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Sample records for rats produces dilatation

  1. Impaired activity of adherens junctions contributes to endothelial dilator dysfunction in ageing rat arteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Fumin; Flavahan, Sheila; Flavahan, Nicholas A

    2017-08-01

    Ageing-induced endothelial dysfunction contributes to organ dysfunction and progression of cardiovascular disease. VE-cadherin clustering at adherens junctions promotes protective endothelial functions, including endothelium-dependent dilatation. Ageing increased internalization and degradation of VE-cadherin, resulting in impaired activity of adherens junctions. Inhibition of VE-cadherin clustering at adherens junctions (function-blocking antibody; FBA) reduced endothelial dilatation in young arteries but did not affect the already impaired dilatation in old arteries. After junctional disruption with the FBA, dilatation was similar in young and old arteries. Src tyrosine kinase activity and tyrosine phosphorylation of VE-cadherin were increased in old arteries. Src inhibition increased VE-cadherin at adherens junctions and increased endothelial dilatation in old, but not young, arteries. Src inhibition did not increase dilatation in old arteries treated with the VE-cadherin FBA. Ageing impairs the activity of adherens junctions, which contributes to endothelial dilator dysfunction. Restoring the activity of adherens junctions could be of therapeutic benefit in vascular ageing. Endothelial dilator dysfunction contributes to pathological vascular ageing. Experiments assessed whether altered activity of endothelial adherens junctions (AJs) might contribute to this dysfunction. Aortas and tail arteries were isolated from young (3-4 months) and old (22-24 months) F344 rats. VE-cadherin immunofluorescent staining at endothelial AJs and AJ width were reduced in old compared to young arteries. A 140 kDa VE-cadherin species was present on the cell surface and in TTX-insoluble fractions, consistent with junctional localization. Levels of the 140 kDa VE-cadherin were decreased, whereas levels of a TTX-soluble 115 kDa VE-cadherin species were increased in old compared to young arteries. Acetylcholine caused endothelium-dependent dilatation that was decreased in old

  2. Relaxin 2 fails to lower intraocular pressure and to dilate retinal vessels in rats.

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    Hampel, Ulrike; Träger, Katharina; Liu, Hanhan; Teister, Julia; Grus, Franz; Prokosch-Willing, Verena

    2018-03-13

    Recently, the vasodilator relaxin 2 has been introduced as a treatment for acute heart failure. However, its role on vessels of the eye and intraocular pressure (IOP) remains unclear though it has been hypothesized to induce a decrease IOP after intramuscular injection in humans. We aimed to test whether the hormone relaxin 2 lowers IOP and dilates retinal vessels in animals. The IOP of female Sprague-Dawley rats before and after application of relaxin 2 was measured using an Icare Tonolab device calibrated for rats. Recombinant human relaxin 2 in phosphate-buffered saline with 0.1% bovine serum albumin was either applied as eye drops (1000, 2000 or 3000 ng/ml), injected intravitreally (500 ng/ml) or intravenously (13.3 μg/kg body weight). Retinal vessel thickness was monitored using infrared fundus images compiled with optical coherence tomography (Heidelberg Engineering) before and several time points after application of relaxin 2. Neither topical nor intravitreous or intravenous application of relaxin 2 lowered the IOP or changed the arterial or venous vessel diameter after 1 or 3 h after application. Now that relaxin 2 is more easily available, the hormone came again into focus as a potential glaucoma therapeutic. However, our study in rats could not support the hypothesis that relaxin 2 lowers IOP or dilates retinal vessels.

  3. Beneficial effects of edaravone, a novel antioxidant, in rats with dilated cardiomyopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arumugam, Somasundaram; Thandavarayan, Rajarajan A; Veeraveedu, Punniyakoti T; Nakamura, Takashi; Arozal, Wawaimuli; Sari, Flori R; Giridharan, Vijayasree V; Soetikno, Vivian; Palaniyandi, Suresh S; Harima, Meilei; Suzuki, Kenji; Nagata, Masaki; Kodama, Makoto; Watanabe, Kenichi

    2012-01-01

    Edaravone, a novel antioxidant, acts by trapping hydroxyl radicals, quenching active oxygen and so on. Its cardioprotective activity against experimental autoimmune myocarditis (EAM) was reported. Nevertheless, it remains to be determined whether edaravone protects against cardiac remodelling in dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). The present study was undertaken to assess whether edaravone attenuates myocardial fibrosis, and examine the effect of edaravone on cardiac function in rats with DCM after EAM. Rat model of EAM was prepared by injection with porcine cardiac myosin 28 days after immunization, we administered edaravone intraperitoneally at 3 and 10 mg/kg/day to rats for 28 days. The results were compared with vehicle-treated rats with DCM. Cardiac function, by haemodynamic and echocardiographic study and histopathology were performed. Left ventricular (LV) expression of NADPH oxidase subunits (p47phox, p67phox, gp91phox and Nox4), fibrosis markers (TGF-β1 and OPN), endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress markers (GRP78 and GADD 153) and apoptosis markers (cytochrome C and caspase-3) were measured by Western blotting. Edaravone-treated DCM rats showed better cardiac function compared with those of the vehicle-treated rats. In addition, LV expressions of NADPH oxidase subunits levels were significantly down-regulated in edaravone-treated rats. Furthermore, the number of collagen-III positive cells in the myocardium of edaravone-treated rats was lower compared with those of the vehicle-treated rats. Our results suggest that edaravone ameliorated the progression of DCM by modulating oxidative and ER stress-mediated myocardial apoptosis and fibrosis. PMID:22268705

  4. MCP-1, ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 are present in early aneurysmal dilatation in experimental rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jun Fan; Hao-Tong; Jing Di; Fang Liu; Hai-Hua Zhao; Shu-Ling Bai; Xiang Li; Linlin Zhong

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested that inflammation actively participates in ascending aortic aneurysm formation. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the expression changes of adhesion molecules and MMPs in an experimental model of ascending aortic aneurysm induced by ascending aorta banding in Wistar rats. Twelve rats developed aortic dilation after ascending aorta banding treatment, while nine normal animals underwent surgery without banding were used as controls. Light microscope and scanning electron microscope showed that the wall of the ascending aorta became disorganized as well as infiltration by inflammatory cells in aneurysmal rats. By using immunohistochemical techniques, a significant increase in the immunostaining of MCP-1 was observed in the aneurysmal wall as compared to the normal aortic wall. Under similar experimental conditions, we also found that the immunostaining of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 was markedly increased in the aneurysmal wall. In addition, gelatin zymo graphic analysis showed that the expression and activities of MMP-2 and MMP-9 were remarkably enhanced in the ascending aorta of ascending aortic aneurysmal rats as compared to normal rats. These results demonstrate that MCP-1, ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 are involved in the pathogenesis of ascending aortic aneurysm and an increase in the immunostaining and activity of MMP-2 and MMP-9 may promote the progression of ascending aortic aneurysm. (authors)

  5. Traditional Chinese Medicine Tongxinluo Improves Cardiac Function of Rats with Dilated Cardiomyopathy

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    Fang-Fang Shen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed at testing the hypothesis that tongxinluo capsule might exert its cardioprotective effect by preventing ventricular remodeling and improving coronary microvascular function in a rat model of doxorubicin-induced dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM. Rats that survived DCM induction were randomly divided into three groups to be given 1.5 g·kg−1·day−1 (TXL-H, n=9 or 0.15 g·kg−1·day−1 (TXL-L, n=10 of tongxinluo, or normal saline at the same volume (DCM-C, n=10 intragastrically. Age matched normal rats treated with normal saline were used as normal controls (NOR-C, n=9. After four weeks of treatment, the DCM-C, TXL-H, and TXL-L groups exhibited significant cardiac dysfunction, left ventricular remodeling, and coronary microvascular dysfunction, compared with the NOR-C rats. However, myocardial functional parameters were significantly improved and microvascular density (MVD increased in the TXL-H group compared with the DCM-C group (all P<0.01. Left ventricular remodeling was prevented. There were close linear relationships between CVF and LVEF (r=-0.683, P<0.05, MVD and LVEF (r=0.895, P<0.05, and MVD and CVF (r=-0.798, P<0.05. It was indicated that high-dose tongxinluo effectively improved cardiac function in rat model of DCM.

  6. The Dilator Naris Muscle as a Reporter of Facial Nerve Regeneration in a Rat Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weinberg, J.S.; Kleiss, I.J.; Knox, C.J.; Heaton, J.T.; Hadlock, T.A.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Many investigators study facial nerve regeneration using the rat whisker pad model, although widely standardized outcomes measures of facial nerve regeneration in the rodent have not yet been developed. The intrinsic whisker pad "sling" muscles producing whisker protraction, situated at

  7. Purification and characterization of a small dermatan sulphate proteoglycan implicated in the dilatation of the rat uterine cervix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokenyesi, R; Woessner, J F

    1989-06-01

    A small dermatan sulphate proteoglycan (DSPG) was extracted from rat cervices and was purified by using DEAE-Sephacel ion-exchange chromatography, gel filtration on Sepharose CL-2B and CsCl-density-gradient centrifugation. Sedimentation-equilibrium centrifugation gave a weight-average Mr of 95,000. Amino acid analysis showed a high content of aspartic acid, glutamic acid, glycine and leucine. The glycosaminoglycan chains had Mr 50,000 as determined by gel filtration. Chondroitin AC lyase and chondroitin ABC lyase digestions of these chains showed that they were composed of 75% dermatan sulphate and 25% chondroitin sulphate. Chondroitin ABC lyase digestion produced a core protein of Mr 45,000. The core protein, after treatment with HF, had Mr 37,000. Amino acid sequences of the N-terminus and a CNBr-cleavage peptide showed similarity to the sequences of core proteins of small proteoglycans of bovine and human origin, but the N-terminal glycosaminoglycan-attachment site (Ser-Gly-Ile-Ile) differed from the consensus sequence (Ser-Gly-Xaa-Gly) [Bourdon, Krusius, Campbell, Schwartz & Ruoslahti (1987) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 84, 3194-3198]. A polyclonal antibody against the rat cervical DSPG reacted with small proteoglycans from cervices of human, mouse, dog, cow and sheep. DSPG is the major proteoglycan species present in the cervix. The amount of DSPG per cervix increases 4-fold during pregnancy, then falls precipitously within 1 day post partum. A role in cervical dilatation is postulated for this proteoglycan.

  8. Flow- and acetylcholine-induced dilation in small arteries from rats with renovascular hypertension - effect of tempol treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Frank Holden; Stankevicius, Edgaras; Hansen, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    -treated animals, while only the relaxation was improved by the NO donor, S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP). In conclusion renovascular hypertension selectively inhibits flow-induced NO-mediated vasodilatation, while EDHF-type vasodilatation remains unaffected, suggesting that high blood pressure leads...... blood pressure and tempol treatment. Simultaneous measurements of NO-concentration and relaxation were performed in isolated coronary arteries from the same animals. As compared to vehicle-treated rats, both acetylcholine-induced relaxation and NO-concentration increased in arteries from tempol......-induced dilatation remained normal. Measured by dihydroethidium staining there was an increased amount of superoxide in arteries from vehicle-treated rats, but not from tempol-treated rats. Expression by immunoblotting of endothelial NO synthase and the NAD(P)H oxidase subunit p47phox remained unaffected by high...

  9. Epoetin beta pegol ameliorates flow-mediated dilation with improving endothelial nitric oxide synthase coupling state in nonobese diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serizawa, Kenichi; Yogo, Kenji; Tashiro, Yoshihito; Kawasaki, Ryohei; Endo, Koichi; Shimonaka, Yasushi; Hirata, Michinori

    2017-04-01

    Patients with diabetic nephropathy have a high cardiovascular mortality. Epoetin beta pegol (continuous erythropoietin receptor activator, C.E.R.A.) is a drug for the treatment of renal anemia. In this study, we investigated the effect of C.E.R.A. on vascular endothelial function as evaluated by flow-mediated dilation (FMD) and the relationship between hematopoiesis and FMD in diabetic nephropathy rats. Male Spontaneously Diabetic Torii rats (SDT, 22 weeks old) were used. C.E.R.A. (0.6, 1.2 μg/kg) was administered subcutaneously once every 2 weeks for 8 weeks. At 1 week after last administration (31 weeks old), we assessed FMD in the femoral arteries of anesthetized rats using a high-resolution ultrasound system. FMD was also measured 1 week after single C.E.R.A. treatment (5.0 μg/kg) to examine the influence of hematopoiesis. Flow-mediated dilation was significantly decreased in SDT rats before the start of C.E.R.A. treatment (22 weeks old). Repeated administration of C.E.R.A. dose-dependently improved FMD in SDT rats (31 weeks old) without changing blood glucose, nitroglycerin-induced vasodilation, or kidney function. Long-term administration of C.E.R.A. improved the state of endothelial nitric oxide synthase uncoupling in the femoral arteries of SDT rats, which showed a positive correlation with FMD. On the other hand, there was no correlation between FMD and Hb or Hct in SDT rats. Furthermore, at 1 week after single administration of C.E.R.A., FMD was not significantly improved although hemoglobin levels were comparable with levels following long-term C.E.R.A. Long-term treatment with C.E.R.A. improved FMD in SDT rats even after onset of endothelial dysfunction. © 2017 The Authors. Cardiovascular Therapeutics Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Intramuscular injection of human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells improves cardiac function in dilated cardiomyopathy rats.

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    Mao, Chenggang; Hou, Xu; Wang, Benzhen; Chi, Jingwei; Jiang, Yanjie; Zhang, Caining; Li, Zipu

    2017-01-28

    Stem cells provide a promising candidate for the treatment of the fatal pediatric dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). This study aimed to investigate the effects of intramuscular injection of human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hUCMSCs) on the cardiac function of a DCM rat model. A DCM model was established by intraperitoneal injections of doxorubicin in Sprague-Dawley rats. hUCMSCs at different concentrations or cultured medium were injected via limb skeletal muscles, with blank medium injected as the control. The rats were monitored for 4 weeks, meanwhile BNP, cTNI, VEGF, HGF, GM-CSF, and LIF in the peripheral blood were examined by ELISA, and cardiac function was monitored by echocardiography (Echo-CG). Finally, the expression of IGF-1, HGF, and VEGF in the myocardium was examined by histoimmunochemistry and real-time PCR, and the ultrastructure of the myocardium was examined by electron microscopy. Injection of hUCMSCs markedly improved cardiac function in the DCM rats by significantly elevating left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and left ventricular fraction shortening (LVFS). The BNP and cTNI levels in the peripheral blood were reduced by hUCMSCs, while HGF, LIF, GM-CSF, and VEGF were increased by hUCMSCs. Expression of IGF-1, HGF, and VEGF in the myocardium from the DCM rats was significantly increased by hUCMSC injection. Furthermore, hUCMSCs protected the ultrastructure of cardiomyocytes by attenuating mitochondrial swelling and maintaining sarcolemma integrity. Intramuscular injection of UCMSCs can improve DCM-induced cardiac function impairment and protect the myocardium. These effects may be mediated by regulation of relevant cytokines in serum and the myocardium.

  11. Dilated Cardiomyopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Family history of dilated cardiomyopathy Inflammation of heart muscle from immune system disorders, such as lupus Neuromuscular disorders, such as muscular dystrophy Complications Complications from dilated cardiomyopathy include: Heart ...

  12. Paschke Dilations

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    Abraham Westerbaan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In 1973 Paschke defined a factorization for completely positive maps between C*-algebras. In this paper we show that for normal maps between von Neumann algebras, this factorization has a universal property, and coincides with Stinespring's dilation for normal maps into B(H.

  13. Balloon dilatation of iatrogenic urethral strictures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acunas, B.; Acunas, G.; Gokmen, E.; Celik, L.

    1988-01-01

    Balloon dilatation of the urethra was performed in five patients with iatrogenic urethral strictures. The urethral strictures were successfully negotiated and dilated in all patients. Redilatation became necessary in a period ranging from 3 to 10 months. The authors believe that balloon dilatation of the urethra can be safely and successfully performed; the procedure produces minimal trauma and immediate relief of symptoms. (orig.)

  14. Dilated cardiomyopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salvatore, M.; Cuocolo, A.

    1988-01-01

    Radionuclide techniques are easily obtainable, noninvasive examinations that provide useful information in the evaluation, diagnosis and management of patients with dilated cardiomyopathy. The gated blood pool scan allows the assessment of ventricular size, configuration, and wall and septal thickness. These data allow the functional class of the cardiomyopathy (congestive, restrictive or hypertrophic) to be defined. Often THallium-201 myocardial perfusion imaging adds further information and is particularly useful in distinguishing congestive cardiomyopathy from severe coronary artery disease and in depicting septal abnormalities in hipertrophic cardiomyopathy. Useful as these techniques are, they are not substitutes for conventional approaches to diagnosis. Careful history taking and physical examination, as well as scrutiny of the electrocardiogram, chest X-ray and echocardiogram should be standard practice for the evaluation of patients with suspected cardiomyopathy. Judicious use of noninvasive techniques may obviate the need for cardiac catheterization in many patients

  15. Attenuated flow‐induced dilatation of middle cerebral arteries is related to increased vascular oxidative stress in rats on a short‐term high salt diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosic, Anita; Jukic, Ivana; Stupin, Ana; Mihalj, Martina; Mihaljevic, Zrinka; Novak, Sanja; Vukovic, Rosemary

    2016-01-01

    Key points Recent studies have shown that high salt (HS) intake leads to endothelial dysfunction and impaired vascular reactivity in different vascular beds in both animal and human models, due to increased oxidative stress.The objective of this study was to assess vascular response to flow‐induced dilatation (FID) and to elucidate the role of vascular oxidative stress/antioxidative capacity in middle cerebral arteries (MCAs) of HS‐fed rats in vitro.The novelty of this study is in demonstrating impaired flow‐induced dilatation of MCAs and down‐regulation of vascular antioxidant genes with HS intake, leading to increased levels of oxidative stress in blood vessels and peripheral lymph organs, which together contribute to impaired FID.In addition, results show increased oxidative stress in leukocytes of peripheral lymph organs, suggesting the occurrence of inflammatory processes due to HS intake.Recirculation of leukocytes might additionally increase vascular oxidative stress in vivo. Abstract The aim of this study was to determine flow‐induced dilatation (FID) and the role of oxidative stress/antioxidative capacity in isolated, pressurized middle cerebral arteries (MCAs) of high salt (HS)‐fed rats. Healthy male Sprague‐Dawley rats (11 weeks old) were fed low salt (0.4% NaCl; LS group) or high salt (4% NaCl; HS group) diets for 1 week. Reactivity of MCAs in response to stepwise increases in pressure gradient (Δ10–Δ100 mmHg) was determined in the absence or presence of the superoxide dismutase (SOD) mimetic TEMPOL and/or the nitric oxide synthases (NOS) inhibitor N ω‐nitro‐l‐arginine methyl ester (l‐name). mRNA levels of antioxidative enzymes, NAPDH‐oxidase components, inducible (iNOS) and endothelial nitric oxide synthases (eNOS) were determined by quantitative real‐time PCR. Blood pressure (BP), antioxidant enzymes activity, oxidative stress in peripheral leukocytes, lipid peroxidation products and the antioxidant capacity of plasma

  16. Effects of focal lesions produced by beta irradiating the cerebellums in fetal and infant rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulliam, J.A.

    1976-01-01

    A beam of beta radiation, 2mm in diameter, was used to irradiate the cerebellum in 29 rat fetuses and in 90 infant rats and to irradiate the cerebrum in 51 rat fetuses and in 72 infant rats. The age range of the rats was from the 15th fetal day to the 6th postnatal day. Localized beta radiation produced lesions limited to the cerebrum, to the cerebellum, to one cerebral hemisphere, or to one cerebellar hemisphere and the vermis in rat fetes and in infant rats. Varying degrees of ataxia were produced in the irradiated rats. This ataxia was proportional to the hypoplasia of the cerebellum. Severe reduction in the size of the cerebrum caused no motor deficits. The lesions produced by localized beta radiation were similar to lesions produced by x radiation, except that beta radiation produced lesions that were more localized and that were asymmetrical. Also the beta radiation offered the investigator more flexibility in selecting the site of the lesion regardless to the age of the rat fetus or the infant rat

  17. Purification and characterization of a small dermatan sulphate proteoglycan implicated in the dilatation of the rat uterine cervix.

    OpenAIRE

    Kokenyesi, R; Woessner, J F

    1989-01-01

    A small dermatan sulphate proteoglycan (DSPG) was extracted from rat cervices and was purified by using DEAE-Sephacel ion-exchange chromatography, gel filtration on Sepharose CL-2B and CsCl-density-gradient centrifugation. Sedimentation-equilibrium centrifugation gave a weight-average Mr of 95,000. Amino acid analysis showed a high content of aspartic acid, glutamic acid, glycine and leucine. The glycosaminoglycan chains had Mr 50,000 as determined by gel filtration. Chondroitin AC lyase and ...

  18. BIOMATERIAL IMPLANTS IN BONE FRACTURES PRODUCED IN RATS FIBULAS

    OpenAIRE

    Shirane, Henrique Yassuhiro; Oda, Diogo Yochizumi; Pinheiro, Thiago Cerizza; Cunha, Marcelo Rodrigues da

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the importance of collagen and hydroxyapatite in the regeneration of fractures experimentally induced in the fibulas of rats. Method: 15 rats were used. These were subjected to surgery to remove a fragment from the fibula. This site then received a graft consisting of a silicone tubes filled with hydroxyapatite and collagen. Results: Little bone neoformation occurred inside the tubes filled with the biomaterials. There was more neoformation in the tubes with collagen. Conclusion: ...

  19. Esophageal dilatation using the Eder Puestow dilators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royston, C M; Dowling, B L; Gear, M W

    1976-06-01

    We have performed fifty-one dilatations in twenty-six patients using an end-viewing fiberoptic endoscope and Eder Puestow dilators. All (except two) were performed using intravenous diazepam, the majority on an outpatient basis. The only complication has been a single case of aspiration pneumonia. We have found this method of esophageal dilatation particularly useful in the preoperative dilatation of benign strictures, and in those elderly frail patients who are unsuitable for surgery. Transthoracic resection of the stricture is avoided and thus transabdominal repair of the hiatus hernia may be undertaken.

  20. Novel distribution of calreticulin to cardiomyocyte mitochondria and its increase in a rat model of dilated cardiomyopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Ming [Department of Cardiology, Second Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an, Shaanxi (China); Department of Respiratory Medicine, Second Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an, Shaanxi (China); Wei, Jin, E-mail: weijindr@163.com [Department of Cardiology, Second Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an, Shaanxi (China); Li, Yali [Department of Respiratory Medicine, Second Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an, Shaanxi (China); Shan, Hu; Yan, Rui; Lin, Lin [Department of Cardiology, Second Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an, Shaanxi (China); Zhang, Qiuhong [Department of Respiratory Medicine, Second Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an, Shaanxi (China); Xue, Jiahong [Department of Cardiology, Second Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an, Shaanxi (China)

    2014-06-20

    Highlights: • Calreticulin can also be found in cardiomyocyte mitochondria. • The mitochondrial content of calreticulin is increased in DCM hearts. • Increased expression of mitochondrial CRT may induce mitochondrial damage. • Mitochondrial CRT may inhibit the phosphorylation of mitochondrial STAT3. - Abstract: Background: Calreticulin (CRT), a Ca{sup 2+}-binding chaperone of the endoplasmic reticulum, can also be found in several other locations including the cytosol, nucleus, secretory granules, the outer side of the plasma membrane, and the extracellular matrix. Whether CRT is localized at mitochondria of cardiomyocytes and whether such localization is affected under DCM are still unclear. Methods and results: The DCM model was generated in rats by the daily oral administration of furazolidone for thirty weeks. Echocardiographic and hemodynamic studies demonstrated enlarged left ventricular dimensions and reduced systolic and diastolic function in DCM rats. Immuno-electron microscopy and Western blot showed that CRT was present in cardiomyocyte mitochondria and the mitochondrial content of CRT was increased in DCM hearts (P < 0.05). Morphometric analysis showed notable myocardial apoptosis and mitochondrial swelling with fractured or dissolved cristae in the DCM hearts. Compared with the control group, the mitochondrial membrane potential level of the freshly isolated cardiac mitochondria and the enzyme activities of cytochrome c oxidase and succinate dehydrogenase in the model group were significantly decreased (P < 0.05), and the myocardial apoptosis index and the caspase activities of caspase-9 and caspase-3 were significantly increased (P < 0.05). Pearson linear correlation analysis showed that the mitochondrial content of CRT had negative correlations with the mitochondrial function, and a positive correlation with myocardial apoptosis index (P < 0.001). The protein expression level of cytochrome c and the phosphorylation activity of STAT3 in the

  1. High intraocular pressure produces learning and memory impairments in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yuxiang; Chen, Zhiqi; Li, Lu; Li, Xing; Xia, Qian; Zhang, Hong; Duan, Qiming; Zhao, Yin

    2017-11-15

    Primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) is a leading cause of irreversible blindness worldwide. Previous MRI studies have revealed that POAG can be associated with alterations in hippocampal function. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate a relationship between chronic high intraocular pressure (IOP) and hippocampal changes in a rat model. We used behavioural tests to assess learning and memory ability, and additionally investigated the hippocampal expression of pathological amyloid beta (Aβ), phospho-tau, and related pathway proteins. Chronic high IOP impaired learning and memory in rats and concurrently increased Aβ and phospho-tau expression in the hippocampus by altering the activation of different kinase (GSK-3β, BACE1) and phosphatase (PP2A) proteins in the hippocampus. This study provides novel evidence for the relationship between high IOP and hippocampal alterations, especially in the context of learning and memory. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Dilations and interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchholz, D.; Fredenhagen, K.

    1976-07-01

    As a consequence of the geometrical features of dilations massless particles do not interact in a local, dilationally invariant quantum theory. This result also holds in models in which dilations are only an asymptotically visible symmetry of the S-matrix. (orig.) [de

  3. Parietal lesions produce illusory conjunction errors in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond PIERRE Kesner

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available When several different objects are presented, visual objects are perceived correctly only if their features are identified and then bound together. Illusory-conjunction errors result when an object is correctly identified but is combined incorrectly. The parietal cortex (PPC has been shown repeatedly to play an important role in feature binding. The present study builds on a series of recent studies that have made use of visual search paradigms to elucidate the neural system involved in feature binding. This experiment attempts to define the role the PPC plays in binding the properties of a visual object that varies on the features of color and size in rats. Rats with PPC lesions or control surgery were exposed to three blocks of 20 trials administered over a 1-week period, with each block containing ten-one feature and ten-two feature trials. The target object consisted of one color object (e.g. black and white and one size object (e.g. short and tall. Of the ten one feature trials, five of the trials were tailored specifically for size discrimination and five for color discrimination. In the two-feature condition, the animal was required to locate the targeted object among four objects with two objects differing in size and two objects differing in color. The results showed a significant decrease in learning the task for the PPC lesioned rats compared to controls, especially for the two-feature condition. Based on a subsequent error analysis for color and size, the results showed a significant increase in illusory conjunction errors for the PPC lesioned rats relative to controls for color and relative to color discrimination, suggesting that the PPC may support feature binding as it relates to color. There was an increase in illusory conjunctions errors for both the PPC lesioned and control animals for size, but this appeared to be due to a difficulty with size discrimination.

  4. Neonatal Handling Produces Sex Hormone-Dependent Resilience to Stress-Induced Muscle Hyperalgesia in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Pedro; Green, Paul G; Levine, Jon D

    2018-06-01

    Neonatal handling (NH) of male rat pups strongly attenuates stress response and stress-induced persistent muscle hyperalgesia in adults. Because female sex is a well established risk factor for stress-induced chronic muscle pain, we explored whether NH provides resilience to stress-induced hyperalgesia in adult female rats. Rat pups underwent NH, or standard (control) care. Muscle mechanical nociceptive threshold was assessed before and after water avoidance (WA) stress, when they were adults. In contrast to male rats, NH produced only a modest protection against WA stress-induced muscle hyperalgesia in female rats. Gonadectomy completely abolished NH-induced resilience in male rats but produced only a small increase in this protective effect in female rats. The administration of the antiestrogen drug fulvestrant, in addition to gonadectomy, did not enhance the protective effect of NH in female rats. Finally, knockdown of the androgen receptor by intrathecal antisense treatment attenuated the protective effect of NH in intact male rats. Together, these data indicate that androgens play a key role in NH-induced resilience to WA stress-induced muscle hyperalgesia. NH induces androgen-dependent resilience to stress-induced muscle pain. Therefore, androgens may contribute to sex differences observed in chronic musculoskeletal pain and its enhancement by stress. Copyright © 2018 The American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Pnematic Dilation in Achalasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximilian Bittinger

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Pneumatic dilation is the most common first-line therapy for the treatment of achalasia. The aim of dilation is a controlled disruption of circular muscle fibres of the lower esophageal sphincter to reduce the functional obstruction. Several types of dilators and different dilation techniques are used, but the achieved results are similar. The mean success rate is about 80% in the short term, but some patients need redilation in the further course (particularly young patients. Best long term results are obtained if the lower esophageal sphincter pressure can be reduced below 10 mmHg. Major complications are rare after pneumatic dilation; the most serious complication is esophageal perforation, which occurs at a mean rate of about 2.5%. Considering the pros and cons of other effective forms of treatment of achalasia (esophagomyotomy and intrasphincteric injection of botulinum toxin, pneumatic dilation is still the treatment of choice in the majority of patients with achalasia.

  6. Changes in peripheral nervous system activity produced in rats by prenatal exposure to carbon monoxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carratu, M.R. (Inst. of Pharmacology, Bari Univ. (Italy)); Renna, G. (Inst. of Pharmacology, Bari Univ. (Italy)); Giustino, A. (Inst. of Pharmacology, Bari Univ. (Italy)); De Salvia, M.A. (Inst. of Pharmacology, Bari Univ. (Italy)); Cuomo, V. (Inst. of Pharmacology, Bari Univ. (Italy))

    1993-06-01

    The present experiments were designed to investigate whether alterations of peripheral nervous system activity may be produced in male Wistar rats by prenatal exposure (from day 0 to day 20 of pregnancy) to relatively low levels of CO (75 and 150 ppm). The voltage clamp analysis of ionic currents recorded from sciatic nerve fibres showed that prenatal exposure to CO produced modifications of sodium current properties. In particular, in 40-day-old rats exposed to CO (75 and 150 ppm) during gestation, the inactivation kinetics of transient sodium current were significantly slowed. Analysis of the potential dependence of steady-state Na inactivation, h[sub [infinity

  7. Human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells alleviate interstitial fibrosis and cardiac dysfunction in a dilated cardiomyopathy rat model by inhibiting TNF-α and TGF-β1/ERK1/2 signaling pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Changyi; Zhou, Guichi; Chen, Yezeng; Liu, Sizheng; Chen, Fen; Xie, Lichun; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Yonggang; Wang, Tianyou; Lai, Xiulan; Ma, Lian

    2018-01-01

    Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is a disease of the heart characterized by pathological remodeling, including patchy interstitial fibrosis and degeneration of cardiomyocytes. In the present study, the beneficial role of human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells (HuMSCs) derived from Wharton's jelly was evaluated in the myosin-induced rat model of DCM. Male Lewis rats (aged 8-weeks) were injected with porcine myosin to induce DCM. Cultured HuMSCs (1×106 cells/rat) were intravenously injected 28 days after myosin injection and the effects on myocardial fibrosis and the underlying signaling pathways were investigated and compared with vehicle-injected and negative control rats. Myosin injections in rats (vehicle group and experimental group) for 28 days led to severe fibrosis and significant deterioration of cardiac function indicative of DCM. HuMSC treatment reduced fibrosis as determined by Masson's staining of collagen deposits, as well as quantification of molecular markers of myocardial fibrosis such as collagen I/III, profibrotic factors transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF). HuMSC treatment restored cardiac function as observed using echocardiography. In addition, western blot analysis indicated that HuMSC injections in DCM rats inhibited the expression of TNF-α, extracellular-signal regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) and TGF-β1, which is a master switch for inducing myocardial fibrosis. These findings suggested that HuMSC injections attenuated myocardial fibrosis and dysfunction in a rat model of DCM, likely by inhibiting TNF-α and the TGF-β1/ERK1/2 fibrosis pathways. Therefore, HuMSC treatment may represent a potential therapeutic method for treatment of DCM. PMID:29115435

  8. Possible mechanisms involved in the vasorelaxant effect produced by clobenzorex in aortic segments of rats

    OpenAIRE

    Lozano-Cuenca, J.; González-Hernández, A.; López-Canales, O.A.; Villagrana-Zesati, J.R.; Rodríguez-Choreão, J.D.; Morín-Zaragoza, R.; Castillo-Henkel, E.F.; López-Canales, J.S.

    2017-01-01

    Clobenzorex is a metabolic precursor of amphetamine indicated for the treatment of obesity. Amphetamines have been involved with cardiovascular side effects such as hypertension and pulmonary arterial hypertension. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the direct application of 10?9?10?5 M clobenzorex on isolated phenylephrine-precontracted rat aortic rings produces vascular effects, and if so, what mechanisms may be involved. Clobenzorex produced an immediate concentration-...

  9. Measurement of the lowest dosage of phenobarbital that can produce drug discrimination in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overton, Donald A.; Stanwood, Gregg D.; Patel, Bhavesh N.; Pragada, Sreenivasa R.; Gordon, M. Kathleen

    2009-01-01

    Rationale Accurate measurement of the threshold dosage of phenobarbital that can produce drug discrimination (DD) may improve our understanding of the mechanisms and properties of such discrimination. Objectives Compare three methods for determining the threshold dosage for phenobarbital (D) versus no drug (N) DD. Methods Rats learned a D versus N DD in 2-lever operant training chambers. A titration scheme was employed to increase or decrease dosage at the end of each 18-day block of sessions depending on whether the rat had achieved criterion accuracy during the sessions just completed. Three criterion rules were employed, all based on average percent drug lever responses during initial links of the last 6 D and 6 N sessions of a block. The criteria were: D%>66 and N%50 and N%33. Two squads of rats were trained, one immediately after the other. Results All rats discriminated drug versus no drug. In most rats, dosage decreased to low levels and then oscillated near the minimum level required to maintain criterion performance. The lowest discriminated dosage significantly differed under the three criterion rules. The squad that was trained 2nd may have benefited by partially duplicating the lever choices of the previous squad. Conclusions The lowest discriminated dosage is influenced by the criterion of discriminative control that is employed, and is higher than the absolute threshold at which discrimination entirely disappears. Threshold estimations closer to absolute threshold can be obtained when criteria are employed that are permissive, and that allow rats to maintain lever preferences. PMID:19082992

  10. Metabolic Syndrome Remodels Electrical Activity of the Sinoatrial Node and Produces Arrhythmias in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albarado-Ibañez, Alondra; Avelino-Cruz, José Everardo; Velasco, Myrian; Torres-Jácome, Julián; Hiriart, Marcia

    2013-01-01

    In the last ten years, the incidences of metabolic syndrome and supraventricular arrhythmias have greatly increased. The metabolic syndrome is a cluster of alterations, which include obesity, hypertension, hypertriglyceridemia, glucose intolerance and insulin resistance, that increase the risk of developing, among others, atrial and nodal arrhythmias. The aim of this study is to demonstrate that metabolic syndrome induces electrical remodeling of the sinus node and produces arrhythmias. We induced metabolic syndrome in 2-month-old male Wistar rats by administering 20% sucrose in the drinking water. Eight weeks later, the rats were anesthetized and the electrocardiogram was recorded, revealing the presence of arrhythmias only in treated rats. Using conventional microelectrode and voltage clamp techniques, we analyzed the electrical activity of the sinoatrial node. We observed that in the sinoatrial node of “metabolic syndrome rats”, compared to controls, the spontaneous firing of all cells decreased, while the slope of the diastolic depolarization increased only in latent pacemaker cells. Accordingly, the pacemaker currents If and Ist increased. Furthermore, histological analysis showed a large amount of fat surrounding nodal cardiomyocytes and a rise in the sympathetic innervation. Finally, Poincaré plot denoted irregularity in the R-R and P-P ECG intervals, in agreement with the variability of nodal firing potential recorded in metabolic syndrome rats. We conclude that metabolic syndrome produces a dysfunction SA node by disrupting normal architecture and the electrical activity, which could explain the onset of arrhythmias in rats. PMID:24250786

  11. Inability to produce a model of dialysis encephalopathy in the rat by aluminum administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, T L; Yong, V W; Godolphin, W J; Sutter, M; Hansen, S; Kish, S J; Foulks, J G; Ito, M

    1987-04-01

    We attempted to produce a rat model of brain aluminum toxicity in order to explore whether or not aluminum accumulation produces the neurochemical changes observed in brains of patients who die with dialysis encephalopathy. Daily subcutaneous injection of Al(OH)3 caused marked elevation of serum aluminum concentrations, but did not increase brain aluminum contents, either in rats with normal renal function, or in rats with unilateral or 5/6 nephrectomies. LiCl pretreatment, which has been reported to cause irreversible renal failure, did not impair renal function nor aid in achieving elevated brain aluminum contents. No reductions in brain contents of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) or in glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD, E.C.4.1.1.15) and choline acetyltransferase (ChAT, E.C.2.3.1.6) activities were observed in aluminum-treated rats. We conclude that the rat is not a suitable laboratory animal to explore the role of aluminum toxicity in causing the GABA and ChAT deficits present in brains of hemodialyzed human patients.

  12. Indole, a Signaling Molecule Produced by the Gut Microbiota, Negatively Impacts Emotional Behaviors in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathilde Jaglin

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Gut microbiota produces a wide and diverse array of metabolites that are an integral part of the host metabolome. The emergence of the gut microbiome-brain axis concept has prompted investigations on the role of gut microbiota dysbioses in the pathophysiology of brain diseases. Specifically, the search for microbe-related metabolomic signatures in human patients and animal models of psychiatric disorders has pointed out the importance of the microbial metabolism of aromatic amino acids. Here, we investigated the effect of indole on brain and behavior in rats. Indole is produced by gut microbiota from tryptophan, through the tryptophanase enzyme encoded by the tnaA gene. First, we mimicked an acute and high overproduction of indole by injecting this compound in the cecum of conventional rats. This treatment led to a dramatic decrease of motor activity. The neurodepressant oxidized derivatives of indole, oxindole and isatin, accumulated in the brain. In addition, increase in eye blinking frequency and in c-Fos protein expression in the dorsal vagal complex denoted a vagus nerve activation. Second, we mimicked a chronic and moderate overproduction of indole by colonizing germ-free rats with the indole-producing bacterial species Escherichia coli. We compared emotional behaviors of these rats with those of germ-free rats colonized with a genetically-engineered counterpart strain unable to produce indole. Rats overproducing indole displayed higher helplessness in the tail suspension test, and enhanced anxiety-like behavior in the novelty, elevated plus maze and open-field tests. Vagus nerve activation was suggested by an increase in eye blinking frequency. However, unlike the conventional rats dosed with a high amount of indole, the motor activity was not altered and neither oxindole nor isatin could be detected in the brain. Further studies are required for a comprehensive understanding of the mechanisms supporting indole effects on emotional

  13. Indole, a Signaling Molecule Produced by the Gut Microbiota, Negatively Impacts Emotional Behaviors in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaglin, Mathilde; Rhimi, Moez; Philippe, Catherine; Pons, Nicolas; Bruneau, Aurélia; Goustard, Bénédicte; Daugé, Valérie; Maguin, Emmanuelle; Naudon, Laurent; Rabot, Sylvie

    2018-01-01

    Gut microbiota produces a wide and diverse array of metabolites that are an integral part of the host metabolome. The emergence of the gut microbiome-brain axis concept has prompted investigations on the role of gut microbiota dysbioses in the pathophysiology of brain diseases. Specifically, the search for microbe-related metabolomic signatures in human patients and animal models of psychiatric disorders has pointed out the importance of the microbial metabolism of aromatic amino acids. Here, we investigated the effect of indole on brain and behavior in rats. Indole is produced by gut microbiota from tryptophan, through the tryptophanase enzyme encoded by the tnaA gene. First, we mimicked an acute and high overproduction of indole by injecting this compound in the cecum of conventional rats. This treatment led to a dramatic decrease of motor activity. The neurodepressant oxidized derivatives of indole, oxindole and isatin, accumulated in the brain. In addition, increase in eye blinking frequency and in c-Fos protein expression in the dorsal vagal complex denoted a vagus nerve activation. Second, we mimicked a chronic and moderate overproduction of indole by colonizing germ-free rats with the indole-producing bacterial species Escherichia coli. We compared emotional behaviors of these rats with those of germ-free rats colonized with a genetically-engineered counterpart strain unable to produce indole. Rats overproducing indole displayed higher helplessness in the tail suspension test, and enhanced anxiety-like behavior in the novelty, elevated plus maze and open-field tests. Vagus nerve activation was suggested by an increase in eye blinking frequency. However, unlike the conventional rats dosed with a high amount of indole, the motor activity was not altered and neither oxindole nor isatin could be detected in the brain. Further studies are required for a comprehensive understanding of the mechanisms supporting indole effects on emotional behaviors. As our findings

  14. Influence of electromagnetic radiation produced by mobile phone on some biophysical blood properties in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Bediwi, Abu Bakr; Saad, Mohamed; El-kott, Attall F; Eid, Eman

    2013-04-01

    Effects of electromagnetic radiation produced by mobile phone on blood viscosity, plasma viscosity, hemolysis, Osmotic fragility, and blood components of rats have been investigated. Experimental results show that there are significant change on blood components and its viscosity which affects on a blood circulation due to many body problems. Red blood cells, White blood cells, and Platelets are broken after exposure to electromagnetic radiation produced by mobile phone. Also blood viscosity and plasma viscosity values are increased but Osmotic fragility value decreased after exposure to electromagnetic radiation produced by mobile phone.

  15. A Time- and Cost-Saving Method of Producing Rat Polyclonal Antibodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakayama, Tomohiko; Kato, Yukio; Utsumi, Rie; Tsuji, Akira; Iseki, Shoichi

    2006-01-01

    Producing antibodies usually takes more than three months. In the present study, we introduce a faster way of producing polyclonal antibodies based on preparation of the recombinant oligopeptide as antigen followed by immunization of rats. Using this method, we produced antisera against two mouse proteins: ERGIC-53 and c-Kit. An expression vector ligated with a pair of complementary synthetic oligodeoxyribonucleotides encoding the protein was introduced into bacteria, and the recombinant oligopeptide fused with the carrier protein glutathione-S-transferase was purified. Wistar rats were immunized by injecting the emulsified antigen subcutaneously into the hind footpads, followed by a booster injection after 2 weeks. One week after the booster, the sera were collected and examined for the antibody titer by immunohistochemistry. Antisera with 1600-fold titer at the maximum were obtained for both antigens and confirmed for their specificity by Western blotting. Anti-ERGIC-53 antisera recognized acinar cells in the sublingual gland, and anti-c-Kit antisera recognized spermatogenic and Leydig cells in the testis. These antisera were applicable to fluorescent double immunostaining with mouse monoclonal or rabbit polyclonal antibodies. Consequently, this method enabled us to produce specific rat polyclonal antisera available for immunohistochemistry in less than one month at a relatively low cost

  16. Altered brain serotonergic neurotransmission following caffeine withdrawal produces behavioral deficits in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaliq, Saima; Haider, Saida; Naqvi, Faizan; Perveen, Tahira; Saleem, Sadia; Haleem, Darakhshan Jabeen

    2012-01-01

    Caffeine administration has been shown to enhance performance and memory in rodents and humans while its withdrawal on the other hand produces neurobehavioral deficits which are thought to be mediated by alterations in monoamines neurotransmission. A role of decreased brain 5-HT (5-hydroxytryptamine, serotonin) levels has been implicated in impaired cognitive performance and depression. Memory functions of rats were assessed by Water Maze (WM) and immobility time by Forced Swim Test (FST). The results of this study showed that repeated caffeine administration for 6 days at 30 mg/kg dose significantly increases brain 5-HT (pcaffeine. Withdrawal of caffeine however produced memory deficits and significantly increases the immobility time of rats in FST. The results of this study are linked with caffeine induced alterations in serotonergic neurotransmission and its role in memory and depression.

  17. Activity in the circular alley does not produce the activity anorexia syndrome in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, M T; Lett, B T; Grant, V L

    2000-04-01

    The activity anorexia syndrome is characterized by reduced food intake and body weight compared to control levels and increasing levels of physical activity. To induce it, food-restricted rats are confined in running wheels except during the daily meal. We tested whether activity in a flat circular alley also produces the activity anorexia syndrome. In Experiment 1, food-restricted rats were maintained in alleys, wheels, or home cages (control condition). In Experiment 2, they were maintained in alleys, wheels, novel cages, or home cages. The novel cage was added to control for the possibility that the alley might produce an anorectic effect simply because it was a new living space. The alley did not produce the activity anorexia syndrome whereas the wheel did. Although weight loss was greater in the alley than home-cage condition, the alley produced weak, inconsistent suppression of feeding. Moreover, the suppression produced by the alley may have stemmed simply from living in a novel environment. Finally, in contrast to wheel running, alley activity decreased over days. Alley activity, unlike wheel running, may not be reinforcing. Likely, a physical activity must be reinforcing to produce the activity anorexia syndrome. Implications for anorexia nervosa were discussed. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  18. Gingival tissue-produced inhibition of platelet aggregation and the loss of inhibition in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawamura, Keiichiroh; Tamai, Kazuharu; Shirakawa, Masaharu; Okamoto, Hiroshi; Dohi, Toshihiro; Tsujimoto, Akira

    1988-01-01

    Addition of medium incubated with normal rat gingival tissue to platelet-rich plasma inhibited ADP-induced platelet aggregation. The ability of rat gingiva to produce activity inhibiting platelet aggregation was enhanced by the addition of arachidonic acid. Diabetic rat gingiva failed to inhibit platelet aggregation but did produce the anti-platelet aggregating activity in the presence of arachidonic acid. Indomethacin blocked the production of anti-platelet aggregating activity. There was no difference in conversion of (1-/sup 14/C)arachidonic acid to prostaglandins by normal and diabetic rat gingiva. These results suggest that an arachidonic acid metabolite released from gingiva during incubation inhibits platelet aggregation, and the synthesis of the metabolite is impaired in diabetic rat gingiva. A decrease in availability of arachidonic acid may be a causal factor of the defect in diabetic rat gingiva.

  19. Gingival tissue-produced inhibition of platelet aggregation and the loss of inhibition in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamura, Keiichiroh; Tamai, Kazuharu; Shirakawa, Masaharu; Okamoto, Hiroshi; Dohi, Toshihiro; Tsujimoto, Akira

    1988-01-01

    Addition of medium incubated with normal rat gingival tissue to platelet-rich plasma inhibited ADP-induced platelet aggregation. The ability of rat gingiva to produce activity inhibiting platelet aggregation was enhanced by the addition of arachidonic acid. Diabetic rat gingiva failed to inhibit platelet aggregation but did produce the anti-platelet aggregating activity in the presence of arachidonic acid. Indomethacin blocked the production of anti-platelet aggregating activity. There was no difference in conversion of [1- 14 C]arachidonic acid to prostaglandins by normal and diabetic rat gingiva. These results suggest that an arachidonic acid metabolite released from gingiva during incubation inhibits platelet aggregation, and the synthesis of the metabolite is impaired in diabetic rat gingiva. A decrease in availability of arachidonic acid may be a causal factor of the defect in diabetic rat gingiva. (author)

  20. GM-CSF-Producing Th Cells in Rats Sensitive and Resistant to Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojić-Vukanić, Zorica; Pilipović, Ivan; Vujnović, Ivana; Nacka-Aleksić, Mirjana; Petrović, Raisa; Arsenović-Ranin, Nevena; Dimitrijević, Mirjana; Leposavić, Gordana

    2016-01-01

    Given that granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) is identified as the key factor to endow auto-reactive Th cells with the potential to induce neuroinflammation in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) models, the frequency and phenotype of GM-CSF-producing (GM-CSF+) Th cells in draining lymph nodes (dLNs) and spinal cord (SC) of Albino Oxford (AO) and Dark Agouti (DA) rats immunized for EAE were examined. The generation of neuroantigen-specific GM-CSF+ Th lymphocytes was impaired in dLNs of AO rats (relatively resistant to EAE induction) compared with their DA counterparts (susceptible to EAE) reflecting impaired CD4+ lymphocyte proliferation and less supportive of GM-CSF+ Th cell differentiation dLN cytokine microenvironment. Immunophenotyping of GM-CSF+ Th cells showed their phenotypic heterogeneity in both strains and revealed lower frequency of IL-17+IFN-γ+, IL-17+IFN-γ-, and IL-17-IFN-γ+ cells accompanied by higher frequency of IL-17-IFN-γ- cells among them in AO than in DA rats. Compared with DA, in AO rats was also found (i) slightly lower surface density of CCR2 (drives accumulation of highly pathogenic GM-CSF+IFN-γ+ Th17 cells in SC) on GM-CSF+IFN-γ+ Th17 lymphocytes from dLNs, and (ii) diminished CCL2 mRNA expression in SC tissue, suggesting their impaired migration into the SC. Moreover, dLN and SC cytokine environments in AO rats were shown to be less supportive of GM-CSF+IFN-γ+ Th17 cell differentiation (judging by lower expression of mRNAs for IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-23/p19). In accordance with the (i) lower frequency of GM-CSF+ Th cells in dLNs and SC of AO rats and their lower GM-CSF production, and (ii) impaired CCL2 expression in the SC tissue, the proportion of proinflammatory monocytes among peripheral blood cells and their progeny (CD45hi cells) among the SC CD11b+ cells were reduced in AO compared with DA rats. Collectively, the results indicate that the strain specificities in efficacy of several mechanisms

  1. Genetic loci for ventricular dilatation in the LEW/Jms rat with fetal-onset hydrocephalus are influenced by gender and genetic background

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayorga David A

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The LEW/Jms rat strain has inherited hydrocephalus, with more males affected than females and an overall expression rate of 28%. This study aimed to determine chromosomal positions for genetic loci causing the hydrocephalus. Methods An F1 backcross was made to the parental LEW/Jms strain from a cross with non-hydrocephalic Fischer 344 rats. BC1 rats were generated for two specific crosses: the first with a male LEW/Jms rat as parent and grandparent, [(F × L × L], designated B group, and the second with a female LEW/Jms rat as the parent and grandparent [L × (L × F], designated C group. All hydrocephalic and a similar number of non-hydrocephalic rats from these two groups were genotyped with microsatellite markers and the data was analyzed separately for each sex by MAPMAKER. Results The frequency of hydrocephalus was not significantly different between the two groups (18.2 and 19.9 %, but there was a significant excess of males in the B group. The mean severity of hydrocephalus, measured as the ventricle-to-brain width ratio, was ranked as B group Conclusion Phenotypic expression of hydrocephalus in Lew/Jms, although not X-linked, has a strong male bias. One, and possibly two chromosomal regions are associated with the hydrocephalus.

  2. Posttraining Epinephrine Reverses Memory Deficits Produced by Traumatic Brain Injury in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Lorón-Sánchez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to evaluate whether posttraining systemic epinephrine is able to improve object recognition memory in rats with memory deficits produced by traumatic brain injury. Forty-nine two-month-old naïve male Wistar rats were submitted to surgical procedures to induce traumatic brain injury (TBI or were sham-operated. Rats were trained in an object recognition task and, immediately after training, received an intraperitoneal injection of distilled water (Sham-Veh and TBI-Veh group or 0.01 mg/kg epinephrine (TBI-Epi group or no injection (TBI-0 and Sham-0 groups. Retention was tested 3 h and 24 h after acquisition. The results showed that brain injury produced severe memory deficits and that posttraining administration of epinephrine was able to reverse them. Systemic administration of distilled water also had an enhancing effect, but of a lower magnitude. These data indicate that posttraining epinephrine and, to a lesser extent, vehicle injection reduce memory deficits associated with TBI, probably through induction of a low-to-moderate emotional arousal.

  3. Posttraining Epinephrine Reverses Memory Deficits Produced by Traumatic Brain Injury in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorón-Sánchez, Alejandro; Torras-Garcia, Meritxell; Coll-Andreu, Margalida; Costa-Miserachs, David; Portell-Cortés, Isabel

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this research is to evaluate whether posttraining systemic epinephrine is able to improve object recognition memory in rats with memory deficits produced by traumatic brain injury. Forty-nine two-month-old naïve male Wistar rats were submitted to surgical procedures to induce traumatic brain injury (TBI) or were sham-operated. Rats were trained in an object recognition task and, immediately after training, received an intraperitoneal injection of distilled water (Sham-Veh and TBI-Veh group) or 0.01 mg/kg epinephrine (TBI-Epi group) or no injection (TBI-0 and Sham-0 groups). Retention was tested 3 h and 24 h after acquisition. The results showed that brain injury produced severe memory deficits and that posttraining administration of epinephrine was able to reverse them. Systemic administration of distilled water also had an enhancing effect, but of a lower magnitude. These data indicate that posttraining epinephrine and, to a lesser extent, vehicle injection reduce memory deficits associated with TBI, probably through induction of a low-to-moderate emotional arousal. PMID:27127685

  4. Effect of Pre-treatment with Moringa oleifera (Drumstick Leaves on Diabetogenesis Produced by Alloxan in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamsun Nahar

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Medicinal plants constitute an important source of potential therapeutic agents for diabetes. Objective: In the study, we aimed to investigate the pre-treatment effect or preventive effects of Moringa oleifera (MO leaves on blood sugar of rats. Materials and method: This experimental study was carried out in the department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics of Sir Salimullah Medical College in collaboration with Bangladesh Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (BCSIR, Dhaka. A total 24 long Evans rats were included in this study and divided in to four groups. Hyperglycemia was induced on rats using alloxan (100 mg/kg body weight, intraperitioneally. Blood sample was collected from tail vein by tail tipping method. Pre-treatment effect or preventive role of Moringa oleifera (drumstick leaf powder on diabetogenesis produced by Alloxan in rats was tested by giving 50 mg/rat/day Moringa oleifera leaf powder for 14 days orally as pre-treatment along with standard rat feed. Then alloxan was administered intraperitoneally on 15th day of the experiment and 50mg/rat/day Moringa oleifera leaf powder was given for 7 days as post-treatment. Results: No significant effect of MO on blood glucose level was observed on normal rats and non significant hypoglycaemic effect was found in rats that were pretreated with MO. Conclusion: The present study suggests that Moringa oleifera leaf powder did not produce any significant protective effect in diabetogenesis produced by alloxan though it has hypoglycaemic effect.

  5. The conduction block produced by oxcarbazepine in the isolated rat sciatic nerve: a comparison with lamotrigine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guven, Mustafa; Kahraman, Ibrahim; Koc, Filiz; Bozdemir, Hacer; Sarica, Yakup; Gunay, Ismail

    2011-01-01

    Oxcarbazepine is an antiepileptic drug widely used for the treatment of neuropathic pain. In the present study, the effects of oxcarbazepine and lamotrigine on conduction properties in the rat sciatic nerves were examined. The experiments were conducted with in vitro sucrose-gap technique on the isolated wistar rat sciatic nerves. The compound action potentials were obtained by tonic (single) and phasic (10, 40, and 100 Hz) stimulation. Oxcarbazepine produced a significant concentration- and frequency-dependent reduction in the compound action potential amplitude. When the two drugs were applied at concentrations that produced equal levels of tonic (i.e., non-frequency-dependent) conduction block, oxcarbazepine produced the greatest phasic (i.e., frequency-dependent) conduction block, followed by lamotrigine. Oxcarbazepine and lamotrigine reduced the 4-aminopyridine-induced amplitude of delayed depolarization; however, oxcarbazepine had a significantly greater effect than lamotrigine. These results suggest that oxcarbazepine produces more potent frequency-dependent conduction block than lamotrigine, and suppresses the delayed depolarization which contributes to sensory signaling and may play a role in neuropathic pain. The findings provide insight into the mechanisms of action of oxcarbazepine and lamotrigine and may help in the development of novel therapies for neuropathic pain.

  6. The distribution of blood group antigens in experimentally produced carcinomas of rat palate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reibel, J; Philipsen, H P; Fisker, A V

    1986-01-01

    palate induced by a chemical carcinogen (4NQO). The H antigen, normally expressed on spinous cells in rats, was absent in malignant epithelium, whereas staining for the B antigen, normally expressed on basal cells, was variable. These changes are equivalent to those seen in human squamous cell carcinomas....... The blood group antigen staining pattern in experimentally produced verrucous carcinomas showed an almost normal blood group antigen expression. This may have diagnostic significance. Localized areas of hyperplastic palatal epithelium with slight dysplasia revealed loss of H antigen and the presence of B...... antigen in suprabasal strata equivalent to the pattern seen in human premalignant epithelium. We conclude from these findings, that the rat model is well suited to study changes in cell surface carbohydrates during chemical carcinogenesis....

  7. Dilatations and factorizable equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humi, Mayer

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we show that the dilatation operator in one dimension can be used to enlarge the Lie algebra generated by the raising and lowering operators for some classes of special functions. As a result, we are able to derive new recursion relations and addition formulae for these functions. Furthermore, we derive generalized ladder operators for these functions under coordinate stretching and translations

  8. Eosinophilic spleen colonies are produced in rat-marrow-transplanted but not in murine-marrow-transplanted mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szabo, L.G.; Kelemen, E.

    1988-01-01

    Differential counts of about 5000 splenic clusters and colonies developing in whole-body-irradiated mice and rats were made, using semi-serial histological sections prepared 9 to 12 d after transplantation with bone marrow haemopoietic cells. The investigated mouse and rat spleens were from syngeneically, allogeneically, or xenogeneically transplanted recipients. Splenic eosinophil clusters were always found when rat eosinophil-producing progenitors were present in the inoculum, whereas murine inocula failed to produce splenic eosinophilic clusters even in the syngeneic mouse. The limiting factor in the production pf splenic eosinophilic clusters was the appropriate donor progenitor/committed stem cell itself. Changes in the percentages of eosinophil clusters with the number of injected cells and with increased doses of irradiation, as well as formation of rat eosinophil colonies in mice, as against mainly clusters in rats, themselves show that regulatory mechanisms of the recipients also play a role. These regulatory mechanisms cannot be attributed to the splenic microenvironment. (author)

  9. Dilation and Curettage (D&C)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Patients About ACOG Dilation and Curettage (D&C) Home For Patients Search FAQs Dilation and Curettage ( ... February 2016 PDF Format Dilation and Curettage (D&C) Special Procedures What is dilation and curettage (D& ...

  10. Neonatal infection produces significant changes in immune function with no associated learning deficits in juvenile rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, Brittany F; Caulfield, Jasmine I; Solomotis, Samantha A; Schwarz, Jaclyn M

    2017-10-01

    The current experiments examined the impact of early-life immune activation and a subsequent mild immune challenge with lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 25µg/kg) on hippocampal-dependent learning, proinflammatory cytokine expression in the brain, and peripheral immune function in juvenile male and female rats at P24, an age when hippocampal-dependent learning and memory first emerges. Our results indicate that neonatal infection did not produce learning deficits in the hippocampal-dependent context pre-exposure facilitation effect paradigm in juvenile males and females, contrary to what has been observed in adults. Neonatal infection produced an increase in baseline IL-1β expression in the hippocampus (HP) and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) of juvenile rats. Furthermore, neonatally infected rats showed exaggerated IL-1β expression in the HP following LPS treatment as juveniles; and juvenile females, but not males, showed exaggerated IL-1β expression in the mPFC following LPS treatment. Neonatal infection attenuated the production of IL-6 expression following LPS treatment in both the brain and the spleen, and neonatal infection decreased the numbers of circulating white blood cells in juvenile males and females, an effect that was further exacerbated by subsequent LPS treatment. Together, our data indicate that the consequences of neonatal infection are detectable even early in juvenile development, though we found no concomitant hippocampal-dependent learning deficits at this young age. These findings underscore the need to consider age and associated on-going neurodevelopmental processes as important factors contributing to the emergence of cognitive and behavioral disorders linked to early-life immune activation. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol 77: 1221-1236, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Possible mechanisms involved in the vasorelaxant effect produced by clobenzorex in aortic segments of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano-Cuenca, J; González-Hernández, A; López-Canales, O A; Villagrana-Zesati, J R; Rodríguez-Choreão, J D; Morín-Zaragoza, R; Castillo-Henkel, E F; López-Canales, J S

    2017-08-07

    Clobenzorex is a metabolic precursor of amphetamine indicated for the treatment of obesity. Amphetamines have been involved with cardiovascular side effects such as hypertension and pulmonary arterial hypertension. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the direct application of 10-9-10-5 M clobenzorex on isolated phenylephrine-precontracted rat aortic rings produces vascular effects, and if so, what mechanisms may be involved. Clobenzorex produced an immediate concentration-dependent vasorelaxant effect at the higher concentrations (10-7.5-10-5 M). The present outcome was not modified by 10-6 M atropine (an antagonist of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors), 3.1×10-7 M glibenclamide (an ATP-sensitive K+ channel blocker), 10-3 M 4-aminopyridine (4-AP; a voltage-activated K+ channel blocker), 10-5 M indomethacin (a prostaglandin synthesis inhibitor), 10-5 M clotrimazole (a cytochrome P450 inhibitor) or 10-5 M cycloheximide (a general protein synthesis inhibitor). Contrarily, the clobenzorex-induced vasorelaxation was significantly attenuated (Pclobenzorex on phenylephrine-precontracted rat aortic rings involved stimulation of the NO/cGMP/PKG/Ca2+-activated K+ channel pathway.

  12. Perinatal methadone exposure produces physical dependence and altered behavioral development in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunko, P M; Smith, J A; Wallace, M J; Maher, J R; Saady, J J; Robinson, S E

    1996-06-01

    Pregnant rats were implanted with osmotic minipumps containing either methadone hydrochloride (9 mg/kg/day) or sterile water. Their offspring were cross-fostered so that the following prenatal/postnatal exposure groups were obtained: water/water, methadone/water, water/methadone and methadone/methadone. Methadone slightly reduced litter size, particularly the number of male offspring, and reduced litter birth weight. The induction or maintenance of physical dependence in the postnatal methadone exposure groups was confirmed by an experiment in which PD19 pups were challenged with naloxone (1 mg/kg, s.c.). Methadone concentrations were assayed in pup brain on postnatal days 4, 10 and 22. Postnatal exposure to methadone via maternal milk produced measurable levels of methadone which decreased with age. Neuromuscular and physical development were assessed. Exposure to methadone accelerated acquisition of the righting reflex, but tended to delay the acquisition of the negative geotaxic response. Postnatal exposure to methadone was associated with decreased somatic growth as measured through postnatal day 21. The older pups (postnatal day 21) exposed to methadone exhibited variations in activity levels: pups exposed to methadone both prenatally and postnatally exhibited the least amount of spontaneous locomotor activity and pups exposed only postnatally exhibited the most activity. Therefore, it is possible to induce and/or maintain physical dependence via lactation in rat pups fostered to methadone-treated dams. Perinatal exposure to methadone by this route produces several subtle disruptions of pup development in the absence of gross maternal or fetal toxicity.

  13. Environmental enrichment in the absence of wheel running produces beneficial behavioural and anti-oxidative effects in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mármol, F; Sánchez, J; Torres, M N; Chamizo, V D

    2017-11-01

    The effects of early environmental enrichment (EE) when solving a simple spatial task in adult male rats were assessed. After weaning, rats were housed in pairs in enriched or standard cages (EE and control groups) for two and a half months. Then the rats were trained in a triangular-shaped pool to find a hidden platform whose location was defined in terms of two sources of information, a landmark outside the pool and a particular corner of the pool. As expected, enriched rats reached the platform faster than control animals. Enriched rats also performed better on a subsequent test trial without the platform with the geometry cue individually presented (in the absence of the landmark). Most importantly, the beneficial effects of the present protocol were obtained in the absence of wheel running. Additionally, the antioxidative effects in the hippocampus produced by the previous protocol are also shown. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Vildagliptin increases butyrate-producing bacteria in the gut of diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian; Xiao, Xinhua; Li, Ming; Yu, Miao; Ping, Fan; Zheng, Jia; Wang, Tong; Wang, Xiaojing

    2017-01-01

    Emerging evidence supports a key role for the gut microbiota in metabolic diseases, including type 2 diabetes (T2D) and obesity. The dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor vildagliptin is highly efficacious in treating T2D. However, whether vildagliptin can alter the gut microbiome is still unclear. This study aimed to identify whether vildagliptin modifies the gut microbiota structure during T2D treatment. Diabetic Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were induced by a high-fat diet and streptozotocin injection (HFD/STZ). Diabetic rats were orally administered a low dose of vildagliptin (LV, 0.01 g/kg/d vildagliptin), high dose of vildagliptin (HV, 0.02 g/kg/d vildagliptin), or normal saline for 12 weeks. Fasting blood glucose, blood glucose after glucose loading, and serum insulin levels were significantly reduced in the LV and HV groups compared with those in the T2D group. The serum GLP-1 level increased more in the vildagliptin-treated group than in the T2D group. Pyrosequencing of the V3-V4 regions of 16S rRNA genes revealed that vildagliptin significantly altered the gut microbiota. The operational taxonomic units (OTUs) and community richness (Chao1) index were significantly reduced in the vildagliptin and diabetic groups compared with those in the control group. At the phylum level, a higher relative abundance of Bacteroidetes, lower abundance of Firmicutes, and reduced ratio of Fimicutes/Bacteroidetes were observed in the vildagliptin-treated group. Moreover, vildagliptin treatment increased butyrate-producing bacteria, including Baceroides and Erysipelotrichaeae, in the diabetic rats. Moreover, Lachnospira abundance was significantly negatively correlated with fasting blood glucose levels. In conclusion, vildagliptin treatment could benefit the communities of the gut microbiota.

  15. Vildagliptin increases butyrate-producing bacteria in the gut of diabetic rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Zhang

    Full Text Available Emerging evidence supports a key role for the gut microbiota in metabolic diseases, including type 2 diabetes (T2D and obesity. The dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor vildagliptin is highly efficacious in treating T2D. However, whether vildagliptin can alter the gut microbiome is still unclear. This study aimed to identify whether vildagliptin modifies the gut microbiota structure during T2D treatment. Diabetic Sprague-Dawley (SD rats were induced by a high-fat diet and streptozotocin injection (HFD/STZ. Diabetic rats were orally administered a low dose of vildagliptin (LV, 0.01 g/kg/d vildagliptin, high dose of vildagliptin (HV, 0.02 g/kg/d vildagliptin, or normal saline for 12 weeks. Fasting blood glucose, blood glucose after glucose loading, and serum insulin levels were significantly reduced in the LV and HV groups compared with those in the T2D group. The serum GLP-1 level increased more in the vildagliptin-treated group than in the T2D group. Pyrosequencing of the V3-V4 regions of 16S rRNA genes revealed that vildagliptin significantly altered the gut microbiota. The operational taxonomic units (OTUs and community richness (Chao1 index were significantly reduced in the vildagliptin and diabetic groups compared with those in the control group. At the phylum level, a higher relative abundance of Bacteroidetes, lower abundance of Firmicutes, and reduced ratio of Fimicutes/Bacteroidetes were observed in the vildagliptin-treated group. Moreover, vildagliptin treatment increased butyrate-producing bacteria, including Baceroides and Erysipelotrichaeae, in the diabetic rats. Moreover, Lachnospira abundance was significantly negatively correlated with fasting blood glucose levels. In conclusion, vildagliptin treatment could benefit the communities of the gut microbiota.

  16. Analeptic activity produced by TRH microinjection into basal forebrain area of the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horita, A.; Carino, M.A.; Lai, H.

    1986-01-01

    Earlier, Kalivas and Horita demonstrated that the analeptic effect of TRH was mediated in part by cholinergic neurons in the medial septum-diagonal band of Broca (MS-DBB). Since the MS-DBB constitutes part of the cholinergic basal forebrain system, the present study investigated whether the area designated as the n. basalis of Meynert (NBM) was also sensitive to TRH in producing an antipentobarbital effect. Saline or TRH (0.5 μl) was microinjected via bilateral stainless steel cannulae implanted stereotaxically into the NBM using the coordinates of Wenk et al. Accuracy of cannula placement was confirmed by histological examination. Rats treated with PB (40 mg/kg, i.p.) lost their righting reflex for 130 +/- 28 min. Intrabasalis injection of TRH (but not saline) in doses of 0.1-1.0 μg exerted analeptic activity as follows: 0.1 μg = 81 +/- 21 min; 0.5 μg = 65 +/- 19 min; 1.0 μg = 45 +/- 10 min. All of these doses exerted significant shortening of narcosis duration of pentobarbitalized rats. The analeptic effect of TRH was blocked by atropine pretreatment, indicating that it was mediated via cholinergic mechanisms. High affinity, sodium-dependent 3 H-choline uptake by cortical synaptosomes prepared from these animals was also increased by TRH. These results suggest that the cholinergic neurons of NBM are highly sensitive to TRH and contributes to the analeptic effect of TRH

  17. Chronic ethanol consumption in rats produces opioid antinociceptive tolerance through inhibition of mu opioid receptor endocytosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li He

    Full Text Available It is well known that the mu-opioid receptor (MOR plays an important role in the rewarding properties of ethanol. However, it is less clear how chronic ethanol consumption affects MOR signaling. Here, we demonstrate that rats with prolonged voluntary ethanol consumption develop antinociceptive tolerance to opioids. Signaling through the MOR is controlled at many levels, including via the process of endocytosis. Importantly, agonists at the MOR that promote receptor endocytosis, such as the endogenous peptides enkephalin and β-endorphin, show a reduced propensity to promote antinociceptive tolerance than do agonists, like morphine, which do not promote receptor endocytosis. These observations led us to examine whether chronic ethanol consumption produced opioid tolerance by interfering with MOR endocytosis. Indeed, here we show that chronic ethanol consumption inhibits the endocytosis of MOR in response to opioid peptide. This loss of endocytosis was accompanied by a dramatic decrease in G protein coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2 protein levels after chronic drinking, suggesting that loss of this component of the trafficking machinery could be a mechanism by which endocytosis is lost. We also found that MOR coupling to G-protein was decreased in ethanol-drinking rats, providing a functional explanation for loss of opioid antinociception. Together, these results suggest that chronic ethanol drinking alters the ability of MOR to endocytose in response to opioid peptides, and consequently, promotes tolerance to the effects of opioids.

  18. High-dose dextromethorphan produces myelinoid bodies in the hippocampus of rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai-Quyen Tran

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Dextromethorphan (DM administered at supra-antitussive doses produce psychotoxic and neurotoxic effects in humans. We administered DM (80 mg/kg to rats intraperitoneally to determine the ultrastructural change induced by DM, because intraperitoneal route is sensitive for the behavioral responses. Treatment with DM resulted in mitochondrial dysfunction and formation of myelinoid bodies in the hippocampus. MK-801 [(+-5-methyl-10,11-dihydro-5H-dibenzo[a,d]cyclohepten-5,10-imine maleate] attenuated DM-induced cytosolic oxidative burdens. However, neither MK-801 nor naloxone affected DM-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and formation of myelinoid bodies, indicating that the neurotoxic mechanism needs to be further elucidated. Therefore, the spectrum of toxicological effects associated with DM need to be reassessed.

  19. High-dose dextromethorphan produces myelinoid bodies in the hippocampus of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Hai-Quyen; Chung, Yoon Hee; Shin, Eun-Joo; Kim, Won Ki; Lee, Jae-Chul; Jeong, Ji Hoon; Wie, Myung Bok; Jang, Choon-Gon; Yamada, Kiyofumi; Nabeshima, Toshitaka; Kim, Hyoung-Chun

    2016-10-01

    Dextromethorphan (DM) administered at supra-antitussive doses produce psychotoxic and neurotoxic effects in humans. We administered DM (80 mg/kg) to rats intraperitoneally to determine the ultrastructural change induced by DM, because intraperitoneal route is sensitive for the behavioral responses. Treatment with DM resulted in mitochondrial dysfunction and formation of myelinoid bodies in the hippocampus. MK-801 [(+)-5-methyl-10,11-dihydro-5H-dibenzo[a,d]cyclohepten-5,10-imine maleate] attenuated DM-induced cytosolic oxidative burdens. However, neither MK-801 nor naloxone affected DM-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and formation of myelinoid bodies, indicating that the neurotoxic mechanism needs to be further elucidated. Therefore, the spectrum of toxicological effects associated with DM need to be reassessed. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Possible mechanisms involved in the vasorelaxant effect produced by clobenzorex in aortic segments of rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Lozano-Cuenca

    Full Text Available Clobenzorex is a metabolic precursor of amphetamine indicated for the treatment of obesity. Amphetamines have been involved with cardiovascular side effects such as hypertension and pulmonary arterial hypertension. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the direct application of 10–9–10–5 M clobenzorex on isolated phenylephrine-precontracted rat aortic rings produces vascular effects, and if so, what mechanisms may be involved. Clobenzorex produced an immediate concentration-dependent vasorelaxant effect at the higher concentrations (10–7.5–10–5 M. The present outcome was not modified by 10–6 M atropine (an antagonist of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors, 3.1×10–7 M glibenclamide (an ATP-sensitive K+ channel blocker, 10–3 M 4-aminopyridine (4-AP; a voltage-activated K+ channel blocker, 10–5 M indomethacin (a prostaglandin synthesis inhibitor, 10–5 M clotrimazole (a cytochrome P450 inhibitor or 10–5 M cycloheximide (a general protein synthesis inhibitor. Contrarily, the clobenzorex-induced vasorelaxation was significantly attenuated (P<0.05 by 10–5 M L-NAME (a direct inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase, 10–7 M ODQ (an inhibitor of nitric oxide-sensitive guanylyl cyclase, 10–6 M KT 5823 (an inhibitor of protein kinase G, 10–2 M TEA (a Ca2+-activated K+ channel blocker and non-specific voltage-activated K+ channel blocker and 10–7 M apamin plus 10–7 M charybdotoxin (blockers of small- and large-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channels, respectively, and was blocked by 8×10–2 M potassium (a high concentration and removal of the vascular endothelium. These results suggest that the direct vasorelaxant effect by clobenzorex on phenylephrine-precontracted rat aortic rings involved stimulation of the NO/cGMP/PKG/Ca2+-activated K+ channel pathway.

