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  1. Neonatal infection produces significant changes in immune function with no associated learning deficits in juvenile rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, Brittany F; Caulfield, Jasmine I; Solomotis, Samantha A; Schwarz, Jaclyn M

    2017-10-01

    The current experiments examined the impact of early-life immune activation and a subsequent mild immune challenge with lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 25µg/kg) on hippocampal-dependent learning, proinflammatory cytokine expression in the brain, and peripheral immune function in juvenile male and female rats at P24, an age when hippocampal-dependent learning and memory first emerges. Our results indicate that neonatal infection did not produce learning deficits in the hippocampal-dependent context pre-exposure facilitation effect paradigm in juvenile males and females, contrary to what has been observed in adults. Neonatal infection produced an increase in baseline IL-1β expression in the hippocampus (HP) and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) of juvenile rats. Furthermore, neonatally infected rats showed exaggerated IL-1β expression in the HP following LPS treatment as juveniles; and juvenile females, but not males, showed exaggerated IL-1β expression in the mPFC following LPS treatment. Neonatal infection attenuated the production of IL-6 expression following LPS treatment in both the brain and the spleen, and neonatal infection decreased the numbers of circulating white blood cells in juvenile males and females, an effect that was further exacerbated by subsequent LPS treatment. Together, our data indicate that the consequences of neonatal infection are detectable even early in juvenile development, though we found no concomitant hippocampal-dependent learning deficits at this young age. These findings underscore the need to consider age and associated on-going neurodevelopmental processes as important factors contributing to the emergence of cognitive and behavioral disorders linked to early-life immune activation. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol 77: 1221-1236, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. The effectiveness of the anti-CD11d treatment is reduced in rat models of spinal cord injury that produce significant levels of intraspinal hemorrhage.

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    Geremia, N M; Hryciw, T; Bao, F; Streijger, F; Okon, E; Lee, J H T; Weaver, L C; Dekaban, G A; Kwon, B K; Brown, A

    2017-09-01

    We have previously reported that administration of a CD11d monoclonal antibody (mAb) improves recovery in a clip-compression model of SCI. In this model the CD11d mAb reduces the infiltration of activated leukocytes into the injured spinal cord (as indicated by reduced intraspinal MPO). However not all anti-inflammatory strategies have reported beneficial results, suggesting that success of the CD11d mAb treatment may depend on the type or severity of the injury. We therefore tested the CD11d mAb treatment in a rat hemi-contusion model of cervical SCI. In contrast to its effects in the clip-compression model, the CD11d mAb treatment did not improve forelimb function nor did it significantly reduce MPO levels in the hemi-contused cord. To determine if the disparate results using the CD11d mAb were due to the biomechanical nature of the cord injury (compression SCI versus contusion SCI) or to the spinal level of the injury (12th thoracic level versus cervical) we further evaluated the CD11d mAb treatment after a T12 contusion SCI. In contrast to the T12 clip compression SCI, the CD11d mAb treatment did not improve locomotor recovery or significantly reduce MPO levels after T12 contusion SCI. Lesion analyses revealed increased levels of hemorrhage after contusion SCI compared to clip-compression SCI. SCI that is accompanied by increased intraspinal hemorrhage would be predicted to be refractory to the CD11d mAb therapy as this approach targets leukocyte diapedesis through the intact vasculature. These results suggest that the disparate results of the anti-CD11d treatment in contusion and clip-compression models of SCI are due to the different pathophysiological mechanisms that dominate these two types of spinal cord injuries. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Changes in peripheral nervous system activity produced in rats by prenatal exposure to carbon monoxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carratu, M.R. (Inst. of Pharmacology, Bari Univ. (Italy)); Renna, G. (Inst. of Pharmacology, Bari Univ. (Italy)); Giustino, A. (Inst. of Pharmacology, Bari Univ. (Italy)); De Salvia, M.A. (Inst. of Pharmacology, Bari Univ. (Italy)); Cuomo, V. (Inst. of Pharmacology, Bari Univ. (Italy))

    1993-06-01

    The present experiments were designed to investigate whether alterations of peripheral nervous system activity may be produced in male Wistar rats by prenatal exposure (from day 0 to day 20 of pregnancy) to relatively low levels of CO (75 and 150 ppm). The voltage clamp analysis of ionic currents recorded from sciatic nerve fibres showed that prenatal exposure to CO produced modifications of sodium current properties. In particular, in 40-day-old rats exposed to CO (75 and 150 ppm) during gestation, the inactivation kinetics of transient sodium current were significantly slowed. Analysis of the potential dependence of steady-state Na inactivation, h[sub [infinity

  4. Effect of Pre-treatment with Moringa oleifera (Drumstick Leaves on Diabetogenesis Produced by Alloxan in Rats

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    Shamsun Nahar

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Medicinal plants constitute an important source of potential therapeutic agents for diabetes. Objective: In the study, we aimed to investigate the pre-treatment effect or preventive effects of Moringa oleifera (MO leaves on blood sugar of rats. Materials and method: This experimental study was carried out in the department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics of Sir Salimullah Medical College in collaboration with Bangladesh Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (BCSIR, Dhaka. A total 24 long Evans rats were included in this study and divided in to four groups. Hyperglycemia was induced on rats using alloxan (100 mg/kg body weight, intraperitioneally. Blood sample was collected from tail vein by tail tipping method. Pre-treatment effect or preventive role of Moringa oleifera (drumstick leaf powder on diabetogenesis produced by Alloxan in rats was tested by giving 50 mg/rat/day Moringa oleifera leaf powder for 14 days orally as pre-treatment along with standard rat feed. Then alloxan was administered intraperitoneally on 15th day of the experiment and 50mg/rat/day Moringa oleifera leaf powder was given for 7 days as post-treatment. Results: No significant effect of MO on blood glucose level was observed on normal rats and non significant hypoglycaemic effect was found in rats that were pretreated with MO. Conclusion: The present study suggests that Moringa oleifera leaf powder did not produce any significant protective effect in diabetogenesis produced by alloxan though it has hypoglycaemic effect.

  5. Parietal lesions produce illusory conjunction errors in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond PIERRE Kesner

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available When several different objects are presented, visual objects are perceived correctly only if their features are identified and then bound together. Illusory-conjunction errors result when an object is correctly identified but is combined incorrectly. The parietal cortex (PPC has been shown repeatedly to play an important role in feature binding. The present study builds on a series of recent studies that have made use of visual search paradigms to elucidate the neural system involved in feature binding. This experiment attempts to define the role the PPC plays in binding the properties of a visual object that varies on the features of color and size in rats. Rats with PPC lesions or control surgery were exposed to three blocks of 20 trials administered over a 1-week period, with each block containing ten-one feature and ten-two feature trials. The target object consisted of one color object (e.g. black and white and one size object (e.g. short and tall. Of the ten one feature trials, five of the trials were tailored specifically for size discrimination and five for color discrimination. In the two-feature condition, the animal was required to locate the targeted object among four objects with two objects differing in size and two objects differing in color. The results showed a significant decrease in learning the task for the PPC lesioned rats compared to controls, especially for the two-feature condition. Based on a subsequent error analysis for color and size, the results showed a significant increase in illusory conjunction errors for the PPC lesioned rats relative to controls for color and relative to color discrimination, suggesting that the PPC may support feature binding as it relates to color. There was an increase in illusory conjunctions errors for both the PPC lesioned and control animals for size, but this appeared to be due to a difficulty with size discrimination.

  6. Chemical structure and biochemical significance of lysolecithins from rat liver

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, H. van den; Deenen, L.L.M. van

    1965-01-01

    1. 1. Synthetic lecithins containing in 2-position a [14C]fatty acid constituent were found to be hydrolysed by rat-liver homogenates so as to form both 1-acyl-glycero-3-phosphorylcholine and 2-acyl-glycero-3-phosphorylcholine. 2. 2. A comparison of the fatty acid pattern of lysolecithin obtained

  7. Influence of electromagnetic radiation produced by mobile phone on some biophysical blood properties in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Bediwi, Abu Bakr; Saad, Mohamed; El-kott, Attall F; Eid, Eman

    2013-04-01

    Effects of electromagnetic radiation produced by mobile phone on blood viscosity, plasma viscosity, hemolysis, Osmotic fragility, and blood components of rats have been investigated. Experimental results show that there are significant change on blood components and its viscosity which affects on a blood circulation due to many body problems. Red blood cells, White blood cells, and Platelets are broken after exposure to electromagnetic radiation produced by mobile phone. Also blood viscosity and plasma viscosity values are increased but Osmotic fragility value decreased after exposure to electromagnetic radiation produced by mobile phone.

  8. Measurement of the lowest dosage of phenobarbital that can produce drug discrimination in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overton, Donald A.; Stanwood, Gregg D.; Patel, Bhavesh N.; Pragada, Sreenivasa R.; Gordon, M. Kathleen

    2009-01-01

    Rationale Accurate measurement of the threshold dosage of phenobarbital that can produce drug discrimination (DD) may improve our understanding of the mechanisms and properties of such discrimination. Objectives Compare three methods for determining the threshold dosage for phenobarbital (D) versus no drug (N) DD. Methods Rats learned a D versus N DD in 2-lever operant training chambers. A titration scheme was employed to increase or decrease dosage at the end of each 18-day block of sessions depending on whether the rat had achieved criterion accuracy during the sessions just completed. Three criterion rules were employed, all based on average percent drug lever responses during initial links of the last 6 D and 6 N sessions of a block. The criteria were: D%>66 and N%50 and N%33. Two squads of rats were trained, one immediately after the other. Results All rats discriminated drug versus no drug. In most rats, dosage decreased to low levels and then oscillated near the minimum level required to maintain criterion performance. The lowest discriminated dosage significantly differed under the three criterion rules. The squad that was trained 2nd may have benefited by partially duplicating the lever choices of the previous squad. Conclusions The lowest discriminated dosage is influenced by the criterion of discriminative control that is employed, and is higher than the absolute threshold at which discrimination entirely disappears. Threshold estimations closer to absolute threshold can be obtained when criteria are employed that are permissive, and that allow rats to maintain lever preferences. PMID:19082992

  9. Altered brain serotonergic neurotransmission following caffeine withdrawal produces behavioral deficits in rats.

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    Khaliq, Saima; Haider, Saida; Naqvi, Faizan; Perveen, Tahira; Saleem, Sadia; Haleem, Darakhshan Jabeen

    2012-01-01

    Caffeine administration has been shown to enhance performance and memory in rodents and humans while its withdrawal on the other hand produces neurobehavioral deficits which are thought to be mediated by alterations in monoamines neurotransmission. A role of decreased brain 5-HT (5-hydroxytryptamine, serotonin) levels has been implicated in impaired cognitive performance and depression. Memory functions of rats were assessed by Water Maze (WM) and immobility time by Forced Swim Test (FST). The results of this study showed that repeated caffeine administration for 6 days at 30 mg/kg dose significantly increases brain 5-HT (pcaffeine. Withdrawal of caffeine however produced memory deficits and significantly increases the immobility time of rats in FST. The results of this study are linked with caffeine induced alterations in serotonergic neurotransmission and its role in memory and depression.

  10. Effects of focal lesions produced by beta irradiating the cerebellums in fetal and infant rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulliam, J.A.

    1976-01-01

    A beam of beta radiation, 2mm in diameter, was used to irradiate the cerebellum in 29 rat fetuses and in 90 infant rats and to irradiate the cerebrum in 51 rat fetuses and in 72 infant rats. The age range of the rats was from the 15th fetal day to the 6th postnatal day. Localized beta radiation produced lesions limited to the cerebrum, to the cerebellum, to one cerebral hemisphere, or to one cerebellar hemisphere and the vermis in rat fetes and in infant rats. Varying degrees of ataxia were produced in the irradiated rats. This ataxia was proportional to the hypoplasia of the cerebellum. Severe reduction in the size of the cerebrum caused no motor deficits. The lesions produced by localized beta radiation were similar to lesions produced by x radiation, except that beta radiation produced lesions that were more localized and that were asymmetrical. Also the beta radiation offered the investigator more flexibility in selecting the site of the lesion regardless to the age of the rat fetus or the infant rat

  11. The expression and significance of tyrosine hydroxylase in the brain tissue of Parkinsons disease rats

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Yuan; Lian, Yajun; Ma, Yunqing; Wu, Chuanjie; Zheng, Yake; Xie, Nanchang

    2017-01-01

    The expression and significance of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) in brain tissue of rats with Parkinson's disease (PD) were explored and analyzed. A total of 120 clean-grade and healthy adult Wistar rats weighing 180–240 g were randomly divided equally into four groups according to the random number table method. Rats were sacrificed before and after the model establishment for 3, 6 or 8 weeks. The number of revolutions in rats was observed and the relative expression of TH mRNA in brain tissue w...

  12. The conduction block produced by oxcarbazepine in the isolated rat sciatic nerve: a comparison with lamotrigine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guven, Mustafa; Kahraman, Ibrahim; Koc, Filiz; Bozdemir, Hacer; Sarica, Yakup; Gunay, Ismail

    2011-01-01

    Oxcarbazepine is an antiepileptic drug widely used for the treatment of neuropathic pain. In the present study, the effects of oxcarbazepine and lamotrigine on conduction properties in the rat sciatic nerves were examined. The experiments were conducted with in vitro sucrose-gap technique on the isolated wistar rat sciatic nerves. The compound action potentials were obtained by tonic (single) and phasic (10, 40, and 100 Hz) stimulation. Oxcarbazepine produced a significant concentration- and frequency-dependent reduction in the compound action potential amplitude. When the two drugs were applied at concentrations that produced equal levels of tonic (i.e., non-frequency-dependent) conduction block, oxcarbazepine produced the greatest phasic (i.e., frequency-dependent) conduction block, followed by lamotrigine. Oxcarbazepine and lamotrigine reduced the 4-aminopyridine-induced amplitude of delayed depolarization; however, oxcarbazepine had a significantly greater effect than lamotrigine. These results suggest that oxcarbazepine produces more potent frequency-dependent conduction block than lamotrigine, and suppresses the delayed depolarization which contributes to sensory signaling and may play a role in neuropathic pain. The findings provide insight into the mechanisms of action of oxcarbazepine and lamotrigine and may help in the development of novel therapies for neuropathic pain.

  13. The distribution of blood group antigens in experimentally produced carcinomas of rat palate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reibel, J; Philipsen, H P; Fisker, A V

    1986-01-01

    palate induced by a chemical carcinogen (4NQO). The H antigen, normally expressed on spinous cells in rats, was absent in malignant epithelium, whereas staining for the B antigen, normally expressed on basal cells, was variable. These changes are equivalent to those seen in human squamous cell carcinomas....... The blood group antigen staining pattern in experimentally produced verrucous carcinomas showed an almost normal blood group antigen expression. This may have diagnostic significance. Localized areas of hyperplastic palatal epithelium with slight dysplasia revealed loss of H antigen and the presence of B...... antigen in suprabasal strata equivalent to the pattern seen in human premalignant epithelium. We conclude from these findings, that the rat model is well suited to study changes in cell surface carbohydrates during chemical carcinogenesis....

  14. BIOMATERIAL IMPLANTS IN BONE FRACTURES PRODUCED IN RATS FIBULAS

    OpenAIRE

    Shirane, Henrique Yassuhiro; Oda, Diogo Yochizumi; Pinheiro, Thiago Cerizza; Cunha, Marcelo Rodrigues da

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the importance of collagen and hydroxyapatite in the regeneration of fractures experimentally induced in the fibulas of rats. Method: 15 rats were used. These were subjected to surgery to remove a fragment from the fibula. This site then received a graft consisting of a silicone tubes filled with hydroxyapatite and collagen. Results: Little bone neoformation occurred inside the tubes filled with the biomaterials. There was more neoformation in the tubes with collagen. Conclusion: ...

  15. Significant prolongation of hamster liver transplant survival in Lewis rats by total-lymphoid irradiation, cyclosporine, and splenectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Y.; Halperin, E.C.; Harland, R.C.; Wyble, C.; Bollinger, R.R.

    1990-01-01

    The effects of total lymphoid irradiation, cyclosporine and splenectomy alone and in combination have been studied in liver transplants from the LVG hamster to the LEW rat. Neither CsA alone, splenectomy alone, nor TLI alone prolonged graft survival. CsA/splenectomy and TLI/CsA produced significant prolongation of graft survival. TLI/CsA/splenectomy prolonged graft survival by over sixfold compared with controls. While CsA alone was ineffective in reducing lymphocytotoxic antidonor antibody, splenectomy alone or CsA/splenectomy did significantly suppress production of antibody. Only very low levels of antibody could be detected in animals treated with TLI/CsA/splenectomy. TLI/CsA/splenectomy has an immunosuppressive effect sufficient to significantly prolong liver graft survival in the LVG hamster to LEW rat combination and may represent a promising treatment protocol in experimental cross-species transplantation

  16. High intraocular pressure produces learning and memory impairments in rats.

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    Yuan, Yuxiang; Chen, Zhiqi; Li, Lu; Li, Xing; Xia, Qian; Zhang, Hong; Duan, Qiming; Zhao, Yin

    2017-11-15

    Primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) is a leading cause of irreversible blindness worldwide. Previous MRI studies have revealed that POAG can be associated with alterations in hippocampal function. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate a relationship between chronic high intraocular pressure (IOP) and hippocampal changes in a rat model. We used behavioural tests to assess learning and memory ability, and additionally investigated the hippocampal expression of pathological amyloid beta (Aβ), phospho-tau, and related pathway proteins. Chronic high IOP impaired learning and memory in rats and concurrently increased Aβ and phospho-tau expression in the hippocampus by altering the activation of different kinase (GSK-3β, BACE1) and phosphatase (PP2A) proteins in the hippocampus. This study provides novel evidence for the relationship between high IOP and hippocampal alterations, especially in the context of learning and memory. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Neonatal Handling Produces Sex Hormone-Dependent Resilience to Stress-Induced Muscle Hyperalgesia in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Pedro; Green, Paul G; Levine, Jon D

    2018-06-01

    Neonatal handling (NH) of male rat pups strongly attenuates stress response and stress-induced persistent muscle hyperalgesia in adults. Because female sex is a well established risk factor for stress-induced chronic muscle pain, we explored whether NH provides resilience to stress-induced hyperalgesia in adult female rats. Rat pups underwent NH, or standard (control) care. Muscle mechanical nociceptive threshold was assessed before and after water avoidance (WA) stress, when they were adults. In contrast to male rats, NH produced only a modest protection against WA stress-induced muscle hyperalgesia in female rats. Gonadectomy completely abolished NH-induced resilience in male rats but produced only a small increase in this protective effect in female rats. The administration of the antiestrogen drug fulvestrant, in addition to gonadectomy, did not enhance the protective effect of NH in female rats. Finally, knockdown of the androgen receptor by intrathecal antisense treatment attenuated the protective effect of NH in intact male rats. Together, these data indicate that androgens play a key role in NH-induced resilience to WA stress-induced muscle hyperalgesia. NH induces androgen-dependent resilience to stress-induced muscle pain. Therefore, androgens may contribute to sex differences observed in chronic musculoskeletal pain and its enhancement by stress. Copyright © 2018 The American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Vildagliptin increases butyrate-producing bacteria in the gut of diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian; Xiao, Xinhua; Li, Ming; Yu, Miao; Ping, Fan; Zheng, Jia; Wang, Tong; Wang, Xiaojing

    2017-01-01

    Emerging evidence supports a key role for the gut microbiota in metabolic diseases, including type 2 diabetes (T2D) and obesity. The dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor vildagliptin is highly efficacious in treating T2D. However, whether vildagliptin can alter the gut microbiome is still unclear. This study aimed to identify whether vildagliptin modifies the gut microbiota structure during T2D treatment. Diabetic Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were induced by a high-fat diet and streptozotocin injection (HFD/STZ). Diabetic rats were orally administered a low dose of vildagliptin (LV, 0.01 g/kg/d vildagliptin), high dose of vildagliptin (HV, 0.02 g/kg/d vildagliptin), or normal saline for 12 weeks. Fasting blood glucose, blood glucose after glucose loading, and serum insulin levels were significantly reduced in the LV and HV groups compared with those in the T2D group. The serum GLP-1 level increased more in the vildagliptin-treated group than in the T2D group. Pyrosequencing of the V3-V4 regions of 16S rRNA genes revealed that vildagliptin significantly altered the gut microbiota. The operational taxonomic units (OTUs) and community richness (Chao1) index were significantly reduced in the vildagliptin and diabetic groups compared with those in the control group. At the phylum level, a higher relative abundance of Bacteroidetes, lower abundance of Firmicutes, and reduced ratio of Fimicutes/Bacteroidetes were observed in the vildagliptin-treated group. Moreover, vildagliptin treatment increased butyrate-producing bacteria, including Baceroides and Erysipelotrichaeae, in the diabetic rats. Moreover, Lachnospira abundance was significantly negatively correlated with fasting blood glucose levels. In conclusion, vildagliptin treatment could benefit the communities of the gut microbiota.

  19. Vildagliptin increases butyrate-producing bacteria in the gut of diabetic rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Zhang

    Full Text Available Emerging evidence supports a key role for the gut microbiota in metabolic diseases, including type 2 diabetes (T2D and obesity. The dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor vildagliptin is highly efficacious in treating T2D. However, whether vildagliptin can alter the gut microbiome is still unclear. This study aimed to identify whether vildagliptin modifies the gut microbiota structure during T2D treatment. Diabetic Sprague-Dawley (SD rats were induced by a high-fat diet and streptozotocin injection (HFD/STZ. Diabetic rats were orally administered a low dose of vildagliptin (LV, 0.01 g/kg/d vildagliptin, high dose of vildagliptin (HV, 0.02 g/kg/d vildagliptin, or normal saline for 12 weeks. Fasting blood glucose, blood glucose after glucose loading, and serum insulin levels were significantly reduced in the LV and HV groups compared with those in the T2D group. The serum GLP-1 level increased more in the vildagliptin-treated group than in the T2D group. Pyrosequencing of the V3-V4 regions of 16S rRNA genes revealed that vildagliptin significantly altered the gut microbiota. The operational taxonomic units (OTUs and community richness (Chao1 index were significantly reduced in the vildagliptin and diabetic groups compared with those in the control group. At the phylum level, a higher relative abundance of Bacteroidetes, lower abundance of Firmicutes, and reduced ratio of Fimicutes/Bacteroidetes were observed in the vildagliptin-treated group. Moreover, vildagliptin treatment increased butyrate-producing bacteria, including Baceroides and Erysipelotrichaeae, in the diabetic rats. Moreover, Lachnospira abundance was significantly negatively correlated with fasting blood glucose levels. In conclusion, vildagliptin treatment could benefit the communities of the gut microbiota.

  20. Possible mechanisms involved in the vasorelaxant effect produced by clobenzorex in aortic segments of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano-Cuenca, J; González-Hernández, A; López-Canales, O A; Villagrana-Zesati, J R; Rodríguez-Choreão, J D; Morín-Zaragoza, R; Castillo-Henkel, E F; López-Canales, J S

    2017-08-07

    Clobenzorex is a metabolic precursor of amphetamine indicated for the treatment of obesity. Amphetamines have been involved with cardiovascular side effects such as hypertension and pulmonary arterial hypertension. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the direct application of 10-9-10-5 M clobenzorex on isolated phenylephrine-precontracted rat aortic rings produces vascular effects, and if so, what mechanisms may be involved. Clobenzorex produced an immediate concentration-dependent vasorelaxant effect at the higher concentrations (10-7.5-10-5 M). The present outcome was not modified by 10-6 M atropine (an antagonist of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors), 3.1×10-7 M glibenclamide (an ATP-sensitive K+ channel blocker), 10-3 M 4-aminopyridine (4-AP; a voltage-activated K+ channel blocker), 10-5 M indomethacin (a prostaglandin synthesis inhibitor), 10-5 M clotrimazole (a cytochrome P450 inhibitor) or 10-5 M cycloheximide (a general protein synthesis inhibitor). Contrarily, the clobenzorex-induced vasorelaxation was significantly attenuated (Pclobenzorex on phenylephrine-precontracted rat aortic rings involved stimulation of the NO/cGMP/PKG/Ca2+-activated K+ channel pathway.

