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Sample records for rats rattus rattus

  1. Reproductive Toxicity of Triptolide in Male House Rat, Rattus rattus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neena Singla

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of study was to investigate the toxic effect of triptolide fed in bait on reproduction of male house rat, Rattus rattus. Feeding of cereal based bait containing 0.2% triptolide to male R. rattus for 5 days in no-choice feeding test, leading to mean daily ingestion of 20.45 mg/kg bw of triptolide, was found effective in significantly (P≤0.05 reducing sperm motility and viability in cauda epididymal fluid by 80.65 and 75.14%, respectively, from that of untreated rats. Pregnancy rates were decreased by 100% in untreated cyclic female rats paired with male rats treated with 0.2% triptolide. Present studies suggest the potential of 0.2% triptolide bait in regulating reproductive output of R. rattus.

  2. Helminth parasites in black rats (Rattus rattus) and brown rats (Rattus norvegicus) from different environments in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franssen, Frits; Swart, Arno; van Knapen, Frans|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/070114749; van der Giessen, Joke

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Rattus norvegicus (brown rat) and Rattus rattus (black rat) are known carriers of bacteria, viruses, and parasites of zoonotic and veterinary importance. Moreover, rats may play a role in the transmission of muscle larvae of the zoonotic nematode Trichinella spiralis to farm animals. We

  3. Respiratory Pathology and Pathogens in Wild Urban Rats (Rattus norvegicus and Rattus rattus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothenburger, J L; Himsworth, C G; Clifford, C B; Ellis, J; Treuting, P M; Leighton, F A

    2015-11-01

    Norway (Rattus norvegicus) and black rats (Rattus rattus) are common peridomestic species, yet little is known about wild rat ecology, including their natural diseases. We describe gross and histological lesions in the respiratory tract of a sample of 711 wild urban rats. A subset was examined for 19 distinct categories of histological lesions in the respiratory tract. Testing for known respiratory pathogens included serology and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of lung samples. Grossly evident lesions were rare (8/711; 1%). Upper respiratory tract inflammation was present in 93 of 107 (87%) rats and included rhinitis, submucosal and periglandular lymphoplasmacytic tracheitis, and/or tracheal intraluminal necrotic debris and was significantly associated (P < .05) with the presence of cilia-associated respiratory bacillus (CARB), Mycoplasma pulmonis, and increased body mass (odds ratio [OR] = 1.09; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.05-1.14 per 10 g). Within the lungs, peribronchiolar and/or perivascular lymphoplasmacytic cuffs were present in 152 of 199 rats (76%) and were also significantly associated (P ≤ .02) with CARB, M. pulmonis, and increased body mass (OR = 1.20; 95% CI = 1.14-1.27 per 10 g). Rats were frequently coinfected with M. pulmonis and CARB, and lesions associated with these pathogens were histologically indistinguishable. Pneumocystis sp was detected in 48 of 102 (47%) rats using PCR but was not significantly associated with lesions. This description of pathology in the respiratory system of wild rats demonstrates that respiratory disease is common. Although the impact of these lesions on individual and population health remains to be investigated, respiratory disease may be an important contributor to wild rat morbidity and mortality. © The Author(s) 2015.

  4. Carriage of Clostridium difficile by wild urban Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus) and black rats (Rattus rattus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himsworth, Chelsea G; Patrick, David M; Mak, Sunny; Jardine, Claire M; Tang, Patrick; Weese, J Scott

    2014-02-01

    Clostridium difficile is an important cause of enteric infections in humans. Recently, concerns have been raised regarding whether animals could be a source of C. difficile spores. Although colonization has been identified in a number of domestic species, the ability of commensal pests to serve as a reservoir for C. difficile has not been well investigated. The objective of this study was to determine whether urban rats (Rattus spp.) from Vancouver, Canada, carry C. difficile. Clostridium difficile was isolated from the colon contents of trapped rats and was characterized using ribotyping, toxinotyping, and toxin gene identification. Generalized linear mixed models and spatial analysis were used to characterize the ecology of C. difficile in rats. Clostridium difficile was isolated from 95 of 724 (13.1%) rats, although prevalence differed from 0% to 46.7% among city blocks. The odds of being C. difficile positive decreased with increasing weight (odds ratio [OR], 0.67; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.53 to 0.87), suggesting that carriage is more common in younger animals. The strains isolated included 9 ribotypes that matched recognized international designations, 5 identified by our laboratory in previous studies, and 21 "novel" ribotypes. Some strains were clustered geographically; however, the majority were dispersed throughout the study area, supporting environmental sources of exposure and widespread environmental contamination with a variety of C. difficile strains. Given that urban rats are the source of a number of other pathogens responsible for human morbidity and mortality, the potential for rats to be a source of C. difficile for humans deserves further consideration.

  5. Vitamin K requirement in Danish anticoagulant-resistant Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Mette D.; Heiberg, Ann-Charlotte; Nielsen, Robert

    2003-01-01

    Norway rats, Rattus norvegicus, Denmark, anticoagulant rodenticide resistance, vitamin K requirement......Norway rats, Rattus norvegicus, Denmark, anticoagulant rodenticide resistance, vitamin K requirement...

  6. Helminth parasites in black rats (Rattus rattus) and brown rats (Rattus norvegicus) from different environments in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franssen, Frits; Swart, Arno; van Knapen, Frans; van der Giessen, Joke

    2016-01-01

    Rattus norvegicus (brown rat) and Rattus rattus (black rat) are known carriers of bacteria, viruses, and parasites of zoonotic and veterinary importance. Moreover, rats may play a role in the transmission of muscle larvae of the zoonotic nematode Trichinella spiralis to farm animals. We aimed to study the intestinal and intramuscular helminths in wild rats from three different environments to assess the relevance of rats as carrier of zoonotic parasites for public health. Wild brown rats (117 individuals) and black rats (44 individuals) were captured at farms, in suburban and in rural environments in the Netherlands. Intestinal helminths were isolated and identified morphologically. Artificial digestion was used to isolate muscle larvae. Morphological analysis of rat intestinal contents yielded six nematode species (Syphacia muris, Heterakis spumosa, Aonchotheca murissylvatici, Trichuris muris, Nippostrongylus brasiliensis, and Strongyloides sp.), three cestode species (Hymenolepis diminuta, H. nana and Hymenolepis (=Rodentolepis) fraterna), and four trematode species (Plagiorchis muris, Plagiorchis proximus, Echinostoma chloropodis, and Notocotylus imbricatus).Black rats at farms displayed the lowest intestinal helminth species variation (six species) and carried overall on average 0.93 species simultaneously. In comparison, brown rats at farms carried seven helminth species and 1.91 species simultaneously. Brown rats from suburban environments displayed the highest species variation (11 species) at 1.82 simultaneous helminth species. Absence of trematodes from rats at farms may suggest limited exchange of rats between farms and surrounding wet rural environments. We report four species of veterinary (Syphacia muris) or zoonotic relevance (Hymenolepis diminuta, Hymenolepis nana and Plagiorchis muris). We did not find Trichinella muscle larvae, consistent with long-term prevalence in Dutch wild rats.

  7. Helminth parasites in black rats (Rattus rattus and brown rats (Rattus norvegicus from different environments in the Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frits Franssen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Rattus norvegicus (brown rat and Rattus rattus (black rat are known carriers of bacteria, viruses, and parasites of zoonotic and veterinary importance. Moreover, rats may play a role in the transmission of muscle larvae of the zoonotic nematode Trichinella spiralis to farm animals. We aimed to study the intestinal and intramuscular helminths in wild rats from three different environments to assess the relevance of rats as carrier of zoonotic parasites for public health. Materials and methods: Wild brown rats (117 individuals and black rats (44 individuals were captured at farms, in suburban and in rural environments in the Netherlands. Intestinal helminths were isolated and identified morphologically. Artificial digestion was used to isolate muscle larvae. Results and discussion: Morphological analysis of rat intestinal contents yielded six nematode species (Syphacia muris, Heterakis spumosa, Aonchotheca murissylvatici, Trichuris muris, Nippostrongylus brasiliensis, and Strongyloides sp., three cestode species (Hymenolepis diminuta, H. nana and Hymenolepis (=Rodentolepis fraterna, and four trematode species (Plagiorchis muris, Plagiorchis proximus, Echinostoma chloropodis, and Notocotylus imbricatus.Black rats at farms displayed the lowest intestinal helminth species variation (six species and carried overall on average 0.93 species simultaneously. In comparison, brown rats at farms carried seven helminth species and 1.91 species simultaneously. Brown rats from suburban environments displayed the highest species variation (11 species at 1.82 simultaneous helminth species. Absence of trematodes from rats at farms may suggest limited exchange of rats between farms and surrounding wet rural environments. We report four species of veterinary (Syphacia muris or zoonotic relevance (Hymenolepis diminuta, Hymenolepis nana and Plagiorchis muris. We did not find Trichinella muscle larvae, consistent with long-term prevalence in Dutch wild rats.

  8. A survey on helminthic infection in mice (Mus musculus and rats (Rattus norvegicus and Rattus rattus in Kermanshah, Iran

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    Norollah Pakdel

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Parasitic infections of rodents can compromise scientific research as well as the health of the animals and humans. Based on previous studies, infection rate of parasitic helminths is different in various regions of Iran. The current survey was aimed to determine endoparasitic helminths infection in 138 trapped rodents of Kermanshah county, Iran. Mice and rats were trapped using metal snares from January to October 2011 and euthanized. Rodents included 110 Mus musculus (79.00%, 23 Rattus norvegicus (17.00%, and five Rattus rattus (4.00%. The gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts were removed and examined to identify parasitic helminths. The results indicated that 42.02% of examined rodents were infected with eight helminths species, i.e. Trichuris muris (14.49%, Syphacia obvelata (13.76%, Syphacia muris (2.89%, Aspicularis tetrapetra (5.07%, Heterakis spumosa (5.07%, Capillaria hepatica eggs (3.62%, Hyminolepis diminuta (12.30%, and Cystisercus fasciolaris, the larva of Taenia teanieformis (4.34%. Given the results of this study, we concluded that examined rodents were more infected with nematodes than other helminths. As rodents are usually infected with a number of zoonotic parasites, hence control of these animals has an important role in safeguarding public health.

  9. A survey on helminthic infection in mice (Mus musculus) and rats (Rattus norvegicus and Rattus rattus) in Kermanshah, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakdel, Norollah; Naem, Soraya; Rezaei, Farid; Chalehchaleh, Abdol-Ali

    2013-01-01

    Parasitic infections of rodents can compromise scientific research as well as the health of the animals and humans. Based on previous studies, infection rate of parasitic helminths is different in various regions of Iran. The current survey was aimed to determine endoparasitic helminths infection in 138 trapped rodents of Kermanshah county, Iran. Mice and rats were trapped using metal snares from January to October 2011 and euthanized. Rodents included 110 Mus musculus (79.00%), 23 Rattus norvegicus (17.00%), and five Rattus rattus (4.00%). The gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts were removed and examined to identify parasitic helminths. The results indicated that 42.02% of examined rodents were infected with eight helminths species, i.e. Trichuris muris (14.49%), Syphacia obvelata (13.76%), Syphacia muris (2.89%), Aspicularis tetrapetra (5.07%), Heterakis spumosa (5.07%), Capillaria hepatica eggs (3.62%), Hyminolepis diminuta (12.30%), and Cystisercus fasciolaris, the larva of Taenia teanieformis (4.34%). Given the results of this study, we concluded that examined rodents were more infected with nematodes than other helminths. As rodents are usually infected with a number of zoonotic parasites, hence control of these animals has an important role in safeguarding public health.

  10. Record of Tropical Rat Mite, Ornithonyssus bacoti (Acari: Mesostigmata: Macronyssidae) from Domestic and Peridomestic Rodents (Rattus rattus) in Nilgiris, Tamil Nadu, India

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bhuyan, Pranab Jyoti; Nath, Anjan Jyoti

    2016-01-01

    .... bacoti infestation in a laboratory mice colony from Nilgiris, Tamil Nadu, India, attempts were made to detect the parasite in its natural reservoir, ie the domestic and peridomestic rats (Rattus rattus...

  11. Record of Tropical Rat Mite, Ornithonyssus bacoti (Acari: Mesostigmata: Macronyssidae) from Domestic and Peridomestic Rodents (Rattus rattus) in Nilgiris, Tamil Nadu, India

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pranab Jyoti-Bhuyan; Anjan Jyoti-Nath

    2015-01-01

    .... bacoti infestation in a laboratory mice colony from Nilgiris, Tamil Nadu, In­dia, attempts were made to detect the parasite in its natural reservoir, ie the domestic and peridomestic rats (Rattus rattus).Methods...

  12. Detection of rat hepatitis E virus in wild Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus) and Black rats (Rattus rattus) from 11 European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryll, René; Bernstein, Samuel; Heuser, Elisa; Schlegel, Mathias; Dremsek, Paul; Zumpe, Maxi; Wolf, Sandro; Pépin, Michel; Bajomi, Daniel; Müller, Gabi; Heiberg, Ann-Charlotte; Spahr, Carina; Lang, Johannes; Groschup, Martin H; Ansorge, Hermann; Freise, Jona; Guenther, Sebastian; Baert, Kristof; Ruiz-Fons, Francisco; Pikula, Jiri; Knap, Nataša; Tsakmakidis, Ιoannis; Dovas, Chrysostomos; Zanet, Stefania; Imholt, Christian; Heckel, Gerald; Johne, Reimar; Ulrich, Rainer G

    2017-09-01

    Rat hepatitis E virus (HEV) is genetically only distantly related to hepeviruses found in other mammalian reservoirs and in humans. It was initially detected in Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus) from Germany, and subsequently in rats from Vietnam, the USA, Indonesia, China, Denmark and France. Here, we report on a molecular survey of Norway rats and Black rats (Rattus rattus) from 12 European countries for ratHEV and human pathogenic hepeviruses. RatHEV-specific real-time and conventional RT-PCR investigations revealed the presence of ratHEV in 63 of 508 (12.4%) rats at the majority of sites in 11 of 12 countries. In contrast, a real-time RT-PCR specific for human pathogenic HEV genotypes 1-4 and a nested broad-spectrum (NBS) RT-PCR with subsequent sequence determination did not detect any infections with these genotypes. Only in a single Norway rat from Belgium a rabbit HEV-like genotype 3 sequence was detected. Phylogenetic analysis indicated a clustering of all other novel Norway and Black rat-derived sequences with ratHEV sequences from Europe, the USA and a Black rat-derived sequence from Indonesia within the proposed ratHEV genotype 1. No difference in infection status was detected related to age, sex, rat species or density of human settlements and zoological gardens. In conclusion, our investigation shows a broad geographical distribution of ratHEV in Norway and Black rats from Europe and its presence in all settlement types investigated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Shifts in an invasive rodent community favoring black rats (Rattus rattus) following restoration of native forest

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    Shiels, Aaron B.; Medeiros, Arthur C.; von Allmen, Erica I.

    2017-01-01

    One potential, unintended ecological consequence accompanying forest restoration is a shift in invasive animal populations, potentially impacting conservation targets. Eighteen years after initial restoration (ungulate exclusion, invasive plant control, and out planting native species) at a 4 ha site on Maui, Hawai'i, we compared invasive rodent communities in a restored native dry forest and adjacent non-native grassland. Quarterly for 1 year, we trapped rodents on three replicate transects (107 rodent traps) in each habitat type for three consecutive nights. While repeated trapping may have reduced the rat (Black rat, Rattus rattus) population in the forest, it did not appear to reduce the mouse (House mouse, Mus musculus) population in the grassland. In unrestored grassland, mouse captures outnumbered rat captures 220:1, with mice averaging 54.9 indiv./night versus rats averaging 0.25 indiv./night. In contrast, in restored native forest, rat captures outnumbered mouse captures by nearly 5:1, averaging 9.0 indiv./night versus 1.9 indiv./night for mice. Therefore, relatively recent native forest restoration increased Black rat abundance and also increased their total biomass in the restored ecosystem 36-fold while reducing House mouse biomass 35-fold. Such a community shift is worrisome because Black rats pose a much greater threat than do mice to native birds and plants, perhaps especially to large-seeded tree species. Land managers should be aware that forest restoration (i.e. converting grassland to native forest) can invoke shifts in invasive rodent populations, potentially favoring Black rats. Without intervention, this shift may pose risks for intended conservation targets and modify future forest restoration trajectories.

  14. Geographic distribution of Angiostrongylus cantonensis in wild rats (Rattus rattus) and terrestrial snails in Florida, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockdale Walden, Heather D; Slapcinsky, John D; Roff, Shannon; Mendieta Calle, Jorge; Diaz Goodwin, Zakia; Stern, Jere; Corlett, Rachel; Conway, Julia; McIntosh, Antoinette

    2017-01-01

    The parasitic nematode Angiostrongylus cantonensis is a major cause of eosinophilic meningitis in humans, and has been documented in other incidental hosts such as birds, horses, dogs and non-human primates. It is endemic in Hawaii, and there have been sporadic reports in the southern continental United States. This parasite uses rats as definitive hosts and snails as intermediate hosts. In this study, we collected potential definitive and intermediate hosts throughout Florida to ascertain the geographic distribution in the state: Rats, environmental rat fecal samples, and snails were collected from 18 counties throughout the state. Classical diagnostics and morphological identification, along with molecular techniques were used to identify nematode species and confirm the presence of A. cantonensis. Of the 171 Rattus rattus collected, 39 (22.8%) were positive for A. cantonensis, and 6 of the 37 (16.2%) environmental rat fecal samples collected in three of the surveyed counties were also positive for this parasite by real time PCR. We examined 1,437 gastropods, which represented 32 species; 27 (1.9%) were positive for A. cantonensis from multiple sites across Florida. Three non-native gastropod species, Bradybaena similaris, Zachrysia provisoria, and Paropeas achatinaceum, and three native gastropod species, Succinea floridana, Ventridens demissus, and Zonitoides arboreus, which are newly recorded intermediate hosts for the parasite, were positive for A. cantonensis. This study indicates that A. cantonensis is established in Florida through the finding of adult and larval stages in definitive and intermediate hosts, respectively, throughout the state. The ability for this historically subtropical nematode to thrive in a more temperate climate is alarming, however as the climate changes and average temperatures rise, gastropod distributions will probably expand, leading to the spread of this parasite in more temperate areas. Through greater awareness of host species

  15. Origin of agouti-melanistic polymorphism in Wild Black Rats (Rattus rattus) inferred from Mc1r gene sequences.

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    Kambe, Yoshikazu; Tanikawa, Tsutomu; Matsumoto, Yasuharu; Tomozawa, Morihiko; Aplin, Ken P; Suzuki, Hitoshi

    2011-08-01

    We examined nucleotide changes that underlie coat color variation in Black Rats (the Rattus rattus species complex), which show polymorphism in dorsal fur color, including either grayish brown (agouti) or black (melanistic) forms. We examined the full coding sequence of a gene known to produce melanism in other vertebrates-melanocortin-1-receptor gene Mc1r (954 bp) -using samples of both R. rattus (with 2n = 38) and its close relative Asian Black Rat (R. tanezumi; 2n = 42). We used 61 specimens from Japan with karyotype-known individuals and four samples from Pakistan. We found 11 allele sequences and constructed a network tree that shows two distinct clusters, with allelic segregation according to karyotype and by inference, representing the two species. We found that a nucleotide substitution from G to A at site 280, producing an amino acid change from glutamic acid to lysine, was associated with the dominant trait of the melanistic form of the coat color in R. rattus. Notably, the derived SNP 280A was found in a single allele, with the ancestral SNP 280G present in seven alleles. By contrast, all three alleles for R. tanezumi retain the ancestral SNP 280G. These results suggest a possible recent origin of melanism in R. rattus.

  16. HEMATOLOGICAL STATUS OF THE RAT RATTUS NORVEGICUS IN HYPOTHERMIA

    OpenAIRE

    Damir Suljević; Izet Eminović; Edhem Hasković; Maja Mitrašinović-Brulić

    2013-01-01

    We investigated erythrogram and leukogram in the rats Rattus norvegicus (Wistar strain) during the short-term hypothermia under the laboratory controlled conditions. Control group of animals was anesthetized using diethylether and then heart punction was performed. Experimental group of animals was exposed to short-term hypothermia by "a'frigore" method. Once the body temperature of experimental animals decreased (rectal temperature was 15 °C), ...

  17. Invasion genetics of a human commensal rodent: the black rat Rattus rattus in Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouat, C; Tollenaere, C; Estoup, A; Loiseau, A; Sommer, S; Soanandrasana, R; Rahalison, L; Rajerison, M; Piry, S; Goodman, S M; Duplantier, J-M

    2014-08-01

    Studies focusing on geographical genetic patterns of commensal species and on human history complement each other and provide proxies to trace common colonization events. On Madagascar, the unintentional introduction and spread of the commensal species Rattus rattus by people may have left a living clue of human colonization patterns and history. In this study, we addressed this question by characterizing the genetic structure of natural populations of R. rattus using both microsatellites and mitochondrial sequences, on an extensive sampling across the island. Such data sets were analysed by a combination of methods using population genetics, phylogeography and approximate Bayesian computation. Our results indicated two introduction events to Madagascar from the same ancestral source of R. rattus, one in the extreme north of the island and the other further south. The latter was the source of a large spatial expansion, which may have initially started from an original point located on the southern coast. The inferred timing of introduction events-several centuries ago-is temporally congruent with the Arabian trade network in the Indian Ocean, which was flourishing from the middle of the first millennium. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Stomach nematodes (Mastophorus Muris) in rats (Rattus rattus) are associated with coconut (Cocos nucifera) Habitat at palmyra atoll

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafferty, K.D.; Hathaway, S.A.; Wegmann, A.S.; Shipley, F.S.; Backlin, A.R.; Helm, J.; Fisher, R.N.

    2010-01-01

    Black rats (Rattus rattus) and their stomach nematodes (Mastophorus muris) were historically introduced to islets at Palmyra Atoll in the central Pacific Line Islands. To investigate patterns of parasitism, we trapped rats and quantified nematodes on 13 islets of various sizes and habitat types. Most rats were parasitized (59) with an average of 12 worms per infected rat. Islet size did not greatly influence parasite population biology. Nematodes also did not appear to affect rat condition (weight to skull length). The only strong and consistent factor associated with the mean abundance of nematodes in rats was habitat (dominant cover and locally dominant plant species). Thus, nematodes were much more abundant in rats from sites dominated by coconut trees (Cocos nucifera). Coconut trees may also be an introduced species at Palmyra Atoll. ?? American Society of Parasitologists 2010.

  19. Ear mange mites (Notoedres muris) in black and Norway rats (Rattus rattus and Rattus norvegicus) from inner-city Vancouver, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anholt, Heather; Himsworth, Chelsea; Rothenburger, Jamie; Proctor, Heather; Patrick, David M

    2014-01-01

    The ear mange mite, Notoedres muris (Astigmata: Sarcoptidae), is a parasitic burrowing mite of black and Norway rats (Rattus rattus and Rattus norvegicus), which causes a proliferative dermatitis primarily affecting the ears. We characterize the ecology of N. muris in a group of black and Norway rats trapped in an inner-city area of Vancouver, Canada. Rats (n = 725) were trapped for 1 yr (September 2011-August 2012) in 43 city blocks (0.82 km(2)) and one property (0.03 km(2)) within an international shipping port at the northern border of the study area. Mite infestation was diagnosed in 15 of 32 rats (47%, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 30.9-53.6%) trapped in a large indoor facility at the port property. No affected animals were identified outside this facility, either within the port property or in any of the blocks under study. There was a positive relationship between infestation and both weight and nose-to-rump length (proxies for age), suggesting transmission through intraspecific social contact within colonies. This is the first report of N. muris in Canada. The focal distribution of N. muris at the port may reflect an importation event.

  20. The effect of long term administration of lemon juice on rat (rattus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of long term administration of lemon juice on rat (rattus rattus) liver. CPR Chike, EB Dede, E Otiede. Abstract. The effect of the long term administration of lemon juice on rat liver was investigated. The experiment lasted for four weeks. 24 albino wistar strain rats (14 males and 10 females) of weight ranging between ...

  1. Rat hepatitis E virus derived from wild rats (Rattus rattus) propagates efficiently in human hepatoma cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jirintai, Suljid; Tanggis; Mulyanto; Suparyatmo, Joseph Benedictus; Takahashi, Masaharu; Kobayashi, Tominari; Nagashima, Shigeo; Nishizawa, Tsutomu; Okamoto, Hiroaki

    2014-06-24

    Although rat hepatitis E virus (HEV) has been identified in wild rats, no cell culture systems for this virus have been established. A recent report suggesting the presence of antibodies against rat HEV in human sera encouraged us to cultivate rat HEV in human cells. When liver homogenates obtained from wild rats (Rattus rattus) in Indonesia were inoculated onto human hepatocarcinoma cells, the rat HEV replicated efficiently in PLC/PRF/5, HuH-7 and HepG2 cells, irrespective of its genetic group (G1-G3). The rat HEV particles released from cultured cells harbored lipid-associated membranes on their surface that were depleted by treatment with detergent and protease, with the buoyant density in sucrose shifting from 1.15-1.16 g/ml to 1.27-1.28 g/ml. A Northern blotting analysis revealed genomic RNA of 7.0 kb and subgenomic RNA of 2.0 kb in the infected cells. The subgenomic RNA of G1-G3 each possessed the extreme 5'-end sequence of GUAGC (nt 4933-4937), downstream of the highly conserved sequence of GAAUAACA (nt 4916-4923). The establishment of culture systems for rat HEV would allow for extended studies of the mechanisms of viral replication and functional roles of HEV proteins. Further investigation is required to clarify the zoonotic potential of rat HEV. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. AFLP genome scan in the black rat (Rattus rattus) from Madagascar: detecting genetic markers undergoing plague-mediated selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tollenaere, C; Duplantier, J-M; Rahalison, L; Ranjalahy, M; Brouat, C

    2011-03-01

    The black rat (Rattus rattus) is the main reservoir of plague (Yersinia pestis infection) in Madagascar's rural zones. Black rats are highly resistant to plague within the plague focus (central highland), whereas they are susceptible where the disease is absent (low altitude zone). To better understand plague wildlife circulation and host evolution in response to a highly virulent pathogen, we attempted to determine genetic markers associated with plague resistance in this species. To this purpose, we combined a population genomics approach and an association study, both performed on 249 AFLP markers, in Malagasy R. rattus. Simulated distributions of genetic differentiation were compared to observed data in four independent pairs, each consisting of one population from the plague focus and one from the plague-free zone. We found 22 loci (9% of 249) with higher differentiation in at least two independent population pairs or with combining P-values over the four pairs significant. Among the 22 outlier loci, 16 presented significant association with plague zone (plague focus vs. plague-free zone). Population genetic structure inferred from outlier loci was structured by plague zone, whereas the neutral loci dataset revealed structure by geography (eastern vs. western populations). A phenotype association study revealed that two of the 22 loci were significantly associated with differentiation between dying and surviving rats following experimental plague challenge. The 22 outlier loci identified in this study may undergo plague selective pressure either directly or more probably indirectly due to hitchhiking with selected loci. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. The prevalence of Leptospira sp in sewer rats (Rattus norvegicus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krøigaard, Louise; Villumsen, Steen; Markussen, Mette Drude

    The Norway rat (Rattus norvegicus) is the main reservoir of one of the most disease inducing species of Leptospira, L. icterohaemorrhagiae. In Denmark there are only a few yearly registered cases of L. icterohaemorrhagiae derived leptospirosis in man, but in general the disease is believed to much...... more abundant. Previous research programs have focused on monitoring Leptospira sp. in rural rats and dates back to the 1980ties. To determine the prevalence of leptospires in sewer rats, we therefore initiated a study ultimo 2006. Up to 80 % of rat incidences in urban areas may be related to sewer......, L. santarosai, L. meyeri, L. interrogans, L. weilii and L. borgpetersenii by PCR. PCR was performed on DNA extracted from kidneys with primer G1/G2 which amplifies a leptospira DNA fragment of 285 bp. For determination of leptospira serovar types, PCR was combined with MAT (Microscopic Agglutination...

  4. Quantity Discrimination in Domestic Rats, Rattus norvegicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Laura; Montrose, V Tamara

    2016-08-03

    Quantity discrimination is a basic form of numerical competence where an animal distinguishes which of two amounts is greater in size. Whilst quantity discrimination in rats has been investigated via training paradigms, rats' natural quantity discrimination abilities without explicit training for a desired response have not been explored. This study investigated domestic rats' ability to perform quantity discrimination. Domestic rats ( n = 12) were examined for their ability to distinguish the larger amount under nine quantity comparisons. One-sample t -tests identified a significant preference for the larger quantity in comparisons of 1 vs. 2, 2 vs. 3, 3 vs. 5, 3 vs. 8, 4 vs. 6, and 4 vs. 8. No preference between quantities was found for comparisons of 3 vs. 4, 4 vs. 5 and 5 vs. 6. Overall, this study drew two key conclusions. Firstly, that domestic rats are capable of performing quantity discrimination without extensive training. Secondly, as subjects adhered to Weber's law, it was concluded that the approximate number system underpins domestic rats' ability to perform spontaneous quantity discrimination.

  5. Ultrasonic Vocalizations by Adult Rats (Rattus norvegicus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-12-01

    Each animal was kept in an unused, quiet room. Food and water were checked daily, and female estrus cycles were monitored by daily vaginal smears...Independence of ultrasonic vocali- zation and thermogenic responses in infant rats. Behavioral Neuroscience, 105, 41-48 (1991). Hofer, M.A., and

  6. developing cerebellum of wistar rat (Rattus Novergicus)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    trol animals were fed a standard diet of mice cubes, while the experimental animals were fed 500 ppm potas- .... is responsible for the rapid and fatal toxic effect of cya- nide'°. Considering the important function of the ..... tion bctween Vitamin E and glutathione in rat brain — effect of acute alcohol administration. Journal of ...

  7. HEMATOLOGICAL STATUS OF THE RAT RATTUS NORVEGICUS IN HYPOTHERMIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damir Suljević

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated erythrogram and leukogram in the rats Rattus norvegicus (Wistar strain during the short-term hypothermia under the laboratory controlled conditions. Control group of animals was anesthetized using diethylether and then heart punction was performed. Experimental group of animals was exposed to short-term hypothermia by "a'frigore" method. Once the body temperature of experimental animals decreased (rectal temperature was 15 °C, we performed punction of the heart. Hematological status was determined by the following parameters: erythrogram (red blood cell count, hematocrit (Hct, hemoglobin (Hb, MCV, MCH and MCHC and leukogram (leukocytes, segmented and non-segmented neutrophils, eosinophilic and basophilic granulocytes, lymphocytes and monocytes. Under hypothermic conditions, a significant decrease in neutrophilic granulocytes and increase in lymphocytes were noted. The red blood cell count and hemoglobin concentrations were significantly increased while the values of MCV and MCH decreased in hypothermia. Key words: hypothermia, erythrogram, leukogram

  8. Basic Microsurgery Training Using the Laboratory Rat (Rattus norvegicus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-23

    Rattus norvegicus)" PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (PI) / TRAINING COORDINATOR (TC): Maj Ryan Diepenbrock DEPARTMENT: SGDS PHONE #: 707-423-7085 INITIAL...Include Name, Protocol function - PI/CI/AI/TC/lnstructor, IACUC approval -Yes/No) Maj Ryan Diepenbrock (PI) IACUC Approval Yes 18Jun 15 DELETIONS

  9. Rattus Novergicus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    traction in fresh wounds inflicted on wistar rats was car- ried out. Method: TWenty adult male wistar rats had 2cm by 2cm square wound inflicted on their right .... solateral aspect of the trunk with an electric clipper and the skin cleaned with methylated spirit. A 20m2 by 220m square was traced on the skin with an already cut ...

  10. Effects of Neem (Azadirachta indic and Custard Apple (Annona reticulata Diets on Sterility of House Rat (Rattus rattus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prem Nidhi Sharma

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Three different plant products diets – i neem (Azadirachta indic A. Juss oil mixed diet (neem oil mixed @ 80 ml/kg of normal diet, ii neem seed powder mixed diet (neem seed powder mixed @ 80 g/kg of normal diet and iii custard apple (Annona reticulata L. seed powder mixed diet (custard apple seed powder mixed @ 80 g/kg of normal diet were separately fed to mature rats (Rattus rattus with single dose feeding of 80 g per pair in a day on 13th week-age during the experimenting years, 2012/013 and 2013/014. In control group only normal diet without neem and custard apple constituents were fed. Sterility test of rat was conducted up to 38 and 28 weeks-age in first and second year, respectively. The test rats were fed normal diet during whole experimenting periods except the one day when they were fed only the neem or custard apple mixed diet on the age of 13th week. Efficacy of the mixed diets on rat-sterility was determined based on pregnancy and parturition by the rats. The two years' results confirmed that all the tested three mixed diets – neem oil mixed diet, neem seed powder mixed diet, and custard apple seed powder mixed diet were effective to stop pregnancy and parturition in rats during whole experimenting periods up to 38 and 28 weeks-age with single dose feeding of 80 g per pair (40 gm/rat in a day on 13th week-age of the rats; whereas the pregnancy and parturition were observed in the rats that were fed only the normal diet. It is expected, neem and custard apple mixed diets can be utilized in reducing the economically important rodent populations in rice-wheat cropping system in future.

  11. Poultry egg components as cereal bait additives for enhancing rodenticide based control success and trap index of house rat, Rattus rattus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singla, Neena; Kanwar, Deepia

    2014-05-01

    To compare the acceptance and efficacy of cereal bait containing different concentrations of poultry egg components in laboratory and poultry farms to control house rat, Rattus rattus (R. rattus). Acceptance of cereal bait containing different concentrations (2%, 5% and 10%) of poultry egg components such as egg shell powder (ESP), egg albumin (EA) and crushed egg shell as bait additives were studied after exposing them to different groups of rats in bi-choice with bait without additive. Behaviour of rats towards cereal bait containing 2% concentration of different egg components was recorded in no-choice conditions through Food Scale Consumption Monitor. In poultry farm predominantly infested with R. rattus, acceptance and efficacy of 2% zinc phosphide bait containing 2% EA and ESP was evaluated. Trap success of single rat traps containing chapatti pieces smeared with 2% EA and 2% ESP was also evaluated in poultry farm. In bi-choice tests, significantly (Pegg albumin and egg shell powder in cereal bait to enhance acceptance and efficacy of 2% zinc phosphide bait against R. rattus. This may further help in checking the spread of rodent borne diseases to animals and humans.

  12. Global population divergence and admixture of the brown rat (Rattus norvegicus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Puckett, Emily E.; Park, Jane; Combs, Matthew; Blum, Michael J.; Bryant, Juliet E.; Caccone, Adalgisa; Costa, Federico; Deinum, Eva E.; Esther, Alexandra; Himsworth, Chelsea G.; Keightley, Peter D.; Ko, Albert; Lundkvist, Åke; McElhinney, Lorraine M.; Morand, Serge; Robins, Judith; Russell, James; Strand, Tanja M.; Suarez, Olga; Yon, Lisa; Munshi-South, Jason

    2016-01-01

    Native to China and Mongolia, the brown rat (Rattus norvegicus) now enjoys a worldwide distribution. While black rats and the house mouse tracked the regional development of human agricultural settlements, brown rats did not appear in Europe until the 1500s, suggesting their range expansion was a

  13. Data from: Global population divergence and admixture of the brown rat (Rattus norvegicus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Puckett, Emily E.; Park, Jane; Combs, Matthew; Blum, Michael J.; Bryant, Juliet E.; Caccone, Adalgisa; Costa, Federico; Deinum, E.E.

    2016-01-01

    Native to China and Mongolia, the brown rat (Rattus norvegicus) now enjoys a worldwide distribution. While black rats and the house mouse tracked the regional development of human agricultural settlements, brown rats did not appear in Europe until the 1500s, suggesting their range expansion was a

  14. Rats (Rattus norvegicus and Rattus losea) harboring Seoul hantavirus in Qingyuan, southern China: a survey during 2011-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaokang; Shi, Yuling; Huang, Ping; Deng, Yuanling; Wu, De; Liang, Lijun; Lin, Jinyan

    2014-09-01

    Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) is a zoonotic disease, which threatens public health and its incidence has increased sharply up to the present time in southern China. A survey of HFRS including in both the natural hosts and humans conducted in Qingyuan, southern China, during 2011-2013 revealed that one, two and seven confirmed cases of HFRS occurred in 2011, 2012 and 2013, respectively. Rodent densities ranged 1.73%-12.2% and Seoul hantavirus was detected by RT-PCR only in Rattus norvegicus and Rattus losea. The positive rate in humans was 0.95% serologically and 0.94% with IIFA in 2011 and 2013, respectively. DNA fragments detected in Rattus norvegicus and Rattus losea were highly homologous with those of Seoul hantavirus HB55 (96.2%) and L99 (95.1%), respectively. Thus HFRS is becoming an emerging and dangerous disease in southern China and it is necessary to further perform molecular characterization of strains isolated from rodents and humans.

  15. PREVALENCE AND CHARACTERISTICS OF ESCHERICHIA COLI AND SALMONELLA SPP. IN THE FECES OF WILD URBAN NORWAY AND BLACK RATS (RATTUS NORVEGICUS AND RATTUS RATTUS) FROM AN INNER-CITY NEIGHBORHOOD OF VANCOUVER, CANADA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himsworth, Chelsea G; Zabek, Erin; Desruisseau, Andrea; Parmley, E Jane; Reid-Smith, Richard; Jardine, Claire M; Tang, Patrick; Patrick, David M

    2015-07-01

    Although rat feces are widely suspected to be a source of pathogenic bacteria, few investigators have studied fecal pathogens in rats. We investigated the prevalence and characteristics of Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. in Norway and black rats (Rattus norvegicus and Rattus rattus, respectively) from an urban neighborhood of Vancouver, Canada, collected September 2011-August 2012. Colon content was cultured for E. coli and Salmonella spp. and screened for the seven most-common enteropathogenic Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) serotypes by PCR. Isolates were tested for antimicrobial resistance and Salmonella isolates were serotyped. We detected E. coli in 397/633 (62.7%) urban rats. Forty-one of 397 (6.5%) E. coli isolates were resistant to ≥ 1 antimicrobial while 17 (4.3%) were multidrug resistant (including two isolates demonstrating extended-spectrum β-lactamase resistance). Ten of 633 (1.6%) urban rats were carrying STEC serotypes including O145, O103, O26, and O45. Norway rats were more likely to be carrying E. coli compared to black rats, and there was geographic clustering of specific resistance patterns and STEC serotypes. Salmonella spp. were detected in 3/633 (0.5%) rats including serotypes Derby, Indiana, and Enteritidis. In contrast to zoonotic pathogens for which rats are the natural reservoir (e.g., Leptospira interrogans, Rickettsia typhi, Seoul virus), rats likely acquired E. coli and Salmonella spp. from their environment. The ability of rats to be a 'sponge' for environmental pathogens has received little consideration, and the ecology and public health significance of these organisms in rats requires further investigation.

  16. Blood-Serum Proteins of Rattus rattus and Rattus norvegicus (Mammalia: Rodentia) in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Nuri YİĞİT; VERİMLİ, Reyhan; ÇOLAK, Ercüment; SÖZEN, Mustafa

    2001-01-01

    The blood serum proteins of 35 live specimens of Rattus rattus and Rattus norvegicus collected from ten localities in Turkey were examined by SDS-PAGE (sodium dodecyl sulphate - polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis). Globulin, albumin, postalbumin, and prealbumin proteins in blood serum showed different electrophoretic patterns in populations of R. rattusand R. norvegicus.Because of the variations in electrophoretic patterns of both species, these patterns do not seem to be diagnostic char...

  17. Isolation and characterization of microsatellites in Rattus rattus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Loiseau, A.; Rahelinirina, S.; Rahalison, L.; Konečný, Adam; Duplantier, J.-M.; Brouat, C.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 4 (2008), s. 916-918 ISSN 1755-098X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA6093404 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : genetic diversity * microsatellite * Rattus rattus * Rodentia Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  18. Survey of cardiovascular pathology in wild urban Rattus norvegicus and Rattus rattus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothenburger, J L; Himsworth, C G; Treuting, P M; Leighton, F A

    2015-01-01

    Norway (Rattus norvegicus) and black rats (Rattus rattus) are common commensal pests, yet little is known about the ecology of wild rats, including their natural diseases. We describe microscopic cardiovascular pathology in a subset of a sample of 725 wild urban rats. Changes observed in the pulmonary blood vessels (n = 199) included arteriolar medial hypertrophy (20.1%, n = 40) and blood vessel mineralization (19.1%, n = 38). Microscopic changes in the heart (n = 200) included myocarditis (33.5%, n = 67), fibrosis (6.0%, n = 12), mineralization (9.5%, n = 19), myocardial degeneration (22.0%, n = 44), and right ventricular hypertrophy (4.5%, n = 9). Rats with myocarditis, fibrosis, or myocardial degeneration were grouped into a composite variable: cardiomyopathy. Statistical analysis showed that the odds of being affected by cardiomyopathy were greater in male rats (odds ratio [OR] = 2.49; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.12-5.55) and heavier rats (OR = 1.14; 95% CI = 1.09-1.20). The odds of pulmonary arteriolar medial hypertrophy was greater in sexually mature rats (OR = 2.35; 95% CI = 0.75-7.36), while the odds of pulmonary vessel mineralization were greater in heavier rats (OR = 1.07; 95% CI = 1.03-1.11) and in black rats (OR = 5.35; 95% CI = 1.62-17.69) compared to Norway rats. To our knowledge, this is the first detailed description of pathology in the cardiovascular system of wild rats and demonstrates that cardiovascular disease is common. The impact of these lesions on individual and population health remains to be investigated. © The Author(s) 2014.

  19. Record of Tropical Rat Mite, Ornithonyssus bacoti (Acari: Mesostigmata: Macronyssidae from Domestic and Peridomestic Rodents (Rattus rattus in Nilgiris, Tamil Nadu, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pranab Jyoti-Bhuyan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tropical rat mite (Ornithonyssus bacoti is reported from many parts of the world and is considered important in transmitting rickettsial pathogens. There have been scanty reports on prevalence of this parasite from India. Following a recent report of O. bacoti infestation in a laboratory mice colony from Nilgiris, Tamil Nadu, In­dia, attempts were made to detect the parasite in its natural reservoir, ie the domestic and peridomestic rats (Rattus rattus.Methods: The National Centre for Disease Control, Coonoor is involved in screening plague in domestic and peridomestic rats in Nilgiris and erstwhile plague endemic areas of Southern India. The parasite samples were identi­fied based on the morphological characteristics attributable to O. bacoti and as per description of published literature.Results: Seven mite samples identified as O. bacoti based on morphological characteristics were isolated inci­dentally from domestic and peridomestic rodents in and around the hilly districts of Nilgiris, Southern India, during the routine plague surveillance programme. The identification was based on the morphological characteristics at­tributable to O. bacoti observed under a low power microscope.Conclusion: In India, this is probably the first record of isolation of O. bacoti from domestic and peridomestic ro­dents. Prevalence of such parasite in domestic and peridomestic rats necessitates further investigation on monitoring and surveillance of rickettsial diseases in the locality, as these parasites are considered to be potential vector of transmitting rickettsial pathogens

  20. Molecular and serological evidence for Seoul virus in rats (Rattus norvegicus) in Zhangmu, Tibet, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Tingsong; Fan, Quanshui; Hu, Xiaobing; Deng, Bo; Chen, Gang; Gu, Liangqi; Li, Ming; Zheng, Ying; Yuan, Guihong; Qiu, Wei; Jiang, Xiaomei; Zhang, Fuqiang

    2015-05-01

    We report the detection of a virus, tentatively identified as Seoul virus (SEOV), from a rat (Rattus norvegicus) collected in the city of Zhangmu, Tibet. SEOV RNA was detected in lung tissue by reverse transcription (RT)-PCR, followed by sequencing. Serum samples collected from Zhangmu were positive for SEOV-specific antibodies (indirect fluorescent antibody test that used SEO antigen). Sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of partial L and S sequences together with serology results suggest that the Zhangmu01 hantavirus is an isolate of SEOV, that hantaviruses circulate in Tibet, and that rats may act as natural reservoirs for the virus.

  1. Identification of cytochrome P450 differentiated expression related to developmental stages in bromadiolone resistance in rats (Rattus norvegicus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Mette; Heiberg, Ann-Charlotte; Fredholm, Merete

    2008-01-01

    Adult, 20-week-old, rats from a Danish bromadiolone-resistant strain of rats (Rattus norvegicus) overexpresss the cytochrome P450 genes Cyp2e1, Cyp3a2 and Cyp3a3 upon bromadiolone exposure. Furthermore, adult female rats of this strain over-express the Cyp2c13 gene and suppress Cyp2c12, while males...

  2. Schistosome-induced portacaval haemodynamic changes in Rattus rattus are associated with translocation of adult worms to the lungs

    OpenAIRE

    Imbert-Establet, D.; Mone, H.; Coulson, P.S.; Wilson, R A

    1998-01-01

    The presence of naturally portacaval shunts has been investigated in the vasculature of normal and Schistosoma mansoni-infected Rattus rattus. Using the technique of injecting Polystyrene microspheres in the superior mesenteric vein, we demonstrated that the presence of adult schistosomes in the lungs of R. rattus was not due to an innate anomaly of the rat vasculature but resulted from the formation of portacaval shunts during infection. In rats harbouring a bisexual infection, microspheres ...

  3. Capillaria hepatica in wild Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus) from Vancouver, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothenburger, Jamie L; Himsworth, Chelsea G; Chang, Victoria; LeJeune, Manigandan; Leighton, Frederick A

    2014-07-01

    Capillaria hepatica is a parasitic nematode that infects the liver of rats (Rattus spp.), and occasionally other mammalian species, including humans. Despite its broad geographic distribution and host range, the ecology of this parasite remains poorly understood. We characterized the ecology of C. hepatica in urban Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus) in Vancouver, Canada. The overall prevalence of C. hepatica among Norway rats was 36% (241/671); however, there was significant variation in prevalence among city blocks. Using a generalized linear mixed model to control for clustering by block (where OR is odds ratio and CI is confidence interval), we found C. hepatica infection was negatively associated with season (spring [OR=0.14, 95% CI=0.05-0.39]; summer [OR=0.14, 95% CI=0.03-0.61]; winter [OR=0.34, 95% CI=0.13-0.84], compared to fall) and positively associated with sexual maturity (OR: 7.29, 95% CI=3.98-13.36) and presence of cutaneous bite wounds (OR=1.87, 95% CI=1.11-3.16). Our understanding of the ecology of C. hepatica in rats is hindered by a paucity of data regarding the main mechanisms of transmission (e.g., environmental exposure vs. active cannibalism). However, associations among infection, season, maturity, and bite wounds could suggest that social interactions, possibly including cannibalism, may be important in transmission.

  4. Avian Pathogenicity Genes and Antibiotic Resistance in Escherichia coli Isolates from Wild Norway Rats ( Rattus norvegicus ) in British Columbia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himsworth, Chelsea G; Zabek, Erin; Desruisseau, Andrea; Parmley, E Jane; Reid-Smith, Richard; Leslie, Mira; Ambrose, Neil; Patrick, David M; Cox, William

    2016-04-28

    We report avian pathogenic and antibiotic resistant Escherichia coli in wild Norway rats ( Rattus norvegicus ) trapped at a commercial chicken hatchery in British Columbia, Canada, and provide evidence that rats can become colonized with, and possibly act as a source of, poultry pathogens present in their environment.

  5. The effect of fluoride on the serum level of calcium in the rat (Rattus norvegicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fočak M.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of fluoride on the calcium level in serum was analyzed in the laboratory rat Rattus norvegicus. The control group consisted of 10, and the experimental group of 15 animals. In the experimental group, fluoride at a concentration of 3 mg/100 g body weight of rats was intramuscularly injected into the musculus gluteus maximus. The concentration of calcium was measured by the CPC method. The average serum calcium concentration was 2.46 mmol/l, with female rats having higher values of serum calcium than male rats. Fluoride caused the reduction of calcium concentration in serum (p<0.05; the reduction was significantly expressed in female rats (p<0.000.

  6. Detection and molecular identification of Cryptosporidium species in laboratory rats (Rattus norvegicus) in Ibadan, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayinmode, Adekunle Bamidele; Ogbonna, Nkeiruka Fortunate; Widmer, Giovanni

    To study the occurrence of Cryptosporidium infection in laboratory rats (Rattus norvegicus) raised for experimental usage, 134 faecal samples were obtained from two rearing houses in Ibadan and examined for the presence of Cryptosporidium oocyst using the modified acid fast staining technique. Cryptosporidium species in 2 samples positive for microscopy were further characterized by a nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplifying the 18S rRNA gene. Two of 134 samples were positive for the Cryptosporidium oocysts. Sequencing of the small-subunit rRNA amplicons identified the species in the two PCR positive samples as Cryptosporidium andersoni and Cryptosporidium rat genotype. These findings showed that laboratory rat is a potential reservoir for diverse Cryptosporidium species and suggests that laboratory rats should be screened for Cryptosporidium infection prior to experiments, especially where pathogen free animals are not available. This the first report to identify Cryptosporidium species infecting laboratory rats in Nigeria.

  7. ( Rattus norvegicus ) Fed with Dietary Cadmium

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Histological changes in the kidney tissues of albino rats (Rattus norvegicus) fed 100mg/kg body weight of cadmium sulphate incorporated as food material has been studied in vivo in an acute toxicological experiment. The behavioural pattern and physical changes in the rats were also investigated. Loss of weight and ...

  8. Detection of hemotropic mycoplasmas in free-living brown sewer rats (Rattus norvegicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sashida, Hinako; Sasaoka, Fumina; Suzuki, Jin; Watanabe, Yusaku; Fujihara, Masatoshi; Nagai, Kazuya; Kobayashi, Saori; Furuhama, Kazuhisa; Harasawa, Ryô

    2013-07-31

    The prevalence of hemotropic mycoplasmas in wild rodents is largely unknown. Here, we report the presence of hemoplasmas in blood samples collected from brown sewer rats (Rattus norvegicus) trapped during rodent control around an animal hospital in Morioka, Japan. We examined nine rats using real-time PCR and end-point PCR, and found one rat (11.1%) that was positive for a hemoplasma infection. The 16S rRNA gene and 16S to 23S rRNA intergenic spacer region of the hemoplasma detected in a wild-caught rat were amplified using PCR. The nucleotide sequences of the PCR products were further determined and compared to those of other hemoplasmas. Our examinations revealed the presence of a hemoplasma that has not previously been described in rodents. The pathogenic traits of this hemoplasma remain unexplored.

  9. Surgery and electrochemotherapy treatment of incompletely excised mammary carcinoma in two male pet rats (Rattus norvegicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanza, Andrea; Pettorali, Michela; Baldi, Alfonso; Spugnini, Enrico P

    2017-03-23

    Two male rats (Rattus norvegicus; 18 and 24 months old), were referred for treatment of large masses located in the axillary area. Following total body radiography and hematological and serum biochemical analysis, the rats were anesthetized, and the masses were surgically removed. Both lesions were diagnosed as mammary carcinoma based on histopathological diagnosis. The tumor beds were treated with two sessions of electrochemotherapy (ECT), two weeks apart. ECT involved cisplatin administration in the tumor bed, followed by a series of eight biphasic electric pulses. The treatment was well tolerated, and the rats were disease-free after 10 and 14 months. Therefore, adjuvant ECT resulted in good local control of mammary carcinoma and can potentially be used for adjuvant treatment of pet rats with cutaneous and adnexal tumors.

  10. Tool manipulation by rats (Rattus norvegicus) according to the position of food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagano, Akane; Aoyama, Kenjiro

    2017-07-20

    Tool-use behaviour has been observed in nonhuman animals in the wild and in experimental settings. In the present study, we investigated whether rats (Rattus norvegicus) could manipulate a tool according to the position of food to obtain the food in an experimental setting. Eight rats were trained to use a rake-shaped tool to obtain food beyond their reach using a step-by-step protocol in the initial training period. Following training, the rake was placed at the centre of the experimental apparatus, and food was placed on either the left or right side of the rake. Rats learned to manipulate the rake to obtain food in situations in which they could not obtain the food just by pulling the rake perpendicularly to themselves. Our findings thus indicate that the rat is a potential animal model to investigate the behavioural and neural mechanisms of tool-use behaviour.

  11. Immune Responses of Wistar Rat (Rattus novergicus on Adduction of Humid Acid from Borneo Peat Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diah Wulandari Rousdy

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Peat soil is a type of soil that dominates the island of Borneo. Typical compounds in peat soil is humic acid. Various in vitro studies performed have shown peat subtropical humic compounds can stimulate the immune system. However, in vivo study on animal has not been done. This study aimed to determine the effect of humic acid extracted from peat soil of Borneo against the immune system, both of non-specific and specific immunity Wistar rats (Rattus novergicus. Research using a completely randomized design with five treatments and five replicates, the normal controls, a positive control (isoprinosine, humic acid 125; 250; 500 mg/kg. Humic acid was administered orally for 10 days. The results showed humic acid adduction did not significantly affect levels of hemoglobin, erythrocytes and hematocrit. Humic acid adduction of 125 mg/kg significantly affects the total leukocyte count and differential leukocyte. Humic acid 125 mg/kg also showed increased phagocytic index better than normal controls. All humic acid treatments do not provide a significant effect on the total amount of antibody. The results of this study can be used for the development of Borneo tropical peat resources as natural imunostimulant.How to CiteRousdy, D. W., Rahmawati, R. & Kurniatuhadi, R. (2016. Immune Responses of Wistar Rat (Rattus novergicus on Adduction of Humid Acid from Borneo Peat Soil. Biosaintifika: Journal of Biology & Biology Education, 8(3, 401-406. 

  12. Karyotype evolution and species differentiation in the genus Rattus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rattus is the most studied genus all over the world but species of the genus are not thoroughly reported from Manipur. The present paper deals with the morphometric, cytotaxonomic and phylogenetic studies of Manipur, India. The different species of Rattus namely Rattus rattus, Rattus brunneusculus, Rattus tanezumi and ...

  13. Uterine torsion in a Sprague Dawley rat (Rattus norvegicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. H. Erlwanger

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Uterine torsion is a twisting of the uterus or uterine horn perpendicular to its long axis.We report a case of uterine torsion in an adult breeding Sprague Dawley rat. The rat died a month after her last recorded delivery. Post mortem examination of the rat revealed 270° torsion of the right uterine horn. The uterus contained a single foetus. The liver was pale and enlarged. The rest of the viscera appeared normal. Histopathological examination showed acute hepatic necrosis and pulmonary congestion with mild lymphocytic infiltrates peribronchially. The acute hepatic necrosis may have been associated with septicaemia due to compromised blood vessels following the uterine torsion. The presence of a single foetus could have resulted in foeto-maternal disproportion with resultant uterine torsion. Torsion of the uterus can be accompanied by haemostatic and metabolic complications, which could have caused the death of the rat. Although uterine torsion is a rare condition in rats, it should be considered as a potential complication of gestation in animal breeding units.

  14. The Taxonomy and Karyology of Rattus norvegicus (Berkenhout, 1769) and Rattus rattus (Linnaeus, 1758) (Rodentia: Muridae) in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Nuri YİĞİT; ÇOLAK, Ercüment; SÖZEN, Mustafa

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the Turkish population of Rattus norvegicus and Rattus rattus were studied with regard to external, cranial, phalli, bacula and tooth crown morphology and karyotype. External, internal and karyologic characteristics of R. norvegicus were found to be consistent with previously published results. Additionally, it was determined that there are striking color variations in the dorsal and ventral fur of R. rattus and that crown morphology is not a definitive characteristic distin...

  15. Functional analysis of mutual behavior in laboratory rats (Rattus norvegicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Lavinia; Hackenberg, Timothy D

    2016-02-01

    Three pairs of rats were trained to synchronize their lever pressing according to a mutual reinforcement contingency, in which alternating lever presses that fell within a 500-ms window were reinforced with food. In Experiment 1, rats worked in adjacent chambers separated by a transparent barrier, and the effects of the mutual reinforcement contingency were compared with those under yoked-control conditions that provided the same rate of food reinforcement but without the temporal coordination response requirement. In Experiment 2, coordinated behavior was compared with and without a barrier, and across different barrier types: transparent, opaque, wire mesh. In Experiment 3, the effects of social familiarity were assessed by switching partners, enabling a comparison of coordinated behavior with familiar and unfamiliar partners. The overall pattern of results shows that the coordinated behavior of 2 rats was (a) maintained by mutual reinforcement contingencies, (b) unrelated to the type or presence of a barrier separating the rats, and (c) sufficiently flexible to adjust to the presence and behavior of an unfamiliar partner. Taken as a whole, the study illustrates a promising approach to conceptualizing and analyzing behavioral mechanisms of mutual behavior, an important component of an integrated study of social behavior. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Development of an experimental albino rat ( Rattus norvegicus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The selected group was tested for reproducibility in experiment 2 using the remaining thirty rats randomly assigned into three groups (A, B and C). ... weight every other day for 20 days ranked topmost among others with the highest reductions in the RBC counts (46.62%), Hb (55.25%) and PCV (46.20%), and no mortality.

  17. Femoral strength after induced lesions in rats (Rattus norvegicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belill, Kathryn A; Settle, Timothy L; Angel, C Roselina; Kim, Seon-Woo; Rothwell, Stephen W

    2014-06-01

    Rats are a common model for the study of bone healing, with the cranium, femur, and tibia being the bones studied most frequently. This study examines noncritical-sized lesions that would allow rats to continue to bear weight without the need for fixation but that are sufficiently large to enable characterization of the healing process. We compared the femoral bone strength associated with 3 lesion sizes selected for use in future studies. Sprague-Dawley rats (age, 10 to 16 wk) were used to assess the ultimate breaking strength, stress, and break force of normal, unmanipulated femurs. We then created lesions of 3 different sizes in the mid- to distal diaphysis of the left and right femurs and characterized the associated decreases in bone strength. Femurs (n = 85) for this study were collected through tissue sharing from rats used in other acute surgical procedures and were tested by using a 3-point bending flexural materials-testing machine. Our hypothesis was that, as a model for bone healing, 3 induced lesions of different sizes would show incremental and proportional decreases in femoral strength, with the intermediate-sized (1.5-mm) lesion demonstrating a decrease of 20% to 40%. A lesion of 1.5 mm yielded a decrease in strength of 17% for both the left and right femurs. The strength of left femurs carrying intermediate lesions was significantly less than that of control, uninjured femur bones. In addition to providing validation for our own future bone-healing project, these data are a useful baseline for other investigators studying bone healing in a rat femur model.

  18. Feminine dimension in the play fighting of rats (Rattus norvegicus) and its defeminization neonatally by androgens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellis, S M; Pellis, V C; McKenna, M M

    1994-03-01

    In rats (Rattus norvegicus), juvenile males engage in more play fighting (a male-typical behavior) than do juvenile females, and this difference is based on perinatal influences of androgens. We show that there are qualitative and quantitative differences between the sexes in the type of defensive responses and their manner of execution. In defensive responses rats try to avoid having their napes contacted by the partner's snout. The sex differences arise from females' greater response distance; that is, females responded to an approach when the partner's snout was further from the nape. This permits females to use different defensive responses and to use them more successfully. This greater response distance is defeminized by the neonatal administration of testosterone propionate. Our findings suggest that play fighting in rats has both male- and female-typical features and that these are, at least in part, influenced perinatally by androgens.

  19. Food Color Induced Hepatotoxicity in Swiss Albino Rats, Rattus norvegicus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Beenam; Sharma, Shiv

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Certain dietary constituents can induce toxicity and play a critical role in the development of several hepatic disorders. Tartrazine, metanil yellow and sunset yellow are widely used azo dyes in food products, so the present study is aimed to investigate the food color induced hepatotoxicity in Swiss albino rats. Materials and Methods: Swiss albino rats were divided into four groups, each group having six animals. Group I served as control, Group II, Group III and Group IV were administered with 25, 50 and 75 mg/kg body weight blend of sunset yellow, metanil yellow and tartrazine for 30 days. Hepatotoxicity in rats treated with a blend of these food colors was studied by assessing parameters such as serum total protein, serum albumin, serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) as well as hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA). The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), reduced glutathione (GSH) and catalase (CAT) were assessed. Results: Significantly increased concentrations of serum total protein, serum albumin, serum ALP and hepatic MDA and significantly lowered levels of SOD, reduced GSH and CAT in the liver tissue of treated animals were observed when compared with control animals. The alteration in the liver includes necrosis of hepatocytes, infiltration and vacuolation. Conclusion: The result indicates that consumption of food color in diet induces liver tissue damage. The used doses of food color were mostly attributable to hepatocellular damage and drastic alteration in antioxidant defense system. PMID:26862277

  20. Anticipation is differently expressed in rats (Rattus norvegicus) and domestic cats (Felis silvestris catus) in the same Pavlovian conditioning paradigm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, van den R.; Meijer, M.K.; Renselaar, van J.; Harst, van der J.E.; Spruijt, B.M.

    2003-01-01

    In rats (Rattus norvegicus) anticipation to an oncoming food reward in an appetitive Pavlovian conditioning procedure is expressed as an increase of behavioural transitions, i.e. hyperactivity. This behaviour might be related to the spontaneous appetitive behaviour of animals in relation to oncoming

  1. Characterization of six rat strains (Rattus norvegicus by mitochondrial DNA restriction fragment length polymorphism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilsdorf A.W.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP was used to examine the extent of mtDNA polymorphism among six strains of rats (Rattus norvegicus - Wistar, Wistar Munich, Brown Norway, Wistar Kyoto, SHR and SHR-SP. A survey of 26 restriction enzymes has revealed a low level of genetic divergence among strains. The sites of cleavage by EcoRI, NcoI and XmnI were shown to be polymorphic. The use of these three enzymes allows the 6 strains to be classified into 4 haplotypes and identifies specific markers for each one. The percentage of sequence divergence among all pairs of haplotypes ranged from 0.035 to 0.33%, which is the result of a severe population constriction undergone by the strains. These haplotypes are easily demonstrable and therefore RFLP analysis can be employed for genetic monitoring of rats within animal facilities or among different laboratories.

  2. Tool-use by rats (Rattus norvegicus): tool-choice based on tool features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagano, Akane; Aoyama, Kenjiro

    2017-03-01

    In the present study, we investigated whether rats (Rattus norvegicus) could be trained to use tools in an experimental setting. In Experiment 1, we investigated whether rats became able to choose appropriate hook-shaped tools to obtain food based on the spatial arrangements of the tool and food, similar to tests conducted in non-human primates and birds. With training, the rats were able to choose the appropriate hooks. In Experiments 2 and 3, we conducted transfer tests with novel tools. The rats had to choose between a functional and non-functional rake-shaped tool in these experiments. In Experiment 2, the tools differed from those of Experiment 1 in terms of shape, color, and texture. In Experiment 3, there was a contradiction between the appearance and the functionality of these tools. The rats could obtain the food with a functional rake with a transparent blade but could not obtain food with a non-functional rake with an opaque soft blade. All rats chose the functional over the non-functional rakes in Experiment 2, but none of the rats chose the functional rake in Experiment 3. Thus, the rats were able to choose the functional rakes only when there was no contradiction between the appearance and functionality of the tools. These results suggest that rats understand the spatial and physical relationships between the tool, food, and self when there was no such contradiction.

  3. Poultry egg components as cereal bait additives for enhancing rodenticide based control success and trap index of house rat, Rattus rattus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neena Singla

    2014-05-01

    Conclusions: Present data support the use of 2% egg albumin and egg shell powder in cereal bait to enhance acceptance and efficacy of 2% zinc phosphide bait against R. rattus. This may further help in checking the spread of rodent borne diseases to animals and humans.

  4. A Two-Year Ecological Study of Norway Rats (Rattus norvegicus) in a Brazilian Urban Slum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panti-May, Jesús A; Carvalho-Pereira, Ticiana S A; Serrano, Soledad; Pedra, Gabriel G; Taylor, Josh; Pertile, Arsinoê C; Minter, Amanda; Airam, Vladimir; Carvalho, Mayara; Júnior, Nivison N; Rodrigues, Gorete; Reis, Mitermayer G; Ko, Albert I; Childs, James E; Begon, Mike; Costa, Federico

    2016-01-01

    The Norway or brown rat (Rattus norvegicus) is among the most ubiquitous of rodents. However, the lack of studies describing Norway rat populations from tropical areas have limited our understanding regarding their demography and seasonal dynamics. In this study, we describe seasonal pattern in the abundance, reproductive parameters, and morphometrics of Norway rat populations in Salvador, Brazil. Rodents were trapped over four seasonal trapping periods (2013-2014) from three valleys. A total of 802 Norway rats were trapped over the course of the study over 7653 trap-nights. Norway rat abundance was high, but there was no significant differences between seasons. The reproductive parameters (e.g. frequency of pregnant and lactating females) did not show statistical differences between seasons. Female rats collected in the rainy season were heavier and older than females from the dry season. Salvador rats had a high incidence of pregnancy and birth rate (estimated birth rate of 79 young per year) compared to previous studies. The information generated is critical for the understanding of the ecology of Norway rat, the main reservoir of Leptospira in Salvador. However, future studies examining the effect of rodent control programs aimed at reducing populations, and determining rates of recovery, will further clarify our understanding of population dynamics.

  5. Leptospira in breast tissue and milk of urban Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    DE Oliveira, D; Figueira, C P; Zhan, L; Pertile, A C; Pedra, G G; Gusmão, I M; Wunder, E A; Rodrigues, G; Ramos, E A G; Ko, A I; Childs, J E; Reis, M G; Costa, F

    2016-08-01

    Leptospirosis is a zoonosis caused by bacteria of the genus Leptospira. The disease is globally distributed and a major public health concern. The Norway rat (Rattus norvegicus) is the main reservoir of the pathogen in urban slums of developing and developed countries. The potential routes of intra-specific leptospire transmission in rats are largely unknown. Herein, we identified pathogenic Leptospira spp. in breast tissue and milk of naturally infected rats. We examined kidney, breast tissue and milk from 24 lactating rats for the presence of leptospires using immunofluorescence, immunohistochemistry, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and scanning electronic microscopy. All 24 rats had evidence for Leptospira in the kidneys, indicating chronic carriage. The majority of kidney-positive rats had detectable leptospires in milk (18, 75%) and breast tissue (16, 67%), as evidenced by immunofluorescence assay and immunohistochemistry. Four (17%) milk samples and two (8%) breast tissue samples were positive by quantitative real-time PCR. Scanning electron microscopy confirmed the presence of leptospires in breast tissue. No major pathological changes in breast tissue were found. This study, for the first time, identified leptospires in the milk and breast tissue of wild Norway rats, suggesting the possibility of milk-borne transmission of leptospirosis to neonates.

  6. Low prevalence of human enteropathogenic Yersinia spp. in brown rats (Rattus norvegicus) in Flanders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouffaer, Lieze Oscar; Baert, Kristof; Van den Abeele, Anne-Marie; Cox, Ivo; Vanantwerpen, Gerty; De Zutter, Lieven; Strubbe, Diederik; Vranckx, Katleen; Lens, Luc; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Delmée, Michel; Pasmans, Frank; Martel, An

    2017-01-01

    Brown rats (Rattus norvegicus) have been identified as potential carriers of Yersinia enterocolitica and Y. pseudotuberculosis, the etiological agents of yersiniosis, the third most reported bacterial zoonosis in Europe. Enteropathogenic Yersinia spp. are most often isolated from rats during yersiniosis cases in animals and humans, and from rats inhabiting farms and slaughterhouses. Information is however lacking regarding the extent to which rats act as carriers of these Yersinia spp.. In 2013, 1088 brown rats across Flanders, Belgium, were tested for the presence of Yersinia species by isolation method. Identification was performed using MALDI-TOF MS, PCR on chromosomal- and plasmid-borne virulence genes, biotyping and serotyping. Yersinia spp. were isolated from 38.4% of the rats. Of these, 53.4% were designated Y. enterocolitica, 0.7% Y. pseudotuberculosis and 49.0% other Yersinia species. Two Y. enterocolitica possessing the virF-, ail- and ystA-gene were isolated. Additionally, the ystB-gene was identified in 94.1% of the other Y. enterocolitica isolates, suggestive for biotype 1A. Three of these latter isolates simultaneously possessed the ail-virulence gene. Significantly more Y. enterocolitica were isolated during winter and spring compared to summer. Based on our findings we can conclude that brown rats are frequent carriers for various Yersinia spp., including Y. pseudotuberculosis and (human pathogenic) Y. enterocolitica which are more often isolated during winter and spring.

  7. Low prevalence of human enteropathogenic Yersinia spp. in brown rats (Rattus norvegicus in Flanders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lieze Oscar Rouffaer

    Full Text Available Brown rats (Rattus norvegicus have been identified as potential carriers of Yersinia enterocolitica and Y. pseudotuberculosis, the etiological agents of yersiniosis, the third most reported bacterial zoonosis in Europe. Enteropathogenic Yersinia spp. are most often isolated from rats during yersiniosis cases in animals and humans, and from rats inhabiting farms and slaughterhouses. Information is however lacking regarding the extent to which rats act as carriers of these Yersinia spp.. In 2013, 1088 brown rats across Flanders, Belgium, were tested for the presence of Yersinia species by isolation method. Identification was performed using MALDI-TOF MS, PCR on chromosomal- and plasmid-borne virulence genes, biotyping and serotyping. Yersinia spp. were isolated from 38.4% of the rats. Of these, 53.4% were designated Y. enterocolitica, 0.7% Y. pseudotuberculosis and 49.0% other Yersinia species. Two Y. enterocolitica possessing the virF-, ail- and ystA-gene were isolated. Additionally, the ystB-gene was identified in 94.1% of the other Y. enterocolitica isolates, suggestive for biotype 1A. Three of these latter isolates simultaneously possessed the ail-virulence gene. Significantly more Y. enterocolitica were isolated during winter and spring compared to summer. Based on our findings we can conclude that brown rats are frequent carriers for various Yersinia spp., including Y. pseudotuberculosis and (human pathogenic Y. enterocolitica which are more often isolated during winter and spring.

  8. High prevalence of Leptospira spp. in sewer rats (Rattus norvegicus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krøjgaard, L H; Villumsen, S; Markussen, M D K

    2009-01-01

    Earlier studies on the ecology of leptospirosis in temperate regions focused mainly on free-ranging rats in rural areas. Here we report on the occurrence of Leptospira spp. in Rattus norvegicus living in sewers in a suburban area in Copenhagen, Denmark. In 2006-2007, about 30 rats were captured i......, the urprisingly high level of infection calls for an increased public health concern. ...

  9. Food Neophobia in Wild Rats (Rattus norvegicus Inhabiting a Changeable Environment-A Field Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaudia Modlinska

    Full Text Available Food neophobia is a reaction to novel food observed in many animal species, particularly omnivores, including Rattus norvegicus. A neophobic reaction is typically characterised by avoidance of novel food and the necessity to assess both its potential value and toxicity by the animal. It has been hypothesised that this reaction is not observed in rats inhabiting a changeable environment with a high level of variability with regard to food and food sources. This study was conducted in such changeable conditions and it aims to demonstrate the behaviour of wild rats R. norvegicus in their natural habitat. The rats were studied in a farm setting, and the experimental arena was demarcated by a specially constructed pen which was freely accessible to the rats. At regular intervals, the rats were given new flavour- and smell-altered foods, while their behaviour was video-recorded. The results obtained in the study seem to confirm the hypothesis that rats inhabiting a highly changeable environment do not exhibit food neophobia. The observed reaction to novel food may be connected with a reaction to a novel object to a larger extent than to food neophobia. The value of the results obtained lies primarily in the fact that the study was conducted in the animals' natural habitat, and that it investigated their spontaneous behaviours.

  10. Reversal learning in rats (Rattus norvegicus) and pigeons (Columba livia): qualitative differences in behavioral flexibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayburn-Reeves, Rebecca M; Stagner, Jessica P; Kirk, Chelsea R; Zentall, Thomas R

    2013-05-01

    Research has shown that pigeons given a simultaneous visually based discrimination reversal, in which a single reversal occurs at the midpoint of each session, consistently show anticipation prior to the reversal as well as perseveration after the reversal, suggesting that they use a less effective cue (time or trial number into the session) than what would be optimal to maximize reinforcement (local feedback from the most recent trials). In the present research, pigeons (Columba livia) and rats (Rattus norvegicus) were tested with a simultaneous spatial discrimination midsession reversal. Pigeons showed remarkably similar errors in anticipation and perseveration as with visual stimuli, thereby continuing to show the suboptimal use of time as a cue, whereas rats showed no anticipatory errors and very few perseverative errors, suggesting that they used local feedback as a cue, thus more nearly optimizing reinforcement. To further test the rats' flexibility, they were then tested with a variable point of reversal and then with multiple points of reversal within a session. Results showed that the rats effectively maximized reinforcement by developing an approximation to a win-stay/lose-shift rule. The greater efficiency shown by rats with this task suggests that they are better able to use the feedback from their preceding choice as the basis of their future choice. The difference in cue preference further suggests a qualitative difference in acquisition of the midsession reversal task between pigeons and rats.

  11. Food Neophobia in Wild Rats (Rattus norvegicus) Inhabiting a Changeable Environment-A Field Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modlinska, Klaudia; Stryjek, Rafał

    2016-01-01

    Food neophobia is a reaction to novel food observed in many animal species, particularly omnivores, including Rattus norvegicus. A neophobic reaction is typically characterised by avoidance of novel food and the necessity to assess both its potential value and toxicity by the animal. It has been hypothesised that this reaction is not observed in rats inhabiting a changeable environment with a high level of variability with regard to food and food sources. This study was conducted in such changeable conditions and it aims to demonstrate the behaviour of wild rats R. norvegicus in their natural habitat. The rats were studied in a farm setting, and the experimental arena was demarcated by a specially constructed pen which was freely accessible to the rats. At regular intervals, the rats were given new flavour- and smell-altered foods, while their behaviour was video-recorded. The results obtained in the study seem to confirm the hypothesis that rats inhabiting a highly changeable environment do not exhibit food neophobia. The observed reaction to novel food may be connected with a reaction to a novel object to a larger extent than to food neophobia. The value of the results obtained lies primarily in the fact that the study was conducted in the animals' natural habitat, and that it investigated their spontaneous behaviours.

  12. Norway rat (Rattus norvegicus) as a potential reservoir for Echinococcus granulosus: A public health implication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Moein, Khaled A; Hamza, Dalia A

    2016-12-01

    Cystic hydatidosis is a re-emerging parasitic zoonosis with worldwide distribution. The current study was carried out to investigate the possible role of rats in the epidemiology of such disease in urban and suburban areas. For this purpose, a total of 50 feral Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus) were collected from urban and suburban settings, Cairo, Egypt. Rats were examined to be infected with cystic hydatidosis through serological examination by IHA test as well as post-mortem examination of internal organs, histopathological or molecular identification of the collected cysts. Moreover, 42 persons inhabiting suburban areas were tested for cystic hydatidosis by IHA. The overall seroprevalence rates of cystic hydatidosis in the examined rats and persons were 36% and 11.9% respectively. Cysts from 3 rats were identified as E. granulosus hydatid cysts (one via histopathological examination while the others by molecular technique and genotyped as G6 strain). The results of the current study highlight the possible role of Norway rat in the epidemiological cycle of E. granulosus especially in urban and suburban settings.

