of nano-Cu/LDPE on these parameters were less remarkable than those of the Cu group (P<0.05. The damage to the endometrial morphology caused by the nano-Cu/LDPE composite was much less than that caused by bulk copper. The nano-Cu/LDPE composite might be a potential substitute for conventional materials for intrauterine

  7. 茶EGCG抗癌机理研究的最新进展%The latest development on EGCG anticancer mechanism

    许心青; 黄华涛


    This paper introduces the latest development on tea (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) and its anticancer target, a 67 kD laminin receptor.%肿瘤是细胞在不受抑制地增殖时而形成,恶性肿瘤能入侵周围的细胞,尤其是具攻击性的恶性肿瘤细胞,先穿透一层基层膜(Basement membrane)后转移和扩散到其他的器官里去.基层膜是特殊分化的细胞外基质,正常细胞无法穿透这层基层膜.Laminin是一种大分子糖蛋白.它们广泛地分布于细胞外基质中.通过细胞表面受体而具有与细胞之间沟通的能力.它们是入侵癌细胞主要的附着基体.恶性癌细胞直接粘附于laminin与癌细胞潜在的转移性直接相关.研究发现laminin呈高亲和力粘附于癌细胞表面并可呈饱和状态,暗示有laminin的受体存在.后来发现有一种67 kD laminin受体(67LR)和laminin有高亲和力.众多的研究发现癌细胞表面有过量的67LR存在.这和癌细胞入侵和转移直接相关.因而67LR在癌细胞穿透基层膜而转移的过程中起重要的作用.许多动物试验和流行病学的研究都显示茶叶具有抗多种类型癌症的功效,尤其是表没食子儿茶素没食子酸脂(EGCG).但茶的抗癌机理并不完全清楚.不久前日本科学家Tachlbana等人的研究找到了与EGCG结合的受体,它就是与癌细胞入侵和转移起重要作用的67LR.和用清水处理比较,有67LR的人类肺癌细胞经ECCG处理后其生长受到明显的抑制,浓度分别为0.1和1微摩尔.而无67LR的肺癌细胞经EGCG处理后其生长不受影响.在EGCG处理前用67LR的抗体处理,EGCG则失去了对癌细胞生长的抑制作用.这些表明67LR是EGCG抗癌作用的直接受体.其他的茶叶成份,如用咖啡因和其他的茶多酚处理,既不能结合于细胞表面也不能抑制有67LR的癌细胞的生长.对我们大家最直接相关的是我们只需一天喝二到三杯绿茶就能受益于绿茶防癌抗癌的功效.

  8. Rats

    Alexey Kondrashov


    Full Text Available We aimed to perform a chemical analysis of both Alibernet red wine and an alcohol-free Alibernet red wine extract (AWE and to investigate the effects of AWE on nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species production as well as blood pressure development in normotensive Wistar Kyoto (WKY and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs. Total antioxidant capacity together with total phenolic and selected mineral content was measured in wine and AWE. Young 6-week-old male WKY and SHR were treated with AWE (24,2 mg/kg/day for 3 weeks. Total NOS and SOD activities, eNOS and SOD1 protein expressions, and superoxide production were determined in the tissues. Both antioxidant capacity and phenolic content were significantly higher in AWE compared to wine. The AWE increased NOS activity in the left ventricle, aorta, and kidney of SHR, while it did not change NOS activity in WKY rats. Similarly, increased SOD activity in the plasma and left ventricle was observed in SHR only. There were no changes in eNOS and SOD1 expressions. In conclusion, phenolics and minerals included in AWE may contribute directly to increased NOS and SOD activities of SHR. Nevertheless, 3 weeks of AWE treatment failed to affect blood pressure of SHR.

  9. Combination of Low Concentration of (−-Epigallocatechin Gallate (EGCG and Curcumin Strongly Suppresses the Growth of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer in Vitro and in Vivo through Causing Cell Cycle Arrest

    Wenbin Huang


    Full Text Available (−-Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG and curcumin are two naturally derived agents that have been widely investigated worldwide. They exhibit their anti-tumor effects in many types of cancers. In the current study, the effect of the combination of the two agents on non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC cells was investigated. The results revealed that at low concentrations, the combination of the EGCG and curcumin strongly enhanced cell cycle arrest. Flow cytometry analysis showed that the cells were arrested at G1 and S/G2 phases. Two main cell cycle related proteins cyclin D1 and cyclin B1 were significantly inhibited at the present of EGCG and curcumin. EdU (5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine fluorescence staining showed that the DNA replication was significantly blocked. A clonal growth assay also confirmed a marked repression of cell growth. In a lung cancer xenograft node mice model, combination of EGCG and curcumin exhibited protective effect against weight loss due to tumor burden. Tumor growth was strongly repressed by the combination of the two agents, without causing any serious side-effect. Overall, these results strongly suggest that EGCG in combination with curcumin could be a candidate for chemoprevention agent of NSCLC.

  10. (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate suppresses hepatic preneoplastic lesions developed in a novel rat model of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis.

    Sumi, Takafumi; Shirakami, Yohei; Shimizu, Masahito; Kochi, Takahiro; Ohno, Tomohiko; Kubota, Masaya; Shiraki, Makoto; Tsurumi, Hisashi; Tanaka, Takuji; Moriwaki, Hisataka


    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) ranges from simple steatosis to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). NASH, which is accompanied by increased oxidative stress and inflammation in the liver, is associated with hepatic carcinogenesis. Green tea catechins (GTCs) possess anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, and cancer-preventive properties. In this study, we investigated whether (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), a major component of GTCs, inhibits NAFLD/NASH-related liver tumorigenesis. Male 8-week-old Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were administered a single intraperitoneal injection of a hepatic carcinogen diethylnitrosamine (DEN, 30 mg/kg body weight) and then fed a high-fat diet (HFD) for 7 weeks. The rats were also provided tap water containing 0.01% or 0.1% EGCG during the experiment. At sacrifice, the livers of SD rats treated with DEN and HFD exhibited marked development of glutathione S-transferase placental form (GST-P)-positive foci, a hepatic preneoplastic lesion, and this was associated with hepatic steatosis, oxidative stress and inflammation, and hepatocyte proliferation. EGCG administration, however, inhibited the development of GST-P-positive foci by decreasing hepatic triglyceride content, reducing hepatic fibrosis, lowering oxidative stress, attenuating inflammation, and inhibiting excessive hepatocyte proliferation in DEN- and HFD-treated SD rats. These findings suggest that the experimental model of SD rats treated with HFD and DEN, in which histopathological and pathophysiological characteristics of NASH and the development of hepatic premalignant lesions were observed, might facilitate the evaluation of liver tumorigenesis associated with NAFLD/NASH. Administering EGCG, a GTC, might serve as an effective chemoprevention modality for NAFLD/NASH-related liver tumorigenesis.

  11. Detection of differentially expressed genes reversing MDR of HCC induced by EGCG%EGCG逆转肝癌耐多药差异基因表达

    韦艳; 张海英; 梁钢


    Objective To investigate the mechanism of reversing effect of epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) on multidrug resistance (MDR) of human hepatocellular carcinoma ( HCC ) cell lines Bel-FU, and to provide the reference for screening natural drugs for reversing the MDR of HCC at transcriptional level. Methods Human HCC cell line BEL-7402 and multidrug-resistant HCC cell line Bel-Fu were cultured for the study. The MDR of Bel-Fu cells and its drug sensitivity to EGCG were determined by methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) assay. Confined to the scope of the development of HCC,the 42 gene expression profiles of BEL-7402 group, BeL-FU group, and BeL-FU EGCG group were detected by real-time quantitative-PCR array. The expression profiles of gene Hras, MDR1 were comfirmed by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Results The resistance index (IR) of Bel-Fu to 5 -fluorouracil, cytarabine, vincristin, doxorubicin, daunorubicin was 89.6,3.9,37.2,16. 5 ,and 3.7,respectively. The 50% inhibitory concentration(IC50) and 10% inhibitory concentration(IC10) of EGCG was 587.4lμg/mL and 83. 1 μg/mL,respectively. Compared with those in BEL-7402 group,5 differentially expressed genes were up-regulated in Bel-Fu group. Compared with those in Bel-Fu group, 6 differentially expressed genes were down-regulated in Bel-Fu EGCG group. Compared with those in BEL-7402 group, the expression profiles of gene Hras and MDR1 in Bel-Fu group showed 2. 87 and 2. 74 times of increase. Compared with those in Bel-Fu group,the expression profiles of gene Hras and MDR1 in the Bel-Fu EGCG group decreased by 2. 37 and 2. 63 times.Conclusion EGCG could reverse the MDR of human hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines Bel-FU.%目的 探讨表没食子儿茶素没食子酸酯(EGCG)逆转人肝癌细胞耐多药的机制,为进一步在基因转录水平上高通量筛选逆转肝癌耐多药天然药物提供一定的参考依据.方法 采用人肝癌细胞Bel-7402及其耐5-氟尿嘧啶Bel-FU细胞,甲

  12. Study on Absorption of Theaflavin and EGCG in Caco-2 Cell Model%TF1与EGCG在Caco-2细胞中的吸收规律研究

    孟庆; 屠幼英


    为了探究茶黄素单体(TF1)与表没食子儿茶素没食子酸酯(EGCG)在生物体中的吸收规律,本实验建立了体外 Caco-2单层细胞模型,模拟小肠对 TF1与 EGCG的吸收,并研究了浓度和时间对吸收的影响。结果表明,在10~100µmol·L-1范围内,TF1与 EGCG 在 Caco-2单层细胞模型中的吸收呈现表观渗透系数 Papp随浓度增加而上升的规律。但两者的外排率也呈现同样的规律,并且外排率上升的幅度均大于二者吸收率上升的幅度。由于 TF1与 EGCG 在细胞单层模型中的 Papp 均小于1×10-6 cm·s -1,说明两者都属于难吸收的药物,但是TF1在Caco-2细胞模型中的吸收率高于EGCG。因其外排比均大于2,说明两者在细胞模型上的外排是被动转运。从吸收时间看,TF1的外排规律与EGCG一致。%In order to explore the absorption regularity of TF1 and EGCG in the organism. This research used the Caco-2 cell monolayer model in vitro to simulate the absorption of TF1 and EGCG in the small intestine. The influences of concentration and time on the absorption regularity of TF1 and EGCG in Caco-2 cell monolayer model were investigated. The results illustrated that the absorption of TF1 and EGCG in Caco-2 model showed that the apparent permeability coefficient raised with the increasing of concentrations of two compound in the range of 10~100 µ mol·L-1. The efflux rates of the TF1 and EGCG showed the same rules as absorption. However, the increasing range of efflux rate was higher than that of absorption rate. The values of Papp about TF 1 and EGCG in the cell model were lower than 1×10-6 cm·s -1, which indicated that both of them belonged to the kind of drugs which were difficult to absorb. However, with comparing the absorption rate, TF1 was higher than EGCG in this model. Both of efflux transport showed the passive process because the efflux rates of TF 1 and EGCG were larger than 2 and higher than in cell

  13. Epigallocatechin 3-gallate suppresses interleukin-1β-induced inflammatory responses in intervertebral disc cells in vitro and reduces radiculopathic pain in rats.

    Krupkova, O; Sekiguchi, M; Klasen, J; Hausmann, O; Konno, S; Ferguson, S J; Wuertz-Kozak, K


    Intervertebral disc (IVD) disease, which is characterised by age-related changes in the adult disc, is the most common cause of disc failure and low back pain. The purpose of this study was to analyse the potential of the biologically active polyphenol epigallocatechin 3-gallate (EGCG) for the treatment of painful IVD disease by identifying and explaining its anti-inflammatory and anti-catabolic activity. Human IVD cells were isolated from patients undergoing surgery due to degenerative disc disease (n = 34) and cultured in 2D or 3D. An inflammatory response was activated by IL-1β, EGCG was added, and the expression/activity of inflammatory mediators and pathways was measured by qRT-PCR, western blotting, ELISA, immunofluorescence and transcription factor assay. The small molecule inhibitor SB203580 was used to investigate the involvement of the p38 pathway in the observed effects. The analgesic properties of EGCG were analysed by the von Frey filament test in Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 60). EGCG significantly inhibited the expression of pro-inflammatory mediators and matrix metalloproteinases in vitro, as well as radiculopathic pain in vivo, most probably by modulation of the activity of IRAK-1 and its downstream effectors p38, JNK and NF-κB.

  14. Epigallocatechin 3-gallate suppresses interleukin-1β-induced inflammatory responses in intervertebral disc cells in vitro and reduces radiculopathic pain in rats

    O Krupkova


    Full Text Available Intervertebral disc (IVD disease, which is characterised by age-related changes in the adult disc, is the most common cause of disc failure and low back pain. The purpose of this study was to analyse the potential of the biologically active polyphenol epigallocatechin 3-gallate (EGCG for the treatment of painful IVD disease by identifying and explaining its anti-inflammatory and anti-catabolic activity. Human IVD cells were isolated from patients undergoing surgery due to degenerative disc disease (n = 34 and cultured in 2D or 3D. An inflammatory response was activated by IL-1β, EGCG was added, and the expression/activity of inflammatory mediators and pathways was measured by qRT-PCR, western blotting, ELISA, immunofluorescence and transcription factor assay. The small molecule inhibitor SB203580 was used to investigate the involvement of the p38 pathway in the observed effects. The analgesic properties of EGCG were analysed by the von Frey filament test in Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 60. EGCG significantly inhibited the expression of pro-inflammatory mediators and matrix metalloproteinases in vitro, as well as radiculopathic pain in vivo, most probably by modulation of the activity of IRAK-1 and its downstream effectors p38, JNK and NF-κB.

  15. Highly Sensitive Optical Receivers

    Schneider, Kerstin


    Highly Sensitive Optical Receivers primarily treats the circuit design of optical receivers with external photodiodes. Continuous-mode and burst-mode receivers are compared. The monograph first summarizes the basics of III/V photodetectors, transistor and noise models, bit-error rate, sensitivity and analog circuit design, thus enabling readers to understand the circuits described in the main part of the book. In order to cover the topic comprehensively, detailed descriptions of receivers for optical data communication in general and, in particular, optical burst-mode receivers in deep-sub-µm CMOS are presented. Numerous detailed and elaborate illustrations facilitate better understanding.

  16. Low complexity MIMO receivers

    Bai, Lin; Yu, Quan


    Multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems can increase the spectral efficiency in wireless communications. However, the interference becomes the major drawback that leads to high computational complexity at both transmitter and receiver. In particular, the complexity of MIMO receivers can be prohibitively high. As an efficient mathematical tool to devise low complexity approaches that mitigate the interference in MIMO systems, lattice reduction (LR) has been widely studied and employed over the last decade. The co-authors of this book are world's leading experts on MIMO receivers, and here they share the key findings of their research over years. They detail a range of key techniques for receiver design as multiple transmitted and received signals are available. The authors first introduce the principle of signal detection and the LR in mathematical aspects. They then move on to discuss the use of LR in low complexity MIMO receiver design with respect to different aspects, including uncoded MIMO detection...

  17. Delphi Accounts Receivable Module -

    Department of Transportation — Delphi accounts receivable module contains the following data elements, but are not limited to customer information, cash receipts, line of accounting details, bill...

  18. Protective effects of a catechin-rich extract on the hippocampal formation and spatial memory in aging rats.

    Rodrigues, Jorge; Assunção, Marco; Lukoyanov, Nikolay; Cardoso, Armando; Carvalho, Félix; Andrade, José Paulo


    Green tea (GT) displays strong anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties mostly attributed to (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), while experiments focusing on other catechins are scarce. With the present work we intended to analyze the neuroprotective effects of prolonged consumption of a GT extract (GTE) rich in catechins but poor in EGCG and other GT bioactive components that could also afford benefit. The endpoints evaluated were aging-induced biochemical and morphological changes in the rat hippocampal formation (HF) and behavioral alterations. Male Wistar rats aged 12 months were treated with GTE until 19 months of age. This group of animals was compared with control groups aged 19 (C-19M) or 12 months (C-12M). We found that aging increased oxidative markers but GTE consumption protected proteins and lipids against oxidation. The age-associated increase in lipofuscin content and lysosomal volume was also prevented by treatment with GTE. The dendritic arborizations of dentate granule cells of GTE-treated animals presented plastic changes accompanied by an improved spatial learning evaluated with the Morris water maze. Altogether our results demonstrate that the consumption of an extract rich in catechins other than EGCG protected the HF from aging-related declines contributing to improve the redox status and preventing the structural damage observed in old animals, with repercussions on behavioral performance.

  19. A Study on Processing Materials of Instant Tea with High Ester-catechin and EGCG Contents%高酯型儿茶素和EGCG含量的速溶茶加工原料研究

    林金科; 赵文净; 吴亮宇; 杨志坚; 涂良剑; 孙平; 林艺端; 张明泽; 商虎


    为解决目前速溶茶中酯型儿茶素和EGCG(表没食子儿茶素没食子酸酯)含量较低的问题,分别以不同季节的茶叶和不同品种的乌龙茶为加工原料生产速溶茶产品,采用高效液相色谱法检测分析速溶茶产品中的酯型儿茶素和EGCG含量,采用Duncan法进行数据分析.研究结果表明,不同采摘季节的茶叶为加工原料或不同乌龙茶品种的茶叶为加工原料,其生产出的速溶茶产品中酯型儿荼素和EGCG含量差异分别达显著水平.与春茶为加工原料相比,选用乌龙茶秋茶或绿茶夏茶为加工原料生产速溶茶,显著提高了产品中的酯型儿茶素和EGCG含量;与‘铁观音’品种相比,选用‘单枞’或‘毛蟹’品种的乌龙茶为加工原料生产速溶茶,显著提高了速溶乌龙茶产品中的酯型儿茶素和EGCG含量.%The aim of this research was to solve the problem of low contents of ester-catechins and EGCG (epigallocatechin gallate) in instant tea. Using different processing raw materials of oolong tea or green tea plucked in different seasons and of oolong tea plucked from different varieties, different kinds of instant tea were produced. The contents of ester-catechins and EGCG were detected by HPLC. It was confirmed that the contents of ester-catechins and EGCG in instant oolong tea processed from fall oolong tea were higher than that from spring. The contents of ester-catechins and EGCG in instant green tea processed from summer green tea were higher than that from spring. There were significant differences in the contents of ester-catechins and EGCG in instant oolong tea made from different cultivars and the order followed 'Dancong' >' Maoxie' >' Tie Guanyin'.

  20. Effects of catechins on vascular tone in rat thoracic aorta with endothelium.

    Sanae, Fujiko; Miyaichi, Yukinori; Kizu, Haruhisa; Hayashi, Hisao


    The effects of eight catechin derivatives on vascular tone in rat thoracic aorta were examined. Catechin derivatives (10 microM) potentiated the contractile response to phenylephrine in endothelium-intact arteries. The potentiations produced by EGCg and EGC were almost absent in endothelium-denuded arteries and abolished by N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthesis. The catechin derivatives also inhibited endothelium-dependent relaxation in response to acetylcholine. The order of catechin derivatives ranked in terms of both increasing vascular reactivity and impairing endothelium-dependent relaxation was similar; (-)-gallocatechin (GC) >or= (-)-epigallocatechin (EGC) >or= (-)-gallocatechin gallate (GCg) >or= (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCg) >or= (-)-catechin (C) >or= (-)-epicatechin (EC) >or= (-)-catechin gallate (Cg) >or= (-)-epicatechin gallate (ECg). In addition, EGC inhibited the endothelium-independent relaxation evoked by both sodium nitroprusside and NOC-7, a spontanous NO releaser, but EGCg inhibited only that by NOC-7. These findings indicate that catechin derivatives produce a potentiation of the contractile response and an inhibition of the vasorelaxant response, probably through inactivation of endothelium-derived nitric oxide (NO), and that the hydroxyl on C-5 of the B ring together with the stereoscopic structure between the C-3 group and the B ring of flavanols was of importance in mediating the above effects and that the substitution of a gallate group of C-3 attenuated the effects, probably due to a decreased response to solube guanylate cyclase in vascular smooth muscle cells.

  1. Wideband CMOS receivers

    Oliveira, Luis


    This book demonstrates how to design a wideband receiver operating in current mode, in which the noise and non-linearity are reduced, implemented in a low cost single chip, using standard CMOS technology.  The authors present a solution to remove the transimpedance amplifier (TIA) block and connect directly the mixer’s output to a passive second-order continuous-time Σ∆ analog to digital converter (ADC), which operates in current-mode. These techniques enable the reduction of area, power consumption, and cost in modern CMOS receivers.

  2. Effect of EGCG on hippocampal neurogenesis and synaptic density in Alzheimer's disease mice%EGCG对AD小鼠海马神经发生和突触密度影响

    闫玉芳; 龚锴; 马拓; 公衍道


    To investigate the effect of Epigallocatechin-3-Gallate (EGCG) on cognitive dysfunction,impaired hippocampal neurogenesis and synaptic function in Alzheimer's disease(AD) model mice,6-month-old APP/PS1 double transgenic mice and age-matched wild-type C57 mice were divided into two groups and intraperitoneally injected with either EGCG (20 mg· kg-1· d-1) or saline,once daily for 5 weeks.The effect of EGCG on leaming and memory in AD mice was examined by Morris water maze task (MWM) and novel object recognition tasks (NOR).The effect of EGCG on hippocampal neurogenesis and synaptic density was assessed by immunofluorescence staining.In the MWM test,EGCG-injected AD mice displayed shorter escape latencies and swimming path to find the platform position and more times crossing the hidden platform as compared to saline-injected AD mice (P<0.01).Likewise,EGCG treatment significantly increased the novel object recognition index in AD mice (P<0.05).Following EGCG treatment,the number of newbom neural stem cells and immature neurons in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus increased dramatically in AD mice (P<0.01).Moreover,EGCG obviously increased the synaptic density of CA1 in the hippocampus in AD mice (P<0.01).These results suggested that EGCG promoted hippocampal neurogenesis,increased synaptic density and ameliorated the cognitive deficits in AD mice,which had provided a theoretical basis for the application of EGCG in AD treatment.%为探讨表没食子儿茶素没食子酸酯(EGCG)对阿尔茨海默症(Alzheimer's disease,AD)模型动物认知功能缺陷、海马神经发生和突触功能损伤影响,6月龄APP/PS1双转基因小鼠和C57小鼠分别给予EGCG (20mg· kg-1·d-1)或生理盐水腹腔注射,连续给药5周.利用Morris水迷宫试验和新物体识别试验检测EGCG对AD模型小鼠空间学习记忆能力影响,免疫组织化学方法检测EGCG对AD模型小鼠海马新生神经干细胞数量、新生神经元数量以及突触密度

  3. Zero-power receiver

    Brocato, Robert W.


    An unpowered signal receiver and a method for signal reception detects and responds to very weak signals using pyroelectric devices as impedance transformers and/or demodulators. In some embodiments, surface acoustic wave devices (SAW) are also used. Illustrative embodiments include satellite and long distance terrestrial communications applications.

  4. Sender-Receiver Games

    Peeters, R.J.A.P.; Potters, J.A.M.


    Standard game-theoretic solution concepts do not guarantee meaningful commu- nication in cheap-talk games. In this paper, we define a solution concept which guarantees communication for a large class of games by designing a behavior pro- tocol which the receiver uses to judge messages sent by the

  5. Green tea decoction improves glucose tolerance and reduces weight gain of rats fed normal and high-fat diet.

    Snoussi, Chahira; Ducroc, Robert; Hamdaoui, Mohamed Hédi; Dhaouadi, Karima; Abaidi, Houda; Cluzeaud, Francoise; Nazaret, Corinne; Le Gall, Maude; Bado, André


    Green tea containing polyphenols exerts antidiabetic and antiobesity effects, but the mechanisms involved are not fully understood. In this study, we first analyzed and compared polyphenol compounds [epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), epigallocatechin (EGC)] in decoction of green tea leaves versus usual green tea extracts. Second, the effects of acute (30 min) or chronic (6 weeks) oral administration of green tea decoction (GTD) on intestinal glucose absorption were studied in vitro in Ussing chamber, ex vivo using isolated jejunal loops and in vivo through glucose tolerance tests. Finally, we explore in rat model fed normal or high-fat diet the effects of GTD on body weight, blood parameters and on the relative expression of glucose transporters SGLT-1, GLUT2 and GLUT4. GTD cooked for 15 min contained the highest amounts of phenolic compounds. In fasted rats, acute administration of GTD inhibited SGLT-1 activity, increased GLUT2 activity and improved glucose tolerance. Similarly to GTD, acute administration of synthetic phenolic compounds (2/3 EGCG+1/3 EGC) inhibited SGLT-1 activity. Chronic administration of GTD in rat fed high-fat diet reduced body weight gain, circulating triglycerides and cholesterol and improved glucose tolerance. GTD-treated rats for 6 weeks display significantly reduced SGLT-1 and increased GLUT2 mRNA levels in the jejunum mucosa. Moreover, adipose tissue GLUT4 mRNA levels were increased. These results indicate that GTD, a traditional beverage rich in EGCG and EGC reduces intestinal SGLT-1/GLUT2 ratio, a hallmark of regulation of glucose absorption in enterocyte, and enhances adipose GLUT4 providing new insights in its possible role in the control of glucose homeostasis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Digital Receiver Phase Meter

    Marcin, Martin; Abramovici, Alexander


    The software of a commercially available digital radio receiver has been modified to make the receiver function as a two-channel low-noise phase meter. This phase meter is a prototype in the continuing development of a phase meter for a system in which radiofrequency (RF) signals in the two channels would be outputs of a spaceborne heterodyne laser interferometer for detecting gravitational waves. The frequencies of the signals could include a common Doppler-shift component of as much as 15 MHz. The phase meter is required to measure the relative phases of the signals in the two channels at a sampling rate of 10 Hz at a root power spectral density digital receiver. The input RF signal is first fed to the input terminal of an analog-to-digital converter (ADC). To prevent aliasing errors in the ADC, the sampling rate must be at least twice the input signal frequency. The sampling rate of the ADC is governed by a sampling clock, which also drives a digital local oscillator (DLO), which is a direct digital frequency synthesizer. The DLO produces samples of sine and cosine signals at a programmed tuning frequency. The sine and cosine samples are mixed with (that is, multiplied by) the samples from the ADC, then low-pass filtered to obtain in-phase (I) and quadrature (Q) signal components. A digital signal processor (DSP) computes the ratio between the Q and I components, computes the phase of the RF signal (relative to that of the DLO signal) as the arctangent of this ratio, and then averages successive such phase values over a time interval specified by the user.

  7. Pressure difference receiving ears

    Michelsen, Axel; Larsen, Ole Næsbye


    of such pressure difference receiving ears have been hampered by lack of suitable experimental methods. In this review, we review the methods for collecting reliable data on the binaural directional cues at the eardrums, on how the eardrum vibrations depend on the direction of sound incidence, and on how sound...... waves behave in the air spaces leading to the interior surfaces of eardrums. A linear mathematical model with well-defined inputs is used for exploring how the directionality varies with the binaural directional cues and the amplitude and phase gain of the sound pathway to the inner surface...

  8. Prevention of 3-methylcholanthrene-induced fibrosarcomas in rats pre-inoculated with endogenous rat retrovirus.

    Fish, D C; Demarais, J T; Djurickovic, D B; Huebner, R J


    Weanling Fischer 344 rats received a single intraperitoneal injection of a 1000-fold concentrated preparation of endogenous nontransforming rat retrovirus. Ten days later, the rats were each given a single subcutaneous injection of 3-methylcholanthrene. The rats inoculated with the endogenous rat retrovirus were significantly protected against the development of cancer, whereas uninoculated rats and rats given one of several murine retroviruses or baboon retrovirus were not protected.

  9. Effects of herbal mixture extracts on obesity in rats fed a high-fat diet

    Mei-Yin Chien


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate and compare the effects of three herbal mixture extracts on obesity induced by high-fat diet (HFD in rats. The prescriptions—Pericarpium citri reticulatae and Fructus crataegi—were used as matrix components and mixed with Ampelopsis grossedentata, Salvia miltiorrhiza, and epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG to form T1, T2, and T3 complexes, respectively. Results revealed that HFD feeding significantly increased body weight gain, fat deposition, plasma lipid profiles, hepatic lipid accumulation, and hepatic vacuoles formation, but decreased plasma levels of adiponectin in rats. Only the T1 complex showed the tendency, although not significantly so, for decreased HFD-induced body weight gain. T1 and T3 complexes significantly reduced HFD-induced fat deposition, and plasma levels of triglyceride, total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Only the T1 complex significantly increased HFD-reduced adiponectin levels in plasma, but decreased HFD-increased triglyceride content in liver tissues. All complexes effectively inhibited HFD-induced vacuoles formation. The content of dihydromyricetin, salvianolic acid B, and EGCG in T1, T2, and T3 complexes was 18.25 ± 0.07%, 22.20 ± 0.10%, and 18.86 ± 0.04%, respectively. In summary, we demonstrated that herbal mixture extracts, especially T1 complex, exhibit antiobesity activity in HFD-fed rats.

  10. Effects of herbal mixture extracts on obesity in rats fed a high-fat diet.

    Chien, Mei-Yin; Ku, Yu-Hua; Chang, Jin-Ming; Yang, Chih-Min; Chen, Chao-Hsiang


    The aim of this study was to investigate and compare the effects of three herbal mixture extracts on obesity induced by high-fat diet (HFD) in rats. The prescriptions-Pericarpium citri reticulatae and Fructus crataegi-were used as matrix components and mixed with Ampelopsis grossedentata, Salvia miltiorrhiza, and epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) to form T1, T2, and T3 complexes, respectively. Results revealed that HFD feeding significantly increased body weight gain, fat deposition, plasma lipid profiles, hepatic lipid accumulation, and hepatic vacuoles formation, but decreased plasma levels of adiponectin in rats. Only the T1 complex showed the tendency, although not significantly so, for decreased HFD-induced body weight gain. T1 and T3 complexes significantly reduced HFD-induced fat deposition, and plasma levels of triglyceride, total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Only the T1 complex significantly increased HFD-reduced adiponectin levels in plasma, but decreased HFD-increased triglyceride content in liver tissues. All complexes effectively inhibited HFD-induced vacuoles formation. The content of dihydromyricetin, salvianolic acid B, and EGCG in T1, T2, and T3 complexes was 18.25 ± 0.07%, 22.20 ± 0.10%, and 18.86 ± 0.04%, respectively. In summary, we demonstrated that herbal mixture extracts, especially T1 complex, exhibit antiobesity activity in HFD-fed rats. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. CERN apprentice receives award


    Another CERN apprentice has received an award for the quality of his work. Stéphane Küng (centre), at the UIG ceremony last November, presided over by Geneva State Councillor Pierre-François Unger, Head of the Department of Economics and Health. Electronics technician Stéphane Küng was honoured in November by the Social Foundation of the Union Industrielle Genevoise (UIG) as one of Geneva’s eight best apprentices in the field of mechatronics. The 20-year-old Genevan obtained his Federal apprentice’s certificate (Certificat fédéral de capacité - CFC) in June 2007, achieving excellent marks in his written tests at the Centre d’Enseignement Professionnel Technique et Artisanal (CEPTA). Like more than 200 youngsters before him, Stéphane Küng spent part of his four-year sandwich course working at CERN, where he followed many practical training courses and gained valuable hands-on experience in various technical groups and labs. "It’ always very gr...

  12. GNSS Software Receiver for UAVs

    Olesen, Daniel Madelung; Jakobsen, Jakob; von Benzon, Hans-Henrik


    This paper describes the current activities of GPS/GNSS Software receiver development at DTU Space. GNSS Software receivers have received a great deal of attention in the last two decades and numerous implementations have already been presented. DTU Space has just recently started development of ...... of our own GNSS software-receiver targeted for mini UAV applications, and we will in in this paper present our current progress and briefly discuss the benefits of Software Receivers in relation to our research interests....

  13. The effects of co-administration of butter on the absorption, metabolism and excretion of catechins in rats after oral administration of tea polyphenols.

    Zhang, Liang; Han, Yuhui; Xu, Liwei; Liang, Yuhong; Chen, Xin; Li, Junsong; Wan, Xiaochun


    In Southwest China, tea polyphenols are usually utilized by way of butter tea. Tea polyphenols inhibit the absorption and biosynthesis of fatty acids in vivo, but the effects of butter on the pharmacokinetics of tea polyphenols have drawn less concern. A rapid UHPLC-MS/MS method was used to quantitatively determine the catechins in the plasma, feces and bile of rats after the oral administration of tea polyphenol or its combination with butter. In comparison with the single tea polyphenol treatment, the maximum plasma concentrations (Cmax) of the free EGCG, EGC, EC, GCG, GC and ECG significantly decreased after the co-administration of butter. The mean residence times (MRT) of the free EGCG, EGC, EC, GC and ECG were also significantly prolonged. When the plasma samples were treated with β-glucuronidase and arylsulfatase, the pharmacokinetic parameters of the total catechins (free and conjugated forms) were not affected by the co-administration of butter. These results indicated that the total absorption of catechins was not affected by butter, but the metabolism of catechins had been changed. Furthermore, the fecal catechins were significantly increased by butter. The total fecal amount and excretion ratio of all catechins were increased highly. The biliary excretion of EGCG, EGC, EC, GCG and GC was significantly increased by the co-administration of butter. To sum up, the butter changed the metabolism of catechins in vivo by decreasing the plasma concentration of the free catechins but increasing the conjugated catechins.

  14. In vivo proton observed carbon edited (POCE) (13) C magnetic resonance spectroscopy of the rat brain using a volumetric transmitter and receive-only surface coil on the proton channel.

    Kumaragamage, Chathura; Madularu, Dan; Mathieu, Axel P; De Feyter, Henk; Rajah, M Natasha; Near, Jamie


    In vivo carbon-13 ((13) C) MR spectroscopy (MRS) is capable of measuring energy metabolism and neuroenergetics, noninvasively in the brain. Indirect ((1) H-[(13) C]) MRS provides sensitivity benefits compared with direct (13) C methods, and normally includes a (1) H surface coil for both localization and signal reception. The aim was to develop a coil platform with homogenous B1+ and use short conventional pulses for short echo time proton observed carbon edited (POCE) MRS. A (1) H-[(13) C] MRS coil platform was designed with a volumetric resonator for (1) H transmit, and surface coils for (1) H reception and (13) C transmission. The Rx-only (1) H surface coil nullifies the requirement for a T/R switch before the (1) H preamplifier; the highpass filter and preamplifier can be placed proximal to the coil, thus minimizing sensitivity losses inherent with POCE-MRS systems described in the literature. The coil platform was evaluated with a PRESS-POCE sequence (TE = 12.6 ms) on a rat model. The coil provided excellent localization, uniform spin nutation, and sensitivity. (13) C labeling of Glu-H4 and Glx-H3 peaks, and the Glx-H2 peaks were observed approximately 13 and 21 min following the infusion of 1-(13) C glucose, respectively. A convenient and sensitive platform to study energy metabolism and neurotransmitter cycling is presented. Magn Reson Med, 2017. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  15. Black-tea polyphenols suppress postprandial hypertriacylglycerolemia by suppressing lymphatic transport of dietary fat in rats.

    Kobayashi, Makoto; Ichitani, Masaki; Suzuki, Yuko; Unno, Tomonori; Sugawara, Takashi; Yamahira, Takashi; Kato, Masaki; Takihara, Takanobu; Sagesaka, Yuko; Kakuda, Takami; Ikeda, Ikuo


    Administration of black-tea polyphenols (BTP) at 100 and 200 mg/kg of body weight in rats suppressed postprandial hypertriacylglycerolemia in a dose-dependent manner. Administration of BTP also suppressed lymphatic recovery of (14)C-trioleoylglycerol in rats that were cannulated in the thoracic duct. BTP dose-dependently inhibited the activity of pancreatic lipase in vitro with an IC50 of 0.254 mg/mL. When purified theaflavins, which are components of BTP, were used, theaflavins with galloyl moieties, but not those without galloyl moiety, inhibited the activity of pancreatic lipase. Theaflavin-3,3'-digallate (TFDG) was more effective in inhibiting the activity of pancreatic lipase than epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), epicatechin gallate (ECG), and a mixture of EGCG and ECG. BTP and TFDG had a similar effect in inhibiting the activity of pancreatic lipase when the total polyphenol amount was adjusted to the same. BTP had no effect on micellar solubility of hydrolysis products of triacylglycerol. These results suggest that BTP suppressed postprandial hypertriacylglycerolemia by reducing triacylglycerol absorption via the inhibition of pancreatic lipase activity.

  16. On the impact of receiver imperfections on the MMSE-IRC receiver performance in 5G networks

    Tavares, Fernando Menezes Leitão; Berardinelli, Gilberto; Mahmood, Nurul Huda


    The usage of Minimum Mean Square Error - Interference Rejection Combining (MMSE-IRC) receivers is expected to be a significant performance booster in the ultra-dense deployment of small cells envisioned by an upcoming 5th generation (5G) Radio Access Technology (RAT). However, hardware limitations...