  1. Exopolysaccharide Produced by Probiotic Strain Lactobacillus paraplantarum BGCG11 Reduces Inflammatory Hyperalgesia in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Dinić

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to test the potential of high molecular weight exopolysaccharide (EPS produced by the putative probiotic strain Lactobacillus paraplantarum BGCG11 (EPS CG11 to alleviate inflammatory pain in Wistar rats. The EPS CG11 was isolated from bacterial surface and was subjected to Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR and thermal analysis. FTIR spectra confirmed the polysaccharide structure of isolated sample, while the thermal methods revealed good thermal properties of the polymer. The antihyperalgesic and antiedematous effects of the EPS CG11 were examined in the rat model of inflammation induced by carrageenan injection in hind paw. The results showed that the intraperitoneal administration of EPS CG11 produced a significant decrease in pain sensations (mechanical hyperalgesia and a paw swelling in a dose-dependent manner as it was measured using Von Frey anesthesiometer and plethysmometer, respectively. These effects were followed by a decreased expression of IL-1β and iNOS mRNAs in rat’s paw tissue suggesting that the antihyperalgesic and antiedematous effects of the EPS CG11 are related to the suppression of inflammatory response. Additionally, we demonstrated that EPS CG11 exhibits immunosuppressive properties in the peritonitis model induced by carrageenan. Expression levels of pro-inflammatory mediators IL-1β, TNF-α and iNOS were decreased, together with the enhanced secretion of anti-inflammatory IL-10 and IL-6 cytokines, while neutrophil infiltration was not changed. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study which reports an antihyperalgesic effect as the novel property of bacterial EPSs. Given the high demands of pharmaceutical industry for the replacement of commonly used analgesics due to numerous side effects, this study describes a promising natural compound for the future pharmacological testing in the area.

  2. Brain Abscess after Esophageal Dilatation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaïni, S; Grand, M; Michelsen, J

    2007-01-01

    Brain abscess formation is a serious disease often seen as a complication to other diseases and to procedures. A rare predisposing condition is dilatation therapy of esophageal strictures. A case of brain abscess formation after esophageal dilatations is presented. A 59-year-old woman was admitted...... with malaise, progressive lethargy, fever, aphasia and hemiparesis. Six days before she had been treated with esophageal dilatation for a stricture caused by accidental ingestion of caustic soda. The brain abscess was treated with surgery and antibiotics. She recovered completely. This clinical case...... illustrates the possible association between therapeutic esophageal dilatation and the risk of brain abscess formation....

  3. Rats and mice immunised with chimeric human/mouse proteinase 3 produce autoantibodies to mouse Pr3 and rat granulocytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Geld, Ymke M.; Hellmark, Thomas; Selga, Daina; Heeringa, Peter; Huitema, Minke G.; Limburg, Pieter C.; Kallenberg, Cees G. M.

    2007-01-01

    Aim: In this study, we employed chimeric human/ mouse Proteinase 3 ( PR3) proteins as tools to induce an autoantibody response to PR3 in rats and mice. Method: Rats and mice were immunised with recombinant human PR3 ( HPR3), recombinant murine PR3 ( mPR3), single chimeric human/ mouse PR3 ( HHm,

  4. Antinociception induced by stimulating amygdaloid nuclei in rats: changes produced by systemically administered antagonists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Oliveira

    1998-05-01

    Full Text Available The antinociceptive effects of stimulating the medial (ME and central (CE nuclei of the amygdala in rats were evaluated by the changes in the latency for the tail withdrawal reflex to noxious heating of the skin. A 30-s period of sine-wave stimulation of the ME or CE produced a significant and short increase in the duration of tail flick latency. A 15-s period of stimulation was ineffective. Repeated stimulation of these nuclei at 48-h intervals produced progressively smaller effects. The antinociception evoked from the ME was significantly reduced by the previous systemic administration of naloxone, methysergide, atropine, phenoxybenzamine, and propranolol, but not by mecamylamine, all given at the dose of 1.0 mg/kg. Previous systemic administration of naloxone, atropine, and propranolol, but not methysergide, phenoxybenzamine, or mecamylamine, was effective against the effects of stimulating the CE. We conclude that the antinociceptive effects of stimulating the ME involve at least opioid, serotonergic, adrenergic, and muscarinic cholinergic descending mechanisms. The effects of stimulating the CE involve at least opioid, ß-adrenergic, and muscarinic cholinergic descending mechanisms.

  5. Selenium bioavailability from naturally produced high-selenium peas and oats in selenium-deficient rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Lin; Johnson, LuAnn K

    2011-06-08

    This study determined the bioavailability of selenium (Se) from yellow peas and oats harvested from the high-Se soil of South Dakota, United States. The Se concentrations were 13.5 ± 0.2 and 2.5 ± 0.1 mg/kg (dry weight) for peas and oats, respectively. Male weanling Sprague-Dawley rats were depleted of Se by feeding them a 30% Torula yeast-based diet (4.1 μg Se/kg) for 56 days, and then they were replenished with Se for an additional 50 days by feeding them the same diet supplemented with 20, 30, or 40 μg Se/kg from peas or oats, respectively. Selenium bioavailability was determined on the basis of the restoration of Se-dependent enzyme activities and tissue Se concentrations in Se-depleted rats, comparing those responses for yellow peas and oats to those for l-selenomethionine (SeMet; used as a reference) by using a slope-ratio method. Dietary supplementation with peas or oats resulted in linear or log-linear, dose-dependent increases in glutathione peroxidase activities in blood and liver and in thioredoxin reductase activity in liver. Supplementation with peas or oats resulted in linear or log-linear, dose-dependent increases in Se concentrations of plasma, liver, gastrocnemius muscle, and kidneys. The overall bioavailability was approximately 88% for Se from yellow peas and 92% from oats, compared to SeMet. It was concluded that Se from naturally produced high-Se yellow peas or oats is highly bioavailable in this model and that these high-Se foods may be a good dietary source of Se.

  6. Roentgenoendovascular dilatation of brachycephalic arteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabkin, I.Kh.; Kachel, R.; Glazer, F.; Matevosov, A.L.; Dzhoraev, I.G.; Medizinische Akademie, Erfurt

    1988-01-01

    The authors reported the technique, methods of and indications for roentgenoendovascular dilation in stenotic and occlusive lesions of the brachycephalic branches of the aorta. A total of 102 vascular dilations were perfomed in 76 patients resulting in a good angiographic and clinical effect. In 2 patients the first world prosthetics was performed using an original coiled nitinol prosthesis

  7. Failure to produce taste-aversion learning in rats exposed to static electric fields and air ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Creim, J.A.; Lovely, R.H.; Weigel, R.J.; Forsythe, W.C.; Anderson, L.E. [Pacific Northwest Labs., Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-12-01

    Taste-aversion (TA) learning was measured to determine whether exposure to high-voltage direct current (HVdc) static electric fields can produce TA learning in male Long Evans rats. Fifty-six rats were randomly distributed into four groups of 14 rats each. All rats were placed on a 20 min/day drinking schedule for 12 consecutive days prior to receiving five conditioning trials. During the conditioning trials, access to 0.1% sodium saccharin-flavored water was given for 20 min, followed 30 min later by one of four treatments. Two groups of 14 rats each were individually exposed to static electric fields and air ions, one group to +75 kV/m (+2 {times} 10{sup 5} air ions/cm{sup 3}) and the other group to {minus}75 kV/m ({minus}2 {times} 10{sup 5} air ions/cm{sup 3}). Two other groups of 14 rats each served as sham-exposed controls, with the following variation in one of the sham-exposed groups: this group was subdivided into two subsets of seven rats each, so that a positive control group could be included to validate the experimental design. The positive control group (n = 7) was injected with cyclophosphamide 25 mg/kg, i.p., 30 min after access to saccharin-flavored water on conditioning days, whereas the other subset of seven rats was similarly injected with an equivalent volume of saline. Access to saccharin-flavored water on conditioning days was followed by the treatments described above and was alternated daily with water recovery sessions in which the rats received access to water for 20 min in the home cage without further treatment. Following the last water-recovery session, a 20 min, two-bottle preference test (between water and saccharin-flavored water) was administered to each group. The positive control group did show TA learning, thus validating the experimental protocol.

  8. Effects of area postrema lesions on taste aversions produced by treatment with WR-2721 in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabin, B.M.; Hunt, W.A.; Lee, J.

    1986-01-01

    The conditioned taste aversion procedure was used to further assess some behavioral effects of treatment with the putative radioprotectant WR-2721 and the role of the area postrema in mediating the behavioral effects of treatment. Treatment with 40, 150 or 300 mg/kg WR-2721 produced dose-dependent changes in sucrose intake in both control rats and rats with area postrema lesions. The effectiveness of the lesion in disrupting the acquisition of an aversion varied as a function of the dose administered, with the lesions producing the greatest disruption of aversion learning at the lowest dose and little disruption at the highest dose tested. At all dose levels, sucrose intake was greater for the rats with area postrema lesions than for the sham-operated control rats. Treatment with WR-2721 also produced significant decreases in total fluid intake, particularly at the higher dose levels. The results are discussed as indicating that treatment with WR-2721 produces highly toxic effects on behavior and that the use of the compound as a radioprotectant for radiotherapy requires additional assessment of its effects on brain function and behavior

  9. Hypothiocyanite produced by human and rat respiratory epithelial cells inactivates extracellular H1N2 influenza A virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gingerich, Aaron; Pang, Lan; Hanson, Jarod; Dlugolenski, Daniel; Streich, Rebecca; Lafontaine, Eric R; Nagy, Tamás; Tripp, Ralph A; Rada, Balázs

    2016-01-01

    Our aim was to study whether an extracellular, oxidative antimicrobial mechanism inherent to tracheal epithelial cells is capable of inactivating influenza H1N2 virus. Epithelial cells were isolated from tracheas of male Sprague-Dawley rats. Both primary human and rat tracheobronchial epithelial cells were differentiated in air-liquid interface cultures. A/swine/Illinois/02860/09 (swH1N2) influenza A virions were added to the apical side of airway cells for 1 h in the presence or absence of lactoperoxidase or thiocyanate. Characterization of rat epithelial cells (morphology, Duox expression) occurred via western blotting, PCR, hydrogen peroxide production measurement and histology. The number of viable virions was determined by plaque assays. Statistical difference of the results was analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey's test. Our data show that rat tracheobronchial epithelial cells develop a differentiated, polarized monolayer with high transepithelial electrical resistance, mucin production and expression of dual oxidases. Influenza A virions are inactivated by human and rat epithelial cells via a dual oxidase-, lactoperoxidase- and thiocyanate-dependent mechanism. Differentiated air-liquid interface cultures of rat tracheal epithelial cells provide a novel model to study airway epithelium-influenza interactions. The dual oxidase/lactoperoxidase/thiocyanate extracellular oxidative system producing hypothiocyanite is a fast and potent anti-influenza mechanism inactivating H1N2 viruses prior to infection of the epithelium.

  10. Characterization of insulin-like growth factor I produced by fetal rat pancreatic islets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scharfmann, R.; Corvol, M.; Czernichow, P.

    1989-01-01

    Pancreatic islets were prepared from 22-day-old rat fetuses. After 5 days of culture in dishes allowing cell attachment, neoformed islets were kept free floating in RPMI-1640 medium (16.5 mM glucose, 1% fetal calf serum). The islets were then pulsed with [ 3 H]leucine and [ 35 S]methionine for 24 h. The conditioned medium was acidified with acetic acid (final pH 2.7), desalted, concentrated, and gel filtered on Bio-Gel P100 in acid conditions. The radioactive material that comigrated with immunoreactive insulinlike growth factor I (IGF-I) produced by the islets was pooled, concentrated, and further characterized by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography on a C18 Bondapak column with a linear gradient of acetonitrile (20-80%). The radioactive material that eluted as pure IGF-I (40% acetonitrile) was further studied by chromatofocusing on a Pharmacia PBE 94 column. A sharp radioactive peak containing [ 3 H]leucine and [ 35 S]methionine was eluted at pH 8.55. This material was immunoprecipitated with an antiserum to IGF-I. This study demonstrated that fetal islet cells synthesize molecules that are, by several criteria, equivalent to native IGF-I

  11. A serosa-searing apparatus for producing gastric ulcer in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagoshima, M; Suzuki, T; Katagiri, S; Shimada, H

    1994-12-01

    Chronic ulcer models produced by serosa-searing method are very similar histologically to the ulcer healing process occurring in humans. In an effort to produce a serosa-searing chronic ulcer model in rats, we devised a new balance-type apparatus. This searing apparatus is capable of changing adequately both temperature and duration of time. Furthermore, the pressure which serves to bring the searing iron tip into contact with the stomach serosa surface can also be precisely changed. Optimal conditions for reproducing the serosa-searing ulcer model were at 65 degrees C and in 5 sec. Moreover, in order to evaluate the effects of pressure, various pressure levels (A: 5 g, 17.68 g/cm2; B: 10 g, 35.37 g/cm2; C: 15 g, 53.05 g/cm2; D: 20 g, 70.74 g/cm2; E: 25 g, 88.42 g/cm2; F: 30 g, 106.10 g/cm2; G: 35 g, 123.79 g/cm2 (+/- 1 g, 0.149 g/cm2)) of 5-sec duration at 65 +/- 0.1 degrees C were used. Macroscopically, gastric mucosal lesions were most clearly observed in a pressure-related manner 7 days after the procedure. Histologically, definite deep ulcerations (UI-III or UI-IV) were observed at pressure level C (15 g, 53.05 g/cm2) or more. The highest incidence (87%) of histological gastric ulcers (UI-IV) was observed in pressure level E (25 g, 88.42 g/cm2). The healing process was observed at 40 to 60 days postoperatively. At 100 days after the procedure, recurrences were observed both macroscopically and histologically. In conclusion, this new apparatus is very useful for reproducing a chronic ulcer model for observing the healing and recurrence process.

  12. Construction of wavelets with composite dilations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Guochang; Li Zhiqiang; Cheng Zhengxing

    2009-01-01

    In order to overcome classical wavelets' shortcoming in image processing problems, people developed many producing systems, which built up wavelet family. In this paper, the notion of AB-multiresolution analysis is generalized, and the corresponding theory is developed. For an AB-multiresolution analysis associated with any expanding matrices, we deduce that there exists a singe scaling function in its reducing subspace. Under some conditions, wavelets with composite dilations can be gotten by AB-multiresolution analysis, which permits the existence of fast implementation algorithm. Then, we provide an approach to design the wavelets with composite dilations by classic wavelets. Our way consists of separable and partly nonseparable cases. In each section, we construct all kinds of examples with nice properties to prove our theory.

  13. Vessel dilatation in coronary angiograms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinterauer, L.; Goebel, N.

    1983-01-01

    Amongst 166 patients with aneurysms, ectasia or megaloarteries shown on coronary angiograms, 86.1% had dilated vessels as part of generalised coronary sclerosis (usually in patients with three-vessel disease). In 9%, dilatation was of iatrogenic origin and in 4.8% it was idiopathic. One patient had Marfan's syndrome. Amongst 9 000 patients, there were eight with megalo-arteries without stenosis; six of these had atypical angina and three suffered an infarct. Patients with definite dilatation of the coronary artery and stagnation of contrast flow required treatment. (orig.) [de

  14. Vessel dilatation in coronary angiograms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinterauer, L.; Goebel, N.

    1983-11-01

    Amongst 166 patients with aneurysms, ectasia or megaloarteries shown on coronary angiograms, 86.1% had dilated vessels as part of generalised coronary sclerosis (usually in patients with three-vessel disease). In 9%, dilatation was of iatrogenic origin and in 4.8% it was idiopathic. One patient had Marfan's syndrome. Amongst 9 000 patients, there were eight with megalo-arteries without stenosis; six of these had atypical angina and three suffered an infarct. Patients with definite dilatation of the coronary artery and stagnation of contrast flow required treatment.

  15. Segmental dilatation of the ileum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tune-Yie Shih

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A 2-year-old boy was sent to the emergency department with the chief problem of abdominal pain for 1 day. He was just discharged from the pediatric ward with the diagnosis of mycoplasmal pneumonia and paralytic ileus. After initial examinations and radiographic investigations, midgut volvulus was impressed. An emergency laparotomy was performed. Segmental dilatation of the ileum with volvulus was found. The operative procedure was resection of the dilated ileal segment with anastomosis. The postoperative recovery was uneventful. The unique abnormality of gastrointestinal tract – segmental dilatation of the ileum, is described in details and the literature is reviewed.

  16. Mechanisms involved in the vasorelaxant effects produced by the acute application of amfepramone in vitro to rat aortic rings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    López-Canales, J.S. [Section of Postgraduate Studies and Investigation, Higher School of Medicine from the National Polytechnic Institute, Mexico City (Mexico); Department of Cellular Biology, National Institute of Perinatology, Mexico City (Mexico); Lozano-Cuenca, J.; Muãoz-Islas, E.; Aguilar-Carrasco, J.C. [Department of Cellular Biology, National Institute of Perinatology, Mexico City (Mexico); López-Canales, O.A.; López-Mayorga, R.M.; Castillo-Henkel, E.F.; Valencia-Hernández, I.; Castillo-Henkel, C. [Section of Postgraduate Studies and Investigation, Higher School of Medicine from the National Polytechnic Institute, Mexico City (Mexico)

    2015-03-27

    Amfepramone (diethylpropion) is an appetite-suppressant drug used for the treatment of overweight and obesity. It has been suggested that the systemic and central activity of amfepramone produces cardiovascular effects such as transient ischemic attacks and primary pulmonary hypertension. However, it is not known whether amfepramone produces immediate vascular effects when applied in vitro to rat aortic rings and, if so, what mechanisms may be involved. We analyzed the effect of amfepramone on phenylephrine-precontracted rat aortic rings with or without endothelium and the influence of inhibitors or blockers on this effect. Amfepramone produced a concentration-dependent vasorelaxation in phenylephrine-precontracted rat aortic rings that was not affected by the vehicle, atropine, 4-AP, glibenclamide, indomethacin, clotrimazole, or cycloheximide. The vasorelaxant effect of amfepramone was significantly attenuated by NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) and tetraethylammonium (TEA), and was blocked by removal of the vascular endothelium. These results suggest that amfepramone had a direct vasorelaxant effect on phenylephrine-precontracted rat aortic rings, and that inhibition of endothelial nitric oxide synthase and the opening of Ca{sup 2+}-activated K{sup +} channels were involved in this effect.

  17. Mechanisms involved in the vasorelaxant effects produced by the acute application of amfepramone in vitro to rat aortic rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    López-Canales, J.S.; Lozano-Cuenca, J.; Muãoz-Islas, E.; Aguilar-Carrasco, J.C.; López-Canales, O.A.; López-Mayorga, R.M.; Castillo-Henkel, E.F.; Valencia-Hernández, I.; Castillo-Henkel, C.

    2015-01-01

    Amfepramone (diethylpropion) is an appetite-suppressant drug used for the treatment of overweight and obesity. It has been suggested that the systemic and central activity of amfepramone produces cardiovascular effects such as transient ischemic attacks and primary pulmonary hypertension. However, it is not known whether amfepramone produces immediate vascular effects when applied in vitro to rat aortic rings and, if so, what mechanisms may be involved. We analyzed the effect of amfepramone on phenylephrine-precontracted rat aortic rings with or without endothelium and the influence of inhibitors or blockers on this effect. Amfepramone produced a concentration-dependent vasorelaxation in phenylephrine-precontracted rat aortic rings that was not affected by the vehicle, atropine, 4-AP, glibenclamide, indomethacin, clotrimazole, or cycloheximide. The vasorelaxant effect of amfepramone was significantly attenuated by NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) and tetraethylammonium (TEA), and was blocked by removal of the vascular endothelium. These results suggest that amfepramone had a direct vasorelaxant effect on phenylephrine-precontracted rat aortic rings, and that inhibition of endothelial nitric oxide synthase and the opening of Ca 2+ -activated K + channels were involved in this effect

  18. FAILURE OF PROGESTERONE TO PRODUCE HIGH BLOOD-PRESSURE IN RABBITS AND RATS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winter, M.; Veldhuyzen, B.; Dorhout Mees, E.J.

    1972-01-01

    Contrary to earlier claims, daily Summary administration of 50 mg. progesterone over ten days did not increase the blood-pressure of 6 rabbits. Daily injection of 10 mg. progesterone had no influence on the blood-pressure of rats. The weight-gain of female rats was significantly increased by this

  19. Balloon dilatation of ureteric strictures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Punekar S

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available AIMS: Evaluation of dilatation as a minimally invasive technique for the treatment of ureteric strictures. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We evaluated this technique in 16 patients with ureteric and secondary pelviureteric junction strictures from June 1998. Of these, 7 were men and 9 were women. The age range was from 14 to 40 years. RESULTS: Balloon dilatation was successful in 69% of patients. Strictures secondary to previous surgery had nearly 100% success. Of the 8 cases diagnosed as genitourinary tuberculosis, success rate was 50%. CONCLUSIONS: Factors affecting success of balloon dilatation are: a age of the stricture b length of the stricture and c etiology of the stricture. In a select group of patients with fresh post-operative or post-inflammatory strictures, balloon dilatation may be an attractive alternative to surgery.

  20. Alteration in plasma corticosterone levels following long term oral administration of lead produces depression like symptoms in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haider, Saida; Saleem, Sadia; Tabassum, Saiqa; Khaliq, Saima; Shamim, Saima; Batool, Zehra; Parveen, Tahira; Inam, Qurat-ul-ain; Haleem, Darakhshan J

    2013-03-01

    Lead toxicity is known to induce a broad range of physiological, biochemical and behavioral dysfunctions that may result in adverse effects on several organs, including the central nervous system. Long-term exposure to low levels of lead (Pb(2+)) has been shown to produce behavioral deficits in rodents and humans by affecting hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. These deficits are thought to be associated with altered brain monoamine neurotransmission and due to changes in glucocorticoids levels. This study was designed to investigate the effects of Pb(2+)exposure on growth rate, locomotor activity, anxiety, depression, plasma corticosterone and brain serotonin (5-HT) levels in rats. Rats were exposed to lead in drinking water (500 ppm; lead acetate) for 5 weeks. The assessment of depression was done using the forced swimming test (FST). Estimation of brain 5-HT was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. Plasma corticosterone was determined by spectrofluorimetric method. The present study showed that long term exposure to Pb(2+) significantly decreased the food intake followed by the decrease in growth rate in Pb(2+)exposed rats as compared to control group. No significant changes in open field activity were observed following Pb(2+)exposure while significant increase in anxiogenic effect was observed. Increased plasma corticosterone and decreased 5-HT levels were exhibited by Pb(2+)exposed rats as compared to controls. A significant increase in depressive like symptoms was exhibited by Pb(2+)exposed rats as compared to control rats. The results are discussed in the context of Pb(2+) inducing a stress-like response in rats leading to changes in plasma corticosterone and brain 5-HT levels via altering tryptophan pyrrolase activity.

  1. [In vitro generation of insulin-producing cells from the neonatal rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaohu; Huang, Haiyan; Liu, Xirong; Xia, Hongxia; Li, Mincai

    2015-03-01

    To observe the differentiation of the neonatal rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) into insulin-producing cells and detect the expressions of insulin, pancreatic duodenal homebox-1 (PDX-1) and nestin. MSCs were isolated from the neonatal rats and cultured in the modified medium composed of 10 μg/L human epidermal growth factor (EGF), 10 μg/L basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), 10 μg/L hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), 10 μg/L human B cell regulin, 20 mmol/L nicotinamide and 20 g/L B27. After the induction, the mRNA expressions of insulin, PDX-1 and nestin were examined by reverse transcription-PCR, and the insulin, PDX-1 and nestin protein levels were detected by immunocytochemistry. The insulin and PDX-1 mRNA expressions increased and the nestin mRNA expression decreased in the differentiation of the neonatal rat MSCs into insulin-producing cells. The nestin, PDX-1 and insulin proteins were co-expressed in insulin-producing cells. MSCs can be induced to differentiate into insulin-producing cells.

  2. Maternal immune activation in rats produces temporal perception impairments in adult offspring analogous to those observed in schizophrenia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley R Deane

    Full Text Available The neurophysiology underlying temporal perception significantly overlaps with areas of dysfunction identified in schizophrenia. Patients commonly exhibit distorted temporal perception, which likely contributes to functional impairments. Thus, study of temporal perception in animal models of the disease may help to understand both cognitive and neurobiological factors involved in functional impairments in patients. As maternal immune activation (MIA has been shown to be a significant etiological risk factor in development of schizophrenia and other developmental psychiatric diseases, we tested interval timing in a rat model of MIA that has previously been shown to recapitulate several behavioural and neurophysiological impairments observed in the disease. Rats were tested on a temporal-bisection task, in which temporal duration stimuli were categorized as either "short" or "long" by responding to a corresponding lever. Data from this task were modeled to provide estimates of accuracy and sensitivity of temporal perception. Parameter estimates derived from the model fitting showed that MIA rats significantly overestimated the passage of time compared to controls. These results indicate that the MIA rat paradigm recapitulates timing distortions that are phenotypical of schizophrenia. These findings lend further support to the epidemiological validity of this MIA rat model, supporting its relevance for future research into the role of maternal immune activation in producing neurobiological and behavioural impairments in schizophrenia.

  3. Evaluation by electronic paramagnetic resonance of the number of free radicals produced in irradiated rat bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marble, G.; Valderas, R.

    1966-01-01

    The number of long half-life free radicals created by gamma irradiation in the bones of the rat has been determined from the electrons paramagnetic resonance spectrum. This number decreases slowly with time (calculated half life: 24 days). It is proportional to the dose of gamma radiation given to the rat. The method could find interesting applications in the field of biological dosimetry. (authors) [fr

  4. Sub-chronic lead exposure produces β1-adrenoceptor downregulation decreasing arterial pressure reactivity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toscano, Cindy Medici; Simões, Maylla Ronacher; Alonso, Maria Jesus; Salaices, Mercedes; Vassallo, Dalton Valentim; Fioresi, Mirian

    2017-07-01

    Lead is considered a causative factor for hypertension and other cardiovascular diseases. To investigate the effects of sub-chronic lead exposure on blood pressure reactivity and cardiac β 1 -adrenoceptor activity and to evaluate whether the effects found in vitro are similar to those found in vivo. Male Wistar rats were randomly distributed into two groups: control rats (Ct) and rats administered drinking water containing 100ppm lead (Pb) for 30days. Blood pressure in the Pb rats increased starting from the first week of treatment until the end of the study [systolic blood pressure, Ct: 122±4 vs. Pb: 143±3mmHg; diastolic blood pressure, Ct: 63±4 vs. Pb: 84±4mmHg]. The heart rate was also increased (Ct: 299±11 vs. Pb: 365±11bpm), but the pressure reactivity to phenylephrine was decreased. Losartan and hexamethonium exhibited a greater reduction in blood pressure of Pb rats than in the Ct rats. Isoproterenol increased the left ventricular systolic and end-diastolic pressure, and heart rate only in Ct rats, suggesting that lead induced β 1 -adrenoceptor downregulation. Indomethacin reduced the blood pressure and heart rate in the Pb rats, suggesting the involvement of cyclooxygenase-derived products (which are associated with reduced nitric oxide bioavailability) in this process. These findings offer further evidence that the effects of sub-chronic lead exposure in vitro can be reproduced in vivo-even at low concentrations-thus triggering mechanisms for the development of hypertension. Therefore, lead should be considered an environmental risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. REM sleep deprivation produces a motivational deficit for food reward that is reversed by intra-accumbens amphetamine in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanlon, Erin C; Benca, Ruth M; Baldo, Brian A; Kelley, Ann E

    2010-10-30

    Prolonged sleep deprivation in rats produces a characteristic syndrome of increase in food intake accompanied by, paradoxically, decrease in weight, suggesting a potential alteration in motivation for food reward. Using the multiple platform method to produce REM sleep deprivation (REMSD), we investigated the effect of REMSD on motivation for food reinforcement with a progressive ratio operant task, which yields a measure of the motor effort that a hungry animal is willing to expend to obtain food (the point at which the animal quits responding is termed the "break-point"). We found that REMSD rats decreased the break point for sucrose pellet reinforcement in comparison to controls, as revealed by a within-session decline in responding. This behavioral deficit is similar to that observed in rats with diminished dopamine transmission within the nucleus accumbens (Acb), and, considering that stimulants are frequently used in the clinical setting to reverse the effects of sleepiness, we examined the effect of systemic or intra-Acb amphetamine on break point in REMSD rats. Animals were given either systemic or intra-Acb amphetamine injections on days 3 and 5 of REMSD. Systemic amphetamine (0.1, 0.5, or 2.5mg/kg) did not increase break point in REMSD rats. In contrast, intra-Acb infusions of amphetamine (1, 10, or 30μg/0.5μl bilaterally) reversed the REMSD-induced suppression of progressive ratio responding. Specifically, the two higher doses of intra-Acb amphetamine were able to prolong responding within the session (resulting in an increased break point) on day 3 of REMSD while only the highest dose was sufficient following 5 days of REMSD. These data suggest that decreased motivation for food reward caused by REMSD may result from a suppression of dopamine function in the Acb. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of electromagnetic radiation produced by 3G mobile phones on rat brains: magnetic resonance spectroscopy, biochemical, and histopathological evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogan, M; Turtay, M G; Oguzturk, H; Samdanci, E; Turkoz, Y; Tasdemir, S; Alkan, A; Bakir, S

    2012-06-01

    The effects of electromagnetic radiation (EMR) produced by a third-generation (3G) mobile phone (MP) on rat brain tissues were investigated in terms of magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), biochemistry, and histopathological evaluations. The rats were randomly assigned to two groups: Group 1 is composed of 3G-EMR-exposed rats (n = 9) and Group 2 is the control group (n = 9). The first group was subjected to EMR for 20 days. The control group was not exposed to EMR. Choline (Cho), creatinin (Cr), and N-acetylaspartate (NAA) levels were evaluated by MRS. Catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) enzyme activities were measured by spectrophotometric method. Histopathological analyses were carried out to evaluate apoptosis in the brain tissues of both groups. In MRS, NAA/Cr, Cho/Cr, and NAA/Cho ratios were not significantly different between Groups 1 and 2. Neither the oxidative stress parameters, CAT and GSH-Px, nor the number of apoptotic cells were significantly different between Groups 1 and 2. Usage of short-term 3G MP does not seem to have a harmful effect on rat brain tissue.

  7. Dilatation effect of ''quantum clocks''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chylinski, Z.

    1981-01-01

    The relativistic dilatation effect of the life-time of unstable microparticles combined with quantum symmetry of their description results in the ''quantum-dilatation'' dilemma. It is due to the classical character of the relativity theory which here reveals itself in the classical world-line of the clock necessary in order to deduce the dilatation effect from the Lorentz transformation. It is shown how to solve this dilemma, basing on the relation continuum C 4 . Two types of measurements of time intervals, the direct and indirect one, are analyzed. The former type corresponds to the external space-time continuum, where any direct measurement takes place, and the latter, to the internal relation continuum C 4 , where the internal structures of isolated micro-systems are sunk. (author)

  8. A Single Neonatal Exposure to BMAA in a Rat Model Produces Neuropathology Consistent with Neurodegenerative Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Louise Scott

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Although cyanobacterial β-N-methylamino-l-alanine (BMAA has been implicated in the development of Alzheimer’s Disease (AD, Parkinson’s Disease (PD and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS, no BMAA animal model has reproduced all the neuropathology typically associated with these neurodegenerative diseases. We present here a neonatal BMAA model that causes β-amyloid deposition, neurofibrillary tangles of hyper-phosphorylated tau, TDP-43 inclusions, Lewy bodies, microbleeds and microgliosis as well as severe neuronal loss in the hippocampus, striatum, substantia nigra pars compacta, and ventral horn of the spinal cord in rats following a single BMAA exposure. We also report here that BMAA exposure on particularly PND3, but also PND4 and 5, the critical period of neurogenesis in the rodent brain, is substantially more toxic than exposure to BMAA on G14, PND6, 7 and 10 which suggests that BMAA could potentially interfere with neonatal neurogenesis in rats. The observed selective toxicity of BMAA during neurogenesis and, in particular, the observed pattern of neuronal loss observed in BMAA-exposed rats suggest that BMAA elicits its effect by altering dopamine and/or serotonin signaling in rats.

  9. Immune Modulating Capability of Two Exopolysaccharide-Producing Bifidobacterium Strains in a Wistar Rat Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuria Salazar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fermented dairy products are the usual carriers for the delivery of probiotics to humans, Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus being the most frequently used bacteria. In this work, the strains Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis IPLA R1 and Bifidobacterium longum IPLA E44 were tested for their capability to modulate immune response and the insulin-dependent glucose homeostasis using male Wistar rats fed with a standard diet. Three intervention groups were fed daily for 24 days with 10% skimmed milk, or with 109 cfu of the corresponding strain suspended in the same vehicle. A significant increase of the suppressor-regulatory TGF-β cytokine occurred with both strains in comparison with a control (no intervention group of rats; the highest levels were reached in rats fed IPLA R1. This strain presented an immune protective profile, as it was able to reduce the production of the proinflammatory IL-6. Moreover, phosphorylated Akt kinase decreased in gastroctemius muscle of rats fed the strain IPLA R1, without affecting the glucose, insulin, and HOMA index in blood, or levels of Glut-4 located in the membrane of muscle and adipose tissue cells. Therefore, the strain B. animalis subsp. lactis IPLA R1 is a probiotic candidate to be tested in mild grade inflammation animal models.

  10. Meningeal norepinephrine produces headache behaviors in rats via actions both on dural afferents and fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xiaomei; Yan, Jin; Tillu, Dipti; Asiedu, Marina; Weinstein, Nicole; Melemedjian, Ohannes; Price, Theodore; Dussor, Gregory

    2015-10-01

    Stress is commonly reported to contribute to migraine although mechanisms by which this may occur are not fully known. The purpose of these studies was to examine whether norepinephrine (NE), the primary sympathetic efferent transmitter, acts on processes in the meninges that may contribute to the pain of migraine. NE was applied to rat dura using a behavioral model of headache. Primary cultures of rat trigeminal ganglia retrogradely labeled from the dura mater and of rat dural fibroblasts were prepared. Patch-clamp electrophysiology, Western blot, and ELISA were performed to examine the effects of NE. Conditioned media from NE-treated fibroblast cultures was applied to the dura using the behavioral headache model. Dural injection both of NE and media from NE-stimulated fibroblasts caused cutaneous facial and hindpaw allodynia in awake rats. NE application to cultured dural afferents increased action potential firing in response to current injections. Application of NE to dural fibroblasts increased phosphorylation of ERK and caused the release of interleukin-6 (IL-6). These data demonstrate that NE can contribute to pro-nociceptive signaling from the meninges via actions on dural afferents and dural fibroblasts. Together, these actions of NE may contribute to the headache phase of migraine. © International Headache Society 2015.

  11. Hesperidin produces cardioprotective activity via PPAR-γ pathway in ischemic heart disease model in diabetic rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yogeeta O Agrawal

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the effect of hesperidin, a natural flavonoid, in cardiac ischemia and reperfusion (I/R injury in diabetic rats. Male Wistar rats with diabetes were divided into five groups and were orally administered saline once daily (IR-sham and IR-control, Hesperidin (100 mg/kg/day; IR-Hesperidin, GW9962 (PPAR-γ receptor antagonist, or combination of both for 14 days. On the 15th day, in the IR-control and IR-treatment groups, rats were subjected to left anterior descending (LAD coronary artery occlusion for 45 minutes followed by a one-hour reperfusion. Haemodynamic parameters were recorded and rats were sacrificed; hearts were isolated for biochemical, histopathological, ultrastructural and immunohistochemistry. In the IR-control group, significant ventricular dysfunctions were observed along with enhanced expression of pro-apoptotic protein Bax. A decline in cardiac injury markers lactate dehydrogenase activity, CK-MB and increased content of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, a marker of lipid peroxidation, and TNF-α were observed. Hesperidin pretreatment significantly improved mean arterial pressure, reduced left ventricular end-diastolic pressure, and improved both inotropic and lusitropic function of the heart (+LVdP/dt and -LVdP/dt as compared to IR-control. Furthermore, hesperidin treatment significantly decreased the level of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and reversed the activity of lactate dehydrogenase towards normal value. Hesperidin showed anti-apoptotic effects by upregulating Bcl-2 protein and decreasing Bax protein expression. Additionally, histopathological and ultrastructural studies reconfirmed the protective action of hesperidin. On the other hand, GW9662, selective PPAR-γ receptor antagonist, produced opposite effects and attenuated the hesperidin induced improvements. The study for the first time evidence the involvement of PPAR-γ pathway in the cardioprotective activity of

  12. Achalasia: Dilation, Injection or Surgery?

    OpenAIRE

    Peracchia, Alberto; Bonavina, Luigi

    2000-01-01

    Achalasia results from irreversible alterations of the esophageal myenteric plexus. The target of treatment in this setting is to reduce lower esophageal sphincter resistance to passage of the bolus. Definitive treatment of the disease requires pneumatic dilation or Heller myotomy. Although no controlled studies comparing modern endoscopic and surgical techniques are available, laparoscopic surgery is emerging as the initial intervention of choice.

  13. Fluid dynamics of dilatant fluid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nakanishi, Hiizu; Nagahiro, Shin-ichiro; Mitarai, Namiko

    2012-01-01

    of the state variable, we demonstrate that the model can describe basic features of the dilatant fluid such as the stress-shear rate curve that represents discontinuous severe shear thickening, hysteresis upon changing shear rate, and instantaneous hardening upon external impact. An analysis of the model...

  14. Hematologic and Selected Hepatic Changes Produced by Substituted p-Bensoquinones in the Rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-07-01

    DIVISION OF NUTRITION TECHNOLOGY *DIVISION OF CUTANEOUS HAZARDS I LEECE D IBAI7 TA EMENl AU I __ b rouleISO, Ca. JULYV 1980 CD, LA. 9=3TIRMAN ARMY...jaundice, anemia, hemoglobinuria, and cachexia (8). In previous studies, we found that benzoquinone tox- icity in rats resulted in respiratory depression...randomly housed in stainless steel wire-bottomed cages, one to a cage, and fed a stock diet (Rodent Laboratory Chow #5001, Ralston Purina Co., St. Louis

  15. Exposure to Sodium Fluoride Produces Signs of Apoptosis in Rat Leukocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigrit Suástegui-Domínguez

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Fluoride is naturally present in the earth's crust and can be found in rocks, coal, and clay; thus, it can be found in small quantities in water, air, plants, and animals. Therefore, humans are exposed to fluoride through food, drinking water, and in the air they breathe. Flouride is essential to maintain bone strength and to protect against dental decay, but if it is absorbed too frequently, it can cause tooth decay, osteoporosis, and damage to kidneys, bones, nerves, and muscles. Therefore, the present work was aimed at determining the effect of intake of sodium fluoride (NaF as an apoptosis inducer in leukocytes of rats treated for eight weeks with 1 or 50 parts per million (ppm NaF. Expression of p53, bcl-2, and caspade-3 were used as apoptotic and general metabolism indicators of leukocyte-like indicators of the (INT oxidation system. Male rats were exposed to NaF (1 and 500 ppm for eight weeks, and then sacrificed weekly to obtain blood samples. Expression of p53, bcl-2, and caspase-3 were determined in leukocytes by Western blot, and general metabolism of leukocytes was analyzed with a commercial kit. We found changes in the expression of the proteins described, especially when the animals received 50 ppm of NaF. These results indicate that NaF intoxication can be an apoptosis inducer in rat leukocytes treated with the compound for eight weeks.

  16. Salivary gland enlargement during oesophageal stricture dilatation.

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, D.

    1980-01-01

    A case of recurrent salivary gland enlargement occurring during fibreoptic oesophagoscopy and oesophageal stricture dilatation with Eder-Puestow dilators is described. The genesis of this condition is discussed and its transient and usually benign nature emphasized.

  17. Body weight gain in rats by a high-fat diet produces chronodisruption in activity/inactivity circadian rhythm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, Rafael; Cubero, Javier; Franco, Lourdes; Mesa, Mónica; Galán, Carmen; Rodríguez, Ana Beatriz; Jarne, Carlos; Barriga, Carmen

    2014-04-01

    In the last few decades, obesity has become one of the most important public health problems. Adipose tissue is an active endocrine tissue which follows a rhythmic pattern in its functions and may produce alterations in certain circadian rhythms. Our aim was to evaluate whether the locomotor activity circadian rhythm could be modified by a hypercaloric diet in rodents. Two groups were considered in the experiment: 16 rats were used as a control group and were fed standard chow; the other group comprised 16 rats fed a high-fat diet (35.8% fat, 35% glucides). The trial lasted 16 weeks. Body weight was measured every week, and a blood sample was extracted every two weeks to quantify triglyceride levels. The activity/inactivity circadian rhythm was logged through actimetry throughout the trial, and analysed using the DAS 24© software package. At the end of the experiment, the high-fat fed rats had obese-like body weights and high plasma triglyceride levels, and, compared with the control group, increased diurnal activity, decreased nocturnal activity, reductions in amplitude, midline estimating statistic of rhythm, acrophase and interdaily stability, and increases in intradaily variability of their activity rhythms. The results thus show how obesity can lead to symptoms of chronodisruption in the body similar to those of ageing.

  18. Potential nephrotoxic effects produced by steroidal saponins from hydro alcoholic extract of Tribulus terrestris in STZ-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, Sonia; Srinivasan, B P; Akarte, Atul S

    2013-09-01

    Chronic hyperglycemia leads to the development of microvascular complications like diabetic nephropathy. The present study investigated the potential effects of the hydroalcoholic extract of Tribulus terrestris, a plant of Zygophyllaceae family, on the renal complications in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced by administering STZ (90 mg/kg) to the 2-days old neonates. After 6 weeks of induction, diabetic rats were treated with 50 mg/kg hydroalcoholic extract of T. terrestris for 8 weeks. The anti-hyperglycaemic nature was confirmed by reduction in blood glucose and improvement in insulin levels. Diabetic renal injury associated with decrease in total proteins and albumin levels was observed to be improved by T. terrestris extract. Glomerular filtration rate along with inflammatory and growth factors, adiponectin and erythropoietin were also improved by the treatment, though the findings were not significant. However, the beneficial antidiabetic effects of T. terrestris extract in plasma were not observed in kidney histopathology. This was confirmed by the quantitative estimation of unhydrolyzed fraction of saponins (major component: protodioscin) in plasma and kidney samples of normal and diabetic rats. Hence, it can be concluded that 8 weeks treatment with T. terrestris extract produces potential toxic effects in kidney, which are independent of its anti-diabetic action.

  19. Intraportal injection of insulin-producing cells generated from human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells decreases blood glucose level in diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Pei-Jiun; Wang, Hwai-Shi; Lin, Chi-Hung; Weng, Zen-Chung; Chen, Tien-Hua; Shyu, Jia-Fwu

    2014-01-01

    We studied the process of trans-differentiation of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hBM-MSCs) into insulin-producing cells. Streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rat model was used to study the effect of portal vein transplantation of these insulin-producing cells on blood sugar levels. The BM-MSCs were differentiated into insulin-producing cells under defined conditions. Real-time PCR, immunocytochemistry and glucose challenge were used to evaluate in vitro differentiation. Flow cytometry showed that hBM-MSCs were strongly positive for CD44, CD105 and CD73 and negative for hematopoietic markers CD34, CD38 and CD45. Differentiated cells expressed C-peptide as well as β-cells specific genes and hormones. Glucose stimulation increased C-peptide secretion in these cells. The insulin-producing, differentiated cells were transplanted into the portal vein of STZ-induced diabetic rats using a Port-A catheter. The insulin-producing cells were localized in the liver of the recipient rat and expressed human C-peptide. Blood glucose levels were reduced in diabetic rats transplanted with insulin-producing cells. We concluded that hBM-MSCs could be trans-differentiated into insulin-producing cells in vitro. Portal vein transplantation of insulin-producing cells alleviated hyperglycemia in diabetic rats.

  20. Adolescent fluoxetine exposure produces enduring, sex-specific alterations of visual discrimination and attention in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaRoche, Ronee B; Morgan, Russell E

    2007-01-01

    Over the past two decades the use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) to treat behavioral disorders in children has grown rapidly, despite little evidence regarding the safety and efficacy of these drugs for use in children. Utilizing a rat model, this study investigated whether post-weaning exposure to a prototype SSRI, fluoxetine (FLX), influenced performance on visual tasks designed to measure discrimination learning, sustained attention, inhibitory control, and reaction time. Additionally, sex differences in response to varying doses of fluoxetine were examined. In Experiment 1, female rats were administered (P.O.) fluoxetine (10 mg/kg ) or vehicle (apple juice) from PND 25 thru PND 49. After a 14 day washout period, subjects were trained to perform a simultaneous visual discrimination task. Subjects were then tested for 20 sessions on a visual attention task that consisted of varied stimulus delays (0, 3, 6, or 9 s) and cue durations (200, 400, or 700 ms). In Experiment 2, both male and female Long-Evans rats (24 F, 24 M) were administered fluoxetine (0, 5, 10, or 15 mg/kg) then tested in the same visual tasks used in Experiment 1, with the addition of open-field and elevated plus-maze testing. Few FLX-related differences were seen in the visual discrimination, open field, or plus-maze tasks. However, results from the visual attention task indicated a dose-dependent reduction in the performance of fluoxetine-treated males, whereas fluoxetine-treated females tended to improve over baseline. These findings indicate that enduring, behaviorally-relevant alterations of the CNS can occur following pharmacological manipulation of the serotonin system during postnatal development.

  1. Effects of ZDY101, an active component from Zhimu, on rat dementia model produced by intracranial injection of ibotenic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Qixiang; Hu Yaer; Guan Hong; Xia Zongqin

    2004-01-01

    A dementia model was produced in adult Sprague-Dawley rats by bilateral injection of ibotenic acid, 2μg in 0.5 μL per side, into basal ganglion. ZDY101, 3.6, 18, 90 mg·kg -1 ·d -1 , was given through gastric tube to 3 groups of the model rats for 90 days. The learning and memory ability of model rats without treatment declined compared with sham-operated controls, the composite index (number of wrong response in 5 min divided by latent period) being 0.71 ± 0.30 vs 0.10 ± 0.13 respectively. The brain M receptor density also decreased as compared with sham-operated controls, being 891 ± 150 vs 1039 ± 214 fmol·mg -1 protein respectively. ZDY101 simultaneously up-regulated the brain M receptor density and improved the memory and learning ability of model rats. For the middle dose group, the M receptor density was 1028 ±145 fmol·mg -1 protein (P<0.05) and the composite index of step-through test was 0.20 ± 0.18 (P<0.01). Since there was a significant correlation between M-receptor density and result of step-through test, it is apparent that the mechanism of action of ZDY101 is quite different from that of cholinesterase inhibitor. It is highly probable that the improvement of memory was due to the up-regulation of brain M receptor density. (authors)

  2. Cortical cholinergic hypofunction and behaviorial impairment produced by basal forebrain lesions in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lerer, B.E.; Friedman, E.; Gamzu, E.

    1986-01-01

    The authors confirm the cortical ChAT and passive avoidance deficits resulting from bilateral KA lesions of the magnocellular nuclei of the basal forebrain (MNBF). Because of reported passive avoidance deficits, the authors were interested in whether bilateral MNBF lesions would interfere with learning in an active avoidance paradigm. Samples of rat cortex were stored at -80 C until assayed. ChAT was assayed by a modification method under saturating conditions; 20 mM choline and 2 mM C 14-acetylcoenzyme. The behavioral deficits assumed to be indicative of learning and memory problems were accompanied by a 20% decrease in cortical ChAT

  3. Changes in rat respiratory system produced by exposure to exhaust gases of combustion of glycerol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra, Daniel Silveira; Evangelista, Janaína Serra Azul Monteiro; Zin, Walter Araujo; Leal-Cardoso, José Henrique; Cavalcante, Francisco Sales Ávila

    2017-08-01

    The combustion of residual glycerol to generate heat in industrial processes has been suggested as a cost-effective solution for disposal of this environmental liability. Thus, we investigated the effects of exposure to the exhaust gases of glycerol combustion in the rat respiratory system. We used 2 rats groups, one exposed to the exhaust gases from glycerol combustion (Glycerol), and the other exposed to ambient air (Control). Exposure occurred 5h a day, 5days a week for 13 weeks. We observed statistically changes in all parameters of respiratory system mechanics in vivo. This results was supported by histological analysis and morphometric data, confirming narrower airways and lung parenchimal changes. Variables related to airway resistance (ΔR N ) and elastic properties of the tissue (ΔH), increased after challenge with methacholine. Finally, analysis of lung tissue micromechanics showed statistically increases in all parameters (R, E and hysteresivity). In conclusion, exhaust gases from glycerol combustion were harmful to the respiratory system. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Achalasia: Dilation, Injection or Surgery?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Peracchia

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Achalasia results from irreversible alterations of the esophageal myenteric plexus. The target of treatment in this setting is to reduce lower esophageal sphincter resistance to passage of the bolus. Definitive treatment of the disease requires pneumatic dilation or Heller myotomy. Although no controlled studies comparing modern endoscopic and surgical techniques are available, laparoscopic surgery is emerging as the initial intervention of choice.

  5. Balloon dilatations of esophageal strictures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Jeong Jin; Juhng, Seon Kwan; Kim, Jae Kyu; Chung, Hyon De

    1990-01-01

    Most benign esophageal strictures can be successfully dilated with conventional bougienage technique. But occasionally strictures are so tight, lengthy, or sometimes irregular that this technique fail, and surgical intervention is required. Since 1974 Gruentzig balloon catheter has succeed when used for strictures in the cardiac and peripheral vasculatures, the biliary and urinary tracts, the colon of neonates after inflammatory disease and also in the esophagus. Fluoroscopically guided balloon catheters were used to dilate 30 esophageal strictures in 30 patients over 3 years at Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Chonnam University, College of Medicine. The distribution of age was from 7 years to 71 days and the ratio of male to female was 15:15. The causes of benign stricture (23 cases) were post-operative strictures (13), chemical (4), achalasia (3), chronic inflammation (2), esophageal rupture (1) and those of malignant stricture (7 cases) were post-radiation stricture of primary esophageal cancer (6) and metastatic esophageal cancer (1). The success rate of procedure was 93% (28/30). The causes of failure were the failure of passage of stricture due to markedly dilated proximal segment of esophagus (1 case) and too long segment of stricture (1 case). Complication of procedure was the diverticular-formation of esophagus in 3 cases, but has no clinical significance in follow-up esophagography. In conclusion, fluoroscopically guided balloon dilation of esophageal stricture appears to be safe, effective treatment and may be have theoretical advantages over conventional bougienage and also should be considered before other methods of treatment are used

  6. Balloon dilatations of esophageal strictures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Jeong Jin; Juhng, Seon Kwan; Kim, Jae Kyu; Chung, Hyon De [Chonnam National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1990-04-15

    Most benign esophageal strictures can be successfully dilated with conventional bougienage technique. But occasionally strictures are so tight, lengthy, or sometimes irregular that this technique fail, and surgical intervention is required. Since 1974 Gruentzig balloon catheter has succeed when used for strictures in the cardiac and peripheral vasculatures, the biliary and urinary tracts, the colon of neonates after inflammatory disease and also in the esophagus. Fluoroscopically guided balloon catheters were used to dilate 30 esophageal strictures in 30 patients over 3 years at Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Chonnam University, College of Medicine. The distribution of age was from 7 years to 71 days and the ratio of male to female was 15:15. The causes of benign stricture (23 cases) were post-operative strictures (13), chemical (4), achalasia (3), chronic inflammation (2), esophageal rupture (1) and those of malignant stricture (7 cases) were post-radiation stricture of primary esophageal cancer (6) and metastatic esophageal cancer (1). The success rate of procedure was 93% (28/30). The causes of failure were the failure of passage of stricture due to markedly dilated proximal segment of esophagus (1 case) and too long segment of stricture (1 case). Complication of procedure was the diverticular-formation of esophagus in 3 cases, but has no clinical significance in follow-up esophagography. In conclusion, fluoroscopically guided balloon dilation of esophageal stricture appears to be safe, effective treatment and may be have theoretical advantages over conventional bougienage and also should be considered before other methods of treatment are used.

  7. NPY intraperitoneal injections produce antidepressant-like effects and downregulate BDNF in the rat hypothalamus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelfo, Francesca; Tirassa, Paola; De Bartolo, Paola; Croce, Nicoletta; Bernardini, Sergio; Caltagirone, Carlo; Petrosini, Laura; Angelucci, Francesco

    2012-06-01

    Several studies have documented an involvement of Neuropeptide Y (NPY) in stress-related disorders. Stress-related disorders are also characterized by changes in brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and nerve growth factor (NGF), neurotrophins implicated in the survival and function of neurons. Thus the aim of this study was to investigate whether an NPY intraperitoneal treatment has antidepressant-like effects in rats subjected to a classical stress paradigm, the Forced Swim Test (FST), in association with changes in local brain neurotrophin production. Rats were intraperitoneally injected with either NPY (60 μg/kg) or a vehicle for three consecutive days between two FST sessions and then tested for time spent (or delay onset) in immobile posture. Moreover, we measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) neurotrophin levels in the hypothalamus and corticosterone levels in plasma. The data showed that NPY induced a significant delay in the onset and a significant reduction in the duration of the immobility posture in FST. We also found that NPY decreased BDNF levels in the hypothalamus and corticosterone levels in plasma. Immobility posture in FST can be reduced by antidepressant drugs. Thus, our data show an antidepressant-like effect of NPY associated with changes in BDNF levels in the hypothalamus and reduced activity of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. These findings, while confirming the involvement of the NPY system in stress-related disorders, suggest that a less invasive route of administration, such as an intraperitoneal injection, may be instrumental in coping with stressful events in animal models and perhaps in humans. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. Gamma irradiation of isolated rat islets pretransplantation produces indefinite allograft survival in cyclosporine-treated recipients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, R.F.; Lake, S.P.; Chamberlain, J.; Thirdborough, S.; Bassett, P.D.; Mistry, N.; Bell, P.R.

    1989-01-01

    In this study we have examined the use of low-dose gamma-irradiation for the reduction of islet immunogenicity in the strong allogeneic combination of WAG rat islets transplanted into diabetic AUG recipients. First, we determined that gamma-irradiation reduced immunogenicity in vitro by use of a modified MLR with WAG islets as stimulators and AUG splenocytes as responders. We then determined the maximum dose of gamma-irradiation that could be used (250 rads) before islet function was affected. As 250 rads islet pretreatment alone was ineffective in prolonging allograft survival, we combined the pretreatment with a short course (days 0, 1, 2; 30 mg/kg) of cyclosporine. We found that CsA was only effective in significantly prolonging allograft survival when given subcutaneously in olive oil. The CsA treatment alone gave a significantly prolonged survival time for the islet allografts (median, 37 days vs. 6 days for controls), but when combined with the 250 rads islet pretreatment a synergistic effect was seen with 100% becoming long-term survivors (greater than 100 days). The long-term surviving AUG rats from both the CsA alone group and the CsA plus 250 rads pretreated islets group were challenged with WAG dendritic cells (DC). The islets from the 250 rads pretreated group were subsequently rejected (day 6) while the CsA alone group were not affected. The role of low dose gamma-irradiation when combined with CsA treatment of islet graft recipients in inducing specific unresponsiveness will be discussed

  9. Gamma irradiation of isolated rat islets pretransplantation produces indefinite allograft survival in cyclosporine-treated recipients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James, R.F.; Lake, S.P.; Chamberlain, J.; Thirdborough, S.; Bassett, P.D.; Mistry, N.; Bell, P.R.

    1989-06-01

    In this study we have examined the use of low-dose gamma-irradiation for the reduction of islet immunogenicity in the strong allogeneic combination of WAG rat islets transplanted into diabetic AUG recipients. First, we determined that gamma-irradiation reduced immunogenicity in vitro by use of a modified MLR with WAG islets as stimulators and AUG splenocytes as responders. We then determined the maximum dose of gamma-irradiation that could be used (250 rads) before islet function was affected. As 250 rads islet pretreatment alone was ineffective in prolonging allograft survival, we combined the pretreatment with a short course (days 0, 1, 2; 30 mg/kg) of cyclosporine. We found that CsA was only effective in significantly prolonging allograft survival when given subcutaneously in olive oil. The CsA treatment alone gave a significantly prolonged survival time for the islet allografts (median, 37 days vs. 6 days for controls), but when combined with the 250 rads islet pretreatment a synergistic effect was seen with 100% becoming long-term survivors (greater than 100 days). The long-term surviving AUG rats from both the CsA alone group and the CsA plus 250 rads pretreated islets group were challenged with WAG dendritic cells (DC). The islets from the 250 rads pretreated group were subsequently rejected (day 6) while the CsA alone group were not affected. The role of low dose gamma-irradiation when combined with CsA treatment of islet graft recipients in inducing specific unresponsiveness will be discussed.

  10. The effect of gastric dilatation in rats submitted to gasified water ingestion under the hepatic metabolic function Efeito da dilatação gástrica em ratos submetidos à ingestão de água gaseificada sobre a função metabólica hepática

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Roberto Ferreira Santiago

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The amounts of people that are overweight have been increasing within the population in significant ways during the last decades. In this view, gasified beverages have become an important environmental concern in relation to the eating habits of people, especially who lives in the USA, Mexico, and Brazil. In this order, these three countries constitute the major beverages producers and consumers of the whole world. PURPOSE: To investigate the effects of gastric dilatation in rats submitted to gasified water ingestion, uniform vehicle for all soft drinks, under metabolic patterns of the hepatic function. METHODS: Two groups of 15 rats were formed and observed during two weeks. The rats of the group I, were fed with 200g/day of rat food ad libitum and 100ml of non-gasified water during three daily periods. The rats composing the group II, were fed with 200g/day of rat food ad libitum and 100ml of gasified water within 3 daily periods. The media (x and standard deviation (s were calculated through the paired t-test for each group in order to compare the effects of the different types of water and its effect in each one of them. RESULTS: The results indicated that the animals which were submitted to the treatment with gasified water (G-II, presented an increase of glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (GPT and alkaline phosphatase (ALP (pp>0,05 and increase of the gastric area with macroscopic morphologic alterations, such as the loss of the characteristic linear depressions on the surface of the mucous membrane. CONCLUSION: The gasified water favored the expansion of the gastric area and contributed to the extinction of the linear depressions of the mucous organ, which caused metabolic alterations of the hepatic function.INTRODUÇÃO: O excesso de peso na população aumentou de forma significante nas últimas décadas e as bebidas gasosas tornaram-se um fator ambiental importante no comportamento alimentar das pessoas, sendo os EUA, M

  11. The convulsive and electroencephalographic changes produced by nonpeptidic delta-opioid agonists in rats: comparison with pentylenetetrazol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jutkiewicz, Emily M; Baladi, Michelle G; Folk, John E; Rice, Kenner C; Woods, James H

    2006-06-01

    delta-Opioid agonists produce convulsions and antidepressant-like effects in rats. It has been suggested that the antidepressant-like effects are produced through a convulsant mechanism of action either through overt convulsions or nonconvulsive seizures. This study evaluated the convulsive and seizurogenic effects of nonpeptidic delta-opioid agonists at doses that previously were reported to produce antidepressant-like effects. In addition, delta-opioid agonist-induced electroencephalographic (EEG) and behavioral changes were compared with those produced by the chemical convulsant pentylenetetrazol (PTZ). For these studies, EEG changes were recorded using a telemetry system before and after injections of the delta-opioid agonists [(+)-4-[(alphaR)-alpha-[(2S,5R)-2,5-dimethyl-4-(2-propenyl)-1-piperazinyl]-(3-methoxyphenyl)methyl]-N,N-diethylbenz (SNC80) and [(+)-4-[alpha(R)-alpha-[(2S,5R)-2,5-dimethyl-4-(2-propenyl)-1-piperazinyl]-(3-hydroxyphenyl)methyl]-N,N-diethylbenzamide [(+)-BW373U86]. Acute administration of nonpeptidic delta-opioid agonists produced bilateral ictal and paroxysmal spike and/or sharp wave discharges. delta-Opioid agonists produced brief changes in EEG recordings, and tolerance rapidly developed to these effects; however, PTZ produced longer-lasting EEG changes that were exacerbated after repeated administration. Studies with antiepileptic drugs demonstrated that compounds used to treat absence epilepsy blocked the convulsive effects of nonpeptidic delta-opioid agonists. Overall, these data suggest that delta-opioid agonist-induced EEG changes are not required for the antidepressant-like effects of these compounds and that neural circuitry involved in absence epilepsy may be related to delta-opioid agonist-induced convulsions. In terms of therapeutic development, these data suggest that it may be possible to develop delta-opioid agonists devoid of convulsive properties.

  12. NIGERLYSINTM, HEMOLYSIN PRODUCED BY ASPERGILLUS NIGER, CAUSES LETHALITY OF PRIMARY RAT CORTICAL NEURONAL CELLS IN VITRO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspergillus niger produced a proteinaceous hemolysin, nigerlysinTM when incubated on sheep's blood agar at both 23° C and 37°C. Nigerlysin was purified from tryptic soy broth culture filtrate. Purified nigerlysin has a molecular weight of approximately 72 kDa, with an...

  13. Olesoxime (cholest-4-en-3-one, oxime): Analgesic and neuroprotective effects in a rat model of painful peripheral neuropathy produced by the chemotherapeutic agent, paclitaxel

    OpenAIRE

    Xiao, Wen Hua; Zheng, Felix Y.; Bennett, Gary J.; Bordet, Thierry; Pruss, Rebecca M.

    2009-01-01

    Olesoxime is a small cholesterol-like molecule that was discovered in a screening program aimed at finding treatment for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and other diseases where motor neurons degenerate. In addition to its neuroprotective and pro-regenerative effects on motor neurons in vitro and in vivo, it has been shown to have analgesic effects in rat models of painful peripheral neuropathy due to vincristine and diabetes. We used a rat model of painful peripheral neuropathy produced by the...

  14. The folic acid combined with 17-β estradiol produces antidepressant-like actions in ovariectomized rats forced to swim.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Hernández, Miguel; Téllez-Alcántara, N Patricia; Olivera-López, Jorge I; Jaramillo, M Teresa

    2011-01-15

    Folic acid or 17-β estradiol produces antidepressant effects, either alone or combined with several antidepressants. However, the antidepressant-like actions of folic acid combined with 17-β estradiol in the forced swimming test (FST) have not been tested before. Thus, in the present study, ovariectomized female rats received folic acid (5.0 nmol/i.c.v., Pfluoxetine (20.0mg/kg, Pswimming behavior when they were tested in the FST. Combination of subthreshold doses of folic acid (2.5 nmol/i.c.v.; or 25.0mg/kg, p.o.) with subthreshold doses of 17-β estradiol (5.0 μg/rat, Pfluoxetine (15.0mg/kg, Pfluoxetine in the FST reduced immobility in the FST. These antidepressant-like actions probably were due to modifications of the serotonergic system since swimming behavior was increased and these effects were cancelled by ketanserin. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Histomorphometric assessment of bone necrosis produced by two cryosurgery protocols using liquid nitrogen: an experimental study on rat femurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Fábio Wildson Gurgel; Brito, Gerly Anne de Castro; Pessoa, Rosana Maria Andrade; Studart-Soares, Eduardo Costa

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of liquid nitrogen cryosurgery on the femoral diaphysis of rats. The femoral diaphyses of 42 Wistar rats were exposed to three local and sequential applications of liquid nitrogen for 1 or 2 min, intercalated with periods of 5 min of passive thawing. The animals were sacrificed after 1, 2, 4 and 12 weeks and the specimens obtained were processed and analyzed histomorphometrically. The depth and extent of peak bone necrosis were 124.509 µm and 2087.094 µm for the 1-min protocol, respectively, and 436.424 µm and 12046.426 µm for the 2-min protocol. Peak necrosis was observed in the second experimental week with both cryotherapy protocols. The present results indicate that the 2-min protocol produced more marked bone necrosis than the 1-min protocol. Although our results cannot be entirely extrapolated to clinical practice, they contribute to the understanding of the behavior of bone tissue submitted to different cycles of liquid nitrogen freezing and may serve as a basis for new studies.

  16. Vasovagal oscillations and vasovagal responses produced by the Vestibulo-Sympathetic Reflex in the rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergei B. Yakushin

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Sinusoidal galvanic vestibular stimulation (sGVS induces oscillations in blood pressure (BP and heart rate (HR i.e., vasovagal oscillations, and decreases in BP and HR i.e., vasovagal responses, in isoflurane-anesthetized rats. We determined the characteristics of the vasovagal oscillations, assessed their role in the generation of vasovagal responses and determined whether they could be induced by monaural as well as by binaural sGVS and by oscillation in pitch. Wavelet analyses were used to determine the power distributions of the waveforms. Monaural and binaural sGVS and pitch generated vasovagal oscillations at the frequency and at twice the frequency of stimulation. Vasovagal oscillations and vasovagal responses were maximally induced at low stimulus frequencies (0.025-0.05 Hz. The oscillations were attenuated and the responses were rarely induced at higher stimulus frequencies. Vasovagal oscillations could occur without induction of vasovagal responses, but vasovagal responses were always associated with a vasovagal oscillation. We posit that the vasovagal oscillations originate in a low frequency band that, when appropriately activated by strong sympathetic stimulation, can generate vasovagal oscillations as a precursor for vasovagal responses and syncope. We further suggest that the activity responsible for the vasovagal oscillations arises in low frequency, otolith neurons with orientation vectors close to the vertical axis of the head. These neurons are likely to provide critical input to the Vestibulo-Sympathetic Reflex to increase BP and HR upon changes in head position relative to gravity, and to contribute to the production of vasovagal oscillations and vasovagal responses and syncope when the baroreflex is inactivated.

  17. Assessment of selenium bioavailability from naturally produced high-selenium soy foods in selenium-deficient rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Lin; Reeves, Philip G; Johnson, LuAnn K

    2010-10-01

    We assessed the bioavailability of selenium (Se) from a protein isolate and tofu (bean curd) prepared from naturally produced high-Se soybeans. The Se concentrations of the soybeans, the protein isolate and tofu were 5.2±0.2, 11.4±0.1 and 7.4±0.1mg/kg, respectively. Male weanling Sprague-Dawley rats were depleted of Se by feeding them a 30% Torula yeast-based diet (4.1μg Se/kg) for 56 days, and then they were replenished with Se for an additional 50 days by feeding them the same diet containing 14, 24 or 30 μg Se/kg from the protein isolate or 13, 23 or 31 μg Se/kg from tofu, respectively. l-Selenomethionine (SeMet) was used as a reference. Selenium bioavailability was determined on the basis of the restoration of Se-dependent enzyme activities and tissue Se concentrations in Se-depleted rats, comparing those responses for the protein isolate and tofu to those for SeMet by using a slope-ratio method. Dietary supplementation with the protein isolate or tofu resulted in linear or log-linear, dose-dependent increases in glutathione peroxidase activities in blood and liver and in thioredoxin reductase activity in liver. Furthermore, supplementation with the protein isolate or tofu resulted in linear or log-linear, dose-dependent increases in the Se concentrations of plasma, liver, muscle and kidneys. These results indicated an overall bioavailability of approximately 101% for Se from the protein isolate and 94% from tofu, relative to SeMet. We conclude that Se from naturally produced high-Se soybeans is highly bioavailable in this model and that high-Se soybeans may be a good dietary source of Se. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  18. Subchronic and chronic PCP treatment produces temporally distinct deficits in attentional set shifting and prepulse inhibition in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egerton, Alice; Reid, Lee; McGregor, Sandie; Cochran, Susan M; Morris, Brian J; Pratt, Judith A

    2008-05-01

    We have previously demonstrated that subchronic (five daily administrations of 2.6 mg/kg PCP) and chronic intermittent administration of 2.6 mg/kg PCP to rats produces hypofrontality and other neurochemical changes akin to schizophrenia pathology (Cochran et al., Neuropsychopharmacology, 28:265-275, 2003). We sought to determine whether behavioral alterations related to discrete aspects of schizophrenia are also induced by these PCP treatment regimes. Following administration of vehicle or PCP according to the protocols described above, rats were assessed for attentional set shifting ability, prepulse inhibition (PPI), or social interaction and the locomotor response to a challenge dose of amphetamine. Ability to shift attentional set was impaired 72 h after the last PCP administration following the subchronic and chronic intermittent treatment regimes. PPI was disrupted after each acute administration of PCP in animals under the subchronic treatment regime. However, PPI deficits were not sustained 72 h after the last of five daily administrations. In subchronic and chronic PCP treated animals, no change was found in social interaction behavior, and there was little change in baseline or amphetamine-stimulated locomotor activity, employed as an indicator of dopaminergic hyperfunction. The temporally distinct behavioral effects of these PCP treatment regimes suggest that PPI deficits relate directly to acute NMDA receptor antagonism, whereas the more enduring set shifting deficits relate to the longer term consequences of NMDA receptor blockade. Therefore, these subchronic and chronic PCP treatment regimes produce hypofrontality (Cochran et al., Neuropsychopharmacology, 28:265-275, 2003) and associated prefrontal cortex-dependent deficits in behavioral flexibility which mirror core deficits in schizophrenia.

  19. Clinical review: Percutaneous dilatational tracheostomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ansari, Mariam A; Hijazi, Mohammed H

    2006-01-01

    As the number of critically ill patients requiring tracheotomy for prolonged ventilation has increased, the demand for a procedural alternative to the surgical tracheostomy (ST) has also emerged. Since its introduction, percutaneous dilatational tracheostomies (PDT) have gained increasing popularity. The most commonly cited advantages are the ease of the familiar technique and the ability to perform the procedure at the bedside. It is now considered a viable alternative to (ST) in the intensive care unit. Evaluation of PDT procedural modifications will require evaluation in randomized clinical trials. Regardless of the PDT technique, meticulous preoperative and postoperative management are necessary to maintain the excellent safety record of PDT. PMID:16356203

  20. Experimental study of the mechanism in esophageal restenosis after balloon dilation of benign stricture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Yingsheng; Yang Renjie; Shang Kezhong; Zhang Huizhen; Li Minghua; Zhuang Qixin; Jiang Zhiming; Ding Zaixian

    2002-01-01

    Objective: Experimental study of the mechanism in esophageal restenosis after balloon dilation of benign stricture. Methods: Esophageal stenosis model of the rats was created by 5 ml of 50% NaOH solution burn with double balloon method, and esophageal restenosis (RS) model was developed by esophageal stenosis with dilation of PTCA balloon catheter. Quantitative and quantitative analysis of esophageal stenosis and RS formation in the rats were observed and recorded by analytic measurements imaging and immuno-histologic chemistry respectively. Results: Esophageal benign stricture and RS model of 49 rats were developed. Cross section area and perimeter of esophageal mucosa layer, muscular layer and the whole layer had increased in experimental group. Comparing to control group, it had remarkable significance in statistics (P < 0.05). PCNA was expressed in 5th day after dilation, and persisted to 1st month. FN was expressed in the 1st day after dilation, still positive on 21st days, partly strong on 30th day. Conclusions: The continued over secretion at all stage of PCNA and FN plays an important role in the RS after balloon dilation of esophageal benign stenosis

  1. Dilation of non-quasifree dissipative evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varilly, J C [Costa Rica Univ., San Jose. Escuela de Matematica

    1981-03-01

    A semigroup evolution for the 1/2-spin which admits a conservative dilation is known to be governed by a Bloch equation in a standard form. Here we construct a conservative dilation directly from the Bloch equation, thus yielding an example of a dilation scheme for an evolution which is not quasifree. Moreover, we show that this conservative evolution is never ergodic in the non-quasifree case.

  2. Dynamical and hamiltonian dilations of stochastic processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumgartner, B.; Gruemm, H.-R.

    1982-01-01

    This is a study of the problem, which stochastic processes could arise from dynamical systems by loss of information. The notions of ''dilation'' and ''approximate dilation'' of a stochastic process are introduced to give exact definitions of this particular relationship. It is shown that every generalized stochastic process is approximately dilatable by a sequence of dynamical systems, but for stochastic processes in full generality one needs nets. (Author)

  3. A characterization of dilation-analytic operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balslev, E.; Grossmann, A.; Paul, T.