  13. Food Neophobia in Wild Rats (Rattus norvegicus) Inhabiting a Changeable Environment—A Field Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modlinska, Klaudia; Stryjek, Rafał

    2016-01-01

    Food neophobia is a reaction to novel food observed in many animal species, particularly omnivores, including Rattus norvegicus. A neophobic reaction is typically characterised by avoidance of novel food and the necessity to assess both its potential value and toxicity by the animal. It has been hypothesised that this reaction is not observed in rats inhabiting a changeable environment with a high level of variability with regard to food and food sources. This study was conducted in such changeable conditions and it aims to demonstrate the behaviour of wild rats R. norvegicus in their natural habitat. The rats were studied in a farm setting, and the experimental arena was demarcated by a specially constructed pen which was freely accessible to the rats. At regular intervals, the rats were given new flavour- and smell-altered foods, while their behaviour was video-recorded. The results obtained in the study seem to confirm the hypothesis that rats inhabiting a highly changeable environment do not exhibit food neophobia. The observed reaction to novel food may be connected with a reaction to a novel object to a larger extent than to food neophobia. The value of the results obtained lies primarily in the fact that the study was conducted in the animals’ natural habitat, and that it investigated their spontaneous behaviours. PMID:27254150

  14. Laparotomic Approach for Collecting Serial Hepatic Biopsies in Rats (Rattus norvegicus) and Mice (Mus musculus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garofalo, Jennifer-Marie; Black, Sasha P; Martin, Lisa B

    2016-01-01

    Researchers often consult with laboratory animal veterinarians for suggestions on how to improve their protocols. We assisted a researcher in performing serial liver biopsies in rats (Rattus norvegicus) to assess the transport of iron on a cellular level. We developed a novel collection approach that used laparotomy through a midline abdominal incision and disposable biopsy punches to obtain liver samples at 3 different times at various intervals. We hypothesized the survival of the subjects undergoing the multiple survival procedures would be independent of the weight loss or gain sustained throughout the study. Although 2 rats died during the study, the results were statistically significant with regard to survival when comparing the Belgrade rats to the Sprague Dawley rats and Swiss Webster mice and were independent of the weight loss or gain incurred during the study. We also performed a pilot study in mice (Mus musculus), using the same method as in the rats, with equivalent results. Our study showed the survival of rodents that underwent multiple laparotomies and liver biopsies was independent of the weight gain or loss throughout the study.

  15. Calodium hepaticum (Nematoda: Capillariidae) in synanthropic rodents (Rattus norvegicus and Rattus rattus) in Eastern Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Vera Lúcia Coimbra; Giese, Elane Guerreiro; Silva, Djane Clarys Baía da; Melo, Francisco Tiago de Vasconcelos; Furtado, Adriano Penha; Maldonado, Arnaldo; Santos, Jeannie Nascimento dos

    2013-01-01

    Calodium hepaticum (syn. Capillaria hepatica) is a trichurid nematode that parasitizes the hepatic parenchyma of rodents and other mammals. Infections in humans are rare, although they have been reported worldwide. A number of factors contribute to the distribution of this zoonosis, particularly the presence of dense populations of rodents associated with relatively poor urban environments, such as those found in parts of the northern Brazilian city of Belém in the eastern Amazon Basin. This study quantified Calodium infections in commensal synanthropic rodents in Belém. Rodents were captured in three neighborhoods characterized by poor public sanitation and the city's highest incidence of human leptospirosis. A total of 50 rodents were captured (26 Rattus rattus and 24 R. norvegicus), and 23 (10 R. rattus and 13 R. norvegicus) presented macroscopic lesions typical of C. hepaticum. Light microscopy of fresh samples and histological specimens permitted the identification of larvae and adult specimens containing numerous eggs with a double-striated shell and bipolar opercula with plugs. This is the first report of C. hepaticum in R. rattus and R. norvegicus from the Amazon Basin, and it shows a considerable risk of transmission to the local human population.

  16. Karyotype evolution and species differentiation in the genus Rattus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dhananjoy

    2014-12-31

    Dec 31, 2014 ... Rattus is the most studied genus all over the world but species of the genus are not thoroughly reported from Manipur. The present paper deals with the morphometric, cytotaxonomic and phylogenetic studies of Manipur, India. The different species of Rattus namely Rattus rattus, Rattus brunneusculus, ...

  17. Feeding Habits of Introduced Black Rats, Rattus rattus, in Nesting Colonies of Galapagos Petrel on San Cristóbal Island, Galapagos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjorie Riofrío-Lazo

    Full Text Available Introduced rodents are responsible for ecosystem changes in islands around the world. In the Galapagos archipelago, their effects on the native flora and fauna are adverse, including the extinction of endemic rodents in some islands and the reduction in the reproductive success of the Galapagos petrel (Pterodroma phaeopygia in its nesting zones. Understanding the feeding behavior of introduced rodents and their trophic interactions with native and non-native species on islands, can assist in the design of management strategies and conservation plans of invasive and endemic species respectively. Four petrel nesting colonies were monitored during June 2013 on San Cristóbal Island (El Plátano, El Junco, San Joaquín, and La Comuna. The feeding habits of black rats were evaluated by analyzing stomach contents and stable isotopes in hair. Three species of introduced rodents were captured. R. rattus was the most abundant at all sites (n=43, capture success (CS = 55.8%, followed by the house mouse, Mus musculus (n = 17, CS = 37.8%, and the Norwegian rat, R. norvegicus (n = 4, CS = 4.5%, captured only at La Comuna. The omnivorous black rat ate mostly plants (98% and arthropods (2%. Intact seeds of Miconia robinsoniana were the main food at all sites (relative abundance=72.1%, present in 95% of the analyzed stomachs, showing the black rats' possible role in the archipelago as endemic seed dispersers. There was no evidence of petrel's intake; however, its possible consumption is not discarded at all. The δ15N and δ13C analysis corroborated the primarily herbivorous diet of black rats. The isotopic signatures of the three rodent species reflect the inter- and intra-specific differential use of food resources. Black rat showed a wider diet in La Comuna, which was related to a lower availability of its primary prey and its ability to adapt to the available resources in its habitat.

  18. Feeding Habits of Introduced Black Rats, Rattus rattus, in Nesting Colonies of Galapagos Petrel on San Cristóbal Island, Galapagos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riofrío-Lazo, Marjorie; Páez-Rosas, Diego

    2015-01-01

    Introduced rodents are responsible for ecosystem changes in islands around the world. In the Galapagos archipelago, their effects on the native flora and fauna are adverse, including the extinction of endemic rodents in some islands and the reduction in the reproductive success of the Galapagos petrel (Pterodroma phaeopygia) in its nesting zones. Understanding the feeding behavior of introduced rodents and their trophic interactions with native and non-native species on islands, can assist in the design of management strategies and conservation plans of invasive and endemic species respectively. Four petrel nesting colonies were monitored during June 2013 on San Cristóbal Island (El Plátano, El Junco, San Joaquín, and La Comuna). The feeding habits of black rats were evaluated by analyzing stomach contents and stable isotopes in hair. Three species of introduced rodents were captured. R. rattus was the most abundant at all sites (n=43, capture success (CS) = 55.8%), followed by the house mouse, Mus musculus (n = 17, CS = 37.8%), and the Norwegian rat, R. norvegicus (n = 4, CS = 4.5%), captured only at La Comuna. The omnivorous black rat ate mostly plants (98%) and arthropods (2%). Intact seeds of Miconia robinsoniana were the main food at all sites (relative abundance=72.1%, present in 95% of the analyzed stomachs), showing the black rats' possible role in the archipelago as endemic seed dispersers. There was no evidence of petrel's intake; however, its possible consumption is not discarded at all. The δ15N and δ13C analysis corroborated the primarily herbivorous diet of black rats. The isotopic signatures of the three rodent species reflect the inter- and intra-specific differential use of food resources. Black rat showed a wider diet in La Comuna, which was related to a lower availability of its primary prey and its ability to adapt to the available resources in its habitat.

  19. Hepatitis E virus in Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus captured around a pig farm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanai Yuta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hepatitis E virus (HEV transmitted via the oral route through the consumption of contaminated water or uncooked or undercooked contaminated meat has been implicated in major outbreaks. Rats may play a critical role in HEV outbreaks, considering their negative effects on environmental hygiene and food sanitation. Although the serological evidence of HEV infection in wild rodents has been reported worldwide, the infectivity and propagation of HEV in wild rats remain unknown. To investigate if rats are a possible carrier of HEV, we studied wild Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus that were caught near a pig farm, where HEV was prevalent among the pigs. Methods We examined 56 Norway rats for HEV. RNA from internal organs was examined for RT-PCR and positive samples were sequenced. Positive tissue samples were incubated with A549 cell line to isolate HEV. Anti-HEV antibodies were detected by ELISA. Results Sixteen rats were seropositive, and the HEV RNA was detected in 10 of the 56 rats. Sequencing of the partial ORF1 gene from 7 samples resulted in partially sequenced HEV, belonging to genotype 3, which was genetically identical to the HEV prevalent in the swine from the source farm. The infectious HEVs were isolated from the Norway rats by using the human A549 cell line. Conclusions There was a relatively high prevalence (17.9% of the HEV genome in wild Norway rats. The virus was mainly detected in the liver and spleen. The results indicate that these animals might be possible carrier of swine HEV in endemic regions. The HEV contamination risk due to rats needs to be examined in human habitats.

  20. Serological cross-reactivity between Strongyloides venezuelensis and Syphacia muris in Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sousa, José Eduardo N; de Carvalho, Edson Fernando G; Levenhagen, Marcelo A; de Faria, Lucas S; Gonçalves-Pires, Maria do R F; Costa-Cruz, Julia M

    2016-04-01

    One of the problems frequently faced in laboratory facilities is the possibility of the natural parasitic infection of lab animals, which can interfere with biomedical research results. The present study aimed to evaluate cross-reactivity among serum samples from Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus) naturally infected with Syphacia muris and experimentally infected with Strongyloides venezuelensis. Forty rats were divided into four groups of ten animals each. Parasite load was evaluated by quantifying the adult worms from both helminthes species recovered from the intestines and the S. venezuelensis eggs eliminated in feces. Serological cross-reactivity by parasite-specific IgG detection was tested via enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT) and immunoblotting. The results demonstrated that the quantity of S. venezuelensis eliminated eggs and parthenogenetic females decreased significantly in cases of co-infection with S. muris. ELISA revealed 100% cross-reactivity of serum samples from both species against the opposing antigen. IgG cross-reactivity was confirmed by IFAT using tissue sections of S. venezuelensis larvae and adult S. muris. Immunoblotting showed that IgG antibodies from the sera of animals infected with S. muris recognized eight antigenic bands from S. venezuelensis saline extract and that IgG antibodies from the sera of animals infected with S. venezuelensis recognized seven bands from S. muris saline extract. These results demonstrate the serological cross-reactivity between S. muris and S. venezuelensis in infected rats. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Urban population genetics of slum-dwelling rats (Rattus norvegicus) in Salvador, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajdacsi, Brittney; Costa, Federico; Hyseni, Chaz; Porter, Fleur; Brown, Julia; Rodrigues, Gorete; Farias, Helena; Reis, Mitermayer G; Childs, James E; Ko, Albert I; Caccone, Adalgisa

    2013-10-01

    Throughout the developing world, urban centres with sprawling slum settlements are rapidly expanding and invading previously forested ecosystems. Slum communities are characterized by untended refuse, open sewers and overgrown vegetation, which promote rodent infestation. Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus) are reservoirs for epidemic transmission of many zoonotic pathogens of public health importance. Understanding the population ecology of R. norvegicus is essential to formulate effective rodent control strategies, as this knowledge aids estimation of the temporal stability and spatial connectivity of populations. We screened for genetic variation, characterized the population genetic structure and evaluated the extent and patterns of gene flow in the urban landscape using 17 microsatellite loci in 146 rats from nine sites in the city of Salvador, Brazil. These sites were divided between three neighbourhoods within the city spaced an average of 2.7 km apart. Surprisingly, we detected very little relatedness among animals trapped at the same site and found high levels of genetic diversity, as well as structuring across small geographical distances. Most F(ST) comparisons among sites were statistically significant, including sites norvegicus in Salvador, linked to the heterogeneous urban landscape. Future rodent control measures need to take into account the spatial and temporal linkage of rat populations in Salvador, as revealed by genetic data, to develop informed eradication strategies. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Morphologic and quantitative study of the myenteric neurons of the jejunum of malnourished rats (Rattus norvegicus

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    MIRANDA NETO MARCÍLIO HUBNER DE

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available We studied the effects of maternal proteic desnutrition on the neurons of the myenteric plexus of the jejunum of rats from Rattus norvegicus species. It was used litters of female rats which received diet with normal proteic level during gestation and lactation (group NN, normal diet during gestation and hypoproteic diet during lactation (group ND; hypoproteic diet during gestation and normal diet during lactation (group DN; hypoproteic diet during both gestation and lactation (group DD. After weaning all the animals received diet of normal proteic level until the 60th day of age, when they were killed. The jejunum of the animals was subjected to whole-mount preparations stained by the method of Giemsa and used for the morphologic and quantitative analyses of the neurons of the myenteric plexus. We verified that maternal proteic malnutrition does not cause decrease on the number of myenteric neurons per unit area of jejunum in rats, but elicits mechanisms which assure that, when the animal again receives normal proteic level diet (22% there occurs storage of proteic material on the cytoplasm of the neurons, thus rendering them larger and strongly basophylic.

  3. Carriage of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus by wild urban Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himsworth, Chelsea G; Miller, Ruth R; Montoya, Vincent; Hoang, Linda; Romney, Marc G; Al-Rawahi, Ghada N; Kerr, Thomas; Jardine, Claire M; Patrick, David M; Tang, Patrick; Weese, J Scott

    2014-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is an important cause of multi-drug-resistant infections in people, particularly indigent populations. MRSA can be transmitted between people and domestic animals, but the potential for transmission between people and commensal pests, particularly rodents, had not been investigated. The objective of this study was to identify the presence and characterize the ecology of MRSA in rats (Rattus spp.) from in an impoverished, inner-city neighborhood. Oropharyngeal swabs were collected from rats trapped in 33 city blocks and one location within the adjacent port. Bacterial culture was performed and MRSA isolates were characterized using a variety of methods, including whole-genome sequencing (WGS). The ecology of MRSA in rats was described using phylogenetic analysis, geospatial analysis, and generalized linear mixed models. MRSA was identified 22 of 637 (3.5%) rats tested, although prevalence varied from 0 - 50% among blocks. Isolates belonged to 4 clusters according to WGS, with the largest cluster (n = 10) containing isolates that were genetically indistinguishable from community-acquired USA300 MRSA strains isolated from people within the study area. MRSA strains demonstrated both geographic clustering and dispersion. The odds of an individual rat carrying MRSA increased with increased body fat (OR = 2.53, 95% CI = 1.33-4.82), and in the winter (OR = 5.29, 95% CI = 1.04-26.85) and spring (OR = 5.50, 95% CI = 1.10-27.58) compared to the fall. The results show that urban rats carried the same MRSA lineages occurring in local human and/or animal populations, supporting recent transmission from external sources. MRSA carriage was influenced by season, most likely as a result of temporal variation in rat behavior and rat-human interactions.

  4. Carriage of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus by wild urban Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus.

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    Chelsea G Himsworth

    Full Text Available Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA is an important cause of multi-drug-resistant infections in people, particularly indigent populations. MRSA can be transmitted between people and domestic animals, but the potential for transmission between people and commensal pests, particularly rodents, had not been investigated. The objective of this study was to identify the presence and characterize the ecology of MRSA in rats (Rattus spp. from in an impoverished, inner-city neighborhood. Oropharyngeal swabs were collected from rats trapped in 33 city blocks and one location within the adjacent port. Bacterial culture was performed and MRSA isolates were characterized using a variety of methods, including whole-genome sequencing (WGS. The ecology of MRSA in rats was described using phylogenetic analysis, geospatial analysis, and generalized linear mixed models. MRSA was identified 22 of 637 (3.5% rats tested, although prevalence varied from 0 - 50% among blocks. Isolates belonged to 4 clusters according to WGS, with the largest cluster (n = 10 containing isolates that were genetically indistinguishable from community-acquired USA300 MRSA strains isolated from people within the study area. MRSA strains demonstrated both geographic clustering and dispersion. The odds of an individual rat carrying MRSA increased with increased body fat (OR = 2.53, 95% CI = 1.33-4.82, and in the winter (OR = 5.29, 95% CI = 1.04-26.85 and spring (OR = 5.50, 95% CI = 1.10-27.58 compared to the fall. The results show that urban rats carried the same MRSA lineages occurring in local human and/or animal populations, supporting recent transmission from external sources. MRSA carriage was influenced by season, most likely as a result of temporal variation in rat behavior and rat-human interactions.

  5. [On the history of the spread of the black rat (Rattus rattus L., 1758) in northwestern Russia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savinetskiĭ, A B; Krylovich, O A

    2011-01-01

    Data on the first reliable findings of subfossil remains of the black rat in north-western Russia (Vologda and Vladimir oblasts) are given. The burying of the remains dates to the twelfth to thirteenth centuries. It is assumed that the spread of the black rat in the European part of Russia in the Middle Ages was associated first of all with the development of trade.

  6. Molecular genetic evidence for the place of origin of the Pacific rat, Rattus exulans.

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    Vicki Thomson

    Full Text Available Commensal plants and animals have long been used to track human migrations, with Rattus exulans (the Pacific rat a common organism for reconstructing Polynesian dispersal in the Pacific. However, with no knowledge of the homeland of R. exulans, the place of origin of this human-commensal relationship is unknown. We conducted a mitochondrial DNA phylogeographic survey of R. exulans diversity across the potential natural range in mainland and Island Southeast Asia in order to establish the origin of this human-commensal dyad. We also conducted allozyme electrophoresis on samples from ISEA to obtain a perspective on patterns of genetic diversity in this critical region. Finally, we compared molecular genetic evidence with knowledge of prehistoric rodent faunas in mainland and ISEA. We find that ISEA populations of R. exulans contain the highest mtDNA lineage diversity including significant haplotype diversity not represented elsewhere in the species range. Within ISEA, the island of Flores in the Lesser Sunda group contains the highest diversity in ISEA (across all loci and also has a deep fossil record of small mammals that appears to include R. exulans. Therefore, in addition to Flores harboring unusual diversity in the form of Homo floresiensis, dwarfed stegodons and giant rats, this island appears to be the homeland of R. exulans.

  7. Prevalence of Hymenolepis nana and H. diminuta from Brown Rats (Rattus norvegicus) in Heilongjiang Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Di; Zhao, Wei; Zhang, Yichi; Liu, Aiqin

    2017-06-01

    Hymenolepis nana and Hymenolepis diminuta are globally widespread zoonotic cestodes. Rodents are the main reservoir host of these cestodes. Brown rats (Rattus norvegicus) are the best known and most common rats, and usually live wherever humans live, especially in less than desirable hygiene conditions. Due to the little information of the 2 hymenolepidid species in brown rats in China, the aim of this study was to understand the prevalence and genetic characterization of H. nana and H. diminuta in brown rats in Heilongjiang Province, China. Total 114 fecal samples were collected from brown rats in Heilongjiang Province. All the samples were subjected to morphological examinations by microscopy and genetic analysis by PCR amplification of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (COX1) gene and the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) region of the nuclear ribosomal RNA gene. In total, 6.1% (7/114) and 14.9% (17/114) of samples were positive for H. nana and H. diminuta, respectively. Among them, 7 and 3 H. nana isolates were successfully amplified and sequenced at the COX1 and ITS2 loci, respectively. No nucleotide variations were found among H. nana isolates at either of the 2 loci. Seventeen H. diminuta isolates produced 2 different COX1 sequences while 7 ITS2 sequences obtained were identical to each other. The present results of H. nana and H. diminuta infections in brown rats implied the risk of zoonotic transmission of hymenolepiasis in China. These molecular data will be helpful to deeply study intra-specific variations within Hymenolepis cestodes in the future.

  8. Zoonotic helminths of urban brown rats (Rattus norvegicus) in the UK: neglected public health considerations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGarry, J W; Higgins, A; White, N G; Pounder, K C; Hetzel, U

    2015-02-01

    Urban brown rats (Rattus norvegicus) carry microbial human pathogens but their role as reservoir hosts for helminths of public health importance is less well known. In this study, 42 brown rats trapped on Merseyside were subject to thorough combined helminthological and pathohistological post-mortem examination. Eggs of the rodent-borne zoonotic nematode Calodium hepaticum were initially detected in histological sections of the livers of 9.5% of rats, but overall diagnostic sensitivity increased to 16.6% when entire liver tissue was disrupted and the resulting filtrates were examined for released eggs. In their rat host, mainly trapped inside the dockland, infections with C. hepaticum were associated with a chronic multifocal pyogranulomatous hepatitis with intralesional eggs and peripheral fibrosis. Mean intensity of hepatic C. hepaticum egg infections was 1041 eggs. This is the first report of C. hepaticum in an urban brown rat population in the UK and provides original data for liver egg burdens in this abundant commensal rodent. The zoonotic cestode Rodentolepis nana had a prevalence of infection of 14.3%. Rodent-specific, non-zoonotic helminths found were the spiruroid Mastophorus muris (16.0%) in the stomach, the trichuroid Trichosomoides crassicauda in the urinary bladder (31.0%); the ascarid Heterakis spumosa was the commonest helminth of the large intestine (76.2%). Many millions of brown rats inhabit cities and rural areas of the UK, and the infective stages of the zoonotic worm species, particularly C. hepaticum, are likely to be widely distributed in the environment presenting a threat to public health. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  9. Large-scale structure of brown rat (Rattus norvegicus) populations in England: effects on rodenticide resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haniza, Mohd Z.H.; Adams, Sally; Jones, Eleanor P.; MacNicoll, Alan; Mallon, Eamonn B.; Smith, Robert H.

    2015-01-01

    The brown rat (Rattus norvegicus) is a relatively recent (<300 years) addition to the British fauna, but by association with negative impacts on public health, animal health and agriculture, it is regarded as one of the most important vertebrate pest species. Anticoagulant rodenticides were introduced for brown rat control in the 1950s and are widely used for rat control in the UK, but long-standing resistance has been linked to control failures in some regions. One thus far ignored aspect of resistance biology is the population structure of the brown rat. This paper investigates the role population structure has on the development of anticoagulant resistance. Using mitochondrial and microsatellite DNA, we examined 186 individuals (from 15 counties in England and one location in Wales near the Wales–England border) to investigate the population structure of rural brown rat populations. We also examined individual rats for variations of the VKORC1 gene previously associated with resistance to anticoagulant rodenticides. We show that the populations were structured to some degree, but that this was only apparent in the microsatellite data and not the mtDNA data. We discuss various reasons why this is the case. We show that the population as a whole appears not to be at equilibrium. The relative lack of diversity in the mtDNA sequences examined can be explained by founder effects and a subsequent spatial expansion of a species introduced to the UK relatively recently. We found there was a geographical distribution of resistance mutations, and relatively low rate of gene flow between populations, which has implications for the development and management of anticoagulant resistance. PMID:26664802

  10. Large-scale structure of brown rat (Rattus norvegicus populations in England: effects on rodenticide resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Z.H. Haniza

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The brown rat (Rattus norvegicus is a relatively recent (<300 years addition to the British fauna, but by association with negative impacts on public health, animal health and agriculture, it is regarded as one of the most important vertebrate pest species. Anticoagulant rodenticides were introduced for brown rat control in the 1950s and are widely used for rat control in the UK, but long-standing resistance has been linked to control failures in some regions. One thus far ignored aspect of resistance biology is the population structure of the brown rat. This paper investigates the role population structure has on the development of anticoagulant resistance. Using mitochondrial and microsatellite DNA, we examined 186 individuals (from 15 counties in England and one location in Wales near the Wales–England border to investigate the population structure of rural brown rat populations. We also examined individual rats for variations of the VKORC1 gene previously associated with resistance to anticoagulant rodenticides. We show that the populations were structured to some degree, but that this was only apparent in the microsatellite data and not the mtDNA data. We discuss various reasons why this is the case. We show that the population as a whole appears not to be at equilibrium. The relative lack of diversity in the mtDNA sequences examined can be explained by founder effects and a subsequent spatial expansion of a species introduced to the UK relatively recently. We found there was a geographical distribution of resistance mutations, and relatively low rate of gene flow between populations, which has implications for the development and management of anticoagulant resistance.

  11. Efficacy of anticoagulant-free alternative bait products against house mice (Mus musculus) and brown rats (Rattus norvegicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmolz, Erik

    2010-03-01

    The attractiveness and efficacy of four anonymous anticoagulant-free alternative rodenticides (active ingredients cellulose or plaster) were tested on wild strain groups of house mice (Mus musculus Linnaeus) and brown rats (Rattus norvegicus Berkenhout) in laboratory choice and no-choice experiments. In no-choice tests, the rodenticide product was offered ad libitum to the animals for 21 days (mice) and 10 days (rats), respectively. In choice tests, the rodenticide product and non-poisoned food were offered for 28 days (mice) and 14 days (rats). Two products with cellulose (C1 and C2) as the active ingredient were tested against both mice and rats. In two no-choice tests with mice, all animals died within 14 days (C1) and 21 days (C2); in a third no-choice test, 11% (2/18) of mice survived (C1: 21 days). In all three tests, numerous incidents of cannibalism were observed. The attractiveness of cellulose baits was tested for one product (C1) in three trials against normal food pellets. In all trials, bait consumption was low and all mice survived (15-34 days). Two no-choice trials with cellulose baits (C1) were conducted on groups of Rattus norvegicus; 11 of 12 rats survived the bait feeding period and no cannibalism or sign of aggression between conspecifics was observed. Two plaster-based (CaSO4 0.5H2O) products (P1 and P2) were tested against both mice and rats; in no-choice tests, only one mouse (n= 20) and no rats (n= 8) were killed, although the baits proved to be attractive for rats and mice in choice tests. The results of these experiments suggest that neither cellulose-based nor plaster-based rodenticides are suitable agents for the control of Mus musculus and Rattus norvegicus. © 2010 ISZS, Blackwell Publishing and IOZ/CAS.

  12. Ultrasonic vocalizations of female Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus) in response to social partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Börner, Annegret; Hjemdahl, Rebecca; Götz, Thomas; Brown, Gillian R

    2016-02-01

    In many species of animals, male vocalizations function to attract mating partners and coordinate sexual interactions. Whereas male vocalizations have been well studied in several species, the function of female vocalizations in mating contexts is not fully understood. In Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus), both males and females produce ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) during sexual encounters with opposite sex partners. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that female vocalizations play a role in sociosexual interactions by examining how rates of 50 kHz USV production vary in relation to the sex and gonadal status of the partner, and by examining whether the proportion of frequency modulated (FM) and constant frequency calls differs between these categories of social partner. The results showed that females produced a higher total number of 50 kHz USVs to intact males than castrated males, and produced similar numbers of calls to both categories of females. Females also produced a higher proportion of FM calls to male partners than to female partners, and spent more time in the vicinity of male than female partners, regardless of the partners' gonadal status. Female USVs therefore potentially provide a measure of sexual motivation and may function to promote female mate choice in this species with multimale mating and a high risk of infanticide. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Green Tea Extract (Camellia sinensis L. Effects on Uric Acid Levels on Hyperuricemia Rats (Rattus norvegicus

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    Putranty Widha Nugraheni

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Uric acid is the end product of purine degradation. When uric acid levels exceed normal limits, it will build up and cause hyperuricemia. Allopurinol is one of the most effective and common medicine for hyperuricemia, but it brings serious side effects, therefore it is needed alternative therapy for hyperuricemia. One plant that may be expected to low uric acid levels is green tea (Camellia sinensis L., that contains many antioxidants polyphenols, especially flavonoids. Flavonoid has strong antioxidant properties, act as free radical and metal scavengers, and also xanthine oxidase (XOD inhibitors. This study investigates the potential of green tea using various doses of 150 mg/kg, 300 mg/kg, and 600 mg/kg of body weight in 24 white male rats (Rattus norvegicus Wistar strain that has been received high purine diet in 60 consecutive days. This study used DHBSA methods to measure uric acid levels in blood serum and urine that excreted 8 hours before surgery. Green tea extract that contains polyphenol can inhibit XOD activities, therefore, it leads to decrease uric acid level in blood and increase the excretion through urine by modulating urate gene transporter. A therapy with 600 mg/kg body weight of GTE is the most effective dose to decrease uric acid levels in serum and to increase excretion of exceeding uric acid significantly (p < 0.01, from One Way ANOVA and Tukey analysis.

  14. Multiple Paternity in the Norway Rat, Rattus norvegicus, from Urban Slums in Salvador, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Federico; Richardson, Jonathan L; Dion, Kirstin; Mariani, Carol; Pertile, Arsinoe C; Burak, Mary K; Childs, James E; Ko, Albert I; Caccone, Adalgisa

    2016-03-01

    The Norway rat, Rattus norvegicus, is one of the most important pest species globally and the main reservoir of leptospires causing human leptospirosis in the urban slums of tropical regions. Rodent control is a frequent strategy in those settings to prevent the disease but rapid growth from residual populations and immigration limit the long-term effectiveness of interventions. To characterize the breeding ecology of R. norvegicus and provide needed information for the level of genetic mixing, which can help identify inter-connected eradication units, we estimated the occurrence of multiple paternity, distances between mothers and sires, and inbreeding in rats from urban slum habitat in Salvador, Brazil. We genotyped 9 pregnant females, their 66 offspring, and 371 males at 16 microsatellite loci. Multiple paternity was observed in 22% (2/9) of the study litters. Of the 12 sires that contributed to the 9 litters, we identified 5 (42%) of those sires among our genotyped males. Related males were captured in close proximity to pregnant females (the mean inter-parent trapping distance per litter was 70 m, ±58 m SD). Levels of relatedness between mother-sire pairs were higher than expected and significantly higher than relatedness between all females and non-sire males. Our findings indicate multiple paternity is common, inbreeding is apparent, and that mother-sire dyads occur in close proximity within the study area. This information is relevant to improve the spatial definition of the eradication units that may enhance the effectiveness of rodent management programs aimed at preventing human leptospirosis. High levels of inbreeding may also be a sign that eradication efforts are successful. © The American Genetic Association 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Susceptibility to Yersinia pestis experimental infection in wild Rattus rattus, reservoir of plague in Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tollenaere, C; Rahalison, L; Ranjalahy, M; Duplantier, J-M; Rahelinirina, S; Telfer, S; Brouat, C

    2010-06-01

    In Madagascar, the black rat, Rattus rattus, is the main reservoir of plague (Yersinia pestis infection), a disease still responsible for hundreds of cases each year in this country. This study used experimental plague challenge to assess susceptibility in wild-caught rats to better understand how R. rattus can act as a plague reservoir. An important difference in plague resistance between rat populations from the plague focus (central highlands) and those from the plague-free zone (low altitude area) was confirmed to be a widespread phenomenon. In rats from the plague focus, we observed that sex influenced plague susceptibility, with males slightly more resistant than females. Other individual factors investigated (weight and habitat of sampling) did not affect plague resistance. When infected at high bacterial dose (more than 10⁵ bacteria injected), rats from the plague focus died mainly within 3-5 days and produced specific antibodies, whereas after low-dose infection (plague resistance level and the course of infection in the black rat would contribute to a better understanding of plague circulation in Madagascar.

  16. Comparative genome mapping of the deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus) reveals greater similarity to rat (Rattus norvegicus) than to the lab mouse (Mus musculus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Background Deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) and congeneric species are the most common North American mammals. They represent an emerging system for the genetic analyses of the physiological and behavioral bases of habitat adaptation. Phylogenetic evidence suggests a much more ancient divergence of Peromyscus from laboratory mice (Mus) and rats (Rattus) than that separating latter two. Nevertheless, early karyotypic analyses of the three groups suggest Peromyscus to be exhibit greater similarities with Rattus than with Mus. Results Comparative linkage mapping of an estimated 35% of the deer mouse genome was done with respect to the Rattus and Mus genomes. We particularly focused on regions that span synteny breakpoint regions between the rat and mouse genomes. The linkage analysis revealed the Peromyscus genome to have a higher degree of synteny and gene order conservation with the Rattus genome. Conclusion These data suggest that: 1. the Rattus and Peromyscus genomes more closely represent ancestral Muroid and rodent genomes than that of Mus. 2. the high level of genome rearrangement observed in Muroid rodents is especially pronounced in Mus. 3. evolution of genome organization can operate independently of more commonly assayed measures of genetic change (e.g. SNP frequency). PMID:18302785

  17. Coxiella burnetii (Q fever) in Rattus norvegicus and Rattus rattus at livestock farms and urban locations in the Netherlands; could Rattus spp. represent reservoirs for (re)introduction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reusken, Chantal; van der Plaats, Rozemarijn; Opsteegh, Marieke; de Bruin, Arnout; Swart, Arno

    2011-08-01

    The Q fever outbreak in the Netherlands in 2007-2010 prompted government interventions to reduce the human incidence by reduction of Q fever shedding at dairy goat farms. Mandatory hygiene measures were taken, including the control of animal reservoirs. It has been postulated that brown rats, through their commensal nature, form an important factor in the persistent dissemination of endemic circulating Coxiella burnetii in nature to domestic animals, livestock and humans. Here, the occurrence of C. burnetii in rats captured at different types of location during the Q fever outbreak in the Netherlands, viz. urban areas, nature areas and various types of farm has been determined. This is a first step towards the elucidation of the reservoir status of rats in veterinary and human Q fever epidemiology. C. burnetii DNA was detected in the spleen of 4.9% of the brown rats (Rattus norvegicus) and 3.0% of the black rats (Rattus rattus). Evidence for C. burnetii infection was also found in liver, kidney, lung and intestinal tissue but not in heart, brain and pancreas. C. burnetii IgGs were detected in 15.8% of the brown rats. Positive rats were collected at goat, pig, cattle and poultry farms, and urban locations; including locations outside the designated 5km "increased-risk" zones around bulk milk positive goat farms. The percentage of rat-positive locations was the highest for goat farms (50%) and cattle farms (14.3%). The presence of actively infected rats outside the lambing season and at multiple environmental settings including urban locations might suggest that rats are not merely a spill-over host due to infection by a contaminated environment but might represent true reservoirs, capable of independent maintenance of C. burnetii infection cycles and thereby contributing to spread and transmission of the pathogen. If frequent (re)introduction of C. burnetii to small ruminant farms can be caused by rats as maintenance reservoirs, mandatory wildlife control and

  18. Ecology of Leptospira interrogans in Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus) in an inner-city neighborhood of Vancouver, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himsworth, Chelsea G; Bidulka, Julie; Parsons, Kirbee L; Feng, Alice Y T; Tang, Patrick; Jardine, Claire M; Kerr, Thomas; Mak, Sunny; Robinson, John; Patrick, David M

    2013-01-01

    Leptospira interrogans is a bacterial zoonosis with a worldwide distribution for which rats (Rattus spp.) are the primary reservoir in urban settings. In order to assess, monitor, and mitigate the risk to humans, it is important to understand the ecology of this pathogen in rats. The objective of this study was to characterize the ecology of L. interrogans in Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus) in an impoverished inner-city neighborhood of Vancouver, Canada. Trapping was performed in 43 city blocks, and one location within the adjacent port, over a 12 month period. Kidney samples were tested for the presence of L. interrogans using PCR and sequencing. A multivariable model was built to predict L. interrogans infection status in individual rats using season and morphometric data (e.g., weight, sex, maturity, condition, etc.) as independent variables. Spatial analysis was undertaken to identify clusters of high and low L. interrogans prevalence. The prevalence of L. interrogans varied remarkably among blocks (0-66.7%), and spatial clusters of both high and low L. interrogans prevalence were identified. In the final cluster-controlled model, characteristics associated with L. interrogans-infection in rats included weight (OR = 1.14, 95% CI = 1.07-1.20), increased internal fat (OR = 2.12, 95% CI = 1.06-4.25), and number of bite wounds (OR = 1.20, 95% CI = 0.96-1.49). Because L. interrogans prevalence varied with weight, body fat, and bite wounds, this study suggests that social structure and interactions among rats may influence transmission. The prevalence and distribution of L. interrogans in rats was also highly variable even over a short geographic distance. These factors should be considered in future risk management efforts.

  19. Study on the movement of Rattus rattus and evaluation of the plague dispersion in Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahelinirina, Soanandrasana; Duplantier, Jean Marc; Ratovonjato, Jocelyn; Ramilijaona, Olga; Ratsimba, Mamy; Rahalison, Lila

    2010-01-01

    Plague affects mainly the rural areas in the central highlands of Madagascar. Rattus rattus is the main rodent host of Yersinia pestis in these localities. Since the introduction of plague, endemic foci have continued to expand, and spatiotemporal variability in the distribution of human plague has been observed. To assess the movements of R. rattus and evaluate the risk of dispersion of the disease, a field study at the scale of the habitats (houses, hedges of sisals, and rice fields) in the plague villages was carried out during high and low seasons of plague transmission to humans. The systemic oral marker Rhodamine B was used to follow rats' movements. Baits were placed in different habitats, and trapping success was carried out once a month for 3 months after the bait distribution. Plague indicators (reservoirs' abundance, flea index, Y. pestis prevalence in fleas, and Y. pestis antibody prevalence in rats) were determined. The highest abundance of rats and marking efficiency were observed in the sisal hedges and the rice fields. Marked rats were captured most commonly near the points where baits were initially placed. The main movements of rats were observed between the houses and sisal hedges. Major differences were observed between the seasons of high and low plague transmission. During the season of low plague transmission, rats were more abundant in the sisal hedges and rice fields, with rats moving from the houses to the rice fields. During the high plague transmission season, rats moved from the hedges of sisal to the rice fields. Important indicators of vector abundance and plague transmission were higher during the high plague transmission season. The three study habitats were the risk areas for plague transmission, but the risk appeared highest in the houses and sisals. Rats' movements according to the season were likely directed by the availability of food.

  20. First record of Calodium hepaticum and Taenia taeniaeformis liver infection in wild Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus in Serbia

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    Kataranovski Milena

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The nematode Calodium hepaticum and the cestode Taenia taeniaeformis are zoonotic helminths primarly found in the liver of common wild rats. Most reports on these helminth species with cosmopolitan distribution are from Asia, and there is paucity of data for Europe. Wild Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus from urban and suburban habitats of the Belgrade area were examined for the presence of Calodium hepaticum and Taenia taeniaeformis larvae liver infections. The presence of visible cysts and a histomorphology of parasite-related inflammatory liver responses were sought as signs of infection. The total prevalence of infection was 10.9% (C. hepaticum and 29.9% (T. taeniaeformis, with no differences between the sexes. No difference in the annual prevalence of both helminth species was noted. Data obtained in this study provide new information relevant to wild Norway rats as sources of C. hepaticum and T. taeniaeformis liver infection in this geographic area, and, in a wider context, in Europe. .

  1. Seoul virus in the Brown Rat ( Rattus norvegicus ) from Ürümqi, Xinjiang, Northwest of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Gang; Sheng, Jinliang; Wu, Xiran; Wang, Yuanzhi; Guo, Liping; Zhang, Xun; Yao, Hua

    2016-07-01

    Hantavirus infections among human populations are linked to the geographic distribution of the host rodents that carry the viruses. To determine the presence and distribution of hantaviruses in the northern region of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region (XUAR), northwestern China, 844 rodents were captured from five locations in four dissimilar habitats during 2010-14 and examined for Hantavirus infection. Hantavirus nucleic acids were firstly detected in the brown rat ( Rattus norvegicus ) from Ürümqi, China, indicating that the Hantavirus was transmitted into Ürümqi in XUAR and circulated by the brown rat. Our results suggest that the brown rat may act as a natural reservoir for the virus in XUAR.

  2. IDENTIFICATION OF ZOONOTIC HELMINTH EGGS ON Rattus tanezumi RAT DROPPINGS IN BANJARNEGARA CITY MARKET

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    Dyah Widiastuti

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tikus dikenal sebagai reservoir alami dari beberapa infeksi cacing yang penting bagi kesehatan masyarakat. Tikusmengandung mikroorganisme tersebut yang dapat ditularkan melalui kontak dengan kotoran tikus yang terinfeksi ataumelalui ektoparasit. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengidentifikasi telur cacing zoonotik pada Rattus spp. di Pasar KotaBanjarnegara. Penelitian ini merupakan studi observasional yang dilakukan di Pasar Kota Banjarnegara pada bulan Agustus2013. Penangkapan tikus dilakukan selama tiga malam berturut-turut menggunakan 200 perangkap hidup yang dipasangpada tempat yang berbeda, yaitu kios buah, kios sembako dan kios beras. Prevalensi cacing zoonotik pada feses tikusR. tanezumi sebesar 10% Capilaria hepatica; 5% Hymenolepis diminuta dan 5% Sypachia muris. Pencemaran telur cacingzoonotik dalam feses tikus perlu diwaspadai sebagai investigasi awal sumber penularan penyakit kecacingan melalui tikus.Kata kunci: telur cacing zoonotik, feses, tikus

  3. The molecular identification of Calodium hepaticum in the wild brown rat (Rattus norvegicus) in Poland.

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    Buńkowska-Gawlik, Katarzyna; Perec-Matysiak, Agnieszka; Burzyńska, Klaudia; Hildebrand, Joanna

    2017-12-20

    Calodium hepaticum is a parasitic nematode found primarily in rodents but known to infect numerous other mammal species, and causing in humans the hepatic calodiasis. Herein, we present the first finding of C. hepaticum in Rattus norvegicus in Poland. In this study, we have used the combined pepsin-HCl digestion and molecular techniques to detect C. hepaticum infection in the liver. The results confirm the usefulness of molecular approaches for investigating the biology and epidemiology of C. hepaticum. Additionally in this study, the parts of the small subunit rRNA (18S rRNA) gene of Aonchotheca annulosa from bank vole, Aonchotheca erinacei and Eucoleus sp. from hedgehog were amplified, yielding the first 18S rRNA gene sequences of these Capillariinae nematodes.

  4. A mathematical epidemiological model of gram-negative Bartonella bacteria: does differential ectoparasite load fully explain the differences in infection prevalence of Rattus rattus and Rattus norvegicus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brettschneider, H; Anguelov, R; Chimimba, C T; Bastos, A D S

    2012-01-01

    We postulate that the large difference in infection prevalence, 24% versus 5%, in R. norvegicus and R. rattus, respectively, between these two co-occurring host species may be due to differences in ectoparasite and potential vector infestation rates. A compartmental model, representative of an infectious system containing these two Rattus species and two ectoparasite vectors, was constructed and the coefficients of the forces of infection determined mathematically. The maximum difference obtained by the model in the prevalence of Bartonella in the two Rattus species amounts to 4.6%, compared to the observed mean difference of 19%. Results suggest the observed higher Bartonella infection prevalence in Rattus norvegicus compared to Rattus rattus, cannot be explained solely by higher ectoparasite load. The model also highlights the need for more detailed biological research on Bartonella infections in Rattus and the importance of the flea vector in the spread of this disease.

  5. The Characteristics of Wild Rat (Rattus spp.) Populations from an Inner-City Neighborhood with a Focus on Factors Critical to the Understanding of Rat-Associated Zoonoses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himsworth, Chelsea G.; Jardine, Claire M.; Parsons, Kirbee L.; Feng, Alice Y. T.; Patrick, David M.

    2014-01-01

    Norway and black rats (Rattus norvegicus and Rattus rattus) are among the most ubiquitous urban wildlife species and are the source of a number of zoonotic diseases responsible for significant human morbidity and mortality in cities around the world. Rodent ecology is a primary determinant of the dynamics of zoonotic pathogens in rodent populations and the risk of pathogen transmission to people, yet many studies of rat-associated zoonoses do not account for the ecological characteristics of urban rat populations. This hinders the development of an in-depth understanding of the ecology of rat-associated zoonoses, limits comparability among studies, and can lead to erroneous conclusions. We conducted a year-long trapping-removal study to describe the ecological characteristics of urban rat populations in an inner-city neighborhood of Vancouver, Canada. The study focused on factors that might influence the ecology of zoonotic pathogens in these populations and/or our understanding of that ecology. We found that rat population density varied remarkably over short geographical distances, which could explain observed spatial distributions of rat-associated zoonoses and have implications for sampling and data analysis during research and surveillance. Season appeared to influence rat population composition even within the urban environment, which could cause temporal variation in pathogen prevalence. Body mass and bite wounds, which are often used in epidemiologic analyses as simple proxies for age and aggression, were shown to be more complex than previously thought. Finally, we found that factors associated with trapping can determine the size and composition of sampled rat population, and thus influence inferences made about the source population. These findings may help guide future studies of rats and rat-associated zoonoses. PMID:24646877

  6. An investigation of Bartonella spp., Rickettsia typhi, and Seoul hantavirus in rats (Rattus spp.) from an inner-city neighborhood of Vancouver, Canada: is pathogen presence a reflection of global and local rat population structure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himsworth, Chelsea G; Bai, Ying; Kosoy, Michael Y; Wood, Heidi; DiBernardo, Antonia; Lindsay, Robbin; Bidulka, Julie; Tang, Patrick; Jardine, Claire; Patrick, David

    2015-01-01

    Urban Norway and black rats (Rattus norvegicus and Rattus rattus) are reservoirs for variety of zoonotic pathogens. Many of these pathogens, including Rickettsia typhi, Bartonella spp., and Seoul hantavirus (SEOV), are thought to be endemic in rat populations worldwide; however, past field research has found these organisms to be absent in certain rat populations. Rats (Rattus spp.) from an inner city neighborhood of Vancouver, Canada, were tested for exposure to and/or infection with SEOV and R. typhi (using serology and PCR), as well as Bartonella spp. (using culture and sequencing). Approximately 25% of 404 rats tested were infected with Bartonella tribocorum, which demonstrated significant geographic clustering within the study area. Infection was associated with both season and sexual maturity. Seroreactivity against R. typhi and SEOV was observed in 0.36% and 1.45% of 553 rats tested, respectively, although PCR screening results for these pathogens were negative, suggesting that they are not endemic in the study population. Overall, these results suggest that the geographic distribution of rat-associated zoonoses, including R. typhi, SEOV, and Bartonella spp., is less ubiquitous than previously appreciated, and is likely dependent on patterns of dispersion and establishment of the rat reservoir host. Further study on global and local Rattus spp. population structures may help to elucidate the ecology of zoonotic organisms in these species.

  7. Polynesian Subsistence, Nutrient Flows, and Long-Term Socio-Ecosystem Dynamics: Insights from Stable Isotope Analysis of the Pacific Rat (Rattus exulans) in Island Foodwebs

    OpenAIRE

    Swift, Jillian Amy

    2016-01-01

    This dissertation applies stable carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) isotope analysis to archaeological specimens of the human-transported Pacific rat (Rattus exulans) to investigate prehistoric patterns of subsistence, site use, and long-term socio-ecosystem dynamics on Polynesian Islands. The Pacific rat is a small commensal species characterized by low dietary selectivity and a limited home range. Its close association with past Polynesian peoples—and ubiquity in Polynesian archaeological si...

  8. Lesions associated with Eucoleus sp. in the non-glandular stomach of wild urban rats (Rattus norvegicus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothenburger, Jamie L.; Himsworth, Chelsea G.; Lejeune, Manigandan; Treuting, Piper M.; Leighton, Frederick A.

    2014-01-01

    Histological lesions associated with Eucoleus sp. infection of the non-glandular stomach were discovered in a wild, urban population of Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus) trapped over a 1-year period in Vancouver, Canada. Four distinct categories of histological lesions in the non-glandular stomach were identified in association with infection in a sample of 183 rats. The apparent prevalence of Eucoleus sp. in the upper gastrointestinal tract (ventral tongue, oropharynx, esophagus and non-glandular stomach) was 43.1% (79/183). Infection with Eucoleus sp. was significantly associated with hyperkeratosis, mucosal hyperplasia, keratin pustules and submucosal inflammation in the non-glandular stomach (P < 0.05). Eucoleus sp. infection and/or related stomach pathology was present in 135/183 (73.8%) of rats. Statistical analysis showed the odds of being affected by Eucoleus sp. or associated stomach pathology were greater in heavier (OR = 1.06, 95% CI = 1.00–1.12) and sexually mature rats (OR = 4.64, 95% CI = 1.23–17.10). Eucoleus sp. infection is common in wild rats in Vancouver and induces substantial host response. The impact of Eucoleus sp. and associated lesions on the health of individual rats and the population as a whole remains to be investigated. PMID:25161907

  9. Abdominal anatomic features and reference values determined by use of ultrasonography in healthy common rats (Rattus norvegicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banzato, Tommaso; Bellini, Luca; Contiero, Barbara; Martin, Andrea; Balikçi, Sema; Zotti, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    To determine ultrasonographic features and reference values of the anatomy of the abdomen of common rats (Rattus norvegicus). 20 adult male and 20 adult female rats. A complete abdominal ultrasonographic examination was performed with the rats sedated. The cadavers of 4 rats were used for anatomic comparisons. Two cadavers were dissected and 2 cadavers were frozen and then cross-sectioned by use of an electric bandsaw. Slices were cleaned with water and photographed on each side. Correlations between variables were determined. The ultrasonographic anatomy of the abdomen was determined, including measurements of the kidneys and adrenal glands and thickness of the walls of the stomach (saccus caecus, fundus, and pylorus), duodenum, and cecum. A significant positive correlation between kidney size and body weight was detected. The dorsoventral measurements of the left and right adrenal gland were significantly different, regardless of sex. Dorsoventral measurements of the right adrenal gland were significantly different between males and females. The ultrasonographic images and data provided an atlas of the ultrasonographic anatomy of common rats that may be useful to veterinary radiologists, clinicians, and researchers.

  10. Natural and synthetic vocalizations of brown rat pups, Rattus norvegicus, enhance attractiveness of bait boxes in laboratory and field experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takács, Stephen; Kowalski, Pawel; Gries, Gerhard

    2016-10-01

    Rats are often neophobic and thus do not readily enter trap boxes which are mandated in rodent management to help reduce the risk of accidental poisoning or capture of non-target animals. Working with brown rats, Rattus norvegicus, as a model species, our overall objective was to test whether sound cues from pups could be developed as a means to enhance captures of rats in trap boxes. Recording vocalizations from three-day-old pups after removal from their natal nest with both sonic and ultrasonic microphones revealed frequency components in the sonic range (1.8-7.5 kHz) and ultrasonic range (18-24 kHz, 33-55 kHz, 60-96 kHz). In two-choice laboratory bioassays, playback recordings of these vocalizations induced significant phonotactic and arrestment responses by juvenile, subadult and adult female and male rats. The effectiveness of engineered 'synthetic' rat pup sounds was dependent upon their frequency components, sound durations and the sound delivery system. Unlike other speakers, a piezoelectric transducer emitting sound bursts of 21 kHz with a 63-KHz harmonic, and persisting for 20-300 ms, proved highly effective in attracting and arresting adult female rats. In a field experiment, a battery-powered electronic device fitted with a piezoelectric transducer and driven by an algorithm that randomly generated sound cues resembling those recorded from rat pups and varying in fundamental frequency (19-23 kHz), duration (20-300 ms) and intermittent silence (300-5000 ms) significantly enhanced captures of rats in trap boxes baited with a food lure and soiled bedding material of adult female rats. Our study provides proof of concept that rat-specific sound cues or signals can be effectively reproduced and deployed as a means to enhance capture of wild rats. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Patterns in Leptospira Shedding in Norway Rats (Rattus norvegicus from Brazilian Slum Communities at High Risk of Disease Transmission.

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    Federico Costa

    Full Text Available We address some critical but unknown parameters of individuals and populations of Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus that influence leptospiral infection, maintenance and spirochetal loads shed in urine, which contaminates the environment ultimately leading to human infection.Our study, conducted in Salvador, Brazil, established the average load of leptospires in positive kidneys to be 5.9 x 10(6 per mL (range 3.1-8.2 x10(6 genome equivalents (GEq, similar to the 6.1 x 10(6 per ml (range 2.2-9.4 x10(6 average obtained from paired urines, with a significant positive correlation (R2=0.78 between the two. Based on bivariate and multivariate modeling, we found with both kidney and urine samples that leptospiral loads increased with the age of rats (based on the index of body length to mass, MAT titer and the presence of wounding/scars, and varied with site of capture. Some associations were modified by sex but trends were apparent. Combining with data on the demographic properties and prevalence of leptospiral carriage in rat populations in Salvador, we estimated that daily leptospiral loads shed in the urine of a population of 82 individuals exceeded 9.1 x 10(10 leptospires.These factors directly influence the risk of leptospiral acquisition among humans and provide essential epidemiological information linking properties of rat populations with risk of human infection.

  12. Patterns in Leptospira Shedding in Norway Rats (Rattus norvegicus) from Brazilian Slum Communities at High Risk of Disease Transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Federico; Wunder, Elsio A; De Oliveira, Daiana; Bisht, Vimla; Rodrigues, Gorete; Reis, Mitermayer G; Ko, Albert I; Begon, Mike; Childs, James E

    2015-01-01

    We address some critical but unknown parameters of individuals and populations of Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus) that influence leptospiral infection, maintenance and spirochetal loads shed in urine, which contaminates the environment ultimately leading to human infection. Our study, conducted in Salvador, Brazil, established the average load of leptospires in positive kidneys to be 5.9 x 10(6) per mL (range 3.1-8.2 x10(6)) genome equivalents (GEq), similar to the 6.1 x 10(6) per ml (range 2.2-9.4 x10(6)) average obtained from paired urines, with a significant positive correlation (R2=0.78) between the two. Based on bivariate and multivariate modeling, we found with both kidney and urine samples that leptospiral loads increased with the age of rats (based on the index of body length to mass), MAT titer and the presence of wounding/scars, and varied with site of capture. Some associations were modified by sex but trends were apparent. Combining with data on the demographic properties and prevalence of leptospiral carriage in rat populations in Salvador, we estimated that daily leptospiral loads shed in the urine of a population of 82 individuals exceeded 9.1 x 10(10) leptospires. These factors directly influence the risk of leptospiral acquisition among humans and provide essential epidemiological information linking properties of rat populations with risk of human infection.

  13. The potential of coumatetralyl enhanced by cholecalciferol in the control of anticoagulant-resistant Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endepols, Stefan; Klemann, Nicole; Richter, Dania; Matuschka, Franz-Rainer

    2017-02-01

    We evaluated the potential of cholecalciferol as an enhancer of the first-generation anticoagulant coumatetralyl in the Westphalia anticoagulant-resistant strain of the Norway rat (Rattus norvegicus Berkenhout), characterised by the Tyr139Cys polymorphism on the VKOR enzyme. Because today only the most potent, but also most persistent anticoagulant rodenticides of the second generation remain available to control this strain, new rodenticide solutions are required. Feeding trials in the laboratory confirmed a significant level of efficacy, which was corroborated by field trials in the Münsterland resistance area. After frequency and level of resistance were assessed by blood clotting response tests, field trials were conducted with bait containing coumatetralyl at 375 mg kg(-1) and cholecalciferol at 50 mg kg(-1) or 100 mg kg(-1) . Control success was 94% when a large rat infestation comprising 42% resistant animals was treated. Another field trial applying the combination to a rat population that had survived a preceding treatment with bromadiolone resulted in a 99.5% control success according to the first census day, but with some increase in rat activity during subsequent census days. The combination of coumatetralyl and cholecalciferol is a promising alternative approach to the most potent second-generation anticoagulants in resistance management, particularly in respect of environmental risks, such as secondary poisoning. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. [Analysis of exogenous gene and protein digestion and absorption of SD rats (Rattus norvegicus) fed roundup ready soybean meal].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jianqin; Chang, Hong; Zhao, Jianghe; Shi, Zongyong; Wang, Jundong

    2016-05-25

    Metabolism and deposition of exogenous gene and protein from transgenic glyphosate herbicide-tolerant soybean meal in SD rats were studied in the experiment. The transgenic soybean GTS40-3-2 meal and its non-transgenic counterpart (parent A5403) were fed to the generation and the second generation Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats (Rattus norvegicus). The study added the genetically modified (GM) soybean meal and its non-transgenic control soybean meal (parent A5403) in a ratio of 20% respectively to the feeds. By using qualitative, quantitative PCR and ELISA methods to detect transgenic soybean residues of metabolism ingredients in rats, the safety and influence of GM soybean were evaluated. The results showed that the intestinal fecal and cecum contents of rats were detected with residues of GM ingredients, intestinal flora and organs were not found related genes and protein. These results indicated that transgenic glyphosate herbicide-tolerant soybean GTS40-3-2 meal was as safe as its non-GM soybean meal in long-term feeding study.

  15. The Pacific Rat Race to Easter Island: Tracking the Prehistoric Dispersal of Rattus exulans Using Ancient Mitochondrial Genomes

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    Katrina West

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The location of the immediate eastern Polynesian origin for the settlement of Easter Island (Rapa Nui, remains unclear with conflicting archeological and linguistic evidence. Previous genetic commensal research using the Pacific rat, Rattus exulans; a species transported by humans across Remote Oceania and throughout the Polynesian Triangle, has identified broad interaction spheres across the region. However, there has been limited success in distinguishing finer-scale movements between Remote Oceanic islands as the same mitochondrial control region haplotype has been identified in the majority of ancient rat specimens. To improve molecular resolution and identify a pattern of prehistoric dispersal to Easter Island, we sequenced complete mitochondrial genomes from ancient Pacific rat specimens obtained from early archeological contexts across West and East Polynesia. Ancient Polynesian rat haplotypes are closely related and reflect the widely supported scenario of a central East Polynesian homeland region from which eastern expansion occurred. An Easter Island and Tubuai (Austral Islands grouping of related haplotypes suggests that both islands were established by the same colonization wave, proposed to have originated in the central homeland region before dispersing through the south-eastern corridor of East Polynesia.

  16. THE EFFECT OF FORMALDEHYDE EXPOSURE AND YOGURT SUPPLEMENTATION ON PROFILE AND CHARACTER OF HEPAR TISSUE PROTEIN OF RATS (Rattus norvegicus

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    Chanif Mahdi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Formaldehyde is a simplest organic compound of aldehyde or alkanal group. Formaldehyde is a toxic and carcinogenic substance. Formaldehyde contamination through food or feeding diet continuously is very dangerous for the body, especially for bodies organ for instances likes hepar and kidney. Because formaldehyde is sources of reactive oxygen species (ROS and free radicals substances for the body. This purpose of the study is to know the effect of formaldehyde exposure and yogurt supplementation on profile and characters of rats (Rattus norvegicus protein hepar tissues. The research methods is laboratory methods. The protein profiles determined by electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE methods. The character of hepar protein tissue determined by ELISA, Dot Blot and Western Blot methods. The result showed that formaldehyde exposure through the feeding diet of rats affect on profile of hepar protein tissue, that characterized by appear of new band of specific protein with molecule weigh is 29.6 kDa (PSForm 29.6. Yogurt supplementation on rat that exposure by formaldehyde through the feeding diet of rat, that characterized by expressing of new band of specific protein with relative molecule weight 24.8 kDa (PSYogh 24.8 kDa, and followed by depressed or dispear of protein specific band of 29.6 kDa(PSForm 29.6 kDa. The result showed that isolated protein PSForm 29.6 kDa have a antigenecity character.   Keywords: Formaldehyde exposure, yogurt, ROS, profile and protein character

  17. Immune responses to plague infection in wild Rattus rattus, in Madagascar: a role in foci persistence?

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    Voahangy Andrianaivoarimanana

    Full Text Available Plague is endemic within the central highlands of Madagascar, where its main reservoir is the black rat, Rattus rattus. Typically this species is considered susceptible to plague, rapidly dying after infection inducing the spread of infected fleas and, therefore, dissemination of the disease to humans. However, persistence of transmission foci in the same area from year to year, supposes mechanisms of maintenance among which rat immune responses could play a major role. Immunity against plague and subsequent rat survival could play an important role in the stabilization of the foci. In this study, we aimed to investigate serological responses to plague in wild black rats from endemic areas of Madagascar. In addition, we evaluate the use of a recently developed rapid serological diagnostic test to investigate the immune response of potential reservoir hosts in plague foci.We experimentally infected wild rats with Yersinia pestis to investigate short and long-term antibody responses. Anti-F1 IgM and IgG were detected to evaluate this antibody response. High levels of anti-F1 IgM and IgG were found in rats one and three weeks respectively after challenge, with responses greatly differing between villages. Plateau in anti-F1 IgM and IgG responses were reached for as few as 500 and 1500 colony forming units (cfu inoculated respectively. More than 10% of rats were able to maintain anti-F1 responses for more than one year. This anti-F1 response was conveniently followed using dipsticks.Inoculation of very few bacteria is sufficient to induce high immune response in wild rats, allowing their survival after infection. A great heterogeneity of rat immune responses was found within and between villages which could heavily impact on plague epidemiology. In addition, results indicate that, in the field, anti-F1 dipsticks are efficient to investigate plague outbreaks several months after transmission.

  18. Immune responses to plague infection in wild Rattus rattus, in Madagascar: a role in foci persistence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrianaivoarimanana, Voahangy; Telfer, Sandra; Rajerison, Minoarisoa; Ranjalahy, Michel A; Andriamiarimanana, Fehivola; Rahaingosoamamitiana, Corinne; Rahalison, Lila; Jambou, Ronan

    2012-01-01

    Plague is endemic within the central highlands of Madagascar, where its main reservoir is the black rat, Rattus rattus. Typically this species is considered susceptible to plague, rapidly dying after infection inducing the spread of infected fleas and, therefore, dissemination of the disease to humans. However, persistence of transmission foci in the same area from year to year, supposes mechanisms of maintenance among which rat immune responses could play a major role. Immunity against plague and subsequent rat survival could play an important role in the stabilization of the foci. In this study, we aimed to investigate serological responses to plague in wild black rats from endemic areas of Madagascar. In addition, we evaluate the use of a recently developed rapid serological diagnostic test to investigate the immune response of potential reservoir hosts in plague foci. We experimentally infected wild rats with Yersinia pestis to investigate short and long-term antibody responses. Anti-F1 IgM and IgG were detected to evaluate this antibody response. High levels of anti-F1 IgM and IgG were found in rats one and three weeks respectively after challenge, with responses greatly differing between villages. Plateau in anti-F1 IgM and IgG responses were reached for as few as 500 and 1500 colony forming units (cfu) inoculated respectively. More than 10% of rats were able to maintain anti-F1 responses for more than one year. This anti-F1 response was conveniently followed using dipsticks. Inoculation of very few bacteria is sufficient to induce high immune response in wild rats, allowing their survival after infection. A great heterogeneity of rat immune responses was found within and between villages which could heavily impact on plague epidemiology. In addition, results indicate that, in the field, anti-F1 dipsticks are efficient to investigate plague outbreaks several months after transmission.

  19. Biotic and abiotic effects on the intestinal helminth community of the brown rat Rattus norvegicus from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simões, R O; Luque, J L; Gentile, R; Rosa, M C S; Costa-Neto, S; Maldonado, A

    2016-01-01

    Rattus norvegicus has attracted much attention because of its role as a reservoir of zoonotic pathogens. This work aimed to identify the intestinal helminth species in R. norvegicus and to analyse the effects of temperature, rainfall, host age and sex on the helminth community structure. Moreover, this study investigated the possible associations among helminth species in an urban population of R. norvegicus in São Gonçalo, Rio de Janeiro, sampled during the rainy and dry seasons over a span of 2 years. A total of 112 rats were infected by six species of helminths. The nematode Nippostrongylus brasiliensis was the most prevalent and abundant species, with high mean intensity in both seasons, followed by Strongyloides venezuelensis, Heterakis spumosa, Raillietina sp., Hymenolepis nana and Moniliformis moniliformis. Co-occurrence was found between N. brasiliensis and S. venezuelensis and between N. brasiliensis and H. spumosa. The occurrence of S. venezuelensis was related to rainfall. The understanding of the helminth community structure in this synanthropic rat provides basic information on parasites of public health importance, as two helminth species (H. nana and M. moniliformis) recovered from rats in the urban area studied can infect humans.

  20. High prevalence of Angiostrongylus cantonensis (rat lungworm on eastern Hawai'i Island: A closer look at life cycle traits and patterns of infection in wild rats (Rattus spp..

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    Susan I Jarvi

    Full Text Available The nematode Angiostrongylus cantonensis is a zoonotic pathogen and the etiological agent of human angiostrongyliasis or rat lungworm disease. Hawai'i, particularly east Hawai'i Island, is the epicenter for angiostrongyliasis in the USA. Rats (Rattus spp. are the definitive hosts while gastropods are intermediate hosts. The main objective of this study was to collect adult A. cantonensis from wild rats to isolate protein for the development of a blood-based diagnostic, in the process we evaluated the prevalence of infection in wild rats. A total of 545 wild rats were sampled from multiple sites in the South Hilo District of east Hawai'i Island. Adult male and female A. cantonensis (3,148 were collected from the hearts and lungs of humanely euthanized Rattus rattus, and R. exulans. Photomicrography and documentation of multiple stages of this parasitic nematode in situ were recorded. A total of 45.5% (197/433 of rats inspected had lung lobe(s (mostly upper right which appeared granular indicating this lobe may serve as a filter for worm passage to the rest of the lung. Across Rattus spp., 72.7% (396/545 were infected with adult worms, but 93.9% (512/545 of the rats were positive for A. cantonensis infection based on presence of live adult worms, encysted adult worms, L3 larvae and/or by PCR analysis of brain tissue. In R. rattus we observed an inverse correlation with increased body mass and infection level of adult worms, and a direct correlation between body mass and encysted adult worms in the lung tissue, indicating that larger (older rats may have developed a means of clearing infections or regulating the worm burden upon reinfection. The exceptionally high prevalence of A. cantonensis infection in Rattus spp. in east Hawai'i Island is cause for concern and indicates the potential for human infection with this emerging zoonosis is greater than previously thought.

  1. Brodifacoum is effective against Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus) in a tyrosine139cysteine focus of anticoagulant resistance in Westphalia, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckle, Alan P; Klemann, Nicole; Prescott, Colin V

    2012-12-01

    The tyrosine to cysteine amino acid substitution at location 139 of the vkorc1 protein (i.e. tyrosine139cysteine or Y139C) is the most widespread anticoagulant resistance mutation in Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus Berk.) in Europe. Field trials were conducted to determine the incidence of the Y139C mutation at two rat-infested farms in Westphalia, Germany, and to estimate the practical efficacy against them of applications, using a pulsed baiting treatment regime, of a proprietary bait (Klerat™) containing 0.005% brodifacoum. DNA analysis for the Y139C mutation showed that resistant rats were prevalent at the two farms, with an incidence of 80.0 and 78.6% respectively. Applications of brodifacoum bait achieved results of 99.2 and 100.0% control at the two farms, when measured by census baiting, although the treatment was somewhat prolonged at one site, possibly owing to the abundance of attractive alternative food. The study showed that 0.005% brodifacoum bait is fully effective against Norway rats possessing the Y139C mutation at the Münsterland focus and is likely to be so elsewhere in Europe where this mutation is found. The pulsed baiting regime reduced to relatively low levels the quantity of bait required to control these two substantial resistant Norway rat infestations. Previous studies had shown much larger quantities of bromadiolone and difenacoum baits used in largely ineffective treatments against Y139C resistant rats in the Münsterland. These results should be considered when making decisions about the use of anticoagulants against resistant Norway rats and their potential environmental impacts. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Species Abundance Distribution of Ectoparasites on Norway Rats (Rattus norvegicus) from a Localized Area in Southwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xian Guo; Dong, Wen Ge; Men, Xing Yuan; Qian, Ti Jun; Wu, Dian; Ren, Tian Guang; Qin, Feng; Song, Wen Yu; Yang, Zhi Hua; Fletcher, Quinn E

    2016-06-01

    The species of ectoparasites that live on a specific host in a geographical region form an ectoparasite community. Species abundance distributions describe the number of individuals observed for each different species that is encountered within a community. Based on properties of the species abundance distribution, the expected total number of species present in the community can be estimated. Preston's lognormal distribution model was used to fit the expected species abundance distribution curve. Using the expected species abundance distribution curve, we estimated the total number of expected parasite species present and the amount of species that were likely missed by our sampling in the field. In total, 8040 ectoparasites (fleas, sucking lice, gamasid mites and chigger mites) were collected from 431 Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus) from a localized area in southwest China. These ectoparasites were identified to be 47 species from 26 genera in 10 families. The majority of ectoparasite species were chigger mites (family Trombiculidae) while the majority of individuals were sucking lice in the family Polyplacidae. The expected species abundance distribution curve demonstrated the classic pattern that the majority of ectoparasite species were rare and that there were a few common species. The total expected number of ectoparasite species on R. norvegicus was estimated to be 85 species, and 38 species were likely missed by our sampling in the field. Norway rats harbor a large suite of ectoparasites. Future field investigations should sample large numbers of host individuals to assess ectoparasite populations.

  3. Cysticercus fasciolaris infection in wild rats (Rattus norvegicus) in Korea and formation of cysts by remodeling of collagen fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Byung-Woo; Jeon, Byung-Suk; Kim, Hak-Soo; Kim, Hyeon-Cheol; Yoon, Byung-Il

    2016-05-01

    Cysticercus fasciolaris, the larval form of Taenia taeniaeformis, is commonly encountered in rodents. In our study, 287 wild rats (Rattus norvegicus) in South Korea were examined in 2010 and 2011. Of 287 rats, 97 (33.8%) were infected with C. fasciolaris A strong positive correlation was found between the host body weight and prevalence in both sexes, regardless of the year of collection. The liver was the most common habitat of the parasite, and the lung was the most frequent ectopic region, followed by mesentery, pleura, abdominal wall, and kidney. The lesions of the affected organs were generally characterized by well-developed cysts, each containing a larva. However, the cysts within kidney and abdominal wall were poorly organized, filled with abscess, and lacked larvae. Collagen types I and III, but not type IV, played significant roles in constructing the cysts at differential stages, addressed by immunohistochemistry. During cyst wall development, both collagen types contributed equally to cyst formation at the early stage, whereas collagen type I was the major component at the late stage (p < 0.05). In early-stage cysts, distribution of collagens was interestingly differential depending on the development stage, as collagen type I was localized in the outer layer and type III was located in the inner layer. Our results suggest that an appropriate remodeling process of collagen fibers is necessary for C. fasciolaris to build the well-conditioned cysts in the target organs for survival. © 2016 The Author(s).

  4. Commensal ecology, urban landscapes, and their influence on the genetic characteristics of city-dwelling Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner-Santana, L C; Norris, D E; Fornadel, C M; Hinson, E R; Klein, S L; Glass, G E

    2009-07-01

    Movement of individuals promotes colonization of new areas, gene flow among local populations, and has implications for the spread of infectious agents and the control of pest species. Wild Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus) are common in highly urbanized areas but surprisingly little is known of their population structure. We sampled individuals from 11 locations within Baltimore, Maryland, to characterize the genetic structure and extent of gene flow between areas within the city. Clustering methods and a neighbour-joining tree based on pairwise genetic distances supported an east-west division in the inner city, and a third cluster comprised of historically more recent sites. Most individuals (approximately 95%) were assigned to their area of capture, indicating strong site fidelity. Moreover, the axial dispersal distance of rats (62 m) fell within typical alley length. Several rats were assigned to areas 2-11.5 km away, indicating some, albeit infrequent, long-distance movement within the city. Although individual movement appears to be limited (30-150 m), locations up to 1.7 km are comprised of relatives. Moderate F(ST), differentiation between identified clusters, and high allelic diversity indicate that regular gene flow, either via recruitment or migration, has prevented isolation. Therefore, ecology of commensal rodents in urban areas and life-history characteristics of Norway rats likely counteract many expected effects of isolation or founder events. An understanding of levels of connectivity of rat populations inhabiting urban areas provides information about the spatial scale at which populations of rats may spread disease, invade new areas, or be eradicated from an existing area without reinvasion.

  5. Frequent Combination of Antimicrobial Multiresistance and Extraintestinal Pathogenicity in Escherichia coli Isolates from Urban Rats (Rattus norvegicus) in Berlin, Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guenther, Sebastian; Bethe, Astrid; Fruth, Angelika; Semmler, Torsten; Ulrich, Rainer G.; Wieler, Lothar H.; Ewers, Christa

    2012-01-01

    Urban rats present a global public health concern as they are considered a reservoir and vector of zoonotic pathogens, including Escherichia coli. In view of the increasing emergence of antimicrobial resistant E. coli strains and the on-going discussion about environmental reservoirs, we intended to analyse whether urban rats might be a potential source of putatively zoonotic E. coli combining resistance and virulence. For that, we took fecal samples from 87 brown rats (Rattus norvegicus) and tested at least three E. coli colonies from each animal. Thirty two of these E. coli strains were pre-selected from a total of 211 non-duplicate isolates based on their phenotypic resistance to at least three antimicrobial classes, thus fulfilling the definition of multiresistance. As determined by multilocus sequence typing (MLST), these 32 strains belonged to 24 different sequence types (STs), indicating a high phylogenetic diversity. We identified STs, which frequently occur among extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC), such as STs 95, 131, 70, 428, and 127. Also, the detection of a number of typical virulence genes confirmed that the rats tested carried ExPEC-like strains. In particular, the finding of an Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing strain which belongs to a highly virulent, so far mainly human- and avian-restricted ExPEC lineage (ST95), which expresses a serogroup linked with invasive strains (O18:NM:K1), and finally, which produces an ESBL-type frequently identified among human strains (CTX-M-9), pointed towards the important role, urban rats might play in the transmission of multiresistant and virulent E. coli strains. Indeed, using a chicken infection model, this strain showed a high in vivo pathogenicity. Imagining the high numbers of urban rats living worldwide, the way to the transmission of putatively zoonotic, multiresistant, and virulent strains might not be far ahead. The unforeseeable consequences of such an emerging public health

  6. Susceptibilité de Rattus norvegicus et Rattus rattus frugivurus de la ville de Recife à la Pasteurella pestis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalva A. de Mello

    1968-06-01

    Full Text Available L'auíeur a vérifié la susceptibilité de deux espèces de rongeurs domestiques de la ville de Recife. Etat du Pernambuco, R. norvegicus et Rattus rattus frugivurus, les comparant aux souris albinos de la souche "Swiss" avec deux souches de P. pestis dont une était isolée au municipe d'Exu, Etat du Pernambuco âenommée PEXU 19 et Vautre provenante du Venezuela dite RANGEL. Les deux espèces de rongeurs ont montré une resistence modérée par rapport aux deux souches de P. pestis tandis que les souris ont révélé d'être hautement susceptibles.

  7. Heterakis spumosa Schneider, 1866 (Nematoda: Heterakidae in Rattus norvegicus (Rodentia: Muridae in Ica, Peru

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    Rufino Cabrera Ch.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper Heterakis spumosa Schneider, 1866 is redescribed. It is a parasitic heterakid nematoda living in the caecum of murid rodent, Rattus norvegícus "gray rat" from district of Parcona, province of Ica, Peru.