  17. EGCG对糖尿病小鼠肾脏保护作用的实验观察%In vivo study of the renoprotective effects of EGCG in diabetic db/db mice

    杨秀红; 李亚秋; 冯聪聪; 郭黎莉; 金惠敏


    目的 探讨表没食子儿茶素没食子酸酯(EGCG)对糖尿病db/db小鼠肾脏的保护作用及其机制.方法 将8周db/db小鼠(血糖>16.7 mmol/L)随机分为对照组(未干预,8只)、EGCGA组(EGCG 50 mg·kg-1·d-1,8只)、EGCG B组(EGCG 100 mg·kg-1·d-1,8只).于实验前、第4、8周测体重、空腹血糖、行口服葡萄糖耐量试验(OGTT),并收集24h尿液检测24h尿蛋白.酶联免疫吸附试验(ELISA)检测血管紧张素Ⅱ(AngⅡ)、胰岛素、尿8-羟基脱氧鸟苷(8-OHdG)水平;Western印迹法检测肾皮质组织AngⅡ受体1(AT-IR)、烟酰胺腺嘌呤二核苷酸磷酸(NADPH)氧化酶亚基P22-phox和P47-phox、磷酸化细胞外调节蛋白激酶1/2(p-Erk1/2)、磷酸化P38丝裂原活化蛋白激酶(p-P38MAPK)、磷酸化磷脂酰肌醇3-激酶(p-PI3K)、磷酸化蛋白激酶B(p-AKT)的蛋白表达水平.过碘酸雪夫(PAS)染色方法观察肾脏病理情况.结果 EGCG干预8周后,与对照组相比,EGCGA、B组空腹血糖水平降低[(14.4±1.0)、(14.2±0.7)比(17.2±0.8)mmol/L];空腹胰岛素水平增高[(13.2±1.2)、(13.4±1.3)比(9.9±1.0) mU/L];OGTT曲线下面积减少[(49.3±1.8)、(44.8±0.7)比(60.0±0.8)mmol·L-1·h-1];24 h尿蛋白[(8.8±1.0)、(8.6±1.1)比(11.7±1.3)mg]和尿8-OHdG[(90±5)、(78±5)比(118±10) ng/d]水平均降低;血清AngⅡ[(498±23)、(511±19)比(688±17) ng/L]和肾皮质AngⅡ[(367±5)、(384±10)比(406±7) ng/L]水平均降低;AT-1R、P22-phox、P47-phox、p-Erk1/2、p-P38MAPK蛋白表达水平明显下调,p-PI3K、p-AKT的蛋白表达水平明显上调,差异均有统计学意义(均P<0.05);肾脏病理出现改善.干预8周后,与EGCG A组相比,EGCG B组尿8-OHdG水平降低(P=0.007),OGTT曲线下面积减少(P=0.01).结论 EGCG具有保护糖尿病小鼠肾脏的作用,其机制可能与抑制氧化应激,抑制Erk/P38MAPK信号通路,激活PI3K/AKT信号传导通路有密切关系.%Objective To explore the renoprotective effects of (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG

  18. 绿茶的主要成分表没食子儿茶素没食子酸酯(EGCG)对血小板功能影响的研究%The Effect of (-)-Epigallocatechin Gallate(EGCG),Main Component of Green Tea,on Platelet Function

    庞爱明; 阮长耿


    目的对绿茶的主要成分表没食子儿茶素没食子酸酯(EGCG)对血小板聚集、人富含血小板血浆产生TXB2、P-selectin以及血小板膜糖蛋白P-selectin表达水平的影响进行研究,探讨EGCG对血小板聚集、活化的影响,为进一步开发抗血小板药物提供依据.方法用ADP为诱导剂,采用Born氏法测定血小板聚集率;采用放射免疫测定法测定血小板聚集前后富含血小板血浆中TXB2及P-selectin含量,并以阿司匹林为对照组;采用流式细胞术测定EGCG作用前后血小板膜糖蛋白P-selectin水平变化.结果 EGCG可明显抑制血小板聚集(P0.05);EGCG明显抑制人富含血小板血浆产生P-selectin(P<0.01),且作用优于阿司匹林(P<0.01);EGCG可抑制血小板膜糖蛋白P-selectin表达.结论 EGCG可明显抑制血小板聚集,明显抑制人富含血小板血浆产生TXB2、P-selectin,抑制血小板膜糖蛋白P-selectin表达,这可能是共抗血栓作用的机理所在.

  19. Communications receivers principles and design

    Rohde, Ulrich L; Zahnd, Hans


    This thoroughly updated guide offers comprehensive explanations of the science behind today’s radio receivers along with practical guidance on designing, constructing, and maintaining real-world communications systems. You will explore system planning, antennas and antenna coupling, amplifiers and gain control, filters, mixers, demodulation, digital communication, and the latest software defined radio (SDR) technology. Written by a team of telecommunication experts, Communications Receivers: Principles and Design, Fourth Edition, features technical illustrations, schematic diagrams, and detailed examples. Coverage includes: • Basic radio considerations • Radio receiver characteristics • Receiver system planning • Receiver implementation considerations • RF and baseband techniques for Software-Defined Radios • Transceiver SDR considerations • Antennas and antenna coupling • Mixers • Frequency sources and control • Ancillary receiver circuits • Performance measurement

  20. 表没食子儿茶素没食子酸酯(EGCG)在超声场中热稳定性的动力学%Kinetic Modeling of the Thermal Stability of EGCG in an Ultrasonic Filed

    许楠; 卓雅; 曹雁平; 肖俊松; 吴葛洋


    研究弱酸环境下pH值对表没食子儿茶素没食子酸酯(epigallocatechin gallate,EGCG)的影响,以及在非超声场和0.25W/cm2、135kHz超声场中EGCG的稳定性,利用高效液相色谱对其进行定量分析。结果显示:温度为20℃、相同pH值时超声场中EGCG的稳定性均低于非超声场;pH6.2、超声40min时EGCG的损失率为10.70%,是非超声场的5.63倍。通过线性回归计算,确定EGCG在非超声场及超声场中的反应均符合一级反应动力学规律。超声场中,EGCG的反应速率常数为0.00228min-1,是非超声场的4.3倍;反应活化能为22861.13kJ/mol,比非超声场降低了14.0%;指前因子为28.30s-1,比非超声场提高了13.5%。%In this study the stability of epigallocatechin gallate(EGCG) in a weakly acidic environment alone and in combination with an ultrasonic filed of 0.25 W/cm2 and 135 kHz was quantitatively analysis by high performance liquid chromatography.It was shown that under 20 ℃ and the same pH conditions,ultrasonic treatment caused a decrease of the stability of EGCG,and the loss rate of EGCG was 10.70 %,after 40 min exposure to pH 6.2 with ultrasonic treatment,exhibiting a 5.63-fold increase compared to the absence of ultrasonic.Linear regression indicated that the reaction of EGCG in an ultrasonic field and in a non-ultrasonic field followed first-order kinetics.The rate constant was 0.00228 min-1 in the presence of ultrasonic,the activation energy 22861.13 kJ/mol,and the pre-exponential factor 28.30 s-1,which were increased 4.3 times,decreased by 14.0% and increased by 13.5%,respectively.

  1. 氯胺酮对强迫游泳大鼠前额皮层谷氨酸及γ-氨基丁酸的影响%Effects of ketamine on glutamate and GABA in prefrontal cortex of rats receiving forced swimming test

    张广芬; 石金云; 李晓敏; 王楠; 徐世霞; 杨建军


    目的:观察氯胺酮对强迫游泳大鼠前额皮层谷氨酸及γ-氨基丁酸的影响.方法:32只Wistar雄性大鼠随机均分为4组(n=8):生理盐水0.5 h组(S05组)、生理盐水2h组(S2组)、氯胺酮0.5 h组(K0.5组)、氯胺酮2h组(K2组).药物干预前1d大鼠行强迫游泳15 min制备急性应激抑郁模型.药物干预当天,给大鼠分别腹腔注射1 mL容积的生理盐水或氯胺酮10 mg/kg,给药后0.5 h及2h分别再次行强迫游泳6 min,记录后5 min内不动时间.行为学测试结束后,取大鼠前额皮层,检测谷氨酸及γ-氨基丁酸的含量.结果:与S05组相比,K05组大鼠强迫游泳不动时间显著减少,谷氨酸含量上升,γ-氨基丁酸含量下降(P<0.05).与S2组相比,K2组大鼠强迫游泳不动时间显著降低(P<0.05),谷氨酸及γ-氨基丁酸含量则无明显变化(P>0.05).结论:氯胺酮在大鼠强迫游泳模型中能够发挥快速抗抑郁作用,同时伴随大鼠前额皮层谷氨酸上调及γ-氨基丁酸下调.%Objective To observe the effects of ketamine on glutamate and GABA in prefrontal cortex of rats receiving forced swimming test (FST). Methods 32 male Wistar rats were randomized into 4 groups (each n = 8); saline 0.5 h group (S05 group), saline 2 h group (S2 group), ketamine 0.5 h group (K0.5 group), ketamine 2 h group (K2 group). The FST lasted for 15 min was used to establish rat depression model. On the next day, saline or ketamine (10.0 mg/kg) of lmL were intraperitoneally injected, then 0.5 h and 2 h later, the FST of 6 min was carried out and the immobility time within 5 min during the FST was recorded. The animals were then decapitated and the prefrontal cortex was harvested for determination of glutamate and γ-aminobutyric acid levels. Results Compared with those in S0.5 group, the immobility time was decreased, the content of glutamate was increased and the content of γ-aminobutyric acid was decreased significantly in K0.5 group (P 0.05). Conclusion Ketamine

  2. Effect of EGCG-induced Autophagy on Human Ovarian Cancer Cell Line SKOV3 and the Underlying Mechanism%茶多酚对卵巢癌SKOV3细胞自噬水平的影响及相关机制研究

    詹欣; 张玲云; 王志华


    Objective To investigate the effect of EGCG-induced autophagy on human ovarian cancer cell line SKOV3 and to explore the mechanism. Methods Human ovarian cancer cell SKOV3 were treated with EGCG, then autophage-associated protein LC3-II and AKT protein expression on the cells was detected by Western blot. Results After EGCG treatment, the level of LC3-II was up-regulated in a dose dependent manner, while the level of phospho-AKT was decreased. Pretreatment with AKT activator insulin-like growth factor 1, the EGCG-induced LC3-II expression was suppressed. Conclusion EGCG can induce autophagy in huaman ovarian cancer cell SKOV3 through AKT signaling pathway.%目的:研究茶多酚(EGCG)对人卵巢癌SKOV3细胞自噬水平的影响及相关机制。方法用EGCG处理SKOV3细胞,Western blot检测自噬相关蛋白LC3-II及蛋白激酶B(PKB)信号通路相应蛋白表达变化。结果 EGCG处理SKOV3细胞后,自噬相关蛋白LC3-II表达上调,并呈一定的时间浓度依赖性。EGCG处理SKOV3细胞后,AKT的磷酸化水平下调,AKT激活剂胰岛素样生长因子1(IGF-1)预处理后,自噬相关蛋白LC3-II高表达被抑制。结论 EGCG通过AKT介导的信号通路诱导SKOV3细胞自噬水平升高。

  3. Tea catechins with a galloyl moiety suppress postprandial hypertriacylglycerolemia by delaying lymphatic transport of dietary fat in rats.

    Ikeda, Ikuo; Tsuda, Koichi; Suzuki, Yuko; Kobayashi, Makoto; Unno, Tomonori; Tomoyori, Hiroko; Goto, Hitomi; Kawata, Yayoi; Imaizumi, Katsumi; Nozawa, Ayumu; Kakuda, Takami


    Tea catechins, (-)-epicatechin (EC), (-)-epigallocatechin (EGC), (-)-epicatechin gallate (ECG), and (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), have been shown to be epimerized to (-)-catechin (C), (-)-gallocatechin (GC), (-)-catechin gallate (CG), and (-)-gallocatechin gallate (GCG), respectively, during heat treatment. In this study, we examined the effect of tea catechins rich in ECG and EGCG and heat-treated tea catechins rich in CG and GCG on postprandial hypertriacylglycerolemia in rats. Both tea catechins and heat-treated tea catechins suppressed postprandial hypertriacylglycerolemia. Lymphatic recovery of (14)C-trioleoylglycerol in rats cannulated in the thoracic duct was delayed by the administration of tea catechins and heat-treated tea catechins. Tea catechins and heat-treated tea catechins had the same effect on all variables tested. These catechin preparations dose-dependently inhibited the activity of pancreatic lipase in vitro. When purified catechins were used, only those with a galloyl moiety inhibited the activity of pancreatic lipase. These results suggest that catechins with a galloyl moiety suppress postprandial hypertriacylglycerolemia by slowing down triacylglycerol absorption through the inhibition of pancreatic lipase. Because postprandial hypertriacylglycerolemia is a risk factor for coronary heart disease, our results suggest that catechins with a galloyl moiety may prevent this disease.

  4. Inhibitors of glutamate dehydrogenase block sodium-dependent glutamate uptake in rat brain membranes

    Brendan S Whitelaw


    Full Text Available We recently found evidence for anatomic and physical linkages between the astroglial Na+-dependent glutamate transporters (GLT-1/EAAT2 and GLAST/EAAT1 and mitochondria. In these same studies, we found that the glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH inhibitor, epigallocatechin-monogallate (EGCG, inhibits both glutamate oxidation and Na+-dependent glutamate uptake in astrocytes. In the present study, we extend this finding by exploring the effects of EGCG on Na+-dependent L-[3H]-glutamate (Glu uptake in crude membranes (P2 prepared from rat brain cortex. In this preparation, uptake is almost exclusively mediated by GLT-1. EGCG inhibited L-[3H]-Glu uptake in cortical membranes with an IC50 value of 230 µM. We also studied the effects of two additional inhibitors of GDH, hexachlorophene (HCP and bithionol (BTH. Both of these compounds also caused concentration-dependent inhibition of glutamate uptake in cortical membranes. Pre-incubating with HCP for up to 15 min had no greater effect than that observed with no pre-incubation, showing that the effects occur rapidly. HCP decreased the Vmax for glutamate uptake without changing the Km, consistent with a non-competitive mechanism of action. EGCG, HCP, and BTH also inhibited Na+-dependent transport of D-[3H]-aspartate (Asp, a non-metabolizable substrate, and [3H]-γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA. In contrast to the forebrain, glutamate uptake in crude cerebellar membranes (P2 is likely mediated by GLAST (EAAT1. Therefore, the effects of these compounds were examined in cerebellar membranes. In this region, none of these compounds had any effect on uptake of either L-[3H]-Glu or D-[3H]-Asp, but they all inhibited [3H]-GABA uptake. Together these studies suggest that GDH is preferentially required for glutamate uptake in forebrain as compared to cerebellum, and GDH may be required for GABA uptake as well. They also provide further evidence for a functional linkage between glutamate transport and mitochondria.

  5. Effect of Epimedium davidii on Testosterone Content, Substance Metabolism and Exercise Capacity in Rats Receiving Exercise Training%淫羊藿对运动训练大鼠睾酮含量、物质代谢及抗运动疲劳能力的影响

    周海涛; 曹建民; 林强; 赵卓


    group ( C group) , exercise ig water group(T group) ,and exercise ig Epimedium davidii group(TM group). Gavage was performed using professional device once a day. The rats in TM group were administered at a dose of 5 g·kg-1 with ig volume of 5 mL·kg-1. The rats in C and T groups were given saline of same volume. After 42 d of exhaustive swimming training, body weight, swimming time and serum testosterone and other biochemical markers were measured. RESULTS The body weights of the rats in TM group were greater than those in T group (P <0. 05) ,and the swimming time was longer than T group (P <0. 01). Exhaustive swimming led to decreased serum testosterone,for which T group decreased by 28. 85% more than C group(P<0. 01). Compared with T group,TM group increased by 28. 21% ( P < 0. 01) in serum testosterone; the serum corticosterone levels in each group showed no significant differences, and the serum testos-terone/corticosterone ratios changed in line with testosterone; liver glycogen and muscle glycogen reserves decreased. Compared with C group, the T groups glycogen decreased by 26. 40% ( P < 0. 01) , muscle glycogen decreased by 54. 83% (P <0. 01). Compared with T group,TM group had 20. 68% higher liver glycogen(P <0. 05) and 82. 76% higher muscle glycogen(P<0. 01) ; FSH had no significant difference; blood urea increased and hemoglobin decreased compared with C group. Blood urea of T group increased by 66. 32% (P <0. 01) ,and the hemoglobin decreased by 35. 89% (P <0. 01) ; compared with T group,TM group had 27. 85% lower blood urea (P < 0. 01) and 41. 23 % higher hemoglobin (P < 0. 01). CONCLUSION Epimedium davidii can alleviate the impact of high-intensity exercise on serum testosterone, and maintain it at normal physiological level; it can also promote protein synthesis, inhibit degradation of amino acid and protein, and increase hemoglobin and glycogen reserves in rats receiving exercise training.


    A. K. Esman


    Full Text Available Recent research and development show promising use of high-performance solid-state receivers of the electromagnetic radiation. These receivers are based on the low-barrier Schottky diodes. The approach to the design of the receivers on the basis of delta-doped low-barrier Schottky diodes with beam leads without bias is especially actively developing because for uncooled receivers of the microwave radiation these diodes have virtually no competition. The purpose of this work is to improve the main parameters and characteristics that determine the practical relevance of the receivers of mid-infrared electromagnetic radiation at the operating room temperature by modifying the electrodes configuration of the diode and optimizing the distance between them. Proposed original design solution of the integrated receiver of mid-infrared radiation on the basis of the low-barrier Schottky diodes with beam leads allows to effectively adjust its main parameters and characteristics. Simulation of the electromagnetic characteristics of the proposed receiver by using the software package HFSS with the basic algorithm of a finite element method which implemented to calculate the behavior of electromagnetic fields on an arbitrary geometry with a predetermined material properties have shown that when the inner parts of the electrodes of the low-barrier Schottky diode is performed in the concentric elliptical convex-concave shape, it can be reduce the reflection losses to -57.75 dB and the standing wave ratio to 1.003 while increasing the directivity up to 23 at a wavelength of 6.09 μm. At this time, the rounded radii of the inner parts of the anode and cathode electrodes are equal 212 nm and 318 nm respectively and the gap setting between them is 106 nm. These parameters will improve the efficiency of the developed infrared optical-promising and electronic equipment for various purposes intended for work in the mid-infrared wavelength range. 

  7. UWB communication receiver feedback loop

    Spiridon, Alex; Benzel, Dave; Dowla, Farid U.; Nekoogar, Faranak; Rosenbury, Erwin T.


    A novel technique and structure that maximizes the extraction of information from reference pulses for UWB-TR receivers is introduced. The scheme efficiently processes an incoming signal to suppress different types of UWB as well as non-UWB interference prior to signal detection. Such a method and system adds a feedback loop mechanism to enhance the signal-to-noise ratio of reference pulses in a conventional TR receiver. Moreover, sampling the second order statistical function such as, for example, the autocorrelation function (ACF) of the received signal and matching it to the ACF samples of the original pulses for each transmitted bit provides a more robust UWB communications method and system in the presence of channel distortions.

  8. Receiver-exciter controller design

    Jansma, P. A.


    A description of the general design of both the block 3 and block 4 receiver-exciter controllers for the Deep Space Network (DSN) Mark IV-A System is presented along with the design approach. The controllers are designed to enable the receiver-exciter subsystem (RCV) to be configured, calibrated, initialized and operated from a central location via high level instructions. The RECs are designed to be operated under the control of the DMC subsystem. The instructions are in the form of standard subsystem blocks (SSBs) received via the local area network (LAN). The centralized control provided by RECs and other DSCC controllers in Mark IV-A is intended to reduce DSN operations costs from the Mark III era.

  9. In vitro drug metabolism of green tea catechins in human, monkey, dog, rat and mouse hepatocytes.

    Chen, Wendy W; Qin, Geng-Yao; Zhang, Ting; Feng, Wan-Yong


    The metabolic fate of green tea catechins [(-)-epicatechin ((-)-EC), (-)-epicatechin-3-gallate (ECG) (-)- epigallocatechin (EGC) and (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG)] in cryopreserved human, monkey, dog, rat and mouse hepatocytes was studied. Methylation, glucuronidation, sulfation and isomerization pathways of (-)-EC in all five species were found. Methylation, glucuronidation, sulfation, hydrolysis, isomerization and glucosidation pathways of ECG were found. Species differences in metabolism of (-)-EC or ECG were observed. Surprisingly, no metabolites of EGC or EGCG were detected, but chemical oxidation and polymerization were observed under these experimental conditions. It appeared that enzymatic reactions and chemical reactions were differentiated by an additional hydroxyl group on the B-ring between (-)-EC/ECG and EGC/EGCG. For (-)-EC, thirty-five metabolites including isomerized (M6. M10 and M25), glucuronidated (M3, M5 and M11), sulfated (M7, M15, M16, M18, M20, M23, M26), methylated (M2, M9, M12, M17, M19, M21, M27, M30, M32), glucuronated/methylated (M4, M8, M13, M14), sulfated/methylated (M22, M24, M28, M29, M31, M33, M34, M35) and diglucuronidate (M1), were detected and characterized. M11, M18, M19 and M23 were major metabolites in human hepatocytes; M11, M26 and M31 were major metabolites in monkey hepatocytes; M10, M20, M22, M26 and M31 were major metabolites in dog hepatocytes; M5, M6 and M10 were major metabolites in rat hepatocytes; and M5, M6 and M13 were major metabolites in mouse hepatocytes. For ECG, twelve metabolites including isomerized (M1), hydrolyzed (M3), glucosidated (M2), glucuronidated (M4 and M6), sulfated (M9, M11 and M12), methylated (M7), sulfated/glucuronidated/methylated (M8 and M10) and diglucuronidated (M5), were detected and characterized. M4, M11 and M12 were major metabolites in human hepatocytes; M11 and M12 were major metabolites in monkey hepatocytes; M3 and M11 were major metabolites in dog hepatocytes; M4, M6 and

  10. RFID receiver apparatus and method

    Scott, Jeffrey Wayne


    An RFID backscatter interrogator for transmitting data to an RFID tag, generating a carrier for the tag, and receiving data from the tag modulated onto the carrier, the interrogator including a single grounded-coplanar wave-guide circuit board and at least one surface mount integrated circuit supported by the circuit board.

  11. LU Peizhang receives Golay Award


    @@ Prof. LU Peizhang, an analytical chemist with the CAS Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, received the prestigious Golay Award at the 30th International Symposium on Capillary Chromatography opened on 5 June in Dalian, a port city in northeast China's Liaoning Province.

  12. Absorption Efficiency of Receiving Antennas

    Andersen, Jørgen Bach; Frandsen, Aksel


    A receiving antenna with a matched load will always scatter some power. This paper sets an upper and a lower bound on the absorption efficiency (absorbed power over sum of absorbed and scattered powers), which lies between 0 and 100% depending on the directivities of the antenna and scatter...

  13. Scintillation-Hardened GPS Receiver

    Stephens, Donald R.


    CommLargo, Inc., has developed a scintillation-hardened Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver that improves reliability for low-orbit missions and complies with NASA's Space Telecommunications Radio System (STRS) architecture standards. A software-defined radio (SDR) implementation allows a single hardware element to function as either a conventional radio or as a GPS receiver, providing backup and redundancy for platforms such as the International Space Station (ISS) and high-value remote sensing platforms. The innovation's flexible SDR implementation reduces cost, weight, and power requirements. Scintillation hardening improves mission reliability and variability. In Phase I, CommLargo refactored an open-source GPS software package with Kalman filter-based tracking loops to improve performance during scintillation and also demonstrated improved navigation during a geomagnetic storm. In Phase II, the company generated a new field-programmable gate array (FPGA)-based GPS waveform to demonstrate on NASA's Space Communication and Navigation (SCaN) test bed.

  14. Managing Medicare receivables after PIP.

    Loria, L S


    The luxury of PIP is gone and managing cash flow will become more important than ever before. The hospital industry has come a long way in the development of automated billing systems and related recordkeeping since PIP was first introduced. The performance of an operations review of the accounts receivable management system should improve the effectiveness and efficiency of operations and significantly improve cash flow.

  15. Diversity of MMSE MIMO Receivers

    Mehana, Ahmed Hesham


    In most MIMO systems, the family of waterfall error curves, calculated at different spectral efficiencies, are asymptotically parallel at high SNR. In other words, most MIMO systems exhibit a single diversity value for all {\\em fixed} rates. The MIMO MMSE receiver does not follow this pattern and exhibits a varying diversity in its family of error curves. This effect cannot be captured by DMT analysis, due to the fact that all fixed rates correspond to the same multiplexing gain, thus they cannot be differentiated within DMT analysis. This work analyzes this interesting behavior of the MMSE MIMO receiver and produces the MMSE MIMO diversity at each rate. The diversity of the quasi-static flat-fading MIMO channel consisting of any arbitrary number of transmit and receive antennas is fully characterized, showing that full spatial diversity is possible for all antenna configurations if and only if the rate is within a certain bound which is a function of the number of antennas. For other rate brackets, the avail...

  16. Experimental Study on the Inhibition of the Growth and Reducing Acid Production of Streptococcus Mutans with Green Tea Extracts EGCG%绿茶提取物EGCG抑制致龋菌变形链球菌生长、产酸的实验研究



    Objective To investigate the effect of green tea extracts Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) on inhibiting the growth and reducing acid production of Streptococcus mutans ,and to provide evidence for the pre-vention of den tal caries .Methods The inhibition zone was used to observe the effects of EGCG on growth of Streptococcus mutans and the changes of acid producing capacity of Streptococcus mutans .Results EGCG could inhibit the growth and reduce the acid production of Streptococcus mutans significantly .The minimum in-hibitory concentrations was 6.25 mg/L.With the increase of drug concentration , the diameter of the inhibition zone increased .But the changes of pH was reduced .Conclusion EGCG may be a potential antibacterial and anticaries medicine .%目的:初步探讨绿茶提取物表没食子儿茶素没食子酸酯( EGCG)对变形链球菌生长、产酸的抑制作用,为龋病的防治提供一定的依据。方法采用抑菌环实验观察EGCG对变形链球菌生长的影响,检测其对变形链球菌产酸能力的影响。结果EGCG对变形链球菌生长、产酸有显著的抑制作用,最低抑菌浓度为6.25 mg/L,且随着药物浓度的增加,抑菌圈直径越大,pH值变化越小。结论EGCG是一种潜在的天然抗菌、防龋药物。

  17. Chip Advancer For GPS Receiver

    Meehan, Thomas K.; Srinivasan, Jeffrey M.; Thomas, J. Brooks


    Instrument errors made negligible. For each integration interval, both delay and rate of change of delay initialized to small fraction of chip - for example, to order of 10 to the negative 7th power - thereby making feedback control and extraction of delay highly accurate and flexible. With appropriate selection of sampling rate relative to chip rate, commensurability errors reduced to extremely small levels. In Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver, pseudorandom code sequence generated by simple digital logic incorporating effects of time, delay, and rate of change of delay. Flexibility in starting time and sum interval very useful in aligning correlation interval with beginnings and endings of data bits.

  18. Broadband direct RF digitization receivers

    Jamin, Olivier


    This book discusses the trade-offs involved in designing direct RF digitization receivers for the radio frequency and digital signal processing domains.  A system-level framework is developed, quantifying the relevant impairments of the signal processing chain, through a comprehensive system-level analysis.  Special focus is given to noise analysis (thermal noise, quantization noise, saturation noise, signal-dependent noise), broadband non-linear distortion analysis, including the impact of the sampling strategy (low-pass, band-pass), analysis of time-interleaved ADC channel mismatches, sampling clock purity and digital channel selection. The system-level framework described is applied to the design of a cable multi-channel RF direct digitization receiver. An optimum RF signal conditioning, and some algorithms (automatic gain control loop, RF front-end amplitude equalization control loop) are used to relax the requirements of a 2.7GHz 11-bit ADC. A two-chip implementation is presented, using BiCMOS and 65nm...

  19. 低氧训练大鼠骨骼肌组织低氧诱导因子1对血管新生的影响%Effects of hypoxia inducible factor 1 on angiogenesis in skeletal muscle tissues of rats receiving hypoxia training

    邹志兵; 毛淑章; 郑澜


    背景:低氧诱导因子1是一种在氧平衡调节中起关键作用的转录因子,与机体的耐缺氧能力密切相关.目的:观察低氧训练大鼠骨骼肌组织中低氧诱导因子1和血管内皮CD34的蛋白表达,探讨低氧诱导因子1在促进骨骼肌组织血管形成中的作用.方法:将健康雄性SD大鼠60只,随机分为6组:常氧对照组、低氧不运动组、常氧训练组、低住高练组、高住低练组和高住高练低练组.运动组采用10 周递增负荷跑台运动训练,每周训练6 d,运动量由第1 周的速度为15 m/min、持续时间为25 min 递增至第10 周速度为28 m/min、持续时间为50 min,低练组每周二、四、六在相当于海拔1 500 m的低氧环境中训练,并且在低氧环境中居住,低氧程度由第1 周相当于海拔1 800 m 递增至第10 周相当于海拔3 600 m.结果与结论:低氧状态下,低氧诱导因子1有大量的蛋白表达,低氧复合运动表达更多,而CD34 蛋白表达只发生在常氧运动组和低氧训练组.提示低氧诱导因子1是促进骨骼肌组织血管新生的一种重要因子,但须结合运动才能产生积极的作用.%BACKGROUND: Hypoxia inducible factor 1 is a kind of transcription factor which plays a crucial role in the organism's adaptation to changing oxygen tensions. It is closely related to the organism resistance to anoxia.OBJECTIVE: To detect the expression of hypoxia inducible factor 1 and vascular endothelial CD34 protein expression in skeletal muscle tissues of rats receiving hypoxic training; to explore the effects of hypoxia inducible factor 1 on angiogenesis in skeletal muscle tissues.METHODS: A total of 60 healthy male SD rats were randomly divided into six groups: normoxic control group, hypoxic sedentary group, normoxic training group, hypoxic residence plus hyperoxic training group, hyperoxic residence plus hypoxic training group and hyperoxic residence plus hyperoxic/hypoxic training group. Rats in training group

  20. A cryogenic receiver for EPR.

    Narkowicz, R; Ogata, H; Reijerse, E; Suter, D


    Cryogenic probes have significantly increased the sensitivity of NMR. Here, we present a compact EPR receiver design capable of cryogenic operation. Compared to room temperature operation, it reduces the noise by a factor of ≈2.5. We discuss in detail the design and analyze the resulting noise performance. At low microwave power, the input noise density closely follows the emission of a cooled 50Ω resistor over the whole measurement range from 20K up to room temperature. To minimize the influence of the microwave source noise, we use high microwave efficiency (≈1.1-1.7mTW(-1/2)) planar microresonators. Their efficient conversion of microwave power to magnetic field permits EPR measurements with very low power levels, typically ranging from a few μW down to fractions of nW. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. CERN physicist receives Einstein Medal


    On 29 June the CERN theorist Gabriele Veneziano was awarded the prestigious Albert Einstein Medal for significant contributions to the understanding of string theory. This award is given by the Albert Einstein Society in Bern to individuals whose scientific contributions relate to the work of Einstein. Former recipients include exceptional physicists such as Murray Gell-Mann last year, but also Stephen Hawking and Victor Weisskopf. Gabriele Veneziano, a member of the integrated CERN Theory Team since 1977, led the Theory Division from 1994 to 1997 and has already received many prestigious prizes for his outstanding work, including the Enrico Fermi Prize (see CERN Courier, November 2005), the Dannie Heineman Prize for mathematical physics of the American Physical Society in 2004 (see Bulletin No. 47/2003), and the I. Ya. Pomeranchuk Prize of the Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics (Moscow) in 1999.

  2. Protective effect of the combination of glutamine and arginine on intestinal barrier function in rats receiving fluorouracil chemotherapy%谷氨酰胺和精氨酸联合应用对化疗后大鼠肠屏障的保护作用

    雷福明; 段学宁; 任志忠; 崔士华


    Objective To investigate the protective effect of the combination of glutamine (Gln) and ar-ginine (Arg) on intestinal barrier function in rats receiving fluorouracil (5-FU) chemotherapy.Methods Totally 40 male SD rats receiving 5-FU chemotherapy were equally randomized into four groups:enteral nutrition group,Gln group (enteral nutrition+Gln),Arg group (enteral nutrition+Arg),and Arg+Gln group (enteral nutri-tion+Arg+Gln).Observe the changes post chemotherapy such as the changes of body weight and urine lactulose/mannitol ratio before and after chemotherapy were recorded.On the 8 th post-therapy day,the blood endotoxin level in portal vein was measured,and lymph nodes and blood in portal vein were taken for bacterial culture;colon and jejunum specimens were also taken to measure the height of jejunum villus and the thickness of colon and jejunum.Results Body weights of Gln group,Arg group,and Arg+Gln group significantly increased after chemotherapy (P0.05).Lactulose/manni-tol ratio in each group significantly increased after chemotherapy (P0.05).The blood endotoxin level in portal vein was signifi-cantly higher in enteral nutrition group than in other groups (P=0.000);the endotoxin level was significantly lower in Gln group than in Arg group (P=O.035) and Arg+Gln group (P=0.000);however,no such differ-ence was found between Arg group and Arg+Gln group (P=0.109).The height of jejunum villus and the thick-ness of jejunum were significantly lower in enteral nutrition group than those in the other groups (P=O.000);the thickness of colon was significantly lower in enteral nutrition group than those in Arg group and Arg+Gln group (P=0.000);however,no such difference was found when compared with Gln group (P=0.058).The thickness of colon (P=0.040) and jejunum (P=0.010) was significantly higher in Gln group than that in Arg group;but there was no significant difference in term of the height of jejunum villus (P=0.286).Compared with Arg+Gln group,the thickness of jejunum

  3. Effect of Cocoa Butter and Sunflower Oil Supplementation on Performance, Immunoglobulin, and Antioxidant Vitamin Status of Rats

    Ebru Yıldırım; Miyase Çınar; İlkay Yalçınkaya; Hüsamettin Ekici; Nurgül Atmaca; Enes Güncüm


    This study investigated the effects of cocoa butter and sunflower oil alone and in combination on performance, some biochemical parameters, immunoglobulin, and antioxidant vitamin status in Wistar rats. Forty-eight male rats were assigned to four groups, consisting of 12 rats with 3 replicates. Control received balanced rat diet without oil, cocoa butter group received 3.5% cocoa butter, sunflower oil group received 3.5% sunflower oil, the last group received 1.75% sunflower oil + 1.75% cocoa...

  4. Vertebrate pressure-gradient receivers.

    Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob


    The eardrums of all terrestrial vertebrates (tetrapods) are connected through Eustachian tubes or interaural canals. In some of the animals, these connections create pressure-gradient directionality, an enhanced directionality by interaction of sound arriving at both sides of the eardrum and strongly dependent on interaural transmission attenuation. Even though the tympanic middle ear has originated independently in the major tetrapod groups, in each group the ancestral condition probably was that the two middle ears were exposed in the mouth cavity with relatively high interaural transmission. Recent vertebrates form a continuum from perfect interaural transmission (0 dB in a certain frequency band) and pronounced eardrum directionality (30-40 dB) in the lizards, over somewhat attenuated transmission and limited directionality in birds and frogs, to the strongly attenuated interaural transmission and functionally isolated pressure receiver ears in the mammals. Since some of the binaural interaction already takes place at the eardrum in animals with strongly coupled ears, producing enhanced interaural time and level differences, the subsequent neural processing may be simpler. In robotic simulations of lizards, simple binaural subtraction (EI cells, found in brainstem nuclei of both frogs and lizards) produces strongly lateralized responses that are sufficient for steering the animal robustly to sound sources.

  5. Recent developments in superconducting receivers

    Richards, Paul L.


    A description is given of recent work at Berkeley on superconducting mixers and detectors for infrared and millimeter wavelengths. The first report is a review article which summarizes the status of development of superconducting components for infrared and millimeter wave receivers. The next report describes accurate measurements and also theoretical modeling of an SIS quasiparticle waveguide mixer for W-band which uses very high quality Ta junctions. The best mixer noise is only 1.3 times the quantum limit. Both the mixer gain and the noise are in quantitative agreement with the quantum theory. Next, a report is given on measurements and theoretical modeling of the absorptivity (surface resistance) of high quality epitaxial films of the high Tc superconductor YBCO from 750 GHz to 21 THz. Finally, there are reports on the design and experimental performance of two different types of high Tc bolometric detectors. One is a conventional bolometer with a gold-black absorber. The other is an antenna coupled microbolometer.

  6. Flavonoids have differential effects on glucose absorption in rats (Rattus norvegicus) and American robins (Turdis migratorius).

    Skopec, Michele M; Green, Adam K; Karasov, William H


    Mounting evidence suggests that small birds rely largely on non-mediated intestinal absorption of glucose through the paracellular pathway, while non-flying mammals rely on mediated absorption across the enterocyte membranes by using glucose transporters SGLT-1 and GLUT-2. Relying on non-mediated transport of glucose may decrease its absorption rate at low glucose concentrations but may release small birds from the effects of glucose transport inhibitors. We evaluated transport by using flavonoids known to inhibit glucose transport in vitro. Quercetin, isoquercetrin, and phloridzin were tested in rats (Rattus norvegicus) and robins (Turdis migratirius), and naringenin, naringenin-7-glucoside, genistein, epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), and phloretin were used only in rats. By using a pharmacokinetic approach that involves serial blood collection and area under the curve calculations, we determined the bioavailability of 3-0-methyl D-glucose, the non-metabolized analogue of D-glucose. Six of the eight flavonoids tested in rats significantly decreased the absorption of 3-0-methyl D-glucose, while none of the flavonoids tested in robins significantly decreased the bioavailability of 3-0-methyl D-glucose. We conclude that flavonoids effectively decrease glucose absorption in rats, which rely on mediated absorption of glucose, but that flavonoids do not have an effect in robins, which rely on non-mediated absorption of glucose.

  7. Effects of EGCG on nerve protection and BACE1 expression level in hippocampus of mice with Alzheimer's disease%EGCG对阿尔茨海默病小鼠神经保护作用及机制

    隋璐; 陈铎; 金戈


    目的 探讨茶多酚对小鼠行为学、海马组织中淀粉蛋白前体β位分解酶1(BACE1)表达以及微管相关蛋白(TAU蛋白)磷酸化水平影响.方法结果结论关键词:表没食子儿茶素没食子酸酯(EGCG);SAM系小鼠,淀粉蛋白前体β位分解酶1(BACE1)方法 以快速老化小鼠(SAMP8)作为衰老模型,SAMR1小鼠(非老化)为对照,以饮水方式给予茶多酚主要成分表没食子儿茶素没食子酸酯(EGCG),使用Morris水迷宫检测大鼠学习记忆能力,Western blot、逆转录聚合酶链反应检测BACE1基因表达及TAU蛋白磷酸化水平的变化.结果 训练第5天,与SAMR1组比较,模型组小鼠逃避潜伏期[(49±2.98)s]延长、目标象限停留时间[(13.52 ±3.11)s]缩短(P<0.05);与模型组比较,EGCG组小鼠逃避潜伏期[(41±3.03)s]缩短,目标象限停留时间[(25.47±4.78)s]延长(P<0.05);与SAMR1组比较,模型组小鼠海马组织中BACE1基因mRNA水平(2.835±0.902)、TAU蛋白s202及s396位点磷酸化水平升高(P<0.05);与模型组比较,EGCG组小鼠海马组织BACE1基因mRNA水平(1.574±0.556)、TAU蛋白s 202及s 396位点磷酸化水平明显下降(P<0.05).结论 茶多酚主要成分EGCG能明显改善快速老化小鼠学习记忆能力,其机制与下调小鼠脑海马BACE1表达、降低TAU蛋白磷酸化水平有关.