  1. Effects of area postrema lesions on taste aversions produced by treatment with WR-2721 in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabin, B.M.; Hunt, W.A.; Lee, J.

    1986-01-01

    The conditioned taste aversion procedure was used to further assess some behavioral effects of treatment with the putative radioprotectant WR-2721 and the role of the area postrema in mediating the behavioral effects of treatment. Treatment with 40, 150 or 300 mg/kg WR-2721 produced dose-dependent changes in sucrose intake in both control rats and rats with area postrema lesions. The effectiveness of the lesion in disrupting the acquisition of an aversion varied as a function of the dose administered, with the lesions producing the greatest disruption of aversion learning at the lowest dose and little disruption at the highest dose tested. At all dose levels, sucrose intake was greater for the rats with area postrema lesions than for the sham-operated control rats. Treatment with WR-2721 also produced significant decreases in total fluid intake, particularly at the higher dose levels. The results are discussed as indicating that treatment with WR-2721 produces highly toxic effects on behavior and that the use of the compound as a radioprotectant for radiotherapy requires additional assessment of its effects on brain function and behavior

  2. Prevalence, characterization and clinical significance of Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC producing Klebsiella pneumoniae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    : Sarita Nayak, Suman Singh, Soeb Jankhwala, Riddhi Pradhan

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Klebsiella peumoniae, a capsulated gram negative bacillus is responsible for causing life threatening infections in humans. Carbapenems are the drug of choice for serious infection caused by multidrug resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae. The emergence of carbapenem resistance has made it extremely difficult to treat such infections resulting in significant morbidity and mortality. Aims: To study the prevalence of carbapenem resistance using ertapenem as a marker and to detect Klebsiella pneumoniae Carbapenemase (KPC producing Klebsiella pneumoniae as a mechanism of resistance. Material and Methods: The study included 102 patients from which Klebsiella pneumoniae isolated. Identification and antibiotic susceptibility testing of Klebsiella pneumoniae was performed on miniAPI (Analytical Profile Index, Semiautomated bacterial identification system according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI guidelines of 2011. The modified Hodge test was performed for detection of Carbapenemase production. Patient’s clinical and demographic details along with risk factors and co-morbid conditions, type of response to antimicrobial therapy and mortality were collected. Results: The prevalence of carbapenem resistance was found to be 30.41% with 16.6% KPC producing Klebsiella pneumoniae. The co-morbid conditions like immunocompromised state (p =0.042, prior antibiotics therapy (p=0.047, previous hospitalization (p =0.021, intensive care unit stay (p=0.047 and use of indwelling devices (p =0.013 were found to be significantly associated with carbapenem resistance. Adverse clinical outcomes (death or worsening among patients infected with ertapenem resistant patients was found to be statistically significant than ertapenem sensitive strains (p =0.008. Conclusions: A high degree of carbapenem resistance in present study is alarming and poses therapeutic dilemmas for clinicians. Initiating timely and appropriate infection control measures along with a

  3. Alteration in plasma corticosterone levels following long term oral administration of lead produces depression like symptoms in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haider, Saida; Saleem, Sadia; Tabassum, Saiqa; Khaliq, Saima; Shamim, Saima; Batool, Zehra; Parveen, Tahira; Inam, Qurat-ul-ain; Haleem, Darakhshan J

    2013-03-01

    Lead toxicity is known to induce a broad range of physiological, biochemical and behavioral dysfunctions that may result in adverse effects on several organs, including the central nervous system. Long-term exposure to low levels of lead (Pb(2+)) has been shown to produce behavioral deficits in rodents and humans by affecting hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. These deficits are thought to be associated with altered brain monoamine neurotransmission and due to changes in glucocorticoids levels. This study was designed to investigate the effects of Pb(2+)exposure on growth rate, locomotor activity, anxiety, depression, plasma corticosterone and brain serotonin (5-HT) levels in rats. Rats were exposed to lead in drinking water (500 ppm; lead acetate) for 5 weeks. The assessment of depression was done using the forced swimming test (FST). Estimation of brain 5-HT was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. Plasma corticosterone was determined by spectrofluorimetric method. The present study showed that long term exposure to Pb(2+) significantly decreased the food intake followed by the decrease in growth rate in Pb(2+)exposed rats as compared to control group. No significant changes in open field activity were observed following Pb(2+)exposure while significant increase in anxiogenic effect was observed. Increased plasma corticosterone and decreased 5-HT levels were exhibited by Pb(2+)exposed rats as compared to controls. A significant increase in depressive like symptoms was exhibited by Pb(2+)exposed rats as compared to control rats. The results are discussed in the context of Pb(2+) inducing a stress-like response in rats leading to changes in plasma corticosterone and brain 5-HT levels via altering tryptophan pyrrolase activity.

  4. Cyclosporin A significantly improves preeclampsia signs and suppresses inflammation in a rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Bihui; Yang, Jinying; Huang, Qian; Bao, Junjie; Brennecke, Shaun Patrick; Liu, Huishu

    2016-05-01

    Preeclampsia is associated with an increased inflammatory response. Immune suppression might be an effective treatment. The aim of this study was to examine whether Cyclosporin A (CsA), an immunosuppressant, improves clinical characteristics of preeclampsia and suppresses inflammation in a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced preeclampsia rat model. Pregnant rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: group 1 (PE) rats each received LPS via tail vein on gestational day (GD) 14; group 2 (PE+CsA5) rats were pretreated with LPS (1.0 μg/kg) on GD 14 and were then treated with CsA (5mg/kg, ip) on GDs 16, 17 and 18; group 3 (PE+CsA10) rats were pretreated with LPS (1.0 μg/kg) on GD 14 and were then treated with CsA (10mg/kg, ip) on GDs 16, 17 and 18; group 4 (pregnant control, PC) rats were treated with the vehicle (saline) used for groups 1, 2 and 3. Systolic blood pressure, urinary albumin, biometric parameters and the levels of serum cytokines were measured on day 20. CsA treatment significantly reduced LPS-induced systolic blood pressure and the mean 24-h urinary albumin excretion. Pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6, IL-17, IFN-γ and TNF-α were increased in the LPS treatment group but were reduced in (LPS+CsA) group (Ppreeclampsia signs and attenuated inflammatory responses in the LPS induced preeclampsia rat model which suggests that immunosuppressant might be an alternative management option for preeclampsia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Maternal immune activation in rats produces temporal perception impairments in adult offspring analogous to those observed in schizophrenia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley R Deane

    Full Text Available The neurophysiology underlying temporal perception significantly overlaps with areas of dysfunction identified in schizophrenia. Patients commonly exhibit distorted temporal perception, which likely contributes to functional impairments. Thus, study of temporal perception in animal models of the disease may help to understand both cognitive and neurobiological factors involved in functional impairments in patients. As maternal immune activation (MIA has been shown to be a significant etiological risk factor in development of schizophrenia and other developmental psychiatric diseases, we tested interval timing in a rat model of MIA that has previously been shown to recapitulate several behavioural and neurophysiological impairments observed in the disease. Rats were tested on a temporal-bisection task, in which temporal duration stimuli were categorized as either "short" or "long" by responding to a corresponding lever. Data from this task were modeled to provide estimates of accuracy and sensitivity of temporal perception. Parameter estimates derived from the model fitting showed that MIA rats significantly overestimated the passage of time compared to controls. These results indicate that the MIA rat paradigm recapitulates timing distortions that are phenotypical of schizophrenia. These findings lend further support to the epidemiological validity of this MIA rat model, supporting its relevance for future research into the role of maternal immune activation in producing neurobiological and behavioural impairments in schizophrenia.

  6. FAILURE OF PROGESTERONE TO PRODUCE HIGH BLOOD-PRESSURE IN RABBITS AND RATS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winter, M.; Veldhuyzen, B.; Dorhout Mees, E.J.

    1972-01-01

    Contrary to earlier claims, daily Summary administration of 50 mg. progesterone over ten days did not increase the blood-pressure of 6 rabbits. Daily injection of 10 mg. progesterone had no influence on the blood-pressure of rats. The weight-gain of female rats was significantly increased by this

  7. Significance of glucagon for insulin secretion and hepatic glycogenolysis during exercise in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richter, Erik; Galbo, H; Holst, J J

    1981-01-01

    The significance of glucagon and of the sympatho-adrenal system for insulin secretion and hepatic glycogen depletion during exercise was studied. Male rats were either adrenodemedullated and chemically sympathectomized with 6-hydroxydopamine (SX) or sham-treated (C). During light ether anesthesia......, cardiac blood for glucose analysis and a biopsy of the liver were obtained, and either antigen-stripped glucagon antibodies (A) or control gamma globulins (N) in saline were injected through the cardiac cannula. Subsequently, the rats swam in tepid water (33-34 degree C) for 100 minutes with a tail weight...... attached (2% of body weight). Then cardiac blood was drawn for analysis of glucose, insulin and glucagon, and a sample of the liver was collected. In both CA and CN rats, the blood glucose concentration tended to increase (p less than 0.1) during exercise, whereas hepatic glycogen depletion and the plasma...

  8. Analeptic activity produced by TRH microinjection into basal forebrain area of the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horita, A.; Carino, M.A.; Lai, H.

    1986-01-01

    Earlier, Kalivas and Horita demonstrated that the analeptic effect of TRH was mediated in part by cholinergic neurons in the medial septum-diagonal band of Broca (MS-DBB). Since the MS-DBB constitutes part of the cholinergic basal forebrain system, the present study investigated whether the area designated as the n. basalis of Meynert (NBM) was also sensitive to TRH in producing an antipentobarbital effect. Saline or TRH (0.5 μl) was microinjected via bilateral stainless steel cannulae implanted stereotaxically into the NBM using the coordinates of Wenk et al. Accuracy of cannula placement was confirmed by histological examination. Rats treated with PB (40 mg/kg, i.p.) lost their righting reflex for 130 +/- 28 min. Intrabasalis injection of TRH (but not saline) in doses of 0.1-1.0 μg exerted analeptic activity as follows: 0.1 μg = 81 +/- 21 min; 0.5 μg = 65 +/- 19 min; 1.0 μg = 45 +/- 10 min. All of these doses exerted significant shortening of narcosis duration of pentobarbitalized rats. The analeptic effect of TRH was blocked by atropine pretreatment, indicating that it was mediated via cholinergic mechanisms. High affinity, sodium-dependent 3 H-choline uptake by cortical synaptosomes prepared from these animals was also increased by TRH. These results suggest that the cholinergic neurons of NBM are highly sensitive to TRH and contributes to the analeptic effect of TRH

  9. Characteristics and significance of D-tagatose-induced liver enlargement in rats: An interpretative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bär, A

    1999-04-01

    This review addresses the issue of asymptomatic liver enlargement in rats. It was necessitated by the observation of significantly increased liver weights in rats fed diets with 10 to 20% D-tagatose, a potential new bulk sweetener, for between 28 and 90 days. Increases of liver size without accompanying histopathological changes or impairment of organ function have been observed in rats in response to the ingestion of various xenobiotic compounds (including some food additives), changes of dietary composition (e.g. , high doses of fructose and sucrose), metabolic aberrations (e.g., diabetes), as well as normal pregnancy and lactation. The underlying mechanism(s) are not yet understood in detail but peroxisome proliferation, microsomal enzyme induction, increased storage of glycogen or lipids, and hyperfunction due to an excessive workload are well-established causes of hepatomegaly in rats. In D-tagatose- and fructose-fed rats, a treatment-related increase of hepatic glycogen storage was identified as a likely cause of the liver enlargement. Dietary levels of 5% and about 15-20% were determined as no-effect levels (NOEL) for D-tagatose- and fructose-induced liver enlargement, respectively. At doses above the NOEL, D-tagatose is about four times more efficient than fructose in inducing liver enlargement. On the other hand, the estimated intake of D-tagatose from its intended uses in food is about four times lower than the actual fructose intake. Consequently, a similar safety margin would apply for both sugars. Considering the similarity of the liver effects in rats of fructose, a safe food ingredient, and D-tagatose, the absence of histopathological changes in rats fed a diet with 20% D-tagatose for 90 days, and the absence of adverse long-term consequences of glycogen-induced liver enlargement in rats, it is concluded that the observed liver enlargement in D-tagatose-fed rats has no relevance for the assessment of human safety of this substance. Copyright 1999

  10. Mechanisms involved in the vasorelaxant effects produced by the acute application of amfepramone in vitro to rat aortic rings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    López-Canales, J.S. [Section of Postgraduate Studies and Investigation, Higher School of Medicine from the National Polytechnic Institute, Mexico City (Mexico); Department of Cellular Biology, National Institute of Perinatology, Mexico City (Mexico); Lozano-Cuenca, J.; Muãoz-Islas, E.; Aguilar-Carrasco, J.C. [Department of Cellular Biology, National Institute of Perinatology, Mexico City (Mexico); López-Canales, O.A.; López-Mayorga, R.M.; Castillo-Henkel, E.F.; Valencia-Hernández, I.; Castillo-Henkel, C. [Section of Postgraduate Studies and Investigation, Higher School of Medicine from the National Polytechnic Institute, Mexico City (Mexico)

    2015-03-27

    Amfepramone (diethylpropion) is an appetite-suppressant drug used for the treatment of overweight and obesity. It has been suggested that the systemic and central activity of amfepramone produces cardiovascular effects such as transient ischemic attacks and primary pulmonary hypertension. However, it is not known whether amfepramone produces immediate vascular effects when applied in vitro to rat aortic rings and, if so, what mechanisms may be involved. We analyzed the effect of amfepramone on phenylephrine-precontracted rat aortic rings with or without endothelium and the influence of inhibitors or blockers on this effect. Amfepramone produced a concentration-dependent vasorelaxation in phenylephrine-precontracted rat aortic rings that was not affected by the vehicle, atropine, 4-AP, glibenclamide, indomethacin, clotrimazole, or cycloheximide. The vasorelaxant effect of amfepramone was significantly attenuated by NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) and tetraethylammonium (TEA), and was blocked by removal of the vascular endothelium. These results suggest that amfepramone had a direct vasorelaxant effect on phenylephrine-precontracted rat aortic rings, and that inhibition of endothelial nitric oxide synthase and the opening of Ca{sup 2+}-activated K{sup +} channels were involved in this effect.

  11. Mechanisms involved in the vasorelaxant effects produced by the acute application of amfepramone in vitro to rat aortic rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    López-Canales, J.S.; Lozano-Cuenca, J.; Muãoz-Islas, E.; Aguilar-Carrasco, J.C.; López-Canales, O.A.; López-Mayorga, R.M.; Castillo-Henkel, E.F.; Valencia-Hernández, I.; Castillo-Henkel, C.

    2015-01-01

    Amfepramone (diethylpropion) is an appetite-suppressant drug used for the treatment of overweight and obesity. It has been suggested that the systemic and central activity of amfepramone produces cardiovascular effects such as transient ischemic attacks and primary pulmonary hypertension. However, it is not known whether amfepramone produces immediate vascular effects when applied in vitro to rat aortic rings and, if so, what mechanisms may be involved. We analyzed the effect of amfepramone on phenylephrine-precontracted rat aortic rings with or without endothelium and the influence of inhibitors or blockers on this effect. Amfepramone produced a concentration-dependent vasorelaxation in phenylephrine-precontracted rat aortic rings that was not affected by the vehicle, atropine, 4-AP, glibenclamide, indomethacin, clotrimazole, or cycloheximide. The vasorelaxant effect of amfepramone was significantly attenuated by NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) and tetraethylammonium (TEA), and was blocked by removal of the vascular endothelium. These results suggest that amfepramone had a direct vasorelaxant effect on phenylephrine-precontracted rat aortic rings, and that inhibition of endothelial nitric oxide synthase and the opening of Ca 2+ -activated K + channels were involved in this effect

  12. Antinociception induced by stimulating amygdaloid nuclei in rats: changes produced by systemically administered antagonists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Oliveira

    1998-05-01

    Full Text Available The antinociceptive effects of stimulating the medial (ME and central (CE nuclei of the amygdala in rats were evaluated by the changes in the latency for the tail withdrawal reflex to noxious heating of the skin. A 30-s period of sine-wave stimulation of the ME or CE produced a significant and short increase in the duration of tail flick latency. A 15-s period of stimulation was ineffective. Repeated stimulation of these nuclei at 48-h intervals produced progressively smaller effects. The antinociception evoked from the ME was significantly reduced by the previous systemic administration of naloxone, methysergide, atropine, phenoxybenzamine, and propranolol, but not by mecamylamine, all given at the dose of 1.0 mg/kg. Previous systemic administration of naloxone, atropine, and propranolol, but not methysergide, phenoxybenzamine, or mecamylamine, was effective against the effects of stimulating the CE. We conclude that the antinociceptive effects of stimulating the ME involve at least opioid, serotonergic, adrenergic, and muscarinic cholinergic descending mechanisms. The effects of stimulating the CE involve at least opioid, ß-adrenergic, and muscarinic cholinergic descending mechanisms.

  13. Possible mechanisms involved in the vasorelaxant effect produced by clobenzorex in aortic segments of rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Lozano-Cuenca

    Full Text Available Clobenzorex is a metabolic precursor of amphetamine indicated for the treatment of obesity. Amphetamines have been involved with cardiovascular side effects such as hypertension and pulmonary arterial hypertension. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the direct application of 10–9–10–5 M clobenzorex on isolated phenylephrine-precontracted rat aortic rings produces vascular effects, and if so, what mechanisms may be involved. Clobenzorex produced an immediate concentration-dependent vasorelaxant effect at the higher concentrations (10–7.5–10–5 M. The present outcome was not modified by 10–6 M atropine (an antagonist of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors, 3.1×10–7 M glibenclamide (an ATP-sensitive K+ channel blocker, 10–3 M 4-aminopyridine (4-AP; a voltage-activated K+ channel blocker, 10–5 M indomethacin (a prostaglandin synthesis inhibitor, 10–5 M clotrimazole (a cytochrome P450 inhibitor or 10–5 M cycloheximide (a general protein synthesis inhibitor. Contrarily, the clobenzorex-induced vasorelaxation was significantly attenuated (P<0.05 by 10–5 M L-NAME (a direct inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase, 10–7 M ODQ (an inhibitor of nitric oxide-sensitive guanylyl cyclase, 10–6 M KT 5823 (an inhibitor of protein kinase G, 10–2 M TEA (a Ca2+-activated K+ channel blocker and non-specific voltage-activated K+ channel blocker and 10–7 M apamin plus 10–7 M charybdotoxin (blockers of small- and large-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channels, respectively, and was blocked by 8×10–2 M potassium (a high concentration and removal of the vascular endothelium. These results suggest that the direct vasorelaxant effect by clobenzorex on phenylephrine-precontracted rat aortic rings involved stimulation of the NO/cGMP/PKG/Ca2+-activated K+ channel pathway.

  14. Exopolysaccharide Produced by Probiotic Strain Lactobacillus paraplantarum BGCG11 Reduces Inflammatory Hyperalgesia in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Dinić

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to test the potential of high molecular weight exopolysaccharide (EPS produced by the putative probiotic strain Lactobacillus paraplantarum BGCG11 (EPS CG11 to alleviate inflammatory pain in Wistar rats. The EPS CG11 was isolated from bacterial surface and was subjected to Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR and thermal analysis. FTIR spectra confirmed the polysaccharide structure of isolated sample, while the thermal methods revealed good thermal properties of the polymer. The antihyperalgesic and antiedematous effects of the EPS CG11 were examined in the rat model of inflammation induced by carrageenan injection in hind paw. The results showed that the intraperitoneal administration of EPS CG11 produced a significant decrease in pain sensations (mechanical hyperalgesia and a paw swelling in a dose-dependent manner as it was measured using Von Frey anesthesiometer and plethysmometer, respectively. These effects were followed by a decreased expression of IL-1β and iNOS mRNAs in rat’s paw tissue suggesting that the antihyperalgesic and antiedematous effects of the EPS CG11 are related to the suppression of inflammatory response. Additionally, we demonstrated that EPS CG11 exhibits immunosuppressive properties in the peritonitis model induced by carrageenan. Expression levels of pro-inflammatory mediators IL-1β, TNF-α and iNOS were decreased, together with the enhanced secretion of anti-inflammatory IL-10 and IL-6 cytokines, while neutrophil infiltration was not changed. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study which reports an antihyperalgesic effect as the novel property of bacterial EPSs. Given the high demands of pharmaceutical industry for the replacement of commonly used analgesics due to numerous side effects, this study describes a promising natural compound for the future pharmacological testing in the area.

  15. St. John's wort significantly increased the systemic exposure and toxicity of methotrexate in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Shih-Ying; Juang, Shin-Hun; Tsai, Shang-Yuan; Chao, Pei-Dawn Lee; Hou, Yu-Chi

    2012-01-01

    St. John's wort (SJW, Hypericum perforatum) is one of the popular nutraceuticals for treating depression. Methotrexate (MTX) is an immunosuppressant with narrow therapeutic window. This study investigated the effect of SJW on MTX pharmacokinetics in rats. Rats were orally given MTX alone and coadministered with 300 and 150 mg/kg of SJW, and 25 mg/kg of diclofenac, respectively. Blood was withdrawn at specific time points and serum MTX concentrations were assayed by a specific monoclonal fluorescence polarization immunoassay method. The results showed that 300 mg/kg of SJW significantly increased the AUC 0−t and C max of MTX by 163% and 60%, respectively, and 150 mg/kg of SJW significantly increased the AUC 0−t of MTX by 55%. In addition, diclofenac enhanced the C max of MTX by 110%. The mortality of rats treated with SJW was higher than that of controls. In conclusion, coadministration of SJW significantly increased the systemic exposure and toxicity of MTX. The combined use of MTX with SJW would need to be with caution. -- Highlights: ► St. John's wort significantly increased the AUC 0−t and C max of methotrexate. ► Coadministration of St. John's wort increased the exposure and toxicity of methotrexate. ► The combined use of methotrexate with St. John's wort will need to be with caution.

  16. Expression and significance of HIF-1α and VEGF in rats with diabetic retinopathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong-Tao Yan; Guan-Fang Su

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the expression of hypoxia inducible factor-1α(HIF-1α) and vascular endothelial growth factor(VEGF) in diabetic retinopathy(DR) rats and its effect on theDR occurrence and development.Methods:A total of120SD rats were randomly divided into trial group and control group with60 in each.STZi.p. was used in the trial group to establish theDM model, citrate buffer salt of same amount was usedi.p. to the control group.1,3 and6 months after injection, respective20 rats were sacrificed in each group to observe expression ofHIF-1α andVEGF in the rat retina tissue at different time points.Results:Expression ofHIF-1α andVEGF were negative in the control group; expression ofHIF-1α andVEGF protein in retinal tissue were weak after1 month ofDR mold formation.It showed progressive enhancement along with the progression in different organizations, differences between groups were significant (P<0.05).Conclusions:Expressions ofHIF-1α andVEGF were correlated with disease progression in early diabetic retinopathy.Retinal oxygen can induce over-expression ofHIF-1α andVEGF.It shows thatHIF-1α andVEGF play an important role in the pathogenesis ofDR.