  8. Detection of Angiostrongylus cantonensis in the Blood and Peripheral Tissues of Wild Hawaiian Rats (Rattus rattus by a Quantitative PCR (qPCR Assay.

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    Susan I Jarvi

    Full Text Available The nematode Angiostrongylus cantonensis is a rat lungworm, a zoonotic pathogen that causes human eosinophilic meningitis and ocular angiostrongyliasis characteristic of rat lungworm (RLW disease. Definitive diagnosis is made by finding and identifying A. cantonensis larvae in the cerebral spinal fluid or by using a custom immunological or molecular test. This study was conducted to determine if genomic DNA from A. cantonensis is detectable by qPCR in the blood or tissues of experimentally infected rats. F1 offspring from wild rats were subjected to experimental infection with RLW larvae isolated from slugs, then blood or tissue samples were collected over multiple time points. Blood samples were collected from 21 rats throughout the course of two trials (15 rats in Trial I, and 6 rats in Trial II. In addition to a control group, each trial had two treatment groups: the rats in the low dose (LD group were infected by approximately 10 larvae and the rats in the high dose (HD group were infected with approximately 50 larvae. In Trial I, parasite DNA was detected in cardiac bleed samples from five of five LD rats and five of five HD rats at six weeks post-infection (PI, and three of five LD rats and five of five HD rats from tail tissue. In Trial II, parasite DNA was detected in peripheral blood samples from one of two HD rats at 53 minutes PI, one of two LD rats at 1.5 hours PI, one of two HD rats at 18 hours PI, one of two LD rats at five weeks PI and two of two at six weeks PI, and two of two HD rats at weeks five and six PI. These data demonstrate that parasite DNA can be detected in peripheral blood at various time points throughout RLW infection in rats.

  9. Occurrence and identification of hemotropic mycoplasmas (Hemoplasmas) in free ranging and laboratory rats (Rattus norvegicus) from two Brazilian zoos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrado, Francisco de Oliveira; do Nascimento, Naíla Cannes; dos Santos, Andrea Pires; Zimpel, Cristina Kraemer; Messick, Joanne Belle; Biondo, Alexander Welker

    2015-11-23

    Hemotropic mycoplasmas (hemoplasmas), bacteria belonging to the class Mollicutes, are obligatory red blood cell pathogens of a variety of animal species. They may cause acute anemia that is life-threatening or chronic disease that is clinically silent, but may interfere with results of experimental studies when using infected animals. Since these bacteria cannot be cultivated, molecular techniques are the gold standard for diagnosing an infection, investigating its prevalence, and describing new species. Mycoplasma coccoides and M. haemomuris are the most commonly recognized hemoplasmas in the blood of wild and laboratory rodents. Neither the epidemiology nor clinical and molecular characterization of hemoplasma infection in free-ranging rodents in Brazil has been previously reported. The aims of this study were to investigate the occurrence of hemoplasmas in free-ranging rats (Rattus norvegicus) captured in the Passeio Público and Curitiba Zoo and compare hematologic parameters of infected and non-infected animals. Anti-coagulated blood samples collected from 43 free-ranging and 20 nursery rats were included in the study. Overall 63.5% were positive using SYBR® Green quantitative PCR (qPCR) of the 16S rRNA gene to screen for hemoplasma infection (72% among free-ranging rats; 45% among laboratory-raised rats). Sequencing of the qPCR products showed that all but one sample had >98% identity to M. haemomuris. Phylogenetic analysis based on a fragment of approximately 1300 bp of the 16S rRNA gene showed 99% identity to a new hemoplasma from European rats and 98% identity to a hemotropic mycoplasma described infecting a European harvest mouse (Micromys minutus). No statistically significant changes in hematologic parameters between infected and non-infected rats were found, confirming the low pathogenicity and/or silent characteristics of the infection. Our findings suggest that hemoplasmas are likely endemic in rodent species in this region. The epidemiology

  10. Frequent combination of antimicrobial multiresistance and extraintestinal pathogenicity in Escherichia coli isolates from urban rats (Rattus norvegicus in Berlin, Germany.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Guenther

    Full Text Available Urban rats present a global public health concern as they are considered a reservoir and vector of zoonotic pathogens, including Escherichia coli. In view of the increasing emergence of antimicrobial resistant E. coli strains and the on-going discussion about environmental reservoirs, we intended to analyse whether urban rats might be a potential source of putatively zoonotic E. coli combining resistance and virulence. For that, we took fecal samples from 87 brown rats (Rattus norvegicus and tested at least three E. coli colonies from each animal. Thirty two of these E. coli strains were pre-selected from a total of 211 non-duplicate isolates based on their phenotypic resistance to at least three antimicrobial classes, thus fulfilling the definition of multiresistance. As determined by multilocus sequence typing (MLST, these 32 strains belonged to 24 different sequence types (STs, indicating a high phylogenetic diversity. We identified STs, which frequently occur among extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC, such as STs 95, 131, 70, 428, and 127. Also, the detection of a number of typical virulence genes confirmed that the rats tested carried ExPEC-like strains. In particular, the finding of an Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL-producing strain which belongs to a highly virulent, so far mainly human- and avian-restricted ExPEC lineage (ST95, which expresses a serogroup linked with invasive strains (O18:NM:K1, and finally, which produces an ESBL-type frequently identified among human strains (CTX-M-9, pointed towards the important role, urban rats might play in the transmission of multiresistant and virulent E. coli strains. Indeed, using a chicken infection model, this strain showed a high in vivo pathogenicity. Imagining the high numbers of urban rats living worldwide, the way to the transmission of putatively zoonotic, multiresistant, and virulent strains might not be far ahead. The unforeseeable consequences of such an emerging public

  11. Osteogenic Ability of Combined Hematopoetic Stem Cell, Hydroxyapatite Graft and Platelet Rich Fibrin on Rats (Rattus Novergicus

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    Dwi Rahmawati

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: In Indonesia, the incidence rate of tooth extraction as the main form of dental treatment reached as high as 79.6% in 2014. Teeth extraction leads to periodontal tissue defect whose treatment, incorporating the use of graft material Hydroxyapatite (HA and Platelet Rich Fibrin (PRF with stem cells, has become increasingly widespread. The stem cell potentially put to therapeutic use is the Hematopoetic Stem Cell (HSC. Aim and Objectives: to examine the effect of hematopoetic stem cell addition to HA graft and PRF post-tooth extraction on the number of osteoblasts and amount of Osteoprotegerin (OPG in periodontal defect treatment. Material and Methods: This study constituted laboratory-based experimental research with a post test-only control group. Twenty four rats (Rattus novergicus represented the animal study model in this research. Alveolar bone defect in the animal study model was induced by extracting the first molar of the mandible using sterile needle holder clamps. The sample population was divided into four groups: K0: the untreated control group; K1: socket filled with HA Graft and PRF. K2: socket filled with HSC 105 cells. K3: the socket filled with HA Graft and PRF with HSC 106 cells. Results: The K3 group had both the highest number of osteoblasts when compared with the control group (350.17 ± 33.42; P <0.001 and the strongest OPG expression of all treatment groups (11.36 ± 0.54; P <0.01. Conclusion: A combination of HA graft, PRF and HSC significantly increases the expression of OPG and the number of osteoblasts rendering it a potential treatment for tissue engineering-based periodontal defect.

  12. Molecular identification of Heterakis spumosa obtained from brown rats (Rattus norvegicus) in Japan and its infectivity in experimental mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šnábel, Viliam; Utsuki, Daisuke; Kato, Takehiro; Sunaga, Fujiko; Ooi, Hong-Kean; Gambetta, Barbara; Taira, Kensuke

    2014-09-01

    Heterakis spumosa is a nematode of invasive rodents, mainly affiliated with Rattus spp. of Asian origin. Despite the ecological importance and cosmopolitan distribution, little information is available on the genetic characteristics and infectivity to experimental animals of this roundworm. Heterakis isolates obtained from naturally infected brown rats caught in 2007 in the city of Sagamihara, east central Honshu, Japan, and maintained by laboratory passages were subjected to mitochondrial sequence analysis and experimental infection in mice. Sequencing of the cox1 gene revealed that nucleotides of H. spumosa and previously examined Heterakis isolonche isolates from gallinaceous birds in Japan differed by 11.2-12.2% that conforms to the range expected for interspecific differences. The two H. spumosa isolates differed by a single 138T/C non-synonymous substitution in the 393-bp mt sequence. In a dendrogram, the H. spumosa samples formed a subcluster with members of the nematode superfamily Heterakoidea, H. isolonche and Ascaridia galli. In an experimental infection study, ICR, AKR, B10.BR and C57BL/6 mice strains were inoculated with 200 H. spumosa eggs/head and necropsied at 14 and 90 days post-inoculation (DPI) when the number of worms was recorded. Eggs were initially detected in faeces from 32-35 DPI in ICR, AKR and B10.BR mice and the highest mean number of eggs per gram of faeces (EPG) was 4,800 at 38 DPI, 2,200 at 58 DPI and 800 at 44 and 72 DPI in ICR, AKR and B10.BR mice, respectively. No eggs were observed in faeces of the C57BL/6 mouse strain during the experiment. A similar number of juvenile worms were isolated from all mouse strains at 14 DPI, whereas no adult worms were detected in C57BL/6 mice at 90 DPI.

  13. Larval recovery of Toxocara cati in experimentally infected Rattus norvegicus and analysis of the rat as potential reservoir for this ascarid

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    Sérgio V Santos

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Toxocara cati is a common feline parasite transmitted by the ingestion of embryonated eggs, by the transmammary route or by predation of paratenic hosts harbouring third-stage larvae in their bodies. In the present study, the larval distribution of T. cati in tissues and organs of Rattus norvegicus experimentally infected with 300 embryonated eggs was analysed. Third-stage larvae were recovered from livers, lungs, kidneys, eyes, brains and carcasses of infected rats, following tissue digestion with HCl 0.5% for 24 h at 37°C. Some differences from the known larval distribution of Toxocara canisin the same rodent species were found.

  14. Characterization of Bromadiolone Resistance in a Danish Strain of Norway Rats, Rattus norvegicus, by Hepatic Gene Expression Profiling of VKORC1 and Calumenin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Mette Drude; Heiberg, Ann-Charlotte; Fredholm, Merete

    2007-01-01

    Anticoagulant agents, such as warfarin and bromadiolone, are used to control populations of Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus). The anticoagulants compromise the blood-coagulation process by inhibiting the vitamin K2,3 epoxide reductase enzyme complex (VKOR). Mutations in the VKORC1 gene, encoding...... indicate that bromadiolone resistance does not involve an over-expression of calumenin. We observed a low VKORC1 mRNA expression in resistant rats compared to susceptible rats, which may explain pleiotropic effects of resistance, such as a low VKOR activity and an enhanced need for vitamin K, observed...... a VKOR protein, are believed to confer anticoagulant resistance in European strains of rats, whereas hepatic over-expression of calumenin has been suggested responsible for warfarin-resistance in an US rat strain. To characterize the resistance mechanism in a Danish bromadiolone-resistant strain of rats...

  15. Helminth Infections in Rattus ratus and Rattus norvigicus in Tehran, Iran.

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    Meral Meshkekar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine intestinal and liver helminth infections in Rattus rodents in Tehran Iran.Overall, 306 traps were put in 39 different regions in Tehran from 2009 to 2010. Rodents, including R. rattus and R. norvegicus were caught by live-traps. They become unconscious and the spinal cords were cut, afterwards the body was dissected and the stomach, small intestine, large intestine, liver, and cecum were studied separately. The dominant type and the prevalence rate of parasites in the rodents were determined based on the infected parts of their body.After recognition of the helminthes' types, among the 120 total number of rodents, 39 belonged to males, while among the infected rodents, 57(47.5% were female and 18(15% were male. The prevalence of infection in Tehran was 62.5%. Seventy cases (58.33% of helminth infections were observed in R. rattus and 5 cases (4.16% were observed in R. norvegicus. The maximum prevalence (15.5% was seen in the center and east part of Tehran, while the minimum (9.16% was in the north part of the city. The helminthes types and the corresponding percentages were Hymenolepis nana fraterna (35.8%, Heterakis spumosa (17.5%, Hymenolepis diminuta (7.5% and Capillaria annulosa (1.6%. The dominant rodent was Rattus rattus and among the identified helminthes, Hymenolepis diminuta and Hymenolepis nana fraterna are zoonotic ones.The information presented here improves our understanding of the major parasitic infections that rodents harbor and can transmit to human and animal populations in Iran. To prevent infectivity of human, the hazard of the identified zoonotic species needs to be contemplated.

  16. The Rakiura Titi Islands Restoration Project: community action to eradicate Rattus rattus and Rattus exulans for ecological restoration and cultural wellbeing

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClelland, P.J; Coote,; Trow,; Hutchins,; Nevins, HannahRose M.; Adams, Josh; Newman, J.; Moller, H.; Veitch, C.R.; Clout, Mike N.; Towns, D. R.

    2011-01-01

    In 2003, a non-profit group, Ka Mate Nga Kiore, was set up to oversee the restoration of four Maori-owned islands off the south coast of Stewart Island, New Zealand. The first step in the restoration was to eradicate ship rats (Rattus rattus) from three islands and Pacific rats (R. exulans) from another. The eradication was funded by the Command Oil Spill Trustee Council which managed the mitigation money from an oil spill off the Californian coast in 1998. The funding was coordinated via Oikonos Ecosystem Knowledge, a non-profit USA group primarily involved in seabird research and restoration. The project was primarily to benefit sooty shearwater (Puffinus griseus) and to sustain a culturally important customary harvest of their chicks by Rakiura Maori. However, like all island eradications, a wide range of other species also benefited from the removal of rats. The New Zealand Department of Conservation provided technical advice and assistance for the planning and implementation of the eradication programme. This paper describes how, with appropriate funding, community and technical support, rodent eradications can be achieved on private islands. In this case, a range of institutions and individuals joined to achieve a common goal that highlighted a significant international conservation action. We urge that more international and local-community-led restoration projects be initiated in the future.

  17. Beyond an AFLP genome scan towards the identification of immune genes involved in plague resistance in Rattus rattus from Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tollenaere, C; Jacquet, S; Ivanova, S; Loiseau, A; Duplantier, J-M; Streiff, R; Brouat, C

    2013-01-01

    Genome scans using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers became popular in nonmodel species within the last 10 years, but few studies have tried to characterize the anonymous outliers identified. This study follows on from an AFLP genome scan in the black rat (Rattus rattus), the reservoir of plague (Yersinia pestis infection) in Madagascar. We successfully sequenced 17 of the 22 markers previously shown to be potentially affected by plague-mediated selection and associated with a plague resistance phenotype. Searching these sequences in the genome of the closely related species Rattus norvegicus assigned them to 14 genomic regions, revealing a random distribution of outliers in the genome (no clustering). We compared these results with those of an in silico AFLP study of the R. norvegicus genome, which showed that outlier sequences could not have been inferred by this method in R. rattus (only four of the 15 sequences were predicted). However, in silico analysis allowed the prediction of AFLP markers distribution and the estimation of homoplasy rates, confirming its potential utility for designing AFLP studies in nonmodel species. The 14 genomic regions surrounding AFLP outliers (less than 300 kb from the marker) contained 75 genes encoding proteins of known function, including nine involved in immune function and pathogen defence. We identified the two interleukin 1 genes (Il1a and Il1b) that share homology with an antigen of Y. pestis, as the best candidates for genes subject to plague-mediated natural selection. At least six other genes known to be involved in proinflammatory pathways may also be affected by plague-mediated selection. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. Tissues and hair residues and histopathology in wild rats (Rattus rattus L.) and Algerian mice (Mus spretus Lataste) from an abandoned mine area (Southeast Portugal)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, R. [Departamento de Biologia da Universidade de Aveiro, Campus Universitario de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal) and Instituto Piaget, Campus Academico de Viseu, Estrada do Alto do Gaio, Lordosa, 3515-776 Viseu (Portugal)]. E-mail: ruthp@bio.ua.pt; Pereira, M.L. [Departamento de Biologia da Universidade de Aveiro, Campus Universitario de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Ribeiro, R. [Instituto do Ambiente e Vida, Departamento de Zoologia da Universidade de Coimbra, Largo Marques de Pombal, 3004-517 Coimbra (Portugal); Goncalves, F. [Departamento de Biologia da Universidade de Aveiro, Campus Universitario de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal)

    2006-02-15

    Data gathered in this study suggested the exposure of rats and Algerian mice, living in an abandoned mining area, to a mixture of heavy metals. Although similar histopathological features were recorded in the liver and spleen of both species, the Algerian mouse has proved to be the strongest bioaccumulator species. Hair was considered to be a good biological material to monitor environmental contamination of Cr in rats. Significant positive associations were found between the levels of this element in hair/kidney (r = 0.826, n = 9, p < 0.01) and hair/liver (r = 0.697, n = 9, p = 0.037). Although no association was found between the levels of As recorded in the hair and in the organs, the levels of this element recorded in the hair, of both species, were significantly higher in animals captured in the mining area, which met the data from the organs analysed. Nevertheless, more studies will be needed to reduce uncertainty about cause-effect relationships. - The bioaccumulation of As and Cd and signs of renal histopathological injury proved the value of Algerian mice as a bioindicator species in the risk assessment of contaminated sites.

  19. Resistance to anticoagulants in rats (Rattus norvegicus) in sewers in an urban area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lodal, Jens

    2007-01-01

    Control of rats in sewers is, though of varying intensity, common practice in a majority of Danish municipalities and bromadiolone is the most preferred active ingredient. The results of sewer rat control is very difficult to register and very little is known about resistance among sewer rats. Th...

  20. The effect of monofluorophosphate implant in white rat mothers towards the level of fluor in the incisors of their young babies (Rattus-rattus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widjijono Widjijono

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fluoride has been widely used in the prevention of dental caries for a long time. To prevent dental caries, fluoride must be induced in low amount at high frequency. Inducing it through implantation process even make slow release of small concentration of fluoride. Purpose: The aim of this research was to analyze whether the induction of monofluorophosphate (MFP implant into the white rat mothers affects the level of fluoride in the incisors of their young babies. Method: The objects of the research were twenty white rat mothers in two days of pregnancy which then were divided into four groups (n=5. First, those mothers have been induced with implant under their back skin until their born young babies in the age of 35 days (n=5. The level of fluoride in the incisors of those young babies then is measured with Potentiometer. The obtained data were finally analyzed with One-Way ANOVA test and continued by with LSD test (p=0.05. Result: The result of this research showed that the means of the fluoride level in the incisors of those babies divided into those four groups in series were about 11956.16±201.35 ppb (K, 27328.04±234.56 ppb (P1, 37267.21±248.86 ppb (P2, and 18103.50±267.11 ppb (P3. The result of ANOVA test then showed that the induction of various MFP implant levels significantly affected the level of fluoride in the incisors of the babies. The mean differences among the treatment groups after being tested with LSD 0.05 were also significant. Conclusion: The finding confirm that the significant increasing of the optimal fluoride retention in the incisors of white rat babies can be achieved with the induction of fluoride with MFP ions implant in about 52.98 mg.Latar belakang: Pencegahan karies gigi menggunakan senyawa fluor telah banyak dilakukan dan berlangsung dalam jangka waktu lama. Pemberian fluor dalam jumlah rendah dan frekuensi tinggi merupakan pemenuhan kebutuhan pencegahan karies gigi. Pemberian dengan cara

  1. Analgesic Activity of Tramadol and Buprenorphine after Voluntary Ingestion by Rats (Rattus norvegicus)

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, Bryan F; Ramirez, Harvey E.; Battles, August H; Andrutis, Karl A.; Neubert, John K.

    2016-01-01

    Effective pain management for rats and mice is crucial due to the continuing increase in the use of these species in biomedical research. Here we used a recently validated operant orofacial pain assay to determine dose–response curves for buprenorphine and tramadol when mixed in nut paste and administered to male and female rats. Statistically significant analgesic doses of tramadol in nut paste included doses of 20, 30, and 40 mg/kg for female rats but only 40 mg/kg for male rats. For male r...

  2. Analgesic Activity of Tramadol and Buprenorphine after Voluntary Ingestion by Rats (Rattus norvegicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Bryan F; Ramirez, Harvey E; Battles, August H; Andrutis, Karl A; Neubert, John K

    2016-01-01

    Effective pain management for rats and mice is crucial due to the continuing increase in the use of these species in biomedical research. Here we used a recently validated operant orofacial pain assay to determine dose-response curves for buprenorphine and tramadol when mixed in nut paste and administered to male and female rats. Statistically significant analgesic doses of tramadol in nut paste included doses of 20, 30, and 40 mg/kg for female rats but only 40 mg/kg for male rats. For male rats receiving buprenorphine mixed in nut paste, a significant analgesic response was observed at 0.5 and 0.6 mg/kg. None of the doses tested produced a significant analgesic response in female rats. Our results indicate that at the doses tested, tramadol and buprenorphine produced an analgesic response in male rats. In female rats, tramadol shows a higher analgesic effect than buprenorphine. The analgesic effects observed 60 min after administration of the statistically significant oral doses of both drugs were similar to the analgesic effects of 0.03 mg/kg subcutaneous buprenorphine 30 min after administration. The method of voluntary ingestion could be effective, is easy to use, and would minimize stress to the rats during the immediate postoperative period.

  3. Microsurgical Versus Conventional Skin Closure in the Laboratory Rat (Rattus norvegicus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objectives: To compare the cosmetic outcome, healing and strength of linear incisions in rats after repair with naked eye, surgical loupes or a...surgical microscope.Methods: A single surgeon created two, parallel, 3 cm long linear incisions on the dorsal skin of male Sprague Dawley rats (n=36) and

  4. Hymenolepiosis in a group of albino rats (Rattus albus): a study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreedevi, C; Ravi Kumar, P; Jyothisree, Ch

    2015-06-01

    A study was carried out on adult albino Wistar laboratory rats to know the incidence of hymenolepiosis, a zoonotic disease which were brought for experiment purpose. Faecal samples of 95 rats examined for parasitic infection by simple floatation technique in which 32 were positive (33.68 %) for hymenolepiosis. Identification of species of Hymenolepis was done based on morphology of egg. The highest prevalence of Hymenolepis diminuta (23.15 %) was recorded followed by Hymenolepis nana (10.52 %). Heavy infection with Hymenolepis in rats draws attention in view of public health importance in contact persons.

  5. Eradication of Polynesian Rats (rattus exulans) from Rose Atoll National Wildlife Refuge, American Samoa

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A 38-day poison and trap campaign was conducted on Rose Atoll National Wildlife Refuge to eradicate Polynesian rats in order to reduce their impact of seabird eggs...

  6. Anticoagulant resistance: a relevant issue in sewer rat (Rattus norvegicus) control?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiberg, Ann-Charlotte

    2009-01-01

    the resistant rats, had resistance-related mutations in the VKORC1 gene. CONCLUSION: The results of this study suggest that the genetic background of anticoagulant resistance may have to be redefined in respect of resistance-related changes in the VKORC1 gene. Copyright © 2009 Society of Chemical Industry......BACKGROUND: The majority of rat problems in cities are thought to be related to defective sewers, and the use of anticoagulant rodenticides in such places is often implemented as part of regular urban rodent control. Knowledge pertaining to the resistance status of sewer rat populations is non......-existent, which may be leading to control problems in cities. It has become crucial to provide knowledge on the prevalence of resistance and how different control strategies have affected its prevalence among sewer rat populations. The prevalence of resistance was investigated in six sewer locations in Copenhagen...

  7. Identification, cloning and functional characterization of novel beta-defensins in the rat (Rattus norvegicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    French Frank S

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background beta-defensins are small cationic peptides that exhibit broad spectrum antimicrobial properties. The majority of beta-defensins identified in humans are predominantly expressed in the male reproductive tract and have roles in non-immunological processes such as sperm maturation and capacitation. Characterization of novel defensins in the male reproductive tract can lead to increased understanding of their dual roles in immunity and sperm maturation. Methods In silico rat genomic analyses were used to identify novel beta-defensins related to human defensins 118–123. RNAs isolated from male reproductive tract tissues of rat were reverse transcribed and PCR amplified using gene specific primers for defensins. PCR products were sequenced to confirm their identity. RT-PCR analysis was performed to analyze the tissue distribution, developmental expression and androgen regulation of these defensins. Recombinant defensins were tested against E. coli in a colony forming unit assay to analyze their antimicrobial activities. Results Novel beta-defensins, Defb21, Defb24, Defb27, Defb30 and Defb36 were identified in the rat male reproductive tract. Defb30 and Defb36 were the most restricted in expression, whereas the others were expressed in a variety of tissues including the female reproductive tract. Early onset of defensin expression was observed in the epididymides of 10–60 day old rats. Defb21-Defb36 expression in castrated rats was down regulated and maintained at normal levels in testosterone supplemented animals. DEFB24 and DEFB30 proteins showed potent dose and time dependent antibacterial activity. Conclusion Rat Defb21, Defb24, Defb27, Defb30 and Defb36 are abundantly expressed in the male reproductive tract where they most likely protect against microbial invasion. They are developmentally regulated and androgen is required for full expression in the adult epididymis.

  8. COMPROMISED FERTILITY IN FREE FEEDING OF WILD-CAUGHT NORWAY RATS (RATTUS NORVEGICUS) WITH A LIQUID BAIT CONTAINING 4-VINYLCYCLOHEXENE DIEPOXIDE AND TRIPTOLIDE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witmer, Gary W; Raymond-Whish, Stefanie; Moulton, Rachael S; Pyzyna, Brandy R; Calloway, Elissa M; Dyer, Cheryl A; Mayer, Loretta P; Hoyer, Patricia B

    2017-03-01

    Wild rat pests in the environment cause crop and property damage and carry disease. Traditional methods of reducing populations of these pests involve poisons that can cause accidental exposures in other animals and humans. Fertility management with nonlethal chemicals would be an improved method of rat pest population control. Two chemicals known to target ovarian function in female rats are 4-vinylcyclohexene diepoxide (VCD) and triptolide. Additionally, triptolide impairs spermatogenesis in males. A liquid bait containing no active ingredients (control), or containing triptolide (0.001%) and VCD (0.109%; active) was prepared to investigate the potential use of these agents for wild rat pest population control. Liquid bait was made available to male (n = 8 control; n = 8 active) and female (n = 8 control; n = 8 active) Sprague Dawley rats ( Rattus norvegicus ) for oral consumption prior to breeding. Whereas, control bait-treated females produced normal-sized litters (10.0 ± 1.7 pups/litter), treated females delivered no pups. Wild Norway male (n = 20) and female (n = 20) rats ( Rattus norvegicus ) were trapped, individually housed, and one group given free access to control bait, one group to active bait. Following three cycles of treatment-matched mating pairs, females consuming control bait (control) produced normal litter sizes (9.73 ± 0.73 pups/litter). Females who had consumed active bait (treated) produced no litters on breeding cycles one and two; however, 2 of 10 females produced small litters on the third mating cycle. In a fourth breeding cycle, control females were crossmated with treated males, and treated females were crossmated with control males. In both groups, some dams produced litters, while others did not. The differences in response reflect a heterogeneity in return to cyclicity between females. These results suggest a potential approach to integrated pest management by compromising fertility, and could provide a novel alternative to

  9. Highly Pathogenic Leptospira Found in Urban Brown Rats (Rattus norvegicus) in the Largest Cities of Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strand, Tanja M; Löhmus, Mare; Persson Vinnersten, Thomas; Råsbäck, Therese; Sundström, Karin; Bergström, Tomas; Lundkvist, Åke

    2015-12-01

    Leptospirosis is an emerging zoonosis of global concern; however, its contemporary occurrence in Sweden, a European country partly located north of the Arctic Circle, is poorly known. Four out of 30 brown rats, captured within urban districts in Sweden, were found to be positive for antibodies to Leptospira interrogans serovar Icterohaemorrhagiae. This serovar causes Weil's disease in humans, a severe infection with jaundice, renal failure, and hemorrhage. Our study is the first finding of this highly pathogenic serovar in Swedish rats since the 1930s.

  10. SEROPREVALENSI LEPTOSPIRA PADA RATTUS NORvEgICUS DAN RATTUS TANEzUmI BERDASARKAN JENIS KELAMIN DAN UMUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arief Mulyono

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Rats are the main natural infectious host of leptospirosis to human. Rattus norvegicus (rats and Rattus tanezumi (house mice are two types of domestic rats that related with leptospira infection in the world. They are played the main role major leptospirosis transmission to human than others. This study aims to determine seroprevalence of Leptospira of R. norvegicus and R. tanezumi based of the sex and age. The method of study was trapping rats in the Miroto village (Semarang and Tridonorejo village (Demak. LeptoTec Dri-Dot test has used after take  blood of the rats intracardially and weight eye lens used to determinan age of the rats. The results showed seroprevalence of Leptospira in R. norvegicus were 66,67% and R. tanezumi were 24,39%. Seroprevalence of Leptospira in R. norvegicus females were 71,43% and R. norvegicus males were 60%. Seroprevalence of Leptospira in R. tanezumi females were 21,43% and R. tanezumi male were 30,77%. Based of age showed seroprevalence of Leptospira was highest in R. norvegicus and R.tanezumi adult than R. norvegicus and R. tanezumi young.

  11. Factors influencing the density of the brown rat (Rattus norvegicus) in and around houses in Amsterdam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adrichem, van M.H.C.; Buijs, J.A.; Goedhart, P.W.; Verboom, J.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: The current strategy of the pest management department of the Public Health Service in Amsterdam is to identify causal factors in order to reduce the carrying capacity of pest populations and to minimise the use of pesticides. Rats have been controlled with rodenticides for decades, which

  12. Involvement of hepatic xenobiotic related genes in bromadiolone resistance in wild Norway rats, Rattus norvegicus (Berk.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Mette Drude; Heiberg, Ann-Charlotte; Alsbo, Carsten

    2007-01-01

    a role in bromadiolone resistance in the Norway rat. A high constitutive expression of Cyp2c13 and Cyp3a2 and induction of Cyp1a2, Cyp2e1 and Cyp3a3 expression during bromadiolone exposure may increase the resistance to bromadiolone presumably by facilitating increased detoxification and decreased liver...

  13. Whole mitochondrial genome sequence and mutations of the hypertension model inbred rat strain (Muridae; Rattus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Wei; Gao, Lin-lin; Zhen, Lin-lin

    2016-01-01

    We reported the complete mitochondrial genome sequencing of a important hypertension model inbred rat strain for the first time. The total length of the mitogenome was 16,310 bp. It harbored 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA genes and 1 non-coding control region. The mutation events contained in this strain were also reported.

  14. The use of interval ratios in consonance perception by rats (Rattus norvegicus) and humans (Homo sapiens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespo-Bojorque, Paola; Toro, Juan M

    2015-02-01

    Traditionally, physical features in musical chords have been proposed to be at the root of consonance perception. Alternatively, recent studies suggest that different types of experience modulate some perceptual foundations for musical sounds. The present study tested whether the mechanisms involved in the perception of consonance are present in an animal with no extensive experience with harmonic stimuli and a relatively limited vocal repertoire. In Experiment 1, rats were trained to discriminate consonant from dissonant chords and tested to explore whether they could generalize such discrimination to novel chords. In Experiment 2, we tested if rats could discriminate between chords differing only in their interval ratios and generalize them to different octaves. To contrast the observed pattern of results, human adults were tested with the same stimuli in Experiment 3. Rats successfully discriminated across chords in both experiments, but they did not generalize to novel items in either Experiment 1 or Experiment 2. On the contrary, humans not only discriminated among both consonance-dissonance categories, and among sets of interval ratios, they also generalized their responses to novel items. These results suggest that experience with harmonic sounds may be required for the construction of categories among stimuli varying in frequency ratios. However, the discriminative capacity observed in rats suggests that at least some components of auditory processing needed to distinguish chords based on their interval ratios are shared across species. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  15. The Physiologic Effects of Isoflurane, Sevoflurane, and Hypothermia Used for Anesthesia in Neonatal Rats (Rattus norvegicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huss, Monika K; Chum, Helen H; Chang, Angela G; Jampachairsi, Katechan; Pacharinsak, Cholawat

    2016-01-01

    Information regarding effective anesthetic regimens for neonatal rat pups is limited. Here we investigated whether isoflurane or sevoflurane anesthesia maintains physiologic parameters more consistently than does hypothermia anesthesia in neonatal rat pups. Rat pups (age, 4 d) were randomly assigned to receive isoflurane, sevoflurane, or hypothermia. Physiologic parameters monitored at 1, 5, 10, and 15 min included heart rate (HR), respiratory rate (RR), and oxygen saturation (%SpO2). Other parameters evaluated were loss and return of righting reflex, paw withdrawal reflex, and maternal acceptance. Corticosterone and glucose were sampled at 20 min and 24 h after anesthesia induction. Once a surgical plane of anesthesia was achieved, a skin incision was made on the right lateral thigh. After the procedure, all pups were accepted and cared for by their dam. Isoflurane- and sevoflurane-treated pups maintained higher HR, RR, %SpO2, and glucose levels than did hypothermia-treated pups. For both the isoflurane and sevoflurane groups, HR and RR were significantly lower at 10 and 15 min after anesthesia than at 1 min. Compared with hypothermia, isoflurane and sevoflurane anesthesia provided shorter times to loss of and return of the righting reflex. Although corticosterone did not differ among the groups, glucose levels were higher at 20 min after anesthesia induction than at 24 h in all anesthetic groups. We conclude that both isoflurane and sevoflurane anesthesia maintain physiologic parameters (HR, RR, %SpO2) more consistently than does hypothermia anesthesia in 4-d-old rat pups.

  16. Treatment of Partial Thickness Burns with a Novel Extracellular Matrix in Rats (Rattus norvegicus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-20

    Objectives: The objective this study was to examine the cellular and immune responses to various extracellular matrices (ECM) in a rat burn model...bacteria and polymorphonucleocyte infiltration.Conclusions: None of the extracellular matrices performed differently than the control treatment

  17. Hierarchical use of cues in the missing object recognition task by rats (Rattus norvegicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arain, Marium; Cohen, Jerome

    2013-07-01

    This study investigated rats' preferences for using non-spatial and spatial cues in a missing-object recognition task. Rats were trained to find a sunflower seed under any one of four previously missing adjacent objects, the test array of a trial, after having found seeds under three of them in the 'study' array of that trial. On some trials the study and test arrays consisted of a different object at each baited food site and on other trials, of identical objects. A previously missing object's position and orientation within its array and its global position within the large foraging chamber varied over trials but not within trials. Following training, rats received interspersed non- or partially rewarded probe trials with transformed test arrays of dissociated non-spatial (object-specific) and spatial cues on test array feeders. Results from these probe trials revealed that rats preferred to search for a missing object based first on its specific non-spatial features before searching for it based on its local spatial features; that is, its local position followed by its orientation, and finally based on its global position. This hierarchical sequence for using spatial cues was preserved under the identical-objects cueing condition. Rats reversed their preferences between object-specific and local position cues, however, when novel objects replaced the same four different objects in a supplementary experiment. We discussed the implications of these findings in terms of the influence of ecological- and context-dependent factors on information use or retrieval from animals' visuo-spatial working memory. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Hsp70 Expression Profile in Preeclampsia Model of Pregnant Rat (Rattus norvegicus) after Giving the EVOO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irianti, E.; ilyas, S.; Rosidah; Hutahaean, S.

    2017-03-01

    Heat shock protein (Hsp) has long been known to protect cells from oxidative stress. In this case an increased expression is found on several cases of preeclampsia. One of the efforts to prevent preeclampsia is by giving antioxidants such as Extra Virgin Olive Oil (EVOO) or it’s better known as olive oil (Oleoa europaea), in the form of extra virgin known for its rich antioxidant content of tocopherols (vitamin E). The purpose of this study is to determine the expression levels of Hsp70 serum on pregnant white rat model of preeclampsia after being given EVOO. This type of research is true experiment; the subjects were female white rats and male virgin with Sprague Dawley, ± 8-11 weeks old, 180g BB s / d 200g, healthy and didn’t show any physical defects. Samples were 25 animals, divided into 5 groups, which consisted of different control and treatment given to T2 (rat model of preeclampsia), T3 (rat model of preeclampsia + EVOO 0.45g/bw/day), T4 (rat model of preeclampsia + EVOO 0.9g/bw/day) and T5 (rat model of preeclampsia + EVOO 1.8g/bw/day). The determination of each group was done by simple random sampling. Result on serum levels of Hsp70 that were tested by Elisa test in rats showed the average control was 14.64 mg / ml, group T2: 22:51 mg/ml, T3: 13.62 mg/ml, T4: 15.92 mg/ml, T5: 16:09 mg/ml. ANOVA test showed the P value was 0.001 <0.005, which meant there were significant differences on serum Hsp70 levels in the control and treatment pregnant rats group. It was known that there was a significant difference level of Hsp70 serum in group of control rats with T2 (P value <0.001) after LSD test was conducted, but not so with the group T3, T4, and T5, where the difference was not significant. There was a significant difference in the levels of Hsp70 serum on group T2 and T3 (P value 0.000), T4 (0004), T5 (0000). The gift of EVOO in the treatment group which was given EVOO with even low doses was able to control the induction of Hsp70 serum levels, which

  19. Whole mitochondrial genome sequence and mutations of the cervical carcinoma model inbred rat strain (Muridae; Rattus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Xiao-Hui; Mei, Long; Abudureyimu, Zainuer

    2016-01-01

    We reported the complete mitochondrial genome sequencing of an important cervical carcinoma model inbred rat strain for the first time. The total length of the mitogenome was 16,314 bp. It harbored 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA genes and 1 non-coding control region. The mutation events contained in this strain were also reported.

  20. The effect of long term administration of lemon juice on rat (rattus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The levels of AST, ALT and ALP in serum were used to determine the state of the liver .The enzyme assay of the lemon juice treated rats showed some decrease in the serum levels of AST, ALT and ALP. The result of the study showed that lemon juice improves the health of the liver as it improves the ability of the liver to ...

  1. Laboratory rats (Rattus norvegicus) do not use binaural phase differences to localize sound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesolek, Christina M; Koay, Gimseong; Heffner, Rickye S; Heffner, Henry E

    2010-06-14

    The ability of Norway rats to use binaural time- and intensity-difference cues to localize sound was investigated by determining their ability to localize pure tones from 500 Hz to 32 kHz. In addition, their ability to use the binaural time cues present in the envelope of a signal was determined by presenting them with a 1-kHz tone that was amplitude modulated at either 250 or 500 Hz. Although the animals were easily able to localize tones above 2 kHz, indicating that they could use the binaural intensity-difference cue, they were virtually unable to localize the lower-frequency stimuli, indicating that they could not use the binaural phase (time) cue. Although some animals showed a residual ability to localize low-frequency tones, control tests indicated that they were using the transient interaural intensity difference in the onset of a sound that exists after it reaches the near ear but before it reaches the far ear. Thus, in contrast to earlier studies, we conclude that the Norway rat is unable to use the ongoing time cues available in low-frequency tones to localize sound, raising the possibility that the rat may not use interaural time differences to localize sound. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Navigation with two landmarks in rats (Rattus norvegicus): the role of landmark salience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigo, Teresa; Gimeno, Elisabet; Ayguasanosa, Meritxell; Chamizo, Victoria D

    2014-11-01

    In two experiments, male and female rats were trained in a Morris pool in the presence of 1 (Experiment 1) or 2 (Experiment 2) landmarks, which were placed relatively close in relation to a hidden platform. Experiment 1 established the relative salience of 3 landmarks. Two of them revealed a similar salience, and smaller than a third one, the most salient landmark, both in training and on a test trial without the platform. Then in Experiment 2 rats were extensively trained to find a hidden platform in the presence of a configuration formed by 2 landmarks and the effects of varying the salience of one of the landmarks were studied. Subsequent test trials without the platform revealed that finding the platform was controlled by different strategies and that the rats were taking advantage of this redundancy depending on the nature of the test trials. Surprisingly, in Experiment 2 a clear sex difference was found on escape trials only, with males reaching the platform faster than females. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Assessment of the risks of rats (Rattus norvegicus and opossums (Didelphis albiventris in different poultry-rearing areas in Argentina Avaliação dos riscos sanitários de ratos (Rattus norvegicus e gambás (Didelphis albiventris em diferentes granjas avícolas na Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel E. Gómez Villafañe

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available We have studied the prevalence of Trichinella spiralis, Leptospira spp. and Salmonella spp. in rats and opossums that inhabit poultry farms of Exaltación de la Cruz, Buenos Aires, Argentina, to determine the potential sanitary risk for humans that are in contact with these animals. The study was carried out on 48 poultry farms between spring 1999 and winter 2001. The study of opossums began in winter 2000. During the study period we captured 152 Rattus norvegicus, 3 Rattus rattus, 16 Didelphis albiventris and 1 Lutreolina crassicaudata. We have registered the presence of rats and opossums in 70% and 27% of the studied farms, respectively. The percentage of farms with rats was independent of the presence or absence of pigs. We did not detect the presence of Leptospira spp. and Trichinella spiralis in any individual. We detected the presence of Salmonella Enteritidis in one Rattus norvegicus and one Didelphis albiventris. According to our results, the rats and opossums of poultry farms may not report a risk factor in the transmission of Trichinella and Leptospira under the present conditions; but the detection of Salmonella Enteritidis in rats as well as in opossums suggests the idea of applying prophylactics measurements on poultry farms.A prevalência de Trichinella spiralis, Leptospira spp. e Salmonella spp. foi estudada em ratos e gambás que habitam granjas avícolas da região de Exaltación de la Cruz, Buenos Aires, Argentina, com o objetivo de determinar o potencial risco sanitário para pessoas que ficam em contato com esses animais. O estudo foi realizado entre a primavera de 1999 e o inverno de 2001 em 48 granjas avícolas. O estudo em gambás iniciou-se no inverno de 2000. Foram capturados 152 Rattus norvegicus, 3 Rattus rattus, 16 Didelphis albiventris e 1 Lutreolina crassicaudata. Registrou-se a presença de ratos e de gambás em 70% e 27% das granjas estudadas, respectivamente. A percentagem de granjas com ratos foi independente da

  4. Hepatoprotective Potential of Propolis toward Hepar Injury Rats (Rattus norvegicus Induced by Carbon Tetrachloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diah Krisnansari

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The prevalence of chronic liver disease continues to increase. One potentially hepatotoxic substances that cause chronic liver disease is carbon tetrachloride. The process of liver damage can be prevented by the antioxidant role of propolis. The aims of this research was to study the hepatoprotective potential of propolis toward hepar injury rats induced by carbon tetrachlorida. Method: This was an experimental study with pre-post test. Twenty five male Wistar rats aged 12–16 week old, weighing 125–200 gr were allocated into 5 groups. Group I: standard meal + aquadest-gavage; group II: standard meal + CCl4 1% 1 mL + aquadest-gavage, group III: standard meal + CCl4 1% 1 mL + 0,054 gr propolis-gavage, group IV: standard meal + CCl4 1% 1 mL + 0,108 gr propolis-gavage and group V: standard meal + CCl4 1% 1 mL + sylimarin 50 mg/kg-gavage. IL-6, SOD, NAS score+fibrotic were measured after treatment. Analysed of IL-6 and NAS score+fibrotic with Kruskal Wallis to Mann Whitney and analysed of SOD with One-Way ANOVA to LSD. Results: The study showed that there were significant differences in IL-6, SOD and NAS score + fibrotic between groups. Discussion: Provision of 0,054 gr and 0,108 gr have hepatoprotective potential toward hepar injury rats induced by carbon tetrachlorida. Further research need to identify antioxidants and hepatoprotective potential of propolis on human with liver disease. Keywords: IL-6, SOD, fibrotic, propolis

  5. Immunomodulatory Effectiveness of Aqueous Obat Pahit Extract of Lingga Malay Ethnic on White Rats (Rattus novergicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fitmawati Fitmawati

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Obat pahit has been generally known and believed by Lingga Malay society as anti-aging agent. However, the study of Obat pahit is not scientifically proven. This research was aimed to prove immunomodulatory ability of Obat pahit potion from Lingga, Riau Archipelago. This study used white rats as an animal modelling, and Staphylococcus aureus as bacteria tester. The rats had been treated with aqueous Obat pahit extract from three TMPs on dose scales of 0.09, 0.18 and 0.27 mL/200g of body weight through oral administration for 7 days. Furthermore, on the 8th days, the experiment animals were injected by the preparation of bacteria tester through intraperitoneal administration in the amount of 0.5 mL/200 gram of body weigth and subsequently incubated for 1 hour after the injection. There were 2 observed parameters on this study, i.e efectivity and capacity of phagocytosis by leukocytes. The observation of leukocytes-phagocytocis activity was carried out by making a smear preparat samples of peritoneum fluid from rats. After the observation under microscope on a magnification of 100 times. The result was obtained the Obat pahit from Kalan PMT swere more effective on dose 2, while from SP4 and Linau TMPs were much more effective on dose 1. It is therefore, using these data of the results, the advanced doses scale of this Obat pahit would not be necessary. Obat pahit potion from Malay Lingga Malay Ethnic could become raw materials of immunomodulatory herbal medicine based on traditional knowledge. It also potentially as a standardized herbal.

  6. Sociosexual behaviors and reproductive success of rats (Rattus norvegicus) in a seminatural environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Xi; Guarraci, Fay A; Ågmo, Anders

    2015-11-01

    A promiscuous pattern of copulation has been reported in both wild and domestic rats, and multiple paternity is common. In the present study we determined whether male sociosexual behaviors were associated with reproductive success or not. Groups of rats (3 males and 4 cycling females) were housed in a seminatural environment for a period of 8 days. Sociosexual interactions were observed whenever one or several females were in behavioral estrus. Paternity of the offspring sired was determined by analyses of single nucleotide polymorphisms. Fertility was quantified either as the total number of offspring, or the mean proportion of offspring from all females, sired by the male. Although the total numbers of male social and sexual behaviors during the 8 day period were unrelated to reproductive success, male fertility was correlated with the number of intromissions and ejaculations. In addition intromission and ejaculation ratios (the proportion of mounts ending in intromission and the proportion of the total number of ejaculations received by a female that was contributed by a particular male, respectively) were also correlated with male fertility. Fewer mounts as well as fewer male pursuits of the female were demonstrated by males siring entire litters than by males siring multipaternity litters. Ejaculation order was unrelated to fertility. Male or female preferences (based on various sociosexual interactions) were not strongly related to fertility. Female preference only showed a limited effect. Specifically, preferred males (males who were sniffed most) sired fewer pups. Male dominance status did not affect female preferences, copulatory behavior or fertility. It appears that only behaviors directly related to sperm transfer are important for fertility. Social behaviors in both males and females play a very limited or no role in determining rats' fertility. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects Of Perineural Pregabalin Infusion On Peripheral Neuropathy In Sprague Dawley Rats (rattus norvegicus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-06

    34· UA 1 t::. ,.;uvt:nt:u . .. 06 April2012 Final 01/2011-04/2012 ... I liLt: ANU :tUDIIILt: ~a. ,.;uN I nA,.; I NUMDt:t1 Effects of Perineural Pregabalin ...neuropathic pain. Methods: Forty male Sprague Dawley rats were randomized into four study groups: Sciatic nerve crush injury with perineural pregabalin ...infusion (T), sciatic crush injury with perineural saline infusion (SA), nerve crush injury with subcutaneous pregabalin (SC), and a sham group without

  8. Effects of microcurrent stimulation on hyaline cartilage repair in immature male rats (Rattus norvegicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Campos Ciccone, Carla; Zuzzi, Denise Cristina; Neves, Lia Mara Grosso; Mendonça, Josué Sampaio; Joazeiro, Paulo Pinto; Esquisatto, Marcelo Augusto Marretto

    2013-01-19

    In this study, we investigate the effects of microcurrent stimulation on the repair process of xiphoid cartilage in 45-days-old rats. Twenty male rats were divided into a control group and a treated group. A 3-mm defect was then created with a punch in anesthetized animals. In the treated group, animals were submitted to daily applications of a biphasic square pulse microgalvanic continuous electrical current during 5 min. In each application, it was used a frequency of 0.3 Hz and intensity of 20 μA. The animals were sacrificed at 7, 21 and 35 days after injury for structural analysis. Basophilia increased gradually in control animals during the experimental period. In treated animals, newly formed cartilage was observed on days 21 and 35. No statistically significant differences in birefringent collagen fibers were seen between groups at any of the time points. Treated animals presented a statistically larger number of chondroblasts. Calcification points were observed in treated animals on day 35. Ultrastructural analysis revealed differences in cell and matrix characteristics between the two groups. Chondrocyte-like cells were seen in control animals only after 35 days, whereas they were present in treated animals as early as by day 21. The number of cuprolinic blue-stained proteoglycans was statistically higher in treated animals on days 21 and 35. We conclude that microcurrent stimulation accelerates the cartilage repair in non-articular site from prepuberal animals.

  9. Toxicopathological evaluation in Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus) following repeated oral exposure to acephate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhadaniya, Amit R; Kalariya, Vinay A; Joshi, Dilip V; Patel, Bakor J; Chaudhary, Sandhya; Patel, Hitesh B; Patel, Jignesh M; Patel, Urvesh D; Patel, Harshad B; Ghodasara, Sanjay N; Savsani, Harish H

    2015-01-01

    The present study was carried out to evaluate the effects of exposure at different doses of acephate on hematology, blood biochemistry, oxidative stress and immune system of Wistar rats. The experiment was carried out on 40 Wistar rats, which were divided in four groups. Animals of the three treatment groups were given with different sublethal doses (1/40th, 1/20th, 1/10th of lethal dose 50 value) of acephate by oral gavage. The hematology, blood biochemistry, oxidative stress marker, humoral immune response and cell-mediated immunity were evaluated following acephate exposure. Significant alteration in hematological parameters was not observed following different doses of acephate; however, significant alteration in alkaline phosphatase, gamma glutamyl transferase, acetyl cholinesterase, lipid peroxidase and superoxide dismutase was observed in medium- and high-dose group animals. Nonsignificant decrease in antibody titer in animals exposed to high dose has been observed compared with animals of control group. However, significant alteration in cell-mediated immunity was not observed in animals treated with acephate at different doses. © The Author(s) 2012.

  10. Effects of microcurrent stimulation on Hyaline cartilage repair in immature male rats (Rattus norvegicus

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    de Campos Ciccone Carla

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In this study, we investigate the effects of microcurrent stimulation on the repair process of xiphoid cartilage in 45-days-old rats. Methods Twenty male rats were divided into a control group and a treated group. A 3-mm defect was then created with a punch in anesthetized animals. In the treated group, animals were submitted to daily applications of a biphasic square pulse microgalvanic continuous electrical current during 5 min. In each application, it was used a frequency of 0.3 Hz and intensity of 20 μA. The animals were sacrificed at 7, 21 and 35 days after injury for structural analysis. Results Basophilia increased gradually in control animals during the experimental period. In treated animals, newly formed cartilage was observed on days 21 and 35. No statistically significant differences in birefringent collagen fibers were seen between groups at any of the time points. Treated animals presented a statistically larger number of chondroblasts. Calcification points were observed in treated animals on day 35. Ultrastructural analysis revealed differences in cell and matrix characteristics between the two groups. Chondrocyte-like cells were seen in control animals only after 35 days, whereas they were present in treated animals as early as by day 21. The number of cuprolinic blue-stained proteoglycans was statistically higher in treated animals on days 21 and 35. Conclusion We conclude that microcurrent stimulation accelerates the cartilage repair in non-articular site from prepuberal animals.

  11. Refinement of intraperitoneal injection of sodium pentobarbital for euthanasia in laboratory rats (Rattus norvegicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zatroch, Katie K; Knight, Cameron G; Reimer, Julie N; Pang, Daniel S J

    2017-02-21

    The Canadian Council on Animal Care and American Veterinary Medical Association classify intraperitoneal (IP) pentobarbital as an acceptable euthanasia method in rats. However, national guidelines do not exist for a recommended dose or volume and IP euthanasia has been described as unreliable, with misinjections leading to variable success in ensuring a timely death. The aims of this study were to assess and improve efficacy and consistency of IP euthanasia. In a randomized, blinded study, 51 adult female Sprague-Dawley rats (170-495 g) received one of four treatments: low-dose low-volume (LL) IP pentobarbital (n = 13, 200 mg/kg pentobarbital), low-dose high-volume (LH) IP pentobarbital (n = 14, 200 mg/kg diluted 1:3 with phosphate buffered saline), high-dose high-volume (HH, n = 14, 800 mg/kg pentobarbital), or saline. Times to loss of righting reflex (LORR) and cessation of heartbeat (CHB) were recorded. To identify misinjections, necropsy examinations were performed on all rats. Video recordings of LL and HH groups were analyzed for pain-associated behaviors. Between-group comparisons were performed with 1-way ANOVA and Games-Howell post hoc tests. Variability in CHB was assessed by calculating the coefficient of variation (CV). The fastest euthanasia method (CHB) was HH (283.7 ± 38.0 s), compared with LL (485.8 ± 140.7 s, p = 0.002) and LH (347.7 ± 72.0 s, p = 0.039). Values for CV were: HH, 13.4%; LH, 20.7%; LL, 29.0%. LORR time was longest in LL (139.5 ± 29.6 s), compared with HH (111.6 ± 19.7 s, p = 0.046) and LH (104.2 ± 19.3 s, p = 0.01). Misinjections occurred in 17.0% (7/41) of euthanasia attempts. Pain-associated behavior incidence ranged from 36% (4/11, LL) to 46% (5/11, HH). These data illustrate refinement of the IP pentobarbital euthanasia technique. Both dose and volume contribute to speed of death, with a dose of 800 mg/kg (HH) being the most effective method. An increase in volume alone does not significantly reduce variability. The

  12. Intraperitoneal Injection of Ethanol for the Euthanasia of Laboratory Mice (Mus musculus) and Rats (Rattus norvegicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen-Worthington, Krystal H; Brice, Angela K; Marx, James O; Hankenson, F Claire

    2015-11-01

    Compassion, professional ethics, and public sensitivity require that animals are euthanized humanely and appropriately under both planned and emergent situations. According to the 2013 AVMA Guidelines for the Euthanasia of Animals, intraperitoneal injection of ethanol is "acceptable with conditions" for use in mice. Because only limited information regarding this technique is available, we sought to evaluate ethanol by using ECG and high-definition video recording. Mice (n = 85) and rats (n = 16) were treated with intraperitoneal ethanol (70% or 100%), a positive-control agent (pentobarbital-phenytoin combination [Pe/Ph]), or a negative-control agent (saline solution). After injection, animals were assessed for behavioral and physiologic responses. Pain-assessment techniques in mice demonstrated that intraperitoneal injection of ethanol was not more painful than was intraperitoneal Pe/Ph. Median time to loss of consciousness for all mice that received ethanol or Pe/Ph was 45 s. Median time to respiratory arrest was 2.75, 2.25, and 2.63 min, and time (mean ± SE) to cardiac arrest was 6.04 ± 1.3, 2.96 ± 0.6, and 4.03 ± 0.5 min for 70% ethanol, 100% ethanol, and Pe/Ph, respectively. No mouse that received ethanol or Pe/Ph regained consciousness. Although successful in mice, intraperitoneal ethanol at the doses tested (9.2 to 20.1 g/kg) was unsuitable for euthanasia of rats (age, 7 to 8 wk) because of the volume needed and prolonged time to respiratory effects. For mice, intraperitoneal injection of 70% or 100% ethanol induced rapid and irreversible loss of consciousness, followed by death, and should be considered as "acceptable with conditions."

  13. Sociosexual behaviors of male rats (Rattus norvegicus) in a seminatural environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Xi; Ågmo, Anders

    2015-05-01

    Groups of rats (3 males and 4 cycling females) were housed in a seminatural environment consisting of a burrow and a large open area for a period of 8 days. Sociosexual interactions were recorded whenever 1 or several females were in behavioral estrus. Male sociosexual behaviors occurred in bouts (periods of sexual activity followed by more than 60 min without any sexual behavior), which could be ended either by mount (mean ± 95% confidence interval was 38 ± 13% of all bouts), intromission (21 ± 15%), or ejaculation (40 ± 18%). Bouts had a median duration of 2.8 ± 0.9 h. Within a bout, the intensity of sexual behavior remained quite stable. Interestingly, there was no decline as the end of the bout approached. There was no relationship between the last event in the preceding bout and the interbout interval. Regardless of whether there was single or multiple females in estrus, the males copulated with all available females in an order that was not significantly different from random. Social behaviors like sniffing and anogenital sniffing were more frequent in the burrow whereas sexual interactions were more frequent in the open area. The seminatural environment employed here offers a considerable amount of information concerning sexual interactions that cannot be obtained in traditional pair tests. Whenever speculations about the biological function or adaptive value of sexual behaviors are to be made, it appears that the present approach is indicated. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Demodectic mites of the brown rat Rattus norvegicus (Berkenhout, 1769) (Rodentia, Muridae) with a new finding of Demodex ratticola Bukva, 1995 (Acari, Demodecidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izdebska, Joanna N; Rolbiecki, Leszek

    2012-01-01

    Demodex ratticola was recorded in the brown rat Rattus norvegicus from northern Poland. It is a skin mite specific to this host, previously recorded only in the Czech Republic. D. ratticola was found at a prevalence 65.0% and mean intensity 12.7 in skin samples taken from the regions of lips, nose and chin. Furthermore, three other species from the family of Demodecidae were recorded, including Demodex nanus found in skin samples from different parts of the body and characterised by the highest parameters of infestation (100.0%, 25.2), D. ratti (50.0%, 3.3) found in the head skin and D. norvegicus (30.0%, 3.5) found in the genital and anal regions. The identified demodectic mites did not cause any pathological symptoms in rats.

  15. Betel Leaf Extract (Piper betle L. Antihyperuricemia Effect Decreases Oxidative Stress by Reducing the Level of MDA and Increase Blood SOD Levels of Hyperuricemia Wistar Rats (Rattus norvegicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Made Sumarya

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Betel leaf extracts (Piper betle L. antioxidant activity and enzyme inhibitors of XO. Hyperuricemia cause oxidative stress by increasing the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS cause lipid peroxidation and oxygenation of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLc. Objective: The aim of this research was to determine the betel leaf extract as an anti hyperuricemia that can lower the blood uric acid levels and oxidative stress by lowering the levels of MDA and increase the SOD of hyperuricemia of the rat’s blood. Method: Experimental research was conducted with the design of The Randomized Post Test Only Control Group Design, on normal Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus, administered with oxonic potassium (hyperuricemia and the hyperuricemia rats either given betel leaf extract and allopurinol. After the experiment of uric acid levels, MDA and SOD in rat blood determined. Results: The results showed that the betel leaf extract significantly (p <0.05 lower uric acid levels, MDA and increase levels of SOD in rat blood. There is a positive correlation between the levels of uric acid with MDA levels and a negative correlation, although not significantly with SOD (p >0.05. Conclusion: It can be concluded that the betel leaf extract as an anti-hyperuricemia can lower the uric acid levels and decreases oxidative stress by lowering the levels of MDA and increasing the SOD.

  16. Endemic angiostrongyliasis in the Brazilian Amazon: natural parasitism of Angiostrongylus cantonensis in Rattus rattus and R. norvegicus, and sympatric giant African land snails, Achatina fulica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, V L C; Giese, E G; Melo, F T V; Simões, R O; Thiengo, S C; Maldonado, A; Santos, J N

    2013-01-01

    Angiostrongylus cantonensis, the rat lungworm, is one etiological agent of eosinophilic meningoencephalitis in humans. This zoonosis is frequently found in Asia and, more recently, in North America, Caribbean Island and northeastern of South America. Until now, research of A. cantonensis in southern, southeastern and northeastern regions of Brazil has been found natural infections only terrestrial and freshwater intermediate snail hosts (Achatina fulica, Sarasinula marginata, Subulina octona, Bradybaena similaris and Pomacea lineate). In this study, we examined the occurrence of helminthes in the synantropic rodents Rattus rattus and Rattus norvegicus in northern Brazil, focusing on the role of these species as vertebrate hosts of A. cantonensis and A. fulica as intermediate host have found natural. Thirty specimens of R. rattus and twelve of R. norvegicus were collected in the Guamá and Jurunas neighborhoods of the city of Belém, in the Brazilian state of Pará, of which almost 10% harbored adult worms in their pulmonary arteries. Sympatric A. fulica were found to be infected by L(3) larvae, which experimental infection confirmed to be A. cantonensis. Natural infection of snails and rodents with A. cantonensis was confirmed through morphological and morphometrical analyses of adults and larvae using light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and molecular sequences of partial Cytochrome Oxidase subunit I. Phylogenetic analyses showed that A. cantonensis isolated from Pará, Brazil is similar to Japan isolate; once these specimens produced a single haplotype with high bootstrap support with Rio de Janeiro isolate. This study confirms that A. cantonensis is now endemic in northern Brazil, and that R. rattus and R. norvegicus act as natural definitive hosts, and A. fulica as the intermediate host of the parasite in this region. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. [The effects of prolonged selection for behavior on the stress response and Activity of the reproductive system of male Brown rats (Rattus norvegicus)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasolova, L A; Gerbek, Iu É; Gulevich, R G; Shikhevich, S G; Konoshenko, M Iu; Kozhemiakina, R V; Os'kina, I N; Pliusnina, I Z

    2014-08-01

    Two Norway rat (Rattus norvegicus) populations contrasting in behavior have been raised at the Institute of Cytology and Genetics, Novosibirsk, Russia with long-term selection for the absence or enhancement of an aggressive response towards humans. They are designated as tame and aggressive, respectively. In this work we investigated the effects of the selection on behavior, stress responsiveness, and fertility in males of the 78th generation. It is shown that the difference between the strains in their response to humans remains the same as in previous generations. However, the differences in stress response and maturation age contradict earlier data. For the first time, we note a higher glucocorticoid-mediated response to restriction stress and retarded sexual maturation in tame rats compared to aggressive ones, according to morphometric indices of gonads and testosterone levels. It is conceivable that the change in selection effects is determined by the disjunction of the directions of selection for behavior and the modification of the stress response. This study is the first to characterize males recently (six or seven generations of propagation in captivity) caught in the wild with regard to the indices under consideration and used as a control group. Wild rats have the highest stress response and rate of sexual maturation as compared to those selected.

  18. Analysis of movement kinematics on analogous spatial learning tasks demonstrates conservation of direction and distance estimation across humans (Homo sapiens) and rats (Rattus norvegicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köppen, Jenny R; Winter, Shawn S; Loda, Eileah L; Apger, Brianne P; Grimelli, Danielle; Hamilton, Derek A; Wallace, Douglas G

    2013-05-01

    This series of experiments evaluates the nature of the representation that mediates human (Homo sapiens) and rat (Rattus norvegicus) movement characteristics on analogous spatial learning tasks. The results of Experiment 1 demonstrated that self-movement cues were sufficient to guide the performance of human participants during place training and matching-to-place testing tasks adapted to tabletop or manipulatory scale. Experiment 2 investigated the effect of manipulating access to environmental cues during place training on the nature of the representation used to guide performance. Blindfolded human participants appeared to encode the absolute location of the goal, whereas participants with access to environmental cues appeared to encode the relative location of the goal. The results of Experiment 3 demonstrated that human participants with access to environmental cues exhibited a similar response tendency (as observed in Experiment 2) after half as many trials of place training. During Experiment 4, rats exhibited movement characteristics in the water maze that were similar to movement characteristics observed in human participants who were provided access to environmental cues. These observations provide evidence that direction and distance estimation processes mediate performance on spatial tasks that are conserved across humans and rats.

  19. Repeated exposure to cat urine induces complex behavioral, hormonal, and c-fos mRNA responses in Norway rats ( Rattus norvegicus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Baofa; Gu, Chen; Lu, Yi; Hegab, Ibrahim M.; Yang, Shengmei; Wang, Aiqin; Wei, Wanhong

    2017-08-01

    Prey species show specific adaptations that allow recognition, avoidance, and defense against predators. This study was undertaken to investigate the processing of a chronic, life-threatening stimulus to Norway rats ( Rattus norvegicus). One hundred forty-four Norway rats were tested by repeated presentation of cat urine for 1 h at different days in a defensive withdrawal apparatus. Rats exposed to urine for short periods showed significantly larger defensive behavioral and medial hypothalamic c-fos messenger RNA (mRNA) responses than other groups. These defensive responses habituated shortly after the presentation of cat urine. Serum levels of adrenocorticotropic hormone and corticosterone increased significantly when animals were repeatedly exposed to cat urine. However, the hormonal responses took longer to habituate than the behavioral and molecular responses did. We conclude that the behavioral and c-fos mRNA responses are "primed" for habituation to repeated exposures to cat urine, while the hormonal responses show "resistance." The results support our hypothesis that the strongest anti-predator responses at three levels would occur during short-term exposure to cat urine and that these responses would subsequently disappear on prolonged exposure. This study assists understanding the way in which the different levels of defensive responses are integrated and react during chronic stress.

  20. Anticoagulant resistance in the United Kingdom and a new guideline for the management of resistant infestations of Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus Berk.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckle, Alan

    2013-03-01

    Anticoagulant resistance was first discovered in UK Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus Berk.) in 1958 and has been present ever since. The possible detrimental impact of resistance on effective rodent control was quickly recognised, and, for almost three decades, extensive research was conducted on the geographical distribution and severity of anticoagulant resistance in UK rats. Various schemes for the eradication of resistant rats were also implemented. At first, surveys showed resistance only to the first-generation anticoagulants, such as warfarin, chlorophacinone and coumatetralyl, but, later, resistance to the more potent second-generation anticoagulants, such as difenacoum and bromadiolone, was also discovered. Unlike some European countries, where only one or two resistance mutations occur, virtually all known rat resistance mutations occur in the United Kingdom, and five (Leu128Gln, Tyr139Ser, Tyr139Cys, Tyr139Phe and Leu120Gln) are known to have significant impacts on anticoagulant efficacy. Little is currently known of the geographical extent of anticoagulant resistance among Norway rats in the United Kingdom because no comprehensive survey has been conducted recently. At an operational level, anticoagulants generally retain their utility for Norway rat control, but it is impossible to control resistant rats in some areas because of restrictions on the use of the more potent resistance-breaking compounds. This paper reviews the development of resistance in Norway rats in the United Kingdom, outlines the present situation for resistance management and introduces a new resistance management guideline from the UK Rodenticide Resistance Action Group. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Description of the prevalence, histologic characteristics, concomitant abnormalities, and outcomes of mammary gland tumors in companion rats (Rattus norvegicus): 100 cases (1990-2015).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergneau-Grosset, Claire; Keel, M Kevin; Goldsmith, Dayna; Kass, Philip H; Paul-Murphy, Joanne; Hawkins, Michelle G

    2016-11-15

    OBJECTIVE To describe the prevalence, histologic characteristics, concomitant abnormalities, and outcomes for various types of mammary gland tumors in companion rats (Rattus norvegicus). DESIGN Retrospective case series. ANIMALS 100 client-owned rats. PROCEDURES Medical records of companion rats that had an SC mass and were examined at a veterinary teaching hospital between 1990 and 2015 were reviewed. Information regarding the signalment, age at mass detection, reproductive sterilization status, histologic diagnosis of the SC mass, location of the initial and all subsequent SC masses, treatments administered, and clinical outcomes was extracted from each record and summarized. RESULTS 105 SC masses were initially detected in 100 rats. The most prevalent SC mass identified was mammary gland fibroadenoma (56/105 [53%]), followed by mammary gland carcinoma (13/105 [12%]). Overall, 26 of 105 (25%) masses were malignant. Sexually intact males were more likely to have nonmammary SC tumors than sexually intact females. In rats receiving no adjunctive treatment after excision of a mammary gland fibroadenoma (n = 16), a second fibroadenoma was detected 1 to 8 months after initial excision, at a median of 4.5 months after surgery. A concomitant pituitary gland tumor was identified in most rats with mammary gland fibroadenoma (21/28 [75%]) and other types of mammary gland tumors (10/17 [59%]). Fourteen of 35 (40%) rats with mammary gland fibroadenoma had concomitant reproductive tract abnormalities. CONCLUSION AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results suggested that, like other species, companion rats with SC masses should undergo a thorough diagnostic workup that includes histologic examination of the excised mass.

  2. Infections by Leptospira interrogans, Seoul virus, and Bartonella spp. among Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus) from the urban slum environment in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Federico; Porter, Fleur Helena; Rodrigues, Gorete; Farias, Helena; de Faria, Marcus Tucunduva; Wunder, Elsio A; Osikowicz, Lynn M; Kosoy, Michael Y; Reis, Mitermayer Galvão; Ko, Albert I; Childs, James E

    2014-01-01

    Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus) are reservoir hosts for zoonotic pathogens that cause significant morbidity and mortality in humans. Studies evaluating the prevalence of zoonotic pathogens in tropical Norway rat populations are rare, and data on co-infection with multiple pathogens are nonexistent. Herein, we describe the prevalence of leptospiral carriage, Seoul virus (SEOV), and Bartonella spp. infection independently, in addition to the rates of co-infection among urban, slum-dwelling Norway rats in Salvador, Brazil, trapped during the rainy season from June to August of 2010. These data were complemented with previously unpublished Leptospira and SEOV prevalence information collected in 1998. Immunofluorescence staining of kidney impressions was used to identify Leptospira interrogans in 2010, whereas isolation was used in 1998, and western blotting was used to detect SEOV antibodies in 2010, whereas enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used in 1998: in 2010, Bartonella spp. were isolated from a subsample of rats. The most common pathogen in both years was Leptospira spp. (83%, n=142 in 1998, 63%, n=84 in 2010). SEOV was detected in 18% of individuals in both 1998 and 2010 (n=78 in 1998; n=73 in 2010), and two species of Bartonella were isolated from 5 of 26 rats (19%) tested in 2010. The prevalence of all agents increased significantly with rat mass/age. Acquisition of Leptospira spp. occurred at a younger mass/age than SEOV and Bartonella spp. infection, suggesting differences in the transmission dynamics of these pathogens. These data indicate that Norway rats in Salvador serve as reservoir hosts for all three of these zoonotic pathogens and that the high prevalence of leptospiral carriage in Salvador rats poses a high degree of risk to human health.

  3. Reference intervals for biochemical blood variables, packed cell volume, and body temperature in pet rats (Rattus norvegicus) using point-of-care testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houtmeyers, Anneleen; Duchateau, Luc; Grünewald, Bettina; Hermans, Katleen

    2016-12-01

    Rats (Rattus norvegicus) are increasingly kept as pets, thus more and more requiring veterinary care. Important differences exist between pet and laboratory rats, but little information is available on pet rats. Diagnosis and treatment of pet rat diseases would benefit from RIs specific for this animal population. The aim was to establish RIs for biochemical blood variables, PCV, and body temperature in pet rats. Additionally, influences of sex and feed rationing method (ad libitum, restricted) on these variables were determined. American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology (ASVCP) recommendations were followed. Biochemical variables were measured using an automated chemistry analyzer, the VetScan VS2. Nonparametric statistical methods were used to determine RIs and effects of sex and feed rationing method. Reference intervals were established using values of 123 clinically healthy pet rats (except for globulins and albumin/globulin ratio, n = 120) and were: glucose 6.6-13.7 mmol/L, total proteins 66-88 g/L, albumin ≥ 38 g/L, globulins 12-35 g/L, albumin/globulin ratio 1.0-4.7, urea nitrogen 2.5-6.6 mmol/L, creatinine ≤ 53 μmol/L, total bilirubin 4-7 μmol/L, ALP 40-442 IU/L, ALT 22-137 IU/L, amylase 502-1113 IU/L, sodium 133-144 mmol/L, potassium 3.6-5.3 mmol/L, calcium 9.5-10.9 mg/dL, phosphorus 2.3-7.0 mg/dL, PCV 40-50%, and body temperature 35.8-39.3°C. Sex significantly affected 10 variables. No significant influence was found with feed limitation CONCLUSIONS: Reference intervals reported in this study will be useful for interpretation of biochemistry analysis in pet rats and therefore improve pet rat medicine. © 2016 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  4. Prevalence and genotyping of Toxoplasma gondii in naturally-infected synanthropic rats (Rattus norvegicus) and mice (Mus musculus) in eastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Chao; Liang, Li-Jun; Zhang, Bei-Bei; Lou, Zhi-Long; Zhang, Hui-Feng; Shen, Xuan; Wu, Yu-Qing; Wang, Zi-Mu; Tang, Ren-Xian; Fu, Lin-Lin; Zheng, Kui-Yang

    2014-12-17

    Synanthropic rats and mice share the same environment with humans and play an important role in epidemiology of toxoplasmosis; however, there is limited information about prevalence and genetic characterization of Toxoplasma gondii in synanthropic rats and mice in China. In the present study, the prevalence and genetic characterization of T. gondii naturally infected synanthropic rodents (Rattus norvegicus and Mus musculus) were investigated in the urban area of Xuzhou city, Eastern China between June 2013 and August 2014. DNA from the brain of each animal was prepared and screened by specific PCR assay targeting 35-fold repeated B1 gene (B1-PCR). PCR positive DNA samples were further genotyped by multi-locus PCR-RFLP. Overall, out of 123 synanthropic rodents, 29 samples were positive by B1 gene-targeted PCR (23.6%). Of these, 7 out of 31 (22.3%) M. musculus were positive, whereas the positive rate of R. norvegicus was 23.9% (22/92). Multi-locus PCR-RFLP analysis reveals that seven PCR-positive samples were completely genotyped and they were identified as type China 1 (ToxoDB# 9). To our knowledge, this is the first report of molecular detection and genetic characterization of T. gondii infection in synanthropic rodents in Eastern China. The results of the present study showed a high infection pressure of T. gondii exists in the environment and synanthropic rodents infected by T. gondii may be an important source of infection for cats and other animals.