    1986-01-01

    Dilation analytic vectors and operators are characterized in a new representation of quantum mechanical states through functions analytic on the upper half-plane. In this space H o -bounded operators are integral operators and criteria for dilation analyticity are given in terms of analytic continuation outside of the half-plane for functions and for kernels. A sufficient condition is given for an integral operator in momentum space to be dilation-analytic

  4. Characterization of dilation-analytic operators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balslev, E; Grossmann, A; Paul, T

    1986-01-01

    Dilation analytic vectors and operators are characterized in a new representation of quantum mechanical states through functions analytic on the upper half-plane. In this space H/sub o/-bounded operators are integral operators and criteria for dilation analyticity are given in terms of analytic continuation outside of the half-plane for functions and for kernels. A sufficient condition is given for an integral operator in momentum space to be dilation-analytic.

  5. ACUTE GASTRIC DILATATION IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Yu. D'yakonovax

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute gastric dilatation is a rare surgical condition in children, which often results from blunt abdominal trauma. This condition is characterized by the gut-brain connection disorder or gastric muscular layer damage, which results in atony. Gradual gastric stretching with fluid contents and gases in the end leads to the development of various types of intestinal obstruction. When conservative measures are not sufficient (in rare cases, it is reasonable to resort to operative intervention. Several cases of such a pathology have been published around the world. This condition has been observed not only at the blunt abdominal trauma, but also at lesions of central and peripheral nervous systems and in patients with anorexia nervosa and bulimia in the event of excessive food consumption. The article presents a clinical case study and a follow-up analysis of a child with posttraumatic acute gastric dilatation. The authors describe clinical manifestations, pathogenesis and diagnostic algorithm, which allowed establishing this rare diagnosis. Along with the conventional drugs and intensive care measures, the treatment involved a complex of mini-invasive endosurgical and endoscopic manipulations, including laparoscopic jejunostomy, which was performed in order to provide long-term enteral feeding. The clinical case study demonstrated that the use of diagnostic laparoscopy helps to establish nature of the gastric damage correctly and formulate the following optimal treatment tactics on the basis of the obtained data. 

  6. Possible involvement of mitochondrial energy-producing ability in the development of right ventricular failure in monocrotaline-induced pulmonary hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daicho, Takuya; Yagi, Tatsuya; Abe, Yohei; Ohara, Meiko; Marunouchi, Tetsuro; Takeo, Satoshi; Tanonaka, Kouichi

    2009-09-01

    The present study was undertaken to explore the possible involvement of alterations in the mitochondrial energy-producing ability in the development of the right ventricular failure in monocrotaline-administered rats. The rats at the 6th week after subcutaneous injection of 60 mg/kg monocrotaline revealed marked myocardial hypertrophy and fibrosis, that is, severe cardiac remodeling. The time-course study on the cardiac hemodynamics of the monocrotaline-administered rat by the cannula and echocardiographic methods showed a reduction in cardiac double product, a decrease in cardiac output index, and an increase in the right ventricular Tei index, suggesting that the right ventricular failure was induced at the 6th week after monocrotaline administration in rats. The mitochondrial oxygen consumption rate of the right ventricular muscle isolated from the monocrotaline-administered animal was decreased, which was associated with a reduction in myocardial high-energy phosphates. Furthermore, the decrease in mitochondrial oxygen consumption rate was inversely related to the increase in the right ventricular Tei index of the monocrotaline-administered rats. These results suggest that impairment of the mitochondrial energy-producing ability is involved in the development of the right ventricular failure in monocrotaline-induced pulmonary hypertensive rats.

  7. 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, ecstasy) produces edema due to BBB disruption induced by MMP-9 activation in rat hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Hernández, Mercedes; Fernández-Valle, María Encarnación; Rubio-Araiz, Ana; Vidal, Rebeca; Gutiérrez-López, María Dolores; O'Shea, Esther; Colado, María Isabel

    2017-05-15

    The recreational drug of abuse, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, ecstasy) disrupts blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrity in rats through an early P2X 7 receptor-mediated event which induces MMP-9 activity. Increased BBB permeability often causes plasma proteins and water to access cerebral tissue leading to vasogenic edema formation. The current study was performed to examine the effect of a single neurotoxic dose of MDMA (12.5 mg/kg, i.p.) on in vivo edema development associated with changes in the expression of the perivascular astrocytic water channel, AQP4, as well as in the expression of the tight-junction (TJ) protein, claudin-5 and Evans Blue dye extravasation in the hippocampus of adult male Dark Agouti rats. We also evaluated the ability of the MMP-9 inhibitor, SB-3CT (25 mg/kg, i.p.), to prevent these changes in order to validate the involvement of MMP-9 activation in MDMA-induced BBB disruption. The results show that MDMA produces edema of short duration temporally associated with changes in AQP4 expression and a reduction in claudin-5 expression, changes which are prevented by SB-3CT. In addition, MDMA induces a short-term increase in both tPA activity and expression, a serine-protease which is involved in BBB disruption and upregulation of MMP-9 expression. In conclusion, this study provides evidence enough to conclude that MDMA induces edema of short duration due to BBB disruption mediated by MMP-9 activation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The morpho-functional parameters of rat pituitary hormone producing cells after genistein treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Trifunović

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Phytoestrogens are a diverse group of steroid–like compounds that occur naturally in many plants. There are various types of phytoestrogens, including the best-researched isoflavones which are commonly found in soy. The consumption of soy products has many health benefits, including protection against breast cancer, prostate cancer, menopausal symptoms, heart disease and osteoporosis. In contrast, use of hormonally active compounds-isoflavones may unfortunately interfere with the endocrine system and can have far-reaching consequences. Genistein, the most abundant soy-bean derived isoflavone, possesses a ring system similar to estrogens and acts through an estrogen receptor (ER-mediated mechanism, by increasing or decreasing the transcription of ER-dependent target genes. Also, genistein can act on cells through ER non-dependent mechanisms, such as tyrosine kinase inhibitor. The neuroendocrine systems are responsible for the control of homeostatic processes in the body, including reproduction, growth, metabolism and energy balance, and stress responsiveness. It is well known, that estrogen is important for development of the neuroendocrine system in both sexes. At the pituitary level, estrogen is known to affect the regulation of all hormone producing (HP cells, by direct and/or indirect mechanisms. Due to structural and functional resemblance to estrogen, the question may arise of whether and how genistein affects the morphofunctional features of pituitary HP cells. This review deals with the consequences of genistein’s effects on morphological, stereological and hormonal features of HP cells within the anterior pituitary gland. Transparency on this issue is needed because isoflavones are presently highly consumed. Inter alia, genistein as well as other isoflavones, are present in various dietary supplements and generally promoted as an accepted alternative to estrogen replacement therapy. Potential isoflavone biomedical exploitation is not

  9. Editor's Highlight: Mode of Action Analysis for Rat Hepatocellular Tumors Produced by the Synthetic Pyrethroid Momfluorothrin: Evidence for Activation of the Constitutive Androstane Receptor and Mitogenicity in Rat Hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuda, Yu; Kushida, Masahiko; Sumida, Kayo; Nagahori, Hirohisa; Nakamura, Yoshimasa; Higuchi, Hashihiro; Kawamura, Satoshi; Lake, Brian G; Cohen, Samuel M; Yamada, Tomoya

    2017-08-01

    High dietary levels of momfluorothrin, a nongenotoxic synthetic pyrethroid, induced hepatocellular tumors in male and female Wistar rats in a 2-year bioassay. The mode of action (MOA) for rat hepatocellular tumors was postulated to occur via activation of the constitutive androstane receptor (CAR), as momfluorothrin is a close structural analogue of the pyrethroid metofluthrin, which is known to produce rat liver tumors through a CAR-mediated MOA. To elucidate the MOA for rat hepatocellular tumor formation by momfluorothrin, this study was conducted to examine effects on key and associative events of the CAR-mediated MOA for phenobarbital based on the International Programme on Chemical Safety framework. A 2-week in vivo study in Wistar rats revealed that momfluorothrin induced CYP2B activities, increased liver weights, produced hepatocyte hypertrophy and increased hepatocyte replicative DNA synthesis. These effects correlated with the dose-response relationship for liver tumor formation and also showed reversibility upon cessation of treatment. Moreover, momfluorothrin did not increase CYP2B1/2 mRNA expression and hepatocyte replicative DNA synthesis in CAR knockout rats. Using cultured Wistar rat hepatocytes and the RNA interference technique, knockdown of CAR resulted in a suppression of induction of CYP2B1/2 mRNA levels by momfluorothrin. Alternative MOAs for liver tumor formation were excluded. A global gene expression profile analysis of the liver of male Wistar rats treated with momfluorothrin for 2 weeks also showed similarity to the prototypic CAR activator phenobarbital. Overall, these data strongly support that the postulated MOA for momfluorothrin-induced rat hepatocellular tumors as being mediated by CAR activation. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Attenuation of Diabetic Conditions by Sida rhombifolia in Moderately Diabetic Rats and Inability to Produce Similar Effects in Severely Diabetic in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaturvedi, Padmaja; Kwape, Tebogo Elvis

    2015-12-01

    This study was done out to evaluate the effects of Sida rhombifolia methanol extract (SRM) on diabetes in moderately diabetic (MD) and severely diabetic (SD) Sprague-Dawley rats. SRM was prepared by soaking the powdered plant material in 70% methanol and rota evaporating the methanol from the extract. Effective hypoglycemic doses were established by performing oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTTs) in normal rats. Hourly effects of SRM on glucose were observed in the MD and the SD rats. Rats were grouped, five rats to a group, into normal control 1 (NC1), MD control 1 (MDC1), MD experimental 1 (MDE1), SD control 1 (SDC1), and SD experimental 1 (SDE1) groups. All rats in the control groups were administered 1 mL of distilled water (DW). The rats in the MDE1 and the SDE1 groups were administered SRM orally at 200 and 300 mg/kg body weight (BW), respectively, dissolved in 1 mL of DW. Blood was collected initially and at intervals of 1 hour for 6 hours to measure blood glucose. A similar experimental design was followed for the 30-day long-term trial. Finally, rats were sacrificed, and blood was collected to measure blood glucose, lipid profiles, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and reduced glutathione (GSH). OGTTs indicated that two doses (200 and 300 mg/kg BW) were effective hypoglycemic doses in normal rats. Both doses reduced glucose levels after 1 hour in the MDE1 and the SDE1 groups. A long-term trial of SRM in the MD group showed a reduced glucose level, a normal lipid profile, and normal GSH and TBARS levels. In SD rats, SRM had no statistically significant effects on these parameters. Normal weight was achieved in the MD rats, but the SD rats showed reduced BW. The study demonstrates that SRM has potential to alleviate the conditions of moderate diabetic, but not severe diabetes.

  11. Dilation operator in gauge theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galayda, J.

    1984-01-01

    The electromagnetic field is expanded in a series of O(4) eigenstates of total spin, and quantized by specifying commutators on surfaces of constant x/sub μ/x/sup μ/ = R 2 in four-dimensional Euclidean space. It is demonstrated that, under an arbitrary gauge transformation, some of the O(4) eigenstates are invariant; these gauge-invariant states are labeled by SU(2)xSU(2) total (orbital plus internal) spin quantum numbers (A,B) and with Anot =B. Only these gauge-invariant states are nontrivial in the absence of sources, and are quantized. The leading-twist quantum states of the dilation field theory contain the minimum number of these dilation photons. The remaining spin degrees of freedom of the electromagnetic field are most simply written as a function of the form partial/sub μ/phi(x)+x/sub μ/psi(x)/R 2 . phi(x) is obviously devoid of physics while psi(x) is a classical field propagating between radial projections of two electric currents x/sub μ/ J/sup μ/(x) and y/sub μ/ J/sup μ/(y) only if x/sub μ/ x/sup μ/ = y/sub μ/ y/sup μ/. The quantization procedure described herein may be applied to non-Abelian theories. The procedure does not lead to a gauge-invariant decomposition of a non-Abelian field, but the identification of leading-twist quantum states is preserved in the zero-coupling limit

  12. Pharmacological analysis of the inhibition produced by moxonidine and agmatine on the vasodepressor sensory CGRPergic outflow in pithed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio-Beltrán, Eloísa; Labastida-Ramírez, Alejandro; Hernández-Abreu, Oswaldo; MaassenVanDenBrink, Antoinette; Villalón, Carlos M

    2017-10-05

    Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) plays a role in several (patho)physiological functions, and modulation of its release is considered a therapeutic target. In this respect, electrical spinal (T 9 --T 12 ) stimulation of the perivascular sensory outflow in pithed rats produces vasodepressor responses mediated by CGRP release. This study investigated the role of imidazoline I 1 and I 2 receptors in the inhibition by moxonidine and agmatine of these vasodepressor responses. Male Wistar pithed rats (pretreated i.v. with 25mg/kg gallamine and 2mg/kg⋅min hexamethonium) received i.v. continuous infusions of methoxamine (20μg/kg⋅min) followed by physiological saline (0.02ml/min), moxonidine (1, 3, 10 or 30μg/kg⋅min) or agmatine (1000 or 3000μg/kg⋅min). Under these conditions, electrical stimulation (0.56-5.6Hz; 50V; 2ms) of the spinal cord (T 9 -T 12 ) produced frequency-dependent vasodepressor responses which were: (i) unchanged during saline infusion; and (ii) inhibited during the above infusions of moxonidine or agmatine. Moreover, using i.v. administrations, the inhibition by 3μg/kg⋅min moxonidine or 3000μg/kg⋅min agmatine (which failed to inhibit the vasodepressor responses by α-CGRP; 0.1-1µg/kg) was: (i) unaltered after saline (1ml/kg), rauwolscine (300μg/kg; α 2 -adrenoceptor antagonist) or BU224 (300μg/kg; imidazoline I 2 receptor antagonist); and (ii) reversed after AGN 192403 (3000μg/kg; imidazoline I 1 receptor antagonist). This reversion was relatively more pronounced after AGN 192403 plus rauwolscine. These blocking doses of antagonists lacked any effects on the electrically-induced vasodepressor responses. Therefore, the inhibition of the vasodepressor sensory CGRPergic outflow by moxonidine and agmatine is mainly mediated by prejunctional imidazoline I 1 receptors on perivascular sensory nerves. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Esophageal achalasia : results of balloon dilation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ki, Won Woo; Kang, Sung Gwon; Yoon, Kwon Ha; Kim, Nam Hyeon; Lee, Hyo Jeong; Yoon, Hyun Ki; Sung, Kyu Bo; Song, Ho Young [Ulsan Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-08-01

    To evaluate the clinical effectiveness of fluoroscopically guided balloon dilation in the treatment of esophageal achalasia. Under fluoroscopic guidance, 21 balloon dilation procedures were performed in 14 patients with achalasia. A balloon with a diameter of 20 mm was used for the initial attempt.If the patient tolerated this well, the procedure was repeated with a 10-20 mm balloon, placed alongside at the same session. If, however the patient complained of severe chest pain and/or a postprocedural esophagogram showed an improvement,the additional balloon was not used. For patients whose results were unsatisfactory, the dilation procedure was repeated at sessions three to seven days apart. Succesful dilation was achieved in 13 of 14 patients(92.9%), who needed a total of 20 sessions of balloon dilation, ranging from one to three sessions per patient(mean, 1.54 sessions). Esophageal rupture occured in one of 14 patients(7.1%) ; of the 13 patients who underwent a successful dilation procedure, 12(92.3%) were free of recurrent symptoms during the follow-up period of 1-56(mean, 18.5) months. The remaning patient(7.7%) had a recurrence seven months after dilation. Fluoroscopically guided balloon dilation seems to be safe and effective in the treatment of esophageal achalasia.

  14. Esophageal achalasia : results of balloon dilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ki, Won Woo; Kang, Sung Gwon; Yoon, Kwon Ha; Kim, Nam Hyeon; Lee, Hyo Jeong; Yoon, Hyun Ki; Sung, Kyu Bo; Song, Ho Young

    1996-01-01

    To evaluate the clinical effectiveness of fluoroscopically guided balloon dilation in the treatment of esophageal achalasia. Under fluoroscopic guidance, 21 balloon dilation procedures were performed in 14 patients with achalasia. A balloon with a diameter of 20 mm was used for the initial attempt.If the patient tolerated this well, the procedure was repeated with a 10-20 mm balloon, placed alongside at the same session. If, however the patient complained of severe chest pain and/or a postprocedural esophagogram showed an improvement,the additional balloon was not used. For patients whose results were unsatisfactory, the dilation procedure was repeated at sessions three to seven days apart. Succesful dilation was achieved in 13 of 14 patients(92.9%), who needed a total of 20 sessions of balloon dilation, ranging from one to three sessions per patient(mean, 1.54 sessions). Esophageal rupture occured in one of 14 patients(7.1%) ; of the 13 patients who underwent a successful dilation procedure, 12(92.3%) were free of recurrent symptoms during the follow-up period of 1-56(mean, 18.5) months. The remaning patient(7.7%) had a recurrence seven months after dilation. Fluoroscopically guided balloon dilation seems to be safe and effective in the treatment of esophageal achalasia

  15. Congenital segmental dilatation of the colon

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Congenital segmental dilatation of the colon is a rare cause of intestinal obstruction in neonates. We report a case of congenital segmental dilatation of the colon and highlight the clinical, radiological, and histopathological features of this entity. Proper surgical treatment was initiated on the basis of preoperative radiological ...

  16. Salivary gland enlargement during oesophageal stricture dilatation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, D.

    1980-01-01

    A case of recurrent salivary gland enlargement occurring during fibreoptic oesophagoscopy and oesophageal stricture dilatation with Eder-Puestow dilators is described. The genesis of this condition is discussed and its transient and usually benign nature emphasized. Images Fig. 1 PMID:7393809

  17. One-day transhepatic billary stricture dilatation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, P.R.; Saini, S.; Hahn, P.F.; Silverman, S.G.; Ferrucci, J.T.

    1989-01-01

    To overcome technical problems in percutaneous transhepatic dilatation or biliary strictures, the authors performed the entire procedure in a single session with the patient under general anesthesia (N = 7). Six patients had a biliary-enteric anastomosis, and one patient had a traumatic mid common bile duct stricture. All bile ducts were of normal caliber or were minimally dilated by US or transhepatic cholangiography. Dilatation was performed via a fresh transhepatic drainage catheter in six patients and via an in-dwelling T-tube in one patient. High-pressure balloons (10-12 mm) were placed after catheter dilation of the tract, and balloons were inflated for 5-10 minutes three to five times. Dilation was stopped with a waist was no longer present. No strictures have recurred in patients followed up to 24 months

  18. Ketamine produces antidepressant-like effects through phosphorylation-dependent nuclear export of histone deacetylase 5 (HDAC5) in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Miyeon; Lee, Seung Hoon; Wang, Sung Eun; Ko, Seung Yeon; Song, Mihee; Choi, June-Seek; Duman, Ronald S.; Son, Hyeon

    2015-01-01

    Ketamine produces rapid antidepressant-like effects in animal assays for depression, although the molecular mechanisms underlying these behavioral actions remain incomplete. Here, we demonstrate that ketamine rapidly stimulates histone deacetylase 5 (HDAC5) phosphorylation and nuclear export in rat hippocampal neurons through calcium/calmodulin kinase II- and protein kinase D-dependent pathways. Consequently, ketamine enhanced the transcriptional activity of myocyte enhancer factor 2 (MEF2), which leads to regulation of MEF2 target genes. Transfection of a HDAC5 phosphorylation-defective mutant (Ser259/Ser498 replaced by Ala259/Ala498, HDAC5-S/A), resulted in resistance to ketamine-induced nuclear export, suppression of ketamine-mediated MEF2 transcriptional activity, and decreased expression of MEF2 target genes. Behaviorally, viral-mediated hippocampal knockdown of HDAC5 blocked or occluded the antidepressant effects of ketamine both in unstressed and stressed animals. Taken together, our results reveal a novel role of HDAC5 in the actions of ketamine and suggest that HDAC5 could be a potential mechanism contributing to the therapeutic actions of ketamine. PMID:26647181

  19. Gestational exposure to BDE-99 produces toxicity through upregulation of CYP isoforms and ROS production in the fetal rat liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Jordi; Mulero, Miquel; Domingo, José L; Sánchez, Domènec J

    2012-05-01

    On gestation day (GD) 6 to GD 19, pregnant Sprague Dawley rats were orally exposed to 0, 0.5, 1, and 2 mg/kg/day to one of the most prevalent polybrominated diphenyl ethers congeners found in humans, 2,2',4,4',5-pentaBDE (BDE-99). All dams were euthanized on GD 20, and live fetuses were evaluated for sex, body weight, and external, internal, and skeletal malformations and developmental variations. The liver from one fetus of each litter was excised for the evaluation of oxidative stress markers and the messenger RNA expression of multiple cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoforms. Exposure to BDE-99 during the gestational period produced delayed ossification, slight hypertrophy of the heart, and enlargement of the liver in fetuses. A transplacental effect of BDE-99, evidenced by the activation of nuclear hormones receptors that induce the upregulation of CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP2B1, and CYP3A2 isoforms, was also found in fetal liver. These isoforms are correlated with the activity level of the enzyme catalase and the levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances. However, teratogenic effects from BDE-99 exposure were not observed. Clear signs of embryo/fetal toxicity, due to a possible hormonal disruption, were evidenced by a large increase in the CYP system and the production of reactive oxygen species in fetal liver.

  20. Selective alterations in cerebral metabolism within the mesocorticolimbic dopaminergic system produced by acute cocaine administration in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porrino, L.J.; Domer, F.R.; Crane, A.M.; Sokoloff, L.

    1988-05-01

    The 2-(/sup 14/C)deoxyglucose method was used to examine the effects of acute intravenous administration of cocaine on local cerebral glucose utilization in rats. These effects were correlated with the effects of cocaine on locomotor activity assessed simultaneously in the same animals. At the lowest dose of cocaine, 0.5 mg/kg (1.47 mumol/kg), alterations in glucose utilization were restricted to the medial prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens. Metabolic activity at 1.0 mg/kg (2.9 mumol/kg) was altered in these structures, but in the substantia nigra reticulata and lateral habenula as well. The selectivity of cocaine's effects at low doses demonstrates the particular sensitivity of these structures to cocaine's actions in the brain. In contrast, 5.0 mg/kg (14.7 mumol/kg) produced widespread changes in glucose utilization, particularly in the extrapyramidal system. Only this dose significantly increased locomotor activity above levels in vehicle-treated controls. Rates of glucose utilization were positively correlated with locomotor activity in the globus pallidus, substantia nigra reticulata, and subthalamic nucleus, and negatively correlated in the lateral habenula.

  1. Cerebral ischemia produced by four-vessel occlusion in the rat: a quantitative evaluation of cerebral blood flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furlow, T.W. Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Cerebral ischemia was produced in the rat by simultaneous occlusion of the vertebral and carotid arteries according to the method of Pulsinelli and Brierley (Stroke 10: 267, 1979). Local cerebral blood flow (CBF) was determined by polarographic and autoradiographic techniques. Hydrogen-clearance measurements showed that mean CBF fell in four monitored regions of the hemispheres to between 0.11 and 0.18 ml/g/min, being least in deep rostal gray, intermediate in superficial gray, and greatest in deep caudal gray. However, individual animals had local CBF in excess of 0.20 and even 0.30 ml/g/min, and no animal showed zero CBF. When animals were rendered hypotensive (MABP of 50 Torr) during vascular occlusion, mean CBF ranged between 0.03 and 0.10 ml/g/min in the same regional order. With hypotension, total arrest of flow occurred. Autoradiographic data confirmed the above findings and indicated adequate CBF to the lower brainstem. During vascular occlusion, sufficient CBF may be present ot sustain cerebral tissue as in animals with a well developed spinal circulation or an inadvertently patent vertebral artery

  2. Esophageal dilations in eosinophilic esophagitis: A single center experience

    OpenAIRE

    Ukleja, Andrew; Shiroky, Jennifer; Agarwal, Amitesh; Allende, Daniela

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To diagnose the clinical and histologic features that may be associated with or predictive of the need for dilation and dilation related complications; examine the safety of dilation in patients with eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE).

  3. Ultrastructural modifications and changes in the expression of hormonal genes produced by indomethacin in the anterior pituitary gland of the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, L A; Rivolta, C; Machiavelli, G A; Burdman, J A

    1995-10-01

    Indomethacin decreases the level of prolactin (50%) and growth hormone (70%) mRNA in the anterior pituitary gland of the rat. Actin mRNA increases (59%). Ultrastructurally there is a decrease in the number of secretory granules. Indomethacin also prevents the increase in prolactin secretory granules produced by the administration of estradiol. The results indicate that indomethacin inhibits hormonal synthesis in the APG at a transcriptional level. This effect appears selective because mRNA level for actin synthesis in the pituitary gland was higher than in nontreated rats.

  4. A comparison of rat SPECT images obtained using 99mTc derived from 99Mo produced by an electron accelerator with that from a reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galea, R; Ross, C K; Moore, K; Wells, R G; Lockwood, J; Harvey, J T; Isensee, G H

    2013-01-01

    Recent shortages of molybdenum-99 ( 99 Mo) have led to an examination of alternate production methods that could contribute to a more robust supply. An electron accelerator and the photoneutron reaction were used to produce 99 Mo from which technetium-99m ( 99m Tc) is extracted. SPECT images of rat anatomy obtained using the accelerator-produced 99m Tc with those obtained using 99m Tc from a commercial generator were compared. Disks of 100 Mo were irradiated with x-rays produced by a 35 MeV electron beam to generate about 1110 MBq (30 mCi) of 99 Mo per disk. After target dissolution, a NorthStar ARSII unit was used to separate the 99m Tc, which was subsequently used to tag pharmaceuticals suitable for cardiac and bone imaging. SPECT images were acquired for three rats and compared to images for the same three rats obtained using 99m Tc from a standard reactor 99 Mo generator. The efficiency of 99 Mo– 99m Tc separation was typically greater than 90%. This study demonstrated the delivery of 99m Tc from the end of beam to the end user of approximately 30 h. Images obtained using the heart and bone scanning agents using reactor and linac-produced 99m Tc were comparable. High-power electron accelerators are an attractive option for producing 99 Mo on a national scale. (paper)

  5. Percutaneous balloon dilation of pulmonary stenosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hua Yangde; Huang Ming; Li Jinkang; Qian Jinqing; Chen Xiuyu; Yang Siyuan

    2003-01-01

    Objective: Review our experience of balloon dilation of valvular pulmonary stenosis in 32 cases. Methods: Totally 32 cases of pulmonary stenosis admitted from 1995-2001 with age of 1.5-13 yrs mean 6.8. Diagnosis was made by clinical manifestations, EKG, ECHO and angiocardiography. Results: Before dilation, the mean systolic pressure of right ventricle was (93.5 ± 28.5) mmHg, after the procedure it reduced to (42 ± 9.0) mmHg. The pressure gradient between right ventricle and pulmonary artery before dilation was (76 ± 30) mmHg and become (24.5 ± 8.5) mmHg after dilation. The gradient pressure after dilation was less than 25 mmHg in 90.6% cases. A case of Noonan syndrome showed no response to balloon dilation and died during valvulectomy from accompanying left ventricular cardiomyopathy. Conclusions: Balloon dilation of valvular pulmonary stenosis is effective and safe. The selection of proper diameter of pulmonary valvular rings and sized of the balloon are the major factors

  6. Dilation of nanonatennas induced by an electromagnetic source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Barchiesi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The illumination of plasmonic mesostructures produces high confinement of light in their vicinity. This confinement of light can be enhanced in the gap between the two metallic nanorods of a nanonantenna, in particular for the design of biosensors. The nanometric gap can be reduced if the elevation of temperature of the nanonantenna is sufficient, and therefore the fine tuning of the sensor requires the description of the photo-thermal induced dilation. The multiphysics problem associated to such photo-thermal and mechanical effects is modeled through a Finite Element Method (FEM. The problem consists in computing the electromagnetic field, the temperature and the induced dilation surface. This contribution consists in discussing the numerical efficiencies of a sequential, and a coupled approaches, especially in terms of adaptive meshing of the space of computation. The relationship between the field enhancement and the reduction of the gap is studied. Finally the validity of the 2D multiphysic model is discussed.

  7. Balloon catheter dilatation of esophageal strictures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jeung Sook; Yoon, Yup; Sung, Dong Yook; Choi, Woo Suk; Nam, Kyung Jin; Lim, Jae Hoon [Kyunghee University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1990-07-15

    The authors performed 27 fluoroscopically guided balloon dilatation in 12 patients of esophageal stricture during recent 3 years. The causes of esophageal stricture were corrosive esophagitis (N=2) and congenital narrowing (N=1), including postoperative narrowing in achalasia (N=3), esophageal varix (N=3), lye stricture (N=2) and esophageal cancer (N=1). Successful dilatation of the stricture was achieved during the procedure in 10 patients(83%). Major complication such as esophageal rupture was not found. The authors conclude that fluoroscopically guided esophageal balloon dilatation is a safe and effective method for treatment of symptomatic esophageal strictures.

  8. Balloon catheter dilatation of esophageal strictures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jeung Sook; Yoon, Yup; Sung, Dong Yook; Choi, Woo Suk; Nam, Kyung Jin; Lim, Jae Hoon

    1990-01-01

    The authors performed 27 fluoroscopically guided balloon dilatation in 12 patients of esophageal stricture during recent 3 years. The causes of esophageal stricture were corrosive esophagitis (N=2) and congenital narrowing (N=1), including postoperative narrowing in achalasia (N=3), esophageal varix (N=3), lye stricture (N=2) and esophageal cancer (N=1). Successful dilatation of the stricture was achieved during the procedure in 10 patients(83%). Major complication such as esophageal rupture was not found. The authors conclude that fluoroscopically guided esophageal balloon dilatation is a safe and effective method for treatment of symptomatic esophageal strictures

  9. Generation of insulin-producing cells from rat mesenchymal stem cells using an aminopyrrole derivative XW4.4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Jingfeng; Huang, Wei; Yu, Wanwan; Xiong, Wei; Mula, Ramanjaneya V R; Zou, Hongbin; Yu, Yongping

    2014-02-05

    Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), a multisystem disease with both biochemical and anatomical/structural consequences, is a major health concern worldwide. Pancreatic islet transplantation provides a promising treatment for T1DM. However, the limited availability of islet tissue or new sources of insulin producing cells (IPCs) that are responsive to glucose hinder this promising approach. Though slow, the development of pancreatic beta-cell lines from rodent or human origin has been steadily progressing. Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent, culture-expanded, non-hematopoietic cells that are currently being investigated as a novel cellular therapy. The in vitro differentiation potential of IPCs has raised hopes for a treatment of clinical diseases associated with autoimmunity. We screened for small molecules that induce pancreatic differentiation of IPCs. There are some compounds which showed positive effects on the DTZ staining. The aminopyrrole derivative compound XW4.4 which shows the best activity among them was found to induce pancreatic differentiation of rat MSCs (rMSCs). The in vitro studies indicated that treatment of rMSCs with compound XW4.4 resulted in differentiated cells with characteristics of IPCs including islet-like clusters, spherical, grape-like morphology, insulin secretion, positive for dithizone, glucose stimulation and expression of pancreatic endocrine cell marker genes. The data has also suggested that hepatocyte nuclear factor 3β (HNF 3β) may be involved in pancreatic differentiation of rMSCs when treated with XW4.4. Results indicate that XW4.4 induced rMSCs support the efforts to derive functional IPCs and serve as a means to alleviate limitations surrounding islet cell transplantation in the treatment of T1DM. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Scopolamine and amphetamine produce similar decision-making deficits on a rat gambling task via independent pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Mason M; Malcolm, Emma; Shoaib, Mohammed; Winstanley, Catharine A

    2015-03-15

    Disorders characterized by disturbed cholinergic signaling, such as schizophrenia, exhibit impaired performance on measures of real-world cost/benefit decision-making. Whether the cholinergic system contributes to the choice deficits observed is currently unknown. We therefore determined the effects of broad-acting agonists and antagonists at the nicotinic and muscarinic receptor on decision making, as measured by the rodent gambling task (rGT). Given the anatomical and functional connectivity of the cholinergic and dopaminergic systems, we also sought to modulate amphetamine's previously reported effect on rGT performance via the cholinergic system. Male rats were trained on the rGT, during which animals chose from four different options. The optimal strategy on the rGT is to favor options associated with smaller immediate rewards and less punishment/loss. Impulsive action was also measured by recording the number of premature responses made. Performance on the rGT was assessed following acute treatment with the muscarinic receptor agonist oxotremorine, the muscarinic receptor antagonist scopolamine, nicotine, and the nicotinic receptor antagonist mecamylamine. Similar to the effect produced by amphetamine, muscarinic receptor antagonism with scopolamine (0.1mg/kg) impaired decision making, albeit to a lesser degree. Prior muscarinic agonism with oxotremorine was unable to attenuate amphetamine's effects on rGT performance. Oxotremorine, nicotine, and mecamylamine did not affect the choice profile. We therefore conclude that modulation of the muscarinic, but not nicotinic, receptor system can affect decision making under conditions of risk and uncertainty. Such findings contribute to a broader understanding of the cognitive deficits observed in disorders in which cholinergic signaling is compromised. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Gestational or acute restraint in adulthood reduces levels of 5α-reduced testosterone metabolites in the hippocampus and produces behavioral inhibition of adult male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia A Walf

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Stressors, during early life or adulthood, can alter steroid-sensitive behaviors, such as exploration, anxiety, and/or cognitive processes. We investigated if exposure to acute stressors in adulthood may alter behavioral and neuroendocrine responses of male rats that were exposed to gestational stress or not. We hypothesized that rats exposed to gestational and acute stress may show behavioral inhibition, increased corticosterone, and altered androgen levels in the hippocampus. Subjects were adult, male offspring of rat dams that were restrained daily on gestational days 14-20, or did not experience this manipulation. Immediately before testing, rats were restraint-stressed for 20 minutes or not. During week 1, rats were tested in a battery of tasks, including the open field, elevated plus maze, social interaction, tailflick, pawlick, and defensive burying tasks. During week 2, rats were trained and tested 24 hours later in the inhibitory avoidance task. Plasma corticosterone and androgen levels, and hippocampal androgen levels, were measured in all subjects. Gestational and acute restraint stress increased plasma levels of corticosterone, and reduced levels of testosterone’s 5α-reduced metabolites, dihydrotestosterone and 3α-androstanediol, but not the aromatized metabolite, estradiol, in plasma or the hippocampus. Gestational and acute restraint stress reduced central entries made in the open field, and latencies to enter the shock-associated side of the inhibitory avoidance chamber during testing. Gestational stress reduced time spent interacting with a conspecific. These data suggest that gestational and acute restraint stress can have actions to produce behavioral inhibition coincident with increased corticosterone and decreased 5α-reduced androgens of adult male rats. Thus, gestational stress altered neural circuits involved in the neuroendocrine response to acute stress in early adulthood.

  12. Antenatal Corticosteroids and Postnatal Fluid Restriction Produce Differential Effects on AQP3 Expression, Water Handling, and Barrier Function in Perinatal Rat Epidermis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Agren

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Loss of water through the immature skin can lead to hypothermia and dehydration in preterm infants. The water and glycerol channel aquaglyceroporin-3 (AQP3 is abundant in fetal epidermis and might influence epidermal water handling and transepidermal water flux around birth. To investigate the role of AQP3 in immature skin, we measured in vivo transepidermal water transport and AQP3 expression in rat pups exposed to clinically relevant fluid homeostasis perturbations. Preterm (E18 rat pups were studied after antenatal corticosteroid exposure (ANS, and neonatal (P1 rat pups after an 18 h fast. Transepidermal water loss (TEWL and skin hydration were determined, AQP3 mRNA was quantified by RT-PCR, and in-situ hybridization and immunocytochemistry were applied to map AQP3 expression. ANS resulted in an improved skin barrier (lower TEWL and skin hydration, while AQP3 mRNA and protein increased. Fasting led to loss of barrier integrity along with an increase in skin hydration. These alterations were not paralleled by any changes in AQP3. To conclude, antenatal corticosteroids and early postnatal fluid restriction produce differential effects on skin barrier function and epidermal AQP3 expression in the rat. In perinatal rats, AQP3 does not directly determine net water transport through the skin.

  13. Fluoroscopic guided benign oesophageal stricture dilatation in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gilliard bougienage (SGB) with balloon dilatation and the combination of both methods for the treatment of BOSs in children at Universitas Hospital, Bloemfontein, South Africa. Methods. A retrospective review of the patient notes on all children 12 ...

  14. An Erupted Dilated Odontoma: A Rare Presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav Sharma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A dilated odontoma is an extremely rare developmental anomaly represented as a dilatation of the crown and root as a consequence of a deep, enamel-lined invagination and is considered a severe variant of dens invaginatus. An oval shape of the tooth lacking morphological characteristics of a crown or root implies that the invagination happened in the initial stages of morphodifferentiation. Spontaneous eruption of an odontoma is a rare occurrence and the occurrence of a dilated odontoma in a supernumerary tooth is even rarer with only a few case reports documented in the English literature. We present an extremely rare case of erupted dilated odontoma occurring in the supernumerary tooth in anterior maxillary region in an 18-year-old male, which, to the best of our knowledge, is the first ever case reported in English literature.

  15. Genetics Home Reference: familial dilated cardiomyopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Dilated cardiomyopathy: the complexity of a diverse genetic architecture. Nat Rev Cardiol. 2013 Sep;10(9):531- ... Health & Human Services National Institutes of Health National Library of Medicine Lister Hill National Center for Biomedical ...

  16. 21 CFR 876.5365 - Esophageal dilator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... and weighted with mercury or a metal olive-shaped weight that slides on a guide, such as a string or... esophageal or gastrointestinal bougies and the esophageal dilator (metal olive). (b) Classification. Class II...

  17. Time-dependent dilatancy for brittle rocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Li

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a theoretical study on time-dependent dilatancy behaviors for brittle rocks. The theory employs a well-accepted postulation that macroscopically observed dilatancy originates from the expansion of microcracks. The mechanism and dynamic process that microcracks initiate from local stress concentration and grow due to localized tensile stress are analyzed. Then, by generalizing the results from the analysis of single cracks, a parameter and associated equations for its evolution are developed to describe the behaviors of the microcracks. In this circumstance, the relationship between microcracking and dilatancy can be established, and the theoretical equations for characterizing the process of rock dilatancy behaviors are derived. Triaxial compression and creep tests are conducted to validate the developed theory. With properly chosen model parameters, the theory yields a satisfactory accuracy in comparison with the experimental results.

  18. On $rho$-dilations of commuting operators

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Müller, Vladimír

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 78, č. 1 (2017), s. 3-20 ISSN 0379-4024 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-07880S Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : regular unitary dilation * rho-dilation Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Pure mathematics Impact factor: 0.524, year: 2016 http://www.mathjournals.org/jot/2017-078-001/2017-078-001-001. html

  19. IN UTERO EXPOSURE TO THE FUNGICIDE PROCYMIDONE AND DIBUTYL PHTHALATE PRODUCE DOSE ADDITIVE DISRUPTIONS OF MALE RAT SEXUAL DIFFERENTIATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procymidone (PRO) and dibutyl phthalate (DBP) alter male rat sexual differentiation by disrupting the androgen-signaling pathway via distinctly different cellular mechanisms of toxicity. DBP inhibits fetal Leydig cell androgen production whereas PRO binds AR and blocks androgen a...

  20. Percutaneous dilatation of biliary benign strictures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jae Hyung; Choi, Byung Ihn; Sung, Kyu Bo; Han, Man Chung; Park, Yong Hyun; Yoon, Yong Bum [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1986-06-15

    Percutaneous biliary dilation was done in 3 patients with benign strictures. The first case was 50-year-old male who had multiple intrahepatic stones with biliary stricture. The second 46-year-old female and the third 25-year-old male suffered from recurrent cholangitis with benign stricture of anastomotic site after choledocho-jejunostomy. In the first case, a 6mm diameter Grunzing dilatation balloon catheter was introduced through the T-tube tract. In the second case, the stricture was dilated with two balloons of 5mm and 8mm in each diameter sequentially through the U-loop tract formed by surgically made jejunostomy and percutaneous transhepatic puncture. In the third case, the dilatation catheter was introduced through the percutaneous transhepatic tract. Dilatation was made with a pressure of 5 to 10 atmospheres for 1 to 3 minutes duration for 3 times. In all 3 cases, the strictures were successfully dilated and in second and third cases internal stent was left across the lesion for prevention of restenosis.

  1. Effect of Picibanil (OK 432) on the Scavenging Effect of Free Radicals Produced during Liver Regeneration in the Rat

    OpenAIRE

    Okamoto, Ko; Hamazaki, Keisuke; Iwagaki, Hiromi; Orita, Kunzo; Mori, Akitane

    1995-01-01

    We administered a biological response modifier Picibanil (OK-432), attenuated Streptococcus pyogenes, via the dorsal vein of the penis after 70% hepatectomy in rats, and clarified the scavenging effect of Picibanil on free radicals generated in the regenerating liver. A group of 5 rats was intravenously administered with 25 KE/kg of OK-432 after hepatectomy, while the control group was given saline after hepatectomy. Serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase and ...

  2. Blockade of group II metabotropic glutamate receptors produces hyper-locomotion in cocaine pre-exposed rats by interactions with dopamine receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Hyung Shin; Jang, Ju Kyong; Kim, Jeong-Hoon

    2008-09-01

    It was previously reported that blockade of group II metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) produces hyper-locomotion in rats previously exposed to amphetamine, indicating that group II mGluRs are well positioned to modulate the expression of behavioral sensitization by amphetamine. The present study further examined the locomotor activating effects of specific blockade of these receptors after cocaine pre-exposures. First, rats were pre-exposed to seven daily injections of cocaine (15mg/kg, IP). When challenged the next day with an injection of either saline or the group II mGluR antagonist LY341495 (0.5, 1.0 or 2.5mg/kg, IP), they produced hyper-locomotor activity, measured by infrared beam interruptions, to LY341495 compared to saline in a dose-dependent manner. Second, rats were pre-exposed to either saline or seven daily injections of cocaine (15mg/kg, IP). Three weeks later, when they were challenged with an injection of either saline or LY341495 (1.0mg/kg, IP), only rats pre-exposed to cocaine produced hyper-locomotor activity to LY341495 compared to saline. These effects, however, were not present when dopamine D1 (SCH23390; 5 or 10microg/kg), but not D2 (eticlopride; 10 or 50microg/kg), receptor antagonist was pre-injected, indicating that this cocaine-induced hyper-locomotor activity to LY341495 may be mediated in dopamine D1 receptor-dependent manner. These results suggest that group II mGluRs may be adapted to interact with dopaminergic neuronal signaling in mediating the sensitized locomotor activity produced by repeated cocaine pre-exposures.

  3. Ethanol vapour induced dilated cardiomyopathy in chick embryos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamran, K.; Khan, M.Y.; Minhas, L.A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To study the effects of ethanol vapour inhalation on the heart chambers of chick embryo. Methods: The case-control study was conducted at the College of Physicians and Surgeons Pakistan regional centre in Islamabad from January to October 2007. Both experimental and control groups were divided into three sub-groups each, based on the day of the sacrifice. Each group was dissected on day 7, day 10 and day 22 or hatching whichever was earlier. The experimental sub-groups sacrificed on day 7, day 10 and on hatching, were exposed to ethanol vapours till day 6, 9 and 9 of incubation respectively. The diameter of all 4 chambers was measured in experimental hearts and compared with age-matched controls. SPSS 10 was used for statistical analysis. Results: Ethanol vapour exposure caused widening of all heart chambers in the experimental chick embryos sacrificed on day 7 and day 10 compared to the controls. The chambers of newly hatched chick hearts showed dilatation in all the chambers except the left ventricle. Conclusion: Ethanol vapour exposure during development affects the heart, resulting in the widening of all heart chambers. The exposure is as dangerous as drinking alcohol. Alcohol vapour exposure during development leads to progressive dilatation in different heart chambers, producing dilated cardiomyopathy. (author)

  4. Clinically Relevant ESBL-Producing K. pneumoniae ST307 and E. coli ST38 in an Urban West African Rat Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina Schaufler

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available High-risk ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-E have been described in wild birds and rodents worldwide. Rats are of special interest not only due to their indicator role for environmental pollution with multi-resistant bacteria but also as possible infection source. Data on the presence of high-risk ESBL-E in urban wildlife from Africa remain scarce, however. Twenty-nine animals from three different rat (Rattus species were captured in the city of Conakry (Guinea, West Africa in 2015. Rectal swabs were analyzed for ESBL-E using selective media. Species typing and phenotypic antimicrobial resistance analysis to broad-spectrum beta-lactams and other classes of antimicrobials was performed for Enterobacteriaceae-like isolates using the VITEK®2 system (BioMérieux, Germany. Confirmed ESBL-producing E. coli and K. pneumoniae were whole-genome sequenced and resistance genes, phylogenetic background and genes related to bacterial fitness and virulence were analyzed. In total, six of twenty-nine rats (20% carried ESBL-E (K. pneumoniae and E. coli. All ESBL-producers were multi-drug resistant with blaCTX−M−15 as the dominating ESBL-type. Interestingly, ESBL-associated clonal lineages E. coli ST38 and K. pneumoniae ST307 were found. The ESBL-plasmid in K. pneumoniae ST307 revealed high sequence similarities to pKPN3-307_TypeC, a >200 kbp IncFII plasmid originating from a human clinical ST307 isolate. This was in contrast to the core genome: the rat isolate was distantly related to the human clinical ST307 isolate (27 SNPs/Mbp. In addition, we identified π-fimbrial, capsule 2, and glycogen synthesis clusters in the rodent ST307 isolate, whose involvement in the adaptation to survival outside the host and in human urinary tracts has been suggested. Our results demonstrate the presence of clinically relevant, ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae ST307 and E. coli ST38 clonal lineages in an urban West African rat population. The human community is likely

  5. Behaviorally activated mRNA expression profiles produce signatures of learning and enhanced inhibition in aged rats with preserved memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haberman, Rebecca P; Colantuoni, Carlo; Koh, Ming Teng; Gallagher, Michela

    2013-01-01

    Aging is often associated with cognitive decline, but many elderly individuals maintain a high level of function throughout life. Here we studied outbred rats, which also exhibit individual differences across a spectrum of outcomes that includes both preserved and impaired spatial memory. Previous work in this model identified the CA3 subfield of the hippocampus as a region critically affected by age and integral to differing cognitive outcomes. Earlier microarray profiling revealed distinct gene expression profiles in the CA3 region, under basal conditions, for aged rats with intact memory and those with impairment. Because prominent age-related deficits within the CA3 occur during neural encoding of new information, here we used microarray analysis to gain a broad perspective of the aged CA3 transcriptome under activated conditions. Behaviorally-induced CA3 expression profiles differentiated aged rats with intact memory from those with impaired memory. In the activated profile, we observed substantial numbers of genes (greater than 1000) exhibiting increased expression in aged unimpaired rats relative to aged impaired, including many involved in synaptic plasticity and memory mechanisms. This unimpaired aged profile also overlapped significantly with a learning induced gene profile previously acquired in young adults. Alongside the increased transcripts common to both young learning and aged rats with preserved memory, many transcripts behaviorally-activated in the current study had previously been identified as repressed in the aged unimpaired phenotype in basal expression. A further distinct feature of the activated profile of aged rats with intact memory is the increased expression of an ensemble of genes involved in inhibitory synapse function, which could control the phenotype of neural hyperexcitability found in the CA3 region of aged impaired rats. These data support the conclusion that aged subjects with preserved memory recruit adaptive mechanisms to

  6. Glucocorticoid receptor activation is involved in producing abnormal phenotypes of single-prolonged stress rats: a putative post-traumatic stress disorder model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohda, K; Harada, K; Kato, K; Hoshino, A; Motohashi, J; Yamaji, T; Morinobu, S; Matsuoka, N; Kato, N

    2007-08-10

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a stress-related mental disorder caused by traumatic experience, and presents with characteristic symptoms, such as intrusive memories, a state of hyperarousal, and avoidance, that endure for years. Single-prolonged stress (SPS) is one of the animal models proposed for PTSD. Rats exposed to SPS showed enhanced inhibition of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, which has been reliably reproduced in patients with PTSD, and increased expression of glucocorticoid receptor (GR) in the hippocampus. In this study, we characterized further neuroendocrinologic, behavioral and electrophysiological alterations in SPS rats. Plasma corticosterone recovered from an initial increase within a week, and gross histological changes and neuronal cell death were not observed in the hippocampus of the SPS rats. Behavioral analyses revealed that the SPS rats presented enhanced acoustic startle and impaired spatial memory that paralleled the deficits in hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) and depression. Contextual fear memory was enhanced in the rats 1 week after SPS exposure, whereas LTP in the amygdala was blunted. Interestingly, blockade of GR activation by administering 17-beta-hydroxy-11-beta-/4-/[methyl]-[1-methylethyl]aminophenyl/-17-alpha-[prop-1-ynyl]estra-4-9-diene-3-one (RU40555), a GR antagonist, prior to SPS exposure prevented potentiation of fear conditioning and impairment of LTP in the CA1 region. Altogether, SPS caused a number of behavioral changes similar to those described in PTSD, which marks SPS as a putative PTSD model. The preventive effects of a GR antagonist suggested that GR activation might play a critical role in producing the altered behavior and neuronal function of SPS rats.

  7. Alcohol-paired contextual cues produce an immediate and selective loss of goal-directed action in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean B Ostlund

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available We assessed whether the presence of contextual cues paired with alcohol would disrupt rats’ capacity to express appropriate goal-directed action control. Rats were first given differential context conditioning such that one set of contextual cues was paired with the injection of ethanol and a second, distinctive set of cues was paired with the injection of saline. All rats were then trained in a third, neutral context to press one lever for grain pellets and another lever for sucrose pellets. They were then given two extinction tests to evaluate their ability to choose between the two actions in response to the devaluation of one of the two food outcomes with one test conducted in the alcohol-paired context and the other conducted in the control (saline-paired context. In the control context, rats exhibited goal-directed action control; i.e., they were able selectively to withhold the action that previously earned the now devalued outcome. However, these same rats were impaired when tested in the alcohol-paired context, performing both actions at the same rate regardless of the current value of their respective outcomes. Subsequent testing revealed that the rats were capable of overcoming this impairment if they were giving response-contingent feedback about the current value of the food outcomes. These results provide a clear demonstration of the disruptive influence that alcohol-paired cues can exert on decision-making in general and goal-directed action selection and choice in particular.

  8. Green tea supplementation produces better neuroprotective effects than red and black tea in Alzheimer-like rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimidt, Helen L; Garcia, Alexandre; Martins, Alexandre; Mello-Carpes, Pamela B; Carpes, Felipe P

    2017-10-01

    Green tea from Camellia sinensis plays a neuroprotective role in different neurodegenerative conditions, such as memory deficits in Alzheimer disease (AD). However, whether other teas from Camellia sinensis present similar neuroprotective effect still is not clear. Here we investigate effects of green, red and black tea supplementation on memory and hippocampus oxidative status in a rat model of Alzheimer-like disease (AD-like). Wistar male rats were supplemented with green, red or black tea during 8weeks before Aβ intra-hippocampal injection (2μL of Aβ-25-35, CA1 region). AD and sham rats were submitted to memory tests. After euthanasia, oxidative status in the bilateral hippocampus was quantified. Green and red teas avoid memory deficits in AD rats, but only green tea also avoids oxidative stress and damage in the hippocampus. Green tea was more effective for neuroprotection than red and black teas from the Camellia sinensis in the AD rat model. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Cardiovascular and behavioral effects produced by administration of liposome-entrapped GABA into the rat central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz, G C; Bahia, A P C O; de Figueiredo Müller-Ribeiro, F C; Xavier, C H; Patel, K P; Santos, R A S; Moreira, F A; Frézard, F; Fontes, M A P

    2015-01-29

    Liposomes are nanosystems that allow a sustained release of entrapped substances. Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the most prevalent inhibitory neurotransmitter of the central nervous system (CNS). We developed a liposomal formulation of GABA for application in long-term CNS functional studies. Two days after liposome-entrapped GABA was injected intracerebroventricularly (ICV), Wistar rats were submitted to the following evaluations: (1) changes in mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR) and renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA) to ICV injection of bicuculline methiodide (BMI) in anesthetized rats; (2) changes in cardiovascular reactivity to air jet stress in conscious rats; and (3) anxiety-like behavior in conscious rats. GABA and saline-containing pegylated liposomes were prepared with a mean diameter of 200 nm. Rats with implanted cannulas targeted to lateral cerebral ventricle (n = 5-8/group) received either GABA solution (GS), empty liposomes (EL) or GABA-containing liposomes (GL). Following (48 h) central microinjection (2 μL, 0.09 M and 99 g/L) of liposomes, animals were submitted to the different protocols. Animals that received GL demonstrated attenuated response of RSNA to BMI microinjection (GS 48 ± 9, EL 43 ± 9, GL 11 ± 8%; P nervous system. Copyright © 2014 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Behavioral and physiological changes produced by a supralethal dose of ionizing radiation: evidence for hormone-influenced sex differences in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mickley, G.A.

    1980-01-01

    A sufficiently large and rapid dose of ionizing radiation produces an immediate but transient behavioral incapacitation. Acute hypotension often accompanies the disorder. Although the etiology of this syndrome is unclear, it has been suggested that an increase in histamine excretion contributes to it. Since histamine is known to interact with the endocrine system and since estrogens have been shown to prolong the life of animals exposed to potentially lethal doses of radiation, it was also hypothesized that females might be relatively less affected by an acute, large dose of ionizing radiation. Male and female rats were trained on an avoidance task, irradiated, and then retested. Females showed a less severe decrement after radiation exposure than males. Likewise, females did not suffer the severe hypotension normally associated with male radiogenic early transient incapacitation (ETI); rather, an acute hypertension was produced in females. A second series of experiments revealed that differences in male and female radiation response were eliminated by gonadectomy. Systemic estradiol injection produced strikingly feminine (i.e., superior) postirradiation avoidance responses as well as hypertension in neutered rats. Testosterone injections had no effect on either measure. Central nervous system alterations have been correlated with the ETI. Therefore, final experiments sought a possible central locus of the action of estradiol. It was found that exposure of the nucleus peopticus medialis to estrogens produces postirradiation benefits in avoidance performance and blood pressure similar to those seen after systemic estradiol treatments. Nucleus amygdaloideus medialis implants produced no such benefits

  11. Prenatal Stress Produces Sex Specific Changes in Depression-like Behavior in Rats: Implications for Increased Vulnerability in Females

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sickmann, Helle Mark; Arentzen, Tine S; Dyrby, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Stress during rat gestation can elicit depression-like physiological and behavioral responses in the offspring. However, human clinical depression is more prevalent among females than males. Accordingly, we examined how repeated variable prenatal stress (PS) alters rat anxiety- and depression...... and measured anxiety- (elevated plus maze, EPM) and depression-like (forced swim test, FST) behaviors in the offspring at a young adult age. As a stressful event later in life (in addition to PS) may be needed to actually trigger an episode of clinical depression, half of the animals were exposed to an acute...... affected in control animals after acute stressor exposure, however, this response was blunted in PS offspring. Moreover, FST immobility, as an indicator of depressive-like behavior, was increased in female but not male PS rats. Altogether, our results identify both sex- and circadian phase-specific effects...

  12. Phenobarbital influence on neuromuscular block produced by rocuronium in rats Influência do fenobarbital no bloqueio neuromuscular produzido pelo rocurônio em ratos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angélica de Fátima de Assunção Braga

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate in vitro and in vivo neuromuscular blockade produced by rocuronium in rats treated with Phenobarbital and to determine cytochrome P450 and cytochrome b5 concentrations in hepatic microsomes. METHODS: Thirty rats were included in the study and distributed into 6 groups of 5 animals each. Rats were treated for seven days with phenobarbital (20 mg/kg and the following parameters were evaluated: 1 the amplitude of muscle response in the preparation of rats exposed to phenobarbital; 2 rocuronium effect on rat preparation exposed or not to phenobarbital; 3 concentrations of cytochrome P450 and cytochrome b5 in hepatic microsomes isolated from rats exposed or not to phenobarbital. The concentration and dose of rocuronium used in vitro and in vivo experiments were 4 µg/mL and 0,6 mg/kg, respectively. RESULTS: Phenobarbital in vitro and in vivo did not alter the amplitude of muscle response. The neuromuscular blockade in vitro produced by rocuronium was significantly different (p=0.019 between exposed (20% and not exposed (60% rats; the blockade in vivo was significantly greater (p=0.0081 in treated rats (93.4%. The enzymatic concentrations were significantly greater in rats exposed to phenobarbital. CONCLUSIONS: Phenobarbital alone did not compromise neuromuscular transmission. It produced enzymatic induction, and neuromuscular blockade in vivo produced by rocuronium was potentiated by phenobarbital.OBJETIVO: Avaliar in vitro e in vivo o bloqueio neuromuscular produzido pelo rocurônio em ratos tratados com fenobarbital e determinar as concentrações de citocromo P450 e b5 em microssomos hepáticos. MÉTODOS: Trinta ratos foram incluídos no estudo e distribuídos em seis grupos de cinco animais cada. Ratos foram tratados por sete dias com fenobarbital (20 mg/kg e avaliou-se: 1 amplitude das respostas musculares em preparação de ratos expostos ao fenobarbital; 2 o efeito do rocurônio em preparações de ratos expostos ou n

  13. The neural substrates of subjective time dilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Wittmann

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available An object moving towards an observer is subjectively perceived as longer in duration than the same object that is static or moving away. This 'time dilation effect' has been shown for a number of stimuli that differ from standard events along different feature dimensions (e.g. color, size, and dynamics. We performed an event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI, while subjects viewed a stream of five visual events, all of which were static and of identical duration except the fourth one, which was a deviant target consisting of either a looming or a receding disc. The duration of the target was systematically varied and participants judged whether the target was shorter or longer than all other events. A time dilation effect was observed only for looming targets. Relative to the static standards, the looming as well as the receding targets induced increased activation of the anterior insula and anterior cingulate cortices (the “core control network”. The decisive contrast between looming and receding targets representing the time dilation effect showed strong asymmetric activation and, specifically, activation of cortical midline structures (the “default network”. These results provide the first evidence that the illusion of temporal dilation is due to activation of areas that are important for cognitive control and subjective awareness. The involvement of midline structures in the temporal dilation illusion is interpreted as evidence that time perception is related to self-referential processing.

  14. Cell therapy in dilated cardiomyopathy: from animal models to clinical trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. del Corsso

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Dilated cardiomyopathy can be the end-stage form and common denominator of several cardiac disorders of known cause, such as hypertensive, ischemic, diabetic and Chagasic diseases. However, some individuals have clinical findings, such as an increase in ventricular chamber size and impaired contractility (classical manifestations of dilated cardiomyopathy even in the absence of a diagnosed primary disease. In these patients, dilated cardiomyopathy is classified as idiopathic since its etiology is obscure. Nevertheless, regardless of all of the advances in medical, pharmacological and surgical procedures, the fate of patients with dilated cardiomyopathy (of idiopathic or of any other known cause is linked to arrhythmic episodes, severe congestive heart failure and an increased risk of sudden cardiac death. In this review, we will summarize present data on the use of cell therapies in animal models of dilated cardiomyopathies and will discuss the few clinical trials that have been published so far involving patients affected by this disease. The animal models discussed here include those in which the cardiomyopathy is produced by genetic manipulation and those in which disease is induced by chemical or infectious agents. The specific model used clearly creates restrictions to translation of the proposed cell therapy to clinical practice, insofar as most of the clinical trials performed to date with cell therapy have used autologous cells. Thus, translation of genetic models of dilated cardiomyopathy may have to wait until the use of allogeneic cells becomes more widespread in clinical trials of cell therapies for cardiac diseases.

  15. Impairment of flow-mediated dilation correlates with aortic dilation in patients with Marfan syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takata, Munenori; Amiya, Eisuke; Watanabe, Masafumi; Omori, Kazuko; Imai, Yasushi; Fujita, Daishi; Nishimura, Hiroshi; Kato, Masayoshi; Morota, Tetsuro; Nawata, Kan; Ozeki, Atsuko; Watanabe, Aya; Kawarasaki, Shuichi; Hosoya, Yumiko; Nakao, Tomoko; Maemura, Koji; Nagai, Ryozo; Hirata, Yasunobu; Komuro, Issei

    2014-07-01

    Marfan syndrome is an inherited disorder characterized by genetic abnormality of microfibrillar connective tissue proteins. Endothelial dysfunction is thought to cause aortic dilation in subjects with a bicuspid aortic valve; however, the role of endothelial dysfunction and endothelial damaging factors has not been elucidated in Marfan syndrome. Flow-mediated dilation, a noninvasive measurement of endothelial function, was evaluated in 39 patients with Marfan syndrome. Aortic diameter was measured at the aortic annulus, aortic root at the sinus of Valsalva, sinotubular junction and ascending aorta by echocardiography, and adjusted for body surface area (BSA). The mean value of flow-mediated dilation was 6.5 ± 2.4 %. Flow-mediated dilation had a negative correlation with the diameter of the ascending thoracic aorta (AscAd)/BSA (R = -0.39, p = 0.020) and multivariate analysis revealed that flow-mediated dilation was an independent factor predicting AscAd/BSA, whereas other segments of the aorta had no association. Furthermore, Brinkman index had a somewhat greater influence on flow-mediated dilation (R = -0.42, p = 0.008). Although subjects who smoked tended to have a larger AscAd compared with non-smokers (AscA/BSA: 17.3 ± 1.8 versus 15.2 ± 3.0 mm/m(2), p = 0.013), there was no significant change in flow-mediated dilation, suggesting that smoking might affect aortic dilation via an independent pathway. Common atherogenic risks, such as impairment of flow-mediated dilation and smoking status, affected aortic dilation in subjects with Marfan syndrome.

  16. Randomized controlled trial comparing esophageal dilation to no dilation among adults with esophageal eosinophilia and dysphagia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavitt, R T; Ates, F; Slaughter, J C; Higginbotham, T; Shepherd, B D; Sumner, E L; Vaezi, M F

    2016-11-01

    The role of esophageal dilation in patients with esophageal eosinophilia with dysphagia remains unknown. The practice of dilation is currently based on center preferences and expert opinion. The aim of this study is to determine if, and to what extent, dysphagia improves in response to initial esophageal dilation followed by standard medical therapies. We conducted a randomized, blinded, controlled trial evaluating adult patients with dysphagia and newly diagnosed esophageal eosinophilia from 2008 to 2013. Patients were randomized to dilation or no dilation at time of endoscopy and blinded to dilation status. Endoscopic features were graded as major and minor. Subsequent to randomization and endoscopy, all patients received fluticasone and dexlansoprazole for 2 months. The primary study outcome was reduction in overall dysphagia score, assessed at 30 and 60 days post-intervention. Patients with severe strictures (less than 7-mm esophageal diameter) were excluded from the study. Thirty-one patients were randomized and completed the protocol: 17 randomized to dilation and 14 to no dilation. Both groups were similar with regard to gender, age, eosinophil density, endoscopic score, and baseline dysphagia score. The population exhibited moderate to severe dysphagia and moderate esophageal stricturing at baseline. Overall, there was a significant (P dysphagia score at 30 and 60 days post-randomization compared with baseline in both groups. No significant difference in dysphagia scores between treatment groups after 30 (P = 0.93) or 60 (P = 0.21) days post-intervention was observed. Esophageal dilation did not result in additional improvement in dysphagia score compared with treatment with proton pump inhibitor and fluticasone alone. In patients with symptomatic esophageal eosinophilia without severe stricture, dilation does not appear to be a necessary initial treatment strategy. © 2015 International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus.

  17. In situ hybridization reveals that type I and III collagens are produced by pericytes in the anterior pituitary gland of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Ken; Jindatip, Depicha; Kikuchi, Motoshi; Yashiro, Takashi

    2010-12-01

    Type I and III collagens widely occur in the rat anterior pituitary gland and are the main components of the extracellular matrix (ECM). Although ECM components possibly play an important role in the function of the anterior pituitary gland, little is known about collagen-producing cells. Type I collagen is a heterotrimer of two α1(I) chains (the product of the col1a1 gene) and one α2(I) chain (the product of the col1a2 gene). Type III collagen is a homotrimer of α1(III) chains (the product of the col3a1 gene). We used in situ hybridization with digoxigenin-labeled cRNA probes to examine the expression of col1a1, col1a2, and col3a1 mRNAs in the pituitary gland of adult rats. mRNA expression for these collagen genes was clearly observed, and cells expressing col1a1, col1a2, and col3a1 mRNA were located around capillaries in the gland. We also investigated the possible double-staining of collagen mRNA and pituitary hormones, S-100 protein (a marker of folliculo-stellate cells), or desmin (a marker of pericytes). Col1a1 and col3a1 mRNA were identified in desmin-immunopositive cells. Thus, only pericytes produce type I and III collagens in the rat anterior pituitary gland.

  18. Repeated lipopolysaccharide administration produces tolerance to anorexia and fever but not to inhibition of thirst in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nava, F; Carta, G

    2000-11-01

    In 24 h water and food deprived rats, a single lipopolysaccharide treatment (0.25, 0.50 and 1 mg/kg, i.p.) induced inhibition of thirst and hunger as well as fever. Moreover, the same treatment increased serum cytokines, plasma nitrite/nitrate and corticosterone and urinary prostaglandin levels. In another group of 24 h water and food deprived rats, a repeated lipopolysaccharide treatment (0.25, 0. 50 and 1 mg/kg, i.p.), given at 0, 2, 6, 12 and 24 h, induced tolerance to inhibition of food intake and fever, but not to antidipsogenic effect. Moreover, the same repeated treatment stopped the increase in serum cytokines, plasma corticosterone and urinary prostaglandin concentrations and failed to reduce plasma nitrite/nitrate levels. This data, together with the evidence that a pretreatment with N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (L-NAME) (5 and 10 microg per rat) reverses the antidipsogenic effects in lipopolysaccharide tolerant rats, suggests that the persistent reduction of water intake after a repeated lipopolysaccharide treatment is due to the antidipsogenic action of nitric oxide in the brain.

  19. Ontogenesis of neurons producing luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) in the nervus terminalis of the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwanzel-Fukuda, M; Morrell, J I; Pfaff, D W

    1985-08-15

    Immunoreactive luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) was first detected at 15 days of gestation in ganglion cells associated with the peripheral, intracranial, and central parts of the nervus terminalis of the rat. LHRH was not detected in any other structure of the central nervous system at this age. In the 17-day-old fetal rat, 62% of the total LHRH-reactive neuronal population was found in ganglion cells of the nervus terminalis. At this same age, immunoreactive beta-luteinizing hormone (beta-LH) was first seen in gonadotropes of the anterior pituitary gland. At 19 days of gestation, 31% of the total number of LHRH-reactive neurons observed in the rat brain was found in the nervus terminalis, and immunoreactive processes were first seen in the organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis and in the median eminence. Our data indicate that from 15 to 19 days of gestation the nervus terminalis is a principal source of LHRH in the fetal rat. Presence of the decapeptide in the nervus terminalis prior to appearance of beta-LH in the anterior pituitary suggests a possible role for LHRH in this system on maturation of the gonadotropes and differentiation of the brain-pituitary-gonadal axis.

  20. Pediocin PA-1 and a pediocin producing Lactobacillus plantarum strain do not change the HMA rat microbiota

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernbom, Nete; Jelle, N.B.; Brogren, C.-H.

    2009-01-01

    microbiota was in all treatments dominated by lactic acid bacteria and coliforms and no changes in the rat commensal microbiota were detected after ingestion of either of the two L plantarum strains as determined by both culturable methods and molecular methods (DGGE). Both strains were detected...

  1. Cytochemical localization of catalase and several hydrogen peroxide-producing oxidases in the nucleoids and matrix of rat liver peroxisomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenhuis, M.; Wendelaar Bonga, S.E.

    1979-01-01

    The distribution of catalase, amino acid oxidase, α-hydroxy acid oxidase, urate oxidase and alcohol oxidase was studied cytochemically in rat hepatocytes. The presence of catalase was demonstrated with the conventional diaminobenzidine technique. Oxidase activities were visualized with methods based

  2. Effects of glutamate and α2-noradrenergic receptor antagonists on the development of neurotoxicity produced by chronic rotenone in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alam, Mesbah; Danysz, Wojciech; Schmidt, Werner Juergen; Dekundy, Andrzej

    2009-01-01

    Systemic inhibition of complex I by rotenone in rats represents a model of Parkinson's disease (PD). The aim of this study was to elucidate whether neramexane (NMDA, nicotinic α9/α10 and 5-HT 3 receptor antagonist), idazoxan (α 2 -adrenoceptor antagonist) or 2-methyl-6-(phenyl-ethyl)-pyrimidine (MPEP, metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 antagonist) prevents rotenone-induced parkinsonian-like behaviours and neurochemical changes in rats. Rotenone (2.5 mg/kg i.p. daily) was administered over 60 days together with saline, neramexane (5 mg/kg i.p., b.i.d.), idazoxan (2.5 mg/kg i.p., b.i.d.) or MPEP (2.5 mg/kg i.p., b.i.d.). The same doses of neramexane, idazoxan and MPEP were administered to rats treated with vehicle instead of rotenone. Treatment-related effects on parkinsonian-like behaviours, such as hypokinesia/rigidity and locomotor activity, were evaluated. Moreover, concentrations of dopamine, serotonin and their metabolites were measured in rats from each experimental group. Over the 60-day treatment period, the rotenone + saline treated animals developed hypokinesia, expressed as an increase in the bar and grid descent latencies in the catalepsy test, and a decrease in locomotor activity. Neramexane and idazoxan partially prevented the development of catalepsy in rotenone-treated rats. Co-administration of MPEP with rotenone resulted only in a decrease in descent latency in the grid test on day 60. Chronic rotenone treatment reduced concentrations of dopamine and serotonin in the anterior striatum, which was blocked by co-treatment with neramexane or idazoxan but not with MPEP. Only neramexane treatment blocked the rotenone-induced decrease in dopamine levels in the substantia nigra pars compacta. In conclusion, neramexane and idazoxan counteracted to some extent the development of parkinsonian symptoms and neurochemical alterations in the rotenone model of Parkinson's disease.

  3. Balloon dilatation of the prostatic urethra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Yeon Soo; Shim, Hyung Jin; Cha, Kyung Soo; Hong, Ju Hee; Lim, Myung Ah; Kim, Cheol Soo

    1991-01-01

    We analyzed the result of transurethral balloon dilatation in 11 patients with benign prostatic hypertrophy. The procedures were performed under intravenous sedation and local anesthesia with double lumen balloon catheter at 4 atmosphere for 10 minutes. After dilatation, the prostatism symptom scores improved in 10 out of 11 patients and the mean diameter of the prostatic urethra significantly increased form 4.3 mm to 10.2 mm (ρ < 0.005). The procedures were successful not only in lateral lobe hypertrophy but also in median lobe hypertrophy of the prostate. Postdilatation MRI of 1 patient showed an intact prostatic capsule and no periprostatic hematoma. Complications did not develop except in 1 patient with mild hematuria and incontinence. These preliminary results suggest that transurethral balloon dilatation can be an effective and safe treatment modality for benign prostatic hypertrophy

  4. Activation of neuronal nitric oxide synthase in cerebellum of chronic hepatic encephalopathy rats is associated with up-regulation of NADPH-producing pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Santosh; Trigun, Surendra K

    2010-09-01

    Cerebellum-associated functions get affected during mild hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) in patients with chronic liver failure (CLF). Involvement of nitrosative and antioxidant factors in the pathogenesis of chronic hepatic encephalopathy is an evolving concept and needs to be defined in a true CLF animal model. This article describes profiles of NADPH-dependent neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) and those of glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase (GR) vis-a-vis regulation of NADPH-producing pathway in the cerebellum of CLF rats induced by administration of thioacetamide (100 mg kg⁻¹ b.w., i.p.) up to 10 days and confirming MHE on Morris water maze tests. Significant increases in the expression of nNOS protein and nitric oxide (NOx) level coincided with a similar increment in NADPH-diaphorase activity in the cerebellum of CLF rats. Glutathione peroxidase and GR utilize NADPH to regenerate reduced glutathione (GSH) in the cells. Both these enzymes and GSH level were found to be static and thus suggested efficient turnover of GSH in the cerebellum of MHE rats. Relative levels of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) vs. phosphofructokinase 2 (PFK2) determine the rate of pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) responsible to synthesize NADPH. The cerebellum of CLF rats showed overactivation of G6PD with a significant decline in the expression of PFK2 and thus suggested activation of PPP in the cerebellum during MHE. It is concluded that concordant activations of PPP and nNOS in cerebellum of MHE rats could be associated with the implication of NOx in the pathogenesis of MHE.

  5. Mixed Mode cohesive law with interface dilatation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Bent F.; Goutianos, Stergios

    2014-01-01

    displacements. As the crack faces displace relatively to each other, the roughness asperities ride on top of each other and result in an opening (dilatation) in the normal direction. Furthermore, the interaction of the crack surfaces in the contact zone gives rise to compressive normal stresses and frictional...... shear stresses opposing the crack face displacements. A phenomenological Mixed Mode cohesive zone law, derived from a potential function, is developed to describe the above mentioned fracture behaviour under monotonic opening. The interface dilatation introduces two new lengths. The cohesive law...