  17. Possible mechanisms involved in the vasorelaxant effect produced by clobenzorex in aortic segments of rats

    OpenAIRE

    Lozano-Cuenca, J.; González-Hernández, A.; López-Canales, O.A.; Villagrana-Zesati, J.R.; Rodríguez-Choreão, J.D.; Morín-Zaragoza, R.; Castillo-Henkel, E.F.; López-Canales, J.S.

    2017-01-01

    Clobenzorex is a metabolic precursor of amphetamine indicated for the treatment of obesity. Amphetamines have been involved with cardiovascular side effects such as hypertension and pulmonary arterial hypertension. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the direct application of 10?9?10?5 M clobenzorex on isolated phenylephrine-precontracted rat aortic rings produces vascular effects, and if so, what mechanisms may be involved. Clobenzorex produced an immediate concentration-...

  18. Metabolic Syndrome Remodels Electrical Activity of the Sinoatrial Node and Produces Arrhythmias in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albarado-Ibañez, Alondra; Avelino-Cruz, José Everardo; Velasco, Myrian; Torres-Jácome, Julián; Hiriart, Marcia

    2013-01-01

    In the last ten years, the incidences of metabolic syndrome and supraventricular arrhythmias have greatly increased. The metabolic syndrome is a cluster of alterations, which include obesity, hypertension, hypertriglyceridemia, glucose intolerance and insulin resistance, that increase the risk of developing, among others, atrial and nodal arrhythmias. The aim of this study is to demonstrate that metabolic syndrome induces electrical remodeling of the sinus node and produces arrhythmias. We induced metabolic syndrome in 2-month-old male Wistar rats by administering 20% sucrose in the drinking water. Eight weeks later, the rats were anesthetized and the electrocardiogram was recorded, revealing the presence of arrhythmias only in treated rats. Using conventional microelectrode and voltage clamp techniques, we analyzed the electrical activity of the sinoatrial node. We observed that in the sinoatrial node of “metabolic syndrome rats”, compared to controls, the spontaneous firing of all cells decreased, while the slope of the diastolic depolarization increased only in latent pacemaker cells. Accordingly, the pacemaker currents If and Ist increased. Furthermore, histological analysis showed a large amount of fat surrounding nodal cardiomyocytes and a rise in the sympathetic innervation. Finally, Poincaré plot denoted irregularity in the R-R and P-P ECG intervals, in agreement with the variability of nodal firing potential recorded in metabolic syndrome rats. We conclude that metabolic syndrome produces a dysfunction SA node by disrupting normal architecture and the electrical activity, which could explain the onset of arrhythmias in rats. PMID:24250786

  19. Inability to produce a model of dialysis encephalopathy in the rat by aluminum administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, T L; Yong, V W; Godolphin, W J; Sutter, M; Hansen, S; Kish, S J; Foulks, J G; Ito, M

    1987-04-01

    We attempted to produce a rat model of brain aluminum toxicity in order to explore whether or not aluminum accumulation produces the neurochemical changes observed in brains of patients who die with dialysis encephalopathy. Daily subcutaneous injection of Al(OH)3 caused marked elevation of serum aluminum concentrations, but did not increase brain aluminum contents, either in rats with normal renal function, or in rats with unilateral or 5/6 nephrectomies. LiCl pretreatment, which has been reported to cause irreversible renal failure, did not impair renal function nor aid in achieving elevated brain aluminum contents. No reductions in brain contents of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) or in glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD, E.C.4.1.1.15) and choline acetyltransferase (ChAT, E.C.2.3.1.6) activities were observed in aluminum-treated rats. We conclude that the rat is not a suitable laboratory animal to explore the role of aluminum toxicity in causing the GABA and ChAT deficits present in brains of hemodialyzed human patients.

  20. Indole, a Signaling Molecule Produced by the Gut Microbiota, Negatively Impacts Emotional Behaviors in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathilde Jaglin

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Gut microbiota produces a wide and diverse array of metabolites that are an integral part of the host metabolome. The emergence of the gut microbiome-brain axis concept has prompted investigations on the role of gut microbiota dysbioses in the pathophysiology of brain diseases. Specifically, the search for microbe-related metabolomic signatures in human patients and animal models of psychiatric disorders has pointed out the importance of the microbial metabolism of aromatic amino acids. Here, we investigated the effect of indole on brain and behavior in rats. Indole is produced by gut microbiota from tryptophan, through the tryptophanase enzyme encoded by the tnaA gene. First, we mimicked an acute and high overproduction of indole by injecting this compound in the cecum of conventional rats. This treatment led to a dramatic decrease of motor activity. The neurodepressant oxidized derivatives of indole, oxindole and isatin, accumulated in the brain. In addition, increase in eye blinking frequency and in c-Fos protein expression in the dorsal vagal complex denoted a vagus nerve activation. Second, we mimicked a chronic and moderate overproduction of indole by colonizing germ-free rats with the indole-producing bacterial species Escherichia coli. We compared emotional behaviors of these rats with those of germ-free rats colonized with a genetically-engineered counterpart strain unable to produce indole. Rats overproducing indole displayed higher helplessness in the tail suspension test, and enhanced anxiety-like behavior in the novelty, elevated plus maze and open-field tests. Vagus nerve activation was suggested by an increase in eye blinking frequency. However, unlike the conventional rats dosed with a high amount of indole, the motor activity was not altered and neither oxindole nor isatin could be detected in the brain. Further studies are required for a comprehensive understanding of the mechanisms supporting indole effects on emotional

  1. Indole, a Signaling Molecule Produced by the Gut Microbiota, Negatively Impacts Emotional Behaviors in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaglin, Mathilde; Rhimi, Moez; Philippe, Catherine; Pons, Nicolas; Bruneau, Aurélia; Goustard, Bénédicte; Daugé, Valérie; Maguin, Emmanuelle; Naudon, Laurent; Rabot, Sylvie

    2018-01-01

    Gut microbiota produces a wide and diverse array of metabolites that are an integral part of the host metabolome. The emergence of the gut microbiome-brain axis concept has prompted investigations on the role of gut microbiota dysbioses in the pathophysiology of brain diseases. Specifically, the search for microbe-related metabolomic signatures in human patients and animal models of psychiatric disorders has pointed out the importance of the microbial metabolism of aromatic amino acids. Here, we investigated the effect of indole on brain and behavior in rats. Indole is produced by gut microbiota from tryptophan, through the tryptophanase enzyme encoded by the tnaA gene. First, we mimicked an acute and high overproduction of indole by injecting this compound in the cecum of conventional rats. This treatment led to a dramatic decrease of motor activity. The neurodepressant oxidized derivatives of indole, oxindole and isatin, accumulated in the brain. In addition, increase in eye blinking frequency and in c-Fos protein expression in the dorsal vagal complex denoted a vagus nerve activation. Second, we mimicked a chronic and moderate overproduction of indole by colonizing germ-free rats with the indole-producing bacterial species Escherichia coli. We compared emotional behaviors of these rats with those of germ-free rats colonized with a genetically-engineered counterpart strain unable to produce indole. Rats overproducing indole displayed higher helplessness in the tail suspension test, and enhanced anxiety-like behavior in the novelty, elevated plus maze and open-field tests. Vagus nerve activation was suggested by an increase in eye blinking frequency. However, unlike the conventional rats dosed with a high amount of indole, the motor activity was not altered and neither oxindole nor isatin could be detected in the brain. Further studies are required for a comprehensive understanding of the mechanisms supporting indole effects on emotional behaviors. As our findings

  2. Effects of electromagnetic radiation produced by 3G mobile phones on rat brains: magnetic resonance spectroscopy, biochemical, and histopathological evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogan, M; Turtay, M G; Oguzturk, H; Samdanci, E; Turkoz, Y; Tasdemir, S; Alkan, A; Bakir, S

    2012-06-01

    The effects of electromagnetic radiation (EMR) produced by a third-generation (3G) mobile phone (MP) on rat brain tissues were investigated in terms of magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), biochemistry, and histopathological evaluations. The rats were randomly assigned to two groups: Group 1 is composed of 3G-EMR-exposed rats (n = 9) and Group 2 is the control group (n = 9). The first group was subjected to EMR for 20 days. The control group was not exposed to EMR. Choline (Cho), creatinin (Cr), and N-acetylaspartate (NAA) levels were evaluated by MRS. Catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) enzyme activities were measured by spectrophotometric method. Histopathological analyses were carried out to evaluate apoptosis in the brain tissues of both groups. In MRS, NAA/Cr, Cho/Cr, and NAA/Cho ratios were not significantly different between Groups 1 and 2. Neither the oxidative stress parameters, CAT and GSH-Px, nor the number of apoptotic cells were significantly different between Groups 1 and 2. Usage of short-term 3G MP does not seem to have a harmful effect on rat brain tissue.

  3. Hesperidin produces cardioprotective activity via PPAR-γ pathway in ischemic heart disease model in diabetic rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yogeeta O Agrawal

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the effect of hesperidin, a natural flavonoid, in cardiac ischemia and reperfusion (I/R injury in diabetic rats. Male Wistar rats with diabetes were divided into five groups and were orally administered saline once daily (IR-sham and IR-control, Hesperidin (100 mg/kg/day; IR-Hesperidin, GW9962 (PPAR-γ receptor antagonist, or combination of both for 14 days. On the 15th day, in the IR-control and IR-treatment groups, rats were subjected to left anterior descending (LAD coronary artery occlusion for 45 minutes followed by a one-hour reperfusion. Haemodynamic parameters were recorded and rats were sacrificed; hearts were isolated for biochemical, histopathological, ultrastructural and immunohistochemistry. In the IR-control group, significant ventricular dysfunctions were observed along with enhanced expression of pro-apoptotic protein Bax. A decline in cardiac injury markers lactate dehydrogenase activity, CK-MB and increased content of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, a marker of lipid peroxidation, and TNF-α were observed. Hesperidin pretreatment significantly improved mean arterial pressure, reduced left ventricular end-diastolic pressure, and improved both inotropic and lusitropic function of the heart (+LVdP/dt and -LVdP/dt as compared to IR-control. Furthermore, hesperidin treatment significantly decreased the level of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and reversed the activity of lactate dehydrogenase towards normal value. Hesperidin showed anti-apoptotic effects by upregulating Bcl-2 protein and decreasing Bax protein expression. Additionally, histopathological and ultrastructural studies reconfirmed the protective action of hesperidin. On the other hand, GW9662, selective PPAR-γ receptor antagonist, produced opposite effects and attenuated the hesperidin induced improvements. The study for the first time evidence the involvement of PPAR-γ pathway in the cardioprotective activity of

  4. T-2 mycotoxin treatment of newborn rat pups does not significantly affect nervous system functions in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varró, Petra; Béldi, Melinda; Kovács, Melinda; Világi, Ildikó

    2018-03-01

    T-2 toxin is primarily produced by Fusarium sp. abundant under temperate climatic conditions. Its main harmful effect is the inhibition of protein synthesis. Causing oxidative stress, it also promotes lipid peroxidation and changes plasma membrane phospholipid composition; this may lead to nervous system alterations. The aim of the present study was to examine whether a single dose of T-2 toxin administered at newborn age has any long-lasting effects on nervous system functions. Rat pups were treated on the first postnatal day with a single intraperitoneal dose of T-2 toxin (0.2 mg/bwkg). Body weight of treated pups was lower during the second and third week of life, compared to littermates; later, weight gain was recovered. At young adulthood, behavior was tested in the open field, and no difference was observed between treated and control rats. Field potential recordings from somatosensory cortex and hippocampus slices did not reveal any significant difference in neuronal network functions. In case of neocortical field EPSP, the shape was slightly different in treated pups. Long-term synaptic plasticity was also comparable in both groups. Seizure susceptibility of the slices was not different, either. In conclusion, T-2 toxin did not significantly affect basic nervous system functions at this dose.

  5. The significance of cellulolytic enzymes produced by Trichoderma in opportunistic lifestyle of this fungus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strakowska, Judyta; Błaszczyk, Lidia; Chełkowski, Jerzy

    2014-07-01

    The degradation of native cellulose to glucose monomers is a complex process, which requires the synergistic action of the extracellular enzymes produced by cellulolytic microorganisms. Among fungi, the enzymatic systems that can degrade native cellulose have been extensively studied for species belonging to the genera of Trichoderma. The majority of the cellulolytic enzymes described so far have been examples of Trichoderma reesei, extremely specialized in the efficient degradation of plant cell wall cellulose. Other Trichoderma species, such as T. harzianum, T. koningii, T. longibrachiatum, and T. viride, known for their capacity to produce cellulolytic enzymes, have been isolated from various ecological niches, where they have proved successful in various heterotrophic interactions. As saprotrophs, these species are considered to make a contribution to the degradation of lignocellulosic plant material. Their cellulolytic potential is also used in interactions with plants, especially in plant root colonization. However, the role of cellulolytic enzymes in species forming endophytic associations with plants or in those existing in the substratum for mushroom cultivation remains unknown. The present review discusses the current state of knowledge about cellulolytic enzymes production by Trichoderma species and the encoding genes, as well as the involvement of these proteins in the lifestyle of Trichoderma. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. A Time- and Cost-Saving Method of Producing Rat Polyclonal Antibodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakayama, Tomohiko; Kato, Yukio; Utsumi, Rie; Tsuji, Akira; Iseki, Shoichi

    2006-01-01

    Producing antibodies usually takes more than three months. In the present study, we introduce a faster way of producing polyclonal antibodies based on preparation of the recombinant oligopeptide as antigen followed by immunization of rats. Using this method, we produced antisera against two mouse proteins: ERGIC-53 and c-Kit. An expression vector ligated with a pair of complementary synthetic oligodeoxyribonucleotides encoding the protein was introduced into bacteria, and the recombinant oligopeptide fused with the carrier protein glutathione-S-transferase was purified. Wistar rats were immunized by injecting the emulsified antigen subcutaneously into the hind footpads, followed by a booster injection after 2 weeks. One week after the booster, the sera were collected and examined for the antibody titer by immunohistochemistry. Antisera with 1600-fold titer at the maximum were obtained for both antigens and confirmed for their specificity by Western blotting. Anti-ERGIC-53 antisera recognized acinar cells in the sublingual gland, and anti-c-Kit antisera recognized spermatogenic and Leydig cells in the testis. These antisera were applicable to fluorescent double immunostaining with mouse monoclonal or rabbit polyclonal antibodies. Consequently, this method enabled us to produce specific rat polyclonal antisera available for immunohistochemistry in less than one month at a relatively low cost

  7. Selective excretion of IgA in rat bronchial secretions: lack of significant contribution from plasma IgA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemaitre-Coelho, I.; Yamakido, M.; Montgomery, P.C.; Langendries, A.E.; Vaerman, J.P.

    1982-01-01

    Concentrated rat bronchial washings (BW) were analyzed by gel-filtration and immunochemical methods. BW contained mainly albumin, transferrin and IgG. Free secretory component and secretory IgA were identified in BW; the BW-IgA had the same three sedimentation coefficients, i.e. +/- 11 S, 13 S, 15 S by sucrose density gradient ultracentrifugation, as rat milk and rat bile IgA; the three peaks were secretory IgA. Compared to serum, and relatively to albumin, BW were significantly enriched in IgA, although much less than rat bile. Purified polyclonal rat polymeric 125 I-IgA was injected intravenously into normal rats, and into rats with bile duct ligation or partial hepatectomy, which decrease the liver plasma-to-bile transfer of IgA. BW were then collected, one or four hours later, to assess the recovery of the 125 I-IgA in BW and to estimate the contribution of serum IgA to BW-IgA. Very little 125 I-IgA (less than 0.2%) was recovered in all BW. The specific activity, measured only in the rat with the highest recovery in BW, was 20 times lower in BW than in serum. The data demonstrate that rat serum IgA does not contribute significantly to IgA in BW

  8. Activity in the circular alley does not produce the activity anorexia syndrome in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, M T; Lett, B T; Grant, V L

    2000-04-01

    The activity anorexia syndrome is characterized by reduced food intake and body weight compared to control levels and increasing levels of physical activity. To induce it, food-restricted rats are confined in running wheels except during the daily meal. We tested whether activity in a flat circular alley also produces the activity anorexia syndrome. In Experiment 1, food-restricted rats were maintained in alleys, wheels, or home cages (control condition). In Experiment 2, they were maintained in alleys, wheels, novel cages, or home cages. The novel cage was added to control for the possibility that the alley might produce an anorectic effect simply because it was a new living space. The alley did not produce the activity anorexia syndrome whereas the wheel did. Although weight loss was greater in the alley than home-cage condition, the alley produced weak, inconsistent suppression of feeding. Moreover, the suppression produced by the alley may have stemmed simply from living in a novel environment. Finally, in contrast to wheel running, alley activity decreased over days. Alley activity, unlike wheel running, may not be reinforcing. Likely, a physical activity must be reinforcing to produce the activity anorexia syndrome. Implications for anorexia nervosa were discussed. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  9. Serious fighting-related injuries produce a significant reduction in intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Joseph A; Beaver, Kevin M

    2013-10-01

    Fighting-related injuries are common among adolescents within the United States, but how such injuries relate to subsequent cognitive functioning remains unclear. In particular, the long-term effect of fighting-related injuries suffered during important developmental periods, such as adolescence, on subsequent cognitive functioning has been overlooked by previous studies. The purpose of this study is to examine the association between sustaining serious fighting-related injuries and changes in verbal intelligence (IQ) over a 5- to 6-year time period. Longitudinal multivariate statistical models were used to analyze data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health collected between 1994 and 2002 and analyzed in 2013. Even a single fighting-related injury resulted in a significant reduction in IQ over time even after controlling for age, race, sex, and changes in socioeconomic status (SES) over the study period. Additionally, females experienced a significantly greater reduction in IQ from each fighting-related injury than males. Fighting-related injuries have a significant impact on subsequent cognitive functioning and intelligence. The implications for future policies and research are discussed in more detail. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Gingival tissue-produced inhibition of platelet aggregation and the loss of inhibition in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawamura, Keiichiroh; Tamai, Kazuharu; Shirakawa, Masaharu; Okamoto, Hiroshi; Dohi, Toshihiro; Tsujimoto, Akira

    1988-01-01

    Addition of medium incubated with normal rat gingival tissue to platelet-rich plasma inhibited ADP-induced platelet aggregation. The ability of rat gingiva to produce activity inhibiting platelet aggregation was enhanced by the addition of arachidonic acid. Diabetic rat gingiva failed to inhibit platelet aggregation but did produce the anti-platelet aggregating activity in the presence of arachidonic acid. Indomethacin blocked the production of anti-platelet aggregating activity. There was no difference in conversion of (1-/sup 14/C)arachidonic acid to prostaglandins by normal and diabetic rat gingiva. These results suggest that an arachidonic acid metabolite released from gingiva during incubation inhibits platelet aggregation, and the synthesis of the metabolite is impaired in diabetic rat gingiva. A decrease in availability of arachidonic acid may be a causal factor of the defect in diabetic rat gingiva.

  11. Gingival tissue-produced inhibition of platelet aggregation and the loss of inhibition in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamura, Keiichiroh; Tamai, Kazuharu; Shirakawa, Masaharu; Okamoto, Hiroshi; Dohi, Toshihiro; Tsujimoto, Akira

    1988-01-01

    Addition of medium incubated with normal rat gingival tissue to platelet-rich plasma inhibited ADP-induced platelet aggregation. The ability of rat gingiva to produce activity inhibiting platelet aggregation was enhanced by the addition of arachidonic acid. Diabetic rat gingiva failed to inhibit platelet aggregation but did produce the anti-platelet aggregating activity in the presence of arachidonic acid. Indomethacin blocked the production of anti-platelet aggregating activity. There was no difference in conversion of [1- 14 C]arachidonic acid to prostaglandins by normal and diabetic rat gingiva. These results suggest that an arachidonic acid metabolite released from gingiva during incubation inhibits platelet aggregation, and the synthesis of the metabolite is impaired in diabetic rat gingiva. A decrease in availability of arachidonic acid may be a causal factor of the defect in diabetic rat gingiva. (author)

  12. GM-CSF-Producing Th Cells in Rats Sensitive and Resistant to Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojić-Vukanić, Zorica; Pilipović, Ivan; Vujnović, Ivana; Nacka-Aleksić, Mirjana; Petrović, Raisa; Arsenović-Ranin, Nevena; Dimitrijević, Mirjana; Leposavić, Gordana

    2016-01-01

    Given that granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) is identified as the key factor to endow auto-reactive Th cells with the potential to induce neuroinflammation in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) models, the frequency and phenotype of GM-CSF-producing (GM-CSF+) Th cells in draining lymph nodes (dLNs) and spinal cord (SC) of Albino Oxford (AO) and Dark Agouti (DA) rats immunized for EAE were examined. The generation of neuroantigen-specific GM-CSF+ Th lymphocytes was impaired in dLNs of AO rats (relatively resistant to EAE induction) compared with their DA counterparts (susceptible to EAE) reflecting impaired CD4+ lymphocyte proliferation and less supportive of GM-CSF+ Th cell differentiation dLN cytokine microenvironment. Immunophenotyping of GM-CSF+ Th cells showed their phenotypic heterogeneity in both strains and revealed lower frequency of IL-17+IFN-γ+, IL-17+IFN-γ-, and IL-17-IFN-γ+ cells accompanied by higher frequency of IL-17-IFN-γ- cells among them in AO than in DA rats. Compared with DA, in AO rats was also found (i) slightly lower surface density of CCR2 (drives accumulation of highly pathogenic GM-CSF+IFN-γ+ Th17 cells in SC) on GM-CSF+IFN-γ+ Th17 lymphocytes from dLNs, and (ii) diminished CCL2 mRNA expression in SC tissue, suggesting their impaired migration into the SC. Moreover, dLN and SC cytokine environments in AO rats were shown to be less supportive of GM-CSF+IFN-γ+ Th17 cell differentiation (judging by lower expression of mRNAs for IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-23/p19). In accordance with the (i) lower frequency of GM-CSF+ Th cells in dLNs and SC of AO rats and their lower GM-CSF production, and (ii) impaired CCL2 expression in the SC tissue, the proportion of proinflammatory monocytes among peripheral blood cells and their progeny (CD45hi cells) among the SC CD11b+ cells were reduced in AO compared with DA rats. Collectively, the results indicate that the strain specificities in efficacy of several mechanisms

  13. Posttraining Epinephrine Reverses Memory Deficits Produced by Traumatic Brain Injury in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Lorón-Sánchez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to evaluate whether posttraining systemic epinephrine is able to improve object recognition memory in rats with memory deficits produced by traumatic brain injury. Forty-nine two-month-old naïve male Wistar rats were submitted to surgical procedures to induce traumatic brain injury (TBI or were sham-operated. Rats were trained in an object recognition task and, immediately after training, received an intraperitoneal injection of distilled water (Sham-Veh and TBI-Veh group or 0.01 mg/kg epinephrine (TBI-Epi group or no injection (TBI-0 and Sham-0 groups. Retention was tested 3 h and 24 h after acquisition. The results showed that brain injury produced severe memory deficits and that posttraining administration of epinephrine was able to reverse them. Systemic administration of distilled water also had an enhancing effect, but of a lower magnitude. These data indicate that posttraining epinephrine and, to a lesser extent, vehicle injection reduce memory deficits associated with TBI, probably through induction of a low-to-moderate emotional arousal.