  5. Biotin starvation with adequate glucose provision causes paradoxical changes in fuel metabolism gene expression similar in rat (Rattus norvegicus), nematode (Caenorhabditis elegans) and yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-Cuellar, D; Hernandez-Mendoza, A; Moreno-Arriola, E; Carvajal-Aguilera, K; Perez-Vazquez, V; Gonzalez-Alvarez, R; Velazquez-Arellano, A

    2010-01-01

    Biotin affects the genetic expression of several glucose metabolism enzymes, besides being a cofactor of carboxylases. To explore how extensively biotin affects the expression of carbon metabolism genes, we studied the effects of biotin starvation and replenishment in 3 distantly related eukaryotes: yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, nematode Caenorhabditis elegans and rat Rattus norvegicus. Biotin starvation was produced in Wistar rats, in C. elegans N2 and S. cerevisiae W303A fed with abundant glucose. High-density oligonucleotide microarrays were used to find gene expression changes. Glucose consumption, lactate and ethanol were measured by conventional tests. In spite of abundant glucose provision, the expression of fatty oxidation and gluconeogenic genes was augmented, and the transcripts for glucose utilization and lipogenesis were diminished in biotin starvation. These results were associated with diminished glucose consumption and glycolysis products (lactate and ethanol in yeast), which was consistent across 3 very different eukaryotes. The results point toward a strongly selected role of biotin in the control of carbon metabolism, and in adaptations to variable availability of carbon, conceivably mediated by signal transduction including soluble guanylate cyclase, cGMP and a cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG) and/or biotin-dependent processes. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Rat hepatitis E virus: geographical clustering within Germany and serological detection in wild Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johne, Reimar; Dremsek, Paul; Kindler, Eveline; Schielke, Anika; Plenge-Bönig, Anita; Gregersen, Henrike; Wessels, Ute; Schmidt, Katja; Rietschel, Wolfram; Groschup, Martin H; Guenther, Sebastian; Heckel, Gerald; Ulrich, Rainer G

    2012-07-01

    Zoonotic hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection in industrialised countries is thought to be caused by transmission from wild boar, domestic pig and deer as reservoir hosts. The detection of HEV-specific antibodies in rats and other rodents has suggested that these animals may represent an additional source for HEV transmission to human. Recently, a novel HEV (ratHEV) was detected in Norway rats from Hamburg, Germany, showing the typical genome organisation but a high nucleotide and amino acid sequence divergence to other mammalian and to avian HEV strains. Here we describe the multiple detection of ratHEV RNA and HEV-specific antibodies in Norway rats from additional cities in north-east and south-west Germany. The complete genome analysis of two novel strains from Berlin and Stuttgart confirmed the association of ratHEV to Norway rats. The present data indicated a continuing existence of this virus in the rat populations from Berlin and Hamburg. The phylogenetic analysis of a short segment of the open reading frame 1 confirmed a geographical clustering of the corresponding sequences. Serological investigations using recombinant ratHEV and genotype 3 capsid protein derivatives demonstrated antigenic differences which might be caused by the high amino acid sequence divergence in the immunodominant region. The high amount of animals showing exclusively ratHEV RNA or anti-ratHEV antibodies suggested a non-persistent infection in the Norway rat. Future studies have to prove the transmission routes of the virus in rat populations and its zoonotic potential. The recombinant ratHEV antigen generated here will allow future seroepidemiological studies to differentiate ratHEV and genotype 3 infections in humans and animals. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Factors affecting carriage and intensity of infection of Calodium hepaticum within Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus) from an urban slum environment in Salvador, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, R; Carvalho-Pereira, T; Serrano, S; Pedra, G; Hacker, K; Taylor, J; Minter, A; Pertile, A; Panti-May, A; Carvalho, M; Souza, F N; Nery, N; Rodrigues, G; Bahiense, T; Reis, M G; Ko, A I; Childs, J E; Begon, M; Costa, F

    2017-01-01

    Urban slum environments in the tropics are conducive to the proliferation and the spread of rodent-borne zoonotic pathogens to humans. Calodium hepaticum (Brancroft, 1893) is a zoonotic nematode known to infect a variety of mammalian hosts, including humans. Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus) are considered the most important mammalian host of C. hepaticum and are therefore a potentially useful species to inform estimates of the risk to humans living in urban slum environments. There is a lack of studies systematically evaluating the role of demographic and environmental factors that influence both carriage and intensity of infection of C. hepaticum in rodents from urban slum areas within tropical regions. Carriage and the intensity of infection of C. hepaticum were studied in 402 Norway rats over a 2-year period in an urban slum in Salvador, Brazil. Overall, prevalence in Norway rats was 83% (337/402). Independent risk factors for C. hepaticum carriage in R. norvegicus were age and valley of capture. Of those infected the proportion with gross liver involvement (i.e. >75% of the liver affected, a proxy for a high level intensity of infection), was low (8%, 26/337). Sixty soil samples were collected from ten locations to estimate levels of environmental contamination and provide information on the potential risk to humans of contracting C. hepaticum from the environment. Sixty percent (6/10) of the sites were contaminated with C. hepaticum. High carriage levels of C. hepaticum within Norway rats and sub-standard living conditions within slum areas may increase the risk to humans of exposure to the infective eggs of C. hepaticum. This study supports the need for further studies to assess whether humans are becoming infected within this community and whether C. hepaticum is posing a significant risk to human health.

  8. Distribution of Leptospira interrogans by Multispacer Sequence Typing in Urban Norway Rats (Rattus norvegicus): A Survey in France in 2011-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayral, Florence; Zilber, Anne-Laure; Bicout, Dominique J; Kodjo, Angeli; Artois, Marc; Djelouadji, Zoheira

    2015-01-01

    Urban leptospirosis has increasingly been reported in both developing and developed countries. The control of the disease is limited because our understanding of basic aspects of the epidemiology, including the transmission routes of leptospires among rat populations, remains incomplete. Through the ability to distinguish among Leptospira strains in rats, multispacer sequence typing (MST) could provide a modern understanding of Leptospira epidemiology; however, to our knowledge, the distribution of Leptospira strains among urban rat colonies has not been investigated using MST. The objective of this study was to identify the Leptospira strains present in rats (Rattus norvegicus) in Lyon (France) using MST and to characterize their spatial distribution. Kidneys and urine were collected from rats trapped live in seven locations in the city and in one suburban location. Each location was considered to represent a rat colony. Bacterial cultures and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assays were performed, and the L. interrogans DNA identified was then genotyped using MST. The distributions of Leptospira strains were spatially described. Among 84 wild rats, MST profiles were obtained in 35 of 37 rats that had a positive result for L. interrogans by bacterial culture and/or qPCR analyses. All of the MST profiles were related to reference strains previously isolated from human patients that belong to the serogroup Icterohaemorrhagiae and the serovars [strain(s)] Copenhageni [Wijinberg or M20] (n = 26), Icterohaemorrhagiae [CHU Réunion] (n = 7), Icterohaemorrhagiae [R1] (n = 1) and Copenhageni [Shibaura 9] (n = 1). Each colony was infected with leptospires having the same MST profile. This study demonstrated that MST could be used for the purpose of field studies, either on culture isolates or on DNA extracted from kidneys and urine, to distinguish among L. interrogans isolates in rats. MST could thus be used to monitor their distributions in urban rats from

  9. Notocotylus loeiensis N. sp. (Trematoda: Notocotylidae) from Rattus losea (Rodentia: Muridae) in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaisiri, K; Morand, S; Ribas, A

    2011-02-01

    Notocotylus loeiensis n. sp. (Trematoda: Notocotylidae) is described from the cecum of the lesser rice field rat (Rattus losea), from Loei Province in Thailand with a prevalence of 9.1% (eight of 88 rats infected). The new species differs from previously described Notocotylus species mainly by the extreme prebifurcal position of the genital pore and the number of ventral papillae. This is the first description at the species level of Notocotylus from mammals in Southeast Asia.

  10. A Mixed Methods Approach to Exploring the Relationship between Norway Rat (Rattus norvegicus) Abundance and Features of the Urban Environment in an Inner-City Neighborhood of Vancouver, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himsworth, Chelsea G.; Parsons, Kirbee L.; Feng, Alice Y. T.; Kerr, Thomas; Jardine, Claire M.; Patrick, David M.

    2014-01-01

    Urban rats (Rattus spp.) are among the most ubiquitous pest species in the world. Previous research has shown that rat abundance is largely determined by features of the environment; however, the specific urban environmental factors that influence rat population density within cities have yet to be clearly identified. Additionally, there are no well described tools or methodologies for conducting an in-depth evaluation of the relationship between urban rat abundance and the environment. In this study, we developed a systematic environmental observation tool using methods borrowed from the field of systematic social observation. This tool, which employed a combination of quantitative and qualitative methodologies, was then used to identify environmental factors associated with the relative abundance of Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus) in an inner-city neighborhood of Vancouver, Canada. Using a multivariate zero-inflated negative binomial model, we found that a variety of factors, including specific land use, building condition, and amount of refuse, were related to rat presence and abundance. Qualitative data largely supported and further clarified observed statistical relationships, but also identified conflicting and unique situations not easily captured through quantitative methods. Overall, the tool helped us to better understand the relationship between features of the urban environment and relative rat abundance within our study area and may useful for studying environmental determinants of zoonotic disease prevalence/distribution among urban rat populations in the future. PMID:24830847

  11. Adhesion of streptococcus rattus and streptococcus mutans to metal surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Branting, C.; Linder, L.E.; Sund, M.-L.; Oden, A.; Wiatr-Adamczak, E.

    1988-01-01

    The adhesion of Streptococcus rattus BHT and Streptococcus mutans IB to metal specimens of amalgam, silver, tin and copper was studied using (6-/sup 3/H) thymidine labeled cells. In the standard assay the metal specimens were suspended by a nylon thread in an adhesion solution containing a chemically defined bacterial growth medium (FMC), sucrose, and radiolabeled bacteria. Maximum amounts of adhering bacteria were obtained after about 100 min of incubation. Saturation of the metal specimens with bacteria was not observed. Both strains also adhered in the absence of sucrose, indicating that glucan formation was not necessary for adhesion. However, in the presence of glucose, adhesion was only 26-45% of that observed in the presence of equimolar sucrose. Sucrose-dependent stimulation of adhesion seemed to be due to increased cell-to-cell adhesion capacity. Isolated radiolabeled water-insoluble and water-soluble polysaccharides produced from sucrose by S. rattus BHT were not adsorbed to the metal surfaces.

  12. Plague Circulation and Population Genetics of the Reservoir Rattus rattus: The Influence of Topographic Relief on the Distribution of the Disease within the Madagascan Focus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouat, Carine; Rahelinirina, Soanandrasana; Loiseau, Anne; Rahalison, Lila; Rajerison, Minoariso; Laffly, Dominique; Handschumacher, Pascal; Duplantier, Jean-Marc

    2013-01-01

    Background Landscape may affect the distribution of infectious diseases by influencing the population density and dispersal of hosts and vectors. Plague (Yersinia pestis infection) is a highly virulent, re-emerging disease, the ecology of which has been scarcely studied in Africa. Human seroprevalence data for the major plague focus of Madagascar suggest that plague spreads heterogeneously across the landscape as a function of the relief. Plague is primarily a disease of rodents. We therefore investigated the relationship between disease distribution and the population genetic structure of the black rat, Rattus rattus, the main reservoir of plague in Madagascar. Methodology/Principal Findings We conducted a comparative study of plague seroprevalence and genetic structure (15 microsatellite markers) in rat populations from four geographic areas differing in topology, each covering about 150–200 km2 within the Madagascan plague focus. The seroprevalence levels in the rat populations mimicked those previously reported for humans. As expected, rat populations clearly displayed a more marked genetic structure with increasing relief. However, the relationship between seroprevalence data and genetic structure differs between areas, suggesting that plague distribution is not related everywhere to the effective dispersal of rats. Conclusions/Significance Genetic diversity estimates suggested that plague epizootics had only a weak impact on rat population sizes. In the highlands of Madagascar, plague dissemination cannot be accounted for solely by the effective dispersal of the reservoir. Human social activities may also be involved in spreading the disease in rat and human populations. PMID:23755317

  13. Plague circulation and population genetics of the reservoir Rattus rattus: the influence of topographic relief on the distribution of the disease within the Madagascan focus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carine Brouat

    Full Text Available Landscape may affect the distribution of infectious diseases by influencing the population density and dispersal of hosts and vectors. Plague (Yersinia pestis infection is a highly virulent, re-emerging disease, the ecology of which has been scarcely studied in Africa. Human seroprevalence data for the major plague focus of Madagascar suggest that plague spreads heterogeneously across the landscape as a function of the relief. Plague is primarily a disease of rodents. We therefore investigated the relationship between disease distribution and the population genetic structure of the black rat, Rattus rattus, the main reservoir of plague in Madagascar.We conducted a comparative study of plague seroprevalence and genetic structure (15 microsatellite markers in rat populations from four geographic areas differing in topology, each covering about 150-200 km(2 within the Madagascan plague focus. The seroprevalence levels in the rat populations mimicked those previously reported for humans. As expected, rat populations clearly displayed a more marked genetic structure with increasing relief. However, the relationship between seroprevalence data and genetic structure differs between areas, suggesting that plague distribution is not related everywhere to the effective dispersal of rats.Genetic diversity estimates suggested that plague epizootics had only a weak impact on rat population sizes. In the highlands of Madagascar, plague dissemination cannot be accounted for solely by the effective dispersal of the reservoir. Human social activities may also be involved in spreading the disease in rat and human populations.

  14. Plague circulation and population genetics of the reservoir Rattus rattus: the influence of topographic relief on the distribution of the disease within the Madagascan focus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouat, Carine; Rahelinirina, Soanandrasana; Loiseau, Anne; Rahalison, Lila; Rajerison, Minoariso; Laffly, Dominique; Handschumacher, Pascal; Duplantier, Jean-Marc

    2013-01-01

    Landscape may affect the distribution of infectious diseases by influencing the population density and dispersal of hosts and vectors. Plague (Yersinia pestis infection) is a highly virulent, re-emerging disease, the ecology of which has been scarcely studied in Africa. Human seroprevalence data for the major plague focus of Madagascar suggest that plague spreads heterogeneously across the landscape as a function of the relief. Plague is primarily a disease of rodents. We therefore investigated the relationship between disease distribution and the population genetic structure of the black rat, Rattus rattus, the main reservoir of plague in Madagascar. We conducted a comparative study of plague seroprevalence and genetic structure (15 microsatellite markers) in rat populations from four geographic areas differing in topology, each covering about 150-200 km(2) within the Madagascan plague focus. The seroprevalence levels in the rat populations mimicked those previously reported for humans. As expected, rat populations clearly displayed a more marked genetic structure with increasing relief. However, the relationship between seroprevalence data and genetic structure differs between areas, suggesting that plague distribution is not related everywhere to the effective dispersal of rats. Genetic diversity estimates suggested that plague epizootics had only a weak impact on rat population sizes. In the highlands of Madagascar, plague dissemination cannot be accounted for solely by the effective dispersal of the reservoir. Human social activities may also be involved in spreading the disease in rat and human populations.

  15. Behavioral changes in Rattus norvegicus coinfected by Toxocara canis and Toxoplasma gondii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maisa Leite de Queiroz

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Using an elevated plus maze apparatus and an activity cage, behavioral changes in Rattus norvegicus concomitantly infected by Toxocara canis and Toxoplasma gondii were studied, during a period of 120 days. Rats infected by Toxocara canis or Toxoplasma gondii showed significant behavioral changes; however, in the group coinfected by both parasites a behavioral pattern similar to that found in the group not infected was observed thirty days after infection, suggesting the occurrence of modulation in the behavioral response.

  16. FIELD TRIALS OF FENITROTHION, MALATHION, AND DDT DUSTS AGAINST FLEAS ON RATTUS RATTUS DIARDII IN CILOTO, WEST JAVA, INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lim Boo Liat

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Sebuah percobaan penanggulangan pinjal Xenopsyll cheopis dari tikus Rattus rattus diardii dilaku­kan di Ciloto dari bulan Februari sampai Nopember 1978. Racun serangga yang digunakan 50 % mala-thion wdp, 40 % fenitrothion wdp dan 75 % DDT wdp. dicampur dengan serbuk bedak sehingga ter­dapat 5 % zat racun aktif (active ingredient. Percobaan dilakukan pada 3 dusun. Pengamatan dilakukan dari bulan Februari sampai Nopember 1978 di daerah percobaan dan daerah kontrol DDT 5 % tidak effektif untuk pemberantasan pinjal, malathion 5 % effektif sampai 15 minggu dan Fenitrothion 5 % sampai 19 minggu sesudah perlakuan pertama. Ketiga racun serangga juga effektif untuk tungau dan kutu, tapi tidak demikian untuk tungau dewasa mesostigmatik (mesostigmatic mites.

  17. Susceptibility of Nectomys rattus (Pelzen, 1883 to experimental infection with Schistosoma mansoni (Sambon, 1907: a potential reservoir in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ribeiro Ana Cláudia

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present research was to evaluate the potential of Nectomys rattus, the "water rat", to develop Schistosoma mansoni infection. Comparison with N. squamipes was carried out. Both species of rodents were submitted to transcutaneous infection using different infective cercariae loads: 50, 100 or 500. N. rattus showed high susceptibility to S. mansoni, with an infection rate of 71%. Rodents were able to excrete viable eggs of S. mansoni in the feaces during all infection period. For both species, the small intestine, followed by the liver and the large intestine, presented the highest concentration of eggs among the surveyed organs. Infection caused no animal death. Moreover, N. rattus accomplished the parasite's life cycle, by infecting the snails Biomphalaria glabrata and later Mus musculus. These evidences indicate that both N. rattus, as for N. squamipes are potential reservoirs for schistosomiasis in Brazil. Considering the fact that N. rattus and N. squamipes exist in the same natural ecosystems of S. mansoni, we suggest that these rodents must be regarded as influential factors in epidemiology surveys.

  18. Possible use of wild-living rats (Rattus norvegicus) as bioindicators for heavy metal pollution. Part 2. Body burden calculations for identification of depot compartments; Untersuchungen zur Eignung wildlebender Wanderratten (Rattus norvegicus) als Indikatoren der Schwermetallbelastung. Teil 2. Die Berechnung der Koerperlast zur Identifikation von Depotkompartimenten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wuenschmann, S. [Internationales Hochschulinstitut Zittau, Lehrstuhl Umweltverfahrenstechnik, Zittau (Germany); Hochschule Zittau/Goerlitz, Fachbereich Mathematik/Naturwissenschaften, Zittau (Germany); Oehlmann, J. [J.W. Goethe-Univ. Frankfurt, Zoologisches Inst., Frankfurt/M. (Germany); Delakowitz, B. [Hochschule Zittau/Goerlitz, Fachbereich Mathematik/Naturwissenschaften, Zittau (Germany); Markert, B. [Internationales Hochschulinstitut Zittau, Lehrstuhl Umweltverfahrenstechnik, Zittau (Germany)

    2002-07-01

    Background concentrations of eleven elements in tissues and organs of wild-living rats (Rattus norvegicus) obtained from a region (Euroregion Neisse, around the trilateral border region of Germany, Poland and the Czech Republic) distinguished by low to intermediate levels of environmental contaminations are given in part I of this work. In order to identify the most important depot compartments for certain elements, a body burden method was applied. Differences of affinity due to sex and age of analyzed rats are discussed, as are the suitability of specific organs and tissues with regard to bioaccumulation measurements concerning metals. The principal depot compartments for the heavy metals Cu, Mn, Cd, (in adult rats) and Tl are the liver and kidneys, whereas the elements Ni, Sr, Pb (for adult animals) and Ti are more affinitively to bones. Co and Zn displayed a more pronounced affinity towards tissues of the bones and liver. The analysis revealed large differences in Cd and Pb distributions both among young and adult rats, and with respect to sexes. It can be concluded that the distribution of the elements investigated in this study in free-living rats agrees with that in man, except for that of Ni. The above agreement gives proof of the possibility to use depot organs of rats for bioindication which was already mentioned in part I of this work. (Sex and age-related quantification of Al, As, Cd, Co, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sr, Ti, Tl and Zn in liver, heart, lung, kidney, muscle, brain and bones and establishment of distribution patterns'). (orig.) [German] Die in Teil I quantifizierten Hintergrundkonzentrationen von 11 Elementen in Geweben und Organen wildlebender Ratten (Rattus norvegicus) aus einem gering bis maessig belasteten Untersuchungsgebiet (Euroregion Neisse) werden im 2. Teil fuer die Berechnung ihres relativen Beitrags zur Gesamtkoerperbelastung (Koerperlast oder Bodyburden) verwendet, um bevorzugte Depotkompartimente fuer die untersuchten Elemente

  19. Differences in Anticipatory Behaviour between Rats (Rattus norvegicus Housed in Standard versus Semi-Naturalistic Laboratory Environments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Joanna Makowska

    Full Text Available Laboratory rats are usually kept in relatively small cages, but research has shown that they prefer larger and more complex environments. The physiological, neurological and health effects of standard laboratory housing are well established, but fewer studies have addressed the sustained emotional impact of a standard cage environment. One method of assessing affective states in animals is to look at the animals' anticipatory behaviour between the presentation of a cue signalling the arrival of a reward and the arrival of that reward. The primary aim of this study was to use anticipatory behaviour to assess the affective state experienced by female rats a reared and housed long-term in a standard laboratory cage versus a semi-naturalistic environment, and b before and after treatment with an antidepressant or an anxiolytic. A secondary aim was to add to the literature on anticipatory behaviour by describing and comparing the frequency and duration of individual elements of anticipatory behaviour displayed by rats reared in these two systems. In all experiments, total behavioural frequency was higher in standard-housed rats compared to rats from the semi-naturalistic condition, suggesting that standard-housed rats were more sensitive to rewards and experiencing poorer welfare than rats reared in the semi-naturalistic environment. What rats did in anticipation of the reward also differed between housing treatments, with standard-housed rats mostly rearing and rats from the semi-naturalistic condition mostly sitting facing the direction of the upcoming treat. Drug interventions had no effect on the quantity or form of anticipatory behaviour, suggesting that the poorer welfare experienced by standard-housed rats was not analogous to depression or anxiety, or alternatively that the drug interventions were ineffective. This study adds to mounting evidence that standard laboratory housing for rats compromises rat welfare, and provides further

  20. Differences in Anticipatory Behaviour between Rats (Rattus norvegicus) Housed in Standard versus Semi-Naturalistic Laboratory Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makowska, I Joanna; Weary, Daniel M

    2016-01-01

    Laboratory rats are usually kept in relatively small cages, but research has shown that they prefer larger and more complex environments. The physiological, neurological and health effects of standard laboratory housing are well established, but fewer studies have addressed the sustained emotional impact of a standard cage environment. One method of assessing affective states in animals is to look at the animals' anticipatory behaviour between the presentation of a cue signalling the arrival of a reward and the arrival of that reward. The primary aim of this study was to use anticipatory behaviour to assess the affective state experienced by female rats a) reared and housed long-term in a standard laboratory cage versus a semi-naturalistic environment, and b) before and after treatment with an antidepressant or an anxiolytic. A secondary aim was to add to the literature on anticipatory behaviour by describing and comparing the frequency and duration of individual elements of anticipatory behaviour displayed by rats reared in these two systems. In all experiments, total behavioural frequency was higher in standard-housed rats compared to rats from the semi-naturalistic condition, suggesting that standard-housed rats were more sensitive to rewards and experiencing poorer welfare than rats reared in the semi-naturalistic environment. What rats did in anticipation of the reward also differed between housing treatments, with standard-housed rats mostly rearing and rats from the semi-naturalistic condition mostly sitting facing the direction of the upcoming treat. Drug interventions had no effect on the quantity or form of anticipatory behaviour, suggesting that the poorer welfare experienced by standard-housed rats was not analogous to depression or anxiety, or alternatively that the drug interventions were ineffective. This study adds to mounting evidence that standard laboratory housing for rats compromises rat welfare, and provides further scientific support for

  1. Use of Visual and Tactual Cues in Learning of Simultaneous Shape Discriminations by Albino and Pigmented Rats (Rattus Norvegicus)

    OpenAIRE

    Bell, J A; Livesey, P. J.

    1988-01-01

    Albino Wistar, pigmented DA and crossbred (F1) rats were compared in learning of 4 versions of a simultaneous circle-triangle discrimination. On tasks with 3 dimensional shapes, either with both visual and tactual cues available, or without the tactual cues, albino rats performed as well as the pigmented rats. On tasks with reduction of visual cues, (one task with 2 dimensional cues, the other with tactual cues, and reduced 3 dimensional visual cues), the albino group's performance was signif...

  2. COMPARISON BETWEEN THORACIC RADIOGRAPHIC FINDINGS AND POSTMORTEM DIAGNOSIS OF THORACIC DISEASES IN DYSPNEIC COMPANION RATS (RATTUS NORVEGICUS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouriez-Lablée, Virginie; Vergneau-Grosset, Claire; Kass, Philip H; Zwingenberger, Allison L

    2017-03-01

    Companion rats are often presented to veterinarians for respiratory difficulties. Dyspnea in rats is most commonly due to infectious pneumonia, and thoracic neoplasia can go undiagnosed ante mortem due to a mistaken interpretation of pneumonia. In domestic carnivores, pulmonary nodular patterns have been shown to correlate with lung neoplastic diseases and infectious diseases. The main objective of this retrospective case series study was to determine whether certain radiographic criteria could be correlated with the presence of thoracic infectious disease and neoplastic disease in companion rats. A secondary objective was to determine whether the patient's sex and age were different between rats diagnosed with infectious versus neoplastic disease. Medical records and thoracic radiographs of dyspneic companion rats presented to the University of California at Davis, William R. Pritchard Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital during the time period from January 2000 to December 2014 were reviewed. Rats with postmortem confirmation of thoracic lesions were included in the study. Thoracic radiographs were evaluated for positioning, lesion distribution, lung lobe involved, pulmonary pattern, mediastinal and pleural lesions by three observers blinded to diagnosis. Thirty rats were included in the study, including 23 rats with an infectious disease and seven with neoplasia. Mediastinal lesions were significantly more prevalent in the group diagnosed with thoracic neoplasia (P = 0.031), in particular cranially (P = 0.048). Although there was an overlap between the two groups, findings indicated that the presence of cranial mediastinal lesions may be helpful for differentiating neoplastic from infectious disease in rats. © 2016 American College of Veterinary Radiology.

  3. Evaluation of biological control of rattus population by mongoose (Herpestidae, Carnivora in AbuMusa Island, Iran

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    Mehdi Khoobdel

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the rattus biological control program in Iranian Persian Gulf Island, Abu-Musa. Methods: This study was conducted on the Iranian island of Abu-Musa during April 2012 to March 2013. The rattus trapping was done using commercial live and baited rat trap, in different parts of the island. Also the island of Qeshm, with a similar weather and climatic conditions in the Persian Gulf was considered as a control area, which any comprehensive rattus control plan has not been implemented during the implementation of rattus biological control program on Abu-Musa Island. All ectoparasites were collected and stored at 70% ethanol. Ectoparasites, including fleas, lice and mites were identified using identification keys. In addition, a number of released mongooses were captured and identified. Results: Despite a year of trapping on the island, no rattus were caught in the traps. While on the island of Qeshm, as a control location, rate of rat trappings was estimated 33.3%. Among the 27 captured rodents in two islands, a total of 89 ectoparasites including fleas, Xenopsylla astia (32 females, 18 males and Cetenocephalides felis (9 females, 7 males, louse, Polyplax spinulosa (8 females, 2 males and mite, Laelaps nuttalli (13 females and males were collected. In this study, the introduced mongoose on the island of Abu-Musa, which has established and increased their population and been distributed in all parts of the island, was identified as Indian gray mongoose, Herpestes edwardsii. Conclusions: The introduced Indian gray mongoosehas successfully eradicated the rattus population in island of Abu-Musa, but we have no information about its direct and indirect impacts on other native faunal elements of this island.

  4. Renal biomarkers and histomorphological alterations in Rattus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hematite (iron ore) is one of the heavy metals causing environmental hazards and damage to the body. This study examined the effect of iron ore on renal function biomarkers and histo architecture in Wistar Rats. A total of 20 male albino Wistar rats subdivided into four groups of 5 rats each were used. Group A served as ...

  5. Passive Immunization of Anti bZP3 (Zone Pellucida3 in Wistar Rat (Rattus novergicus and Mouse (Mus musculus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Pantiwati

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed at comparing the influence of anti bZP3’s passive immunization on anti-anti bZP3’s titer and pregnancy level on Wistar rats and mice. This study employed factorial design experiment with completely randomized design. The first factor was immunogenic type. The treated rats were immunized with 100 L anti bZP3 in 100 L Complete Freund’s Adjuvant (CFA, while the treated mice were injected with 50 L anti bZP3 in 50 L CFA. Control Wistar rats and mice were immunized with CFA and Incomplete Freund’s Adjuvant (IFA without anti bZP3. The second factor was animal type. The third factor was the length of serum incubation, i.e. 38, 49, 63, 86, 100, and 126 d. Dot blot on the treated Wistar rats and mice showed positive response proven by blue gradation; pre-immune mice as well as control Wistar rats and mice showed negative response proven by white gradation. The highest antibody titer in treated mouse serum was shown in 63 d incubation. The pregnancy on treated mice, control mice and Wistar rat occurred 100% until day 126; while the failure percentage on the treated mice was 4.5%. The pregnancy on treated mice occurred in 86 d incubation (1 rat, 100 d incubation (1 rat, and 126 d incubation (3 rats. Effective passive immunization on similar hospes occurred until day 63; while different hospes was ineffective. Antibodi anti-bZP3 was potential as a contraception through passive immunization on similar hospes.

  6. Population genetics, community of parasites, and resistance to rodenticides in an urban brown rat (Rattus norvegicus) population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desvars-Larrive, Amélie; Pascal, Michel; Gasqui, Patrick; Cosson, Jean-François; Benoît, Etienne; Lattard, Virginie; Crespin, Laurent; Lorvelec, Olivier; Pisanu, Benoît; Teynié, Alexandre; Vayssier-Taussat, Muriel; Bonnet, Sarah; Marianneau, Philippe; Lacôte, Sandra; Bourhy, Pascale; Berny, Philippe; Pavio, Nicole; Le Poder, Sophie; Gilot-Fromont, Emmanuelle; Jourdain, Elsa; Hammed, Abdessalem; Fourel, Isabelle; Chikh, Farid; Vourc'h, Gwenaël

    2017-01-01

    Brown rats are one of the most widespread urban species worldwide. Despite the nuisances they induce and their potential role as a zoonotic reservoir, knowledge on urban rat populations remains scarce. The main purpose of this study was to characterize an urban brown rat population from Chanteraines park (Hauts-de-Seine, France), with regards to haematology, population genetics, immunogenic diversity, resistance to anticoagulant rodenticides, and community of parasites. Haematological parameters were measured. Population genetics was investigated using 13 unlinked microsatellite loci. Immunogenic diversity was assessed for Mhc-Drb. Frequency of the Y139F mutation (conferring resistance to rodenticides) and two linked microsatellites were studied, concurrently with the presence of anticoagulant residues in the liver. Combination of microscopy and molecular methods were used to investigate the occurrence of 25 parasites. Statistical approaches were used to explore multiple parasite relationships and model parasite occurrence. Eighty-six rats were caught. The first haematological data for a wild urban R. norvegicus population was reported. Genetic results suggested high genetic diversity and connectivity between Chanteraines rats and surrounding population(s). We found a high prevalence (55.8%) of the mutation Y139F and presence of rodenticide residues in 47.7% of the sampled individuals. The parasite species richness was high (16). Seven potential zoonotic pathogens were identified, together with a surprisingly high diversity of Leptospira species (4). Chanteraines rat population is not closed, allowing gene flow and making eradication programs challenging, particularly because rodenticide resistance is highly prevalent. Parasitological results showed that co-infection is more a rule than an exception. Furthermore, the presence of several potential zoonotic pathogens, of which four Leptospira species, in this urban rat population raised its role in the maintenance

  7. Population genetics, community of parasites, and resistance to rodenticides in an urban brown rat (Rattus norvegicus) population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasqui, Patrick; Cosson, Jean-François; Benoît, Etienne; Lattard, Virginie; Crespin, Laurent; Lorvelec, Olivier; Pisanu, Benoît; Teynié, Alexandre; Vayssier-Taussat, Muriel; Bonnet, Sarah; Marianneau, Philippe; Lacôte, Sandra; Bourhy, Pascale; Berny, Philippe; Pavio, Nicole; Le Poder, Sophie; Gilot-Fromont, Emmanuelle; Jourdain, Elsa; Hammed, Abdessalem; Fourel, Isabelle; Chikh, Farid; Vourc’h, Gwenaël

    2017-01-01

    Brown rats are one of the most widespread urban species worldwide. Despite the nuisances they induce and their potential role as a zoonotic reservoir, knowledge on urban rat populations remains scarce. The main purpose of this study was to characterize an urban brown rat population from Chanteraines park (Hauts-de-Seine, France), with regards to haematology, population genetics, immunogenic diversity, resistance to anticoagulant rodenticides, and community of parasites. Haematological parameters were measured. Population genetics was investigated using 13 unlinked microsatellite loci. Immunogenic diversity was assessed for Mhc-Drb. Frequency of the Y139F mutation (conferring resistance to rodenticides) and two linked microsatellites were studied, concurrently with the presence of anticoagulant residues in the liver. Combination of microscopy and molecular methods were used to investigate the occurrence of 25 parasites. Statistical approaches were used to explore multiple parasite relationships and model parasite occurrence. Eighty-six rats were caught. The first haematological data for a wild urban R. norvegicus population was reported. Genetic results suggested high genetic diversity and connectivity between Chanteraines rats and surrounding population(s). We found a high prevalence (55.8%) of the mutation Y139F and presence of rodenticide residues in 47.7% of the sampled individuals. The parasite species richness was high (16). Seven potential zoonotic pathogens were identified, together with a surprisingly high diversity of Leptospira species (4). Chanteraines rat population is not closed, allowing gene flow and making eradication programs challenging, particularly because rodenticide resistance is highly prevalent. Parasitological results showed that co-infection is more a rule than an exception. Furthermore, the presence of several potential zoonotic pathogens, of which four Leptospira species, in this urban rat population raised its role in the maintenance

  8. Antinociceptive effects of sustained-release buprenorphine in a model of incisional pain in rats (Rattus norvegicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chum, Helen H; Jampachairsri, Katechan; McKeon, Gabriel P; Yeomans, David C; Pacharinsak, Cholawat; Felt, Stephen A

    2014-03-01

    Effective management of postoperative pain is an essential component of the care and welfare of laboratory animals. A sustained-release formulation of buprenorphine (Bup-SR) has recently been introduced to the veterinary market and has been reported to provide analgesia for as long as 72 h. Using evoked mechanical and thermal hypersensitivity tests, we here evaluated the antinociceptive effects of Bup-SR in a model of incisional pain in rats. Paw withdrawal responses were obtained before and 1 through 4 d after surgery. Rats are assigned to receive Bup-SR (0.3, 1.2, or 4.5 mg/kg SC once) or buprenorphine HCl (Bup HCl, 0.05 mg/kg SC twice daily for 3 d). Responses to mechanical and thermal stimuli in the 1.2 and 4.5 Bup-SR groups did not differ from those of rats in the Bup HCl group. Thermal latency on day 3 in rats that received 0.3 mg/kg Bup-SR was significantly different from baseline, indicating that this dose effectively decreased thermal hypersensitivity for at least 48 h. Marked sedation occurred in rats in the 4.5 Bup-SR group. Our findings indicate that Bup-SR at 0.3 or 1.2 mg/kg SC is effective in minimizing hypersensitivity with minimal sedation for at least 48 h (thermal hypersensitivity) and 72 h, respectively, in the incisional pain model in rats.

  9. HISTOPATHOLOGY of Rattusattus norvegicus KIDNEY INFECTED by Leptospira = GAMBARAN HISTOPATOLOGI GINJAL Rattus norvegicus INFEKTIF LEPTOSPIRA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arief Mulyono

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available ENGLISHAbstractA study on the histological structure of Rattus norvegicus kidney infected by Leptospira has been conducted. The purpose of this study was to determine the change of kidney tissue structure of R. norvegicus due to the patogenicity of Leptospira bacteria. The study was done in Miroto, Central Semarang District, Semarang Municipality. Rattus norvegicus was caught with live trap. The blood and kidney specimen were taken from all the caught rat. Then the blood was serologically examined by using Leptotek Dri-Dot, whereas the kidney was histopatologically observed under the microscope by using Hematoxylin-Eosin staining. The data were collected qualitatively and then analyzed descriptively by describing histological kidney appearance of R. norvegicus which were infected by Leptospira. The results of this research showed that 11 individuals of R. norvegicus caught and 8 induvidual infected by Leptospira. The results of R. norvegicus histological kidney examination which were infected by Leptospira show capillaries dilatation and hyalinization in glomerulus.INDONESIANTelah dilakukan penelitian tentang struktur histopalogi organ ginjal tikus got (Rattus norvegicus terinfeksi Leptospira. Tujuan penelitian untuk mengetahui perubahan struktur jaringan ginjal R. norvegicus akibat patogenitas bakteri Leptospira. Penelitian dilakukan di kelurahan Miroto, Kecamatan Semarang Tengah, Kota Semarang. Rattus norvegicus ditangkap dengan perangkap dan tikus tertangkap diambil spesimen darah dan ginjal. Darah diperiksa secara serologis dengan Leptotek Dri-Dot. Sedangkan ginjal diperiksa secara histopatologis dengan pewarnaan Haemotoxylin-Eosin dan diperiksa di bawah mikroskop. Jumlah R. norvegicus yang tertangkap dan diperiksa sebanyak 11 ekor. Pemeriksaan serologi menunjukkan R. norvegicus infektif Leptospira sebanyak 8 ekor. Hasil pemeriksaan histopatologis ginjal R. norvegicus terinfeksi Leptospira, menunjukkan terjadinya perubahan struktur berupa

  10. Chronic administration of gabapentin and a gabapentin-carbamazepine combination reversibly suppress testicular function in male Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osuntokun, Opeyemi Samson; Olayiwola, Gbola; Oladele, Ayowole; Ola, Idowu; AyokaAbiodun, Oludele

    2017-06-01

    The effect of chronic administration of gabapentin, carbamazepine or a gabapentin-carbamazepine combination on testicular function in male rats was investigated to determine the effect of combining reduced doses of anti-epileptic drugs on the management of seizures, particularly with respect to the testis sequellae of chronic anti-epileptic administration. Male rats were randomized into four groups (n=10). Each group received daily intraperitoneal (i.p.) injections for 28days as follows: Group I, normal saline 0.1mL/day; Group II, gabapentin (GBP) 16mg/kg/day; Group III, carbamazepine (CBZ) 20mg/kg/day; and Group IV, sub-therapeutic doses of both GBP (8mg/kg) and CBZ (10mg/kg)/day. Twenty-four hours after the last treatment, five rats from each group were sacrificed and the remaining rats were allowed to recover for another four weeks. Sperm characteristics, serum testosterone, and histological integrity of the testis was assessed 24h after treatment and after 28days of drug withdrawal. GBP, CBZ, and GBP-CBZ combination significantly reduced the absolute weight of the testis, epididymis, and seminal vesicle (p<0.05). Moreover, epididymal sperm count and morphology were significantly decreased (p<0.05) in GBP, CBZ, and GBP-CBZ groups. Reduction in serum levels of testosterone for all of the treated groups was statistically significant (p<0.05). The cytoarchitecture of the testicular tissue in the testis of CBZ and GBP-CBZ groups showed disorganization. The altered testicular function were almost restored in GBP treated rats. CBZ and GBP-CBZ combination have delayed but reversible antifertility in the rats. Hence, chronic administration of GBP, CBZ, and GBP-CBZ combination reversibly reduced testicular function in male rats. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. The effects of sildenafil ciltrate on the lateral geniculate body of adult Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus- A histological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Osayame Eweka

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The histological effect of oral administration of sildenafil citrate (Viagra, commonly used as an aphrodisiac and for the treatment of erectile dysfunction on one of the visual relay centres namely the lateral geniculate body (LGB of adult Wistar rat was carefully studied. The rats of both sexes (n=24, average weight of 202g were randomly assigned into three treatment (n=18 and control (n=6 groups. The rats in the treatment groups ‘A’, ‘B’ and ‘C’ received respectively, 0.25mg/kg, 0.70mg/kg and 1.43mg/kg body weight of sildenafil citrate base dissolved in distilled water daily for 30 days, through orogastric feeding tube, while that of the control group D, received equal volume of distilled water daily during the period of the experiment. The rats were fed with growers’ mash obtained from Edo Feeds and Flour Mill Ltd, Ewu, Edo State, Nigeria and were given water liberally. The rats were sacrificed on day thirty-one of the experiment. The lateral geniculate body (LGB was carefully dissected out and quickly fixed in 10% formal saline for histological studies. The histological findings after H&E method indicated that the treated section of the lateral geniculate body (LGB showed some varying degree of reduced cellular population based on its sparse distribution, degenerative changes, cellular hypertrophy, and intercellular vacuolations appearing in the stroma. Varying dosage and long administration of sildenafil citrate may have some deleterious effects on the neurons of the intracranial visual relay centre and this may probably have some adverse effects on visual sensibilities by its deleterious effects on the cells of the lateral geniculate body (LGB of adult Wistar rats. It is therefore recommended that further studies aimed at corroborating these observations be carried out.

  12. Inference Based on Transitive Relation in Tree Shrews ("Tupaia belangeri") and Rats ("Rattus norvegicus") on a Spatial Discrimination Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Makoto; Ushitani, Tomokazu; Fujita, Kazuo

    2008-01-01

    Six tree shrews and 8 rats were tested for their ability to infer transitively in a spatial discrimination task. The apparatus was a semicircular radial-arm maze with 8 arms labeled A through H. In Experiment 1, the animals were first trained in sequence on 4 discriminations to enter 1 of the paired adjacent arms, AB, BC, CD, and DE, with right…

  13. Metagenomic Screening of Urban Rattus Norvegicus for Virus and Pathogens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas Arn

    Rattus norvegicus (R. norvegicus) are ubiquitous around areas populated by human and are known vectors of pathogens to humans. Therefore the surveillance of R. norvegicus is important if we want to understand which pathogens they spread. Metagenomics and second-generation sequencing are paving...... the way for increasing rates of pathogen discovery and identification, thereby enabling faster containment of wildlife vectors. In this thesis, I have used metagenomics to assess the virome and resistome of the wild urban R. norvegicus. Many new potential viruses are discovered through virome analyses...

  14. Possible use of wild-living rats (Rattus norvegicus) as bioindicators for heavy metal pollution. Part I. Sex and age-related quantification of Al, As, Cd, Co, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sr, Ti, Tl and Zn in liver, heart, lung, kidney, muscle, brain and bones, and the establishment of distribution patterns; Untersuchungen zur Eignung wildlebender Wanderratten (Rattus norvegicus) als Indikatoren der Schwermetallbelastung. T. I. Alters- und geschlechtsspezifische Quantifizierung der Verteilung von Al, As, Cd, Co, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sr, Ti, Tl und Zn in den Organen Herz, Leber, Lunge, Niere, Muskulatur, Gehirn und Knochen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wuenschmann, S. [Internationales Hochschulinstitut Zittau (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Umweltverfahrenstechnik; Hochschule fuer Technik, Wirtschaft und Sozialwesen Zittau/Goerlitz (FH), Zittau (Germany). Fachbereich Mathematik/Naturwissenschaften; Oehlmann, J. [J. W. Goethe-Univ. Frankfurt, Zoologisches Inst., Frankfurt/M. (Germany); Delakowitz, B. [Hochschule fuer Technik, Wirtschaft und Sozialwesen Zittau/Goerlitz (FH), Zittau (Germany). Fachbereich Mathematik/Naturwissenschaften; Markert, B. [Internationales Hochschulinstitut Zittau (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Umweltverfahrenstechnik

    2001-07-01

    The objective of the current attempt was to investigate the suitability of wild-living rats (Rattus norvegicus) as a passive bioindicator using quantitative determinations of 12 chemical elements in different organs taken from rats which were caught in the Zoological Garden of Zittau. Aside from the determinations of so-called background levels, the focus of interest was with accumulations of certain elements within the organs depending on either sex or age of the rats. There were different affinities of the elements towards certain organs. Because of apparent sex and age-related differences in element concentrations and accumulation features, a well-planned sampling strategy for the use of rats as possible passive bioindicators is indeed required. The consideration of element distribution patterns within the organ system of Rattus norvegicus (based on body burden calculations (in part 2 of this work)) allows an effective use of the rat for purposes of integrative monitoring. (orig.) [German] Durch die Quantifizierung von 12 chemischen Elementen im Organsystem von wildlebenden Ratten (Rattus norvegicus) aus dem Tierpark Zittau (Sachsen) sollte die Eignung dieser Spezies als passiver Bioindikator untersucht werden. Neben der Ermittlung von sogenannten Hintergrundkonzentrationen standen insbesondere Fragen zur geschlechts- und altersspezifischen Akkumulation einzelner Elemente im Organsystem von Rattus norvegicus im Vordergrund. Spezifisch zeigten dabei einzelne Elemente unterschiedliche Affinitaeten zu den entsprechenden Geweben und Organen. Insbesondere die hierbei ermittelten geschlechts- und altersspezifischen Charakteristika einzelner Elemente macht eine detaillierte Ausarbeitung einer Beprobungsstrategie fuer den spaeteren Einsatz als passiver Bioindikator zwingend. Unter Beruecksichtigung des durch die Berechnung des Body Burden (Koerperlast) im 2. Teil der Arbeit ermittelten typischen Verteilungsmusters einzelner Elemente ist Rattus norvegicus zum

  15. Recent Evolution in Rattus norvegicus Is Shaped by Declining Effective Population Size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deinum, Eva E; Halligan, Daniel L; Ness, Rob W; Zhang, Yao-Hua; Cong, Lin; Zhang, Jian-Xu; Keightley, Peter D

    2015-10-01

    The brown rat, Rattus norvegicus, is both a notorious pest and a frequently used model in biomedical research. By analyzing genome sequences of 12 wild-caught brown rats from their presumed ancestral range in NE China, along with the sequence of a black rat, Rattus rattus, we investigate the selective and demographic forces shaping variation in the genome. We estimate that the recent effective population size (Ne) of this species = [Formula: see text], based on silent site diversity. We compare patterns of diversity in these genomes with patterns in multiple genome sequences of the house mouse (Mus musculus castaneus), which has a much larger Ne. This reveals an important role for variation in the strength of genetic drift in mammalian genome evolution. By a Pairwise Sequentially Markovian Coalescent analysis of demographic history, we infer that there has been a recent population size bottleneck in wild rats, which we date to approximately 20,000 years ago. Consistent with this, wild rat populations have experienced an increased flux of mildly deleterious mutations, which segregate at higher frequencies in protein-coding genes and conserved noncoding elements. This leads to negative estimates of the rate of adaptive evolution (α) in proteins and conserved noncoding elements, a result which we discuss in relation to the strongly positive estimates observed in wild house mice. As a consequence of the population bottleneck, wild rats also show a markedly slower decay of linkage disequilibrium with physical distance than wild house mice. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  16. Benefits of 21% Oxygen Compared with 100% Oxygen for Delivery of Isoflurane to Mice (Mus musculus) and Rats (Rattus norvegicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilding, Laura A; Hampel, Joe A; Khoury, Basma M; Kang, Stacey; Machado-Aranda, David; Raghavendran, Krishnan; Nemzek, Jean A

    2017-03-01

    At research institutions, isoflurane delivered by precision vaporizer to a face mask is the standard for rodent surgery and for procedures with durations that exceed a few minutes. Pure oxygen is often used as the carrier gas for isoflurane anesthesia, despite documented complications from long-term 100% oxygen use in humans and known occupational safety risks. We therefore examined the effect of anesthetic delivery gas on physiologic variables in mice and rats. Rodents were anesthetized for 60 min with isoflurane delivered in either 21% or 100% oxygen by means of a nose cone. We noted no difference between carrier gasses in physiologic variables in mice, including body temperature, respiratory rate, mean arterial pressure, surgical recovery time, pH, or PaCO2. However, blood gas analysis revealed evidence of a ventilation-perfusion mismatch in the 100% oxygen group. Pressure-volume hysteresis and histomorphometric analyses confirmed the presence of increased atelectasis in mice that received 100% oxygen. Unlike mice, rats that received isoflurane in 100% oxygen had acute respiratory acidosis and elevated mean arterial pressure, but atelectasis was similar between carrier gasses. Our data suggest that both 100% and 21% oxygen are acceptable for the delivery of isoflurane to mice. However, mice anesthetized for studies focused on lung physiology or architecture would benefit from the delivery of isoflurane in 21% oxygen to reduce absorption atelectasis and the potential associated downstream inflammatory effects. For rats, delivery of isoflurane in 21% and 100% oxygen both caused perturbations in physiologic variables, and choosing a carrier gas is not straightforward.

  17. Influence of the fish oil in the gut microbiota of wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus) treated with dexamethasone and amoxicillin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivan, Luiza; Girotto, Camila; Fracasso, Mateus; Pitaluga, André Nóbrega; Wagner, Glauber; Battiston, Francielle Garghetti

    2017-10-14

    The widespread use of antibiotics and anti-inflammatory has been more and more prominent. In spite of the proven pharmacological potential, its collateral effects are still being described. The fish oil is made of acids fatty polyunsaturated, as the omega 3. The aim of this paper is to check if there would be interference of this fish oil in the gut microbiota of rats when treated with dexamethasone and amoxicillin, joining with the parameter lipids and glycemic. This study was done with 42 Wistar rats, divided into 6 groups with 7 animals each: naive (CTL), amoxicillin (AMOX), dexamethasone (DEX), fish oil (OLP), associated amoxicillin and fish oil (AMOX + OLP) association dexamethasone and fish oil (DEX + OLP). The results show that the fish oil influenced in the concentration of blood glucose in the animals, keeping stable levels even after a pool of glucose. Differently, the fish oil increased the levels of LDL in the animals. The amoxicillin changed the mass of liver and spleen, changed the levels of triglyceride and changed the gut microbiota. The dexamethasone influenced the lipids parameters and mass of the spleen as well as it slightly increased the amount of cholesterol LDL. It is possible to conclude that fish oil increases the levels of LDL in the tested model and the dose tested, but is able to maintain glucose levels even after a pool of the same, and can be a preventive model with hyperglycemia. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Haematological profile of rats (Rattus norvegicus) induced BCG and provided leaf extract of Plectranthus amboinicus Lour Spreng)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silitonga, Melva; Silitonga, Pasar M.

    2017-08-01

    Plectranthus amboinicus Lour Spreng is a medicinal plant that has many benefits, such as an antioxidant, hepatoprotective and immunostimulan. Immune status can be seen from hematological profile. This study aims to investigate hematology profile on rats induced BCG and leaf extract of Plectranthus amboinicus. 24 male rats aged 3 months and weighing between 140-200 grams divided equally into six groups, P0, P1, P2, P3, P4 and P5. P0 as controle was given aquadest. The P1, P2, P3, P4 and P5 treatment groups were given 19 g / kg AEP + BCG, 31.5 g / kg AEP + BCG, 19g / kg AEP, 31.5 g / kg AEP and BCG consecutively. The BCG were used as antigen. The AEP was administered orally for 30 days and 100 µl BCG were intramusculary administered on day 14 th and day 21. On day 31st, the rats we decapitated and their blood were collected for hematology (leucocyte (WBC), Erythrocyte (RBC), thrombocyte (PLT) count, Haemoglobin (Hb), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), MCV, MHC, and MHCH analysis. Data were analyzed with ANOVA. WBC increased significantly in treatment AEP 31.5 g / kg bw, 31.5 g AEP / kg bw + BCG and so were only given BCG. RBC tend to increase in all AEP treatment but tends to increase again when given a BCG. Hb increased in treatment P1, P2, T3 and P4, but the improvement was significant only in treatment P1. While PLT increase significantly in all treatments compared to the controls. HCT did not show significant differences but all of them were in the normal range. EAP without BCG and with the addition of BCG lowered ESR significantly, whereas BCG alone increased the ESR significantly. MCV increased significantly only in the treatment of P1 and show the same pattern with the MHC and MHCH. The conclusion that Plectranthus amboinicus Lour a positive impact on blood profiles with and without BCG. Plectranthus amboinicus Lour managed blood profile when administered together with BCG

  19. Serological changes induced by blend of sunset yellow, metanil yellow and tartrazine in swiss albino rat, rattus norvegicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Beenam; Sharma, Shiv

    2014-01-01

    The present study was carried out to evaluate the toxic effect of blend of some food colors on Swiss albino rats. A blend (1:1:1) of sunset yellow, metanil yellow and tartrazine showed additive effects on serological parameters which indicate that addition of these dye together in food stuff may give rise to more toxic effects than are produced by each dye individually. Animals were divided into four groups (I, II, III, and IV). First group was treated as control and respective group of animals received 25, 50 and 75 mg/kg body weight blend of food colors by gavaging up to 30 days. The serological study showed a decrease in total protein and albumin and an increase in alkaline phosphatase, SGPT and total bilirubin. The results revealed that oral administration of these blend did not affect the body weight gain. The prolonged consumption of the blend may cause adverse effect on human health.

  20. Efeitos das fontes e níveis de lipídios nas dietas de ratos machos da linhagem wistar (rattus norvegicus sobre frações lipídicas do sangue Effect of source and level of fat in the diet of wistar rats (rattus norvegicus on lipoidal fractions in the serum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecília Sandra Nunes Morais

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Foram estudadas quatro fontes lipídicas (óleo de soja, óleo de canola, azeite de oliva e gordura suína em dois níveis na dieta (7 e 14%, verificando a influência do consumo dessas fontes lipídicas sobre algumas frações lipídicas do sangue de ratos. Assim, oito grupos de ratos machos da linhagem Wistar (Rattus norvegicus foram alimentados ad libitum por 56 dias com oito dietas distintas contendo as fontes e níveis citados de lipídios. As dosagens de colesterol total e triacilgliceróis no soro foram realizadas pelo método colorimétrico/enzimático utilizando "kit" comercial específico. O colesterol em HDL foi determinado por precipitação dos quilomícrons, VLDL e LDL, utilizando também "kit" específico. O aumento de lipídios na dieta para 14% elevou os valores de colesterol total, HDL-colesterol e LDL+VLDL-colesterol séricos, quando a fonte foi a gordura suína. Com 14% de lipídios na dieta, os menores valores de triacilgliceróis séricos foram observados nas fontes lipídicas óleo de soja e canola, com valores de 76,09 e 84,42 mg/dL, respectivamente.Four fat sources (soybean oil, canola oil, olive oil, swine fat were evaluated with regard to their influence, at two levels in the diet (7 and 14%, on some fat fractions in rats' blood. Thus, eight groups of Wistar rat (Rattus norvegicus males were ad libitum fed eight different diets, containing the fat and level reported, for 56 days. The dosages of total serum cholesterol and thriacylglicerols were performed by the colorimetric/enzymatic method utilizing a commercial specific kit. The HDL cholesterol was determined by precipitation of kilomicra (VLDL and LDL by utilizing also a specific kit. The increase of fat in the diet to 14% raised the total cholesterol contents, serum HDL cholesterol and LDL + VLDL cholesterol when the source was swine fat. With 14% of fat in the diet, the lowest values of serum triacylglycerols were found for the fat sources soybean and canola oils

  1. KIDNEY OF RATTUS NOVERGICUS ON PROPHYLACTIC

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the hertz rotary miclutome [leica RMZZEE,. Cambridge mode]. Staining of the section was according to Haematoxylin and Eosin stainingtechnique“. Animalcare ethics. 1iJerbal approval was granted by the animal care unit, University of Nigeria Hospital, Enugu and was properly documented on BZIUQIZDIB. The rats were.

  2. Effect Of Keren Fruit Extract (Muntingia calabura On Blood Glucose Levels Of Rats (Rattus novergicus Which Induced By Streptozotocin (STZ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vembriarto Jati Pramono

    2015-06-01

    control, group II (positive control, group III, IV, and V were given kersen fruit extract 100 mg/kg BW, 200 mg/kg BW, and 400 mg/kg BW respectively. Rats of groups I-V were induced with streptozotocin (STZ. Blood sugar values were analyzed using Analysis of Variance Repeated method (Repated ANOVA. The results showed blood glucose levels before treatment, week-0, and week-2 in the group I (133 mg/dL, 164 mg/dL, 105 mg/dL, group II (136 mg/dL, 362 mg/dL, 431 mg/dL, group III (133 mg/dL, 513 mg/dL, 109 mg/dL, group IV (100 mg/dL, 376 mg/dL, 153 mg/dL, and group V (83 mg/dL, 225 mg/dL, 169 mg/dL. Respectively based on statistical analysis showed a significant decreasies of blood sugar levels of the group III so that kersen extract with the dose of 100 mg / kg has the potential to antidiabetic.

  3. Molecular characterization of two hantavirus strains from different rattus species in Singapore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kek Relus

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hantaviruses cause human disease in endemic regions around the world. Outbreaks of hantaviral diseases have been associated with changes in rodent population density and adaptation to human settlements leading to their proliferation in close proximity to human dwellings. In a parallel study initiated to determine the prevalence of pathogens in Singapore's wild rodent population, 1206 rodents were trapped and screened. The findings established a hantavirus seroprevalence of 34%. This paper describes the molecular characterization of hantaviruses from Rattus norvegicus and Rattus tanezumi, the predominant rodents caught in urban Singapore. Methodology Pan-hanta RT-PCR performed on samples of Rattus norvegicus and Rattus tanezumi indicated that 27 (2.24% of the animals were positive. sequence analysis of the S and M segments established that two different hantavirus strains circulate in the rodent population of Singapore. Notably, the hantavirus strains found in Rattus norvegicus clusters with other Asian Seoul virus sequences, while the virus strains found in Rattus tanezumi had the highest sequence similarity to the Serang virus from Rattus tanezumi in Indonesia, followed by Cambodian hantavirus isolates and the Thailand virus isolated from Bandicota indica. Conclusions Sequence analysis of the S and M segments of hantavirus strains found in Rattus norvegicus (Seoul virus strain Singapore and Rattus tanezumi (Serang virus strain Jurong TJK/06 revealed that two genetically different hantavirus strains were found in rodents of Singapore. Evidently, together with Serang, Cambodian and Thailand virus the Jurong virus forms a distinct phylogroup. Interestingly, these highly similar virus strains have been identified in different rodent hosts. Further studies are underway to analyze the public health significance of finding hantavirus strains in Singapore rodents.

  4. Pengaruh medroksi progesteron asetat terhadap ultrastruktur sel leydig tikus putih (Rattus norvegicus

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    Mahanani Tri Asri

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the research was to study the effect of medroxy progesterone acetate on the ultrastructure of Leydig cells of Rattus norvegicus. Randomized complete design was applied to study. Treatment consisted of 4 doses medroxy progesterone acetate were 0.4. 8. And 12 mg per rat respectively and 8 replications. Injection were applied perform 4 times per rat within 4 weeks interval. The testicle were examined ultrastructure change on the nucleus, endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria and golgy apparatus of the Leydig cells. Results indicated that injections of medroxy progesterone acetate of 8 and 12 mg per rat causes significant untrastructure change of nucleus, endoplasmic reticulum, golgy apparatus and mitocondria of Leydig cells in comparison with doses 0 and 4 mg per rat. In additions there were no significant different in ultrastructure of Leydig cells between doses 8 and 12 mg per rat as well as there were no significant different between doses of 4 and 0 mg per rat.

  5. Analysis of Sry duplications on the Rattus norvegicus Y-chromosome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokop, Jeremy W; Underwood, Adam C; Turner, Monte E; Miller, Nic; Pietrzak, Dawn; Scott, Sarah; Smith, Chris; Milsted, Amy

    2013-11-14

    Gene copy number variation plays a large role in the evolution of genomes. In Rattus norvegicus and other rodent species, the Y-chromosome has accumulated multiple copies of Sry loci. These copy number variations have been previously linked with changes in phenotype of animal models such as the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR). This study characterizes the Y-chromosome in the Sry region of Rattus norvegicus, while addressing functional variations seen in the Sry protein products. Eleven Sry loci have been identified in the SHR with one (nonHMG Sry) containing a frame shift mutation. The nonHMGSry is found and conserved in the related WKY and SD rat strains. Three new, previously unidentified, Sry loci were identified in this study (Sry3BII, Sry4 and Sry4A) in both SHR and WKY. Repetitive element analysis revealed numerous LINE-L1 elements at regions where conservation is lost among the Sry copies. In addition we have identified a retrotransposed copy of Med14 originating from spliced mRNA, two autosomal genes (Ccdc110 and HMGB1) and a normal mammalian Y-chromosome gene (Zfy) in the Sry region of the rat Y-chromosome. Translation of the sequences of each Sry gene reveals eight proteins with amino acid differences leading to changes in nuclear localization and promoter activation of a Sry-responsive gene. Sry-β (coded by the Sry2 locus) has an increased cytoplasmic fraction due to alterations at amino acid 21. Sry-γ has altered gene regulation of the Sry1 promoter due to changes at amino acid 76. The duplication of Sry on the Rattus norvegicus Y-chromosome has led to proteins with altered functional ability that may have been selected for functions in addition to testis determination. Additionally, several other genes not normally found on the Y-chromosome have duplicated new copies into the region around the Sry genes. These suggest a role of active transposable elements in the evolution of the mammalian Y-chromosome in species such as Rattus norvegicus.

  6. Neurônios NADH-diaforase positivos do jejuno de ratos adultos (Rattus norvegicus desnutridos: aspectos quantitativos NADH-diaphorase positive neurons of the jejunum of disnurtured adult rats (Rattus norvegicus: quantitative aspects

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    Sônia Trannin de Mello Zanin

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Temos por objetivo contribuir com informações sobre os aspectos quantitativos dos neurônios mioentéricos NADH-diaforase positivos do jejuno de ratos submetidos a desnutrição protéica. Foram utilizados 10 ratos (90 dias de idade, divididos em grupos: controle (n=5, ±278g e desnutrido (n=5, ±280g. Nos 120 dias seguintes, os ratos do grupo controle receberam ração com teor protéico de 22%, os do grupo desnutrido, 8%. Ao final deste período, os ratos do grupo controle pesaram ±394,4g e os desnutrido ±273,5g.O jejuno foi submetido à técnica histoquímica da NADH-diaforase para evidenciação de células nervosas em preparado de membranas. Foram contados os neurônios presentes em 80 campos microscópicos em ambos os grupos. Verificaram-se no controle ±674,6 neurônios e no desnutrido ±1326,8 neurônios; A dieta não alterou a organização dos neurônios entretanto, levou a um menor desenvolvimento corporal nos animais desnutridos, contribuindo para que os neurônios destes sofressem menor dispersão e apresentassem maior densidade por mm².We aim at contributing with information on the quantitative aspects of the NADH-diaphorase positive myenteric neurons of the jejunum of adult rats subjected to protein desnutrition. Ten rats aging 90 days were divided into two groups: control (n=5, ±278 g and disnurtured (n=5, ±280 g. In the following 120 days, the rats from the control group had chow with 22% protein level, and those from the disnurtured group, with 8% protein level. After this period, the control rats weighted ±394.4g and the disnurtured ±273.5g. The jejunum was subjected to the histochemical technique of the NADH-diaphorase to stain nerve cells in whole-mounts. The neurons found in 80 microscopic fields of both groups were counted. In the control ±674.6 neurons were observed, and ±1326.8 neurons were counted in the disnurtured group. The low-protein diet did not alter the organization of the neurons, but led to a

  7. Predation by Rattus norvegicus on a native small mammal in an Araucaria araucana forest of Neuquén, Argentina La depredación en pequeños mamíferos nativos por Rattus norvegicus en un bosque de Araucaria araucana en Neuquén, Argentina

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    JOHN D SHEPHERD

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Few previous studies document Rattus predation as a mechanism of impact on native small mammals. In a mixed Araucaria araucana (Molina Koch -Nothofagus forest in Parque Nacional Lanín in southwestern Neuquén Province, Argentina, we discovered the remains of long-clawed mice, Chelemys macronyx Thomas, cached in a burrow of Rattus norvegicus Berkenhout. We discuss this evidence of predation in light of Rattus biology and invasion ecology. Predation on native small mammals by invasive rats is easily underestimated or overlooked and deserves more careful attention.Pocos estudios anteriores documentan predación por Rattus como mecanismo de impacto sobre los mamíferos pequenos nativos. En un bosque mixto de Araucaria araucana (Molina Koch -Nothofagus de Parque Nacional Lanín al suroeste de la provincia del Neuquén, Argentina, encontramos los cadáveres del ratón topo grande, Chelemys macronyx Thomas, almacenados en una cueva de la rata noruega, Rattus norvegicus Berkenhout. Discutimos esta evidencia de la depredación a la luz de la biología de Rattus y la ecología de invasión. La depredación en pequenos mamíferos nativos por las ratas invasoras está fácilmente subestimada o pasada por alto. Este tema merece una atención más cuidadosa.

  8. Aktivitas Antifibrotik Ekstrak Buah Delima Terstandar 40% Ellagic Acid pada Tikus Putih (Rattus norvegicus sebagai Hewan Model (ANTIFIBROTIC ACTIVITY OF POMEGRANATE FRUIT EXTRACT STANDARDIZED 40% ELLAGIC ACID ON RATS (RATTUS NORVEGICUS AS ANIMAL MODEL

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    Wiwik Misaco Yuniarti

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The number of patients with chronic liver disease (fibrosis or cirrhosis of the liver is increasing fromtime to time. However, until now there is no therapy that really effective to overcome that disease. Therapyfor liver fibrosis typically use substance that have antioxidant activity, anti-inflammatory or anti fibrotic.Various efforts always done to find alternative therapies for liver fibrosis. One of them is the use ofpotential plants that suspected having such activity. Various parts of pomegranate have been shown tohave various activities that beneficial for health. This study was conducted to determine the effect ofpomegranate fruit extract standardized 40% ellagic acid on the improvement degree of liver fibrosis causedby cholestasis by measuring of serum alkaline phosphatase levels (ALP and gamma-glutamyl transferase(GGT, as a specific indicator of liver damage becaused of cholestasis. The research was conducted by using32 male rats, wistar strain, 2.5 month old, weighing between 150-200 grams. Animal models of liver fibrosis obtained by using BDL technique. Subjects were divided into a control group (P0 = without BDLand giving of pomegranate extract and treatment groups (P1 = BDL with administration of CMC, P2 =BDL with ellagic acid 90% and P3 = BDL with pomegranate fruit extract standardized 40% ellagic acid.CMC, extract (150 mg / kg BW / PO and ellagic acid (60 mg / kg BW / PO administered for 21 consecutivedays in the same volume. At the end of 21 days periods, biochemical evaluation was performed to measureserum levels of GGT and ALP. The result indicated that administration of pomegranate fruit extract ( P3significantly reduced GGT ( 10.5±9.2 mg/dl and ALP level ( 509.0±4.2 mg/dl close to normal level of GGTand ALP ( P0, GGT : 2.8 ± 1.4; ALP : 449.0±62.3 (p<0.05. The level of GGT and ALP in P3 group were lowercompared to the group ellagic acid (P2, GGT=48.5±4.8 and ALP = 691.0± 29.7 and group which only begiven CMC (P1, GGT

  9. Detection of Leishmania spp in silvatic mammals and isolation of Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis from Rattus rattus in an endemic area for leishmaniasis in Minas Gerais State, Brazil.

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    Agnes Antônia Sampaio Pereira

    Full Text Available Knowledge of potential reservoirs of Leishmania spp. in an anthropic environment is important so that surveillance and control measures can be implemented. The aim of this study was to investigate the infection by Leishmania in small mammals in an area located in Minas Gerais, Brazil, that undergoes changes in its natural environment and presents autochthonous human cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL and visceral leishmaniasis (VL. For the capture of the animals, Sherman and Tomahawk traps were used and distributed in the peridomicile of houses with reports of autochthonous cases of CL or VL. Six catches were carried out on two consecutive nights with intervals of two months during one year and samples of spleen, liver, tail skin, ear skin and bone marrow of the animals were obtained. Parasitological and molecular methods were used to detect the infection. Identification of the Leishmania species was performed by PCR RFLPhsp70. Twenty five animals of four species were captured: ten Rattus rattus, nine Didelphis albiventris, five Cerradomys subflavus and one Marmosops incanus. In the PCR-hsp70, five animals were positive (20%. The Leishmania species identified in PCR-RFLPhsp70 were: Leishmania braziliensis in D. albiventris (2, C. subflavus (1 and R. rattus (1 and Leishmania infantum in R. rattus (1. The highest positivity rate for L. braziliensis was obtained in the liver samples. The spleen was the only tissue positive for L. infantum. It was isolated in culture medium L. braziliensis from two samples (liver and spleen of R. rattus. This is the first record of isolation of L. braziliensis from R. rattus in the southeastern region of Brazil. These results are relevant to the knowledge of the epidemiology of leishmaniasis in the region, mainly in the investigation of the presence of hosts and possible reservoirs of the parasite.

  10. Heterogenic colonization patterns by Leptospira interrogans in Rattus norvegicus from urban slums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Ana Amélia Nunes; Figueira, Cláudio Pereira; dos Reis, Mitermayer Galvão; Costa, Federico; Ristow, Paula

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated the renal colonization by Leptospira interrogans in Rattus norvegicus (rats), as it is the major natural reservoir of urban leptospirosis. We caught 72 R. norvegicus, out of which 32 were found to be positive for L. interrogans by immunofluorescence assay. From these rats, we selected 17 and divided them into six groups based on the mass-age/sex. We performed the immunohistochemistry test against L. interrogans in the kidney sections of the rats and systematically counted the colonized tubules (CTs) in 20 fields. The proportion of positive fields varied from 5% to 95%. The number of CTs in 20 fields varied from 0.5 to 85.5. These differences were not related to age or sex of the animals. The characterization of leptospiral colonization patterns in the natural reservoirs is important to better understand the host-pathogen interactions in leptospirosis.

  11. Implication of Rattus Rattus as Vectors of Gastrointestinal helminthes Parasites in Parts of Osogbo, Southwestern Nigeria.

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammed A.Rufai

    2017-01-01

    Rats are one of the ubiquitous rodents around human residential areas and market places and their filthy habits make them to be potential carriers of pathogens. The current survey was aimed to determine gastro-intestinal helminths infection in 75 trapped rodents of domestic and market areas of Osogbo, Southwesthern Nigeria to document the potential health risks associated with rats as mechanical vectors of medically important gastro-intestinal parasites Osogbo, Southwesthern Nigeria. 37 rats ...

  12. Assessment of Rhodamine B for labelling the plague reservoir Rattus rattus in Madagascar

    OpenAIRE

    Rahelinirina, S.; Duplantier, Jean-Marc; Ratsimba, M.; Ratovonjato, J.; Ramilijaona, O.; Papillon, Yves; Rahalison, L.

    2010-01-01

    The black rat is the main plague reservoir in rural foci in Madagascar, inside the villages as well as in the cultivated areas around. We have evaluated the potentialities of mass-marking of rats, using baits containing Rhodamine B (RB) in order to get a tool to study the movements of rats and to understand the spread of plague. Laboratory experiments demonstrated that: (i) rats were more attracted by the rodent granules and peanut butter; (ii) incorporation of RB in baits did not reduce thei...

  13. Corrected placement of Mus-Rattus fossil calibration forces precision in the molecular tree of rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Yuri; Hawkins, Melissa T R; McDonough, Molly M; Jacobs, Louis L; Flynn, Lawrence J

    2015-09-28

    Time calibration derived from the fossil record is essential for molecular phylogenetic and evolutionary studies. Fossil mice and rats, discovered in the Siwalik Group of Pakistan, have served as one of the best-known fossil calibration points in molecular phylogenic studies. Although these fossils have been widely used as the 12 Ma date for the Mus/Rattus split or a more basal split, conclusive paleontological evidence for the nodal assignments has been absent. This study analyzes newly recognized characters that demonstrate lineage separation in the fossil record of Siwalik murines and examines the most reasonable nodal placement of the diverging lineages in a molecular phylogenetic tree by ancestral state reconstruction. Our specimen-based approach strongly indicates that Siwalik murines of the Karnimata clade are fossil members of the Arvicanthini-Otomyini-Millardini clade, which excludes Rattus and its relatives. Combining the new interpretation with the widely accepted hypothesis that the Progonomys clade includes Mus, the lineage separation event in the Siwalik fossil record represents the Mus/Arvicanthis split. Our test analysis on Bayesian age estimates shows that this new calibration point provides more accurate estimates of murine divergence than previous applications. Thus, we define this fossil calibration point and refine two other fossil-based points for molecular dating.

  14. Behavioral changes in Rattus norvegicus experimentally infected by Toxocara canis larvae Alterações de comportamento em Rattus norvegicus experimentalmente infectados por larvas de Toxocara canis

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    Pedro P. Chieffi

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Toxocara canis is a common canine nematode parasite and one of its possible transmission mechanisms is the predation of infected rodents by canids. Fifty Rattus norvegicus were used to study behavioral alterations in rodents infected by T. canis larvae. The rats were divided into three groups: G1, 20 rats infected with 300 T. canis eggs; G2, 20 rats infected with 2,000 T. canis eggs; and G3, 10 non-infected rats. Thirty and 60 days post-infection, rats from all the groups were submitted to an open-field apparatus for five min and subsequently, to an elevated plus-maze apparatus, again for five min. The data obtained indicated improvement in mobility (total locomotion time and rearing frequency and exploratory behavior in infected rats, principally in G2, which provides some support for the hypothesis that behavioral alterations in rodents infected by Toxocara canis larvae enhance the transmission rate of this ascarid to dogs.Toxocara canis é um nematódeo parasita habitual do intestino delgado de cães. Um dos mecanismos conhecidos de transmissão para cães é representado pela predação de pequenos roedores que, como hospedeiros paratênicos albergam larvas de Toxocara canis em seus tecidos. Para avaliar a ocorrência de alterações de comportamento em roedores infectados por Toxocara canis 50 exemplares de Rattus norvegicus foram utilizados no experimento. Os animais foram divididos em três grupos: G1 - 20 ratos infectados com 300 ovos de Toxocara canis; G2 - 20 ratos infectados com 2.000 ovos de Toxocara canis e G3 - 10 ratos sem infecção. Trinta e 60 dias após a infecção avaliou-se a ocorrência de alterações comportamentais nos três grupos submetendo os animais, primeiramente, a uma arena de campo aberto durante cinco minutos e, a seguir, a labirinto em cruz elevado por mais cinco minutos. Os resultados obtidos indicaram aumento significativo da mobilidade (tempo total de movimentação e número de vezes em que os animais se

  15. Pengaruh Pemberian Jus Buah Naga Merah (Hylocereus polyrhizus Terhadap Kadar Trigliserida Tikus Putih (Rattus norvegicus Hiperlipidemia

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    Afrida Wira Surya Rizqi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease is a disease that causes the most deaths in the world. One of its main risk factor is triglyceride levels which make the emergence of plaque in coronary artery. Statin as an option drug in reducing triglyceride levels apparently reported to cause myopathy and kidney failure when used in a long term. Natural product like red dragon fruit began to be developed as a safer alternative. The content of various substances such as niacin, vitamin C and fiber in it useful as antihypertriglyceridemia. This study aims to determine the effect of red dragon fruit (Hylocereus polyrhizus juice to the decrease of triglyceride levels in hyperlipidemic white rats (Rattus norvegicus. This study was an experimental study with pre and post test with control group design. The subjects were 24 male experimental animals (Rattus norvegicus were divided into 4 groups: one positive control group given simvastatin 0.18 mg/ 200 gram of  weight and three groups treated with red dragon fruit juice doses of 3.6; 5.4 and 7.2 gram/ 200 gram of weight. Then, data were analyzed escriptively with One-Way ANOVA test using SPSS 16.0 for Windows. Results with descriptive analysis obtained that mean of positive control’s pre-test triglyceride level was 104.80 mg/ dl and treatment groups I, II and III respectively 108.15 mg/ dl, 106.47 mg/ dl and 107.43 mg/ dl whereas positive control’s post-test triglyceride level was 51.09 mg/ dl and for the treatment groups were 94.64 mg /dl, 71.01 mg/ dl and 58.75 mg/ dl. One Way ANOVA test obtained p <0.05 which indicated the difference between the treatment of various doses of red dragon fruit juice to white rats’ triglyceride levels. Based on that, means there is the effect of various doses of red dragon fruit (Hylocereus polyrhizus juice to the decrease of triglyceride levels in hyperlipidemic white rats (Rattus norvegicus.