  8. The Mechanism of Company Accounts Receivable Management

    Halyna Yamnenko


    Full Text Available The relevance of the accounts receivable management is caused by its ability to influence on the filling of the company working capital. Therefore it is necessary to create a specific mechanism for management of accounts receivable in the company. The article analyses the components of the mechanism and the influence of factors that significantly affect the operation. The result of the functioning of the accounts receivable management is to receive funds and to minimize accounts receivable.

  9. Thermal resistance model for CSP central receivers

    de Meyer, O. A. J.; Dinter, F.; Govender, S.


    The receiver design and heliostat field aiming strategy play a vital role in the heat transfer efficiency of the receiver. In molten salt external receivers, the common operating temperature of the heat transfer fluid or molten salt ranges between 285°C to 565°C. The optimum output temperature of 565°C is achieved by adjusting the mass flow rate of the molten salt through the receiver. The reflected solar radiation onto the receiver contributes to the temperature rise in the molten salt by means of heat transfer. By investigating published work on molten salt external receiver operating temperatures, corresponding receiver tube surface temperatures and heat losses, a model has been developed to obtain a detailed thermographic representation of the receiver. The steady state model uses a receiver flux map as input to determine: i) heat transfer fluid mass flow rate through the receiver to obtain the desired molten salt output temperature of 565°C, ii) receiver surface temperatures iii) receiver tube temperatures iv) receiver efficiency v) pressure drop across the receiver and vi) corresponding tube strain per panel.

  10. Effect of Brewing Duration on the Antioxidant and Hepatoprotective Abilities of Tea Phenolic and Alkaloid Compounds in a t-BHP Oxidative Stress-Induced Rat Hepatocyte Model

    Laura Braud


    Full Text Available Tea is an interesting source of antioxidants capable of counteracting the oxidative stress implicated in liver diseases. We investigated the impact of antioxidant molecules provided by a mixture of teas’ leaves (green, oolong, pu-erh after different infusion durations in the prevention of oxidative stress in isolated rat hepatocytes, by comparison with pure epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG, the main representative of tea catechins. Dried aqueous tea extracts (ATE obtained after 5, 15 and 30 min infusion time were characterized for total polyphenols (gallic acid equivalent, catechins, gallic acid and caffeine (HPLC-DAD/ESI-MS contents, and for scavenging ability against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical. Hepatoprotection was evaluated through hepatocyte viability tests using tert-butyl hydroperoxide as a stress inducer, (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide, neutral red uptake, real-time cellular impedance and mitochondrial function tests. We showed that a 5-min incubation time is sufficient for an optimal bioaccessibility of tea compounds with the highest antioxidative ability, which decreases for longer durations. A 4-h pretreatment of cells with ATE significantly prevented cell death by regulating reactive oxygen species production and maintaining mitochondrial integrity. Pure EGCG, at doses similar in ATE (5–12 µM, was inefficient, suggesting a plausible synergy of several water-soluble tea compounds to explain the ATE beneficial effects.

  11. Microwave receivers with electronic warfare applications

    Tsui, James


    This book by the author of Digital Techniques for Wideband Receivers willbe like no other one on your book shelf as the definitive word on electronicwarfare (EW) receiver design and performance. Whether you are an EWscientist involved in the test and evaluation of EW receivers or a designerof RWR's and other EW-related receivers, Microwave Receivers withElectronic Warfare Applications is a handy reference through which you canperfect your technical art. Lucidly written, this book is a treatise on EWreceivers that is relevant to you if you are just looking for a top-levelinsight into EW receive

  12. Developmental immunotoxicity of Diazepam in prenatally exposed weanling Wistar rats

    Loveren H van; Piersma AH; Jong WH de; Waal EJ de; LPI; LEO; LGM


    A prenatal developmental toxicity study was conducted in rats receiving the pharmaceutical Diazepam from gestation days 14 to 20. Reports from the literature claim that Diazepam has impaired the immune function in the offspring of rats receiving treatment during the third trimester of gestation. Dia

  13. The First Six ALMA Band 10 Receivers

    Fujii, Y.; Gonzalez, A.; Kroug, M.; Kaneko, K.; Miyachi, A.; Yokoshima, T.; Kuroiwa, K.; Ogawa, H.; Makise, K.; Wang, Z.; Uzawa, Y.


    The first six Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) Band 10 (787-950 GHz) receivers have been developed and characterized during the receiver preproduction phase. State-of-the-art measurement systems at THz frequencies have been implemented and successfully used to measure the performance of the first six receivers. Extensive tests ranging from receiver sensitivity and stability to optical aperture efficiency on the secondary antenna have been performed. Performance of all six receivers is well within the stringent ALMA requirements. Moreover, our extensive tests have shown that there are no big performance differences between receivers. These results indicate that the ALMA Band 10 receiver is ready for the production phase, during which an additional 67 receivers will be produced and characterized.

  14. Trough Receiver Heat Loss Testing (Presentation)

    Lewandowski, A.; Feik, C.; Hansen, R.; Phillips, S.; Bingham, C.; Netter, J.; Forristal, R.; Burkholder, F.; Meglan, B.; Wolfrum, E.


    This presentation describes the design, fabrication, and qualification of an experimental capability for thermal loss testing of full-size trough receiver elements; and the testing on a variety of receivers.

  15. Disposition of 14C-erythritol in germfree and conventional rats

    Ommen, B. van; Bie, B. de; Bar, A.


    The metabolism and disposition of U-14C-erythritol was examined in four groups of three male and three female, nonfasted rats each. The rats of groups A and D were germfree; the rats of groups B and C were kept under conventional conditions. The rats of group B received an erythritol-supplemented

  16. 49 CFR 236.730 - Coil, receiver.


    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Coil, receiver. 236.730 Section 236.730 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Coil, receiver. Concentric layers of insulated wire wound around the core of a receiver of an...

  17. 49 CFR 393.88 - Television receivers.


    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Television receivers. 393.88 Section 393.88... NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION Miscellaneous Parts and Accessories § 393.88 Television receivers. Any motor vehicle equipped with a television viewer, screen or other means of visually receiving a...

  18. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy or hydroxycobalamin attenuates surges in brain interstitial lactate and glucose; and hyperbaric oxygen improves respiratory status in cyanide-intoxicated rats

    Lawson-Smith, P; Olsen, Niels Vidiendal; Hyldegaard, O


    to four groups receiving potassium CN (KCN) 5.4 mg/kg or vehicle intra-arterially: 1) vehicle-treated control rats; 2) KCN-poisoned rats; 3) KCN-poisoned rats receiving hydroxycobalamin (25 mg); and 4) KCN-poisoned rats treated with HBO2 (284 kPa for 90 minutes). KCN alone caused a prompt increase...

  19. Notes on some ectoparasites received by the Medical Entomology Unit, Institute for Medical Research.

    Lee, H L; Krishnasamy, M; Jeffery, J; Paramasvaran, S


    There were a spate of recent complaints of insect bites and the entomological specimens received from various sources were identified to be those of cat flea (Ctenocephalides felis) and rat flea (Xenopsylla cheopis), the tropical bed-bug (Cimex hemipterus) and the dog louse (Heterodoxus spiniger). Only the fleas and the bed-bug are known to attack humans.

  20. A zero-power radio receiver.

    Brocato, Robert Wesley


    This report describes both a general methodology and some specific examples of passive radio receivers. A passive radio receiver uses no direct electrical power but makes sole use of the power available in the radio spectrum. These radio receivers are suitable as low data-rate receivers or passive alerting devices for standard, high power radio receivers. Some zero-power radio architectures exhibit significant improvements in range with the addition of very low power amplifiers or signal processing electronics. These ultra-low power radios are also discussed and compared to the purely zero-power approaches.

  1. An SDR based AIS receiver for satellites

    Larsen, Jesper Abildgaard; Mortensen, Hans Peter; Nielsen, Jens Frederik Dalsgaard


    For a few years now, there has been a high interest in monitoring the global ship traffic from space. A few satellite, capable of listening for ship borne AIS transponders have already been launched, and soon the AAUSAT3, carrying two different types of AIS receivers will also be launched. One...... of the AIS receivers onboard AAUSAT3 is an SDR based AIS receiver. This paper serves to describe the background of the AIS system, and how the SDR based receiver has been integrated into the AAUSAT3 satellite. Amongst some of the benefits of using an SDR based receiver is, that due to its versatility, new...

  2. Astronomical Receiver Modelling Using Scattering Matrices

    King, O G; Copley, C; Davis, R J; Leahy, J P; Leech, J; Muchovej, S J C; Pearson, T J; Taylor, Angela C


    Proper modelling of astronomical receivers is vital: it describes the systematic errors in the raw data, guides the receiver design process, and assists data calibration. In this paper we describe a method of analytically modelling the full signal and noise behaviour of arbitrarily complex radio receivers. We use electrical scattering matrices to describe the signal behaviour of individual components in the receiver, and noise correlation matrices to describe their noise behaviour. These are combined to produce the full receiver model. We apply this approach to a specified receiver architecture: a hybrid of a continous comparison radiometer and correlation polarimeter designed for the C-Band All-Sky Survey. We produce analytic descriptions of the receiver Mueller matrix and noise temperature, and discuss how imperfections in crucial components affect the raw data. Many of the conclusions drawn are generally applicable to correlation polarimeters and continuous comparison radiometers.

  3. Control of glomerular hypertension by insulin administration in diabetic rats.

    Scholey, J.W.; Meyer, T W


    Micropuncture studies were performed in Munich Wistar rats made diabetic with streptozotocin and in normal control rats. Diabetic rats received daily ultralente insulin to maintain moderate hyperglycemia (approximately 300 mg/dl). Group 1 diabetic rats studied after routine micropuncture preparation exhibited elevation of the single nephron glomerular filtration rate (SNGFR) due to increases in the glomerular transcapillary hydraulic pressure difference and glomerular plasma flow rate. In gro...

  4. Biochemical effect of curcumin on hyperlipidemia induced in rats

    Omayma A.R.; Ragab A.; Abdel-Majeed A.D; Hassanin K.M.; Abdelghaffar M.M.


    This study was performed to investigate the effect of oral supplementation of curcumin, garlic extract and olive oil on lipid profile, nitric oxide, adiponectin, endothelin-1, blood glucose and some inflammatory markers in normal, diabetic and hyperlipidemic rats supplementing high fat and cholesterol-enriched diet. Forty female adult albino rats were divided into four equal groups of 10 rats each. Group (1): negative control received normal diet only, group (2): rats fed on normal diet and r...

  5. Peculiarities of osteoarthritis in rats

    Maria Drahulian


    Full Text Available Was received model of osteoarthritis in the rat line Wistar, by a one-time injection of CH3COOI acid into the knee joint. There changes in joint studied histological and clinical methods.On the 7-th day of the experiment was installed resemblance to similar changes in the joints of humans with acquired osteoarthritis

  6. High stable remote photoelectric receiver for interferometry

    Yang, Hongxing; Zhu, Pengfei; Tan, Jiubin; Hu, Pengcheng; Fan, Zhigang


    A high sensitive and high stable remote photoelectric receiver has been developed to reduce noise and phase delay drift caused by thermal pollution and environmental interference. The phase delay drift model is analyzed and built based on a traditional photoelectric receiver. According to the model, a new mechanical isolation structure and a temperature control system are designed to keep the photoelectric receiver in a low constant temperature. Comparison experiments with traditional bias voltage compensation method and temperature control method are carried out between photoelectric receivers. The results verify that the output voltage fluctuation of photoelectric receiver used is reduced by 65% while the phase drift between measurement and reference photoelectric receivers decreases from 1.05° to 0.02°.

  7. Analysis of the omnium-g receiver

    Bohn, M.


    A thermal analysis of the Omnium-G receiver is presented and the technique is shown to be generally applicable to solar thermal receivers utilizing a directly heated thermal mass. The thermal loss coefficient, including reradiation losses, is calculated and shown to agree quite well with the experimentally measured thermal loss coefficient. The rate of heat transfer to the working fluid is also analyzed and the analysis is used to show that the Omnium-G receiver is well matched to the water/steam working fluid because the steam outlet temperature is almost the same as the receiver temperature. A general procedure for calculating receiver performance is presented. With this procedure, the energy delivery to any working fluid, the delivered temperature of the working fluid, and the pressure drop through the receiver can be determined. An example of the calculation is also presented.

  8. Glutamate and CO2 production from glutamine in incubated enterocytes of adult and very old rats

    Meynial-Denis, Dominique; Bielicki, Guy; Beaufrere, Anne-Marie; MIGNON, Michelle; Patureau Mirand, Philippe; Renou, Jean-Pierre


    Glutamine is the major fuel for enterocytes and promotes the growth of intestinal mucosa. Although oral glutamine exerts a positive effect on intestinal villus height in very old rats, how glutamine is used by enterocytes is unclear. Adult (8 months) and very old (27 months) female rats were exposed to intermittent glutamine supplementation for 50% of their age lifetime. Treated rats received glutamine added to their drinking water, and control rats received water alone. Jejunal epithelial ce...

  9. Concentrated solar power generation using solar receivers

    Anderson, Bruce N.; Treece, William Dean; Brown, Dan; Bennhold, Florian; Hilgert, Christoph


    Inventive concentrated solar power systems using solar receivers, and related devices and methods, are generally described. Low pressure solar receivers are provided that function to convert solar radiation energy to thermal energy of a working fluid, e.g., a working fluid of a power generation or thermal storage system. In some embodiments, low pressure solar receivers are provided herein that are useful in conjunction with gas turbine based power generation systems.

  10. Shipping/Receiving and Quality Control

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Shipping receiving, quality control, large and precise inspection and CMM machines. Coordinate Measuring Machines, including "scanning" probes, optical comparators,...

  11. Efficient structures for wideband digital receiver

    Wang Hong; Lu Youxin; Wang Xuegang; Wan Yonglun


    Digital receivers have become more and more popular in radar, communication, and electric warfare for the advantages compared with their analog counterparts. But conventional digital receivers have been generally considered impractical for bandwidth greater than several hundreds MHz. To extend receiver bandwidth, decrease data rate and save hardware resources, three novel structures are proposed. They decimate the data stream prior to mixing and filtering, then process the multiple decimated streams in parallel at a lower rate. Consequently it is feasible to realize wideband receivers on the current ASIC devices. A design example and corresponding simulation results are demonstrated to evaluate the proposed structures.

  12. Receiver function estimated by maximum entropy deconvolution

    吴庆举; 田小波; 张乃铃; 李卫平; 曾融生


    Maximum entropy deconvolution is presented to estimate receiver function, with the maximum entropy as the rule to determine auto-correlation and cross-correlation functions. The Toeplitz equation and Levinson algorithm are used to calculate the iterative formula of error-predicting filter, and receiver function is then estimated. During extrapolation, reflective coefficient is always less than 1, which keeps maximum entropy deconvolution stable. The maximum entropy of the data outside window increases the resolution of receiver function. Both synthetic and real seismograms show that maximum entropy deconvolution is an effective method to measure receiver function in time-domain.

  13. Nursing process approach improves receivables management.

    Dias, K; Stockamp, D


    The "nursing process" is a systematic decision-making approach to problem solving based on open-system theory. This theory assumes that there is an on-going interchange between all system components. Components cannot be viewed in isolation, because decisions regarding one component will affect other components. Receivables management is similar to the nursing process, in that it involves constant diagnosis, assessment, and intervention in the work in process during all phases of the receivables cycle. In experiments that applied the nursing process concept to the management of accounts receivable in several hospitals, gross days in accounts receivable were reduced and cash flow was increased.

  14. Special design topics in digital wideband receivers

    Tsui, James B Y


    Offering engineers a thorough examination of special, more advanced aspects of digital wideband receiver design, this practical book builds on fundamental resources on the topic, helping you gain a more comprehensive understanding of the subject. This in-depth volume presents a detailed look at a complete receiver design, including the encoder. Moreover, it discusses the detection of exotic signals and provides authoritative guidance on designing receivers used in electronic warfare. From frequency modulation and biphase shifting keys, to parameter encoders in electronic warfare receivers and

  15. Inhibition of Human and Rat Sucrase and Maltase Activities To Assess Antiglycemic Potential: Optimization of the Assay Using Acarbose and Polyphenols.

    Pyner, Alison; Nyambe-Silavwe, Hilda; Williamson, Gary


    We optimized the assays used to measure inhibition of rat and human α-glucosidases (sucrase and maltase activities), intestinal enzymes which catalyze the final steps of carbohydrate digestion. Cell-free extracts from fully differentiated intestinal Caco-2/TC7 monolayers were shown to be a suitable source of sucrase-isomaltase, with the same sequence as human small intestine, and were compared to a rat intestinal extract. The kinetic conditions of the assay were optimized, including comparison of enzymatic and chromatographic methods to detect the monosaccharide products. Human sucrase activity was more susceptible than the rat enzyme to inhibition by acarbose (IC50 (concentration required for 50% inhibition) = 2.5 ± 0.5 and 12.3 ± 0.6 μM, respectively), by a polyphenol-rich green tea extract, and by pure (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) (IC50 = 657 ± 150 and 950 ± 86 μM respectively). In contrast, the reverse was observed when assessing maltase activity (e.g. IC50 = 677 ± 241 and 14.0 ± 2.0 μM for human and rat maltase, respectively). 5-Caffeoylquinic acid did not significantly inhibit maltase and was only a very weak inhibitor of sucrase. The data show that for sucrase and maltase activities, inhibition patterns of rat and human enzymes are generally qualitatively similar but can be quantitatively different.

  16. 饮食及表没食子儿茶素没食子酸酯调节前脑早老素-1敲除对小鼠体重的作用%Effects of knockout of presenilin-1 in forebrain on weight-regulation by diet and EGCG in mice

    耿莹; 苏俭生; 梅兵


    Objective To investigate the influence of presenilin 1 forebrain knock-out (PS-1FB-KO) on weight-regulation by diet and EGCG in mice. Methods 2-month-old PS-1FB-KO and control (CON) male mice with similar weight were divided into two groups, which included the high-fat diet group and ordinary diet group. After 8 weeks feeding, the high-fat diet group were divided into three groups for 1 week treatment:(1)restoration to ordinary diet;(2)high-fat diet and intraperitoneal injection of EGCG; (3)high-fat diet and intraperitoneal injection of PBS. Body weight and blood glucose value were monitored over the period. Results The weight growth rate in PS-1FB-KO high-fat diet group was lower than that in the CON group after 8 weeks diet feeding. The weight loss rate in PS-1FB-KO and CON high-fat diet and intraperitoneal injection of EGCG group was less than that in PBS group. There was no significant difference in blood glucose over each period among the PS-1FB-KO and CON groups. Conclusions Disorder of weight regulation was observed in PS-1FB-KO mice, and this abnormality was not caused by differences in the peripheral metabolism. EGCG can reduce the weight of obese PS-1FB-KO mice induced by high-fat, which may be attributed to its potential central nervous protective effect.%目的:使用前脑特异性敲除早老素-1(PS-1FB-KO)的小鼠模型,观察饮食对其体重的影响以及表没食子儿茶素没食子酸酯(EGCG)对该小鼠体重调节的作用。方法将2月龄体重相近的PS-1FB-KO和同窝对照(CON)雄性小鼠各分为2组分别给予高脂和普通膳食。连续喂养8周后再将高脂喂食组各分为3组进行为期1周的以下处理:(1)恢复普通饲料;(2)继续给予高脂饲料同时腹腔注射EGCG;(3)继续给予高脂饲料同时腹腔注射PBS。同期连续监测小鼠的体重和血糖值。结果实验前8周,PS-1FB-KO高脂膳食喂养组小鼠的体重增长率小于CON组。实验第9周,PS-1

  17. Variable velocity in solar external receivers

    Rodríguez-Sánchez, M. R.; Sánchez-González, A.; Acosta-Iborra, A.; Santana, D.


    One of the major problems in solar external receivers is tube overheating, which accelerates the risk of receiver failure. It can be solved implementing receivers with high number of panels. However, it exponentially increases the pressure drop in the receiver and the parasitic power consumption of the Solar Power Tower (SPT), reducing the global efficiency of the SPT. A new concept of solar external receiver, named variable velocity receiver, is able to adapt their configuration to the different flux density distributions. A set of valves allows splitting in several independent panels those panels in which the wall temperature is over the limit. It increases the velocity of the heat transfer fluid (HTF) and its cooling capacity. This receiver does not only reduce the wall temperature of the tubes, but also simplifies the control of the heliostat field and allows to employ more efficient aiming strategies. In this study, it has been shown that variable velocity receiver presents high advantages with respect to traditional receiver. Nevertheless, more than two divisions per panels are not recommendable, due to the increment of the pressure drop over 70 bars. In the design point (12 h of the Spring Equinox), the use of a variable number of panels between 18 and 36 (two divisions per panel), in a SPT similar to Gemasolar, improves the power capacity of the SPT in 5.7%, with a pressure drop increment of 10 bars. Off-design, when the flux distribution is high and not symmetric (e.g. 10-11 h), the power generated by the variable velocity receiver is 18% higher than the generated by the traditional receiver, at these hours the pressure drop increases almost 20 bars.

  18. Design and implementation of the CAPS receiver

    Hu, Yonghui; Hua, Yu; Hou, Lei; Wei, Jingfa; Wu, Jianfeng


    In this paper, based on analyses of the Chinese Area Positioning System (CAPS) satellite (GEO satellite) resources and signal properties, the signal power at the port of the receiver antenna is estimated, and the implementation projects are presented for a switching band C to band L CAPS C/A code receiver integrated with GPS receiver suite and for a CAPS dual frequency P code receiver. A microstrip receiving antenna is designed with high sensitivity and wide beam orientation, the RF front end of the C/A code and P code receivers, and a processor is designed for the navigation baseband. A single frequency CAPS C/A code receiver and a CAPS dual frequency P code receiver are built at the same time. A software process flow is provided, and research on relatively key techniques is also conducted, such as signal searching, code loop and carrier loop algorithms, a height assistant algorithm, a dual frequency difference speed measurement technique, a speed measurement technique using a single frequency source with frequency assistance, and a CAPS time correcting algorithm, according to the design frame of the receiver hardware. Research results show that the static plane positioning accuracy of the CAPS C/A code receiver is 20.5-24.6 m, height accuracy is 1.2-12.8 m, speed measurement accuracy is 0.13-0.3 m/s, dynamic plane positioning accuracy is 24.4 m, height accuracy is 3.0 m, and speed measurement accuracy is 0.24 m/s. In the case of C/A code, the timing accuracy is 200 ns, and it is also shown that the positioning accuracy of the CAPS precise code receiver (1 σ) is 5 m from south to north, and 0.8 m from east to west. Finally, research on positioning accuracy is also conducted.

  19. Design and implementation of the CAPS receiver


    In this paper, based on analyses of the Chinese Area Positioning System (CAPS) satellite (GEO satellite) resources and signal properties, the signal power at the port of the receiver antenna is estimated, and the implementation projects are presented for a switching band C to band L CAPS C/A code receiver integrated with GPS receiver suite and for a CAPS dual frequency P code receiver. A microstrip receiving antenna is designed with high sensitivity and wide beam orientation, the RF front end of the C/A code and P code receivers, and a processor is designed for the navigation baseband. A single frequency CAPS C/A code receiver and a CAPS dual frequency P code receiver are built at the same time. A software process flow is provided, and research on relatively key techniques is also conducted, such as signal searching, code loop and carrier loop algorithms, a height assistant algorithm, a dual frequency difference speed measurement technique, a speed measurement technique using a single frequency source with frequency assistance, and a CAPS time correcting algorithm, according to the design frame of the receiver hardware. Research results show that the static plane positioning accuracy of the CAPS C/A code receiver is 20.5-24.6 m, height accuracy is 1.2-12.8 m, speed measurement accuracy is 0.13-0.3 m/s, dynamic plane positioning accuracy is 24.4 m, height accuracy is 3.0 m, and speed measurement accuracy is 0.24 m/s. In the case of C/A code, the timing accuracy is 200 ns, and it is also shown that the positioning accuracy of the CAPS precise code receiver (1σ ) is 5 m from south to north, and 0.8 m from east to west. Finally, research on positioning accuracy is also conducted.

  20. Superconducting integrated submillimeter receiver for TELIS

    Koshelets, Valery P.; Ermakov, Andrey B.; Filippenko, Lyudmila V.; Khudchenko, Andrey V.; Kiselev, Oleg S.; Sobolev, Alexander S.; Torgashin, Mikhail Yu.; Yagoubov, Pavel A.; Hoogeveen, Ruud W. M.; Wild, Wolfgang


    In this report an overview of the results on the development of a single-chip superconducting integrated receiver for the Terahertz Limb Sounder (TELIS) balloon project intended to measure a variety of stratosphere trace gases is presented. The Superconducting Integrated Receiver (SIR) comprises in

  1. 47 CFR 32.1170 - Receivables.


    ... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.1170 Receivables. (a... enable the company to make the following analysis: (1) Amounts due from customers who are receiving... process of collection. (b) Collections in excess of amounts charged to this account may be credited to...

  2. Superconducting chip receivers for imaging application

    Shitov, SV; Koshelets, VP; Ermakov, AB; Filippenko, LV; Baryshev, AM; Luinge, W; Gao, [No Value


    Experimental details of a unique superconducting imaging array receiver are discussed. Each pixel contains an internally pumped receiver chip mounted on the back of the elliptical microwave lens. Each chip comprises a quasi-optical SIS mixer integrated with a superconducting flux-flow oscillator (FF

  3. Social networks and receiving informal care.

    Boer, A. de; Klerk, M. de; Cardol, M.; Westert, G.


    In 2001, roughly half a million people (4% of the Dutch population) received informal care from family members living outside their home, and a quarter of a million (2% of the Dutch population) received this care from acquaintances, such as friend, neighbours and work colleagues. The potential suppl

  4. 21 CFR 1020.10 - Television receivers.


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Television receivers. 1020.10 Section 1020.10 Food...) RADIOLOGICAL HEALTH PERFORMANCE STANDARDS FOR IONIZING RADIATION EMITTING PRODUCTS § 1020.10 Television receivers. (a) Applicability. The provisions of this section are applicable to television...

  5. RF performance of T-DAB receivers

    Schiphorst, R.; Potman, J.; Hofstra, K.L.; Cronie, H.S.; Slump, C.H.


    In every wireless system, the weakest link determines the performance of the network. In this paper the Radio Frequency (RF) performance of both band III and L-band Terrestrial Digital Audio Broadcasting (T-DAB) consumer receivers are discussed. The receivers have been tested based on the EN 50248 s

  6. Compressive Sensing for Spread Spectrum Receivers

    Fyhn, Karsten; Jensen, Tobias Lindstrøm; Larsen, Torben


    With the advent of ubiquitous computing there are two design parameters of wireless communication devices that become very important: power efficiency and production cost. Compressive sensing enables the receiver in such devices to sample below the Shannon-Nyquist sampling rate, which may lead...... to a decrease in the two design parameters. This paper investigates the use of Compressive Sensing (CS) in a general Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) receiver. We show that when using spread spectrum codes in the signal domain, the CS measurement matrix may be simplified. This measurement scheme, named...... Compressive Spread Spectrum (CSS), allows for a simple, effective receiver design. Furthermore, we numerically evaluate the proposed receiver in terms of bit error rate under different signal to noise ratio conditions and compare it with other receiver structures. These numerical experiments show that though...

  7. High dynamic, low volume GPS receiver

    Hurd, W. J.


    A new GPS receiver concept and design are presented to meet the high dynamic and low volume requirements for range applications in missiles and drones. The receiver has the potential to satisfy all range requirements with one basic receiver, which has significant potential economic benefit over the alternate approach of using a family of receivers, each tailored for specific applications. The main new concept is to use approximate maximum likelihood estimates of pseudo range and range-rate, rather than tracking with carrier phase locked loops and code delay locked loops. Preliminary analysis indicates that receivers accelerating at 50 g or more can track with position errors due to acceleration of approximately 0.2 m/g, or 10 m at 50 g. Implementation is almost entirely digital to meet the low volume requirements.

  8. An SDR based AIS receiver for satellites

    Larsen, Jesper Abildgaard; Mortensen, Hans Peter; Nielsen, Jens Frederik Dalsgaard


    For a few years now, there has been a high interest in monitoring the global ship traffic from space. A few satellite, capable of listening for ship borne AIS transponders have already been launched, and soon the AAUSAT3, carrying two different types of AIS receivers will also be launched. One...... of the AIS receivers onboard AAUSAT3 is an SDR based AIS receiver. This paper serves to describe the background of the AIS system, and how the SDR based receiver has been integrated into the AAUSAT3 satellite. Amongst some of the benefits of using an SDR based receiver is, that due to its versatility, new...... detection algorithms are easily deployed, and it is easily adapted the new proposed AIS transmission channels....

  9. Melatonin combined with exercise cannot alleviate cerebral injury in a rat model of focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury

    Seunghoon Lee; Kyu-Tae Chang; Yonggeun Hong; Jinhee Shin; Minkyung Lee; Yunkyung Hong; Sang-Kil Lee; Youngjeon Lee; Tserentogtokh Lkhagvasuren; Dong-Wook Kim; Young-Ae Yang


    Previous studies have demonstrated that melatonin combined with exercise can alleviate secondary damage after spinal cord injury in rats. Therefore, it is hypothesized that melatonin combined with exercise can also alleviate ischemic brain damage. In this study, adult rats were subjected to right middle cerebral artery occlusion after receiving 10 mg/kg melatonin or vehicle subcutaneously twice daily for 14 days. Forced exercise using an animal treadmill was performed at 20 m/min for 30 minutes per day for 6 days prior to middle cerebral artery occlusion. After middle cerebral artery occlusion, each rat received melatonin combined with exercise, melatonin or exercise alone equally for 7 days until sacrifice. Interestingly, rats receiving melatonin combined with exercise exhibited more severe neurological deficits than those receiving melatonin or exercise alone. Hypoxia-inducible factor 1α mRNA in the brain tissue was upregulated in rats receiving melatonin combined with exercise. Similarly, microtubule associated protein-2 mRNA expression was significantly upregulated in rats receiving melatonin alone. Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan 4 (NG2) mRNA expression was significantly decreased in rats receiving melatonin combined with exercise as well as in rats receiving exercise alone. Furthermore, neural cell loss in the primary motor cortex was significantly reduced in rats receiving melatonin or exercise alone, but the change was not observed in rats receiving melatonin combined with exercise. These findings suggest that excessive intervention with melatonin, exercise or their combination may lead to negative effects on ischemia/reperfusion-induced brain damage.

  10. Enhanced AIS receiver design for satellite reception

    Clazzer, Federico; Lázaro, Francisco; Plass, Simon


    The possibility to detect Automatic Identification System (AIS) messages from low earth orbit (LEO) satellites paves the road for a plurality of new and unexplored services. Besides worldwide tracking of vessels, maritime traffic monitoring, analysis of vessel routes employing big data, and oceans monitoring are just few of the fields, where satellite-aided AIS is beneficial. Designed for ship-to-ship communication and collision avoidance, AIS satellite reception performs poorly in regions with a high density of vessels. This calls for the development of advanced satellite AIS receivers able to improve the decoding capabilities. In this context, our contribution focuses on the introduction of a new enhanced AIS receiver design and its performance evaluation. The enhanced receiver makes use of a coherent receiver for the low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) region, while for medium to high SNRs, a differential Viterbi receiver is used. Additional novelty of our work is in the exploitation of previously decoded packets from one vessel that is still under the LEO reception range, to improve the vessel detection probability. The assessment of the performance against a common receiver is done making the use of a simple and tight model of the medium access (MAC) layer and the multi-packet reception (MPR) matrix for physical layer (PHY) representation. Performance results show the benefits of such enhanced receiver, especially when it is bundled with successive interference cancellation (SIC).

  11. Terahertz Array Receivers with Integrated Antennas

    Chattopadhyay, Goutam; Llombart, Nuria; Lee, Choonsup; Jung, Cecile; Lin, Robert; Cooper, Ken B.; Reck, Theodore; Siles, Jose; Schlecht, Erich; Peralta, Alessandro; Thomas, Bertrand; Mehdi, Imran


    Highly sensitive terahertz heterodyne receivers have been mostly single-pixel. However, now there is a real need of multi-pixel array receivers at these frequencies driven by the science and instrument requirements. In this paper we explore various receiver font-end and antenna architectures for use in multi-pixel integrated arrays at terahertz frequencies. Development of wafer-level integrated terahertz receiver front-end by using advanced semiconductor fabrication technologies has progressed very well over the past few years. Novel stacking of micro-machined silicon wafers which allows for the 3-dimensional integration of various terahertz receiver components in extremely small packages has made it possible to design multi-pixel heterodyne arrays. One of the critical technologies to achieve fully integrated system is the antenna arrays compatible with the receiver array architecture. In this paper we explore different receiver and antenna architectures for multi-pixel heterodyne and direct detector arrays for various applications such as multi-pixel high resolution spectrometer and imaging radar at terahertz frequencies.

  12. Fundamentals of GPS Receivers A Hardware Approach

    Doberstein, Dan


    While much of the current literature on GPS receivers is aimed at those intimately familiar with their workings, this volume summarizes the basic principles using as little mathematics as possible, and details the necessary specifications and circuits for constructing a GPS receiver that is accurate to within 300 meters. Dedicated sections deal with the features of the GPS signal and its data stream, the details of the receiver (using a hybrid design as exemplar), and more advanced receivers and topics including time and frequency measurements. Later segments discuss the Zarlink GPS receiver chip set, as well as providing a thorough examination of the TurboRogue receiver, one of the most accurate yet made. Guiding the reader through the concepts and circuitry, from the antenna to the solution of user position, the book’s deployment of a hybrid receiver as a basis for discussion allows for extrapolation of the core ideas to more complex, and more accurate designs. Digital methods are used, but any analogue c...

  13. Temperature influences in receiver clock modelling

    Wang, Kan; Meindl, Michael; Rothacher, Markus; Schoenemann, Erik; Enderle, Werner


    In Precise Point Positioning (PPP), hardware delays at the receiver site (receiver, cables, antenna, …) are always difficult to be separated from the estimated receiver clock parameters. As a result, they are partially or fully contained in the estimated "apparent" clocks and will influence the deterministic and stochastic modelling of the receiver clock behaviour. In this contribution, using three years of data, the receiver clock corrections of a set of high-precision Hydrogen Masers (H-Masers) connected to stations of the ESA/ESOC network and the International GNSS Service (IGS) are firstly characterized concerning clock offsets, drifts, modified Allan deviations and stochastic parameters. In a second step, the apparent behaviour of the clocks is modelled with the help of a low-order polynomial and a known temperature coefficient (Weinbach, 2013). The correlations between the temperature and the hardware delays generated by different types of antennae are then analysed looking at daily, 3-day and weekly time intervals. The outcome of these analyses is crucial, if we intend to model the receiver clocks in the ground station network to improve the estimation of station-related parameters like coordinates, troposphere zenith delays and ambiguities. References: Weinbach, U. (2013) Feasibility and impact of receiver clock modeling in precise GPS data analysis. Dissertation, Leibniz Universität Hannover, Germany.

  14. Dynamic contrast-enhanced susceptibility-weighted perfusion MRI (DSC-MRI) in a glioma model of the rat brain using a conventional receive-only surface coil with a inner diameter of 47 mm at a clinical 1.5 T scanner.

    Ulmer, Stephan; Reeh, Matthias; Krause, Joerg; Herdegen, Thomas; Heldt-Feindt, Janka; Jansen, Olav; Rohr, Axel


    Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in animal models is usually performed in expensive dedicated small bore animal scanners of limited availability. In the present study a standard clinical 1.5 T MR scanner was used for morphometric and dynamic contrast-enhanced susceptibility-weighted MR imaging (DSC-MRI) of a glioma model of the rat brain. Ten male Wistar rats were examined with coronal T2-weighted, and T1-weighted images (matrix 128 x 128, FOV 64 mm) after implantation of an intracerebral tumor xenografts (C6) using a conventional surface coil. For DSC-MRI a T2*-weighted sequence (TR/TE=30/14 ms, matrix 64 x 64, FOV 90 mm; slice thickness of 1.5mm) was performed. Regions of interest were defined within the tumor and the non-affected contralateral hemisphere and the mean transit time (MTT) was determined. Tumor dimensions in MR predicted well its real size as proven by histology. The MTT of contrast agent passing through the brain was significantly decelerated in the tumor compared to the unaffected hemisphere (pscanners or dedicated custom-made coils.

  15. Global Positioning System receiver evaluation results

    Byrne, R.H.


    A Sandia project currently uses an outdated Magnavox 6400 Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver as the core of its navigation system. The goal of this study was to analyze the performance of the current GPS receiver compared to newer, less expensive models and to make recommendations on how to improve the performance of the overall navigation system. This paper discusses the test methodology used to experimentally analyze the performance of different GPS receivers, the test results, and recommendations on how an upgrade should proceed. Appendices contain detailed information regarding the raw data, test hardware, and test software.

  16. List of Nuclear Materials Licensing Actions Received

    Nuclear Regulatory Commission — A catalog of all Materials Licensing Actions received for review. The catalog lists the name of the entity submitting the license application, their city and state,...

  17. Metal Mesh Filters for Terahertz Receivers Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The best low-noise receiver solutions for frequencies above about 800 GHz rely on either a low-noise bolometric direct detector or a hot electron bolometric mixer....

  18. Metal Mesh Filters for Terahertz Receivers Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The technical objective of this SBIR program is to develop and demonstrate metal mesh filters for use in NASA's low noise receivers for terahertz astronomy and...

  19. 49 CFR 236.788 - Receiver.


    ... OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.788 Receiver. A device on a locomotive, so placed that it is in position to be influenced inductively or actuated by...

  20. Collector/Receiver Characterization (Fact Sheet)


    Fact sheet describing NREL CSP Program capabilities for collector/receiver characterization: determining optical efficiency, measuring heat loss, developing and testing concentrators, concentrating the sun's power, and optically characterizing CSP plants.