  14. Posttraining Epinephrine Reverses Memory Deficits Produced by Traumatic Brain Injury in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorón-Sánchez, Alejandro; Torras-Garcia, Meritxell; Coll-Andreu, Margalida; Costa-Miserachs, David; Portell-Cortés, Isabel

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this research is to evaluate whether posttraining systemic epinephrine is able to improve object recognition memory in rats with memory deficits produced by traumatic brain injury. Forty-nine two-month-old naïve male Wistar rats were submitted to surgical procedures to induce traumatic brain injury (TBI) or were sham-operated. Rats were trained in an object recognition task and, immediately after training, received an intraperitoneal injection of distilled water (Sham-Veh and TBI-Veh group) or 0.01 mg/kg epinephrine (TBI-Epi group) or no injection (TBI-0 and Sham-0 groups). Retention was tested 3 h and 24 h after acquisition. The results showed that brain injury produced severe memory deficits and that posttraining administration of epinephrine was able to reverse them. Systemic administration of distilled water also had an enhancing effect, but of a lower magnitude. These data indicate that posttraining epinephrine and, to a lesser extent, vehicle injection reduce memory deficits associated with TBI, probably through induction of a low-to-moderate emotional arousal. PMID:27127685

  15. L-carnitine significantly decreased aging of rat adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobarak, Halimeh; Fathi, Ezzatollah; Farahzadi, Raheleh; Zarghami, Nosratollah; Javanmardi, Sara

    2017-03-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells are undifferentiated cells that have the ability to divide continuously and tissue regeneration potential during the transplantation. Aging and loss of cell survival, is one of the main problems in cell therapy. Since the production of free radicals in the aging process is effective, the use of antioxidant compounds can help in scavenging free radicals and prevent the aging of cells. The aim of this study is evaluate the effects of L-carnitine (LC) on proliferation and aging of rat adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (rADSC). rADSCs were isolated from inguinal region of 5 male Rattus rats. Oil red-O, alizarin red-S and toluidine blue staining were performed to evaluate the adipogenic, osteogenic and chondrogenic differentiation of rADSCs, respectively. Flow cytometric analysis was done for investigating the cell surface markers. The methyl thiazol tetrazolium (MTT) method was used to determine the cell proliferation of rADSCs following exposure to different concentrations of LC. rADSCs aging was evaluated by beta-galactosidase staining. The results showed significant proliferation of rADSCs 48 h after treatment with concentrations of 0.2 mM LC. In addition, in the presence of 0.2 mM LC, rADSCs appeared to be growing faster than control group and 0.2 mM LC supplementation could significantly decrease the population doubling time and aging of rADSCs. It seems that LC would be a good antioxidant to improve lifespan of rADSCs due to the decrease in aging.

  16. [The expression and significance of VIP and its receptor in the cochlea of different degrees of chronic alcoholism rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jing; Liu, Haibing

    2015-07-01

    To determine whether chronic alcoholism alters the expression levels of Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) and its receptor (VIPR1) in the cochlea of chronic alcoholism rats. We measured their expression levels in 30 SD rats, in which we created models of different degrees of chronic alcoholism. We investigated the presence of the mRNA of VIP in the cochlea of chronic alcoholism rats and controls by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) method. We investigated the presence of proteins of VIPR1 in poisoned rats and controls by western blot. We also evaluated the local distribution of VIP cells by immunohistochemistry. We found that the levels of VIP and VIPR1 were downregulated in the chronic alcoholism groups compared to the controls group. The differences in some expression levels were significant different between chronic alcoholism rats and control rats. Moreover, at different degrees of alcohol poisoning in rats, the contents of VIP and VIPR1 differed. Decreased levels of VIP and VIPR1 were detected in the deep chronic alcoholism group compared to the group with low-degree poisoning (P 0.05). These results suggest that VIP and VIPR1 play an important role in the auditory function in rats with chronic alcoholism. Chronic alcoholism may cause a peptide hormone secretion imbalance in the auditory system, eventually leading to hearing loss.

  17. Potential nephrotoxic effects produced by steroidal saponins from hydro alcoholic extract of Tribulus terrestris in STZ-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, Sonia; Srinivasan, B P; Akarte, Atul S

    2013-09-01

    Chronic hyperglycemia leads to the development of microvascular complications like diabetic nephropathy. The present study investigated the potential effects of the hydroalcoholic extract of Tribulus terrestris, a plant of Zygophyllaceae family, on the renal complications in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced by administering STZ (90 mg/kg) to the 2-days old neonates. After 6 weeks of induction, diabetic rats were treated with 50 mg/kg hydroalcoholic extract of T. terrestris for 8 weeks. The anti-hyperglycaemic nature was confirmed by reduction in blood glucose and improvement in insulin levels. Diabetic renal injury associated with decrease in total proteins and albumin levels was observed to be improved by T. terrestris extract. Glomerular filtration rate along with inflammatory and growth factors, adiponectin and erythropoietin were also improved by the treatment, though the findings were not significant. However, the beneficial antidiabetic effects of T. terrestris extract in plasma were not observed in kidney histopathology. This was confirmed by the quantitative estimation of unhydrolyzed fraction of saponins (major component: protodioscin) in plasma and kidney samples of normal and diabetic rats. Hence, it can be concluded that 8 weeks treatment with T. terrestris extract produces potential toxic effects in kidney, which are independent of its anti-diabetic action.

  18. MRI and morphological observation in C6 glioma model rats and significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Ying; Yuan Bo; Wang Hao; Lu Jin; Yuan Changji; Ma Yue; Tong Dan; Zhang Kun; Gao Feng; Wu Xiaogang

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To establish stable and reliable rat C6 glioma model, and to perform MRI dynamic observation and pathomorphological observation in model animal brain, and to provide experimental basis for pharmaceutical research on anti-glioma drugs. Methods: The C6 glioma cells were cultured and 20 μL cultural fluid containing 1×10 6 C6 cells was sterotactically implanted into the left caudate nuclei in 10 male Wistar rats, respectively. The changes in the behavior of the rats after implantation were observed and recorded. MRI dynamic scanning was performed in 10 rats 2, 3 and 4 weeks after implantation and the brain tissues were taken for general and pathological examination when the 10 rats were naturally dead. The survival period of tumor-bearing rats was calculated. Results: 2 weeks after implantation the rats showed decreased activities and food intake, fur lackluster, and conjunctival congestion and so on; 3 weeks later, some rats appeared nerve symptoms such as body twitch, body hemiplegy, body distortion, rotation and so on. All the 10 rats died in 8-30 d. The median survival period of the tumor-bearing rats was 18 d, the average survival period was (18.3±7.3) d. The pathological examination showed that the tumor cells were arranged irregularly closely and karyokinesis was easy to see; tumor vascular tissue proliferation and tumor invasive growth into surrounding normal tissues were found. The expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) was positive in the tumors. Conclusion: A stable animal model of intracranial glioma is successfully established by stereotactic implantation of C6 cells into the rat caudate nucleus. The results of MRI dynamic observation and pathohistological observation on the model animal brain tissue. Can provide experimental basis for selecting the appropriate time window to perform the pharmaceutical research on anti-glioma drugs. (authors)

  19. Immune Modulating Capability of Two Exopolysaccharide-Producing Bifidobacterium Strains in a Wistar Rat Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuria Salazar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fermented dairy products are the usual carriers for the delivery of probiotics to humans, Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus being the most frequently used bacteria. In this work, the strains Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis IPLA R1 and Bifidobacterium longum IPLA E44 were tested for their capability to modulate immune response and the insulin-dependent glucose homeostasis using male Wistar rats fed with a standard diet. Three intervention groups were fed daily for 24 days with 10% skimmed milk, or with 109 cfu of the corresponding strain suspended in the same vehicle. A significant increase of the suppressor-regulatory TGF-β cytokine occurred with both strains in comparison with a control (no intervention group of rats; the highest levels were reached in rats fed IPLA R1. This strain presented an immune protective profile, as it was able to reduce the production of the proinflammatory IL-6. Moreover, phosphorylated Akt kinase decreased in gastroctemius muscle of rats fed the strain IPLA R1, without affecting the glucose, insulin, and HOMA index in blood, or levels of Glut-4 located in the membrane of muscle and adipose tissue cells. Therefore, the strain B. animalis subsp. lactis IPLA R1 is a probiotic candidate to be tested in mild grade inflammation animal models.

  20. Eosinophilic spleen colonies are produced in rat-marrow-transplanted but not in murine-marrow-transplanted mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szabo, L.G.; Kelemen, E.

    1988-01-01

    Differential counts of about 5000 splenic clusters and colonies developing in whole-body-irradiated mice and rats were made, using semi-serial histological sections prepared 9 to 12 d after transplantation with bone marrow haemopoietic cells. The investigated mouse and rat spleens were from syngeneically, allogeneically, or xenogeneically transplanted recipients. Splenic eosinophil clusters were always found when rat eosinophil-producing progenitors were present in the inoculum, whereas murine inocula failed to produce splenic eosinophilic clusters even in the syngeneic mouse. The limiting factor in the production pf splenic eosinophilic clusters was the appropriate donor progenitor/committed stem cell itself. Changes in the percentages of eosinophil clusters with the number of injected cells and with increased doses of irradiation, as well as formation of rat eosinophil colonies in mice, as against mainly clusters in rats, themselves show that regulatory mechanisms of the recipients also play a role. These regulatory mechanisms cannot be attributed to the splenic microenvironment. (author)

  1. Effects of ZDY101, an active component from Zhimu, on rat dementia model produced by intracranial injection of ibotenic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Qixiang; Hu Yaer; Guan Hong; Xia Zongqin

    2004-01-01

    A dementia model was produced in adult Sprague-Dawley rats by bilateral injection of ibotenic acid, 2μg in 0.5 μL per side, into basal ganglion. ZDY101, 3.6, 18, 90 mg·kg -1 ·d -1 , was given through gastric tube to 3 groups of the model rats for 90 days. The learning and memory ability of model rats without treatment declined compared with sham-operated controls, the composite index (number of wrong response in 5 min divided by latent period) being 0.71 ± 0.30 vs 0.10 ± 0.13 respectively. The brain M receptor density also decreased as compared with sham-operated controls, being 891 ± 150 vs 1039 ± 214 fmol·mg -1 protein respectively. ZDY101 simultaneously up-regulated the brain M receptor density and improved the memory and learning ability of model rats. For the middle dose group, the M receptor density was 1028 ±145 fmol·mg -1 protein (P<0.05) and the composite index of step-through test was 0.20 ± 0.18 (P<0.01). Since there was a significant correlation between M-receptor density and result of step-through test, it is apparent that the mechanism of action of ZDY101 is quite different from that of cholinesterase inhibitor. It is highly probable that the improvement of memory was due to the up-regulation of brain M receptor density. (authors)

  2. Perinatal methadone exposure produces physical dependence and altered behavioral development in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunko, P M; Smith, J A; Wallace, M J; Maher, J R; Saady, J J; Robinson, S E

    1996-06-01

    Pregnant rats were implanted with osmotic minipumps containing either methadone hydrochloride (9 mg/kg/day) or sterile water. Their offspring were cross-fostered so that the following prenatal/postnatal exposure groups were obtained: water/water, methadone/water, water/methadone and methadone/methadone. Methadone slightly reduced litter size, particularly the number of male offspring, and reduced litter birth weight. The induction or maintenance of physical dependence in the postnatal methadone exposure groups was confirmed by an experiment in which PD19 pups were challenged with naloxone (1 mg/kg, s.c.). Methadone concentrations were assayed in pup brain on postnatal days 4, 10 and 22. Postnatal exposure to methadone via maternal milk produced measurable levels of methadone which decreased with age. Neuromuscular and physical development were assessed. Exposure to methadone accelerated acquisition of the righting reflex, but tended to delay the acquisition of the negative geotaxic response. Postnatal exposure to methadone was associated with decreased somatic growth as measured through postnatal day 21. The older pups (postnatal day 21) exposed to methadone exhibited variations in activity levels: pups exposed to methadone both prenatally and postnatally exhibited the least amount of spontaneous locomotor activity and pups exposed only postnatally exhibited the most activity. Therefore, it is possible to induce and/or maintain physical dependence via lactation in rat pups fostered to methadone-treated dams. Perinatal exposure to methadone by this route produces several subtle disruptions of pup development in the absence of gross maternal or fetal toxicity.

  3. Irrigation Is Significantly Associated with an Increased Prevalence of Listeria monocytogenes in Produce Production Environments in New York State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weller, Daniel; Wiedmann, Martin; Strawn, Laura K

    2015-06-01

    Environmental (i.e., meteorological and landscape) factors and management practices can affect the prevalence of foodborne pathogens in produce production environments. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of Listeria monocytogenes, Listeria species (including L. monocytogenes), Salmonella, and Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) in produce production environments and to identify environmental factors and management practices associated with their isolation. Ten produce farms in New York State were sampled during a 6-week period in 2010, and 124 georeferenced samples (80 terrestrial, 33 water, and 11 fecal) were collected. L. monocytogenes, Listeria spp., Salmonella, and STEC were detected in 16, 44, 4, and 5% of terrestrial samples, 30, 58, 12, and 3% of water samples, and 45, 45, 27, and 9% of fecal samples, respectively. Environmental factors and management practices were evaluated for their association with terrestrial samples positive for L. monocytogenes or other Listeria species by univariate logistic regression; analysis was not conducted for Salmonella or STEC because the number of samples positive for these pathogens was low. Although univariate analysis identified associations between isolation of L. monocytogenes or Listeria spp. from terrestrial samples and various water-related factors (e.g., proximity to wetlands and precipitation), multivariate analysis revealed that only irrigation within 3 days of sample collection was significantly associated with isolation of L. monocytogenes (odds ratio = 39) and Listeria spp. (odds ratio = 5) from terrestrial samples. These findings suggest that intervention at the irrigation level may reduce the risk of produce contamination.

  4. High Autophagy in the Naked Mole Rat may Play a Significant Role in Maintaining Good Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanmin Zhao

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: The maximum lifespan of the naked mole rat is over 28.3 years, which exceeds that of any other rodent species, suggesting that age-related changes in its body composition and functionality are either attenuated or delayed in this extraordinarily long-lived species. However, the mechanisms underlying the aging process in this species are poorly understood. In this study, we investigated whether long-lived naked mole rats display more autophagic activity than short-lived mice. Methods: Hepatic stellate cells isolated from naked mole rats were treated with 50 nM rapamycin or 20 mM 3-methyladenine (3-MA for 12 or 24 h. Expression of the autophagy marker proteins LC3-II and beclin 1 was measured with western blotting and immunohistochemistry. The induction of apoptosis was analyzed by flow cytometry. Results: Our results demonstrate that one-day-old naked mole rats have higher levels of autophagy than one-day-old short-lived C57BL/6 mice, and that both adult naked mole rats (eight months old and adult C57BL/6 mice (eight weeks old have high basal levels of autophagy, which may be an important mechanism inhibiting aging and reducing the risk of age-related diseases. Conclusion: Here, we report that autophagy facilitated the survival of hepatic stellate cells from the naked mole rat, and that treatment with 3-MA or rapamycin increased the ratio of apoptotic cells to normal hepatic stellate cells.

  5. Dietary inulin intake and age can significantly affect intestinal absorption of calcium and magnesium in rats: a stable isotope approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coudray, Charles; Rambeau, Mathieu; Feillet-Coudray, Christine; Tressol, Jean Claude; Demigne, Christian; Gueux, Elyett; Mazur, Andrzej; Rayssiguier, Yves

    2005-01-01

    Background previous studies have shown that non-digestible inulin-type fructan intake can increase intestinal mineral absorption in both humans and animals. However, this stimulatory effect on intestinal absorption may depend on experimental conditions such as duration of fermentable fiber intake, mineral diet levels and animals' physiological status, in particular their age. Objectives the aim of this study was to determine the effect of inulin intake on Ca and Mg absorption in rats at different age stages. Methods eighty male Wistar rats of four different ages (2, 5, 10 and 20 months) were randomized into either a control group or a group receiving 3.75% inulin in their diet for 4 days and then 7.5% inulin for three weeks. The animals were fed fresh food and water ad libitum for the duration of the experiment. Intestinal absorption of Ca and Mg was determined by fecal monitoring using stable isotopic tracers. Ca and Mg status was also assessed. Results absorption of Ca and Mg was significantly lower in the aged rats (10 and 20 mo) than in the young and adult rat groups. As expected, inulin intake increased Ca and Mg absorption in all four rat groups. However, inulin had a numerically greater effect on Ca absorption in aged rats than in younger rats whereas its effect on Mg absorption remained similar across all four rat age groups. Conclusion the extent of the stimulatory effect of inulin on absorption of Ca may differ according to animal ages. Further studies are required to explore this effect over longer inulin intake periods, and to confirm these results in humans. PMID:16253138

  6. Environmental enrichment in the absence of wheel running produces beneficial behavioural and anti-oxidative effects in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mármol, F; Sánchez, J; Torres, M N; Chamizo, V D

    2017-11-01

    The effects of early environmental enrichment (EE) when solving a simple spatial task in adult male rats were assessed. After weaning, rats were housed in pairs in enriched or standard cages (EE and control groups) for two and a half months. Then the rats were trained in a triangular-shaped pool to find a hidden platform whose location was defined in terms of two sources of information, a landmark outside the pool and a particular corner of the pool. As expected, enriched rats reached the platform faster than control animals. Enriched rats also performed better on a subsequent test trial without the platform with the geometry cue individually presented (in the absence of the landmark). Most importantly, the beneficial effects of the present protocol were obtained in the absence of wheel running. Additionally, the antioxidative effects in the hippocampus produced by the previous protocol are also shown. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Pharmacological kynurenine 3-monooxygenase enzyme inhibition significantly reduces neuropathic pain in a rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojewska, Ewelina; Piotrowska, Anna; Makuch, Wioletta; Przewlocka, Barbara; Mika, Joanna

    2016-03-01

    Recent studies have highlighted the involvement of the kynurenine pathway in the pathology of neurodegenerative diseases, but the role of this system in neuropathic pain requires further extensive research. Therefore, the aim of our study was to examine the role of kynurenine 3-monooxygenase (Kmo), an enzyme that is important in this pathway, in a rat model of neuropathy after chronic constriction injury (CCI) to the sciatic nerve. For the first time, we demonstrated that the injury-induced increase in the Kmo mRNA levels in the spinal cord and the dorsal root ganglia (DRG) was reduced by chronic administration of the microglial inhibitor minocycline and that this effect paralleled a decrease in the intensity of neuropathy. Further, minocycline administration alleviated the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced upregulation of Kmo mRNA expression in microglial cell cultures. Moreover, we demonstrated that not only indirect inhibition of Kmo using minocycline but also direct inhibition using Kmo inhibitors (Ro61-6048 and JM6) decreased neuropathic pain intensity on the third and the seventh days after CCI. Chronic Ro61-6048 administration diminished the protein levels of IBA-1, IL-6, IL-1beta and NOS2 in the spinal cord and/or the DRG. Both Kmo inhibitors potentiated the analgesic properties of morphine. In summary, our data suggest that in neuropathic pain model, inhibiting Kmo function significantly reduces pain symptoms and enhances the effectiveness of morphine. The results of our studies show that the kynurenine pathway is an important mediator of neuropathic pain pathology and indicate that Kmo represents a novel pharmacological target for the treatment of neuropathy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Attenuation of Diabetic Conditions by Sida rhombifolia in Moderately Diabetic Rats and Inability to Produce Similar Effects in Severely Diabetic in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaturvedi, Padmaja; Kwape, Tebogo Elvis

    2015-12-01

    This study was done out to evaluate the effects of Sida rhombifolia methanol extract (SRM) on diabetes in moderately diabetic (MD) and severely diabetic (SD) Sprague-Dawley rats. SRM was prepared by soaking the powdered plant material in 70% methanol and rota evaporating the methanol from the extract. Effective hypoglycemic doses were established by performing oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTTs) in normal rats. Hourly effects of SRM on glucose were observed in the MD and the SD rats. Rats were grouped, five rats to a group, into normal control 1 (NC1), MD control 1 (MDC1), MD experimental 1 (MDE1), SD control 1 (SDC1), and SD experimental 1 (SDE1) groups. All rats in the control groups were administered 1 mL of distilled water (DW). The rats in the MDE1 and the SDE1 groups were administered SRM orally at 200 and 300 mg/kg body weight (BW), respectively, dissolved in 1 mL of DW. Blood was collected initially and at intervals of 1 hour for 6 hours to measure blood glucose. A similar experimental design was followed for the 30-day long-term trial. Finally, rats were sacrificed, and blood was collected to measure blood glucose, lipid profiles, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and reduced glutathione (GSH). OGTTs indicated that two doses (200 and 300 mg/kg BW) were effective hypoglycemic doses in normal rats. Both doses reduced glucose levels after 1 hour in the MDE1 and the SDE1 groups. A long-term trial of SRM in the MD group showed a reduced glucose level, a normal lipid profile, and normal GSH and TBARS levels. In SD rats, SRM had no statistically significant effects on these parameters. Normal weight was achieved in the MD rats, but the SD rats showed reduced BW. The study demonstrates that SRM has potential to alleviate the conditions of moderate diabetic, but not severe diabetes.

  9. Chronic ethanol consumption in rats produces opioid antinociceptive tolerance through inhibition of mu opioid receptor endocytosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li He

    Full Text Available It is well known that the mu-opioid receptor (MOR plays an important role in the rewarding properties of ethanol. However, it is less clear how chronic ethanol consumption affects MOR signaling. Here, we demonstrate that rats with prolonged voluntary ethanol consumption develop antinociceptive tolerance to opioids. Signaling through the MOR is controlled at many levels, including via the process of endocytosis. Importantly, agonists at the MOR that promote receptor endocytosis, such as the endogenous peptides enkephalin and β-endorphin, show a reduced propensity to promote antinociceptive tolerance than do agonists, like morphine, which do not promote receptor endocytosis. These observations led us to examine whether chronic ethanol consumption produced opioid tolerance by interfering with MOR endocytosis. Indeed, here we show that chronic ethanol consumption inhibits the endocytosis of MOR in response to opioid peptide. This loss of endocytosis was accompanied by a dramatic decrease in G protein coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2 protein levels after chronic drinking, suggesting that loss of this component of the trafficking machinery could be a mechanism by which endocytosis is lost. We also found that MOR coupling to G-protein was decreased in ethanol-drinking rats, providing a functional explanation for loss of opioid antinociception. Together, these results suggest that chronic ethanol drinking alters the ability of MOR to endocytose in response to opioid peptides, and consequently, promotes tolerance to the effects of opioids.

  10. High-dose dextromethorphan produces myelinoid bodies in the hippocampus of rats

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    Hai-Quyen Tran

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Dextromethorphan (DM administered at supra-antitussive doses produce psychotoxic and neurotoxic effects in humans. We administered DM (80 mg/kg to rats intraperitoneally to determine the ultrastructural change induced by DM, because intraperitoneal route is sensitive for the behavioral responses. Treatment with DM resulted in mitochondrial dysfunction and formation of myelinoid bodies in the hippocampus. MK-801 [(+-5-methyl-10,11-dihydro-5H-dibenzo[a,d]cyclohepten-5,10-imine maleate] attenuated DM-induced cytosolic oxidative burdens. However, neither MK-801 nor naloxone affected DM-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and formation of myelinoid bodies, indicating that the neurotoxic mechanism needs to be further elucidated. Therefore, the spectrum of toxicological effects associated with DM need to be reassessed.