  16. Perbedaan Pengaruh Pemberian Insulin dan Ekstrak Zingiber officinale Terhadap Berat Badan Lahir Anak Rattus Norvegicus Model Diabetes Melitus Pragestasional

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    Ratih Mega Septiasari

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes during pregnancy can be divided into pregestational diabetes and gestational diabetes. The risk of fetal Diabetes Mellitus pregestational (DMpG patients can be either macrosomia or low birth weight. The purpose of this study was to investigate the differences in the administration effect of insulin and Zingiber officinale extract on birth weight of Rattus norvegicus pregestational diabetes mellitus model. This research is an experimental research using post test only control group design. Samples contained 30 pregnant Rattus norvegicus and divided into 5 groups, where K0 (negative control group and K1 (positive control group given aquadest 1cc, K2 given insulin 1IU, K3 given ginger extract 500mg/ kg BW, K4 given insulin 1IU and ginger extract 500mg/ kg BW. Treatment was administered during the first 16 days of pregnancy. On the 17th day, the rats were terminated and then the birth weight was measured with the scale. Data analysis using One-way ANOVA test followed by Tamhane test. The results showed that there was a difference of birth weight in the insulin treatment group and ginger extract treatment group (p-value = 0,037 < α =0,05. The conclusion of this study was Zingiber officinale can be used as a single therapy or combination with insulin of Rattus norvegicus pregestational diabetes mellitus model.

  17. Pengaruh Pemberian Jus Buah Naga Merah (Hylocereus polyrhizus Terhadap Kadar Trigliserida Tikus Putih (Rattus norvegicus Hiperlipidemia

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    Afrida Wira Surya Rizqi

    2014-09-01

    Results with descriptive analysis obtained that mean of positive control’s pre-test triglyceride level was 104.80 mg/ dl and treatment groups I, II and III respectively 108.15 mg/ dl, 106.47 mg/ dl and 107.43 mg/ dl whereas positive control’s post-test triglyceride level was 51.09 mg/ dl and for the treatment groups were 94.64 mg /dl, 71.01 mg/ dl and 58.75 mg/ dl. One Way ANOVA test obtained p <0.05 which indicated the difference between the treatment of various doses of red dragon fruit juice to white rats’ triglyceride levels. Based on that, means there is the effect of various doses of red dragon fruit (Hylocereus polyrhizus juice to the decrease of triglyceride levels in hyperlipidemic white rats (Rattus norvegicus.

  18. Influence of CSN1S2 protein from Caprine milk Etawah Breed (EB) on histology of microglial cells in rat (Rattus norvegicus) Type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rika, Margareth; Fatchiyah

    2017-11-01

    Type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a degenerative disease that causes an imbalance in the metabolism. The aim of this research is to determine the influences of CSN1S2 on the structure of microglial cells in T2DM. Rats (Rattus norvegicus) were divided into eight groups of treatment with looping three times each between treatment groups (CM) Control. The control is given a milk treatment with doses of 375 mg/kg (CM375), 750 mg/kg (CM750), and 1500 mg/kg (CM1500), T2DM (DMK), and T2DM with CSN1S2 375 mg/kg dose (DM375), 750mg/kg (DM750), and 1500 mg/kg (DM1500). The animal model T2DM was induced by a high-fat diet in the form of feed followed by injection of STZ (dose of 25 mg/kg of animal treatment) and treatment of CSN1S2 for 28 days. Brain organs were taken and analysed in histopathology stained by Hematoxylin-eosin (HE) and observed using Olympus BX53. Based on the results, it was concluded that CSN1S2 protein is influential for induction of microglial cell proliferation in animal models of T2DM, as immunity responds to the inflammatory condition in T2DM.

  19. Discovery of a Novel Coronavirus, China Rattus Coronavirus HKU24, from Norway Rats Supports the Murine Origin of Betacoronavirus 1 and Has Implications for the Ancestor of Betacoronavirus Lineage A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Susanna K. P.; Woo, Patrick C. Y.; Li, Kenneth S. M.; Tsang, Alan K. L.; Fan, Rachel Y. Y.; Luk, Hayes K. H.; Cai, Jian-Piao; Chan, Kwok-Hung; Zheng, Bo-Jian; Wang, Ming

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT We discovered a novel Betacoronavirus lineage A coronavirus, China Rattus coronavirus (ChRCoV) HKU24, from Norway rats in China. ChRCoV HKU24 occupied a deep branch at the root of members of Betacoronavirus 1, being distinct from murine coronavirus and human coronavirus HKU1. Its unique putative cleavage sites between nonstructural proteins 1 and 2 and in the spike (S) protein and low sequence identities to other lineage A betacoronaviruses (βCoVs) in conserved replicase domains support ChRCoV HKU24 as a separate species. ChRCoV HKU24 possessed genome features that resemble those of both Betacoronavirus 1 and murine coronavirus, being closer to Betacoronavirus 1 in most predicted proteins but closer to murine coronavirus by G+C content, the presence of a single nonstructural protein (NS4), and an absent transcription regulatory sequence for the envelope (E) protein. Its N-terminal domain (NTD) demonstrated higher sequence identity to the bovine coronavirus (BCoV) NTD than to the mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) NTD, with 3 of 4 critical sugar-binding residues in BCoV and 2 of 14 contact residues at the MHV NTD/murine CEACAM1a interface being conserved. Molecular clock analysis dated the time of the most recent common ancestor of ChRCoV HKU24, Betacoronavirus 1, and rabbit coronavirus HKU14 to about the year 1400. Cross-reactivities between other lineage A and B βCoVs and ChRCoV HKU24 nucleocapsid but not spike polypeptide were demonstrated. Using the spike polypeptide-based Western blot assay, we showed that only Norway rats and two oriental house rats from Guangzhou, China, were infected by ChRCoV HKU24. Other rats, including Norway rats from Hong Kong, possessed antibodies only against N protein and not against the spike polypeptide, suggesting infection by βCoVs different from ChRCoV HKU24. ChRCoV HKU24 may represent the murine origin of Betacoronavirus 1, and rodents are likely an important reservoir for ancestors of lineage A βCoVs. IMPORTANCE While

  20. Pengaruh Lama Pemberian Diet Tinggi Kolesterol terhadap Kadar LDL dan TGF-Β Serum Tikus Putih (Rattus novergicus strain Wistar

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    Biomechy Oktomalioputri

    2016-01-01

    to observe the effect of duration of giving  high-cholesterol diet on Low Density Lipoprotein and Transforming Growth Factor β levels white rats (Rattus novergicus Wistar strain. This study uses  post-test only control group design, carried out on male rats Rattus novergicus 3-4 months, weight 200-250 grams. The study sample consisted of 24 rats were divided into 4 groups: control group, group A, group B and group C. Except  the control group, the group of rats given a high-cholesterol diet in the form of goat fat 10%, 5% quail eggs for 10 days to group A, group B for 20 days and 30 days for group C. At the end of the experiment blood was taken and examined LDL and TGF-β levels. Results were analyzed using bivariate. The analysis is oneway Anova test. The results of research known to have effect of duration on giving high-cholesterol diet to increase serum LDL levels of rats with p = 0.01 (p<0.05. This is the same case with TGF-β, which there was effect of duration on giving high-diet cholesterol diet to decrease serum TGF-β levels of rats where p = 0.04 (p>0.05. This study concludes that there are effect of duration on giving high-cholesterol diet to levels of LDL and TGF-β white rats Rattus novergicus Wistar strain.Keywords:  high-cholesterol diet, LDL, TGF β

  1. Distribution of anticoagulant rodenticide resistance in Rattus norvegicus in the Netherlands according to Vkorc1 mutations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meerburg, B.G.; Gent-Pelzer, van M.P.E.; Schoelitsz, B.; Lee, van der T.A.J.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Rodenticide resistance to anticoagulants in Rattus norvegicus will lead to increased difficulties in combating these pest animals. Here, the authors present the results of a survey in the Netherlands where tissue samples and droppings were tested using a newly developed TaqMan PCR test

  2. PREVALENCE OF Calodium hepaticum (SYN. Capillaria hepatica IN Rattus norvegicus IN THE URBAN AREA OF RIO DE JANEIRO, BRAZIL

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    Raquel O. Simões

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The nematode Calodium hepaticum (syn. Capillaria hepatica is a zoonotic helminth found mainly infecting rats. It was studied the prevalence of C. hepaticum infection in Rattus norvegicus in an urban area of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil, with low urban planning and sanitation. The presence of C. hepaticum was identified through visible yellowish-white lesions in liver tissue and histological analyses. The total prevalence of infection was 45%, with no significant differences between sex and age. The presence of infected rodents near the peridomestic area poses substantial risk to human health.

  3. PREVALENCE OF Calodium hepaticum (SYN. Capillaria hepatica) IN Rattus norvegicus IN THE URBAN AREA OF RIO DE JANEIRO, BRAZIL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simões, Raquel O.; Luque, José L.; Faro, Marta Júlia; Motta, Ester; Maldonado, Arnaldo

    2014-01-01

    The nematode Calodium hepaticum (syn. Capillaria hepatica) is a zoonotic helminth found mainly infecting rats. It was studied the prevalence of C. hepaticum infection in Rattus norvegicus in an urban area of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil), with low urban planning and sanitation. The presence of C. hepaticum was identified through visible yellowish-white lesions in liver tissue and histological analyses. The total prevalence of infection was 45%, with no significant differences between sex and age. The presence of infected rodents near the peridomestic area poses substantial risk to human health. PMID:25229230

  4. Benefits of pomegranate (Punica granatum Linn) fruit extracts to weight changes, total protein, and uric acid in white rats (Rattus norvegicus) as an animal model of acute renal failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primarizky, Hardany; Yuniarti, Wiwik Misaco; Lukiswanto, Bambang Sektiari

    2016-11-01

    The occurrence of acute renal failure (ARF) cases continues to increase every year. Some of the cases are due to nephrotoxic effect caused by overdose of antibiotic consumption or abuse of the drug, gentamicin. An antibiotic therapy that can be used to overcome in such a case is the pomegranate extracts. However, until now, studies using pomegranate for cases of ARF have not been done. This study aims to determine changes in body weight, the levels of total protein (TP), and the levels of serum uric acid (UA) as a result of the pomegranate extract consumption. A total number of 32 rats (Rattus norvegicus) were divided into four groups randomly. One group was assigned as the control group (P0) and given intraperitoneal (i.p.) saline and 0.3% carboxy methyl cellulose sodium (CMC) Na; P1 was provided with 80 mg/kg bw/i.p. gentamicin and 0.3% CMC Na orally, P2 was supplied with 80 mg/kg bw/i.p. gentamicin and ellagic acid in 0.3% CMC Na, and P3 was given 80 mg/kg bw/i.p. gentamicin and 150 mg/kg bw pomegranate extract in 0.3% CMC Na. The provision of treatment was carried out in 8 days and followed by making the overthrow of body weight and blood sampling for the examination of study variables. The results taken by doing the analysis of variance method for the four treatment groups show that the control group (P0) has significant differences from P1, P2, and P3 (p<0.05), but there are no significant differences among the other three treatment groups. Meanwhile, the average values of serum UA levels among P1, P2, and P3 indicate significant differences. In conclusion, the administration of pomegranate extracts in the treatment of nephrotoxicity toward rats is effective to maintain normal body weight, normal TP levels, and the UA blood serum of the rats. As this study is a preventive therapy, it needs further researches about the effective dose as a curative therapy, its level of effectiveness and its long-term side effects.

  5. Coumatetralyl resistance of Rattus tanezumi infesting oil palm plantations in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andru, J; Cosson, J F; Caliman, J P; Benoit, E

    2013-03-01

    Rodent control is an important issue in human health and agriculture. Oil palm plantations are rapidly expanding in Indonesia and this is having a major economic and ecological impact. Rodent control in oil palm plantations is based principally on the use of anti-vitamin K (AVK), the main anticoagulant used being coumatetralyl, a first-generation AVK. We conducted a comparative study in two well established oil palm plantations in Indonesia: (1) one without chemical control in Riau and (2) another with intensive coumatetralyl use on Bangka Island. Rat species were identified by the molecular barcoding method. Susceptibility to coumatetralyl was then assessed within the two populations and we screened for mutations in vkorc1, which encodes the molecular target of AVK. Different species were found in the two areas: Rattus tiomanicus in Riau, and a mix of R. tanezumi and a close relative one in Bangka. The rats in Riau were much more susceptible to coumatetralyl than those in Bangka. This study is the first to demonstrate physiological tolerance to AVK in these species. vkorc1 displayed low levels of polymorphism, and no SNP was associated with the high-tolerance phenotypes of R. tanezumi clade, even those exposed to very high concentrations (32 × the effective dose of 0.36 mg kg(-1)). The biochemical basis of this tolerance remains unknown, but may involve the vkorc1 promoter and/or cytochrome P450 metabolism. We discuss our results and the selective role of anticoagulant use in the occurrence of phenotypic tolerance.

  6. Immune-related health-relevant changes in natural populations of Norway rat (Rattus norvegicus Berkenhout, 1769: White blood cell counts, leukocyte activity, and peripheral organ infiltration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kataranovski Milena V.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Basic immune-related health-relevant changes (total and differential white blood cell counts and activity, leukocyte tissue infiltration, and related pathohistology were assessed in wild Norway rats from urban habitats. Comparative measurements were conducted in individuals of several laboratory strains of Norway rat in order to gain insight into environmental effects on the health of wild rats. Changes in leukocyte counts and activity along with tissue infiltration were noted only in wild rats, indicating systemic as well as tissue inflammation in these animals. Coincidence of these changes with chronic inflammatory pulmonary and kidney disease was observed in the majority of affected rats.

  7. Uncovering the secret lives of sewer rats (Rattus norvegicus): Movements, distribution and population dynamics revealed by a capture-mark-recapture study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiberg, Ann-Charlotte; Sluydts, Vincent; Leirs, Herwig E.l.

    2012-01-01

    and behaviour of these populations. Aims.: The study aimed to uncover the population dynamics, movements and distribution of rats in populations living in sewers. Methods.: We studied rats in a capture–mark–recapture study in two adjacent but separate sewer systems in suburban Copenhagen, Denmark, covering......Context.: In many parts of the world, brown rats have colonised sewer systems and the rat populations in sewers are often thought to be a source of problems with rats on the surface. The management of sewer rat populations is usually performed with little, if any, knowledge of the dynamics......, half of these were juveniles. The median time an individual was present in the sewers was 4 months with maxima up to 22 months. Abundance ranged from 2 to 44 animals per sewer system and the dynamics showed no regular fluctuations. Rats were distributed throughout the study area, regardless of sewer...

  8. Apoptosis of Rattus novergicus gingival fibroblasts caused by silver nano-particles gel exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kharinna Widowati

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The use of silver nanoparticle are growing, especially in medical science. It’s used in many concentration. In dentistry, it’s used to decrease halitosis, periodontal diseases, and wound healing. It can affect the viability of the cells, give bad effects to the human’s health and environment if used in a long duration and in certain concentration. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to learn the apoptosis of gingival fibroblasts in Rattus novergicus which is exposed with 15 µg/ml silver nano-particle gel by the expression of caspase-3. Method: This study used 9 male wistar rats and were divided into 3 groups. Sample in group A were cut (hurt in the oral gingiva and exposed to Ag-Np gel 15 µg/ml for 3 days. After 3 days, they were sacrificed and cut the gingival fibroblasts off 3x4 cm size with scalpel. Samples in group B were cut in the oral gingiva and exposed to Ag-Np Gel 15 µg/ml for 5 days. After 5 days they were sacrificed and the gingival fibroblasts off 3 x 4 cm with a scalpel. Samples in group C were cut in the oral gingiva and exposed to none for 3 days then cut the gingival fibroblasts off 3 x 4 cm size with scalpel. The expressions of caspase-3 in the apoptotic and wound healing process were analyzed by Immunohistochemical test. This data was analyzed by using the t-test method. Result: Mean expression numbers of caspase-3 in the group A=5.67; group B=11.33; and group C (control=18.67. T-test sign.number of group A and C=0.009; group B & C=0.000. Conclusion: The exposure of 15 µg/ml silver gel nanoparticle to gingival fibroblasts of Rattus novergicus reduces the expressions of caspase-3 in the day-3 and day-5 post exposure. The amounts of cell death through the apoptotic pathway which were analyzed by the expressions of caspase-3 will decrease too.

  9. Vancomycin gene selection in the microbiome of urban Rattus norvegicus from hospital environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arn Hansen, Thomas; Joshi, Tejal; Larsen, Anders Rhod

    2016-01-01

    argued that animal vectors such as Rattus norvegicus (R. norvegicus) living in hospital sewage systems are ideal for carrying pathogens responsible for fatal diseases in humans. Using a metagenomic sequencing approach, we investigated faecal samples of R. norvegicus from three major cities....... norvegicus microbiome, potentially driven by the outflow of antibiotics and antibiotic-resistant bacteria into the wastewater systems. Carriage of vancomycin resistance may suggest that R. norvegicus is acting as a reservoir for possible transmission to the human population....

  10. Distribution of anticoagulant rodenticide resistance in Rattus norvegicus in the Netherlands according to Vkorc1 mutations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meerburg, Bastiaan G; van Gent-Pelzer, Marga PE; Schoelitsz, Bruce; van der Lee, Theo AJ

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Rodenticide resistance to anticoagulants in Rattus norvegicus will lead to increased difficulties in combating these pest animals. Here, the authors present the results of a survey in the Netherlands where tissue samples and droppings were tested using a newly developed TaqMan PCR test for genotypic variation at codon 139 in the Vkorc1 gene associated with anticoagulant rodenticide resistance. Test results are linked to results of a questionnaire that was conducted among pest controllers. RESULTS Genetic mutations at codon 139 of the Vkorc1 gene in R. norvegicus can be encountered in many parts of the Netherlands. In 34/61 rat tails, a genotype was found that is linked to anticoagulant rodenticide resistance (56%). In droppings, 42/169 samples (25%) showed a resistance-mediating genotype. In addition, indications of a clear genetic substructure in the Netherlands were found. In some regions, only resistance-mediating genotypes were found, corroborating results from the questionnaire in which pest controllers indicated they suspected resistance to anticoagulant rodenticides. CONCLUSION This is the first study to demonstrate the presence of multiple genetic mutations at codon 139 of the Vkorc1 gene in R. norvegicus in the Netherlands. As rodenticides should keep their efficacy because they are a last resort in rodent management, more studies are urgently needed that link specific genetic mutations to the efficacy of active substances. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry PMID:24753361

  11. Micronuclei induction and chromosomal aberrations in Rattus norvegicus by chloroacetic acid and chlorobenzene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faisal Siddiqui, Mohammad; Ahmad, Riaz; Ahmad, Waseem; Hasnain, Absar-ul

    2006-10-01

    Chloroacetic acid (CAA) and chlorobenzene (CB) have been evaluated for in vivo mutagenic potential in Rattus norvegicus, employing the following criteria : (i) chromosomal aberrations (CAs) such as breaks, gaps, exchanges, rings, and multiple aberrations and (ii) micronuclei (MN) induction. Three sublethal doses, 0.008, 0.01, and 0.012 mg/g b. wt. of CAA and 0.75, 1.0, and 1.25 mg/g b. wt. of rat of CB were administered and the bone marrow cells evaluated in each of the three treated groups at 12, 24, and 48 h, respectively. Mean MN frequencies of 4.40+/-0.2 and 5.42+/-0.3, obtained respectively for CAA and CB. The higher induction of MN by CAA and CB was dose- and time-dependent. Most significant impact (P<0.05) for either of the compounds was observed at 24h post administration, when the recorded mean frequency of CAs was maximum for CAA (4.33+/-0.6) as well as for CB (4.66+/-0.5).

  12. Analysis of lipid profile and atherogenic index in hyperlipidemic rat (Rattus norvegicus Berkenhout, 1769) that given the methanolic extract of Parijoto (Medinilla speciosa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sa'adah, Noor Nailis; Purwani, Kristanti Indah; Nurhayati, Awik Puji Dyah; Ashuri, Nova Maulidina

    2017-06-01

    Diet of high lipids cause hyperlipidemia, which marked by an increase of total cholesterols, triglycerides, LDL-C, and decreasing of HDL-C. Hyperlipidemia lead the occurrence of atherosclerosis, one of factors that trigger cardiovascular disease, as hypertention; coronary heart and stroke. Parijoto (M. speciosa) is endemic plants in Asia with a distribution center in Malaysia, Indonesia and Philippines. Parijoto contain phytochemical components such as flavonoids, saponins and kardenolin. Flavonoid potensial as an antioxidants and can improve the hyperlipidemia condition. This study was aimed to determine lipid profiles and atherogenic index of hyperlipidemic Wistar rats (R. norvegicus Berkenhout, 1769) which given the methanolic extract of Parijoto (M. speciosa). The research was done with pre and post test randomized control group design. Rats were given a mixture of duck yolk and reused cooking oil (1:1) orally as much as 1% of body weight (BW) for 30 days. After hyperlipidemia achieved, rats were divided into 5 group: normal rats, hyperlipidemic rats, hyperlipidemic rats were given the methanolic extract of Parijoto (M. speciosa) 500 mg/kg, 1000 mg/kg, and 1500 mg/kg BW. Blood samples were collected when rats in hyperlipidemia conditions and after treatment with the methanolic extract of Parijoto (M. speciosa) for 30 days. The data of total cholesterol, HDL-Cholesterol, LDL-Cholesterol level, and atherogenic index were analyzed using ANOVA followed by Tukey test at 5% significance level. The result showed that giving of methanolic extract of Parijoto (M. speciosa) in hyperlipidemic rats reduced the total cholesterol, LDL-Cholesterol levels, and increased of HDL-cholesterol levels significantly (p<0.01), so atherogenic index reduced significantly too (p<0.01). Total cholesterol and LDL-Cholesterol levels were positively correlated with the atherogenic index, whereas HDL-cholesterol levels were negatively correlated with the atherogenic index.

  13. Isolation and molecular characterization of group B Streptococcus from laboratory Long-Evans rats (Rattus norvegicus) with and without invasive group B streptococcal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodi Winn, Caroline; Bakthavatchalu, Vasudevan; Esmail, Michael Y; Feng, Yan; Dzink-Fox, JoAnn; Richey, Lauren; Perkins, Scott E; Nordberg, Eric K; Fox, James G

    2017-11-21

    Group B Streptococcus (S. agalactiae, GBS) is a Gram-positive opportunistic pathogen that inhabits the respiratory, urogenital and gastrointestinal tracts of humans and animals. Maternal colonization of GBS is a risk factor for a spectrum of clinical diseases in humans and a principle cause of neonatal meningitis and septicaemia. We describe polymicrobial sepsis including GBS in two gravid adult female Long-Evans rats experiencing acute mortality from a colony of long-term breeding pairs. Fluorescent in situ hybridization confirmed GBS association with pathological changes in affected tissues, including the heart and uterus. Characterization of seven GBS strains obtained from clinically affected and non-affected animals indicated similar antibiotic resistance and susceptibility patterns to that of human strains of GBS. The rat strains have virulence factors known to contribute to pathogenicity, and shared serotypes with human invasive isolates. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that one rat-derived GBS strain was more closely related to human-derived strains than other rat-derived strains, strengthening the notion that interspecies transmission is possible. To our knowledge, this is the first investigation of genotypic and phenotypic features of rat-derived GBS strains and their comparison to human- and other animal-derived GBS strains. Since GBS commonly colonizes commercially available rats, its exclusion as a potential pathogen for immunocompromised or stressed animals is recommended.

  14. Spatial reorientation in rats (Rattus norvegicus): Use of geometric and featural information as a function of arena size and feature location

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maes, J.H.R.; Fontanari, L.; Regolin, L.

    2009-01-01

    Rats were used in a spatial reorientation task to assess their ability to use geometric and non-geometric, featural, information. Experimental conditions differed in the size of the arena (small, medium, or large) and whether the food-baited corner was near or far from a visual feature. The main

  15. Postoperative Analgesia Due to Sustained-Release Buprenorphine, Sustained-Release Meloxicam, and Carprofen Gel in a Model of Incisional Pain in Rats (Rattus norvegicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seymour, Travis L; Adams, Sean C; Felt, Stephen A; Jampachaisri, Katechan; Yeomans, David C; Pacharinsak, Cholawat

    2016-01-01

    Postoperative analgesia in laboratory rats is complicated by the frequent handling associated with common analgesic dosing requirements. Here, we evaluated sustained-release buprenorphine (Bup-SR), sustained-release meloxicam (Melox-SR), and carprofen gel (CG) as refinements for postoperative analgesia. The aim of this study was to investigate whether postoperative administration of Bup-SR, Melox-SR, or CG effectively controls behavioral mechanical and thermal hypersensitivity in a rat model of incisional pain. Rats were randomly assigned to 1 of 5 treatment groups: saline, 1 mL/kg SC BID; buprenorphine HCl (Bup HCl), 0.05 mg/kg SC BID; Bup-SR, 1.2 mg/kg SC once; Melox-SR, 4 mg/kg SC once; and CG, 2 oz PO daily. Mechanical and thermal hypersensitivity were tested daily from day-1 through 4. Bup HCl and Bup-SR attenuated mechanical and thermal hypersensitivity on days 1 through 4. Melox-SR and CG attenuated mechanical hypersensitivity-but not thermal hypersensitivity-on days 1 through 4. Plasma concentrations, measured by using UPLC with mass spectrometry, were consistent between both buprenorphine formulations. Gross pathologic examination revealed no signs of toxicity in any group. These findings suggest that postoperative administration of Bup HCl and Bup-SR-but not Melox-SR or CG-effectively attenuates mechanical and thermal hypersensitivity in a rat model of incisional pain.

  16. Environmental enrichment of young adult rats (Rattus norvegicus) in different sensory modalities has long-lasting effects on their ability to learn via specific sensory channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolivo, Vassilissa; Taborsky, Michael

    2017-05-01

    Sensory modalities individuals use to obtain information from the environment differ among conspecifics. The relative contributions of genetic divergence and environmental plasticity to this variance remain yet unclear. Numerous studies have shown that specific sensory enrichments or impoverishments at the postnatal stage can shape neural development, with potential lifelong effects. For species capable of adjusting to novel environments, specific sensory stimulation at a later life stage could also induce specific long-lasting behavioral effects. To test this possibility, we enriched young adult Norway rats with either visual, auditory, or olfactory cues. Four to 8 months after the enrichment period we tested each rat for their learning ability in 3 two-choice discrimination tasks, involving either visual, auditory, or olfactory stimulus discrimination, in a full factorial design. No sensory modality was more relevant than others for the proposed task per se, but rats performed better when tested in the modality for which they had been enriched. This shows that specific environmental conditions encountered during early adulthood have specific long-lasting effects on the learning abilities of rats. Furthermore, we disentangled the relative contributions of genetic and environmental causes of the response. The reaction norms of learning abilities in relation to the stimulus modality did not differ between families, so interindividual divergence was mainly driven by environmental rather than genetic factors. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. In vitro hepatic microsomal metabolism of meloxicam in koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus), brushtail possums (Trichosurus vulpecula), ringtail possums (Pseudocheirus peregrinus), rats (Rattus norvegicus) and dogs (Canis lupus familiaris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimble, B; Li, K M; Valtchev, P; Higgins, D P; Krockenberger, M B; Govendir, M

    2014-04-01

    Quantitative and qualitative aspects of in vitro metabolism of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug meloxicam, mediated via hepatic microsomes of specialized foliage (Eucalyptus) eating marsupials (koalas and ringtail possums), a generalized foliage eating marsupial (brushtail possum), rats, and dogs, are described. Using a substrate depletion method, intrinsic hepatic clearance (in vitro Clint) was determined. Significantly, rates of oxidative transformation of meloxicam, likely mediated via cytochromes P450 (CYP), were higher in marsupials compared to rats or dogs. The rank order of apparent in vitro Clint was brushtail possums (n=3) (mean: 394μL/min/mg protein), >koalas (n=6) (50), >ringtail possums (n=2) (36) (with no significant difference between koalas and ringtail possums), >pooled rats (3.2)>pooled dogs (in which the rate of depletion, as calculated by the ratio of the substrate remaining was meloxicam, at a first-order rate constant, 5-hydroxymethyl metabolite (M1) was identified in the brushtail possums and the rat as the major metabolite. However, multiple hydroxyl metabolites were observed in the koala (M1, M2, and M3) and the ringtail possum (M1 and M3) indicating that these specialized foliage-eating marsupials have diverse oxidation capacity to metabolize meloxicam. Using a well-stirred model, the apparent in vitro Clint of meloxicam for koalas and the rat was further scaled to compare with published in vivo Cl. The closest in vivo Cl prediction from in vitro data of koalas was demonstrated with scaled hepatic Cl(total) (average fold error=1.9) excluding unbound fractions in the blood and microsome values; whereas for rats, the in-vitro scaled hepatic Cl fu(blood, mic), corrected with unbound fractions in the blood and microsome values, provided the best prediction (fold error=1.86). This study indicates that eutherians such as rats or dogs serve as inadequate models for dosage extrapolation of this drug to marsupials due to differences in

  18. Effects of the nonagouti coat-color allele on behavior of deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus): a comparison with Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayssen, V

    1997-12-01

    The agouti locus influences coat color by antagonizing melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH) at its receptor on pigment cells and may antagonize MSH in neural tissue. This study replicates work on rats to assess whether behavioral (neural) effects of the agouti locus are as similar across mammals as those on coat color. Handling, open-field, platform jump, and food-novelty tests were conducted on agouti and nonagouti deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) following protocols in C. A. Cottle and E. O. Price (1987). As with rats, nonagouti deer mice were less aggressive, less active, and easier to handle compared with their agouti counterparts. Nonagouti deer mice also groomed more than agouti subjects. Thus, behavioral effects of the agouti locus are conservative, and agouti may be an important modulator of melanocortins in neural as well as integumentary tissue.

  19. Faillure in the effect of the analogue (hCG of luteinizing hormone on the luteal angiogenesis in rats (Rattus novergicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Gonçalves Silva

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge of the mechanisms that affect the control of the ovarian activity is essential for the success of reproduction biotechnologies. Although a number of studies have been carried out in which the luteinizing hormone (LH was used to control the ovarian activity, little is known about its influence in the morphology and vascular formation of the corpus luteum, aiming to increase the local blood flow. Thus, the objective of the present experiment was the quantification of the vascular density of corpora lutea (Cls in animals treated with human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG just after ovulation. Therefore, eighteen wistar rats were used in this experiment. Eight rats in the treated group and ten rats in the control group. Corpora lutea were divided into two groups: group (A treated with hCG in the following morning after copulation, and group (B control animals which received an injection of 0.9% sodium chloride solution. Ovaries from each group were used for preparation of histological sections for vascular density qualification. No statistical significance was found between the two groups tested.

  20. Inference in a social context: A comparative study of capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella), tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri), hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus), and rats (Rattus norvegicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Makoto; Ueno, Yoshikazu; Fujita, Kazuo

    2015-11-01

    Four species (capuchin monkeys, tree shrews, rats, and hamsters) performed an inference task situated in a social context. In Experiment 1, capuchin monkeys first explored food sites under 1 of 2 conditions: In 1 condition, food was refilled after it was eaten (replenished condition), whereas it was not refilled (depleted condition) in the other condition. Two food sites were presented for each condition. In the test phase, a subject watched a conspecific demonstrator visit 1 of the food sites in either the replenished or depleted condition. A screen placed in front of the sites prevented the subject from seeing the demonstrator actually eat the food. When the demonstrator was removed, the subject explored the cage. Three of 4 monkeys tended to go to the unvisited sites in the depleted condition, but tended to go to the visited site in the replenished condition. This suggests that they inferred that there was no food because the demonstrator had eaten it. In Experiment 2, using the same procedure, 2 nongroup-living species (tree shrews and hamsters) were indifferent to demonstrator behavior and visited sites only randomly, and group-living rats showed a strong tendency to follow demonstrators, irrespective of the type of food site. These tendencies were unchanged when olfactory information was added in Experiment 3 and when motivation to compete increased in Experiment 4. These results suggest that only capuchin monkeys have the ability to solve an inference task when cued by social information. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. In vivo effects of microcystins and complex cyanobacterial biomass on rats (Rattus norvegicus var. alba): changes in immunological and haematological parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palikova, Miroslava; Ondrackova, Petra; Mares, Jan; Adamovsky, Ondrej; Pikula, Jiri; Kohoutek, Jiri; Navratil, Stanislav; Blaha, Ludek; Kopp, Radovan

    2013-10-01

    Toxic cyanobacteria represent a serious health and ecological problem in drinking and recreational waters worldwide. Some previous toxicological studies investigated effects of isolated microcystins on laboratory rodents including mice and rats. However, much less attention has been paid to more realistic exposure situations such as the effects of MCs accumulated in food. The objectives of the present study were to provide a simple model simulation of the food chain in order to evaluate impacts of microcystins (MCs) on rat immune and haematologicalparameters. Impacts of feeding experimental rats with a diet containing fish meat with and without microcystins and complex toxic biomass have been studied during a 28 day exposure. Red blood cell parameters (RBC counts, haematocrit values, MCH, MCV and MCHC) showed significant differences in experimental groups (p ≤ 0.05, p ≤ 0.01) in comparison with the control group. We also detected an immunomodulatory effect in the experimental groups. NK cells and γδ+ T lymphocytes were significantly increased in peripheral blood in the group exposed to isolated microcystin in the food. Significant change in the ratio of CD4+ and CD8+ cells (increase of CD4+ and a drop in CD8+) was found in the group with added cyanobacterial biomass with low concentration of MCs. The greatest changes in lymphoid organs were observed in the same groups. There was an increase of spleen subpopulations of γδ+ T lymphocytes as well as of IgM+ lymphocytes (B lymphocytes) and CD8+ T lymphocytes. Indeed, the modulation of CD4+ and CD8+ of peripheral lymphocytes was associated with similar changes in thymic lymphocytic subpopulations. In summary, food containing fish meat with considerable doses of microcystins (or toxic cyanobacterial biomass) induces significant changes in RBC parameters and influence preferably innate part of the immune system represented by NK cells and by gamma-delta T cells, which are known to play role as a bridge between

  2. Chronic action of lamivudine and ritonavir on maternal and fetal liver and kidney of albino pregnant rats (Rattus norvegicus albinus, Rodentia, Mammalia): morphological and biochemical aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vangelotti, A M; Araujo Júnior, E; Simões, J; Amed, A M; Nakamura, M U; Júnior, L Kulay

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the morphological and biochemical effects of lamivudine associated with ritonavir on maternal and fetal livers and kidneys throughout the pregnancy of albino rats. Forty pregnant rats were divided into four numerically equal groups: control (C), experiment 1 (E1), experiment 2 (E2), and experiment 3 (E3). Only distilled water was given to the control group, while groups E1, E2, and E3 received, respectively, 5, 15 and 45 mg/kg of lamivudine associated with 20, 60, and 180 mg/kg of ritonavir, per day, throughout the pregnancy. On the 20th day of the pregnancy, the histological structure of the maternal and fetal livers and kidneys was analyzed by means of optical microscopy, along with the blood concentrations of AST, ALT, urea, and matrix creatinine. The numerical variables were analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis test and Dunn's multiple comparison test. The histological alterations occurred in both the maternal livers and the maternal kidneys, particularly in group E3, which received the greatest therapeutic dosage (nine times). The blood levels ofALT in group E3 were significantly lower than in the other groups (p = 0.0037). The urea and creatinine levels in the blood were significantly lower in group E1 (p = 0.0420 andp = 0.0108, respectively). rhe association of lamivudine and ritonavir affected the histological structure of the kidneys of the matrices of group E3. There was a significant decrease in the blood values of urea e creatinine in group El.

  3. Variability of the v. cava caudalis and its tributaries in some laboratory animals. II. The laboratory rat (Rattus norvegicus v. alba).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navrátilová, E; Malinovský, L; D'Andrea, V

    1992-01-01

    Duplication of the v. renalis was found in 11 of the regions examined (18.3%), when it was more frequent on the right side. A v. capsularis was found in 35 regions (58.3%), usually as a single vein. There were 1-3 vv. suprarenales (but mostly two; on the right they usually joined the v. cava caudalis and on the left the v. renalis sinistra). A v. spermatica was present on the right side in every case, but on the left side in 11 cases only; in one case it was duplicated. In the rat, the v. spermatica was rather thin; if absent, it was replaced by the v. deferentialis. In nine cases (60.0%) the v. uterina cranialis dextra opened into the v. cava caudalis, while in 12 cases (80.0%) the left vein opened into the v. renalis sinistra. A v. uterina media, draining blood from the caudal third of the cornu uteri, was found in only five cases (16.7%). The v. uterina caudalis drained blood from the corpus and cervix uteri. The v. ovarica was a constant finding; it was mostly joined by the v. lumbalis--and on the left side by the v. phrenica sinistra. In males, the vv. lumbales occurred mostly as a pair of veins lying just below the vv. renales. In females, they were present on both sides. As a rule, the v. iliolumbalis occurred as a single vein on both sides. The v. cava caudalis originated at the level of the transition between the lumbar and the sacral spine, usually at the confluence of the two vv. iliacae communes, which in 14 cases (46.7%) were joined by the v. sacralis mediana. Duplication of the v. cava caudalis was found in only one case (a female). Comparison of the morphology of the v. cava caudalis and its tributaries in the rat and the guinea pig showed more slight differences between the two species.

  4. Effects of 2.0-g 1.75-g and 1.5-g Hypergravity on Pregnancy Outcome in Rats (Rattus norvegicus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Nicole A.; Baer, Lisa A.; Ronca, April E.

    2001-01-01

    In 1995, ten pregnant female rats were launched on the Space Shuttle (STS-70) on Gestational day(G) 11 of their 22-day pregnancy as part of the NASA/NIH.Rodent (R)2 Experiment. Following landing on G20, fetuses were harvested from half of the dams, while the remaining five dams underwent birth. Spaceflight did not interrupt pregnancy, alter litter sizes, or affect body weights or gender ratios of the fetuses or neonates. In the present study we used the NASA/NIH.R2 experimental paradigm to analyze the effects of hypergravity on pregnancy outcome. On G10, time-bred Sprague-Dawley rat dams were assigned to either G20 or Birth conditions, then further assigned to Hypergravity (HG) 2.0-g, HG 1.75-g, HG 1.5-g, Rotational Control (RC, 1.03), or Stationary Control (SC, 1.0-g) treatments. Dams were exposed to continuous centrifugation from G11 through G20, with brief daily stops for animal health checks and maintenance. For both the G20 and Birth dams, comparable litter sizes and litter gender ratios were observed across gravity conditions. However, centrifugation-exposed (HG and RC) fetuses and neonates showed significantly lower body masses (p less than 0.05) relative to SC offspring. HG 2.0-g offspring weighed significantly less than those in all other gravity conditions (p less than 0.05). The observed reductions in offspring body mass at 1.5-g and 1.75-g, can be attributed to the rotational component of centrifugation, rather than to increased gravitational load, whereas 2.0-g hypergravity exposure further exacerbated the gravity centrifugation effect on offspring body mass. Pregnant dams exposed to centrifugation weighed significantly less than SC dams (p less than 0.05), suggesting that centrifugation effects on maternal body mass may contribute to reduced size of the developing offspring. These findings are consistent with previous reports of non-pregnant adult animals suggesting that, whereas spaceflight has virtually no effect on body mass, centrifugation is

  5. Anti-inflammatory and healing action of oral gel containing borneol monoterpene in chemotherapy-induced mucositis in rats ( Rattus norvegicus

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    Braz José do Nascimento-Júnior

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of gels containing the monoterpene borneol in induced oral mucositis using an animal model. Gels were prepared with borneol at 1.2% and 2.4% (w/w. Oral mucositis was induced by administration of three doses of 5-fluorouracil (30 mg/kg, i.p. and injury with acetic acid (50%, v/v soaked in filter paper applied to right cheek mucosa for 60s. Four subgroups comprising 12 animals each were formed. Six animals from each group were sacrificed at days seven and fourteen after oral mucositis induction. Mucous samples were processed and stained with hematoxylin-eosin and Masson’s Trichrome. The semiquantitative evaluation involved observation of inflammatory parameters. ImageJ® software was used in the quantitative evaluation. For statistical analyses, Two-way ANOVA, followed by Tukey’s post-test (p <0.05, were employed. Borneol 2.4% gel proved effective in the treatment of oral mucositis with statistically significant differences between groups for angiogenesis control, inflammatory cell count reduction and percentage neoformed collagen increase. The confirmation of anti-inflammatory and healing action of borneol in oral mucositis in rats renders it a good marker for predicting this activity for plant extracts rich in this substance.

  6. Pemberian makanan enteral berformulasi bahan pangan lokal terhadap kadar zat besi dan hemoglobin pada tikus putih (Rattus norvegicus

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    Dini Ariani

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Enteral nutrition is nutrition used to fulfill the needs of nutrition entirely and as the supplement for malnutrition patient. In a certain condition of a patient, this nutrition is usually given in the form of liquid. Local material foods such as tempeh, rice, mung bean, and ganyong have adequate nutrition, therefore they are suitable for being used as main raw materials in the making of enteral nutrition. Objective: To know the influence of feeding enteral nutrition formulated with local food material toward malnutrition white rats (Rattus norvegicus of which the parameters are iron (Fe, hemoglobin (Hb level and weight. Method: This research used Completely Random Design (CRD. Twenty-seven of malnutrition male white rats were divided into 3 groups of treatment with 9 repetitions for each group of the treatment. Group A was given enteral nutrition diet of formula A (tempeh, rice, and mung bean as the main raw material, group B was given enteral nutrition diet of formula B (tempeh, rice, mung bean, and ganyong as the main raw material, and group C (as the positive control was given commercial enteral nutrition. The daily giving of enteral nutrition is 20 g/day during 30 days. The analysis of Fe and Hb level and the measurement of weight firstly were done before the treatment is given. The next measurement was conducted in 15th day and 31st day. Statistical analysis used ANOVA test dan DMRT of significance 5%. Results: The result showed that the treatment of the enteral nutrition feeding of formula B was more optimal than formula A in terms of the way to increase the level of Hb and Fe. Those two components will give positive effect toward the increasing of the weight of malnutrition white rats (Rattus norvegicus. Conclusion: The enteral nutrition of formula B is more proper to be developed as the main material of making enteral food in order to treat the malnutrition.

  7. Vitrification of Rattus norvegicus immature cumulus-oocyte complexes using hyaluronic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paim, L M G; Gal, L L; Lopes, R F F; Oliveira, A T D

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to assess in vitro meiosis resumption and nuclear maturation of Rattus norvegicus oocytes after vitrification with different cryoprotective solutions. Cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) were exposed to an equilibration solution for 4 min placed in cryoprotective solutions for 1 min and vitrified in open pulled straws. Cryoprotective solutions were prepared with 15% ethylene glycol + 15% dimethyl sulfoxide + 0.5 M sucrose and different supplements, to form the following groups: G1, 20% fetal bovine serum in modified phosphate-buffered saline (mPBS); G2, 0.4% bovine serum albumine in mPBS; G3, 1% hyaluronic acid in mPBS; and G4, 0.4% polyvinyl alcohol in mPBS. Seven days after vitrification, the COCs from G1 to G4 were warmed and in vitro matured for 30 h along with the control group. Hoechst staining was performed to assess meiosis resumption and nuclear maturation rates. Control group showed higher meiosis resumption (77.88%) and nuclear maturation rates (55.75%) compared to all vitrified groups. Among the vitrified COCs, G3 showed the highest meiosis resumption and nuclear maturation rates (G1, 26.5 and 15.38%; G2, 22.12 and 11.54%; G3, 34.55 and 20%; G4, 20.17 and 9.24%). Supplementation of the vitrification solution with 1% hyaluronic acid provided better results, compared to the other supplements. Hyaluronic acid can be useful to vitrify rat COCs associated with other cryoprotectant agents.

  8. Phylogeography of Rattus norvegicus in the South Atlantic Ocean

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    Melanie Hingston

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Norway rats are a globally distributed invasive species, which have colonized many islands around the world, including in the South Atlantic Ocean. We investigated the phylogeography of Norway rats across the South Atlantic Ocean and bordering continental countries. We identified haplotypes from 517 bp of the hypervariable region I of the mitochondrial D-loop and constructed a Bayesian consensus tree and median-joining network incorporating all other publicly available haplotypes via an alignment of 364 bp. Three Norway rat haplotypes are present across the islands of the South Atlantic Ocean, including multiple haplotypes separated by geographic barriers within island groups. All three haplotypes have been previously recorded from European countries. Our results support the hypothesis of rapid Norway rat colonization of South Atlantic Ocean islands by sea-faring European nations from multiple European ports of origin. This seems to have been the predominant pathway for repeated Norway rat invasions of islands, even within the same archipelago, rather than within-island dispersal across geographic barriers.

  9. Genomic and expression analysis of multiple Sry loci from a single Rattus norvegicus Y chromosome

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    Farkas Joel

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sry is a gene known to be essential for testis determination but is also transcribed in adult male tissues. The laboratory rat, Rattus norvegicus, has multiple Y chromosome copies of Sry while most mammals have only a single copy. DNA sequence comparisons with other rodents with multiple Sry copies are inconsistent in divergence patterns and functionality of the multiple copies. To address hypotheses of divergence, gene conversion and functional constraints, we sequenced Sry loci from a single R. norvegicus Y chromosome from the Spontaneously Hypertensive Rat strain (SHR and analyzed DNA sequences for homology among copies. Next, to determine whether all copies of Sry are expressed, we developed a modification of the fluorescent marked capillary electrophoresis method to generate three different sized amplification products to identify Sry copies. We applied this fragment analysis method to both genomic DNA and cDNA prepared from mRNA from testis and adrenal gland of adult male rats. Results Y chromosome fragments were amplified and sequenced using primers that included the entire Sry coding region and flanking sequences. The analysis of these sequences identified six Sry loci on the Y chromosome. These are paralogous copies consistent with a single phylogeny and the divergence between any two copies is less than 2%. All copies have a conserved reading frame and amino acid sequence consistent with function. Fragment analysis of genomic DNA showed close approximations of experimental with predicted values, validating the use of this method to identify proportions of each copy. Using the fragment analysis procedure with cDNA samples showed the Sry copies expressed were significantly different from the genomic distribution (testis p Sry transcript expression, analyzed by real-time PCR, showed significantly higher levels of Sry in testis than adrenal gland (p, 0.001. Conclusion The SHR Y chromosome contains at least 6 full length

  10. Detection of Zoonotic Pathogens and Characterization of Novel Viruses Carried by Commensal Rattus norvegicus in New York City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Meera; Firth, Matthew A.; Williams, Simon H.; Frye, Matthew J.; Simmonds, Peter; Conte, Juliette M.; Ng, James; Garcia, Joel; Bhuva, Nishit P.; Lee, Bohyun; Che, Xiaoyu; Quan, Phenix-Lan; Lipkin, W. Ian

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus) are globally distributed and concentrate in urban environments, where they live and feed in closer proximity to human populations than most other mammals. Despite the potential role of rats as reservoirs of zoonotic diseases, the microbial diversity present in urban rat populations remains unexplored. In this study, we used targeted molecular assays to detect known bacterial, viral, and protozoan human pathogens and unbiased high-throughput sequencing to identify novel viruses related to agents of human disease in commensal Norway rats in New York City. We found that these rats are infected with bacterial pathogens known to cause acute or mild gastroenteritis in people, including atypical enteropathogenic Escherichia coli, Clostridium difficile, and Salmonella enterica, as well as infectious agents that have been associated with undifferentiated febrile illnesses, including Bartonella spp., Streptobacillus moniliformis, Leptospira interrogans, and Seoul hantavirus. We also identified a wide range of known and novel viruses from groups that contain important human pathogens, including sapoviruses, cardioviruses, kobuviruses, parechoviruses, rotaviruses, and hepaciviruses. The two novel hepaciviruses discovered in this study replicate in the liver of Norway rats and may have utility in establishing a small animal model of human hepatitis C virus infection. The results of this study demonstrate the diversity of microbes carried by commensal rodent species and highlight the need for improved pathogen surveillance and disease monitoring in urban environments. PMID:25316698

  11. Human leptospirosis caused by a new, antigenically unique Leptospira associated with a Rattus species reservoir in the Peruvian Amazon.

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    Michael A Matthias

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available As part of a prospective study of leptospirosis and biodiversity of Leptospira in the Peruvian Amazon, a new Leptospira species was isolated from humans with acute febrile illness. Field trapping identified this leptospire in peridomestic rats (Rattus norvegicus, six isolates; R. rattus, two isolates obtained in urban, peri-urban, and rural areas of the Iquitos region. Novelty of this species was proven by serological typing, 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, and DNA-DNA hybridization analysis. We have named this species "Leptospira licerasiae" serovar Varillal, and have determined that it is phylogenetically related to, but genetically distinct from, other intermediate Leptospira such as L. fainei and L. inadai. The type strain is serovar Varillal strain VAR 010(T, which has been deposited into internationally accessible culture collections. By microscopic agglutination test, "Leptospira licerasiae" serovar Varillal was antigenically distinct from all known serogroups of Leptospira except for low level cross-reaction with rabbit anti-L. fainei serovar Hurstbridge at a titer of 1:100. LipL32, although not detectable by PCR, was detectable in "Leptospira licerasiae" serovar Varillal by both Southern blot hybridization and Western immunoblot, although on immunoblot, the predicted protein was significantly smaller (27 kDa than that of L. interrogans and L. kirschneri (32 kDa. Isolation was rare from humans (2/45 Leptospira isolates from 881 febrile patients sampled, but high titers of MAT antibodies against "Leptospira licerasiae" serovar Varillal were common (30% among patients fulfilling serological criteria for acute leptospirosis in the Iquitos region, and uncommon (7% elsewhere in Peru. This new leptospiral species reflects Amazonian biodiversity and has evolved to become an important cause of leptospirosis in the Peruvian Amazon.

  12. Kadar kolesterol darah tikus putih (Rattus norvegicus hiperkolesterolemik setelah perlakuan VCO

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    MARTI HARINI

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Harini M, Astirin OP. 2009. Kadar kolesterol darah tikus putih (Rattus norvegicushiperkolesterolemik setelah perlakuan VCO. Bioteknologi 6: 55-62. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh perlakuan VCO terhadap kadar kolesterol darah tikus putih (Rattus norvegicus L. hiperkolesterolemik. Penelitian ini menggunakan 25 tikus putih jantan galur Wistar yang dikelompokkan menjadi lima kelompok perlakuan, yaitu: kontrol, simvastatin (1,3 mL/270 g BB, kolesterol (lemak babi 9:1, VCO 1 (1 mL/270 g BB, dan VCO 2 (1,3 mL/270 g BB. Perlakuan diberikan secara oral. Kadar kolesterol total, kadar LDL dan kadar HDL diukur pada hari ke-1, ke-14 dan hari ke-28. Data kadar kolesterol (kolesterol total, LDL dan HDL dianalisis dengan ANCOVA dan dilanjutkan dengan uji contrast pada taraf signifikansi 5%. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa perlakuan VCO pada berbagai dosis berpengaruh nyata terhadap penurunan kadar kolesterol total darah, kadar LDL darah dan peningkatan kadar HDL darah tikus putih (R. norvegicus hiperkolesterolemik.

  13. Bioaktivitas Gel Aloe vera pada Gonad Tikus Putih Jantan (Rattus norvegicus

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    I Ketut Suardita

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE The purpose of this study was to determine Bioactivity of Aloe vera gel on gonad of male white rats (Rattus norvegicus. This research used complately random design, with three treatments namely T0, received placebo as a control; T1, received gel of Aloe vera 300 mg/kg body weight orally; and T2, received gel of Aloe vera 400 mg/kg body weight orally. Aloe vera gel was administrated every day for 21 days. All the treatments repeated three times, and each experimental unit used one white rat. Data found was analyzed using one way of Anova, and the Least Significant Differences (LSD Test was applied for further analysis. Results showed that Aloe vera gel administration with a dose of 300 mg/kg body weight had effected significantly on the number of spermatogonia cells, live-daed rasio of spermatozoa, and the percentage of sperm abnormality. The result of the research indicates that Aloe vera gel is potentially cytotoxic to testes cells, and so, it’has a high possibilities as an alternative herbal contraceptive agent for animals /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; text-align:justify; line-height:150%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;}

  14. Bioaktivitas Ekstrak Daun Tapakdara (Catharanthus roseus terhadap Kadar Kreatinin dan Kadar Ureum Darah Tikus Putih (Rattus norvegicus

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    Ni Luh Gede Merry Cintya Laksmi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the bioactivity of the Tapakdara leaf extract (Catharanthus roseus on the creatinine and blood urea levels in rat (Rattus norvegicus. Tweenty four male rats (250-260 gram body weight were devided into three goups, with 8 animals in each group. Group 1 as a control group that was geven placebo, the group 2 was treated with 100 mg/kg body weight of leaf extract orally and the group 3 was treated with 100 mg/kg body weight of leaf extract orally.   The animals were treated during 8 days after one week adaptation period. The examination of ceratinin and Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN were done in the last day of treatment. The result of the study indicated that the creatinin level of rats treated with 100 and 200 mg/kg BW was high significantly higher (p<0.01 than control group, however the creatinin level was in range of normal value. The level of Blood Urea Nitrogen of rats were treated with leaf extract of Tapakdara 100-200 mg/kg BW was significantly hihger (p<0.05 than control group, it was also in normal value.

  15. Ficus platyphylla promotes fertility in female Rattus norvegicus Wistar strain: a preliminary study

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    Ugwah-Oguejiofor Chinenye J

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ficus platyphylla Delile (family- Moracea commonly called gutta percha tree is a deciduous plant found in savannah areas. It grows widely in the Northern part of Nigeria, up to 60 ft. high and is known as 'gamji' by the Hausas. The seeds, bark and leaves have been used traditionally in combination to promote fertility. Scientifically, the plant has been shown to have analgesic, anti-inflammatory and CNS effects. The present study was to validate the use of this plant to promote fertility in female Rattus norvegicus Wistar strain using various fertility parameters. Methods Female Rattus norvegicus Wistar strain weighing between 150-180 g were randomly selected and divided into two major groups. Each group was subdivided into 5 treatment groups of 100, 200, 400 mg/kg BW of aqueous extract of F. platyphylla and a control group of 5 ml/kg of distilled water. A positive control of clomiphene citrate was used. Treatment of the first group was discontinued after 15 days prior to mating (pre-mating treatment group, while the other was treated continuously till delivery (continuous treatment group. At the 10th day, females were sacrificed and implantation sites were checked and embryos counted. Upon delivery, litter sizes were determined and the pups weighed and checked for deformities. Other reproductive indices were calculated. Data were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance and students T-test. Proportions were analysed by Chi square. Statistical evaluations were performed using STATS programs and Graphpad prism, and a difference was considered statistically significant at P Results There was a significant reduction in the percentage post implantation losses of both the pre-treatment and the continuous treatment groups when compared to their distil water controls. The litter size of the pre-treatment group was similar to the distil water group while at 400 mg/kg, the continuous treatment group showed an increase in the litter

  16. Vancomycin gene selection in the microbiome of urban Rattus norvegicus from hospital environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arn Hansen, Thomas; Joshi, Tejal; Larsen, Anders Rhod

    2016-01-01

    Widespread use of antibiotics has resulted in selection pressure on genes that make bacteria non-responsive to antibiotics. These antibiotic-resistant bacteria are currently a major threat to global health. There are various possibilities for the transfer of antibiotic resistance genes. It has be....... norvegicus microbiome, potentially driven by the outflow of antibiotics and antibiotic-resistant bacteria into the wastewater systems. Carriage of vancomycin resistance may suggest that R. norvegicus is acting as a reservoir for possible transmission to the human population....... argued that animal vectors such as Rattus norvegicus (R. norvegicus) living in hospital sewage systems are ideal for carrying pathogens responsible for fatal diseases in humans. Using a metagenomic sequencing approach, we investigated faecal samples of R. norvegicus from three major cities...

  17. PENGARUH KEBISINGAN TERHADAP KUANTITAS DAN KUALITAS SPERMATOZOA TIKUS PUTIH (Rattus norvegicus JANTAN DEWASA

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    Erris Erris

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Salah satu penyebab menurunnya kuantitas dan kualitas spermatozoa adalah stres. Bising sebagai bentuk  stres  fisik  dan  psikologis  mengaktifkan  respon  sentral  dan  perifer  sistem  endokrin.  Aktivasi sistem endokrin sumbu Hipotalamus-Hipofisis-Adrenal melibatkan neurohormon corticotropin releasing hormon(CRH, CRH menuju gonadotrophin releasing hormon (GnRH  dan  mengganggu  aktivitas kelenjar adenohipofise untuk menghasilkan folicle stimulating hormon(FSH dan luteinizing hormon (LH, LH dan FSH yang menurun secara umum mengganggu proses spermatogenesis dan khususnya terhadap kuantitas dan kualitas spermatozoa. Penelitian ini adalah eksperimental dengan post test control  group  design.  Variabel  yang  diperiksa  meliputi  jumlah,  motilitas  dan  morfologi  spermatozoa. Penelitian ini menggunakan 24 ekor tikus putih jantan dewasa (Rattus norvegicus, yang terdiri dari 3 kelompok perlakuan dan 1 kelompok kontrol, perlakuan berdasarkan perbedaan intensitas bising yaitu 65 , 85 dan 105 dB yang diberikan setiap 8 jam/hari selama 48 hari (satu tahap spermatogenesis tikus. Hasil penelitian dianalisis dengan uji ANOVA. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan ada perbedaan yang bermakna (p<0.05 terhadap kuantitas dan kualitas spermatozoa tikus putih jantan dewasa (Rattus norvegicus meliputi jumlah, persentase motil dan morfologi spermatozoa. Kesimpulan dalam penelitian ini adalah terlihat kebisingan dengan intensitas 65-105 dB dapat menurunkan kuantitas dan kualitas spermatozoa. Disarankan untuk penelitian lebih lanjut agar dilihat juga pengaruh kebisingan dengan melakukan pemeriksan histologi pada sel leydig, sel sertoli dan pemeriksaan kadar hormon testosteron.Kata kunci : kualitas, kuantitas, spermatozoon, tikus putih, kebisingan.AbstractOne of causes in decreasing quantity and quality of spermatozoon is stress. Noise as the physical and pshycological stress is activating the central response and periphery endocrinal

  18. PENGARUH PEMBERIAN MONOSODIUM GLUTAMAT (MSG PADA TIKUS JANTAN (Rattus Norvegicus TERHADAP FSH DAN LH

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    Zulkarnain Edward

    2010-09-01

    post only group design, take place in Biology Laboratorium and Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine Andalas University in December 20th, 2009 until Februari 30th, 2010. The population is the white rat strain Japan (Rattus Norvegicus taken from Faculty of Mathematic and Natural Sciences Andalas University. There are 20 samples devided into 4 groups with 1 group controller and three treated groups. P1=4800 mg/kgbw/day, P2=7200 mg/kgbw/day and P3=9600 mg/kgbw/day used as MSG dose, given orally about two seminiferus epitel cycles. The analysis by Anova test with 95% of trust and if there would sense of in meaning, continued with Multiple Comparissons test, kind of Bonferroni.The result of the research taken that the MSG given with 4800 mg/kgbw/day, 7200 mg/kgbw/day and 9600 mg/kgbw/day showed the significant effect to FSH (p=0,000 and LH (p=0,000, but for the Multiple Comparissons Bonferroni test between groups in FSH, there were not yet have the meaning in effect (p>0,05 then to LH for the treated groups, between P1, P2 there were not any significant differences (p>0,05 P1 and P3 got the significant differenciates (p<0,05 and P2 with P3 got the significant effect (p<0,05.The research concluded that the MSG given for the male rat could decrease the FSH and LH. Suggested to do the following research to find the minimal dose change level FSH and LH.Key word : MSG, FSH, LH

  19. Recommended conservation of the names Streptococcus sanguis, Streptococcus rattus, Streptococcus cricetus, and seven other names included in the Approved Lists of Bacterial Names. Request for an opinion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kilian, Mogens

    2001-01-01

    With reference to the first Principle of the International Code of Nomenclature of Bacteria, which emphasizes stability of names, it is proposed that the original names Streptococcus sanguis, Streptococcus rattus, Streptococcus cricetus, Erwinia ananas, Eubacterium tarantellus, Lactobacillus sake...

  20. STRUKTUR HISTOLOGI TRAKEA TIKUS PUTIH (Rattus sp. YANG TERPAPAR ASAP ROKOK SETELAH DIBERI EKSTRAK BUAH JUWET (Syzygium cumini L.

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    I Komang Angga Kristiawan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the effect of juwet fruit extract on histological structure of rat(Rattus sp  trachea which exposed to cigarette smoke. This research used Completely Randomized Design (CRD, with four treatments: the control group (K0 treated with 0.5 % CMC–Na, (K1 group is exposed to cigarette smoke, (K2 group were given juwetfruit extract, and (K3 group is exposed to cigarette smoke and juwet fruit extracts. Each treatment consisted of 6 rats as replication. The exposure to cigarette smoke is given from  an aerator pump lit cigarettes. Juwet fruit extract and 0.5 % CMC - Na was orally administered (gavage method for 48 days. The existence of comperative descriptive observed cilia. And goblet number, high epithelium and lumen diameter Data were analyzed with ANOVA and If they were 5 % significantly different would be followed by Duncan test. Results showed that the extract of the fruit juwet significant effect on the histological structure of the trachea mice that had been exposed to smoke.

  1. Pengaruh Tepung Cangkang Rajungan (Portunus pelagicus dalam Ransum terhadap Kadar Kolesterol Serum dan Pertambahan Bobot Badan Tikus Putih (Rattus norvegicus

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    I. U. Warsono

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Crab shells contain the highest percentage of chitin. Chitin and its derivatives have many properties that make them attractive for a wide variety of applications. This study was conducted to determine the effect of crab (Portunus pelagicus shells as a source of chitin in ration on serum cholesterol and weight gain of rats (Rattus norvegicus. The study was carried out in a factorial experiment 2 x 5 with 3 replications. The first factor is sex and the second factor is crab shells of 5 levels i.e., 0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20% in ration. The study showed that there were no interaction effect between sex and crab shells levels in diet on all parameters. Serum cholesterol levels decreased (P > 0.05 and weigh gain increased (P < 0.01 when crab shells were included in the diets. The highest reduction of serum cholesterol level (14,8% was observed at crab shells level of 10%, but the highest weight gain was reached at 5% inclusion of crab shells. These results suggest that crab shells in rat diets reduced serum cholesterol level and increased weight gain.

  2. The increasing of odontoblast-like cell number on direct pulp capping of Rattus norvegicus using chitosan

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    Widyasri Prananingrum

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pulpal perforation care with direct pulp capping in the case of reversible pulpitis due to mechanical trauma was performed with chitosan which has the ability to facilitate migration, proliferation, and progenitor cell differentiation. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the increasing number of odontoblast-like cells in direct pulp capping dental care of Rattus norvegicus using chitosan for seven and fourteen days. Methods: Samples were molars of male Rattus norvegicus strain wistar, aged between 8–16 weeks, divided into two treatment groups, namely group I given chitosan and group II as a control group given Ca(OH2. Those Rattus norvegicus’ occlusal molar teeth were prepared with class I cavity, and then chitosan and Ca(OH2 were applied as the pulp capping materials. Afterwards, glasss ionomer cement type IX was used as a restoration material. Their teeth and jaw were then cut on the seventh day and the fourteenth day. Next, histopathological examination was carried out to observe the odontoblast like cells. All data were then analyzed by t test. Degree of confidence obtained, finally, was 95%. Results: The results obtained showed that the significant differences of odontoblast like cells on the seventh day observation was 0.001 (p = 0.001, and on the fourteenth day observation was 0.002 (p = 0.002. Conclusion: The number of odontoblast-like cells in direct pulp capping dental care of rattus norvegicus using chitosan is higher than the one using Ca(OH2 for seven and fourteen days.Latar belakang: Perawatan perforasi pulpa pada kasus pulpitis reversible karena trauma mekanis bur dilakukan direct pulp capping dengan cara pemberian bahan secara topikal pada daerah perforasi. Kitosan memiliki kemampuan untuk memfasilitasi migrasi, proliferasi dan diferensiasi sel progenitor pulpa. Tujuan: Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk menentukan jumlah peningkatan odontoblas-like cell pada perawatan direct pulp capping gigi

  3. Light color importance for circadian entrainment in a diurnal (Octodon degus) and a nocturnal (Rattus norvegicus) rodent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonmati-Carrion, Maria Angeles; Baño-Otalora, Beatriz; Madrid, Juan Antonio; Rol, Maria Angeles

    2017-08-18

    The central circadian pacemaker (Suprachiasmatic Nuclei, SCN) maintains the phase relationship with the external world thanks to the light/dark cycle. Light intensity, spectra, and timing are important for SCN synchronisation. Exposure to blue-light at night leads to circadian misalignment that could be avoided by using less circadian-disruptive wavelengths. This study tests the capacity of a diurnal Octodon degus and nocturnal Rattus norvegicus to synchronise to different nocturnal lights. Animals were subjected to combined red-green-blue lights (RGB) during the day and to: darkness; red light (R); combined red-green LED (RG) lights; and combined red-green-violet LED (RGV) lights during the night. Activity rhythms free-ran in rats under a RGB:RG cycle and became arrhythmic under RGB:RGV. Degus remained synchronised, despite the fact that day and night-time lighting systems differed only in spectra, but not in intensity. For degus SCN c-Fos activation by light was stronger with RGB-light than with RGV. This could be relevant for developing lighting that reduces the disruptive effects of nocturnal light in humans, without compromising chromaticity.

  4. Natural infection of synathropic rodent species Mus musculus and Rattus norvegicus by Leishmania infantum in Sesimbra and Sintra--Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helhazar, Marcos; Leitão, José; Duarte, Ana; Tavares, Luís; da Fonseca, Isabel Pereira

    2013-04-08

    Canine leishmaniosis caused by Leishmania infantum is a parasitic zoonotic disease transmitted by phlebotomine sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae). Genus Phlebotomus is the biological vector in the Old World and Lutzomyia in the New World. The dog is the domestic reservoir host but other animals like the fox (Vulpes vulpes) and rodents are known to maintain the infection in both sylvatic and domestic cycles. To identify the role of synanthropic rodents Mus musculus and Rattus norvegicus as reservoir hosts for Leishmania infantum natural infection, 30 rodents were captured under a trap rodent control program in two private dog shelters from Sintra and Sesimbra, located in the Lisbon Metropolitan Area, known to be endemic for canine leishmaniosis in Portugal. Tissue samples were screened for the presence of Leishmania amastigotes by qPCR and parasitological analysis. A total of 33.3% (9/27) of Mus musculus rodents revealed the presence of Leishmania spp. DNA while 29.6% (8/27) were positive in the parasitological analysis. Concerning Rattus norvegicus (n=3), one animal revealed infection only by parasitological analysis. Our results identified for the first time in Portugal the presence of Leishmania infection in both rodent species. As susceptible hosts, infected Mus musculus and Rattus norvegicus may increase the risk for dog and human infection in households and surrounding areas, enhancing the need for efficient rodent control measures in shelters and risk zones to prevent transmission of the infection.

  5. Defensive Aggregation (Huddling) in Rattus Norvegicus toward Predator Odor: Individual Differences, Social Buffering Effects and Neural Correlates

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    Bowen, Michael T.; Kevin, Richard C.; May, Matthew; Staples, Lauren G.; Hunt, Glenn E.; McGregor, Iain S.

    2013-01-01

    Aggregation is a defensive strategy employed by many prey species in response to predatory threat. Our group has characterized defensive aggregation (huddling) in Rattus norvegicus in response to a ball of cat fur. In this situation some rats huddle less, and approach the threatening cue more than others (active vs. passive responders). The present study explored whether active responding is a stable phenotype associated with behaviors outside direct predatory encounters. The neural substrates of active and passive responding under predatory threat were explored using c-Fos immunohistochemistry. Finally, we examined whether the presence of conspecifics during predatory threat biases behavior towards active responding. Active and passive responding styles were found to be stable in individual rats across consecutive group exposures to cat fur, and were predicted by anxiety-like behavior in an open-field emergence test. Active responders displayed less conditioned fear in an environment associated with predatory threat, and had higher post-exposure intake of a weak sucrose solution (a test of “anhedonia”). Active responding was associated with: greater cat fur-induced activation of the accessory olfactory bulb, reflecting greater olfactory stimulation in rats actively approaching the fur; lowered activation of somatosensory cortex, reflecting reduced huddling with conspecifics; and reduced activation in the lateral septum. Social exposure to cat fur promoted active responding relative to individual exposure, and lowered c-Fos expression in the dorsomedial periaqueductal grey, medial caudate putamen and lateral habenula. We conclude that individual differences in anti-predator behavior appear stable traits with active responders having a more resilient phenotype. Social exposure to predatory threat has an acute buffering effect, subtly changing the neural and behavioral response towards threat and encouraging active responding. An association between active

  6. [Comparative Analysis of Behavior in The Open-field Test in Wild Grey Rats (Rattus norvegicus) and in Grey Rats Subjected to Prolonged Selection for Tame And Aggressive Behavior].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozhemyakina, R V; Konoshenko, M Yu; Sakharov, D G; Smagin, D A; Markel, A L

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this work is analysis of the open-field behavior in grey rats selected for the tame and aggressive behavior in comparison with the wild grey rats. Significant influences of the rat group factor on the 13 of 19 behavioral features studied in the open-field were found. This effect, in general, depends on existence of great differences between behaviors of the wild rats from the one hand and behaviors of the tame and aggressive rats from the other. The behaviors of the rats from the last two groups are practically identical. Multidimensional analysis confirms the distinct separation in coordinates of the two main components of the wild rat behavior from the behavior of both the tame and selectively bred aggressive rats. The first main component dimension corresponds to the grade of fear, which was significantly enhanced in the wild rats. So, in spite of the equality of behavioral aggressiveness of the wild rats and the rats selected for aggression with the glove test, the behavior of selected aggressive rats in the open-field is analogous to behavior of the rats selected for tameness. Comparison of behavioral features with the hormonal stress responsiveness allowed us to conclude that the aggressive behavior of the wild and se lected for aggression rats based on different motivational and neuroendocrine processes.

  7. Grahamella legeri sp. n. (Rickettsiales: Bartonellaceae hemoparasito de Rattus norvegicus (Berkenhout, 1769

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    Nicolau Haués da Serra Freire

    1992-06-01

    Full Text Available It was observed that 25.47% of the Rattus norvegicus examined from the Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, were infected by Grahamella legeri sp. n. being 53.84% in the rural and 16.25% in the urban zone. The rickettsia found in the blood smears and organ imprints stained by the method of Giemsa was studied morphologically and biologically. The experimental transmission with infected blood was obtained only between individuals of the same species and the enhancement of its virulence by the stress of the host was obtained with Dexa-metazone or by splenectomy. The cultivation of the parasite was attempted in an artificial medium, specific for Grahamella spp. The pathogenicity of the organism was demonstrated. Its systematic position was discussed and it was concluded that it represents a new species of Rickettsiales, Bartonellaceae, so for improperly denominated Grahamella muris Leger, 1913, for which it is proposed the name Grahamella legeri in honor of André Leger.

  8. Rattus norvegicus (Rodentia: Muridae Infected by Leishmania (Leishmania infantum (syn. Le. chagasi in Brazil

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    Fabiana de Oliveira Lara-Silva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study we surveyed the fauna of phlebotomine sand flies and small mammals in peridomestic areas from a Brazilian municipality where the American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL is endemic. A total of 608 female phlebotomine sand flies were captured during nine months in 2009 and 2010. Seven different species were represented with 60% of them being Lutzomyia intermedia and Lu. whitmani, both incriminated vectors of ACL. Lu. longipalpis, a proven vector of visceral leishmaniasis (VL was also captured at high proportion (12.8%. Genomic DNA analysis of 136 species-specific pools of female sand flies followed by molecular genotyping showed the presence of Leishmania infantum DNA in two pools of Lu. longipalpis. The same Leishmania species was found in one blood sample from Rattus norvegicus among 119 blood and tissue samples analysed. This is the first report of Le. infantum in R. norvegicus in the Americas and suggests a possible role for this rodent species in the zoonotic cycle of VL. Our study coincided with the reemergence of VL in Governador Valadares.

  9. Uji teratogenik ekstrak Pandanus conoideus varietas buah kuning terhadap perkembangan embrio tikus putih (Rattus norvegicus

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    LINTAL MUNA

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Muna L, Astirin OP, Sugiyarto. 2011. Uji teratogenik ekstrak Pandanus conoideus varietas buah kuning terhadap perkembangan embrio tikus putih (Rattus norvegicus. Bioteknologi 8: 65-77. Penelitiian ini betujuan untuk mengkaji pengaruh pemberian ekstrak Pandanus conoideus Lam. var. buah kuning terhadap persentase fetus hidup, kematian intrauterus, berat dan panjang fetus, keadaan morfologi fetus, serta struktur skeleton fetus tikus putih. Dalam penelitian ini diggunakan 25 tikus bunting yang dibagi menjadi lima kelompok secara acak, sehingga masing-masing kelompok terdiri dari lima ekor tikus. Setiap kelompok diberi dosis yang berbeda. P1 (kontrol diberi 1 mL minyak wijen, P2 , P3, P4 dan P5 diberi ekstrak masing-masing: 0,02 mL, 0,04 mL, 0,08 mL dan 0,16 mL. Ekstrak tersebut diberikan secara oral pada kebuntingan hari ke 5 sampai hari ke 17 (fase organogenesis. Pengamatan dilakukan pada hari ke 18 dengan cara bedah sesar untuk menggambil fetus dari uterus. Morfologi fetu s diamati setelah fetus dikeluarkan dari uterus, sedangkan untuk pengamatan struktur skeleton dibuat preparat wholemount dengan pewarnaan ganda Alcian blue dan Allizarrin Red-S. Hasil percobaan diianalisis dengan ANAVA satu jalur. Hasil penelitiann menunjukkan bahwa pemberian ekstrak tidak berpengaruh terhadap persentase fetus hidup, kematian intrauterus, serta berat dan panjang fetus (P≥0,05. Pemberian ekstrak pada induk mengakibatkan kecacatan skeleton (lordosis fetus pada dosis 0,16 mL dan menghambat osifikasi fetus.