  6. Retrograde transurethral balloon dilation of the prostate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castaneda, F.; Reddy, P.; Wasserman, N.F.; Lund, G.; Hulbert, J.; Hunter, D.; Castaneda-Zuniga, W.R.; Amplatz, K.

    1986-01-01

    A series of patients with documented benign prostatic hypertrophy evaluated by urodynamic studies, voiding cystourethrography, retrograde urethrography, and MR imaging underwent dilation performed using a retrograde transurethral approach with 25-mm balloon dilators inflated at a pressure of 3-4 atm for 10 minutes. Immediately after the procedure, retrograde and voiding cystourethrography as well as MR imaging were performed. A Foley catheter was left in place for 24 hours. Complete relief of symptoms has occurred in all of the patients during the follow-up period. No significant complications other than transient hematuria resulted from the procedure. Results of the comparison studies and of MR imaging are discussed

  7. Computed tomography of localized dilatation of the intrahepatic bile ducts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araki, T.; Itai, Y.; Tasaka, A.

    1981-01-01

    Twenty-nine patients showed localized dilatation of the intrahepatic bile ducts on computed tomography, usually unaccompanied by jaundice. Congenital dilatation was diagnosed when associated with a choledochal cyst, while cholangiographic contrast material was helpful in differentiating such dilatation from a simple cyst by showing its communication with the biliary tract when no choledochal cyst was present. Obstructive dilatation was associated with intrahepatic calculi in 4 cases, hepatoma in 9, cholangioma in 5, metastatic tumor in 5, and polycystic disease in 2. Cholangioma and intrahepatic calculi had a greater tendency to accompany such localized dilatation; in 2 cases, the dilatation was the only clue to the underlying disorder

  8. Effect of electromagnetic irradiation produced by 3G mobile phone on male rat reproductive system in a simulated scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sanjay; Nirala, Jay Prakash; Behari, J; Paulraj, R

    2014-09-01

    Reports of declining male fertility have renewed interest in assessing the role of electromagnetic fields (EMFs). Testicular function is particularly susceptible to the radiation emitted by EMFs. Significant decrease in sperm count, increase in the lipid peroxidation damage in sperm cells, reduction in seminiferous tubules and testicular weight and DNA damage were observed following exposure to EMF in male albino rats. The results suggest that mobile phone exposure adversely affects male fertility.

  9. Adolescent Social Stress Produces an Enduring Activation of the Rat Locus Coeruleus and Alters its Coherence with the Prefrontal Cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zitnik, Gerard A; Curtis, Andrè L; Wood, Susan K; Arner, Jay; Valentino, Rita J

    2016-01-01

    Early life stress is associated with the development of psychiatric disorders. Because the locus coeruleus-norepinephrine (LC-NE) system is a major stress-response system that is implicated in psychopathology, developmental differences in the response of this system to stress may contribute to increased vulnerability. Here LC single unit and network activity were compared between adult and adolescent rats during resident-intruder stress. In some rats, LC and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) coherence was quantified. The initial stress tonically activated LC neurons and induced theta oscillations, while simultaneously decreasing LC auditory-evoked responses in both age groups. Stress increased LC-mPFC coherence within the theta range. With repeated exposures, adolescent LC neuronal and network activity remained elevated even in the absence of the stressor and were unresponsive to stressor presentation. In contrast, LC neurons of adult rats exposed to repeated social stress were relatively inhibited in the absence of the stressor and mounted robust responses upon stressor presentation. LC sensory-evoked responses were selectively blunted in adolescent rats exposed to repeated social stress. Finally, repeated stress decreased LC-mPFC coherence in the high frequency range (beta and gamma) while maintaining strong coherence in the theta range, selectively in adolescents. Together, these results suggest that adaptive mechanisms that promote stress recovery and maintain basal activity of the brain norepinephrine system in the absence of stress are not fully developed or are vulnerable stress-induced impairments in adolescence. The resulting sustained activation of the LC-NE system after repeated social stress may adversely impact cognition and future social behavior of adolescents. PMID:26361057

  10. The number of postsynaptic currents necessary to produce locomotor- related cyclic information in neurons in the neonatal rat spinal cord

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raastad, Morten; Johnson, Bruce R.; Kiehn, Ole

    1996-01-01

    To understand better how synaptic signaling contributes to network activity, we analyzed the potential contribution of putative unitary postsynaptic currents (PSCs) to locomotor-related information received by spinal interneurons in neonatal rats. The average cyclic modulation of the whole-cell c......-5) of the synapses contributing to the cyclic information need to be active simultaneously. This suggests that individual presynaptic cells in a central locomotor network can have a powerful influence on other neurons....

  11. Inhibition by etomoxir of rat liver carnitine octanoyltransferase is produced through the co-ordinate interaction with two histidine residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morillas, M; Clotet, J; Rubí, B; Serra, D; Ariño, J; Hegardt, F G; Asins, G

    2000-10-15

    Rat peroxisomal carnitine octanoyltransferase (COT), which facilitates the transport of medium-chain fatty acids through the peroxisomal membrane, is irreversibly inhibited by the hypoglycaemia-inducing drug etomoxir. To identify the molecular basis of this inhibition, cDNAs encoding full-length wild-type COT, two different variant point mutants and one variant double mutant from rat peroxisomal COT were expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, an organism devoid of endogenous COT activity. The recombinant mutated enzymes showed activity towards both carnitine and decanoyl-CoA in the same range as the wild type. Whereas the wild-type version expressed in yeast was inhibited by etomoxir in an identical manner to COT from rat liver peroxisomes, the activity of the enzyme containing the double mutation H131A/H340A was completely insensitive to etomoxir. Individual point mutations H131A and H340A also drastically reduced sensitivity to etomoxir. Taken together, these results indicate that the two histidine residues, H131 and H340, are the sites responsible for inhibition by etomoxir and that the full inhibitory properties of the drug will be shown only if both histidines are intact at the same time. Our data demonstrate that both etomoxir and malonyl-CoA inhibit COT by interacting with the same sites.

  12. Photodynamic effect produced by HeNe radiation in Harderian glands of Wistar rats: an experimental model for PDT studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Reis, Edmyr R.; Nicola, Ester M. D.; Metze, Konradin; Nicola, Jorge H.

    2000-06-01

    In rats, the Harderian Gland secret Protoporphirin IX which is retained at acinar lumina. Since this photosensitizer is important for PDT of malignant tumors, we propose to study this gland as a model to help understanding PDT with endogenous photosensitizers. Twenty Wistar SPF adult rats were submitted to surgical exposure of both Harderian glands, revealing red fluorescence upon UV, characterizing the protoporphirin IX presence. After that, one gland of each pair (one kept as control) was irradiated with an 8 mW HeNe (6328 angstrom) for 45 minutes, delivering about 2.7 joules/mm2. After 24 hours a group of 10 animals were scarified and the glands removed for histological analysis. The remaining animals were subjected to the same procedure but the glands were removed immediately after laser treatment. Histological and fluorescence analysis immediately after laser irradiation showed cell fragmentation with loss of acinar architecture with diffusion of protoporphirin in the cytoplasm of damaged cells, as well as interstitial edema. After 24 hours these alterations were more pronounced with accentuated loss of intraluminal protoporphirin and beginning of leukocytic demarcation of necrotic areas. The innate Harderian glands of rats, exposed to HeNe laser, showed a similar behavior as tumor tissue under PDT.

  13. The role of biological activity of hydrohumate, produced from peat, in formation of adaptive response of rats under influence of chronic stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyanna, O. L.; Chorna, V. I.; Stepchenko, L. M.

    2009-04-01

    It is well known that humic compounds are the most distributed in nature among the organic matter. It is believed that humic polyphenol preparations, produced from the peat, represent adaptogenes and immunomodulators. But the total mechanism of their adaptogenic action is still completely unclear. In response to extraordinary irritant action, one of the most sensitive to stress and highly reactive systems of organism, endosomal-lysosomal cellular apparatus takes part. It is believed that humic compounds are able to penetrate through plasmatic membrane and by this way to affect on lysosomal proteases function. Among the wide range of lysosomal proteases, cysteine cathepsin L (EC 3.4.22.15) was in interest due to its powerful endopeptidase activity and widespread localization. Purpose. The aim of the work was to investigate the influence of humic acids on intracellular proteolysis in blood plasma and heart muscle of rats in adaptive-restorative processes developing in rat organisms as a result of chronic stress action. The experiment was held on Wistar's rats (160-200 g weight) which were divided into 4 groups: 1 - the control group; 2 - the animals which were received the hydrohumate with water (10 mg hydrohumate (0,1% solution) per 1 kg of weight) during 3 weeks; 3 - the group of stressed rats (test "forced swimming" for 2 hours); 4 - the stressed rats which received the hydrohumate. The activity of lysosomal cysteine cathepsin L was determined spectrophotometrically by usage 1% azocasein, denaturated by 3 M urea, as substrate. It was obtained that under hydrohumate influence the activity of lysosomal cysteine cathepsin L in rat blood plasma changed on 20% in comparison with control group that is suggested to be caused by leakage of tissue cathepsins from organs and tissues and kidneys' filtration of these cysteine enzymes in urine. In rat heart tissues it was obtained that cathepsin L activity level was on 26,8% higher in rats which were under stress influence in

  14. Hydraulic urethral dilatation after optical internal urethrotomy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To determine the rate of early recurrence of urethral stricture in the first six months in patients who perform hydraulic urethral dilatation(HUD) after optical internal urethrotomy (OIU) and compare the early recurrence Fate in patients who perform HUD after OIU with the recurrence rates in patients reported in the ...

  15. Endoscopic Pneumatic Dilation for Esophageal Achalasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markar, Sheraz; Zaninotto, Giovanni

    2018-04-01

    Pneumatic dilation is a well-established treatment modality that has withstood the test of time. Prospective and randomized trials have shown that in expert hands, it provides results similar to a laparoscopic Heller myotomy with fundoplication. In addition, it should be considered the primary form of treatment in patients who experience recurrence of symptoms after a surgical myotomy.

  16. Apparent unambiguousness of relativistic time dilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strel'tsov, V.N.

    1992-01-01

    It is indicated on the definite analogy between the dependence of visible sizes of relativistic objects and period of the wave, emitted by the moving source from the observation conditions ('retradition factor'). It is noted that the definition of time for moving extended objects, led to relativistic dilation, corresponds to the definition of the relativistic (radar) length led to the 'elongation formula'. 10 refs

  17. Gastric dilatation-volvulus syndrome in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monnet, Eric

    2003-09-01

    Gastric dilatation-volvulus is a medical and surgical emergency that principally affects large-breed dogs. Surgical treatment should be undertaken as soon as the patient has been stabilized with fluid therapy and decompression. A gastrectomy might be required if the stomach is becoming necrotic. A gastropexy is required to prevent recurrence.

  18. Interface dilation : the overflowing cylinder technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergink - Martens, D.J.M.

    1993-01-01

    A pure steady-state dilation of a liquid interface, either liquid-air or water-oil, can be accomplished far from equilibrium by means of the overflowing cylinder technique. The resulting dynamic surface tension data correlate well with characteristic parameters of processes like foaming,

  19. Influence of GABA and GABA-producing Lactobacillus brevis DPC 6108 on the development of diabetes in a streptozotocin rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, T M; Patterson, E; Wall, R; O'Sullivan, O; Fitzgerald, G F; Cotter, P D; Dinan, T G; Cryan, J F; Ross, R P; Stanton, C

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate if dietary administration of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-producing Lactobacillus brevis DPC 6108 and pure GABA exert protective effects against the development of diabetes in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic Sprague Dawley rats. In a first experiment, healthy rats were divided in 3 groups (n=10/group) receiving placebo, 2.6 mg/kg body weight (bw) pure GABA or L. brevis DPC 6108 (~10(9)microorganisms). In a second experiment, rats (n=15/group) were randomised to five groups and four of these received an injection of STZ to induce type 1 diabetes. Diabetic and non-diabetic controls received placebo [4% (w/v) yeast extract in dH2O], while the other three diabetic groups received one of the following dietary supplements: 2.6 mg/kg bw GABA (low GABA), 200 mg/kg bw GABA (high GABA) or ~10(9) L. brevis DPC 6108. L. brevis DPC 6108 supplementation was associated with increased serum insulin levels (Pfood intake. Insulin was decreased (P0.05), compared with non-diabetic controls while all other diabetic groups displayed reduced diversity (P<0.05). L. brevis DPC 6108 attenuated hyperglycaemia induced by diabetes but additional studies are needed to understand the mechanisms involved in this reduction.

  20. Vitamin B12-impaired metabolism produces apoptosis and Parkinson phenotype in rats expressing the transcobalamin-oleosin chimera in substantia nigra.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Enrique Orozco-Barrios

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Vitamin B12 is indispensable for proper brain functioning and cytosolic synthesis of S-adenosylmethionine. Whether its deficiency produces effects on viability and apoptosis of neurons remains unknown. There is a particular interest in investigating these effects in Parkinson disease where Levodopa treatment is known to increase the consumption of S-adenosylmethionine. To cause deprivation of vitamin B12, we have recently developed a cell model that produces decreased synthesis of S-adenosylmethionine by anchoring transcobalamin (TCII to the reticulum through its fusion with Oleosin (OLEO. METHODOLOGY: Gene constructs including transcobalamin-oleosin (TCII-OLEO and control constructs, green fluorescent protein-transcobalamin-oleosin (GFP-TCII-OLEO, oleosin-transcobalamin (OLEO-TCII, TCII and OLEO were used for expression in N1E-115 cells (mouse neuroblastoma and in substantia nigra of adult rats, using a targeted transfection with a Neurotensin polyplex system. We studied the viability and the apoptosis in the transfected cells and targeted tissue. The turning behavior was evaluated in the rats transfected with the different plasmids. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The transfection of N1E-115 cells by the TCII-OLEO-expressing plasmid significantly affected cell viability and increased immunoreactivity of cleaved Caspase-3. No change in propidium iodide uptake (used as a necrosis marker was observed. The transfected rats lost neurons immunoreactive to tyrosine hydroxylase. The expression of TCII-OLEO was observed in cells immunoreactive to tyrosine hydroxylase of the substantia nigra, with a superimposed expression of cleaved Caspase-3. These cellular and tissular effects were not observed with the control plasmids. Rats transfected with TCII-OLEO expressing plasmid presented with a significantly higher number of turns, compared with those transfected with the other plasmids. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In conclusion, the TCII-OLEO transfection

  1. Low-frequency stimulation of the external globus palladium produces anti-epileptogenic and anti-ictogenic actions in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hui; Kuang, Yi-fang; Liu, Yang; Wang, Yi; Xu, Zheng-hao; Gao, Feng; Zhang, Shi-hong; Ding, Mei-ping; Chen, Zhong

    2015-08-01

    To investigate the anti-epileptic effects of deep brain stimulation targeting the external globus palladium (GPe) in rats. For inducing amygdala kindling and deep brain stimulation, bipolar stainless-steel electrodes were implanted in SD rats into right basolateral amygdala and right GPe, respectively. The effects of deep brain stimulation were evaluated in the amygdala kindling model, maximal electroshock model (MES) and pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) model. Moreover, the background EEGs in the amygdala and GPe were recorded. Low-frequency stimulation (0.1 ms, 1 Hz, 15 min) at the GPe slowed the progression of seizure stages and shortened the after-discharge duration (ADD) during kindling acquisition. Furthermore, low-frequency stimulation significantly decreased the incidence of generalized seizures, suppressed the average stage, and shortened the cumulative ADD and generalized seizure duration in fully kindled rats. In addition, low-frequency stimulation significantly suppressed the average stage of MES-induced seizures and increased the latency to generalized seizures in the PTZ model. High-frequency stimulation (0.1 ms, 130 Hz, 5 min) at the GPe had no anti-epileptic effect and even aggravated epileptogenesis induced by amygdala kindling. EEG analysis showed that low-frequency stimulation at the GPe reversed the increase in delta power, whereas high-frequency stimulation at the GPe had no such effect. Low-frequency stimulation, but not high-frequency stimulation, at the GPe exerts therapeutic effect on temporal lobe epilepsy and tonic-colonic generalized seizures, which may be due to interference with delta rhythms. The results suggest that modulation of GPe activity using low-frequency stimulation or drugs may be a promising epilepsy treatment.

  2. The endogenous hydrogen sulfide producing enzyme cystathionine-β synthase contributes to visceral hypersensitivity in a rat model of irritable bowel syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Jiande DZ

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The pathogenesis of visceral hypersensitivity, a characteristic pathophysiological feature of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS, remains elusive. Recent studies suggest a role for hydrogen sulfide (H2S in pain signaling but this has not been well studied in visceral models of hyperalgesia. We therefore determined the role for the endogenous H2S producing enzyme cystathionine-β-synthetase (CBS in a validated rat model of IBS-like chronic visceral hyperalgesia (CVH. CVH was induced by colonic injection of 0.5% acetic acid (AA in 10-day-old rats and experiments were performed at 8–10 weeks of age. Dorsal root ganglion (DRG neurons innervating the colon were labeled by injection of DiI (1,1'-dioleyl-3,3,3',3-tetramethylindocarbocyanine methanesulfonate into the colon wall. Results In rat DRG, CBS-immunoreactivity was observed in approximately 85% of predominantly small- and medium-sized neurons. Colon specific DRG neurons revealed by retrograde labeling DiI were all CBS-positive. CBS-positive colon neurons co-expressed TRPV1 or P2X3 receptors. Western blotting analysis showed that CBS expression was significantly increased in colon DRGs 8 weeks after neonatal AA-treatment. Furthermore, the CBS inhibitor hydroxylamine markedly attenuated the abdominal withdrawal reflex scores in response to colorectal distention in rats with CVH. By contrast, the H2S donor NaHS significantly enhanced the frequency of action potentials of colon specific DRG neurons evoked by 2 times rheobase electrical stimulation. Conclusion Our results suggest that upregulation of CBS expression in colonic DRG neurons and H2S signaling may play an important role in developing CVH, thus identifying a specific neurobiological target for the treatment of CVH in functional bowel syndromes.

  3. Constraining friction, dilatancy and effective stress with earthquake rates in the deep crust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeler, N. M.; Thomas, A.; Burgmann, R.; Shelly, D. R.

    2015-12-01

    Similar to their behavior on the deep extent of some subduction zones, families of recurring low-frequency earthquakes (LFE) within zones of non-volcanic tremor on the San Andreas fault in central California show strong sensitivity to stresses induced by the tides. Taking all of the LFE families collectively, LFEs occur at all levels of the daily tidal stress, and are in phase with the very small, ~200 Pa, shear stress amplitudes while being uncorrelated with the ~2 kPa tidal normal stresses. Following previous work we assume LFE sources are small, persistent regions that repeatedly fail during shear within a much larger scale, otherwise aseismically creeping fault zone and that the correlation of LFE occurrence reflects modulation of the fault creep rate by the tidal stresses. We examine the predictions of laboratory-observed rate-dependent dilatancy associated with frictional slip. The effect of dilatancy hardening is to damp the slip rate, so high dilatancy under undrained pore pressure reduces modulation of slip rate by the tides. The undrained end-member model produces: 1) no sensitivity to the tidal normal stress, as first suggested in this context by Hawthorne and Rubin [2010], and 2) fault creep rate in phase with the tidal shear stress. Room temperature laboratory-observed values of the dilatancy and friction coefficients for talc, an extremely weak and weakly dilatant material, under-predict the observed San Andreas modulation at least by an order of magnitude owing to too much dilatancy. This may reflect a temperature dependence of the dilatancy and friction coefficients, both of which are expected to be zero at the brittle-ductile transition. The observed tidal modulation constrains the product of the friction and dilatancy coefficients to be at most 5 x 10-7 in the LFE source region, an order of magnitude smaller than observed at room temperature for talc. Alternatively, considering the predictions of a purely rate-dependent talc friction would

  4. Traumatic tracheobronchial stricture treated with the Eder-Puestow dilator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erichsen, H G

    1980-09-01

    A case of tracheobronchial stenosis secondary to trauma is presented. Primary reconstruction resulted in stricture in the distal part of the trachea. Resection and anastomosis was followed by restenosis, which had to be treated endoscopically. Endobronchial resections and forceful dilatations with stiff bronchoscopes were done weekly for about 11 months without lasting benefit. After changing to Eder-Puestow dilators, the dilatations could be done at steadily increasing intervals. This method of dilatation was found to be safe, effective and less traumatic.

  5. Fecal impaction: a cause of isolated small bowel dilatation on abdominal radiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torigian, Drew A.; Levine, Marc S.; Rubesin, Stephen E.; Laufer, Igor

    2001-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess the frequency of isolated small bowel dilatation on abdominal radiographs in patients with colonic fecal impaction and also to elucidate the cause of this finding. Methods: A computerized search of radiology files revealed 515 patients with colonic fecal impaction on abdominal radiographs. The radiologic reports described isolated small bowel dilatation not related to other known causes of ileus or obstruction in 18 (3.5%) of the 515 patients. The films were reviewed to determine the distribution of fecal impaction and the degree and extent of small bowel dilatation. In 16 cases, medical records were reviewed to determine the clinical presentation, treatment, and course. Finally, follow-up radiographs were reviewed in four cases to determine the response to treatment of the impaction. Results: All 16 patients with available medical records had abdominal symptoms. The average diameter of the dilated small bowel on abdominal radiographs was 3.7 cm. Fourteen patients (78%) had a diffuse colonic fecal impaction (nine) or a predominantly right-sided fecal impaction (five) that involved the cecum, and the remaining four (22%) had a left-sided colonic fecal impaction. All 12 patients with clinical follow-up had resolution of symptoms and all four with follow-up radiographs had resolution of small bowel dilatation after treatment of the underlying impaction. Conclusion: Fecal impaction should be considered in the differential diagnosis of small bowel dilatation on abdominal radiographs, as treatment of the underlying impaction usually produces a dramatic clinical response with resolution of the small bowel dilatation on follow-up radiographs

  6. Fluoxetine, 17-β estradiol or folic acid combined with intra-lateral septal infusions of neuropeptide Y produced antidepressant-like actions in ovariectomized rats forced to swim.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Hernández, Miguel; Téllez-Alcántara, N Patricia

    2011-12-01

    Folic acid is antidepressant, either alone or combined with several antidepressant drugs. However, the antidepressant-like actions of folic acid combined with intra-lateral septal (LSN) infusions of neuropeptide Y (NPY) in the forced swimming test (FST) have not been tested before. Thus, systemic injections of fluoxetine (20.0mg/kg, Pfluoxetine (15.0 mg/kg, P<0.05; s.c.) combined with subthreshold doses of NPY (2.5 μg/rat, P<0.05; intra-LSN) and these combinations produced antidepressant-like actions; which were canceled by BIBP 3226 (a NPY-Y1 receptor antagonist). It is concluded that folic acid produced antidepressant-like effects probably through the participation of the NPY Y1 receptors found in the lateral septal nuclei. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. [Effects of melaxen and valdoxan on the activity of glutathione antioxidant system and NADPH-producing enzymes in rat heart under experimental hyperthyroidism conditions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorbenko, M V; Popova, T N; Shul'gin, K K; Popov, S S

    2013-01-01

    The effects of melaxen and valdoxan on the activity of glutathione antioxidant system and some NADPH-producing enzymes have been studied under conditions of experimental hyperthyroidism in rat heart. Under the action of these drugs, reduced glutathione (GSH) content increased as compared to values observed under the conditions of pathology. It has been established that the activities of glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione peroxidase (GP), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, and NADP isocitrate dehydrogenase (increased under pathological conditions) change toward the intact control values upon the introduction of both drugs. The influence of melaxen and valdoxan, capable of producing antioxidant effect, leads apparently to the inhibition of free-radical oxidation processes and, as a consequence, the reduction of mobilization degree of the glutathione antioxidant system.

  8. Resistance to DNA Damaging Agents Produced Invasive Phenotype of Rat Glioma Cells—Characterization of a New in Vivo Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Stojković

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Chemoresistance and invasion properties are severe limitations to efficient glioma therapy. Therefore, development of glioma in vivo models that more accurately resemble the situation observed in patients emerges. Previously, we established RC6 rat glioma cell line resistant to DNA damaging agents including antiglioma approved therapies such as 3-bis(2-chloroethyl-1-nitrosourea (BCNU and temozolomide (TMZ. Herein, we evaluated the invasiveness of RC6 cells in vitro and in a new orthotopic animal model. For comparison, we used C6 cells from which RC6 cells originated. Differences in cell growth properties were assessed by real-time cell analyzer. Cells’ invasive potential in vitro was studied in fluorescently labeled gelatin and by formation of multicellular spheroids in hydrogel. For animal studies, fluorescently labeled cells were inoculated into adult male Wistar rat brains. Consecutive coronal and sagittal brain sections were analyzed 10 and 25 days post-inoculation, while rats’ behavior was recorded during three days in the open field test starting from 25th day post-inoculation. We demonstrated that development of chemoresistance induced invasive phenotype of RC6 cells with significant behavioral impediments implying usefulness of orthotopic RC6 glioma allograft in preclinical studies for the examination of new approaches to counteract both chemoresistance and invasion of glioma cells.

  9. Targeted Temperature Management at 33°C or 36°C Produces Equivalent Neuroprotective Effects in the Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion Rat Model of Ischemic Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung Ho; Lim, Jisoo; Chung, Yong Eun; Chung, Sung Phil; Park, Incheol; Kim, Chul Hoon; You, Je Sung

    2018-01-15

    Targeted temperature management (TTM, 32°C to 36°C) is one of the most successful achievements in modern resuscitation medicine. It has become standard treatment for survivors of sudden cardiac arrest to minimize secondary brain damage. TTM at 36°C is just as effective as TTM at 33°C and is actually preferred because it reduces adverse TTM-associated effects. TTM also likely has direct neuroprotective effects in ischemic brains in danger of stroke. It remains unclear, however, whether higher temperature TTM is equally effective in protecting the brain from the effects of stroke. Here, we asked whether TTM at 36°C is as effective as TTM at 33°C in improving outcomes in a middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model of ischemic stroke. After dividing rats randomly into MCAO, MCAO+33°C TTM, MCAO+36°C TTM and sham groups, we subjected all of them except for the sham group to MCAO for 3 h (for the behavioral tests) or 4 h (for all other biochemical analyses). We found TTM protocols at both 33°C and 36°C produce comparable reductions of infarct volumes in the MCAO territory and equally attenuate the extracellular release of high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) in post-ischemic brains. Both TTM conditions prevent the mRNA induction of a major pro-inflammatory cytokine, TNF-α, in the ischemic penumbra region. Finally, both TTM protocols produce similar improvements in neurological outcomes in rats, as measured by a battery of behavior tests 21 h after the start of reperfusion. These data acquired in a rat MCAO model suggest TTM at 36°C has excellent therapeutic potential for improving clinical outcomes for patients with acute ischemic stroke.

  10. Ghrelin increases intracellular Ca²⁺ concentration in the various hormone-producing cell types of the rat pituitary gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Mami; Aizawa, Sayaka; Tanaka, Toru; Sakai, Takafumi; Sakata, Ichiro

    2012-09-20

    Ghrelin, isolated from the stomach as an endogenous ligand for the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R), has potent growth hormone release ability in vivo and in vitro. Although GHS-R is abundantly expressed in the pituitary gland, there is no direct evidence of a relationship between hormone-producing cells and functional GHS-R in the pituitary gland. The aim of this study was to determine which anterior pituitary cells respond to ghrelin stimulation in male rats. We performed Fura-2 Ca(2+) imaging analysis using isolated pituitary cells, and performed immunocytochemistry to identify the type of pituitary hormone-producing cells. In Fura-2 Ca(2+) imaging analysis, ghrelin administration increased the intracellular Ca(2+) concentration in approximately 50% of total isolated anterior pituitary cells, and 20% of these cells strongly responded to ghrelin. Immunocytochemical analysis revealed that 82.9 ± 1.3% of cells that responded to ghrelin stimulation were GH-immunopositive. On the other hand, PRL-, LH-, and ACTH-immunopositive cells constituted 2.0 ± 0.3%, 12.6 ± 0.3%, and 2.5 ± 0.8% of ghrelin-responding pituitary cells, respectively. TSH-immunopositive cells did not respond to ghrelin treatment. These results suggest that ghrelin directly acts not only on somatotrophs, but also on mammotrophs, gonadotrophs, and corticotrophs in the rat pituitary gland. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Balloon catheter dilatation in the treatment of the subclavian steal syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arlart, I.P.

    1988-01-01

    The present paper reports on the results of PTA in the treatment of subclavian steal syndrome and significant proximal subclavian artery stenosis in thirteen patients. In all cases, it was possible to dilate the stenoses successfully and without complications. Cerebral symptoms caused by the steal phenomenon (seven patients) were relieved in all cases and ischaemic symptoms in the arms produced by exercise were cured in ten out of eleven patients. Balloon catheter dilatation of proximal subclavian stenosis in symptomatic patients is the treatment of choice, as judged by our own experience and the data in the literature. (orig.) [de

  12. Neuregulin-1/erbB-activation improves cardiac function and survival in models of ischemic, dilated, and viral cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xifu; Gu, Xinhua; Li, Zhaoming; Li, Xinyan; Li, Hui; Chang, Jianjie; Chen, Ping; Jin, Jing; Xi, Bing; Chen, Denghong; Lai, Donna; Graham, Robert M; Zhou, Mingdong

    2006-10-03

    We evaluated the therapeutic potential of a recombinant 61-residue neuregulin-1 (beta2a isoform) receptor-active peptide (rhNRG-1) in multiple animal models of heart disease. Activation of the erbB family of receptor tyrosine kinases by rhNRG-1 could provide a treatment option for heart failure, because neuregulin-stimulated erbB2/erbB4 heterodimerization is not only critical for myocardium formation in early heart development but prevents severe dysfunction of the adult heart and premature death. Disabled erbB-signaling is also implicated in the transition from compensatory hypertrophy to failure, whereas erbB receptor-activation promotes myocardial cell growth and survival and protects against anthracycline-induced cardiomyopathy. rhNRG-1 was administered IV to animal models of ischemic, dilated, and viral cardiomyopathy, and cardiac function and survival were evaluated. Short-term intravenous administration of rhNRG-1 to normal dogs and rats did not alter hemodynamics or cardiac contractility. In contrast, rhNRG-1 improved cardiac performance, attenuated pathological changes, and prolonged survival in rodent models of ischemic, dilated, and viral cardiomyopathy, with the survival benefits in the ischemic model being additive to those of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor therapy. In addition, despite continued pacing, rhNRG-1 produced global improvements in cardiac function in a canine model of pacing-induced heart failure. These beneficial effects make rhNRG-1 promising as a broad-spectrum therapeutic for the treatment of heart failure due to a variety of common cardiac diseases.

  13. Effect of Maternal Intake of Organically or Conventionally Produced Feed on Oral Tolerance Development in Offspring Rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melballe Jensen, Maja; Halekoh, Ulrich; Stokes, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    (organic or conventional) or a chow. Second-generation rats were exposed to ovalbumin (OVA) via their mother’s milk and subsequently challenged with OVA after weaning onto the chow diet. In the chow diet group feeding the dams OVA resulted in suppression of the pups’ anti-OVA antibody response to the OVA...... challenge (total OVA-specific IgG was 197 for the OVA-treated chow diet group and 823 for the control chow diet group (arbitrary ELISA units)). In contrast, OVA exposure of the dams from the plant-based dietary groups did not result in a similar suppression. Cultivation system had no effect...... on the immunological biomarkers, except for a higher spleen prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) concentration in pups originating from dams fed the conventional plant-based diet (223 ng/L) than from those fed the organic plant-based diet (189 ng/L)....

  14. Biodistribution study of 153Sm-EDTMP produced by irradiation of natural and enriched Samarium, in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meftahi, M.; Bahrami Samani, A.; Babaei, M. H.; Shamsaei Zafarghandi, M.; Ghannadi Maragheh, M.

    2010-01-01

    ''1 53 Sm-EDTMP is one of the well known radiopharmaceuticals for pain palliation of bone metastases. Despite that, it is used just in a few countries. It is due to some reasons like being costly enriched samarium that usually used as target for irradiation and short half-life of 153 Sm. In this investigation, certain amounts of radiopharmaceuticals prepared by irradiation of enriched and natural samarium were injected to some normal rats. Then, the rodents were sacrificed and some of their organs were removed. All of the mentioned stages were performed in order to consider the possibility of exploiting natural samarium instead of enriched samarium by study of biodistribution of both radiopharmaceuticals in various organs especially in bone as the target tissue. At the end, the acceptable results were obtained using natural samarium in comparison with the enriched samarium from the point of view of the biodistribution studies.

  15. Overexpression of human GATA-1 and GATA-2 interferes with spine formation and produces depressive behavior in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miyeon Choi

    Full Text Available Functional consequences to which vertebrate GATA transcription factors contribute in the adult brain remain largely an open question. The present study examines how human GATA-1 and GATA-2 (hGATA-1 and hGATA-2 are linked to neuronal differentiation and depressive behaviors in rats. We investigated the effects of adeno-associated viral expression of hGATA-1 and hGATA-2 (AAV-hGATA1 and AAV-hGATA2 in the dentate gyrus (DG of the dorsal hippocampus on dendrite branching and spine number. We also examined the influence of AAV-hGATA1 and AAV-hGATA2 infusions into the dorsal hippocampus on rodent behavior in models of depression. Viral expression of hGATA-1 and hGATA-2 cDNA in rat hippocampal neurons impaired dendritic outgrowth and spine formation. Moreover, viral-mediated expression of hGATA-1 and hGATA-2 in the dorsal hippocampus caused depressive-like deficits in the forced swim test and learned helplessness models of depression, and decreased the expression of several synapse-related genes as well as spine number in hippocampal neurons. Conversely, shRNA knockdown of GATA-2 increased synapse-related gene expression, spine number, and dendrite branching. The results demonstrate that hGATA-1 and hGATA-2 expression in hippocampus is sufficient to cause depressive like behaviors that are associated with reduction in spine synapse density and expression of synapse-related genes.

  16. Optimal unitary dilation for bosonic Gaussian channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caruso, Filippo; Eisert, Jens; Giovannetti, Vittorio; Holevo, Alexander S.

    2011-01-01

    A general quantum channel can be represented in terms of a unitary interaction between the information-carrying system and a noisy environment. In this paper the minimal number of quantum Gaussian environmental modes required to provide a unitary dilation of a multimode bosonic Gaussian channel is analyzed for both pure and mixed environments. We compute this quantity in the case of pure environment corresponding to the Stinespring representation and give an improved estimate in the case of mixed environment. The computations rely, on one hand, on the properties of the generalized Choi-Jamiolkowski state and, on the other hand, on an explicit construction of the minimal dilation for arbitrary bosonic Gaussian channel. These results introduce a new quantity reflecting ''noisiness'' of bosonic Gaussian channels and can be applied to address some issues concerning transmission of information in continuous variables systems.

  17. Cosmic time dilation: The clock paradox revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomaschitz, Roman

    2004-01-01

    The relativistic time dilation is reviewed in a cosmological context. We show that a clock or twin paradox does not arise if cosmic time is properly taken into account. The receding galaxy background provides a unique frame of reference, and the proper times of geodesic as well as accelerated observers can be linked to the universal cosmic time parameter. This suggests to compare the proper time differentials of the respective observers by determining their state of motion in the galaxy grid. In this way, each observer can figure out whether his proper time is dilated or contracted relative to any other. In particular one can come to unambiguous conclusions on the aging of uniformly moving observers, without reference to asymmetries in measurement procedures or accelerations they may have undergone

  18. Gallium 67 scintigraphic examination of dilated myocardiopathies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lanfranchi, J.; Sachs, R.N.; Beaudet, B.; Deblock, C.; Tellier, P.

    1989-01-01

    Twenty-seven patients were diagnosed as having dilated cardiomyopathies, based on increases in the cardiothoracic index > 0.50, in the diastolic and systolic diameters of the left ventricle, and in the telediastolic volume of the left ventricle, which was indexed by body surface determined by contrast ventriculography. They underwent gallium 67 scintigraphic examination of the myocardium, in order to non-invasively detect the presence of an inflammatory infiltrate. Fifteen of them also had endomyocardial biopsies and all had virology check-up. The results were disappointing. Only in one case was the scintigraphic image undeniably positive; in 20 other patients the findings were dubious or negative. This technique did not demonstrate the presence of an inflammatory infiltrate and thus an association between myocarditis and dilated cardiomyopathy, could not be established [fr

  19. Histologic characterization of canine dilated cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tidholm, A; Jönsson, L

    2005-01-01

    Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), characterized by chamber dilatation and myocardial systolic and diastolic dysfunction, is one of the most common heart diseases in dogs. The clinical diagnosis is based on findings on echocardiographic and Doppler examinations, with the active exclusion of other acquired or congenital heart diseases. However, the echocardiographic criteria for the diagnosis of DCM are not wholly specific for the disease, and histologic examination may be necessary for final diagnosis. Review of reports on histologic findings in dogs with clinically diagnosed DCM reveals two histologically distinct forms of DCM: 1) cardiomyopathy of Boxers and Doberman Pinschers, corresponding to the "fatty infiltration-degenerative" type and 2) the form seen in many giant, large-, and medium-sized breeds, including some Boxers and Doberman Pinschers, classified as the "attenuated wavy fiber" type of DCM. The histologic changes of the attenuated wavy fiber type of DCM may precede clinical and echocardiographic signs of heart disease, thus indicating an early stage of DCM.

  20. Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey Kondrashov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to perform a chemical analysis of both Alibernet red wine and an alcohol-free Alibernet red wine extract (AWE and to investigate the effects of AWE on nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species production as well as blood pressure development in normotensive Wistar Kyoto (WKY and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs. Total antioxidant capacity together with total phenolic and selected mineral content was measured in wine and AWE. Young 6-week-old male WKY and SHR were treated with AWE (24,2 mg/kg/day for 3 weeks. Total NOS and SOD activities, eNOS and SOD1 protein expressions, and superoxide production were determined in the tissues. Both antioxidant capacity and phenolic content were significantly higher in AWE compared to wine. The AWE increased NOS activity in the left ventricle, aorta, and kidney of SHR, while it did not change NOS activity in WKY rats. Similarly, increased SOD activity in the plasma and left ventricle was observed in SHR only. There were no changes in eNOS and SOD1 expressions. In conclusion, phenolics and minerals included in AWE may contribute directly to increased NOS and SOD activities of SHR. Nevertheless, 3 weeks of AWE treatment failed to affect blood pressure of SHR.

  1. Characterization of dilation analytic integral kernels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vici, A D [Rome Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Matematica

    1979-11-01

    The author characterises integral operators belonging to B(L/sup 2/(R/sup 3/)) which are dilatation analytic in the Cartesian product of two sectors Ssub(a) contains C as analytic functions from Ssub(a) X Ssub(a) into B(L/sup 2/(..cap omega..)), the space of bounded operators on square integrable functions on the unit sphere ..cap omega.., which satisfy certain norm estimates uniformly on every subsector.

  2. Dilatation transformation in the string model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chikashige, Y [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Coll. of General Education; Hosoda, M; Saito, S

    1975-05-01

    Dilatation transformation is discussed in the string model. We show that it becomes meaningful in the infinite slope limit of Regge trajectories for the motion of a free string. It turns out to be equivalent to the high energy limit of the dual amplitudes, with the Regge slope kept finite, in the case of interacting strings. The scaling phenomenon is explained from this point of view.

  3. Sparse geometric graphs with small dilation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aronov, B.; Berg, de M.; Cheong, O.; Gudmundsson, J.; Haverkort, H.J.; Vigneron, A.; Deng, X.; Du, D.

    2005-01-01

    Given a set S of n points in the plane, and an integer k such that 0 = k dilation O(n / (k + 1)) can be computed in time O(n log n). We also construct n–point sets for which any geometric graph with n – 1 + k edges

  4. Balloon Dilatation of Esophageal Strictures/Achalasia

    OpenAIRE

    Sabharwal, Tarun; Adam, Andreas

    2004-01-01

    Achalasia is an esophageal motor disorder characterized by increased lower esophageal sphincter (LES) pressure, diminished-to-absent peristalsis in the distal portion of the esophagus composed of smooth muscle, and lack of a coordinated LES relaxation in response to swallowing. These abnormalities are recognized radiographically by aperistalsis, esophageal dilatation, and decreased opening of the LES, with a characteristic “bird-beak” appearance. The principal symptom of this disorder is dysp...

  5. Functional dilatation and medial remodeling of the renal artery in response to chronic increased blood flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roan, Jun-Neng; Yeh, Chin-Yi; Chiu, Wen-Cheng; Lee, Chou-Hwei; Chang, Shih-Wei; Jiangshieh, Ya-Fen; Tsai, Yu-Chuan; Lam, Chen-Fuh

    2011-01-01

    Renal blood flow (RBF) is tightly regulated by several intrinsic pathways in maintaining optimal kidney blood supply. Using a rat model of aortocaval (AC) fistula, we investigated remodeling of the renal artery following prolonged increased blood flow. An AC fistula was created in the infrarenal aorta of anesthetized rats, and changes of blood flow in the renal artery were assessed using an ultrasonic flow probe. Morphological changes and expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase and matrix metalloproteinase-2 in the remodeled renal artery were analyzed. Blood flow in the renal artery increased immediately after creation of AC fistula, but normal RBF was restored 8 weeks later. The renal artery dilated significantly 8 weeks after operation. Expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase and matrix metalloproteinase-2 was upregulated shortly after blood flow increase, and returned to baseline levels after 3 weeks. Histological sections showed luminal dilatation with medial thickening and endothelial cell-to-smooth muscle cell attachments in the remodeled renal artery. Increased RBF was accommodated by functional dilatation and remodeling in the medial layer of the renal artery in order to restore normal blood flow. Our results provide important mechanistic insight into the intrinsic regulation of the renal artery in response to increased RBF. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Computed tomography of hepatocellular carcinoma. Dilatation of intrahepatic bile duct

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Soomi; Nakamura, Hitonobu; Tanaka, Ken; Hori, Shinichi; Tokunaga, Kou [Osaka Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine

    1983-10-01

    Based on a series of CT of the liver in 125 patients with hepatoma and 45 patients with metastatic hepatic tumors, the mode of dilatation of the intrahepatic bile duct was examined. In patients with hepatoma, partia dilatations of intrahepatic bile duct were more commonly seen than general dilatations. On the other hand, there was no case of partial dilatation of the intrahepatic bile duct in patients with metastatic hepatic tumors. It could be concluded that partial dilatation of the intrahepatic bile duct is an useful CT finding to make a diagnosis of hepatoma, particularly to differentiate hepatoma from metastatic hepatic tumor.

  7. Balloon catheter dilatation of benign urethral strictures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perini, L.; Cavallo, A.; Perin, B.; Bighi, G.

    1988-01-01

    The authors report their experience of benign urethral stricture dilatation by balloon catheter in 11 male patients. Ten posterior and 2 anterior urethral strictures were treated; in 1 patients several narrowings coexisted at various levels. Etiology was inflammatory in 4 cases, iatrogen in 3, post-traumatic in 2, and equivocal in 2. The patients were studied both before and soon after dilatation by means of retrograde and voiding cystourethrogram and uroflowgraphy; the follow-up (2-14 months) was performed by urodynamic alone. In all cases, dilatation was followed by the restoration of urethral gauge, together with prompt functional improvement of urodynamic parameters. The latter result subsisted in time in 9 patients. In 2 cases recurrences were observed demonstrated at once by clinics and urodynamics. Both lesions were successfully re-treated. Neither early not late complication occurred. In spite of the limited material, the valuable results obtained, together with the absence of complications, the peculiar morphology of recurrences, and the chance of repeating it make the procedure advisable as a valid alternative to conventional techniques for these pathologies

  8. Time dilation in quantum systems and decoherence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pikovski, Igor; Zych, Magdalena; Costa, Fabio; Brukner, Časlav

    2017-01-01

    Both quantum mechanics and general relativity are based on principles that defy our daily intuitions, such as time dilation, quantum interference and entanglement. Because the regimes where the two theories are typically tested are widely separated, their foundational principles are rarely jointly studied. Recent works have found that novel phenomena appear for quantum particles with an internal structure in the presence of time dilation, which can take place at low energies and in weak gravitational fields. Here we briefly review the effects of time dilation on quantum interference and generalize the results to a variety of systems. In addition, we provide an extended study of the basic principles of quantum theory and relativity that are of relevance for the effects and also address several questions that have been raised, such as the description in different reference frames, the role of the equivalence principle and the effective irreversibility of the decoherence. The manuscript clarifies some of the counterintuitive aspects arising when quantum phenomena and general relativistic effects are jointly considered. (paper)

  9. Protective effects of Rosmarinic acid against renal ischaemia/reperfusion injury in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozturk, H.; Ozturk, H.; Terzi, E.H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the potential protective effects of Rosmarinic acid (RA) on rats exposed to ischaemia/reperfusion renal injury. Methods: The prospective study was conducted at Abant Izzet Baysal University, Turkey, and comprised 21 male Spraque Dawley rats weighing 250-270g each. They were divided into three equal groups. Unilaterally nephrectomised rats were subjected to 60 minutes of left renal ischaemia followed by 60 minutes of reperfusion. Group 1 had shamoperated animals; group 2 had ischaemia/reperfusion untreated animals; and group 3 had ischaemia/reperfusion animals treated with rosmarinic acid. Serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, tissue malondialdehyde, glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activities, and light microscopic findings were evaluated. SPSS 17 was used for statistical analysis. Results: Treatment of rats with rosmarinic acid produced a reduction in the serum levels of creatinine and blood urea nitrogen compared to the other groups. However, no statistically significant difference was found. The levels of malondialdehyde and myeloperoxidase were decreased in the renal tissue of group 3, while glutathione peroxidose and superoxide dismutase levels remained unchanged. The injury score decreased in the treatment group rats compared to the untreated group. Rosmarinic acid significantly decreased focal glomerular necrosis, dilatation of Bowman's capsule, degeneration of tubular epithelium, necrosis in tubular epithelium, and tubular dilatation. Conclusions: Rosmarinic acid prevented ischaemia/reperfusion injury in the kidneys by decreasing oxidative stress. (author)

  10. Infusions of allopregnanolone into the hippocampus and amygdala, but not into the nucleus accumbens and medial prefrontal cortex, produce antidepressant effects on the learned helplessness rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirayama, Yukihiko; Muneoka, Katsumasa; Fukumoto, Makoto; Tadokoro, Shigenori; Fukami, Goro; Hashimoto, Kenji; Iyo, Masaomi

    2011-10-01

    Patients with depression showed a decrease in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid allopregnanolone (ALLO). But antidepressants increased the contents of ALLO in the rat brain. We examined the antidepressant-like effects of infusion of ALLO into the cerebral ventricle, hippocampus, amygdala, nucleus accumbens, or prefrontal cortex of learned helplessness (LH) rats (an animal model of depression). Of these regions, infusions of ALLO into the cerebral ventricle, the CA3 region of hippocampus, or the central region of amygdala exerted antidepressant-like effects. Infusion of ALLO into the hippocampal CA3 region or the central amygdala did not produce memory deficits or locomotor activation in the passive avoidance and open field tests. It is well documented that ALLO exerts its effects through GABA receptors. Therefore, we examined the antagonistic effects of flumazenil (a GABA receptor antagonist) on the antidepressant-like effects of ALLO. Coinfusion of flumazenil with ALLO into the hippocampal CA3 region, but not into the central amygdala, blocked the antidepressant-like effects of ALLO. However, coinfusion of (+)MK801 (an NMDA receptor antagonist), but not cycloheximide (a protein synthesis inhibitor), blocked the antidepressant-like effects of ALLO in the central amygdala. These results suggest that ALLO exerts antidepressant-like effects in the CA3 region of hippocampus through the GABA system and in the central region of amygdala, dependently on the activation of the glutamatergic mechanisms. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. Um modelo experimental de ablação do Sistema Nervoso Intrínseco Cardíaco reduz a contratilidade do coração de ratos A new experimental model of chemical ablation of the Intrinsic Cardiac Nervous System reduces heart contractility and causes a type of dilated cardiopathy in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adilson Scorzoni Filho

    2004-09-01

    denervation of the viscera. Thus, our aim was to obtain an experimental model of cardiac intrinsic denervation by the application of BC. METHOD: Thirty male Wistar rats received intrapericardic injection of CB 0.3% (CB animals and thirty similar animals received saline (C animals. After 15 days the animals were divided in three groups, with 10 CB-treated and 10 saline-treated animals each. Group I was submitted to radiological and morphologic studies. The cardiac shadow area (CSA and cardiothoracic index were calculated in roentgenograms with a semi-automatic image analysis system (MINI-MOP. The day after the animals were weighted and sacrificed with heart, liver and lung collected for histopathologic analysis. The animals of group II were submitted to a hemodynamic study. Measurements of blood pressure, heart rate and cardiac output were performed using the Cardiomax II termodilution system and a Termistor sensor. With the animals of the group III, the integrity of extrinsic parassympatic cardiac innervartion was examined by measuring heart rate response to electrical stimulation of the right vagus. Electrical activity was assessed by ECG. RESULTS: CB animals presented increases in cardiothoracic index, CSA, body and liver weight. In these animals the histopathologic analysis showed passive chronic congestion and reduction of the number of atrial neurons. In the hemodynamic study, total peripheral resistance and heart rate were similar in both groups, but blood pressure and cardiac index were reduced in the CB group. The vagal stimulation and ECG were similar in both groups. CONCLUSION: The Intrinsic Cardiac Nervous System denervation caused dilated cardiopathy in rats with left and right heart failure. The etiology of some dilated cardiopathies in human is largely unknown. Thisunpublished experimental model should provide future studies with the objective of elucidating the relationship between neuronal injures and heart disease.

  12. Comparison of Pneumatic Dilation with Pneumatic Dilation Plus Botulinum Toxin for Treatment of Achalasia

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    Alireza Bakhshipour

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Among the therapeutic options for achalasia are pneumatic dilatation (PD, an appropriate long-term therapy, and botulinum toxin injection (BT that is a relatively short-term therapy. This study aimed to compare therapeutic effect of repetitive pneumatic dilation with a combined method (botulinum toxin injection and pneumatic dilation in a group of achalasia patients who are low responder to two initial pneumatic dilations. Thirty- four patients with documented primary achalasia that had low response to two times PD (<50% decrease in symptom score and barium height at 5 minute in timed esophagogram after 3month of late PD were randomized to receive pneumatic dilation (n=18 or botulinum toxin injection and pneumatic dilation by four weeks interval (n=16, PD and BT+PD groups respectively. Symptom scores were evaluated before and at 1, 6 and 12 months after treatment. Clinical remission was defined as a decrease in symptom score ≥ 50% of baseline. There were no significant differences between the two groups in gender, age and achalasia type. Remission rate of patients in BT-PD group in comparison with PD group were 87.5% vs. 67.1% (P = 0.7, 87.5% vs. 61.1% (P = 0.59 and 87.5% vs. 55.5% (P = 0.53 at 1, 6 and 12 months respectively .There were no major complications in either group. The mean symptom score decreased by 62.71% in the BT-PD group (P < 0.002 and 50.77% in the PD group (P < 0.01 at the end of the first year. Despite a better response rate in BT+PD group, a difference was not statistically significant. A difference may be meaningful if a large numbers of patients are included in the study.

  13. In a rat model of night work, activity during the normal resting phase produces desynchrony in the hypothalamus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgado-Delgado, Roberto; Nadia, Saderi; Angeles-Castellanos, M; Buijs, Ruud M; Escobar, Carolina

    2010-12-01

    Internal synchrony among external cycles and internal oscillators allows adaptation of physiology to cyclic demands for homeostasis. Night work and shift work lead to a disrupted phase relationship between external time cues and internal rhythms, also losing internal coherence among oscillations. This process results in internal desynchrony (ID) in which behavioral, hormonal, and metabolic variables cycle out of phase. It is still not clear whether ID originates at a peripheral or at a central level. In order to determine the possible role of hypothalamic oscillators in ID, we explored with a rat model of "night work" daily rhythms of activity and clock gene expression in the hypothalamus. This study provides evidence that wakefulness and activity during the normal resting phase lead to a shift in the diurnal rhythms of c-Fos and induce a rhythm of PER1 in the arcuate and dorsomedial nucleus of the hypothalamus, both associated with metabolism and regulation of the sleep/wake cycle. Moreover, the number of orexin (ORX)-positive neurons and c-Fos in the perifornical area increased during the working period, suggesting a relevant switch of activity in this brain region induced by the scheduled activity; however, the colocalization of c-Fos in ORX-positive cells was not increased. In contrast, the suprachiasmatic nucleus and the paraventricular nucleus remained locked to the light/dark cycle, resulting in ID in the hypothalamus. Present data suggest that ID occurs already at the level of the first output projections from the SCN, relaying nuclei that transmit temporal signals to other brain areas and to the periphery.

  14. High salt intake increases plasma trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) concentration and produces gut dysbiosis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielinska, Klaudia; Radkowski, Marek; Grochowska, Marta; Perlejewski, Karol; Huc, Tomasz; Jaworska, Kinga; Motooka, Daisuke; Nakamura, Shota; Ufnal, Marcin

    2018-03-22

    A high-salt diet is considered a cardiovascular risk factor; however, the mechanisms are not clear. Research suggests that gut bacteria-derived metabolites such as trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) are markers of cardiovascular diseases. We evaluated the effect of high salt intake on gut bacteria and their metabolites plasma level. Sprague Dawley rats ages 12-14 wk were maintained on either water (controls) or 0.9% or 2% sodium chloride (NaCl) water solution (isotonic and hypertonic groups, respectively) for 2 wk. Blood plasma, urine, and stool samples were analyzed for concentrations of trimethylamine (TMA; a TMAO precursor), TMAO, and indoxyl sulfate (indole metabolite). The gut-blood barrier permeability to TMA and TMA liver clearance were assessed at baseline and after TMA intracolonic challenge test. Gut bacterial flora was analyzed with a 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA) gene sequence analysis. The isotonic and hypertonic groups showed a significantly higher plasma TMAO and significantly lower 24-hr TMAO urine excretion than the controls. However, the TMA stool level was similar between the groups. There was no significant difference between the groups in gut-blood barrier permeability and TMA liver clearance. Plasma indoxyl concentration and 24-hr urine indoxyl excretion were similar between the groups. There was a significant difference between the groups in gut bacteria composition. High salt intake increases plasma TMAO concentration, which is associated with decreased TMAO urine excretion. Furthermore, high salt intake alters gut bacteria composition. These findings suggest that salt intake affects an interplay between gut bacteria and their host homeostasis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Neurokinin B-producing projection neurons in the lateral stripe of the striatum and cell clusters of the accumbens nucleus in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ligang; Furuta, Takahiro; Kaneko, Takeshi

    2004-12-06

    Neurons producing preprotachykinin B (PPTB), the precursor of neurokinin B, constitute 5% of neurons in the dorsal striatum and project to the substantia innominata (SI) selectively. In the ventral striatum, PPTB-producing neurons are collected mainly in the lateral stripe of the striatum (LSS) and cell clusters of the accumbens nucleus (Acb). In the present study, we first examined the distribution of PPTB-immunoreactive neurons in rat ventral striatum and found that a large part of the PPTB-immunoreactive cell clusters was continuous to the LSS, but a smaller part was not. Thus, we divided the PPTB-immunoreactive cell clusters into the LSS-associated and non-LSS-associated ones. We next investigated the projection targets of the PPTB-producing ventral striatal neurons by combining immunofluorescence labeling and retrograde tracing. After injection of Fluoro-Gold into the basal component of the SI (SIb) and medial part of the interstitial nucleus of posterior limb of the anterior commissure, many PPTB-immunoreactive neurons were retrogradely labeled in the LSS-associated cell clusters and LSS, respectively. When the injection site included the ventral part of the sublenticular component of the SI(SIsl), retrogradely labeled neurons showed PPTB-immunoreactivity frequently in non-LSS-associated cell clusters. Furthermore, these PPTB-immunoreactive projections were confirmed by the double-fluorescence method after anterograde tracer injection into the ventral striatum containing the cell clusters. Since the dorsalmost part of the SIsl is known to receive strong inputs from PPTB-producing dorsal striatal neurons, the present results indicate that PPTB-producing ventral striatal neurons project to basal forebrain target regions in parallel with dorsal striatal neurons without significant convergence. 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. Decrement in operant performance produced by NMDA receptor antagonists in the rat: tolerance and cross-tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dravolina, O A; Zvartau, E E; Bespalov, A Y

    2000-04-01

    Current perspectives on the clinical use of NMDA receptor antagonists infer repeated administration schedules for the management of different pathological states. The development of tolerance and cross-tolerance between different NMDA receptor antagonists may be an important factor contributing to the clinical efficacy of these drugs. The present study aimed to characterize the development of tolerance and cross-tolerance to the ability of various site-selective NMDA receptor antagonists to produce a decrement of operant responding (multiple extinction 9 s fixed-interval 1-s schedule of water reinforcement). Acute administration of D-CPPen (SDZ EAA 494; 1-5.6 mg/kg), dizocilpine (MK-801; 0.03-0.3 mg/kg), memantine (0.3-17 mg/kg), ACEA-1021 (10-56 mg/kg), and eliprodil (1-30 mg/kg) differentially affected operant responding. Both increases and decreases in response rates and accuracy of responding were observed. Repeated preexposure to D-CPPen (5.6 mg/kg, once a day for 7 days) attenuated a behavioral disruption produced by an acute challenge with D-CPPen or ACEA-1021, but potentiated the effects of dizocilpine, memantine, and eliprodil. Based on the present results, one can suggest that the repeated administration of a competitive NMDA receptor antagonist differentially affects the functional activity of various sites on NMDA receptor complex.

  17. The neural substrates of subjective time dilation

    OpenAIRE

    Marc Wittmann; Marc Wittmann; Marc Wittmann; Virginie Van Wassenhove; Bud Craig; Martin P Paulus; Martin P Paulus

    2010-01-01

    An object moving towards an observer is subjectively perceived as longer in duration than the same object that is static or moving away. This 'time dilation effect' has been shown for a number of stimuli that differ from standard events along different feature dimensions (e.g. color, size, and dynamics). We performed an event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), while subjects viewed a stream of five visual events, all of which were static and of identical duration except the...

  18. The Neural Substrates of Subjective Time Dilation

    OpenAIRE

    Wittmann, Marc; van Wassenhove, Virginie; Craig, A. D. (Bud); Paulus, Martin P.

    2010-01-01

    An object moving towards an observer is subjectively perceived as longer in duration than the same object that is static or moving away. This ”time dilation effect” has been shown for a number of stimuli that differ from standard events along different feature dimensions (e.g. color, size, and dynamics). We performed an event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, while subjects viewed a stream of five visual events, all of which were static and of identical duration exce...

  19. Genetics of Human and Canine Dilated Cardiomyopathy

    OpenAIRE

    Siobhan Simpson; Jennifer Edwards; Thomas F. N. Ferguson-Mignan; Malcolm Cobb; Nigel P. Mongan; Catrin S. Rutland

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is a leading cause of death in both humans and dogs. Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) accounts for a large number of these cases, reported to be the third most common form of cardiac disease in humans and the second most common in dogs. In human studies of DCM there are more than 50 genetic loci associated with the disease. Despite canine DCM having similar disease progression to human DCM studies into the genetic basis of canine DCM lag far behind those of human DCM. In th...

  20. Defective Circulating Regulatory B Cells in Patients with Dilated Cardiomyopathy

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    Jiao Jiao

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Newly identified IL-10-producing regulatory B cells (Bregs have been shown to play an important role in the suppression of immune responses. Chronic immune activation participates in the pathogenesis of dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM but whether Bregs are involved in its development remains unclear. We aimed to investigate the circulating frequency and function of Bregs in DCM. Methods: In total, 35 DCM patients (20 men and 15 women and 44 healthy controls (23 men and 21 women were included in the experiment, and the frequency of Bregs was detected using flow cytometry. Results: According to our results, the frequency of circulating IL-10-producing Bregs was significantly lower in DCM patients compared with healthy controls. Furthermore, the CD24hiCD27+ B cell subset in which IL-10-producing Bregs were mainly enriched from DCM patients showed impaired IL-10 expression and a decreased ability to suppress the TNF-α production of CD4+CD25- Tconv cells and to maintain Tregs differentiation. Correlation analysis showed that the frequency of IL-10-producing Bregs and the suppressive function of CD24hiCD27+ B cells were positively correlated with left ventricular ejection fraction and negatively correlated with NT-proBNP in DCM patients. Conclusions: In conclusion, the reduced frequency and impaired functions suggest a potential role of Bregs in the development of DCM.

  1. Exercise is More Effective at Altering Gut Microbial Composition and Producing Stable Changes in Lean Mass in Juvenile versus Adult Male F344 Rats.

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    Agnieszka Mika

    Full Text Available The mammalian intestine harbors a complex microbial ecosystem that influences many aspects of host physiology. Exposure to specific microbes early in development affects host metabolism, immune function, and behavior across the lifespan. Just as the physiology of the developing organism undergoes a period of plasticity, the developing microbial ecosystem is characterized by instability and may also be more sensitive to change. Early life thus presents a window of opportunity for manipulations that produce adaptive changes in microbial composition. Recent insights have revealed that increasing physical activity can increase the abundance of beneficial microbial species. We therefore investigated whether six weeks of wheel running initiated in the juvenile period (postnatal day 24 would produce more robust and stable changes in microbial communities versus exercise initiated in adulthood (postnatal day 70 in male F344 rats. 16S rRNA gene sequencing was used to characterize the microbial composition of juvenile versus adult runners and their sedentary counterparts across multiple time points during exercise and following exercise cessation. Alpha diversity measures revealed that the microbial communities of young runners were less even and diverse, a community structure that reflects volatility and malleability. Juvenile onset exercise altered several phyla and, notably, increased Bacteroidetes and decreased Firmicutes, a configuration associated with leanness. At the genus level of taxonomy, exercise altered more genera in juveniles than in the adults and produced patterns associated with adaptive metabolic consequences. Given the potential of these changes to contribute to a lean phenotype, we examined body composition in juvenile versus adult runners. Interestingly, exercise produced persistent increases in lean body mass in juvenile but not adult runners. Taken together, these results indicate that the impact of exercise on gut microbiota

  2. Hypocholesterolemic impact of newly isolated sophorolipids produced by microbial conversion of safflower oil cake in rats fed high-fat and cholesterol diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nooman, M.U.; Mahmoud, M.H.; Al-kashef, A.S.; Rashad, M. M.

    2017-01-01

    The present study aims to produce low cost sophorolipids, and to evaluate their potential hypocholesterolemic impact. Sophorolipids were produced by Candida bombicola grown on safflower oil cake, extracted by methanol followed by ethyl acetate with a yield of 24.4 and 48.3 g·100 g−1 mixed substrate, respectively. Their structure was confirmed by FTIR and 1H NMR and proven to be safe when subjected to an acute toxicity test. A biological experiment was done on 42 male albino rats classified into six groups for 4 weeks following an induction period for hypercholesterolemia of 8 weeks. The two extracts and their mixture were examined for their hypocholesterolemic effect compared to rosuvastatin. The results revealed a reduction in total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, atherogenic index, liver transaminases’ activity and malondialdehyde. They also revealed an elevation in high density lipoprotein cholesterol and antioxidant enzymes which was more efficient than rosuvastatin. Histopathological examination confirmed these results. In conclusion, the newly isolated sophorolipids are powerful hypocholesterolemic compounds which are even more efficient and safer than rosuvastatin. [es

  3. Hypocholesterolemic impact of newly isolated sophorolipids produced by microbial conversion of safflower oil cake in rats fed high-fat and cholesterol diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. U. Nooman

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to produce low cost sophorolipids, and to evaluate their potential hypocholesterolemic impact. Sophorolipids were produced by Candida bombicola grown on safflower oil cake, extracted by methanol followed by ethyl acetate with a yield of 24.4 and 48.3 g·100 g-1 mixed substrate, respectively. Their structure was confirmed by FTIR and 1H NMR and proven to be safe when subjected to an acute toxicity test. A biological experiment was done on 42 male albino rats classified into six groups for 4 weeks following an induction period for hypercholesterolemia of 8 weeks. The two extracts and their mixture were examined for their hypocholesterolemic effect compared to rosuvastatin. The results revealed a reduction in total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, atherogenic index, liver transaminases’ activity and malondialdehyde. They also revealed an elevation in high density lipoprotein cholesterol and antioxidant enzymes which was more efficient than rosuvastatin. Histopathological examination confirmed these results. In conclusion, the newly isolated sophorolipids are powerful hypocholesterolemic compounds which are even more efficient and safer than rosuvastatin.

  4. Roentgenoendovascular dilatation and recanalization of vessels of lower extremities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabkin, I.Kh.; Matevosov, A.L.; Gotman, L.N.

    1987-01-01

    Advantages and disadvantages of using roentgenoendovascular dilatation (RED) of vessels of lower extremities are presented. RED is recommended in treating patients with short segmented stenoses of common and external illiac arteries and also with the similar damages of surficial femoral arteries. Dilatation is a success when there is permeability in at least one of the three central crus arteries. Success of delayed results of vessel dilatation is to a certain degree in inverse proportion to time and length of occlusion

  5. Gastric Necrosis due to Acute Massive Gastric Dilatation

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    Ibrahim Aydin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastric necrosis due to acute massive gastric dilatation is relatively rare. Vascular reasons, herniation, volvulus, acute gastric dilatation, anorexia, and bulimia nervosa play a role in the etiology of the disease. Early diagnosis and treatment are highly important as the associated morbidity and mortality rates are high. In this case report, we present a case of gastric necrosis due to acute gastric dilatation accompanied with the relevant literature.

  6. Gastric Necrosis due to Acute Massive Gastric Dilatation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Ibrahim; Pergel, Ahmet; Yucel, Ahmet Fikret; Sahin, Dursun Ali; Ozer, Ender

    2013-01-01

    Gastric necrosis due to acute massive gastric dilatation is relatively rare. Vascular reasons, herniation, volvulus, acute gastric dilatation, anorexia, and bulimia nervosa play a role in the etiology of the disease. Early diagnosis and treatment are highly important as the associated morbidity and mortality rates are high. In this case report, we present a case of gastric necrosis due to acute gastric dilatation accompanied with the relevant literature.

  7. Percutaneous Dilatational Tracheostomy via Griggs Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimpour, Hasan Ali; Vafaii, Kamran; Chalechale, Maryam; Mohammadi, Saeed; Kaviannezhad, Rasool

    2017-01-01

    Tracheostomy is considered the airway management of choice for patients who need prolonged mechanical ventilation support. Percutaneous Dilatational Tracheotomy (PDT) is a technique that can be performed easily and rapidly at bedside and is particularly useful in the intensive care setting. The Griggs percutaneous tracheotomy is unique in its utilization of a guide wire dilator forceps. We aimed to describe the early perioperative and late postoperative complications of PDT using the Griggs technique in patients in the intensive care unit (ICU). This cross-sectional study was conducted on all patients who underwent tracheostomy in the ICU of the Imam Reza Hospital of Kermanshah, Iran, from June 2011 to June 2015. PDT was performed in 184 patients with the Griggs technique. Demographic variables, as well as perioperative and late postoperative complications were recorded. The mean age of patients was 57.3 ± 15.37 years. The most common primary causes of tracheostomy were hypoxic brain damage disorders (43.2%) and pneumonia (14.8%). Perioperative and early complications occurred in 16.7 % of procedures, of which 9.3% were bleedings (minor, significant and major). Furthermore, the incidence of late complications was 8.6%, including: stomal infection, difficult replace tracheostomy tube, tracheoesophageal fistula, tracheal stenosis, and tracheomalacia. PDT via Griggs technique is a safe, quick, and effective method. The low incidence of complications indicates that bedside percutaneous tracheostomy can be performed safely as a routine procedure for daily care implemented in the ICU.

  8. Characterization of phosphorus metabolism in dilated cardiomyopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auffermann, W.; Chew, W.; Tavares, N.J.; Donnelly, T.; Parmley, W.W.; Chatterjee, K.; Wolfe, C.; Higgins, C.B.

    1988-01-01

    Five patients with dilated cardiomyopathy (ejection fraction, ∼25%) and six normal volunteers were studied with localized, gated P-31 MR spectroscopy at 1.5 T. The typical peaks of adenogine triphosphate (ATP[, phosphocreatine (PCr), phosphodiesters (PD), and peaks attributable to 2,3 diphosphoglycerate, inorganic phosphate, and phosphomonoesters were identified and the areas under each peak numerically integrated after baseline correction. PCr/β-ATP was not significantly lower (1.42 +- 0.06 vs 1.54 +- 0.04), but PD/PCr (1.1 +- 0.02 vs 0.6 +- 0.1) (P ≤ .01) and PD/β-ATP (1.50 +- 0.04 vs 0.97 +- 0.17) (P ≤ .05) were significantly higher in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy compared with normal volunteers. Thus, localized, gated P-31 MR spectroscopy in cardiomyopathic patients identifies abnormal myocardial phosphorus metabolism, which might become useful to monitor noninvasively the response to positive inotropic therapy

  9. Gastric Dilation and Volvulus Syndrome in Dog

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    Ami S. Bhatia

    Full Text Available Gastric dilatation and volvulus syndrome (GDV in dogs is an abnormal accumulation of gastric gas (dilatation, which may be complicated by rotation of the stomach (volvulus about its mesentric axis. A number of factors, both environmental and host have been implicated in GDV. This syndrome has a variety of effects on the cardiovascular, respiratory, gastrointestinal, metabolic, haemolymphatic-immune, renal and central nervous systems. Clinical signs include distended, painful, tympanic abdomen, retching, unproductive vomiting, hypersalivation, respiratory distress accompanied by varying degrees of shock. Treatment of GDV includes medical and fluid therapy at shock dosages to initially stabilize the patient followed by gastric decompression. Surgical procedure comprises of gastric derotation followed by partial gastrectomy or spleenectomy depending upon gastric or spleenic viability and lastly, permanent right sided gastropexy. Post surgical considerations include frequent small meals instead of one large meal, avoiding vigorous activity immediately after meals and not allowing animal to gorge on water after meals or activities. [Veterinary World 2010; 3(12.000: 554-557

  10. Dilated congestive cardiomyopathy in Doberman pinschers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calvert, C.A.