  11. High-dose dextromethorphan produces myelinoid bodies in the hippocampus of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Hai-Quyen; Chung, Yoon Hee; Shin, Eun-Joo; Kim, Won Ki; Lee, Jae-Chul; Jeong, Ji Hoon; Wie, Myung Bok; Jang, Choon-Gon; Yamada, Kiyofumi; Nabeshima, Toshitaka; Kim, Hyoung-Chun

    2016-10-01

    Dextromethorphan (DM) administered at supra-antitussive doses produce psychotoxic and neurotoxic effects in humans. We administered DM (80 mg/kg) to rats intraperitoneally to determine the ultrastructural change induced by DM, because intraperitoneal route is sensitive for the behavioral responses. Treatment with DM resulted in mitochondrial dysfunction and formation of myelinoid bodies in the hippocampus. MK-801 [(+)-5-methyl-10,11-dihydro-5H-dibenzo[a,d]cyclohepten-5,10-imine maleate] attenuated DM-induced cytosolic oxidative burdens. However, neither MK-801 nor naloxone affected DM-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and formation of myelinoid bodies, indicating that the neurotoxic mechanism needs to be further elucidated. Therefore, the spectrum of toxicological effects associated with DM need to be reassessed. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Developmental Toxicity Studies with Pregabalin in Rats: Significance of Alterations in Skull Bone Morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Dennis C; Henck, Judith W; Bailey, Steven A

    2016-04-01

    Pregabalin was administered to pregnant Wistar rats during organogenesis to evaluate potential developmental toxicity. In an embryo-fetal development study, compared with controls, fetuses from pregabalin-treated rats exhibited increased incidence of jugal fused to maxilla (pregabalin 1250 and 2500 mg/kg) and fusion of the nasal sutures (pregabalin 2500 mg/kg). The alterations in skull development occurred in the presence of maternal toxicity (reduced body weight gain) and developmental toxicity (reduced fetal body weight and increased skeletal variations), and were initially classified as malformations. Subsequent investigative studies in pregnant rats treated with pregabalin during organogenesis confirmed the advanced jugal fused to maxilla, and fusion of the nasal sutures at cesarean section (gestation day/postmating day [PMD] 21) in pregabalin-treated groups. In a study designed to evaluate progression of skull development, advanced jugal fused to maxilla and fusion of the nasal sutures was observed on PMD 20-25 and PMD 21-23, respectively (birth occurs approximately on PMD 22). On postnatal day (PND) 21, complete jugal fused to maxilla was observed in the majority of control and 2500 mg/kg offspring. No treatment-related differences in the incidence of skull bone fusions occurred on PND 21, indicating no permanent adverse outcome. Based on the results of the investigative studies, and a review of historical data and scientific literature, the advanced skull bone fusions were reclassified as anatomic variations. Pregabalin was not teratogenic in rats under the conditions of these studies. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Rats and mice immunised with chimeric human/mouse proteinase 3 produce autoantibodies to mouse Pr3 and rat granulocytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Geld, Ymke M.; Hellmark, Thomas; Selga, Daina; Heeringa, Peter; Huitema, Minke G.; Limburg, Pieter C.; Kallenberg, Cees G. M.

    2007-01-01

    Aim: In this study, we employed chimeric human/ mouse Proteinase 3 ( PR3) proteins as tools to induce an autoantibody response to PR3 in rats and mice. Method: Rats and mice were immunised with recombinant human PR3 ( HPR3), recombinant murine PR3 ( mPR3), single chimeric human/ mouse PR3 ( HHm,

  14. Celecoxib does not significantly delay bone healing in a rat femoral osteotomy model: a bone histomorphometry study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwamoto J

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Jun Iwamoto1, Azusa Seki2, Yoshihiro Sato3, Hideo Matsumoto11Institute for Integrated Sports Medicine, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan; 2Hamri Co, Ltd, Tokyo, Japan; 3Department of Neurology, Mitate Hospital, Fukuoka, JapanBackground and objective: The objective of the present study was to determine whether celecoxib, a cyclo-oxygenase-2 inhibitor, would delay bone healing in a rat femoral osteotomy model by examining bone histomorphometry parameters.Methods: Twenty-one 6-week-old female Sprague-Dawley rats underwent a unilateral osteotomy of the femoral diaphysis followed by intramedullary wire fixation; the rats were then divided into three groups: the vehicle administration group (control, n = 8, the vitamin K2 administration (menatetrenone 30 mg/kg orally, five times a week group (positive control, n = 5, and the celecoxib administration (4 mg/kg orally, five times a week group (n = 8. After 6 weeks of treatment, the wires were removed, and a bone histomorphometric analysis was performed on the bone tissue inside the callus. The lamellar area relative to the bone area was significantly higher and the total area and woven area relative to the bone area were significantly lower in the vitamin K2 group than in the vehicle group. However, none of the structural parameters, such as the callus and bone area relative to the total area, lamellar and woven areas relative to the bone area, or the formative and resorptive parameters such as osteoclast surface, number of osteoclasts, osteoblast surface, osteoid surface, eroded surface, and bone formation rate per bone surface differed significantly between the vehicle and celecoxib groups.Conclusion: The present study implies that celecoxib may not significantly delay bone healing in a rat femoral osteotomy model based on the results of a bone histomorphometric analysis.Keywords: femoral osteotomy, bone healing, callus, rat, celecoxib

  15. Selenium bioavailability from naturally produced high-selenium peas and oats in selenium-deficient rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Lin; Johnson, LuAnn K

    2011-06-08

    This study determined the bioavailability of selenium (Se) from yellow peas and oats harvested from the high-Se soil of South Dakota, United States. The Se concentrations were 13.5 ± 0.2 and 2.5 ± 0.1 mg/kg (dry weight) for peas and oats, respectively. Male weanling Sprague-Dawley rats were depleted of Se by feeding them a 30% Torula yeast-based diet (4.1 μg Se/kg) for 56 days, and then they were replenished with Se for an additional 50 days by feeding them the same diet supplemented with 20, 30, or 40 μg Se/kg from peas or oats, respectively. Selenium bioavailability was determined on the basis of the restoration of Se-dependent enzyme activities and tissue Se concentrations in Se-depleted rats, comparing those responses for yellow peas and oats to those for l-selenomethionine (SeMet; used as a reference) by using a slope-ratio method. Dietary supplementation with peas or oats resulted in linear or log-linear, dose-dependent increases in glutathione peroxidase activities in blood and liver and in thioredoxin reductase activity in liver. Supplementation with peas or oats resulted in linear or log-linear, dose-dependent increases in Se concentrations of plasma, liver, gastrocnemius muscle, and kidneys. The overall bioavailability was approximately 88% for Se from yellow peas and 92% from oats, compared to SeMet. It was concluded that Se from naturally produced high-Se yellow peas or oats is highly bioavailable in this model and that these high-Se foods may be a good dietary source of Se.

  16. Failure to produce taste-aversion learning in rats exposed to static electric fields and air ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Creim, J.A.; Lovely, R.H.; Weigel, R.J.; Forsythe, W.C.; Anderson, L.E. [Pacific Northwest Labs., Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-12-01

    Taste-aversion (TA) learning was measured to determine whether exposure to high-voltage direct current (HVdc) static electric fields can produce TA learning in male Long Evans rats. Fifty-six rats were randomly distributed into four groups of 14 rats each. All rats were placed on a 20 min/day drinking schedule for 12 consecutive days prior to receiving five conditioning trials. During the conditioning trials, access to 0.1% sodium saccharin-flavored water was given for 20 min, followed 30 min later by one of four treatments. Two groups of 14 rats each were individually exposed to static electric fields and air ions, one group to +75 kV/m (+2 {times} 10{sup 5} air ions/cm{sup 3}) and the other group to {minus}75 kV/m ({minus}2 {times} 10{sup 5} air ions/cm{sup 3}). Two other groups of 14 rats each served as sham-exposed controls, with the following variation in one of the sham-exposed groups: this group was subdivided into two subsets of seven rats each, so that a positive control group could be included to validate the experimental design. The positive control group (n = 7) was injected with cyclophosphamide 25 mg/kg, i.p., 30 min after access to saccharin-flavored water on conditioning days, whereas the other subset of seven rats was similarly injected with an equivalent volume of saline. Access to saccharin-flavored water on conditioning days was followed by the treatments described above and was alternated daily with water recovery sessions in which the rats received access to water for 20 min in the home cage without further treatment. Following the last water-recovery session, a 20 min, two-bottle preference test (between water and saccharin-flavored water) was administered to each group. The positive control group did show TA learning, thus validating the experimental protocol.

  17. NPY intraperitoneal injections produce antidepressant-like effects and downregulate BDNF in the rat hypothalamus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelfo, Francesca; Tirassa, Paola; De Bartolo, Paola; Croce, Nicoletta; Bernardini, Sergio; Caltagirone, Carlo; Petrosini, Laura; Angelucci, Francesco

    2012-06-01

    Several studies have documented an involvement of Neuropeptide Y (NPY) in stress-related disorders. Stress-related disorders are also characterized by changes in brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and nerve growth factor (NGF), neurotrophins implicated in the survival and function of neurons. Thus the aim of this study was to investigate whether an NPY intraperitoneal treatment has antidepressant-like effects in rats subjected to a classical stress paradigm, the Forced Swim Test (FST), in association with changes in local brain neurotrophin production. Rats were intraperitoneally injected with either NPY (60 μg/kg) or a vehicle for three consecutive days between two FST sessions and then tested for time spent (or delay onset) in immobile posture. Moreover, we measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) neurotrophin levels in the hypothalamus and corticosterone levels in plasma. The data showed that NPY induced a significant delay in the onset and a significant reduction in the duration of the immobility posture in FST. We also found that NPY decreased BDNF levels in the hypothalamus and corticosterone levels in plasma. Immobility posture in FST can be reduced by antidepressant drugs. Thus, our data show an antidepressant-like effect of NPY associated with changes in BDNF levels in the hypothalamus and reduced activity of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. These findings, while confirming the involvement of the NPY system in stress-related disorders, suggest that a less invasive route of administration, such as an intraperitoneal injection, may be instrumental in coping with stressful events in animal models and perhaps in humans. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. Gamma irradiation of isolated rat islets pretransplantation produces indefinite allograft survival in cyclosporine-treated recipients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, R.F.; Lake, S.P.; Chamberlain, J.; Thirdborough, S.; Bassett, P.D.; Mistry, N.; Bell, P.R.

    1989-01-01

    In this study we have examined the use of low-dose gamma-irradiation for the reduction of islet immunogenicity in the strong allogeneic combination of WAG rat islets transplanted into diabetic AUG recipients. First, we determined that gamma-irradiation reduced immunogenicity in vitro by use of a modified MLR with WAG islets as stimulators and AUG splenocytes as responders. We then determined the maximum dose of gamma-irradiation that could be used (250 rads) before islet function was affected. As 250 rads islet pretreatment alone was ineffective in prolonging allograft survival, we combined the pretreatment with a short course (days 0, 1, 2; 30 mg/kg) of cyclosporine. We found that CsA was only effective in significantly prolonging allograft survival when given subcutaneously in olive oil. The CsA treatment alone gave a significantly prolonged survival time for the islet allografts (median, 37 days vs. 6 days for controls), but when combined with the 250 rads islet pretreatment a synergistic effect was seen with 100% becoming long-term survivors (greater than 100 days). The long-term surviving AUG rats from both the CsA alone group and the CsA plus 250 rads pretreated islets group were challenged with WAG dendritic cells (DC). The islets from the 250 rads pretreated group were subsequently rejected (day 6) while the CsA alone group were not affected. The role of low dose gamma-irradiation when combined with CsA treatment of islet graft recipients in inducing specific unresponsiveness will be discussed

  19. Gamma irradiation of isolated rat islets pretransplantation produces indefinite allograft survival in cyclosporine-treated recipients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James, R.F.; Lake, S.P.; Chamberlain, J.; Thirdborough, S.; Bassett, P.D.; Mistry, N.; Bell, P.R.

    1989-06-01

    In this study we have examined the use of low-dose gamma-irradiation for the reduction of islet immunogenicity in the strong allogeneic combination of WAG rat islets transplanted into diabetic AUG recipients. First, we determined that gamma-irradiation reduced immunogenicity in vitro by use of a modified MLR with WAG islets as stimulators and AUG splenocytes as responders. We then determined the maximum dose of gamma-irradiation that could be used (250 rads) before islet function was affected. As 250 rads islet pretreatment alone was ineffective in prolonging allograft survival, we combined the pretreatment with a short course (days 0, 1, 2; 30 mg/kg) of cyclosporine. We found that CsA was only effective in significantly prolonging allograft survival when given subcutaneously in olive oil. The CsA treatment alone gave a significantly prolonged survival time for the islet allografts (median, 37 days vs. 6 days for controls), but when combined with the 250 rads islet pretreatment a synergistic effect was seen with 100% becoming long-term survivors (greater than 100 days). The long-term surviving AUG rats from both the CsA alone group and the CsA plus 250 rads pretreated islets group were challenged with WAG dendritic cells (DC). The islets from the 250 rads pretreated group were subsequently rejected (day 6) while the CsA alone group were not affected. The role of low dose gamma-irradiation when combined with CsA treatment of islet graft recipients in inducing specific unresponsiveness will be discussed.

  20. Extensive Gustatory Cortex Lesions Significantly Impair Taste Sensitivity to KCl and Quinine but Not to Sucrose in Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle B Bales

    Full Text Available Recently, we reported that large bilateral gustatory cortex (GC lesions significantly impair taste sensitivity to salts in rats. Here we extended the tastants examined to include sucrose and quinine in rats with ibotenic acid-induced lesions in GC (GCX and in sham-operated controls (SHAM. Presurgically, immediately after drinking NaCl, rats received a LiCl or saline injection (i.p., but postsurgical tests indicated a weak conditioned taste aversion (CTA even in controls. The rats were then trained and tested in gustometers to discriminate a tastant from water in a two-response operant taste detection task. Psychometric functions were derived for sucrose, KCl, and quinine. Our mapping system was used to determine placement, size, and symmetry of the lesions (~91% GC damage on average. For KCl, there was a significant rightward shift (ΔEC50 = 0.57 log10 units; p<0.001 in the GCX psychometric function relative to SHAM, replicating our prior work. There was also a significant lesion-induced impairment (ΔEC50 = 0.41 log10 units; p = 0.006 in quinine sensitivity. Surprisingly, taste sensitivity to sucrose was unaffected by the extensive lesions and was comparable between GCX and SHAM rats. The fact that such large bilateral GC lesions did not shift sucrose psychometric functions relative to SHAM, but did significantly compromise quinine and KCl sensitivity suggests that the neural circuits responsible for the detection of specific taste stimuli are partially dissociable. Lesion-induced impairments were observed in expression of a postsurgical CTA to a maltodextrin solution as assessed in a taste-oriented brief-access test, but were not reflected in a longer term 46-h two-bottle test. Thus, deficits observed in rats after extensive damage to the GC are also dependent on the test used to assess taste function. In conclusion, the degree to which the GC is necessary for the maintenance of normal taste detectability apparently depends on the chemical and

  1. Hypothiocyanite produced by human and rat respiratory epithelial cells inactivates extracellular H1N2 influenza A virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gingerich, Aaron; Pang, Lan; Hanson, Jarod; Dlugolenski, Daniel; Streich, Rebecca; Lafontaine, Eric R; Nagy, Tamás; Tripp, Ralph A; Rada, Balázs

    2016-01-01

    Our aim was to study whether an extracellular, oxidative antimicrobial mechanism inherent to tracheal epithelial cells is capable of inactivating influenza H1N2 virus. Epithelial cells were isolated from tracheas of male Sprague-Dawley rats. Both primary human and rat tracheobronchial epithelial cells were differentiated in air-liquid interface cultures. A/swine/Illinois/02860/09 (swH1N2) influenza A virions were added to the apical side of airway cells for 1 h in the presence or absence of lactoperoxidase or thiocyanate. Characterization of rat epithelial cells (morphology, Duox expression) occurred via western blotting, PCR, hydrogen peroxide production measurement and histology. The number of viable virions was determined by plaque assays. Statistical difference of the results was analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey's test. Our data show that rat tracheobronchial epithelial cells develop a differentiated, polarized monolayer with high transepithelial electrical resistance, mucin production and expression of dual oxidases. Influenza A virions are inactivated by human and rat epithelial cells via a dual oxidase-, lactoperoxidase- and thiocyanate-dependent mechanism. Differentiated air-liquid interface cultures of rat tracheal epithelial cells provide a novel model to study airway epithelium-influenza interactions. The dual oxidase/lactoperoxidase/thiocyanate extracellular oxidative system producing hypothiocyanite is a fast and potent anti-influenza mechanism inactivating H1N2 viruses prior to infection of the epithelium.

  2. Characterization of insulin-like growth factor I produced by fetal rat pancreatic islets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scharfmann, R.; Corvol, M.; Czernichow, P.

    1989-01-01

    Pancreatic islets were prepared from 22-day-old rat fetuses. After 5 days of culture in dishes allowing cell attachment, neoformed islets were kept free floating in RPMI-1640 medium (16.5 mM glucose, 1% fetal calf serum). The islets were then pulsed with [ 3 H]leucine and [ 35 S]methionine for 24 h. The conditioned medium was acidified with acetic acid (final pH 2.7), desalted, concentrated, and gel filtered on Bio-Gel P100 in acid conditions. The radioactive material that comigrated with immunoreactive insulinlike growth factor I (IGF-I) produced by the islets was pooled, concentrated, and further characterized by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography on a C18 Bondapak column with a linear gradient of acetonitrile (20-80%). The radioactive material that eluted as pure IGF-I (40% acetonitrile) was further studied by chromatofocusing on a Pharmacia PBE 94 column. A sharp radioactive peak containing [ 3 H]leucine and [ 35 S]methionine was eluted at pH 8.55. This material was immunoprecipitated with an antiserum to IGF-I. This study demonstrated that fetal islet cells synthesize molecules that are, by several criteria, equivalent to native IGF-I

  3. A serosa-searing apparatus for producing gastric ulcer in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagoshima, M; Suzuki, T; Katagiri, S; Shimada, H

    1994-12-01

    Chronic ulcer models produced by serosa-searing method are very similar histologically to the ulcer healing process occurring in humans. In an effort to produce a serosa-searing chronic ulcer model in rats, we devised a new balance-type apparatus. This searing apparatus is capable of changing adequately both temperature and duration of time. Furthermore, the pressure which serves to bring the searing iron tip into contact with the stomach serosa surface can also be precisely changed. Optimal conditions for reproducing the serosa-searing ulcer model were at 65 degrees C and in 5 sec. Moreover, in order to evaluate the effects of pressure, various pressure levels (A: 5 g, 17.68 g/cm2; B: 10 g, 35.37 g/cm2; C: 15 g, 53.05 g/cm2; D: 20 g, 70.74 g/cm2; E: 25 g, 88.42 g/cm2; F: 30 g, 106.10 g/cm2; G: 35 g, 123.79 g/cm2 (+/- 1 g, 0.149 g/cm2)) of 5-sec duration at 65 +/- 0.1 degrees C were used. Macroscopically, gastric mucosal lesions were most clearly observed in a pressure-related manner 7 days after the procedure. Histologically, definite deep ulcerations (UI-III or UI-IV) were observed at pressure level C (15 g, 53.05 g/cm2) or more. The highest incidence (87%) of histological gastric ulcers (UI-IV) was observed in pressure level E (25 g, 88.42 g/cm2). The healing process was observed at 40 to 60 days postoperatively. At 100 days after the procedure, recurrences were observed both macroscopically and histologically. In conclusion, this new apparatus is very useful for reproducing a chronic ulcer model for observing the healing and recurrence process.

  4. Phenobarbital influence on neuromuscular block produced by rocuronium in rats Influência do fenobarbital no bloqueio neuromuscular produzido pelo rocurônio em ratos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angélica de Fátima de Assunção Braga

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate in vitro and in vivo neuromuscular blockade produced by rocuronium in rats treated with Phenobarbital and to determine cytochrome P450 and cytochrome b5 concentrations in hepatic microsomes. METHODS: Thirty rats were included in the study and distributed into 6 groups of 5 animals each. Rats were treated for seven days with phenobarbital (20 mg/kg and the following parameters were evaluated: 1 the amplitude of muscle response in the preparation of rats exposed to phenobarbital; 2 rocuronium effect on rat preparation exposed or not to phenobarbital; 3 concentrations of cytochrome P450 and cytochrome b5 in hepatic microsomes isolated from rats exposed or not to phenobarbital. The concentration and dose of rocuronium used in vitro and in vivo experiments were 4 µg/mL and 0,6 mg/kg, respectively. RESULTS: Phenobarbital in vitro and in vivo did not alter the amplitude of muscle response. The neuromuscular blockade in vitro produced by rocuronium was significantly different (p=0.019 between exposed (20% and not exposed (60% rats; the blockade in vivo was significantly greater (p=0.0081 in treated rats (93.4%. The enzymatic concentrations were significantly greater in rats exposed to phenobarbital. CONCLUSIONS: Phenobarbital alone did not compromise neuromuscular transmission. It produced enzymatic induction, and neuromuscular blockade in vivo produced by rocuronium was potentiated by phenobarbital.OBJETIVO: Avaliar in vitro e in vivo o bloqueio neuromuscular produzido pelo rocurônio em ratos tratados com fenobarbital e determinar as concentrações de citocromo P450 e b5 em microssomos hepáticos. MÉTODOS: Trinta ratos foram incluídos no estudo e distribuídos em seis grupos de cinco animais cada. Ratos foram tratados por sete dias com fenobarbital (20 mg/kg e avaliou-se: 1 amplitude das respostas musculares em preparação de ratos expostos ao fenobarbital; 2 o efeito do rocurônio em preparações de ratos expostos ou n

  5. [In vitro generation of insulin-producing cells from the neonatal rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaohu; Huang, Haiyan; Liu, Xirong; Xia, Hongxia; Li, Mincai

    2015-03-01

    To observe the differentiation of the neonatal rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) into insulin-producing cells and detect the expressions of insulin, pancreatic duodenal homebox-1 (PDX-1) and nestin. MSCs were isolated from the neonatal rats and cultured in the modified medium composed of 10 μg/L human epidermal growth factor (EGF), 10 μg/L basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), 10 μg/L hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), 10 μg/L human B cell regulin, 20 mmol/L nicotinamide and 20 g/L B27. After the induction, the mRNA expressions of insulin, PDX-1 and nestin were examined by reverse transcription-PCR, and the insulin, PDX-1 and nestin protein levels were detected by immunocytochemistry. The insulin and PDX-1 mRNA expressions increased and the nestin mRNA expression decreased in the differentiation of the neonatal rat MSCs into insulin-producing cells. The nestin, PDX-1 and insulin proteins were co-expressed in insulin-producing cells. MSCs can be induced to differentiate into insulin-producing cells.