  10. Vancomycin gene selection in the microbiome of urban Rattus norvegicus from hospital environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Thomas Arn; Joshi, Tejal; Larsen, Anders Rhod; Andersen, Paal Skytt; Harms, Klaus; Mollerup, Sarah; Willerslev, Eske; Fuursted, Kurt; Nielsen, Lars Peter; Hansen, Anders Johannes

    2016-01-01

    Widespread use of antibiotics has resulted in selection pressure on genes that make bacteria non-responsive to antibiotics. These antibiotic-resistant bacteria are currently a major threat to global health. There are various possibilities for the transfer of antibiotic resistance genes. It has been argued that animal vectors such as Rattus norvegicus (R. norvegicus) living in hospital sewage systems are ideal for carrying pathogens responsible for fatal diseases in humans. Using a metagenomic sequencing approach, we investigated faecal samples of R. norvegicus from three major cities for the presence of antibiotic resistance genes. We show that despite the shared resistome within samples from the same geographic locations, samples from hospital area carry significantly abundant vancomycin resistance genes. The observed pattern is consistent with a selection for vancomycin genes in the R. norvegicus microbiome, potentially driven by the outflow of antibiotics and antibiotic-resistant bacteria into the wastewater systems. Carriage of vancomycin resistance may suggest that R. norvegicus is acting as a reservoir for possible transmission to the human population. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Foundation for Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health.

  11. Structure of the GH1 domain of guanylate kinase-associated protein from Rattus norvegicus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tong, Junsen; Yang, Huiseon [College of Pharmacy, Chonnam National University, Gwangju 500-757 (Korea, Republic of); Eom, Soo Hyun [School of Life Sciences, Steitz Center for Structural Biology, and Department of Chemistry, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Gwangju 500-712 (Korea, Republic of); Chun, ChangJu, E-mail: cchun1130@jnu.ac.kr [College of Pharmacy, Chonnam National University, Gwangju 500-757 (Korea, Republic of); Im, Young Jun, E-mail: imyoungjun@jnu.ac.kr [College of Pharmacy, Chonnam National University, Gwangju 500-757 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-09-12

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The crystal structure of GKAP homology domain 1 (GH1) was determined. • GKAP GH1 is a three-helix bundle connected by short flexible loops. • The predicted helix α4 associates weakly with the helix α3, suggesting dynamic nature of the GH1 domain. - Abstract: Guanylate-kinase-associated protein (GKAP) is a scaffolding protein that links NMDA receptor-PSD-95 to Shank–Homer complexes by protein–protein interactions at the synaptic junction. GKAP family proteins are characterized by the presence of a C-terminal conserved GKAP homology domain 1 (GH1) of unknown structure and function. In this study, crystal structure of the GH1 domain of GKAP from Rattus norvegicus was determined in fusion with an N-terminal maltose-binding protein at 2.0 Å resolution. The structure of GKAP GH1 displays a three-helix bundle connected by short flexible loops. The predicted helix α4 which was not visible in the crystal structure associates weakly with the helix α3 suggesting dynamic nature of the GH1 domain. The strict conservation of GH1 domain across GKAP family members and the lack of a catalytic active site required for enzyme activity imply that the GH1 domain might serve as a protein–protein interaction module for the synaptic protein clustering.

  12. Ação anti-inflamatória da fração lipídica do Ovis aries associado ao ultrassom terapêutico em modelo experimental de tendinite em ratos (Rattus norvegicus Anti-inflammatory action of the Ovis aries lipidic fraction associated to therapeutic ultrasound in an experimental model of tendinitis in rats (Rattus norvegicus

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    Marcelino Martins

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXTUALIZAÇÃO: Estudos demonstram o efeito benéfico da aplicação tópica de ácidos graxos como agentes cicatrizantes. A fração lipídica do Ovis aries apresenta uma ação anti-inflamatória que acelera o processo de cicatrização. O ultrassom aumenta o fluxo sanguíneo bem como a extensibilidade das estruturas de colágeno e tendões. OBJETIVOS: Analisar a ação anti-inflamatória da fração lipídica do Ovis aries associado ao ultrassom terapêutico (UST pulsado e à fricção em modelo de tendinite induzida. MÉTODOS: Cinquenta ratos Wistar foram distribuídos nos seguintes grupos: controle, gel Ovis aries - uso tópico - UST pulsátil + loção estéril (oil free, UST pulsátil + gel Ovis aries, loção estéril (oil free - uso tópico. Para induzir a tendinite, utilizou-se uma injeção intratendínea de 10µL de colagenase no tendão do calcâneo direito. O tratamento consistiu em aplicações diárias de ultrassom, com os seguintes parâmetros: modo pulsado 10%, frequência de 1 MHz, pulsátil a 10% com intensidade de 0,5W/cm², durante sete ou 14 dias. RESULTADOS: A variação do número de células inflamatórias, para os animais tratados por 14 dias, com relação aos grupos controle, UST + oil free e UST + Ovis aries, apresentou resultados significativos pBACKGROUND: Studies have demonstrated the beneficial effects of topical application of fatty acids as healing agents. The lipid fraction of Ovis aries have an anti-inflammatory action that accelerates the healing process. Ultrasound increases blood flow and the extensibility of collagen structures and tendons. OBJECTIVES: To assess the anti-inflammatory action of the Ovis aries lipid fraction associated to pulsed therapeutic ultrasound and friction in an induced tendinitis model. METHODS: Fifty Wistar rats were divided into four groups: control that consisted of Ovis aries gel for topical use; pulsed ultrasound plus oil free sterile lotion; pulsed ultrasound plus Ovis

  13. Is there morphological difference between branchiomeric and somitic muscles submitted to alcohol consumption? An experimental study in rats (Rattus norvegicus Existe diferença morfológica entre músculos branquioméricos e somíticos submetidos ao consumo de alcool? Um estudo experimental em ratos (Rattus norvegicus

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    Jesus Carlos Andreo

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Alcoholism is considered a physical dependence disorder. More than 18 million people are alcoholics in the USA and England and between 1/3 to ½ of them present some kind of physical disorder. In general the literature is focused on alcoholic trunk muscle disorders. These muscles have different embryological origins if compared to the masticatory muscles. The aim of this research was to evaluate the effects of alcohol on the masticatory muscles in order to compare them with the somitic muscles. For this purpose, 15 male Wistar rats weighing around 250g were used. The rats were divided into three groups: Normal control (N, Alcoholic (A and Isocaloric (I. Slices of the masseter muscle, temporalis muscle and rectus abdominal muscle were harvested and submitted to histochemical reactions (m-ATPase: acid and alkaline pre incubation and NADH-TR. The myofibers were classified in SO, FOG and FG. The results showed atrophy of the fast fibers (FG and FOG in the masticatory muscles but this atrophy was not statistically significant in this study (pO alcoolismo é considerado uma doença que causa desordens físicas e também dependência. Mais de 18 milhões de pessoas nos Estados Unidos são alcoólatras e na Inglaterra, entre 1/3 à ½ delas apresentam algum tipo de desordem física. No geral a literatura está focada para as desordens que acometem os músculos do tronco. Esses músculos têm origem embriológica diferente dos músculos da mastigação. O propósito desta pesquisa foi avaliar o efeito do álcool sobre os músculos da mastigação (branquiméricos no intuito de compará-lo com as alterações que ocorrem nos músculos do tronco (miotômicos. Para isso 15 ratos machos Wistar, pesando ao redor de 250g foram utilizados. Os animais foram divididos em três grupos: Controle normal (N; Alcoolizado (A e Isocalórico (I. Fragmentos dos músculos masseter, temporal e reto do abdome foram coletados e submetidos às reações de m-ATPase (com pr

  14. Ultrastructural alterations of choroid plexuses of lateral ventricles of rats (Rattus norvegicus submitted to experimental chronic alcoholism Alterações ultraestruturais dos plexos coróides dos ventrículos laterais de ratos (Rattus norvegicus submetidos a alcoolismo crônico experimental

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    LUÍS FERNANDO TIRAPELLI

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Adult male rats (Wistar lineage were alcoholized with sugar cane liquor diluted at 30(0 GL during 300 days and sacrificed every 60 days in 5 stages. Samples of choroid plexuses of lateral ventricles were collected and examined at transmission electronic microscope to detect possible ultrastructural alterations and to raise possible pathological correlations. Gradual changes were observed in these animals during all the experiment: dilatation and enlargement of cisternae of Golgi complex, dilatation of RER, presence of digestive vacuoles and a large amount of pinocytic vesicles as well as vesicles with electronlucent content throughout cytoplasm, as well as an enlargement of intercellular space between basolateral interdigitation of the cells and of the connective tissue. The changes observed in the epithelium and connective tissue of choroid plexuses specially in 240 and 300 days of treatment are presumably due to a disturbance in hydroelectrolitic homeostasis, contributing to several morpho-functional disturbs of central nervous system. No changes were observed in the control group animals.Ratos machos adultos (linhagem Wistar foram alcoolizados com aguardente de cana diluída a 30(0 GL durante 300 dias e sacrificados a cada 60 dias em 5 etapas. Amostras dos plexos coróides dos ventrículos laterais foram coletadas e examinadas ao microscópio eletrônico de transmissão para detectar possíveis alterações ultraestruturais e suas correlações patológicas. Alterações graduais foram observadas nestes animais durante todo o experimento: dilatação e aumento das cisternas de complexo de Golgi, dilatação do retículo endoplasmático rugoso, presença de vacúolos digestivos e grande quantidade de vesículas pinocíticas assim como de vesículas de conteúdo elétron-lúcido por todo o citoplasma, além de aumento do espaço intercelular, entre as interdigitações das células assim como no tecido conjuntivo. As alterações observadas no

  15. Gene S characterization of Hantavirus species Seoul virus isolated from Rattus norvegicuson an Indonesian island

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    Dian Perwitasari

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakLatar belakang: Hantavirus hidup dan berkembang biak di tubuh hewan pengerat, salah satunya Rattus norvegicus yang banyak ditemukan di daerah kepulauan di Indonesia. Hantavirus spesies Seoul virus (SEOV adalah virus RNA negatif rantai tunggal yang termasuk dalam keluarga Bunyaviridae, mempunyai beberapa gen spesifik terutama gen S yang dapat dikembangkan untuk uji diagnostik. Tujuan penelitian ini ialah untuk mengetahui karakter dari gen S dari Hantavirus spesies Seoulvirus.Metode:Pada penelitian ini dilakukan sekuensing gen S yang berasal dari jaringan paru-paru rodensia.  Fragmen DNA yang disekuensing menggunakan primer DNA SEOS-28F danSEOS -360R,VNS-1501F dan VNS-CSR. Hasil sekuensing dianalisis menggunakan program seqscapedan dianalisis menggunakan program Bioedit dan Mega5. Analisis filogenetik untuk homologi nukleotida dan asam amino dari ketiga strain Kepulauan Seribu tersebut dibandingkan dengan spesies hantavirus lainnya yang diambil dari genebank. Hasil:Analisis Homologi nukleotida dan asam amino antara strain Kepulauan Seribu dengan SEOV menunjukkan homologi nukleotida tertinggi pada strain KS74 (88,4% dan terendah pada KS90 (87,2%, sedangkan homologi asam amino tertinggi adalah strain KS74 (91.3% dan terendah pada strain KS90 (89,5%. Kesimpulan:Karakter gen S virus yang ditemukan di Kepulauan Seribu sebanding dengan virus SEOV yang ditemukan di Singapura dan Korea.  (Health Science Indones 2014;1:1-6Kata kunci:Seoul virus, gen S, Kepulauan Seribu, IndonesiaAbstractBackground: Hantavirus lives and reproduces in the body of rodents. Rattus norvegicuswas one found in the Kepulauan Seribu islands of Indonesia. Hantavirus species Seoul virus (SEOV is a negative single chain RNA viruses included in the family Bunyaviridae. It has a few specific genes, especially genes S that can be developed for a diagnostic test. The aim of this study was to ascertain the character of gene S of hantavirus species Seoul virus. Methods: Gene

  16. Identification of LZP gene from Mus musculus and Rattus norvegicus coding for a novel liver-specific ZP domain-containing secretory protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhi-Gang; Du, Jian-Jun; Cui, Shu-Jian; Wang, Zhi-Qin; Huo, Ke-Ke; Li, Yu-Yang; Han, Ze-Guang

    2004-04-01

    Zona pellucida (ZP) domain has been recognized in a number of receptor-like eukaryotic glycoproteins, which involved in many important biological processes, such as signal transduction, development, differentiation and so on. Here we report the identification of Mus musculus and Rattus norvegicus orthologues of Homo sapiens LZP gene which codes for a novel ZP domain-containing protein. Sequence analysis revealed that human, rat and mouse LZP proteins are highly conserved. Mouse LZP gene has two transcripts, 2.4 and 2.8 KB long respectively, coding for identical protein. Mouse LZP mRNA is expressed specifically in hepatocytes. Our data also showed that mouse LZP localizes mostly on nuclear envelope, and at the same time, it can be secreted into blood in a truncated form.

  17. Metabolic and histopathological profile of Rattus norvegicus (Wistar) experimentally infected by Angiostrongylus cantonensis (Chen, 1935).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Juberlan Silva; Lúcio, Camila dos Santos; Bonfim, Tatiane Cristina dos Santos; Junior, Arnaldo Maldonado; Tunholi, Victor Menezes; Tunholi-Alves, Vinícius Menezes; Mota, Esther Maria; Simões, Raquel de Oliveira; Santana, André Campos; Hooper, Cleber; Pinheiro, Jairo; Bóia, Marcio Neves

    2014-02-01

    Eosinophilic meningitis is a disease characterized by increased eosinophils in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), which is the most commonly caused by invasion of the central nervous system by helminths, as occurs in Angiostrongylus cantonensis infections. The rodent Rattus norvegicus is the definitive natural host and humans act as accidental hosts and can become infected by eating raw or undercooked snails or food contaminated with infective L3 larvae. Recently in Brazil there have been four cases of eosinophilic meningitis due to ingestion of infected Achatina fulica. To evaluate biochemical and histopathological changes caused by this parasite, R. norvegicus were experimentally infected with 100 L3 larvae of A. cantonensis. After the anesthetic procedure, serum from the rodents was collected from the inferior vena cava for evaluation of the levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALKP), gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT), total protein and its fractions. During the necropsy, the liver was collected and weighed. Then a 1-g fragment was extracted from the major lobe to quantify the hepatic glycogen and fragment remainder was taken from the same lobe and fixed in Milloning's formalin for histopathological examination. Additionally, helminths were collected from the brain and lungs of the rodents. The activities of AST, ALT, ALKP and GGT in the serum and hepatic glycogen increased in response to infection, while the levels of globulin and total protein increased only in the eighth week of infection and there was a reduction in the levels of serum glucose. Albumin and bilirubin concentrations remained stable during the experiment. Infection with A. cantonensis caused metabolic and histopathological changes in the rodents. This study can contribute to a better understanding of the relationship between A. cantonensis and R. norvegicus. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Efecto individual y conjunto de la administración de Dexametasona y Kanamicina sobre "Rattus Norvegicus"

    OpenAIRE

    Aedo Martín, Gonzalo

    2016-01-01

    En este trabajo se analizaron los efectos del tratamiento con el glucocorticoide dexametasona por vía subcutánea y con el antibiótico kanamicina por vía oral, tanto individualmente como de forma conjunta, para valorar las posibles interacciones. Los sujetos experimentales fueron ratas jóvenes macho (Rattus norvegicus), estirpe Wistar, divididos en cuatro grupos: control, dexametasona, kanamicina y doble tratamiento (dexametasona y kanamicina). Se valoró la progresión del peso corporal; los pe...

  19. Atherosclerosis and atherosensitivity in two southwest Algerian desert rodents, Psammomys obesus and Gerbillus gerbillus, and in Rattus norvegicus

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    El-Aoufi S

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Salima El-Aoufi,1 Mohamed-Amine Lazourgui,1 Lakhdar Griene,2 Boubekeur Maouche31Laboratoire de Biologie et de Physiologie des Organismes/MMDED, Faculté des Sciences Biologiques, USTHB, El-Alia, Dar El Beida, Algeria; 2Laboratoire d'Hormonologie, Centre Pierre et Marie Curie, C.H.U Mustapha, Algeria; 3Laboratoire de Physicochimie Théorique et Chimie Informatique, Faculté de Chimie, USTHB, El-Alia, Dar El Beida, AlgeriaAbstract: Cardiovascular disease, including atherosclerosis, is the leading cause of death in patients with diabetes worldwide; thus, it is a major medical concern. The endothelium contributes to the control of many vascular functions, and clinical observations show that it is a primary target for diabetic syndrome. To get better insight into the mechanisms underlying atherosclerosis, we studied the interspecific differences in the arterial metabolisms of two, Psammomys obesus and Gerbillus gerbillus, as well as Rattus norvegicus (Wistar rat, well known for its atheroresistance. Twenty-two enzymatic activities and six macromolecular substances were histochemically compared in the two desert species and in Wistar aortas (abdominal and thoracic and arteries (femoral and caudal embedded in a common block. In the healthy adult rodents, enzyme activities were very intense. They demonstrated that aortic myocytes are capable of various synthesis and catabolism processes. However, considering the frequency of atherosclerosis and its phenotypes, significant differences appeared between the species studied. Our comparative study shows that aortic atherosensitive animals have several common metabolic characteristics, which are found in Psammomys rich in metachromatic glycosaminoglycans (involved in the inhibition of lipolysis and in calcification of the organic matrix, reduced activity in enzymes related to the Krebs cycle (weakening energetic power, and low lipolytic enzyme, adenosine triphosphatase, and adenosine diphosphatase activities

  20. Notes on the two Species of Siphunculata or Sucking-lice occuring on Rattus spp. in the Malayan and Pacific Regions, with Special reference to Java

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thopson, G.B.

    1938-01-01

    In another paper (Thompson, 1938) attention is called to the fact that specimens of lice from any of the numerous species and subspecies of the widely distributed genus Rattus and its allies should prove interesting, and might possibly throw some light on the relationships of their hosts. The notes

  1. Recommended conservation of the names Streptococcus sanguis, Streptococcus rattus, Streptococcus cricetus, and seven other names included in the Approved Lists of Bacterial Names. Request for an opinion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilian, M

    2001-03-01

    With reference to the first Principle of the International Code of Nomenclature of Bacteria, which emphasizes stability of names, it is proposed that the original names Streptococcus sanguis, Streptococcus rattus, Streptococcus cricetus, Erwinia ananas, Eubacterium tarantellus, Lactobacillus sake, Nitrosococcus oceanus, Pseudomonas betle, Rickettsia canada and Streptomyces rangoon, all included in the Approved Lists of Bacterial Names, be conserved. Request for an Opinion.

  2. The change in cholesterol content of long chain fatty acid egg during processing and its influence to the Rattus norvegicus L. blood cholesterol content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dini Hardini

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Egg containing long chain unsaturated fatty acids is a functional food, because it is highly nutritious and could prevent diseases, (omega 3 and 6 such as coronary heart attack. The research was aimed to measure the change of egg cholesterol content during proceesing: frying, oiless frying and boiling and their influence to the blood plasma cholesterol of normal and hypercholesterolemia rat. Seven treatments of egg yolk were frying at 170°C for 3 min (welldone = GM, and 1min (half medium fried = GSM using deep fryer , oilless frying at 70°C for10 min (fried = TM, and 6 min (half fried = TSM using Teflon pan, and boiling at 100°C for 10’ (boiled = RM dan 4 min (half boiled = RSM using pan provided with thermoregulator and a fresh omega egg as a control. The Completely randomized design was apllied for 4 weeks research period. The data from different treatments were analyzed by Orthogonal Contrast. Fifty 2 months old male rats Rattus norvegicus L. separated in 2 groups; normal and hypercholesterolemia (blood cholesterol > 200 mg dl-1. The rats were placed in individual cage, fed 15 g h-1 day-1 and water drinking ad libitum. The ration was composed of 90% basal commercial feed BR II and 10% egg yolk was given to each animal at 20% of live weight. Factorial 2 x 7 of completely randomized design was applied. The data were analyzed by ANOVA and Duncan’s Multiple Range Test. Processsing method of egg affected to cholesterol content of egg, The lowest and the highest cholesterol contents were observed in TSM (0.30 g/100g and GM (0.37 g/100g, respectively. Biological test using Rattus norvegicus L rat showed that either fresh and processed long chain fatty acid egg decreased plasma cholesterol. The highest and the lowest decreases of cholesterol content were found in the group consumed RSM (8.64% and GM (1.77% for normal rat; and control (46.3% followed by RSM (44.53% and GM (24.86%, respectively. To maintain normal cholesterol and decrease

  3. A longitudinal study of Angiostrongylus cantonensis in an urban population of Rattus norvegicus in Brazil: the influences of seasonality and host features on the pattern of infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simões, Raquel O; Maldonado Júnior, Arnaldo; Olifiers, Natalie; Garcia, Juberlan S; Bertolino, Ana Valéria F A; Luque, José L

    2014-03-10

    The nematode Angiostrongylus cantonensis is a zoonotic parasite and the most important cause of eosinophilic meningitis worldwide in humans. In Brazil, this disease has been reported in the states of Espírito Santo and Pernambuco. The parasite has been detected in the naturally infected intermediate host, in the states of Rio de Janeiro, Pernambuco and Santa Catarina. The murid Rattus norvegicus R. rattus were recently reported to be naturally infected in Brazil. In this study, we conducted a two-year investigation of the dissemination pattern of A. cantonensis in R. norvegicus in an urban area of Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil, and examined the influence of seasonality, year, host weight and host gender on parasitological parameters of A. cantonensis in rats. The study was conducted in an area of Trindade, São Gonçalo municipality, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Prevalence of infected rats, intensity and abundance of A. cantonensis were calculated, and generalized linear models were created and compared to verify the contribution of host gender, host weight, year and seasonality to the variations in A. cantonensis abundance and prevalence in rats. The prevalence of A. cantonensis infection was stable during the rainy (71%, CI 58.9- 81.6) and dry seasons (71%, CI 57.9-80.8) and was higher in older rats and in females. Seasonality, host weight (used as a proxy of animal age) and gender were all contributing factors to variation in parasite abundance, with females and heavier (older) animals showing larger abundance of parasites, and extreme values of parasite abundance being more frequent in the dry season. The high prevalence of this parasite throughout the study suggests that its transmission is stable and that conditions are adequate for the spread of the parasite to previously unaffected areas. Dispersion of the parasite to new areas may be mediated by males that tend to have larger dispersal ability, while females may be more important for maintaining the parasite on

  4. Presencia de los géneros invasores Mus y Rattus en áreas naturales de Chile: un riesgo ambiental y epidemiológico Presence of the invasive genera Mus and Rattus in natural areas in Chile: an environmental and epidemiological risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GABRIEL LOBOS

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Realizamos un estudio que incluyó muestreos y prospecciones en un gradiente latitudinal en Chile continental para determinar la presencia y ausencia de roedores murinos introducidos, particularmente Mus musculus, Rattus rattus y R. norvegicus en áreas naturales o silvestres a lo largo de Chile. Además se analizó el riesgo epidemiológico que representan estas especies en el marco de un estudio sobre el virus Hanta. Los resultados mostraron que M. musculus rara vez es recolectado en áreas naturales. Sin embargo, las dos especies de Rattus han invadido ampliamente la región mediterránea chilena. Las regiones desérticas, los ambientes de alturas y las regiones australes, serían biótopos restringidos para estos invasores. Desde una perspectiva epidemiológica, la presencia del virus Hanta (variedades Andes y Seoul en Rattus es un elemento que demuestra que las especies invasoras además de generar impactos ecológicos, pueden ocasionar problemas económicos y de salud pública. La fragilidad de los ecosistemas mediterráneos determina que la presencia de especies exóticas constituya un elemento de alto riesgo para la conservación del patrimonio natural del país. Probablemente, la conservación de áreas naturales constituye la mejor herramienta para enfrentar a estas especies exóticasWe conducted a latitudinal study in natural areas of continental Chile to evaluate the occurrence of the introduced murine rodents Mus musculus, Rattus rattus and R. norvegicus. Furthermore, we evaluated the epidemiological risk of these species as part of an ongoing study on Hantavirus. The results allowed us to conclude that M. musculus occurs rarely in natural environments. However, the two species of Rattus have widely invaded the mediterranean region of Chile. Desert, altitudinal and high latitude regions seem to be restricted areas for these invasive rodents. From an epidemiological perspective, the occurrence of Hantavirus in Rattus (Andes and Seoul

  5. Presencia de los géneros invasores Mus y Rattus en áreas naturales de Chile: un riesgo ambiental y epidemiológico Presence of the invasive genera Mus and Rattus in natural areas in Chile: an environmental and epidemiological risk

    OpenAIRE

    GABRIEL LOBOS; MARCELA FERRES; R. EDUARDO PALMA

    2005-01-01

    Realizamos un estudio que incluyó muestreos y prospecciones en un gradiente latitudinal en Chile continental para determinar la presencia y ausencia de roedores murinos introducidos, particularmente Mus musculus, Rattus rattus y R. norvegicus en áreas naturales o silvestres a lo largo de Chile. Además se analizó el riesgo epidemiológico que representan estas especies en el marco de un estudio sobre el virus Hanta. Los resultados mostraron que M. musculus rara vez es recolectado en áreas natur...

  6. The potential of chitosan combined with chicken shank collagen as scaffold on bone defect regeneration process in Rattus norvegicus

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    Fitria Rahmitasari

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: In the field of dentistry, alveolar bone damage can be caused by periodontal disease, traumatic injury due to tooth extraction, cyst enucleation, and tumor surgery. One of the ways to regenerate the bone defect is using graft scaffold. Thus, combination of chitosan and collagen can stimulate osteogenesis. Purpose: The aim of this study was to examine the potential of chitosan combined with chicken shank collagen on bone defect regeneration process. Method: Twelve Rattus norvegicus were prepared as animal models in this research. A bone defect was intentionally created at both of the right and left femoral bones of the models. Next, 24 samples were divided into four groups, namely Group 1 using chitosan – collagen scaffold (50:50, Group 2 using chitosan collagen-scaffold (80:20, Group 3 using chitosan scaffold only, and Control Group using 3% CMC-Na. On 14th day, those animals were sacrificed, and histopathological anatomy examination was conducted to observe osteoclast cells. In addition, immunohistochemistry examination was also performed to observe RANKL expressions. Result: There was a significant difference in RANKL expressions among the groups, except between Group 3 using chitosan scaffold only and control group (p value > 0.05. The highest expression of RANKL was found in Group 1 with chitosan – collagen scaffold (50:50, followed by Group 2 with chitosan-collagen scaffold (80:20. Moreover, there was also a significant difference in osteoclast generation, except between Group 1 using chitosan – collagen scaffold (50:50 and Group 2 using chitosan-collagen scaffold (80:20, p value 0.05. Less osteoclast was found in the groups using chitosan – collagen scaffold (Group 1 and Group 2. Conclusion: Combination of chitosan and chicken shank collagen scaffold can improve regeneration process of bone defect in Rattus novergicus animals through increasing of RANKL expressions, and decreasing of osteoclast.

  7. Health Risk Assessment of Women in Submarines (Phase III): Two Generation Developmental and Reproductive Safety Evaluation of Major Submarine Atmosphere Components (CO, CO2, and O2) in Rats (Rattus norvegicus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-31

    Instrument Co., Michigan City, IN) with a visual display and an electronic sensor (Model ZPS-05-SR09-EZ-ST-D, Building Automation Products, Inc., Gays ...effects detected in ultrasonic distress vocalizations (“calls to mom ”) for either male or female offspring (Table 64). F1 Generation (Adult Tests...DH, Hasiba U , Spero JA, and Gavaler J (1985). Comparative hematology and coagulation: studies on rodentia (rats). Comp Biochem Physiol. 82 (1): 211

  8. The reduction of aorta histopathological images through inhibition of reactive oxygen species formation in hypercholesterolemia rattus norvegicus treated with polysaccharide peptide of Ganoderma lucidum

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    Titin Andri Wihastuti

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s:Atherosclerosis is chronic inflammatory process triggered by oxidative stress. Oxidative stress can increase hydrogen peroxide (H2O2level, which induce atherosclerosis through the processes such as formation of perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT, foam cells, and atherosclerotic plaque. Antioxidant is needed to control negative effects of oxidative stress. One source of antioxidant, which has potential to be developed, is PsP from Ganoderma lucidum. This study aims to prove the effect of PsP in decreasing H2O2, PVAT, foam cells and atherosclerotic plaque. Materials and Methods: This study was experimental randomized post-test with control group design using 25 Rattus norvegicus Wistar strain rats. Rats were divided into 5 groups (negative control, positive control, and 3 high-fat diet group with PsP dose: 50, 150, 300 mg/kgBW. Measured parameters were H2O2, PVAT, foam cell, and atherosclerotic plaques. Analysis of variance (ANOVA was used for statistical analysis, followed by post hoc test. Results: Mean H2O2 levels, PVAT thickness, foam cell numbers, and atherosclerotic plaque were low in negative control group. ANOVA showed that PsP significantly (P

  9. Rats (Rattus norvegicus) flexibly retrieve objects' non-spatial and spatial information from their visuospatial working memory: effects of integrated and separate processing of these features in a missing-object recognition task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshen, Corrine; Cohen, Jerome

    2016-01-01

    After being trained to find a previous missing object within an array of four different objects, rats received occasional probe trials with such test arrays rotated from that of their respective three-object study arrays. Only animals exposed to each object's non-spatial features consistently paired with both its spatial features (feeder's relative orientation and direction) in the first experiment or with only feeder's relative orientation in the second experiment (Fixed Configuration groups) were adversely affected by probe trial test array rotations. This effect, however, was less persistent for this group in the second experiment but re-emerged when objects' non-spatial features were later rendered uninformative. Animals that had both types of each object's features randomly paired over trials but not between a trial's study and test array (Varied Configuration groups) were not adversely affected on probe trials but improved their missing-object recognition in the first experiment. These findings suggest that the Fixed Configuration groups had integrated each object's non-spatial with both (in Experiment 1) or one (in Experiment 2) of its spatial features to construct a single representation that they could not easily compare to any object in a rotated probe test array. The Varied Configuration groups must maintain separate representations of each object's features to solve this task. This prevented them from exhibiting such adverse effects on rotated probe trial test arrays but enhanced the rats' missing-object recognition in the first experiment. We discussed how rats' flexible use (retrieval) of encoded information from their visuospatial working memory corresponds to that of humans' visuospatial memory in object change detection and complex object recognition tasks. We also discussed how foraging-specific factors may have influenced each group's performance in this task.

  10. THE EFFECT OF BETA GLUCAN OF SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISAE ON THE INCREASE OF THE NUMBER OF BRAIN CELLS IN SUBSTANTIA NIGRA BRAIN OF PARKINSON’S WISTAR STRAIN RAT (RATTUS NORVEGICUS MODEL INDUCED WITH ROTENONE

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    Masruroh Rahayu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available ackground and aims. One of many neurodegenerative diseases afflicting the elderly is Parkinson. Beta glucan from Saccharomyces cerevisae is very potential to be used as a regenerative therapy of Parkinson's disease. Beta glucan can increase the mobilization of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs from the bone marrow into the damaged tissues. Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs which have been mobilized can regenerate and differentiate into brain cells so that the symptoms of Parkinson would be reduced. This research aims to find out the effects of the addition of Saccharomyces cerevisae toward the number of brain cells in substantia nigra Parkinson’s rat model. Method. The research was experimental in vivo using the draft of randomized post test only controlled group design. There were five groups that become the sample in this research with 5 rats for each group, i.e. negative control group, positive control group, Treatment Group 1, 2 and 3 (Rotenone + Saccharomyces cerevisae 18 mg/kgBB, 36 mg/kgBB, 72 mg/kgBBfor 4 weeks. Variable measured in this study was the number of brain cells in substantia nigra. The results of this study showed that Treatment Group 3 (72 mg/kgBB was a group with the largest number of brain cells than the other treatment groups. Statistical data obtained showed that the average number of brain cells in negative control group was 192.00 cells; positive control amounted to 116.80 cells; Treatment 1 amounted to 135.40 cells; Treatment 2 amounted to 140.80 cells; and Treatment 3 amounted to 161.80 cells. Result. The result of ANOVA test showed a significant difference between groups (p< 0.05, while the correlation test result indicated a strong correlation between the dose of Saccharomyces cerevisae and the number of substantia nigra of rat’s brain cells (r = 0,818. Conclusion. From this research, it can be concluded that the addition of Saccharomyces cerevisae with a dose of 18mg/kgBB, 36mg/kgBBdan 72 mg/kgBB is able to increase

  11. Distribution patterns of the glucose transporters GLUT4 and GLUT1 in skeletal muscles of rats (Rattus norvegicus), pigs (Sus scrofa), cows (Bos taurus), adult goats, goat kids (Capra hircus), and camels (Camelus dromedarius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duehlmeier, R; Sammet, K; Widdel, A; von Engelhardt, W; Wernery, U; Kinne, J; Sallmann, H-P

    2007-02-01

    Earlier studies demonstrated that forestomach herbivores are less insulin sensitive than monogastric omnivores. The present study was carried out to determine if different distribution patterns of the glucose transporters GLUT1 and GLUT4 may contribute to these different insulin sensitivities. Western blotting was used to measure GLUT1 and GLUT4 protein contents in oxidative (masseter, diaphragm) and glycolytic (longissimus lumborum, semitendinosus) skeletal muscle membranes of monogastric omnivores (rats and pigs), and of forestomach herbivores (cows, adult goats, goat kids, and camels). Muscles were characterized biochemically. Comparing red and white muscles, the isocitrate dehydrogenase (ICDH) activity was 1.5-15-times higher in oxidative muscles of all species, whereas lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity was 1.4-4.4-times higher in glycolytic muscles except in adult goats. GLUT4 levels were 1.5-6.3-times higher in oxidative muscles. GLUT1 levels were 2.2-8.3-times higher in glycolytic muscles in forestomach herbivores but not in monogastric animals. We conclude that GLUT1 may be the predominant glucose transporter in glycolytic muscles of ruminating animals. The GLUT1 distribution patterns were identical in adult and pre-ruminant goats, indicating that GLUT1 expression among these muscles is determined genetically. The high blood glucose levels of camels cited in literature may be due to an "NIDDM-like" impaired GLUT4 activity in skeletal muscle.

  12. New Type of Papillomavirus and Novel Circular Single Stranded DNA Virus Discovered in Urban Rattus norvegicus Using Circular DNA Enrichment and Metagenomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Thomas Arn; Fridholm, Helena; Frøslev, Tobias Guldberg; Kjartansdóttir, Kristín Rós; Willerslev, Eske; Nielsen, Lars Peter; Hansen, Anders Johannes

    2015-01-01

    Rattus norvegicus (R. norvegicus) are ubiquitous and their presence has several effects on the human populations in our urban areas on a global scale. Both historically and presently, this close interaction has facilitated the dissemination of many pathogens to humans, making screening for potentially zoonotic and emerging viruses in rats highly relevant. We have investigated faecal samples from R. norvegicus collected from urban areas using a protocol based on metagenomic enrichment of circular DNA genomes and subsequent sequencing. We found a new type of papillomavirus, with a L1 region 82% identical to that of the known R. norvegicus Papillomavirus 2. Additionally, we found 20 different circular replication associated protein (Rep)-encoding single stranded DNA (CRESS-DNA) virus-like genomes, one of which has homology to the replication-associated gene of Beak and feather disease virus. Papillomaviruses are a group of viruses known for their carcinogenic potential, and although they are known to infect several different vertebrates, they are mainly studied and characterised in humans. CRESS-DNA viruses are found in many different environments and tissue types. Both papillomaviruses and CRESS-DNA viruses are known to have pathogenic potential and screening for novel and known viruses in R. norvegicus could help identify viruses with pathogenic potential. PMID:26559957

  13. New Type of Papillomavirus and Novel Circular Single Stranded DNA Virus Discovered in Urban Rattus norvegicus Using Circular DNA Enrichment and Metagenomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Thomas Arn; Fridholm, Helena; Frøslev, Tobias Guldberg; Kjartansdóttir, Kristín Rós; Willerslev, Eske; Nielsen, Lars Peter; Hansen, Anders Johannes

    2015-01-01

    Rattus norvegicus (R. norvegicus) are ubiquitous and their presence has several effects on the human populations in our urban areas on a global scale. Both historically and presently, this close interaction has facilitated the dissemination of many pathogens to humans, making screening for potentially zoonotic and emerging viruses in rats highly relevant. We have investigated faecal samples from R. norvegicus collected from urban areas using a protocol based on metagenomic enrichment of circular DNA genomes and subsequent sequencing. We found a new type of papillomavirus, with a L1 region 82% identical to that of the known R. norvegicus Papillomavirus 2. Additionally, we found 20 different circular replication associated protein (Rep)-encoding single stranded DNA (CRESS-DNA) virus-like genomes, one of which has homology to the replication-associated gene of Beak and feather disease virus. Papillomaviruses are a group of viruses known for their carcinogenic potential, and although they are known to infect several different vertebrates, they are mainly studied and characterised in humans. CRESS-DNA viruses are found in many different environments and tissue types. Both papillomaviruses and CRESS-DNA viruses are known to have pathogenic potential and screening for novel and known viruses in R. norvegicus could help identify viruses with pathogenic potential.

  14. Rodenticide resistentie bij de bruine rat (Rattus norvegicus, Berkenhout)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meerburg, B.G.; Schoelitsz, B.

    2011-01-01

    Resistentie kan een oorzaak zijn voor het falen van een chemische bestrijding van een bruine rattenpopulatie. Men spreekt van resistentie op het moment dat ratten wel rodenticiden opnemen, maar er, door een overerfbaar afgenomen gevoeligheid, niet meer aan komen te overlijden of pas na langere

  15. Leptospirosis risk increases with changes in species composition of rat populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theuerkauf, Jörn; Perez, Julie; Taugamoa, Alefosio; Niutoua, Iasinito; Labrousse, Didier; Gula, Roman; Bogdanowicz, Wieslaw; Jourdan, Hervé; Goarant, Cyrille

    2013-04-01

    Rats are major reservoirs of leptospirosis and considered as a main threat to biodiversity. A recent introduction of Rattus rattus to the island of Futuna (Western Polynesia) provided the opportunity to test if a possible change in species composition of rat populations would increase the risk of leptospirosis to humans. We trapped rodents on Wallis and Futuna and assessed Leptospira carriage in 357 rodents ( Rattus norvegicus, R. rattus, Rattus exulans, and Mus domesticus) from 2008 to 2012. While Leptospira prevalence in rodents and the composition of rat populations on Futuna fluctuated with rainfall, the biomass of Leptospira-carrying rodents has been continuously rising from 2008 to 2012. Our results suggest that the introduction of R. rattus increases the risk to humans being infected with leptospirosis by rats.

  16. PENGARUH PEMBERIAN ALGA COKLAT (Sargassum sp. TERHADAP ENZIM KATALASE KELENJAR SUBMANDIBULARIS TIKUS RATTUS NOVERGICUS STRAIN WISTAR AKIBAT IRADIASI LINEAR ENERGY TRANSFER (LET RENDAH

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    sariano ferni

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Background: Intraoral radiography use some lower LET (Linear Energy Transfer and could penetrate submandibular salivary gland. Radiography have negative impact which is decrease catalase enzyme of human body. Brown algae (Sargassum sp. has a flavonoid antioxidant, polysaccharides as Fucoidan and alginat (Na-alginat can be used for immunomodulator, antioxidative and activation modulation of immune. Purpose: To knowing effectiveness of brown algae (Sargassum sp. on activity catalase enzyme submandibular salivary gland Rattus Novergicus strain Wistar with irradiation low LET. Material and Methods: 28 samples of Rattus Novergicus strain Wistar, weight 200gr, age 2-3months, gender male, sample divide into 4 groups, K1 (control with brown algae dosage 0,018mg/kgbw K2 (use brown algae and irradiation 4 times, K3 (use brown algae and irradiation 8 times, K4 (use brown algae and irradiation 14 times. Brown algae been given 7days before apply irradiotion on day 8, then did euthanasia and took submandibular salivary gland. After that did measurement activity of catalase enzyme and counted by spectrophotometer with 240 λ. Result: Data were analyze by Shapiro-wilk, One Way ANOVA and Bonferroni. The activity of catalase enzyme have increased; 0,2586 ± 0,1050 (K1, 0,2595 ± 0,0630 (K2, 0,3252 ± 0,1663 (K3, 0,3668 ± 0,0852 (K4 but theres no significant differences  activity of catalase enzyme between one group to other group. Conclusion: Brown algae dosage 0,018mg/kgbw can’t increase activity of catalase enzyme on Rattus Novergicus strain Wistar.

  17. EFICÁCIA DE TRÊS MEDICAMENTOS NO CONTROLE DA INFECÇÃO EXPERIMENTAL POR TRYPANOSOMA EVANSI EM RATOS (RATTUS NORVEGICUS) LINHAGEM WISTAR

    OpenAIRE

    Rovaina Laureano Doyle

    2006-01-01

    Este trabalho objetivou verificar os achados laboratoriais e histológicos da infecção experimental por Trypanosoma (Trypanozoon) evansi (Steel, 1885) Balbiani, 1888, em ratos (Rattus norvegicus) da linhagem Wistar, testando a eficácia de três medicamentos. Foram utilizados 40 ratos, divididos em quatro grupos de 10 cada, sendo cada grupo composto por 5 machos e cinco fêmeas, os quais foram tratados com três quimioterápicos distintos após a detecção de parasitemia superior a oit...

  18. EFEK PEMBERIAN SUSU SAPI BUBUK TERHADAP KADAR SERUM HDL (HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEIN PADA TIKUS PUTIH (Rattus norvegicus GALUR WISTAR MODEL DIABETES MELITUS TIPE 2

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    Zakia Umami

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe purpose of this study was to determine the cow’s milk powder to increased serum levels of High Density Lipoprotein (HDL of white male rat model with diabetes mellitus type 2. The design of this study was a post-test control group study conducted in 30 male rats which randomly divided into five groups. Negative control group was the group of rats which fed normally, the positive control group was induced by streptozotocin (STZ without given cow’s milk, group P1, P2, P3 were given a normal diet and cow’s milk 0.9; 1.8, and 2.7 g orally every day. The results of this study were the levels of HDL in K(-=44.22 mg/dl, K(+=47.45 mg/dl, P1=56.56 mg/dl, P2=51.82 mg/dl, and P3=59.45 mg/dl. The conclusion was the milk powder was not significantly increase levels of HDL (p>0.05. More longer intervention was suggested for further research to get more significant of HDL level on type 2 diabetes mellitus.Keywords: HDL serum level, high fat diet, milk powder, streptozotocinABSTRAKTujuan penelitian ini adalah menganalisis pengaruh pemberian susu sapi bubuk terhadap peningkatan kadar serum High Density Lipoprotein (HDL tikus putih (Rattus norvegicus berjenis kelamin jantan model diabetes melitus (DM tipe 2. Penelitian ini menggunakan desain penelitian post test control group dengan 30 ekor tikus dibagi secara acak menjadi lima kelompok. Kelompok K(- adalah tikus yang diberi pakan normal, kelompok K(+ diinduksi dengan streptozotocin (STZ tanpa diberi susu, kelompok P1 sampai P3 diberi diet normal dan susu 0,9; 1,8, dan 2,7 g secara oral setiap hari. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan kadar HDL pada K(-=44,22 mg/dl, K(+=47,45 mg/dl, P1=56,56 mg/dl, P2=51,82 mg/dl, dan P3=59,45 mg/dl. Susu sapi bubuk mampu meningkatkan kadar HDL tikus model DM tipe 2 akan tetapi tidak signifikan (p>0,05. Perlu dilakukan penelitian lebih lanjut dengan waktu lama penelitian yang berbeda sehingga bisa berdampak yang lebih signifikan untuk kadar HDL pada DM tipe 2.Kata kunci

  19. UJI EFEK EKSTRAK ETANOL 96% ANGGUR MERAH (Vitis vinifera TERHADAP PENURUNAN KADAR TRIGLISERIDA PADA TIKUS PUTIH (Rattus Novergicus YANG DIINDUKSI TRITON X-100

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    Frans Saputra

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Buah anggur merah diduga memiliki kandungan pterostilbene, resveratrol, proantosianidin dan likopen yang memiliki efek terhadap penurunan kadar trigliserida. Penelitian ini bersifat eksperimental laboratorium dengan metode pre and post test with control group design. Objek penelitian 25 ekor tikus putih jantan, Rattus Novergicus, berat badan 150-200 gram, berumur 3-4 bulan yang dibagi menjadi 5 kelompok dengan teknik simple random sampling, kontrol negatif (aquadest, kontrol positif (Simvastatin 0,2mg/200gramBB/hari, kelompok perlakuan dosis I (100mg/200gramBB/hari, dosis II (250mg/200gramBB/hari, dosis III (500mg/200gramBB/ hari. Ekstrak etanol anggur merah dosis I, dosis II, dosis IIIdapat menurunkan kadar trigliserida darah dengan rerata penurunan secara berturut-turut adalah 147,4mg/dL, 135,2mg/dL, 97,2mg/dL. Pada uji statistic menggunakan one-way ANOVA didapatkan nilai p=0,000 (p<0,05, sehingga terdapat perbedaan signifikan kadar trigliserida darah tikus putih antar kelompok. Ekstrak etanol 96% anggur merah dosis 100mg; 250 dan 500 /200 gramBB/hari dapat menurunkan kadar trigliserida darah tikus putih.   Kata kunci :Ekstrak Anggur Merah, Trigliserida, Rattus Novergicus

  20. At Home withMastomysandRattus: Human-Rodent Interactions and Potential for Primary Transmission of Lassa Virus in Domestic Spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonwitt, Jesse; Sáez, Almudena Mari; Lamin, Joseph; Ansumana, Rashid; Dawson, Michael; Buanie, Jacob; Lamin, Joyce; Sondufu, Diana; Borchert, Matthias; Sahr, Foday; Fichet-Calvet, Elisabeth; Brown, Hannah

    2017-04-01

    AbstractThe multimammate mouse ( Mastomys natalensis ) is the reservoir for Lassa virus (LASV). Zoonotic transmission occurs when humans are directly or indirectly exposed to fluids of the multimammate mouse, such as urine, saliva, and blood. Housing characteristics and domestic organization affect rodent density in and around households and villages, and are likely to be a risk factor for Lassa fever in humans where the reservoir exists. We use semi-structured interviews ( N = 51), a quantitative survey ( N = 429), direct observations, and a rodent ecology study to provide new insights into how the organization of domestic spaces brings together humans and rodents and creates pathways for infection in rural settlements in Bo District, Sierra Leone. Rodents were frequently reported inside houses (92.4% of respondents), in which we predominantly trapped M. natalensis (57% of trapped rodents) and Rattus rattus (38% of trapped rodents). Building design and materials provide hiding and nesting places for rodents and lead to close proximity with humans. Patterns of contact are both unintentional and intentional and research participants reported high levels of contact with rodents (34.2% of respondents) and rodent fluids (52.8% of respondents). Rodents are also perceived as a serious threat to food security. These results present detailed knowledge about how humans live with and come into contact with rodents, including the LASV reservoir. Our results argue for further collaborative research in housing and environmental modification such as ceiling construction, food storage, and sanitation as prevention against zoonotic LASV transmission.

  1. EFEK ZAT AKTIF EKSTRAK DAUN JAMBU BIJI MERAH (PSIDIUM GUAJAVA.L TERHADAP SPERMATOGENESIS PADA TIKUS PUTIH JANTAN (RATTUS NORVEGICUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ervi Husni

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Pendahuluan: Jumlah penduduk Indonesia sensus tahun 2010 sebanyak 237,6 juta jiwa dengan laju pertumbuhan penduduk 1,49 % per tahun. Target RPJPMN 2010-2014 sebesar1,14 %, laju pertumbuhan penduduk saat ini  0,53 % masih lebih tinggi. Pengendalian penduduk diperlukan antara lain dengan pemakaian kontrasepsi pada wanita maupun pria. Keterlibatan pria dalam KB masih rendah hanya 6,26 %. Tujuan penelitian untuk membuktikan zat aktif daun jambu biji merah dapat menurunkan kadar FSH dan spermatogenesis pada tikus putih jantan (Rattus norvegikus. Metode: Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian eksperimen dengan rancangan Post test only control group design. Besar sampel menggunakan rumus Federer dengan jumlah sampel 30 ekor tikus putih, terbagi tiga kelompok yaitu Kelompok 1 (K1 kelompok kontrol diberikan larutan CMC 0,5 % 1 ml/ hari, Kelompok Perlakuan 1 (P1 diberikan ekstrak daun jambu biji merah dosis 40 mg/ml/hari dan kelompok Perlakuan 2 (P2 diberikan ekstrak daun jambu biji merah dosis 80 mg/ml/hari dan diberikan selama 30 hari. Variabel penelitian  jumlah sel spermatogenik ( Spermatogonium, Spermatosit primer dan Spermatid. Data dianalisis menggunakan uji  ANOVA. Hasil: Hasil analisis data dengan uji ANOVA jumlah sel spermatogonium nilai p 0,801 (p < 0,05: tidak ada perbedaan signifikan diantara ketiga kelompok, uji LSD tidak dilakukan. Hasil uji ANOVA untuk jumlah sel spermatosit primer didapatkan nilai p 0,102 ( p < 0,05 , berarti  tidak ada perbedaan signifikan diantara ketiga kelompok, uji LSD tidak dilakukan. Hasil uji ANOVA untuk jumlah sel spermatid nilai p 0,001  (p < 0,05 berarti terdapat perbedaan signifikan diantara ketiga kelompok. Hasil uji LSD kontrol dengan P1 (p 0,036 : berbeda, Kontrol dengan P2 (p <0,000: berbeda, P1 dengan P2 (p <0,033 : berbeda. Diskusi: Kesimpulan penelitian ini adalah pemberian ekstrak daun jambu biji merah tidak menurunkan jumlah sel spermatogonium dan sel spermatosit primer tetapi menurunkan jumlah

  2. Perubahan Profil Farmakokinetika Ibuprofen yang Diberikan dengan Kombinasi Vitamin C pada Tikus Putih (Rattus Norvegicus L.

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    Sattrio Desrianto Prabowo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Ibuprofen is one of the NSAID (NonSteroid Anti Inflamation Drug drugs that has been widely used as antipyretic agent, analgesic dan anti-inflamation. Vitamin C is an important nutrient for the body and has been widely used to maintain health. Earlier study indicate patterns of interaction between vitamin C and NSAID drugs. The aims of this research were to study the influence of vitamin C to the pharmacokinetics profile of ibuprofen. The study was conducted using 9 rats rats, divided into 3 groups (n=3 per group. Each group was treated the following treatment : control ibuprofen (ibuprofen 7.2 mg/200 gBW, dose 1 group (ibuprofen 7,2 mg/200 gBW, and vitamin C 4,5 mg/200 gBW, and dose 2 group (ibuprofen 7,2 mg/200 gBW and vitamin C 9 mg/200 gBW. Blood sampling is done from the vein of rat’s tail at minutes 15, 30, 45, 60, 75, 90, 120, 180, 240, 300 and 360. The quantitation of ibuprofen in plasma was determined by UV spectrophotometer at maximum wavelength. Result showed that vitamin C changed the absorption of ibuprofen by prolonged the maximum plasma concentration time, reduce maximum levels of ibuprofen and vitamin C also changed the elimination of ibuprofen by prolonged the elimination time. Keywords: Ibuprofen, Vitamin C, Pharmacokinetics ABSTRAK Ibuprofen merupakan salah satu obat golongan NSAID (Non Steroid Anti-Inflamation Drug yang secara luas digunakan oleh masyarakat sebagai antipiretik, analgesik, dan anti-inflamasi. Vitamin C merupakan nutrisi penting bagi tubuh yang dikonsumsi secara luas oleh masyarakat untuk menjaga kesehatan. Penelitian awal menunjukkan bahwa terdapat pola akan kemungkinan teradinya interaksi antara vitamin C dengan obat golongan NSAID. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah mempelajari pengaruh vitamin C terhadap profil farmakokinetika ibuprofen. Uji dilakukan dengan membagi 9 ekor tikus dalam 3 kelompok (tiap kelompok 3 ekor. Tiap kelompok diberi perlakuan sebagai berikut: kontrol ibuprofen (ibuprofen 7,2 mg/200 g

  3. Taxonomy Icon Data: rat [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available egicus_L.png Rattus_norvegicus_NL.png Rattus_norvegicus_S.png Rattus_norvegicus_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy..._icon/icon.cgi?i=Rattus+norvegicus&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Rattus+no...rvegicus&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Rattus+norvegicus&...t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Rattus+norvegicus&t=NS ...

  4. Ectoparasitos de roedores da região urbana de Belo Horizonte, MG: III. Indices pulicidianos, anoplurianos e acarianos em Rattus Norvegicus norvegicus Ectoparasites in rodents of the urban region of Belo Horizonte, MG: III. Fleas, anoplura and acari indices in Rattus norvegicus norvegicus

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    Pedro Marcos Linardi

    1985-09-01

    Full Text Available Indices pulicidianos, anoplurianos e acarianos, globais e específicos foram determinados para os ectoparasitos de Rattus norvegicus norvegicus capturados em zona urbana de Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brasil, no período de junho de 1980 a setembro de 1982. Tendo-se em vista os valores limites ou críticos atribuídos aos índices pulicidianos, sobretudo ao índice "cheopis" e propostos por diversos autores como medida complementar de vigilância epidemiológica para peste bubônica, a comunidade de Belo Horizonte poderia ter estado exposta a esta infecção, uma vez que os índices globais anuais de 0,3 a 2,4 e a pulga prevalente foi Xenopsylla cheopis (99,2%, com os maiores índices coincidindo com o final da estação seca-fria. Em duas ocasiões, a comunidade poderia ter permanecido altamente exposta à infecção, já que os índices-limites tolerados foram suplantados: 8,8 (outubro 1980 e 6,2 (setembro 1982. Sugere-se que medidas profiláticas como anti-ratização e desinsetização sejam eficazmente aplicadas ao final da estação seca-fria, ou anteriormente à chegada das chuvas, sendo sucedidas pela desratização. Informações sobre índices anoplurianos e acarianos são importantes para que se possa, no exclusivas de roedoresThe total and specific indices of fleas, lice and mites were determined for ectoparasites on Rattus norvegicus norvegicus capture in urban areas of Belo Horizonte, Minas state, Brazil, from June 1980 to September 1982. In view of the limiting or critical values attributed to flea indices above all the [quot ]cheopis[quot ] index, proposed by several authors as a complementary measure for bubonic plague surveillance, the community of Belo Horizonte would have been exposed to this infection. The annual total indices ranged from 0.3 to 2.4 and the prevalent flea was Xenopsylla cheopis (99.2%, with the highest indices coinciding with the late dry-cool season. On two occasions, in this period, the community would

  5. (RattusNorvegicus)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-02-18

    Feb 18, 2015 ... *Corresponding Author Dr. AS Alabi Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Health. Sciences, University of ... The fixed liver tissues were then taken for histological assessments. The slide sections ..... Journal of the National Medical Association, Vol. 78, No. 11. 11. Okpala I ...

  6. Lipusignatuuri juhtumist / Kalev Rattus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rattus, Kalev

    2009-01-01

    EAÜ tegevdirektor lipulangetamismuusika muutmisest, autoriõigusega kaasnevatest probleemidest vastuseks 3. juuli Eesti Päevahes ilmunud Mart Niineste artiklile "Häbi, mille peseb maha seitsmekümne aastaga"

  7. Del laboratorio al campo abierto: el uso de protocolos de adaptación y socialización en Rattus norvegicus

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    Luisa Fernanda Méndez Pardo

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este artículo es presentar un protocolo para la adaptación y socializaciónde sujetos de investigación Rattus norvegicus, cepa Wistar, como partede un proyecto que busca el entrenamiento de estos animales para la detecciónde explosivos, tanto en laboratorio como en campo abierto. Se describe el diseñode las habitaciones de los animales, que son distintas de las jaulas-hogar típicasde los bioterios estándar. A continuación, se relaciona la exposición de losanimales a diferentes ambientes físicos. Por último, se examina el protocolo desocialización interespecífica de las ratas tanto con humanos como con animalesde otras especies.

  8. Effect of All-Trans Retinoic Acid (ATRA against expression of Matrix Metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2 in model mice (Rattus norvegicus periodontitis

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    Ilma Soraya

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Periodontitis is a condition of inflammation of the tooth supporting tissues generally caused by bacteria Phorphyromonas gingivalis (Pg. and is usually characterized by the occurrence of the alveolar bone resorption. Matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2 is an enzyme that plays an important role in inflammatory conditions. All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA is a metabolite of vitamin A which plays a role in healing the inflamed tissue and maintain the immune system. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of ATRA on the expression of MMP-2 in mouse models Rattus norvegicus of periodontitis. Methods: Experimental laboratory by using post test only with control group design. This study used 25 male Wistar mice (Rattus norvegicus that divided into 5 groups. Group 1 (G1 is a group of healthy mice, group 2 (G2 is a group of sick mice as induced periodontitis without treatment, group 3 (G3 is a group of periodontitis mice treated with 5 mg/kg dose of ATRA, group 4 (G4 is a group of periodontitis mice treated with 10 mg/kg dose of ATRA, group 5 (G5 is a group of periodontitis mice treated with 20 mg/kg dose of ATRA. Periodontitis induction was induced by Pg. bacteria every 3 days for 28 days and followed by administration of ATRA for 7 days. Expression of MMP-2 from gingival tissues and periodontal ligament was obtained by immunohistochemical methods. Results were analyzed using the Shapiro-Wilk Test and Mann-Whitney Test. Results: The results showed there were significant differences in the positive area of MMP-2 and MMP-2 color intensity (p < 0.05 between groups. Conclusion: ATRA dose of 20 mg/kg is the most effective dose in inhibiting the expression of MMP-2 in mice models of periodontitis when compared with the dose on other groups.

  9. A ação do decanoato de nandrolona (Deca-durabolin® sobre parâmetros hematológicos e proteína total plasmática de ratos (Rattus rattus com depressão medular induzida após administração de sulfato de vincristina (Oncovin®

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perez Regina Raquel

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available É comum o clínico veterinário submeter animais à quimioterapia para controle de neoplasias e observar depressão medular, com presença de anemia, leucopenia e trombocitopenia como efeitos colaterais. Nesses casos, podem-se adotar duas condutas: supressão da quimioterapia e/ou utilização de estimulantes de medula óssea. Dentre os medicamentos estimulantes mais utilizados, podemos citar o decanoato de nandrolona (Deca-durabolin®, cuja eficácia para os animais domésticos é pouco estudada, com poucos relatos na literatura nacional e internacional. Este trabalho visou estudar a ação do decanoato de nandrolona (DN, na dose de 1,5mg/kg, por via intramuscular, como estimulante de medula óssea em ratos (Rattus rattus com supressão medular induzida pelo sulfato de vincristina (Oncovin® nas doses de 4 e 8mg/m², por via intraperitoneal. Foram realizados hemograma, contagem de plaquetas e determinação da proteína total plasmática. Os resultados obtidos mostram que sua eficácia na estimulação da medula óssea depende do grau de depressão medular e da dose administrada.

  10. UJI EFEK INFUSA BUAH MAHKOTA DEWA (Phaleria Macrocarpa Scheff Boerl TERHADAP PENCEGAHAN PENINGKATAN KOLESTEROL DARAH PADA TIKUS PUTIH JANTAN (Rattus Novergicus YANG DIBERI DIET LEMAK TINGGI

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    Julizar Julizar

    2012-05-01

    dengan kelompok yang mendapat 388 mg mahkota dewa.ARTIKEL PENELITIAN52Disarankan untuk meneliti efek pencegahan peningkatan pada profil lipid yang lain dan melihat efek penurunan infus mahkota dewa pada hewan coba yang hiperkolesterolemik.Kata kunci : Mahkota dewa, kolesterolAbstractCoronary heart disease (CHD is the leading cause of death in many parts of the world including in Indonesia. One of the triggers of CHD are high blood cholesterol levels. The Crown of God (Phaleria macrocarpa has long been used by people to lower cholesterol and treat various cardiovascular diseases. Has done research to observe the effect of infusion Phaleria to prevent an increase in cholesterol levels in male white rats fed a high fat diet (HFD. This study used 30 male Rattus novergicus old from 2.5 to 3 months with body weight 250-350 grams. Experimental animals were randomized over five groups and treated as follows:Group I was given a standard diet 555 of global feed and 1 ml aquades, group II were given a diet high fat (HFD consisting of 2% cholesterol, 10% of duck egg yolk, beef 18% fat and 78% standard diet and 1 ml aquades, group III was given the DLT and 1 ml infusion containing 97 mg of crown gods., group IV were given DLT and 1 ml infusion containing 194 mg crown of god, group V were given HFD and 1 ml infusion containing 388 mg the crown of god. Infusion given orally every day for 56 days. Diet and drinking water provided ad libitum.On days 0, 14, 28, 42 and 56 blood was collected via the tail vein centralis for total cholesterol is determined enzymatically using cholesterol Chod-PAP KIT Diasys. Absorbance was measured with a spectrophotometer Genesis 20 at 546 nm wavelength. Data were analyzed by GLM repeated measurements and one-way ANOVA.The results showed: the infusion containing 97, 194 and 388 mg crown of god can prevent an increase in cholesterol levels compared to controls (-.There are significant differences (p <0.05 between groups 194 and 388 mg with 97 mg faction

  11. Formigas em Carcaças de Rattus norvegicus (Berkenhout em uma Área de Cerrado no Sudeste do Brasil: Riqueza e Abundância

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    Alysson Fonseca

    2015-04-01

    Abstract. We studied the main species of ants associated with carcasses of Rattus norvegicus (Berkenhout during the decomposition process, in different seasons in a savannah area. In each of the four seasons a carcass was disposed in the field and we installed around it five pitfall traps. Ants were collected from the tray containing the carcass and from the traps daily, until the end of decomposition in each season. Ants belonging to twenty-three species, with 63.85% of the total individuals collected in the traps and the rest directly in the trays, were sampled. The presence of predatory and nectarivorous species were registered. The scarcity of available resources in the environment in the dry season possibly makes the carcasses important food sources, explaining the higher richness of active species near the trays (collected in the pitfall traps. This increased activity is also reflected in a higher number of species and individuals in the carcasses. The opposite also seems to occur once in the autumn, end of wet season, we observed lower abundance of ants in the carcasses. The presence of ants on carcasses throughout all stages of the decomposition process and in all seasons of the year highlighted the importance of the association between representatives of this taxon and carcasses in Cerrado environments.

  12. Distribution analysis of profilin isoforms at transcript resolution with mRNA-seq and secondary structure in various organs of Rattus norvegicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tariq, Naila; Basharat, Zarrin; Butt, Saba; Baig, Deeba Noreen

    2016-09-01

    Profilin (Pfn) is an actin binding protein, ubiquitously found in mammals and is essential for the actin polymerization in cells. In brain, it plays a pivotal role in neurogenesis and synapse formation by interacting with various proteins. Four Pfn isoforms have been identified in mammals. This study presents the identification and transcriptional expression of various Pfn isoforms (Pfn1, Pfn2, Pfn3 and Pfn4) in brain, heart, kidney, liver, and muscle and testis of Rattus norvegicus. Organs have been classified into groups based on some similarities. Group I includes brain and testis, Group II includes skeletal muscle and heart, while Group III includes kidney and liver. Pfn1 has been identified in all groups, Pfn2 and Pfn3 have been identified in group I, group III and in one organ (skeletal muscle) of group II. To the best of the authors knowledge, no report of Pfn1 and Pfn2 presence in testis, Pfn3 in brain, liver and skeletal muscle, Pfn4 in kidney and skeletal muscle exists to date. Transcriptional expression showed variations among expression level of different Pfn isoforms in various organs with respect to the control gene GADPH. We hypothesize that this could be attributed to profilin isoform specific mRNA structure and corresponding motifs, which generally contribute to similar or varied decay rates, cellular localization, post transcriptional regulation pattern and ligand binding. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Identification of critical amino acid residues and functional conservation of the Neurospora crassa and Rattus norvegicus orthologues of neuronal calcium sensor-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gohain, Dibakar; Deka, Rekha; Tamuli, Ranjan

    2016-12-01

    Neuronal calcium sensor-1 (NCS-1) is a member of neuronal calcium sensor family of proteins consisting of an amino terminal myristoylation domain and four conserved calcium (Ca(2+)) binding EF-hand domains. We performed site-directed mutational analysis of three key amino acid residues that are glycine in the conserved site for the N-terminal myristoylation, a conserved glutamic acid residue responsible for Ca(2+) binding in the third EF-hand (EF3), and an unusual non-conserved amino acid arginine at position 175 in the Neurospora crassa NCS-1. The N. crassa strains possessing the ncs-1 mutant allele of these three amino acid residues showed impairment in functions ranging from growth, Ca(2+) stress tolerance, and ultraviolet survival. In addition, heterologous expression of the NCS-1 from Rattus norvegicus in N. crassa confirmed its interspecies functional conservation. Moreover, functions of glutamic acid at position 120, the first Ca(2+) binding residue among all the EF-hands of the R. norvegicus NCS-1 was found conserved. Thus, we identified three critical amino acid residues of N. crassa NCS-1, and demonstrated its functional conservation across species using the orthologue from R. norvegicus.

  14. Efecto hipolipidémico del extracto acuoso de las hojas de Artocarpus altilis "árbol del pan" en Rattus norvegicus con hiperlipidemia inducida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Campos Florián

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available La presente investigación tuvo como objetivo demostrar la actividad hipolipidémica del extracto acuoso de las hojas del árbol del pan, Artocarpus altilis, en un modelo de hiperlipidemia aguda inducida con tritón X-305, utilizando como especímenes Rattus norvegicus machos, peso promedio 204,5 g, a los que se les administró por vía oral 0,05 g/100 g y 0,2 g/100 g del extracto acuoso de A. altilis; se incluyó un grupo control negativo que recibió solución salina fisiológica y un grupo control positivo hiperlipidémico. Luego de 24 horas de administrar los tratamientos, se realizaron las mediciones en suero de las concentraciones de colesterol y triglicéridos. Encontramos reducciones significativas (p < 0,01 tanto de las cifras de colesterol, como de triglicéridos en relación a las concentraciones obtenidas en el grupo control positivo. También encontramos diferencia significativa (p < 0,01 entre las concentraciones de triglicéridos de los animales tratados con las dos dosis del extracto acuoso de A. altilis. Concluimos que el extracto acuoso de las hojas de A. altilis presenta efecto hipolipidémico a las dosis ensayadas para el modelo de hiperlipidemia inducida con tritón X-305.

  15. Vasa vasorum anti-angiogenesis through H₂O₂, HIF-1α, NF-κB, and iNOS inhibition by mangosteen pericarp ethanolic extract (Garcinia mangostana Linn) in hypercholesterol-diet-given Rattus norvegicus Wistar strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wihastuti, Titin Andri; Sargowo, Djanggan; Tjokroprawiro, Askandar; Permatasari, Nur; Widodo, Mohammad Aris; Soeharto, Setyowati

    2014-01-01

    Oxidative stress in atherosclerosis produces H2O2 and triggers the activation of nuclear factor kappa beta (NF-κB) and increase of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). The formation of vasa vasorum occurs in atherosclerosis. Vasa vasorum angiogenesis is mediated by VEGFR-1 and upregulated by hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α). The newly formed vasa vasorum are fragile and immature and thus increase plaque instability. It is necessary to control vasa vasorum angiogenesis by using mangosteen pericarp antioxidant. This study aims to demonstrate that mangosteen pericarp ethanolic extract can act as vasa vasorum anti-angiogenesis through H2O2, HIF-1α, NF-κB, and iNOS inhibition in rats given a hypercholesterol diet. This was a true experimental laboratory, in vivo posttest with control group design, with 20 Rattus norvegicus Wistar strain rats divided into five groups (normal group, hypercholesterol group, and hypercholesterol groups with certain doses of mangosteen pericarp ethanolic extract: 200, 400, and 800 mg/kg body weight). The parameters of this study were H2O2 measured by using colorimetric analysis, as well as NF-κB, iNOS, and HIF-1α, which were measured by using immunofluorescence double staining and observed with a confocal laser scanning microscope in aortic smooth muscle cell. The angiogenesis of vasa vasorum was quantified from VEGFR-1 level in aortic tissue and confirmed with hematoxylin and eosin staining. Analysis of variance test and Pearson's correlation coefficient showed mangosteen pericarp ethanolic extract had a significant effect (PMangosteen pericarp ethanolic extract 800 mg/kg body weight is proven to decrease vasa vasorum angiogenesis. Similar studies with other inflammatory parameters are encouraged to clarify the mechanism of vasa vasorum angiogenesis inhibition by mangosteen pericarp ethanolic extract.

  16. Vasa vasorum anti-angiogenesis through H2O2, HIF-1α, NF-κB, and iNOS inhibition by mangosteen pericarp ethanolic extract (Garcinia mangostana Linn) in hypercholesterol-diet-given Rattus norvegicus Wistar strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wihastuti, Titin Andri; Sargowo, Djanggan; Tjokroprawiro, Askandar; Permatasari, Nur; Widodo, Mohammad Aris; Soeharto, Setyowati

    2014-01-01

    Background Oxidative stress in atherosclerosis produces H2O2 and triggers the activation of nuclear factor kappa beta (NF-κB) and increase of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). The formation of vasa vasorum occurs in atherosclerosis. Vasa vasorum angiogenesis is mediated by VEGFR-1 and upregulated by hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α). The newly formed vasa vasorum are fragile and immature and thus increase plaque instability. It is necessary to control vasa vasorum angiogenesis by using mangosteen pericarp antioxidant. This study aims to demonstrate that mangosteen pericarp ethanolic extract can act as vasa vasorum anti-angiogenesis through H2O2, HIF-1α, NF-κB, and iNOS inhibition in rats given a hypercholesterol diet. Methods This was a true experimental laboratory, in vivo posttest with control group design, with 20 Rattus norvegicus Wistar strain rats divided into five groups (normal group, hypercholesterol group, and hypercholesterol groups with certain doses of mangosteen pericarp ethanolic extract: 200, 400, and 800 mg/kg body weight). The parameters of this study were H2O2 measured by using colorimetric analysis, as well as NF-κB, iNOS, and HIF-1α, which were measured by using immunofluorescence double staining and observed with a confocal laser scanning microscope in aortic smooth muscle cell. The angiogenesis of vasa vasorum was quantified from VEGFR-1 level in aortic tissue and confirmed with hematoxylin and eosin staining. Results Analysis of variance test and Pearson’s correlation coefficient showed mangosteen pericarp ethanolic extract had a significant effect (PMangosteen pericarp ethanolic extract 800 mg/kg body weight is proven to decrease vasa vasorum angiogenesis. Similar studies with other inflammatory parameters are encouraged to clarify the mechanism of vasa vasorum angiogenesis inhibition by mangosteen pericarp ethanolic extract. PMID:25187725

  17. EFFECTIVITY OF EXTRACT RED BETEL LEAF (Piper crocatum WITH WEIGHT INCREASE OF MALE WHITE MICE (Rattus novergicus IN CONDUTION DIABETES WHICH INDUCE ALLOXAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Nengah Kerta Besung

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of this research is to learn the level of effectiveness of ethanol extract from red betel leaf (Piper crocatum within increase weight of male white mouse in condition for diabetes mellitus. 20 male white mice (Rattus novergicus in 3 mounth with weight between 190-250 gram which adapted during 2 weeks. It classified to be 5 groups random, each group consisty by 4 mice. The first treatment as a negative control (healty mouse whitout giving treatment. The second treatment as alloxan positive control, the third treatment alloxan added by 2% suspension of ethaol extract from red betel leaf (dose 100 mg/kg bb per oral. The fifth treatment is alloxan added by 0.02% suspension glibenclamide (dose 1 ml/kg bb per oral. Giving extract betel leaf is done by oral with used sonde. Giving treatment at treatment III, IV and V is done everyday start from day 3 until the end of the day (21 day. The weight of mouse is measure at day 7, 14 and day 21 used analytical balanced. The result of this research show up that giving 2% ethanol extract from red betel leaf (Piper crocatum with dose (50 mg/kg bb, dose (100 mg/kg bb and glibenclamide 0,02% ( 1 ml/kg bb with significant can increase weight (P<0,05 of white mice which induce alloxan. Result of this research could be conclude that ethanol extract of red betel leaf (Piper crocatum can used for increase the weight.

  18. Pengaruh Lysergic Acid Diethylamide Yang Terdapat Pada Lem Eha-bond Terhadap Kualitas Spermatozoa Wistar Jantan (Rattus Norvegicus)

    OpenAIRE

    Budiono, Alfred; Wantouw, Benny; Satiawati, Lusiana

    2015-01-01

    : Lysergic Acid Diethylamide (LSD) is a psychotropic drug that can be found in glue. This substance acts as serotonine and dopamine agonists and results in hallucinogenic effect. LSD is a main raw material in glue and commonly available in an affordable price. Moreover, LSD also has a direct impact on spermatozoa motility and morphology. This study aimed to obtain the change in the spermatozoa quality of wistar rats exposed to Eha-Bond glue. This was an experimental study with a completely ra...

  19. PENGARUH LAMA PAJANAN LOGAM BERAT KADMIUM (Cd TERHADAP KADAR KALSIUM (Ca DAN KADAR FOSFAT PADA TULANG TIKUS PUTIH (Rattus novergicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmi Erliyanti

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze the long exposure to Cadmium (Cd on the levels of calcium and phosphate bone white mice. This study uses a white rat bone exposed and unexposed Cd were 24 male rats were divided into 4 groups for 0, 2, 4 and 6 weeks. After the surgery and then measured levels of calcium and phosphate bone white mice. The results showed that there were significant differences in the levels of Ca between control and treatment groups. White rat bone Ca levels decreased respectively 118,067 mg/gram of bone; 87,267 mg/gram of bone; 39,667 mg/gram of bone and 13,067 mg/gram bone at weeks 0, 2, 4 and 6. The results of statistical tests performed by Kruskal-Wallis (p=0.000; p0.05, which means that exposure to Cd can not lower phosphate levels significantly due to the reciprocal relationship between Ca and P which resulted in secretion of parathyroid hormone so the bone does not release phosphate in the number of great. Thus concluded that exposure to heavy metals cadmium (Cd for 6 weeks can reduce bone calcium white mice, but have not been able to reduce levels of phosphate bone white mice significantly.

  20. A first insight into the genetic structure (Karotype and mtDNA) of the insular black rats of western Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Libois, Roland; Torrico, Jorge; Ramalhinho, Maria Graça; Michaux, J.; Fons, Roger; Mathias, Maria da Luz

    1996-01-01

    The colonisation of Europe by the black rat (Rattus rattus) dates back only to the Roman times. This rodent is now widespread all over the continent as well as on many islands where it was introduced by man. In some instances, insular populations are morphologically differentiated by their greater size. In order to study the possible origin of these insular populations, rats were caught on many Mediterranean (Sicily, Sardinia, Lavezzi, Corsica, Elba, Porquerolles) and Atlantic islands (Ré, Ol...