    1986-01-01

    Dilated cardiomyopathy of Doberman Pinschers (DCDP) is a progressive disease often presenting with a history of episodic weakness and syncope, or with clinical signs of predominantly left-sided congestive heart failure. A systematic dissection and histomorphologic evaluation of the heart from 32 Doberman Pinschers with a clinical diagnosis of dilated cardiomyopathy revealed a highly specific location for the characteristic myocardial lesions. The lesions of DCDP were found only in the left ventricular free wall, and in 30 cases, the lesions were characterized by myofiber degeneration and atrophy, and replacement of myocardium by dense bundles of collagen and clusters of adipocytes. In the two remaining hearts, myofiber atrophy and degeneration were accompanied by collagen deposition, but not adipocytes. In stained longitudinal (base to apex) tissue sections of the left ventricle, the lesions of DCDP were usually apparent to the unaided eye; appearing as a central linear pale zone, aligned in the long axis of the ventricular free wall. The lesions did not contain inflammatory cell infiltrates and often involved >50% of ventricular wall

  11. Minocycline produced antidepressant-like effects on the learned helplessness rats with alterations in levels of monoamine in the amygdala and no changes in BDNF levels in the hippocampus at baseline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arakawa, Shiho; Shirayama, Yukihiko; Fujita, Yuko; Ishima, Tamaki; Horio, Mao; Muneoka, Katsumasa; Iyo, Masaomi; Hashimoto, Kenji

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have indicated that minocycline might function as an antidepressant drug. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antidepressant-like effects of minocycline, which is known to suppress activated microglia, using learned helplessness (LH) rats (an animal model of depression). Infusion of minocycline into the cerebral ventricle of LH rats induced antidepressant-like effects. However, infusion of minocycline into the cerebral ventricle of naïve rats did not produce locomotor activation in the open field tests, suggesting that the antidepressant-like effects of minocycline were not attributed to the enhanced locomotion. LH rats showed significantly higher serotonin turnover in the orbitofrontal cortex and lower levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the hippocampus than control rats. However, these alterations in serotonin turnover and BDNF expression remained unchanged after treatment with minocycline. On the contrary, minocycline treatment of LH rats induced significant increases in the levels of dopamine and its metabolites in the amygdala when compared with untreated LH rats. Taken together, minocycline may be a therapeutic drug for the treatment of depression. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Vaginal dilator therapy for women receiving pelvic radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Tracie; Johnson, Nick

    2014-09-08

    Vaginal dilation therapy is advocated after pelvic radiotherapy to prevent stenosis (abnormal narrowing of the vagina), but can be uncomfortable and psychologically distressing. To assess the benefits and harms of different types of vaginal dilation methods offered to women treated by pelvic radiotherapy for cancer. Searches included the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL 2013, Issue 5), MEDLINE (1950 to June week 2, 2013), EMBASE (1980 to 2013 week 24) and CINAHL (1982 to 2013). Comparative data of any type, which evaluated dilation or penetration of the vagina after pelvic radiotherapy treatment for cancer. Two review authors independently assessed whether potentially relevant studies met the inclusion criteria. We found no trials and therefore analysed no data. We identified no studies for inclusion in the original review or for this update. However, we felt that some studies that were excluded warranted discussion. These included one randomised trial (RCT), which showed no improvement in sexual scores associated with encouraging women to practise dilation therapy; a recent small RCT that did not show any advantage to dilation over vibration therapy during radiotherapy; two non-randomised comparative studies; and five correlation studies. One of these showed that objective measurements of vaginal elasticity and length were not linked to dilation during radiotherapy, but the study lacked power. One study showed that women who dilated tolerated a larger dilator, but the risk of objectivity and bias with historical controls was high. Another study showed that the vaginal measurements increased in length by a mean of 3 cm after dilation was introduced 6 to 10 weeks after radiotherapy, but there was no control group; another case series showed the opposite. Three recent studies showed less stenosis associated with prophylactic dilation after radiotherapy. One small case series suggested that dilation years after radiotherapy might restore the

  13. Ileal transposition surgery produces ileal length-dependent changes in food intake, body weight, gut hormones and glucose metabolism in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramzy, A R; Nausheen, S; Chelikani, P K

    2014-03-01

    Enhanced stimulation of the lower gut is hypothesized to play a key role in the weight loss and resolution of diabetes following bariatric surgeries. Ileal transposition (IT) permits study of the effects of direct lower gut stimulation on body weight, glucose homeostasis and other metabolic adaptations without the confounds of gastric restriction or foregut exclusion. However, the underlying mechanisms and the length of the ileum sufficient to produce metabolic benefits following IT surgery remain largely unknown. To determine the effects of transposing varying lengths of the ileum to upper jejunum on food intake, body weight, glucose tolerance and lower gut hormones, and the expression of key markers of glucose and lipid metabolism in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue in rats. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (n=9/group) were subjected to IT surgery with translocation of 5, 10 or 20 cm of the ileal segment to proximal jejunum or sham manipulations. Daily food intake and body weight were recorded, and an intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test was performed. Blood samples were assayed for hormones and tissue samples for mRNA (RT-qPCR) and/or protein abundance (immunoblotting) of regulatory metabolic markers. We demonstrate that IT surgery exerts ileal length-dependent effects on multiple parameters including: (1) decreased food intake and weight gain, (2) improved glucose tolerance, (3) increased tissue expression and plasma concentrations of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and peptide YY (PYY), and decreased leptin concentrations and (4) upregulation of key markers of glucose metabolism (glucose transporter-4 (GLUT-4), insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1), adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK), hexokinase (HK) and phosphofructokinase (PFK)) together with a downregulation of lipogenic markers (fatty acid synthase (FAS)) in muscle and adipose tissue. Together, our data demonstrate that the reduction in food intake and weight gain, increase in lower

  14. Sequence-Based Discovery Demonstrates That Fixed Light Chain Human Transgenic Rats Produce a Diverse Repertoire of Antigen-Specific Antibodies

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    Katherine E. Harris

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available We created a novel transgenic rat that expresses human antibodies comprising a diverse repertoire of heavy chains with a single common rearranged kappa light chain (IgKV3-15-JK1. This fixed light chain animal, called OmniFlic, presents a unique system for human therapeutic antibody discovery and a model to study heavy chain repertoire diversity in the context of a constant light chain. The purpose of this study was to analyze heavy chain variable gene usage, clonotype diversity, and to describe the sequence characteristics of antigen-specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs isolated from immunized OmniFlic animals. Using next-generation sequencing antibody repertoire analysis, we measured heavy chain variable gene usage and the diversity of clonotypes present in the lymph node germinal centers of 75 OmniFlic rats immunized with 9 different protein antigens. Furthermore, we expressed 2,560 unique heavy chain sequences sampled from a diverse set of clonotypes as fixed light chain antibody proteins and measured their binding to antigen by ELISA. Finally, we measured patterns and overall levels of somatic hypermutation in the full B-cell repertoire and in the 2,560 mAbs tested for binding. The results demonstrate that OmniFlic animals produce an abundance of antigen-specific antibodies with heavy chain clonotype diversity that is similar to what has been described with unrestricted light chain use in mammals. In addition, we show that sequence-based discovery is a highly effective and efficient way to identify a large number of diverse monoclonal antibodies to a protein target of interest.

  15. Low mercury concentration produces vasoconstriction, decreases nitric oxide bioavailability and increases oxidative stress in rat conductance artery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Núbia Belem Lemos

    Full Text Available Mercury is an environmental pollutant that reduces nitric oxide (NO bioavailability and increases oxidative stress, having a close link with cardiovascular diseases, as carotid atherosclerosis, myocardial infarction, coronary heart disease and hypertension. One of the main sites affected by oxidative stress, which develops atherosclerosis, is the aorta. Under acute exposure to low mercury concentrations reactive oxygen species (ROS production were only reported for resistance vessels but if low concentrations of mercury also affect conductance arteries it is still unclear. We investigated the acute effects of 6 nM HgCl(2 on endothelial function of aortic rings measuring the reactivity to phenylephrine in rings incubated, or not, with HgCl(2 for 45 min, the protein expression for cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2 and the AT1 receptor. HgCl(2 increased Rmax and pD2 to phenylephrine without changing the vasorelaxation induced by acetylcholine and sodium nitroprusside. Endothelial damage abolished the increased reactivity to phenylephrine. The increase of Rmax and pD2 produced by L-NAME was smaller in the presence of HgCl(2. Enalapril, losartan, indomethacin, furegrelate, the selective COX-2 inhibitor NS 398, superoxide dismutase and the NADPH oxidase inhibitor apocynin reverted HgCl(2 effects on the reactivity to phenylephrine, COX-2 protein expression was increased, and AT1 expression reduced. At low concentration, below the reference values, HgCl(2 increased vasoconstrictor activity by reducing NO bioavailability due to increased ROS production by NADPH oxidase activity. Results suggest that this is due to local release of angiotensin II and prostanoid vasoconstrictors. Results also suggest that acute low concentration mercury exposure, occurring time to time could induce vascular injury due to endothelial oxidative stress and contributing to increase peripheral resistance, being a high risk factor for public health.

  16. Postnatal exposure to PCB 153 and PCB 180, but not to PCB 52, produces changes in activity level and stimulus control in outbred male Wistar Kyoto rats

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    Walaas S

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs are a class of organic compounds that bioaccumulate due to their chemical stability and lipophilic properties. Humans are prenatally exposed via trans-placental transfer, through breast milk as infants, and through fish, seafood and fatty foods as adolescents and adults. Exposure has several reported effects ranging from developmental abnormalities to cognitive and motor deficiencies. In the present study, three experimental groups of rats were orally exposed to PCBs typically found in human breast milk and then behaviorally tested for changes in measures of stimulus control (percentage lever-presses on the reinforcer-producing lever, activity level (responses with IRTs > 0.67 s, and responses with short IRTs ( Methods Male offspring from Wistar Kyoto (WKY/NTac dams purchased pregnant from Taconic Farms (Germantown, NY were orally given PCB at around postnatal day 8, 14, and 20 at a dose of 10 mg/kg body weight at each exposure. Three experimental groups were exposed either to PCB 52, PCB 153, or PCB 180. A fourth group fed corn oil only served as controls. From postnatal day 25, for 33 days, the animals were tested for behavioral changes using an operant procedure. Results PCB exposure did not produce behavioral changes during training when responding was frequently reinforced using a variable interval 3 s schedule. When correct responses were reinforced on a variable interval 180 s schedule, animals exposed to PCB 153 or PCB 180 were less active than controls and animals exposed to PCB 52. Stimulus control was better in animals exposed to PCB 180 than in controls and in the PCB 52 group. Also, the PCB 153 and PCB 180 groups had fewer responses with short IRTs than the PCB 52 group. No effects of exposure to PCB 52 were found when compared to controls. Conclusions Exposure to PCBs 153 and 180 produced hypoactivity that continued at least five weeks after the last exposure. No effects of

  17. Ultrastructural analysis of early toxic effects produced by bee venom phospholipase A2 and melittin in Sertoli cells in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilinca, Mariana; Florea, Adrian

    2018-01-01

    In this study, we aimed to investigate the testicular toxicity of two molecules derived from bee venom (BV): phospholipase A2 (PlA2) and melittin (Mlt). Ultrastructural effects of purified BV PlA2 and Mlt were assessed consecutive to repeated dose (30 days) and acute toxicity studies. For the subchronic treatment, PlA2 and Mlt were injected in daily doses equivalent to those released by a bee sting (105 μg PlA2/kg/day and 350 μg Mlt/kg/day), while in the acute treatment their doses corresponded to those released by 100 bee stings (9.3 mg PlA2/kg and 31 mg Mlt/kg). Both PlA2 and Mlt affected the Leydig cells and the cells in seminiferous tubules, the Sertoli cells first of all. PlA2 injection resulted in detachment of the Sertoli cells from the surrounding cells, and extracellular vacuolations, cytoplasmic vacuolations in their basal region and in branches as well, detachment of spermatids, residual bodies and sometimes even spermatocytes into the lumen, changes that had a higher magnitude after the acute treatment. Mlt injection induced similar ultrastructural alterations, but more severe, including degeneration of cellular organelles and cellular necrosis, resulting into rarefaction of the seminiferous epithelium; the ultrastructural changes had a higher magnitude after the 30 repeated dose treatment. We concluded that either of the two molecules tested here, PlA2 and Mlt, were Sertoli cells toxicants at the used doses, and they participated both in the BV testicular toxicity. We consider the observed changes as part of a preceding mechanism of the more severe alterations produced by the BV. It also remains possible that these early unspecific changes reported here could represent the response of the SCs not only to the components of bee venom, but to molecules of other venoms as well. The Sertoli cells were the primary target of PlA2 and Mlt in the spermatogenic epithelium, and their alteration led to further degenerative changes of the germ cells. Since

  18. Application of Electrocautery Needle Knife Combined with Balloon Dilatation versus Balloon Dilatation in the Treatment of Tracheal Fibrotic Scar Stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bo, Liyan; Li, Congcong; Chen, Min; Mu, Deguang; Jin, Faguang

    Electrocautery needle knives can largely reduce scar and granulation tissue hyperplasia and play an important role in treating patients with benign stricture. The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of electrocautery needle knife combined with balloon dilatation versus balloon dilatation alone in the treatment of tracheal stenosis caused by tracheal intubation or tracheotomy. We retrospectively analysed the clinical data of 43 patients with tracheal stenosis caused by tracheotomy or tracheal intubation in our department from January 2013 to January 2016. Among these 43 patients, 23 had simple web-like stenosis and 20 had complex steno sis. All patients were treated under general anaesthesia, and the treatment methods were (1) balloon dilatation alone, (2) needle knife excision of fibrotic tissue combined with balloon dilatation, and (3) needle knife radial incision of fibrotic tissue combined with balloon dilatation. After treatment the symptoms, such as shortness of breath, were markedly improved immediately in all cases. The stenosis degree of patients who were treated with the elec-trocautery needle knife combined with balloon dilatation had better improvement compared with that of those treated with balloon dilatation treatment alone after 3 months (0.45 ± 0.04 vs. 0.67 ± 0.05, p knife combined with balloon dilatation is an effective and safe treatment for tracheal fibrotic stenosis compared with balloon dilatation alone. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. CRISPR/Cas9-mediated targeting of the Rosa26 locus produces Cre reporter rat strains for monitoring Cre-loxP-mediated lineage tracing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yuanwu; Yu, Lei; Pan, Shuo; Gao, Shan; Chen, Wei; Zhang, Xu; Dong, Wei; Li, Jing; Zhou, Rui; Huang, Lan; Han, Yunlin; Bai, Lin; Zhang, Li; Zhang, Lianfeng

    2017-10-01

    The rat is an important laboratory animal for physiological, toxicological and pharmacological studies. Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated 9 (Cas9) is a simple and efficient tool to generate precise genetic modifications in rats, which will promote the accumulation of genetic resources and enable more precise studies of gene function. To monitor Cre-loxP-mediated excision in vivo, we generated a Cre reporter rat strain (Rosa26-imCherry) by knockin of a Cre reporter cassette at the Rosa26 locus using CRISPR/Cas9. Rosa26-imCherry rats exhibited inducible expression of the mCherry cassette (imCherry) using the Cre-loxP system, whereas normal rats exhibited ubiquitous expression of eGFP but not mCherry in the whole body. Injection of adeno-associated virus serotype 9-Cre into the hippocampus and skeletal muscle resulted in mCherry expression in virus-infected cells. Cre-loxP-mediated mCherry expression was then evaluated by crossing Rosa26-imCherry rats with transgenic rats ubiquitously expressing CAG-Cre, heart-specific α-MHC-Cre transgenic rats and liver-specific Alb-Cre knockin rats. Finally, using the established system the expression pattern of Cre driven by two endogenous gene promoters (Wfs1-Cre knockin rat, FabP2-Cre knockin rat) was traced. In summary, we demonstrated excision of the loxP-flanked allele in Rosa26-imCherry rats via activation of mCherry expression in the presence of Cre recombinase. This newly established Rosa26-imCherry rat strain represents a useful tool to facilitate Cre-expression pattern determination and tracing experiments. © 2017 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  20. Dilated cardiomyopathy in cats - A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Jeyaraja

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Two cats were brought to Madras Veterinary College Teaching Hospital with the history and clinical signs suggestive of congestive heart failure ie, coughing, exercise intolerance, dyspnea, abdominal distension etc. There was history of feeding the cat with home made diet in one case and in other with commercial dog food. Based on electrocardiographic, radiographic and echocardiographic findings, the diagnosis of dilated cardiomyopathy was done in both the cases. The cases were managed with enalapril maleate, furosemide, dietary taurine supplementation and other supportive therapy. Among these two cases, one cat died on 2nd day of treatment and the other showed recovery after 8 days of treatment. [Vet World 2013; 6(4.000: 226-227

  1. Genetics of Human and Canine Dilated Cardiomyopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siobhan Simpson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease is a leading cause of death in both humans and dogs. Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM accounts for a large number of these cases, reported to be the third most common form of cardiac disease in humans and the second most common in dogs. In human studies of DCM there are more than 50 genetic loci associated with the disease. Despite canine DCM having similar disease progression to human DCM studies into the genetic basis of canine DCM lag far behind those of human DCM. In this review the aetiology, epidemiology, and clinical characteristics of canine DCM are examined, along with highlighting possible different subtypes of canine DCM and their potential relevance to human DCM. Finally the current position of genetic research into canine and human DCM, including the genetic loci, is identified and the reasons many studies may have failed to find a genetic association with canine DCM are reviewed.

  2. Genetics of Human and Canine Dilated Cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Siobhan; Edwards, Jennifer; Ferguson-Mignan, Thomas F N; Cobb, Malcolm; Mongan, Nigel P; Rutland, Catrin S

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is a leading cause of death in both humans and dogs. Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) accounts for a large number of these cases, reported to be the third most common form of cardiac disease in humans and the second most common in dogs. In human studies of DCM there are more than 50 genetic loci associated with the disease. Despite canine DCM having similar disease progression to human DCM studies into the genetic basis of canine DCM lag far behind those of human DCM. In this review the aetiology, epidemiology, and clinical characteristics of canine DCM are examined, along with highlighting possible different subtypes of canine DCM and their potential relevance to human DCM. Finally the current position of genetic research into canine and human DCM, including the genetic loci, is identified and the reasons many studies may have failed to find a genetic association with canine DCM are reviewed.

  3. Percutaneous balloon dilatation for transplant ureteral strictures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jong Chul [Chungnam National University School of Medicine, Taechun (Korea, Republic of); Banner, Marc P [University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia (United States)

    1993-09-15

    We report 10 kidney allografted patients treated for 11 ureteral strictures with standard endourlogic balloon catheter dilatation and internal stenting between August 1979 and December 1991. They have been followed until 2 to 140 months (mean 42). We compared and analyzed the 6 successful strictures (54%) and 5 unsuccessful strictures. There was no statistically significant difference of demographic, clinical and radiologic interventional techniques between two groups. But there was slightly higher success rate in abruptly narrowed shorter fibrotic strictures in ureteroneocystomy sites than smoothly taped longer ones in other sites of the ureter. Longterm stenting by the transplantation team with cystoscopic removal of internal ureteral stents by urologists resulted in 3 cases of stent occlusion, encrustation or fracture. Exact early diagnosis of ureteral stricture with continued close follow up and proper radiologic interventional procedure with optimal stenting period may increase the success rate and still provide an alternative to surgery.

  4. A Case Report of Reversible Dilated Cardiomyopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek Singhai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM is mostly an idiopathic disease with a progressive and irreversible course. It carries poor prognosis and outcome. Rarely, a reversible metabolic etiology that is amenable to specific therapy is identified. Alteration in thyroid status can lead to changes in systolic and diastolic function of left ventricle. Heart is sensitive to thyroid hormone changes, and cardiac disorders are commonly associated with both hyper and hypothyroidism. Diastolic dysfunction is the most common abnormality reported in hypothyroidism. In systolic function, prolonged systolic time interval or normal cardiac function has been reported by most workers. DCM is a rare presentation of hypothyroidism. Here, we report a case of 40-year-old female diagnosed with DCM due to hypothyroidism

  5. Intraventricular vortex properties in nonischemic dilated cardiomyopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benito, Yolanda; Alhama, Marta; Yotti, Raquel; Martínez-Legazpi, Pablo; del Villar, Candelas Pérez; Pérez-David, Esther; González-Mansilla, Ana; Santa-Marta, Cristina; Barrio, Alicia; Fernández-Avilés, Francisco; del Álamo, Juan C.

    2014-01-01

    Vortices may have a role in optimizing the mechanical efficiency and blood mixing of the left ventricle (LV). We aimed to characterize the size, position, circulation, and kinetic energy (KE) of LV main vortex cores in patients with nonischemic dilated cardiomyopathy (NIDCM) and analyze their physiological correlates. We used digital processing of color-Doppler images to study flow evolution in 61 patients with NIDCM and 61 age-matched control subjects. Vortex features showed a characteristic biphasic temporal course during diastole. Because late filling contributed significantly to flow entrainment, vortex KE reached its maximum at the time of the peak A wave, storing 26 ± 20% of total KE delivered by inflow (range: 1–74%). Patients with NIDCM showed larger and stronger vortices than control subjects (circulation: 0.008 ± 0.007 vs. 0.006 ± 0.005 m2/s, respectively, P = 0.02; KE: 7 ± 8 vs. 5 ± 5 mJ/m, P = 0.04), even when corrected for LV size. This helped confining the filling jet in the dilated ventricle. The vortex Reynolds number was also higher in the NIDCM group. By multivariate analysis, vortex KE was related to the KE generated by inflow and to chamber short-axis diameter. In 21 patients studied head to head, Doppler measurements of circulation and KE closely correlated with phase-contract magnetic resonance values (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.82 and 0.76, respectively). Thus, the biphasic nature of filling determines normal vortex physiology. Vortex formation is exaggerated in patients with NIDCM due to chamber remodeling, and enlarged vortices are helpful for ameliorating convective pressure losses and facilitating transport. These findings can be accurately studied using ultrasound. PMID:24414062

  6. Sciatica caused by a dilated epidural vein: MR findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demaerel, P.; Petre, C.; Wilms, G.; Plets, C.

    1999-01-01

    We report the MR imaging findings in a 41-year-old woman presenting with sudden low back pain and sciatica. At surgery a dilated epidural vein was found compressing the nerve root. The MR findings may suggest the diagnosis. Magnetic resonance imaging of a dilated epidural vein or varix causing sciatica has not been reported until now. (orig.) (orig.)

  7. Acute gastric dilatation secondary to septicemia in newborn: A rare ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... case of acute gastric dilatation that developed in a two-days old child who was born premature and was suffering from septicemia and respiratory distress. The causes and the differential diagnosis of the rare condition are discussed. Keywords: Acute, dilatation, gastric, newborn. African Journal of Paediatric Surgery Vol.

  8. Characteristic adaptations of the extracellular matrix in dilated cardiomyopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louzao-Martinez, Laura; Vink, Aryan; Harakalova, Magdalena; Asselbergs, Folkert W; Verhaar, Marianne C; Cheng, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is a relatively common heart muscle disease characterized by the dilation and thinning of the left ventricle accompanied with left ventricular systolic dysfunction. Myocardial fibrosis is a major feature in DCM and therefore it is inevitable that corresponding

  9. Molecular genetics of dilated cardiomyopathy in the Dobermann dog

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stabej, Polona

    2005-01-01

    Canine dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is a disease of the myocardium associated with dilatation and impaired contraction of the ventricles. It primarily affects large and giant breed dogs with Dobermanns being one of the most frequently affected. The high prevalence of DCM in specific breeds suggests

  10. Effects of the NMDA receptor antagonist, D-CPPene, on sensitization to the operant decrement produced by naloxone in morphine-treated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bespalov, A Y; Medvedev, I O; Sukhotina, I A; Zvartau, E E

    2001-04-01

    Sensitization to the rate-decreasing effects of opioid antagonists induced by acute pretreatment with opioid agonists has been suggested to reflect initial changes in opioid systems that underlie physical dependence. Glutamate receptors are implicated in the development and expression of opioid dependence, and antagonists acting at the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) subtype of glutamate receptors have been shown repeatedly to attenuate the severity of opioid withdrawal. The present study evaluated the ability of a competitive NMDA receptor antagonist, D-CPPene (SDZ EAA 494; 3-(2-carboxypiperazin-4-yl)-1-propenyl-1-phosphonic acid), to affect morphine-induced sensitization to naloxone in rats trained to lever-press on a multiple-trial, fixed-ratio 10 schedule of food reinforcement. D-CPPene (0.3-3 mg/kg) was administered either 4 h or 30 min prior to the test session. Morphine (10 mg/kg) or its vehicle was administered 4 h before naloxone challenge (0.3-3 mg/kg). D-CPPene failed to prevent morphine-induced potentiation of the naloxone-produced decrement in operant performance. Thus, these results suggest that agonist-induced sensitization to behavioral effects of opioid antagonists may be insensitive to NMDA receptor blockade.

  11. The nitric oxide donor sodium nitroprusside attenuates recognition memory deficits and social withdrawal produced by the NMDA receptor antagonist ketamine and induces anxiolytic-like behaviour in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevlopoulou, Aikaterini; Touzlatzi, Ntilara; Pitsikas, Nikolaos

    2016-03-01

    Experimental evidence indicates that the non-competitive N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist ketamine impairs cognition and can mimic certain aspects of positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia in rodents. Nitric oxide (NO) is considered as an intracellular messenger in the brain, and its abnormalities have been linked to schizophrenia. The present study was designed to investigate the ability of the NO donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP) to counteract schizophrenia-like behavioural deficits produced by ketamine in rats. The ability of SNP to reverse ketamine-induced memory deficits and social withdrawal were assessed using the novel object recognition task (NORT) and the social interaction test, respectively. Furthermore, since anxiety disorders are noted to occur commonly in schizophrenics, the effects of SNP on anxiety-like behaviour were examined using the light/dark test. Locomotor activity was also assessed as an independent measure of the potential motoric effects of this NO donor. SNP (0.3 and 1 mg/kg) reversed ketamine (3 mg/kg)-induced short-term recognition memory deficits. SNP (1 mg/kg) counteracted the ketamine (8 mg/kg)-induced social isolation in the social interaction test. The anxiolytic-like effects in the light/dark test of SNP (1 mg/kg) cannot be attributed to changes in locomotor activity. Our findings illustrate a functional interaction between the nitrergic and glutamatergic system that may be of relevance for schizophrenia-like behavioural deficits. The data also suggest a role of NO in anxiety.

  12. Pouch dilatation following laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding: psychobehavioral factors (can psychiatrists predict pouch dilatation?).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Norman; Al Atar, Ashraf; Bidlake, Louise; Fienness, Alberic; McCluskey, Sara; Nussey, S; Bano, Gal; Morgan, John

    2004-01-01

    Laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding is increasingly being performed in morbidly obese individuals for weight loss. Some patients develop pouch dilatation as a postoperative complication that limits the utility of the procedure. Surgical variables are poor predictors of this complication. 5 patients from a series of 157 who underwent LAGB at a single center developed the condition. Psychiatric and surgical case-notes were analyzed retrospectively for the presence of operationally defined psychiatric disorders and compared to 10 controls from the same population. Cases were significantly more likely to have past or current binge eating, emotionally triggered eating with reduced awareness of the link, a history of affective disorder, reduced sexual functioning and successful preoperative weight loss. No difference between groups was observed for compliance with orlistat, childhood sexual abuse, relationships with parents, history of bulimia nervosa, rate of band inflation or preoperative BMI. Psychological factors may be better predictors of pouch dilatation than biomedical variables. Disordered eating can be an attempt to modulate negative emotions. Pouch dilatation may be a consequence of this eating behavior.

  13. Interaction of pepsin-[C16mim]Br system: interfacial dilational rheology and conformational studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Tian; Cao, Chong; Liu, Zi-lin; Li, Yang; Du, Feng-pei

    2014-09-21

    The interfacial rheological property is closely related to the stabilities of foams and emulsions, yet there have been limited studies on the interaction between proteins with ionic liquid-type imidazolium surfactants at the decane-water interface as well as in the bulk. Herein, we investigated the interfacial and bulk properties of pepsin (PEP) and an ionic liquid (IL), 1-hexadecyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide, [C(16)mim]Br. The interfacial pressure and dilational rheology studies were performed to describe the formation of [C(16)mim]Br-pepsin complexes. The influence of the oscillating frequency and the bulk concentration of [C(16)mim]Br on the dilational properties were explored. The conformational changes were studied by monitoring the fluorescence and far UV-CD spectra. The results reveal that the globular structure of pepsin is one of the decisive factors controlling the nature of the interfacial film. The monotonous increase in the dilational elastic modulus of pepsin-[C(16)mim]Br solutions with the surface age indicates that no loops and tails had formed. Interestingly, with an increase in the concentration of [C(16)mim]Br, the εd-c curve first passes through a plateau value due to steric hindrance and the electrostatic barrier of already absorbed tenacious pepsin-[C(16)mim]Br complexes. With the further addition of [C(16)mim]Br, the remarkable decrease in dilational elastic modulus indicates that the compact structure is destroyed gradually. The results of the fluorescence spectra and far UV-CD spectra confirm that [C(16)mim]Br did not produce perceptible changes in pepsin at the concentrations studied in the dilational experiment. Possible schematic programs of the pepsin-[C(16)mim]Br interaction model at the interface and in bulk phase are proposed.

  14. Self-dilation for therapy-resistant benign esophageal strictures: towards a systematic approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Halsema, Emo E.; 't Hoen, Chantal A.; de Koning, Patricia S.; Rosmolen, Wilda D.; van Hooft, Jeanin E.; Bergman, Jacques J.

    2018-01-01

    Patients with therapy-resistant benign esophageal strictures (TRBES) suffer from chronic dysphagia and generally require repeated endoscopic dilations. For selected patients, esophageal self-dilation may improve patient's autonomy and reduce the number of endoscopic dilations. We evaluated the

  15. Development of transgenic rats producing human β-amyloid precursor protein as a model for Alzheimer's disease: Transgene and endogenous APP genes are regulated tissue-specifically

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan Anthony WS

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alzheimer's disease (AD is a devastating neurodegenerative disorder that affects a large and growing number of elderly individuals. In addition to idiopathic disease, AD is also associated with autosomal dominant inheritance, which causes a familial form of AD (FAD. Some instances of FAD have been linked to mutations in the β-amyloid protein precursor (APP. Although there are numerous mouse AD models available, few rat AD models, which have several advantages over mice, have been generated. Results Fischer 344 rats expressing human APP driven by the ubiquitin-C promoter were generated via lentiviral vector infection of Fischer 344 zygotes. We generated two separate APP-transgenic rat lines, APP21 and APP31. Serum levels of human amyloid-beta (Aβ40 were 298 pg/ml for hemizygous and 486 pg/ml for homozygous APP21 animals. Serum Aβ42 levels in APP21 homozygous rats were 135 pg/ml. Immunohistochemistry in brain showed that the human APP transgene was expressed in neurons, but not in glial cells. These findings were consistent with independent examination of enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP in the brains of eGFP-transgenic rats. APP21 and APP31 rats expressed 7.5- and 3-times more APP mRNA, respectively, than did wild-type rats. Northern blots showed that the human APP transgene, driven by the ubiquitin-C promoter, is expressed significantly more in brain, kidney and lung compared to heart and liver. A similar expression pattern was also seen for the endogenous rat APP. The unexpected similarity in the tissue-specific expression patterns of endogenous rat APP and transgenic human APP mRNAs suggests regulatory elements within the cDNA sequence of APP. Conclusion This manuscript describes the generation of APP-transgenic inbred Fischer 344 rats. These are the first human AD model rat lines generated by lentiviral infection. The APP21 rat line expresses high levels of human APP and could be a useful model for AD. Tissue

  16. Upper gastrointestinal strictures: The results of balloon dilatation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kil Woo; Lim, Hyo Keun; Choo, In Wook; Bae, Sang Hoon; Yoon, Jong Sup [Hallym University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, Hyung Sik [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1990-12-15

    Balloon catheter dilatation of upper gastrointestinal strictures is an accepted mode of therapy. The authors report the balloon dilatation in 11 consecutive patients. The lesions treated included 10 benign strictures, and 1 esophageal cancer. Esophageal balloon were ranged from 2 mm in diameter, 4 cm in length, to 30 mm in diameter, 8 cm in length. Inflation was held for from 30 to 60 seconds and then repeated two or three times during each session. The balloons were inflated to pressure of from 2 to 12 atmospheres. There were from 1 to 13 dilatations. Two esophageal perforations were occurred in one esophagitis patient and other lye stricture patient. Two perforations were not required any surgical repair. All dilatation were performed without anesthesia. All strictures were responded immediately to dilatation. Prolonged course of treatment were needed with chronic severe esophagitis, lye stricture, gastrojejunostomy with chemotherapy, as a result, all patients, except esophageal cancer, could take regular diet after balloon catheter dilatation. Balloon catheter dilatation of upper gastrointestinal stenosis was effective and safe. It should be considered before other methods of treatment applicable.

  17. Balloon dilatation of nasopharyngeal stenosis in a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berent, Allyson C; Kinns, Jennifer; Weisse, Chick

    2006-08-01

    A dog was examined because of a 6-month history of upper airway stridor that began after postoperative regurgitation of gastric contents. Constant stridor was evident during inspiration and expiration, although it was worse during inspiration. The stridor was no longer evident when the dog's mouth was manually held open. Computed tomography, rhinoscopy, and fluoroscopy were used to confirm a diagnosis of nasopharyngeal stenosis. The dog was anesthetized, and balloon dilatation of the stenosis was performed. Prednisone was prescribed for 4 weeks after the procedure to decrease fibrous tissue formation. Although the dog was initially improved, signs recurred 3.5 weeks later, and balloon dilatation was repeated. This time, however, triamcinolone was injected into the area of stenosis at the end of the dilatation procedure. Two months later, although the dog did not have clinical signs of stridor, a third dilatation procedure was performed because mild stenosis was seen on follow-up computed tomographic images; again, triamcinolone was injected into the area of stenosis at the end of the dilatation procedure. Three and 6 months after the third dilatation procedure, the dog reportedly was clinically normal. Findings suggest that balloon dilatation may be an effective treatment for nasopharyngeal stenosis in dogs.

  18. The effect of pneumatic dilation in management of postfundoplication dysphagia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunjaya, D; Podboy, A; Blackmon, S H; Katzka, D; Halland, M

    2017-06-01

    Fundoplication surgery is a commonly performed procedure for gastro-esophageal reflux disease or hiatal hernia repair. Up to 10% of patients develop persistent postoperative dysphagia after surgery. Data on the effectiveness of pneumatic dilation for treatment are limited. The aim of this study was to evaluate clinical outcomes and identify clinical factors associated with successful response to pneumatic dilation among patients with persistent postfundoplication dysphagia (PPFD). We retrospectively evaluated patients who had undergone pneumatic dilation for PPFD between 1999 and 2016. Patients with dysphagia or achalasia prior to fundoplication were excluded. Demographic information, surgical history, severity of dysphagia, and clinical outcomes were collected. Data pertaining to esophagram, manometry, endoscopy, and pneumatic dilation were also collected. We identified 38 patients (82% female, 95% Caucasian, and median age 59 years) with PPFD who completed pneumatic dilation. The median postfundoplication dysphagia score was 2. Eleven patients had abnormal peristalsis on manometry. Seventeen patients reported response (seven complete) with an average decrease of 1 in their dysphagia score. Fifteen patients underwent reoperation due to PPFD. Hiatal hernia repair was the only factor that predicts a higher response rate to pneumatic dilation. Only one patient in our study developed complication (pneumoperitoneum) from pneumatic dilation. We found that pneumatic dilation to be a safe treatment option for PPFD with moderate efficacy. Patients who developed PPFD after a hiatal hernia repair may gain the greatest benefit after pneumatic dilation. We were not able to identify additional clinical, radiological, endoscopic, or manometric parameters that were predictive of response. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Comparison between children dilated computer and retinoscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Li Qi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate the dilation effect of computer optometry and retinoscopy optometry before and after mydriasis in children and to understand whether the application of computer refractor in children.METHODS: Therelated data of 500 children cases(1 000 eyeswith ametropia in our hospital were analyzed. The children firstly received computer optometry, and then use the 10g/L atropine sulfate eye gel drops, respectively. After 3d, they were performed computer optometry and retinoscopy, and compared the effect of two refraction.RESULTS: Spherical reading of computer optometry group was 2.70±2.75DS, cylinder degree was 1.54±1.10DC, were lower than those of retinoscopy group(PPPP>0.05. Before mydriasis, astigmatism was 1.54±1.10D, astigmatic axis was(14.38±11.11°. After mydriasis, astigmatism was 1.45±1.21D and astigmatic axis was(12.78±10.31°, significantly higher than those of retinoscopy(PCONCLUSION: Children optometry concerns the visual development of children. Computer optometry and retinoscopy are the pros and cons. As for computer optometry can not replace retinoscopy optometry, it can be used as an auxiliary tool for fast optometry.

  20. The Mutations Associated with Dilated Cardiomyopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruti Parvari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiomyopathy is an important cause of heart failure and a major indication for heart transplantation in children and adults. This paper describes the state of the genetic knowledge of dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM. The identification of the causing mutation is important since presymptomatic interventions of DCM have proven value in preventing morbidity and mortality. Additionally, as in general in genetic studies, the identification of the mutated genes has a direct clinical impact for the families and population involved. Identifying causative mutations immediately amplifies the possibilities for disease prevention through carrier screening and prenatal testing. This often lifts a burden of social isolation from affected families, since healthy family members can be assured of having healthy children. Identification of the mutated genes holds the potential to lead to the understanding of disease etiology, pathophysiology, and therefore potential therapy. This paper presents the genetic variations, or disease-causing mutations, contributing to the pathogenesis of hereditary DCM, and tries to relate these to the functions of the mutated genes.

  1. Gastric dilatation-volvulus in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broome, C J; Walsh, V P

    2003-12-01

    Gastric dilatation-volvulus (GDV) is a disease in which there is gross distension of the stomach with fluid or gas and gastric malpositioning. It causes pathology of multiple organ systems and is rapidly fatal. It is common in large- and giant-breed dogs. The disease appears to have a familial predisposition. Thoracic depth/width ratio also appears to predispose dogs to GDV. Implicated dietary factors include dietary particle size, frequency of feeding, speed of eating, aerophagia and an elevated feed bowl. A fearful temperament and stressful events may also predispose dogs to GDV. Abdominal distension, non-productive retching, restlessness, signs of shock, tachypnoea and dyspnoea are possible clinical signs. Initial treatment includes treatment of shock and gastric decompression. Surgical treatment should be performed promptly. There are no studies comparing the use of different anaesthetic agents in the anaesthetic management of GDV. Pre-medication with an opioid/benzodiazepine combination has been recommended. Induction agents that cause minimal cardiovascular changes such as opioids, neuroactive steroidal agents and etomidate are recommended. Anaesthesia should be maintained with an inhalational agent. Surgical therapy involves decompression, correction of gastric malpositioning, debridement of necrotic tissue, and gastropexy. Options for gastropexy include incisional, tube, circumcostal, belt-loop, incorporating, and laparoscopic gastropexy. Expected mortality with surgical therapy is 15-24%. Prognostic factors include mental status on presentation, presence of gastric necrosis, presence of cardiac arrhythmia and plasma lactate levels. Prophylactic gastropexy should be considered in dogs identified as being at high risk.

  2. Extracellular magnesium enhances the damage to locomotor networks produced by metabolic perturbation mimicking spinal injury in the neonatal rat spinal cord in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margaryan, G; Mladinic, M; Mattioli, C; Nistri, A

    2009-10-06

    An acute injury to brain or spinal cord produces profound metabolic perturbation that extends and exacerbates tissue damage. Recent clinical interventions to treat this condition with i.v. Mg(2+) to stabilize its extracellular concentration provided disappointing results. The present study used an in vitro spinal cord model from the neonatal rat to investigate the role of extracellular Mg(2+) in the lesion evoked by a pathological medium mimicking the metabolic perturbation (hypoxia, aglycemia, oxidative stress, and acid pH) occurring in vivo. Damage was measured by taking as outcome locomotor network activity for up to 24 h after the primary insult. Pathological medium in 1 mM Mg(2+) solution (1 h) largely depressed spinal reflexes and suppressed fictive locomotion on the same and the following day. Conversely, pathological medium in either Mg(2+)-free or 5 mM Mg(2+) solution evoked temporary network depression and enabled fictive locomotion the day after. While global cell death was similar regardless of extracellular Mg(2+) solution, white matter was particularly affected. In ventral horn the number of surviving neurons was the highest in Mg(2+) free solution and the lowest in 1 mM Mg(2+), while motoneurons were unaffected. Although the excitotoxic damage elicited by kainate was insensitive to extracellular Mg(2+), 1 mM Mg(2+) potentiated the effect of combining pathological medium with kainate at low concentrations. These results indicate that preserving Mg(2+) homeostasis rendered experimental spinal injury more severe. Furthermore, analyzing ventral horn neuron numbers in relation to fictive locomotion expression might provide a first estimate of the minimal size of the functional locomotor network.

  3. Eder Puestow dilatation of benign rectal stricture following anterior resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, A; Tydeman, G; Lewis, M H

    1990-01-01

    Benign anastomotic stricture following anterior resection can be difficult to manage when the stricture is proximal. The acceptable surgical options are either a redo low resection with its accompanying hazards or, alternatively, the formation of a permanent colostomy. Although dilatation of such strictures is possible by blind passage of metal bougies, the authors believe that this technique must be regarded as hazardous. A technique of dilatation is described that is usually reserved for esophageal stricture, namely, Eder Puestow dilatation over a guide wire inserted under direct vision. Although this technique may not be without risk, this readily available equipment may be valuable in making a further resection unnecessary.

  4. Gastric dilatation and volvulus in brown bear (Ursus arctos)

    OpenAIRE

    Marinković, Darko; Özvegy, Jòzsef; Aničić, Milan; Vučićević, Ivana; Nešić, Slađan; Kukolj, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    Gastric dilatation and volvulus is a life-threatening condition characterized by rapid accumulation of food and gases that cause displacement and distension of the stomach. The large and giant, deep-chested breeds of dogs are at higher risk for developing the gastric dilatation and volvulus. Uncommonly, it can also develop in cats, but it is also described in free-range polar bears. A case of gastric dilatation and volvulus in a brown bear (Ursus arctos) is described in this paper. This case ...

  5. Characterization and Long-Term Prognosis of Postmyocarditic Dilated Cardiomyopathy Compared With Idiopathic Dilated Cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlo, Marco; Anzini, Marco; Bussani, Rossana; Artico, Jessica; Barbati, Giulia; Stolfo, Davide; Gigli, Marta; Muça, Matilda; Naso, Paola; Ramani, Federica; Di Lenarda, Andrea; Pinamonti, Bruno; Sinagra, Gianfranco

    2016-09-15

    Dilated cardiomyopathy (DC) is the final common pathway of different pathogenetic processes and presents a significant prognostic heterogeneity, possibly related to its etiologic variety. The characterization and long-term prognosis of postmyocarditic dilated cardiomyopathy (PM-DC) remain unknown. This study assesses the clinical-instrumental evolution and long-term prognosis of a large cohort of patients with PM-DC. We analyzed 175 patients affected with DC consecutively enrolled from 1993 to 2008 with endomyocardial biopsy (EMB) data available. PM-DC was defined in the presence of borderline myocarditis at EMB or persistent left ventricular dysfunction 1 year after diagnosis of active myocarditis at EMB. Other patients were defined as affected by idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (IDC). Analysis of follow-up evaluations was performed at 24, 60, and 120 months. We found 72 PM-DC of 175 enrolled patients (41%). Compared with IDC, patients with PM-DC were more frequently females and less frequently presented a familial history of DC. No other baseline significant differences were found. During the long-term follow-up (median 154, first to third interquartile range 78 to 220 months), patients with PM-DC showed a trend toward slower disease progression. Globally, 18 patients with PM-DC (25%) versus 49 with IDC (48%) experienced death/heart transplantation (p = 0.045). The prognostic advantage for patients with PM-DC became significant beyond 40 months of follow-up. At multivariable time-dependent Cox analysis, PM-DC was confirmed to have a global independent protective role (hazard ratio 0.53, 95% confidence interval 0.28 to 0.97, p = 0.04). In conclusion, PM-DC is characterized by better long-term prognosis compared with IDC. An exhaustive etiologic characterization appears relevant in the prognostic assessment of DC. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Dynamics of intraocular IFN-γ, IL-17 and IL-10-producing cell populations during relapsing and monophasic rat experimental autoimmune uveitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrike Kaufmann

    Full Text Available A major limitation of most animal models of autoimmune diseases is that they do not reproduce the chronic or relapsing-remitting pattern characteristic of many human autoimmune diseases. This problem has been overcome in our rat models of experimentally induced monophasic or relapsing-remitting autoimmune uveitis (EAU, which depend on the inducing antigen peptides from retinal S-Antigen (monophasic EAU or interphotoreceptor retinoid-binding protein (relapsing EAU. These models enable us to compare autoreactive and regulatory T cell populations. Intraocular, but not peripheral T cells differ in their cytokine profiles (IFN-γ, IL-17 and IL-10 at distinct time points during monophasic or relapsing EAU. Only intraocular T cells concomitantly produced IFN-γ, IL-17 and/or IL-10. Monophasic EAU presented rising numbers of cells expressing IFN-γ and IL-17 (Th1/Th17 and cells expressing IL-10 or Foxp3. During relapsing uveitis an increase of intraocular IFN-γ+ cells and a concomitant decrease of IL-17+ cells was detected, while IL-10+ populations remained stable. Foxp3+ cells and cells expressing IL-10, even in combination with IFN-γ or IL-17, increased during the resolution of monophasic EAU, suggesting a regulatory role for these T cells. In general, cells producing multiple cytokines increased in monophasic and decreased in relapsing EAU. The distinct appearance of certain intraocular populations with characteristics of regulatory cells points to a differential influence of the ocular environment on T cells that induce acute and monophasic or relapsing disease. Here we provide evidence that different autoantigens can elicit distinct and differently regulated immune responses. IFN-γ, but not IL-17 seems to be the key player in relapsing-remitting uveitis, as shown by increased, synchronized relapses after intraocular application of IFN-γ. We demonstrated dynamic changes of the cytokine pattern during monophasic and relapsing-remitting disease

  7. Pathological studies on lachrymal dilated drainage tube implantation in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Peng

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To observe the pathological changes of the lower segment of nasolacrimal duct mucosa in rabbits at different stages after retrograde lachrymal dilated drainage tube implantation. METHODS: Totally 14 New Zealand rabbits were used in the present study. One side of nasolacrimal duct was obstructed to produce an experimental model and operated the reverse implantation of nasolacrimal duct intubation. Histological changes of the lower segment of nasolacrimal duct mucosa were observed by routine light microscope at 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12 and 14wk after the operation. RESULTS: Compared with the control side, the group of 2 and 4wk after surgery presented the inflammatory cytokine. The group of 12wk after the operation presented isolated granuloma. Group 12 and 14wk presented scattered granuloma. The size of the granulomas was smaller and the density of epithelioid cell and fibroblast were lower in group 12wk than those in group 14wk by HE and Masson trichrome stain.CONCLUSION: Recurrent Silicone Tube is used to treat nasolacrymal duct obstruction. Nasolacrimal duct can be narrowed and blocked again by granuloma, progressive fibrosis and adhesion of surrounding tissues when tube is in the duct more than 12wk.

  8. Elastic-Plastic Calculation of a Dilatation Compensation Component

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atanasiu, Costică; Iliescu, Nicolae; Sorohan, Ștefan

    2017-12-01

    Compensators are elastic structures that have the role of taking over the axial displacements that occur in the junction areas of the technological equipment (pipelines or containers) through which the fluids circulate at pressures and high temperatures. These elastic structures, realized in a very wide range of shapes and sizes, are sujected by the inner pressure and an axial force produced by dilatation of structures in which they are mounted. The calculation of the expansion compensators raises many problems caused by the working regimes of the technological equipments they belong to. Following previous studies, undertaken by calculus and experimental, by the authors of this paper, it was found that in operation the state of stress in these elastic structures exceeds the flow limit of the material from which they are manufacturated. For this reason, in the present paper, the authors present the results of a calculus study, by FEM, on the stress and strain state, in the elasto-plastic regime of a leticular compensator. The calculation was made for two loading modes, separately applied and superimposed. The nonlinear mechanical behavior of this compensator is analyzed and discussed comparatively to the results of previous studies performed in elastic regime on the same type of compensator.

  9. Genetics Home Reference: X-linked dilated cardiomyopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The other conditions in the spectrum, Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophy , are characterized by progressive weakness and wasting of ... linked dilated cardiomyopathy is sometimes classified as subclinical Becker muscular dystrophy. Related Information What does it mean if a ...

  10. Cushing’s Disease Presented by Reversible Dilated Cardiomyopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berna İmge Aydoğan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Dilated cardiomyopathy is rarely reported among CS patients especially without hypertension and left ventricular hypertrophy. Materials and Methods. We hereby report a Cushing’s syndrome case presenting with dilated cardiomyopathy. Results. A 48-year-old female patient was admitted to our clinic with severe proximal myopathy and dilated cardiomyopathy without ventricular hypertrophy. Cushing’s disease was diagnosed and magnetic-resonance imaging of the pituitary gland revealed a microadenoma. Under diuretic and ketoconazole treatments, she underwent a successful transnasal/transsphenoidal adenomectomy procedure. Full recovery of symptoms and echocardiographic features was achieved after six months of surgery. Conclusion. Cushing’s syndrome must be kept in mind as a reversible cause of dilated cardiomyopathy. Recovery of cardiomyopathy is achieved with successful surgery.

  11. Refractory esophageal strictures: what to do when dilation fails

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boeckel, P.G. van; Siersema, P.D.

    2015-01-01

    OPINION STATEMENT: Benign esophageal strictures arise from a diversity of causes, for example esophagogastric reflux, esophageal resection, radiation therapy, ablative therapy, or the ingestion of a corrosive substance. Most strictures can be treated successfully with endoscopic dilation using

  12. Balloon catheter dilation of benign esophageal stenosis in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Guoping; Yu Juming; Zhong Weixing; Zhu Ming; Wu Yeming; Shi Chengren

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the methods and effect of balloon catheter dilation of benign esophageal stenosis in children. Methods: 9 cases had an anastomotic stenosis after surgical correction of esophageal atresia; 11 cases of esophageal stenosis due to ingestion of caustics; one case had an lower esophageal stenosis after Nissen surgery and one case after gastro-esophagoplasty. Age ranged from 17 days to 7 years. Each case had a barium esophagram before balloon dilation. The balloon size varied from 3 to 10 mm in diameter. Results: 21 cases were successful after dilation of balloon catheter. There were no esophageal perforation and complications. The satisfactory results maintained from six months to thirty months. Conclusions: Balloon catheter dilation is a simple, safe and reliable method for the treatment of benign esophageal strictures in children as the first choice

  13. Frequency and clinical genetics of familial dilated cardiomyopathy in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Frequency and clinical genetics of familial dilated cardiomyopathy in Cape Town: Implications for the evaluation of patients with unexplained cardiomyopathy. NBA Ntusi, A Wonkam, G Shaboodien, M Badri, BM Mayosi ...

  14. Percutaneous dilatation of benign ureteral stricture -a case report-

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sung, Kyu Bo; Ahn, Jung Sook; Ham, So Hie; Woo, Won Hyung [Koryo General Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1987-06-15

    Percutaneous ureteral dilatation was done with balloon catheter and ureteral stent. A 40 year old woman had a pelvic surgery due to inflammatory cyst and this surgery was complicated by incidental cutting of right ureter and ureteroureteral anastomosis was done. After 1 month, she was suffered from severe right flank pain, nausea and vomiting, and showed delayed visualization of pelvocalyceal system with dilatation in intravenous pyelography. Percutaneous nephrostomy was done and complete obstruction at lower ureter was seen in antegrade pyelography. 4 mm balloon catheter was introduced through the nephrostomy tract and dilatation was done with a pressure of 5 atm for 1 minute duration for 4 times and no. 7 double J ureteral stent was left across the lesion for prevention of restenosis. Ureteral stent was removed after 2 months, and successful dilatation was seen and no evidence of restenosis in 5 weeks follow up.

  15. Cardiovascular effects of oesophageal dilation under general anaesthesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, C H; Rasmussen, V; Rosenberg, J

    1999-01-01

    , but was not associated with the actual time of oesophageal distension. Thus, all cases of myocardial ischaemia were related to the time of extubation. No lasting complications were seen, and all patients could be discharged a maximum of 24 hours after the procedure. Pneumatic dilation of the oesophagus under general......Myocardial ischaemia and cardiac arrhythmias may occur during oesophageal dilation under conscious sedation, but no prospective data exist regarding dilation under general anaesthesia. We have studied the haemodynamic and electrocardiographic changes during routine oesophageal balloon dilation...... the procedure. Four patients developed significant hypotension at the time of balloon inflation with two patients requiring medical intervention to re-establish sufficient cardiovascular function. Tachycardia and ST-deviation occurred in four and three patients, respectively, during the general anaesthesia...

  16. Pneumatic dilatation in achalasia cardia results and follow-up.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supe A

    1990-10-01

    Full Text Available Pneumatic dilatation is one of the more recent methods in the management of achalasia cardia. Fifty dilatations were done in 42 patients with achalasia cardia over 5 years. There was a significant decrease in the maximum diameter of the oesophagus and a significant increase in diameter in the narrowed lower oesophageal segment in all the patients. Of the patients studied, 95.23% were relieved of their symptoms after only one to two sessions. There were no immediate complications. Out of the 38 patients on long term follow up, 8 (21.05% had recurrence of symptoms. On repeat dilatations, 4 (50% of them had good response. Late complication like reflux oesophagitis was observed in only 1 patient over a median follow up period of 22 months. It was thus concluded that pneumatic dilatation is a safe, simple and effective procedure in managing patients with achalasia cardia.

  17. Autologous bone marrow mononuclear cell delivery to dilated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Autologous bone marrow mononuclear cell delivery to dilated cardiomyopathy patients: A clinical trial. PLN Kaparthi, G Namita, LK Chelluri, VSP Rao, PK Shah, A Vasantha, SK Ratnakar, K Ravindhranath ...

  18. An unusual triad: Bilateral dilated odontoma, hypodontia and peg laterals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alphy Alphonsa Sebastian

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this case report is to present a rare case of bilateral dilated odontoma affecting a microdontic permanent lateral incisor in a 30 year old female patient with hypodontia and peglateral teeth with its clinical, radiological and histological features, which has yet been not reported. Bilateral presence of dilated odontoma is not a common occurrence, although a single tooth involvement in each case has been reported in the literature.

  19. Sciatica caused by a dilated epidural vein: MR findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demaerel, P.; Petre, C.; Wilms, G. [Dept. of Radiology, Catholic University of Leuven (Belgium); Plets, C. [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Catholic University of Leuven (Belgium)

    1999-02-01

    We report the MR imaging findings in a 41-year-old woman presenting with sudden low back pain and sciatica. At surgery a dilated epidural vein was found compressing the nerve root. The MR findings may suggest the diagnosis. Magnetic resonance imaging of a dilated epidural vein or varix causing sciatica has not been reported until now. (orig.) (orig.) With 1 fig., 4 refs.

  20. Cystic dilatation of ventriculus terminalis in adults: MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsubayashi, R.; Uchino, A.; Kato, A.; Kudo, S.; Sakai, S.; Murata, S.

    1998-01-01

    We report the MRI findings in two patients with cystic dilatation of the ventriculus terminalis. The latter is usually a tiny ependyma-lined cavity of the conus medullaris. In both cases the markedly dilated ventriculus terminalis was seen as a rounded cavity with regular margins, the content of which gave the same signal as cerebrospinal fluid with all MR pulse sequences. No contrast enhancement was seen. (orig.)

  1. Balloon dilatation of the esophageal stricture in infants and children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choo, Sung Wook; Kim, In One; Kim, Woo Sun; Yeon, Kyung Mo; Kim, Woo Ki; Park, Kwi Won; Han, Man Chung; Lee, Gi Jae; Yu, Pil Mun

    1992-01-01

    Balloon dilatation has been applied in treating of various pathologic narrowing of the hollow viscus. It is now accepted as a very effective modality especially in treating esophageal stenosis obviating surgical procedure. We performed 128 balloon dilatations in 29 patients with the number of dilatations in each patient ranging from once to 12 times. The age distribution of the patients was from 3 weeks to 6 years, with the median age of 3 months. Twenty nine patients consisted of 25 postoperative esophageal strictures (21 esophageal atresia with tracheoesophageal fistula, 1 congenital esophageal stenosis, 2 tracheobronchial remnant, and 1 congenital esophageal stenosis with esophageal atresia), 2 achalasia, 1 congenital esophageal stenosis, and 1 corrosive esophagitis. We had successful dilatation in 22 patients, who showed subsequent relief of symptoms and improvement in the diameter of stenotic segment. In 14 patients, esophageal perforation occurred during the procedure, one requiring emergency thoracotomy and the other three conservative management. Seven patients had no improvement in stenotic sites after several balloon dilatations. Failed cases were congenital stenosis, achalasia, corrosive esophagitis and four postoperative strictures. We believe that balloon dilatation is the procedure of choice in the treatment of postoperative esophageal stricture in infants and children and is a safe method as the perforation which can complicate the procedure could be managed conservatively

  2. Treatment of urethral strictures with balloon dilation: A forgotten tale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos Stamatiou

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Urethral stricture is a common condition that can lead to serious complications such as urinary infections and renal insufficiency secondary to urinary retention. Treatment options include catheterization and dilation, urethroplasty and endoscopic internal urethrotomy as well. Although treatment option depends on the type, length and aetiology of stricture, the choice can be influenced to varying degrees by the simplicity of the method, the preferences of the patient the available accoutrements and the patient health condition. Both urethroplasty and endoscopic internal urethrotomy require anaesthesia and thus are not suitable for many elder and unfit for surgical treatment patients. On the other hand, dilations are easy to perform in every day clinical practice however they have been associated with iatrogenic urethral trauma. In contrast, balloon dilation under vision dilates by radial application of forces against the stricture, avoiding the potentially shearing forces associated with sequential rigid dilation. Since it reduces the possibility of an iatrogenic urethral trauma and the subsequent spongiofibrosis may lead into improved therapeutic outcomes. In this report we describe a technique for the treatment of urethral strictures with balloon dilation in elder and unfit for surgical treatment patients.

  3. Treatments for pediatric achalasia: Heller myotomy or pneumatic dilatation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, C; Michaud, L; Mougenot, J-F; Lamblin, M-D; Philippe-Chomette, P; Cargill, G; Bonnevalle, M; Boige, N; Bellaïche, M; Viala, J; Hugot, J-P; Gottrand, F; Cezard, J-P

    2010-03-01

    The treatment of achalasia consists of reducing distal esophageal obstruction by either Heller myotomy surgery or endoscopic pneumatic dilatation. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the short- and middle-term results of these procedures in children. For technical reasons, children under six years old (n=8) were treated by surgery only, whereas patients over six years old (n=14) were treated by either Heller myotomy or pneumatic dilatation. Of the children aged under six years, 75% were symptom-free at six months and 83% at 24 months of follow-up. Of the patients aged over six years, complete remission was achieved by Heller myotomy in 44.5% vs. 55.5% by pneumatic dilatation after six months, and in 40% vs. 65%, respectively, after 24 months. Both pneumatic dilatation and Heller myotomy showed significant rates of failure. These results suggest that pneumatic dilatation may be considered a primary treatment in children over six years old. Also, where necessary, Heller myotomy and pneumatic dilatation may be used as complementary treatments.

  4. Boston's balloon dilatation for treatment of cardiac achalasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin Jianguo; Song Jinwen; Yang Yan; Liu Xiaohong; Fu Zhiming; Zhang Yaqin

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To review and summarize effectiveness and method of the Boston's balloon dilation in cardiac achalasia. Methods: The intensified guide wire was inserted into stomach through mouth cavity under TV control. The Boston's balloon was inserted to the cardiac stricture through the guide wire and dilatated with 15% contrast medium with to a maximum diameter for five minutes and then the balloon was dilatated again for 3-5 minutes, all together for 3-4 times. The severe stricture must be pre-dilatated with 20-25 mm diameter balloon. Results: The balloon insertion was technically successful in all 26 patients. The once success of balloon dilation was achieved in 24 patients and twice in other 2. Follow-up time was from 2 weeks to 31 months (mean 10.6 months). Recurrent stenosis had not occurred in all patients. Remission rate of dysphagia was 100%. Esophageal reflux occurred in 3 patients. Conclusions: The Boston's balloon dilatation is simple and effective for treatment of cardiac achalasia. The method sometimes may replace surgical procedure

  5. Balloon dilatation of the esophageal stricture in infants and children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choo, Sung Wook; Kim, In One; Kim, Woo Sun; Yeon, Kyung Mo; Kim, Woo Ki; Park, Kwi Won; Han, Man Chung [Seoul Natioal University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Gi Jae [Inje University Paik Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yu, Pil Mun [Dankuk University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1992-09-15

    Balloon dilatation has been applied in treating of various pathologic narrowing of the hollow viscus. It is now accepted as a very effective modality especially in treating esophageal stenosis obviating surgical procedure. We performed 128 balloon dilatations in 29 patients with the number of dilatations in each patient ranging from once to 12 times. The age distribution of the patients was from 3 weeks to 6 years, with the median age of 3 months. Twenty nine patients consisted of 25 postoperative esophageal strictures (21 esophageal atresia with tracheoesophageal fistula, 1 congenital esophageal stenosis, 2 tracheobronchial remnant, and 1 congenital esophageal stenosis with esophageal atresia), 2 achalasia, 1 congenital esophageal stenosis, and 1 corrosive esophagitis. We had successful dilatation in 22 patients, who showed subsequent relief of symptoms and improvement in the diameter of stenotic segment. In 14 patients, esophageal perforation occurred during the procedure, one requiring emergency thoracotomy and the other three conservative management. Seven patients had no improvement in stenotic sites after several balloon dilatations. Failed cases were congenital stenosis, achalasia, corrosive esophagitis and four postoperative strictures. We believe that balloon dilatation is the procedure of choice in the treatment of postoperative esophageal stricture in infants and children and is a safe method as the perforation which can complicate the procedure could be managed conservatively.

  6. Achalasia: pneumatic Dilation. Experience in a reference hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garzon, Martin; Farfan, Yezid; Molano, Juan; Rey, Mario; Martinez, Julian; Marulanda, Juan

    2005-01-01

    Chalasia has an incidence of 1:100.000. The therapy for achalasia, focus on reducing the pressure gradient across the LES, which can be achieved by forceful pneumatic dilation of the gastroesophageal junction, surgical myotomy or by pharmacological agents, injected endoscopically or taken orally. Pneumatic balloon dilation is regarded as the first-Line treatment, with an initial success rate of 85% to 90%. The objective of this study is to show our experience with pneumatic balloon dilation in the patients with diagnosis of achalasia from the hospital La Samaritana during a period from February 2002 to February 2005. Patients diagnosed with achalasia from the department of gastroenterology and endoscopy of the Hospital La Samaritana during period of February 2002 to February 2005 was included. Procedures were made in fluoroscopy room. The patients received intravenous sedation and analgesia. We used a Regiflex balloon, 3.5 cm diameter. Balloons were inflated with saline water and water-soluble contrast during one minute. We diagnosed 19 patients with achalasia during period from February 2002 to February 2005, 14 were females and 5 males (26%); we made pneumatic dilation in 11 patients (60%), 9 were females (82%) with mean age 38.9 years (ranged from 16 to 13 years). Three patients (21%) underwent once pneumatic dilation and the rest (8 patients) underwent twice (73%). We don't report any perforation. So far we have followed the patients ambulatory during period from 6 months to 2 years. We find recurrence one year after of the pneumatic dilation in a female patient 22 years old (9%). The pneumatic dilation as cost-effective therapy, with a good initial success, but in the longer the follow-up lower the success rate and low morbidity (4). We suggest making only two pneumatic dilations. Today, there isn't consensus on the optimal endoscopic dilation technique and we believe that the sedation must be included in this procedure. In the future, we need more comparative

  7. Evaluation by electronic paramagnetic resonance of the number of free radicals produced in irradiated rat bone; Evaluation par resonance paramagnetique electronique du nombre de radicaux libres produits dans l'os de rat irradie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marble, G; Valderas, R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1966-07-01

    The number of long half-life free radicals created by gamma irradiation in the bones of the rat has been determined from the electrons paramagnetic resonance spectrum. This number decreases slowly with time (calculated half life: 24 days). It is proportional to the dose of gamma radiation given to the rat. The method could find interesting applications in the field of biological dosimetry. (authors) [French] Le nombre de radicaux libres a vie longue crees par irradiation gamma dans l'os de rat a ete determine a partir du spectre de resonance paramagnetique electronique. Ce nombre decroit lentement avec le temps (demi-vie calculee {approx_equal} 24 jours). IL est proportionnel a la dose de rayonnement gamma delivree au rat. La methode pourra trouver en dosimetrie biologique des applications interessantes. (auteurs)

  8. Evaluation by electronic paramagnetic resonance of the number of free radicals produced in irradiated rat bone; Evaluation par resonance paramagnetique electronique du nombre de radicaux libres produits dans l'os de rat irradie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marble, G.; Valderas, R. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1966-07-01

    The number of long half-life free radicals created by gamma irradiation in the bones of the rat has been determined from the electrons paramagnetic resonance spectrum. This number decreases slowly with time (calculated half life: 24 days). It is proportional to the dose of gamma radiation given to the rat. The method could find interesting applications in the field of biological dosimetry. (authors) [French] Le nombre de radicaux libres a vie longue crees par irradiation gamma dans l'os de rat a ete determine a partir du spectre de resonance paramagnetique electronique. Ce nombre decroit lentement avec le temps (demi-vie calculee {approx_equal} 24 jours). IL est proportionnel a la dose de rayonnement gamma delivree au rat. La methode pourra trouver en dosimetrie biologique des applications interessantes. (auteurs)

  9. Metabolic alterations produced by 3-nitropropionic acid in rat striata and cultured astrocytes: quantitative in vitro 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and biochemical characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, C.; Wan, Y.L.; Goh, C.C.; Tsai, M.J.

    1997-01-01

    Quantitative high resolution in vitro 1 H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy was employed to study the metabolic effects of 3-nitropropionic acid associated with aging from perchloric acid extracts of rat striata. Systemic injection of 3-nitropropionic acid in rats at a dose of 10 mg/kg/day for seven consecutive days significantly impaired energy metabolism in rats one, four and eight months of age, as evidenced by a marked elevation of succinate and lactate levels. However, a significant decrease in N-acetyl-l-aspartate level, a neuronal marker, was observed in four- and eight-month-old rats but not in one-month-old rats. This would indicate that rats at four to eight months are more susceptible to 3-nitropropionic acid than those at one month. A significant decrease in GABA level was observed in four-month-old 3-nitropropionic acid-treated rats, which is consistent with the literature that GABAergic neurons are particularly vulnerable to 3-nitropropionic acid treatment. In addition, glutamine and glutamate levels were markedly decreased at four and eight months in 3-nitropropionic acid-treated rats. Since glutamine is synthesized predominantly in glia, the observation above suggests that 3-nitropropionic acid intoxication may involve perturbation of energy metabolism, glial injury and consequent neuronal damage. Astrocytes which are essential in the metabolism of glutamate and glutamine were used to further assess 3-nitropropionic acid-induced toxicity. Glial proliferation, mitochondrial metabolism and glutamine synthetase activity were all reduced by 3-nitropropionic acid treatment with a concomitant increase, in a dose-dependent manner, of lactate levels, suggesting that 3-nitropropionic acid is also detrimental to astrocytes in vivo and thus may affect metabolic interaction between neurons and glia.These results not only imply that 3-nitropropionic acid blocks energy metabolism prior to exerting neurotoxic damage but also demonstrate that the degree of

  10. Treatment of Ureterointestinal Anastomotic Strictures by Diathermal or Cryoplastic Dilatation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orsi, Franco; Penco, Silvia; Matei, Victor; Bonomo, Guido; Vigna, Paolo Della; Monfardini, Lorenzo; Cobelli, Ottavio De

    2007-01-01

    Background. Ureterointestinal anastomotic strictures (UAS) complicate 10-15% of surgeries for urinary diversion and are the main cause of deterioration in renal function. Treatments are surgical revision, management with autostatic stent, balloon dilatation, endoscopic incision, and percutaneous transrenal diathermy (Acucise). A new option is cryoplastic dilatation (Polar-Cath). Purpose. To assess the feasibility, complications, and preliminary results of UAS treatment using the Acucise and Polar-Cath systems. Methods. Nineteen UAS, diagnosed by ultrasonography or computed tomography and sequential renal scintigraphy, occurred in 15 cancer patients after radical cystectomy and urinary diversion. Fifteen were managed with balloon diathermy and 4 by balloon cryoplasty in a three-stage procedure-percutaneous nephrostomy, diathermal or cryoplastic dilatation, and transnephrostomic control with nephrostomy removal-each separated by 15 days. All patients gave written informed consent. Results. Dilatations were successful in all cases. The procedure is simple and rapid (about 45 min) under fluoroscopic control and sedation. Procedural complications occurred in 1 (5%) patient with UAS after Wallace II uretero-ileocutaneostomy: a common iliac artery lesion was induced by diathermal dilatation, evident subsequently, and required surgical repair. Patency with balloon diathermy was good, with two restenoses developing over 12 months (range 1-22) of follow-up. With balloon cryoplastic dilatation, one restenosis developed in the short term; follow-up is too brief to assess the long-term efficacy. Conclusion. Our short-term results with diathermal and cryoplastic dilatation to resolve UAS are good. If supported by longer follow-up, the techniques may be considered as first-choice approaches to UAS. Surgery should be reserved for cases in which this minimally invasive technique fails

  11. Importance of early diagnosis of pancreaticobiliary maljunction without biliary dilatation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takuma, Kensuke; Kamisawa, Terumi; Tabata, Taku; Hara, Seiichi; Kuruma, Sawako; Inaba, Yoshihiko; Kurata, Masanao; Honda, Goro; Tsuruta, Koji; Horiguchi, Shin-ichiro; Igarashi, Yoshinori

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To clarify the strategy for early diagnosis of pancreaticobiliary maljunction (PBM) without biliary dilatation and to pathologically examine gallbladder before cancer develops. METHODS: The anatomy of the union of the pancreatic and bile ducts was assessed by using endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). Patients with a long common channel in which communication between the pancreatic and bile ducts was maintained even during sphincter contraction were diagnosed as having PBM. Of these, patients in which the maximal diameter of the bile duct was less than 10 mm were diagnosed with PBM without biliary dilatation. The process of diagnosing 54 patients with PBM without biliary dilatation was retrospectively investigated. Histopathological analysis of resected gallbladder specimens from 8 patients with PBM without biliary dilatation or cancer was conducted. RESULTS: Thirty-six PBM patients without biliary dilatation were diagnosed with gallbladder cancer after showing clinical symptoms such as abdominal or back pain (n = 16) or jaundice (n = 12). Radical surgery for gallbladder cancer was only possible in 11 patients (31%) and only 4 patients (11%) survived for 5 years. Eight patients were suspected as having PBM without biliary dilatation from the finding of gallbladder wall thickening on ultrasound and the diagnosis was confirmed by ERCP and/or magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP). The median age of these 8 patients was younger by a decade than PBM patients with gallbladder cancer. All 8 patients underwent prophylactic cholecystectomy and bile duct cancer has not occurred. Wall thickness and mucosal height of the 8 resected gallbladders were significantly greater than controls, and hyperplastic changes, hypertrophic muscular layer, subserosal fibrosis, and adenomyomatosis were detected in 7 (88%), 5 (63%), 7 (88%) and 5 (63%) patients, respectively. Ki-67 labeling index was high and K-ras mutation was detected in 3 of 6 patients

  12. A Soxhlet Extract of Gongronema latifolium Retains Moderate Blood Glucose Lowering Effect and Produces Structural Recovery in the Pancreas of STZ-Induced Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bassel Al-Hindi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Gongronema latifolium Benth. (GL possesses considerable glucose lowering effects able to be utilized on a large-scale. This paper investigates the effects of a Soxhlet extract on hyperglycemia, Langerhans islets and glucose uptake by abdominal muscles. Methods: Ethanol and a Soxhlet apparatus were used to obtain GL ethanolic Soxhlet extract (GLES. It was then administered to randomly-segregated male Sprague-Dawley, normal and STZ-induced diabetic rats, using oral gavage to evaluate blood glucose levels (BGLs, serum lipid profile, insulin levels and the pancreas post-treatment. Results: GLES significantly (p < 0.05 decreased BGLs of normal rats in glucose tolerance testing at a dose of 2 g/kg b.w. but failed to do so in diabetic rats undergoing acute 7-h treatment. Given twice-daily, 1 g/kg b.w. of GLES moderately controlled diabetic BGLs starting from day 10. After 14 days of treatment, 1 g/kg and 0.5 g/kg b.w. of GLES caused 44% and 50% respective increases in the average area of Langerhans islets compared to DC. Using isolated rat abdominal muscle, GLES was found to be a mild insulin-sensitizer. GC-MS analysis revealed the presence of the known glucose-lowering phytosterol, Sitostenone. Conclusion: Despite retaining moderate antidiabetic activity, Soxhlet extraction of Gongronema latifolium probably leads to the destruction of active heat-liable compounds.

  13. Histochemical detection of the in vivo produced cellular aldehydes by means of direct Schiff's reaction in CCl/sub 4/ intoxicated rat liver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taper, H.S.; Somer, M.P.; Lans, M.; Gerlache, J. de; Roberfroid, M.

    1988-04-01

    A histochemical technique for detection of the in vivo induced cellular aldehydes based on the direct Schiff's reaction is reported in this paper. CCl/sub 4/-intoxicated rat liver was used as an experimental model. Fresh and non-pretreated rat liver cryostat sections fixed in 10% formol calcium solution and washed in distilled water were exposed to Schiff's reagent. The sections were then immersed in two baths of sodium bisulphite solution, then in water, dehydrated in ethanol, cleared in xylene and mounted in a synthetic anhydrous mounting medium. As Schiff positive areas presented well circumscribed foci which increased with time following intoxication, semiquantitative planimetric measurements were feasible. The direct Schiff's reaction detects cellular aldehydes in a sensitive, rapid histologically and topographically estimable way. The appearance of these aldehydes precedes distinctly morphological alterations detectable by other histochemical of histological techniques. No positive results were obtained in control, non-intocicated rat livers. Inhibitons of this direct Schiff's was obtained in positive control rat liver sections preincubated in solutions of aldehyde blockers. Histochemical detection of aldehydes may give useful information on different aspects of tissue and organ intoxication such as their topography, appearance, evolution, extension, consequences and effects of treatment. The direct Schiff's reaction can be considered as a valuable tool in fundamental and applied reasearch dealing with various toxicological, environmental, pathological, cancer-related and therapeutic problems.

  14. Bovine aortic arch: A novel association with thoracic aortic dilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malone, C.D.; Urbania, T.H.; Crook, S.E.S.; Hope, M.D.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To investigate whether there is a link between bovine arch and thoracic aortic aneurysm. Materials and methods: Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) images of the thorax of 191 patients with dilated thoracic aortas and 391 consecutive, unselected patients as controls were retrospectively reviewed. Bovine arch was considered present if either a shared origin of the left common carotid and innominate arteries or an origin of the left common carotid from the innominate artery was identified. A chi-square test was used to evaluate the significance of differences between subgroups. Results: A trend towards increased prevalence of bovine arch was seen in patients with dilated aortas (26.2%) compared to controls (20.5%, p = 0.12). The association was statistically significant in patients over 70 years old (31.9%, p = 0.019) and when dilation involved the aortic arch (47.6%, p = 0.003). Conclusions: An association between bovine arch and aortic dilation is seen in older patients, and when dilation involves the aortic arch. Bovine arch should be considered a potential risk factor for thoracic aortic aneurysm.