  6. St. John's wort significantly increased the systemic exposure and toxicity of methotrexate in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Shih-Ying [Graduate Institute of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Juang, Shin-Hun [Graduate Institute of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Department of Medical Research, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Tsai, Shang-Yuan; Chao, Pei-Dawn Lee [School of Pharmacy, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Hou, Yu-Chi, E-mail: hou5133@gmail.com [School of Pharmacy, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Department of Medical Research, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China)

    2012-08-15

    St. John's wort (SJW, Hypericum perforatum) is one of the popular nutraceuticals for treating depression. Methotrexate (MTX) is an immunosuppressant with narrow therapeutic window. This study investigated the effect of SJW on MTX pharmacokinetics in rats. Rats were orally given MTX alone and coadministered with 300 and 150 mg/kg of SJW, and 25 mg/kg of diclofenac, respectively. Blood was withdrawn at specific time points and serum MTX concentrations were assayed by a specific monoclonal fluorescence polarization immunoassay method. The results showed that 300 mg/kg of SJW significantly increased the AUC{sub 0−t} and C{sub max} of MTX by 163% and 60%, respectively, and 150 mg/kg of SJW significantly increased the AUC{sub 0−t} of MTX by 55%. In addition, diclofenac enhanced the C{sub max} of MTX by 110%. The mortality of rats treated with SJW was higher than that of controls. In conclusion, coadministration of SJW significantly increased the systemic exposure and toxicity of MTX. The combined use of MTX with SJW would need to be with caution. -- Highlights: ► St. John's wort significantly increased the AUC{sub 0−t} and C{sub max} of methotrexate. ► Coadministration of St. John's wort increased the exposure and toxicity of methotrexate. ► The combined use of methotrexate with St. John's wort will need to be with caution.

  7. Selective alterations in cerebral metabolism within the mesocorticolimbic dopaminergic system produced by acute cocaine administration in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porrino, L.J.; Domer, F.R.; Crane, A.M.; Sokoloff, L.

    1988-05-01

    The 2-(/sup 14/C)deoxyglucose method was used to examine the effects of acute intravenous administration of cocaine on local cerebral glucose utilization in rats. These effects were correlated with the effects of cocaine on locomotor activity assessed simultaneously in the same animals. At the lowest dose of cocaine, 0.5 mg/kg (1.47 mumol/kg), alterations in glucose utilization were restricted to the medial prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens. Metabolic activity at 1.0 mg/kg (2.9 mumol/kg) was altered in these structures, but in the substantia nigra reticulata and lateral habenula as well. The selectivity of cocaine's effects at low doses demonstrates the particular sensitivity of these structures to cocaine's actions in the brain. In contrast, 5.0 mg/kg (14.7 mumol/kg) produced widespread changes in glucose utilization, particularly in the extrapyramidal system. Only this dose significantly increased locomotor activity above levels in vehicle-treated controls. Rates of glucose utilization were positively correlated with locomotor activity in the globus pallidus, substantia nigra reticulata, and subthalamic nucleus, and negatively correlated in the lateral habenula.

  8. Activation of neuronal nitric oxide synthase in cerebellum of chronic hepatic encephalopathy rats is associated with up-regulation of NADPH-producing pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Santosh; Trigun, Surendra K

    2010-09-01

    Cerebellum-associated functions get affected during mild hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) in patients with chronic liver failure (CLF). Involvement of nitrosative and antioxidant factors in the pathogenesis of chronic hepatic encephalopathy is an evolving concept and needs to be defined in a true CLF animal model. This article describes profiles of NADPH-dependent neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) and those of glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase (GR) vis-a-vis regulation of NADPH-producing pathway in the cerebellum of CLF rats induced by administration of thioacetamide (100 mg kg⁻¹ b.w., i.p.) up to 10 days and confirming MHE on Morris water maze tests. Significant increases in the expression of nNOS protein and nitric oxide (NOx) level coincided with a similar increment in NADPH-diaphorase activity in the cerebellum of CLF rats. Glutathione peroxidase and GR utilize NADPH to regenerate reduced glutathione (GSH) in the cells. Both these enzymes and GSH level were found to be static and thus suggested efficient turnover of GSH in the cerebellum of MHE rats. Relative levels of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) vs. phosphofructokinase 2 (PFK2) determine the rate of pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) responsible to synthesize NADPH. The cerebellum of CLF rats showed overactivation of G6PD with a significant decline in the expression of PFK2 and thus suggested activation of PPP in the cerebellum during MHE. It is concluded that concordant activations of PPP and nNOS in cerebellum of MHE rats could be associated with the implication of NOx in the pathogenesis of MHE.

  9. Evaluation by electronic paramagnetic resonance of the number of free radicals produced in irradiated rat bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marble, G.; Valderas, R.

    1966-01-01

    The number of long half-life free radicals created by gamma irradiation in the bones of the rat has been determined from the electrons paramagnetic resonance spectrum. This number decreases slowly with time (calculated half life: 24 days). It is proportional to the dose of gamma radiation given to the rat. The method could find interesting applications in the field of biological dosimetry. (authors) [fr

  10. Sub-chronic lead exposure produces β1-adrenoceptor downregulation decreasing arterial pressure reactivity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toscano, Cindy Medici; Simões, Maylla Ronacher; Alonso, Maria Jesus; Salaices, Mercedes; Vassallo, Dalton Valentim; Fioresi, Mirian

    2017-07-01

    Lead is considered a causative factor for hypertension and other cardiovascular diseases. To investigate the effects of sub-chronic lead exposure on blood pressure reactivity and cardiac β 1 -adrenoceptor activity and to evaluate whether the effects found in vitro are similar to those found in vivo. Male Wistar rats were randomly distributed into two groups: control rats (Ct) and rats administered drinking water containing 100ppm lead (Pb) for 30days. Blood pressure in the Pb rats increased starting from the first week of treatment until the end of the study [systolic blood pressure, Ct: 122±4 vs. Pb: 143±3mmHg; diastolic blood pressure, Ct: 63±4 vs. Pb: 84±4mmHg]. The heart rate was also increased (Ct: 299±11 vs. Pb: 365±11bpm), but the pressure reactivity to phenylephrine was decreased. Losartan and hexamethonium exhibited a greater reduction in blood pressure of Pb rats than in the Ct rats. Isoproterenol increased the left ventricular systolic and end-diastolic pressure, and heart rate only in Ct rats, suggesting that lead induced β 1 -adrenoceptor downregulation. Indomethacin reduced the blood pressure and heart rate in the Pb rats, suggesting the involvement of cyclooxygenase-derived products (which are associated with reduced nitric oxide bioavailability) in this process. These findings offer further evidence that the effects of sub-chronic lead exposure in vitro can be reproduced in vivo-even at low concentrations-thus triggering mechanisms for the development of hypertension. Therefore, lead should be considered an environmental risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. REM sleep deprivation produces a motivational deficit for food reward that is reversed by intra-accumbens amphetamine in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanlon, Erin C; Benca, Ruth M; Baldo, Brian A; Kelley, Ann E

    2010-10-30

    Prolonged sleep deprivation in rats produces a characteristic syndrome of increase in food intake accompanied by, paradoxically, decrease in weight, suggesting a potential alteration in motivation for food reward. Using the multiple platform method to produce REM sleep deprivation (REMSD), we investigated the effect of REMSD on motivation for food reinforcement with a progressive ratio operant task, which yields a measure of the motor effort that a hungry animal is willing to expend to obtain food (the point at which the animal quits responding is termed the "break-point"). We found that REMSD rats decreased the break point for sucrose pellet reinforcement in comparison to controls, as revealed by a within-session decline in responding. This behavioral deficit is similar to that observed in rats with diminished dopamine transmission within the nucleus accumbens (Acb), and, considering that stimulants are frequently used in the clinical setting to reverse the effects of sleepiness, we examined the effect of systemic or intra-Acb amphetamine on break point in REMSD rats. Animals were given either systemic or intra-Acb amphetamine injections on days 3 and 5 of REMSD. Systemic amphetamine (0.1, 0.5, or 2.5mg/kg) did not increase break point in REMSD rats. In contrast, intra-Acb infusions of amphetamine (1, 10, or 30μg/0.5μl bilaterally) reversed the REMSD-induced suppression of progressive ratio responding. Specifically, the two higher doses of intra-Acb amphetamine were able to prolong responding within the session (resulting in an increased break point) on day 3 of REMSD while only the highest dose was sufficient following 5 days of REMSD. These data suggest that decreased motivation for food reward caused by REMSD may result from a suppression of dopamine function in the Acb. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Behaviorally activated mRNA expression profiles produce signatures of learning and enhanced inhibition in aged rats with preserved memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haberman, Rebecca P; Colantuoni, Carlo; Koh, Ming Teng; Gallagher, Michela

    2013-01-01

    Aging is often associated with cognitive decline, but many elderly individuals maintain a high level of function throughout life. Here we studied outbred rats, which also exhibit individual differences across a spectrum of outcomes that includes both preserved and impaired spatial memory. Previous work in this model identified the CA3 subfield of the hippocampus as a region critically affected by age and integral to differing cognitive outcomes. Earlier microarray profiling revealed distinct gene expression profiles in the CA3 region, under basal conditions, for aged rats with intact memory and those with impairment. Because prominent age-related deficits within the CA3 occur during neural encoding of new information, here we used microarray analysis to gain a broad perspective of the aged CA3 transcriptome under activated conditions. Behaviorally-induced CA3 expression profiles differentiated aged rats with intact memory from those with impaired memory. In the activated profile, we observed substantial numbers of genes (greater than 1000) exhibiting increased expression in aged unimpaired rats relative to aged impaired, including many involved in synaptic plasticity and memory mechanisms. This unimpaired aged profile also overlapped significantly with a learning induced gene profile previously acquired in young adults. Alongside the increased transcripts common to both young learning and aged rats with preserved memory, many transcripts behaviorally-activated in the current study had previously been identified as repressed in the aged unimpaired phenotype in basal expression. A further distinct feature of the activated profile of aged rats with intact memory is the increased expression of an ensemble of genes involved in inhibitory synapse function, which could control the phenotype of neural hyperexcitability found in the CA3 region of aged impaired rats. These data support the conclusion that aged subjects with preserved memory recruit adaptive mechanisms to

  13. Minocycline produced antidepressant-like effects on the learned helplessness rats with alterations in levels of monoamine in the amygdala and no changes in BDNF levels in the hippocampus at baseline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arakawa, Shiho; Shirayama, Yukihiko; Fujita, Yuko; Ishima, Tamaki; Horio, Mao; Muneoka, Katsumasa; Iyo, Masaomi; Hashimoto, Kenji

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have indicated that minocycline might function as an antidepressant drug. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antidepressant-like effects of minocycline, which is known to suppress activated microglia, using learned helplessness (LH) rats (an animal model of depression). Infusion of minocycline into the cerebral ventricle of LH rats induced antidepressant-like effects. However, infusion of minocycline into the cerebral ventricle of naïve rats did not produce locomotor activation in the open field tests, suggesting that the antidepressant-like effects of minocycline were not attributed to the enhanced locomotion. LH rats showed significantly higher serotonin turnover in the orbitofrontal cortex and lower levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the hippocampus than control rats. However, these alterations in serotonin turnover and BDNF expression remained unchanged after treatment with minocycline. On the contrary, minocycline treatment of LH rats induced significant increases in the levels of dopamine and its metabolites in the amygdala when compared with untreated LH rats. Taken together, minocycline may be a therapeutic drug for the treatment of depression. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. A Single Neonatal Exposure to BMAA in a Rat Model Produces Neuropathology Consistent with Neurodegenerative Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Louise Scott

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Although cyanobacterial β-N-methylamino-l-alanine (BMAA has been implicated in the development of Alzheimer’s Disease (AD, Parkinson’s Disease (PD and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS, no BMAA animal model has reproduced all the neuropathology typically associated with these neurodegenerative diseases. We present here a neonatal BMAA model that causes β-amyloid deposition, neurofibrillary tangles of hyper-phosphorylated tau, TDP-43 inclusions, Lewy bodies, microbleeds and microgliosis as well as severe neuronal loss in the hippocampus, striatum, substantia nigra pars compacta, and ventral horn of the spinal cord in rats following a single BMAA exposure. We also report here that BMAA exposure on particularly PND3, but also PND4 and 5, the critical period of neurogenesis in the rodent brain, is substantially more toxic than exposure to BMAA on G14, PND6, 7 and 10 which suggests that BMAA could potentially interfere with neonatal neurogenesis in rats. The observed selective toxicity of BMAA during neurogenesis and, in particular, the observed pattern of neuronal loss observed in BMAA-exposed rats suggest that BMAA elicits its effect by altering dopamine and/or serotonin signaling in rats.

  15. Meningeal norepinephrine produces headache behaviors in rats via actions both on dural afferents and fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xiaomei; Yan, Jin; Tillu, Dipti; Asiedu, Marina; Weinstein, Nicole; Melemedjian, Ohannes; Price, Theodore; Dussor, Gregory

    2015-10-01

    Stress is commonly reported to contribute to migraine although mechanisms by which this may occur are not fully known. The purpose of these studies was to examine whether norepinephrine (NE), the primary sympathetic efferent transmitter, acts on processes in the meninges that may contribute to the pain of migraine. NE was applied to rat dura using a behavioral model of headache. Primary cultures of rat trigeminal ganglia retrogradely labeled from the dura mater and of rat dural fibroblasts were prepared. Patch-clamp electrophysiology, Western blot, and ELISA were performed to examine the effects of NE. Conditioned media from NE-treated fibroblast cultures was applied to the dura using the behavioral headache model. Dural injection both of NE and media from NE-stimulated fibroblasts caused cutaneous facial and hindpaw allodynia in awake rats. NE application to cultured dural afferents increased action potential firing in response to current injections. Application of NE to dural fibroblasts increased phosphorylation of ERK and caused the release of interleukin-6 (IL-6). These data demonstrate that NE can contribute to pro-nociceptive signaling from the meninges via actions on dural afferents and dural fibroblasts. Together, these actions of NE may contribute to the headache phase of migraine. © International Headache Society 2015.

  16. Vitamin B12-impaired metabolism produces apoptosis and Parkinson phenotype in rats expressing the transcobalamin-oleosin chimera in substantia nigra.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Enrique Orozco-Barrios

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Vitamin B12 is indispensable for proper brain functioning and cytosolic synthesis of S-adenosylmethionine. Whether its deficiency produces effects on viability and apoptosis of neurons remains unknown. There is a particular interest in investigating these effects in Parkinson disease where Levodopa treatment is known to increase the consumption of S-adenosylmethionine. To cause deprivation of vitamin B12, we have recently developed a cell model that produces decreased synthesis of S-adenosylmethionine by anchoring transcobalamin (TCII to the reticulum through its fusion with Oleosin (OLEO. METHODOLOGY: Gene constructs including transcobalamin-oleosin (TCII-OLEO and control constructs, green fluorescent protein-transcobalamin-oleosin (GFP-TCII-OLEO, oleosin-transcobalamin (OLEO-TCII, TCII and OLEO were used for expression in N1E-115 cells (mouse neuroblastoma and in substantia nigra of adult rats, using a targeted transfection with a Neurotensin polyplex system. We studied the viability and the apoptosis in the transfected cells and targeted tissue. The turning behavior was evaluated in the rats transfected with the different plasmids. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The transfection of N1E-115 cells by the TCII-OLEO-expressing plasmid significantly affected cell viability and increased immunoreactivity of cleaved Caspase-3. No change in propidium iodide uptake (used as a necrosis marker was observed. The transfected rats lost neurons immunoreactive to tyrosine hydroxylase. The expression of TCII-OLEO was observed in cells immunoreactive to tyrosine hydroxylase of the substantia nigra, with a superimposed expression of cleaved Caspase-3. These cellular and tissular effects were not observed with the control plasmids. Rats transfected with TCII-OLEO expressing plasmid presented with a significantly higher number of turns, compared with those transfected with the other plasmids. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In conclusion, the TCII-OLEO transfection

  17. Maternal undernutrition significantly impacts ovarian follicle number and increases ovarian oxidative stress in adult rat offspring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelica B Bernal

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We have shown recently that maternal undernutrition (UN advanced female pubertal onset in a manner that is dependent upon the timing of UN. The long-term consequence of this accelerated puberty on ovarian function is unknown. Recent findings suggest that oxidative stress may be one mechanism whereby early life events impact on later physiological functioning. Therefore, using an established rodent model of maternal UN at critical windows of development, we examined maternal UN-induced changes in offspring ovarian function and determined whether these changes were underpinned by ovarian oxidative stress. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Our study is the first to show that maternal UN significantly reduced primordial and secondary follicle number in offspring in a manner that was dependent upon the timing of maternal UN. Specifically, a reduction in these early stage follicles was observed in offspring born to mothers undernourished throughout both pregnancy and lactation. Additionally, antral follicle number was reduced in offspring born to all mothers that were UN regardless of whether the period of UN was restricted to pregnancy or lactation or both. These reductions were associated with decreased mRNA levels of genes critical for follicle maturation and ovulation. Increased ovarian protein carbonyls were observed in offspring born to mothers UN during pregnancy and/or lactation and this was associated with peroxiredoxin 3 hyperoxidation and reduced mRNA levels; suggesting compromised antioxidant defence. This was not observed in offspring of mothers UN during lactation alone. CONCLUSIONS: We propose that maternal UN, particularly at a time-point that includes pregnancy, results in reduced offspring ovarian follicle numbers and mRNA levels of regulatory genes and may be mediated by increased ovarian oxidative stress coupled with a decreased ability to repair the resultant oxidative damage. Together these data are suggestive of

  18. Water Exchange Produces Significantly Higher Adenoma Detection Rate Than Water Immersion: Pooled Data From 2 Multisite Randomized Controlled Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Felix W; Koo, Malcolm; Cadoni, Sergio; Falt, Premysl; Hsieh, Yu-Hsi; Amato, Arnaldo; Erriu, Matteo; Fojtik, Petr; Gallittu, Paolo; Hu, Chi-Tan; Leung, Joseph W; Liggi, Mauro; Paggi, Silvia; Radaelli, Franco; Rondonotti, Emanuele; Smajstrla, Vit; Tseng, Chih-Wei; Urban, Ondrej

    2018-03-02

    To test the hypothesis that water exchange (WE) significantly increases adenoma detection rates (ADR) compared with water immersion (WI). Low ADR was linked to increased risk for interval colorectal cancers and related deaths. Two recent randomized controlled trials of head-to-head comparison of WE, WI, and traditional air insufflation (AI) each showed that WE achieved significantly higher ADR than AI, but not WI. The data were pooled from these 2 studies to test the above hypothesis. Two trials (5 sites, 14 colonoscopists) that randomized 1875 patients 1:1:1 to AI, WI, or WE were pooled and analyzed with ADR as the primary outcome. The ADR of AI (39.5%) and WI (42.4%) were comparable, significantly lower than that of WE (49.6%) (vs. AI P=0.001; vs. WI P=0.033). WE insertion time was 3 minutes longer than that of AI (Prate (vs. AI) of the >10 mm advanced adenomas. Right colon combined advanced and sessile serrated ADR of AI (3.4%) and WI (5%) were comparable and were significantly lower than that of WE (8.5%) (vs. AI P<0.001; vs. WI P=0.039). Compared with AI and WI, the superior ADR of WE offsets the drawback of a significantly longer insertion time. For quality improvement focused on increasing adenoma detection, WE is preferred over WI. The hypothesis that WE could lower the risk of interval colorectal cancers and related deaths should be tested.

  19. The endogenous hydrogen sulfide producing enzyme cystathionine-β synthase contributes to visceral hypersensitivity in a rat model of irritable bowel syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Jiande DZ

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The pathogenesis of visceral hypersensitivity, a characteristic pathophysiological feature of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS, remains elusive. Recent studies suggest a role for hydrogen sulfide (H2S in pain signaling but this has not been well studied in visceral models of hyperalgesia. We therefore determined the role for the endogenous H2S producing enzyme cystathionine-β-synthetase (CBS in a validated rat model of IBS-like chronic visceral hyperalgesia (CVH. CVH was induced by colonic injection of 0.5% acetic acid (AA in 10-day-old rats and experiments were performed at 8–10 weeks of age. Dorsal root ganglion (DRG neurons innervating the colon were labeled by injection of DiI (1,1'-dioleyl-3,3,3',3-tetramethylindocarbocyanine methanesulfonate into the colon wall. Results In rat DRG, CBS-immunoreactivity was observed in approximately 85% of predominantly small- and medium-sized neurons. Colon specific DRG neurons revealed by retrograde labeling DiI were all CBS-positive. CBS-positive colon neurons co-expressed TRPV1 or P2X3 receptors. Western blotting analysis showed that CBS expression was significantly increased in colon DRGs 8 weeks after neonatal AA-treatment. Furthermore, the CBS inhibitor hydroxylamine markedly attenuated the abdominal withdrawal reflex scores in response to colorectal distention in rats with CVH. By contrast, the H2S donor NaHS significantly enhanced the frequency of action potentials of colon specific DRG neurons evoked by 2 times rheobase electrical stimulation. Conclusion Our results suggest that upregulation of CBS expression in colonic DRG neurons and H2S signaling may play an important role in developing CVH, thus identifying a specific neurobiological target for the treatment of CVH in functional bowel syndromes.

  20. Hematologic and Selected Hepatic Changes Produced by Substituted p-Bensoquinones in the Rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-07-01

    DIVISION OF NUTRITION TECHNOLOGY *DIVISION OF CUTANEOUS HAZARDS I LEECE D IBAI7 TA EMENl AU I __ b rouleISO, Ca. JULYV 1980 CD, LA. 9=3TIRMAN ARMY...jaundice, anemia, hemoglobinuria, and cachexia (8). In previous studies, we found that benzoquinone tox- icity in rats resulted in respiratory depression...randomly housed in stainless steel wire-bottomed cages, one to a cage, and fed a stock diet (Rodent Laboratory Chow #5001, Ralston Purina Co., St. Louis

  1. Exposure to Sodium Fluoride Produces Signs of Apoptosis in Rat Leukocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigrit Suástegui-Domínguez

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Fluoride is naturally present in the earth's crust and can be found in rocks, coal, and clay; thus, it can be found in small quantities in water, air, plants, and animals. Therefore, humans are exposed to fluoride through food, drinking water, and in the air they breathe. Flouride is essential to maintain bone strength and to protect against dental decay, but if it is absorbed too frequently, it can cause tooth decay, osteoporosis, and damage to kidneys, bones, nerves, and muscles. Therefore, the present work was aimed at determining the effect of intake of sodium fluoride (NaF as an apoptosis inducer in leukocytes of rats treated for eight weeks with 1 or 50 parts per million (ppm NaF. Expression of p53, bcl-2, and caspade-3 were used as apoptotic and general metabolism indicators of leukocyte-like indicators of the (INT oxidation system. Male rats were exposed to NaF (1 and 500 ppm for eight weeks, and then sacrificed weekly to obtain blood samples. Expression of p53, bcl-2, and caspase-3 were determined in leukocytes by Western blot, and general metabolism of leukocytes was analyzed with a commercial kit. We found changes in the expression of the proteins described, especially when the animals received 50 ppm of NaF. These results indicate that NaF intoxication can be an apoptosis inducer in rat leukocytes treated with the compound for eight weeks.

  2. Body weight gain in rats by a high-fat diet produces chronodisruption in activity/inactivity circadian rhythm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, Rafael; Cubero, Javier; Franco, Lourdes; Mesa, Mónica; Galán, Carmen; Rodríguez, Ana Beatriz; Jarne, Carlos; Barriga, Carmen

    2014-04-01

    In the last few decades, obesity has become one of the most important public health problems. Adipose tissue is an active endocrine tissue which follows a rhythmic pattern in its functions and may produce alterations in certain circadian rhythms. Our aim was to evaluate whether the locomotor activity circadian rhythm could be modified by a hypercaloric diet in rodents. Two groups were considered in the experiment: 16 rats were used as a control group and were fed standard chow; the other group comprised 16 rats fed a high-fat diet (35.8% fat, 35% glucides). The trial lasted 16 weeks. Body weight was measured every week, and a blood sample was extracted every two weeks to quantify triglyceride levels. The activity/inactivity circadian rhythm was logged through actimetry throughout the trial, and analysed using the DAS 24© software package. At the end of the experiment, the high-fat fed rats had obese-like body weights and high plasma triglyceride levels, and, compared with the control group, increased diurnal activity, decreased nocturnal activity, reductions in amplitude, midline estimating statistic of rhythm, acrophase and interdaily stability, and increases in intradaily variability of their activity rhythms. The results thus show how obesity can lead to symptoms of chronodisruption in the body similar to those of ageing.