  1. PROSES PENGELOLAHAN MENINGKATKAN AKTIVITAS HIPOLIPIDEMIK JAMUR TIRAM (PLEUROTUS OSTREATUS PADA TIKUS (RATTUS NORVEGICUS SPRGUE-DAWLEY HIPERKOLESTEROL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eni Harmayani, Deera Army Pramana, Sri Anggrahini dan Sutikarini

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Oyster mushroom is considered to have hypocholesterolemic and hypolipidemic activities. Therefore, it is classifiedas functional food. Prior to serving and consumption, oyster mushroom can be processed in various ways. Thisresearch studied the effect of three kinds of processing commonly used in cooking oyster mushroom; boiling,frying, and roasting. Thirty Sprague-Dawley male rats, 8 weeks old, were acclimated to laboratory condition,and then induced with high lipid diet. The rats were divided into five experiment groups; high-lipid diet (K,high-lipid diet + raw oyster mushroom (M, high-lipid diet + fried oyster mushroom (G, high-lipid diet + roastedoyster mushroom (P, and high-lipid diet + boiled oyster mushroom (R. Blood samples were obtained from orbitalplexus after acclimation, hypercholesterolemic induction, and 21 days of feeding. The blood serum was examinedfor total cholesterol (TC, triglyceride (TG, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c, dan high-densitylipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c. The result showed that cooked oyster mushroom had better hypocholesterolemicand hypolipidemic activity than raw oyster mushroom. Among the three, the roasted oyster mushroom reduced thetotal cholesterol the most, while boiled oyster mushroom reduced triglyceride the most.

  2. Similar effects in vivo of two aluminum salts on the liver, kidney, bone, and brain of Rattus norvegicus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roy, A.K.; Talukder, G.; Sharma, A. (Univ. of Calcutta (India))

    1991-08-01

    The widespread distribution of aluminum (Al) compounds in nature and their use have stimulated considerable interest in the toxicity of this metal. Aluminum accumulation has been suggested to be an associated phenomenon in various human diseases such as renal dialysis dementia, senile dementia, dialysis osteomalacia, microcytic hypochromic anaemia, gastrointestinal toxicity and Alzheimer's disease. The present work was undertaken to observe the effects of different concentrations of aluminum following oral ingestion for various durations on various organs of rats and also to compare two different Al salts at doses having the same amount of Al. The findings can be of relevance owing to the widespread use of aluminum compounds by oral route either as medicines or unintentionally through utensils and cookwares.

  3. Impact of 900 MHz electromagnetic field exposure on main male reproductive hormone levels: a Rattus norvegicus model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepehrimanesh, Masood; Saeb, Mehdi; Nazifi, Saeed; Kazemipour, Nasrin; Jelodar, Gholamali; Saeb, Saeedeh

    2014-09-01

    This work analyzes the effects of radiofrequency-electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) exposure on the reproductive system of male rats, assessed by measuring circulating levels of FSH, LH, inhibin B, activin B, prolactin, and testosterone. Twenty adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (180 ± 10 g) were exposed to 900 MHz RF-EMF in four equal separated groups. The duration of exposure was 1, 2, and 4 h/day over a period of 30 days and sham-exposed animals were kept under the same environmental conditions as the exposed group except with no RF-EMF exposure. Before the exposure, at 15 and 30 days of exposure, determination of the abovementioned hormone levels was performed using ELISA. At the end of the experiment, FSH and LH values of the long time exposure (LTE) group were significantly higher than the sham-exposed group ( p < 0.05). Serum activin B and prolactin in the LTE group showed significant increase and inhibin B showed significant decrease than sham and short time exposed (STE) groups after 30 days RF-EMF exposure ( p < 0.05). Also, a significant decrease in serum testosterone levels in the LTE group was found compared to short and moderate time exposed (MTE) groups after 30 days RF-EMF exposure ( p < 0.05). Results suggest that reproductive hormone levels are disturbed as a result of RF-EMF exposure and it may possibly affect reproductive functions. However, testosterone and inhibin B concentrations as a fertility marker and spermatogenesis were decreased significantly.

  4. Kandungan Kimia dan Uji Antiinflamasi Ekstrak Etanol Lantana camara L. pada Tikus Putih (Rattus norvegicus L. Jantan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AHMAD DWI SETYAWAN

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Lantana camara L. is a widely distributed plant on tropics region belonging to the Family Verbenaceae. In Indonesia, the plant is used in traditional medicines of edema and rheumatisms. The aims of this research were to compare saponins, flavonoids, and essential oils constituents among the roots, the leaves, and the fruits and to know about anti-inflammatory effects of ethanolic extracts of L. camara on white male rats. The framework of the research was that the saponins, flavonoids, and essential oils constituents of L. camara have an anti-inflammatory effect. Organs with the highest constituents of saponins, flavonoids and essential oils would expect giving optimal anti-inflammatory effects. Complete Randomized Design with five treatment groups, each of the treatment had five repetitions, was used in this study. Each group have been treated: Group I CMC 0.5% control (placebo, Group II positive control (Na-diclofenac, Group III, IV and V giving ethanolic extracts of L. camara dose 720, 1080 and 1440 mg/kg BW, respectively. The inflammation was produced by sub plantar injection of carrageenan suspension in the right hind paw of the rats. The quantitative data of Area under Curve of edema percentage were analyzed statistically with SPSS program using One-Way ANOVA followed by LSD test. The results showed that the highest constituents of saponins, flavonoids, and essential oils were found in the leaves. Ethanolic extracts of L. camara’s leaves dose 720 mg/kg BW had given the highest anti- inflammatory effects (38.1%.

  5. Age-related adaptation of bone-PDL-tooth complex: Rattus-Norvegicus as a model system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narita L Leong

    Full Text Available Functional loads on an organ induce tissue adaptations by converting mechanical energy into chemical energy at a cell-level. The transducing capacity of cells alters physico-chemical properties of tissues, developing a positive feedback commonly recognized as the form-function relationship. In this study, organ and tissue adaptations were mapped in the bone-tooth complex by identifying and correlating biomolecular expressions to physico-chemical properties in rats from 1.5 to 15 months. However, future research using hard and soft chow over relevant age groups would decouple the function related effects from aging affects. Progressive curvature in the distal root with increased root resorption was observed using micro X-ray computed tomography. Resorption was correlated to the increased activity of multinucleated osteoclasts on the distal side of the molars until 6 months using tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP. Interestingly, mononucleated TRAP positive cells within PDL vasculature were observed in older rats. Higher levels of glycosaminoglycans were identified at PDL-bone and PDL-cementum entheses using alcian blue stain. Decreasing biochemical gradients from coronal to apical zones, specifically biomolecules that can induce osteogenic (biglycan and fibrogenic (fibromodulin, decorin phenotypes, and PDL-specific negative regulator of mineralization (asporin were observed using immunohistochemistry. Heterogeneous distribution of Ca and P in alveolar bone, and relatively lower contents at the entheses, were observed using energy dispersive X-ray analysis. No correlation between age and microhardness of alveolar bone (0.7 ± 0.1 to 0.9 ± 0.2 GPa and cementum (0.6 ± 0.1 to 0.8 ± 0.3 GPa was observed using a microindenter. However, hardness of cementum and alveolar bone at any given age were significantly different (P<0.05. These observations should be taken into account as baseline parameters, during development (1.5 to 4 months, growth

  6. Effect of chronic intake of sweet substance on nociceptive thresholds and feeding behavior of Rattus norvegicus (Rodentia, Muridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segato, E N; Rebouças, E C C; Freitas, R L; Caires, M P T; Cardoso, A V; Resende, G C C; Shimizu-Bassi, G; Elias-Filho, D H; Coimbra, N C

    2005-04-01

    The investigation of the influence of sweetened food on feeding behavior targeted to non-sucrose nutrients as well as the sensitivity to painful stimuli in isolated and grouped animals is the aim of the present work. The tail withdrawal latencies in the tail-flick test (a spinal reflex) were measured before and immediately after the treatment with tap water or sucrose (62, 125 or 250 g/l). Our findings suggest that: (a) The analgesic effect of sucrose intake depends on the concentration of sucrose solution and on the time during which the solution is consumed; (b) the most effective concentration of sucrose followed by antinociceptive effect was the one of 250 g/l in both isolated and grouped animals; (c) considering the individually caged rats, the intake of sucrose in the highest concentration (250 g/l) was the smallest as compared with the consumption of sucrose in more diluted solutions (62.5 and 125 g/l), but this higher sweetened solution was followed by antinociception; (d) animals treated with concentrated sucrose solution ate smaller quantities of pellets than animals treated with tap water; (e) tonic intake of highly concentrated sweet substance seems to be crucial for the increase of the nociceptive threshold in our model of sweet substance-induced antinociception.

  7. Uji Ekstrak Etanol Daun Pegagan (Centella asiatica L. Urban terhadap Fertilitas Tikus Putih (Rattus norvegicus L. Betina pada Tahap Praimplantasi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yassir Dzulfiqor

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to test extract ethanol of leaves Pennywort (Centellaasiatica L. Urban toward fertilitation of female white mice Sprague Dawley strain at the praimplantation. Parameters used implantation (IM, loss of gestation (KGE and death of pasca-implantation (KPI after 15 days pregnant.This research conducted from April 2014 in the biology laboratory of UHAMKA, East Jakarta. The sample used 24 rat that divided into four treatment, namely: control(D0, 125(D1, 150(D2 and 175 mgkg-1 bw(D3with Complete Random Design.The results of data by paired samples test analysis obtained significant differences (p<0,05 between the control group ( D0 with the doses 150 mgkg-1 bb (D2 on the decline IM and an increase KGE.On the percentage the average KPI obtained influence is no real different ( p>0.05 in all treatment, but a tendency increased the KPI average percentage in the doses 175 mgkg-1 bw (D3.The conclution of this researchis the ethanol extract of leaves Pennywort can reduce the percentage of the average number on implantation (IM and increase the loss of gestation (KGE with an effective dose of 150 mgkg-1 bw. Then, the tendency to raise the post-death implantation (KPI early stage at a dose of 175 mgkg-1 bw.

  8. Comparação dos padrões de atratividade de Hermetia illucens (Diptera, Stratiomyidae associada a carcaças de Rattus norvergicus enterradas e tratadas com hormônios esteróides Comparison of attraction patterns of Hermetia illucens (Diptera, Stratiomyidae associated to buried Rattus norvergicus carcasses with steroid hormones treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana C. Ferrari

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Hermetia illucens (L. (Diptera, Stratiomyidae é uma espécie abundante em todo o continente americano. No entanto, ainda há poucos estudos no Brasil abordando aspectos em relação a sua biologia e ecologia, em particular associados a estudos forenses. Neste trabalho, nós observamos os efeitos de hormônios esteróides na decomposição corporal de Rattus norvergicus, variedade Wistar enterrados na atração de H. illucens. Além da presença de diversas espécies de larvas e adultos de insetos freqüentemente encontrados em carcaças nessas condições, observou-se uma grande quantidade de imaturos de H. illucens. Essa espécie representou aproximadamente 22% de todos os espécimes coletados, tendo aparecido somente nos animais que receberam tratamento com esteróides sexuais dos tipos testosterona, progesterona e estradiol. Dentre esses, a maior abundância foi verificada nos que haviam recebido testosterona (68%. A presença de imaturos de H. illucens, apenas nos animais que receberam o tratamento com esteróides, em experimentos realizados em dois anos consecutivos revela uma possível atração/seleção dessa espécie por corpos com quantidades aumentadas de hormônios sexuais. Esse comportamento pode ser particularmente útil para a entomologia forense no que diz respeito à estimativa do intervalo pós-morte (IPM, particularmente quando tem como base informações sobre o ciclo de vida e ecologia de insetos necrófagos.Hermetia illucens (L. (Diptera, Stratiomyidae is an abundant species in the entire American continent. Nevertheless, there are few studies in Brazil dealing with aspects of its biology and ecology, particularly associated with forensic studies. In this study we intended to observe the effects of steroids hormones in the corporal decomposition of buried Rattus norvergicus from the Wistar variety in the attraction of H. illucens. Besides the presence of several insect species commonly found in carcasses, a great amount of

  9. Noore kunstniku kaitseks / Kalev Rattus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rattus, Kalev

    1998-01-01

    Fotograafide Peeter Lauritsa ja Herkki-Erich Merila poolt oma fotodel tekstiilikunstnik Jana Einardi kavandatud rõivaste kasutamisest selleks tekstiilikunstnikult luba omamata. Moekunstiteose autori õigustest.

  10. A Rat-Resistant Artificial Nest Box for Cavity-Nesting Birds

    OpenAIRE

    Pitt, William C.; Driscoll, Laura C.; VanderWerf, Eric A.

    2011-01-01

    The puaiohi or small Kauai thrush (Myadestes palmeri) is an endangered bird endemic to the island of Kauai, Hawaii. The sole population of about 500 birds is currently restricted to remote, higher elevation areas of the Alakai Plateau. Puaiohi nest primarily on steep streamside cliffs, and their distribution and abundance are limited by availability of suitable nesting sites. Black rats (Rattus rattus) cause nest failure and mortality of nesting female puaiohis, and ground-based rodent contro...

  11. The Prenatal Development Effects of Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Exposure in Rats (Rattus Norvegicus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-12

    statistically significant mean litter proportion of post- implantation loss (resorptions occurring in the early phase of pregnancy) in the 3.0% C02 group...each) of carbon dioxide (99.995% Weiler Welding , Dayton, OH) were used to generate the four test atmospheres for exposures. 3.3. Inhalation Exposure...the number of viable and nonviable fetuses, early and late resorptions and total number of implantation sites were recorded, and the placentae were

  12. Acute Inhalation Toxicity Study of 1, 4-Dioxane in Rats (Rattus norvegicus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    kidneys, urinary bladder , lungs, trachea and nasal cavities. Lung and nasal cavity histopathology was performed which included preparation of six levels...align with the nasal and hepatic neoplasms observed in a chronic two-year inhalation study with dioxane (Kasai et al., 2009). Changes seen in the two

  13. Evaluation of Jet Fuel and Noise-Induced Hearing Loss in Rats (Rattus norvegicus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-13

    from the filters, the mass median aerosol diameter ( MMAD ) and the geometric standard deviation (GSD) for both chambers. 9 A: Approved for public...96.5 ± 1.3 (19) FTIR (mg/m 3 ) 967.2 ± 8.2 (20) 965.1 ± 10.1 (20) Aerosol MMAD (µm) 2.31 ± 0.25 (5) 1.80 ± 0.24 (5) GSD 1.97 ± 0.15 (5) 1.99...aerosol concentration from the filters, the MMAD and the GSD for both chambers. Table 3. Data for JP-8 in the Chambers with Jet Fuel Exposure

  14. Effects of Acute Oral 5-aminotetrazole (5-AT) Exposure to Rats (Rattus norvegicus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-12

    g/dL), sodium (Na mmol/L), potassium (K mmol/L), and chlorine (Cl mmol/L). Cauda epididymal sperm counts were determined using a computer-assisted...8 7.5 Sperm Analysis...N-1 O – Sperm Analysis and Individual Data

  15. Effects of Acute and Subacute Oral Methylnitroguanidine (MeNQ) Exposure to Rats (Rattus norvegicus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-20

    pesticide-free rodent chow (Harlan Teklad®, 8728C Certified Rodent Diet ) and supplied with drinking quality water. Food and water were available ad...while a female had a minor congenital hip abnormality that altered its gait, but did not affect the ability to access food or water or to move...09/4/2014 Toxicology Study No. S.0024883, July-September 2014 C-1 APPENDIX C ARCHIVES AND STUDY PERSONNEL C-1. Archives a. All raw data

  16. seed on haematological parameters of albino rats

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Ejere

    2015-06-23

    Jun 23, 2015 ... albino rats (Rattus novergicus). Ejere, Vincent C.*, Ugwu, Godwin C., Chukwuka, Christian O. and Nnamonu, Emmanuel I. ... Similarly, lectin from M. sloanei has been reported as an effective and suitable cell ... male albino rats were then assigned into four groups (A, B, C, and. D) of 12 rats per group.

  17. Rats, cities, people, and pathogens: a systematic review and narrative synthesis of literature regarding the ecology of rat-associated zoonoses in urban centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himsworth, Chelsea G; Parsons, Kirbee L; Jardine, Claire; Patrick, David M

    2013-06-01

    Urban Norway and black rats (Rattus norvegicus and Rattus rattus) are the source of a number of pathogens responsible for significant human morbidity and mortality in cities around the world. These pathogens include zoonotic bacteria (Leptospira interrogans, Yersina pestis, Rickettsia typhi, Bartonella spp., Streptobacillus moniliformis), viruses (Seoul hantavirus), and parasites (Angiostrongylus cantonensis). A more complete understanding of the ecology of these pathogens in people and rats is critical for determining the public health risks associated with urban rats and for developing strategies to monitor and mitigate those risks. Although the ecology of rat-associated zoonoses is complex, due to the multiple ways in which rats, people, pathogens, vectors, and the environment may interact, common determinants of human disease can still be identified. This review summarizes the ecology of zoonoses associated with urban rats with a view to identifying similarities, critical differences, and avenues for further study.

  18. Efeito das fibras dos farelos de trigo e aveia sobre o perfil lipídico no sangue de ratos (Rattus norvegicus wistar Effect of wheat and oat bran fibers on the lipid profile of mouse (Rattus novergicus wistar blood samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Augusto Mendes da Silva

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de determinar os efeitos das fontes de fibras de farelo de aveia e trigo sobre o perfil lipídico no sangue de ratos (Rattus norvegicus wistar, conduziu-se este ensaio utilizando-se 48 animais, os quais foram distribuídos em um delineamento ao acaso e divididos em oito grupos. Durante um período de seis dias, os animais receberam dietas padrão para se adaptarem ao experimento. Após esse período, os animais receberam dietas distintas por 63 dias, sendo elas compostas com 5, 10 e 15% de farelo de aveia e 1% de colesterol e outras três compostas por 5,10 e 15% de farelo de trigo como fonte de fibra e 1% de colesterol. Havia dois grupos-controle, sendo o primeiro isento de colesterol e com 5% de celulose como fonte de fibra e o segundo com 1% de colesterol. Após os 63 dias recebendo as dietas experimentais, os animais se submeteram às mesmas análises de colesterol, HDL, LDL, VLDL e triacilglicerol no sangue. Os ratos alimentados com farelo de aveia 5, 10 e 15% tiveram redução significativa do colesterol sérico em relação ao grupo controle contendo 1% de colesterol e aos alimentados com 1% de colesterol. Os níveis de HDL foram maiores nos grupos alimentados com 10 e 15% do farelo de aveia do que nos grupos alimentados com 5% de farelo de aveia e com farelo de trigo a 5,10 e 15%. Não houve diferença estatística em relação ao grupo controle e os alimentados com farelo de aveia 10 e 15%. A concentração de LDL apresentou-se menor no tratamento com 15% em relação ao controle contendo colesterol e aos tratamentos com farelo de trigo. Já o os níveis de triacilglicerol e VLDL foram significativamente menores nos animais alimentados com 15% dos farelos de aveia e trigo em relação a todos os outros tratamentos. Conclui-se, neste experimento, que o perfil lipídico pode ser melhorado com a adição do farelo de aveia à dieta e que o farelo de trigo exerce pouca influência apenas nos níveis de triacilglicerol s

  19. Cyfluthrin-induced hepatotoxicity in rats | Omotuyi | African Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The hepatotoxic effect of continous administration of cyfluthrin was investigated in rats. Rats (Rattus norvegicus) were grouped into A (0 ppm) control, B (100 ppm) and C (200 ppm) with the indicated amount of cyfluthrin administered orally for 15 weeks.The hepatotoxicity level was assessed by monitoring the changes in the ...

  20. Performance of rats orogastrically dosed with faecal strains of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Albino rats (Rattus norvegicus) were orogastrically dosed with faecal strains of Lactobacillus acidophilus and simultaneously infected with Escherichia coli, while the control was challenged with E. coli alone. The treatment was repeated the second day and post ingestion period of 18 days follow. It was observed that rats ...

  1. Multiple Geographic Origins of Commensalism and Complex Dispersal History of Black Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aplin, Ken P.; Suzuki, Hitoshi; Chinen, Alejandro A.; Chesser, R. Terry; ten Have, José; Donnellan, Stephen C.; Austin, Jeremy; Frost, Angela; Gonzalez, Jean Paul; Herbreteau, Vincent; Catzeflis, Francois; Soubrier, Julien; Fang, Yin-Ping; Robins, Judith; Matisoo-Smith, Elizabeth; Bastos, Amanda D. S.; Maryanto, Ibnu; Sinaga, Martua H.; Denys, Christiane; Van Den Bussche, Ronald A.; Conroy, Chris; Rowe, Kevin; Cooper, Alan

    2011-01-01

    The Black Rat (Rattus rattus) spread out of Asia to become one of the world's worst agricultural and urban pests, and a reservoir or vector of numerous zoonotic diseases, including the devastating plague. Despite the global scale and inestimable cost of their impacts on both human livelihoods and natural ecosystems, little is known of the global genetic diversity of Black Rats, the timing and directions of their historical dispersals, and the risks associated with contemporary movements. We surveyed mitochondrial DNA of Black Rats collected across their global range as a first step towards obtaining an historical genetic perspective on this socioeconomically important group of rodents. We found a strong phylogeographic pattern with well-differentiated lineages of Black Rats native to South Asia, the Himalayan region, southern Indochina, and northern Indochina to East Asia, and a diversification that probably commenced in the early Middle Pleistocene. We also identified two other currently recognised species of Rattus as potential derivatives of a paraphyletic R. rattus. Three of the four phylogenetic lineage units within R. rattus show clear genetic signatures of major population expansion in prehistoric times, and the distribution of particular haplogroups mirrors archaeologically and historically documented patterns of human dispersal and trade. Commensalism clearly arose multiple times in R. rattus and in widely separated geographic regions, and this may account for apparent regionalism in their associated pathogens. Our findings represent an important step towards deeper understanding the complex and influential relationship that has developed between Black Rats and humans, and invite a thorough re-examination of host-pathogen associations among Black Rats. PMID:22073158

  2. Multiple geographic origins of commensalism and complex dispersal history of Black Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken P Aplin

    Full Text Available The Black Rat (Rattus rattus spread out of Asia to become one of the world's worst agricultural and urban pests, and a reservoir or vector of numerous zoonotic diseases, including the devastating plague. Despite the global scale and inestimable cost of their impacts on both human livelihoods and natural ecosystems, little is known of the global genetic diversity of Black Rats, the timing and directions of their historical dispersals, and the risks associated with contemporary movements. We surveyed mitochondrial DNA of Black Rats collected across their global range as a first step towards obtaining an historical genetic perspective on this socioeconomically important group of rodents. We found a strong phylogeographic pattern with well-differentiated lineages of Black Rats native to South Asia, the Himalayan region, southern Indochina, and northern Indochina to East Asia, and a diversification that probably commenced in the early Middle Pleistocene. We also identified two other currently recognised species of Rattus as potential derivatives of a paraphyletic R. rattus. Three of the four phylogenetic lineage units within R. rattus show clear genetic signatures of major population expansion in prehistoric times, and the distribution of particular haplogroups mirrors archaeologically and historically documented patterns of human dispersal and trade. Commensalism clearly arose multiple times in R. rattus and in widely separated geographic regions, and this may account for apparent regionalism in their associated pathogens. Our findings represent an important step towards deeper understanding the complex and influential relationship that has developed between Black Rats and humans, and invite a thorough re-examination of host-pathogen associations among Black Rats.

  3. Pengaruh Berbagai Dosis Jus Buah Sirsak (Annona muricata L. Terhadap Penurunan Kadar Kolesterol Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL Serum Tikus Putih (Rattus norvegicus Dislipidemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hesti Dwi Tia

    2014-09-01

    There was the effect of various doses of soursop juice to decrease LDL’s cholesterol levels in dyslipidemia white rat serum. The greater the dose of soursop juice given, the greater the reduction in LDL’s cholesterol levels in the serum of dyslipidemia white rat.

  4. Monitoring Lead (Pb) Pollution and Identifying Pb Pollution Sources in Japan Using Stable Pb Isotope Analysis with Kidneys of Wild Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Hokuto Nakata; Nakayama, Shouta M. M.; Balazs Oroszlany; Yoshinori Ikenaka; Hazuki Mizukawa; Kazuyuki Tanaka; Tsunehito Harunari; Tsutomu Tanikawa; Wageh Sobhy Darwish; Yohannes, Yared B.; Aksorn Saengtienchai; Mayumi Ishizuka

    2017-01-01

    Although Japan has been considered to have little lead (Pb) pollution in modern times, the actual pollution situation is unclear. The present study aims to investigate the extent of Pb pollution and to identify the pollution sources in Japan using stable Pb isotope analysis with kidneys of wild rats. Wild brown (Rattus norvegicus, n = 43) and black (R. rattus, n = 98) rats were trapped from various sites in Japan. Mean Pb concentrations in the kidneys of rats from Okinawa (15.58 mg/kg, dry we...

  5. Interference competition between introduced black rats and endemic Galápagos rice rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Donna B; Macdonald, David W

    2007-09-01

    Replicated field experiments were used to quantify and to describe the mechanism of competition between the introduced black rat Rattus rattus and the endemic Santiago rice rat Nesoryzomys swarthi on Santiago Island, Galápagos Islands, Ecuador. The removal of R. rattus significantly slowed the rate of seasonal population decline in N. swarthi. This effect was particularly evident for female, relative to male, N. swarthi and appeared to be driven solely by enhanced immigration; no other fitness or space use parameters were affected. The candidate hypotheses to explain the mechanism of competition were exploitation competition, interference by resource defense, and interference by aggressive encounter. To distinguish between hypotheses, we conducted a replicated resource supplementation experiment with patchy food, scattered food, and no food (control) treatments. The opportunistic R. rattus responded to the extra resources with increased adult immigration and juvenile recruitment, resulting in a significant abundance boost of sevenfold on patchy grids and fourfold on scattered grids. Females increased in body mass, and the breeding season was lengthened. In contrast, there was no change in the abundance of N. swarthi and no obvious benefit to reproduction. Instead, the costs of interference apparently outweighed the benefits of extra food: female N. swarthi increased in mass with supplementary food, but female (relative to male) immigration and residency were repressed on all supplemented areas. This response supported the hypothesis of interference by aggressive encounter, and we were able to rule out the alternative hypotheses. Although periodic population crashes of R. rattus on the arid north coast of Santiago may ameliorate its competitive impact, climate change may tip the balance. Control or eradication of R. rattus should improve future survival prospects for N. swarthi, but wildlife managers must be prepared for the potential eruption of the introduced

  6. Effect of sodium citrate on red blood cell count in wistar rat | Oladipo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of sodium citrate which is the sodium salt of citric acid, a preservative, an additive, an antioxidant and an anticoagulant used in blood transfusion was investigated in this study on red blood cell in wistar rat. Eighteen male adult rats of wistar strain (RattusNorvegicus) weighing between 150-200g were used.

  7. Genome sequence of the Brown Norway rat yields insights into mammalian evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gibbs, Richard A; Weinstock, George M; Metzker, Michael L

    2004-01-01

    The laboratory rat (Rattus norvegicus) is an indispensable tool in experimental medicine and drug development, having made inestimable contributions to human health. We report here the genome sequence of the Brown Norway (BN) rat strain. The sequence represents a high-quality 'draft' covering ove...

  8. Tissue levels of iron, copper, zinc and magnesium in iron deficient rats

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of iron deficiency on the levels of iron, copper, zinc and magnesium in the brain, liver, kidney, heart and lungs of albino rats (Rattus novergicus) was investigated. Forty rats were divided into two groups and the first group was fed a control diet containing 1.09g iron/kg diet while the test group was fed diet ...

  9. Improved ovulation rate and implantation in rats treated with royal jelly

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The ovaries and uteris of 12 mature female rats (Rattus norvegicus) were examined to determine the effect of commercial royal jelly on ovulation, ovarian weight and implantation rates. Rats were split in two groups of 6 each. Group one served as the treatment and group two the control. A daily dose of 25mg of royal jelly ...

  10. Bromadiolone resistance does not respond to absence of anticoagulants in experimental populations of Norway rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiberg, A.C.; Leirs, H.; Siegismund, Hans Redlef

    2003-01-01

    Resistance to anticoagulant rodenticides in Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus) is documented to be associated with pleiotropic effects, notably with an increased dietary vitamin K requirement. The aim of this study was to quantify these effects in small populations of Norway rat in Denmark and to see...

  11. A comparative analysis of the physiological properties of neurons in the anterolateral bed nucleus of the stria terminalis in the Mus musculus, Rattus norvegicus, and Macaca mulatta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Sarah E; Guo, Jidong; Rainnie, Donald G

    2017-06-15

    The anterolateral group of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNSTALG ) is a critical modulator of a variety of rodent and primate behaviors spanning anxiety behavior and drug addiction. Three distinct neuronal cell types have been previously defined in the rat BNSTALG based on differences in the voltage-response to hyperpolarizing and depolarizing current injection. Differences in genetic expression profile between these three cell types suggest electrophysiological cell type may be an indicator for functional differences in the circuit of the rat BNSTALG . Although the behavioral role of the BNST is conserved across species, it is unknown if the same electrophysiological cell types exist in the BNSTALG of the mouse and nonhuman primate. Here, we used whole-cell patch clamp electrophysiology and neuronal reconstructions of biocytin-filled neurons to compare and contrast the electrophysiological and morphological properties of neurons in the BNSTALG from the mouse, rat, and rhesus macaque. We provide evidence that the BNSTALG of all three species contains neurons that match the three defined cell types found in the rat; however, there are intriguing differences in the relative frequency of these cell types as well as electrophysiological and morphological properties of the BNSTALG neurons across species. This study suggests that the overall landscape of the BNSTALG in the primate and mouse may be similar to that of the rat in some aspects but perhaps significantly different in others. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. AKTIVITAS HATI TIKUS (RATTUS SP YANG DIBERI RANSUM MENGANDUNG TEPUNG DAUN KALIANDRA (Calliandra calothyrsus DAN KULIT NANAS (Ananas comosus SELAMA MASA PERTUMBUHAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IRIANI SETYAWATI

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Calliandra calothyrsus leaves contain 17-28% protein thus potential as a protein source in animal diet. However, it also contain a high antinutrition of condensed tannins (>10%. The addition of protease enzymes (bromelain in the diet containing tannins is expected to overcome the negative effects of tannins. Bromelain can be obtained from the pineapple plant (Ananas comosus including the peel. This study was a feeding experiment on weaned male and female rats during the growth period. This study used a completely randomized design of 4x4 factorial design. The main factor was Calliandra leaf meal substitution levels of 0; 10; 17.5 and 25% in the diet. The sub factor was pineapple peel additive levels of 0; 4.35; 8.70 and 13.05 g/rat/day. Weaned rats were divided into 16 groups and they were fed for two months during growth period. The study showed that there was no interaction between calliandra leaves and pineapple peels on the rat liver activity including the blood levels of SGOT and SGPT levels. SGPT and SGOT levels were not affected by all levels of pineapple peels in the diets. All calliandra levels did not affect the level of SGOT, but 17.5 and 25% calliandra in the diets increased SGPT level.

  13. Efficient single nucleotide polymorphism discovery in laboratory rat strains using wild rat-derived SNP candidates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, B.M.; Guryev, V.; Zeegers, D.; Wedekind, D.; Hedrich, H.J.; Cuppen, E.

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The laboratory rat (Rattus norvegicus) is an important model for studying many aspects of human health and disease. Detailed knowledge on genetic variation between strains is important from a biomedical, particularly pharmacogenetic point of view and useful for marker selection for

  14. UJI AKTIVITAS ANTIPIRETIK EKSTRAK ETANOL KULIT JERUK MANIS (Citrus x aurantium L TERHADAP TIKUS PUTIH (Rattus novergicus JANTAN GALUR WISTAR YANG DIINDUKSI PEPTON 5%

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratna Widyasari

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Sweet orange peel (Citrus x aurantium L contains flavonoids that are able to inhibit prostaglandins so they have activity as antipyretic. This study aims to test the antipyretic activity of orange peel (Citrus x aurantium L against Wistar male rats induced by 5% peptone. This research is an experimental research with complete random design. The test animal used was Wistar male white rats as many as 15 tail with 150 - 200 g weight. The test animals were divided into 5 groups: negative control (1% NaCMC suspension, positive control (paracetamol suspension and the test group were orange peel extract (Citrus x aurantium L with concentration of 0.5%, 0.75% and 1%. Temperature measurements were performed before peptone 5%, 1 hour after peptone 5% and 30 min after treatment until 240 min. Data obtained were analyzed using anova test and LSD (Least significant different test. The conclusion of this study is that the extract of sweet orange peel ethanol (Citrus x aurantium L has antipyretic activity in Wistar male white rats and at 1% concentration has activity ability as antipyretic.

  15. Worm burdens in outbred and inbred laboratory rats with morphometric data on Syphacia muris (Yamaguti, 1935 Yamaguti, 1941 (Nematoda, Oxyuroidea

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    Roberto Magalhães Pinto

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Syphacia muris worm burdens were evaluated in the rat Rattus norvegicus of the strains Wistar (outbred, Low/M and AM/2/Torr (inbred, maintained conventionally in institutional animal houses in Brazil. Morphometrics and illustration data for S. muris recovered from Brazilian laboratory rats are provided for the first time since its proposition in 1935.

  16. The effect of four weeks restricted diet on serum soluble leptin receptor levels and adipocyte leptin receptor density in normoweight rattus norvegicus strain Wistar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Indra

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available One of the five possible mechanisms of leptin resistance in human obesity is the defect in the leptin receptor (Ob-R. Evidence has accumulated that leptin-binding activity in human serum is related to a soluble form of the leptin receptor, and restriction of energy intake resulted a decrease in circulating leptin levels. Aim of this study is to examine the difference of serum soluble leptin receptor level and leptin receptor density in rat adipose tissue of adventitial aorta after four weeks treated with different restricted diets. Soluble leptin receptor level was measured by ELISA and leptin receptor density by using immuno-histochemistry. The soluble leptin receptor in group treated with 40% of normal daily calori diet was found significantly lower than control (p = 0.02. There were no any significant differences among group treated with 40 % of normal daily calori diet, “1 day fast-1day eat”, and ”1day fast-2 days eat” groups, and among 1 day fast-1 day eat”, ”day fast - 2 days eat” and control groups as well. On the other hand, leptin receptor density in adipose tissues was higher in restricted diet group than control. Diet of 40 % normal daily calorie for 4 weeks decreased soluble leptin receptor level, but increased adipocyte leptin receptor density of the adipose tissue of rat adventitial aorta. These changes may be resulted from an up regulation mechanism in relation with homeostatic maintenance. (Med J Indones 2006; 15:145-50 Keywords: restricted diet, leptin receptor, soluble leptin receptor, adipocyte, obesity

  17. AKTIVITAS ANTIOKSIDAN EKSTRAK ETANOL DAUN BUAS-BUAS (Premna cordifolia Linn. TERHADAP GAMBARAN HISTOPATOLOGI PARU TIKUS (Rattus norvegicus WISTAR JANTAN PASCA PAPARAN ASAP ROKOK

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    Kristina Lusty Tohomi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Cigarette smoke is one of free radical source that can cause oxidative stress, emphysema, and inflamation on lung. Leaves of Premna cordifolia Linn. is one of antioxidant that can neutralize the free radical in body. The purpose of the research  is to find the antioxidant activity of Premna cordifolia leaves in reducing lung’s damage and to find the effective dose that can reduce lung’s damage after exposure of cigarette smoke. Dried leaves of Premna cordifolia are maserated with ethanol 70%.  Rats are divided into five groups, Group without treatment (CMC control, group that exposed to smoke, three groups that treated with 200 (P1, 400 (P2, and 600mg/kgBW (P3 of ethanolic extract of Premna cordifolia leaves after smoke exposure, and one group that treated with 18mg/kgBW of vitamin E as positive control after smoke exposure. All groups were treated with three cigarette without filter for 14 days. All rat were terminated on the fifteent day. Right lung were collected and subjected to necropsy and stained with Hematoksilin-Eosin. The result show that all doses of ethanolic extract of Premna cordifolia reduce lung damage in enlarge alveolar, thickening of alveolar’s wall, and infiltration of inflmation cells in rats. The effective dose is 600mg/kgbw because the potential of Premna cordifolia leaves extract was same with the potential of positive contol in reducing the lung damage. Keywords: Antioxidant, Premna cordifolia, Lung histopathology, Cigarette smoke   ABSTRAK Asap rokok merupakan salah satu sumber radikal bebas yang dapat menyebabkan stress oksidatif, emfisema dan peradangan paru. Daun buas-buas (Premna cordifolia Linn. merupakan salah satu antioksidan yang dapat menetralisir keberadaan radikal bebas dalam tubuh. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui aktivitas antioksidan daun buas-buas dalam menurunkan derajat kerusakan paru pada tikus pasca paparan asap rokok dan dosis efektif daun buas-buas yang dapat menurunkan

  18. GRAPE’S LEATHER AND SEED EXTRACT (VITIS VINIFERA IMPROVING THE FUNCTION OF WISTAR RATS’ MOTOR (RATTUS NORVEGICUS ISCHEMIC STROKE MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rasjad Indra

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Grape peel and seed extract (Vitis vinifera, that has resveratrol, is one of many antioxidants that can pass through blood brain barrier and can induce release neurotrophic factor that contribute in ERK 1/2 pathway mechanism in post stroke. Objective. To prove that grape peel and seed extract can regenerate neuron in brain functional Methods. True experimental design with five groups in this research. The five groups are negative control, positive control, grape peel and seed extract 50mg/KgBW, 100mg/KgBW, and 200mg/KgBW. rats are given grape peel and seed extract in variable dose to know how extract’s effect in neuron repairment. The repairment is monitored from ladder rung walking test score. Results. Range average score ladder rung walking test post stroke dan post treatment group N, K, Ra, Rb, dan Rc, were 0 ± 0, 0.001028933 ± 0.011664445, 0.123214286 ± 0.019834983, 0.064744427 ± 0.024296721, 0.03781401 ± 0.006888803. Statistical test used Annova significantly p;0,001.Dose 50mg/KgBW is effective in repairing neuron. Conclusion. Grape’s leather and Seed extract 50 mg/kgBW can improve neuron regeneration on animal model.

  19. High prevalence of rat hepatitis E virus in wild rats in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Guan, Dawei; Su, Juan; Takeda, Naokazu; Wakita, Takaji; Li, Tian-Cheng; Ke, Chang Wen

    2013-08-30

    Serum samples from a total of 713 wild rats captured in Zhanjiang city in China from December 2011 to September 2012 were investigated for the prevalence of rat hepatitis E virus (HEV) by exploring rat HEV-specific antibodies and RNA. By an ELISA based on recombinant rat HEV-like particles (HEV-LPs), 23.3% (166/713) of the rats were positive for anti-HEV IgG, and 8.3% (59/713) were positive for anti-HEV IgM. The IgG-positive rates in Rattus norvegicus, Bandicota indica, Rattus flavipectus, Rattus rattoides losea, and Rattus rattus hainanus, were 27.8% (64/230), 23.0% (40/174), 19.9% (34/171), 21.5% (26/121), and 11.8% (2/17), while the IgM-positive rates were 8.3% (19/230), 6.9% (12/174), 8.2% (14/171), 10.7% (13/121), and 5.9% (1/17), respectively. The IgG-positive rate of the rats captured in rural areas, 24.1% (84/348), was higher than that in the central area of Zhanjiang city, 15.1% (32/212). The highest IgG-positive rates, as high as 45.3% (39/86), were detected in wild rats trapped in the garbage dump. Twelve of the 59 IgM-positive serum samples were positive for HEV RNA, which was detected in all of the wild rat species except R. rattus hainanus. A phylogenetic analysis of the partial genome of rat HEV ORF1 indicated that all of the 12 HEV strains belong to rat HEV, and no other genotype HEV were detected. The rat HEV from Zhangjiang city could be classified into three separated clusters, suggesting that the infection due to rat HEV with a variety of genome entities occurs extensively among wild rats in China. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of Oral Tag 1-MeATN02 (TRIAMINOGUANIDINIUM-1-METHYL-5-NITRIMINOTETRAZOLATE-TAG-MNT/K-26) Exposure to Female Rats (RATTUS NORVEGICUS) TAG-MNT/K-26 Exposure to Female Rats (Rattus norvegicus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    7, and 14. Food consumption based on change in feeder weights was monitored weekly. Animals were observed daily for toxic signs and morbidity...0.7 0.’ 0.7 0.0 PeT 1073.6 1071.1 1062.6 1035.8 1084.0 848.1 1086.5 {KIuLJ 208.6 107.4 180.0 316.7 216.8 426.6 8&.4 MPV 5.< 5.’ 5.’ ’.2 ’.2 S.< 5

  1. The decrease of fibroblasts and fibroblast growth factor-2 expressions as a result of X-ray irradiation on the tooth extraction socket in Rattus novergicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma Yasmin Mahdani

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Wound healing involves cellular, molecular, physiological, and biochemical processes as responses to tissue damage. For instance, when a failure during tooth extraction occurs, radiographic examination, X-rays, is required. X-rays as an enforcer diagnosis can damage DNA chain, resulting in cell death and inhibition of wound healing process. Purpose: This research aims to analyze fibroblasts cell number and fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2 expressions during wound healing process after tooth extraction as a result of X-ray irradiation. Methods: There were three research groups, each consisting of ten rats. Incisor tooth extraction was performed on the left lower jaw, and then X-ray examination was conducted at certain irradiation doses, namely 0 mSv, 0.08 mSv, and 0.16 mSv. Those animals were sacrificed on day 3, and on day 7 after the extraction, histopathology and immunohistochemistry examinations were conducted to determine fibroblast cell number and FGF-2 expressions. Data obtained were then analyzed by oneway ANOVA and Tukey HSD tests. Results: The number of fibroblasts decreased significantly in the group with the irradiation dose of 0.16 mSv applied on day 7 after the extraction (p <0.05. Similarly, the number of FGF-2 expressions decreased significantly in the group with the irradiation dose of 0.16 mSv applied on days 3 and 7 after the extraction (p <0.05. Conclusion: X-ray irradiation at a dose of 0.16 mSv can inhibit the healing process of tooth extraction wound due to the decreasing of fibroblasts cell number and FGF-2 expressions.

  2. Skeletal Muscle Regeneration in a Rat (Rattus norvegicus) Model with CorMatrix and Adipose Derived Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-16

    Behavioral Study _ Adjuvant Use Biohazard C _X_D E _Inactive, protocol initiated but has not/will not be completed _X_ Completed, all approved...REPLACEMENT IAL TERNATIVES): Since the last IACUC approval, have alternatives to animal use become available that could be substituted in this protocol...implemented to reduce the degree of pain or distress experienced by study animals, or have animals of lower phylogenetic" status or sentience been identified

  3. TIKUS SAWAH (Rattus argentiventer, Robinson & Kloss 1916

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dian Indra Dewi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Tikus sawah termasuk dalam Famili Muridae, famili ini merupakan kelompok binatang mamalia yang paling berkembang di dunia. Muridae dapat dijumpai dimana saja pada berbagai habitat, adanya tekanan ekologis hanya berpengaruh sedikit terhadap perubahan struktur dan bentuk.Kemampuan indera tikus sawah berupa penglihatan, pendengaran, penciuman, perasa, dan peraba. Sedangkan kemampuan fisiknya yaitu mengerat (gnawing, menggali (digging, berlari, melompat, meloncat, memanjat (climbing, berenang (swimming dan menyelam (diving.

  4. Effects of Vitamin C on Kidney and Bone of Rats Exposed to Low ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and calcium kits were products of Quimica Clinica. Applicada SA (QCA), Spain, purchased from Equator. Medics, Benin City, Nigeria. Experimental Animals and Management. Forty-eight post weaned healthy albino rats (Rattus novergicus) of average weight 84.20g were obtained from the Animal Unit of Lagos University ...

  5. A genome-wide SNP panel for mapping and association studies in the rat.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijman, I.J.; Kuipers, S.; Verheul, M.; Guryev, V.; Cuppen, E.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The laboratory rat (Rattus norvegicus) is an important model for human disease, and is extensively used for studying complex traits for example in the physiological and pharmacological fields. To facilitate genetic studies like QTL mapping, genetic makers that can be easily typed, like

  6. A genome-wide SNP panel for mapping and association studies in the rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijman, Isaäc J; Kuipers, Sylvia; Verheul, Mark; Guryev, Victor; Cuppen, Edwin

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The laboratory rat (Rattus norvegicus) is an important model for human disease, and is extensively used for studying complex traits for example in the physiological and pharmacological fields. To facilitate genetic studies like QTL mapping, genetic makers that can be easily typed, like

  7. Access to enriched housing is rewarding to rats as reflected by their anticipatory behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harst, van der J.E.; Fermont, P.C.J.; Bilstra, A.; Spruijt, B.M.

    2003-01-01

    We tested the general assumption that enrichment of the housing environment is rewarding to laboratory rats, Rattus norvegicus. We used the behavioural response in anticipation of a forthcoming reward as a measure of the rewarding property of a simple enriched cage. For this, a Pavlovian

  8. Leptospirosis en el Perú: II. Incidencia de la infección en las ratas (Rattus norvegicus de la ciudad de Lima e identificación de la cepa infectante

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arístides Herrer

    1960-01-01

    Full Text Available Entre mayo de 1955 y diciembre de 1957 se ha estudiado la incidencia de la leptospirosis en las ratas (Rattus norvegicus que infestan los mercados de abastos en la ciudad de Lima, tratando al mismo tiempo de determinar el valor diagnóstico de cada uno de los métodos empleados. En tales estudios se utilizaron 600 ratas, en la mayoría de las cuales se efectuaron hemocultivos, cultivos del riñón, reacciones serológicas de aglutinación-lisis y observaciones al campo oscuro del triturado de riñón, Al determinar la presencia de anticuerpos en la sangre de las ratas así como en la identificación de las cepas que se aislaran en cultivo, se emplearon las siguientes cepas serológicas de leptospiras: L. icterohaemorrhagiae AB Wijnberg, L. canicola Ruebush, L. autumnalis AB Akiyama A., L. bataviae Van Tienen, L. sejroe Mallersdorf, L. pomona S91, L. ballum S102, L. hyos, L. grippotyphosa Moscow V., L. hebdomadis y L. pyrogenes Salinem. Además, con frecuencia se usó también dos cepas (R23 y R410 aisladas por los autores durante las investigaciones e identificadas como L. icterohaemorrhagiae. Los principales resultados obtenidos son los siguientes: 1. Los hemocultivos fueron positivos en el 1.2%, entretanto que los cultivos del riñón ofrecieron una positividad de 49.0%, variando entre 38.3 y 54.5% de acuerdo con los diferentes mercados donde fueran capturadas las ratas. La observación al campo oscuro del triturado del riñón fue positiva en el 26. 0% de los casos. De acuerdo con la reacción de aglutinación-lisis, los sueros fueron positivos en el 32.8%. En 591 ratas, en las que se realizaran los estudios empleando los cuatro métodos de diagnóstico mencionados, la positividad fue de 62.4%. 2. La reacción de aglutinación-lisis fue positiva en 195 sueros, 167 (85.6% de los cuales reaccionaron únicamente con el antígeno de L. icterohaemorrhagiae AB Wijnberg; seis sueros también reaccionaron tan sólo con un antígeno, pero diferente al

  9. Helminth communities from two urban rat populations in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The prevalence of parasitic infections among commensal animals such as black and brown rats in many tropical countries is high and in comparison with studies on rodents in temperate climates, little is known about the community structure of their parasites. Rodent borne parasites pose threats to human health since people living in close proximity to rodent populations can be exposed to infection. Methods The helminth community structures of two urban rat populations in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia were investigated. The rats were from two contrasting sites in the city caught over a period of 21 months in 2000-2002. Results Eleven species of helminth parasites comprising seven nematodes (Heterakis spumosum, Mastophorus muris, Nippostrongylus brasiliensis, Syphacia muris, Pterygodermatites tani/whartoni, Gongylonema neoplasticum, Angiostrongylus malaysiensis), three cestodes (Hymenolepis (Rodentolepis) nana, H. diminuta and Taenia taeniaeformis) and one acanthocephalan (Moniliformis moniliformis) were recovered from 346 Rattus rattus and 104 R. norvegicus from two urban sites, Bangsar and Chow Kit, during 2000-2002. Rattus rattus harboured over 60% of all helminths compared with R. norvegicus, although both host species played a dominant role in the different sites with, for example R. norvegicus at Bangsar and R. rattus at Chow Kit accounting for most of the nematodes. Overall 80% of rats carried at least one species of helminth, with the highest prevalences being shown by H. diminuta (35%), H. spumosum (29.8%) and H. nana (28.4%). Nevertheless, there were marked differences in prevalence rates between sites and hosts. The influence of extrinsic (year, season and site) and intrinsic (species, sex and age) factors affecting infracommunity structure (abundance and prevalence of infection) and measures of component community structure were analyzed. Conclusions Since at least two species of rat borne helminths in Kuala Lumpur have the potential to infect humans

  10. Helminth communities from two urban rat populations in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

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    Mohd Zain Siti N

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of parasitic infections among commensal animals such as black and brown rats in many tropical countries is high and in comparison with studies on rodents in temperate climates, little is known about the community structure of their parasites. Rodent borne parasites pose threats to human health since people living in close proximity to rodent populations can be exposed to infection. Methods The helminth community structures of two urban rat populations in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia were investigated. The rats were from two contrasting sites in the city caught over a period of 21 months in 2000-2002. Results Eleven species of helminth parasites comprising seven nematodes (Heterakis spumosum, Mastophorus muris, Nippostrongylus brasiliensis, Syphacia muris, Pterygodermatites tani/whartoni, Gongylonema neoplasticum, Angiostrongylus malaysiensis, three cestodes (Hymenolepis (Rodentolepis nana, H. diminuta and Taenia taeniaeformis and one acanthocephalan (Moniliformis moniliformis were recovered from 346 Rattus rattus and 104 R. norvegicus from two urban sites, Bangsar and Chow Kit, during 2000-2002. Rattus rattus harboured over 60% of all helminths compared with R. norvegicus, although both host species played a dominant role in the different sites with, for example R. norvegicus at Bangsar and R. rattus at Chow Kit accounting for most of the nematodes. Overall 80% of rats carried at least one species of helminth, with the highest prevalences being shown by H. diminuta (35%, H. spumosum (29.8% and H. nana (28.4%. Nevertheless, there were marked differences in prevalence rates between sites and hosts. The influence of extrinsic (year, season and site and intrinsic (species, sex and age factors affecting infracommunity structure (abundance and prevalence of infection and measures of component community structure were analyzed. Conclusions Since at least two species of rat borne helminths in Kuala Lumpur have the potential

  11. Differential expression of cytochrome P450 genes between bromadiolone-resistant and anticoagulant-susceptible Norway rats:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Mette Drude; Heiberg, Ann-Charlotte; Fredholm, Merete

    2008-01-01

    Anticoagulant resistance in Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus) has been suggested to be due to mutations in the VKORC1 gene, encoding the target protein of anticoagulant rodenticides such as warfarin and bromadiolone. Other factors, e.g. pharmacokinetics, may however also contribute to resistance. We...

  12. Differential expression of cytochrome P450 genes between bromadiolone-resistant and anticoagulant-susceptible Norway rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Mette Drude Kjær; Heiberg, Ann-Charlotte; Fredholm, Merete

    2008-01-01

    Background: Anticoagulant resistance in Norway rats, Rattus norvegicus (Berk.), has been suggested to be conferred by mutations in the VKORC1 gene, encoding the target protein of anticoagulant rodenticides. Other factors, e.g. pharmacokinetics, may also contribute to resistance, however. To examine...

  13. Identification of endoparasites in rats of various habitats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Priyanto

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakLatar belakang: Tikus merupakan hewan yang habitatnya berdekatan dengan lingkungan manusia. Keberadaannya merupakan faktor resiko penularan beberapa jenis penyakit zoonosis. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui jenis tikus di habitat pemukiman, kebun, sawah, dan pasar di Kabupaten Banjarnegara, serta mengidentifikasi zoonotik endoparasit yang terdapat pada organ hati, lambung, usus dan sekum tikus.Metode: Penangkapan tikus dilakukan di 3 kecamatan selama Juli - Oktober 2012. Observasi endoparasit dilakukan pada organ hati dan saluran pencernaan yang meliputi lambung, usus dan sekum. Analisis data secara deskriptif dengan menggambarkan spesies tikus dan endoparasit yang didapat.Hasil: Spesies tikus yang tertangkap dalam penelitian ini adalah Rattus tanezumi, Rattus exulans, Rattus tiomanicus, Rattus argentiventer, Rattus norvegicus dan Suncus murinus. Spesies endoparasit yang menginfeksi hati tikus adalah Capillaria hepatica dan Cystycercus Taenia taeniaeformis. Endoparasit yang menginfeksi organ lambung tikus adalah Masthoporus sp. dan Gongylonema neoplasticum. Nippostrongylus brassilliensis, Hymenolepis diminuta, Hymenolepis nana, Monili formis sp. dan Echinostoma sp. ditemukan menginfeksi organ usus tikus, sedangkan Syphacia muris ditemukan menginfeksi organ sekum. Tidak ditemukan jenis endoparasit yang menginfeksi lebih dari satu jenis organ tikus.Kesimpulan: Endoparasit tikus yang bersifat zoonosis dalam penelitian ini adalah Capillaria hepatica, Gongylonema neoplasticum, Hymenolepis diminuta, Hymenolepis nana dan Syphacia muris. Tiap jenis endoparasit menginfeksi organ yang spesifik pada tikus. (Health Science Indones 2014;1:49-53Kata kunci:tikus, endoparasit, zoonosis.AbstractBackground: Rat is an animal living around people. It is a risk factor for several types of zoonotic diseases. The aims of this study were to determine the rat species from various habitats including houses, gardens, rice fields, and traditional market

  14. Accumulation and biological effects of metals in wild rats in mining areas of Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Shouta M M; Ikenaka, Yoshinori; Hamada, Kyohei; Muzandu, Kaampwe; Choongo, Kennedy; Yabe, John; Umemura, Takashi; Ishizuka, Mayumi

    2013-06-01

    The lead-zinc (Pb-Zn) mine in Kabwe City and the copper-cobalt (Cu-Co) mine in the Copperbelt Province are major mining areas in Zambia. To examine the effects of metal pollution on wildlife, wild black rats (Rattus rattus and Rattus tanezumi) were captured in Kabwe and Chingola (in the Copperbelt Province), and in Lusaka (a noncontaminated site). Wild black rats in Kabwe accumulated significantly higher concentrations of Pb and Cd in various organs than rats from Lusaka. In Chingola, significantly higher concentrations of Cu, Co, Pb, and Cd were accumulated in wild black rats than in rats from Lusaka. These results were in accordance with metal accumulation patterns in soil. From toxicological aspects, concentrations of Pb and Cd in rats were generally low. However, metallothionein-1 (MT-1) and metallothionein-2 (MT-2) mRNA expression levels in wild black rats from Kabwe were significantly higher than those in rats from Lusaka. A generalized linear model (GLM) showed that concentrations of Zn and Cu had positive effects on the MT-1 and MT-2 mRNA expression. These results suggest that wild black rats in Zambian mining sites were exposed to metals that accumulated in their organs, causing biological responses such as MT mRNA induction. GLM indicated that heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) mRNA expression could be a marker for Cr exposure.

  15. Invasive rats strengthen predation pressure on bird eggs in a South Pacific island rainforest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duron, Quiterie; Bourguet, Edouard; De Meringo, Hélène; Millon, Alexandre; Vidal, Eric

    2017-12-01

    Invasive rats ( Rattus spp.) are known to have pervasive impacts on island birds, particularly on their nesting success. To conserve or restore bird populations, numerous invasive rat control or eradication projects are undertaken on islands worldwide. However, such projects represent a huge investment and the decision-making process requires proper assessment of rat impacts. Here, we assessed the influence of two sympatric invasive rats ( Rattus rattus and R. exulans ) on native bird eggs in a New Caledonian rainforest, using artificial bird-nest monitoring. A total of 178 artificial nests containing two eggs of three different sizes were placed either on the ground or 1.5 m high and monitored at the start of the birds' breeding season. Overall, 12.4% of the nests were depredated during the first 7 days. At site 1, where nests were monitored during 16 days, 41.8% of the nests were depredated. The main predator was the native crow Corvus moneduloides , responsible for 62.9% of the overall predation events. Rats were responsible for only 22.9% of the events, and ate only small and medium eggs at both heights. Our experiment suggests that in New Caledonia, predation pressure by rats strengthens overall bird-nest predation, adding to that by native predators. Experimental rat control operations may allow reduced predation pressure on nests as well as the recording of biodiversity responses after rat population reduction.

  16. Effect of housing conditions on sex differences in spatial cognition in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Harris, Anjanette Patricia

    2009-01-01

    Male mammals typically outperform females in tests of spatial ability. However, in laboratory rats (Rattus norvegicus), from which the majority of data in support of this difference come, sex differences are not consistently found. Since stress affects cognition in males and females differently, I investigated possible sources of stress (e.g. housing conditions, spatial tasks) and the impact they have on cognitive performance in male and female rats. Firstly, I investigated ...

  17. Geographical Distribution of Twelve Transferrin Alleles in Black Rats of Asia and Oceania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriwaki, Kazuo; Kato, Hatao; Imai, Hirotami; Tsuchiya, Kimiyuki; Yosida, Tosihide

    1975-01-01

    About 450 black rats (Rattus rattus) were collected from 25 localities in Asia and Oceania. Their serum transferrins were analyzed by a newly developed thin layer acrylamide gel electrophoresis accompanied with acrinol pretreatment, exhibiting 12 transferrin bands. Generally, Asian type rats (2N=42) had fast-moving transferrins (R-series), Ceylon type (2N=40) moderately moving ones and Oceanian type (2N=38) slowly moving ones (C-series). Exceptionally, in northern India and Pakistan all Asian-type rats had C-series Tf. The possibility that divergence of R-series Tf and C-series Tf had preceded the karyotypic differentiation from 42 to 38 is proposed. In combination with the previous molecular data, the time of the divergence is roughly estimated between the order of a million years and ten thousand years. PMID:1132680

  18. Celular viability of rat small bowel mucosa, after hypovolemic shock correction with NaCl 7,5% solution

    OpenAIRE

    Brito Marcus Vinicius Henriques; Nigro Amaury José Texeira; Montero Edna Frasson de Souza; Nascimento José Luiz Martins do; Silva Paula Roberta Ferreira da; Siqueira Roberta Bianca Peres

    2003-01-01

    PURPOSE: Study the effect of the volemic correction with different solutions, in the mucous of the small bowel in rats. METHODS: Were used 120 rats Wistar (Rattus norvegicus albinus), males, adults, seemingly healthy, with individual weight varying between 310 and 410g, originating from of the Instituto Evandro Chagas of Belém of Pará, submitted to an adaptation period of 15 days, receiving water and ration ad libitum, during the role experiment. For the research, ten animals were distributed...

  19. Effect of Banisteriopsis caapi and Psychotria viridis “ayahuasca Binomio” ingestion in the rat brain hippocampus

    OpenAIRE

    Castro, Américo; Químico Farmacéutico, Instituto de Investigación en Ciencias Farmacéuticas y Recursos Naturales, Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, UNMSM, Lima, Perú; Ramos, Norma; Químico Farmacéutico, Instituto de Investigación en Ciencias Farmacéuticas y Recursos Naturales, Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, UNMSM, Lima, Perú; Juárez, José; Químico Farmacéutico, Instituto de Investigación en Ciencias Farmacéuticas y Recursos Naturales, Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, UNMSM, Lima, Perú; Inostroza, Luis; Estudiantes de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Instituto de Investigación en Ciencias Farmacéuticas y Recursos Naturales, Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, UNMSM, Lima, Perú; Ponce, Juan; Estudiantes de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Instituto de Investigación en Ciencias Farmacéuticas y Recursos Naturales, Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, UNMSM, Lima, Perú; Choquesillo, Fritz; Estudiantes de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Instituto de Investigación en Ciencias Farmacéuticas y Recursos Naturales, Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, UNMSM, Lima, Perú; Félix, Luis; Estudiantes de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Instituto de Investigación en Ciencias Farmacéuticas y Recursos Naturales, Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, UNMSM, Lima, Perú; Escudero, Jackeline; Estudiantes de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Instituto de Investigación en Ciencias Farmacéuticas y Recursos Naturales, Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, UNMSM, Lima, Perú; Navarro, Arnaldo; Estudiantes de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Instituto de Investigación en Ciencias Farmacéuticas y Recursos Naturales, Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, UNMSM, Lima, Perú; Huaman, Susan; Estudiantes de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Instituto de Investigación en Ciencias Farmacéuticas y Recursos Naturales, Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, UNMSM, Lima, Perú; Machaca, Bryan; Estudiantes de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Instituto de Investigación en Ciencias Farmacéuticas y Recursos Naturales, Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, UNMSM, Lima, Perú; López, Julio; Médico Patólogo, Instituto de Investigación en Ciencias Farmacéuticas y Recursos Naturales, Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, UNMSM, Lima, Perú; Ramirez, Emilio; Médico Patólogo, Escuela de Formación profesional, Farmacia y Bioquímica, Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas, Universidad Nacional San Cristóbal de Huamanga, Ayacucho, Perú; Ruiz, Julio; Médico Patólogo, Instituto de Investigación en Química Biológica, Microbiología y Biotecnología, Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, UNMSM, Lima-Perú; Raez, José; Médico Patólogo, Instituto de Patología, Facultad de Medicina Humana, UNMSM, Lima-Perú

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To assess the effect of Banisteriopsis caapi and Psychotria viridis ‘binomio ayahuasca’ ingestion in rat hippocampus. Design. Experimental, descriptive, analytical, and cross-sectional study. Institution. Research Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Natural Resources, Faculty of Pharmacy and Biochemistry, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Peru. Biological material. Rats. Interventions. Orogastric administration of ‘binomio ayahuasca’ in adult Rattus norvegicus al...

  20. Analysis of vkorc1 polymorphisms in Norway rats using the roof rat as outgroup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, Juan C; Song, Ying; Moore, Anthony; Borchert, Jeff N; Kohn, Michael H

    2010-05-24

    Certain mutations in the vitamin K epoxide reductase subcomponent 1 gene (vkorc1) mediate rodent resistance to warfarin and other anticoagulants. Testing for resistance often involves analysis of the vkorc1. However, a genetic test for the roof rat (Rattus rattus) has yet to be developed. Moreover, an available roof rat vkorc1 sequence would enable species identification based on vkorc1 sequence and the evaluation of natural selection on particular vkorc1 polymorphisms in the Norway rat (R. norvegicus). We report the coding sequence, introns and 5' and 3' termini for the vkorc1 gene of roof rats (R. r. alexandrinus and R. r. frugivorus) from Uganda, Africa. Newly designed PCR primers now enable genetic testing of the roof rat and Norway rat. Only synonymous and noncoding polymorphisms were found in roof rats from Uganda. Both nominal subspecies of roof rats were indistinguishable from each other but were distinct from R. losea and R. flavipectus; however, the roof rat also shares at least three coding sequence polymorphisms with R. losea and R. flavipectus. Many of recently published vkorc1 synonymous and non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in Norway rats are likely SNPs from roof rats and/or other Rattus species. Tests applied to presumably genuine Norway rat vkorc1 SNPs are consistent with a role for selection in two populations carrying the derived Phe63Cys and Tyr139Cys mutations. Geographic mapping of vkorc1 SNPs in roof rats should be facilitated by our report. Our assay should be applicable to most species of Rattus, which are intermediate in genetic distance from roof and Norway rats. Vkorc1-mediated resistance due to non-synonymous coding SNPs is not segregating in roof rats from Uganda. By using the roof rat sequence as a reference vkorc1, SNPs now can be assigned to the correct rat species with more confidence. Sampling designs and genotyping strategies employed so far have helped detect candidate mutations underlying vkorc1-mediated

  1. CCR5 polymorphism and plague resistance in natural populations of the black rat in Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tollenaere, C; Rahalison, L; Ranjalahy, M; Rahelinirina, S; Duplantier, J-M; Brouat, C

    2008-12-01

    Madagascar remains one of the world's largest plague foci. The black rat, Rattus rattus, is the main reservoir of plague in rural areas. This species is highly susceptible to plague in plague-free areas (low-altitude regions), whereas rats from the plague focus areas (central highlands) have evolved a disease-resistance polymorphism. We used the candidate gene CCR5 to investigate the genetic basis of plague resistance in R. rattus. We found a unique non-synonymous substitution (H184R) in a functionally important region of the gene. We then compared (i) CCR5 genotypes of dying and surviving plague-challenged rats and (ii) CCR5 allelic frequencies in plague focus and plague-free populations. Our results suggested a higher prevalence of the substitution in resistant animals compared to susceptible individuals, and a tendency for higher frequencies in plague focus areas compared to plague-free areas. Therefore, the CCR5 polymorphism may be involved in Malagasy black rat plague resistance. CCR5 and other undetermined plague resistance markers may provide useful biological information about host evolution and disease dynamics.

  2. Human leptospirosis in Seychelles: A prospective study confirms the heavy burden of the disease but suggests that rats are not the main reservoir.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leon Biscornet

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Leptospirosis is a bacterial zoonosis caused by pathogenic Leptospira for which rats are considered as the main reservoir. Disease incidence is higher in tropical countries, especially in insular ecosystems. Our objectives were to determine the current burden of leptospirosis in Seychelles, a country ranking first worldwide according to historical data, to establish epidemiological links between animal reservoirs and human disease, and to identify drivers of transmission.A total of 223 patients with acute febrile symptoms of unknown origin were enrolled in a 12-months prospective study and tested for leptospirosis through real-time PCR, IgM ELISA and MAT. In addition, 739 rats trapped throughout the main island were investigated for Leptospira renal carriage. All molecularly confirmed positive samples were further genotyped.A total of 51 patients fulfilled the biological criteria of acute leptospirosis, corresponding to an annual incidence of 54.6 (95% CI 40.7-71.8 per 100,000 inhabitants. Leptospira carriage in Rattus spp. was overall low (7.7% but dramatically higher in Rattus norvegicus (52.9% than in Rattus rattus (4.4%. Leptospira interrogans was the only detected species in both humans and rats, and was represented by three distinct Sequence Types (STs. Two were novel STs identified in two thirds of acute human cases while noteworthily absent from rats.This study shows that human leptospirosis still represents a heavy disease burden in Seychelles. Genotype data suggests that rats are actually not the main reservoir for human disease. We highlight a rather limited efficacy of preventive measures so far implemented in Seychelles. This could result from ineffective control measures of excreting animal populations, possibly due to a misidentification of the main contaminating reservoir(s. Altogether, presented data stimulate the exploration of alternative reservoir animal hosts.

  3. Human leptospirosis in Seychelles: A prospective study confirms the heavy burden of the disease but suggests that rats are not the main reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biscornet, Leon; Dellagi, Koussay; Pagès, Frédéric; Bibi, Jastin; de Comarmond, Jeanine; Mélade, Julien; Govinden, Graham; Tirant, Maria; Gomard, Yann; Guernier, Vanina; Lagadec, Erwan; Mélanie, Jimmy; Rocamora, Gérard; Le Minter, Gildas; Jaubert, Julien; Mavingui, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    Background Leptospirosis is a bacterial zoonosis caused by pathogenic Leptospira for which rats are considered as the main reservoir. Disease incidence is higher in tropical countries, especially in insular ecosystems. Our objectives were to determine the current burden of leptospirosis in Seychelles, a country ranking first worldwide according to historical data, to establish epidemiological links between animal reservoirs and human disease, and to identify drivers of transmission. Methods A total of 223 patients with acute febrile symptoms of unknown origin were enrolled in a 12-months prospective study and tested for leptospirosis through real-time PCR, IgM ELISA and MAT. In addition, 739 rats trapped throughout the main island were investigated for Leptospira renal carriage. All molecularly confirmed positive samples were further genotyped. Results A total of 51 patients fulfilled the biological criteria of acute leptospirosis, corresponding to an annual incidence of 54.6 (95% CI 40.7–71.8) per 100,000 inhabitants. Leptospira carriage in Rattus spp. was overall low (7.7%) but dramatically higher in Rattus norvegicus (52.9%) than in Rattus rattus (4.4%). Leptospira interrogans was the only detected species in both humans and rats, and was represented by three distinct Sequence Types (STs). Two were novel STs identified in two thirds of acute human cases while noteworthily absent from rats. Conclusions This study shows that human leptospirosis still represents a heavy disease burden in Seychelles. Genotype data suggests that rats are actually not the main reservoir for human disease. We highlight a rather limited efficacy of preventive measures so far implemented in Seychelles. This could result from ineffective control measures of excreting animal populations, possibly due to a misidentification of the main contaminating reservoir(s). Altogether, presented data stimulate the exploration of alternative reservoir animal hosts. PMID:28846678

  4. Human leptospirosis in Seychelles: A prospective study confirms the heavy burden of the disease but suggests that rats are not the main reservoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biscornet, Leon; Dellagi, Koussay; Pagès, Frédéric; Bibi, Jastin; de Comarmond, Jeanine; Mélade, Julien; Govinden, Graham; Tirant, Maria; Gomard, Yann; Guernier, Vanina; Lagadec, Erwan; Mélanie, Jimmy; Rocamora, Gérard; Le Minter, Gildas; Jaubert, Julien; Mavingui, Patrick; Tortosa, Pablo

    2017-08-01

    Leptospirosis is a bacterial zoonosis caused by pathogenic Leptospira for which rats are considered as the main reservoir. Disease incidence is higher in tropical countries, especially in insular ecosystems. Our objectives were to determine the current burden of leptospirosis in Seychelles, a country ranking first worldwide according to historical data, to establish epidemiological links between animal reservoirs and human disease, and to identify drivers of transmission. A total of 223 patients with acute febrile symptoms of unknown origin were enrolled in a 12-months prospective study and tested for leptospirosis through real-time PCR, IgM ELISA and MAT. In addition, 739 rats trapped throughout the main island were investigated for Leptospira renal carriage. All molecularly confirmed positive samples were further genotyped. A total of 51 patients fulfilled the biological criteria of acute leptospirosis, corresponding to an annual incidence of 54.6 (95% CI 40.7-71.8) per 100,000 inhabitants. Leptospira carriage in Rattus spp. was overall low (7.7%) but dramatically higher in Rattus norvegicus (52.9%) than in Rattus rattus (4.4%). Leptospira interrogans was the only detected species in both humans and rats, and was represented by three distinct Sequence Types (STs). Two were novel STs identified in two thirds of acute human cases while noteworthily absent from rats. This study shows that human leptospirosis still represents a heavy disease burden in Seychelles. Genotype data suggests that rats are actually not the main reservoir for human disease. We highlight a rather limited efficacy of preventive measures so far implemented in Seychelles. This could result from ineffective control measures of excreting animal populations, possibly due to a misidentification of the main contaminating reservoir(s). Altogether, presented data stimulate the exploration of alternative reservoir animal hosts.

  5. 90-Day Inhalation Toxicity Study of Hydroprocessed Esters and Fatty Acids (HEFA) Bio-Based Jet Fuel in Rats (Rattus norvegicus) with Neurotoxicity Testing and Genotoxicity Assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    Testicular spermatid head counts and epididymal sperm counts were evaluated from the frozen right testes and frozen right epididymis (IVOS, Hamilton Thorne...through the epididymal corpus to the cauda. Sperm entering the caput are incomplete or immature, but mature as they progress to the cauda, where...Alpha 2-Microglobulin Protein ..............................................................7 3.12 Sperm Motility and Concentration

  6. Bacteria isolated from conspecific bite wounds in Norway and black rats: implications for rat bite-associated infections in people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himsworth, Chelsea G; Zabek, Erin; Tang, Patrick; Parsons, Kirbee L; Koehn, Martha; Jardine, Claire M; Patrick, David M

    2014-02-01

    Bites associated with wild and domestic Norway and black rats (Rattus norvegicus and Rattus rattus) may have a variety of health consequences in people. Bite-related infections are among the most significant of these consequences; however, there is little data on the infectious agents that can be transmitted from rats to people through biting. This is problematic because without an accurate understanding of bite-related infection risks, it is difficult for health professionals to evaluate the adequacy of existing guidelines for empirical therapy. The objectives of this study were to increase our knowledge of the bacterial species associated with rat bites by studying bite wounds that wild rats inflict upon one another and to review the literature regarding rat bites and bite wound management. Wild Norway and black rats (n=725) were trapped in Vancouver, Canada, and examined for bite wounds in the skin. All apparently infected wounds underwent aerobic and anaerobic culture, and isolated bacteria were identified. Thirty-six rats had bite wound-related infections, and approximately 22 different species of bacteria belonging to 18 genera were identified. Staphylococcus aureus was the most common isolate; however, the majority of infections (72.5%) were polymicrobial. Rat bites can result in infection with a number of aerobic and anaerobic Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. In humans, these wounds are best managed through early recognition and cleansing. The benefit of prophylactic antimicrobial treatment is debatable, but given the deep puncturing nature of rodent bites, we suggest that they should be considered a high risk for infection. Antibiotics selected should include coverage for a broad range of bacterial species.

  7. Complete mitochondrial genome of the greater bandicoot rat Bandicota indica (Rodentia: Muridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sihu; Cong, Haiyan; Kong, Lingming; Motokawa, Masaharu; Li, Yuchun

    2016-11-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of the greater bandicoot rat (Bandicota indica) was first sequenced and characterized. The genome was 16 326 bp in length, the composition and arrangement of its genes were analogous to other rodents. To confirm the phylogenetic position of B. indica, the mitochondrial nucleotide sequence data of other 20 Rodentia species were used to construct phylogenetic tree by maximum likelihood. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that genera Bandicota and Rattus were sister taxa, and B. indica was closer to the genus Rattus than to genera Niviventer and Leopoldamys. The mitochondrial genome of B. indica presented in this study can provide useful information for species delimitation, taxonomic and phylogenetic analyses as well as other studies of the species.

  8. Angiostrongylus cantonensis and rat lungworm disease in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiengo, Silvana Carvalho; Simões, Raquel de Oliveira; Fernandez, Monica Ammon; Maldonado, Arnaldo

    2013-06-01

    The metastrongyloid nematode genus Angiostrongylus includes 18 species, two of which are relevant from a medical standpoint, Angiostrongylus costaricensis and Angiostrongylus cantonensis. The first was described from Costa Rica in 1971 and causes abdominal angiostrongyliasis in the Americas, including in Brazil. Angiostrongylus cantonensis, first described in 1935 from Canton, China, is the causative agent of eosinophilic meningitis. The natural definitive hosts are rodents, and molluscs are the intermediate hosts. Paratenic or carrier hosts include crabs, freshwater shrimp, amphibians, flatworms, and fish. Humans become infected accidentally by ingestion of intermediate or paratenic hosts and the parasite does not complete the life cycle as it does in rats. Worms in the brain cause eosinophilic meningitis. This zoonosis, widespread in Southeast Asia and the Pacific islands, has now been reported from other regions. In the Americas there are records from the United States, Cuba, Jamaica, Brazil, Ecuador, and Haiti. In Brazil seven human cases have been reported since 2007 from the southeastern and northeastern regions. Epidemiological studies found infected specimens of Rattus norvegicus and Rattus rattus as well as many species of molluscs, including the giant African land snail, Achatina fulica, from various regions of Brazil. The spread of angiostrongyliasis is currently a matter of concern in Brazil.