  15. Dilated cardiomyopathy and amebic gastritis in a giant anteater (Myrmecophaga tridactyla).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coke, Rob L; Carpenter, James W; Aboellail, Tawfk; Armbrust, Laura; Isaza, Ramiro

    2002-09-01

    An approximately 11-mo-old female giant anteater (Myrmecophaga tridactyla) exhibited anorexia, lethargy, hypothermia, depression, and minimal response to external stimuli. Radiography and ultrasonography revealed an enlarged heart, with free gas and fluid in the abdomen. Abdominocentesis produced a clear brown fluid with an acute to subacute septic suppurative exudate. Cardiac ultrasonography revealed a dilated, thin-walled left ventricle with a comparatively low fractional shortening. Despite intensive supportive care, the anteater died. Postmortem findings included gastric ulceration with perforation near the pylorus. Entameba spp. and Acanthamoeba spp. were both identified in large numbers at the site of the gastric ulceration and perforation.

  16. Endoscope-guided pneumatic dilation for treatment of esophageal achalasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuah, Seng-Kee; Wu, Keng-Liang; Hu, Tsung-Hui; Tai, Wei-Chen; Changchien, Chi-Sin

    2010-01-01

    Pneumatic dilation (PD) is considered to be the first line nonsurgical therapy for achalasia. The principle of the procedure is to weaken the lower esophageal sphincter by tearing its muscle fibers by generating radial force. The endoscope-guided procedure is done without fluoroscopic control. Clinicians usually use a low-compliance balloon such as Rigiflex dilator to perform endoscope-guided PD for the treatment of esophageal achalasia. It has the advantage of determining mucosal injury during the dilation process, so that a repeat endoscopy is not needed to assess the mucosal tearing. Previous studies have shown that endoscope-guided PD is an efficient and safe nonsurgical therapy with results that compare well with other treatment modalities. Although the results may be promising, long-term follow-up is required in the near future. PMID:20101764

  17. Percutaneous dilatational tracheostomy following total artificial heart implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiliopoulos, Sotirios; Dimitriou, Alexandros Merkourios; Serrano, Maria Rosario; Guersoy, Dilek; Autschbach, Ruediger; Goetzenich, Andreas; Koerfer, Reiner; Tenderich, Gero

    2015-07-01

    Coagulation disorders and an immune-altered state are common among total artificial heart patients. In this context, we sought to evaluate the safety of percutaneous dilatational tracheostomy in cases of prolonged need for mechanical ventilatory support. We retrospectively analysed the charts of 11 total artificial heart patients who received percutaneous dilatational tracheostomy. We focused on early and late complications. We observed no major complications and no procedure-related deaths. Early minor complications included venous oozing (45.4%) and one case of local infection. Late complications, including subglottic stenosis, stomal infection or infections of the lower respiratory tract, were not observed. In conclusion, percutaneous dilatational tracheostomy in total artificial heart patients is safe. Considering the well-known benefits of early tracheotomy over prolonged translaryngeal intubation, we advocate early timing of therapy in cases of prolonged mechanical ventilation. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  18. Three-dimensional MR microscopy of a transgenic mouse model of dilated cardiomyopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sze, R.W.; Strife, J.L. [Dept. of Radiology, Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Chan, C.B.; Sanbe, A.; Robbins, J. [Div. of Molecular Cardiovascular Biology, Department of Pediatrics, Children' s Hospital Research Foundation, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Dardzinski, B.J.; Dunn, S.; Schmithorst, V.; Holland, S.K. [Imaging Research Center, Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2001-02-01

    Background. Scientists are now able to alter the genetics of vertebrate embryos routinely to produce animal models of human developmental diseases. However, our understanding of structural changes in these animal models is limited by current methodologies. Histological techniques, although providing great anatomic detail, display only ''static'' data (one time point only) in two dimensions. Ultrasound may be used to generate continuous time course data, but is limited by interobserver variation, limited acoustic windows, and relatively low resolution. Objective. To apply the high resolution, non-destructive, and three-dimensional acquisition capabilities of magnetic resonance (MR) microscopy to compare the hearts of normal mice versus an established transgenic mouse model of dilated cardiomyopathy. Materials and methods. Transgenic mice exhibiting dilated cardiomyopathy were developed via the introduction of a mutated, heart-specific gene (myosin light chain). Post-mortem cardiac imaging was performed on the transgenic mice and normal controls. MR imaging was performed on a Bruker 3T imaging magnet using a custom radiofrequency coil following contrast perfusion of the atrial and ventricular chambers. Image resolution was 156 {mu}m isotropic voxels. MR images were compared to gross pathologic specimens. Imaging data were post-processed using custom software to calculate the volumes of the atria and ventricles and to display the three-dimensional morphology of the chambers and myocardium. Results. Of the seven mice scanned, four exhibited normal right atrial (average = 14.8 {mu}l {+-} 1.4), left atrial (average = 8.5 {mu}l {+-} 0.3), right ventricular (average = 12.9 {mu}l {+-} 2.7), and left ventricular (average 3.3 {mu}l {+-} 0.5) volumes. Three mice exhibited dilatation of the right and left cardiac chambers (RA average = 23.9 {mu}l {+-} 5.6; LA average = 15.9 {mu}l {+-} 4.8; RV average = 32.5 {mu}l {+-} 6.8; LV average 24.0 {mu}l {+-} 1

  19. Improved test of time dilation in special relativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saathoff, G; Karpuk, S; Eisenbarth, U; Huber, G; Krohn, S; Muñoz Horta, R; Reinhardt, S; Schwalm, D; Wolf, A; Gwinner, G

    2003-11-07

    An improved test of time dilation in special relativity has been performed using laser spectroscopy on fast ions at the heavy-ion storage-ring TSR in Heidelberg. The Doppler-shifted frequencies of a two-level transition in 7Li+ ions at v=0.064c have been measured in the forward and backward direction to an accuracy of Deltanu/nu=1 x 10(-9) using collinear saturation spectroscopy. The result confirms the relativistic Doppler formula and sets a new limit of 2.2 x 10(-7) for deviations from the time dilation factor gamma(SR)=(1-v2/c2)(-1/2).

  20. H∞ /H2 model reduction through dilated linear matrix inequalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adegas, Fabiano Daher; Stoustrup, Jakob

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents sufficient dilated linear matrix inequalities (LMI) conditions to the $H_{infty}$ and $H_{2}$ model reduction problem. A special structure of the auxiliary (slack) variables allows the original model of order $n$ to be reduced to an order $r=n/s$ where $n,r,s in field{N}$. Arb......This paper presents sufficient dilated linear matrix inequalities (LMI) conditions to the $H_{infty}$ and $H_{2}$ model reduction problem. A special structure of the auxiliary (slack) variables allows the original model of order $n$ to be reduced to an order $r=n/s$ where $n,r,s in field...

  1. Balloon dilation of congenital supravalvular pulmonic stenosis in a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treseder, Julia R; Jung, SeungWoo

    2017-03-30

    Percutaneous balloon valvuloplasty is considered the standard of care for treatment of valvular pulmonic stenosis, a common congenital defect in dogs. Supravalvular pulmonic stenosis is a rare form of pulmonic stenosis in dogs and standard treatment has not been established. Although, there have been reports of successful treatment of supravalvular pulmonic stenosis with surgical and stenting techniques, there have been no reports of balloon dilation to treat dogs with this condition. Here, a case of supravalvular pulmonic stenosis diagnosed echocardiographically and angiographically in which a significant reduction in pressure gradient was achieved with balloon dilation alone is presented.

  2. Affine and quasi-affine frames for rational dilations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bownik, Marcin; Lemvig, Jakob

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we extend the investigation of quasi-affine systems, which were originally introduced by Ron and Shen [J. Funct. Anal. 148 (1997), 408-447] for integer, expansive dilations, to the class of rational, expansive dilations. We show that an affine system is a frame if, and only if......, the corresponding family of quasi-affine systems are frames with uniform frame bounds. We also prove a similar equivalence result between pairs of dual affine frames and dual quasi-affine frames. Finally, we uncover some fundamental differences between the integer and rational settings by exhibiting an example...

  3. Dilated cardiomyopathy and severe heart failure. An update for pediatricians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caviedes Bottner, Paola; Córdova Fernández, Tamara; Larraín Valenzuela, Marcos; Cruces Romero Presentación de Casos Clínicos, Pablo

    2018-06-01

    Dilated cardiomyopathy is the main cause of heart failure leading to heart transplant. Its prognosis is variable and depends on the etiology, the patient's age at onset, and the severity. The management of dilated cardiomyopathy is aimed at minimizing symptoms and preventing disease progression; it requires a comprehensive screening for comorbidities and the prevention of complications to improve the overall status of these children and mitigate their prognosis. Here we present a review oriented at the multidisciplinary management that pediatricians should consider when seeing these patients. Sociedad Argentina de Pediatría.

  4. Gastric dilatation-volvulus after splenic torsion in two dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millis, D L; Nemzek, J; Riggs, C; Walshaw, R

    1995-08-01

    Two dogs developed gastric dilatation-volvulus 2 and 17 months, respectively, after splenectomy for treatment of splenic torsion. Splenic displacement and torsion may stretch the gastric ligaments, allowing increased mobility of the stomach. After splenectomy, an anatomic void may be created in the cranioventral part of the abdomen, contributing to the mobility of the stomach. Veterinarians treating dogs with isolated splenic torsion may wish to consider prophylactic gastropexy at splenectomy, to reduce the chance of future gastric dilatation-volvulus. Prophylactic gastropexy should be done only if the dog's hemodynamic status is stable enough to allow for performance of the additional surgery.

  5. A Rare Occurance with Epidermolysis Bullosa Disease: Dilated Cardiomyopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derya Cimen

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Epidermolysis bullosa is a congenital and herediter vesiculobullous disease. Dystrophic form of this disease is characterized by severe malnutrition, failure to thrive, adhesions at fingers, joint contractures related with the formation of scar tissues, carcinoma of the skin, anemia, hipoalbuminemia, wound enfections and sepsis. Rarely, mortal dilated cardiomyopathy may occur in patients. In this report we present a 13 year-old pediatric patient with dilated cardiomyopathy, clinically diagnosed with Epidermolysis bullosa as well as a review of recent related literature.

  6. Photochemically-induced ischemia of the rat sciatic nerve produces a dose-dependent and highly reproducible mechanical, heat and cold allodynia, and signs of spontaneous pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupers, R; Yu, W; Persson, J K; Xu, X J; Wiesenfeld-Hallin, Z

    1998-05-01

    Sensory abnormalities and changes in spontaneous behavior were examined after a photochemically induced ischemic lesion of the rat sciatic nerve. Male adult rats were anesthetized and the sciatic nerve was exposed. After the intravenous injection of a photosensitizing dye, erythrosin B, the exposed nerve was irradiated just proximal to the nerve trifurcation with light from an argon laser. Three different irradiation times were used, 30 s, 1 and 2 min. In sham-operated rats, the exposed sciatic nerve was irradiated for 2 min without prior injection of the erythrosin B. Rats were tested for the presence of mechanical, cold and heat allodynia or hyperalgesia. All the animals in the 1- and 2-min irradiation groups developed mechanical, cold and heat allodynia after nerve irradiation. A significant dose-dependent effect of laser exposure time was observed for all modalities tested (2 min > 1 min > 30 s = sham). The maximum effects were observed at 3 and 7 days postirradiation and remained present for up to 10 weeks. No significant contralateral effects were observed in any of the groups. In three separate groups of rats (1, 2 and 4 min of laser exposure), the presence of possible signs of spontaneous pain (paw shaking, paw elevation and freezing behavior) was tested. A significant and exposure time-dependent increase in spontaneous paw elevation and paw shaking was observed which was maximal at week 1, but resolved at 4 weeks (4 min > 2 min > 1 min > sham). In addition, animals in all ischemic groups, but not in the sham group, showed a significant increase in freezing behavior up to 4 weeks after nerve irradiation. Light microscopic evaluation of nerves removed 7 days post-irradiation, i.e. when maximal allodynia was observed, showed clear evidence of demyelination of large myelinated fibers. These data indicate that photochemically-induced peripheral nerve ischemia is associated with abnormal pain-related behaviors, including mechanical, thermal and cold allodynia

  7. Dilated uropathies in children; Dilatation des reins et voies urinaires chez l`enfant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouissou, F. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Purpan, 31 - Toulouse (France)

    1995-12-31

    These uropathies are frequent in children and are often diagnosed by ante-natal ultrasound examination. The dilatation, hydronephrosis or uretero-hydro-nephrosis may be due to a large pattern of malformations, either anatomical dysplasia, vesico-ureteric reflux or obstruction of the pelvi-ureteric junction, of the vesical-ureteric junction or due to a chronic urethral obstruction. The investigations must determine the exact urinary tract abnormalities, the renal function and the uro-dynamic change. They are guided by the ultrasound findings and cystography. In obstructive malformation, the MAG3 renogram with furosemide test is the best way to precise the uro-dynamic status, but it requires a careful technique in children and its interpretation is sometimes equivocal. DMSA scan is very useful to give precise separate kidney function and to follow the maturational change with age. All the results must be carefully analysed ; the final therapeutic decision and specially surgery is dependent of the type of uropathy and its natural history. In many cases, surgical treatment is only indicated after a longer follow-up and repeated evaluations. (authors). 11 refs., 2 figs.

  8. Gold nanoparticles administration induces disarray of heart muscle, hemorrhagic, chronic inflammatory cells infiltrated by small lymphocytes, cytoplasmic vacuolization and congested and dilated blood vessels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelhalim Mohamed Anwar K

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite significant research efforts on cancer therapy, diagnostics and imaging, many challenges remain unsolved. There are many unknown details regarding the interaction of nanoparticles (NPs and biological systems. The structure and properties of gold nanoparticles (GNPs make them useful for a wide array of biological applications. However, for the application of GNPs in therapy and drug delivery, knowledge regarding their bioaccumulation and associated local or systemic toxicity is necessary. Information on the biological fate of NPs, including distribution, accumulation, metabolism, and organ specific toxicity is still minimal. Studies specifically dealing with the toxicity of NPs are rare. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of intraperitoneal administration of GNPs on histological alterations of the heart tissue of rats in an attempt to identify and understand the toxicity and the potential role of GNPs as a therapeutic and diagnostic tool. Methods A total of 40 healthy male Wistar-Kyoto rats received 50 μl infusions of 10, 20 and 50 nm GNPs for 3 or 7 days. Animals were randomly divided into groups: 6 GNP-treated rats groups and one control group (NG. Groups 1, 2 and 3 received infusions of 50 μl GNPs of size 10 nm (3 or 7 days, 20 nm (3 or 7 days and 50 nm (3 or 7 days, respectively. Results In comparison with the respective control rats, exposure to GNPs doses produced heart muscle disarray with a few scattered chronic inflammatory cells infiltrated by small lymphocytes, foci of hemorrhage with extravasation of red blood cells, some scattered cytoplasmic vacuolization and congested and dilated blood vessels. None of the above alterations were observed in the heart muscle of any member of the control group. Conclusions The alterations induced by intraperitoneal administration of GNPs were size-dependent, with smaller ones inducing greater affects, and were also related to the time exposure to

  9. Ascending central canal dilation and progressive ependymal disruption in a contusion model of rodent chronic spinal cord injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keirstead Hans S

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic spinal cord injury (SCI can lead to an insidious decline in motor and sensory function in individuals even years after the initial injury and is accompanied by a slow and progressive cytoarchitectural destruction. At present, no pathological mechanisms satisfactorily explain the ongoing degeneration. Methods Adult female Sprague-Dawley rats were anesthetized laminectomized at T10 and received spinal cord contusion injuries with a force of 250 kilodynes using an Infinite Horizon Impactor. Animals were randomly distributed into 5 groups and killed 1 (n = 4, 28 (n = 4, 120 (n = 4, 450 (n = 5, or 540 (n = 5 days after injury. Morphometric and immunohistochemical studies were then performed on 1 mm block sections, 6 mm cranial and 6 mm caudal to the lesion epicenter. The SPSS 11.5 t test was used to determine differences between quantitative measures. Results Here, we document the first report of an ascending central canal dilation and progressive ependymal disruption cranial to the epicenter of injury in a contusion model of chronic SCI, which was characterized by extensive dural fibrosis and intraparenchymal cystic cavitation. Expansion of the central canal lumen beyond a critical diameter corresponded with ependymal cell ciliary loss, an empirically predictable thinning of the ependymal region, and a decrease in cell proliferation in the ependymal region. Large, aneurysmal dilations of the central canal were accompanied by disruptions in the ependymal layer, periependymal edema and gliosis, and destruction of the adjacent neuropil. Conclusion Cells of the ependymal region play an important role in CSF homeostasis, cellular signaling and wound repair in the spinal cord. The possible effects of this ascending pathology on ependymal function are discussed. Our studies suggest central canal dilation and ependymal region disruption as steps in the pathogenesis of chronic SCI, identify central canal dilation as a marker of

  10. Dilatancy of Shear Transformations in a Colloidal Glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Y. Z.; Jiang, M. Q.; Lu, X.; Qin, Z. X.; Huang, Y. J.; Shen, J.

    2018-01-01

    Shear transformations, as fundamental rearrangement events operating in local regions, hold the key of plastic flow of amorphous solids. Despite their importance, the dynamic features of shear transformations are far from clear, which is the focus of the present study. Here, we use a colloidal glass under shear as the prototype to directly observe the shear-transformation events in real space. By tracing the colloidal-particle rearrangements, we quantitatively determine two basic properties of shear transformations: local shear strain and dilatation (or free volume). It is revealed that the local free volume undergoes a significantly temporary increase prior to shear transformations, eventually leading to a jump of local shear strain. We clearly demonstrate that shear transformations have no memory of the initial free volume of local regions. Instead, their emergence strongly depends on the dilatancy ability of these local regions, i.e., the dynamic creation of free volume. More specifically, the particles processing the high dilatancy ability directly participate in subsequent shear transformations. These results experimentally enrich Argon's statement about the dilatancy nature of shear transformations and also shed insight into the structural origin of amorphous plasticity.

  11. Gravitational time dilation and length contraction in fields exterior to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Here, we use our new metric tensor exterior to a massiv3e oblate spheroid to study the gravitational phenomena of time dilation and length contraction. It turns out most profoundly that, the above phenomena hold good in the gravitational field exterior to an oblate spheroid. We then use the oblate spheroidal Earth to ...

  12. Case Report Percutaneous Dilational Tracheostomy A bed side ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Tracheostomy is one of the most commonly performed procedures in critically ill patients. Percutaneous dilatational tracheostomy (PDT), according to ciaglias technique described in 1985, has become the most popular technique for percutaneous tracheostomy and is demonstrably as safe as surgical.

  13. Pneumatic Dilation versus Laparoscopic Heller's Myotomy for Idiopathic Achalasia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boeckxstaens, Guy E.; Annese, Vito; des Varannes, Stanislas Bruley; Chaussade, Stanislas; Costantini, Mario; Cuttitta, Antonello; Elizalde, J. Ignasi; Fumagalli, Uberto; Gaudric, Marianne; Rohof, Wout O.; Smout, André J.; Tack, Jan; Zwinderman, Aeilko H.; Zaninotto, Giovanni; Busch, Olivier R.; Lei, A.; Bartelsman, J.; Hirsch, D.; Klinkenberg-Knol, E. C.; Cuesta, M. A.; Simmermacher, R. K. J.; Kuipers, E. J.; Bonjer, H. J.; Masclee, A. A. M.; Ringers, J.; Lerut, A.; Metman, E. H.; Huten, N.; Letessier, E.; Dousset, B.; Pera, M.; Perez de la Serna, J.; Malesci, Alberto; Andriulli, A.; Scaramuzzi, G.; de Santo, E.

    2011-01-01

    Background Many experts consider laparoscopic Heller's myotomy (LHM) to be superior to pneumatic dilation for the treatment of achalasia, and LHM is increasingly considered to be the treatment of choice for this disorder. Methods We randomly assigned patients with newly diagnosed achalasia to

  14. Arborescent vascular dilatation mimicking Lichtenberg figures from lightning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tempark, Therdpong; Iwasaki, Julie; Shwayder, Tor

    2014-01-01

    The clinical presentation of arborizing vascular dilatation can resemble Lichtenberg figures from lightning. Both have a feather-like or ferning pattern. We report an interesting case of pressure-induced vasodilatation (PIV) caused by temporary vascular occlusion from jeans buttons. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Non-obstructive cecal dilatation and perforation after cesarean section

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sperling, Lene; Schantz, A L; Toftager-Larsen, K

    1990-01-01

    A case of non-obstructive cecal dilatation and perforation after cesarean section is reported, with a review of the literature on the diagnosis and management of this entity. Fifteen cases have been described. Attention is called to this rare complication and to the accompanying pseudo...

  16. Peripartum cardiomyopathy as a part of familial dilated cardiomyopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.Y. van Spaendonck-Zwarts (Karin); J.P. van Tintelen (Peter); D.J. van Veldhuisen (Dirk); R. van der Werf (Rik); J.D.H. Jongbloed (Jan); W.J. Paulus (Walter); D. Dooijes (Dennis); M.P. van den Berg (Maarten)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND-: Anecdotal cases of familial clustering of peripartum cardiomyopathy (PPCM) and familial occurrences of PPCM and idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) together have been observed, suggesting that genetic factors play a role in the pathogenesis of PPCM. We hypothesized that

  17. 21 CFR 884.4260 - Hygroscopic Laminaria cervical dilator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hygroscopic Laminaria cervical dilator. 884.4260 Section 884.4260 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... conical and expansible material made from the root of a seaweed (Laminaria digitata or Laminaria japonica...

  18. Left coronary aneurysmal dilation and subaortic stenosis in a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Juan L; Bélanger, Marie-Claude; Benoit-Biancamano, Marie-Odile; Girard, Christiane; Pibarot, Philippe

    2008-06-01

    A 6-month-old German shepherd dog was referred for evaluation of a cardiac murmur. Upon physical examination, the auscultated heart rate was 120 beats/min, and a grade IV/VI systolic heart murmur with a point of maximal intensity over the left heart base radiating up the neck was heard. The standard echocardiographic examination showed subaortic stenosis and an anechoic tubular structure extending from the sinus of Valsalva to the left ventricular posterior wall. Aneurysmal left coronary artery (CA) was confirmed by angiography. The dog was euthanized and post-mortem examination showed severe dilatation of the proximal left CA and confirmed the subaortic stenosis. Histopathology did not demonstrate abnormalities in the walls of the CA, aorta or pulmonary artery. The exact cause of the CA aneurysmal dilation remains unknown. Subaortic stenosis, elevated coronary vascular resistance or a congenital anomaly may have contributed to the dilation. To our knowledge, coronary aneurysmal dilation has never been described in dogs. Standard echocardiography provides reliable information on coronary anatomy.

  19. Dilation-optimal edge deletion in polygonal cycles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ahn, H.K.; Farshi, M.; Knauer, C.; Smid, M.H.M.; Wang, Y.; Tokuyama, T.

    2007-01-01

    Let C be a polygonal cycle on n vertices in the plane. A randomized algorithm is presented which computes in O(n log3 n) expected time, the edge of C whose removal results in a polygonal path of smallest possible dilation. It is also shown that the edge whose removal gives a polygonal path of

  20. 28. Critical pulmonary valve stenosis: Medical management beyond balloon dilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Arif Khan

    2015-10-01

    Conclusion: Phentolamine and/or Captopril have a therapeutic role in neonates with critical PVS who remain oxygen dependent after balloon dilation. Both medicationslead to vasodilatation of pulmonary and systemic vascularity. They facilitate inflowto the right ventricle. Right to left shunt across a PFO or/ ASD minimizesand saturation improves leading to a significantreduction in length of hospitalization.

  1. A dynamical approach to time dilation and length contraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de D.K.; Muynck, de W.M.

    1996-01-01

    Simple models of length and time measuring instruments are studied in order to see under what conditions a relativistic description of the dynamics of accelerated motion can be consistent with the kinematic prescriptions of Lorentz contraction and time dilation. The outcomes obtained for the

  2. Connect the dot: Computing feed-links with minimum dilation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aronov, B.; Buchin, K.; Buchin, M.; Kreveld, van M.J.; Löffler, M.; Luo, J.; Silveira, R.I.; Speckmann, B.; Dehne, F.; Gavrilova, M.; Sack, J.-R.; Tóth, C.D.

    2009-01-01

    A feed-link is an artificial connection from a given location p to a real-world network. It is most commonly added to an incomplete network to improve the results of network analysis, by making p part of the network. The feed-link has to be "reasonable", hence we use the concept of dilation to

  3. A predictive model for canine dilated cardiomyopathy-a meta-analysis of Doberman Pinscher data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Siobhan; Edwards, Jennifer; Emes, Richard D; Cobb, Malcolm A; Mongan, Nigel P; Rutland, Catrin S

    2015-01-01

    Dilated cardiomyopathy is a prevalent and often fatal disease in humans and dogs. Indeed dilated cardiomyopathy is the third most common form of cardiac disease in humans, reported to affect approximately 36 individuals per 100,000 individuals. In dogs, dilated cardiomyopathy is the second most common cardiac disease and is most prevalent in the Irish Wolfhound, Doberman Pinscher and Newfoundland breeds. Dilated cardiomyopathy is characterised by ventricular chamber enlargement and systolic dysfunction which often leads to congestive heart failure. Although multiple human loci have been implicated in the pathogenesis of dilated cardiomyopathy, the identified variants are typically associated with rare monogenic forms of dilated cardiomyopathy. The potential for multigenic interactions contributing to human dilated cardiomyopathy remains poorly understood. Consistent with this, several known human dilated cardiomyopathy loci have been excluded as common causes of canine dilated cardiomyopathy, although canine dilated cardiomyopathy resembles the human disease functionally. This suggests additional genetic factors contribute to the dilated cardiomyopathy phenotype.This study represents a meta-analysis of available canine dilated cardiomyopathy genetic datasets with the goal of determining potential multigenic interactions relating the sex chromosome genotype (XX vs. XY) with known dilated cardiomyopathy associated loci on chromosome 5 and the PDK4 gene in the incidence and progression of dilated cardiomyopathy. The results show an interaction between known canine dilated cardiomyopathy loci and an unknown X-linked locus. Our study is the first to test a multigenic contribution to dilated cardiomyopathy and suggest a genetic basis for the known sex-disparity in dilated cardiomyopathy outcomes.

  4. A predictive model for canine dilated cardiomyopathy—a meta-analysis of Doberman Pinscher data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siobhan Simpson

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Dilated cardiomyopathy is a prevalent and often fatal disease in humans and dogs. Indeed dilated cardiomyopathy is the third most common form of cardiac disease in humans, reported to affect approximately 36 individuals per 100,000 individuals. In dogs, dilated cardiomyopathy is the second most common cardiac disease and is most prevalent in the Irish Wolfhound, Doberman Pinscher and Newfoundland breeds. Dilated cardiomyopathy is characterised by ventricular chamber enlargement and systolic dysfunction which often leads to congestive heart failure. Although multiple human loci have been implicated in the pathogenesis of dilated cardiomyopathy, the identified variants are typically associated with rare monogenic forms of dilated cardiomyopathy. The potential for multigenic interactions contributing to human dilated cardiomyopathy remains poorly understood. Consistent with this, several known human dilated cardiomyopathy loci have been excluded as common causes of canine dilated cardiomyopathy, although canine dilated cardiomyopathy resembles the human disease functionally. This suggests additional genetic factors contribute to the dilated cardiomyopathy phenotype.This study represents a meta-analysis of available canine dilated cardiomyopathy genetic datasets with the goal of determining potential multigenic interactions relating the sex chromosome genotype (XX vs. XY with known dilated cardiomyopathy associated loci on chromosome 5 and the PDK4 gene in the incidence and progression of dilated cardiomyopathy. The results show an interaction between known canine dilated cardiomyopathy loci and an unknown X-linked locus. Our study is the first to test a multigenic contribution to dilated cardiomyopathy and suggest a genetic basis for the known sex-disparity in dilated cardiomyopathy outcomes.

  5. Energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis of zinc and calcium in organelles of insulin-producing cells of the mouse, rat, and a fish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falkmer, S; Odselius, R [Lund Univ. (Sweden); Blondel, B; Prentki, M; Wollheim, C B [Geneva Univ. (Switzerland)

    1985-01-01

    By means of energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis in the scanning-transmission electron microscope, spectra were obtained from quick-frozen, cryo-ultramicrotome-cut, freeze-dried sections of insulin cells from a fish and a mouse. It was shown that both zinc and calcium are present in significant quantities in native islet cell ..beta.. granules. In the ..beta.. granules of the rat RINm5F insuloma cells calcium, but not zinc, seemed to accumulate; the zinc contents in the secretion granules of these neoplastic ..beta.. cells were probably below the detection limit.

  6. Results of Eder-Puestow dilatation in the management of esophageal peptic strictures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rago, E; Boesby, S; Spencer, J

    1983-01-01

    Eder-Puestow dilatation of esophageal strictures is a safe procedure. The treatment is followed by symptomatic improvement, but the effect of dilatation on the patients' nutritional state has so far not been reported. We have reviewed 33 patients with benign esophageal stricture with special regard to the effect of dilatation on body weight. A total of 152 dilatations was carried out. All patients had dysphagia, 32 patients had heartburn and 20 had regurgitation. Hiatus hernia was present in 29 patients. Thirteen patients had antireflux surgery; 10 operations were performed before, and four during the dilatation period. One patient required no further dilatations after operation. Dilators greater than 35 FG were passed in 85% of the dilatations. No serious complications occurred. Patients were followed for up to 5 yr (mean follow-up: 27 months). The mean interval between dilatations was 7 months. Body weight was recorded before and one month after dilatation on 78 occasions. There was a significant overall weight increase of 0.78 kg 1 month after dilatation. The mean weight increase was greater after the first dilatation (1.06 kg) than after subsequent ones (0.6 kg). We found that Eder-Puestow dilatation in patients with benign esophageal stricture led to symptomatic improvement and was followed by an increase in body weight.

  7. CT findings of the mucin producing pancreatic cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ri, Kyoushichi; Hashimoto, Toushi; Munechika, Hirotsugu

    1992-01-01

    Mucin-producing pancreatic cancers (MPPC), which include mucinous adenocarcinoma, papillary adenocarcinoma and cystadenocarcinoma, are radiographically characterized by diffuse or localized dilatation of the main pancreatic duct due to excessive mucin production. Therefore, MPPC are occasionally difficult to distinguish from chronic pancreatitis on CT unless the primary pancreatic lesion is visualized. We compared five cases of MPPC with five cases of chronic pancreatitis with marked duct dilatation to determine differences in CT images between the two diseases. There was no significant difference between the two diseases in the nature of duct dilatation (size, extent, contour) or parenchymal changes (atrophy, enlargement, calcification, cystic lesion). However, dilatation of the intramural duct was characteristically observed in MPPC but not in chronic pancreatitis. Papillary masses in the pancreatic duct, when observed, were another finding specific to MPPC. (author)

  8. Psychological and neural mechanisms of subjective time dilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginie evan Wassenhove

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available For a given physical duration, certain events can be experienced as subjectively longer in duration than others. Try this for yourself: take a quick glance at the second hand of a clock. Immediately, the tick will pause momentarily and appear to be longer than the subsequent ticks. Yet, they all last exactly one second. By and large, a deviant or an unexpected stimulus in a series of similar events (same duration, same features can elicit a relative overestimation of subjective time (or "time dilation" but, as is shown here, this is not always the case. We conducted an event-related functional magnetic neuroimaging (fMRI study on the time dilation effect. Participants were presented with a series of five visual discs, all static and of equal duration (standards except for the fourth one, a looming or a receding target. The duration of the target was systematically varied and participants judged whether it was shorter or longer than all other standards in the sequence. Subjective time dilation was observed for the looming stimulus but not for the receding one, which was estimated to be of equal duration to the standards. The neural activation for targets (looming and receding contrasted with the standards revealed an increased activation of the anterior insula and of the anterior cingulate cortex. Contrasting the looming with the receding targets (i.e. capturing the time dilation effect proper revealed a specific activation of cortical midline structures. The implication of midline structures in the time dilation illusion is here interpreted in the context of self-referential processes.

  9. Comparison of Antiobesity Effects Between Gochujangs Produced Using Different Koji Products and Tabasco Hot Sauce in Rats Fed a High-Fat Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Hee-Kyoung; Shin, Hye-Won; Jang, Eun-Seok; Moon, Byoung-Seok; Lee, Choong-Hwan; Lee, Jae-Joon

    2018-03-01

    In this study, we compared the antiobesity effects between gochujangs prepared using different koji products and Tabasco hot sauce in rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD). Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed HFD containing four different types of 10% gochujang powder or 0.25% commercial Tabasco sauce powder for 8 weeks. The body weight gain, liver and epididymal and mesenteric fat pad weights, serum leptin levels, and lipogenesis-related mRNA levels of HFD-gochujang supplementation groups were significantly decreased compared with those of the HFD group. In addition, gochujang supplement significantly reduced adipocyte size; hepatic triglyceride and total cholesterol levels; the occurrence of fatty liver deposits and steatosis by inhibiting lipogenesis through downregulation of fatty acid synthase, acetly-CoA carboxylase, and glucose-6-phosphate-dehydrogenase. These effects were greater in the gochujang-supplemented groups than the Tabasco hot sauce-supplemented group. The gochujang prepared by nutritious giant embryo rice koji and soybean koji was most effective in terms of antiobesity effects, compared with the other tested gochujangs. In gochujangs, the antiobesity effects are mediated by high levels of secondary metabolites such as isoflavone, soyasaponin, capsaicin, and lysophosphatidylcholine. The current results indicated that the gochujang products have the potential to reduce fat accumulation and obesity.

  10. Implantes de biomateriais em falha óssea produzida na fíbula de ratos Biomaterial implants in bone fractures produced in rat fibulas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Yassuhiro Shirane

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a importância do colágeno e hidroxiapatita na regeneração de fraturas provocadas experimentalmente na fíbula de ratos. MÉTODOS: Utilizou-se 15 ratos nos quais foram submetidos à cirurgia para retirada de um fragmento da fíbula sendo o local enxertado com tubos de silicone preenchidos com hidroxiapatita e colágeno. RESULTADOS: Ocorreu pouca neoformação óssea no interior dos tubos preenchidos com os biomateriais sendo em maior quantidade naqueles com colágeno. CONCLUSÃO: Os biomateriais usados apresentaram biocompatibilidade e capacidade osteocondutora capaz de estimular a osteogênese mesmo nos ossos com funções mecânicas e morfológicas secundárias como a fíbula de ratos.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the importance of collagen and hydroxyapatite in the regeneration of fractures experimentally induced in the fibulas of mice. METHOD: 15 rats were submitted to a surgery for the removal of a fragment of the fibula. The fragment was replaced by a silicone tube filled with hydroxyapatite and collagen. RESULTS: Little bone neoformation occurred inside the tubes filled with biomaterials, the largest amount occurring in those with collagen. CONCLUSION: The biomaterials used demonstrated biocompatibility and osteoconductive capacity capable of stimulating osteogenesis, even in bones with secondary mechanical and morphological functions such as the fibula of the rat.

  11. Coadministration of alloxan and nicotinamide in rats produces biochemical changes in blood and pathological alterations comparable to the changes in type II diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vattam, K K; Raghavendran, Hrb; Murali, M R; Savatey, H; Kamarul, T

    2016-08-01

    In the present study, thirty six male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into six groups and were injected with varying doses of alloxan (Ax) and nicotinamide (NA). The serum levels of glucose, insulin, and adiponectin were measured weekly up to 4 weeks. Elevated levels of glucose were observed in all groups on days 7, 14, 21, and 28, except in groups a and f (control). The serum insulin levels were significantly elevated in groups b and c on day 7, when compared with that in group f, whereas a decrease in the serum insulin levels was observed in groups d and e on days 21 and 28. The adiponectin levels showed inconsistencies on days 7 and 14. However, significant decrease in the adiponectin levels was observed on days 21 and 28. Histological section of the pancreas showed mild (group a), moderate (group b) to severe (groups c, d, and e) degenerative changes. Concomitant fatty changes in the liver and inflammatory infiltration of the kidney were markedly observed in all the treated groups, when compared to control. These results suggested that the use of selective combination of Ax120 + NA50 injection demonstrated type II diabetes mellitus in rats. © The Author(s) 2015.

  12. Training on motor and visual spatial learning tasks in early adulthood produces large changes in dendritic organization of prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens in rats given nicotine prenatally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammad, A; Mychasiuk, R; Hosain, S; Nakahashi, A; Carroll, C; Gibb, R; Kolb, B

    2013-11-12

    Experience-dependent plasticity is an ongoing process that can be observed and measured at multiple levels. The first goal of this study was to examine the effects of prenatal nicotine on the performance of rats in three behavioral tasks (elevated plus maze (EPM), Morris water task (MWT), and Whishaw tray reaching). The second goal of this experiment sought to examine changes in dendritic organization following exposure to the behavioral training paradigm and/or low doses of prenatal nicotine. Female Long-Evans rats were administered daily injections of nicotine for the duration of pregnancy and their pups underwent a regimen of behavioral training in early adulthood (EPM, MWT, and Whishaw tray reaching). All offspring exposed to nicotine prenatally exhibited substantial increases in anxiety. Male offspring also showed increased efficiency in the Whishaw tray-reaching task and performed differently than the other groups in the probe trial of the MWT. Using Golgi-Cox staining we examined the dendritic organization of the medial and orbital prefrontal cortex as well as the nucleus accumbens. Participation in the behavioral training paradigm was associated with dramatic reorganization of dendritic morphology and spine density in all brain regions examined. Although both treatments (behavior training and prenatal nicotine exposure) markedly altered dendritic organization, the effects of the behavioral experience were much larger than those of the prenatal drug exposure, and in some cases interacted with the drug effects. Copyright © 2013 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Percutaneous dilatational tracheostomy without fiber optic bronchoscopy-Evaluation of 80 intensive care units cases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A. Calvache (Jose Andrés); R.A. Molina García (Rodrigo); A.L. Trochez (Adolfo); J. Benitez (Javier); L.A. Flga (Lucía Arroyo)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractBackground: The development of percutaneous dilatational tracheostomy techniques (PDT) has facilitated the procedure in Intensive Care Units (ICU). Objective: To describe the early intra and post-operative complications in ICU patients requiring percutaneous dilatational tracheostomy

  14. Esophagogastric junction distensibility measurements during hydraulic dilation therapy in achalasia patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kappelle, W.F.; Bogte, A.; Siersema, P.D.

    2016-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that esophagogastric junction (EGJ) distensibility is predictive of long-term clinical success after achalasia treatment. A new commercially available hydraulic dilation balloon is capable of measuring EGJ opening diameters whilst simultaneously dilating the EGJ.

  15. Congenital dilatation of the large and segmental intrahepatic bile ducts (Caroli's disease in two Golden retriever littermates : clinical communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.D. Last

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Two, sibling, male Golden retriever puppies, 13 weeks of age, were presented with congenital biliary cysts of the liver involving both hepatic and segmental bile ducts, as well as bilateral polycystic kidney disease. Ultrasonography of the livers of both pups demonstrated segmental cystic lesions that were contiguous with the bile ducts. Histopathology revealed cystic ectatic bile duct hyperplasia and dysplasia with variable portal fibrosis in the liver, while in the kidneys there were radially arranged, cylindrically dilated cysts of the collecting ducts, which extended through the medulla and cortex. This pathology was compatible with that of congenital dilatation of the large and segmental bile ducts (Caroli's disease described in humans, dogs and rats. In humans Caroli's disease has an autosomal recessive inheritance pattern, while in rats activation of the MEK5/ERK cascade initiates the biliary dysgenesis of Caroli's disease in this species. However, the exact mode of inheritance and pathogenesis of Caroli's disease in dogs is as yet unknown. Previous reports on congenital hepatic cystic diseases of the dog have described Caroli's disease like lesions in various breeds, but these are believed to be the 1st reported cases in the Golden retriever breed.

  16. Proposal for a revised definition of dilated cardiomyopathy, hypokinetic non-dilated cardiomyopathy, and its implications for clinical practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinto, Yigal M; Elliott, Perry M; Arbustini, Eloisa

    2016-01-01

    In this paper the Working Group on Myocardial and Pericardial Disease proposes a revised definition of dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) in an attempt to bridge the gap between our recent understanding of the disease spectrum and its clinical presentation in relatives, which is key for early diagnosis...

  17. Elastin overexpression by cell-based gene therapy preserves matrix and prevents cardiac dilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shu-Hong; Sun, Zhuo; Guo, Lily; Han, Mihan; Wood, Michael F G; Ghosh, Nirmalya; Alex Vitkin, I; Weisel, Richard D; Li, Ren-Ke

    2012-01-01

    After a myocardial infarction, thinning and expansion of the fibrotic scar contribute to progressive heart failure. The loss of elastin is a major contributor to adverse extracellular matrix remodelling of the infarcted heart, and restoration of the elastic properties of the infarct region can prevent ventricular dysfunction. We implanted cells genetically modified to overexpress elastin to re-establish the elastic properties of the infarcted myocardium and prevent cardiac failure. A full-length human elastin cDNA was cloned, subcloned into an adenoviral vector and then transduced into rat bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs). In vitro studies showed that BMSCs expressed the elastin protein, which was deposited into the extracellular matrix. Transduced BMSCs were injected into the infarcted myocardium of adult rats. Control groups received either BMSCs transduced with the green fluorescent protein gene or medium alone. Elastin deposition in the infarcted myocardium was associated with preservation of myocardial tissue structural integrity (by birefringence of polarized light; P elastin showed the greatest functional improvement (P elastin in the infarcted heart preserved the elastic structure of the extracellular matrix, which, in turn, preserved diastolic function, prevented ventricular dilation and preserved cardiac function. This cell-based gene therapy provides a new approach to cardiac regeneration. PMID:22435995

  18. Canine candidate genes for dilated cardiomyopathy: annotation of and polymorphic markers for 14 genes

    OpenAIRE

    Wiersma, Anje C; Leegwater, Peter AJ; van Oost, Bernard A; Ollier, William E; Dukes-McEwan, Joanna

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Dilated cardiomyopathy is a myocardial disease occurring in humans and domestic animals and is characterized by dilatation of the left ventricle, reduced systolic function and increased sphericity of the left ventricle. Dilated cardiomyopathy has been observed in several, mostly large and giant, dog breeds, such as the Dobermann and the Great Dane. A number of genes have been identified, which are associated with dilated cardiomyopathy in the human, mouse and hamster. Thes...

  19. A predictive model for canine dilated cardiomyopathy: a meta-analysis of Doberman Pinscher data

    OpenAIRE

    Simpson, Siobhan; Edwards, Jennifer; Emes, Richard D.; Cobb, Malcolm A.; Mongan, Nigel P.; Rutland, Catrin S.

    2015-01-01

    Dilated cardiomyopathy is a prevalent and often fatal disease in humans and dogs. Indeed dilated cardiomyopathy is the third most common form of cardiac disease in humans, reported to affect approximately 36 individuals per 100,000 individuals. In dogs, dilated cardiomyopathy is the second most common cardiac disease and is most prevalent in the Irish Wolfhound, Doberman Pinscher and Newfoundland breeds. Dilated cardiomyopathy is characterised by ventricular chamber enlargement and systolic d...

  20. Administration of a co-crystal of tramadol and celecoxib in a 1:1 molecular ratio produces synergistic antinociceptive effects in a postoperative pain model in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlos, Manuel; Portillo-Salido, Enrique; Brenchat, Alex; Aubel, Bertrand; Buxens, Jordi; Fisas, Angels; Codony, Xavier; Romero, Luz; Zamanillo, Daniel; Vela, José Miguel

    2018-06-19

    Drug combination for the treatment of pain is common clinical practice. Co-crystal of Tramadol-Celecoxib (CTC) consists of two active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs), namely the atypical opioid tramadol and the preferential cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor celecoxib, at a 1:1 molecular ratio. In this study, a non-formulated 'raw' form of CTC administered in suspension (referred to as ctc susp ) was compared with both tramadol and celecoxib alone in a rat plantar incision postoperative pain model. For comparison, the strong opioids morphine and oxycodone, and a tramadol plus acetaminophen combination at a molecular ratio of 1:17 were also tested. Isobolographic analyses showed that ctc susp exerted synergistic mechanical antiallodynic (experimental ED 50 =2.0±0.5mg/kg, i.p.; theoretical ED 50 =3.8±0.4mg/kg, i.p.) and thermal (experimental ED 50 =2.3±0.5mg/kg, i.p.; theoretical ED 50 =9.8±0.8mg/kg, i.p.) antihyperalgesic effects in the postoperative pain model. In contrast, the tramadol and acetaminophen combination showed antagonistic effects on both mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia. No synergies between tramadol and celecoxib on locomotor activity, motor coordination, ulceration potential and gastrointestinal transit were observed after the administration of ctc susp . Overall, rat efficacy and safety data revealed that ctc susp provided synergistic analgesic effects compared with each API alone, without enhancing adverse effects. Moreover, ctc susp showed similar efficacy but improved safety ratio (80, measured as gastrointestinal transit vs postoperative pain ED 50 ratios) compared with the strong opioids morphine (2.5) and oxycodone (5.8). The overall in vivo profile of ctc susp supports the further investigation of CTC in the clinical management of moderate-to-severe acute pain as an alternative to strong opioids. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Short-term administration of an aqueous extract of kalanchoe integra var. crenata (Andr.) Cuf leaves produces no major organ damage in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asiedu-Gyekye, Isaac J; Antwi, Daniel A; Awortwe, Charles; N'guessan, Benoit Banga; Nyarko, Alexander K

    2014-02-03

    Kalanchoe intergra (Ki) leaf extract is an orally administered multipurpose plant medicine in Ghana and other parts of the world for the treatment of ulcers, pain and adenoma of the prostate gland. There is paucity of information concerning its short-term usage. The present study is aimed at conducting histopathological and biochemical studies in a 14-day sub-acute toxicity studies using female Sprague-Dawley rats. Crude extract of Ki leaves was prepared and freeze-dried. A 14-day sub-acute toxicity studies was conducted using 2 week old nulliparous and non-pregnant female Sprague-Dawley rats (120-150g). Reconstituted Ki was administered at a dosage of 900mgkg(-1) (high dose), 300mgkg(-1) with a control group receiving an equivalent volume of distilled water (as vehicle) by gastric lavage. Histopathological studies of major organs and blood chemistry analysis were performed on blood obtained via cardiac puncture into EDTA tubes after euthanisation. There was a significant decrease in urea (p<0.016) and creatinine levels (p<0.001) in both the high and low dose groups. There was an increase in ALP levels (P=0.01) in both the high and low dose groups. ALT and AST rather decreased significantly in both the high and low dose groups (p<0.0001). Histopathological results did not show any abnormalities in all the H&E stained paraffin sections. Thus the photomicrographs of the liver, kidney and heart were within histopathological limits. Ki leaf extract is non-toxic when administered by the oral route over a time period of 14 days at the above doses. © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd All rights reserved.

  2. Percutaneous Dilational Tracheotomy in Solid-Organ Transplant Recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdemirkan, Aycan; Ersoy, Zeynep; Zeyneloglu, Pinar; Gedik, Ender; Pirat, Arash; Haberal, Mehmet

    2015-11-01

    Solid-organ transplant recipients may require percutaneous dilational tracheotomy because of prolonged mechanical ventilation or airway issues, but data regarding its safety and effectiveness in solid-organ transplant recipients are scarce. Here, we evaluated the safety, effectiveness, and benefits in terms of lung mechanics, complications, and patient comfort of percutaneous dilational tracheotomy in solid-organ transplant recipients. Medical records from 31 solid-organ transplant recipients (median age of 41.0 years [interquartile range, 18.0-53.0 y]) who underwent percutaneous dilational tracheotomy at our hospital between January 2010 and March 2015 were analyzed, including primary diagnosis, comorbidities, duration of orotracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation, length of intensive care unit and hospital stays, the time interval between transplant to percutaneous dilational tracheotomy, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score, tracheotomy-related complications, and pulmonary compliance and ratio of partial pressure of arterial oxygen to fraction of inspired oxygen. The median Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score on admission was 24.0 (interquartile range, 18.0-29.0). The median interval from transplant to percutaneous dilational tracheotomy was 105.5 days (interquartile range, 13.0-2165.0 d). The only major complication noted was left-sided pneumothorax in 1 patient. There were no significant differences in ratio of partial pressure of arterial oxygen to fraction of inspired oxygen before and after procedure (170.0 [interquartile range, 102.2-302.0] vs 210.0 [interquartile range, 178.5-345.5]; P = .052). However, pulmonary compliance results preprocedure and postprocedure were significantly different (0.020 L/cm H2O [interquartile range, 0.015-0.030 L/cm H2O] vs 0.030 L/cm H2O [interquartile range, 0.020-0.041 L/cm H2O); P = .001]). Need for sedation significantly decreased after tracheotomy (from 17 patients [54.8%] to

  3. Aeolian Sand Transport in the Planetary Context: Respective Roles of Aerodynamic and Bed-Dilatancy Thresholds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, J. R.; Borucki, J.; Bratton, C.

    1999-09-01

    The traditional view of aeolian sand transport generally estimates flux from the perspective of aerodynamic forces creating the airborne grain population, although it has been recognized that "reptation" causes a significant part of the total airborne flux; reptation involves both ballistic injection of grains into the air stream by the impact of saltating grains as well as the "nudging" of surface grains into a creeping motion. Whilst aerodynamic forces may initiate sand motion, it is proposed here that within a fully-matured grain cloud, flux is actually governed by two thresholds: an aerodynamic threshold, and a bed-dilatancy threshold. It is the latter which controls the reptation population, and its significance increases proportionally with transport energy. Because we only have experience with terrestrial sand transport, extrapolations of aeolian theory to Mars and Venus have adjusted only the aerodynamic factor, taking gravitational forces and atmospheric density as the prime variables in the aerodynamic equations, but neglecting reptation. The basis for our perspective on the importance of reptation and bed dilatancy is a set of experiments that were designed to simulate sand transport across the surface of a martian dune. Using a modified sporting crossbow in which a sand-impelling sabot replaced the bolt-firing mechanism, individual grains of sand were fired at loose sand targets with glancing angles typical of saltation impact; grains were projected at about 80 m/s to simulate velocities commensurate with those predicted for extreme martian aeolian conditions. The sabot impelling method permitted study of individual impacts without the masking effect of bed mobilization encountered in wind-tunnel studies. At these martian impact velocities, grains produced small craters formed by the ejection of several hundred grains from the bed. Unexpectedly, the craters were not elongated, despite glancing impact; the craters were very close to circular in planform

  4. Segmental dilatation of the ileum in a healthy adolescent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, Akash D.; Kovanlikaya, Arzu; Brill, Paula W.; Beneck, Debra; Spigland, Nitsana

    2009-01-01

    Segmental intestinal dilatation is a rare entity presenting overwhelmingly in infants and young children with congenital malformations, anemia, or history of gastrointestinal pathology, characterized by a focally distended segment of bowel with abrupt transition points without an obstructing barrier. We present a 16-year-old girl with no significant medical history who presented with bowel obstruction clinically. Segmental dilatation of the ileum was evident on a CT scan and small bowel series. Following surgical resection, pathologic examination of the segment revealed the presence of heterotopic gastric mucosa. The girl's symptoms resolved after surgery. Awareness of the imaging presentation of this entity can inform the evaluation of older children with nonspecific symptoms mimicking bowel obstruction. (orig.)

  5. Data of methylome and transcriptome derived from human dilated cardiomyopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bong-Seok Jo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Alterations in DNA methylation and gene expression have been implicated in the development of human dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM. Differentially methylated probes (DMPs and differentially expressed genes (DEGs were identified between the left ventricle (LV, a pathological locus for DCM and the right ventricle (RV, a proxy for normal hearts. The data in this DiB are for supporting our report entitled “Methylome analysis reveals alterations in DNA methylation in the regulatory regions of left ventricle development genes in human dilated cardiomyopathy” (Bong-Seok Jo, In-Uk Koh, Jae-Bum Bae, Ho-Yeong Yu, Eun-Seok Jeon, Hae-Young Lee, Jae-Joong Kim, Murim Choi, Sun Shim Choi, 2016 [1].

  6. Balloon dilatation for the treatment of stricture of gastrojejunostomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Yeon Hwa [Lee Rha Hospital, Chungju (Korea, Republic of); Song, Ho Young [Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Han, Young Min; Chon, Su Bin; Chung, Gyung Ho; Kim, Chong Soo; Choi, Ki Chul [Chonbuk National University College of Medicine, Chungju (Korea, Republic of)

    1993-07-15

    Enteroenteric anastomotic strictures of UGI tract are common and require treatment if significant obstruction occurs. We performed fluoroscopic guided balloon dilatation in 6 patients who had symptomatic stricture of gastrojejunostomy. The stricture was successfully resolved in 4 patients with benign stricture. But 2 patients with malignant stricture had recurrence of obstructive symptoms 2 weeks later, and they required a stent. Asymptomatic balloon rupture was seen in one patients, but other procedural complications did not occur. We found that fluoroscopic guided balloon dilatation is an effective and safe method in the treatment of anastomotic stricture of gastrojejunostomy. We also found transient effect in malignant gastrojejunal anastomotic strictures, which required an interventional procedure, such as placement of a stent.

  7. MR enterography in the evaluation of small bowel dilation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cronin, C.G. [Department of Radiology, University College Hospital, Galway (Ireland)], E-mail: carmelcronin2000@hotmail.com; Lohan, D.G.; Browne, A.M.; Alhajeri, A.N.; Roche, C.; Murphy, J.M. [Department of Radiology, University College Hospital, Galway (Ireland)

    2009-10-15

    Magnetic reasonance (MR) enterography enables high contrast resolution depiction of the location and cause of bowel obstruction through a combination of predictable luminal distension and multiplanar imaging capabilities. Furthermore, because the patient is not exposed to ionizing radiation, sequential 'dynamic' MR imaging can be performed repeatedly over time further facilitating depiction of the site and/or the cause of obstruction. With increasing availability of MR imaging and standardization of the oral contrast medium regimens, it is likely that this technique will assume an ever-increasing role in the evaluation of small bowel dilation in the coming years. We illustrate the utility of MR enterography in the evaluation of small bowel dilation, whether it be mechanical, functional (e.g., ileus), or related to infiltrative mural disease.

  8. Stomach gas analyses in canine acute gastric dilatation with volvulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Kruiningen, H J; Gargamelli, C; Havier, J; Frueh, S; Jin, L; Suib, S

    2013-01-01

    The origin of the gas in the stomachs of dogs with acute gastric dilatation or gastric dilatation with volvulus (GDV) often is disputed. We tested the hypothesis that gaseous distention resulted from aerophagia. Ten cases of GDV that were submitted to an emergency clinic were sampled intraoperatively. With the abdomen open, the needle of a vacutainer blood collection set was inserted into the distended stomach, and gas was collected into 10 mL glass vacutainer vials with rubber stoppers. These were stored at room temperature for 1-7 days and then analyzed by gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy. CO2 composition ranged from 13 to 20%. One dog had an H2 concentration of 29%. Because the CO2 content of atmospheric air is less than 1%, these findings suggest that the gaseous gastric distention in GDV is not the result of aerophagia. Copyright © 2013 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  9. Gastric dilatation and volvulus in a red panda (Ailurus fulgens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neilsen, Colleen; Mans, Christoph; Colopy, Sara A

    2014-11-01

    To describe the successful management of gastric dilatation and volvulus (GDV) in a red panda. Clinical report. Red panda diagnosed with GDV. A 12-year-old male red panda (Ailurus fulgens) was evaluated for acute onset inappetence, staggering, collapse, and tachypnea. Gastric dilatation and volvulus (GDV) was diagnosed by radiography, abdominal ultrasonography, and exploratory celiotomy. Torsion of the stomach was corrected and an incisional gastropexy performed to prevent recurrence. No organs were devitalized, no other abnormalities detected, and the red panda recovered fully within 72 hours. GDV should be considered as a differential diagnosis for red pandas presenting with acute onset of unspecific signs such as collapse, inappetence, and abdominal distension. GDV in red pandas can be diagnosed and successfully treated as described in dogs. © Copyright 2014 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  10. MHD Boundary Layer Flow of Dilatant Fluid in a Divergent Channel with Suction or Blowing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharyya, Krishnendu; Layek, G. C.

    2011-01-01

    An analysis is carried out to study a steady magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) boundary layer flow of an electrically conducting incompressible power-law non-Newtonian fluid through a divergent channel. The channel walls are porous and subjected to either suction or blowing of equal magnitude of the same kind of fluid on both walls. The fluid is permeated by a magnetic field produced by electric current along the line of intersection of the channel walls. The governing partial differential equation is transformed into a self-similar nonlinear ordinary differential equation using similarity transformations. The possibility of boundary layer flow in a divergent channel is analyzed with the power-law fluid model. The analysis reveals that the boundary layer flow (without separation) is possible for the case of the dilatant fluid model subjected to suitable suction velocity applied through its porous walls, even in the absence of a magnetic field. Further, it is found that the boundary layer flow is possible even in the presence of blowing for a suitable value of the magnetic parameter. It is found that the velocity increases with increasing values of the power-law index for the case of dilatant fluid. The effects of suction/blowing and magnetic field on the velocity are shown graphically and discussed physically. (fundamental areas of phenomenology(including applications))

  11. Platelet-activating factor dilates efferent arterioles through glomerulus-derived nitric oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arima, S; Ren, Y; Juncos, L A; Ito, S

    1996-01-01

    Despite evidence that platelet-activating factor (PAF) is produced by the glomerulus, its direct action on the glomerular microcirculation is poorly understood. It was recently reported that at picomolar concentrations, PAF dilates isolated microperfused afferent arterioles (Af-Art) via nitric oxide (NO). The present study tested the hypothesis that PAF acts on the glomerulus to release NO, which in turn controls the resistance of the efferent arteriole (Ef-Art). Rabbit Ef-Art were perfused from the distal end (retrograde perfusion [RP]) to eliminate the influence of the glomerulus, or through the glomerulus from the end of the Af-Art (orthograde perfusion [OP]) to maintain the influence of the glomerulus. Ef-Art were preconstricted by approximately 40% with norepinephrine and increasing doses of PAF were added to both the arteriolar perfusate and bath. Only with OP did PAF at picomolar concentrations cause significant dilation: at 400 pmol, the diameter increased by 64 +/- 11% from the preconstricted level (N = 6, P Art. At nanomolar concentrations, PAF constricted Ef-Art similarly in both RP and OP: at 40 nM, the diameter decreased by 24 +/- 4% (N = 6, P OP (10 +/- 2%, N = 6; P Art; and (2) at nanomolar concentrations, PAF constricts the Ef-Art partly through release of cyclooxygenase metabolites. Thus, PAF may play a role in glomerular hemodynamics under various physiological and pathological conditions.

  12. Endoscopic Dilatation versus Oesophageal Stent in Benign Oesophageal Stricture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadyanto Caputra

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Oesophageal stricture is one of the causes of dysphagia. It is a condition in which the lumen of oesophagus is narrowed by fibrotic tissue in the oesophageal wall. It is usually caused by inflammation or any other cause that leads to necrotizing of tissue. It is mainly differentiated into benign or malignant. The aim of this article is to answer the clinical question on the effectiveness of oesophageal stenting compared to endoscopic dilatation in patient with benign oesophageal stricture due to ingestion of corrosive substances, who had undergone several endoscopic dilatations. Method: We conducted search of relevant articles using PubMed search engine to answer the clinical question. Keywords being used during the search process were: ("oesophageal stricture"[All Fields] OR "oesophageal stenosis"[All Fields] AND (("dilatation"[All Fields] AND ("stents"[MeSH Terms] OR "stents"[All Fields] OR "stent"[All Fields]. Results were further converged by adding specific filters, which were full text articles and clinical trial. Results: The chosen article was further appraised in order to identify its validity and eligibility to answer the clinical question. We chose to use CONSORT (statement to improve the quality of reporting of RCTs to facilitate the critical appraisal and interpretation of RCTs. Conclusion: Stenting was associated with greater dysphagia, co-medication and adverse events. No randomized controlled trials which compared biodegradable stents with other stents or with balloon dilatation was identified. Lack of adequately robust evidence for effectiveness and cost-effectiveness formed the rationale of this trial.

  13. Characterization of baking behaviour of carbonaceous materials by dilatation investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Born, M.; Seichter, A.; Starke, S.

    1990-01-01

    An increase in volume can be observed in carbonaceous materials during baking which is assumed to be the reason for strains and crack formation. It occurs most pronouncedly within a temperature range from 100 to 200{degree}C. The causes of such phenomena in products pressed at different temperatures are analyzed by means of a gas pressure model and a relaxation model. The factors influencing dilatation are subject to thermal analysis. 15 refs., 13 figs.

  14. Worldsheet dilatation operator for the AdS superstring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramírez, Israel [Departamento de Física, Universidad Técnica Federico Santa María,Casilla 110-V, Valparaíso (Chile); Institut für Mathematik und Institut für Physik, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin,IRIS Haus, Zum Großen Windkanal 6, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Vallilo, Brenno Carlini [Departamento de Ciencias Físicas, Universidad Andres Bello,Republica 220, Santiago (Chile)

    2016-05-23

    In this work we propose a systematic way to compute the logarithmic divergences of composite operators in the pure spinor description of the AdS{sub 5}×S{sup 5} superstring. The computations of these divergences can be summarized in terms of a dilatation operator acting on the local operators. We check our results with some important composite operators of the formalism.

  15. [Tracheotomy-endoscop for dilatational percutaneous tracheotomy (TED)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klemm, Eckart

    2006-09-01

    While surgical tracheotomies are currently performed using state-of-the-art operative techniques, percutaneous dilatational tracheostomy (PDT) is in a rapidly evolving state with regard to its technology and the number of techniques available. This has resulted in a range of new complications that are difficult to quantify on a scientific basis, given the fact that more than half of the patients who are tracheotomized in intensive care units die from their underlying disease. The new Tracheotomy Endoscope (TED) is designed to help prevent serious complications in dilatational tracheotomies and facilitate their management. The endoscope has been specifically adapted to meet the require-ments of percutaneous dilatational tracheotomies. It is fully compatible with all current techniques of PDT. The method is easy to learn. The percutaneous dilatational tracheotomy with the Tracheotomy Endoscope is a seven-step procedure: Advantages of the Tracheotomy Endoscope: Injuries to the posterior tracheal wall ar impossible (tracheoesophageal fistulas, pneumothorax). Minor bleeding sites on the tracheal mucosa can be controlled with a specially curved suction-coagulation tube introudeced through the Tracheotomy Endoscope. In cases with heavy bleeding and a risk of aspiration, the rigid indwelling Tracheotomy Endoscope provides a secure route for reintubating the patient with a cuffed endotracheal tube. It also allows for rapid conversion to an open surgical procedure if necessary. All the parts are easy to clean and are autoclavable. This type of endoscopically guided PDT creates an optimal link between the specialties of intensive care medicine and otorhinolaryngology. The Tracheotomy Endoscope (TED) increases the standard of safety in PDT.

  16. Balloon dilation of congenital supravalvular pulmonic stenosis in a dog

    OpenAIRE

    Treseder, Julia R.; Jung, SeungWoo

    2017-01-01

    Percutaneous balloon valvuloplasty is considered the standard of care for treatment of valvular pulmonic stenosis, a common congenital defect in dogs. Supravalvular pulmonic stenosis is a rare form of pulmonic stenosis in dogs and standard treatment has not been established. Although, there have been reports of successful treatment of supravalvular pulmonic stenosis with surgical and stenting techniques, there have been no reports of balloon dilation to treat dogs with this condition. Here, a...

  17. Dilated odontoma: A report of two cases from a radiological perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Jayachandran

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dilated odontoma is the most extreme form of dens invaginatus. The lesion appears as a roughly spherical mass that does not resemble a tooth but in a way appears tooth - like on radiographs due to somewhat similar radiodensity. The lesion is mostly spherical in appearance and hence the term “dilated.” Occasionally, we come across cases of simultaneous pathologies. Here, we report two cases of a dilated odontoma one of which is associated with dentigerous cyst and in other case dilated odontoma pushing the maxillary sinus superiorly. Histologically, the mass was composed of dentinal tubules. These morphological and histological features are compatible with those of a dilated odontoma.

  18. 12 WEEK EXPOSURE TO CARBONYL SULFIDE PRODUCES BRAIN LESIONS AND CHANGES IN BRAINSTEM AUDITORY (BAER) AND SOMATOSENAORY (SEP) EVOKED POTENTIALS IN FISCHER 344N RATS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbonyl sulfide (COS) is a chemical intermediate in the production of pesticides and herbicides, is a metabolite of carbon disulfide, is produced by the combustion of organic material, and is found occurring in nature. COS was included in a Toxic Substances Control Act request f...

  19. Texture classification using non-Euclidean Minkowski dilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florindo, Joao B.; Bruno, Odemir M.

    2018-03-01

    This study presents a new method to extract meaningful descriptors of gray-scale texture images using Minkowski morphological dilation based on the Lp metric. The proposed approach is motivated by the success previously achieved by Bouligand-Minkowski fractal descriptors on texture classification. In essence, such descriptors are directly derived from the morphological dilation of a three-dimensional representation of the gray-level pixels using the classical Euclidean metric. In this way, we generalize the dilation for different values of p in the Lp metric (Euclidean is a particular case when p = 2) and obtain the descriptors from the cumulated distribution of the distance transform computed over the texture image. The proposed method is compared to other state-of-the-art approaches (such as local binary patterns and textons for example) in the classification of two benchmark data sets (UIUC and Outex). The proposed descriptors outperformed all the other approaches in terms of rate of images correctly classified. The interesting results suggest the potential of these descriptors in this type of task, with a wide range of possible applications to real-world problems.

  20. Mounier-Kuhn syndrome: a rare cause of bronchial dilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celik, Burcin; Bilgin, Salih; Yuksel, Canan

    2011-01-01

    Mounier-Kuhn syndrome, or tracheobronchomegaly, is a rare clinical and radiologic condition characterized by marked tracheobronchial dilation and recurrent lower respiratory tract infections. Diagnosis is typically accomplished with the use of computed tomography and bronchoscopy, as well as pulmonary function testing. Patients may be asymptomatic; however, symptoms can range from minimal with preserved lung function to severe respiratory failure. Therapy, if any, is supportive but minimal. Surgery rarely has a place in the treatment of Mounier-Kuhn syndrome.Herein, we report the case of a 58-year-old man with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease who had a chronic cough, increased sputum production, and chest pain. Thoracic computed tomography showed tracheal dilation (diameter, 34 mm) and multiple diverticula in the posterior region of the trachea. Fiberoptic bronchoscopy revealed enlarged main bronchi, the dilated trachea, and prominent tracheal diverticula. Pulmonary function testing disclosed impaired respiratory function. Histopathologic examination of biopsy specimens from the bronchi and the tracheal wall supported the diagnosis of Mounier-Kuhn syndrome. The patient was released from the hospital and his condition was monitored for 2 years, during which time he developed no lower respiratory tract infections.Regardless of radiologic findings that suggest recurrent lower respiratory tract infection, we recommend that Mounier-Kuhn syndrome be considered in the differential diagnosis.

  1. [Endoscopic dilatation of benign colon and rectum stenosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera Vega, Juan; Frisancho Velarde, Oscar; Cervera, Zenón; Ruiz, Edwin; Yoza, Max; Larrea, Pedro

    2002-01-01

    To determine the usefulness of endoscopic dilatation in dealing with benign stenosis of the anus, rectum and colon. PATIENTS AND METHODS USED: Thirty six (36) patients with stenosis, anus (8), rectum (22) and colon (6) were given endoscopic treatment using hydroneumatic balloons, electro incision (radiated cuts) or a combination of both. Rigid equipment (metal) was used for distal stenosis. Age ranged between 30 and 82 years. Twelve (12) patients were male and 24 female. The diameter of the stenosis was less than 13 mm in 18 of the patients and 11 patients carried colostomy. All 36 patients were subjected to a total of 113 dilatation sessions. The average number of sessions per patient for patients with anal stenosis was 2.5 and for patients with colorectal stenosis, 3.32. One patient with rectal stenosis required 21 sessions to achieve final objective. The result achieved was good in 31 patients, less than satisfactory in 3 patients and bad in one patient, who presented a stenosis which was over 5 cm long. We lost track of a patient in the follow up stage. Success in closing the colostomy was achieved in 9 patients, while one presented a complication due to the procedure (cervical emphysema) which remitted with medical attention. Endoscopic dilatation offers, through its different techniques, a safe and efficient method for the treatment of benign stenosis of the anus, rectum and colon and must be considered as a first class tool for the treatment of this kind of pathologies.

  2. Dilational viscoelastic properties of fluid interfaces - III mixed surfactant systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Djabbarah, N.F.; Wasan, D.T.

    1982-01-01

    The surface viscosity and elasticity of solutions of mixed surfactants were determined using the longitudinal wave technique combined with tracer particle measurements. The recent analysis of Maru et al., which was restricted to insoluble monolayers and to monolayers adsorbed from a single surfactant solution, has now been extended to multicomponent solutions. This analysis can be used not only to estimate the ''net'' viscoelastic properties at gas-liquid interfaces but also to estimate the composition as well as the intrinsic viscoelastic properties. Furthermore, when accompanied by separate measurements of shear viscoelastic properties, the above analysis can be used for the determination of dilational viscosity and elasticity. Surface viscoelasticity measurements were conducted on aqueous solutions of sodium lauryl sulfate and sodium lauryl sulfate-lauryl alcohol. Net surface viscosity and elasticity of sodium lauryl sulfate solutions increased with bulk concentration and reached a maximum at a concentration in the neighborhood of the critical micelle concentration. The presence of small amount of lauryl alcohol caused almost an order of magnitude increase in intrinsic surface viscosity and a similar increase in compositional surface elasticity. A comparison between the values of intrinsic surface viscosity and those of surface shear viscosity indicated that surface dilational viscosity exceeds surface shear viscosity by at least two orders of magnitude. These appear to be the first set of data presented hitherto for the surface dilational properties in addition to surface shear properties for the same mixed surfactant systems.

  3. Massively dilated right atrium masquerading as a mediastinal tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Schroeter

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Severe tricuspid valve insufficiency causes right atrial dilatation, venous congestion, and reduced atrial contractility, and may eventually lead to right heart failure. We report a case of a patient with severe tricuspid valve insufficiency, right heart failure, and a massively dilated right atrium. The enormously dilated atrium compressed the right lung, resulting in a radiographic appearance of a mediastinal tumor. Tricuspid valve repair and reduction of the right atrium was performed. Follow up examination revealed improvement of liver function, reduced peripheral edema and improved New York Heart Association (NYHA class. The reduction of the atrial size and repair of the tricuspid valve resulted in a restoration of the conduit and reservoir function of the right atrium. Given the chronicity of the disease process and the long-standing atrial fibrillation, there is no impact of this operation on right atrial contraction. In combination with the reconstruction of the tricuspid valve, the reduction atrioplasty will reduce the risk of thrombembolic events and preserve the right ventricular function.

  4. Fumonisin FB1 treatment acts synergistically with methyl donor deficiency during rat pregnancy to produce alterations of H3- and H4-histone methylation patterns in fetuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellanda, Hélène; Forges, Thierry; Bressenot, Aude; Chango, Abalo; Bronowicki, Jean-Pierre; Guéant, Jean-Louis; Namour, Fares

    2012-06-01

    Prenatal folate and methyl donor malnutrition lead to epigenetic alterations that could enhance susceptibility to disease. Methyl-deficient diet (MDD) and fumonisin FB1 are risk factors for neural tube defects and cancers. Evidence indicates that FB1 impairs folate metabolism. Folate receptors and four heterochromatin markers were investigated in rat fetuses liver derived from dams exposed to MDD and/or FB1 administered at a dose twice higher than the provisional maximum tolerable daily intake (PMTDI = 2 μg/kg/day). Even though folate receptors transcription seemed up-regulated by methyl depletion regardless of FB1 treatment, combined MDD/FB1 exposure might reverse this up-regulation since folate receptors transcripts were lower in the MDD/FB1 versus MDD group. Methyl depletion decreased H4K20me3. Combined MDD/FB1 decreased H4K20me3 even more and increased H3K9me3. The elevated H3K9me3 can be viewed as a defense mechanism inciting the cell to resist heterochromatin disorganization. H3R2me2 and H4K16Ac varied according to this mechanism even though statistical significance was not consistent. Considering that humans are exposed to FB1 levels above the PMTDI, this study is relevant because it suggests that low doses of FB1 interact with MDD thus contributing to disrupt the epigenetic landscape. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Alterations in Ca2+-dependent and Ca2+-independent release of catecholamines in preparations of rat brain produced by ethanol treatment in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lynch, M.A.; Pagonis, C.; Samuel, D.; Littleton, J.M.