  3. Effect of electromagnetic irradiation produced by 3G mobile phone on male rat reproductive system in a simulated scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sanjay; Nirala, Jay Prakash; Behari, J; Paulraj, R

    2014-09-01

    Reports of declining male fertility have renewed interest in assessing the role of electromagnetic fields (EMFs). Testicular function is particularly susceptible to the radiation emitted by EMFs. Significant decrease in sperm count, increase in the lipid peroxidation damage in sperm cells, reduction in seminiferous tubules and testicular weight and DNA damage were observed following exposure to EMF in male albino rats. The results suggest that mobile phone exposure adversely affects male fertility.

  4. Intraportal injection of insulin-producing cells generated from human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells decreases blood glucose level in diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Pei-Jiun; Wang, Hwai-Shi; Lin, Chi-Hung; Weng, Zen-Chung; Chen, Tien-Hua; Shyu, Jia-Fwu

    2014-01-01

    We studied the process of trans-differentiation of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hBM-MSCs) into insulin-producing cells. Streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rat model was used to study the effect of portal vein transplantation of these insulin-producing cells on blood sugar levels. The BM-MSCs were differentiated into insulin-producing cells under defined conditions. Real-time PCR, immunocytochemistry and glucose challenge were used to evaluate in vitro differentiation. Flow cytometry showed that hBM-MSCs were strongly positive for CD44, CD105 and CD73 and negative for hematopoietic markers CD34, CD38 and CD45. Differentiated cells expressed C-peptide as well as β-cells specific genes and hormones. Glucose stimulation increased C-peptide secretion in these cells. The insulin-producing, differentiated cells were transplanted into the portal vein of STZ-induced diabetic rats using a Port-A catheter. The insulin-producing cells were localized in the liver of the recipient rat and expressed human C-peptide. Blood glucose levels were reduced in diabetic rats transplanted with insulin-producing cells. We concluded that hBM-MSCs could be trans-differentiated into insulin-producing cells in vitro. Portal vein transplantation of insulin-producing cells alleviated hyperglycemia in diabetic rats.

  5. Adolescent fluoxetine exposure produces enduring, sex-specific alterations of visual discrimination and attention in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaRoche, Ronee B; Morgan, Russell E

    2007-01-01

    Over the past two decades the use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) to treat behavioral disorders in children has grown rapidly, despite little evidence regarding the safety and efficacy of these drugs for use in children. Utilizing a rat model, this study investigated whether post-weaning exposure to a prototype SSRI, fluoxetine (FLX), influenced performance on visual tasks designed to measure discrimination learning, sustained attention, inhibitory control, and reaction time. Additionally, sex differences in response to varying doses of fluoxetine were examined. In Experiment 1, female rats were administered (P.O.) fluoxetine (10 mg/kg ) or vehicle (apple juice) from PND 25 thru PND 49. After a 14 day washout period, subjects were trained to perform a simultaneous visual discrimination task. Subjects were then tested for 20 sessions on a visual attention task that consisted of varied stimulus delays (0, 3, 6, or 9 s) and cue durations (200, 400, or 700 ms). In Experiment 2, both male and female Long-Evans rats (24 F, 24 M) were administered fluoxetine (0, 5, 10, or 15 mg/kg) then tested in the same visual tasks used in Experiment 1, with the addition of open-field and elevated plus-maze testing. Few FLX-related differences were seen in the visual discrimination, open field, or plus-maze tasks. However, results from the visual attention task indicated a dose-dependent reduction in the performance of fluoxetine-treated males, whereas fluoxetine-treated females tended to improve over baseline. These findings indicate that enduring, behaviorally-relevant alterations of the CNS can occur following pharmacological manipulation of the serotonin system during postnatal development.

  6. Cortical cholinergic hypofunction and behaviorial impairment produced by basal forebrain lesions in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lerer, B.E.; Friedman, E.; Gamzu, E.

    1986-01-01

    The authors confirm the cortical ChAT and passive avoidance deficits resulting from bilateral KA lesions of the magnocellular nuclei of the basal forebrain (MNBF). Because of reported passive avoidance deficits, the authors were interested in whether bilateral MNBF lesions would interfere with learning in an active avoidance paradigm. Samples of rat cortex were stored at -80 C until assayed. ChAT was assayed by a modification method under saturating conditions; 20 mM choline and 2 mM C 14-acetylcoenzyme. The behavioral deficits assumed to be indicative of learning and memory problems were accompanied by a 20% decrease in cortical ChAT

  7. Significance of ACTH4-10 in the control of hippocampal corticosterone receptor capacity of hypophysectomized rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldhuis, H D; De Kloet, E R

    1982-01-01

    The effect of hypophysectomy on the number of corticosterone receptor sites was investigated in three rat brain regions and was compared with the effect of long-term adrenalectomy. Subsequently, the effect on receptor capacity was measured after the hypophysectomized rats had received as

  8. Changes in rat respiratory system produced by exposure to exhaust gases of combustion of glycerol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra, Daniel Silveira; Evangelista, Janaína Serra Azul Monteiro; Zin, Walter Araujo; Leal-Cardoso, José Henrique; Cavalcante, Francisco Sales Ávila

    2017-08-01

    The combustion of residual glycerol to generate heat in industrial processes has been suggested as a cost-effective solution for disposal of this environmental liability. Thus, we investigated the effects of exposure to the exhaust gases of glycerol combustion in the rat respiratory system. We used 2 rats groups, one exposed to the exhaust gases from glycerol combustion (Glycerol), and the other exposed to ambient air (Control). Exposure occurred 5h a day, 5days a week for 13 weeks. We observed statistically changes in all parameters of respiratory system mechanics in vivo. This results was supported by histological analysis and morphometric data, confirming narrower airways and lung parenchimal changes. Variables related to airway resistance (ΔR N ) and elastic properties of the tissue (ΔH), increased after challenge with methacholine. Finally, analysis of lung tissue micromechanics showed statistically increases in all parameters (R, E and hysteresivity). In conclusion, exhaust gases from glycerol combustion were harmful to the respiratory system. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. The convulsive and electroencephalographic changes produced by nonpeptidic delta-opioid agonists in rats: comparison with pentylenetetrazol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jutkiewicz, Emily M; Baladi, Michelle G; Folk, John E; Rice, Kenner C; Woods, James H

    2006-06-01

    delta-Opioid agonists produce convulsions and antidepressant-like effects in rats. It has been suggested that the antidepressant-like effects are produced through a convulsant mechanism of action either through overt convulsions or nonconvulsive seizures. This study evaluated the convulsive and seizurogenic effects of nonpeptidic delta-opioid agonists at doses that previously were reported to produce antidepressant-like effects. In addition, delta-opioid agonist-induced electroencephalographic (EEG) and behavioral changes were compared with those produced by the chemical convulsant pentylenetetrazol (PTZ). For these studies, EEG changes were recorded using a telemetry system before and after injections of the delta-opioid agonists [(+)-4-[(alphaR)-alpha-[(2S,5R)-2,5-dimethyl-4-(2-propenyl)-1-piperazinyl]-(3-methoxyphenyl)methyl]-N,N-diethylbenz (SNC80) and [(+)-4-[alpha(R)-alpha-[(2S,5R)-2,5-dimethyl-4-(2-propenyl)-1-piperazinyl]-(3-hydroxyphenyl)methyl]-N,N-diethylbenzamide [(+)-BW373U86]. Acute administration of nonpeptidic delta-opioid agonists produced bilateral ictal and paroxysmal spike and/or sharp wave discharges. delta-Opioid agonists produced brief changes in EEG recordings, and tolerance rapidly developed to these effects; however, PTZ produced longer-lasting EEG changes that were exacerbated after repeated administration. Studies with antiepileptic drugs demonstrated that compounds used to treat absence epilepsy blocked the convulsive effects of nonpeptidic delta-opioid agonists. Overall, these data suggest that delta-opioid agonist-induced EEG changes are not required for the antidepressant-like effects of these compounds and that neural circuitry involved in absence epilepsy may be related to delta-opioid agonist-induced convulsions. In terms of therapeutic development, these data suggest that it may be possible to develop delta-opioid agonists devoid of convulsive properties.

  10. Adaptive responses to cefotaxime treatment in ESBL-producing Escherichia coli and the possible use of significantly regulated pathways as novel secondary targets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Thea S. B.; Rau, Martin Holm; Bonde, Charlotte S

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine how ESBL-producing Escherichia coli change the expression of metabolic and biosynthesis genes when adapting to inhibitory concentrations of cefotaxime. Secondly, it was investigated whether significantly regulated pathways constitute putative secondary targets......-fold). Inhibition and/or mutations in other genes that were significantly regulated, belonging to energy synthesis, purine synthesis, proline uptake or potassium uptake, also rendered the resistant bacteria more susceptible to cefotaxime. The results show that ESBL-producing E. coli adapt to treatment...

  11. NIGERLYSINTM, HEMOLYSIN PRODUCED BY ASPERGILLUS NIGER, CAUSES LETHALITY OF PRIMARY RAT CORTICAL NEURONAL CELLS IN VITRO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspergillus niger produced a proteinaceous hemolysin, nigerlysinTM when incubated on sheep's blood agar at both 23° C and 37°C. Nigerlysin was purified from tryptic soy broth culture filtrate. Purified nigerlysin has a molecular weight of approximately 72 kDa, with an...

  12. Olesoxime (cholest-4-en-3-one, oxime): Analgesic and neuroprotective effects in a rat model of painful peripheral neuropathy produced by the chemotherapeutic agent, paclitaxel

    OpenAIRE

    Xiao, Wen Hua; Zheng, Felix Y.; Bennett, Gary J.; Bordet, Thierry; Pruss, Rebecca M.

    2009-01-01

    Olesoxime is a small cholesterol-like molecule that was discovered in a screening program aimed at finding treatment for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and other diseases where motor neurons degenerate. In addition to its neuroprotective and pro-regenerative effects on motor neurons in vitro and in vivo, it has been shown to have analgesic effects in rat models of painful peripheral neuropathy due to vincristine and diabetes. We used a rat model of painful peripheral neuropathy produced by the...

  13. The folic acid combined with 17-β estradiol produces antidepressant-like actions in ovariectomized rats forced to swim.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Hernández, Miguel; Téllez-Alcántara, N Patricia; Olivera-López, Jorge I; Jaramillo, M Teresa

    2011-01-15

    Folic acid or 17-β estradiol produces antidepressant effects, either alone or combined with several antidepressants. However, the antidepressant-like actions of folic acid combined with 17-β estradiol in the forced swimming test (FST) have not been tested before. Thus, in the present study, ovariectomized female rats received folic acid (5.0 nmol/i.c.v., Pfluoxetine (20.0mg/kg, Pswimming behavior when they were tested in the FST. Combination of subthreshold doses of folic acid (2.5 nmol/i.c.v.; or 25.0mg/kg, p.o.) with subthreshold doses of 17-β estradiol (5.0 μg/rat, Pfluoxetine (15.0mg/kg, Pfluoxetine in the FST reduced immobility in the FST. These antidepressant-like actions probably were due to modifications of the serotonergic system since swimming behavior was increased and these effects were cancelled by ketanserin. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Histomorphometric assessment of bone necrosis produced by two cryosurgery protocols using liquid nitrogen: an experimental study on rat femurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Fábio Wildson Gurgel; Brito, Gerly Anne de Castro; Pessoa, Rosana Maria Andrade; Studart-Soares, Eduardo Costa

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of liquid nitrogen cryosurgery on the femoral diaphysis of rats. The femoral diaphyses of 42 Wistar rats were exposed to three local and sequential applications of liquid nitrogen for 1 or 2 min, intercalated with periods of 5 min of passive thawing. The animals were sacrificed after 1, 2, 4 and 12 weeks and the specimens obtained were processed and analyzed histomorphometrically. The depth and extent of peak bone necrosis were 124.509 µm and 2087.094 µm for the 1-min protocol, respectively, and 436.424 µm and 12046.426 µm for the 2-min protocol. Peak necrosis was observed in the second experimental week with both cryotherapy protocols. The present results indicate that the 2-min protocol produced more marked bone necrosis than the 1-min protocol. Although our results cannot be entirely extrapolated to clinical practice, they contribute to the understanding of the behavior of bone tissue submitted to different cycles of liquid nitrogen freezing and may serve as a basis for new studies.

  15. Vasovagal oscillations and vasovagal responses produced by the Vestibulo-Sympathetic Reflex in the rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergei B. Yakushin

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Sinusoidal galvanic vestibular stimulation (sGVS induces oscillations in blood pressure (BP and heart rate (HR i.e., vasovagal oscillations, and decreases in BP and HR i.e., vasovagal responses, in isoflurane-anesthetized rats. We determined the characteristics of the vasovagal oscillations, assessed their role in the generation of vasovagal responses and determined whether they could be induced by monaural as well as by binaural sGVS and by oscillation in pitch. Wavelet analyses were used to determine the power distributions of the waveforms. Monaural and binaural sGVS and pitch generated vasovagal oscillations at the frequency and at twice the frequency of stimulation. Vasovagal oscillations and vasovagal responses were maximally induced at low stimulus frequencies (0.025-0.05 Hz. The oscillations were attenuated and the responses were rarely induced at higher stimulus frequencies. Vasovagal oscillations could occur without induction of vasovagal responses, but vasovagal responses were always associated with a vasovagal oscillation. We posit that the vasovagal oscillations originate in a low frequency band that, when appropriately activated by strong sympathetic stimulation, can generate vasovagal oscillations as a precursor for vasovagal responses and syncope. We further suggest that the activity responsible for the vasovagal oscillations arises in low frequency, otolith neurons with orientation vectors close to the vertical axis of the head. These neurons are likely to provide critical input to the Vestibulo-Sympathetic Reflex to increase BP and HR upon changes in head position relative to gravity, and to contribute to the production of vasovagal oscillations and vasovagal responses and syncope when the baroreflex is inactivated.

  16. Assessment of selenium bioavailability from naturally produced high-selenium soy foods in selenium-deficient rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Lin; Reeves, Philip G; Johnson, LuAnn K

    2010-10-01

    We assessed the bioavailability of selenium (Se) from a protein isolate and tofu (bean curd) prepared from naturally produced high-Se soybeans. The Se concentrations of the soybeans, the protein isolate and tofu were 5.2±0.2, 11.4±0.1 and 7.4±0.1mg/kg, respectively. Male weanling Sprague-Dawley rats were depleted of Se by feeding them a 30% Torula yeast-based diet (4.1μg Se/kg) for 56 days, and then they were replenished with Se for an additional 50 days by feeding them the same diet containing 14, 24 or 30 μg Se/kg from the protein isolate or 13, 23 or 31 μg Se/kg from tofu, respectively. l-Selenomethionine (SeMet) was used as a reference. Selenium bioavailability was determined on the basis of the restoration of Se-dependent enzyme activities and tissue Se concentrations in Se-depleted rats, comparing those responses for the protein isolate and tofu to those for SeMet by using a slope-ratio method. Dietary supplementation with the protein isolate or tofu resulted in linear or log-linear, dose-dependent increases in glutathione peroxidase activities in blood and liver and in thioredoxin reductase activity in liver. Furthermore, supplementation with the protein isolate or tofu resulted in linear or log-linear, dose-dependent increases in the Se concentrations of plasma, liver, muscle and kidneys. These results indicated an overall bioavailability of approximately 101% for Se from the protein isolate and 94% from tofu, relative to SeMet. We conclude that Se from naturally produced high-Se soybeans is highly bioavailable in this model and that high-Se soybeans may be a good dietary source of Se. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  17. Subchronic and chronic PCP treatment produces temporally distinct deficits in attentional set shifting and prepulse inhibition in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egerton, Alice; Reid, Lee; McGregor, Sandie; Cochran, Susan M; Morris, Brian J; Pratt, Judith A

    2008-05-01

    We have previously demonstrated that subchronic (five daily administrations of 2.6 mg/kg PCP) and chronic intermittent administration of 2.6 mg/kg PCP to rats produces hypofrontality and other neurochemical changes akin to schizophrenia pathology (Cochran et al., Neuropsychopharmacology, 28:265-275, 2003). We sought to determine whether behavioral alterations related to discrete aspects of schizophrenia are also induced by these PCP treatment regimes. Following administration of vehicle or PCP according to the protocols described above, rats were assessed for attentional set shifting ability, prepulse inhibition (PPI), or social interaction and the locomotor response to a challenge dose of amphetamine. Ability to shift attentional set was impaired 72 h after the last PCP administration following the subchronic and chronic intermittent treatment regimes. PPI was disrupted after each acute administration of PCP in animals under the subchronic treatment regime. However, PPI deficits were not sustained 72 h after the last of five daily administrations. In subchronic and chronic PCP treated animals, no change was found in social interaction behavior, and there was little change in baseline or amphetamine-stimulated locomotor activity, employed as an indicator of dopaminergic hyperfunction. The temporally distinct behavioral effects of these PCP treatment regimes suggest that PPI deficits relate directly to acute NMDA receptor antagonism, whereas the more enduring set shifting deficits relate to the longer term consequences of NMDA receptor blockade. Therefore, these subchronic and chronic PCP treatment regimes produce hypofrontality (Cochran et al., Neuropsychopharmacology, 28:265-275, 2003) and associated prefrontal cortex-dependent deficits in behavioral flexibility which mirror core deficits in schizophrenia.

  18. Low-frequency stimulation of the external globus palladium produces anti-epileptogenic and anti-ictogenic actions in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hui; Kuang, Yi-fang; Liu, Yang; Wang, Yi; Xu, Zheng-hao; Gao, Feng; Zhang, Shi-hong; Ding, Mei-ping; Chen, Zhong

    2015-08-01

    To investigate the anti-epileptic effects of deep brain stimulation targeting the external globus palladium (GPe) in rats. For inducing amygdala kindling and deep brain stimulation, bipolar stainless-steel electrodes were implanted in SD rats into right basolateral amygdala and right GPe, respectively. The effects of deep brain stimulation were evaluated in the amygdala kindling model, maximal electroshock model (MES) and pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) model. Moreover, the background EEGs in the amygdala and GPe were recorded. Low-frequency stimulation (0.1 ms, 1 Hz, 15 min) at the GPe slowed the progression of seizure stages and shortened the after-discharge duration (ADD) during kindling acquisition. Furthermore, low-frequency stimulation significantly decreased the incidence of generalized seizures, suppressed the average stage, and shortened the cumulative ADD and generalized seizure duration in fully kindled rats. In addition, low-frequency stimulation significantly suppressed the average stage of MES-induced seizures and increased the latency to generalized seizures in the PTZ model. High-frequency stimulation (0.1 ms, 130 Hz, 5 min) at the GPe had no anti-epileptic effect and even aggravated epileptogenesis induced by amygdala kindling. EEG analysis showed that low-frequency stimulation at the GPe reversed the increase in delta power, whereas high-frequency stimulation at the GPe had no such effect. Low-frequency stimulation, but not high-frequency stimulation, at the GPe exerts therapeutic effect on temporal lobe epilepsy and tonic-colonic generalized seizures, which may be due to interference with delta rhythms. The results suggest that modulation of GPe activity using low-frequency stimulation or drugs may be a promising epilepsy treatment.

  19. Increased expression of heat shock protein 105 in rat uterus of early pregnancy and its significance in embryo implantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Zhao-Yuan

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Heat shock proteins (Hsps are a set of highly conserved proteins, Hsp105, has been suggested to play a role in reproduction. Methods Spatio-temporal expression of Hsp105 in rat uterus during peri-implantation period was examined by immunohistochemistry and Western blot, pseudopregnant uterus was used as control. Injection of antisense oligodeoxynucleotides to Hsp105 into pregnant rat uteri was carried out to look at effect of Hsp105 on embryo implantation. Results Expression of Hsp105 was mainly in the luminal epithelium on day 1 of pregnancy, and reached a peak level on day 5, whereas in stroma cells, adjacent to the implanting embryo, the strongest expression of Hsp105 was observed on day 6. The immunostaining profile in the uterus was consistent with that obtained by Western blot in the early pregnancy. In contrast, no obvious peak level of Hsp105 was observed in the uterus of pseudopregnant rat on day 5 or day 6. Furthermore, injection of antisense oligodeoxynucleotides to Hsp105 into the rat uterine horn on day 3 of pregnancy obviously suppressed the protein expression as expected and reduced number of the implanted embryos as compared with the control. Conclusion Temporal and spatial changes in Hsp105 expression in pregnant rat uterus may play a physiological role in regulating embryo implantation.

  20. Significant long-term, but not short-term, hippocampal-dependent memory impairment in adult rats exposed to alcohol in early postnatal life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodfellow, Molly J; Lindquist, Derick H

    2014-09-01

    In rodents, ethanol exposure in early postnatal life is known to induce structural and functional impairments throughout the brain, including the hippocampus. Herein, rat pups were administered one of three ethanol doses over postnatal days (PD) 4-9, a period of brain development comparable to the third trimester of human pregnancy. As adults, control and ethanol rats were trained and tested in a variant of hippocampal-dependent one-trial context fear conditioning. In Experiment 1, subjects were placed into a novel context and presented with an immediate footshock (i.e., within ∼8 sec). When re-exposed to the same context 24 hr later low levels of conditioned freezing were observed. Context pre-exposure 24 hr prior to the immediate shock reversed the deficit in sham-intubated and unintubated control rats, enhancing freezing behavior during the context retention test. Even with context pre-exposure, however, significant dose-dependent reductions in contextual freezing were seen in ethanol rats. In Experiment 2, the interval between context pre-exposure and the immediate shock was shortened to 2 hr, in addition to the standard 24 hr. Ethanol rats trained with the 2 hr, but not 24 hr, interval displayed retention test freezing levels roughly equal to controls. Results suggest the ethanol rats can encode a short-term context memory and associate it with the aversive footshock 2 hr later. In the 24 hr ethanol rats the short-term context memory is poorly transferred or consolidated into long-term memory, we propose, impeding the memory's subsequent retrieval and association with shock. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Neurokinin B-producing projection neurons in the lateral stripe of the striatum and cell clusters of the accumbens nucleus in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ligang; Furuta, Takahiro; Kaneko, Takeshi

    2004-12-06

    Neurons producing preprotachykinin B (PPTB), the precursor of neurokinin B, constitute 5% of neurons in the dorsal striatum and project to the substantia innominata (SI) selectively. In the ventral striatum, PPTB-producing neurons are collected mainly in the lateral stripe of the striatum (LSS) and cell clusters of the accumbens nucleus (Acb). In the present study, we first examined the distribution of PPTB-immunoreactive neurons in rat ventral striatum and found that a large part of the PPTB-immunoreactive cell clusters was continuous to the LSS, but a smaller part was not. Thus, we divided the PPTB-immunoreactive cell clusters into the LSS-associated and non-LSS-associated ones. We next investigated the projection targets of the PPTB-producing ventral striatal neurons by combining immunofluorescence labeling and retrograde tracing. After injection of Fluoro-Gold into the basal component of the SI (SIb) and medial part of the interstitial nucleus of posterior limb of the anterior commissure, many PPTB-immunoreactive neurons were retrogradely labeled in the LSS-associated cell clusters and LSS, respectively. When the injection site included the ventral part of the sublenticular component of the SI(SIsl), retrogradely labeled neurons showed PPTB-immunoreactivity frequently in non-LSS-associated cell clusters. Furthermore, these PPTB-immunoreactive projections were confirmed by the double-fluorescence method after anterograde tracer injection into the ventral striatum containing the cell clusters. Since the dorsalmost part of the SIsl is known to receive strong inputs from PPTB-producing dorsal striatal neurons, the present results indicate that PPTB-producing ventral striatal neurons project to basal forebrain target regions in parallel with dorsal striatal neurons without significant convergence. 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. Prenatal prochloraz treatment significantly increases pregnancy length and reduces offspring weight but does not affect social-olfactory memory in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dmytriyeva, Oksana; Klementiev, Boris; Berezin, Vladimir

    2013-01-01

    Metabolites of the commonly used imidazole fungicide prochloraz are androgen receptor antagonists. They have been shown to block androgen-driven development and compromise reproductive function. We tested the effect of prochloraz on cognitive behavior following exposure to this fungicide during...... the perinatal period. Pregnant Wistar rats were administered a 200mg/kg dose of prochloraz on gestational day (GD) 7, GD11, and GD15. The social recognition test (SRT) was performed on 7-week-old male rat offspring. We found an increase in pregnancy length and a significantly reduced pup weight on PND15 and PND...