  1. Digital Receiver for Laser Imaging Radar

    WANG Wei Ran; SUN Bing


    With the extension of the application domains for laser imaging radar,it is necessary to find a new technical way to obtain high technical performance and adaptive ability.In this paper,A new concept of digital receiver of laser imaging radar system is presented.This digital receiver is defined as a time varying parameter receiver which possesses large dynamics region and time domain filter.The receiver's mode,component structure as well as every function of its processing are described.The results and laboratorial data show the feasibility of digital reception.Also,it can exploit the inherent nature of laser imaging radar to obtain high probability of detection.

  2. Optical Coherent Receiver Enables THz Wireless Bridge

    Yu, Xianbin; Liu, Kexin; Zhang, Hangkai


    We experimentally demonstrated a 45 Gbit/s 400 GHz photonic wireless communication system enabled by an optical coherent receiver, which has a high potential in fast recovery of high data rate connections, for example, in disaster....

  3. High dynamic GPS receiver validation demonstration

    Hurd, W. J.; Statman, J. I.; Vilnrotter, V. A.


    The Validation Demonstration establishes that the high dynamic Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver concept developed at JPL meets the dynamic tracking requirements for range instrumentation of missiles and drones. It was demonstrated that the receiver can track the pseudorange and pseudorange rate of vehicles with acceleration in excess of 100 g and jerk in excess of 100 g/s, dynamics ten times more severe than specified for conventional High Dynamic GPS receivers. These results and analytic extensions to a complete system configuration establish that all range instrumentation requirements can be met. The receiver can be implemented in the 100 cu in volume required by all missiles and drones, and is ideally suited for transdigitizer or translator applications.

  4. High-Rate Receiver Design Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose an initial architectural and preliminary hardware design study for a high-rate receiver capable of decoding modulation suites specified by CCSDS 413.0-G-1...

  5. 29 CFR 1926.306 - Air receivers.


    ... transportation vehicles such as steam railroad cars, electric railway cars, and automotive equipment. (2) New and... manholes therein are easily accessible. Under no circumstances shall an air receiver be buried underground...

  6. 29 CFR 1910.169 - Air receivers.


    ... and equipment used on transportation vehicles such as steam railroad cars, electric railway cars, and... therein are easily accessible. Under no circumstances shall an air receiver be buried underground or...

  7. Design and implementation of the CAPS receiver

    HU YongHui; HUA Yu; HOU Lei; WEI JingFa; WU JianFeng


    In this paper,baaed on analyses of the Chinese Area Positioning System (CAPS) satellite (GEO satellite) resources and signal properties,the signal power at the port of the receiver antenna is estimated,and the implementation projects are presented for a switching band C to band L CAPS C/A code receiver integrated with GPS receiver suite and for a CAPS dual frequency P code receiver.A microstrip receiving antenna is designed with high sensitivity and wide beam orientation,the RF front end of the C/A code and P code receivers,and a processor is designed for the navigation baseband.A single frequency CAPS C/A code receiver and a CAPS dual frequency P code receiver are built at the same time.A software process flow is provided,and research on relatively key techniques is also conducted,such as signal searching,code loop and carrier loop algorithms,a height assistant algorithm,a dual frequency difference speed measurement technique,a speed measurement technique using a single frequency source with frequency assistance,and a CAPS time correcting algorithm,according to the design frame of the receiver hardware.Research results show that the static plane positioning accuracy of the CAPS C/A code receiver is 20.5-24.6 m,height accuracy is 1.2-12.8 m,speed measurement accuracy is 0.13-0.3 m/s,dynamic plane positioning accuracy is 24.4 m,height accuracy is 3.0 m,and speed measurement accuracy is 0.24 m/s.In the case of C/A code,the timing accuracy is 200 ha,and it is also shown that the positioning accuracy of the CAPS precise code receiver (1σ) is 5 m from south to north,and 0.8 m from east to west.Finally,research on positioning accuracy is also conducted.

  8. A handbook for solar central receiver design

    Falcone, P.K.


    This Handbook describes central receiver technology for solar thermal power plants. It contains a description and assessment of the major components in a central receiver system configured for utility scale production of electricity using Rankine-cycle steam turbines. It also describes procedures to size and optimize a plant and discussed examples from recent system analyses. Information concerning site selection criteria, cost estimation, construction, and operation and maintenance is also included, which should enable readers to perform design analyses for specific applications.

  9. Flexible receiver adapter formal design review

    Krieg, S.A.


    This memo summarizes the results of the Formal (90%) Design Review process and meetings held to evaluate the design of the Flexible Receiver Adapters, support platforms, and associated equipment. The equipment is part of the Flexible Receiver System used to remove, transport, and store long length contaminated equipment and components from both the double and single-shell underground storage tanks at the 200 area tank farms.

  10. Anatomy of a digital coherent receiver

    Borkowski, Robert; Zibar, Darko; Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso


    Digital coherent receivers have gained significant attention in the last decade. The reason for this is that coherent detection, along with digital signal processing (DSP) allows for substantial increase of the channel capacity by employing advanced detection techniques. In this paper, we first......, orthonormaliation, chromatic dispersion compensation/nonlinear compensation, resampling a nd timing recovery, polarization demultiplexing and equalization, frequency and phase recovery, digital demodulation. We also describe novel subsystems of a digital coherent receiver: modulation format recognition...

  11. Inversion of receiver function by wavelet transformation

    吴庆举; 田小波; 张乃铃; 李桂银; 曾融生


    A new method for receiver function inversion by wavelet transformation is presented in this paper. Receiver func-tion is expanded to different scales with different resolution by wavelet transformation. After an initial model be-ing taken, a generalized least-squares inversion procedure is gradually carried out for receiver function from low tohigh scale, with the inversion result for low order receiver function as the initial model for high order. Aneighborhood containing the global minimum is firstly searched from low scale receiver function, and will gradu-ally focus at the global minimum by introducing high scale information of receiver function. With the gradual ad-dition of high wave-number to smooth background velocity structure, wavelet transformation can keep the inver-sion result converge to the global minimum, reduce to certain extent the dependence of inversion result on theinitial model, overcome the nonuniqueness of generalized least-squares inversion, and obtain reliable crustal andupper mantle velocity with high resolution.

  12. GPS Receiver Performance Inspection by Wavelet Transform

    Xia Lin-yuan; Liu Jing-nan; Lu Liang-xi


    As a powerful analysis tool and the result of contemporary mathematics development, wavelet transform has shown its promising application potentials through the research in the paper. Three aspects regarding GPS receiver performance is tackled: cycle slip detection, receiver noise analysis and receiver channel bias inspection. Wavelet decomposition for double differential observation has demonstrated that this multi-level transform can reveal cycle slips as small as 0.5 cycles without any pre-adjustment processes or satellite orbit information, it can therefore be regarded as a 'geometry free' method. Based on property assumption of receiver noise, signal of noise serial is obtained at the high frequency scale in wavelet decomposition layers. This kind of noise influence on GPSb aseline result can be effectively eliminated by reconstruction process during wavelet reconstruction. Through observed data analysis, the transform has detected a kind of receiver channel bias that has not been completely removed by processing unit of GPS receiver during clock offset resetting operation. Thus the wavelet approach can be employed as a kind of system diagnosis in a generalized point of view.

  13. Efficient receiver tuning using differential evolution strategies

    Wheeler, Caleb H.; Toland, Trevor G.


    Differential evolution (DE) is a powerful and computationally inexpensive optimization strategy that can be used to search an entire parameter space or to converge quickly on a solution. The Kilopixel Array Pathfinder Project (KAPPa) is a heterodyne receiver system delivering 5 GHz of instantaneous bandwidth in the tuning range of 645-695 GHz. The fully automated KAPPa receiver test system finds optimal receiver tuning using performance feedback and DE. We present an adaptation of DE for use in rapid receiver characterization. The KAPPa DE algorithm is written in Python 2.7 and is fully integrated with the KAPPa instrument control, data processing, and visualization code. KAPPa develops the technologies needed to realize heterodyne focal plane arrays containing 1000 pixels. Finding optimal receiver tuning by investigating large parameter spaces is one of many challenges facing the characterization phase of KAPPa. This is a difficult task via by-hand techniques. Characterizing or tuning in an automated fashion without need for human intervention is desirable for future large scale arrays. While many optimization strategies exist, DE is ideal for time and performance constraints because it can be set to converge to a solution rapidly with minimal computational overhead. We discuss how DE is utilized in the KAPPa system and discuss its performance and look toward the future of 1000 pixel array receivers and consider how the KAPPa DE system might be applied.

  14. 47 CFR 15.121 - Scanning receivers and frequency converters used with scanning receivers.


    ... receivers and frequency converters designed or marketed for use with scanning receivers, shall: (1) Be...; replacing a plug-in semiconductor chip; or programming a semiconductor chip using special access codes or an external device, such as a personal computer. Scanning receivers, and frequency converters designed for...

  15. Comparing Drug Use between Welfare-Receiving Arrestees and Non-Welfare-Receiving Arrestees.

    Yacoubian, George S., Jr.; Peters, Ronald J., Jr.; Urbach, Blake J.; Johnson, Regina J.


    Compares drug-positive rates between welfare-receiving arrestees, non-welfare receiving arrestees living below the poverty level, and non-welfare arrestees living above the poverty level. Welfare-receiving arrestees were more likely to be female, older, less educated, and to test positive for opiates and benzodiazepines than the other subgroups.…

  16. Millimeter-wave receivers for wireless communications

    Overmiller, Brock Morgan

    The modern communications environment is becoming an increasingly crowded place, resulting in rapidly increasing demands on current technology. Military and civilian operations require the ability to locate and decode all communication signals in the environment. However, developments in RADAR (RAdio Detection And Ranging) and communications technology are making it harder to effectively identify and maintain bandwidth usage for everyone. Millimeter waves--waves measured between one millimeter to one centimeter in wavelength--have only recently been explored as a new technology to replace the augment receiver architectures. These small wavelengths introduce many engineering challenges, such as: large atmospheric losses, poor sensitivity, and expensive electronic equipment. With growing developments in Microwave Photonics, low-noise RF amplifiers and high-speed modulators have demonstrated the ability to design RF communication links in the millimeter wave regime to counter such problems. However, despite these developments, toward a cost-effective, spatial division multiplexing (SDM) receiver concept has not proved capable of being implemented as part of the next generation 5G wireless network infrastructure. To this end, we present a novel receiver architecture utilizing an optically addressed phased-array millimeter wave receiver based on optical-upconversion and signal recovery. This receiver is capable of geolocation and spatial multiplexing of multiple Tunable Optically Paired Source (TOPS) communication signals in its scene. Operating at 35 GHz, the receiver up-converts the received RF onto an optical sideband, which, to our advantage, contains all of the frequency, amplitude, and phase information of the received signals. Subsequent optical processing allows routing of the sideband to a free space detector port. Photomixing a coherent optical local oscillator (LO) with the optical sideband performs heterodyne down-conversion to an Intermediate Frequency (IF

  17. Performance outlook of the SCRAP receiver

    Lubkoll, Matti; von Backström, Theodor W.; Harms, Thomas M.


    A combined cycle (CC) concentrating solar power (CSP) plant provides significant potential to achieve an efficiency increase and an electricity cost reduction compared to current single-cycle plants. A CC CSP system requires a receiver technology capable of effectively transferring heat from concentrated solar irradiation to a pressurized air stream of a gas turbine. The small number of pressurized air receivers demonstrated to date have practical limitations, when operating at high temperatures and pressures. As yet, a robust, scalable and efficient system has to be developed and commercialized. A novel receiver system, the Spiky Central Receiver Air Pre-heater (SCRAP) concept has been proposed to comply with these requirements. The SCRAP system is conceived as a solution for an efficient and robust pressurized air receiver that could be implemented in CC CSP concepts or standalone solar Brayton cycles without a bottoming Rankine cycle. The presented work expands on previous publications on the thermal modeling of the receiver system. Based on the analysis of a single heat transfer element (spike), predictions for its thermal performance can be made. To this end the existing thermal model was improved by heat transfer characteristics for the jet impingement region of the spike tip as well as heat transfer models simulating the interaction with ambient. While the jet impingement cooling effect was simulated employing a commercial CFD code, the ambient heat transfer model was based on simplifying assumptions in order to employ empirical and analytical equations. The thermal efficiency of a spike under design conditions (flux 1.0 MW/m2, air outlet temperature just below 800 °C) was calculated at approximately 80 %, where convective heat losses account for 16.2 % of the absorbed radiation and radiative heat losses for a lower 2.9 %. This effect is due to peak surface temperatures occurring at the root of the spikes. It can thus be concluded that the geometric

  18. Sexual function in women receiving maintenance dialysis.

    Seethala, Srikanth; Hess, Rachel; Bossola, Maurizio; Unruh, Mark L; Weisbord, Steven D


    While substantial attention has been paid to the issue of sexual dysfunction in men on chronic dialysis, less is known about this problem in women with end-stage renal disease. We sought to assess sexual dysfunction in women on chronic dialysis and determine whether patients discuss this problem with their providers and receive treatment. We prospectively enrolled women receiving chronic hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis in Pittsburgh, PA. We asked patients to complete the 19-item Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) to assess sexual function and a 5-item survey that assessed whether patients had discussed sexual dysfunction with their providers and/or received treatment for this problem in the past. We enrolled 66 patients; 59 (89%) on hemodialysis and 7 (11%) on peritoneal dialysis. All patients completed the FSFI, of whom 53 (80%) had FSFI scores <26.55, consistent with the presence of sexual dysfunction. Of 37 patients who were married or residing with a significant other, 27 (73%) had sexual dysfunction. Among 24 participants who reported having been sexually active over the previous 4 weeks, 11 (46%) had sexual dysfunction. Only 21% of patients with sexual dysfunction had discussed this problem with their gynecologist, renal or primary provider, and 3 (6%) reported having received treatment. Sexual dysfunction is common in women on dialysis, even among patients who are married or residing with a significant other and those who are sexually active. However, few women discuss this issue with their providers or receive treatment.

  19. Receiver-Controlled Multi-Node Cooperation

    Liang Ye; Yue Li; XueJun Sha; Esko Alasaarela


    Since wireless links in Ad hoc networks are more fragile than those in traditional wireless networks due to route flapping, multi-node cooperation plays an important role in ensuring the quality of service ( QoS) . Based on the authors’ previous work, this paper proposes a receiver-controlled multi-node cooperation routing protocol, known as AODV-RCC. In this protocol, nodes form a cooperation group based on signal power. In a cooperation group, signal power between a partner and a transmitter, as well as signal power between the partner and the receiver, must be larger than the signal power between the transmitter and the receiver. Otherwise, the transmission will not benefit from cooperation. To avoid collision or congestion, each cooperation group only contains one partner. This partner offers both data and ACK cooperative retransmission. Its retransmission time should be shorter than the internal retry time of the transmitter’ s MAC layer, because it is better for the partner to retransmit firstly, as it offers a more reliable cooperative link. In AODV-RCC, it is the receiver that chooses the partner, because the link between the partner and the receiver is the most important. According to our simulation results, AODV-RCC shortens the end-to-end delay and increases the packet delivery ratio.

  20. Schottky Heterodyne Receivers With Full Waveguide Bandwidth

    Hesler, Jeffrey; Crowe, Thomas


    Compact THz receivers with broad bandwidth and low noise have been developed for the frequency range from 100 GHz to 1 THz. These receivers meet the requirements for high-resolution spectroscopic studies of planetary atmospheres (including the Earth s) from spacecraft, as well as airborne and balloon platforms. The ongoing research is significant not only for the development of Schottky mixers, but also for the creation of a receiver system, including the LO chain. The new receivers meet the goals of high sensitivity, compact size, low total power requirement, and operation across complete waveguide bands. The exceptional performance makes these receivers ideal for the broader range of scientific and commercial applications. These include the extension of sophisticated test and measurement equipment to 1 THz and the development of low-cost imaging systems for security applications and industrial process monitoring. As a particular example, a WR-1.9SHM (400-600 GHz) has been developed (see Figure 1), with state-of-the-art noise temperature ranging from 1,000-1,800 K (DSB) over the full waveguide band. Also, a Vector Network Analyzer extender has been developed (see Figure 2) for the WR1.5 waveguide band (500 750 GHz) with 100-dB dynamic range.

  1. Direct broadcast satellite-radio, receiver development

    Vaisnys, A.; Bell, D.; Gevargiz, J.; Golshan, Nasser


    The status of the ongoing Direct Broadcast Satellite-Radio (DBS-R) Receiver Development Task being performed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology (JPL) is reported. This work is sponsored by the Voice of America/U.S. Information Agency through an agreement with NASA. The objective of this task is to develop, build, test, and demonstrate a prototype receiver that is compatible with reception of digital audio programs broadcast via satellites. The receiver is being designed to operate under a range of reception conditions, including fixed, portable, and mobile, as well as over a sufficiently wide range of bit rates to accommodate broadcasting systems with different cost/audio quality objectives. While the requirements on the receiver are complex, the eventual goal of the design effort is to make the design compatible with low cost production as a consumer product. One solution may be a basic low cost core design suitable for a majority of reception conditions, with optional enhancements for reception in especially difficult environments. Some of the receiver design parameters were established through analysis, laboratory tests, and a prototype satellite experiment accomplished in late 1991. Many of the necessary design trades will be made during the current simulation effort, while a few of the key design options will be incorporated into the prototype for evaluation during the planned satellite field trials.

  2. Dish/stirling hybrid-receiver

    Mehos, Mark S.; Anselmo, Kenneth M.; Moreno, James B.; Andraka, Charles E.; Rawlinson, K. Scott; Corey, John; Bohn, Mark S.


    A hybrid high-temperature solar receiver is provided which comprises a solar heat-pipe-receiver including a front dome having a solar absorber surface for receiving concentrated solar energy, a heat pipe wick, a rear dome, a sidewall joining the front and the rear dome, and a vapor and a return liquid tube connecting to an engine, and a fossil fuel fired combustion system in radial integration with the sidewall for simultaneous operation with the solar heat pipe receiver, the combustion system comprising an air and fuel pre-mixer, an outer cooling jacket for tangentially introducing and cooling the mixture, a recuperator for preheating the mixture, a burner plenum having an inner and an outer wall, a porous cylindrical metal matrix burner firing radially inward facing a sodium vapor sink, the mixture ignited downstream of the matrix forming combustion products, an exhaust plenum, a fossil-fuel heat-input surface having an outer surface covered with a pin-fin array, the combustion products flowing through the array to give up additional heat to the receiver, and an inner surface covered with an extension of the heat-pipe wick, a pin-fin shroud sealed to the burner and exhaust plenums, an end seal, a flue-gas diversion tube and a flue-gas valve for use at off-design conditions to limit the temperature of the pre-heated air and fuel mixture, preventing pre-ignition.

  3. Direct broadcast satellite-radio, receiver development

    Vaisnys, A.; Bell, D.; Gevargiz, J.; Golshan, Nasser

    The status of the ongoing Direct Broadcast Satellite-Radio (DBS-R) Receiver Development Task being performed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology (JPL) is reported. This work is sponsored by the Voice of America/U.S. Information Agency through an agreement with NASA. The objective of this task is to develop, build, test, and demonstrate a prototype receiver that is compatible with reception of digital audio programs broadcast via satellites. The receiver is being designed to operate under a range of reception conditions, including fixed, portable, and mobile, as well as over a sufficiently wide range of bit rates to accommodate broadcasting systems with different cost/audio quality objectives. While the requirements on the receiver are complex, the eventual goal of the design effort is to make the design compatible with low cost production as a consumer product. One solution may be a basic low cost core design suitable for a majority of reception conditions, with optional enhancements for reception in especially difficult environments. Some of the receiver design parameters were established through analysis, laboratory tests, and a prototype satellite experiment accomplished in late 1991. Many of the necessary design trades will be made during the current simulation effort, while a few of the key design options will be incorporated into the prototype for evaluation during the planned satellite field trials.

  4. Male rats play a repeated donation game.

    Li, Grace; Wood, Ruth I


    While previous studies have demonstrated direct and generalized reciprocity in female Norway rats [26], the present study determined if unrelated male laboratory rats respond on behalf of a partner in an iterated sequential game. Pairs of rats worked for food reward in an operant chamber, where participants alternated as Donor and Responder in successive trials. In each trial, the Donor chose between variable and constant reward levers, where the constant reward lever delivered 1 pellet, and the variable reward lever triggered insertion of Responder lever(s); the Donor received 2 pellets when the Responder made any response. In forced-choice constant (FC) trials, the Responder also received 1 pellet for responding on the constant reward lever. In forced-choice variable (FV) trials, the Responder received no pellets for responding on the variable reward lever. In free-choice (FR) trials, the Responder chose between constant (1 pellet) and variable reward levers (0 pellets). With their cagemate, rats earned 61.4±2.0 pellets (64.0±2.1% of 96 possible pellets). As Donor in FC trials, rats preferred the variable reward lever, and the Responder responded frequently. In FV trials, Donor preference for the variable reward lever declined as Responder lever responses decreased. In FR trials, rats alternated responding on variable and constant reward levers as Donor and Responder, respectively. When paired with a new partner, there was no effect on Donor responses, but responses by the Responder decreased in the FV block. Similar effects were observed when paired with a maximally-cooperative stooge. Importantly, rats did not adjust their behavior as Donor to receive more pellets. Results suggest that unrelated male rats will work on behalf of a partner, and that their behavior is sensitive to familiarity, and to cooperative responses by their partner. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Mechanical Stress and Antioxidant Protection in the Retina of Hindlimb Suspended Rats

    Glass, Aziza; Theriot, Corey A.; Alway, Stephen E.; Zanello, Susana B.


    It has been postulated that hindlimb suspension (HS) causes a cephalad fluid shift in quadrupeds similar to that occurring to humans in microgravity. Therefore, HS may provide a suitable animal model in which to recapitulate the ocular changes observed in the human Visual Impairment and Intracranial Pressure (VIIP) syndrome. This work reports preliminary results from a tissue sharing project using 34 week-old Brown Norway rats. Two different experiments compared normal posture controls and HS rats for 2 weeks and rats exposed to HS for 2 weeks but allowed to recover in normal posture for 2 additional weeks. The effects of two nutritional countermeasures, green tea extract (GT) and plant polyphenol resveratrol (Rv), were also evaluated. Green tea contains the antioxidant epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG). qPCR gene expression analysis of selected targets was performed on RNA from isolated retinas, and histologic analysis was done on one fixed eye per rat. The transcription factor early growth response protein 1 (Egr1) was upregulated almost 2-fold in HS retinas relative to controls (P = 0.059), and its expression returned to control levels after 2 weeks of recovery in normal posture (P = 0.023). HS-induced upregulation of Egr1 was attenuated (but not significantly) in retinas from rats fed an antioxidant rich (GT extract) diet. In rats fed the GT-enriched diet, antioxidant enzymes were induced, evidenced by the upregulation of the gene heme oxygenase 1 (Hmox1) (P = 0.042) and the gene superoxide dismutase 2 (Sod2) (P = 0.0001). Egr1 is a stretch-activated transcription factor, and the Egr1 mechanosensitive response to HS may have been caused by a change in the translaminal pressure and/or mechanical deformation of the eye globe. The observed histologic measurements of the various retinal layers in the HS rats were lower in value than those of the control animal (n = 1), however insufficient data were available for statistical analysis. Aquaporin 4, a water

  6. The Communication Between Designer and Design Receiver

    Dai, Zheng; Dai, Yan


    When people think about a product,the first impression always mainly influences the result.Product is the medium of communication between designer and designer receiver.Because both of them have varied different experience and background,the information would be biased during the transferring...... process.The common symbols which can be recognized by both of designer and receiver are the key tools for communication.In some case,the same symbol in one product would be leads to different receiver impression.Generally,impression includes 3 aspects:aesthetics,function, and emotion.Designer needs...... to create an attractive and accurate impression in product from these 3 aspects.For facing the dilemma of communication,some experimental approaches can help designer deal with unique and diversity situations.Solving the detail problem in each step could keep the original meaning of designer....

  7. Randomized transmit and receive ultrasound tomography

    Clement, Gregory T


    A tomographic method is considered that forms images from sets of spatially randomized source signals and receiver sensitivities. The method is designed to allow image reconstruction for an extended number of transmitters and receivers in the presence noise and without plane wave approximation or otherwise approximation on the size or regularity of source and receiver functions. An overdetermined set of functions are formed from the Hadamard product between a Gaussian function and a uniformly distributed random number set. It is shown that this particular type of randomization tends to produce well-conditioned matrices whose pseudoinverses may be determined without implementing relaxation methods. When the inverted sets are applied to simulated first-order scattering from a Shepp-Logan phantom, successful image reconstructions are achieved for signal-to-noise ratios (SNR) as low as 1. Evaluation of the randomization approach is conducted by comparing condition numbers with other forms of signal randomization....

  8. Precision Continuum Receivers for Astrophysical Applications

    Wollack, Edward J.


    Cryogenically cooled HEMT (High Electron Mobility Transistor) amplifiers find widespread use in radioastronomy receivers. In recent years, these devices have also been commonly employed in broadband receivers for precision measurements of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) radiation. In this setting, the combination of ultra-low-noise and low-spectral-resolution observations reinforce the importance achieving suitable control over the device environment to achieve fundamentally limited receiver performance. The influence of the intrinsic amplifier stability at low frequencies on data quality (e.g., achievable noise and residual temporal correlations), observational and calibration strategies, as well as architectural mitigation approaches in this setting will be discussed. The implications of device level 1/f fluctuations reported in the literature on system performance will be reviewed.

  9. Performance Evaluation of an Integrated Optoelectronic Receiver

    A. Vera-Marquina


    Full Text Available This work describes the optical and electrical characterization of an integrated optoelectronic receiver. The receiver is composed of a photodiode and a transimpedance amplifier, both fabricated in silicon technology using a 0.8 μm BiCMOS process. The total area occupied by the photodiode is of 10,000 μm2. In a first step, the generated photocurrent of the photodiode is measured for the wavelengths of 780 nm and 830 nm at different levels of optical power. In a second step, the responsivity and quantum efficiency parameters of the photodiode are computed. Finally, an electrical measurement including the transimpedance amplifier is achieved. A potential application for this optoelectronic receiver is on the first optical communications window.

  10. Implementation of Universal Asynchronous Receiver and Transmitter

    Payata Srikanth Yadav


    Full Text Available Universal Asynchronous Receiver Transmitter (UART is the serial communication protocol that is used for data exchange between computer & peripherals. UART is a low velocity, short-distance, low-cost protocol. UART includes three modules which are received, the baud rate generator and transmitter. The UART design with Very High Description Language can be integrated into the Field Programmable Gate Array to achieve stable data transmission and to make system reliable and compact. In the result and simulation part, this project will focus on check the receive data with error free & baud rate generation at different frequencies. Before synthesizing of UART a baud rate generator is incorporated into the system. We use the frequency divider which sets itself to required frequency for the functionality at lower frequency. All modules are designed using VERILOG and implemented on Xilinx Suite development board.

  11. Multiple Antenna Cognitive Receivers and Signal Detection

    Couillet, Romain


    A Bayesian inference learning process for cognitive receivers is provided in this paper. We focus on the particular case of signal detectionas an explanatory example to the learning framework. Under any prior state of knowledge on the communication channel, an information theoretic criterion is presented to decide on the presence of informative data in a noisy wireless MIMO communication. We detail the particular cases of knowledge, or absence of knowledge at the receiver, of the number of transmit antennas and noise power. The provided method is instrumental to provide intelligence to the receiver and gives birth to a novel Bayesian signal detector. The detector is compared to the classical power detector and provides detection performance upper bounds. Simulations corroborate the theoretical results and quantify the gain achieved using the proposed Bayesian framework.

  12. Antennas and Receivers in Radio Interferometry

    Hunter, Todd R


    The primary antenna elements and receivers are two of the most important components in a synthesis telescope. Together they are responsible for locking onto an astronomical source in both direction and frequency, capturing its radiation, and converting it into signals suitable for digitization and correlation. The properties and performance of antennas and receivers can affect the quality of the synthesized images in a number of fundamental ways. In this lecture, their most relevant design and performance parameters are reviewed, with emphasis on the current ALMA and VLA systems. We discuss in detail the shape of the primary beam and the components of aperture efficiency, and we present the basics of holography, pointing, and servo control. On receivers, we outline the use of amplifiers and mixers both in the cryogenic front-end and in the room temperature back-end signal path. The essential properties of precision local oscillators (LOs), phase lock loops (PLLs), and LO modulation techniques are also describ...

  13. Olympus receiver evaluation and phase noise measurements

    Campbell, Richard L.; Wang, Huailiang; Sweeney, Dennis


    A set of measurements performed by the Michigan Tech Sensing and Signal Processing Group on the analog receiver built by the Virginia Polytechnic Institute (VPI) and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) for propagation measurements using the Olympus Satellite is described. Measurements of local oscillator (LO) phase noise were performed for all of the LOs supplied by JPL. In order to obtain the most useful set of measurements, LO phase noise measurements were made using the complete VPI receiver front end. This set of measurements demonstrates the performance of the receiver from the Radio Frequency (RF) input through the high Intermediate Frequency (IF) output. Three different measurements were made: LO phase noise with DC on the voltage controlled crystal oscillator (VCXO) port; LO phase noise with the 11.381 GHz LO locked to the reference signal generator; and a reference measurement with the JPL LOs out of the system.

  14. EGCG Attenuates Amyloid-β Generation Via Upregulation of miR-29 in SH-SY5Y Cells with Mutant APP695%EGCG上调miR-29抑制APP695突变的SH-SY5Y神经细胞Aβ生成研究

    赵坚毅; 田立东


    目的:探讨没食子儿茶素没食子酸酯(EGCG)对含有APP695突变的SH-SY5Y神经细胞中淀粉样肽(amyloid-β,Aβ)生成的影响及其机制.方法:将SH-SY5Y细胞分为正常组(Control)、模型组(含有APP695突变的细胞,APP)和给药组(APP+10、20、30μmol·L-1的EGCG,24 h);免疫荧光细胞化学法检测各组细胞中APP的表达;MTT法检测各组细胞的存活能力;ELISA法检测各组Aβ1-42的浓度;RT-PCR检测各组miR-29的表达;RT-PCR和ELISA法检测各组BACE1(β-分泌酶)mRNA水平与蛋白水平的表达.结果:模型组中APP高表达;与模型组比较EGCG明显改善细胞形态,促进神经细胞的存活能力,降低Aβ1-42的浓度,上调miR-29的表达以及在mRNA与蛋白水平上降低BACE1的表达.结论:EGCG能抑制APP695突变所导致的细胞Aβ生成,其作用机制可能与上调miR-29的表达及下调BACE1的表达有关.

  15. treated rats



    Jan 8, 2014 ... Our results show, for the first time, that oral administration of C. edulis ... the exact mechanisms of these hematological changes produced by .... Hematological analysis .... rats are subjected to the additional stress of hypoxia to.

  16. The new indicators of accounts receivable excellence.

    Lampi, G L


    Calculation of AR days will continue to be a valuable internal measurement tool of accounts receivable excellence. As healthcare organizations move toward managed care through a mix of reimbursement systems--many with conflicting incentives--the director of patient accounting must approach each system separately and ensure that the hospital receives all of the reimbursement to which it is entitled. The director of patient accounting must understand the industry and recognize that healthcare reimbursement will almost certainly continue to become more complex rather than simpler. Creativity will be a necessity, and good luck will be an advantage.

  17. On Satellite Multicast to Heterogeneous Receivers


    combined into one bulk file. Let the multicast source use Reed-Solomon erasure ( RSE ) coding (e.g. [Mac97]) and let the bulk file be encoded into W ≥ 1... RSE -based FEC blocks. Each FEC block consists of h data packets and c parity packets – all of the same length. We assume a multicast tree that has a... RSE -based FEC block, a receiver must receive at least h distinct packets, either data or parity, from the same FEC block. To allow a systematic way

  18. Building and Testing a Portable VLF Receiver

    McLaughlin, Robert; Krause, L.


    Unwanted emissions or signal noise is a major problem for VLF radio receivers. These can occur from man made sources such as power line hum, which can be prevalent for many harmonics after the fundamental 50 or 60 Hz AC source or from VLF radio transmissions such as LORAN, used for navigation and communications. Natural emissions can also be detrimental to the quality of recordings as some of the more interesting natural emissions such as whistlers or auroral chorus may be drowned out by the more common sferic emissions. VLF receivers must selectively filter out unwanted emissions and amplify the filtered signal to a record-able level without degrading the quality.

  19. Avalanche Photodiode Arrays for Optical Communications Receivers

    Srinivasan, M.; Vilnrotter, V.


    An avalanche photodiode (APD) array for ground-based optical communications receivers is investigated for the reception of optical signals through the turbulent atmosphere. Kolmogorov phase screen simulations are used to generate realistic spatial distributions of the received optical field. It is shown that use of an APD array for pulse-position modulation detection can improve performance by up to 4 dB over single APD detection in the presence of turbulence, but that photon-counting detector arrays yield even greater gains.

  20. Financing with Receivables: Factoring, Securitization and Collateral

    Ioana Benea


    Full Text Available Short term financing is vital for the financial survival of any company, because very often they are facing deficits of cash during their activity. Therefore a company has to identify the optimal solutions in order to cover those (temporary deficits. A good solution to this problem is the financing with receivables using factoring, securitization and collateral. In this paper we try to analyze how this types of financing works and which are their advantages and costs. Also, we developed a reasoning pattern in order to evaluate the best receivables financing alternative for the Romanian companies.

  1. Superconducting Submm Integrated Receiver for TELIS

    Koshelets, V. P.; Ermakov, A. B.; Filippenko, L. V.; Koryukin, O. V.; Khudchenko, A. V.; Sobolev, A. S.; Torgashin, M. Yu; Yagoubov, P. A.; Hoogeveen, R. W. M.; Vreeling, W. J.; Wild, W.; Pylypenko, O. M.


    In this report we present design and first experimental results for development of the submm superconducting integrated receiver spectrometer for Terahertz Limb Sounder (TELIS). TELIS is a collaborative European project to build up a three-channel heterodyne balloon-based spectrometer for measuring

  2. A 24GHz Radar Receiver in CMOS

    Kwok, K.C.


    This thesis investigates the system design and circuit implementation of a 24GHz-band short-range radar receiver in CMOS technology. The propagation and penetration properties of EM wave offer the possibility of non-contact based remote sensing and through-the-wall imaging of distance stationary or

  3. Reasons Parents Exempt Children from Receiving Immunizations

    Luthy, Karlen E.; Beckstrand, Renea L.; Callister, Lynn C.; Cahoon, Spencer


    School nurses are on the front lines of educational efforts to promote childhood vaccinations. However, some parents still choose to exempt their children from receiving vaccinations for personal reasons. Studying the beliefs of parents who exempt vaccinations allows health care workers, including school nurses, to better understand parental…

  4. CAS expert receives Tribology Gold Medal


    Prof. XUE Qunji, a senior expert in tribology from the CAS Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics (L1CP) and member of the Chinese Academy of Engineering, received the Tribology Gold Medalfor 2011 on February 27, 2012 in Beijing. As one of the world's most outstanding and influential tribologists in the last forty years, Prof.

  5. Receiving Assistance and Local Food System Participation

    Rebecca L. Som Castellano


    Full Text Available A body of literature has noted that local food systems (LFSs may not involve active participation by individuals with lower incomes. This is, in part, a function of racial and class hegemony, as well as physical and financial accessibility of LFSs. LFS institutions, such as farmers’ markets, have been working to facilitate receipt of food assistance programs, such as the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP. Charitable assistance programs, such as food banks, have also been actively working to engage in LFSs, for example, by making local foods available. However, little research has explored the role that receiving public or charitable assistance can play in influencing LFS participation. In this article, I utilize quantitative and qualitative data collected from across the state of Ohio to examine the relationship between receiving assistance and LFS participation for women, who remain predominately responsible for food provisioning in the U.S., including among those who participate in LFSs. Quantitative results suggest that receiving assistance can increase participation in LFSs. Qualitative data provides more nuanced information about the importance of food assistance for women who want to participate in LFSs, and suggest that it is essential that food cooperatives and farmers’ markets are equipped to receive food assistance programs, such as SNAP, in order for women with lower incomes to participate in LFSs.

  6. Why Receiving Feedback Collides with Self Determination

    ten Cate, Olle Th. J.


    Providing feedback to trainees in clinical settings is considered important for development and acquisition of skill. Despite recommendations how to provide feedback that have appeared in the literature, research shows that its effectiveness is often disappointing. To understand why receiving feedback is more difficult than it appears, this paper…

  7. A 24GHz Radar Receiver in CMOS

    Kwok, K.C.


    This thesis investigates the system design and circuit implementation of a 24GHz-band short-range radar receiver in CMOS technology. The propagation and penetration properties of EM wave offer the possibility of non-contact based remote sensing and through-the-wall imaging of distance stationary or

  8. Howard Feiertag receives hospitality industry award

    Ho, Sookhan


    Howard Feiertag, of Blacksburg, an instructor in hospitality and tourism management at Virginia Tech's Pamplin College of Business, received the inaugural Excellence in Sales and Marketing Strategy Award at the Hospitality Sales and Marketing Association/New York University Strategy Conference in New York recently.

  9. Compressed Sensing-Based Direct Conversion Receiver

    Pierzchlewski, Jacek; Arildsen, Thomas; Larsen, Torben


    Due to the continuously increasing computational power of modern data receivers it is possible to move more and more processing from the analog to the digital domain. This paper presents a compressed sensing approach to relaxing the analog filtering requirements prior to the ADCs in a direct...

  10. Richard W. Ziolkowski Receives Honorary Doctorate

    Breinbjerg, Olav


    At the annual Commemoration of the Technical University of Denmark (DTU) on April 27, 2012, Prof. Richard W. Ziolkowski, University of Arizona (UoA), received DTU's highest academic degree, the Honorary Doctor degree: Doctor Technices Honoris Causa (Figure 1). Prof. Ziolkowski has been a close...

  11. Reasons Parents Exempt Children from Receiving Immunizations

    Luthy, Karlen E.; Beckstrand, Renea L.; Callister, Lynn C.; Cahoon, Spencer


    School nurses are on the front lines of educational efforts to promote childhood vaccinations. However, some parents still choose to exempt their children from receiving vaccinations for personal reasons. Studying the beliefs of parents who exempt vaccinations allows health care workers, including school nurses, to better understand parental…

  12. Radiometric Receiver for Passive Microwave Imaging System

    Ubaichin Anton


    Full Text Available The paper describes a new method to develop a zero-type W-band radiometric receiver. The block diagram and operating algorithm of the digital control system are presented. The main advantages of the zero method in passive radio physical investigations in comparison with classical engineering solutions are shown.