    1985-01-01

    Compared to preparations from control animals, superfused striatal slice preparations from brains of rats treated chronically with ethanol released a significantly greater fraction of stored [ 3 H] dopamine on depolarisation in 40 mM K + . Similarly, the electrically-evoked release of [ 3 H]-norepinephrine from cortical slices and of [ 3 H]-dopamine from striatal slices is also increased, although with this mechanism of depolarisation the change is significant only in the case of [ 3 H] norepinephrine release. In contrast to this tendency to enhancement of Ca 2+ -dependent depolarisation-induced release, a reduced fraction of stored [ 3 H]-catecholamines was released from these preparations by the indirect sympathomimetics tyramine and (+)-amphetamine. The catecholamine release induced by these indirect sympathomimetics is largely independent of external Ca 2+ and the results are interpreted as suggesting that chronic alcohol treatment changes the distribution of catecholamine neurotransmitters between storage pools in the nerve terminal which do or do not require Ca 2+ entry for release

  6. MR pancreatography (MRP) for mucin-producing pancreatic tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usuki, Noriaki; Nishimoto, Masaoki; Shima, Tomoko; Hirokawa, Keiko; Tashiro, Takahiko; Saiwai, Shigeo; Miyamoto, Takeshi; Okabe, Sumihiro

    1997-01-01

    MR pancreatography was performed in 11 patients with mucin-producing pancreatic tumor (main duct type: four and branch duct type: seven) using HASTE with a body phased array coil on a 1.5-T unit. The results of MR pancreatography were compared with imaging of endoscopic retrograde pancreatography (ERP). In all cases, MR pancreatography demonstrated all dilated pancreatic ducts and cysts. ERP did not completely demonstrate dilated ducts and cysts because of mucinous materials. Conspicuity of an intraductal tumor was more excellent by ER pancreatography than MR pancreatography. Therefore MR pancreatography and ER pancreatography are complementary methods in diagnosis for mucin-producing pancreatic tumors. (author)

  7. The dilatations with the balloon catheter in treatment of the patients with the benign oesophageal stenoses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valek, V.; Benda, K.; Hrobar, P.; Mrazova, J.; Prasek, J.; Bilicky, J.; Vomela, J.; Hep, A.; Muenzova, H.

    1996-01-01

    Between January 1989 and June 1995 the authors dilated in the Department of Radiology in University Hospital Bohunice the benign stenosis of the oesophagus with balloon dilatation catheter in 76 of other patients. The aetiology of the stenosis was long-term reflux oesophagitis in the 39 patients (51%), achalasia 14 patients, 18%) postoperative benign stenosis in anastomosis (7 patients, 9%), corrosive stricture (5 patients, 6,5%), post-radiation stricture (5 patients, 6,5%) and epidermolysis bulosa oesophagi (2 patients, 3%). In four patients (5%) the aetiology of the stenosis was unknown. The standing of the dilatation was from 15 second to 6 minutes and dilatation was technically successful in all cases. First the authors used Owman Oesophageal Dilatation Kit (William COOK), before three years they started to used Rigiflex ORW Dilators Kit (Microvasive). In the patients with achalasia the authors currently used Rigiflex ABD Achalasia Balloon Dilator (Microvasive). (authors). 2 tabs., 3 figs., 14 refs

  8. Segmental dilatation of the ileum covered almost entirely by gastric mucosa: report of a case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Tsutomu; Uchida, Nobuyuki; Shiojima, Masayuki; Sasamoto, Hajime; Shimura, Tatsuo; Takahasi, Atsusi; Kuwano, Hiroyuki

    2007-01-01

    A 13-year-old boy was referred to our hospital for investigation of intermittent abdominal colic pain and vomiting. He underwent an emergency laparotomy, which revealed a volvulus and segmental dilatation of the ileum. The dilated intestine was not associated with poor intestinal circulation. Because the dilated ileum did not seem to be the cause of the volvulus, we simply released the volvulus. However, after surgery, the patient still suffered from persistent abdominal pain, further episodes of volvulus, and invagination of the dilated ileum. Thus, we performed a second operation to resect the segmental dilatation of the ileum. Pathological examination revealed that most of the mucosa of the dilated ileum was composed of ectopic gastric mucosa. We postulate that the ectopic gastric mucosa led to the formation of segmental dilatation of the ileum.

  9. The effect of exposure of rats during prenatal period to radiation spreading from mobile phones on renal development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedir, Recep; Tumkaya, Levent; Şehitoğlu, İbrahim; Kalkan, Yıldıray; Yilmaz, Adnan; Şahin, Osman Zikrullah

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of exposure to a 900-MHz electromagnetic field (EMF) produced by mobile phones on the renal development of prenatal rats. Histopathological changes and apoptosis in the kidneys, together with levels of urea, creatinine and electrolyte in serum were determined. A total of 14 Sprague-Dawley rats were studied. Pregnant rats were divided into two equal groups: a control group and an EMF-exposed group. The study group was exposed to 900-MHz of EMF during the first 20 days of pregnancy, while the control group was unexposed to EMF. Sections obtained from paraffin blocks were stained for caspase-3 by immunohistochemistry, hematoxylin-eosin and Masson's trichrome. Mild congestion and tubular defects, and dilatation of Bowman's capsule were observed in the kidney tissues of rats in the exposed group. Apoptosis was evaluated using anti-caspase-3; stronger positive staining was observed in the renal tubular cells in the study group than those of the control group. Although there was a significant difference between the study and control groups in terms of K+ level (p0.05). Our study shows that the electromagnetic waves propagated from mobile phones have harmful effects on the renal development of prenatal rats.

  10. In vitro vascular effects produced by crude aqueous extract of green marine algae, Cladophora patentiramea (Mont.) Kützing, in aorta from normotensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Yee-Ling; Mok, Shiueh-Lian

    2010-01-01

    To investigate the antihypertensive activity of aqueous extracts obtained from Malaysian coastal seaweeds and to determine the pharmacological mechanisms of the extracts on rat aorta in vitro. The antihypertensive activity of 11 species of seaweeds (5 brown, 1 red and 5 green algae) were tested by cumulative addition of the extracts to phenylephrine (PE)-precontracted Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) aortic rings in in vitro isometric contraction studies. Mechanisms for vasorelaxant effect were investigated in the presence of various antagonists. Of the 11 species tested, 2 showed a vasorelaxant effect. Further investigation of the mechanisms of action of the aqueous extract of green alga, Cladophora patentiramea (AECP),showed that the vascular relaxant effect was endothelium- and concentration-dependent. A maximum relaxation of 45.8 +/- 4.6% (n = 8, p < 0.001) was obtained at 0.1 mg/ml of extract, after which the response was found to reduce in a concentration-dependent manner to 15.7 +/- 4.9% (n = 8, p < 0.001) at the highest extract concentration tested. Pretreatment of endothelium-intact aortic rings with Nomega-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, 30 microM), (1)H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ, 10 microM) and methylene blue (100 microM) resulted in a complete blockade of AECP-induced vasorelaxation. However, the relaxant effects of the extract were not blocked by atropine (1 microM), indomethacin (10 microM) and glibenclamide (10 microM), although the maximum relaxant responses were enhanced in the presence of glibenclamide. Our data showed that the in vitro vascular relaxant effect of AECPwas mediated through endothelium-dependent nitric oxide-cGMP pathway, and was not associated with the release of vasodilator prostaglandins, activation of muscarinic receptors, or ATP-sensitive potassium channels opening. Copyright 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Comparison of cardioprotective effects of salvianolic acid B and benazepril on large myocardial infarction in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Hai-Bo; Yang, Xian-Zhe; Shi, Meng-Qiong; Zeng, Xiao-Wei; Wu, Li-Mao; Li, Lian-Da

    2008-01-01

    In the present study, we compared cardioprotective effects of salvianolic acid B (Sal B) and the angiotension-converting enzyme inhibitor, benazepril, in rats with large myocardial infarction (MI). The large MI was produced by coronary artery ligation for 4 weeks in rats. The rats were divided into the following groups: sham operation; MI; MI + Sal B (100 mg/kg by a gavage, once a day for 4 weeks) and MI + benazepril (1 mg/kg by a gavage, once a day for 4 weeks). Echocardiogram, hemodynamic and hemorheological changes, angiogenesis, infarct size and cardiac remodeling, as well as messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) of vascular endothelium growth factor (VEGF) were measured. The following similar effects were observed in MI rats treated with Sal B and benazepril: (1) a marked improvement of echocardiographic, hemodynamic and hemorheological parameters, (2) significant reduction of infarct size, (3) significantly attenuated heart hypertrophy, left ventricular (LV) dilatation and fibrosis. The unique effects of Sal B were: angiogenesis and augmented VEGF expression in the border and remote noninfarcted LV area. These results suggest that Sal B and benazepril exerted beneficial cardioprotective effects. However, Sal B enforced some different modality than benazepril, which might improve myocardial microcirculation by augmenting VEGF expression and promoting angiogenesis besides similar effects to benazepril.

  12. Efeitos Cardiovasculares, Renais e Hepáticos Produzidos pela Administração Crônica de Ayahuasca em Ratos Hipertensos/Cardiovascular, Renal and Hepatic Effects Produced by Chronic Administration of Ayahuasca in Hypertensive Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Cunha Santos

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Avaliar os efeitos cardiovasculares, renais e hepáticos produzidos pela administração crônica de Ayahuasca em ratos hipertensos. Materiais e Métodos: Foram utilizados 27 ratos machos Wistar adultos. Realizou-se nefrectomia unilateral com compressão do parênquima renal, segundo o modelo de Grollman, para induzir hipertensão. Os ratos hipertensos foram divididos em 4 grupos, com os seguintes tratamentos por gavagem, durante 60 dias: Grupo C (n=7: dose típica (DT de água uma vez por semana; Grupo A (n=7: DT de Ayahuasca uma vez por semana; Grupo T (n=6: DT de água diariamente; e Grupo Y (n=7: DT de Ayahuasca diariamente. Os ratos tiveram suas pressões aferidas uma vez por semana; após eutanásia, tiveram sangue colhido para análise laboratorial de função renal e hepática e foram reservados o fígado, rim e coração para análise histopatológica. Resultados: A administração de Ayahuasca não produziu alteração significativa nos padrões pressóricos, sistólicos e diastólicos, assim como parece não ter havido alteração histopatológica relevante; TGO e Uréia sérica apresentaram diferença significativa quando comparados os grupos Y e T. Discussão: Não há na literatura científica trabalhos semelhantes, porém os existentes corroboram para uma ação não tóxica do chá. Conclusão: O uso crônico de Ayahuasca em ratos hipertensos não causou alteração significativa da pressão arterial. To evaluate the cardiovascular, renal and liver produced by chronic administration of Ayahuasca in hypertensive rats. Materials and Methods: 27 adult male Wistar rats. Unilateral nephrectomy was performed with compression of the renal parenchyma, according to the Grollman model, to induce hypertension. The hypertensive rats were divided into four groups, with the following treatments by gavage for 60 days Group C (n = 7: typical dose (DT of water once a week, Group A (n = 7: DT ayahuasca once a week and Group T (n = 6: DT

  13. Prediction of 6 months left ventricular dilatation after myocardial infarction in relation to cardiac morbidity and mortality - Application of a new dilatation model to GISSI-3 data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Kam, PJ; Nicolosi, GL; Voors, AA; van den Berg, MP; Brouwer, J; van Veldhuisen, DJ; Barlera, S; Maggioni, AP; Giannuzzi, P; Temporelli, PL; Latini, R; van Gilst, WH

    Aims To predict the long-term left ventricular volume index early after myocardial infarction and to investigate the relationship between long-term left ventricular dilatation risk and clinical outcome. Methods and Results By applying a previously developed dilatation model, we predicted the 6-month

  14. The effectiveness of the anti-CD11d treatment is reduced in rat models of spinal cord injury that produce significant levels of intraspinal hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geremia, N M; Hryciw, T; Bao, F; Streijger, F; Okon, E; Lee, J H T; Weaver, L C; Dekaban, G A; Kwon, B K; Brown, A

    2017-09-01

    We have previously reported that administration of a CD11d monoclonal antibody (mAb) improves recovery in a clip-compression model of SCI. In this model the CD11d mAb reduces the infiltration of activated leukocytes into the injured spinal cord (as indicated by reduced intraspinal MPO). However not all anti-inflammatory strategies have reported beneficial results, suggesting that success of the CD11d mAb treatment may depend on the type or severity of the injury. We therefore tested the CD11d mAb treatment in a rat hemi-contusion model of cervical SCI. In contrast to its effects in the clip-compression model, the CD11d mAb treatment did not improve forelimb function nor did it significantly reduce MPO levels in the hemi-contused cord. To determine if the disparate results using the CD11d mAb were due to the biomechanical nature of the cord injury (compression SCI versus contusion SCI) or to the spinal level of the injury (12th thoracic level versus cervical) we further evaluated the CD11d mAb treatment after a T12 contusion SCI. In contrast to the T12 clip compression SCI, the CD11d mAb treatment did not improve locomotor recovery or significantly reduce MPO levels after T12 contusion SCI. Lesion analyses revealed increased levels of hemorrhage after contusion SCI compared to clip-compression SCI. SCI that is accompanied by increased intraspinal hemorrhage would be predicted to be refractory to the CD11d mAb therapy as this approach targets leukocyte diapedesis through the intact vasculature. These results suggest that the disparate results of the anti-CD11d treatment in contusion and clip-compression models of SCI are due to the different pathophysiological mechanisms that dominate these two types of spinal cord injuries. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Brain natriuretic peptide is not predictive of dilated cardiomyopathy in Becker and Duchenne muscular dystrophy patients and carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schade van Westrum, Steven; Dekker, Lukas; de Haan, Rob; Endert, Erik; Ginjaar, Ieke; de Visser, Marianne; van der Kooi, Anneke

    2013-07-16

    Cardiomyopathy is reported in Duchenne and Becker muscle dystrophy patients and female carriers. Brain Natriuretic peptide (BNP) is a hormone produced mainly by ventricular cardiomyocytes and its production is up regulated in reaction to increased wall stretching. N-terminal-proBNP (NT-proBNP) has been shown to be a robust laboratory parameter to diagnose and monitor cardiac failure, and it may be helpful to screen for asymptomatic left ventricular dysfunction. Therefore we tested whether NT-proBNP can distinguish patients with Duchenne or Becker muscular dystrophy patients and carriers of a dystrophin mutation with a dilated cardiomyopathy from those without. In a cohort of Duchenne and Becker muscle dystrophy patients (n = 143) and carriers (n = 219) NT-proBNP was measured, and echocardiography was performed to diagnose dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). In total sixty-one patients (17%) fulfilled the criteria for DCM, whereas 283 patients (78%) had an elevated NT-pro BNP. The sensitivity of NT-proBNP for DCM in patients or carriers was 85%, the specificity 23%, area under the ROC-curve = 0.56. In the specified subgroups there was also no association. Measurement of NT-pro BNP in patients suffering from Duchenne or Becker muscular dystrophy and carriers does not distinguish between those with and without dilated cardiomyopathy.

  16. [Balloon dilatation of the cartilaginous portion of the Eustachian tube in the children presenting with relapsing exudative otitis media].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burova, O V; Bogomil'sky, M R; Polunin, M M; Soldatsky, Yu L

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness and the safety of balloon dilatation of the cartilaginous portion of the Eustachian tube in the children presenting with relapsing exudative otitis media. A total of 15 children (22 ears) at the age from 3 to 16 years suffering from relapsing exudative otitis media over 18 months in duration were available for the examination. Neither conservative nor surgical treatment produced any stable beneficial effect in these patients. Acoustic impedancometry yielded type B tympanograms. All the children were treated with the use of balloon dilatation of the cartilaginous portion of the Eustachian tube under endotracheal anesthesia. The follow-up examination carried out within 6--8 weeks after the treatment revealed the complete recovery of the function of the middle ear (type A tympanograms) in 11 (73.3%) children. Partial restoration of this function (as evidenced by type C tympanogram) was documented in 4 children. These patients underwent the second course of conservative therapy that resulted in the complete restoration of the function of the middle ear. It is concluded that balloon dilatation of the cartilaginous portion of the Eustachian tube in the children presenting with relapsing exudative otitis media provides the efficient and safe approach to the management of this condition. Being a minimally invasive method, it has good prospects for the practical application and is worth further investigation.

  17. Live Staining and Isolation of Specific Hormone-Producing Cells from Rat Anterior Pituitary by Cytochemistry with Lectins and Cholera Toxin B Subunit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, Motoshi; Kusumoto, Kenji; Fujiwara, Ken; Takahashi, Kozue; Tando, Yukiko; Yashiro, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    Anterior pituitary glands contain five types of hormone-producing cells. Distinguishing and isolating specific types of living cells are essential for studying their function. Although many such attempts have been made, the results have been disappointing. In the present study, we labeled specific types of living hormone-producing cells by using potential differences in sugar chains on the cell surfaces. Cytochemical analysis with lectins and cholera toxin B subunit revealed that PNA, S-WGA, and cholera toxin B subunit recognized sugar chains specific to prolactin cells, ACTH cells, and GH cells, respectively, and that UEA-I recognized most of prolactin cells and GH cells. Next, fluorescence-activated cell sorting was used to isolate GH cells labeled by fluoresceinated cholera toxin B. The purity of the GH cell fraction estimated by immunocytochemistry and quantitative real-time PCR for cell type-specific genes was more than 98%, which was higher than that reported in earlier studies, including those using transgenic animals. We conclude that cytochemistry with lectins and cholera toxin B subunit is a straightforward, acceptable method of isolating specific types of anterior pituitary cells and that the cells isolated by this method can serve as useful materials in the study of anterior pituitary cells

  18. Constraints on Friction, Dilatancy, Diffusivity, and Effective Stress From Low-Frequency Earthquake Rates on the Deep San Andreas Fault

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeler, N. M.; Thomas, Amanda; Bürgmann, Roland; Shelly, David

    2018-01-01

    Families of recurring low-frequency earthquakes (LFEs) within nonvolcanic tremor on the San Andreas Fault in central California are sensitive to tidal stresses. LFEs occur at all levels of the tides, are strongly correlated and in phase with the 200 Pa shear stresses, and weakly and not systematically correlated with the 2 kPa tidal normal stresses. We assume that LFEs are small sources that repeatedly fail during shear within a much larger scale, aseismically slipping fault zone and consider two different models of the fault slip: (1) modulation of the fault slip rate by the tidal stresses or (2) episodic slip, triggered by the tides. LFEs are strongly clustered with duration much shorter than the semidiurnal tide; they cannot be significantly modulated on that time scale. The recurrence times of clusters, however, are many times longer than the semidiurnal, leading to an appearance of tidal triggering. In this context we examine the predictions of laboratory-observed triggered frictional (dilatant) fault slip. The undrained end-member model produces no sensitivity to the tidal normal stress, and slip onsets are in phase with the tidal shear stress. The tidal correlation constrains the diffusivity to be less than 1 × 10-6/s and the product of the friction and dilatancy coefficients to be at most 5 × 10-7, orders of magnitude smaller than observed at room temperature. In the absence of dilatancy the effective normal stress at failure would be about 55 kPa. For this model the observations require intrinsic weakness, low dilatancy, and lithostatic pore fluid.

  19. Safety and outcome using endoscopic dilation for benign esophageal stricture without fluoroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E R Siddeshi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim : The aim was to investigate the use of Savary-Gilliard marked dilators in tight esophageal strictures without fluoroscopy. Materials and Methods: Four hundred and six patients with significant dysphagia from benign strictures due to a variety of causes were dilated endoscopically. Patients with achalasia, malignant lesions, and external compression were excluded. The procedure consisted of two parts. First, Savary-Gilliard or zebra guide wire was placed through video endoscopy and then dilatation was performed without fluoroscopy. In general, "the rule of three" was followed. Effective treatment was defined as the ability of patients, with or without repeated dilatations, to maintain a solid or semisolid diet for more than 12 months. Results: One thousand and twenty-four dilatations sessions in a total of 408 patients were carried out. The success rate for placement of a guide wire was 100% and for dilatation 97% without the use of fluoroscopy, after 6 months-24 years of follow-up. The number of sessions per patient was between one and seven, with an average of three sessions. The ability of patients, after one or more sessions of dilatations to maintain a solid or semisolid diet for more than 12 months was obtained in 386 patients (95.8%. All patients improved clinically without complications after the endoscopic procedure without fluoroscopy, but we noted 22 failures. Conclusions: Dilatation (dilation using Savary-Gilliard dilators without fluoroscopy are safe and effective in the treatment of very tight esophageal strictures if performed with care.

  20. Long-term outcome of a modified balloon dilatation in the treatment of patients with achalasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doder Radoje

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Balloon dilatation is a standard approach to the initial achalasia treatment. Modified dilatation is also applied to rise efficacy and to lower complications. Methods. A total of 57 patients were analysed within a median follow-up of 8.2 years. No premedication was used, dilatation was performed up to the pain treshold, while introduction and positioning of a dilatator was done in combination of endoscopic and radiological control. Dilatation effect was estimated by both Kim Symptom Scoring and objective parameters: body weight rise and radiological scintigraphic findings. Results. Excellent and good results were obtained in 50 (88% of the patients, while in 7 (12% of the patients surgery was performed. There was no difference in dilatation efficacy regarding sex of the patients, but the results were better in the patients above 40 years. Duration of symptoms, body weight loss, esophageal lumen width do not indicate the definitive dilatation outcome. Esophageal scintigraphy and body weight increase were in a direct correlation with the effect of dilatation measured with the Kim Symptom Scoring. After the one to two repeated dilatations the efficacy increased from 74% to 88% justifying the repetition of dilatation. In 2 (3.57% of the patients, that is in 2.65% of the totally dilated patients, perforation was recorded. There was no lethal outcome of dilatation, and the other complications were not clinically significant. Conclusion. Modified balloon dilatation can be recommended for initial method in achalasia treatment due to high efficacy, easy performance in daily hospital while complications are in standard range.

  1. The bicuspid aortic valve and its relation to aortic dilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Min Yuan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A bicuspid aortic valve (BAV is a common congenital heart disease, which affects 1-2% of the population. However, the relationship between BAVs and aortic dilation has not been sufficiently elucidated. METHODS: A total of 241 BAV patients who were referred to this hospital for cardiac surgey over a 4.75-year period were included in this study. In addition to the clinical characteristics of the included patients, the morphological features of the aortic valve and aorta, the length of the left main coronary artery, and the laboratory findings (the coagulation and hematological parameters as well as the total cholesterol concentration were determined and compared with those of the tricuspid aortic valve (TAV patients. RESULTS: The BAV patients were younger than the TAV patients for a valve surgery in the last 3 months of the study period. The BAV patients were predominantly male. Most of the BAVs that were surgically treated were stenotic, regurgitant, or combined, and only 19 (7.88% were normally functioning valves. According to echocardiography or operative records, 148 (78.31% were type A, 31 (16.40% were type B, and 10 (5.29% were type C. The left main coronary artery was much shorter in the BAV patients than it was in the TAV patients. There was no significant difference between BAV and TAV patients in the total cholesterol concentrations; whereas differences were noted between patients receiving lipid-lowering therapy and those not receiving lipid-lowering therapy. The dimensions of the aortic root, sinotubular junction, and ascending aorta were beyond normal limits, while they were significantly smaller in the BAV patients than in the TAV patients. They were also much smaller in patients receiving statin therapy than those not receiving statin therapy in both groups. Moreover, the aortic dilation in the BAV group was found to be significantly associated with patient age. CONCLUSIONS: The BAV patients developed aortic wall and

  2. High pressure and [Ca2+] produce an inverse modulation of synaptic input strength, network excitability and frequency response in the rat dentate gyrus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas I Talpalar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Hyperbaric environments induce the high pressure neurological syndrome (HPNS characterized by hyperexcitability of the central nervous system and memory impairment. Human divers and other animals experience the HPNS at pressures beyond 1.1 MPa. High pressure depresses synaptic transmission and alters its dynamics in various animal models. Medial perforant path (MPP synapses connecting the medial entorhinal cortex with the hippocampal formation are suppressed by 50% at 10.1MPa. Reduction of synaptic inputs is paradoxically associated with enhanced ability of dentate gyrus’ granule cells to generate spikes at high pressure. This mechanism allows MPP inputs to elicit standard granule cell outputs at 0.1 -25 Hz frequencies under hyperbaric conditions. An increased postsynaptic gain of MPP inputs probably allows diving animals to perform in hyperbaric environments, but makes them vulnerable to high intensity/frequency stimuli producing hyperexcitability. Increasing extracellular Ca2+ (Ca2+o partially reverted pressure-mediated depression of MPP inputs and increased MPP’s low-pass filter properties. We postulated that raising Ca2+o in addition to increase synaptic inputs may reduce network excitability in the dentate gyrus potentially improving its function and reducing sensitivity to high intensity and pathologic stimuli. For this matter, we activated the MPP with single and 50 Hz frequency stimuli that simulated physiologic and deleterious conditions, while assessing the granule cell’s output under various conditions of pressure and Ca2+o. Our results reveal that pressure and Ca2+o produce an inverse modulation on synaptic input strength and network excitability. These coincident phenomena suggest a potential general mechanism of networks that adjusts gain as an inverse function of synaptic inputs’ strength. Such mechanism may serve for adaptation to variable pressure and other physiological and pathological conditions and may explain the

  3. Plasma membrane ordering agent pluronic F-68 (PF-68) reduces neurotransmitter uptake and release and produces learning and memory deficits in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, M. S.; Prendergast, M. A.; Terry, A. V. Jr

    1999-01-01

    A substantial body of evidence indicates that aged-related changes in the fluidity and lipid composition of the plasma membrane contribute to cellular dysfunction in humans and other mammalian species. In the CNS, reductions in neuronal plasma membrane order (PMO) (i.e., increased plasma membrane fluidity) have been attributed to age as well as the presence of the beta-amyloid peptide-25-35, known to play an important role in the neuropathology of Alzheimer's disease (AD). These PMO increases may influence neurotransmitter synthesis, receptor binding, and second messenger systems as well as signal transduction pathways. The effects of neuronal PMO on learning and memory processes have not been adequately investigated, however. Based on the hypothesis that an increase in PMO may alter a number of aspects of synaptic transmission, we investigated several neurochemical and behavioral effects of the membrane ordering agent, PF-68. In cell culture, PF-68 (nmoles/mg SDS extractable protein) reduced [3H]norepinephrine (NE) uptake into differentiated PC-12 cells as well as reduced nicotine stimulated [3H]NE release. The compound (800-2400 microg/kg, i.p., resulting in nmoles/mg SDS extractable protein in the brain) decreased step-through latencies and increased the frequencies of crossing into the unsafe side of the chamber in inhibitory avoidance training. In the Morris water maze, PF-68 increased the latencies and swim distances required to locate a hidden platform and reduced the time spent and distance swam in the previous target quadrant during transfer (probe) trials. PF-68 did not impair performance of a well-learned working memory task, the rat delayed stimulus discrimination task (DSDT), however. Studies with 14C-labeled PF-68 indicated that significant (pmoles/mg wet tissue) levels of the compound entered the brain from peripheral (i.p.) injection. No PF-68 related changes were observed in swim speeds or in visual acuity tests in water maze experiments, rotorod

  4. Time Dilation and Homogeneous, Soft-Spectrum GRBs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, J. P.; Bonnell, J. T.; Nemiroff, R. J.; Scargle, J. D.; Pendleton, G. N.; Kouveliotou, C.; Pizzichini, G.

    1996-12-01

    Recently, BATSE gamma-ray bursts selected for soft average spectra have been shown to follow more nearly a -3/2 power law in their number-intensity relation, indicative of a spatially homogeneous population, unlike the whole BATSE burst sample which deviates significantly from a -3/2 signature. The softer bursts might therefore be closer, and the reported time dilation as a function of peak flux in the whole burst sample (Bonnell et al., ApJ submitted) might be expected to be different for soft bursts. We have investigated this possibility with a sample of 500 long bursts (T_90 > 2 s) from the BATSE 3B catalog, defining soft bursts ( ~ 20% of total) using the three hardness ratios derived from fluences in BATSE's four energy channels (25--55, 55--110, 110--320, > 320 keV). The relative time-dilation factors (TDFs) were calculated using a brightness-independent algorithm for duration. The expected effect is observed: The average log[duration] of soft bursts is significantly lower (factor of ~ 2) than that for harder bursts, or for the whole set, to much dimmer peak fluxes -- consistent with unity TDF (compared to bright bursts in the whole sample) down to peak flux of ~ 1.0 photon cm(-2) s(-1) . Using a Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, we find that T_90 and T_50 duration distributions of soft and hard bursts above this peak flux value are different, with a confidence level > 99%. This result is qualitatively consistent with a GRB luminosity function implied by the apparent homogeneity of the bright-to-intermediate peak-flux soft bursts. However, dimmer soft bursts are time-dilated relative to bright bursts in the whole sample, suggesting that spectral redshift compounds the definition of the soft burst class.

  5. Magnetic resonance imaging of dilated cardiomyopathy; MRT bei dilatativen Kardiomyopathien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Anastasi, M. [Klinikum der Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen, Campus Grosshadern, Institut fuer Klinische Radiologie, Muenchen (Germany); Greif, M. [Klinikum der Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen, Campus Grosshadern, Medizinische Klinik und Poliklinik I, Muenchen (Germany); Reiser, M.F.; Theisen, D. [Klinikum der Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen, Campus Grosshadern, Institut fuer Klinische Radiologie, Muenchen (Germany); Deutsches Zentrum fuer Herzkreislaufforschung (DZHK), Muenchen (Germany)

    2013-01-15

    Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is the most common type of cardiomyopathy with a prevalence of 1 out of 2,500 in adults. Due to mild clinical symptoms in the early phase of the disease, the true prevalence is probably even much higher. Patients present with variable clinical symptoms ranging from mild systolic impairment of left ventricular function to congestive heart failure. Even sudden cardiac death may be the first clinical symptom of DCM. The severity of the disease is defined by the degree of impairment of global left ventricular function. Arrhythmias, such as ventricular or supraventricular tachycardia, atrioventricular (AV) block, ventricular extrasystole and atrial fibrillation are common cardiac manifestations of DCM. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) plays an important role in the exact quantification of functional impairment of both ventricles and in the evaluation of regional wall motion abnormalities. With its excellent ability for the assessment of myocardial structure, it is becoming increasingly more important for risk stratification and therapy guidance. (orig.) [German] Die dilatative Kardiomyopathie (DCM) ist die haeufigste Form der Kardiomyopathie mit einer Praevalenz von 1/2500 Erwachsenen. Aufgrund der zunaechst milden klinischen Symptomatik ist jedoch von einer relativ hohen Dunkelziffer auszugehen. Die klinische Praesentation ist variabel, die Schwere der Erkrankung wird vom Ausmass der systolischen Funktionseinschraenkung bestimmt. Herzrhythmusstoerungen, wie ventrikulaere oder supraventrikulaere Tachykardien, AV-Blockierungen, ventrikulaere Extrasystolen und Vorhofflimmern sind moegliche klinische Manifestationen. Bei manchen Patienten ist der ploetzliche Herztod die erste klinische Manifestation der Erkrankung. Die kardiale MRT spielt eine bedeutende Rolle fuer die Beurteilung des Ausmasses der ventrikulaeren Dilatation, Dysfunktion und fuer die Beurteilung regionaler Wandbewegungsstoerungen. Darueber hinaus kann sie zur Anwendung kommen

  6. Discontinuous Shear Thickening and Dilatancy: Frictional Effects in Viscous Suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Jeffrey

    2015-03-01

    Shear thickening in concentrated suspensions has been well-known for quite a long time, yet a firm consensus on the basis for very abrupt or ``discontinuous'' shear thickening (DST) seen in suspensions of large solid fraction, ϕ, has not been reached. This work addresses the DST phenomenon, and proposes a simulation method based in the Stokesian Dynamics algorithm to explore the role of various forces between the particles, including hydrodynamic, conservative potential, and frictional interactions. This work shows that allowance for friction between spherical particles suspended in a viscous liquid causes a significant reduction in the jamming solid fraction of the mixture, ϕmax, taken as the maximum fraction at which the suspension will flow. A consequence of this is a shifting of the singularity in the effective viscosity, η, to smaller ϕmax, and the frictional suspension has a larger viscosity than does the frictionless suspension of the same solid fraction, as is clear from the standard empirical modeling of η (ϕ) =(1 - ϕ /ϕmax) - α , α ~ 2 . When a counterbalancing repulsive force between the particles, representative for example of charge-induced repulsion, is incorporated in the dynamics, the mixture undergoes a transition from frictionless to frictional interactions, and from low to high effective viscosity, at a critical shear rate. Comparison with experimental data shows remarkable agreement in the features of DST captured by the method. The basic algorithm and results of both rate-controlled and stress-controlled simulations will be presented. Like the shear stress, the magnitude of the normal stress exerted by the suspended particles also increases abruptly at the critical shear rate, consistent with the long-standing notion that dilatancy and shear-thickening are synonymous. We will show that considering all shear thickening materials as dilatant is a misconception, but demonstrate the validity of the connection of dilatancy with DST in

  7. Intragastric balloon for morbid obesity causing chronic gastric dilatation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pretolesi, F.; Derchi, L.E. [Dept. of Radiology, University of Genoa (Italy); Redaelli, G.; Papagni, L. [IRCCS, Ist. Auxologico Italiano, Milan (Italy)

    2001-04-01

    We describe the radiographic findings observed in a morbidly obese and diabetic patient with an intragastric air-filled balloon introduced as a therapeutic measure to reduce food intake. The balloon was associated with chronic gastric dilatation and had to be removed 3 months after insertion. However, together with diet and behavioural therapy, it proved effective in reducing body weight and ameliorating glycaemic control. Although rarely used, intragastric balloons for the treatment of morbid obesity are still encountered in radiological practice. Radiologists must be able to recognize them and to understand their complications. (orig.)

  8. Achalasia with massive oesophageal dilation causing tracheomalacia and asthma symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Gomez-Larrauri

    Full Text Available Achalasia is an uncommon oesophageal motor disorder characterized by failure of relaxation of the lower oesophageal sphincter and muscle hypertrophy, resulting in a loss of peristalsis and a dilated oesophagus. Gastrointestinal symptoms are invariably present in all cases of achalasia observed in adults. We report a case of a 34 year-old female patient with long standing history of asthma-like symptoms, labelled as uncontrolled and steroid resistant asthma with no gastrointestinal manifestations. Thoracic CT scan revealed a massive oesophagus due to achalasia, which caused severe tracheomalacia as a result of tracheal compression. Her symptoms regressed completely after a laparoscopic Heller myotomy surgery intervention.

  9. Discrete linear canonical transforms based on dilated Hermite functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Soo-Chang; Lai, Yun-Chiu

    2011-08-01

    Linear canonical transform (LCT) is very useful and powerful in signal processing and optics. In this paper, discrete LCT (DLCT) is proposed to approximate LCT by utilizing the discrete dilated Hermite functions. The Wigner distribution function is also used to investigate DLCT performances in the time-frequency domain. Compared with the existing digital computation of LCT, our proposed DLCT possess additivity and reversibility properties with no oversampling involved. In addition, the length of input/output signals will not be changed before and after the DLCT transformations, which is consistent with the time-frequency area-preserving nature of LCT; meanwhile, the proposed DLCT has very good approximation of continuous LCT.

  10. Dilated cardiomyopathy as part of familial dystrophia myotonica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gadgaard, Tenna; Eiskjær, Hans; Jensen, Peter Kjestrup Axel

    2014-01-01

    Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is a condition characterized by non-ischaemic heart failure and is often hereditary. We present a family in which the proband had DCM in isolation while several relatives presented with myotonia, hypotonia, poly-hydramnion during pregnancy or a mental handicap....... The disease presentation and subsequent genetic investigations were consistent with a diagnosis of dystrophia myotonica. This case presentation illustrate that DCM may be part of a systemic condition and that familial investigations may have important implications for correct diagnosis, treatment...

  11. A Family History of Dilated Cardiomyopathy Induced by Viral Myocarditis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Cognet

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Myocarditis can lead to acute heart failure, cardiogenic shock, or sudden death and later, dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM with chronic heart failure. We report the cases of two DCM induced by acute and past myocarditis in the same family and expressed by its two main complications within few weeks: an hemodynamic presentation as a fulminant myocarditis rapidly leading to cardiac tranplantation and a rythmologic presentation as an electrical storm leading to catheter ablation of ventricular tachycardia. These cases ask the question of the family predisposition to viral myocarditis leading to DCM.

  12. FLNC Gene Splice Mutations Cause Dilated Cardiomyopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rene L. Begay, BS

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A genetic etiology has been identified in 30% to 40% of dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM patients, yet only 50% of these cases are associated with a known causative gene variant. Thus, in order to understand the pathophysiology of DCM, it is necessary to identify and characterize additional genes. In this study, whole exome sequencing in combination with segregation analysis was used to identify mutations in a novel gene, filamin C (FLNC, resulting in a cardiac-restricted DCM pathology. Here we provide functional data via zebrafish studies and protein analysis to support a model implicating FLNC haploinsufficiency as a mechanism of DCM.

  13. Intragastric balloon for morbid obesity causing chronic gastric dilatation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pretolesi, F.; Derchi, L.E.; Redaelli, G.; Papagni, L.

    2001-01-01

    We describe the radiographic findings observed in a morbidly obese and diabetic patient with an intragastric air-filled balloon introduced as a therapeutic measure to reduce food intake. The balloon was associated with chronic gastric dilatation and had to be removed 3 months after insertion. However, together with diet and behavioural therapy, it proved effective in reducing body weight and ameliorating glycaemic control. Although rarely used, intragastric balloons for the treatment of morbid obesity are still encountered in radiological practice. Radiologists must be able to recognize them and to understand their complications. (orig.)

  14. Genotype-specific pathogenic effects in human dilated cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollen, Ilse A E; Schuldt, Maike; Harakalova, Magdalena; Vink, Aryan; Asselbergs, Folkert W; Pinto, Jose R; Krüger, Martina; Kuster, Diederik W D; van der Velden, Jolanda

    2017-07-15

    Mutations in genes encoding cardiac troponin I (TNNI3) and cardiac troponin T (TNNT2) caused altered troponin protein stoichiometry in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy. TNNI3 p.98trunc resulted in haploinsufficiency, increased Ca 2+ -sensitivity and reduced length-dependent activation. TNNT2 p.K217del caused increased passive tension. A mutation in the gene encoding Lamin A/C (LMNA p.R331Q ) led to reduced maximal force development through secondary disease remodelling in patients suffering from dilated cardiomyopathy. Our study shows that different gene mutations induce dilated cardiomyopathy via diverse cellular pathways. Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) can be caused by mutations in sarcomeric and non-sarcomeric genes. In this study we defined the pathogenic effects of three DCM-causing mutations: the sarcomeric mutations in genes encoding cardiac troponin I (TNNI3 p.98truncation ) and cardiac troponin T (TNNT2 p.K217deletion ; also known as the p.K210del) and the non-sarcomeric gene mutation encoding lamin A/C (LMNA p.R331Q ). We assessed sarcomeric protein expression and phosphorylation and contractile behaviour in single membrane-permeabilized cardiomyocytes in human left ventricular heart tissue. Exchange with recombinant troponin complex was used to establish the direct pathogenic effects of the mutations in TNNI3 and TNNT2. The TNNI3 p.98trunc and TNNT2 p.K217del mutation showed reduced expression of troponin I to 39% and 51%, troponin T to 64% and 53%, and troponin C to 73% and 97% of controls, respectively, and altered stoichiometry between the three cardiac troponin subunits. The TNNI3 p.98trunc showed pure haploinsufficiency, increased Ca 2+ -sensitivity and impaired length-dependent activation. The TNNT2 p.K217del mutation showed a significant increase in passive tension that was not due to changes in titin isoform composition or phosphorylation. Exchange with wild-type troponin complex corrected troponin protein levels to 83% of controls in the TNNI3

  15. Genotype‐specific pathogenic effects in human dilated cardiomyopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuldt, Maike; Harakalova, Magdalena; Vink, Aryan; Asselbergs, Folkert W.; Pinto, Jose R.; Krüger, Martina; Kuster, Diederik W. D.; van der Velden, Jolanda

    2017-01-01

    Key points Mutations in genes encoding cardiac troponin I (TNNI3) and cardiac troponin T (TNNT2) caused altered troponin protein stoichiometry in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy. TNNI3p.98trunc resulted in haploinsufficiency, increased Ca2+‐sensitivity and reduced length‐dependent activation. TNNT2p.K217del caused increased passive tension.A mutation in the gene encoding Lamin A/C (LMNA p.R331Q) led to reduced maximal force development through secondary disease remodelling in patients suffering from dilated cardiomyopathy.Our study shows that different gene mutations induce dilated cardiomyopathy via diverse cellular pathways. Abstract Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) can be caused by mutations in sarcomeric and non‐sarcomeric genes. In this study we defined the pathogenic effects of three DCM‐causing mutations: the sarcomeric mutations in genes encoding cardiac troponin I (TNNI3p.98truncation) and cardiac troponin T (TNNT2p.K217deletion; also known as the p.K210del) and the non‐sarcomeric gene mutation encoding lamin A/C (LMNAp.R331Q). We assessed sarcomeric protein expression and phosphorylation and contractile behaviour in single membrane‐permeabilized cardiomyocytes in human left ventricular heart tissue. Exchange with recombinant troponin complex was used to establish the direct pathogenic effects of the mutations in TNNI3 and TNNT2. The TNNI3p.98trunc and TNNT2p.K217del mutation showed reduced expression of troponin I to 39% and 51%, troponin T to 64% and 53%, and troponin C to 73% and 97% of controls, respectively, and altered stoichiometry between the three cardiac troponin subunits. The TNNI3p.98trunc showed pure haploinsufficiency, increased Ca2+‐sensitivity and impaired length‐dependent activation. The TNNT2p.K217del mutation showed a significant increase in passive tension that was not due to changes in titin isoform composition or phosphorylation. Exchange with wild‐type troponin complex corrected troponin protein levels to 83% of

  16. Maternal exposure of rats to nicotine via infusion during gestation produces neurobehavioral deficits and elevated expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein in the cerebellum and CA1 subfield in the offspring at puberty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Rahman, Ali; Dechkovskaia, Anjelika M.; Sutton, Jazmine M.; Chen, Wei-Chung; Guan, Xiangrong; Khan, Wasiuddin A.; Abou-Donia, Mohamed B.

    2005-01-01

    Maternal smoking during pregnancy is known to be a significant contributor to developmental neurological health problems in the offspring. In animal studies, nicotine treatment via injection during gestation has been shown to produce episodic hypoxia in the developing fetus. Nicotine delivery via mini osmotic pump, while avoiding effects due to hypoxia-ischemia, it also provides a steady level of nicotine in the plasma. In the present study timed-pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats (300-350 g) were treated with nicotine (3.3 mg/kg, in bacteriostatic water via s.c. implantation of mini osmotic pump) from gestational days (GD) 4-20. Control animals were treated with bacteriostatic water via s.c. implantation of mini osmotic pump. Offspring on postnatal day (PND) 30 and 60, were evaluated for changes in the ligand binding for various types of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and neuropathological alterations. Neurobehavioral evaluations for sensorimotor functions, beam-walk score, beam-walk time, incline plane and grip time response were carried out on PND 60 offspring. Beam-walk time and forepaw grip time showed significant impairments in both male and female offspring. Ligand binding densities for [ 3 H]epibatidine, [ 3 H]cytisine and [ 3 H]α-bungarotoxin did not show any significant changes in nicotinic acetylcholine receptors subtypes in the cortex at PND 30 and 60. Histopathological evaluation using cresyl violet staining showed significant decrease in surviving Purkinje neurons in the cerebellum and a decrease in surviving neurons in the CA1 subfield of hippocampus on PND 30 and 60. An increase in glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) immuno-staining was observed in cerebellum white matter as well as granular cell layer of cerebellum and the CA1 subfield of hippocampus on PND 30 and 60 of both male and female offspring. These results indicate that maternal exposure to nicotine produces significant neurobehavioral deficits, a decrease in the surviving neurons and an

  17. Pupil dilation during recognition memory: Isolating unexpected recognition from judgment uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mill, Ravi D; O'Connor, Akira R; Dobbins, Ian G

    2016-09-01

    Optimally discriminating familiar from novel stimuli demands a decision-making process informed by prior expectations. Here we demonstrate that pupillary dilation (PD) responses during recognition memory decisions are modulated by expectations, and more specifically, that pupil dilation increases for unexpected compared to expected recognition. Furthermore, multi-level modeling demonstrated that the time course of the dilation during each individual trial contains separable early and late dilation components, with the early amplitude capturing unexpected recognition, and the later trailing slope reflecting general judgment uncertainty or effort. This is the first demonstration that the early dilation response during recognition is dependent upon observer expectations and that separate recognition expectation and judgment uncertainty components are present in the dilation time course of every trial. The findings provide novel insights into adaptive memory-linked orienting mechanisms as well as the general cognitive underpinnings of the pupillary index of autonomic nervous system activity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Dilatation of aortic grafts over time: what to expect and when to be concerned

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schroeder, Torben V; Eldrup, Nikolaj; Just, Sven

    2009-01-01

    Dilatation of aortic prosthetic grafts is commonly reported, but most reports are anecdotal, with little objective data in the literature. We performed a prospective trial of 303 patients who underwent prosthetic graft repair for aortic aneurysm or occlusive disease, randomizing patients between...... insertion of a woven polyester or expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) graft. Patients were followed with computed tomography and ultrasonography for up to 5 years in order to assess the frequency and magnitude of postoperative dilatation. Graft dilatation was documented in patients with polyester...... grafts at 12 months. Thereafter and up to 60 months, polyester grafts did not dilate further. After 5 years, polyester prostheses had dilated by 25% and ePTFE by 12.5%, as determined by computed tomography imaging. These observations suggest that dilatation of prosthetic grafts is more frequent...

  19. Temporal evolution of intraocular pressure elevation after pupillary dilation in pigment dispersion syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jewelewicz, Daniel A; Radcliffe, Nathan M; Liebmann, Jeffrey; Ritch, Robert

    2009-03-01

    To report 4 patients with pigment dispersion syndrome (PDS) who had delayed intraocular pressure (IOP) spikes after pharmacologic pupillary dilation. Four patients with a diagnosis of PDS with documented IOP spike after pharmacologic pupillary dilation were included. Study patients were examined before and after pupillary dilation. The amount of pigment present in the anterior chamber and the IOP were measured at hourly intervals. Although maximal pigment liberation occurred immediately after maximal dilation, the IOP continued to elevate for at least 1.5 hours. The increase in IOP after pupillary dilation may not occur simultaneously with maximal pigment liberation but may follow it after the pigment has settled out of the anterior chamber. This has implications for monitoring patients with PDS after dilation to detect and treat rises in IOP.

  20. Endoscopic electrocautery dilation of benign anastomotic colonic strictures: a single-center experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravi, Ivana; Ravizza, Davide; Fiori, Giancarla; Tamayo, Darina; Trovato, Cristina; De Roberto, Giuseppe; Genco, Chiara; Crosta, Cristiano

    2016-01-01

    Benign anastomotic colonic stenosis sometimes occur after surgery and usually require surgical or endoscopic dilation. Endoscopic dilation of anastomotic colonic strictures by using balloon or bougie-type dilators has been demonstrated to be safe and effective in multiple uncontrolled series. However, few data are available on safety and efficacy of endoscopic electrocautery dilation. The aim of our study was to retrospectively investigate safety and efficacy of endoscopic electrocautery dilation of postsurgical benign anastomotic colonic strictures. Sixty patients (37 women; median age 63.6 years, range 22.6-81.7) with benign anastomotic colonic or rectal strictures treated with endoscopic electrocautery dilation between June 2001 and February 2013 were included in the study. Anastomotic stricture was defined as a narrowed anastomosis through which a standard colonoscope could not be passed. Only annular anastomotic strictures were considered suitable for electrocautery dilation which consisted of radial incisions performed with a precut sphincterotome. Treatment was considered successful if the colonic anastomosis could be passed by a standard colonoscope immediately after dilation. Recurrence was defined as anastomotic stricture reappearance during follow-up. The time interval between colorectal surgery and the first endoscopic evaluation or symptoms development was 7.3 months (1.3-60.7). Electrocautery dilation was successful in all the patients. There were no procedure-related complications. Median follow-up was 35.5 months (2.0-144.0). Anastomotic stricture recurrence was observed in three patients who were successfully treated with electrocautery dilation and Savary dilation. Endoscopic electrocautery dilation is a safe and effective treatment for annular benign anastomotic postsurgical colonic strictures.

  1. The Enright phenomenon. Stereoscopic distortion of perceived driving speed induced by monocular pupil dilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carkeet, Andrew; Wood, Joanne M; McNeill, Kylie M; McNeill, Hamish J; James, Joanna A; Holder, Leigh S

    The Enright phenomenon describes the distortion in speed perception experienced by an observer looking sideways from a moving vehicle when viewing with interocular differences in retinal image brightness, usually induced by neutral density filters. We investigated whether the Enright phenomenon could be induced with monocular pupil dilation using tropicamide. We tested 17 visually normal young adults on a closed road driving circuit. Participants were asked to travel at Goal Speeds of 40km/h and 60km/h while looking sideways from the vehicle with: (i) both eyes with undilated pupils; (ii) both eyes with dilated pupils; (iii) with the leading eye only dilated; and (iv) the trailing eye only dilated. For each condition we recorded actual driving speed. With the pupil of the leading eye dilated participants drove significantly faster (by an average of 3.8km/h) than with both eyes dilated (p=0.02); with the trailing eye dilated participants drove significantly slower (by an average of 3.2km/h) than with both eyes dilated (p<0.001). The speed, with the leading eye dilated, was faster by an average of 7km/h than with the trailing eye dilated (p<0.001). There was no significant difference between driving speeds when viewing with both eyes either dilated or undilated (p=0.322). Our results are the first to show a measurable change in driving behaviour following monocular pupil dilation and support predictions based on the Enright phenomenon. Copyright © 2016 Spanish General Council of Optometry. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. Endoscopic Dilation of Pharyngoesophageal Strictures: There Are More Dimensions than a Diameter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Martins

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Dysphagia due to benign pharyngoesophageal strictures (PES often requires repeated dilations; however, a uniform definition for the therapeutic efficacy of this technique has not been yet established. We aimed to assess the overall efficacy of endoscopic dilation of pharyngoesophageal anastomotic or post-radiotherapy (post-RT strictures. Methods: The data of 48 patients with post-RT (n = 29 or anastomotic PES (n = 19 submitted to endoscopic dilation during a 3-year period were retrospectively assessed. The Kochman criteria were used to determine refractoriness and recurrence. Patients were asked to answer a questionnaire determining prospectively the dilation program efficacy as (a dysphagia improvement, (b dysphagia resolution, (c need for further dilations, or (d percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG during the previous 6 months. Need for additional therapy was considered an inefficacy criterion. Results: The median number of dilations per patient was 4 (total of 296 dilations with a median follow-up of 29 months. The mean predilation dysphagia Mellow-Pinkas score was 3 and the initial stenosis diameter was 7 mm. Fifteen and 29% of patients presented with the Kochman criteria for refractory and recurrent strictures, respectively. Moreover, 96 and 60% showed dysphagia improvement and resolution, respectively. Seventy-five-percent did not require dilations during 6 months, and 89% did not require PEG. From the patients’ perspective, overall efficacy was achieved in 58% of cases. Nine additional therapies were required. Number of dilations (OR 0.7, stricture diameter (OR 2.2, and nonrecurrence criteria (OR 14.2 appeared as significant predictors of overall efficacy, whereas refractory stenosis criteria did not. Conclusions: Endoscopic dilation seems to be effective for patients with dysphagia after RT or surgery, especially when assessed as patient perception of improvement. Narrow strictures, recurrent ones, and strictures

  3. Common bile duct cancer with massive necrosis mimicking choledochal dilatation on CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyake, H.; Matsumoto, S.; Ueda, S.; Maeda, T.; Aikawa, H.; Mori, H.

    1991-01-01

    Carcinomas of the common bile duct are usually seen as dilatation of the bile duct proximal to a solid mass on CT. In the case reported here, the common bile duct cancer itself mimicked dilated common bile duct on CT because of massive necrosis. In a case of simulating dilated common bile duct on CT, and discrepancy between CT and ultrasonography or endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, a common bile duct cancer with massive necrosis should be included in the differential diagnosis. (orig.)

  4. Comparison of the Eder-Puestow and Celestin techniques for dilating benign oesophageal strictures.

    OpenAIRE

    Hine, K R; Hawkey, C J; Atkinson, M; Holmes, G K

    1984-01-01

    The Celestin and Eder-Puestow methods of dilating benign oesophageal strictures have been compared prospectively in a randomised trial. One hundred and thirty three dilatations were performed on 72 patients. There was no significant difference between the two techniques with regard to the long term relief of symptoms. Celestin dilatation was quicker, less likely to cause pharyngeal trauma, and less damaging to guide wires. It could not be used, however, in those patients in whom only a short ...

  5. Pneumatic dilation and botulinum toxin: when and why?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozzi, Rosamaria; Di Martino, Vincenzo; Inzirillo, Antonio; D'Avenia, Eugenio; Inzirillo, Maurizio; Cattaneo, Fabio; Cattaneo, Domenico

    2013-01-01

    Pneumatic dilation and botulinum toxin:when and why? The endoscopic treatment options of achalasia include botulinum toxin (BT) injection and pneumatic dilation (PD) of the lower esophageal sphincter (LES). BT can reduce the LES pressure by blocking the release of acetylcoline from presynaptic cholinergic nerve terminals in the myenteric plexus. Although the procedure is safe and good initial response is reported, there is a wide variability in the duration of the response and the effect tends to decrease over time. BT is usually recommended for elderly patients or patients with comorbid illnesses, who are poor candidates for more invasive procedures. PD aims at tearing the muscle fibers of the LES and is considered the most effective nonsurgical treatment for achalasia. Technical details of the procedure vary in different institutions and in many clinical settings the choice between PD or minimally invasive surgical myotomy depends upon local expertise in the procedures. Further endoscopic treatment options such as submucosal esophageal myotomy or self-expanding metallic stents are being studied.

  6. Magnetic resonance in the dilation of terminal ventricle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eulatem d, R. G.; Martinez, M. E.; Oleaga, L.; Grande, D.

    2001-01-01

    Describe de Magnetic Resonance (MR) findings in four cases of terminal ventricle dilation. We have studied four patients, all of them women, whose mean age range was 39 years. The studies were performed with a 1 Tesla magnet and the sequences used were sagittal and axial T1 and T2 weighted and sagittal and axial T1 weighted after the administration of gadolinium. the follow-up was clinical and by MRI. The four patients studied came due to low back pain. The MRI images demonstrated the presence of a cystic lesion located in the medullary cone, with a well defined contour and one that presented no type of enhancement in the study performed with gadolinium. In three cases, we had a MRI control at two years and the images had not varied. We have no control for the fourth cases of more recent diagnosis. The terminal ventricle is an ependymoma cavity located in the medullary cone. It can present a dilation and it is necessary to know its existence, typical location and signal characteristics to be able to diagnose and differentiate it from cystic tumors in this localization, that can present a similar appearance in the MRI. (Author) 7 refs

  7. Laryngotracheal Stenosis: Risk Factors for Tracheostomy Dependence and Dilation Interval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadkaree, Shekhar K; Pandian, Vinciya; Best, Simon; Motz, Kevin M; Allen, Clint; Kim, Young; Akst, Lee; Hillel, Alexander T

    2017-02-01

    Objective Laryngotracheal stenosis (LTS) is a fibrotic process that narrows the upper airway and has a significant impact on breathing and phonation. Iatrogenic injury from endotracheal and/or tracheostomy tubes is the most common etiology. This study investigates differences in LTS etiologies as they relate to tracheostomy dependence and dilation interval. Study Design Case series with chart review. Setting Single-center tertiary care facility. Subjects and Methods Review of adult patients with LTS was performed between 2004 and 2015. The association of patient demographics, comorbidities, disease etiology, and treatment modalities with patient outcomes was assessed. Multiple logistic regression analysis and Kaplan-Meier analysis were performed to determine factors associated with tracheostomy dependence and time to second procedure, respectively. Results A total of 262 patients met inclusion criteria. Iatrogenic patients presented with greater stenosis ( P = .023), greater length of stenosis ( P = .004), and stenosis farther from the vocal folds ( P tracheostomy dependence. Nonsmokers, patients without tracheostomy, and idiopathic LTS patients had a significantly longer time to second dilation procedure. Conclusion Iatrogenic LTS presents with a greater disease burden and higher risk of tracheostomy dependence when compared with other etiologies of LTS. Comorbid conditions promoting microvascular injury-including smoking, COPD, and diabetes-were prevalent in the iatrogenic cohort. Changes in hospital practice patterns to promote earlier tracheostomy in high-risk patients could reduce the incidence of LTS.

  8. Antenatal renal pelvic dilatation; the long-term outlook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duncan, K.A. [Royal Aberdeen Children' s Hospital and Aberdeen Maternity Hospital, Foresterhill, Aberdeen (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: k.duncan@nhs.net

    2007-02-15

    Aim: The purpose of this study was twofold: first to provide data for more accurate counselling of parents with regard to prognosis, and second, to ensure that by following a policy of selective micturating cystourethography (MCUG), significant pathology is not missed, in particular vesicoureteric reflux (VUR). (MCUG is only undertaken if the renal pelvic diameter (RPD) is {>=} 10 mm or if there is calyceal or ureteric dilatation.) Material and methods: Data were collected prospectively over a 6-year period. Pre and postnatal imaging findings were collected for all infants in whom a RPD of {>=} 5 mm was identified at any gestational age. The imaging records of all patients were reviewed in 2005 for evidence of pathology detected after re-presentation with symptoms. The age range at review varied from 2-8 years. Results: Complete data were available in 527 infants. The risk of significant pathology was related to the degree of antenatal renal pelvic dilatation varying from 6% for a RPD of 5 mm at 20 weeks gestation to 38% at 10mm. At 28-33 weeks gestation the risk varied from 5% at 5 mm to 15% at 10 mm. Subsequent imaging record review revealed only one patient with grade II VUR in the study population not picked up by our selective MCUG policy. Conclusion: The present study provides prognostic information that can be given to parents both antenatally and postnatally, and reassurance that a selective MCUG policy is appropriate.

  9. Percutaneous dilatational tracheostomy for ICU patients with severe brain injury

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    Guo Dongyuan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Objective: To sum up our experience in percutaneous dilatational tracheostomy (PDT in ICU patient with severe brain injury. Methods: Between November 2011 and April 2014, PDTs were performed on 32 severe brain injury patients in ICU by a team of physicians and intensivists. The success rate, effi cacy, safety, and complications including stomal infection and bleeding, paratracheal insertion, pneumothorax, pneumomediastinum, tracheal laceration, as well as clinically significant tracheal stenosis were carefully monitored and recorded respectively. Results: The operations took 4-15 minutes (mean 9.1 minutes±4.2 minutes. Totally 4 cases suffered from complications in the operations: 3 cases of stomal bleeding, and 1 case of intratracheal bloody secretion, but none required intervention. Paratracheal insertion, pneumothorax, pneumomediastinum, tracheal laceration, or clinically signifi cant tracheal stenosis were not found in PDT patients. There was no procedure-related death occurring during or after PDT. Conclusion: Our study demonstrats that PDT is a safe, highly effective, and minimally invasive procedure. The appropriate sedation and airway management perioperatively help to reduce complication rates. PDT should be performed or supervised by a team of physicians with extensive experience in this procedure, and also an intensivist with experience in diffi cult airway management. Key words: Brain injuries; Percutaneous dilatational tracheostomy; ICU

  10. Analyzing gene expression profiles in dilated cardiomyopathy via bioinformatics methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liming; Zhu, L; Luan, R; Wang, L; Fu, J; Wang, X; Sui, L

    2016-10-10

    Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is characterized by ventricular dilatation, and it is a common cause of heart failure and cardiac transplantation. This study aimed to explore potential DCM-related genes and their underlying regulatory mechanism using methods of bioinformatics. The gene expression profiles of GSE3586 were downloaded from Gene Expression Omnibus database, including 15 normal samples and 13 DCM samples. The differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified between normal and DCM samples using Limma package in R language. Pathway enrichment analysis of DEGs was then performed. Meanwhile, the potential transcription factors (TFs) and microRNAs (miRNAs) of these DEGs were predicted based on their binding sequences. In addition, DEGs were mapped to the cMap database to find the potential small molecule drugs. A total of 4777 genes were identified as DEGs by comparing gene expression profiles between DCM and control samples. DEGs were significantly enriched in 26 pathways, such as lymphocyte TarBase pathway and androgen receptor signaling pathway. Furthermore, potential TFs (SP1, LEF1, and NFAT) were identified, as well as potential miRNAs (miR-9, miR-200 family, and miR-30 family). Additionally, small molecules like isoflupredone and trihexyphenidyl were found to be potential therapeutic drugs for DCM. The identified DEGs (PRSS12 and FOXG1), potential TFs, as well as potential miRNAs, might be involved in DCM.

  11. Analyzing gene expression profiles in dilated cardiomyopathy via bioinformatics methods

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    Liming Wang

    Full Text Available Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM is characterized by ventricular dilatation, and it is a common cause of heart failure and cardiac transplantation. This study aimed to explore potential DCM-related genes and their underlying regulatory mechanism using methods of bioinformatics. The gene expression profiles of GSE3586 were downloaded from Gene Expression Omnibus database, including 15 normal samples and 13 DCM samples. The differentially expressed genes (DEGs were identified between normal and DCM samples using Limma package in R language. Pathway enrichment analysis of DEGs was then performed. Meanwhile, the potential transcription factors (TFs and microRNAs (miRNAs of these DEGs were predicted based on their binding sequences. In addition, DEGs were mapped to the cMap database to find the potential small molecule drugs. A total of 4777 genes were identified as DEGs by comparing gene expression profiles between DCM and control samples. DEGs were significantly enriched in 26 pathways, such as lymphocyte TarBase pathway and androgen receptor signaling pathway. Furthermore, potential TFs (SP1, LEF1, and NFAT were identified, as well as potential miRNAs (miR-9, miR-200 family, and miR-30 family. Additionally, small molecules like isoflupredone and trihexyphenidyl were found to be potential therapeutic drugs for DCM. The identified DEGs (PRSS12 and FOXG1, potential TFs, as well as potential miRNAs, might be involved in DCM.

  12. Multiple Genetic Associations with Irish Wolfhound Dilated Cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Siobhan; Dunning, Mark D; Brownlie, Serena; Patel, Janika; Godden, Megan; Cobb, Malcolm; Mongan, Nigel P; Rutland, Catrin S

    2016-01-01

    Cardiac disease is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in dogs and humans, with dilated cardiomyopathy being a large contributor to this. The Irish Wolfhound (IWH) is one of the most commonly affected breeds and one of the few breeds with genetic loci associated with the disease. Mutations in more than 50 genes are associated with human dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), yet very few are also associated with canine DCM. Furthermore, none of the identified canine loci explain many cases of the disease and previous work has indicated that genotypes at multiple loci may act together to influence disease development. In this study, loci previously associated with DCM in IWH were tested for associations in a new cohort both individually and in combination. We have identified loci significantly associated with the disease individually, but no genotypes individually or in pairs conferred a significantly greater risk of developing DCM than the population risk. However combining three loci together did result in the identification of a genotype which conferred a greater risk of disease than the overall population risk. This study suggests multiple rather than individual genetic factors, cooperating to influence DCM risk in IWH.

  13. Multiple Genetic Associations with Irish Wolfhound Dilated Cardiomyopathy

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    Siobhan Simpson

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac disease is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in dogs and humans, with dilated cardiomyopathy being a large contributor to this. The Irish Wolfhound (IWH is one of the most commonly affected breeds and one of the few breeds with genetic loci associated with the disease. Mutations in more than 50 genes are associated with human dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM, yet very few are also associated with canine DCM. Furthermore, none of the identified canine loci explain many cases of the disease and previous work has indicated that genotypes at multiple loci may act together to influence disease development. In this study, loci previously associated with DCM in IWH were tested for associations in a new cohort both individually and in combination. We have identified loci significantly associated with the disease individually, but no genotypes individually or in pairs conferred a significantly greater risk of developing DCM than the population risk. However combining three loci together did result in the identification of a genotype which conferred a greater risk of disease than the overall population risk. This study suggests multiple rather than individual genetic factors, cooperating to influence DCM risk in IWH.

  14. Antenatal renal pelvic dilatation; the long-term outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duncan, K.A.

    2007-01-01

    Aim: The purpose of this study was twofold: first to provide data for more accurate counselling of parents with regard to prognosis, and second, to ensure that by following a policy of selective micturating cystourethography (MCUG), significant pathology is not missed, in particular vesicoureteric reflux (VUR). (MCUG is only undertaken if the renal pelvic diameter (RPD) is ≥ 10 mm or if there is calyceal or ureteric dilatation.) Material and methods: Data were collected prospectively over a 6-year period. Pre and postnatal imaging findings were collected for all infants in whom a RPD of ≥ 5 mm was identified at any gestational age. The imaging records of all patients were reviewed in 2005 for evidence of pathology detected after re-presentation with symptoms. The age range at review varied from 2-8 years. Results: Complete data were available in 527 infants. The risk of significant pathology was related to the degree of antenatal renal pelvic dilatation varying from 6% for a RPD of 5 mm at 20 weeks gestation to 38% at 10mm. At 28-33 weeks gestation the risk varied from 5% at 5 mm to 15% at 10 mm. Subsequent imaging record review revealed only one patient with grade II VUR in the study population not picked up by our selective MCUG policy. Conclusion: The present study provides prognostic information that can be given to parents both antenatally and postnatally, and reassurance that a selective MCUG policy is appropriate

  15. Dilated cardiomyopathy with Graves disease in a young child

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    Yu Jung Choi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Graves disease (GD can lead to complications such as cardiac arrhythmia and heart failure. Although dilated cardiomyopathy (DCMP has been occasionally reported in adults with GD, it is rare in children. We present the case of a 32-month-old boy with DCMP due to GD. He presented with irritability, vomiting, and diarrhea. He also had a history of weight loss over the past few months. On physical examination, he had tachycardia without fever, a mild diffuse goiter, and hepatomegaly. The chest radiograph showed cardiomegaly with pulmonary edema, while the echocardiography revealed a dilated left ventricle with an ejection fraction (EF of 28%. The thyroid function test (TFT showed elevated serum T3 and decreased thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH levels. The TSH receptor autoantibody titer was elevated. He was diagnosed with DCMP with GD; treatment with methylprednisolone, diuretics, inotropics, and methimazole was initiated. The EF improved after the TFT normalized. At follow-up several months later, although the TFT results again showed evidence of hyperthyroidism, his EF had not deteriorated. His cardiac function continues to remain normal 1.5 months after treatment was started, although he still has elevated T3 and high TSH receptor antibody titer levels due to poor compliance with drug therapy. To summarize, we report a young child with GD-induced DCMP who recovered completely with medical therapy and, even though the hyperthyroidism recurred several months later, there was no relapse of the DCMP.

  16. Patients with migraine with aura have increased flow mediated dilation

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    Altamura Claudia

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Endothelium-derived nitric oxide (NO mediates the arterial dilation following a flow increase (i.e. flow-mediated dilation, FMD, easily assessed in the brachial artery. NO is also involved in cerebral hemodynamics and it is supposed to trigger vascular changes occurring during migraine. This study aimed at investigating whether migraine patients present an altered response to NO also in the peripheral artery system. Methods We enrolled 21 migraineurs (10 with aura [MwA], 11 without aura [MwoA], and 13 controls. FMD was evaluated with ultrasound in all subjects by measuring the percentage increase of the brachial artery diameter induced by hyperaemia reactive to sustained cuff inflation around the arm above systolic pressure. FMD values were then normalized for shear stress. Results Normalized FMD values were higher in patients with MwA (28.5 10-2%.s than in controls (9.0 10-2%.s and patients with MwoA (13.7 10-2%.s (p Conclusions Migraineurs with aura present an excessive arterial response to hyperaemia, likely as an effect of an increased sensitivity to endothelium-derived nitric oxide. This phenomenon observed peripherally might reflect similar characteristics in the cerebral circulation.

  17. Amelioration of cadmium- and mercury-induced liver and kidney damage in rats by genetically engineered probiotic Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 producing pyrroloquinoline quinone with oral supplementation of citric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghuvanshi, Ruma; Chaudhari, Archana; Kumar, G Naresh

    2016-01-01

    Antioxidants, chelating agents, and probiotics are used to manage the toxic effects of cadmium (Cd) and mercury (Hg). The aim of this study was to investigate the combined effects of antioxidants, chelating agents, and probiotics against heavy metal toxicity. Genetically modified probiotic Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 (EcN-20) producing a potent water soluble antioxidant pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) was supplemented with oral citric acid and compared with another genetically modified probiotic EcN-21 producing PQQ and citric acid against oxidative stress induced by Cd and Hg. Rats were independently given 100 ppm Cd and 80 ppm Hg in drinking water for 4 wk. EcN-20 was found to be more effective than EcN-2 (EcN strain with genomic integration of vgb and gfp genes) with orally given PQQ against oxidative stress induced by Cd and Hg. EcN-20 supplemented with oral citric acid was more effective against Cd and Hg toxicity compared with EcN-2+citric acid (oral), EcN-2+PQQ (oral), EcN-2+PQQ (oral)+citric acid (oral), EcN-20, and EcN-21. However, protection shown by EcN-21 was similar to EcN-20. The combination therapy involving probiotic EcN-20 producing PQQ with citric acid given orally was found to be a moderately effective strategy against toxicity induced by Cd and Hg, whereas the protective effect of EcN-21 was the same as EcN-20. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Fatal central venous air embolism: a rare complication of esophageal dilation by rendezvous.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zald, Philip B; Andersen, Peter E

    2011-03-01

    Esophageal dilation by rendezvous is a useful technique for the treatment of complicated esophageal strictures. We present a case of a 74-year-old man with chronic dysphagia caused by a complete cervical esophageal stricture that developed after external beam radiotherapy for treatment of papillary thyroid carcinoma. During attempted dilation using the rendezvous technique, the patient suffered a fatal pulmonary air embolism. The technique of esophageal dilation by rendezvous, complications, and risk factors for development of venous air embolism are discussed. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report in the literature of fatal venous air embolism after dilation by rendezvous. Copyright © 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Radionuclide esophageal emptying study before and after pneumatic dilatation in achalasia

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    Ujiie, Hiroaki; Hongo, Michio; Lin, Yih-Fong; Satake, Kenzo; Asaki, Shigeru; Goto, Yoshio; Okuyama, Shinichi

    1987-11-01

    The therapeutic effect of pneumatic dilatation was evaluated quantitatively by radionuclide transit study in 11 achalasia patients. Before pneumatic dilatation, marked retention with more than 80 % of isotope in the esophagus at 15 minutes after ingestion was noted in all patients. Marked improvement in emptying was shown after pneumatic dilatation. Pneumatic dilatation is a safe and effective therapeutic aid for achalasia treatment, and radionuclide transit study is not only noninvasive and physiologic but also its procedure is easily performed. We conclude that radionuclide transit study is a good method to evaluate the result of the treatment quantitatively in achalasia patients.

  20. Balloon catheter dilatation of esophageal strictures in children and an infant

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    Yeon, Kyung Mo; Choe, Yeon Hyeon; Kim, In One

    1986-01-01

    Severe postoperative strictures in two children and an infant and mild postoperative stricture in a child were treated with balloon catheter. A child with post-fundoplication stricture showed symptomatic improvement. Anastomotic strictures after esophageal atresia repair in an infant and a child were successfully dilated with improved luminal diameter and symptoms. In a child with mild postoperative stricture, balloon dilatation was performed to prevent stricture of the anastomotic site. Radiological esophageal dilatation using balloon catheters is a safe effective method for dilating symptomatic esophageal strictures which obviates surgery and allows subsequent standard bougienage.

  1. Transmission and scanning electron microscopy study of the characteristics and morphology of pericytes and novel desmin-immunopositive perivascular cells before and after castration in rat anterior pituitary gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jindatip, Depicha; Fujiwara, Ken; Kouki, Tom; Yashiro, Takashi

    2012-09-01

    Pericytes are perivascular cells associated with microcirculation. Typically, they are localized close to the capillary wall, underneath the basement membrane, and have sparse cytoplasm and poorly developed cell organelles. However, the specific properties of pericytes vary by organ and the conditions within organs. We recently demonstrated that pericytes in rat anterior pituitary gland produce type I and III collagens. The present study attempted to determine the morphological characteristics of these pituitary pericytes. Castrated rats were used as a model of hormonal and vascular changes in the gland. Pericytes, as determined by desmin immunohistochemistry, were more numerous and stained more intensely in castrated rats. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that pituitary pericytes displayed the typical characteristics of pericytes. In pituitary sections from castrated rats, the Golgi apparatus of pericytes was well developed and the rough endoplasmic reticulum was elongated. Additionally, scanning electron microscopy revealed four pericyte shapes: oval, elongate, triangular, and multiangular. As compared with normal rats, the proportion of oval pericytes was lower, and the proportions of the other three shapes were higher, in castrated rats. These results suggest that pericytes change their fine structure and cell shape in response to hormonal and vascular changes in the anterior pituitary gland. In addition, a novel type of perivascular cell was found by desmin immunoelectron microscopy. The morphological properties of these cells were dissimilar to those of pericytes. The cells were localized in the perivascular space, had no basement membrane, and contained dilated rough endoplasmic reticulum. This new cell type will require further study of its origin and characteristics.