  9. Токсико-генетические эффекты малых доз дельтаметрина (дельцида) в опытах с Rattus norvegicus

    OpenAIRE

    Пак, Ирина; Читаева, Елена; Хмелев, Александр; Сивков, Геннадий

    2011-01-01

    Исследовано влияние инсектицида «Дельцид» (дельтаметрин) на морфологическую и цитогенетическую изменчивость Rattus norvegicus. Показано, что пестицид в изученных концентрациях оказывает генотоксическое действие.

  10. Dietary shift of an invasive predator: rats, seabirds and sea turtles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caut, Stéphane; Angulo, Elena; Courchamp, Franck

    2008-01-01

    Rats have reached about 80% of the world's islands and are among the most successful invasive mammals. Rats are opportunistic predators that are notorious for their impact on a variety of animal and plant species. However, little documented evidence on the complexities of these interactions is available.In our study, we assessed the impact of black rats Rattus rattus introduced on a small uninhabited island with a relatively simple ecosystem, Surprise Island, New Caledonia. We also compared the diet of R. rattus in the presence and absence of breeding seabirds, assessing the dietary compensation for this potentially important food source. From 2002 to 2005, we used live trapping studies combined with stable isotope analysis and conventional diet analyses (direct observations, gut and faecal contents) to characterize the diet of rats.Our results suggest a heavy predatory impact on seabirds, which could constitute as much as 24% of the rat diet. Moreover, in the absence of birds, rats compensated marginally by preying more heavily on other components of their diet but mostly acquired a new resource. They shifted their diet by preying heavily upon another endangered species, the hatchlings of sea turtles Chelonia mydas, which could constitute the main resource in the diet of R. rattus in those periods. Abundance, body condition and distribution of the rats were consistent with heavy predation upon this additional resource.Synthesis and applications. In island ecosystems invasive rats prey mainly upon seabird eggs and chicks, thereby threatening their populations. Although rats are certainly capable of surviving on terrestrial foods outside the seabird nesting season, their ability to prey upon ephemeral but abundant resources, such as hatchling sea turtles, may contribute to maintaining their populations. This may explain their success on Surprise Island, an ecosystem of extreme conditions, and suggests that biologists and managers working with threatened species

  11. A survey of zoonotic pathogens carried by house mouse and black rat populations in Yucatan, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panti-May, J A; DE Andrade, R R C; Gurubel-González, Y; Palomo-Arjona, E; Sodá-Tamayo, L; Meza-Sulú, J; Ramírez-Sierra, M; Dumonteil, E; Vidal-Martínez, V M; Machaín-Williams, C; DE Oliveira, D; Reis, M G; Torres-Castro, M A; Robles, M R; Hernández-Betancourt, S F; Costa, F

    2017-08-01

    The house mouse (Mus musculus) and the black rat (Rattus rattus) are reservoir hosts for zoonotic pathogens, several of which cause neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). Studies of the prevalence of these NTD-causing zoonotic pathogens, in house mice and black rats from tropical residential areas are scarce. Three hundred and two house mice and 161 black rats were trapped in 2013 from two urban neighbourhoods and a rural village in Yucatan, Mexico, and subsequently tested for Trypanosoma cruzi, Hymenolepis diminuta and Leptospira interrogans. Using the polymerase chain reaction we detected T. cruzi DNA in the hearts of 4·9% (8/165) and 6·2% (7/113) of house mice and black rats, respectively. We applied the sedimentation technique to detect eggs of H. diminuta in 0·5% (1/182) and 14·2% (15/106) of house mice and black rats, respectively. Through the immunofluorescent imprint method, L. interrogans was identified in 0·9% (1/106) of rat kidney impressions. Our results suggest that the black rat could be an important reservoir for T. cruzi and H. diminuta in the studied sites. Further studies examining seasonal and geographical patterns could increase our knowledge on the epidemiology of these pathogens in Mexico and the risk to public health posed by rodents.

  12. Invasive rats on tropical islands: Their population biology and impacts on native species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grant A. Harper

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The three most invasive rat species, black or ship rat Rattus rattus, brown or Norway rats, R. norvegicus and Pacific rat, R. exulans have been incrementally introduced to islands as humans have explored the world’s oceans. They have caused serious deleterious effects through predation and competition, and extinction of many species on tropical islands, many of which are biodiversity hotspots. All three rat species are found in virtually all habitat types, including mangrove and arid shrub land. Black rats tend to dominate the literature but despite this the population biology of invasive rats, particularly Norway rats, is poorly researched on tropical islands. Pacific rats can often exceed population densities of well over 100 rats ha−1 and black rats can attain densities of 119 rats ha−1, which is much higher than recorded on most temperate islands. High densities are possibly due to high recruitment of young although the data to support this are limited. The generally aseasonally warm climate can lead to year-round breeding but can be restricted by either density-dependent effects interacting with resource constraints often due to aridity. Apparent adverse impacts on birds have been well recorded and almost all tropical seabirds and land birds can be affected by rats. On the Pacific islands, black rats have added to declines and extinctions of land birds caused initially by Pacific rats. Rats have likely caused unrecorded extinctions of native species on tropical islands. Further research required on invasive rats on tropical islands includes the drivers of population growth and carrying capacities that result in high densities and how these differ to temperate islands, habitat use of rats in tropical vegetation types and interactions with other tropical species, particularly the reptiles and invertebrates, including crustaceans.

  13. Determination of Leptospira borgpetersenii serovar Javanica and Leptospira interrogans serovar Bataviae as the persistent Leptospira serovars circulating in the urban rat populations in Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benacer, Douadi; Mohd Zain, Siti Nursheena; Sim, Shin Zhu; Mohd Khalid, Mohd Khairul Nizam; Galloway, Renee L; Souris, Marc; Thong, Kwai Lin

    2016-03-01

    Leptospirosis is an emerging infectious disease of global significance, and is endemic in tropical countries, including Malaysia. Over the last decade, a dramatic increase of human cases was reported; however, information on the primary vector, the rat, and the Leptospira serovars circulating among the rat population is limited. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to isolate Leptospira and characterise the serovars circulating in the urban rat populations from selected main cities in Peninsular Malaysia. Rat trappings were carried out between October 2011 to February 2014 in five urban cities which were chosen as study sites to represent different geographical locations in Peninsular Malaysia. Microscopic agglutination test (MAT) and PCR were carried out to identify the Leptospiral serogroup and determine the pathogenic status of the isolates, respectively while pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD)-PCR were used to characterize the isolates. Three rat species were identified from the three hundred and fifty seven rats captured with Rattus rattus, being the dominant rat species (285, 80 %) followed by Rattus norgevicus (53, 15 %) and Rattus exulans (19, 5 %). Only 39 samples (11.0 %) were positive by culture and further confirmed as pathogenic Leptospira by PCR. Significant associations were shown between host infection with locality, season, host-age and species. Based on MAT, two serogroups were identified in the population namely; L. borgpetersenii serogroup Javanica (n = 16) and L. interrogans serogroup Bataviae (n = 23). Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) distinguished the two serovars in the urban rat populations: L. borgpetersenii serovar Javanica (41 %), and L. interrogans serovar Bataviae (59 %). RAPD-PCR yielded 14 distinct patterns and was found to be more discriminative than PFGE. This study confirms two Leptospira serovars circulating among the urban rats population in Peninsular

  14. Expression profiling of the VKORC1 and Calumenin gene in a Danish strain of bromadiolone-resistant Norway rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Mette Drude; Heiberg, Ann-Charlotte; Fredholm, Merete

    2008-01-01

    Anticoagulant resistance in Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus) has been associated with two genes, VKORC1 and Calumenin, which encodes proteins essential to the vitamin K-dependent gamma-carboxylation system. Mutations in the VKORC1 gene are considered the genetic basis for anticoagulant resistance...... lowered VKOR activity and the elevated requirement for vitamin K previously described for Danish resistant rats whereas the low Calumenin expression could be an adaptation to secure a high efficacy of the vitamin K-dependent gamma-carboxylation system during anticoagulant exposure. Our findings...

  15. Energy metabolism and nutrient oxidation in young pigs and rats during feeding, starvation and re-feeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chwalibog, A; Jakobsen, Kirsten; Tauson, A -H

    2005-01-01

    The investigation included individual measurements of energy metabolism and oxidation of nutrients in 12 castrated male pigs (Sus scrofa) (20-40 kg) and 12 male rats (Rattus norvegicus) (65-105 g). Measurements were carried out in 5-6 days balance periods with ad libitum feeding, followed by 3-4 ...... to pigs shall be taken cautiously, keeping in mind that modern pigs have been selected for a high growth rate and protein deposition which has not been the case for the laboratory rat....

  16. Understanding the Persistence of Plague Foci in Madagascar: e2382

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Voahangy Andrianaivoarimanana; Katharina Kreppel; Nohal Elissa; Jean-Marc Duplantier; Elisabeth Carniel; Minoarisoa Rajerison; Ronan Jambou

    2013-01-01

    .... The black rat Rattus rattus, the main host of Y. pestis in Madagascar, is found to exhibit high resistance to plague in endemic areas, opposing the concept of high mortality rates among rats exposed to the infection...

  17. Understanding the persistence of plague foci in Madagascar

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Andrianaivoarimanana, Voahangy; Kreppel, Katharina; Elissa, Nohal; Duplantier, Jean-Marc; Carniel, Elisabeth; Rajerison, Minoarisoa; Jambou, Ronan

    2013-01-01

    .... The black rat Rattus rattus, the main host of Y. pestis in Madagascar, is found to exhibit high resistance to plague in endemic areas, opposing the concept of high mortality rates among rats exposed to the infection...

  18. Evaluation of acute toxicity of water extract of Azadirachta indica leaves and seeds in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakr, Shori Amal

    2013-07-15

    This study 'in vivo' was applied on rats "Rattus norvegicus" to determine the acute toxicity of water extracts of Azadirachta indica leaves and seeds during 48 hours and the 50% lethal dose (LD50) values were calculated. Different doses of A. indica water extracts of leaves and seeds were injected to the rats (Rattus norvegicus) and the percentage of death was recorded during 48 hours. The present study, found that the percentage of death in all treated rats with A. indica leaves and seeds water extracts were increased by doses increased (R2 = 0.9). Rats injected with higher doses of water extract ofA. indica leaves (0.1 and 0.092 g mL(-1)) and seeds (0.2 g mL(-1)) showed 100% death. The LD50 of water extract of A. indica leaves and seeds were 6.2, 9.4 mL kg(-1), respectively. Based on these results, it may be concluded that doses of water extract of A. indica leaves and seeds injected to rats showed significant acute toxicity.

  19. Histopathological effects of doxorubicin on pancreas in male albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.A. Ali

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the histopathological side effects of doxorubicin on pancreas tissue in male albino rats Rattus norvegicus. This study were used 55 adult rats (2.5-3.5 month of age. The rats divided into two groups, the first group include (35 rats. The second group were (20 rats. Microscopial examination of pancreas lesion demonstrated oedema around the acini, swelling of the epithelial cells of acini, occurance of cystic fibrosis (mucoviscidosis at the concentration of (4,5 mg/kg of body weight ,occurrence of small islets that form of few cells and exocrine-endocrine transformation. There were thickness in the walls of blood vessels, thrombus, congestion of blood vessels, we conclude, that doxorubicin had histopathological effect on pancreas in sub-acute doses more than chronic doses.

  20. Spatiotemporal variations of the incidence of the fleas (Siphonaptera ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... 1,402 domestic small mammals were captured in 54 stations using methods following Houémenou (2006). The most abundant small mammals were, Rattus rattus (black rat) (63.7%), Mastomys sp. (multimammate rat) (11.84%), Rattus norvegicus (brown rat) (11.48%) and Crocidura olivieri (7.85%). Among these rodents ...

  1. Serological prevalence of leptospiral infection in wild rats at the National Service Training Centres in Kelantan and Terengganu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed-Hassan, S N; Bahaman, A R; Mutalib, A R; Khairani-Bejo, S

    2010-04-01

    One hundred and sixty eight rats were trapped from the National Service Training Centres (NSTC) in Kelantan and Terengganu from October 2008 to May 2009. Microscopic agglutination test (MAT) was performed to detect the presence of agglutinating antibodies to Leptospira among the rats caught. All the MAT positive rats were identified as Rattus tiomanicus. In Kelantan, 17.3 % (14/81) of the rats had leptospiral antibodies to serovars Icterohaemorrhagiae (12.3%), Canicola (2.5%), Ballum (1.2%), and Pyrogenes (1.2%). In Terengganu, 18.4% (16/87) of the rats had antibodies to serovars Icterohaemorrhagiae (15%), Canicola (1.1%), Pyrogenes (1.1%) and Hebdomadis (1.1%). This study indicated that Leptospira serovars were prevalent in the rat population in the study areas and could be a source of infection to humans. Therefore, control of the rat population in all NSTC is critical to prevent outbreaks of leptospirosis amongst the NSTC trainees.

  2. GLUCOSE AND TOTAL PROTEIN LEVEL IN LABORATORY RATS UNDER CONDITIONS OF SHORT-TERM FASTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damir Suljević

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Glucose level (UV enzymatic method and total protein level (Biuret method were measured in the blood samples of the rats exposed to short-term starvation. We found a statistically significant increase in the glucose level in experimental animals during starvation, which is also evident in males and females in the experimental group (p <0.05, while decrease in the total protein level was not statistically significant. During starvation, more significant weight loss was observed in females compared to males.Key words: glucose, total protein, serum, Rattus

  3. Exploiting olfactory learning in alien rats to protect birds' eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Catherine J; Banks, Peter B

    2012-11-20

    Predators must ignore unhelpful background "noise" within information-rich environments and focus on useful cues of prey activity to forage efficiently. Learning to disregard unrewarding cues should happen quickly, weakening future interest in the cue. Prey odor, which is rapidly investigated by predators, may be particularly appropriate for testing whether consistently unrewarded cues are ignored, and whether such behavior can be exploited to benefit prey. Using wild free-ranging populations of black rats, Rattus rattus, an alien predator of global concern, we tested whether the application of bird-nesting odors before the introduction of artificial nests (odor preexposure), enhanced the survival of birds eggs (prey) compared with areas where prey and nesting odors were introduced concurrently. In areas where predators had encountered prey odor before prey being available, the subsequently introduced eggs showed 62% greater survival than in areas where prey and odor were introduced together. We suggest that black rats preexposed to prey odor learned to ignore the unrewarding cue, leading to a significant improvement in prey survival that held for the 7-d monitoring period. Exploiting rapid learning that underpins foraging decisions by manipulating sensory contexts offers a nonlethal, but effective approach to reducing undesirable predatory impacts. Techniques based on olfactory preexposure may provide prey with protection during critical periods of vulnerability, such as immediately following a prey reintroduction. These results also highlight the potential benefits to species conservation to be gained from a greater understanding of the cognitive mechanisms driving alien predator behavior within ecological contexts.

  4. Exploiting olfactory learning in alien rats to protect birds’ eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Catherine J.; Banks, Peter B.

    2012-01-01

    Predators must ignore unhelpful background “noise” within information-rich environments and focus on useful cues of prey activity to forage efficiently. Learning to disregard unrewarding cues should happen quickly, weakening future interest in the cue. Prey odor, which is rapidly investigated by predators, may be particularly appropriate for testing whether consistently unrewarded cues are ignored, and whether such behavior can be exploited to benefit prey. Using wild free-ranging populations of black rats, Rattus rattus, an alien predator of global concern, we tested whether the application of bird-nesting odors before the introduction of artificial nests (odor preexposure), enhanced the survival of birds eggs (prey) compared with areas where prey and nesting odors were introduced concurrently. In areas where predators had encountered prey odor before prey being available, the subsequently introduced eggs showed 62% greater survival than in areas where prey and odor were introduced together. We suggest that black rats preexposed to prey odor learned to ignore the unrewarding cue, leading to a significant improvement in prey survival that held for the 7-d monitoring period. Exploiting rapid learning that underpins foraging decisions by manipulating sensory contexts offers a nonlethal, but effective approach to reducing undesirable predatory impacts. Techniques based on olfactory preexposure may provide prey with protection during critical periods of vulnerability, such as immediately following a prey reintroduction. These results also highlight the potential benefits to species conservation to be gained from a greater understanding of the cognitive mechanisms driving alien predator behavior within ecological contexts. PMID:23071301

  5. ISOLATION AND GENOTYPING OF Toxoplasma gondii IN SERONEGATIVE URBAN RATS AND PRESENCE OF ANTIBODIES IN COMMUNICATING DOGS IN BRAZIL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffolo, Bruno Bergamo; Toledo, Roberta dos Santos; Martins, Felippe Danyel Cardoso; Bugni, Felipe Monteiro; Costa, Letícia da; Marana, Elizabete Regina Marangoni; Navarro, Italmar Teodorico; Garcia, João Luis; Su, Chunlei; Freire, Roberta Lemos

    2016-01-01

    The role of rodents in the epidemiology of toxoplasmosis was investigated in Londrina, Paraná State, Brazil. One hundred and eighty-one Rattus rattus and one Mus musculus were caught in 37 places. Blood and tissues were collected and submitted to the indirect fluorescence antibody test (IFAT) and the bioassay. Serum samples from 61 contacting dogs were also collected. Sixteen rats (8.8%) were positive for Toxoplasma gondii, but just two of them were positive by serology and bioassay test. Antibodies were found in nine (4.9%) rats. Tissues of nine rats bioassayed were positive and four isolates were obtained. Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis was performed using 12 markers (SAG1, SAG2, SAG2-alt, C22-8, C29-2, L358, PK1, BTUB, GRA6, SAG3, Apico, CS3). Genotyping revealed that the four strains isolated from this study have been isolated before in cats and chickens from Brazil. None of the isolates was identified like clonal archetypal T-types I, II, and III. The rats presented lower serologic Toxoplasma gondii prevalence (8.8%) compared to contacting dogs (70.5%).

  6. Analysis of lead pollution levels within an urban ecosystem using the cestode Hymenolepis diminuta and its rat hosts as bioindicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripodi, M A; Hancke, D; Suarez, O V

    2017-10-11

    The overall goal of this study was to use the Rattus spp./Hymenolepis diminuta model to assess environmental lead pollution in different landscape units of an urban ecosystem. Rats of the genus Rattus were collected from three shanty towns and three residential neighbourhoods of the city of Buenos Aires. Concentrations of lead in the livers of wild rats and in their parasite H. diminuta were measured using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The landscape unit and tissue type had a significant effect on lead concentration, being higher in residential neighbourhoods as well as in H. diminuta tissue. Nevertheless, no significant differences were found for the mean lead concentration in livers between uninfected and infected rats. Since the available information describing heavy-metal pollution within the city of Buenos Aires is scarce, the results of this study allow us to update data about the extent of biologically available lead contamination. Considering that rats and H. diminuta are distributed worldwide, this monitoring system for lead pollution might be applied successfully in other urban ecosystems.

  7. Spatiotemporal variations of the incidence of the fleas (Siphonaptera ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2014-08-31

    Aug 31, 2014 ... A new genus of mite (Acari: Acaridae) phoretic on bees (Ctenocolletes) in Australia. Records Western Australian Museum 11: 77-86. FengTYA andHimsworth GC, 2013.The secret life of the city rat: a review of the ecology of urban Norway and black rats (Rattus norvegicus and Rattus rattus). Urban ecology.

  8. Kangaroo rat bone compared to white rat bone after short-term disuse and exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muths, E.; Reichman, O. J.

    1996-01-01

    Kangaroo rats (Dipodomys ordii) were used to study the effects of confinement on mechanical properties of bone with a long range objective of proposing an alternative to the white rat model for the study of disuse osteoporosis. Kangaroo rats exhibit bipedal locomotion, which subjects their limbs to substantial accelerative forces in addition to the normal stress of weight bearing. We subjected groups of kangaroo rats and white rats (Rattus norvegicus) to one of two confinement treatments or to an exercise regime; animals were exercised at a rate calculated to replicate their (respective) daily exercise patterns. White laboratory rats were used as the comparison because they are currently the accepted model used in the study of disuse osteoporosis. After 6 weeks of treatment, rats were killed and the long bones of their hind limbs were tested mechanically and examined for histomorphometric changes. We found that kangaroo rats held in confinement had less ash content in their hind limbs than exercised kangaroo rats. In general, treated kangaroo rats showed morphometric and mechanical bone deterioration compared to controls and exercised kangaroo rats appeared to have slightly “stronger” bones than confined animals. White rats exhibited no significant differences between treatments. These preliminary results suggest that kangaroo rats may be an effective model in the study of disuse osteoporosis.

  9. Control of invasive rats on islands and priorities for future action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duron, Quiterie; Shiels, Aaron B; Vidal, Eric

    2017-08-01

    Invasive rats are one of the world's most successful animal groups that cause native species extinctions and ecosystem change, particularly on islands. On large islands, rat eradication is often impossible and population control, defined as the local limitation of rat abundance, is now routinely performed on many of the world's islands as an alternative management tool. However, a synthesis of the motivations, techniques, costs, and outcomes of such rat-control projects is lacking. We reviewed the literature, searched relevant websites, and conducted a survey via a questionnaire to synthesize the available information on rat-control projects in island natural areas worldwide to improve rat management and native species conservation. Data were collected from 136 projects conducted over the last 40 years; most were located in Australasia (46%) and the tropical Pacific (25%) in forest ecosystems (65%) and coastal strands (22%). Most of the projects targeted Rattus rattus and most (82%) were aimed at protecting birds and endangered ecosystems. Poisoning (35%) and a combination of trapping and poisoning (42%) were the most common methods. Poisoning allows for treatment of larger areas, and poison projects generally last longer than trapping projects. Second-generation anticoagulants (mainly brodifacoum and bromadiolone) were used most often. The median annual cost for rat-control projects was US$17,262 or US$227/ha. Median project duration was 4 years. For 58% of the projects, rat population reduction was reported, and 51% of projects showed evidence of positive effects on biodiversity. Our data were from few countries, revealing the need to expand rat-control distribution especially in some biodiversity hotspots. Improvement in control methods is needed as is regular monitoring to assess short- and long-term effectiveness of rat-control. © 2016 Society for Conservation Biology.

  10. Characterization of the Mobilome and Microbiome of Rat Cecum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Tue Sparholt

    or environmental biotope. In Manuscript 4, microbiome of Rattus norvegicus the diversity of bacteria from wild and laboratory brown rats are explored on the basis of 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing. The DNA precursor of the small 16S subunit of ribosomal RNA has become the standard in microbial classification...... and an animal experimental laboratory. 16S rDNA amplicons, mobilomes and metagenomes were produced from these samples in order for the different data types to shed light on different aspects of microbial life in the rat gut. Integration of these data types is still not fully utilized, with a number of factors...... are considered. Manuscript 3 ”Plasmids, circular viruses and biological dark matter from rat gut” applies the methods developed in Manuscript 1 on 12 deeply sequences mobilome samples. Further methods are developed to separate and categorize the identified 1,869 circular DNA sequences identifying more than 500...

  11. Molecular survey of rodent-borne Trypanosoma in Niger with special emphasis on T. lewisi imported by invasive black rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobigny, Gauthier; Poirier, Philippe; Hima, Karmadine; Cabaret, Odile; Gauthier, Philippe; Tatard, Caroline; Costa, Jean-Marc; Bretagne, Stéphane

    2011-03-01

    Invading rodent species can harbor parasites with potential transmission to native rodents and/or humans. To investigate trypanosomes prevalence in rodents, the spleen of 76 rodents from Niger identified by their karyotype was used as a DNA source for Trypanosoma detection using a newly developed qPCR assay. Of the invasive black rat, Rattus rattus, 71% (10/14) were PCR positive as well as 6% (4/62) of native African rodents. Sequences of ~400bp of the SSU rDNA gene identified phylogenetically close Trypanosoma lineages. Trypanosoma lewisi was present in all positive black rats and the sequences displayed 100% similarity with T. lewisi-infected humans in Senegal. T. lewisi was also detected in one Acomys johannis, suggesting a possible transmission to native species. In addition to improved knowledge of Trypanosoma diversity in rodents, our data underscore the introduction of the potentially pathogenic T. lewisi kinetoplastid through the human-mediated invasion of black rats all over West Africa. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. How important are seabirds in the diet of black rats on islands with a superpredator?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hervías, Sandra; Ceia, Filipe R; Pipa, Tânia; Nogales, Manuel; de Ybáñez, Rocío Ruiz; Ramos, Jaime A

    2014-06-01

    This study assessed the impact of introduced black rats (Rattus rattus) on Cory's shearwater (Calonectris diomedea borealis) in a multi-invaded insular ecosystem where rats are mesopredators. We hypothesized that black rats should have little impact on Cory's shearwaters in the presence of cats as superpredators. Stomach contents and stable isotope analysis (SIA) in tissues of black rats were analyzed to assess the trophic ecology and the importance of Cory's shearwater in their diet. We also studied the isotopic signature in tissues of house mouse (Mus domesticus) to confirm previous data showing no predation of this species on Cory's shearwaters. For both rodent species, temporal variation in diet composition in response to the availability of seabird prey was evaluated, and short- and long-term consistency in diet was tested using different tissues from the same individual. For black rats a Bayesian isotope mixing model (SIAR) was applied to determine the relative contribution of each prey to the individual diet. SIA of mouse tissues varied between the Cory's shearwater breeding and non-breeding periods. However, no significant differences were found in diet and SIA for black rats. In contrast, individuals of both species showed a strong consistency in diet which apparently benefited their body condition index. Although black rats supplement their diet with Cory's shearwater eggs and chicks (8.3% in stomach contents and 10.6% in the SIAR model), their current impact on the Cory's shearwater population appears to be small, probably due to several factors including the small size of the rat population and a high level of rat predation by cats. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-CJAC-01-1245 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-CJAC-01-1245 ref|XP_345900.3| PREDICTED: similar to melatonin receptor 1B [Rat...tus norvegicus] ref|XP_001074702.1| PREDICTED: similar to melatonin receptor 1B [Rattus norvegicus] gb|EDL78429.1| melatonin receptor 1B [Rattus norvegicus] XP_345900.3 1e-130 67% ...

  14. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-BTAU-01-1386 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-BTAU-01-1386 ref|XP_345900.3| PREDICTED: similar to melatonin receptor 1B [Rat...tus norvegicus] ref|XP_001074702.1| PREDICTED: similar to melatonin receptor 1B [Rattus norvegicus] gb|EDL78429.1| melatonin receptor 1B [Rattus norvegicus] XP_345900.3 1e-146 70% ...

  15. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-LAFR-01-0137 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-LAFR-01-0137 ref|NP_001013083.1| gametogenetin [Rattus norvegicus] sp|Q66HC8|GGN_RAT Game...togenetin gb|AAH81922.1| Gametogenetin [Rattus norvegicus] gb|AAI00148.1| Ggn protein [Rattus norvegicus] NP_001013083.1 0.0 72% ...

  16. Effects Of Dietary Supplementation Of Vitamin E And Selenium On ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to evaluate the combined effects of dietary supplementation of vitamin E (Vit E) and selenium (Se) on total white blood cells, mononucleated cells, polymorphonucleated cells and packed cell volume of Trypanosoma congolense-infected rats (Rattus rattus). Ninety adult R. rattus of pure breed of ...

  17. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OLAT-26-0164 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OLAT-26-0164 ref|NP_062037.1| chondroadherin [Rattus norvegicus] sp|O70210|CHAD_RAT Chondroad...herin precursor (Cartilage leucine-rich protein) gb|AAC40060.1| chondroadherin [Rattus norveg...icus] gb|EDM05713.1| chondroadherin [Rattus norvegicus] NP_062037.1 9e-85 57% ...

  18. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-GGOR-01-0743 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-GGOR-01-0743 ref|NP_037003.2| oxytocin receptor [Rattus norvegicus] sp|P70536|...OXYR_RAT RecName: Full=Oxytocin receptor; Short=OT-R gb|AAC53245.2| oxytocin receptor [Rattus norvegicus] gb|AAQ01564.1| oxytocin... receptor [Rattus norvegicus] gb|EDL91500.1| oxytocin receptor [Rattus norvegicus] NP_037003.2 0.0 91% ...

  19. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TGUT-15-0009 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TGUT-15-0009 ref|NP_037003.2| oxytocin receptor [Rattus norvegicus] sp|P70536|...OXYR_RAT Oxytocin receptor (OT-R) gb|AAC53245.2| oxytocin receptor [Rattus norvegicus] gb|AAQ01564.1| oxytocin... receptor [Rattus norvegicus] gb|EDL91500.1| oxytocin receptor [Rattus norvegicus] NP_037003.2 1e-159 72% ...

  20. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TBEL-01-0850 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TBEL-01-0850 ref|NP_037003.2| oxytocin receptor [Rattus norvegicus] sp|P70536|...OXYR_RAT Oxytocin receptor (OT-R) gb|AAC53245.2| oxytocin receptor [Rattus norvegicus] gb|AAQ01564.1| oxytocin... receptor [Rattus norvegicus] gb|EDL91500.1| oxytocin receptor [Rattus norvegicus] NP_037003.2 1e-146 88% ...

  1. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-ACAR-01-0167 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-ACAR-01-0167 ref|NP_037003.2| oxytocin receptor [Rattus norvegicus] sp|P70536|...OXYR_RAT Oxytocin receptor (OT-R) gb|AAC53245.2| oxytocin receptor [Rattus norvegicus] gb|AAQ01564.1| oxytocin... receptor [Rattus norvegicus] gb|EDL91500.1| oxytocin receptor [Rattus norvegicus] NP_037003.2 1e-155 75% ...

  2. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-RMAC-02-0018 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-RMAC-02-0018 ref|NP_037003.2| oxytocin receptor [Rattus norvegicus] sp|P70536|...OXYR_RAT Oxytocin receptor (OT-R) gb|AAC53245.2| oxytocin receptor [Rattus norvegicus] gb|AAQ01564.1| oxytocin... receptor [Rattus norvegicus] gb|EDL91500.1| oxytocin receptor [Rattus norvegicus] NP_037003.2 0.0 91% ...

  3. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MMUS-06-0152 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MMUS-06-0152 ref|NP_037003.2| oxytocin receptor [Rattus norvegicus] sp|P70536|...OXYR_RAT Oxytocin receptor (OT-R) gb|AAC53245.2| oxytocin receptor [Rattus norvegicus] gb|AAQ01564.1| oxytocin... receptor [Rattus norvegicus] gb|EDL91500.1| oxytocin receptor [Rattus norvegicus] NP_037003.2 0.0 97% ...

  4. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-RNOR-04-0291 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-RNOR-04-0291 ref|NP_037003.2| oxytocin receptor [Rattus norvegicus] sp|P70536|...OXYR_RAT Oxytocin receptor (OT-R) gb|AAC53245.2| oxytocin receptor [Rattus norvegicus] gb|AAQ01564.1| oxytocin... receptor [Rattus norvegicus] gb|EDL91500.1| oxytocin receptor [Rattus norvegicus] NP_037003.2 0.0 100% ...

  5. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-BTAU-01-1634 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-BTAU-01-1634 ref|NP_037003.2| oxytocin receptor [Rattus norvegicus] sp|P70536|...OXYR_RAT Oxytocin receptor (OT-R) gb|AAC53245.2| oxytocin receptor [Rattus norvegicus] gb|AAQ01564.1| oxytocin... receptor [Rattus norvegicus] gb|EDL91500.1| oxytocin receptor [Rattus norvegicus] NP_037003.2 0.0 90% ...

  6. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MEUG-01-1766 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MEUG-01-1766 ref|NP_037003.2| oxytocin receptor [Rattus norvegicus] sp|P70536|...OXYR_RAT RecName: Full=Oxytocin receptor; Short=OT-R gb|AAC53245.2| oxytocin receptor [Rattus norvegicus] gb|AAQ01564.1| oxytocin... receptor [Rattus norvegicus] gb|EDL91500.1| oxytocin receptor [Rattus norvegicus] NP_037003.2 1e-101 78% ...

  7. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-XTRO-01-3153 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-XTRO-01-3153 ref|NP_037003.2| oxytocin receptor [Rattus norvegicus] sp|P70536|...OXYR_RAT Oxytocin receptor (OT-R) gb|AAC53245.2| oxytocin receptor [Rattus norvegicus] gb|AAQ01564.1| oxytocin... receptor [Rattus norvegicus] gb|EDL91500.1| oxytocin receptor [Rattus norvegicus] NP_037003.2 1e-151 71% ...

  8. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PTRO-06-0013 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PTRO-06-0013 ref|NP_037003.2| oxytocin receptor [Rattus norvegicus] sp|P70536|...OXYR_RAT Oxytocin receptor (OT-R) gb|AAC53245.2| oxytocin receptor [Rattus norvegicus] gb|AAQ01564.1| oxytocin... receptor [Rattus norvegicus] gb|EDL91500.1| oxytocin receptor [Rattus norvegicus] NP_037003.2 2e-18 27% ...

  9. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PCAP-01-1607 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PCAP-01-1607 ref|NP_037003.2| oxytocin receptor [Rattus norvegicus] sp|P70536|...OXYR_RAT RecName: Full=Oxytocin receptor; Short=OT-R gb|AAC53245.2| oxytocin receptor [Rattus norvegicus] gb|AAQ01564.1| oxytocin... receptor [Rattus norvegicus] gb|EDL91500.1| oxytocin receptor [Rattus norvegicus] NP_037003.2 0.0 91% ...

  10. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-CJAC-01-0696 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-CJAC-01-0696 ref|NP_037003.2| oxytocin receptor [Rattus norvegicus] sp|P70536|...OXYR_RAT Oxytocin receptor (OT-R) gb|AAC53245.2| oxytocin receptor [Rattus norvegicus] gb|AAQ01564.1| oxytocin... receptor [Rattus norvegicus] gb|EDL91500.1| oxytocin receptor [Rattus norvegicus] NP_037003.2 0.0 89% ...

  11. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MLUC-01-1100 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MLUC-01-1100 ref|NP_037003.2| oxytocin receptor [Rattus norvegicus] sp|P70536|...OXYR_RAT RecName: Full=Oxytocin receptor; Short=OT-R gb|AAC53245.2| oxytocin receptor [Rattus norvegicus] gb|AAQ01564.1| oxytocin... receptor [Rattus norvegicus] gb|EDL91500.1| oxytocin receptor [Rattus norvegicus] NP_037003.2 0.0 88% ...

  12. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PABE-04-0027 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PABE-04-0027 ref|NP_037003.2| oxytocin receptor [Rattus norvegicus] sp|P70536|...OXYR_RAT Oxytocin receptor (OT-R) gb|AAC53245.2| oxytocin receptor [Rattus norvegicus] gb|AAQ01564.1| oxytocin... receptor [Rattus norvegicus] gb|EDL91500.1| oxytocin receptor [Rattus norvegicus] NP_037003.2 0.0 91% ...

  13. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-FCAT-01-1239 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-FCAT-01-1239 ref|NP_037003.2| oxytocin receptor [Rattus norvegicus] sp|P70536|...OXYR_RAT Oxytocin receptor (OT-R) gb|AAC53245.2| oxytocin receptor [Rattus norvegicus] gb|AAQ01564.1| oxytocin... receptor [Rattus norvegicus] gb|EDL91500.1| oxytocin receptor [Rattus norvegicus] NP_037003.2 0.0 93% ...

  14. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-CFAM-20-0008 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-CFAM-20-0008 ref|NP_037003.2| oxytocin receptor [Rattus norvegicus] sp|P70536|...OXYR_RAT Oxytocin receptor (OT-R) gb|AAC53245.2| oxytocin receptor [Rattus norvegicus] gb|AAQ01564.1| oxytocin... receptor [Rattus norvegicus] gb|EDL91500.1| oxytocin receptor [Rattus norvegicus] NP_037003.2 0.0 91% ...

  15. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-HSAP-03-0004 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-HSAP-03-0004 ref|NP_037003.2| oxytocin receptor [Rattus norvegicus] sp|P70536|...OXYR_RAT Oxytocin receptor (OT-R) gb|AAC53245.2| oxytocin receptor [Rattus norvegicus] gb|AAQ01564.1| oxytocin... receptor [Rattus norvegicus] gb|EDL91500.1| oxytocin receptor [Rattus norvegicus] NP_037003.2 0.0 91% ...

  16. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PHAM-01-1841 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PHAM-01-1841 ref|NP_037003.2| oxytocin receptor [Rattus norvegicus] sp|P70536|...OXYR_RAT RecName: Full=Oxytocin receptor; Short=OT-R gb|AAC53245.2| oxytocin receptor [Rattus norvegicus] gb|AAQ01564.1| oxytocin... receptor [Rattus norvegicus] gb|EDL91500.1| oxytocin receptor [Rattus norvegicus] NP_037003.2 0.0 91% ...

  17. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PTRO-04-0002 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PTRO-04-0002 ref|NP_037003.2| oxytocin receptor [Rattus norvegicus] sp|P70536|...OXYR_RAT Oxytocin receptor (OT-R) gb|AAC53245.2| oxytocin receptor [Rattus norvegicus] gb|AAQ01564.1| oxytocin... receptor [Rattus norvegicus] gb|EDL91500.1| oxytocin receptor [Rattus norvegicus] NP_037003.2 0.0 91% ...

  18. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-06-0148 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-06-0148 ref|NP_037003.2| oxytocin receptor [Rattus norvegicus] sp|P70536|...OXYR_RAT RecName: Full=Oxytocin receptor; Short=OT-R gb|AAC53245.2| oxytocin receptor [Rattus norvegicus] gb|AAQ01564.1| oxytocin... receptor [Rattus norvegicus] gb|EDL91500.1| oxytocin receptor [Rattus norvegicus] NP_037003.2 1e-169 77% ...

  19. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OPRI-01-0419 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OPRI-01-0419 ref|NP_037003.2| oxytocin receptor [Rattus norvegicus] sp|P70536|...OXYR_RAT RecName: Full=Oxytocin receptor; Short=OT-R gb|AAC53245.2| oxytocin receptor [Rattus norvegicus] gb|AAQ01564.1| oxytocin... receptor [Rattus norvegicus] gb|EDL91500.1| oxytocin receptor [Rattus norvegicus] NP_037003.2 1e-156 90% ...

  20. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-GGAL-12-0010 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-GGAL-12-0010 ref|NP_037003.2| oxytocin receptor [Rattus norvegicus] sp|P70536|...OXYR_RAT Oxytocin receptor (OT-R) gb|AAC53245.2| oxytocin receptor [Rattus norvegicus] gb|AAQ01564.1| oxytocin... receptor [Rattus norvegicus] gb|EDL91500.1| oxytocin receptor [Rattus norvegicus] NP_037003.2 1e-150 75% ...

  1. Will Climate Change, Genetic and Demographic Variation or Rat Predation Pose the Greatest Risk for Persistence of an Altitudinally Distributed Island Endemic?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison Shapcott

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Species endemic to mountains on oceanic islands are subject to a number of existing threats (in particular, invasive species along with the impacts of a rapidly changing climate. The Lord Howe Island endemic palm Hedyscepe canterburyana is restricted to two mountains above 300 m altitude. Predation by the introduced Black Rat (Rattus rattus is known to significantly reduce seedling recruitment. We examined the variation in Hedyscepe in terms of genetic variation, morphology, reproductive output and demographic structure, across an altitudinal gradient. We used demographic data to model population persistence under climate change predictions of upward range contraction incorporating long-term climatic records for Lord Howe Island. We also accounted for alternative levels of rat predation into the model to reflect management options for control. We found that Lord Howe Island is getting warmer and drier and quantified the degree of temperature change with altitude (0.9 °C per 100 m. For H. canterburyana, differences in development rates, population structure, reproductive output and population growth rate were identified between altitudes. In contrast, genetic variation was high and did not vary with altitude. There is no evidence of an upward range contraction as was predicted and recruitment was greatest at lower altitudes. Our models predicted slow population decline in the species and that the highest altitude populations are under greatest threat of extinction. Removal of rat predation would significantly enhance future persistence of this species.

  2. Ectoparasites and endoparasites of peridomestic house-rats in ile-ife, Nigeria and implication on human health.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Titus Ogunniyi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available There has never been a single case report of any parasitic zoonosis in Ile-Ife while just a case of human Acanthocephalan infection in Nigeria is available.Fifty (house-rats Rattus rattus (Linnaeus, 1758 were caught in houses and raw food sellers' stalls in a market in Ile-Ife. A caught rat was removed from the cage and sacrificed by cervical jerking. A rat was weighed, measured, quickly following which thick and thin blood films on microscope slides were made from blood collected from the tail vein. The rat was examined for ectoparasites then dissected to check for endoparasites.Two ectoparasites (Xenopsylla cheopis and Laelaptid mite were recovered from 19 (38.0% of the rats. Five genera of helminthes (Moniliformis, Hymenolepis, Taenia, Trichuris and Trichinella were recovered from 29 (58.0% of the rats while seven genera of protozoa organisms (Amoeba, Dientamoeba, Entamoeba, Retortamonas, Trichomonas, Chilomastix and Trypanosoma were recovered from 48 (96.0% of them. There was no correlation (Spearman's correlation coefficient = -0.111 between the weight of the individual rat and the total number of alimentary canal acquired parasites.In relation to human health, implications of the rats serving as reservoir hosts for the different pathogens are highlighted. In view of the possibility of unexpected zoonosis arising from the parasites found in the peridomestic rats in this investigation and others not found, and in view of the difficulties that may be associated with diagnosing such ailment, especially by a clinician who trained locally, this report should be like raising awareness to these salient facts.

  3. Short term effects of animal venoms on the mitotic index of the duodenal mucosa of albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu Sinna, G; al-Zahaby, A; Abd el-Aal, A; Abd el-Baset, A; Saber, T

    1992-01-01

    Short term administration of the venoms of the snakes Naja haje, Naja nigricollis, and Cerastes vipera and of the scorpion Leiurus quinquestriatus on the mitotic index of the duodenal mucosal cells of the white rat, Rattus rattus, has been studied. All the venoms increased the number of dividing cells of the duodenal mucosa significantly. Naja haje crude venom was fractionated into three fractions. Fraction I had no effect on the mitotic index whereas fractions II and III increased it significantly. Treatment of rats with Naja haje venom fractions II and III after blocking the histamine or the serotonin receptors did not affect the stimulatory action of the two venom fractions on the mitotic index, which it increased significantly. It was suggested that the venoms of Naja haje, Naja nigricollis, Cerastes vipera, and Leiurus quinquestriatus and Naja haje venom fractions possessed a mitogenic activity. Fraction II of Naja haje venom acted through both the muscarinic and adrenergic receptors while fraction III acted on the adrenergic ones.

  4. Health Risk Assessment of Women in Submarines: Reproductive and Developmental Toxicity Evaluation of Major Submarine Atmosphere Components (CO, CO2 and O2) in Rats (Rattus norvegicus) - Phase II (Neurological and Reproductive Performance Study)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-11

    Phonetics , Inc., Aston, PA) that automatically contacted the technician on duty if the electronic signal fell outside 15 of the acceptable range...higher in the controls than in the exposure groups. Additionally, there were observations of small clusters of infiltrates in the hepatic sinusoids

  5. Health Risk Assessment of Women in Submarines: Reproductive and Developmental Toxicity Evaluation of Major Submarine Atmosphere Components (CO, CO2, and O2) in Rats (Rattus norvegicus) - Phase 1 (Range Finding Study)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-27

    policy or position of the Department of the Navy, Department of Defense, or the U.S. Government. This article is approved for public release...16 n=16 n=16 Heart Chronic Infiltrates 1 0 0 0 (1+) Cardiomyopathy 0 1 0 0 (1+) Pancreas Chronic Infiltrates 0 0 3 4 (3

  6. Long-term toxicological effects of paracetamol in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.K. Majeed,

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The analgesic and antipyretic properties of paracetamol were first described in 1893, then it has been widely available as a non-prescription drug, with a therapeutic profile that reflects widespread safety and efficacy as well as paracetamol became the most widely used analgesic and antipyretic in children. It is the most frequently used over-the counter medicine in young children and is nearly universally used in infants. The drug is used by millions of children every day. The study was designed to study the toxicological effect of therapeutic dose of paracetamol after oral administration for three months in laboratory rats (Rattus norvegicous on the heart, kidney and liver. Results showed oral administration of the paracetamol for three months in laboratory rats showed that this drug has a severe damaging effect on most of the vital organs in the body like kidney, liver and heart.

  7. Diagnosis of the strongyloid nematode Strongyloides venezuelensis in experimentally infected rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, P D; Malta, F M; Meisel, D M C L; Corral, M A; Pinho, J R; Costa-Cruz, J M; Chieffi, P P; Gryschek, R C B; Paula, F M

    2016-07-01

    Strongyloides venezuelensis is an intestinal nematode of rats, frequently used as a model for studying human and animal strongyloidiasis. In the present study, we evaluated parasitological, serological and molecular methods for the diagnosis of experimental S. venezuelensis in rats, Rattus norvegicus. Blood and faecal samples were collected and analysed up to 60 days post infection (pi) with adult worm recovery occurring from 5 to 45 days pi. Using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), serum levels of IgG antibodies increased up to 28 days pi, thereafter decreasing by day 60 pi. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays detected S. venezuelensis DNA in faecal samples of rats from 5 to 21 days pi. The present study therefore represents the first step towards improving the diagnosis of experimental strongyloidiasis.

  8. Genome sequence of the brown Norway rat yields insights into mammalian evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibbs, Richard A.; Weinstock, George M.; Metzker, Michael L.; Muzny, Donna M.; Sodergren, Erica J.; Scherer, Steven; Scott, Graham; Steffen, David; Worley, Kim C.; Burch, Paula E.; Okwuonu, Geoffrey; Hines, Sandra; Lewis, Lora; DeRamo, Christine; Delgado, Oliver; Dugan-Rocha, Shannon; Miner, George; Morgan, Margaret; Hawes, Alicia; Gill, Rachel; Holt, Robert A.; Adams, Mark D.; Amanatides, Peter G.; Baden-Tillson, Holly; Barnstead, Mary; Chin, Soo; Evans, Cheryl A.; Ferriera, Steven; Fosler, Carl; Glodek, Anna; Gu, Zhiping; Jennings, Don; Kraft, Cheryl L.; Nguyen, Trixie; Pfannkoch, Cynthia M.; Sitter, Cynthia; Sutton, Granger G.; Venter, J. Craig; Woodage, Trevor; Smith, Douglas; Lee, Hong-Maei; Gustafson, Erik; Cahill, Patrick; Kana, Arnold; Doucette-Stamm, Lynn; Weinstock, Keith; Fechtel, Kim; Weiss, Robert B.; Dunn, Diane M.; Green, Eric D.; Blakesley, Robert W.; Bouffard, Gerard G.; de Jong, Pieter J.; Osoegawa, Kazutoyo; Zhu, Baoli; Marra, Marco; Schein, Jacqueline; Bosdet, Ian; Fjell, Chris; Jones, Steven; Krzywinski, Martin; Mathewson, Carrie; Siddiqui, Asim; Wye, Natasja; McPherson, John; Zhao, Shaying; Fraser, Claire M.; Shetty, Jyoti; Shatsman, Sofiya; Geer, Keita; Chen, Yixin; Abramzon, Sofyia; Nierman, William C.; Havlak, Paul H.; Chen, Rui; Durbin, K. James; Egan, Amy; Ren, Yanru; Song, Xing-Zhi; Li, Bingshan; Liu, Yue; Qin, Xiang; Cawley, Simon; Cooney, A.J.; D' Souza, Lisa M.; Martin, Kirt; Wu, Jia Qian; Gonzalez-Garay, Manuel L.; Jackson, Andrew R.; Kalafus, Kenneth J.; McLeod, Michael P.; Milosavljevic, Aleksandar; Virk, Davinder; Volkov, Andrei; Wheeler, David A.; Zhang, Zhengdong; Bailey, Jeffrey A.; Eichler, Evan E.; Tuzun, Eray; Birney, Ewan; Mongin, Emmanuel; Ureta-Vidal, Abel; Woodwark, Cara; Zdobnov, Evgeny; Bork, Peer; Suyama, Mikita; Torrents, David; Alexandersson, Marina; Trask, Barbara J.; Young, Janet M.; et al.

    2004-02-02

    The laboratory rat (Rattus norvegicus) is an indispensable tool in experimental medicine and drug development, having made inestimable contributions to human health. We report here the genome sequence of the Brown Norway (BN) rat strain. The sequence represents a high-quality 'draft' covering over 90 percent of the genome. The BN rat sequence is the third complete mammalian genome to be deciphered, and three-way comparisons with the human and mouse genomes resolve details of mammalian evolution. This first comprehensive analysis includes genes and proteins and their relation to human disease, repeated sequences, comparative genome-wide studies of mammalian orthologous chromosomal regions and rearrangement breakpoints, reconstruction of ancestral karyotypes and the events leading to existing species, rates of variation, and lineage-specific and lineage-independent evolutionary events such as expansion of gene families, orthology relations and protein evolution.

  9. Differential expression of melanopsin mRNA and protein in the Brown Norwegian rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hannibal, Jens; Georg, Birgitte; Fahrenkrug, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Melanopsin is expressed in a subpopulation of retinal ganglion cells rendering these cells intrinsically photosensitive (ipRGCs). The ipRGCs are the primary RGCs mediating light entrainment of the circadian clock and control of the pupillary light reflex, light regulated melatonin secretion...... and negative masking behaviour. Previous studies have demonstrated that melanopsin expression in albino rats is regulated by light and darkness. The present study was undertaken to study the influence of light and darkness during the circadian day and after extended periods of constant light and darkness...... on melanopsin expression in the pigmented retina of the Brown Norwegian rat (Rattus norvegicus). The diurnal and circadian expressions were examined in retinal extracts from rats euthanized every 4 h during a 24 h light/dark (LD) and a 24 h dark cycle (DD) using quantitative real-time PCR and Western blotting...

  10. Genome sequence of the Brown Norway rat yields insights into mammalian evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Richard A; Weinstock, George M; Metzker, Michael L; Muzny, Donna M; Sodergren, Erica J; Scherer, Steven; Scott, Graham; Steffen, David; Worley, Kim C; Burch, Paula E; Okwuonu, Geoffrey; Hines, Sandra; Lewis, Lora; DeRamo, Christine; Delgado, Oliver; Dugan-Rocha, Shannon; Miner, George; Morgan, Margaret; Hawes, Alicia; Gill, Rachel; Celera; Holt, Robert A; Adams, Mark D; Amanatides, Peter G; Baden-Tillson, Holly; Barnstead, Mary; Chin, Soo; Evans, Cheryl A; Ferriera, Steve; Fosler, Carl; Glodek, Anna; Gu, Zhiping; Jennings, Don; Kraft, Cheryl L; Nguyen, Trixie; Pfannkoch, Cynthia M; Sitter, Cynthia; Sutton, Granger G; Venter, J Craig; Woodage, Trevor; Smith, Douglas; Lee, Hong-Mei; Gustafson, Erik; Cahill, Patrick; Kana, Arnold; Doucette-Stamm, Lynn; Weinstock, Keith; Fechtel, Kim; Weiss, Robert B; Dunn, Diane M; Green, Eric D; Blakesley, Robert W; Bouffard, Gerard G; De Jong, Pieter J; Osoegawa, Kazutoyo; Zhu, Baoli; Marra, Marco; Schein, Jacqueline; Bosdet, Ian; Fjell, Chris; Jones, Steven; Krzywinski, Martin; Mathewson, Carrie; Siddiqui, Asim; Wye, Natasja; McPherson, John; Zhao, Shaying; Fraser, Claire M; Shetty, Jyoti; Shatsman, Sofiya; Geer, Keita; Chen, Yixin; Abramzon, Sofyia; Nierman, William C; Havlak, Paul H; Chen, Rui; Durbin, K James; Egan, Amy; Ren, Yanru; Song, Xing-Zhi; Li, Bingshan; Liu, Yue; Qin, Xiang; Cawley, Simon; Worley, Kim C; Cooney, A J; D'Souza, Lisa M; Martin, Kirt; Wu, Jia Qian; Gonzalez-Garay, Manuel L; Jackson, Andrew R; Kalafus, Kenneth J; McLeod, Michael P; Milosavljevic, Aleksandar; Virk, Davinder; Volkov, Andrei; Wheeler, David A; Zhang, Zhengdong; Bailey, Jeffrey A; Eichler, Evan E; Tuzun, Eray; Birney, Ewan; Mongin, Emmanuel; Ureta-Vidal, Abel; Woodwark, Cara; Zdobnov, Evgeny; Bork, Peer; Suyama, Mikita; Torrents, David; Alexandersson, Marina; Trask, Barbara J; Young, Janet M; Huang, Hui; Wang, Huajun; Xing, Heming; Daniels, Sue; Gietzen, Darryl; Schmidt, Jeanette; Stevens, Kristian; Vitt, Ursula; Wingrove, Jim; Camara, Francisco; Mar Albà, M; Abril, Josep F; Guigo, Roderic; Smit, Arian; Dubchak, Inna; Rubin, Edward M; Couronne, Olivier; Poliakov, Alexander; Hübner, Norbert; Ganten, Detlev; Goesele, Claudia; Hummel, Oliver; Kreitler, Thomas; Lee, Young-Ae; Monti, Jan; Schulz, Herbert; Zimdahl, Heike; Himmelbauer, Heinz; Lehrach, Hans; Jacob, Howard J; Bromberg, Susan; Gullings-Handley, Jo; Jensen-Seaman, Michael I; Kwitek, Anne E; Lazar, Jozef; Pasko, Dean; Tonellato, Peter J; Twigger, Simon; Ponting, Chris P; Duarte, Jose M; Rice, Stephen; Goodstadt, Leo; Beatson, Scott A; Emes, Richard D; Winter, Eitan E; Webber, Caleb; Brandt, Petra; Nyakatura, Gerald; Adetobi, Margaret; Chiaromonte, Francesca; Elnitski, Laura; Eswara, Pallavi; Hardison, Ross C; Hou, Minmei; Kolbe, Diana; Makova, Kateryna; Miller, Webb; Nekrutenko, Anton; Riemer, Cathy; Schwartz, Scott; Taylor, James; Yang, Shan; Zhang, Yi; Lindpaintner, Klaus; Andrews, T Dan; Caccamo, Mario; Clamp, Michele; Clarke, Laura; Curwen, Valerie; Durbin, Richard; Eyras, Eduardo; Searle, Stephen M; Cooper, Gregory M; Batzoglou, Serafim; Brudno, Michael; Sidow, Arend; Stone, Eric A; Venter, J Craig; Payseur, Bret A; Bourque, Guillaume; López-Otín, Carlos; Puente, Xose S; Chakrabarti, Kushal; Chatterji, Sourav; Dewey, Colin; Pachter, Lior; Bray, Nicolas; Yap, Von Bing; Caspi, Anat; Tesler, Glenn; Pevzner, Pavel A; Haussler, David; Roskin, Krishna M; Baertsch, Robert; Clawson, Hiram; Furey, Terrence S; Hinrichs, Angie S; Karolchik, Donna; Kent, William J; Rosenbloom, Kate R; Trumbower, Heather; Weirauch, Matt; Cooper, David N; Stenson, Peter D; Ma, Bin; Brent, Michael; Arumugam, Manimozhiyan; Shteynberg, David; Copley, Richard R; Taylor, Martin S; Riethman, Harold; Mudunuri, Uma; Peterson, Jane; Guyer, Mark; Felsenfeld, Adam; Old, Susan; Mockrin, Stephen; Collins, Francis

    2004-04-01

    The laboratory rat (Rattus norvegicus) is an indispensable tool in experimental medicine and drug development, having made inestimable contributions to human health. We report here the genome sequence of the Brown Norway (BN) rat strain. The sequence represents a high-quality 'draft' covering over 90% of the genome. The BN rat sequence is the third complete mammalian genome to be deciphered, and three-way comparisons with the human and mouse genomes resolve details of mammalian evolution. This first comprehensive analysis includes genes and proteins and their relation to human disease, repeated sequences, comparative genome-wide studies of mammalian orthologous chromosomal regions and rearrangement breakpoints, reconstruction of ancestral karyotypes and the events leading to existing species, rates of variation, and lineage-specific and lineage-independent evolutionary events such as expansion of gene families, orthology relations and protein evolution.

  11. Comparison of Mucosal, Subcutaneous and Intraperitoneal Routes of Rat Leptospira Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilber, Anne-Laure; Belli, Patrick; Grezel, Delphine; Artois, Marc; Kodjo, Angeli; Djelouadji, Zoheira

    2016-01-01

    Leptospirosis is a zoonosis found worldwide that is caused by a spirochete. The main reservoirs of Leptospira, which presents an asymptomatic infection, are wild rodents, including the brown rat (Rattus norvegicus). Experimental studies of the mechanisms of its renal colonization in rats have previously used an intraperitoneal inoculation route. However, knowledge of rat-rat transmission requires the use of a natural route of inoculation, such as a mucosal or subcutaneous route. We investigated for the first time the effects of subcutaneous and mucosal inoculation routes compared to the reference intraperitoneal route during Leptospira infection in adult rats. Infection characteristics were studied using Leptospira renal isolation, serology, and molecular and histological analyses. Leptospira infection was asymptomatic using each inoculation route, and caused similar antibody production regardless of renal colonization. The observed renal colonization rates were 8 out of 8 rats, 5 out of 8 rats and 1 out of 8 rats for the intraperitoneal, mucosal and subcutaneous inoculation routes, respectively. Thus, among the natural infection routes studied, mucosal inoculation was more efficient for renal colonization associated with urinary excretion than the subcutaneous route and induced a slower-progressing infection than the intraperitoneal route. These results can facilitate understanding of the infection modalities in rats, unlike the epidemiological studies conducted in wild rats. Future studies of other natural inoculation routes in rat models will increase our knowledge of rat-rat disease transmission and allow the investigation of infection kinetics. PMID:27031867

  12. Seasonal colonization and decomposition of rat carrion in water and on land in an open field in South Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomberlin, J K; Adler, P H

    1998-09-01

    Decomposition and insect colonization of rat, Rattus rattus L., carrion on land and in water were compared during summer and winter in a plowed field in northwestern South Carolina. During winter, carcasses on land reached the dried-remains stage of decomposition, whereas carcasses in water reached the early-floating stage. During summer, carcasses in both habitats entered the final-remains stage of decomposition in 1-2 wk. Fewer than 30 species of carrion insects were recorded from the carcasses over the duration of the study, probably reflecting the small size of the carcasses and the depauperate fauna of the habitat. Three species of blow flies--Cynomyopsis cadaverina (Robineau-Desvoidy), Calliphora vicina Robineau-Desvoidy, and Lucilia illustris (Meigen)--colonized carrion on land during winter, but no insects colonized carrion in water during winter. Two species of blow flies, Cochliomyia macellaria (F.) and Phaenicia sericata (Meigen), and 1 species of flesh fly, Sarcophaga bullata Parker, colonized the carrion on land and in water during summer; the blow fly, Phormia regina (Meigen), colonized only the carrion on land. This study demonstrated seasonal variation in decomposition and colonization patterns of carrion in contrasting habitats, with important implications for forensic entomology.

  13. Tipe Hunian dan Jenis Mangsa Burung Serak Tyto alba javanica pada Ekosistem Persawahan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Retno Astuti K.

    2004-12-01

    The nest types consisted of building plafon (76,41%, trees (20,75% and nest box (2,84%. Rats were the predominant prey-species (86,90%; consisted of Rattus argentiventer 77,08%, Rattus norvegicus 9,86%, Rattus rattus diardii 0,58%, Bandicota indica 0,01% and Rattus tiomanicus 0,005%,followed by aves (5,49%, insects (3,98%, bats (2,07%, and others (1,59% i.e. squirrels, gecko, house-lizard, and frogs.

  14. A checklist of arthropods associated with rat carrion in a montane locality of northern Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velásquez, Yelitza

    2008-01-15

    This is the first report of arthropods associated with carrion in Venezuela, using laboratory bred rats (Rattus norvegicus). Rat carcasses were exposed to colonization by arthropods in neighboring montane savanna and cloud forest habitats in the state of Miranda. The taxonomic composition of the arthropods varied between both ecosystems. Scarabaeidae, Silphidae, Micropezidae, Phoridae, Vespidae and one species of ant, were collected only in the cloud forest. Dermestes maculatus, Chrysomya albiceps, Termitidae and most species of ants, were found only in the savanna. Fourteen species were considered to be of primary forensic importance: D. maculatus, Oxelytrum discicolle, Calliphora sp., Cochliomyia macellaria, Compsomyiops sp., C. albiceps, Phaenicia cuprina, P. sericata, P. eximia, Fannia sp., Puliciphora sp., Megaselia scalaris, Ravina sp. and Sarcophaga sp.

  15. Effects of oral administration of aqueous extract of Fadogia agrestis (Schweinf. Ex Hiern) stem on some testicular function indices of male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakubu, Musa Toyin; Akanji, Musbau Adewumi; Oladiji, Adenike Temidayo

    2008-01-17

    The effects of administration of aqueous extract of Fadogia agrestis (Schweinf. Ex Hiern) stem on some testicular function indices of male rats (Rattus norvegicus) and their recovery potentials for 10 days were investigated. Rats were grouped into four: A, B, C and D where A (the control) received orally 1 ml of distilled water (the vehicle), B, C and D (the test groups) received orally on daily basis graded doses of 18, 50 and 100mg/kg body weight of the plant extract, respectively, for 28 days. Compared with the control, extract administration for 28 days at all the doses resulted in significant increase (PFadogia agrestis stem are indications of adverse effects on the male rat testicular function and this may adversely affect the functional capacities of the testes. The recovery made at the dose of 18 mg/kg body weight as used in folklore medicine suggests that it does not exhibit permanent toxicity at this dose.

  16. Population Genomics Reveals Speciation and Introgression between Brown Norway Rats and Their Sibling Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Huajing; Zhang, Yaohua; Shi, Chengmin; Mao, Fengbiao; Cai, Wanshi; Lu, Liang; Zhao, Fangqing; Sun, Zhongsheng; Zhang, Jianxu

    2017-09-01

    Murine rodents are excellent models for study of adaptive radiations and speciation. Brown Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus) are successful global colonizers and the contributions of their domesticated laboratory strains to biomedical research are well established. To identify nucleotide-based speciation timing of the rat and genomic information contributing to its colonization capabilities, we analyzed 51 whole-genome sequences of wild-derived Brown Norway rats and their sibling species, R. nitidus, and identified over 20 million genetic variants in the wild Brown Norway rats that were absent in the laboratory strains, which substantially expand the reservoir of rat genetic diversity. We showed that divergence of the rat and its siblings coincided with drastic climatic changes that occurred during the Middle Pleistocene. Further, we revealed that there was a geographically widespread influx of genes between Brown Norway rats and the sibling species following the divergence, resulting in numerous introgressed regions in the genomes of admixed Brown Norway rats. Intriguing, genes related to chemical communications among these introgressed regions appeared to contribute to the population-specific adaptations of the admixed Brown Norway rats. Our data reveals evolutionary history of the Brown Norway rat, and offers new insights into the role of climatic changes in speciation of animals and the effect of interspecies introgression on animal adaptation. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  17. Paradoxical sleep deprivation decreases serum testosterone and Leydig cells in male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fitranto Arjadi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Chronic stress increases glucocorticoid levels and accelerates reduction in Leydig cells functions and numbers. Chronic stress models in the working place comprise sleep deprivation, sedentary stress, and physical stress. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of various work stress models, such as stress from paradoxical sleep deprivation (PSD, immobilization, and footshock, on serum testosterone levels and number of Leydig cells in male albino rats. Methods This study was of experimental randomized post-test only with control group design using 24 male Wistar albino rats (Rattus norvegicus. The sample was divided into 4 groups: K1 (control, K2 (PSD, K3 (immobilization and K4 (footshock, receiving treatment for 25 days. Measured parameters were serum testosterone level and Leydig cell number. Analysis of variance (ANOVA was used for statistical analysis, followed by post hoc LSD. Results Mean serum testosterone levels (0.07 ± 0.08 ng/mL and Leydig cell numbers (4.22 ± l0.96 were lowest in the PSD stress model. Serum testosterone levels differed significantly between controls and PSD group (p=0.014, while there was a significant difference in numbers of Leydig cells between footshock stress and PSD (p=0.011 and between the three stress groups and controls (p=0.006. Conclusion This study demonstrated that PSD, immobilization and footshock stress significantly decreased serum testosterone levels and number of Leydig cells in male albino rats (Rattus norvegicus. The mechanism by which PSD affects serum testosterone is still unclear.

  18. Paradoxical sleep deprivation decreases serum testosterone and Leydig cells in male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fitranto Arjadi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Chronic stress increases glucocorticoid levels and accelerates reduction in Leydig cells functions and numbers. Chronic stress models in the working place comprise sleep deprivation, sedentary stress, and physical stress. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of various work stress models, such as stress from paradoxical sleep deprivation (PSD, immobilization, and footshock, on serum testosterone levels and number of Leydig cells in male albino rats. METHODS This study was of experimental randomized post-test only with control group design using 24 male Wistar albino rats (Rattus norvegicus. The sample was divided into 4 groups: K1 (control, K2 (PSD, K3 (immobilization and K4 (footshock, receiving treatment for 25 days. Measured parameters were serum testosterone level and Leydig cell number. Analysis of variance (ANOVA was used for statistical analysis, followed by post hoc LSD. RESULTS Mean serum testosterone levels (0.07 ± 0.08 ng/ml and Leydig cell numbers (4.22 ± l0.96 were lowest in the PSD stress model. Serum testosterone levels differed significantly between controls and PSD group (p=0.014, while there was a significant difference in numbers of Leydig cells between footshock stress and PSD (p=0.011 and between the three stress groups and controls (p=0.006. CONCLUSION This study demonstrated that PSD, immobilization and footshock stress significantly decreased serum testosterone levels and number of Leydig cells in male albino rats (Rattus norvegicus. The mechanism by which PSD affects serum testosterone is still unclear.

  19. Rats: if you can't beat them eat them! (Tricks of the trade observed among the Adi and other North-East Indian tribals).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer-Rochow, Victor Benno; Megu, Karsing; Chakravorty, Jharna

    2015-05-30

    Since outside the tribal areas of North-East India it is not widely known, neither in the world nor in India itself, that rats are considered a delicious food item, this was one of several reasons why we decided to present this ethnographic account of rat procurement and preparation (together with some additional comments on the cultural role that rats have especially amongst members of the Adi tribe). Consumption of rats by humans as a biological control method far superior to the use of rodenticide poisoning and rat consumption as a way to reduce hunting pressure on rare wild animals were further considerations to publish this account. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with male and female members of eight tribal communities in Arunachal Pradesh (North-East India) on the uses of rats as food and as cultural objects. The construction of rat traps as well as the preparation of rat dishes were observed and recorded photographically. Numerous species of small rodents, collectively called "rats" by the locals of North-East Indian tribes and comprising the species Rattus rattus Linnaeus, R. nitidus Hodgson, R. burrus Miller, R. tanezumi Temminck as well as Bandicota bengalensis Gray and Hardwicke, B. indica Bechstein, and Mus musculus Linnaeus, are regularly trapped and consumed in roasted, cooked or smoked form. In this well-illustrated report the kinds of devices used to catch these animals are described and information is provided on how to prepare rats for human consumption. The role that rats as food and gift-exchange items play in the context of local culture is explained and the locals' most highly appreciated meat dish, known as bule-bulak oying and consisting of boiled rat's tail, legs and inner organs, is introduced. Given the need to meet the world's future food demands and the environmental consequences of an expanding livestock production with regard to global warming, water availability, deforestation, soil erosion etc., rats as a food item, as

  20. Methanol Extracts Potential of Mas Ngur Shells (Atactodea striata against Protease Profile and Description of Histopathology of Jejunum Rats Exposed by Indomethacin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivi Shofia

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD is a multi-factorial disorder caused by genetic factors, environmental and immune response. One of the causes of IBD is a side effect of non-steroidal of anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs. Indomethacin is an NSAID that activates macrophages and triggers increasing of protease activity. Mas Ngur shells (Atactodea striata contains an antioxidant that inhibits the protease activity. This research used rats (Rattus norvegicus induced by Indomethacin and treated with methanol extract of Mas Ngur shells (A. striata at doses of 100 and 400 mg/kg of body weight (BW. Therapy potency of the Mas Ngur shells methanol extracts were identified by measuring protease activity and observed the Jejenum histopathology. Statistical analysis showed that the Mas Ngur shells therapy showed significant differences (p <0.05 by decreasing of protease activity and improve jejunum histopathology of IBD induced rats

  1. Transverse rectus abdominis musculocutaneous flap (TRAM flap - experimental model in rats Modelo experimental do retalho musculocutâneo abdominal transverso de músculo reto do abdome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Bins Ely

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper was to report the use of an experimental model of the Transverse Rectus Abdominis Musculocutaneous flap (TRAM flap, in rats. Thirty male Wistar rats weighing 180 to 220 g were submitted to the TRAM flap procedure. This article reports on the use of the caudally based, right unipedicled TRAM flap.Este artigo relata e divulga um modelo experimental do retalho musculocutâneo abdominal transverso de músculo reto do abdome (TRAM flap, em ratos. Foram utilizados 30 ratos Wistar (Rattus norvegicus albinus, Rodentia, Mammalia machos, adultos, com peso individual variando entre 180 e 220 gramas. Os animais foram submetidos ao procedimento operatório do retalho musculocutâneo abdominal transverso de músculo reto do abdome (TRAM flap, de base caudal com pedículo do músculo reto do abdome unilateral à direita.

  2. PENGARUH PEMBERIAN MONOSODIUM GLUTAMAT (MSG) PADA TIKUS JANTAN (Rattus Norvegicus) TERHADAP FSH DAN LH

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zulkarnain Edward

    2010-01-01

    .... Penggunaan bahan tambahan makanan sering dijumpai, salah satunya adalah bahan penyedap yang banyak sekali digunakan seperti senyawa L-asam glutamat yang digunakan dalam bentuk garam yaitu monosodium glutamat (MSG...

  3. Pengaruh Pemberian Jus Buah Naga Merah (Hylocereus Polyrhizus) terhadap Kadar Trigliserida Tikus Putih (Rattus Norvegicus) Hiperlipidemia

    OpenAIRE

    Rizqi, Afrida Wira Surya; Widada, Subrata Tri; Martsiningsih, M Atik

    2014-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is a disease that causes the most deaths in the world. One of its main risk factor is triglyceride levels which make the emergence of plaque in coronary artery. Statin as an option drug in reducing triglyceride levels apparently reported to cause myopathy and kidney failure when used in a long term. Natural product like red dragon fruit began to be developed as a safer alternative. The content of various substances such as niacin, vitamin C and fiber in it useful as ant...

  4. Pengaruh Pemberian Jus Buah Naga Merah (Hylocereus polyrhizus) Terhadap Kadar Trigliserida Tikus Putih (Rattus norvegicus) Hiperlipidemia

    OpenAIRE

    Afrida Wira Surya Rizqi; Subrata Tri Widada; M Atik Martsiningsih

    2014-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is a disease that causes the most deaths in the world. One of its main risk factor is triglyceride levels which make the emergence of plaque in coronary artery. Statin as an option drug in reducing triglyceride levels apparently reported to cause myopathy and kidney failure when used in a long term. Natural product like red dragon fruit began to be developed as a safer alternative. The content of various substances such as niacin, vitamin C and fiber in it useful as ant...

  5. Pengaruh Insulin, Jahe dan Kombinasi Keduanya Terhadap Jumlah Sel Trofoblas Rattus Norvegicus Model Diabetes Pragestasional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alif Zahrotin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus (DM is a metabolic disease with characteristics of hyperglycemia that has an effect on increasing morbidity and mortality in the mother. One of the complications of pregestational DM (pGDM is preeclampsia (PE. The perinatal mortality rate increases 20x in pGDM women with PE complication. Exposure to hyperglycemia causes an increase in oxidative stress that increases apoptosis of trophoblast cells which in turn causes the decrease of proliferation and the number of trophoblastic cells and leads to endothelial dysfunction and hypoxia. The purpose of this study was to distinguish the effect of insulin administration and ginger extract on the number of trophoblast cells of R. norvegicus. This research was an experimental research using post-test only control group design. The population used were pregnant R. norvegicus. The sampling technique was simple random sampling with independent variables are insulin and Z. officinale extract and the dependent variable is the number of trophoblast cells. Data analysis of the number of trophoblast cells used wereKruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney test. The result showed that there was a significant difference in the trophoblast cell number with p-value <0,05 (p = 0,001 on positive control with insulin treatment group. The conclusion of this study was the presence of ginger extract can be used as a single therapy or combination with insulin for pregestational diabetes.

  6. Identifying polymorphisms in the Rattus norvegicus D3 dopamine receptor gene and regulatory region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, B.M.; D'Souza, U.M.; Berezikov, E.; Cuppen, E.; Sluyter, F.

    2004-01-01

    The D(3) dopamine receptor has been implicated in several neuropsychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia, Parkinson's disease and addiction. Sequence variation in the D(3) gene can lead to subtle alteration in receptor structure or gene expression and thus to a different phenotype. In this

  7. RNA sequencing of trigeminal ganglia in Rattus Norvegicus after glyceryl trinitrate infusion with relevance to migraine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Sara Hougaard; Sørensen, Lasse Maretty; Ramachandran, Roshni

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Infusion of glyceryl trinitrate (GTN), a donor of nitric oxide, induces immediate headache in humans that in migraineurs is followed by a delayed migraine attack. In order to achieve increased knowledge of mechanisms activated during GTN-infusion this present study aims to investiga...

  8. Whole transcriptome expression of trigeminal ganglia compared to dorsal root ganglia in Rattus Norvegicus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kogelman, Lisette Johanna Antonia; Christensen, Rikke Elgaard; Pedersen, Sara Hougaard

    2017-01-01

    The trigeminal ganglia (TG) subserving the head and the dorsal root ganglia (DRG) subserving the rest of the body are homologous handling sensory neurons. Differences exist, as a number of signaling substances cause headache but no pain in the rest of the body. To date, very few genes involved in...

  9. Uso de antiinflamatórios COX-2 seletivos em ratos (Rattus novergicus) Wistar

    OpenAIRE

    Camplesi, Annelise Carla [UNESP

    2010-01-01

    O uso de antiinflamatórios não esteroidais (AINEs) aumentou significativamente na clínica médica de pequenos animais após a descoberta de AINEs seletivos, e isso resultou em uma elevação da incidência de intoxicações por estes medicamentos. O presente estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a histologia e o índice apoptótico hepático, níveis de citocinas séricas e fibrinogênio plasmático nos ratos tratados com diclofenaco, meloxicam e firocoxibe. Utilizaram-se 90 animais que foram divididos em seis...

  10. Personaalne traditsioonitõlgendus pärandkultuuri kaitsealal / Kristel Rattus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rattus, Kristel

    2005-01-01

    Karula Rahvuspargi administratsiooni ja kohaliku turismiettevõtja Metsamoori vahelisest konfliktist põhjusel, et rahvuspargi administratsiooni hinnangul kohtleb Metsamoor pärandkultuurikaitseala jaoks traditsiooni liiga meelevaldselt

  11. Iga päev kaotab 70 tallinnlast töö / Sirje Rattus