  13. 7 CFR 29.42 - Receiving station.


    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... INSPECTION Regulations Definitions § 29.42 Receiving station. Points at which producer tobacco is offered for marketing (other than sale at auction on a designated market), including tobacco auction warehouses,...

  14. Howard Feiertag receives hospitality industry award

    Ho, Sookhan


    Howard Feiertag, of Blacksburg, an instructor in hospitality and tourism management at Virginia Tech's Pamplin College of Business, received the inaugural Excellence in Sales and Marketing Strategy Award at the Hospitality Sales and Marketing Association/New York University Strategy Conference in New York recently.

  15. Embryotoxicity and teratogenicity study with α-cyclodextrin in rats

    Waalkens-Berendsen, D.H.; Bär, A.


    The embryotoxicity/teratogenicity of α-cyclodextrin (α-CD) was examined in Wistar Crl:(WI)WU BR rats. α-CD was fed at dietary concentrations of 0, 1.5, 5, 10, or 20% to groups of 25 pregnant female rats from day 0 to 21 of gestation. An additional group received a diet with 20% lactose. The addition

  16. Embryotoxicity and teratogenicity study with α-cyclodextrin in rats

    Waalkens-Berendsen, D.H.; Bär, A.


    The embryotoxicity/teratogenicity of α-cyclodextrin (α-CD) was examined in Wistar Crl:(WI)WU BR rats. α-CD was fed at dietary concentrations of 0, 1.5, 5, 10, or 20% to groups of 25 pregnant female rats from day 0 to 21 of gestation. An additional group received a diet with 20% lactose. The


    YEWei-San; HUANGYu-Ling; DENYan-Chun; XUEShe-Pu


    Forty four adult male rats weighing about 250 g were divided into 3 groups: Group 1 received GTW at a does of 10 mg/kg/d, Group 2, 20mg/kg/d, and Group 3 was givea 1% carboxymethy! cellulose as control. The rats were sacrificed on week

  18. Functional influence on sutural bone apposition in the growing rat.

    Katsaros, C.; Zissis, A.; Bresin, A.; Kiliaridis, S.


    INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to quantify the influence of reduced masticatory muscle function on sutural bone apposition in the growing rat. METHODS: Twenty-six growing male albino rats were randomly divided into 2 equal groups; 1 (hard-diet group) received the ordinary diet of hard pelle

  19. Embryotoxicity and teratogenicity study with γ-cyclodextrin in rats

    Waalkens-Berendsen, D.H.; Verhagen, F.J.J.; Bär, A.


    The embryotoxicity/teratogenicity of γ-cyclodextrin (γ-CD) was examined in Wistar Crl:(WI)WU BR rats. γ-CD was fed at dietary concentrations of 0, 1.5, 5, 10, and 20% to groups of 25 pregnant female rats from day 0 to 21 of gestation. A comparison group received a diet with 20% lactose. The addition

  20. A GPS Receiver for Lunar Missions

    Bamford, William A.; Heckler, Gregory W.; Holt, Greg N.; Moreau, Michael C.


    Beginning with the launch of the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) in October of 2008, NASA will once again begin its quest to land humans on the Moon. This effort will require the development of new spacecraft which will safely transport people from the Earth to the Moon and back again, as well as robotic probes tagged with science, re-supply, and communication duties. In addition to the next-generation spacecraft currently under construction, including the Orion capsule, NASA is also investigating and developing cutting edge navigation sensors which will allow for autonomous state estimation in low Earth orbit (LEO) and cislunar space. Such instruments could provide an extra layer of redundancy in avionics systems and reduce the reliance on support and on the Deep Space Network (DSN). One such sensor is the weak-signal Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver "Navigator" being developed at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). At the heart of the Navigator is a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) based acquisition engine. This engine allows for the rapid acquisition/reacquisition of strong GPS signals, enabling the receiver to quickly recover from outages due to blocked satellites or atmospheric entry. Additionally, the acquisition algorithm provides significantly lower sensitivities than a conventional space-based GPS receiver, permitting it to acquire satellites well above the GPS constellation. This paper assesses the performance of the Navigator receiver based upon three of the major flight regimes of a manned lunar mission: Earth ascent, cislunar navigation, and entry. Representative trajectories for each of these segments were provided by NASA. The Navigator receiver was connected to a Spirent GPS signal generator, to allow for the collection of real-time, hardware-in-the-loop results for each phase of the flight. For each of the flight segments, the Navigator was tested on its ability to acquire and track GPS satellites under the dynamical

  1. Vulcan: A deep-towed CSEM receiver

    Constable, Steven; Kannberg, Peter K.; Weitemeyer, Karen


    We have developed a three-axis electric field receiver designed to be towed behind a marine electromagnetic transmitter for the purpose of mapping the electrical resistivity in the upper 1000 m of seafloor geology. By careful adjustment of buoyancy and the use of real-time monitoring of depth and altitude, we are able to deep-tow multiple receivers on arrays up to 1200 m long within 50 m of the seafloor, thereby obtaining good coupling to geology. The rigid body of the receiver is designed to reduce noise associated with lateral motion of flexible antennas during towing, and allows the measurement of the vertical electric field component, which modeling shows to be particularly sensitive to near-seafloor resistivity variations. The positions and orientations of the receivers are continuously measured, and realistic estimates of positioning errors can be used to build an error model for the data. During a test in the San Diego Trough, offshore California, inversions of the data were able to fit amplitude and phase of horizontal electric fields at three frequencies on three receivers to about 1% in amplitude and 1° in phase and vertical fields to about 5% in amplitude and 5° in phase. The geological target of the tests was a known cold seep and methane vent in 1000 m water depth, which inversions show to be associated with a 1 km wide resistor at a depth between 50 and 150 m below seafloor. Given the high resistivity (30 Ωm) and position within the gas hydrate stability field, we interpret this to be massive methane hydrate.

  2. Social effects of migration in receiving countries.

    Ohndorf, W


    This paper examines the impact of post-1945 migration into Western, Middle, and Northern Europe from Southern Europe, Turkey, and Northern Africa, and migration to the traditional immigration countries by Asian and Latin American immigrants, on the social structures of receiving countries. Between 1955 and 1974, 1) traditional migration to the US and Australia became less important for European countries while traditional receiving countries accepted many immigrants from developing countries; and 2) rapid economic revival in Western and Northern Europe caused a considerable labor shortage which was filled by migrant workers especially from Southern Europe, Turkey, and Northern Africa, who stayed only until they reached their economic goals. Since 1974, job vacancies have declined and unemployment has soared. This employment crisis caused some migrants 1) to return to their countries of origin, 2) to bring the rest of their families to the receiving country, or 3) to lengthen their stay considerably. The number of refugees has also significantly increased since the mid-970s, as has the number of illegal migrants. After the mid-1970s, Europe began to experience integration problems. The different aspects of the impact of migration on social structures include 1) improvement of the housing situation for foreigners, 2) teaching migrants the language of the receiving country, 3) solving the unemployment problem of unskilled migrants, 4) improvement of educational and vocational qualifications of 2nd generation migrants, 5) development of programs to help unemployed wives of migrants to learn the language and meet indigenous women, 6) encouraging migrants to maintain their cultural identity and assisting them with reintegration if they return to their original country, 7) coping with the problems of refugees, and 8) solving the problems of illegal migration. Almost all receiving countries now severely restrict further immigration. [Those policies should result in

  3. Dietary subacute toxicity of ethylene thiourea in the laboratory rat

    Freudenthal, R.I.; Kerchner, G.; Persing, R.; Baron, R.L.


    Ethylene thiourea (ETU) was fed to groups of rats at 0, 1, 5, 125 or 625 ppM for up to 90 days. Other groups of rats received either propylthiouracil (PTU; 125 ppM) or amitrole (50 ppM) in their diets as positive controls. Only those rats which received ETU at 125 or 625 ppM and those ingesting PTU or amitrole demonstrated a measurable toxic response. This toxicity was reflected as an alteration in thyroid function and a significant change in thyroid morphology. Ingestion of 625 ppM ETU or 125 ppM PTU resulted in very substantial decrease in serum triiodothyronine (T-3) and thyroxine (T-4). Marked increases in serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels were found in the 625 and 125 ppM ETU rats, the 125 PTU rats, and the rats receiving amitrole, each time this hormone was measured. Rats which ingested 625 ppM ETU also exhibited a decrease in iodide uptake by the thyroid. While a statistically significant increase in serum T-4 and degree of thyroid hyperplasia was observed for rats ingesting 25 ppM ETU for 60 days, normal thyroid hormone levels and thyroid morphology was found in rats on 25 ppM ETU for either 30 or 90 days. Based on diochemical and microscopic changes examined, the no-effect level for dietary ETU in this 90-day study is considered to be 25 ppM.

  4. Laughing rats are optimistic.

    Rafal Rygula

    Full Text Available Emotions can bias human decisions- for example depressed or anxious people tend to make pessimistic judgements while those in positive affective states are often more optimistic. Several studies have reported that affect contingent judgement biases can also be produced in animals. The animals, however, cannot self-report; therefore, the valence of their emotions, to date, could only be assumed. Here we present the results of an experiment where the affect-contingent judgement bias has been produced by objectively measured positive emotions. We trained rats in operant Skinner boxes to press one lever in response to one tone to receive a food reward and to press another lever in response to a different tone to avoid punishment by electric foot shock. After attaining a stable level of discrimination performance, the animals were subjected to either handling or playful, experimenter-administered manual stimulation - tickling. This procedure has been confirmed to induce a positive affective state in rats, and the 50-kHz ultrasonic vocalisations (rat laughter emitted by animals in response to tickling have been postulated to index positive emotions akin to human joy. During the tickling and handling sessions, the numbers of emitted high-frequency 50-kHz calls were scored. Immediately after tickling or handling, the animals were tested for their responses to a tone of intermediate frequency, and the pattern of their responses to this ambiguous cue was taken as an indicator of the animals' optimism. Our findings indicate that tickling induced positive emotions which are directly indexed in rats by laughter, can make animals more optimistic. We demonstrate for the first time a link between the directly measured positive affective state and decision making under uncertainty in an animal model. We also introduce innovative tandem-approach for studying emotional-cognitive interplay in animals, which may be of great value for understanding the emotional

  5. CERN Press Office receives award from Euroscience


    The CERN Communication group has received an award for its efforts in communicating the LHC first beam to the media and the public. James Gillies, head of the Communication group was presented the AlphaGalileo Research Public Relations Award on Wednesday, 14 October during the Euroscience Media Award Ceremony in Hannover. "It’s great to receive this recognition," said Gillies. "Of course, we had great material to work with: the LHC is a fantastic story and one that is going to get even better. Angels, Demons and black holes also had their roles to play, but behind the media interest there’s been a lot of hard work by my team. This is for them." The CERN Communication group also works with communication professionals in all the CERN Member States and major physics labs around the world through the European Particle Physics Communication Network, and the InterAction collaboration. "Without them," says Gillies, &am...

  6. Grooms receives 2011 Donald L. Turcotte Award


    Ian Grooms has been awarded the AGU Donald L. Turcotte Award, given annually to recent Ph.D. recipients for outstanding dissertation research that contributes directly to the field of nonlinear geophysics. Grooms's thesis is entitled “Asymptotic and numerical methods for rapidly rotating buoyant flow.” He presented an invited talk and was formally presented with the award at the 2011 AGU Fall Meeting, held 5-9 December in San Francisco, Calif. Grooms received his B.S. in mathematics from the College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, Va., in 2005. He received a Ph.D. in applied mathematics in 2011 under the supervision of Keith Julien at the University of Colorado at Boulder. His research interests include asymptotic and numerical methods for multiscale problems in geophysical fluid dynamics.

  7. Screen-printed flexible MRI receive coils.

    Corea, Joseph R; Flynn, Anita M; Lechêne, Balthazar; Scott, Greig; Reed, Galen D; Shin, Peter J; Lustig, Michael; Arias, Ana C


    Magnetic resonance imaging is an inherently signal-to-noise-starved technique that limits the spatial resolution, diagnostic image quality and results in typically long acquisition times that are prone to motion artefacts. This limitation is exacerbated when receive coils have poor fit due to lack of flexibility or need for padding for patient comfort. Here, we report a new approach that uses printing for fabricating receive coils. Our approach enables highly flexible, extremely lightweight conforming devices. We show that these devices exhibit similar to higher signal-to-noise ratio than conventional ones, in clinical scenarios when coils could be displaced more than 18 mm away from the body. In addition, we provide detailed material properties and components performance analysis. Prototype arrays are incorporated within infant blankets for in vivo studies. This work presents the first fully functional, printed coils for 1.5- and 3-T clinical scanners.

  8. Fused silica windows for solar receiver applications

    Hertel, Johannes; Uhlig, Ralf; Söhn, Matthias; Schenk, Christian; Helsch, Gundula; Bornhöft, Hansjörg


    A comprehensive study of optical and mechanical properties of quartz glass (fused silica) with regard to application in high temperature solar receivers is presented. The dependence of rupture strength on different surface conditions as well as high temperature is analyzed, focussing particularly on damage by devitrification and sandblasting. The influence of typical types of contamination in combination with thermal cycling on the optical properties of fused silica is determined. Cleaning methods are compared regarding effectiveness on contamination-induced degradation for samples with and without antireflective coating. The FEM-aided design of different types of receiver windows and their support structure is presented. A large-scale production process has been developed for producing fused silica dome shaped windows (pressurized window) up to a diameter of 816 mm. Prototypes were successfully pressure-tested in a test bench and certified according to the European Pressure Vessel Directive.

  9. Perception of older adults receiving palliative care

    Fernanda Laporti Seredynskyj


    Full Text Available The present study aimed at understanding the perception of older adults who are receiving palliative oncological care on self care in relation to different stages of the disease and how such perception affected their lives. This is a qualitative study using oral history conducted with 15 older adults receiving palliative chemotherapy treatment in a health institution. The following categories emerged: social network, perspectives for confronting life, changes and spirituality. It is necessary for nursing staff to understand this process so that the measures implemented take into account all of the implications of the disease and aim at improving quality of life.   doi: 10.5216/ree.v16i2.22795.

  10. Graphene radio frequency receiver integrated circuit.

    Han, Shu-Jen; Garcia, Alberto Valdes; Oida, Satoshi; Jenkins, Keith A; Haensch, Wilfried


    Graphene has attracted much interest as a future channel material in radio frequency electronics because of its superior electrical properties. Fabrication of a graphene integrated circuit without significantly degrading transistor performance has proven to be challenging, posing one of the major bottlenecks to compete with existing technologies. Here we present a fabrication method fully preserving graphene transistor quality, demonstrated with the implementation of a high-performance three-stage graphene integrated circuit. The circuit operates as a radio frequency receiver performing signal amplification, filtering and downconversion mixing. All circuit components are integrated into 0.6 mm(2) area and fabricated on 200 mm silicon wafers, showing the unprecedented graphene circuit complexity and silicon complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor process compatibility. The demonstrated circuit performance allow us to use graphene integrated circuit to perform practical wireless communication functions, receiving and restoring digital text transmitted on a 4.3-GHz carrier signal.

  11. VLBI2010 Receiver Back End Comparison

    Petrachenko, Bill


    VLBI2010 requires a receiver back-end to convert analog RF signals from the receiver front end into channelized digital data streams to be recorded or transmitted electronically. The back end functions are typically performed in two steps: conversion of analog RF inputs into IF bands (see Table 2), and conversion of IF bands into channelized digital data streams (see Tables 1a, 1b and 1c). The latter IF systems are now completely digital and generically referred to as digital back ends (DBEs). In Table 2 two RF conversion systems are compared, and in Tables 1a, 1b, and 1c nine DBE systems are compared. Since DBE designs are advancing rapidly, the data in these tables are only guaranteed to be current near the update date of this document.

  12. Reducing the convective losses of cavity receivers

    Flesch, Robert; Grobbel, Johannes; Stadler, Hannes; Uhlig, Ralf; Hoffschmidt, Bernhard


    Convective losses reduce the efficiency of cavity receivers used in solar power towers especially under windy conditions. Therefore, measures should be taken to reduce these losses. In this paper two different measures are analyzed: an air curtain and a partial window which covers one third of the aperture opening. The cavity without modifications and the usage of a partial window were analyzed in a cryogenic wind tunnel at -173°C. The cryogenic environment allows transforming the results from the small model cavity to a large scale receiver with Gr≈3.9.1010. The cavity with the two modifications in the wind tunnel environment was analyzed with a CFD model as well. By comparing the numerical and experimental results the model was validated. Both modifications are capable of reducing the convection losses. In the best case a reduction of about 50 % was achieved.

  13. Next Generation Radio Astronomy Receiver Systems

    Morgan, Matthew A


    Radio astronomy observations in the coming decade will require new levels of sensitivity while mapping large regions of space with much greater efficiency than is achieved with current telescopes. This requires new instrumentation with the greatest achievable sensitivity, dynamic range, and field of view. Receiver noise is quickly approaching fundamental limits at most radio wavelengths, so significant gains in sensitivity can only be made by increasing collecting area. Jointly, these requirements suggest using large arrays of smaller antennas, or many moderate-size antennas equipped with multi-beam arrays. The challenge is to develop receivers and wide bandwidth data transport systems which are lower cost, more compact, more reliable, lower weight, and more reproducible than the best current systems, with no compromise to performance. This can be achieved with a greater degree of component integration, extensive use of digital signal processing and transport, and replacement of functions currently performed ...

  14. Digital Signal Processor For GPS Receivers

    Thomas, J. B.; Meehan, T. K.; Srinivasan, J. M.


    Three innovative components combined to produce all-digital signal processor with superior characteristics: outstanding accuracy, high-dynamics tracking, versatile integration times, lower loss-of-lock signal strengths, and infrequent cycle slips. Three components are digital chip advancer, digital carrier downconverter and code correlator, and digital tracking processor. All-digital signal processor intended for use in receivers of Global Positioning System (GPS) for geodesy, geodynamics, high-dynamics tracking, and ionospheric calibration.

  15. Armstrong Receives Space Medal of Honor


    Astronaut Neil A. Armstrong receives the first Congressional Space Medal of Honor from President Jimmy Carter, assisted by Captain Robert Peterson. Armstrong, one of six astronauts to be presented the medal during ceremonies held in the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB), was awarded for his performance during the Gemini 8 mission and the Apollo 11 mission when he became the first human to set foot upon the Moon.

  16. Optical antenna gain. II - Receiving antennas

    Degnan, J. J.; Klein, B. J.


    Expressions are developed for the gain of a centrally obscured, circular optical antenna used as the collecting and focusing optics in a laser receiver, involving losses due to (1) incoming light blockage by central obscuration, (2) energy spillover at the detector, and (3) the effect of local oscillator distribution in the case of heterodyne or homodyne detection. Numerical results are presented for direct detection and for three types of local oscillator distribution (uniform, Gaussian, and matched).

  17. Counterrotator And Correlator For GPS Receivers

    Thomas, J. Brooks; Srinivasan, Jeffrey M.; Meehan, Thomas K.


    Accurate, all-digital, high-speed processor comprising correlator and down-converter developed for receivers in Global Positioning System (GPS). Processor reduces roundoff and commensurability errors to extremely small values. Use of digital chip and phase advancers provides outstanding control and accuracy in phase and feedback. Great flexibility imparted by provision for arbitrary starting time and integration length. Minimum-bit design requires minimum number of logical elements, thereby reducing size, power, and cost.

  18. Optical antenna gain. 2: receiving antennas.

    Degnan, J J; Klein, B J


    Expressions are derived for the gain of a centrally obscured, circular optical antenna when used as the collecting and focusing optics in a laser receiver which include losses due to (1) blockage of the incoming light by the central obscuration, (2) the spillover of energy at the detector, and (3) the effect of local oscillator distribution in the case of heterodyne or homodyne detection. Numerical results are presented for direct detection and for three types of local oscillator distributions (uniform, Gaussian, and matched) in the case of heterodyne or homodyne detection. The results are presented in several graphs that allow the rapid evaluation of receiver gain for an arbitrary set of telescope and detector parameters. It is found that, for uniform illumination by the LO, the optimum SNR is obtained when the detector radius is approximately 0.74 times the Airy disk radius. The use of an optimized Gaussian (spot size = 0.46 times the Airy disk radius) improves the receiver gain by less than 1 dB. Theuse results are insensitive to the size of the central obscuration.

  19. Transient simulation of molten salt central receiver

    Doupis, Dimitri; Wang, Chuan; Carcorze-Soto, Jorge; Chen, Yen-Ming; Maggi, Andrea; Losito, Matteo; Clark, Michael


    Alstom is developing concentrated solar power (CSP) utilizing 60/40wt% NaNO3-KNO3 molten salt as the working fluid in a tower receiver for the global renewable energy market. In the CSP power generation cycle, receivers undergo a daily cyclic operation due to the transient nature of solar energy. Development of robust and efficient start-up and shut-down procedures is critical to avoiding component failures due to mechanical fatigue resulting from thermal transients, thus maintaining the performance and availability of the CSP plant. The Molten Salt Central Receiver (MSCR) is subject to thermal transients during normal daily operation, a cycle that includes warmup, filling, operation, draining, and shutdown. This paper describes a study to leverage dynamic simulation and finite element analysis (FEA) in development of start-up, shutdown, and transient operation concepts for the MSCR. The results of the FEA also verify the robustness of the MSCR design to the thermal transients anticipated during the operation of the plant.

  20. Development of Receiver Stimulator for Auditory Prosthesis

    K. Raja Kumar


    Full Text Available The Auditory Prosthesis (AP is an electronic device that can provide hearing sensations to people who are profoundly deaf by stimulating the auditory nerve via an array of electrodes with an electric current allowing them to understand the speech. The AP system consists of two hardware functional units such as Body Worn Speech Processor (BWSP and Receiver Stimulator. The prototype model of Receiver Stimulator for Auditory Prosthesis (RSAP consists of Speech Data Decoder, DAC, ADC, constant current generator, electrode selection logic, switch matrix and simulated electrode resistance array. The laboratory model of speech processor is designed to implement the Continuous Interleaved Sampling (CIS speech processing algorithm which generates the information required for electrode stimulation based on the speech / audio data. Speech Data Decoder receives the encoded speech data via an inductive RF transcutaneous link from speech processor. Twelve channels of auditory Prosthesis with selectable eight electrodes for stimulation of simulated electrode resistance array are used for testing. The RSAP is validated by using the test data generated by the laboratory prototype of speech processor. The experimental results are obtained from specific speech/sound tests using a high-speed data acquisition system and found satisfactory.

  1. Russian institute receives CMS Gold Award

    Patrice Loïez


    The Snezhinsk All-Russian Institute of Scientific Research for Technical Physics (VNIITF) of the Russian Federal Nuclear Centre (RFNC) is one of twelve CMS suppliers to receive awards for outstanding performance this year. The CMS Collaboration took the opportunity of the visit to CERN of the Director of VNIITF and his deputy to present the CMS Gold Award, which the institute has received for its exceptional performance in the assembly of steel plates for the CMS forward hadronic calorimeter. This calorimeter consists of two sets of 18 wedge-shaped modules arranged concentrically around the beam-pipe at each end of the CMS detector. Each module consists of steel absorber plates with quartz fibres inserted into them. The institute developed a special welding technique to assemble the absorber plates, enabling a high-quality detector to be produced at relatively low cost.RFNC-VNIITF Director Professor Georgy Rykovanov (right), is seen here receiving the Gold Award from Felicitas Pauss, Vice-Chairman of the CMS ...

  2. Effect of Iron Enriched Bread Intake on the Oxidative Stress Indices in Male Wistar Rats

    Sharareh Heidari


    Full Text Available Background Contrary to the proven benefits of iron, few concerns in producing the oxidative stress is remained problematic. Objectives The aim of the study was to evaluate the oxidative stress in the male Wistar rats fed bread supplemented with iron in different doses i.e., 35 (basic, 70 (two fold, 140 (four fold, and 210 mg/kg (six fold with or without NaHCO3 (250 mg/kg. Methods In this experimental study Iron, ceruloplasmin, ferritin, total iron binding capacity (TIBC, albumin, total protein, uric acid and plasma superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GPX, catalase (CAT, malondialdehyde (MDA, and total antioxidant capacity (TAC, were evaluated in 30 rats at the first and last day of the experiment (day 30. In addition, phytic acid levels were detected in all baked breads. The data were analyzed by ANOVA and t test procedure though SPSS statistical software version 20. Results Serum iron level in rats that received basic level of iron plus NaHCO3 decreased significantly in the last day of the trial. Higher level of serum iron was seen in rats that received iron twofold, fourfold and sixfold and rats that received iron fourfold plus NaHCO3. Serum ceruloplasmin and ferritin in groups of rats that received fourfold level of iron plus NaHCO3 and rats that received iron sixfold showed a significant increase (P ≤ 0.05. Serum total protein and uric acid in rats that received basic level of iron plus NaHCO3 and rats that received twofold level of iron showed a significant decrease. Serum total protein levels in rats that received fourfold level of iron showed a significant decrease. Bread with NaHCO3 showed higher phytic acid levels than other groups. Conclusions These results indicate that oxidative stress was not induced, whereas some antioxidant activities were significantly changed in rats that received iron-enriched bread.

  3. Thalidomide affects the skeletal system of ovariectomized rats.

    Kaczmarczyk-Sedlak, Ilona; Folwarczna, Joanna; Trzeciak, Henryk I


    Apart from having written an inglorious chapter in the history of medicine, thalidomide is currently being intensely studied because of its multidimensional activity. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of thalidomide on the skeletal system in ovariectomized and non-ovariectomized rats. The experiments were carried out with female Wistar rats, divided into eight groups: sham-operated control rats; sham-operated rats receiving thalidomide at doses of 15, 30 or 60 mg/kg, po; ovariectomized control rats; ovariectomized rats receiving thalidomide at doses of 15, 30 or 60 mg/kg, po. The drug was administered for 4 weeks. Body mass gain and the mass of the uterus, liver, spleen and thymus were studied. Macrometric parameters and content of mineral substances, calcium and phosphorus in the femur, tibia and L-4 vertebra and histomorphometric parameters of the femur and tibia were examined. In the femur, the mechanical properties of the whole bone and of the femoral neck were examined. Thalidomide did not affect the skeletal system of the non-ovariectomized rats. Bilateral ovariectomy induced osteoporotic skeletal changes in mature female rats. The effects of thalidomide on the skeletal system of ovariectomized rats depended on the dose used. With a dose of 15 mg/kg, po, thalidomide counteracted some osteoporotic changes induced by estrogen deficiency. With a dose of 60 mg/kg, po, thalidomide intensified the destructive effects of estrogen deficiency on the rat skeletal system.

  4. Evaluation of hydroxypropyl-b-cyclodextrin in the treatment of aldicarb poisoning in rats : short communication

    R.S. Verster


    Full Text Available Cyclodextrins are ring-shaped oligosaccharides with a hydrophilic exterior and a hydrophobic interior. The interior cavity is capable of complexing fat-soluble molecules small enough to fit inside. Sprague-Dawley rats were used to evaluate the efficacy of hydroxypropyl-b-cyclodextrin as treatment of aldicarb poisoning in rats. Survival times in the majority of rats dosed with aldicarb and receiving intravenous cyclodextrin were longer compared with the control rats only dosed with aldicarb per os.

  5. Effect of strontium ranelate on the bone histomorphometry after weightlessness in rats

    A-na LAI; Yang, Rui; Zhang, Zhen; Wang, Mei; Chen, Rong-Ping; Zhou, Ying; Huang, Zhen; Hong CHEN


    Objective To investigate the effect of strontium ranelate(SR) on the bone histomorphometry of tail-suspended rat.Methods Thirty male SD rats(3 months old) were randomly divided into five groups(6 each): rats in SR-1 group underwent tail suspension for 4 weeks and given SR simultaneously.In SR-2 group rats received tail suspension for 4 weeks and given SR thereafter.In SR-3 group rats underwent tail suspension for 4 weeks and given SR during the whole course.In control-1 group rats underwent t...

  6. Solar receiver performance of point focusing collector system

    Wu, Y. C.; Wen, L. C.


    The solar receiver performance of cavity receivers and external receivers used in dispersed solar power systems was evaluated for the temperature range 300-1300 C. Several parameters of receiver and concentrator are examined. It was found that cavity receivers are generally more efficient than external receivers, especially at high temperatures which require a large heat transfer area. The effects of variation in the ratio of receiver area to aperture area are considered.

  7. Bone Marrow Multipotent Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Do Not Reduce Fibrosis or Improve Function in a Rat Model of Severe Chronic Liver Injury

    Carvalho, Adriana B; Quintanilha, Luiz Fernando; Dias, Juliana V; Paredes, Bruno D; Mannheimer, Elida G; Carvalho, Felipe G; Asensi, Karina D; Gutfilen, Bianca; Fonseca, Lea Mirian B; Resende, Celia Maria C; Rezende, Guilherme F. M; Takiya, Christina M; de Carvalho, Antonio Carlos Campos; Goldenberg, Regina C. S


    ...) in a rat model of severe chronic liver injury. Fourteen female Wistar rats were fed exclusively an alcoholic liquid diet and received intraperitoneal injections of carbon tetrachloride every other day during 15 weeks...

  8. Thatcher Receives 2004 Charles A. Whitten Medal

    Stein, Ross


    Wayne Thatcher received the Whitten Medal at the 2004 Fall Meeting Honors Ceremony on 15 December, in San Francisco, California. The medal is given for outstanding achievement in research on the form and dynamics of the Earth and planets. Citation. Armed with geodesy, Wayne Thatcher has probed the behavior of great earthquakes, concentrating on the two sites where large events are frequent and the geodetic record is lush: the western United States and Japan. From this, he has garnered deep insights into the earthquake cycle-the pattern of strain accumulation and release of which an earthquake is only the most visible part.

  9. Effect of the juice of lime (Citrus aurantifolia) on estrous cycle and ovulation of Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Salawu, Adeola A; Osinubi, Abraham A A; Dosumu, Olufunke O; Kusemiju, Taiwo O; Noronha, Cressie C; Okanlawon, Abayomi O


    To determine the effect of lime juice on the estrous cycle and ovulation of cyclic female rats. Twenty-five adult female Sprague-Dawley rats were used. The study was divided into 2 experiments (I and II). In experiment I, 15 rats were randomly subclassified into 3 groups (Ia, Ib, and Ic) of 5 rats each. The estrous cycles of the rats were studied for the first 16 days to establish cyclicity, after which lime juice was administered by gastric gavage for the next 24 days. Rats in group Ia received 1 mL of undiluted lime juice, rats in group Ib received 1 mL of 50% diluted lime juice, and rats in group Ic (control animals) received only distilled water. In experiment II, 10 female rats were used and were categorized into 2 groups (IIa and IIb), with 5 rats in each group. Rats in group IIa received 1 mL of undiluted lime juice during the morning of proestrus, and those in group IIb received only distilled water on the day of proestrus. The rats were killed the next day with use of chloroform anesthesia. The upper parts of the oviducts were excised and examined under the light microscope for assessment of the number of ova shed. There was an irregular pattern in all phases of the estrous cycle of 100% of the rats given undiluted lime juice and in 80% of those given 50% diluted lime juice. There was a significant (P = .001) reduction in the number of ova shed in rats administered undiluted lime juice in comparison with the control animals. Ovulation was partially blocked, as shown by the reduced number of ova observed in the oviducts from the rats given undiluted lime juice (5.10 +/- 2.37) in comparison with the control rats (12.70 +/- 1.14). In rats, lime juice causes irregularity of the estrous cycle, partially blocks ovulation, and may possibly compromise fertility.

  10. Perspectives from older adults receiving cancer treatment about the cancer-related information they receive


    Objective: Cancer patients have reported that information plays a significant role in their capacity to cope with cancer and manage the consequences of treatment. This study was undertaken to identify the importance older adults receiving cancer treatment assign to selected types of cancer-related information, their satisfaction with the cancer-related information they received, and the barriers to effective information provision for this age group. Methods: This study was conducted in two ph...

  11. Omnidirectional free-space optical receiver architecture

    Murshid, Syed H.; Lovell, Gregory L.; Finch, Michael F.


    Free Space Optical (FSO) communication is the fusion of wireless technology and optical fiber communications systems. It has the potential of providing fiber optic data rates without the physical restraints of optical fiber cables. This endeavor presents a novel receiver structure with potential for omnidirectional free space optical communications. Interesting approaches for accomplishing omnidirectional free space lasercomm such as direct detection and solar blind non-line of sight UV scattering have been reported over the last few years. However, these technologies have resulted in limited distances of the order of 10 to 100 meters and data rates often limited to less than 1 Mb/s. This endeavor reports the architecture of an omnidirectional receiver setup by integrating an off the shelf detector and a fiber bundle, where the fiber bundle couples omnidirectional photons within its field of view and delivers these photons to the detector. The coupling of light from all directions into a detector is regulated by the cone of the acceptance angle of the fiber. Multiple fibers with overlapping acceptance angles provide the necessary coverage that may be needed to extract the optical signal from the free space optical channel. Simulated results showing the normalized power pattern of the system is presented to demonstrate omnidirectional potential of the structure. Theoretical power level versus distance plot for an FSO System employing On-O Keying (OOK) is also presented.

  12. Woese on the received view of evolution.

    Sarkar, Sahotra


    As part of his attempt to reconstruct the earliest phase of the evolution of life on Earth, Woese produced a compelling critique of the received view of evolution from the 20th century. This paper explicitly articulates two related features of that critique that are fundamental but the first of which has not been sufficiently clearly recognized in the context of evolutionary theorizing: (1) according to Woese's scenario of communal evolution during life's earliest phase (roughly, the first billion years of life on Earth), well-defined biological individuals (and, thus, individual lineages) did not exist; and (2) during that phase, evolutionary change took place through ubiquitous horizontal gene transfer (HGT) rather than through vertical transmission of features (including genes) and the combinatorics of HGT was the dominant mechanism of evolutionary change. Both factors present serious challenges to the received view of evolution and that framework would have to be radically altered to incorporate these factors. The extent to which this will be necessary will depend on whether Woese's scenario of collective early evolution is correct.

  13. Parabolic Trough Receiver Heat Loss Testing (Poster)

    Price, H.; Netter, J.; Bingham, C.; Kutscher, C.; Burkholder, F.; Brandemuehl, M.


    Parabolic trough receivers, or heat collection elements (HCEs), absorb sunlight focused by the mirrors and transfer that thermal energy to a fluid flowing within them. Thje absorbing tube of these receivers typically operates around 400 C (752 F). HCE manufacturers prevent thermal loss from the absorbing tube to the environment by using sputtered selective Cermet coatings on the absorber and by surrounding the absorber with a glass-enclosed evacuated annulus. This work quantifies the heat loss of the Solel UVAC2 and Schott PTR70 HCEs. At 400 C, the HCEs perform similarly, losing about 400 W/m of HCE length. To put this in perspective, the incident beam radiation on a 5 m mirror aperture is about 4500 W/m, with about 75% of that energy ({approx} 3400 W/m) reaching the absorber surface. Of the 3400 W/m on the absorber, about 3000 W/m is absorbed into the working fluid while 400 W/m is lost to the environment.

  14. Solar central receiver heliostat reflector assembly

    Horton, Richard H.; Zdeb, John J.


    A heliostat reflector assembly for a solar central receiver system comprises a light-weight, readily assemblable frame which supports a sheet of stretchable reflective material and includes mechanism for selectively applying tension to and positioning the sheet to stretch it to optical flatness. The frame is mounted on and supported by a pipe pedestal assembly that, in turn, is installed in the ground. The frame is controllably driven in a predetermined way by a light-weight drive system so as to be angularly adjustable in both elevation and azimuth to track the sun and efficiently continuously reflect the sun's rays to a focal zone, i.e. central receiver, which forms part of a solar energy utilization system, such as a solar energy fueled electrical power generation system. The frame may include a built-in system for testing for optical flatness of the reflector. The preferable geometric configuration of the reflector is octagonal; however, it may be other shapes, such as hexagonal, pentagonal or square. Several different embodiments of means for tensioning and positioning the reflector to achieve optical flatness are disclosed. The reflector assembly is based on the stretch frame concept which provides an extremely light-weight, simple, low-cost reflector assembly that may be driven for positioning and tracking by a light-weight, inexpensive drive system.

  15. Transactions Security Tools in Account Receivables Management

    Anna Wodyńska


    Full Text Available Large competition among goods and services suppliers caused that granting clients deferred term of payment became a standard, so in other word granting clients commercial credit is a standard. Companies try to limit credit risk by securing their trade transactions in accordance with their credit policy that determines in some way the choice of trade transaction security tools.This article presents a full range of trade transaction security tools according to the general division into personal and property securities. The author pays attention to the fact that while conducting a proper credit policy in relation to clients, a company has chances to monitor efficiently the receivables and insist on their payment as well as use, as needed, the earlier prepared trade transaction security tools.The author convinces that regardless of the choice of trade transaction security tools, or reasons leading the receivables managing person, the basic criterion of security evaluation shall be its real, checked and verified value. The pledge on an object that does not exist is not worth much. The same applies to security granted by an insolvent person.

  16. The Submillimeter Array Antennas and Receivers

    Blundell, R


    The Submillimeter Array (SMA) was conceived at the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory in 1984 as a six element interferometer to operate in the major atmospheric windows from about 200 to 900 GHz. In 1996, the Academica Sinica Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics of Taiwan joined the project and agreed to provide additional hardware to expand the interferometer to eight elements. All eight antennas are now operating at the observatory site on Mauna Kea, and astronomical observations have been made in the 230, 345, and 650 GHz bands. The SMA antennas have a diameter of 6 m, a surface accuracy of better than 25 micron rms, and can be reconfigured to provide spatial resolutions down to about 0.5" at 200 GHz and, eventually, 0.1" at 850 GHz. Coupling to the receiver package within each antenna is achieved via a beam waveguide, in a bent Nasmyth configuration, comprised of a flat tertiary mirror and two ellipsoidal mirrors that form a secondary pupil used for receiver calibration. An additional fixed mirror ...