  2. Myocardium of patients with dilated cardiomyopathy presents altered expression of genes involved in thyroid hormone biosynthesis.

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    Carolina Gil-Cayuela

    Full Text Available The association between dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM and low thyroid hormone (TH levels has been previously described. In these patients abnormal thyroid function is significantly related to impaired left ventricular (LV function and increased risk of death. Although TH was originally thought to be produced exclusively by the thyroid gland, we recently reported TH biosynthesis in the human ischemic heart.Based on these findings, we evaluated whether the genes required for TH production are also altered in patients with DCM.Twenty-three LV tissue samples were obtained from patients with DCM (n = 13 undergoing heart transplantation and control donors (n = 10, and used for RNA sequencing analysis. The number of LV DCM samples was increased to 23 to determine total T4 and T3 tissue levels by ELISA.We found that all components of TH biosynthesis are expressed in human dilated heart tissue. Expression of genes encoding thyroperoxidase (-2.57-fold, P < 0.05 and dual oxidase 2 (2.64-fold, P < 0.01, the main enzymatic system of TH production, was significantly altered in patients with DCM and significantly associated with LV remodeling parameters. Thyroxine (T4 cardiac tissue levels were significantly increased (P < 0.01, whilst triiodothyronine (T3 levels were significantly diminished (P < 0.05 in the patients.Expression of TH biosynthesis machinery in the heart and total tissue levels of T4 and T3, are altered in patients with DCM. Given the relevance of TH in cardiac pathology, our results provide a basis for new gene-based therapeutic strategies for treating DCM.

  3. Autoantibodies in dilated cardiomyopathy induce vascular endothelial growth factor expression in cardiomyocytes

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    Saygili, Erol, E-mail: erol.saygili@med.uni-duesseldorf.de [Division of Cardiology, Pulmonology, and Vascular Medicine, University Hospital Düsseldorf, Moorenstrasse 5, D-40225 Düsseldorf (Germany); Noor-Ebad, Fawad; Schröder, Jörg W.; Mischke, Karl [Department of Cardiology, University RWTH Aachen, Pauwelsstr. 30, D-52074 Aachen (Germany); Saygili, Esra [Clinic for Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Infectious Diseases, Heinrich-Heine-University, Moorenstrasse 5, D-40225 Düsseldorf (Germany); Rackauskas, Gediminas [Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Vilnius University Hospital Santariskiu Klinikos, Vilnius University (Lithuania); Marx, Nikolaus [Department of Cardiology, University RWTH Aachen, Pauwelsstr. 30, D-52074 Aachen (Germany); Kelm, Malte; Rana, Obaida R. [Division of Cardiology, Pulmonology, and Vascular Medicine, University Hospital Düsseldorf, Moorenstrasse 5, D-40225 Düsseldorf (Germany)

    2015-09-11

    Background: Autoantibodies have been identified as major predisposing factors for dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). Patients with DCM show elevated serum levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) whose source is unknown. Besides its well-investigated effects on angiogenesis, evidence is present that VEGF signaling is additionally involved in fibroblast proliferation and cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, hence in cardiac remodeling. Whether autoimmune effects in DCM impact cardiac VEGF signaling needs to be elucidated. Methods: Five DCM patients were treated by the immunoadsorption (IA) therapy on five consecutive days. The eluents from the IA columns were collected and prepared for cell culture. Cardiomyocytes from neonatal rats (NRCM) were incubated with increasing DCM-immunoglobulin-G (IgG) concentrations for 48 h. Polyclonal IgG (Venimmun N), which was used to restore IgG plasma levels in DCM patients after the IA therapy was additionally used for control cell culture purposes. Results: Elevated serum levels of VEGF decreased significantly after IA (Serum VEGF (ng/ml); DCM pre-IA: 45 ± 9.1 vs. DCM post–IA: 29 ± 6.7; P < 0.05). In cell culture, pretreatment of NRCM by DCM-IgG induced VEGF expression in a time and dose dependent manner. Biologically active VEGF that was secreted by NRCM significantly increased BNP mRNA levels in control cardiomyocytes and induced cell-proliferation of cultured cardiac fibroblast (Fibroblast proliferation; NRCM medium/HC-IgG: 1 ± 0.0 vs. NRCM medium/DCM-IgG 100 ng/ml: 5.6 ± 0.9; P < 0.05). Conclusion: The present study extends the knowledge about the possible link between autoimmune signaling in DCM and VEGF induction. Whether this observation plays a considerable role in cardiac remodeling during DCM development needs to be further elucidated. - Highlights: • Mechanisms of remodeling in dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) are not fully understood. • Autoantibodies have been identified as major predisposing factors

  4. ω-3 Polyunsaturated fatty acids prevent pressure overload-induced ventricular dilation and decrease in mitochondrial enzymes despite no change in adiponectin

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    O'Shea Karen M

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pathological left ventricular (LV hypertrophy frequently progresses to dilated heart failure with suppressed mitochondrial oxidative capacity. Dietary marine ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFA up-regulate adiponectin and prevent LV dilation in rats subjected to pressure overload. This study 1 assessed the effects of ω-3 PUFA on LV dilation and down-regulation of mitochondrial enzymes in response to pressure overload; and 2 evaluated the role of adiponectin in mediating the effects of ω-3 PUFA in heart. Methods Wild type (WT and adiponectin-/- mice underwent transverse aortic constriction (TAC and were fed standard chow ± ω-3 PUFA for 6 weeks. At 6 weeks, echocardiography was performed to assess LV function, mice were terminated, and mitochondrial enzyme activities were evaluated. Results TAC induced similar pathological LV hypertrophy compared to sham mice in both strains on both diets. In WT mice TAC increased LV systolic and diastolic volumes and reduced mitochondrial enzyme activities, which were attenuated by ω-3 PUFA without increasing adiponectin. In contrast, adiponectin-/- mice displayed no increase in LV end diastolic and systolic volumes or decrease in mitochondrial enzymes with TAC, and did not respond to ω-3 PUFA. Conclusion These findings suggest ω-3 PUFA attenuates cardiac pathology in response to pressure overload independent of an elevation in adiponectin.

  5. Induction of cervical dilation for transcervical embryo transfer in ewes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background A major limitation in the application of assisted reproductive technologies in sheep arises from the inability to easily traverse the uterine cervix. The cervix of the non-pregnant ewe is a narrow and rigid structure, with 5–7 spiral folds and crypts that block its lumen. The first two folds closest to the vagina appear to be the greatest obstacle for the instrument insertion into the sheep cervix. Therefore, the dilation of the distal part of the cervix could provide the conformational change necessary to perform non-invasive transcervical procedures. The present study set out to assess the efficacy of Cervidil®, a patented dinoprostone (PgE2)-containing vaginal insert with a controlled-release mechanism, to safely induce sufficient cervical dilation for the purpose of transcervical embryo transfer (TCET) in cyclic ewes. Methods The transfer of frozen-thawed ovine embryos was attempted in 22 cross-bred Rideau Arcott x Polled Dorset ewes, with or without the pre-treatment with Cervidil® for 12 or 24 h prior to TCET. Results Cervical penetration rate was significantly improved after Cervidil® pre-treatment, with 55% (6/11) of treated versus 9% (1/11) of control animals successfully penetrated (χ2-test, p ewes that were penetrated, 67% (4/6) had been exposed to Cervidil(R) for 24 h and 33% (2/6) had had a 12-h exposure (p > 0.05). Variations in the age, weight, genotype, parity, lifetime lamb production (LLP) and post-partum interval (PPI) between penetrated and non-penetrated ewes were not significant (p > 0.05). The time taken to traverse the uterine cervix was negatively correlated (p ewes, but no fetuses were detected ultrasonographically 55 days post-TCET. Conclusions The present results indicate a significant benefit of using Cervidil® for inducing cervical dilation during the mid-luteal phase in ewes but the reason(s) for impaired fertility after the transfer of frozen-thawed ovine embryos remains to be elucidated. PMID:24467737

  6. Reproducibility and genital sparing with a vaginal dilator used for female anal cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briere, Tina Marie; Crane, Christopher H.; Beddar, Sam; Bhosale, Priya; Mok, Henry; Delclos, Marc E.; Krishnan, Sunil; Das, Prajnan

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Acute vulvitis, acute urethritis, and permanent sexual dysfunction are common among patients treated with chemoradiation for squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal. Avoidance of the genitalia may reduce sexual dysfunction. A vaginal dilator may help delineate and displace the vulva and lower vagina away from the primary tumor. The goal of this study was to evaluate the positional reproducibility and vaginal sparing with the use of a vaginal dilator. Materials and methods: Ten female patients treated with IMRT for anal cancer were included in this study. A silicone vaginal dilator measuring 29 mm in diameter and 114 mm in length was inserted into the vagina before simulation and each treatment. The reproducibility of dilator placement was investigated with antero-posterior and lateral images acquired daily. Weekly cone beam CT (CBCT) imaging was used to confirm coverage of the GTV, which was typically posterior and inferior to the dilator apex. Finally, a planning study was performed to compare the vaginal doses for these 10 patients to a comparable group of 10 female patients who were treated for anal cancer with IMRT without vaginal dilators. Results: The absolute values of the location of the dilator apex were 7.0 ± 7.8 mm in the supero-inferior direction, 7.5 ± 5.5 mm in the antero-posterior, and 3.8 ± 3.1 mm in the lateral direction. Coverage of the GTV and CTV was confirmed from CBCT images. The mean dose to the vagina was lower by 5.5 Gy, on average, for the vaginal dilator patients, compared to patients treated without vaginal dilators. Conclusion: The vaginal dilator tended to be inserted more inferiorly during treatment than during simulation. For these ten patients, this did not compromise tumor coverage. Combined with IMRT treatment planning, use of a vaginal dilator could allow for maximum sparing of female genitalia for patients undergoing radiation therapy for anal cancer.

  7. Office-based esophageal dilation in head and neck cancer: Safety, feasibility, and cost analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Rebecca J; Schopper, Melissa A; Giliberto, John Paul; Collar, Ryan M; Khosla, Sid M

    2018-02-08

    To review experience, safety, and cost of office-based esophageal dilation in patients with history of head and neck cancer (HNCA). The medical records of patients undergoing esophageal dilation in the office were retrospectively reviewed between August 2015 and May 2017. Patients were given nasal topical anesthesia. Next, a transnasal esophagoscopy (TNE) was performed. If the patient tolerated TNE, we proceeded with esophageal dilation using Seldinger technique with the CRE™ Boston Scientific (Boston Scientific Corp., Marlborough, MA) balloon system. Patients were discharged directly from the outpatient clinic. Forty-seven dilations were performed in 22 patients with an average of 2.1 dilations/patient (range 1-10, standard deviation [SD] ± 2.2). Seventeen patients (77%) were male. The average age was 67 years (range 35-78 years, SD ± 8.5). The most common primary site of cancer was oral cavity/oropharynx (n = 10), followed by larynx (n = 6). All patients (100%) had history of radiation treatment. Four patients were postlaryngectomy. The indication for esophageal dilation was esophageal stricture and progressive dysphagia. All dilations occurred in the proximal esophagus. There were no major complications. Three focal, superficial lacerations occurred. Two patients experienced mild, self-limited epistaxis. One dilation was poorly tolerated due to discomfort. One patient required pain medication postprocedure. Office-based esophageal dilation generated $15,000 less in health system charges compared to traditional operating room dilation on average per episode of care. In patients with history of HNCA and radiation, office-based TNE with esophageal dilation appears safe, well-tolerated, and cost-effective. In a small cohort, the technique has low complication rate and is feasible in an otolaryngology outpatient office setting. 4. Laryngoscope, 2018. © 2018 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  8. Cardiovascular and hematologic effects produced by chronic treatment with etoricoxib in normotensive rats Efeitos cardiovasculares e hematológicos produzidos pelo tratamento crônico com etoricoxib em ratos normotensos

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    Nilo César do Vale Baracho

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Evaluate the cardiovascular and hematological effects produced by chronic treatment with two dosis of etoricoxib in Wistar normotensive rats. METHODS: Thirty rats have been used and divided into one control group and two etoricoxib (10mg/kg and 30mg/kg treatments groups for 60 days. The mean arterial pressure (MAP was taken during the whole experimental period and at the end of this period, under anesthesia blood samples were taken, and further the withdrawn of the aorta, heart, brain, liver, and kidneys for the anatomopathologic study. RESULTS: The treatment with etoricoxib (30mg/Kg produced a significant increase of the MAP from the 28th day of the experiment and from the platelets when compared to the control group and to the group treated with 10mg/Kg, besides producing a highly significant difference in hematocrit and in the red blood cells in relation to the control group. On the other hand the treatment with etoricoxib has not caused histopathological changes when compared to the control. CONCLUSION: These data show that the chronic treatment with etoricoxib leads to increase of the MAP, and to important hematological changes which seem to be associated to the hemoconcentration although not producing anatomopathological significant changes.OBJETIVO: Avaliar os efeitos cardiovasculares e hematológicos produzidos pelo tratamento crônico com duas doses de etoricoxib em ratos Wistar normotensos. MÉTODOS: Foram utilizados 30 ratos divididos em um grupo controle e dois grupos tratamentos (10mg/kg e 30mg/kg de etoricoxib por 60 dias. A pressão arterial média (PAM dos animais foi aferida durante todo o período experimental e, ao final deste, sob anestesia, foram coletadas amostras de sangue, além da retirada da aorta, coração, cérebro, fígado e rins para estudo anatomopatológico. RESULTADOS: O tratamento com etoricoxib (30mg/Kg produziu aumento significativo da PAM a partir do 28° dia do experimento e das plaquetas quando

  9. Choline acetyltransferase and TrkA expression, as well as the improvement in cognition produced by E2 and P4 in ovariectomized rats, are blocked by ICI 182 780 and RU486.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa-Raya, Judith; Cruz-Raya, Ulises; López-Martínez, Margarita; Picazo, Ofir

    2018-01-09

    Treatment with 17-β estradiol and progesterone improves the performance of ovariectomized rats in an autoshaping learning task, representing cognitive improvement. To test whether this is attributable to genomic mechanisms, the antiestrogen ICI 182 780 or antiprogesterone RU486 was injected into ovariectomized animals primed previously with estrogen or progesterone, respectively. Compared with the vehicle control, each hormone administered alone produced an elevated expression of choline acetyltransferase and TrkA, along with an improvement in performance on the behavioral test. E2+ICI reverted the increase in these two proteins. However, RU alone elicited higher ChAT expression. With this exception, there was a clear linear regression between the number of conditioned responses and the level of ChAT and TrkA in the basal forebrain. The results suggest that TrkA may be more important than ChAT for regulating autoshaping learning tasks, and that genomic mechanisms in the basal forebrain could possibly underlie hormonal improvement of cognition.

  10. The Acute Administration of the Selective Dopamine D3 Receptor Antagonist SB-277011A Reverses Conditioned Place Aversion Produced by Naloxone Precipitated Withdrawal From Acute Morphine Administration in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    RICE, ONARAE V.; GARDNER, ELIOT L.; HEIDBREDER, CHRISTIAN A.; ASHBY, CHARLES R.

    2014-01-01

    We examined the effect of SB-277011A, a selective D3 receptor antagonist, on the conditioned place aversion (CPA) response associated with naloxone-induced withdrawal from acute morphine administration in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Morphine (5.6 mg/kg i.p.) was given, followed 4 hrs later by naloxone (0.3 mg/kg i.p.) and prior to placing the animals in one specific chamber of the test apparatus. All animals were subjected to 2 of these trials. A significant CPA occurred in animals that received an i.p. injection of vehicle 30 minutes prior to the measurement of chamber preference. The pretreatment of animals (30 minutes prior to testing) with 3 mg/kg i.p. of SB-277011A did not significantly alter the CPA compared to animals treated with vehicle (1 ml/kg i.p. of deionized distilled water). In contrast, the acute pretreatment of animals with 6, 12 or 24 mg/kg i.p. of SB-277011A significantly decreased the CPA compared to vehicle-treated animals. In fact, the 12 and 24 mg/kg doses of SB-277011A significantly increased the time spent in the chamber where animals were paired with morphine and naloxone. These results suggest that the selective antagonism of D3 receptors attenuates the CPA produced by a model of naloxone-induced withdrawal from acute morphine dependence. PMID:21905128

  11. Prenatal diagnostic evaluation of fetal ventricular dilatation by MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawabata, Ichiro; Tamaya, Teruhiko; Iwata, Tatsuo; Ando, Takashi; Yamada, Hiromu

    1992-01-01

    Recent advances in MRI have contributed to the antenatal confirmatory diagnosis of fetal anomalies, especially in the fetal brain and central nervous system. In this study, eight infants with fetal ventricular dilatation, suggested by prenatal ultrasonography, were evaluated with confirmatory diagnosis by MRI (SIGNA; General Electric Company, 1.5 tesla). These anomalies were demonstrated at 19 to 36 weeks by ultrasonography. One of the eight died in utero at 22 weeks of gestation, another one day after birth (33 weeks of gestation). Two were delivered by Cesarean section. It has been proved that clear and effective images can be obtained by mother's walking without sedative drugs. Fetal MRI gave clear images not only in fetal horizontal section, but also in sagittal section, which is usually difficult to obtain by ultrasonography. Confirmatory diagnosis of eight cases were obtained by MRI. Fetal MRI can provide an effective prenatal diagnosis, especially in cases of fetal brain anomaly, even when compared with postnatal CT findings. (author)

  12. Intraluminal milrinone for dilation of the radial artery graft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Rinaldi, R; Soltero, E R; Carballido, J; Mojica, J

    1999-01-01

    There is renewed interest in the use of the radial artery as a conduit for coronary artery bypass surgery. The radial artery is, however, a very muscular artery, prone to vasospasm. Milrinone, a potent vasodilator, has demonstrated vasodilatory properties superior to those of papaverine. In this report, we describe our technique of radial artery harvesting and the adjunctive use of intraluminal milrinone as a vasodilator in the preparation of this conduit for coronary artery bypass grafting. We have used these techniques in 25 patients who have undergone coronary artery bypass grafting using the radial artery. No hand ischemic complications have been observed in this group. Intraluminal milrinone appears to dilate and relax the radial artery, rendering this large conduit spasm free and very easy to use. We recommend the skeletonization technique for radial artery harvesting and the use of intraluminal milrinone as a radial artery vasodilator in routine myocardial revascularization. PMID:10524740

  13. Directional dual-tree rational-dilation complex wavelet transform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serbes, Gorkem; Gulcur, Halil Ozcan; Aydin, Nizamettin

    2014-01-01

    Dyadic discrete wavelet transform (DWT) has been used successfully in processing signals having non-oscillatory transient behaviour. However, due to the low Q-factor property of their wavelet atoms, the dyadic DWT is less effective in processing oscillatory signals such as embolic signals (ESs). ESs are extracted from quadrature Doppler signals, which are the output of Doppler ultrasound systems. In order to process ESs, firstly, a pre-processing operation known as phase filtering for obtaining directional signals from quadrature Doppler signals must be employed. Only then, wavelet based methods can be applied to these directional signals for further analysis. In this study, a directional dual-tree rational-dilation complex wavelet transform, which can be applied directly to quadrature signals and has the ability of extracting directional information during analysis, is introduced.

  14. Pathomorphological Changes of the Myocardium in Canine Dilated Cardiomyopathy (DCM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janus Izabela

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted on ventricular and atrial wall preparations from 11 dogs with clinically diagnosed dilated cardiomyopathy. After fixation, the specimens were stained with haematoxylin and eosin and Masson-Goldner trichrome technique. Parenchymal changes (fibrosis and fatty infiltration, vascular changes (congestion and coronary vessel wall hypertrophy, degenerative changes (loss of striation, changes in cardiomycyte and nuclei structure, and presence of inflammatory infiltrates (mononuclear and polynuclear were estimated. Complex histological changes in both ventricular and atrial muscles were shown. It was not determined whether the processes occurring in the myocardium have a primary character, or are a consequence of developing heart failure. Such issues will be put under further and more detailed examination.

  15. Atlas of the clinical genetics of human dilated cardiomyopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haas, Jan; Frese, Karen S; Peil, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    AIM: Numerous genes are known to cause dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). However, until now technological limitations have hindered elucidation of the contribution of all clinically relevant disease genes to DCM phenotypes in larger cohorts. We now utilized next-generation sequencing to overcome...... these limitations and screened all DCM disease genes in a large cohort. METHODS AND RESULTS: In this multi-centre, multi-national study, we have enrolled 639 patients with sporadic or familial DCM. To all samples, we applied a standardized protocol for ultra-high coverage next-generation sequencing of 84 genes...... disease variants, we find titin, plakophilin-2, myosin-binding protein-C 3, desmoplakin, ryanodine receptor 2, desmocollin-2, desmoglein-2, and SCN5A variants among the most commonly mutated genes. The overlap between DCM, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), and channelopathy causing mutations...

  16. Network Intrusion Detection through Stacking Dilated Convolutional Autoencoders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Yu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Network intrusion detection is one of the most important parts for cyber security to protect computer systems against malicious attacks. With the emergence of numerous sophisticated and new attacks, however, network intrusion detection techniques are facing several significant challenges. The overall objective of this study is to learn useful feature representations automatically and efficiently from large amounts of unlabeled raw network traffic data by using deep learning approaches. We propose a novel network intrusion model by stacking dilated convolutional autoencoders and evaluate our method on two new intrusion detection datasets. Several experiments were carried out to check the effectiveness of our approach. The comparative experimental results demonstrate that the proposed model can achieve considerably high performance which meets the demand of high accuracy and adaptability of network intrusion detection systems (NIDSs. It is quite potential and promising to apply our model in the large-scale and real-world network environments.

  17. GASTRIC DILATATION VOLVULUS IN ADULT MANED WOLVES (CHRYSOCYON BRACHYURUS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinton, Jenna D; Padilla, Luis R; Joyner, Priscilla H; Schnellbacher, Rodney; Walsh, Timothy F; Aitken-Palmer, Copper

    2017-06-01

    Gastric dilatation volvulus (GDV) was identified in six adult maned wolves ( Chrysocyon brachyurus ) housed at the Smithsonian Conservation Biology Institute in Front Royal, Virginia, and the Dickerson Park Zoo in Springfield, Missouri. Four individuals were found dead in their enclosures, and GDV was diagnosed postmortem based on radiographic and necropsy findings. Two individuals were diagnosed with GDV antemortem, with one wolf surviving following surgical intervention and supportive management. A concurrent splenic torsion was identified in three of six cases. Although GDV has been well documented in domestic dogs and is known to occur in maned wolves, objective, detailed case descriptions have been limited in this species. This report represents the first description of a surviving case of GDV in the maned wolf. Thorough species-specific documentation of any acutely fatal condition, such as GDV, is imperative for proper case recognition and medical management, with profound implications for species recovery efforts.

  18. Computed tomography of cystic nerve root sleeve dilatation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neave, V C; Wycoff, R R

    1983-10-01

    A case of cystic nerve root sleeve dilatation in the lumbar area associated with a chronic back pain syndrome is presented. Prominent computed tomography (CT) findings include: (a) rounded masses in the region of the foramina isodense with cerebrospinal fluid in the subarachnoid space; (b) associated asymmetry of epidural fat distribution; (c) enlargement of the neural foramina in axial sections with scalloped erosion of the adjacent posteriolateral vertebral body, pedicle, and pedicular-laminar junction with preservation of cortex and without bony sclerosis or infiltrative appearance; (d) prominent or ectatic dural sac with lack of usual epidural landmarks between the sac and vertebral body; and (e) multilevel abnormalities throughout the entire lumbar region. Myelographic and CT correlations are demonstrated with a review of the literature. A discussion of the various cystic abnormalities involving nerve root sheaths is undertaken in an attempt to clarify the confusing nomenclature applied to nerve root sleeve pathology.

  19. Quantitative measurement of ventricular dilatation on CT scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okita, Naoshi; Mochizuki, Hiroshi; Takase, Sadao

    1985-01-01

    Cerebral atrophy might be judged from the ventricular dilatation with some indices, calculated from various ventricular width. But, there is no general agreement on what index is the most reliable. In this paper, we attempted to establish the index, easy to measure and most reliable. Our method is as follow. 1) We carried out the CT scan (EMI 1010) on 89 neurologically intact patients. Scans were parallel to orbito-meatal line (OML), and were 10 mm in thickness. On CT scan films, various width, area of anterior horns and area of bodies of lateral ventricles were measured. Measurement about the anterior horns of lateral ventricles were carried out on image the most clearly showed the foramen of Monro. And measurements about the bodies of lateral ventricles were on image, 20 mm above the image of anterior horn. Correlations of various width and areas were calculated. Then we proposed new indices with high correlations (over 0.9) with ventricular area; Anterior horn CVI (Cerebro-Ventricular Index) and Body CVI. 2) Patients with myotonic dystrophy show cerebral atrophy. We carried out the CT scan (GECT/T 8800) on 17 myotonic dystrophy patients and 30 controls. Between the two groups, age and sex were almost matched. In the two groups, we calculated our new indices as well as various indices which have been reported; Huckman number, Bifrontal CVI, Bicaudal CVI, Anterior horn index, Hirajima's index, and Cella-media index. The data were analyzed statistically. The ventricular dilatation of myotonic dystrophy patients is more definite with Anterior horn CVI, Bicaudal CVI and Body CVI (p<0.01). These indices have higher correlations with the ventricular area (about 0.9). (J.P.N.)

  20. Levels of muscle enzymes in the serum after esophageal pneumatic dilation in patients with achalasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimchi, N A; Ron, Y; Abramowich, D; Shirin, H; Scapa, E; Avni, Y

    2005-01-01

    The success rate of pneumatic dilation of the esophagus in patients with achalasia is variable. We aim to assess whether levels of muscle enzymes in the serum are useful for predicting the efficacy of this procedure. Consecutive adults with symptomatic achalasia treated with pneumatic dilation were included. Blood samples were taken immediately before the procedure and after 12, 24 and 32 h. Clinical efficacy of the pneumatic dilation was evaluated on the basis of a symptom score defined prior to, and 2 months after the procedure. Eleven patients underwent 13 pneumatic dilations. In nine patients this was the first dilation attempt. Ten dilations were clinically effective. The study was discontinued after enzyme levels did not show a trend of increase in any of our patients. Moreover, a statistically significant unexpected decrease in creatine phosphokinase values was found 12 h after the procedure, among the 10 successful dilations. We believe that levels of muscle enzymes in the serum cannot predict the efficacy of pneumatic dilation in patients with achalasia.

  1. Isointense infant brain MRI segmentation with a dilated convolutional neural network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moeskops, P.; Pluim, J.P.W.

    2017-01-01

    Quantitative analysis of brain MRI at the age of 6 months is difficult because of the limited contrast between white matter and gray matter. In this study, we use a dilated triplanar convolutional neural network in combination with a non-dilated 3D convolutional neural network for the segmentation

  2. Emergency Physicians Are Able to Detect Right Ventricular Dilation With Good Agreement Compared to Cardiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutz, Matt A; Clary, Julie M; Kline, Jeffrey A; Russell, Frances M

    2017-07-01

    Focused cardiac ultrasound (FOCUS) is a useful tool in evaluating patients presenting to the emergency department (ED) with acute dyspnea. Prior work has shown that right ventricular (RV) dilation is associated with repeat hospitalizations and shorter life expectancy. Traditionally, RV assessment has been evaluated by cardiologist-interpreted comprehensive echocardiography. The primary goal of this study was to determine the inter-rater reliability between emergency physicians (EPs) and a cardiologist for determining RV dilation on FOCUS performed on ED patients with acute dyspnea. This was a prospective, observational study at two urban academic EDs; patients were enrolled if they had acute dyspnea and a computed tomographic pulmonary angiogram without acute disease. All patients had an EP-performed FOCUS to assess for RV dilation. RV dilation was defined as an RV to left ventricular ratio greater than 1. FOCUS interpretations were compared to a blinded cardiologist FOCUS interpretation using agreement and kappa statistics. Of 84 FOCUS examinations performed on 83 patients, 17% had RV dilation. Agreement and kappa, for EP-performed FOCUS for RV dilation were 89% (95% confidence interval [CI] 80-95%) and 0.68 (95% CI 0.48-0.88), respectively. Emergency physician sonographers are able to detect RV dilation with good agreement when compared to cardiology. These results support the wider use of EP-performed FOCUS to evaluate for RV dilation in ED patients with dyspnea. © 2017 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.

  3. UVB-activated psoralen reduces luminal narrowing after balloon dilation because of inhibition of constrictive remodeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perrée, Jop; van Leeuwen, Ton G.; Velema, Evelyn; Smeets, Mirjam; de Kleijn, Dominique; Borst, Cornelius

    2002-01-01

    In this study we have explored the potential of PUVB (8-MOP + UVB) therapy for the reduction of luminal narrowing after arterial injury. In 15 rabbits, balloon dilation of iliac arteries was performed. In 20 arteries, dilation was combined with the delivery of pulsed ultraviolet light B (UVB)

  4. Inherited and predisposing factors in the development of gastric dilatation volvulus in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Jerold S

    2014-09-01

    This review article summarizes what is known as well as what is undetermined concerning the inherited and environmental pathogenesis of gastric dilatation volvulus in dogs. The disorder primarily affects large and giant, deep-chested breeds. A concise description of a typical dog affected with gastric dilatation volvulus is presented. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. In regard to the question of macroscopic differential diagnosis of alcoholic and dilated cardiomyopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Sokolova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The differential diagnosis of alcoholic and dilated cardiomyopathy according to the macroscopic data is represented in the article. The identity of macroscopic changes of heart, related to alcoholic and dilated cardiomyopathy, cannot diagnose these diseases based on the macroscopic characteristics; especially if there are no other visceral manifestations typical for chronic alcoholism.

  6. Structural and ultrastructural study of rat liver influenced by electromagnetic radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holovská, K; Almášiová, V; Cigánková, V; Beňová, K; Račeková, E; Martončíková, M

    2015-01-01

    Mobile communication systems are undoubtedly an environmental source of electromagnetic radiation (EMR). There is an increasing concern regarding the interactions of EMR with the humans. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of EMR on Wistar rat liver. Mature rats were exposed to electromagnetic field of frequency 2.45 GHz and mean power density of 2.8 mW/cm2 for 3 h/d for 3 wk. Samples of the liver were obtained 3 h after the last irradiation and processed histologically for light and transmission electron microscopy. Data demonstrated the presence of moderate hyperemia, dilatation of liver sinusoids, and small inflammatory foci in the center of liver lobules. Structure of hepatocytes was not altered and all described changes were classified as moderate. Electron microscopy of hepatocytes revealed vesicles of different sizes and shapes, lipid droplets, and proliferation of smooth endoplasmic reticulum. Occasionally necrotizing hepatocytes were observed. Our observations demonstrate that EMR exposure produced adverse effects on rat liver.

  7. The impact law of confining pressure and plastic parameter on Dilatancy of rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bin; Zhang, Zhenjie; Zhu, Jiebing

    2017-08-01

    Based on cyclic loading-unloading triaxle test of marble, the double parameter dilation angle model is established considering confining pressure effect and plastic parameter. Research shows that not only the strength but also the militancy behavior is highly depended on its confining pressure and plastic parameter during process of failure. Dilation angle evolution law shows obvious nonlinear characteristic almost with a rapid increase to the peak and then decrease gradually with plastic increasing, and the peak dilation angle value is inversely proportional with confining pressure. The proposed double parameter nonlinear dilation angle model can be used to well describe the Dilatancy of rock, which helps to understand the failure mechanism of surrounding rock mass and predict the range of plastic zone.

  8. The Eyes Have It: Sex and Sexual Orientation Differences in Pupil Dilation Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieger, Gerulf; Savin-Williams, Ritch C.

    2012-01-01

    Recent research suggests profound sex and sexual orientation differences in sexual response. These results, however, are based on measures of genital arousal, which have potential limitations such as volunteer bias and differential measures for the sexes. The present study introduces a measure less affected by these limitations. We assessed the pupil dilation of 325 men and women of various sexual orientations to male and female erotic stimuli. Results supported hypotheses. In general, self-reported sexual orientation corresponded with pupil dilation to men and women. Among men, substantial dilation to both sexes was most common in bisexual-identified men. In contrast, among women, substantial dilation to both sexes was most common in heterosexual-identified women. Possible reasons for these differences are discussed. Because the measure of pupil dilation is less invasive than previous measures of sexual response, it allows for studying diverse age and cultural populations, usually not included in sexuality research. PMID:22870196

  9. Postoperative follow-up studies in congenital dilatation of the common bile duct using hepatobiliary scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirobe, Seiichi; Ishida, Haruo; Hayashi, Akira; Kamagata, Shoichiro; Fuchimoto, Yasufumi; Mizuno, Dai; Yano, Tsunehiro [Tokyo Metropolitan Kiyose Children`s Hospital (Japan); Ishii, Katsumi

    1995-03-01

    Follow-up studies in congenital dilatation of the common bile duct were done in 20 cases ranging 3 to 20 years after operation. Operative cholangiography had shown dilatation of the intrahepatic bile ducts in 15 patients (75%), of these, 7 patients had cystic dilatation. Five cases of these 7 patients showed prolonged stasis of the nuclide in the cystic dilated intrahepatic bile ducts by {sup 99m}Tc-PMT hepatobiliary scintigraphy in the follow-up studies even at 10 years after operation. But none of 20 cases had complication such as intrahepatic lithiasis, cholangitis, and liver dysfunction. Hepatobiliary scintigraphy could provide moderate anatomic and excellent functional information which were useful for these follow-up studies and careful follow-up should be done in the case of cystic dilatation of the intrahepatic bile ducts. (author).

  10. Frequency and echocardiographic study of dilated cardiomyopathy in children presenting with cardiac failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M.A.; Mohammad, J.; Hussain, M.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the role of echocardiography in diagnosis of dilated cardiomyopathy as a cause of cardiac failure in children. Design: This was descriptive study. Children presenting with cardiac failure from indoor patients were selected and echocardiography along with chest X- ray, ECG, cardiac enzymes and ASO titre was performed in all patients. Subject: Fifty hospitalized patients with congestive heart failure were selected consecutively from hospitalized patients. Main Outcome: Role of echocardiography in the diagnosis of dilated cardiomyopathy in children presenting with cardiac failure. Results: Out of fifty patients admitted with cardiac failure 27 (54%) cases were found to be dilated cardiomyopathy while congenital heart disease, myocarditis and rheumatic heart disease were found in 12 (24%), 8 (16%) and 3 (6%) cases respectively. Conclusion: Dilated cardiomyopathy is an important cause of cardiac failure in children and echocardiography is an important tool to diagnose and differentiate dilated cardiomyopathy from other causes of cardiac failure. (author)

  11. A mutation in the glutamate-rich region of RNA-binding motif protein 20 causes dilated cardiomyopathy through missplicing of titin and impaired Frank-Starling mechanism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beqqali, Abdelaziz; Bollen, I. A. E.; Rasmussen, T. B.

    2016-01-01

    Mutations in the RS-domain of RNA-binding motif protein 20 (RBM20) have recently been identified to segregate with aggressive forms of familial dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). Loss of RBM20 in rats results in missplicing of the sarcomeric gene titin (TTN). The functional and physiological consequen......Mutations in the RS-domain of RNA-binding motif protein 20 (RBM20) have recently been identified to segregate with aggressive forms of familial dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). Loss of RBM20 in rats results in missplicing of the sarcomeric gene titin (TTN). The functional and physiological...... consequences of RBM20 mutations outside the mutational hotspot of RBM20 have not been explored to date. In this study, we investigated the pathomechanism of DCM caused by a novel RBM20 mutation in human cardiomyocytes. We identified a family with DCM carrying a mutation (RBM20(E913K/+)) in a glutamate...... to the early onset, and malignant course of DCM caused by RBM20 mutations. Altogether, our results demonstrate that heterozygous loss of RBM20 suffices to profoundly impair myocyte biomechanics by its disturbance of TTN splicing....

  12. Striatal output markers do not alter in response to circling behaviour in 6-OHDA lesioned rats produced by acute or chronic administration of the monoamine uptake inhibitor BTS 74 398.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, E L; Cheetham, S; Jenner, P

    2008-01-01

    The monoamine uptake inhibitor BTS 74 398 induces ipsilateral circling in 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) lesioned rats without induction of abnormal motor behaviours associated with L-dopa administration. We examined whether this was reflected in the expression of peptide mRNA in the direct and indirect striatal output pathways.6-OHDA lesioning of the nigrostriatal pathway increased striatal expression of PPE-A mRNA and decreased levels of PPT mRNA with PPE-B mRNA expression remaining unchanged. Acute L-dopa administration normalised PPE-A mRNA and elevated PPT mRNA while PPE-B mRNA expression remained unchanged. Acute administration of BTS 74 398 did not alter striatal peptide mRNA levels. Following chronic treatment with L-dopa, PPE-A mRNA expression in the lesioned striatum continued to be normalised and PPT mRNA was increased compared to the intact side. PPE-B mRNA expression was also markedly increased relative to the non-lesioned striatum. Chronic BTS 74 398 administration did not alter mRNA expression in the 6-OHDA lesioned striatum although small increases in PPT mRNA expression in the intact and sham lesioned striatum were observed. The failure of BTS 74 398 to induce changes in striatal neuropeptide mRNA correlated with its failure to induce abnormal motor behaviours or behavioural sensitisation but does not explain how it produces a reversal of motor deficits. An action in another area of the brain appears likely and may explain the subsequent failure of BTS 74 398 and related compounds to exert anti-parkinsonian actions in man.

  13. Balloon Dilatation of Pediatric Subglottic Laryngeal Stenosis during the Artificial Apneic Pause: Experience in 5 Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Lisý

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Balloon dilatation is a method of choice for treatment of laryngeal stenosis in children. The aim of procedure in apneic pause is to avoid new insertion of tracheostomy cannula. Patients and Methods. The authors performed balloon dilatation of subglottic laryngeal strictures (SGS in 5 children (3 girls and 2 boys without tracheotomy. Two of them with traumatic and inflammatory SGS had a tracheal cannula removed in the past. The other 3 children with postintubation SGS had never had a tracheostomy before. The need for tracheostomy due to worsening stridor was imminent for all of them. Results. The total of seven laryngeal dilatations by balloon esophagoplasty catheter in apneic pause was performed in the 5 children. The procedure averted the need for tracheostomy placement in 4 of them (80%. Failure of dilatation in girl with traumatic stenosis and concomitant severe obstructive lung disease led to repeated tracheostomy. Conclusion. Balloon dilatation of laryngeal stricture could be done in the absence of tracheostomy in apneic pause. Dilatation averted threatening tracheostomy in all except one case. Early complication after the procedure seems to be a negative prognostic factor for the outcome of balloon dilatation.

  14. The use of endoscopic ultrasonography in the diagnosis of the causes of common bile duct dilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sajewicz, Z.; Wozniak-Stolarska, B.; Salomon, A.; Poniewierka, E.; Kempinski, R.

    2006-01-01

    Background. Ultrasonography (US) does not come up to the expectations in the diagnosis of the causes of common bile duct (CBD) dilation. Objectives. An assessment of the usefulness of endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) in the diagnosis of the causes of CBD dilation. Material and Methods. The authors examined 30 persons (16 females and 14 males) with CBD dilated > 7 mm in US. In these patients the authors performed EUS with the usage of Pentax FG-38UX echoendoscope of 5-10 MHz frequency connected with EUB 6000 Hitachi ultrasonograph looking for the cause of CBD dilation. Findings gathered were verified with the usage of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) or magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP). Results. In 16 patients the authors found stones in CBD. In ERCP or MRCP the frequency of CBD stones was a bit higher. In these examinations CBD stones were found in 18 patients. The authors found out that pancreatic head carcinoma was the cause of CBD dilation in 8 patients; in 2 patients the authors diagnosed ampullary carcinoma and in 1 patient - carcinoma of distal part of CBD. In 1 patient the authors pointed out a benign stricture of CBD with dilation above the stricture. Conclusions. EUS is a useful diagnosing method of the causes of CBD dilation. (authors)

  15. Malignant Esophagogastric Junction Obstruction: Efficacy of Balloon Dilation Combined with Chemotherapy and/or Radiation Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, Gi-Young; Song, Ho-Young; Hong, Heuk-Jin; Sung, Kyu-Bo; Seo, Tae-Seok; Yoon, Hyun-Ki

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the efficacy of balloon dilation combined with chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy for palliation of dysphagia due to malignant esophagogastric junction strictures. Methods: Fluoroscopically guided balloon dilation was attempted in 20 patients. The causes of strictures were gastric adenocarcinoma (n = 10) and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (n = 10). Scheduled chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy followed balloon dilation in all patients. Results: There were no technical failures or major complications. After balloon dilation, 15 (75%) patients showed improvement of dysphagia. No patient complained of reflux esophagitis during the follow-up period. Among the 15 patients, seven needed no further treatment for palliation of dysphagia until their deaths. The remaining eight patients underwent repeat balloon dilation(n = 4) or stent placement (n = 4)3-43 weeks (mean 15 weeks) after the initial balloon dilation because of recurrent dysphagia. Conclusion: Balloon dilation combined with chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy seems to be an easy and reasonably effective palliative treatment for malignant esophagogastric strictures

  16. The impact of duct-to-duct interaction on the hex duct dilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, M.J.; Chang, L.K.; Lahm, C.E.; Porter, D.L.

    1992-01-01

    Dilation of the hex duct is an important factor in the operational lifetime of fuel subassemblies in liquid metal fast reactors. It is caused primarily by the irradiation-enhanced creep and void swelling of the hex duct material. Excessive dilation may jeopardize subassembly removal from the core or cause a subassembly storage problem where the grid size of the storage basket is limited. Dilation of the hex duct in Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II) limits useful lifetime because of these storage basket limitations. It is, therefore, important to understand the hex duct dilation behavior to guide the design and in-core management of fuel subassemblies in a way that excessive duct deformation can be avoided. To investigate the dilation phenomena, finite-element models of the hex duct have been developed. The inelastic analyses were performed using the structural analysis code, ANSYS. Both Type 316 and D9 austenitic stainless steel ducts are considered. The calculated dilations are in good agreement with profilometry measurements made after irradiation. The analysis indicates that subassembly interaction is an important parameter in addition to neutron fluence and temperature in determining hex duct dilation. 5 refs

  17. Laparoscopic Heller Myotomy for Non-Dilated Esophageal Achalasia in Children with Intraoperative Stepped Dilation Under Image Guidance: Attempting Complete Myotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyano, Go; Miyake, Hiromu; Koyama, Mariko; Morita, Keiichi; Kaneshiro, Masakatsu; Nouso, Hiroshi; Yamoto, Masaya; Fukumoto, Koji; Urushihara, Naoto

    2016-05-01

    This study presents a modified surgical approach to laparoscopic myotomy for achalasia using stepped dilation with a Rigiflex balloon and contrast medium under image guidance. A 10-year-old boy with persistent dysphagia and vomiting had ingested only liquids for 3 months, losing >10 kg in body weight. Barium swallow and esophageal manometry diagnosed esophageal achalasia with mild esophageal dilatation. After failed pneumatic dilatation, laparoscopic Heller myotomy with Dor fundoplication was performed. Prior to surgery, a Rigiflex balloon dilator was placed within the esophagus near the diaphragmatic hiatus. A four-port technique was used, and mobilization of the esophagus was limited to the anterior aspect. A 5-cm Heller myotomy was performed, extending another 2 cm onto the anterior gastric wall. During myotomy, the Rigiflex balloon was serially dilated from 30 to 50 mL, and filled with contrast medium under fluoroscopic image guidance in order to maintain appropriate tension on the esophagus to facilitate myotomy, and to confirm adequate myotomy with sufficient release of lower esophageal sphincter by resecting residual circular muscle fibers. Residual circular muscle fibers can be simultaneously visualized under both fluoroscopic image guidance and direct observation through the laparoscope, and they were cut precisely until the residual notch fully disappeared. Dor fundoplication was completed. The operative time was 180 minutes, and oral intake was started after esophagography on postoperative day 1. As of the 12-month follow-up, the patient has not shown any symptoms, and his postoperative course appeared satisfactory.

  18. Acute limb heating improves macro- and microvascular dilator function in the leg of aged humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Steven A; Gagnon, Daniel; Adams, Amy N; Cramer, Matthew N; Kouda, Ken; Crandall, Craig G

    2017-01-01

    Local heating of an extremity increases blood flow and vascular shear stress throughout the arterial tree. Local heating acutely improves macrovascular dilator function in the upper limbs of young healthy adults through a shear stress-dependent mechanism but has no such effect in the lower limbs of this age group. The effect of acute limb heating on dilator function within the atherosclerotic prone vasculature of the lower limbs of aged adults is unknown. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that acute lower limb heating improves macro- and microvascular dilator function within the leg vasculature of aged adults. Nine young and nine aged adults immersed their lower limbs at a depth of ~33 cm into a heated (~42°C) circulated water bath for 45 min. Before and 30 min after heating, macro (flow-mediated dilation)- and microvascular (reactive hyperemia) dilator functions were assessed in the lower limb, following 5 min of arterial occlusion, via Doppler ultrasound. Compared with preheat, macrovascular dilator function was unchanged following heating in young adults (P = 0.6) but was improved in aged adults (P = 0.04). Similarly, microvascular dilator function, as assessed by peak reactive hyperemia, was unchanged following heating in young adults (P = 0.1) but was improved in aged adults (P lower limb heating improves both macro- and microvascular dilator function in an age dependent manner. We demonstrate that lower limb heating acutely improves macro- and microvascular dilator function within the atherosclerotic prone vasculature of the leg in aged adults. These findings provide evidence for a potential therapeutic use of chronic lower limb heating to improve vascular health in primary aging and various disease conditions. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  19. Health-Care Utilization and Complications of Endoscopic Esophageal Dilation in a National Population

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    Abhinav Goyal

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims Esophageal stricture is usually managed with outpatient endoscopic dilation. However, patients with food impaction or failure to thrive undergo inpatient dilation. Esophageal perforation is the most feared complication, and its risk in inpatient setting is unknown. Methods We used National Inpatient Sample (NIS database for 2007–2013. International Classification of Diseases, 9th revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM codes were used to identify patients with esophageal strictures. Logistic regression was used to assess association between hospital/patient characteristics and utilization of esophageal dilation. Results There were 591,187 hospitalizations involving esophageal stricture; 4.2% were malignant. Endoscopic dilation was performed in 28.7% cases. Dilation was more frequently utilized (odds ratio [OR], 1.36; p<0.001, had higher in-hospital mortality (3.1% vs. 1.4%, p<0.001, and resulted in longer hospital stays (5 days vs. 4 days, p=0.01, among cases of malignant strictures. Esophageal perforation was more common in the malignant group (0.9% vs. 0.5%, p=0.007. Patients with malignant compared to benign strictures undergoing dilation were more likely to require percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy or jejunostomy (PEG/J tube (14.1% vs. 4.5%, p<0.001. Palliative care services were utilized more frequently in malignant stricture cases not treated with dilation compared to those that were dilated. Conclusions Inpatient endoscopic dilation was utilized in 29% cases of esophageal stricture. Esophageal perforation, although infrequent, is more common in malignant strictures.

  20. Health-Care Utilization and Complications of Endoscopic Esophageal Dilation in a National Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Abhinav; Chatterjee, Kshitij; Yadlapati, Sujani; Singh, Shailender

    2017-01-01

    Background/Aims Esophageal stricture is usually managed with outpatient endoscopic dilation. However, patients with food impaction or failure to thrive undergo inpatient dilation. Esophageal perforation is the most feared complication, and its risk in inpatient setting is unknown. Methods We used National Inpatient Sample (NIS) database for 2007–2013. International Classification of Diseases, 9th revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) codes were used to identify patients with esophageal strictures. Logistic regression was used to assess association between hospital/patient characteristics and utilization of esophageal dilation. Results There were 591,187 hospitalizations involving esophageal stricture; 4.2% were malignant. Endoscopic dilation was performed in 28.7% cases. Dilation was more frequently utilized (odds ratio [OR], 1.36; p<0.001), had higher in-hospital mortality (3.1% vs. 1.4%, p<0.001), and resulted in longer hospital stays (5 days vs. 4 days, p=0.01), among cases of malignant strictures. Esophageal perforation was more common in the malignant group (0.9% vs. 0.5%, p=0.007). Patients with malignant compared to benign strictures undergoing dilation were more likely to require percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy or jejunostomy (PEG/J) tube (14.1% vs. 4.5%, p<0.001). Palliative care services were utilized more frequently in malignant stricture cases not treated with dilation compared to those that were dilated. Conclusions Inpatient endoscopic dilation was utilized in 29% cases of esophageal stricture. Esophageal perforation, although infrequent, is more common in malignant strictures. PMID:28301921

  1. Balloon dilatation in esophageal strictures in epidermolysis bullosa and the role of anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gollu, Gulnur; Ergun, Ergun; Ates, Ufuk; Can, Ozlem S; Dindar, Huseyin

    2017-02-01

    Esophageal involvement, which causes stricture, is a complication in epidermolysis bullosa. This causes dysphagia and malnutrition and leads to deterioration of skin lesions in these patients. The charts of 11 patients with epidermolysis bullosa and esophageal stricture who were included into dilatation program between 2003 and 2015 were retrospectively reviewed. Seven of the patients were female and four were male. The median age was 14 (2-32) years. The mean body weight of patients was 27.8 (9-51) kg. The location and number of strictured parts of the esophagus were previously evaluated with upper gastrointestinal contrast study and after that flexible endoscopy was used for dilatation. Eight patients had middle esophageal, three patients had proximal esophageal and one of them had both proximal and middle esophageal strictures. The strictures were dilated 56 times in total (mean 5 times). One patient underwent gastrostomy and was medically followed-up after a perforation occurrence during the dilatation procedure. In a 32-year-old female patient, colon interposition was performed after four dilatations since optimal nutritional and developmental status could not be achieved. The dilatation program of nine patients is still in progress. Seven of them can easily swallow solid food but two of them have some difficulties in swallowing between dilatations. One patient rejected the program and quitted, while one patient refused colon interposition and died because of complications related to amyloidosis during the dilatation program. After resolution of the swallowing problem, skin lesions were observed to heal quickly. Epidermolysis bullosa is a rare cause of dysphagia. Esophageal balloon dilatation with flexible endoscopy is a safe and efficient method in patients with this condition. © 2016 International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus.

  2. On the theory of time dilation in chemical kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baig, Mirza Wasif

    2017-10-01

    The rates of chemical reactions are not absolute but their magnitude depends upon the relative speeds of the moving observers. This has been proved by unifying basic theories of chemical kinetics, which are transition state theory, collision theory, RRKM and Marcus theory, with the special theory of relativity. Boltzmann constant and energy spacing between permitted quantum levels of molecules are quantum mechanically proved to be Lorentz variant. The relativistic statistical thermodynamics has been developed to explain quasi-equilibrium existing between reactants and activated complex. The newly formulated Lorentz transformation of the rate constant from Arrhenius equation, of the collision frequency and of the Eyring and Marcus equations renders the rate of reaction to be Lorentz variant. For a moving observer moving at fractions of the speed of light along the reaction coordinate, the transition state possess less kinetic energy to sweep translation over it. This results in the slower transformation of reactants into products and in a stretched time frame for the chemical reaction to complete. Lorentz transformation of the half-life equation explains time dilation of the half-life period of chemical reactions and proves special theory of relativity and presents theory in accord with each other. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the present theory, the enzymatic reaction of methylamine dehydrogenase and radioactive disintegration of Astatine into Bismuth are considered as numerical examples.

  3. Clinical predictors of outcome in patients with inflammatory dilated cardiomyopathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos Karatolios

    Full Text Available The study objectives were to identify predictors of outcome in patients with inflammatory dilated cardiomyopathy (DCMi.From 2004 to 2008, 55 patients with biopsy-proven DCMi were identified and followed up for 58.2±19.8 months. Predictors of outcome were identified in a multivariable analysis with a Cox proportional hazards analysis. The primary endpoint was a composite of death, heart transplantation and hospitalization for heart failure or ventricular arrhythmias.For the primary endpoint, a QTc interval >440msec (HR 2.84; 95% CI 1.03-7.87; p = 0.044, a glomerular filtration rate (GFR 440msec, a GFR<60ml/min/1.73m2 and worsening of NYHA classification during follow-up were univariate predictors of adverse prognosis. In contrast, NYHA classification at baseline, left ventricular ejection fraction, atrial fibrillation, treatment with digitalis or viral genome detection were not related to outcome. After multivariable analysis, a GFR <60ml/min/1.73m2 remained independently associated with adverse outcome.

  4. Hemoperitoneum secondary to cecocolic dilation in a pregnant mare

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    Alejandro R. Palomar

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Hemoperitoneum is known as the abnormal accumulation of blood within the abdominal cavity, most commonly caused by gastrointestinal bleeding, abdominal abscesses, liver tumors, migration of parasitic larvae (Strongylus vulgaris, direct trauma and blood clotting disorders. Lethargy, anorexia, weakness, muscle twitching, sweating, hyperthermia, tachycardia, tachypnea, and the accumulation of free fluid in the abdomen were the most commonly recorded signs. In this report, a pregnant mare was diagnosed with hemoperitoneum secondary to cecocolic dilatation, due to corn ingestion. The protocol for clinical treatment and tests varies in similar reported cases. Due to this, the present report discusses the outcome of a clinical case and suggests a medical protocol -based on evidence – for treatment in a pregnant mare. The treatment was aimed to stop the bleeding, while normalize or maintain a stable blood pressure and provide supportive therapy. The mare presented colic pains due to fermentation of the corn, which were solved in few hours. The final abdominal ultrasonogram showed intra-abdominal hypoechoic fluid and living fetus.

  5. Simulation of dilated heart failure with continuous flow circulatory support.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yajuan Wang

    Full Text Available Lumped parameter models have been employed for decades to simulate important hemodynamic couplings between a left ventricular assist device (LVAD and the native circulation. However, these studies seldom consider the pathological descending limb of the Frank-Starling response of the overloaded ventricle. This study introduces a dilated heart failure model featuring a unimodal end systolic pressure-volume relationship (ESPVR to address this critical shortcoming. The resulting hemodynamic response to mechanical circulatory support are illustrated through numerical simulations of a rotodynamic, continuous flow ventricular assist device (cfVAD coupled to systemic and pulmonary circulations with baroreflex control. The model further incorporated septal interaction to capture the influence of left ventricular (LV unloading on right ventricular function. Four heart failure conditions were simulated (LV and bi-ventricular failure with/without pulmonary hypertension in addition to normal baseline. Several metrics of LV function, including cardiac output and stroke work, exhibited a unimodal response whereby initial unloading improved function, and further unloading depleted preload reserve thereby reducing ventricular output. The concept of extremal loading was introduced to reflect the loading condition in which the intrinsic LV stroke work is maximized. Simulation of bi-ventricular failure with pulmonary hypertension revealed inadequacy of LV support alone. These simulations motivate the implementation of an extremum tracking feedback controller to potentially optimize ventricular recovery.

  6. Comparison of Complications in Percutaneous Dilatational Tracheostomy versus Surgical Tracheostomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaghoobi, Siamak; Kayalha, Hamid; Ghafouri, Raziyeh; Yazdi, Zohreh; Khezri, Marzieh Beigom

    2014-01-01

    Background: Tracheostomy facilitates respiratory care and the process of weaning from mechanical ventilatory support. Aims: To compare the complications found in percutaneous dilatational tracheostomy (PDT) and surgical tracheostomy (ST) techniques. Methods: This was a prospective randomized study to evaluate the complications of PDT and ST procedures in patients admitted to ICU unit of a teaching hospital during 2008 to 2011. We studied 40 patients in each group. PDTs were performed with blue rhino technique at the bedside by a skilled clinician and all cases of STs performed by Charles G Durbin technique in operating room under general anesthesia. Bronchoscopic examination through tracheostomy tube was performed to ensure the correct position of tracheostomy tube in the trachea lumen. The duration of procedures and pre- and post-interventional complications were recorded. Results: The most common complications observed in the PDT group were minor bleeding (n=4), hypoxemia, and cardiac dysrhythmias (n=3) whereas in the ST group, the most frequent complications were minor bleeding (n=5) and endotracheal tube puncture (n=3). The difference in overall complications between the two groups was insignificant (P=0.12). Conclusion: PDT with blue rhino technique is a safe, quick, and effective method while the overall complications in both groups were comparable. PMID:24999127

  7. Right ventricular function in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubota, Shuhei; Kubota, Sachio; Iwase, Takashi; Iizuka, Toshio; Imai, Susumu; Murata, Kazuhiko; Inoue, Tomio; Suzuki, Tadashi; Sasaki, Yasuhito.

    1993-01-01

    The characteristics and pathogenesis of right ventricular dysfunction in 14 patients with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) were investigated by equilibrium right ventricular blood pool scintigraphy using ultrashort-lifetime 81m Kr. Thirteen patients with severe left ventricular dysfunction due to old anterior myocardial infarction (OMI) and nine normal subjects were used as controls. The right ventricular end-diastolic pressure and volume index, mean pulmonary arterial pressure, and total pulmonary vascular resistance index were almost the same in the DCM and OMI patients. The right ventricular ejection fraction was 44.2±6.0% (mean±SD) in DCM patients and 47.1±7.9% in OMI patients, both significantly lower than those in the normal subjects (54.5±5.3%), but with no difference between the two case groups. The right ventricular peak filling rate was significantly reduced in both case groups as compared with the normal subjects (2.46±0.81 EDV/sec). The reduction was significantly greater (p 81m Kr blood pool scintigraphy is useful in the study of the right ventricular systolic and diastolic function. The diastolic parameters are more sensitive indicators for evaluation of right ventricular function in DCM than the systolic parameters. (author)

  8. Oxidative Stress in Dilated Cardiomyopathy Caused by MYBPC3 Mutation

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    Thomas L. Lynch

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiomyopathies can result from mutations in genes encoding sarcomere proteins including MYBPC3, which encodes cardiac myosin binding protein-C (cMyBP-C. However, whether oxidative stress is augmented due to contractile dysfunction and cardiomyocyte damage in MYBPC3-mutated cardiomyopathies has not been elucidated. To determine whether oxidative stress markers were elevated in MYBPC3-mutated cardiomyopathies, a previously characterized 3-month-old mouse model of dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM expressing a homozygous MYBPC3 mutation (cMyBP-C(t/t was used, compared to wild-type (WT mice. Echocardiography confirmed decreased percentage of fractional shortening in DCM versus WT hearts. Histopathological analysis indicated a significant increase in myocardial disarray and fibrosis while the second harmonic generation imaging revealed disorganized sarcomeric structure and myocyte damage in DCM hearts when compared to WT hearts. Intriguingly, DCM mouse heart homogenates had decreased glutathione (GSH/GSSG ratio and increased protein carbonyl and lipid malondialdehyde content compared to WT heart homogenates, consistent with elevated oxidative stress. Importantly, a similar result was observed in human cardiomyopathy heart homogenate samples. These results were further supported by reduced signals for mitochondrial semiquinone radicals and Fe-S clusters in DCM mouse hearts measured using electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. In conclusion, we demonstrate elevated oxidative stress in MYPBC3-mutated DCM mice, which may exacerbate the development of heart failure.

  9. Diuretic renography in evaluating dilated upper urinary tract in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ireton, R.C.; Parker, R.M.; Hayden, P.

    1987-01-01

    The diuretic renogram provides a previously unavailable noninvasive method for assessing and following urinary tract dilation of diverse cause, and defining true obstruction in children. Technetium-99m-DTPA (diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid) is injected intravenously and a posteriorly placed gamma scintillation camera used to image the kidneys, ureters, and bladder. Furosemide is subsequently injected to stimulate a diuresis, and the washout pattern of isotope is monitored (time-activity histogram). Nonobstructive, obstructive, and poor renal function patterns were seen. Forty patients with varying degrees of hydroureteronephrosis were evaluated. Tracings were performed serially and compared with the clinical course in time, as well as with pressure flow studies and operative findings. All patients with a nonobstructed diuretic renogram did well, except for 1 boy in whom ureteropelvic obstruction developed later. Difficulty in evaluating the obstructive renogram pattern occurred only in some children with severe (grade V) hydronephrosis. Further standardization of the diuretic renogram with regard to time of diuretic injection, state of patient hydration, and regions of imaging may improve diagnostic accuracy

  10. Current status of endoscopic balloon dilation for Crohn's disease

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    Fumihito Hirai

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The therapeutic target in Crohn's disease (CD has been raised to the achievement of mucosal healing. Although effective treatments that target cytokines and other molecules has been widely used for CD, intestinal strictures are still a major cause of surgery. Endoscopic balloon dilation (EBD is known to be an effective and safe intervention for intestinal strictures in CD. Since frequent intestinal resection often results in short bowel syndrome and can decrease the quality of life, EBD can help avoid surgery. EBD with a conventional colonoscope for Crohn's strictures of the colon and ileo-colonic anastomosis has established efficacy and safety. In addition, EBD using balloon-assisted enteroscopy has recently been applied for small bowel Crohn's strictures. Although the evidence is not strong, EBD may become an alternative to surgery in small bowel strictures in CD. EBD and other new methods such as self-expanding stent implantation for Crohn's strictures may be useful and safe; however, it is important to address several issues regarding these interventions and to establish a protocol for combined therapies.

  11. Synthetic Pulse Dilation - PMT Model for high bandwidth gamma measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geppert-Kleinrath, H.; Herrmann, H. W.; Kim, Y. H.; Zylstra, A. B.; Meaney, K. D.; Lopez, F. E.; Khater, H.; Horsfield, C. J.; Gales, S.; Leatherland, A.; Hilsabeck, T.; Kilkenny, J. D.; Hares, J. D.; Dymoke-Bradshaw, T.; Milnes, J.

    2017-10-01

    The Cherenkov mechanism used in Gas Cherenkov Detectors (GCD) is exceptionally fast. However, the temporal resolution of GCDs, such as the Gamma Reaction History diagnostic (GRH), is limited by the current state-of-the-art photomultiplier tube (PMT) to 100 ps. The new pulse dilation - PMT (PD-PMT) for NIF allows for a temporal resolution comparable to that of the gas cell, or of 10ps. Enhanced resolution will contribute to the quest for ignition in a crucial way through precision measurement of reaction history and areal density (ρ R) history, leading to better constrained models. Features such as onset of alpha heating, shock reverberations and burn truncation due to dynamically evolving failure modes will become visible for the first time. PD-PMT will be deployed on GCD-3 at NIF in 2018. Our synthetic PD-PMT model evaluates the capabilities of these future measurements, as well as minimum yield requirements for measurements performed in a well at 3.9 m from target chamber center (TCC), and within a diagnostic inserter at 0.2m from TCC.

  12. Postoperative management of dogs with gastric dilatation and volvulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruchim, Yaron; Kelmer, Efrat

    2014-09-01

    The objective of the study was to review the veterinary literature for evidence-based and common clinical practice supporting the postoperative management of dogs with gastric dilatation and volvulus (GDV). GDV involves rapid accumulation of gas in the stomach, gastric volvulus, increased intragastric pressure, and decreased venous return. GDV is characterized by relative hypovolemic-distributive and cardiogenic shock, during which the whole body may be subjected to inadequate tissue perfusion and ischemia. Intensive postoperative management of the patients with GDV is essential for survival. Therapy in the postoperative period is focused on maintaining tissue perfusion along with intensive monitoring for prevention and early identification of ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) and consequent potential complications such as hypotension, cardiac arrhythmias, acute kidney injury (AKI), gastric ulceration, electrolyte imbalances, and pain. In addition, early identification of patients in need for re-exploration owing to gastric necrosis, abdominal sepsis, or splenic thrombosis is crucial. Therapy with intravenous lidocaine may play a central role in combating IRI and cardiac arrhythmias. The most serious complications of GDV are associated with IRI and consequent systemic inflammatory response syndrome and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome. Other reported complications include hypotension, AKI, disseminated intravascular coagulation, gastric ulceration, and cardiac arrhythmias. Despite appropriate medical and surgical treatment, the reported mortality rate in dogs with GDV is high (10%-28%). Dogs with GDV that are affected with gastric necrosis or develop AKI have higher mortality rates. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Pneumatosis in canine gastric dilatation-volvulus syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischetti, Anthony J; Saunders, H Mark; Drobatz, Kenneth J

    2004-01-01

    Retrospectively, 243 dogs with radiographic evidence of gastric dilatation-volvulus (GDV) were studied for radiographic signs of pneumatosis (intramural gas), pneumoperitoneum, splenomegaly, and severity of gastric distention. The sensitivity, specificity, and predictive value of these imaging signs as predictors of gastric wall necrosis, as determined by visual inspection at surgery or necropsy, were determined. The sensitivity and specificity of gastric pneumatosis were 14.1% and 92.7%, respectively. The prevalence of gastric wall necrosis was 26.6%. The positive and negative predictive values of gastric pneumatosis for predicting gastric necrosis were 40.9% and 74.9%, respectively. Gastric pneumatosis and pneumoperitoneum were identified together in four dogs. Pneumoperitoneum, either alone or in conjunction with pneumatosis, yielded similar results as a test for gastric necrosis. Splenomegaly and severity of gastric distention were insensitive and nonspecific for gastric wall necrosis. Splenomegaly did not predict the need for splenectomy at surgery. Although pneumatosis and pneumoperitoneum are relatively specific signs of gastric wall necrosis, the utility of these signs as a test for gastric necrosis is limited in clinical practice. The significance of pneumatosis should be taken into consideration with previous treatments for gastric decompression, as percutaneous gastric trocharization or orogastric intubation may increase the number of false-positive results.

  14. Exploring full cervical dilatation caesarean sections-A retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corry, Edward M A; Ramphul, Meenakshi; Rowan, Ann M; Segurado, Ricardo; Mahony, Rhona M; Keane, Declan P

    2018-05-01

    The rate of caesarean sections at full cervical dilatation with their high risk of morbidity continues to rise mirroring the overall increase in caesarean section rates internationally. The objectives of this study were to determine the rate of full dilatation caesarean section in a tertiary referral unit and evaluate key labour, maternal and fetal factors potentially linked to those deliveries. We also assessed maternal and fetal morbidity at full dilatation sections. Where possible, these were compared with successful operative vaginal deliveries carried out in theatre to determine key differences. Retrospective cohort study. We reviewed the rate of full dilatation caesarean section over a 10-year period. We analysed deliveries (caesarean sections or operative vaginal deliveries) in single cephalic pregnancies ≥34 weeks with contemporaneously collected data from our unit's electronic database for 2015. The rate of full dilatation caesarean section increased by over a third in the ten-year period (56/6947 (0.80%) vs 92/7378 (1.24%), p = 0.01). Of 84 full dilatation caesarean sections who met the inclusion criteria, 63 (75%) were nulliparous and the mean maternal age was 33 (±5) years. Oxytocin was used in the second stage in less than half of second stage caesarean sections (22 out of a recorded 57, 38.6%). There were more fetal head malposition (occipito-posterior, or occipito-transverse) at full dilatation caesarean section compared to successful operative vaginal deliveries (41/46 (89.1%) vs 2/21 (9.5), p < 0.001). The rate of significant postpartum haemorrhage (defined as estimated blood loss ≥1000 ml) was similar in both full dilatation caesarean section and operative vaginal deliveries. There was no difference in the mean birthweight at full dilatation caesarean sections compared to operative vaginal delivery (3.88 kg (2.80-5.33 kg) vs 3.48 kg (1.53-4.40 kg)). There was no difference in neonatal morbidity. Fetal head malposition is

  15. Echocardiographic assessment of the aortic root dilatation in adult patients after tetralogy of Fallot repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Cristina; Pinho, Teresa; Lebreiro, Ana; Silva Cardoso, José; Maciel, Maria Júlia

    2013-06-01

    Transthoracic echocardiography is an important tool after tetralogy of Fallot repair, of which aortic root dilatation is a recognized complication. In this study we aimed to assess its prevalence and potential predictors. We consecutively assessed adult patients by transthoracic echocardiography after tetralogy of Fallot repair, and divided them into two groups based on the maximum internal aortic diameter at the sinuses of Valsalva in parasternal long-axis view: group 1 with aortic root dilatation (≥38 mm) and group 2 without dilatation (de Cardiologia. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  16. Multiple Species Comparison of Cardiac Troponin T and Dystrophin: Unravelling the DNA behind Dilated Cardiomyopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer England

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Animals have frequently been used as models for human disorders and mutations. Following advances in genetic testing and treatment options, and the decreasing cost of these technologies in the clinic, mutations in both companion and commercial animals are now being investigated. A recent review highlighted the genes associated with both human and non-human dilated cardiomyopathy. Cardiac troponin T and dystrophin were observed to be associated with both human and turkey (troponin T and canine (dystrophin dilated cardiomyopathies. This review gives an overview of the work carried out in cardiac troponin T and dystrophin to date in both human and animal dilated cardiomyopathy.

  17. Multiple Species Comparison of Cardiac Troponin T and Dystrophin: Unravelling the DNA behind Dilated Cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    England, Jennifer; Loughna, Siobhan; Rutland, Catrin Sian

    2017-07-07

    Animals have frequently been used as models for human disorders and mutations. Following advances in genetic testing and treatment options, and the decreasing cost of these technologies in the clinic, mutations in both companion and commercial animals are now being investigated. A recent review highlighted the genes associated with both human and non-human dilated cardiomyopathy. Cardiac troponin T and dystrophin were observed to be associated with both human and turkey (troponin T) and canine (dystrophin) dilated cardiomyopathies. This review gives an overview of the work carried out in cardiac troponin T and dystrophin to date in both human and animal dilated cardiomyopathy.

  18. Comparison of the Eder-Puestow and Celestin techniques for dilating benign oesophageal strictures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hine, K R; Hawkey, C J; Atkinson, M; Holmes, G K

    1984-10-01

    The Celestin and Eder-Puestow methods of dilating benign oesophageal strictures have been compared prospectively in a randomised trial. One hundred and thirty three dilatations were performed on 72 patients. There was no significant difference between the two techniques with regard to the long term relief of symptoms. Celestin dilatation was quicker, less likely to cause pharyngeal trauma, and less damaging to guide wires. It could not be used, however, in those patients in whom only a short length of guide wire could be passed through the stricture.

  19. A retrospective study of gastric dilatation and gastric dilatation and volvulus in working farm dogs in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendriks, M M; Hill, K E; Cogger, N; Jones, B R; Cave, N J

    2012-05-01

    To present findings from a case series of gastric dilatation (GD) or gastric dilatation and volvulus (GDV) in working farm dogs in New Zealand that were examined at veterinary clinics, and to identify possible risk factors for GD or GDV in working farm dogs in New Zealand using a case-control study. This retrospective study included a case-series and a case-control study. The case series analysed information from 62 case records of GD or GDV in working farm dogs seen between August 2004 and September 2009 at 13 veterinary clinics throughout New Zealand. Cases were classified as GD or GDV if the diagnosis was confirmed by radiography, surgery or post-mortem examination. Details of history and treatment, as well as outcomes, were obtained for each case. For the case-control study, records of 41 working farm dogs with GD or GDV (cases) seen between April 2008 and April 2009, and 82 working farm dogs examined because of trauma over the same period and in the same 13 clinics (controls), were used to model the risk factors for GD or GDV. From the case-series study, 40/62 (65%) cases of GD or GDV that were examined and treated at the veterinary clinics returned to work. Of the 41 dogs where the gastric contents were recorded, 25 (61%) had predominantly food or bones in the stomach, and 26/27 dogs had a history of having eaten meat, bones or scavenged a carcass. The case-control study showed that the significant risk factors for GD or GDV, compared with control dogs presenting with trauma, were breed, age and season. The odds that a case of GD or GDV was a Huntaway, after adjusting for age and season, was 19 times higher than the odds a control was a Huntaway. Gender and bodyweight were not identified as risk factors. A high proportion of farm working dogs with GD or GDV were successfully treated by veterinarians. The risk of a case of GD or GDV being a Huntaway was significantly higher than for a dog presenting as a trauma case. However the influences of the season of the

  20. Producing cement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, E G

    1923-09-12

    A process and apparatus are described for producing Portland cement in which pulverized shale is successively heated in a series of inclined rotary retorts having internal stirrers and oil gas outlets, which are connected to condensers. The partially treated shale is removed from the lowermost retort by a conveyor, then fed separately or conjointly into pipes and thence into a number of vertically disposed retorts. Each of these retorts may be fitted interiorly with vertical arranged conveyors which elevate the shale and discharge it over a lip, from whence it falls to the bottom of the retorts. The lower end of each casing is furnished with an adjustable discharge door through which the spent shale is fed to a hopper, thence into separate trucks. The oil gases generated in the retorts are exhausted through pipes to condensers. The spent shale is conveyed to a bin and mixed while hot with ground limestone. The admixed materials are then ground and fed to a rotary kiln which is fired by the incondensible gases derived from the oil gases obtained in the previous retorting of the shale. The calcined materials are then delivered from the rotary kiln to rotary coolers. The waste gases from the kiln are utilized for heating the retorts in which the ground shale is heated for the purpose of extracting therefrom the contained hydrocarbon oils and gases.