  17. Ketamine anesthesia reduces intestinal ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats

    Carlos Roddgo Cámara; Francisco Javier Guzmán; Ernesto Alexis Barrera; Andrés Jesús Cabello; Armando Garcia; Nancy Esthela Fernández; Eloy Caballero; Jesus Ancer


    AIM:To investigate the effects of ketamine anesthesia on the motility alterations and tissue injury caused by ischemia/reperfusion in rats.METHODS:Thirty maIe Wistar rats weighing 200-250 g were used.Ischemia was induced by obstructing blood flow in 25% of the total small intestinal length(ileum)with a vascular clamp for 45 min,after which either 60 min or 24 h of reperfusion was allowed.Rats were either anesthetized with pento-barbital sodium(50 mg/kg)or ketamine(100 mg/kg).Control groups received sham surgery,After 60 min of reperfusion,the intestine was examined for mor-phological alterations,and after 24 h intestinal basic electrical rhythm(BER)frequency was calculated,and intestinal transit determined in all groups.RESULTS:The intestinal mucosa in rats that were anesthetized with ketamine showed moderate alterations such as epithelial lifting,while ulceration and hemorrhage was observed in rats that received pento-barbital sodium after 60 min of reperfusion.Quantitative analysis of structural damage using the Chiu scale showed significantly Iess injury in rats that received ketamine than in rats that did not(2.35±1.14 vs 4.58 ±0.50,P<0.0001).The distance traveled by a marker,expressed as percentage of total intestinal length,in rats that received pentobarbital sodium was 20% ± 2% in comparison with 25.9% ±1.64% in rats that received ketamine(P=0.017).BER was not statistically different between groups.CONCLUSION:Our results show that ketamine anesthesia is associated with diminished intestinal iniury and abolishes the intestinal transit delay induced by ischemia/reperfusion.(C)2008 The WJG Press.All rights reserved.

  18. Ketamine anesthesia reduces intestinal ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats

    Cámara, Carlos Rodrigo; Guzmán, Francisco Javier; Barrera, Ernesto Alexis; Cabello, Andrés Jesús; Garcia, Armando; Fernández, Nancy Esthela; Caballero, Eloy; Ancer, Jesus


    AIM: To investigate the effects of ketamine anesthesia on the motility alterations and tissue injury caused by ischemia/reperfusion in rats. METHODS: Thirty male Wistar rats weighing 200-250 g were used. Ischemia was induced by obstructing blood flow in 25% of the total small intestinal length (ileum) with a vascular clamp for 45 min, after which either 60 min or 24 h of reperfusion was allowed. Rats were either anesthetized with pentobarbital sodium (50 mg/kg) or ketamine (100 mg/kg). Control groups received sham surgery. After 60 min of reperfusion, the intestine was examined for morphological alterations, and after 24 h intestinal basic electrical rhythm (BER) frequency was calculated, and intestinal transit determined in all groups. RESULTS: The intestinal mucosa in rats that were anesthetized with ketamine showed moderate alterations such as epithelial lifting, while ulceration and hemorrhage was observed in rats that received pentobarbital sodium after 60 min of reperfusion. Quantitative analysis of structural damage using the Chiu scale showed significantly less injury in rats that received ketamine than in rats that did not (2.35 ± 1.14 vs 4.58 ± 0.50, P < 0.0001). The distance traveled by a marker, expressed as percentage of total intestinal length, in rats that received pentobarbital sodium was 20% ± 2% in comparison with 25.9% ± 1.64% in rats that received ketamine (P = 0.017). BER was not statistically different between groups. CONCLUSION: Our results show that ketamine anesthesia is associated with diminished intestinal injury and abolishes the intestinal transit delay induced by ischemia/reperfusion. PMID:18777596

  19. Cecal infusion of nutrients improves nutritional status of rats.

    Aghdassi, E; Raina, N; Allard, J P


    The role of colonic fermentation in providing energy was investigated in rats with small bowel transection (T) or 80% resection (SBR). Rats were randomized to receive for 12 d either saline (S) or the enteral solution (E) through a cecostomy to meet 30% of energy requirement; the rest (70%) was provided by parenteral nutrition. Although SBR-S rats lost weight significantly compared with d 1 of the study, SBR-E rats gained. Significantly greater carcass wet weight and fat were found in SBR-E and T-E rats compared with SBR-S and T-S rats. SBR-E and T-E rats had significantly greater colonic mucosal dry weight and protein compared with SBR-S and T-S rats. Cecal short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) contents were also significantly higher in SBR-E and T-E rats compared with SBR-S and T-S rats. There was no significant effect of surgery (T vs. SBR) on any of the variables studied. These results suggest that the products of fermentation of an enteral solution infused through a cecostomy contribute substantially to energy requirement, maintenance of body composition and nutritional status of rats.

  20. Eosinophils increase in animals that received biotherapic

    Pedro Gilberto Silva Morais


    Full Text Available Dairy industry is an important Brazilian economic activity participating of income generation. European breeds cattle aren’t adapted to parasites found in the tropics, like the Rhipicephalus microplus tick. Parasites can acquire resistance to allopathic products, but not to homeopathic products. We evaluate the efficacy of an antiparasiticide biotherapic against the R. microplus tick. The biotherapic was prepared according to the homeopathic pharmacopoeia recommendations from vegetable (Abrotanum and animal products (Rhipicephalus microplus, Amblyomma cajenennense, Haematobia irritans, Musca domestica, Dermatobia hominis, all diluted and vigorous shaken (dynamized in water or alcohol at a ratio of 1:99, in the 12th Centesimal Hahnemann (CH12, with limestone as the carrier. This homeophatic product found in veterinary pharmacies of Ituiutaba’s region, Minas Gerais State, is registered at Ministério da Agricultura, Pecuária e Abastecimento (MAPA. Natural tick infestation was accessed in thirty Girolando (Gir x Holstein cows with 7 to 13 year-old, by monthly counting of tick female bigger than 6 mm, from October/2009 to July/2011. Cows were divided in three groups of 10 similar animals. The treated group (T1 received roughage, concentrate and biotherapic. The placebo group (T2 received roughage, concentrate and limestone and the control group (T3 received only roughage and concentrate. T1 and T2 groups were managed together and remained in the same paddock. T3 group was separed from T1 and T2 by a wire fence. From October 2009 to September 2010 blood cell counts and serum biochemical tests were performed monthly only in T1 and T2, but visual clinical observations were made in all animals. Any group was treated with acaricide when the count’s average reached 50 or more ticks. It was necessary 7 baths with acaricide in T1 and T2, while in T3 group (control group it was necessary 19 acaricide baths to control the cattle tick. We verified

  1. Three Specialized Innovations for FAST Wideband Receiver

    Zhang, Xia; Yu, Xinying; Duan, Ran; Hao, Jie; Li, Di


    The National Astronomical Observatories of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (NAOC) will soon finish the largest antenna in the world. Known as FAST, the Five-hundred-meter Aperture Spherical Radio Telescope will be the most sensitive single-dish radio telescope in the low frequency radio bands between 70 MHz and 3 GHz.To take advantage of its giant aperture, all relevant cutting-edge technology should be applied to FAST to ensure that it achieves the best possible overall performance. The wideband receiver that is currently under development can not only be directly applied to FAST, but also used for other Chinese radio telescopes, such as the Shanghai 65-meter telescope and the Xinjiang 110-meter telescope, to ensure that these telescopes are among the best in the world. Recently, rapid development related to this wideband receiver has been underway. In this paper, we will introduce three key aspects of the FAST wideband receiver project. First is the use of a high-performance analog-to-digital converter (ADC). With the cooperation of Hao Jie’s team from the Institute of Automation of the Chinese Academy of Sciences(CASIA), we have developed 3-Gsps,12-bit ADCs, which have not been used previously in astronomy, and we expect to realize the 3-GHz bandwidth in a single step by covering the entire bandwidth via interleaving or a complex fast Fourier transform (FFT).Second is the front-end analog signal integrated circuit board. We wish to achieve a series of amplification, attenuation, and mixing filtering operations on a single small board, thereby achieving digital control of the bandpass behavior both flexibly and highly-efficiently. This design will not only greatly reduce the required cost and power but will also make the best use of the digital-system’s flexibility. Third is optimization of the FFT: the existing FFT is not very efficient; therefore, we will optimize the FFT for large-scale operation. For this purpose, we intend to cascade two FFTs. Another

  2. Safety of dietary supplements: chronotropic and inotropic effects on isolated rat atria.

    Kubota, Yoko; Umegaki, Keizo; Tanaka, Naoko; Mizuno, Hideya; Nakamura, Kazuki; Kunitomo, Masaru; Shinozuka, Kazumasa


    We investigated the effects of dietary supplements on atria isolated from male Wistar rats. The examined supplements, which are increasingly used in Japan, those were Ginkgo biloba extract (GBE), catechins, isoflavones, sodium iron chlorophyllin and sodium copper chlorophyllin. GBE at 100-1000 microg/ml significantly increased the beat rate and the contractile force. Catechins at 1-100 microg/ml significantly potentiated the contractile force but did not effect the beat rates. However, isoflavones, sodium iron and sodium copper chlorophyllins did not change the contractile force or the beat rates. To identify the active ingredient of GBE, ginkgolide B, quercetin and amentoflavone on the atria were tested. Ginkgolide B weakened the contractile force. Quercetin potentiated the contractile force at only 30 microg/ml. Amentoflavone significantly increased the beat rate. From these findings, amentoflavone and quercetin were considered to be the principal ingredients of GBE producing the positive chronotropic and inotropic actions, respectively. In the case of catechins, (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCg), one of the principal ingredients, produced inotropic actions. These findings suggest that there are some dietary supplements which affect cardiac function, such GBE and catechins.

  3. Signal Processing for Improved Wireless Receiver Performance

    Christensen, Lars P.B.


    This thesis is concerned with signal processing for improving the performance of wireless communication receivers for well-established cellular networks such as the GSM/EDGE and WCDMA/HSPA systems. The goal of doing so, is to improve the end-user experience and/or provide a higher system capacity...... in connection with parameter estimation. Next, a realistic framework for interference whitening is presented, allowing flexibility in the selection of whether interference is accounted for via a discrete or a Gaussian distribution. The approximate method of sphere detection and decoding is outlined and various...... suggestions for improvements are presented. In addition, methods for using generalized BP to perform approximate joint detection and decoding in systems with convolutional codes are outlined. One such method is a natural generalization of the traditional Turbo principle and a generalized Turbo principle can...

  4. The BINP receives its Golden Hadron award


    On Thursday, 14 September, the LHC Project Leader, Lyn Evans, handed over a Golden Hadron award to Alexander Skrinsky of Russia's Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics (BINP). The prize is awarded in recognition of exceptional performances by suppliers and this year prizes were awarded to two firms, Cockerill-Sambre (Belgium) and Wah-Chang (United States), and to the Budker Institute, which was unable to receive the award at the same time as the two other recipients (see Bulletin No 34/2002, of 19 August 2002). The Russian institute has been rewarded for the particularly high-quality production of 360 dipole magnets and 185 quadrupole magnets for the LHC proton beam transfer lines.

  5. Teleseismic receiver functions imaging of Siberia

    Soliman, Mohammad Youssof Ahmad; Thybo, Hans; Artemieva, Irina


    be used for determining Moho depth, and are excellent for detecting relatively broad vertical gradients in velocity, such as expected for a thermally controlled LAB. The combination of both types of RFs allows for independent discontinuity models of the same area in different frequency bands using......We map the lithosphere in Siberia by using the available broadband seismic data for calculation of Ps- and Sp-wave receiver functions (RF). RFs show converted waves from discontinuities in the vicinity of the seismic stations. The main objective is to image the Moho and upper mantle discontinuities......, including the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB) beneath the study area. We construct the RF using the LQT method (Vinnik, 1977; Kind et al. 1995) in the version by Yuan et al. (1997). Rotation of ray coordinates uses the incidence angles predicted by the AK135 velocity model. This decomposes the wave...

  6. Jiang Zemin Receives New ACWF Leadership


    FOUR days after the adjournment of the 8th Chinese Women’s National Congress, President Jiang Zemin received all the newly-elected members of the executive committee and several deputies at Zhongnanhai. Gu Xiulian, Vice President and the First Member of the Secretariat of the All-China Women’s Federation (ACWF), briefed Jiang on the congress. She said deputies had reached consensus on certain issues: that women should capitalize on their abilities in the overall social participation; that the uplifting of women’s quality should be seen as a long-term strategy; and that women’s development requires a supportive social environment. Jiang Zemin listened attentively to the speeches delivered by seven deputies. Jiang Daguo, president of Hubei Provincial Women’s Federation, from one of the

  7. Receiver based PAPR reduction in OFDMA

    Ali, Anum Z.


    High peak-to-average power ratio is one of the major drawbacks of orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM). Clipping is the simplest peak reduction scheme, however, it requires clipping mitigation at the receiver. Recently compressed sensing has been used for clipping mitigation (by exploiting the sparse nature of clipping signal). However, clipping estimation in multi-user scenario (i.e., OFDMA) is not straightforward as clipping distortions overlap in frequency domain and one cannot distinguish between distortions from different users. In this work, a collaborative clipping removal strategy is proposed based on joint estimation of the clipping distortions from all users. Further, an effective data aided channel estimation strategy for clipped OFDM is also outlined. Simulation results are presented to justify the effectiveness of the proposed schemes. © 2014 IEEE.

  8. Humboldt SK pilot biodigester receives funding



    The Canada-Saskatchewan Western Economic Partnership Agreement (WEPA) will provide funding for Canada's first pilot-scale biodigester to be built in Humboldt, Saskatchewan. The $208,138 pilot facility will use household garbage as well as agricultural waste such as manure and livestock operations, abattoirs and food processing to create heat or power and fertilizer. Support for this bio-energy facility, which could also reduce greenhouse gases, will come from the Prairie Agricultural Machinery Institute which has received $186,138 from Canada and Saskatchewan in the form of cost-shared federal-provincial funding. The pilot plant will test different combinations of waste material feedstocks and the characteristics of the resulting gas end products. The pilot facility will also provide design information for full-scale biodigester manufacturers in Canada. It is expected that 25 full-scale biodigesters will be constructed in Canada in the near future.

  9. Listeriosis in patients receiving biologic therapies.

    Bodro, M; Paterson, D L


    The evolution of inflammatory diseases has radically changed since the introduction of biologic therapies, such as tumour necrosis factor alpha inhibitors (anti-TNFα). They, therefore, represent a widely used therapeutic modality. Nevertheless, post-marketing studies reveal an increased risk of infection in patients taking these drugs, especially granulomatous infections such as listeriosis. We aimed to evaluate the reported cases of listeriosis in patients treated with biologic treatments. We used the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Adverse Event Reporting System (AERS) from 2004 to 2011. We also perform a literature review of previously reported cases of listeriosis in patients taking biologic therapies. We identified 266 cases of Listeria monocytogenes infection associated with biologic therapies. The majority of patients were receiving infliximab (77.1 %), followed by etanercept (11.7 %), adalimumab (9.8 %), rituximab (4.1 %), abatacept (0.4 %) and golimumab (0.4 %). Indications for the use of biologics were as follows: 47.7 % for rheumatologic diseases, 38 % for inflammatory bowel diseases, 3.4 % for haematological diseases and 10.5 % for other indications. Seventy-three percent of the patients were receiving concomitant immunosuppressant drugs, especially steroids (56 %) and methotrexate (31.6 %). The median time to the onset of infection was 184 days. Mortality rates range from 11.1 % in adalimumab-treated patients to 27.3 % in rituximab-treated patients (p = 0.7). Listeriosis is common in biologics-treated patients, especially related to infliximab use given concomitantly with other immunosuppressive therapies. Infections after treatment with biologics mostly occurred in the first year after initiating treatment.

  10. Ototoxicity in children receiving cisplatin chemotherapy

    Hee Jin Jang


    Full Text Available Purpose : Cisplatin is highly effective for the treatment of solid tumors in children. However, the clinical use of cisplatin is limited by its ototoxicity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ototoxicity in children treated with cisplatin. Methods : We performed a single institution retrospective analysis of pediatric oncology patients who received cisplatin therapy between January 2001 and January 2008. Thirty-seven patients with sufficient medical and audiologic data were included in this study. Results : The median age at the time of diagnosis was 10.7 (range 3.8&#8211;16.7 years. There were 16 males and 21 females. The underlying diseases were osteosarcoma (15 cases, medulloblastoma (14 cases, germ cell tumors (7 cases, and hepatoblastoma (1 case. The median individual dose was 100 mg/m2/cycle (56-200. The median cumulative dose was 480 mg/m2 (200-1,490. Sixteen patients (43% received cranial radiotherapy. Of the 37 patients, 17 developed hearing loss, leading to an overall incidence of 46%. Logistic regression showed that age at treatment (P=0.04 and cumulative dose of cisplatin (P=0.005 were the significant risk factors in predicting hearing loss in children treated with cisplatin. In all the patients who had hearing loss, there was neither improvement nor aggravation during the follow-up (3&#8211;68 months. Conclusion : The cumulative dose of cisplatin (&gt;500 mg/m2 and younger age at treatment (&lt;12 years were 2 most important risk factors for ototoxicity in patients treated with cisplatin. Serial audiometric evaluations are needed in the patients with risk factors during and after cisplatin treatment.

  11. Phase Noise Tolerant QPSK Receiver Using Phase Sensitive Wavelength Conversion

    Da Ros, Francesco; Xu, Jing; Lei, Lei


    A novel QPSK receiver based on a phase noise reduction pre-stage exploiting PSA in a HNLF and balanced detection is presented. Receiver sensitivity improvement over a conventional balanced receiver is demonstrated.......A novel QPSK receiver based on a phase noise reduction pre-stage exploiting PSA in a HNLF and balanced detection is presented. Receiver sensitivity improvement over a conventional balanced receiver is demonstrated....

  12. Reduced Incidence of Slowly Progressive Heymann Nephritis in Rats Immunized With a Modified Vaccination Technique

    Arpad Z. Barabas


    Full Text Available A slowly progressive Heymann nephritis (SPHN was induced in three groups of rats by weekly injections of a chemically modified renal tubular antigen in an aqueous medium. A control group of rats received the chemically unmodified version of the antigen in an aqueous solution. One group of SPHN rats were pre- and post-treated with weekly injections of IC made up of rKF3 and rarKF3 IgM antibody at antigen excess (MIC (immune complexes [ICs] containing sonicated ultracentrifuged [u/c] rat kidney fraction 3 [rKF3] antigen and IgM antibodies specific against the antigen, at slight antigen excess. One group of SPHN rats were post-treated with MIC 3 weeks after the induction of the disease and one group of SPHN animals received no treatment. The control group of rats received pre- and post-treatment with sonicated u/c rKF3.

  13. Embryolethality of butyl benzyl phthalate in rats

    Ema, N.; Itami, T.; Kawasaki, H. (National Inst. Hyg. Science, Osaka (Japan))


    The developmental toxicity of butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP) was studied in Wistar rats. Pregnant rats were given BBP at a dosage of 0, 0.25, 0.5, 1.0 or 2.0% in the diet from day 0 to day 20 of pregnancy. Morphological examinations of the fetuses revealed no evidence of teratogenesis. In the 2.0% group, all dams exhibited complete resorption of all the implanted embryos, and their food consumption, body weight gain and adjusted weight gain during pregnancy were markedly lowered. To determine whether the embryolethality was the result of reduced food consumption during pregnancy, a pair-feeding study was performed in which the pregnant rats received the same amount of diet consumed by the 2.0% BBP-treated pregnant rats. The pair-fed and 2.0 % BBP-treated pregnant rats showed significant and comparable reductions in the adjusted weight gain. The number of live fetuses was lowered in the pair-fed group. However, the complete resorption of all the implanted embryos was not found in any of the pair-fed pregnant rats. The data suggest that the embryolethality observed in the 2.0 % BBP-treated pregnant rats is attributable to the effects o dietary BBP.

  14. Essential fatty acid supplemented diet increases renal excretion of prostaglandin E and water in essential fatty acid deficient rats

    Hansen, Harald S.


    Weanling male rats were fed an essential fatty acid (EFA)-deficient diet for 25 weeks and then switched to an EFA-supplemented diet for 3 weeks. Control rats received the EFA-supplemented diet for 25 weeks and then the EFA-deficient diet for 3 weeks. Throughout the last 19 weeks, the rats were...

  15. Control of glomerular hypertension by insulin administration in diabetic rats.

    Scholey, J W; Meyer, T W


    Micropuncture studies were performed in Munich Wistar rats made diabetic with streptozotocin and in normal control rats. Diabetic rats received daily ultralente insulin to maintain moderate hyperglycemia (approximately 300 mg/dl). Group 1 diabetic rats studied after routine micropuncture preparation exhibited elevation of the single nephron glomerular filtration rate (SNGFR) due to increases in the glomerular transcapillary hydraulic pressure difference and glomerular plasma flow rate. In group 2 diabetic rats infusion of insulin to achieve acute blood glucose control normalized the glomerular transcapillary pressure gradient while increasing the glomerular ultrafiltration coefficient, so that SNGFR remained elevated. Persistent elevation of SNGFR despite normalization of the transcapillary pressure gradient was also observed in group 3 diabetic rats infused with insulin plus sufficient dextrose to maintain hyperglycemia. These studies indicate that glomerular capillary hypertension in diabetes is an acutely reversible consequence of insulin deficiency and not the result of renal hypertrophy. PMID:2649514

  16. Effects of neonatal peripheral tissue injury on pain-related behaviors in adult rats

    Meng-meng LI


    Full Text Available Objective To observe the effects of peripheraltissueinjury in the developmental stage of newborn rats on pain-related behaviors in adult rats. Methods SD rats 1,4,7,14,21 and 28days after birth were selected in thepresent study(4litters at each time point and 10 rats per litter.Each litter of rats was randomly divided intoinjury group(receiving subcutaneous injection of 20μl bee venomand control group(receiving subcutaneous injection of 20μl normal saline, with20 in each group, and then raised for 2 months to adulthood. The baseline pain threshold was observed by measuring spontaneous paw flinching reflex,paw withdrawal thermal latency(PWTLand paw withdrawal mechanical threshold(PWMT, then 50μl 0.4% bee venom was subcutaneously injected to each rat, and the changesinpa in reaction and pain threshold were determined. Results The baseline thermal pain threshold in adult rats receiving bee venom or normal saline at different time points after birth was similar,but baseline mechanical pain threshold in adult rats receiving bee venom at1,4,7and14 days after birth was decreased significantly compared with the adult rats receiving normal saline at corresponding time points(P0.05.Mechanical hyperalgesia was not induced in rats injected with bee venom but induced in adult ratsinjected with normal saline4-21days after birth.Injection of bee venom 21 and 28 days after birth could obviously enhance the bee venom-induced hyperalgesiain adult rats compared with control group(P<0.01. Conclusions Bee venom stimuli at different time points after birth could affect the baseline PWMT and mechanical pain hypersensitivityin adult rats but not the baseline PWTL and thermal pain hypersensitivity. The 21st day maybe a key time point of nervous system development in rats.

  17. Antidepressant-like actions of pregnancy, and progesterone in Wistar rats forced to swim.

    Molina-Hernández, M; Téllez-Alcántara, N P


    In rats, some behavioral changes occurring during pregnancy related to the presence of progesterone may be analyzed in the forced swimming task (FST), which is designed to test the antidepressant profile of drugs. The present study was aimed to analyze in pregnant rats, in rats after delivery, or in rats after receiving progesterone those behavioral changes displayed in the FST. We hypothesize that pregnancy and progesterone will produce antidepressant-like effects in rats forced to swim. Therefore, pregnant rats (14th, 17th, and 20th days), or rats after delivery (3rd, and 7th days) were tested in the FST. Ovariectomized rats receiving saline (0.9%; i.p.), clomipramine (1.25 mg/kg; i.p.), or desipramine (2.14 mg/kg; i.p.) for 28 days were also tested in the FST. In a second series of experiments, ovariectomized rats receiving vehicle or progesterone (0.5 mg/kg; or 2.0 mg/kg; sc.) were tested in the FST. Locomotion was evaluated in the open field test. Results showed that in the FST: 1) pregnancy (P swimming; 3) rats tested after delivery displayed similar behavior than control rats. A lower locomotion was observed only at the end of pregnancy. In conclusion, results suggest that during pregnancy, a reproductive process characterized by its high levels of progesterone, antidepressant-like effects can be found.

  18. Acute hepatitis C in patients receiving hemodialysis.

    Griveas, I; Germanidis, G; Visvardis, G; Morice, Y; Perelson, A S; Pawlotsky, J M; Papadopoulou, D


    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is frequent in patients with end-stage renal disease treated by chronic dialysis, with a prevalence varying from 10-65% according to the geographical data. The prevalence is significantly associated with the duration of dialysis and the number of transfused blood products[1,2] and has dramatically declined with efficient blood screening.[3] We studied patients with acute HCV infection in a dialysis unit. The diagnosis was based on both anti-HCV detection and HCV-RNA detection. Other virological tools including HCV genotype determination was also used to tailor treatment to the individual patient and determine its efficacy for a one-year follow-up period. Seventeen patients (7 male and 10 female, mean age: 63.7 +/- 11.6 SD) with acute hepatitis C were enrolled to our study. All of them were followed up for a period of one year after the diagnosis was established. Phylogenetic analysis distinguished two separate HCV subtypes 1b, which were both responsible for this acute infection (see Figure 1). These types did not differ in their behavior on the clinical situation of our patients, as confirmed by the fact that in both groups of patients, there was only one patient who presented with acute illness. Six patients of our study group, three months after the acute infection, received pegylated interferon (Peg-IFNa2a) 135 mug for a six-month period. Four of them responded very well to therapy and at the first determination HCV RNA was below the cutoff point. One of our patients with very high HCV levels (HCV RNA > 50,000,000 IU/mL), despite receiving the same therapy, did not respond well and developed cirrhosis. In conclusion, it is clear from our experience that better information is needed about the current incidence, prevalence, and risk factors for HCV infection in dialysis patients. Algorithms for the diagnosis and management of hepatitis C should be developed by academic societies. Routine screening for hepatitis C also would allow

  19. Dish stirling solar receiver combustor test program

    Bankston, C. P.; Back, L. H.


    The operational and energy transfer characteristics of the Dish Stirling Solar Receiver (DSSR) combustor/heat exchanger system was evaluated. The DSSR is designed to operate with fossil fuel augmentation utilizing a swirl combustor and cross flow heat exchanger consisting of a single row of 4 closely spaced tubes that are curved into a conical shape. The performance of the combustor/heat exchanger system without a Stirling engine was studied over a range of operating conditions and output levels using water as the working fluid. Results show that the combustor may be started under cold conditions, controlled safety, and operated at a constant air/fuel ratio (10 percent excess air) over the required range of firing rates. Furthermore, nondimensional heat transfer coefficients based on total heat transfer are plotted versus Reynolds number and compared with literature data taken for single rows of closely spaced tubes perpendicular to cross flow. The data show enhanced heat transfer for the present geometry and test conditions. Analysis of the results shows that the present system meets specified thermal requirements, thus verifying the feasibility of the DSSR combustor design for final prototype fabrication.

  20. CERN safety expert receives international award


    On 18 December 2004, the President of the Swiss Electro-technical Committee, Martin Reichle (left), presented the award to Helmut Schönbacher. Helmut Schönbacher, of the Safety Commission at CERN, has received, the "1906 Award" of the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) for his standardisation work on the influence of ionizing radiation on insulating materials. From 1986 until 2004, Schönbacher was leader of a working group on radiation composed of internationally recognised experts. It edited standards of the IEC 60544 series on the determination of the effects of ionizing radiation on electrical insulating materials. The working group also edited three IEC Technical Reports on the determination of long-term radiation ageing in polymers. This standardisation work and long-term experience from CERN on the radiation ageing of materials also contributed to research coordination programmes of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). From 1968 until 1988, Schönbacher was a member of the Rad...

  1. Social Interactions Receive Priority to Conscious Perception.

    Su, Junzhu; van Boxtel, Jeroen J A; Lu, Hongjing


    Humans are social animals, constantly engaged with other people. The importance of social thought and action is hard to overstate. However, is social information so important that it actually determines which stimuli are promoted to conscious experience and which stimuli are suppressed as invisible? To address this question, we used a binocular rivalry paradigm, in which the two eyes receive different action stimuli. In two experiments we measured the conscious percept of rival actions and found that actions engaged in social interactions are granted preferential access to visual awareness over non-interactive actions. Lastly, an attentional task that presumably engaged the mentalizing system enhanced the priority assigned to social interactions in reaching conscious perception. We also found a positive correlation between human identification of interactive activity and the promotion of socially-relevant information to visual awareness. The present findings suggest that the visual system amplifies socially-relevant sensory information and actively promotes it to consciousness, thereby facilitating inferences about social interactions.

  2. Neufeld Receives 2009 Donald L. Turcotte Award


    Jerome Neufeld has been awarded the Donald L. Turcotte Award, given annually to recent Ph.D. recipients for outstanding dissertation research that contributes directly to the field of nonlinear geophysics. Neufeld's thesis is entitled “Solidification in the fast lane: Flow-induced morphological instability in geological systems.” He was formally presented with the award at the Nonlinear Geophysics Focus Group reception during the 2009 AGU Fall Meeting, held 14-18 December in San Francisco, Calif. Jerome received his B.A.S. in engineering science from the University of Toronto in 2001, and a Ph.D. in geophysics from Yale University in 2008, under the supervision of J. S. Wettlaufer, on the impact of oceanic currents on the formation of sea ice. He is currently a fellow at the Institute of Theoretical Geophysics, University of Cambridge, working on the fluid dynamics of geophysical systems including carbon dioxide sequestration, the influence of flow on the crystal structure of mushy layers, and the evolution of icicles.

  3. Animal choruses emerge from receiver psychology

    Greenfield, Michael D.; Esquer-Garrigos, Yareli; Streiff, Réjane; Party, Virginie


    Synchrony and alternation in large animal choruses are often viewed as adaptations by which cooperating males increase their attractiveness to females or evade predators. Alternatively, these seemingly composed productions may simply emerge by default from the receiver psychology of mate choice. This second, emergent property hypothesis has been inferred from findings that females in various acoustic species ignore male calls that follow a neighbor’s by a brief interval, that males often adjust the timing of their call rhythm and reduce the incidence of ineffective, following calls, and from simulations modeling the collective outcome of male adjustments. However, the purported connection between male song timing and female preference has never been tested experimentally, and the emergent property hypothesis has remained speculative. Studying a distinctive katydid species genetically structured as isolated populations, we conducted a comparative phylogenetic analysis of the correlation between male call timing and female preference. We report that across 17 sampled populations male adjustments match the interval over which females prefer leading calls; moreover, this correlation holds after correction for phylogenetic signal. Our study is the first demonstration that male adjustments coevolved with female preferences and thereby confirms the critical link in the emergent property model of chorus evolution. PMID:27670673

  4. Patrick Janot receives the CNRS silver medal


    Patrick Janot during the award ceremony. (Photo Schwemling, Paris) On 25 November, Patrick Janot of the CERN Physics Department received the CNRS silver medal for IN2P3 (Institut national de physique nucléaire et de physique des particules). This prize, one of the most prestigious awarded by the French research centre, is given to scientists for the 'originality, quality and importance of their work, as recognised both nationally and internationally'. Patrick Janot joined the ALEPH collaboration, one of the four experiments at LEP, then under construction, in 1987. First a CERN Fellow, he went on to work for the CNRS at LAL in 1989. Together with his team, he developed innovative algorithms for the reconstruction of events. This work and others earned him the bronze CNRS medal in 1993, which is awarded to scientists for their first achievements. In 1997, he became a permanent physicist at CERN, where he continued to work for ALEPH. He was appointed LEP scientific co-ordinator for the last two years of the ac...

  5. CERN Web Pages Receive a Makeover


    Asudden allergic reaction to the colour turquoise? Never fear, from Monday 2 April you'll be able to click in the pink box at the top of the CERN users' welcome page to go to the all-new welcome page, which is simpler and better organized. CERN's new-look intranet is the first step in a complete Web-makeover being applied by the Web Public Education (WPE) group of ETT Division. The transition will be progressive, to allow users to familiarize themselves with the new pages. Until 17 April, CERN users will still get the familiar turquoise welcome page by default, with the new pages operating in parallel. From then on, the default will switch to the new pages, with the old ones being finally switched off on 25 May. Some 400 pages have received the makeover treatment. For more information about the changes to your Web, take a look at: Happy surfing!

  6. Effects of EGCG on UVB-induced p53 gene and protein expression in HaCaT keratinocytes%EGCG对中波紫外线诱导HaCaT细胞p53基因和蛋白表达的实验研究

    苏荣健; 金颂良; 骆丹; 林向飞; 闵伟; 吉玺; 徐丽贤; 朱洁


    目的:研究表没食子儿茶素没食子酸酯(EGCG)对中波紫外线(UVB)照射诱导永生化角质形成细胞株-HaCaT细胞的p53 mRNA和p53蛋白表达的影响.方法:以一定剂量UVB照射HaCaT细胞,并以200 μg/mL EGCG处理照射后的HaCaT细胞,分别用RT-PCR法和Western blot方法检测各处理条件下p53 mRNA和/或p53蛋白的表达水平.结果:30 mJ/cm2的UVB照射后HaCaT细胞的p53 mRNA和p53蛋白表达逐渐增加,4 h达到峰值,4 h后随照射剂量增加而增加,24 h后有所恢复;加入EGCG可下调UVB诱导的表达作用.结论:UVB照射对HaCaT细胞p53 mRNA和p53蛋白的诱导表达有时效性与量效性,EGCG可下调UVB照射的这种诱导作用.

  7. 表没食子儿茶素没食子酸酯通过抑制BACE1转录和翻译减少Aβ生成%EGCG Attenuates Amyloid-β Generation via Inhibiting the Transcription and Translation of BACE1

    闫玉芳; 龚锴; 马拓; 张秀芳; 公衍道


    研究表明绿茶多酚的主要成分表没食子儿茶素没食子酸酯(epigallocatechin-3-gallate,EGCG)可以改善阿尔茨海默症模型动物的认知功能障碍,但其作用机制尚不清楚.为探讨EGCG对淀粉样肽(amyloid-β peptide,Aβ)代谢的影响及作用机制,用EGCG孵育N2a/Swe细胞24 h后,利用Western blot和ELISA方法检测淀粉样前体蛋白(amyloid precurson protein,APP)及其切割产物的水平.结果显示,EGCG能够显著降低Aβ的分泌水平,而对APP的蛋白表达水平没有明显影响.此外,EGCG显著降低了β分泌酶BACE1的mRNA水平、蛋白表达水平及BACE1剪切产物sAPPβ的水平.以上结果表明,EGCG能抑制BACE1的转录和翻译,降低其对APP的酶切活性,最终减少Aβ的生成,揭示了EGCG调控Aβ代谢的一个新的作用机制.

  8. 30 CFR 57.13011 - Air receiver tanks.


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Air receiver tanks. 57.13011 Section 57.13011... Boilers § 57.13011 Air receiver tanks. Air receiver tanks shall be equipped with one or more automatic... exceeding the maximum allowable working pressure in a receiver tank by not more than 10 percent....

  9. 30 CFR 56.13011 - Air receiver tanks.


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Air receiver tanks. 56.13011 Section 56.13011... § 56.13011 Air receiver tanks. Air receiver tanks shall be equipped with one or more automatic pressure... the maximum allowable working pressure in a receiver tank by not more than 10 percent. Air...

  10. 42 CFR 435.120 - Individuals receiving SSI.


    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Individuals receiving SSI. 435.120 Section 435.120..., Blind, and Disabled § 435.120 Individuals receiving SSI. Except as allowed under § 435.121, the agency... deemed to be receiving SSI. This includes individuals who are— (a) Receiving SSI pending a final...

  11. Bone biomarkers of ovariectomised rats after leptin therapy.

    Abdel-Sater, Khaled A; Mansour, Hamdy


    Under physiological conditions, maintenance of skeletal mass is the result of a tightly coupled process of bone formation and bone resorption. Disease states, osteoporosis included, arise when this delicate balance is disrupted, such as in menopause. The aim of the present work was to study the effect of leptin supplementation on bone metabolism in ovariectomized adult female rats by measuring indices of bone biomarkers. Forty adult female albino rats were chosen as an animal model for this study and divided into the four equal groups (n=10/group): Group I (control SHAM-operated group) received a single dose of buffer solution i.p. daily for eight weeks. Group II (ovariectomy group) received a single dose of buffer solution i.p. daily for eight weeks. Group III (alendronate group): Ovariectomized rats that received alendronate 0.1 mg/kg body weight i.p. daily for eight weeks. Group IV (leptin group): Ovariectomized rats that received leptin (10 µg/kg body weight) i.p. daily for eight weeks. The obtained serum is required for determination of: Serum osteocalcin, alkaline phosphatase, calcium and phosphorous levels. The obtained data revealed that treatment with alendronate or leptin caused a significant decrease of serum osteocalcin, specific bone alkaline phosphatase and urinary deoxypyridinoline levels compared to ovariectomy group, and there was no significant difference between both drugs. Leptin prevents ovariectomy induced increases in bone turnover in rats. Leptin therapy has a significant effect in treatment of ovariectomy induced osteoporosis in rats (Tab. 1, Ref. 32).

  12. Biochemical effect of curcumin on hyperlipidemia induced in rats

    Omayma A.R.,


    Full Text Available This study was performed to investigate the effect of oral supplementation of curcumin, garlic extract and olive oil on lipid profile, nitric oxide, adiponectin, endothelin-1, blood glucose and some inflammatory markers in normal, diabetic and hyperlipidemic rats supplementing high fat and cholesterol-enriched diet. Forty female adult albino rats were divided into four equal groups of 10 rats each. Group (1: negative control received normal diet only, group (2: rats fed on normal diet and received curcumin orally, group (3: positive control received hyperlipidemic diet, group (4: rats fed on hyperlipidemic diet and received curcumin (350 mg/ 1 kg b.w. orally. The obtained results revealed that, curcumin supplementations to hyperlipidemic rats showed a significant increase in serum HDL-cholesterol, nitric oxide, adiponectin and Endothelin-1 concentrations and significantly decrease in serum total cholesterol, triacylglycerols, LDL cholesterol, Fasting blood glucose, Glycated Hemoglobin (HbA1C, high sensitive C-reactive protein and Interleukin-6 levels. These results suggest that, curcumin supplementations may have some benefits in patients suffering from dyslipidemia and diabetes.

  13. Neuroprotective Effects of Liraglutide for Stroke Model of Rats

    Kenichiro Sato


    Full Text Available The number of diabetes mellitus (DM patients is increasing, and stroke is deeply associated with DM. Recently, neuroprotective effects of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1 are reported. In this study, we explored whether liraglutide, a GLP-1 analogue exerts therapeutic effects on a rat stroke model. Wistar rats received occlusion of the middle cerebral artery for 90 min. At one hour after reperfusion, liraglutide or saline was administered intraperitoneally. Modified Bederson’s test was performed at 1 and 24 h and, subsequently, rats were euthanized for histological investigation. Peripheral blood was obtained for measurement of blood glucose level and evaluation of oxidative stress. Brain tissues were collected to evaluate the level of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF. The behavioral scores of liraglutide-treated rats were significantly better than those of control rats. Infarct volumes of liraglutide-treated rats at were reduced, compared with those of control rats. The level of derivatives of reactive oxygen metabolite was lower in liraglutide-treated rats. VEGF level of liraglutide-treated rats in the cortex, but not in the striatum significantly increased, compared to that of control rats. In conclusion, this is the first study to demonstrate neuroprotective effects of liraglutide on cerebral ischemia through anti-oxidative effects and VEGF upregulation.

  14. Turcotte Receives 2003 William Bowie Medal

    Cathles, Lawrence M.; Turcotte, Donald L.


    ``Few have contributed more to fundamental geophysics, or been better at encouraging others to contribute, than Donald L. Turcotte. Don trained as an engineer, receiving a Ph.D. in Aeronautics and Physics from the California Institute of Technology in 1958. After a year at the Naval Postgraduate School in Monterey, he joined the Cornell Graduate School of Aeronautical Engineering, rising to full professor. He established expertise on seeded combustion, magnetohydrodynamic and electrical phenomena in turbulent boundary layers, and shock waves and authored a book, Space Propulsion, and co-authored a textbook, Statistical Thermodynamics. ``In 1965 he went on sabbatical to Oxford and returned an Earth scientist. The catalyst was Ron Oxburgh. Plate tectonics was just on the horizon, and Don joined his quantitative abilities and physical intuition with Ron's skills and knowledge of geology to produce over the next decade a remarkable series of 24 papers that explored topics such as the many implications of the Earth's thermal boundary layer, ridge melting, subduction zone volcanism, and intraplate tectonics and magmatism, and established the physical bases for many of the processes operating on our planet. Shifting to the Cornell Department of Geological Sciences in 1973, Don explored virtually every aspect of physical Earth geology and became an expert on planetary remote sensing and geophysical interpretation. He published over 150 papers on thermal subsidence in sedimentary basins, two-phase hydrothermal porous media convection, lithosphere flexure, cyclic sedimentation, and stick-slip earthquakes and the lithospheres and mantles of the other planets. He worked and published with outstanding students and colleagues including Ken Torrance, Gerald Schubert, David Spence, Marc Parmentier, Bill Haxby, John Ockendon, Kevin Burke, Jud Ahern, Steve Emerman, and Charlie Angevine. In 1982 he published Geodynamics with Jerry Schubert, a book that became the primary reference in

  15. Hypocupremia in patients receiving total parenteral nutrition.

    Bozzetti, F; Inglese, M G; Terno, G; Pupa, A; Sequeira, C; Migliavacca, S


    Although hypocupremia is a well-known consequence of long-term total parenteral nutrition (TPN), its incidence as well as the duration of TPN necessary to induce it are still unsettled. The purpose of this study is to review the changes in serum copper level in 25 patients receiving TPN for a period longer than 2 wk (mean duration 6 wk) at the Istituto Nazionale Tumori of Milan and to evaluate the possible relationship of cupremia with the basic disease. Main indications for TPN included enterocutaneous fistulas (11 patients), cancer cachexia (10 patients), radiation enteropathy (two patients), and severe postoperative stricture following esophagogastric resection (two patients). Mean value of serum copper at the beginning of the study was 143 micrograms/100 ml (normal value 65-165 micrograms/100 ml), and the regression analysis showed a mean fall of 5.64 micrograms/100 ml/wk. Hypocupremia occurred in four patients (three with intestinal fistulas and one with radiation obstructive enteritis) at 5th, 6th, 9th, and 6th wk of TPN, respectively. No patient with cancer cachexia developed hypocupremia. No patient with hypocupremia had clinical evidence of a copper deficiency syndrome. We conclude that 1) hypocupremia does not occur within the first month of TPN; 2) its incidence is about 16% in patients intravenously fed for period longer than 2 wk; 3) it is more frequent in patients with enterocutaneous fistulas, whereas it never occurs in patients with cancer cachexia, and 4) it is not necessarily associated to a clinicometabolic syndrome of copper deficiency. Finally, the "nutritional" meaning of serum copper should be questioned in cancer patients since it could represent a "tumor marker."

  16. 3-Receiver Broadcast Channels with Common and Confidential Messages

    Chia, Yeow-Khiang


    Achievable secrecy rate regions for the general 3-receiver broadcast channel with one common and one confidential message sets are established. We consider two setups: (i) when the confidential message is to be sent to two of the receivers and the third receiver is an eavesdropper; and (ii) when the confidential message is to be sent to one of the receivers and the other two receivers are eavesdroppers. We show that our secrecy rate regions are optimum for some special cases.

  17. Intrasplenic transplantation of allogeneic hepatocytes prolongs survival in anhepatic rats.

    Arkadopoulos, N; Lilja, H; Suh, K S; Demetriou, A A; Rozga, J


    To examine whether hepatocytes transplanted in the spleen can function as an ectopic liver, we performed hepatocyte transplantation in rats that were rendered anhepatic. Total hepatectomy was performed by using a novel single-stage technique. Following hepatectomy, Group 1 rats (n = 16) were monitored until death to determine survival time without prior intervention. Group 2 anhepatic rats (n = 20) were sacrificed at various times to measure blood hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and transforming growth factor beta1 (TGF-beta1) levels. Group 3 (n = 16) rats received intrasplenic injection of isolated hepatocytes (2.5 x 10(7) cells/rat) followed by total hepatectomy after 3 days. Group 4 (n = 12) sham-transplanted rats received intrasplenic saline infusion, and after 3 days they were rendered anhepatic. Group 2, 3, and 4 rats were maintained on daily Cyclosporine A (10 mg/kg; intramuscularly). Group 1 anhepatic rats survived for 22.4 +/- 5.2 hours (standard deviation). The anhepatic state was associated with a progressive and statistically significant rise in blood HGF and TGF-beta1 levels. Rats that received hepatocyte transplantation before total hepatectomy had a significantly longer survival time than sham-transplanted anhepatic controls (34.1 +/- 8.5 vs. 15.5 +/- 4.8 hrs, P ammonia, prothrombin time, international normalized ratio, and TGF-beta1 levels when compared with sham-transplanted controls. In conclusion, intrasplenic transplantation of allogeneic hepatocytes prolonged survival, improved blood chemistry, and lowered blood TGF-beta1 levels in rats rendered anhepatic.

  18. Effects of intra articular tramadol on articular cartilage and synovium of rats

    Musa Kola; Sennur Uzun; Naciye Dilara Zeybek; Fatma Sarıcaoğlu; Seda Banu Akıncı; Ülkü Aypar; Esin Asan


    Objective: To investigate the effects of intra articular tramadol injection on articular cartilage and synovium in rat knee joint.Methods: After Animal Ethical Committee approval, a total of 20 Sprague-Dawley rats were used and divided into 4 groups. Each group was composed of 5 rats. 0.2 ml of tramadol HCl was injected into the right knee joints and left knee joints of all the rats were considered as control. Control side joints received saline injection. Rats were sacrificed with ketamin on...

  19. Effect of the Aged Garlic Extract on Cardiovascular Function in Metabolic Syndrome Rats.

    Pérez-Torres, Israel; Torres-Narváez, Juan Carlos; Pedraza-Chaverri, José; Rubio-Ruiz, María Esther; Díaz-Díaz, Eulises; Del Valle-Mondragón, Leonardo; Martínez-Memije, Raúl; Varela López, Elvira; Guarner-Lans, Verónica


    The antioxidant properties of aged garlic extract (AGE) on cardiovascular functioning (CF) in metabolic syndrome (MS) remains poorly studied. Here we study the AGE effects on CF in a rat model of MS. Control rats plus saline solution (C + SS), MS rats (30% sucrose in drinking water from weaning) plus saline solution (MS + SS), control rats receiving AGE (C + AGE 125 mg/Kg/12 h) and MS rats with AGE (MS + AGE) were studied. MS + SS had increased triglycerides, systolic blood pressure, insulin, leptin, HOMA index, and advanced glycation end products. AGE returned their levels to control values (p properties.

  20. Perspectives from older adults receiving cancer treatment about the cancer-related information they receive

    Margaret I Fitch


    Full Text Available Objective: Cancer patients have reported that information plays a significant role in their capacity to cope with cancer and manage the consequences of treatment. This study was undertaken to identify the importance older adults receiving cancer treatment assign to selected types of cancer-related information, their satisfaction with the cancer-related information they received, and the barriers to effective information provision for this age group. Methods: This study was conducted in two phases with separate samples. Six hundred and eighty-four older cancer patients receiving treatment completed a standardized survey and 39 completed a semi-structured interview to gather perspectives about cancer-related information. Data were analyzed for 65-79 years and 80+ year groups. Results: Information topics about their medical condition, treatment options, and side effects of treatment were rated as most important by the older cancer patients. Women assigned a higher importance ratings than men to information overall (t = 4.8, P < 0.01. Although participants were generally satisfied with the information, they received many described challenges they experienced in communicating with health care professionals because of the medical language and fast pace of speaking used by the professionals. Conclusions: The older cancer patients in this study endorsed the same topics of cancer-related information as most important as has been reported in studies for other age groups. However, this older group recommended that, during their interactions with older individuals, health care professionals use fewer medical words, speak at a slower pace, and provide written information in addition to the actual conversation.

  1. Evaluation of lipid profile and oxidative stress in STZ-induced rats treated with antioxidant vitamin

    Danielle Ayr Tavares de Almeida


    Full Text Available The present study investigated the effect of supplementation of vitamin E on streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetic rats by measuring blood glucose, changes in body weight, food and water intake, lipid profile, serum urea and creatinine level, and antioxidant enzyme activity. Male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: control rats (GI; rats receiving vitamin E (GII; STZ-induced diabetic rats (GIII and STZ-induced diabetic rats treated with vitamin E (GIV. Vitamin E reduced (p<0.05 blood glucose and urea, improved the lipid profile (decreased the serum levels of total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, VLDL cholesterol and triacylglycerols, and increased HDL cholesterol and increased total protein in STZ-induced diabetic rats (GIV. Vitamin prevented changes in the activity of SOD and GSH-Px and in the concentration of lipid hydroperoxide. These results suggested that vitamin E improved hyperglycaemia and dyslipidaemia while inhibiting the progression of oxidative stress in STZ-induced diabetic rats.

  2. [Erythropoietin as a protective factor in rat CNS cells receiving radiotherapy -an in vitro study].

    Gomez-De la Riva, Álvaro; Isla-Guerrero, Alberto; García-Grande, Antonio


    Objetivo. Investigar el efecto de la eritropoyetina en cultivos celulares de corteza cerebral de ratas cuando se administra radioterapia. Materiales y metodos. El estudio se desarrolla con la obtencion de corteza cerebral de embriones de 17 dias de preñez de ratas Wistar. Las celulas cultivadas despues de 72 horas de la extraccion de la corteza se dividieron en dos grupos, a uno de ellos se le administro eritropoyetina alfa a una concentracion de 30 pM y el otro era el grupo control. A los dos grupos de celulas se les radio con 6 Gy mediante un aparato Phoenix. Tras la radioterapia permanecieron 24 horas en la incubadora antes de fijarlas. Las celulas fueron fijadas con formaldehido al 4%. A continuacion, con la tecnica de TUNEL, se valoro el numero de celulas apoptoticas en los cultivos radiados. Resultados. Se observo un porcentaje de apoptosis del 25,22% del grupo de cultivo sin eritropoyetina, mientras que en el grupo de celulas radiadas con eritropoyetina fue del 15,5%. Las variables cuantitativas se analizaron mediante el test t de Student y el resultado de la comparacion entre los dos grupos fue estadisticamente significativo (p sistema nervioso central de ratas por radiacion. Esto abre nuevos campos para la investigacion del efecto protector del sistema nervioso.

  3. Superior Coherent Receivers for AF Relaying with Distributed Alamouti Code

    Khan, Fahd Ahmed


    Coherent receivers are derived for a pilot-symbol aided distributed Alamouti-coded system with imperfect channel state information. The derived coherent receivers do not perform channel estimation but rather use the received pilot signals for decoding. The derived receiver metrics use the statistics of the channel to give improved performance. The performance is further improved by using the decision history. Simulation results show that a performance gain of up to 1.8 dB can be achieved for the new receivers with decision history as compared with the conventional mismatched coherent receiver. © 2011 IEEE.

  4. Euthanasia of rats with two concentrations of pentobarbitone

    Bollen, Peter; Saxtorph, Henrik


    Euthanasia of laboratory animals should be quick, painless and with a minimum of distress to the animal. Methods of euthanasia are the topic of an ongoing discussion, especially with respect to the degree of pain and distress associated with different methods. A common method of euthanasia of rats...... a reduced nociception, in the spine of rats receiving a mixture of pentobarbital and lidocaine, compared to rats receiving pentobarbital alone. However, it is our experience that visible signs of pain are not always observable during euthanasia. For this reason we performed a study comparing two...... concentrations of pentobarbitone (50 mg/ml vs. 200 mg/ml) for euthanasia in rats (n=12). The time point of loss of balance, immobility and respiratory stop were registered, and the behaviour was assessed from video recordings of the procedure. Our study revealed no differences between the two concentrations...

  5. Euthanasia of rats with two concentrations of pentobarbitone

    Bollen, Peter; Saxtorph, Henrik


    Euthanasia of laboratory animals should be quick, painless and with a minimum of distress to the animal. Methods of euthanasia are the topic of an ongoing discussion, especially with respect to the degree of pain and distress associated with different methods. A common method of euthanasia of rats...... a reduced nociception, in the spine of rats receiving a mixture of pentobarbital and lidocaine, compared to rats receiving pentobarbital alone. However, it is our experience that visible signs of pain are not always observable during euthanasia. For this reason we performed a study comparing two...... concentrations of pentobarbitone (50 mg/ml vs. 200 mg/ml) for euthanasia in rats (n=12). The time point of loss of balance, immobility and respiratory stop were registered, and the behaviour was assessed from video recordings of the procedure. Our study revealed no differences between the two concentrations...

  6. Effect of Verapamil on Serum Level of Salinomycin in Diabetic Rats

    Hossein Najafzadeh


    Full Text Available Problem statement: The aim of present study was evaluation function of P-glycoprotein with or without verapamil in normal and diabetic rats; which the function of P-glycoprotein was indirectly evaluated by detection of serum slainomycin concentration with HPLC method. Approach: This study was carried in 4 groups of rats including normal rats which received salinomycin and verapamil together salinomycin; and diabetic rats which received salinomycin and verapamil together salinomycin. Serum concentration of salinomycin was measured by HPLC after 3 h from its administration. Results: Results show the serum concentration of salinomycin significantly elevated in diabetic rats which received verapamil together salinomycin; while this concentration did not significantly change in other groups. Conclusion: Since the p-glycoprotein activity decreases in diabetic conditions and verapamil inhibits it; probably transport of salinomycin from blood to tissues or its elimination was decreased that caused its elevated serum concentration.

  7. Evaluation of Buprenorphine in a Postoperative Pain Model in Rats

    Curtin, Leslie I; Grakowsky, Julie A.; Suarez, Mauricio; Thompson, Alexis C; DiPirro, Jean M.; Martin, Lisa BE; Kristal, Mark B.


    We evaluated the commonly prescribed analgesic buprenorphine in a postoperative pain model in rats, assessing acute postoperative pain relief, rebound hyperalgesia, and the long-term effects of postoperative opioid treatment on subsequent opioid exposure. Rats received surgery (paw incision under isoflurane anesthesia), sham surgery (anesthesia only), or neither and were treated postoperatively with 1 of several doses of subcutaneous buprenorphine. Pain sensitivity to noxious and nonnoxious m...

  8. Diabetes mellitus in HIV-infected patients receiving antiretroviral ...

    the incidence of diabetes in HIV-infected adults receiving ART is between ... 6 Department of Pediatrics, Division of Infectious Diseases, The Children's Hospital of ... of HIV and DM in patients receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Botswana.

  9. Active Versus Passive: Receiver Model Transforms for Diffusive Molecular Communication

    Noel, Adam; Makrakis, Dimitrios; Hafid, Abdelhakim


    This paper presents an analytical comparison of the active and passive receiver models in diffusive molecular communication. In the active model, molecules are absorbed when they collide with the receiver surface. In the passive model, the receiver is a virtual boundary that does not affect molecule behavior. Two approaches are presented to derive transforms between the active and passive receiver signals. As an example, we unify the two models for an unbounded diffusion-only molecular communication system with a spherical receiver. As time increases in the three-dimensional system, the transform functions have constant scaling factors, such that the receiver models are effectively equivalent. Methods are presented to enable the transformation of stochastic simulations, which are used to verify the transforms and demonstrate that transforming the simulation of a passive receiver can be more efficient and more accurate than the direct simulation of an absorbing receiver.

  10. Noise and intercept point calculation for modern radio receiver planning

    Iversen, Christian Rye; Kolding, T. E.


    The paper presents analytical expressions for determining noise and intercept points for cascaded radio receiver stages. The theory allows for active receiver stages with frequency selectivity and flexible impedance levels. This makes the method highly usable for planning of modem receivers where...... baseband stages significantly influence the overall performance. A simple homodyne receiver example is used to demonstrate the scope of applicability and to exemplify the proposed theory....

  11. Rectal dexmedetomidine in rats: evaluation of sedative and mucosal effects

    Volkan Hanci


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: In this study, we investigated the anesthetic and mucosal effects of the rectal application of dexmedetomidine to rats. METHODS: Male Wistar albino rats weighing 250-300 g were divided into four groups: Group S (n = 8 was a sham group that served as a baseline for the normal basal values; Group C (n = 8 consisted of rats that received the rectal application of saline alone; Group IPDex (n = 8 included rats that received the intraperitoneal application of dexmedetomidine (100 µg kg-1; and Group RecDex (n = 8 included rats that received the rectal application of dexmedetomidine (100 µg kg-1. For the rectal drug administration, we used 22 G intravenous cannulas with the stylets removed. We administered the drugs by advancing the cannula 1 cm into the rectum, and the rectal administration volume was 1 mL for all the rats. The latency and anesthesia time (min were measured. Two hours after rectal administration, 75 mg kg-1 ketamine was administered for intraperitoneal anesthesia in all the groups, followed by the removal of the rats' rectums to a distal distance of 3 cm via an abdominoperineal surgical procedure. We histopathologically examined and scored the rectums. RESULTS: Anesthesia was achieved in all the rats in the Group RecDex following the administration of dexmedetomidine. The onset of anesthesia in the Group RecDex was significantly later and of a shorter duration than in the Group IPDEx (p < 0.05. In the Group RecDex, the administration of dexmedetomidine induced mild-moderate losses of mucosal architecture in the colon and rectum, 2 h after rectal inoculation. CONCLUSION: Although 100 µg kg-1 dexmedetomidine administered rectally to rats achieved a significantly longer duration of anesthesia compared with the rectal administration of saline, our histopathological evaluations showed that the rectal administration of 100 µg kg-1 dexmedetomidine led to mild-moderate damage to the mucosal structure of the

  12. Merit of Ginseng in the Treatment of Heart Failure in Type 1-Like Diabetic Rats

    Cheng-Chia Tsai


    Full Text Available The present study investigated the merit of ginseng in the improvement of heart failure in diabetic rats and the role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors δ (PPARδ. We used streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat (STZ-rat to screen the effects of ginseng on cardiac performance and PPARδ expression. Changes of body weight, water intake, and food intake were compared in three groups of age-matched rats; the normal control (Wistar rats received vehicle, STZ-rats received vehicle and ginseng-treated STZ-rats. We also determined cardiac performances in addition to blood glucose level in these animals. The protein levels of PPARδ in hearts were identified using Western blotting analysis. In STZ-rats, cardiac performances were decreased but the food intake, water intake, and blood glucose were higher than the vehicle-treated control. After a 7-day treatment of ginseng in STZ-rats, cardiac output was markedly enhanced without changes in diabetic parameters. This treatment with ginseng also increased the PPARδ expression in hearts of STZ-rats. The related signal of cardiac contractility, troponin I phosphorylation, was also raised. Ginseng-induced increasing of cardiac output was reversed by the cotreatment with PPARδ antagonist GSK0660. Thus, we suggest that ginseng could improve heart failure through the increased PPARδ expression in STZ-rats.

  13. 49 CFR 236.555 - Repaired or rewound receiver coil.


    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Repaired or rewound receiver coil. 236.555 Section 236.555 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD... or rewound receiver coil. Receiver coil which has been repaired or rewound shall have the...

  14. 5 CFR 551.425 - Time spent receiving medical attention.


    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Time spent receiving medical attention... Relation to Other Activities § 551.425 Time spent receiving medical attention. (a) Time spent waiting for and receiving medical attention for illness or injury shall be considered hours of work if: (1)...

  15. Sideband ratio in double sideband receivers with a Michelson interferometer

    Romanini, M.; Baryshev, A. M.; Hesper, R.; Mena, F. P.; Wild, W.


    Terahertz heterodyne receivers typically use double sideband (DSB) mixers. The precise knowledge of the receiver sideband ratio (SBR) is a fundamental requirement for the calibration of the data taken with this type of receivers. At the moment the spectroscopic techniques developed for submillimeter

  16. Processing In A GPS Receiver To Reduce Multipath Errors

    Meehan, Thomas K.


    Four techniques of ancillary real-time digital processing of signals in Global Positioning System, GPS, receiver introduced reducing effects of multipath propagation of signals on position estimates produced by receiver. Multipath range errors halved. Applied in addition to other signal-processing techniques and to other techniques designing as receiving antenna to make it insensitive to reflections of GPS signals from nearby objects.

  17. Noise and intercept point calculation for modern radio receiver planning

    Iversen, Christian Rye; Kolding, T. E.


    The paper presents analytical expressions for determining noise and intercept points for cascaded radio receiver stages. The theory allows for active receiver stages with frequency selectivity and flexible impedance levels. This makes the method highly usable for planning of modem receivers where...

  18. A Novel Multi-Receiver Signcryption Scheme with Complete Anonymity.

    Pang, Liaojun; Yan, Xuxia; Zhao, Huiyang; Hu, Yufei; Li, Huixian


    Anonymity, which is more and more important to multi-receiver schemes, has been taken into consideration by many researchers recently. To protect the receiver anonymity, in 2010, the first multi-receiver scheme based on the Lagrange interpolating polynomial was proposed. To ensure the sender's anonymity, the concept of the ring signature was proposed in 2005, but afterwards, this scheme was proven to has some weakness and at the same time, a completely anonymous multi-receiver signcryption scheme is proposed. In this completely anonymous scheme, the sender anonymity is achieved by improving the ring signature, and the receiver anonymity is achieved by also using the Lagrange interpolating polynomial. Unfortunately, the Lagrange interpolation method was proven a failure to protect the anonymity of receivers, because each authorized receiver could judge whether anyone else is authorized or not. Therefore, the completely anonymous multi-receiver signcryption mentioned above can only protect the sender anonymity. In this paper, we propose a new completely anonymous multi-receiver signcryption scheme with a new polynomial technology used to replace the Lagrange interpolating polynomial, which can mix the identity information of receivers to save it as a ciphertext element and prevent the authorized receivers from verifying others. With the receiver anonymity, the proposed scheme also owns the anonymity of the sender at the same time. Meanwhile, the decryption fairness and public verification are also provided.

  19. A Bluetooth-enabled HiperLan/2 Receiver

    Schiphorst, Roelof; Hoeksema, F.W.; Slump, Cornelis H.


    In our SDR project we aim to combine a GFSK receiver (Bluetooth) with an OFDM receiver (HiperLAN/2). Other WLAN standards use the same frequency bands and modulation techniques. So our Bluetooth-enabled HiperLAN/2 receiver can easily be adapted to other WLAN standards. This paper focuses on the

  20. A Bluetooth-enabled HiperLAN/2 receiver

    Schiphorst, Roelof; Hoeksema, F.W.; Slump, Cornelis H.


    n our SDR project we aim to combine a GFSK receiver (Bluetooth) with an OFDM receiver (HiperLAN/2). Other WLAN standards use the same frequency bands and modulation techniques. So our Bluetooth-enabled HiperLAN/2 receiver can easily be adapted to other WLAN standards. This paper focuses on the

  1. 47 CFR 80.290 - Auxiliary receiving antenna.


    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Auxiliary receiving antenna. 80.290 Section 80... antenna. An auxiliary receiving antenna must be provided when necessary to avoid unauthorized interruption or reduced efficiency of the required watch because the normal receiving antenna is not...

  2. A Bluetooth-enabled HiperLan/2 Receiver

    Schiphorst, R.; Hoeksema, F.W.; Slump, C.H.


    In our SDR project we aim to combine a GFSK receiver (Bluetooth) with an OFDM receiver (HiperLAN/2). Other WLAN standards use the same frequency bands and modulation techniques. So our Bluetooth-enabled HiperLAN/2 receiver can easily be adapted to other WLAN standards. This paper focuses on the inte

  3. A Bluetooth-enabled HiperLAN/2 receiver

    Schiphorst, R.; Hoeksema, F.W.; Slump, C.H.


    n our SDR project we aim to combine a GFSK receiver (Bluetooth) with an OFDM receiver (HiperLAN/2). Other WLAN standards use the same frequency bands and modulation techniques. So our Bluetooth-enabled HiperLAN/2 receiver can easily be adapted to other WLAN standards. This paper focuses on the integ

  4. Solar Central Receiver Hybrid Power Systems sodium-cooled receiver concept. Final report. Volume III. Appendices



    The overall, long term objective of the Solar Central Receiver Hybrid Power System is to identify, characterize, and ultimately demonstrate the viability and cost effectiveness of solar/fossil, steam Rankine cycle, hybrid power systems that: (1) consist of a combined solar central receiver energy source and a nonsolar energy source at a single, common site, (2) may operate in the base, intermediate, and peaking capacity modes, (3) produce the rated output independent of variations in solar insolation, (4) provide a significant savings (50% or more) in fuel consumpton, and (5) produce power at the minimum possible cost in mills/kWh. It is essential that these hybrid concepts be technically feasible and economically competitive with other systems in the near to mid-term time period (1985-1990) on a commercial scale. The program objective for Phase I is to identify and conceptually characterize solar/fossil steam Rankine cycle, commercial-scale, power plant systems that are economically viable and technically feasible. This volume contains appendices to the conceptual design and systems analysis studies gien in Volume II, Books 1 and 2. (WHK)

  5. Malnutrition during brain growth spurt alters the effect of fluoxetine on aggressive behavior in adult rats.

    Barreto-Medeiros, J M; Feitoza, E G; Magalhaes, K; Cabral-Filho, J E; Manhaes-De-Castro, F M; De-Castro, C M; Manhaes-De-Castro, R


    Malnutrition effect during the suckling period on aggressive behavior was investigated in adult rats treated and not treated with fluoxetine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor. Sixty-four Wistar male rats were allocated in two groups, according to their mothers' diet during lactation. The well-nourished group was fed by mothers receiving a 23% protein diet; the malnourished one by mothers receiving a 8% protein diet. Following weaning, all rats received the 23% protein diet. On the 90th day after birth, each nutritional group was divided into two subgroups, one receiving a single daily injection of fluoxetine (10 mg/kg) and the other of a saline solution (0.9% NaCl) for 14 days. Treatment with Fluoxetine reduced aggressive response in well-nourished but not in malnourished rats. These findings suggest that the serotoninergic system was affected by malnutrition during the critical period of brain development, and persisted even after a long period of nutritional recovery.


    Shirane, Henrique Yassuhiro; Oda, Diogo Yochizumi; Pinheiro, Thiago Cerizza; Cunha, Marcelo Rodrigues da


    To evaluate the importance of collagen and hydroxyapatite in the regeneration of fractures experimentally induced in the fibulas of rats. Method: 15 rats were used. These were subjected to surgery to remove a fragment from the fibula. This site then received a graft consisting of a silicone tubes filled with hydroxyapatite and collagen. Results: Little bone neoformation occurred inside the tubes filled with the biomaterials. There was more neoformation in the tubes with collagen. Conclusion: The biomaterials used demonstrated biocompatibility and osteoconductive capacity that was capable of stimulating osteogenesis, even in bones with secondary mechanical and morphological functions such as the fibula of rats. PMID:27047813

  7. Differences in urinary monochlorobenzene metabolites between rats and humans.



    Full Text Available Differences in urinary excretion of monochlorobenzene between rats and humans were studied. Monochlorobenzene was administered to rats and humans intraperitoneally, orally or by inhalation. Urinary p-chlorophenylmercapturic acid and 4-chlorocatechol, after hydrolysis of its conjugate, were measured. The excretion of p-chlorophenylmercapturic acid was somewhat more than that of 4-chlorocatechol in rats which were administered monochlorobenzene orally or intraperitoneally. The excretion of p-chlorophenylmercapturic acid was markedly less than that of 4-chlorocatechol in humans who received monochlorobenzene orally or by inhalation. The results indicate that the 4-chlorocatechol conjugate is a suitable index of metabolites in the urine of workers exposed to monochlorobenzene.

  8. The Jejunoileal Bypass Provokes Morphological Changes In The Large Intestine? An Experimental Study In Rats [a Derivação Jejuno-ileal Provoca Alterações Morfológicas No Intestino Grosso? Estudo Experimental Em Ratos

    Maria Cristina Costa Resck; Norair Salviano dos Reis; Denismar Alves Nogueira; Marina Rachel Araujo; Luiz Roberto Lopes; Nelson Adami Andreollo


    PURPOSE: To analyse histopathological alterations characterized by the mitotic index in the mucosa of the large intestine in Wistar rats submitted to jejunoileal bypass operation after continued administration of sodium nitrite and vitamin C to different groups. METHODS: Eighty male Wistar rats were employed and separated into 12 groups. In the control group (20 rats): five animals ingested only water; five animals received vitamin C; five animals received sodium nitrite and five received sod...

  9. Inhibition of Proliferation and Induction of Apoptosis In Human Gastric Cancer SGC-7901 Cell Line by Epigallo Catechingallate(EGCG)%表没食子儿茶素没食子酸酯抑制人胃癌细胞增殖和诱导凋亡作用的研究



    目的:研究表没食子儿茶素没食子酸酯(EGCG)对体外培养人胃癌细胞系SGC-7901增殖抑制作用,并初步探讨其诱导SGC-7901细胞凋亡的分子机制.方法:采用平皿克隆形成实验法测定不同剂量EGCG对SGC-7901细胞锚定依赖性生长能力的影响;Wester Blot法检测不同剂量EGCG处理人胃癌细胞(SGC-7901)48 h前后NF-κB(p65)、Bcl-2、Bax和Caspase-3蛋白表达变化情况.结果:平皿克隆形成实验法显示:EGCG可抑制人胃癌细胞SGC-7901生长,且呈剂量依赖性,其对SGC-7901细胞IC50值为63.5 μg/mL;Wester Blot显示随着药物浓度升高,EGCG可以逐渐下调NF-κB和Bcl-2的蛋白表达,上调Bax、Caspase-3蛋白表达.结论:EGCG具有诱导人胃癌SGC-7901细胞凋亡的作用,其机制可能与抑制核转录因子NF-B活化,导致Bax/Bcl-2比值的上调,促进Caspase-3的活化有关.

  10. Serum Thyroid Hormone Levels in Epileptic Children Receiving Anticonvulsive Drugs

    Abolfazl MAHYAR


    . 1995;49(4:227-9.5. Eris Pural J, Delrio-Garma M, Delrio - Castro – GagoM. Long Term treatment of children with epilepsy withvalprovats or carbamazepin, may cause subclinicalhypothyroidism. Epilepsia 1999;40(12:1961.6. Isojärvi JIT, Turkka J, Pakarinen AJ, Kotila M,Rättyä J, Myllylä VV. Thyroid function in men takingcarbamazepine, oxcarbazepine, or valproate for epilepsy.Epilepsia 2001;42(7:930-4.7. Vainionpää LK, Mikkonen K, Rättyä J, Knip M,Pakarinen AJ, Myllylä VV, et al. Thyroid function ingirls with epilepsy with carbamazepine, oxcarbazepine,or valproate monotherapy and after withdrawal ofmedication. Epilepsia 2004;45(3:197-203.8. Verrotti A, Basciani F, Morresi S, Morgese G, ChiarelliF. Thyroid hormones in epileptic children receivingcarbamazepine and valproic acid. Pediatric neurology2001;25(1:43-6.9. Kantrowitz L, Peterson M, Trepanier L, Melian C,Nichols R. Serum total thyroxine, total triiodothyronine,free thyroxine, and thyrotropin concentrations in epilepticdogs treated with anticonvulsants. Journal of the AmericanVeterinary Medical Association 1999;214(12:1804.10. Schröder-van der Elst J, Van der Heide D, Van der BentC, Kaptein E, Visser T, DiStefano J. Effects of 5, 5 -diphenylhydantoin on the thyroid status in rats. Europeanjournal of endocrinology 1996;134(2:221.11. Schonberger W, Grimm W, Schonberger G, SinterhaufK, Scheidt E, Ziegler R. [The influence of primidone onthyroid function (author’s transl]. Dtsch Med Wochenschr1979;104(25:915-7.12. Tiihonen M, Liewendahl K, Waltimo O, Ojala M,Valimaki M. Thyroid status of patients receiving longtermanticonvulsant therapy assessed by peripheralparameters: a placebo-controlled thyroxine therapy trial.Epilepsia 1995;36(11:1118-25.13. Benedetti MS, Whomsley R, Baltes E, Tonner F. Alterationof thyroid hormone homeostasis by antiepileptic drugsin humans: involvement of glucuronosyltransferaseinduction. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 2005;61(12:863-72.

  11. Effect of Topical Application of Silymarin (Silybum marianum) on Excision Wound Healing in Albino Rats

    Naghmeh Ghannadian; Mahboobeh Mehrabani Natanzi; Maliheh Paknejad; Seyed Mohammad Tavangar; Ahmad Reza Dehpour; Mohammad Kamalinejad; Hossein Rastegar (PhD); Roya Sharifi; Minoo Akbari; Parvin Pasalar


    Silymarin, an extract from Silybum marianum, has been shown to have antioxidant properties. However, there is no scientific report on wound healing activity of the silymarin. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of topical administration of silymarin on excision wound healing in rats. Excision wounds were made on the back of rats. Rats were divided into three groups, as control, vehicle, and treatment. Vehicle and treatment groups received polyethylene glycol and silymarin dis...

  12. Antihyperglycemic and Antihyperlipidemic Activity of Plectranthus Amboinicus on Normal and Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats

    Viswanathaswamy, A.H.M.; Koti, B. C.; Aparna Gore; Thippeswamy, A. H. M.; Kulkarni, R. V.


    The present study was undertaken to investigate the antihyperglycemic and antihyperlipidemic effects of ethanol extract of Plectranthus amboinicus in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced in Wistar rats by single intraperitoneal administration of alloxan monohydrate (150 mg/kg). Normal as well as diabetic rats were divided into groups (n=6) receiving different treatments. Graded doses (200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg) of ethanol extract of Plectranthus amboinicus were studied...

  13. Freshly isolated hepatocyte transplantation in acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity model in rats

    Daniela Rodrigues; Themis Reverbel Da Silveira; Ursula Matte


    CONTEXT: Hepatocyte transplantation is an attractive therapeutic modality for liver disease as an alternative for orthotopic liver transplantation. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the current study was to investigate the feasibility of freshly isolated rat hepatocyte transplantation in acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity model. METHODS: Hepatocytes were isolated from male Wistar rats and transplanted 24 hours after acetaminophen administration in female recipients. Female rats received either 1x10(7) ...

  14. Reproductive condition and the low-dose endotoxin-induced inflammatory response in rats. Glomerular influx of inflammatory cells and expression of adhesion molecules

    Faas, MM; Bakker, WW; Valkhof, N; vanderHorst, MCL; Schuiling, GA


    These experiments were designed to study the increased sensitivity of pregnant rats to endotoxin. Pregnant (Pr), cyclic (C), and progesterone (P)-treated pseudopregnant rats with or without a decidualized uterus (PSP and DEC rats, respectively) received infusions of an ultra-low dose of endotoxin (1

  15. Reproductive condition and the low-dose endotoxin-induced inflammatory response in rats. Glomerular influx of inflammatory cells and expression of adhesion molecules

    Faas, MM; Bakker, WW; Valkhof, N; vanderHorst, MCL; Schuiling, GA


    These experiments were designed to study the increased sensitivity of pregnant rats to endotoxin. Pregnant (Pr), cyclic (C), and progesterone (P)-treated pseudopregnant rats with or without a decidualized uterus (PSP and DEC rats, respectively) received infusions of an ultra-low dose of endotoxin (1

  16. Hybrid lidar radar receiver for underwater imaging applications

    Seetamraju, Madhavi; Gurjar, Rajan; Squillante, Michael; Derderian, Jeffrey P.


    In this work, we present research performed to improve the receiver characteristics for underwater imaging applications using the hybrid lidar-radar detection technique. We report the development of the next-generation coherent heterodyne receiver using modulation of the optical receiver's amplifier gain. Significant advantages in the receiver specifications are achieved using a large-area, high gain, low-noise silicon avalanche photodiode (APD) as the photodetector cum frequency mixer-demodulator. We demonstrate that heterodyne detection by gain modulation of APD can be used to increase the signal-to-noise ratio, detection sensitivity and bandwidth for the hybrid receiver system.

  17. Moments Of Microdiversity EGC Receivers And Macrodiversity SC Receiver Output Signal Over Gamma Shadowed Nakagami-m Multipath Fading Channel

    Djordjević, Nebojša; Jaksić, Branimir S.; Matović, Ana; Matović, Marija; Smilić, Marko


    A system with macrodiversity selection combining (SC) receiver and for microdiversity equal gain combining (EGC) receivers is considered. Received signal is subjected, simultaneously to multipath fading and shadowing, resulting in signal envelope and signal power variation. Closed form expressions for moments of macrodiversity SC receiver output signal envelope are calculated. Numerical expressions are plotted to present the influences of Gamma shadowing severity and Nakagami-m severity on moments of proposed system output signal.

  18. Strong static-magnetic field alters operant responding by rats

    Nakagawa, M.; Matsuda, Y.


    Forty male rats of the Wistar ST strain were trained and observed for Sidman avoidance (SA) for 7 weeks or for discriminative avoidance (DA) for 14 weeks to determine the effects of exposure to a strong static-magnetic field. Before avoidance conditioning was completed, rats in the SA group were exposed to the static field at 0.6 T, 16 h/day for 4 days during the fifth week, and those in the DA group were exposed for 6 h/day for 4 days during the seventh week. In the SA conditioning, frequency of lever-pressing by exposed rats gradually decreased during 1 week of exposure and stayed low for at least 2 weeks after exposure. Frequencies of electric shocks received by the rats increased dramatically during the second day of exposure and consistently stayed higher than those of control rats. In the DA condition, exposed rats responded at lower rates than did control rats throughout the observation period. They received more shocks during the 2 weeks following exposure. The data indicate that performance of avoidance responses was inhibited by a comparatively long exposure to a strong magnetic field.

  19. Pathophysiology of chronic nitric oxide synthase inhibition-induced fetal growth restriction in the rat

    Neerhof, M.G.; Synowiec, S.; Khan, S.; Thaete, L.G.


    Objective. To evaluate the pathophysiology of chronic nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibition-induced fetal growth restriction (FGR) in the rat. Methods. Timed-pregnant rats received L-NAME (2.5 mg/kg/h) with or without endothelin (ET-1) receptor A (ETA) antagonist from day 14 to 21 of gestation. In

  20. Mesenchymal stem cell infusion on skin wound healing of dexamethasone immunosuppressed wistar rats

    Betânia Souza Monteiro

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: To evaluate the therapeutic contribution of MSC intravenous infusion to surgical wound healing in dexamethasone-immunosuppressed rats, thirty-five rats were randomly divided into 2 groups: in the Control Group (CG, five rats received normal saline as 0.2ml subcutaneous (SC injections every 24 hours, for 30 consecutive days and, in the Dexamethasone Group (DG, 30 rats were given 0.2mL subcutaneous dexamethasone (0.1mg kg-1 every 24 hours, for 30 consecutive days. After 30 days, all rats underwent surgery to create an experimental skin wound. The 30 animals of the DG group were divided into two equal groups, which received different treatments: the dexamethasone group (DG received a single application of 0.5ml normal saline, via the intravenous route (IV, 48 hours after wound creation; and the Mesenchymal Stem Cells Dexamethasone group (MSCDG received MSC transplantation at a concentration of 9x106 cells in a single IV application, 48 hours after wound creation. The surgical wounds of CG rats closed on average 14.75 days after creation and DG rats had wounds closed within 22 days; whereas, the surgical wounds of MSCDG rats were closed in 14 days. MSC infusion in dexamethasone-immunosuppressed patients contributed positively to epithelial healing in less time.

  1. Three-Receiver Broadcast Channels with Side Information

    Hajizadeh, Saeed


    Three-receiver broadcast channel (BC) is of interest due to its information theoretical differences with two receiver one. In this paper, we derive achievable rate regions for two classes of 3-receiver BC with side information available at the transmitter, Multilevel BC and 3-receiver less noisy BC, by using superposition coding, Gel'fand-Pinsker binning scheme and Nair-El Gamal indirect decoding. Our rate region for multilevel BC subsumes the Steinberg rate region for 2-receiver degraded BC with side information as its special case. We also find the capacity region of 3-receiver less noisy BC when side information is available both at the transmitter and at the receivers.

  2. Prenatal Caffeine Exposure Impairs Pregnancy in Rats

    Maryam Yadegari


    Full Text Available Background: In recent years, concerns have been raised about human reproductive disorders. Caffeine consumption is increasing by the world’s population and there is a relationship between caffeine intake and adverse reproductive outcomes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of caffeine on implantation sites, number of live births, birth weight, crown-rump length (CRL and abnormality in pregnant rats. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 40 female albino rats (170-190 g were randomly divided into two experimental and two control groups (n=10/each group. In both experimental groups, animals received caffeine intraperitoneally (IP: 150 mg/kg/day on days 1-5 of pregnancy. In experimental group 1, treated animals were euthanized on day 7of pregnancy and the number of implantation sites was counted. In experimental group 2, treated animals maintained pregnant and after delivery, the number of live births, birth weight, CRL and abnormality of neonates were investigated. In control group, animals received IP injections of distilled water. Data were analyzed by independent t test. Results: Results showed that administration of caffeine significantly decreased the number of implantation sites, number of live births and CRL as compared with control group (P<0.05. There were no significant differences regarding birth weight and abnormality of neonate rats between experimental and control groups. Conclusion: These results suggest that caffeine caused anti-fertility effect and significantly decreased CRL in neonate rats.

  3. Influence of alcohol consumption on alveolar bone level associated with ligature-induced periodontitis in rats

    Daniela Martins de Souza


    Full Text Available Alcohol consumption is a risk indicator for periodontal disease. The purpose of this study was to morphometrically evaluate the influence of alcohol consumption on alveolar bone level associated with ligature-induced periodontitis in rats. Thirty-six female rats (Wistar, 120 days-old were randomly divided into three groups that received a daily administration of a water diet (control, n = 12, a 10% alcohol diet (10% ethanol, n = 12 or a 20% alcohol diet (20% ethanol, n = 12. Four weeks after the onset of the experiment, cotton ligatures were placed around the cervix of the upper right second molar in six rats. The other 6 rats in each group remained unligated. The rats were sacrificed four weeks after ligature placement. The maxillary bones were removed and alveolar bone loss was analyzed by measuring the distance between the cementoenamel junction and the alveolar bone crest at 2 buccal and 2 palatal sites on the upper right second molar. Analyses between the ligated and unligated groups showed that the presence of ligature induced alveolar bone loss (p 0.05. In the ligated groups, rats receiving 20% ethanol showed significantly greater bone loss compared to control rats or rats receiving 10% ethanol. These results demonstrate that alcohol consumption may increase alveolar bone loss in female rats in a dose-dependent manner.

  4. Transgenerational effects of adolescent nicotine exposure in rats: Evidence for cognitive deficits in adult female offspring.

    Renaud, Samantha M; Fountain, Stephen B


    This study investigated whether adolescent nicotine exposure in one generation of rats would impair the cognitive capacity of a subsequent generation. Male and female rats in the parental F0 generation were given twice-daily i.p. injections of either 1.0mg/kg nicotine or an equivalent volume of saline for 35days during adolescence on postnatal days 25-59 (P25-59). After reaching adulthood, male and female nicotine-exposed rats were paired for breeding as were male and female saline control rats. Only female offspring were used in this experiment. Half of the offspring of F0 nicotine-exposed breeders and half of the offspring of F0 saline control rats received twice-daily i.p. injections of 1.0mg/kg nicotine during adolescence on P25-59. The remainder of the rats received twice-daily saline injections for the same period. To evaluate transgenerational effects of nicotine exposure on complex cognitive learning abilities, F1 generation rats were trained to perform a highly structured serial pattern in a serial multiple choice (SMC) task. Beginning on P95, rats in the F1 generation were given either 4days of massed training (20patterns/day) followed by spaced training (10 patterns/day) or only spaced training. Transgenerational effects of adolescent nicotine exposure were observed as greater difficulty in learning a "violation element" of the pattern, which indicated that rats were impaired in the ability to encode and remember multiple sequential elements as compound or configural cues. The results indicated that for rats that received massed training, F1 generation rats with adolescent nicotine exposure whose F0 generation parents also experienced adolescent nicotine exposure showed poorer learning of the violation element than rats that experienced adolescent nicotine exposure only in the F1 generation. Thus, adolescent nicotine exposure in one generation of rats produced a cognitive impairment in the next generation.

  5. Rat Genome Database (RGD)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Rat Genome Database (RGD) is a collaborative effort between leading research institutions involved in rat genetic and genomic research to collect, consolidate,...

  6. Social transmission of fear in rats: the role of 22-kHz ultrasonic distress vocalization.

    Eun Joo Kim

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Social alarm calls alert animals to potential danger and thereby promote group survival. Adult laboratory rats in distress emit 22-kHz ultrasonic vocalization (USV calls, but the question of whether these USV calls directly elicit defensive behavior in conspecifics is unresolved. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The present study investigated, in pair-housed male rats, whether and how the conditioned fear-induced 22-kHz USVs emitted by the 'sender' animal affect the behavior of its partner, the 'receiver' animal, when both are placed together in a novel chamber. The sender rats' conditioned fear responses evoked significant freezing (an overt evidence of fear in receiver rats that had previously experienced an aversive event but not in naïve receiver rats. Permanent lesions and reversible inactivations of the medial geniculate nucleus (MGN of the thalamus effectively blocked the receivers' freeezing response to the senders' conditioned fear responses, and this occurred in absence of lesions/inactivations impeding the receiver animals' ability to freeze and emit 22-kHz USVs to the aversive event per se. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results--that prior experience of fear and intact auditory system are required for receiver rats to respond to their conspecifics' conditioned fear responses--indicate that the 22-kHz USV is the main factor for social transmission of fear and that learning plays a crucial role in the development of social signaling of danger by USVs.

  7. A pseudolite-based positioning system for legacy GNSS receivers.

    Kim, Chongwon; So, Hyoungmin; Lee, Taikjin; Kee, Changdon


    The ephemeris data format of legacy GPS receivers is improper for positioning stationary pseudolites on the ground. Therefore, to utilize pseudolites for navigation, GPS receivers must be modified so that they can handle the modified data formats of the pseudolites. Because of this problem, the practical use of pseudolites has so far been limited. This paper proposes a pseudolite-based positioning system that can be used with unmodified legacy GPS receivers. In the proposed system, pseudolites transmit simulated GPS signals. The signals use standard GPS ephemeris data format and contain ephemeris data of simulated GPS satellites, not those of pseudolites. The use of the standard format enables the GPS receiver to process pseudolite signals without any modification. However, the position output of the GPS receiver is not the correct position in this system, because there are additional signal delays from each pseudolite to the receiver. A post-calculation process was added to obtain the correct receiver position using GPS receiver output. This re-estimation is possible because it is based on known information about the simulated signals, pseudolites, and positioning process of the GPS receiver. Simulations using generated data and live GPS data are conducted for various geometries to verify the proposed system. The test results show that the proposed system provides the desired user position using pseudolite signals without requiring any modifications to the legacy GPS receiver. In this initial study, a pseudolite-only indoor system was assumed. However, it can be expanded to a GPS-pseudolite system outdoors.

  8. A wideband 240 GHz receiver for the submillimeter array

    Tong, C.-Y. Edward; Grimes, Paul K.; Leiker, Patrick S.; Zeng, Lingzhen; Lu, Wei-Chun; Chen, Tse-Jun; Han, Chih-Chiang; Wang, Ming-Jye


    We report on the design of a 240 GHz double-side-band receiver for the Submillimeter Array (SMA). The heart of this receiver is a 3-junction series connected SIS mixer, which allows it to provide intermediate frequency (IF) output up to more than 12 GHz. We have custom built a low noise Amplifier-Multiplier Chain for use as the receiver's Local Oscillator module, which is tunable from 210 to 270 GHz. The receiver has demonstrated low noise performance in laboratory. 7 out of the 8 SMA antennas are now equipped with this receiver. The receiver has already participated in Event Horizon Telescope observations in April 2016, working with the SMA-200 receiver to provide dual polarization coverage for the EHT Hawaii Station. This receiver has enabled the SMA to provide 32 Gbit per second data stream to the EHT observations. We are currently trying to improve the on-sky beam co-alignment of this receiver with respect to other SMA receivers.

  9. Interstrain Differences in the Development of Pyometra after Estrogen Treatment of Rats

    Brossia, Lisa Jane; Roberts, Christopher Sean; Lopez, Jennifer T; Bigsby, Robert M; Dynlacht, Joseph R


    This case report describes the unanticipated development of pyometra in Brown Norway rats after treatment with estrogen. Sprague Dawley and Brown Norway rats were ovariectomized and randomly assigned to treatment groups (subcutaneous implantation of either a capsule containing 20 mg 17β-estradiol or an empty capsule, as a control). After irradiation of only the right eye, the rats were followed for several months in an attempt to determine the effects of estrogen on radiation cataractogenesis and investigate potential strain differences in this phenomenon. However, all Brown Norway rats that received estradiol treatment developed pyometra, whereas none the Sprague Dawley or control Brown Norway rats did. This case demonstrates the potential adverse effects of exogenous estrogen therapy, which are strain-specific in the rat. Caution should be taken when designing estrogen-related experiments involving Brown Norway rats and other potentially sensitive strains. PMID:19807973

  10. Impact of oxidative stress on pregnancy outcome in albino rats

    R.S. Al-Naemi


    Full Text Available Accumulative reports documented that oxidative stress is implicated in many human and animal diseases. However, the reports concerning the effect of oxidative stress on pregnancy outcome are limited and scarce. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of oxidative stress on pregnancy outcome and to assess the antioxidant effect of vitamin C and E on oxidative stress parameters in blood and placental tissue samples in experimental pregnant animals model exposed to oxidative stress. Wister Albino rats were used in this work to investigate the effects of oxidative stress exposure (addition of H2O2 to the drinking water on pregnancy outcome. Rats were divided into 5 groups, as follows: Group I (included 7 normal pregnant rats which served as control group. Group II (exposed to 1 % H2O2 included 7 pregnant rats, the rats were allowed to become pregnant and received (1% H2O2 in drinking water from day 7th till the day 19th of pregnancy. Group III (exposed to 3% H2O2 included 8 pregnant rats. Same as group 2, but the rats were exposed to a higher concentration of H2O2 (3% in drinking water. Group IV (included 8 pregnant rats. Pregnant rats received vitamins C and E without induction of oxidative stress. Group V (included 8 pregnant rats.induction of oxidative stress by 1% H2O2 with vitamins supplementation in the pregnant rats. Serum total antioxidants capacity (TAC, serum and placental tissue oxidative stress biomarker; 8-iso prostaglandin F2α (8-Isoprostane were measured using specific ELISA kits. Also placental tissues of pregnant rats were isolated and put directly in 10% formalin prepared for histopathological examination. Results revealed a significant decrease in the median values of the body weight and total serum antioxidants capacity (TAC in groups II and III of rats compared with the control group. A significant higher median value of TAC obtained in the groups IV and V when compared with the control group. Significant higher

  11. Ways to rational management of accounts receivable at enterprises

    Yevtushenko N. O.


    Full Text Available This article investigated the principal reasons of management problems an account receivable of enterprises. Credit politics of management is worked out by an account receivable of enterprises. Essence of the stages of construction of rational management an account receivable of enterprises is exposed. In the article are exposed the basic elements of control system for an account receivable such as mission, aims, strategy as politics of management. The basic stages of management politics are described for an account receivable of enterprises: analysis; organization of forming of principles of credit politics, terms of delivery of credit and procedure of collection of accounts receivable; planning of the use of modern forms of refunding, and similarly control.

  12. BPSK Receiver Based on Recursive Adaptive Filter with Remodulation

    N. Milosevic


    Full Text Available This paper proposes a new binary phase shift keying (BPSK signal receiver intended for reception under conditions of significant carrier frequency offsets. The recursive adaptive filter with least mean squares (LMS adaptation is used. The proposed receiver has a constant, defining the balance between the recursive and the nonrecursive part of the filter, whose proper choice allows a simple construction of the receiver. The correct choice of this parameter could result in unitary length of the filter. The proposed receiver has performance very close to the performance of the BPSK receiver with perfect frequency synchronization, in a wide range of frequency offsets (plus/minus quarter of the signal bandwidth. The results obtained by the software simulation are confirmed by the experimental results measured on the receiver realized with the universal software radio peripheral (USRP, with the baseband signal processing at personal computer (PC.

  13. Solar advanced internal film receiver; Receptor avanzado de pelicular interna

    Torre Cabezas, M. de la


    In a Solar Central Internal Film Receiver, the heat absorbing fluid (a molten nitrate salt) flows in a thin film down over the non illuminated side of an absorber panel. Since the molten salt working fluid is not contained in complicated tube manifolds, the receiver design is simples than a conventional tube type-receiver resulting in a lower cost and a more reliable receiver. The Internal Film Receiver can be considered as an alternative to the Direct Absorption Receiver, in the event that the current problems of the last one can not be solved. It also describes here the test facility which will be used for its solar test, and the test plans foreseen. (Author) 17 refs.

  14. Morphologic and biochemical changes in male rat lung after surgical and pharmacological castration

    M.S. Ojeda


    Full Text Available The morphology of the rat lung was studied by light microscopy in different situations: after surgical and pharmacological castration and after administration of testosterone to the castrated rat to determine if the androgen is required to maintain the normal morphology of the lung. We also determined the effect of flutamide on the phospholipid composition of both the surfactant and microsomes of the lung. Rats were separated into five groups: I - control non-castrated rats, II - castrated rats sacrificed 21 days after castration, III - castrated rats that received testosterone daily from day 2 to day 21 after castration, IV - castrated rats that received testosterone from day 15 to day 21 after castration, and V - control rats injected with flutamide for 7 days. The amount of different phospholipids in the surfactant and microsomes of the lung was measured in group I and V rats. At the light microscopy level, the surgical and pharmacological castration provoked alterations in the morphology of the lung, similar to that observed in human lung emphysema. The compositions of surfactant and microsomes of the lung were similar to those previously reported by us for the surgically castrated rats. These results indicate that androgens are necessary for the normal morphology as well as for some metabolic aspects of the lung.

  15. Treadmill Exercise Preconditioning Attenuates Lung Damage Caused by Systemic Endotoxemia in Type 1 Diabetic Rats

    Ching-Hsia Hung


    Full Text Available Endotoxemia induces a series of inflammatory responses that may result in lung injury. However, heat shock protein72 (HSP72 has the potential to protect the lungs from damage. The objective of this study was to determine whether prior exercise conditioning could increase the expression of HSP72 in the lungs and attenuate lung damage in diabetic rats receiving lipopolysaccharide (LPS. Streptozotocin was used to induce diabetes in adult male Wistar rats. Rats were randomly assigned to sedentary or exercise groups. Rats in the exercise condition ran on a treadmill 5 days/week, 30–60 min/day, with an intensity of 1.0 mile/hour over a 3-week period. Rats received an intravenous infusion of LPS after 24 hrs from the last training session. Elevated lavage tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α level in response to LPS was more marked in diabetic rats. HSP72 expression in lungs was significantly increased after exercise conditioning, but less pronounced in diabetic rats. After administration of LPS, exercised rats displayed higher survival rate as well as decreased lavage TNF-α level and lung edema in comparison to sedentary rats. Our findings suggest that exercise conditioning could attenuate the occurrence of inflammatory responses and lung damage, thereby reducing mortality rate in diabetic rats during endotoxemia.

  16. Training-Based SWIPT: Optimal Power Splitting at the Receiver

    Zhou, Xiangyun


    We consider a point-to-point system with simultaneous wireless information and power transfer (SWIPT) over a block fading channel. Each transmission block consists of a training phase and a data transmission phase. Pilot symbols are transmitted during the training phase for channel estimation at the receiver. To enable SWIPT, the receiver adopts a power-splitting design, such that a portion of the received signal is used for channel estimation or data detection, while the remaining is used fo...

  17. Coherent resonant Ka-band photonic microwave receiver

    Ilchenko, Vladimir S; Savchenkov, Anatoliy A; Seidel, David; Matsko, Andrey B; Maleki, Lute


    We propose theoretically and demonstrate experimentally a coherent microwave photonic receiver operating at 35 GHz carrier frequency. The device is based on a lithium niobate or lithium tantalate optical whispering gallery mode resonator coupled to a microwave strip line resonator. Microwave local oscillator is fed into the microwave resonator along with the microwave signal. We show that the sensitivity of this receiver significantly exceeds the sensitivity of the incoherent quadratic receiver based on the same technology. The coherent receiver can possess a dynamic range in excess of 100 dB in 5 MHz band if a low noise laser is utilized.

  18. DVB-S2 inner receiver design for broadcasting mode

    YANG Jian-xiao; WANG Kuang; ZOU Zhi-yong


    This paper details on the design of DVB-S2 receivers which is compliant with the broadcasting mode. Special attention is paid to the specific receiver functions necessary to demodulate the received signal. To show the system performance we consider the design of a complete receiver consisting of timing recovery unit, frame synchronization unit, frequency recovery unit and phase recovery unit. The system is easier to hardware implementation comparing with that provided in (ETSI, 2005; Sun et al.,2004). After the performance of the algorithms is analyzed and a quantitative result is given, this allows us to draw conclusions concerning the achievable system performance under realistic complexity assumptions.

  19. Frequency Estimator Performance for a Software-Based Beacon Receiver

    Zemba, Michael J.; Morse, Jacquelynne Rose; Nessel, James A.; Miranda, Felix


    As propagation terminals have evolved, their design has trended more toward a software-based approach that facilitates convenient adjustment and customization of the receiver algorithms. One potential improvement is the implementation of a frequency estimation algorithm, through which the primary frequency component of the received signal can be estimated with a much greater resolution than with a simple peak search of the FFT spectrum. To select an estimator for usage in a QV-band beacon receiver, analysis of six frequency estimators was conducted to characterize their effectiveness as they relate to beacon receiver design.

  20. Reduction of convective losses in solar cavity receivers

    Hughes, Graham; Pye, John; Kaufer, Martin; Abbasi-Shavazi, Ehsan; Zhang, Jack; McIntosh, Adam; Lindley, Tim


    Two design innovations are reported that can help improve the thermal performance of a solar cavity receiver. These innovations utilise the natural variation of wall temperature inside the cavity and active management of airflow in the vicinity of the receiver. The results of computational fluid dynamics modelling and laboratory-scale experiments suggest that the convective loss from a receiver can be reduced substantially by either mechanism. A further benefit is that both radiative and overall thermal losses from the cavity may be reduced. Further work to assess the performance of such receiver designs under operational conditions is discussed.

  1. Hematological Parameters and the State of Liver Cells of Rats After Oral Administration of Aflatoxin B1 Alone and Together with Nanodiamonds

    Mogilnaya, O. A.; Puzyr, A. P.; Baron, A. V.; Bondar, V. S.


    Hematological parameters and the state of liver cells of rats were examined in vivo after the animals received aflatoxin B1 (AfB1) alone and together with modified nanodiamonds (MND) synthesized by detonation. The rats that had received the MND hydrosol had elevated leukocyte levels, mainly due to higher granulocyte counts and somewhat increased monocyte counts compared to control rats. Hematological parameters of the rats that had received AfB1 alone differed from those of the control rats in another way: total white blood cell counts were significantly lower due to the decreased lymphocyte counts. In rats that had consumed AfB1 with the MND hydrosol, changes in hematological parameters were less pronounced than in rats that had consumed either AfB1 or MND. Electron microscopy showed that hepatocytes of the rats that had received the MND hydrosol or AfB1 with the MND hydrosol contained elevated levels of lipid inclusions and lysosomes. Hyperplasia of the smooth endoplasmic reticulum (EPR) was revealed in liver specimens of the rats that had received AfB1. Results of the study suggest the conclusion about mutual mitigation of the effects of nanoparticles and the mycotoxin on rats blood and liver cells after AfB1 has adsorbed on MND.

  2. Inhibition of thromboxane synthesis attenuates insulin hypertension in rats.

    Keen, H L; Brands, M W; Smith, M J; Shek, E W; Hall, J E


    Chronic insulin infusion in rats increases mean arterial pressure (MAP) and reduces glomerular filtration rate (GFR), but the mechanisms for these actions are not known. This study tested whether thromboxane synthesis inhibition (TSI) would attenuate the renal and blood pressure responses to sustained hyperinsulinemia. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were instrumented with arterial and venous catheters, and MAP was measured 24 h/day. After 4 days of baseline measurements, endogenous synthesis of thromboxane was suppressed in 7 rats by infusing the thromboxane synthetase inhibitor, U63557A, intravenously (30 microg/kg/min) for the remainder of the experiment; 7 other rats received vehicle. Baseline MAP was not significantly different between vehicle and TSI rats (96 +/- 1 v 99 +/- 1 mm Hg). After 3 days of U63557A or vehicle, a 5-day control period was started, followed by a 7-day infusion of insulin (1.5 mU/kg/min, intravenously). Glucose (22 mg/kg/min, intravenously) was infused along with insulin to prevent hypoglycemia. In the control period, MAP was not different between vehicle and TSI rats (99 +/- 2 v 100 +/- 1 mm Hg), but MAP increased throughout the 7-day infusion period only in the vehicle rats with an average increase in blood pressure of 7 +/- 2 mm Hg. In the control period, GFR was lower in vehicle rats compared with TSI rats (2.5 +/- 0.1 v 3.1 +/- 0.2 mL/min, P = .06), and the decrease to 81% +/- 4% and 91% +/- 6% of control, respectively, during insulin was significant only in the vehicle rats. All variables returned toward control during a 6-day recovery period. These results suggest that full expression of hypertension and renal vasoconstriction during hyperinsulinemia in rats is dependent on a normal ability to synthesize thromboxane.

  3. Establishment of intramedullary spinal cord glioma model in rats

    REN Tian-jian; WANG Zhong-cheng; ZHANG Ya-zhuo; LI Dan; WANG Hong-yun; LI Zhen-zong


    Background Treating intramedullary spinal cord gliomas is a big challenge because of limited options, high recurrence rate and poor prognosis. An intramedullary glioma model is prerequisite for testing new treatments. This paper describes the establishment of a rodent intramedullary glioma model and presents functional progression, neuroimaging and histopathological characterization of the tumour model.Methods Fischer344 rats (n=24) were randomized into two groups. Group 1 (n=16) received a 5 μl intramedullary implantation of 9L gliosarcomal (105) cells. Group 2 (n=8) received a 5 μl intramedullary injection of Dulbecco's modified Eagle medium. The rats were anesthetized, the spinous process of the T10 vertebra and the ligamentum flavum were removed to expose the T10-11 intervertebral space and an intramedullary injection was conducted into the spinal cord. The rats were evaluated preoperatively and daily postoperatively for neurological deficits using the Basso, Beattie and Bresnahan scale. High resolution magnetic resonance images were acquired preoperatively and weekly postoperatively.When score equal to 0, rats were sacrificed for histopathological examination.Results Rats implanted with 9L gliosarcoma cells had a statistically significant median onset of hind limb paraplegia at (16.0±0.4) days, compared with rats in the control group in which neurological deficits were absent. Imaging and pathological cross sections confirmed intramedullary 9L gliosarcoma invading the spinal cord. Rats in the control group showed no significant functional, radiological or histopathological findings of tumour.Conclusions Rats implanted with 9L cells regularly develop paraplegia in a reliable and reproducible manner. The progression of neurological deficits, neuroimaging and histopathological characteristics of intramedullary spinal cord gliomas in rats is comparable with the behaviour of infiltrative intramedullary spinal cord gliomas in patients.

  4. Effect of excessive iodine intake on bone metabolism in male rats



    Objective To explore possible poisonous and harnfful effect of excessive iodine intake on skeleton in male rats. Methods Male rat models receiving various amounts of excessive iodine were established for 3,6,12 months, and quantitative bone histomorphometric parameters and bone mineral density (BMD)of femur and lumbar spine (L1-4) were measured by means of dual-energy X-ray absorptimetry in vitro, and rats receiving normal diet were considered as control group. Results There was no significant difference in bone mineral quantity and

  5. Progression of nephropathy after islet of langerhans transplantation in alloxan-induced diabetic rats

    César Tadeu Spadella


    Full Text Available We studied the effects of islet of Langerhans transplantation (IT on the kidney lesions of rats with alloxan-induced diabetes. Forty-five inbred male Lewis rats were randomly assigned to 3 experimental groups: group Gl included 15 non-diabetic control rats (NC, group GIT included 15 alloxan-induced diabetic rats (DC, and group III included 15 alloxan-induced diabetic rats that received pancreatic islet transplantation prepared by nonenzymatic method from normal donor Lewis rats and injected into the portal vein (IT. Each group was further divided into 3 subgroups of 5 rats which were sacrificed at 1, 3, and 6 months of follow-up, respectively. Clinical and laboratorial parameters were recorded in the mentioned periods in the 3 experimental groups. For histology, the kidneys of all rats of each subgroup were studied and 50 glomeruli and 50 tubules of each kidney were analyzed using light microscopy by two different investigators in a double blind study. The results showed progressive glomerular basement membrane thickening (GBMT, mesangial enlargement (ME, and Bowman's capsule thickening (BCT in the 3 experimental groups throughout the follow-up. These alterations were significantly more severe in DC rats at 6 months when compared to NC rats (p < 0.01. However, the degree of GBMT, ME, and BCT observed in DC rats was not statistically different from IT rats at 1, 3, and 6 months. In addition, Armanni-Ebstein lesions of the tubules (AE and tubular lumen protein (PRO observed in DC rats were also observed in IT rats all over the study. These lesions were never present in NC rats. We conclude that IT did not prevent progression of kidney lesions in alloxan-induced diabetic rats within 6 months after transplantation.

  6. Development of a UFLC-MS/MS method for the simultaneous determination of seven tea catechins in rat plasma and its application to a pharmacokinetic study after administration of green tea extract.

    Huo, Yanshuang; Zhang, Qian; Li, Qing; Geng, Bingjie; Bi, Kaishun


    A rapid, sensitive and selective ultra-fast liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UFLC-MS/MS) method was developed and validated for simultaneous determination of seven green tea catechins including catechin (C), (-)-epicatechin (EC), gallocatechin (GC), (-)-epigallocatechin (EGC), (-)-epicatechin-3-gallate (ECG), gallocatechin-3-gallate (GCG) and (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) in rat plasma. The plasma samples were firstly hydrolysed with the mixture of β-glucuronidase and sulfatase, which were then extracted by liquid-liquid extraction with ethyl acetate-isopropanol (1:1, v/v). The analytes were separated on a Venusil MP C18 column (Venusil, China) with a gradient elution at a flow rate of 0.4mL/min. The detection was performed in negative ionization and multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. All the calibration curves exhibited good linearity (r>0.9943) with intra- and inter-day precisions of less than 14.3% and the accuracy deviations ranging from -8.8% to 7.5%. The extraction recoveries of the analytes and ethyl gallate (internal standard) were all more than 72%. The validated method was successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study of seven catechins in rat plasma after oral administration of the green tea extract at different doses of 0.4, 1.2 and 2.0g/kg.

  7. Estradiol promotes the rewarding effects of nicotine in female rats.

    Flores, Rodolfo J; Pipkin, Joseph A; Uribe, Kevin P; Perez, Adriana; O'Dell, Laura E


    It is presently unclear whether ovarian hormones, such as estradiol (E2), promote the rewarding effects of nicotine in females. Thus, we compared extended access to nicotine intravenous self-administration (IVSA) in intact male, intact female, and OVX female rats (Study 1) as well as OVX females that received vehicle or E2 supplementation (Study 2). The E2 supplementation procedure involved a 4-day injection regimen involving 2 days of vehicle and 2 days of E2 administration. Two doses of E2 (25 or 250μg) were assessed in separate groups of OVX females in order to examine the dose-dependent effects of this hormone on the rewarding effects of nicotine. The rats were given 23-hour access to nicotine IVSA using an escalating dose regimen (0.015, 0.03, and 0.06mg/kg/0.1mL). Each dose was self-administered for 4 days with 3 intervening days of nicotine abstinence. The results revealed that intact females displayed higher levels of nicotine intake as compared to males. Also, intact females displayed higher levels of nicotine intake versus OVX females. Lastly, our results revealed that OVX rats that received E2 supplementation displayed a dose-dependent increase in nicotine intake as compared to OVX rats that received vehicle. Together, our results suggest that the rewarding effects of nicotine are enhanced in female rats via the presence of the ovarian hormone, E2.

  8. Enzymuria in neonates receiving continuous intravenous infusion of gentamicin

    Colding, H; Brygge, K; Brendstrup, L;


    with non-treatment periods in the same newborn infant (33 infants). The same tendency applied to AAP. Newborn infants receiving continuous intravenous infusion of gentamicin were not found to be at greater risk of nephrotoxicity than those receiving intermittent gentamicin treatment, using NAG and AAP...

  9. Detailed noise statistics for an optically preamplified direct detection receiver

    Danielsen, Søren Lykke; Mikkelsen, Benny; Durhuus, Terji


    We describe the exact statistics of an optically preamplified direct detection receiver by means of the moment generating function. The theory allows an arbitrary shaped electrical filter in the receiver circuit. The moment generating function (MGF) allows for a precise calculation of the error...

  10. Factors of Influence on Receivables and Payables and Their Classification

    Kuzmin Oleg Ye.; Volovich Yelena B.


    The approaches to classification factors of receivables and payables are analyzed in the article. In order to develop effective methods of receivables and payables management, its factors of influence are proposed to divide into three groups - macro factors, the factors of enterprises immediate environment and micro factors.

  11. Solar Stirling receiver alternatives for the terrestrial solar application

    Stearns, J.


    Concept studies have been completed for four dish-Stirling receivers, i.e., solar only and thermal storage receiver, each of which is either directly coupled or indirectly (heat pipe) coupled to the Stirling engine. The results of these studies are to be applied to systems benefit/cost analysis to determine the most desirable development approach.

  12. The Sender-Receiver Model and the Targeting Process.

    Larson, Mark A.

    The goal of this paper is to describe how one classroom teacher uses the Sender-Receiver Communications Model to illustrate for students in a lively and memorable way the process of "targeting your audience" with medium and message. Students are used as examples of Receivers, or target audience, illustrating the potential range of…

  13. Calibration of Hurricane Imaging Radiometer C-Band Receivers

    Biswas, Sayak K.; Cecil, Daniel J.; James, Mark W.


    The laboratory calibration of airborne Hurricane Imaging Radiometer's C-Band multi-frequency receivers is described here. The method used to obtain the values of receiver frontend loss, internal cold load brightness temperature and injected noise diode temperature is presented along with the expected RMS uncertainty in the final calibration.

  14. Integrated submm wave receiver with superconductive local oscillator

    Koshelets, VP; Shitov, SV; Filippenko, LV; Ermakov, AB; Luinge, W; Gao, [No Value; Lehikoinen, P; Rogalla, H; Blank, DHA


    A fully superconductive integrated receiver is very promising for submm space astronomy where low weight, low power consumption, and limited volume are required. The new versions of the integrated quasioptical submm wave receiver have been designed, fabricated and tested in the frequency range of 45

  15. An integrated 500 GHz receiver with superconducting local oscillator

    Koshelets, VP; Shitov, SV; Filippenko, LV; Baryshev, AM; Luinge, W; Golstein, H; vandeStadt, H; Gao, [No Value; deGraauw, T


    An integrated quasioptical receiver consisting of a planar double - dipole antenna, SIS mixer and superconducting Flux-Flow Oscillator (FFO) with matching circuits has been designed, fabricated and tested in the frequency range 420-530 GHz. The integrated receiver is very suitable for space applicat

  16. Three scientists to receive presidential Enrico Fermi award


    "Secretary of Energy Spencer Abraham today named John Bahcall, Raymond Davis, Jr. and Seymour Sack as winners of the Enrico Fermi Award. ... Drs. Bahcall and Davis will receive the award for their research in neutrino physics. Dr. Sack will receive the award for his contributions to national security" (1 page).

  17. Receiving versus being denied an abortion and subsequent tobacco use.

    Roberts, Sarah C M; Foster, Diana Greene


    The negative health consequences of tobacco use are well documented. Some research finds women receiving abortions are at increased risk of subsequent tobacco use. This literature has methodological problems, most importantly, inappropriate comparison groups. This study uses data from the Turnaway Study, a longitudinal study of women who all sought, but did not all receive, abortions at 30 facilities across the United States. Participants included women presenting just before an abortion facility's gestational age limit who received abortions (Near Limit Abortion Group, n = 452), just after the gestational limit who were denied abortions (Turnaways, n = 231), and who received first trimester abortions (First Trimester Abortion Group, n = 273). This study examined the association between receiving versus being denied an abortion and subsequent tobacco use over 2-years. Trajectories of tobacco use over 2 years were compared using multivariate mixed effects regression. Women receiving abortion maintained their level of tobacco use over 2 years. Women denied abortion initially had lower levels of tobacco use than women receiving abortion, but increased their tobacco use from 1 week through 12-18 months post-abortion seeking and then decreased their use by 2 years post-abortion seeking. Baseline parity modified these associations. Receiving an abortion was not associated with an increase in tobacco use over time. Overall, women who carry unwanted pregnancies to term appear to demonstrate similar cessation and resumption patterns to other pregnant women.

  18. Optimization of Source and Receiver Placement in Multistatic Sonar Environments


    the new preprocessing algorithm LOC -GEN-II to determine possible locations for sources given a set of targets and receivers. The high efficiency of this...problem was solved with the simplification of setting receivers randomly and placing only sources optimally. We develop LOC -GEN-II further into a two-step

  19. Current perspectives on dental patients receiving coumarin anticoagulant therapy.

    Herman, W W; Konzelman, J L; Sutley, S H


    Despite approximately 40 years of experience with oral anticoagulant drugs, controversy still exists about the safety of dental treatment in a patient receiving this therapy. The authors review the topic in depth and offer detailed recommendations for the dental management of patients receiving coumarin anticoagulant therapy.

  20. Qualification test for the flexible receiver. Revision 2

    Tedeschi, D.J.


    This document provides the test plan and procedures to certify and design verify the 42{double_prime} and 4{double_prime}-6{double_prime} Flexible Receiver as a safety class 3 system. The Flexible Receiver will be used by projects W-151 and W-320 for removing equipment from tanks C-106 and AZ-101.