  3. Possible involvement of mitochondrial energy-producing ability in the development of right ventricular failure in monocrotaline-induced pulmonary hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daicho, Takuya; Yagi, Tatsuya; Abe, Yohei; Ohara, Meiko; Marunouchi, Tetsuro; Takeo, Satoshi; Tanonaka, Kouichi

    2009-09-01

    The present study was undertaken to explore the possible involvement of alterations in the mitochondrial energy-producing ability in the development of the right ventricular failure in monocrotaline-administered rats. The rats at the 6th week after subcutaneous injection of 60 mg/kg monocrotaline revealed marked myocardial hypertrophy and fibrosis, that is, severe cardiac remodeling. The time-course study on the cardiac hemodynamics of the monocrotaline-administered rat by the cannula and echocardiographic methods showed a reduction in cardiac double product, a decrease in cardiac output index, and an increase in the right ventricular Tei index, suggesting that the right ventricular failure was induced at the 6th week after monocrotaline administration in rats. The mitochondrial oxygen consumption rate of the right ventricular muscle isolated from the monocrotaline-administered animal was decreased, which was associated with a reduction in myocardial high-energy phosphates. Furthermore, the decrease in mitochondrial oxygen consumption rate was inversely related to the increase in the right ventricular Tei index of the monocrotaline-administered rats. These results suggest that impairment of the mitochondrial energy-producing ability is involved in the development of the right ventricular failure in monocrotaline-induced pulmonary hypertensive rats.

  4. ICU Acquisition Rate, Risk Factors, and Clinical Significance of Digestive Tract Colonization With Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase-Producing Enterobacteriaceae: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detsis, Marios; Karanika, Styliani; Mylonakis, Eleftherios

    2017-04-01

    Enterobacteriaceae ranged from 5% to 10%. Previous use of beta-lactam/beta-lactamase or carbapenems and recent hospitalization were independent risk factors for extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae colonization, and colonization was associated with significantly higher frequency of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae subsequent infection and increased mortality.

  5. High doses of garlic extract significantly attenuated the ratio of serum LDL to HDL level in rat-fed with hypercholesterolemia diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Tahereh; Behdad, Behnoosh; Abbasi, Maryam Agha; Rabati, Rahman Ghaffarzadegan; Fayyaz, Amir Farshid; Behnod, Vahid; Asgari, Ali

    2015-06-20

    Hypercholesterolemia is associated with an increased risk of heart disease. In this study, we investigated the antihyperlipidemic effects of garlic (Allium sativum L.) in rat models of hypercholesterolemic. Wistar male rats were randomly divided into 4 diet groups with garlic supplementation. Male Wistar rats were fed by standard pellet diet (group I), standard diet supplemented with 4% garlic (group II), lipogenic diet (containing sunflower oil, cholesterol and ethanol) equivalent to 200 mg raw garlic/kg body weight (raw) (group III) and lipogenic diet equivalent to 400 mg raw garlic/kg body weight (raw) (group IV). Rats fed 400 g/kg garlic extract(GE), had a significantly lower concentration of serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) cholesterol and elevated HDL -C cholesterol at day 28 (P garlic supplementation (P garlic in reducing lateral side effects of hyperlipidemia. Our data demonstrate that GE has protective effects on HDL in rats with high LDL intake. Therefore, it could be used to remedy hypercholesterolemia with help reduce risk of coronary heart disease The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1834155749171141.

  6. Resistance to DNA Damaging Agents Produced Invasive Phenotype of Rat Glioma Cells—Characterization of a New in Vivo Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Stojković

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Chemoresistance and invasion properties are severe limitations to efficient glioma therapy. Therefore, development of glioma in vivo models that more accurately resemble the situation observed in patients emerges. Previously, we established RC6 rat glioma cell line resistant to DNA damaging agents including antiglioma approved therapies such as 3-bis(2-chloroethyl-1-nitrosourea (BCNU and temozolomide (TMZ. Herein, we evaluated the invasiveness of RC6 cells in vitro and in a new orthotopic animal model. For comparison, we used C6 cells from which RC6 cells originated. Differences in cell growth properties were assessed by real-time cell analyzer. Cells’ invasive potential in vitro was studied in fluorescently labeled gelatin and by formation of multicellular spheroids in hydrogel. For animal studies, fluorescently labeled cells were inoculated into adult male Wistar rat brains. Consecutive coronal and sagittal brain sections were analyzed 10 and 25 days post-inoculation, while rats’ behavior was recorded during three days in the open field test starting from 25th day post-inoculation. We demonstrated that development of chemoresistance induced invasive phenotype of RC6 cells with significant behavioral impediments implying usefulness of orthotopic RC6 glioma allograft in preclinical studies for the examination of new approaches to counteract both chemoresistance and invasion of glioma cells.

  7. 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, ecstasy) produces edema due to BBB disruption induced by MMP-9 activation in rat hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Hernández, Mercedes; Fernández-Valle, María Encarnación; Rubio-Araiz, Ana; Vidal, Rebeca; Gutiérrez-López, María Dolores; O'Shea, Esther; Colado, María Isabel

    2017-05-15

    The recreational drug of abuse, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, ecstasy) disrupts blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrity in rats through an early P2X 7 receptor-mediated event which induces MMP-9 activity. Increased BBB permeability often causes plasma proteins and water to access cerebral tissue leading to vasogenic edema formation. The current study was performed to examine the effect of a single neurotoxic dose of MDMA (12.5 mg/kg, i.p.) on in vivo edema development associated with changes in the expression of the perivascular astrocytic water channel, AQP4, as well as in the expression of the tight-junction (TJ) protein, claudin-5 and Evans Blue dye extravasation in the hippocampus of adult male Dark Agouti rats. We also evaluated the ability of the MMP-9 inhibitor, SB-3CT (25 mg/kg, i.p.), to prevent these changes in order to validate the involvement of MMP-9 activation in MDMA-induced BBB disruption. The results show that MDMA produces edema of short duration temporally associated with changes in AQP4 expression and a reduction in claudin-5 expression, changes which are prevented by SB-3CT. In addition, MDMA induces a short-term increase in both tPA activity and expression, a serine-protease which is involved in BBB disruption and upregulation of MMP-9 expression. In conclusion, this study provides evidence enough to conclude that MDMA induces edema of short duration due to BBB disruption mediated by MMP-9 activation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The morpho-functional parameters of rat pituitary hormone producing cells after genistein treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Trifunović

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Phytoestrogens are a diverse group of steroid–like compounds that occur naturally in many plants. There are various types of phytoestrogens, including the best-researched isoflavones which are commonly found in soy. The consumption of soy products has many health benefits, including protection against breast cancer, prostate cancer, menopausal symptoms, heart disease and osteoporosis. In contrast, use of hormonally active compounds-isoflavones may unfortunately interfere with the endocrine system and can have far-reaching consequences. Genistein, the most abundant soy-bean derived isoflavone, possesses a ring system similar to estrogens and acts through an estrogen receptor (ER-mediated mechanism, by increasing or decreasing the transcription of ER-dependent target genes. Also, genistein can act on cells through ER non-dependent mechanisms, such as tyrosine kinase inhibitor. The neuroendocrine systems are responsible for the control of homeostatic processes in the body, including reproduction, growth, metabolism and energy balance, and stress responsiveness. It is well known, that estrogen is important for development of the neuroendocrine system in both sexes. At the pituitary level, estrogen is known to affect the regulation of all hormone producing (HP cells, by direct and/or indirect mechanisms. Due to structural and functional resemblance to estrogen, the question may arise of whether and how genistein affects the morphofunctional features of pituitary HP cells. This review deals with the consequences of genistein’s effects on morphological, stereological and hormonal features of HP cells within the anterior pituitary gland. Transparency on this issue is needed because isoflavones are presently highly consumed. Inter alia, genistein as well as other isoflavones, are present in various dietary supplements and generally promoted as an accepted alternative to estrogen replacement therapy. Potential isoflavone biomedical exploitation is not

  9. Editor's Highlight: Mode of Action Analysis for Rat Hepatocellular Tumors Produced by the Synthetic Pyrethroid Momfluorothrin: Evidence for Activation of the Constitutive Androstane Receptor and Mitogenicity in Rat Hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuda, Yu; Kushida, Masahiko; Sumida, Kayo; Nagahori, Hirohisa; Nakamura, Yoshimasa; Higuchi, Hashihiro; Kawamura, Satoshi; Lake, Brian G; Cohen, Samuel M; Yamada, Tomoya

    2017-08-01

    High dietary levels of momfluorothrin, a nongenotoxic synthetic pyrethroid, induced hepatocellular tumors in male and female Wistar rats in a 2-year bioassay. The mode of action (MOA) for rat hepatocellular tumors was postulated to occur via activation of the constitutive androstane receptor (CAR), as momfluorothrin is a close structural analogue of the pyrethroid metofluthrin, which is known to produce rat liver tumors through a CAR-mediated MOA. To elucidate the MOA for rat hepatocellular tumor formation by momfluorothrin, this study was conducted to examine effects on key and associative events of the CAR-mediated MOA for phenobarbital based on the International Programme on Chemical Safety framework. A 2-week in vivo study in Wistar rats revealed that momfluorothrin induced CYP2B activities, increased liver weights, produced hepatocyte hypertrophy and increased hepatocyte replicative DNA synthesis. These effects correlated with the dose-response relationship for liver tumor formation and also showed reversibility upon cessation of treatment. Moreover, momfluorothrin did not increase CYP2B1/2 mRNA expression and hepatocyte replicative DNA synthesis in CAR knockout rats. Using cultured Wistar rat hepatocytes and the RNA interference technique, knockdown of CAR resulted in a suppression of induction of CYP2B1/2 mRNA levels by momfluorothrin. Alternative MOAs for liver tumor formation were excluded. A global gene expression profile analysis of the liver of male Wistar rats treated with momfluorothrin for 2 weeks also showed similarity to the prototypic CAR activator phenobarbital. Overall, these data strongly support that the postulated MOA for momfluorothrin-induced rat hepatocellular tumors as being mediated by CAR activation. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Retrograde amnesia produced by electron beam exposure: causal parameters and duration of memory loss. [Rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wheeler, T.G.; Hardy, K.A.

    1985-01-01

    The production of retrograde amnesia (RA) upon electron beam exposure has been investigated. RA production was evaluated using a single-trial avoidance task across a 10/sup 4/ dose range for 10-, 1-, and 0.1-..mu..sec pulsed exposures. The dose-response curve obtained at each pulse duration showed significant RA production. The most effective dose range was 0.1-10 rad at a dose rate of 10/sup 6/ rad/sec. By employing a 10 rad (10/sup 6/ rad/sec) pulse, a memory loss of the events occurring in the previous 4 sec was demonstrated. The conclusion was that the RA effect might be due to sensory activation which provided a novel stimulus that masked previous stimuli.

  11. Pharmacological analysis of the inhibition produced by moxonidine and agmatine on the vasodepressor sensory CGRPergic outflow in pithed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio-Beltrán, Eloísa; Labastida-Ramírez, Alejandro; Hernández-Abreu, Oswaldo; MaassenVanDenBrink, Antoinette; Villalón, Carlos M

    2017-10-05

    Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) plays a role in several (patho)physiological functions, and modulation of its release is considered a therapeutic target. In this respect, electrical spinal (T 9 --T 12 ) stimulation of the perivascular sensory outflow in pithed rats produces vasodepressor responses mediated by CGRP release. This study investigated the role of imidazoline I 1 and I 2 receptors in the inhibition by moxonidine and agmatine of these vasodepressor responses. Male Wistar pithed rats (pretreated i.v. with 25mg/kg gallamine and 2mg/kg⋅min hexamethonium) received i.v. continuous infusions of methoxamine (20μg/kg⋅min) followed by physiological saline (0.02ml/min), moxonidine (1, 3, 10 or 30μg/kg⋅min) or agmatine (1000 or 3000μg/kg⋅min). Under these conditions, electrical stimulation (0.56-5.6Hz; 50V; 2ms) of the spinal cord (T 9 -T 12 ) produced frequency-dependent vasodepressor responses which were: (i) unchanged during saline infusion; and (ii) inhibited during the above infusions of moxonidine or agmatine. Moreover, using i.v. administrations, the inhibition by 3μg/kg⋅min moxonidine or 3000μg/kg⋅min agmatine (which failed to inhibit the vasodepressor responses by α-CGRP; 0.1-1µg/kg) was: (i) unaltered after saline (1ml/kg), rauwolscine (300μg/kg; α 2 -adrenoceptor antagonist) or BU224 (300μg/kg; imidazoline I 2 receptor antagonist); and (ii) reversed after AGN 192403 (3000μg/kg; imidazoline I 1 receptor antagonist). This reversion was relatively more pronounced after AGN 192403 plus rauwolscine. These blocking doses of antagonists lacked any effects on the electrically-induced vasodepressor responses. Therefore, the inhibition of the vasodepressor sensory CGRPergic outflow by moxonidine and agmatine is mainly mediated by prejunctional imidazoline I 1 receptors on perivascular sensory nerves. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey Kondrashov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to perform a chemical analysis of both Alibernet red wine and an alcohol-free Alibernet red wine extract (AWE and to investigate the effects of AWE on nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species production as well as blood pressure development in normotensive Wistar Kyoto (WKY and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs. Total antioxidant capacity together with total phenolic and selected mineral content was measured in wine and AWE. Young 6-week-old male WKY and SHR were treated with AWE (24,2 mg/kg/day for 3 weeks. Total NOS and SOD activities, eNOS and SOD1 protein expressions, and superoxide production were determined in the tissues. Both antioxidant capacity and phenolic content were significantly higher in AWE compared to wine. The AWE increased NOS activity in the left ventricle, aorta, and kidney of SHR, while it did not change NOS activity in WKY rats. Similarly, increased SOD activity in the plasma and left ventricle was observed in SHR only. There were no changes in eNOS and SOD1 expressions. In conclusion, phenolics and minerals included in AWE may contribute directly to increased NOS and SOD activities of SHR. Nevertheless, 3 weeks of AWE treatment failed to affect blood pressure of SHR.

  13. Development of transgenic rats producing human β-amyloid precursor protein as a model for Alzheimer's disease: Transgene and endogenous APP genes are regulated tissue-specifically

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan Anthony WS

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alzheimer's disease (AD is a devastating neurodegenerative disorder that affects a large and growing number of elderly individuals. In addition to idiopathic disease, AD is also associated with autosomal dominant inheritance, which causes a familial form of AD (FAD. Some instances of FAD have been linked to mutations in the β-amyloid protein precursor (APP. Although there are numerous mouse AD models available, few rat AD models, which have several advantages over mice, have been generated. Results Fischer 344 rats expressing human APP driven by the ubiquitin-C promoter were generated via lentiviral vector infection of Fischer 344 zygotes. We generated two separate APP-transgenic rat lines, APP21 and APP31. Serum levels of human amyloid-beta (Aβ40 were 298 pg/ml for hemizygous and 486 pg/ml for homozygous APP21 animals. Serum Aβ42 levels in APP21 homozygous rats were 135 pg/ml. Immunohistochemistry in brain showed that the human APP transgene was expressed in neurons, but not in glial cells. These findings were consistent with independent examination of enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP in the brains of eGFP-transgenic rats. APP21 and APP31 rats expressed 7.5- and 3-times more APP mRNA, respectively, than did wild-type rats. Northern blots showed that the human APP transgene, driven by the ubiquitin-C promoter, is expressed significantly more in brain, kidney and lung compared to heart and liver. A similar expression pattern was also seen for the endogenous rat APP. The unexpected similarity in the tissue-specific expression patterns of endogenous rat APP and transgenic human APP mRNAs suggests regulatory elements within the cDNA sequence of APP. Conclusion This manuscript describes the generation of APP-transgenic inbred Fischer 344 rats. These are the first human AD model rat lines generated by lentiviral infection. The APP21 rat line expresses high levels of human APP and could be a useful model for AD. Tissue

  14. Acute hypothalamic suppression significantly affects trabecular bone but not cortical bone following recovery and ovariectomy surgery in a rat model

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    Vanessa R. Yingling

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Osteoporosis is “a pediatric disease with geriatric consequences.” Bone morphology and tissue quality co-adapt during ontogeny for sufficient bone stiffness. Altered bone morphology from hypothalamic amenorrhea, a risk factor for low bone mass in women, may affect bone strength later in life. Our purpose was to determine if altered morphology following hypothalamic suppression during development affects cortical bone strength and trabecular bone volume (BV/TV at maturity.Methods. Female rats (25 days old were assigned to a control (C group (n = 45 that received saline injections (.2 cc or an experimental group (GnRH-a (n = 45 that received gonadotropin releasing hormone antagonist injections (.24 mg per dose for 25 days. Fifteen animals from each group were sacrificed immediately after the injection protocol at Day 50 (C, GnRH-a. The remaining animals recovered for 135 days and a subset of each group was sacrificed at Day 185 ((C-R (n = 15 and (G-R (n = 15. The remaining animals had an ovariectomy surgery (OVX at 185 days of age and were sacrificed 40 days later (C-OVX (n = 15 and (G-OVX (n = 15. After sacrifice femurs were mechanically tested and scanned using micro CT. Serum C-terminal telopeptides (CTX and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1 were measured. Two-way ANOVA (2 groups (GnRH-a and Control X 3 time points (Injection Protocol, Recovery, post-OVX was computed.Results. GnRH-a injections suppressed uterine weights (72% and increased CTX levels by 59%. Bone stiffness was greater in the GnRH-a groups compared to C. Ash content and cortical bone area were similar between groups at all time points. Polar moment of inertia, a measure of bone architecture, was 15% larger in the GnRH-a group and remained larger than C (19% following recovery. Both the polar moment of inertia and cortical area increased linearly with the increases in body weight. Following the injection protocol, trabecular BV/TV was 31% lower in the Gn

  15. Ketamine produces antidepressant-like effects through phosphorylation-dependent nuclear export of histone deacetylase 5 (HDAC5) in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Miyeon; Lee, Seung Hoon; Wang, Sung Eun; Ko, Seung Yeon; Song, Mihee; Choi, June-Seek; Duman, Ronald S.; Son, Hyeon

    2015-01-01

    Ketamine produces rapid antidepressant-like effects in animal assays for depression, although the molecular mechanisms underlying these behavioral actions remain incomplete. Here, we demonstrate that ketamine rapidly stimulates histone deacetylase 5 (HDAC5) phosphorylation and nuclear export in rat hippocampal neurons through calcium/calmodulin kinase II- and protein kinase D-dependent pathways. Consequently, ketamine enhanced the transcriptional activity of myocyte enhancer factor 2 (MEF2), which leads to regulation of MEF2 target genes. Transfection of a HDAC5 phosphorylation-defective mutant (Ser259/Ser498 replaced by Ala259/Ala498, HDAC5-S/A), resulted in resistance to ketamine-induced nuclear export, suppression of ketamine-mediated MEF2 transcriptional activity, and decreased expression of MEF2 target genes. Behaviorally, viral-mediated hippocampal knockdown of HDAC5 blocked or occluded the antidepressant effects of ketamine both in unstressed and stressed animals. Taken together, our results reveal a novel role of HDAC5 in the actions of ketamine and suggest that HDAC5 could be a potential mechanism contributing to the therapeutic actions of ketamine. PMID:26647181

  16. Gestational exposure to BDE-99 produces toxicity through upregulation of CYP isoforms and ROS production in the fetal rat liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Jordi; Mulero, Miquel; Domingo, José L; Sánchez, Domènec J

    2012-05-01

    On gestation day (GD) 6 to GD 19, pregnant Sprague Dawley rats were orally exposed to 0, 0.5, 1, and 2 mg/kg/day to one of the most prevalent polybrominated diphenyl ethers congeners found in humans, 2,2',4,4',5-pentaBDE (BDE-99). All dams were euthanized on GD 20, and live fetuses were evaluated for sex, body weight, and external, internal, and skeletal malformations and developmental variations. The liver from one fetus of each litter was excised for the evaluation of oxidative stress markers and the messenger RNA expression of multiple cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoforms. Exposure to BDE-99 during the gestational period produced delayed ossification, slight hypertrophy of the heart, and enlargement of the liver in fetuses. A transplacental effect of BDE-99, evidenced by the activation of nuclear hormones receptors that induce the upregulation of CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP2B1, and CYP3A2 isoforms, was also found in fetal liver. These isoforms are correlated with the activity level of the enzyme catalase and the levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances. However, teratogenic effects from BDE-99 exposure were not observed. Clear signs of embryo/fetal toxicity, due to a possible hormonal disruption, were evidenced by a large increase in the CYP system and the production of reactive oxygen species in fetal liver.

  17. Cerebral ischemia produced by four-vessel occlusion in the rat: a quantitative evaluation of cerebral blood flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furlow, T.W. Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Cerebral ischemia was produced in the rat by simultaneous occlusion of the vertebral and carotid arteries according to the method of Pulsinelli and Brierley (Stroke 10: 267, 1979). Local cerebral blood flow (CBF) was determined by polarographic and autoradiographic techniques. Hydrogen-clearance measurements showed that mean CBF fell in four monitored regions of the hemispheres to between 0.11 and 0.18 ml/g/min, being least in deep rostal gray, intermediate in superficial gray, and greatest in deep caudal gray. However, individual animals had local CBF in excess of 0.20 and even 0.30 ml/g/min, and no animal showed zero CBF. When animals were rendered hypotensive (MABP of 50 Torr) during vascular occlusion, mean CBF ranged between 0.03 and 0.10 ml/g/min in the same regional order. With hypotension, total arrest of flow occurred. Autoradiographic data confirmed the above findings and indicated adequate CBF to the lower brainstem. During vascular occlusion, sufficient CBF may be present ot sustain cerebral tissue as in animals with a well developed spinal circulation or an inadvertently patent vertebral artery

  18. Ultrastructural modifications and changes in the expression of hormonal genes produced by indomethacin in the anterior pituitary gland of the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, L A; Rivolta, C; Machiavelli, G A; Burdman, J A

    1995-10-01

    Indomethacin decreases the level of prolactin (50%) and growth hormone (70%) mRNA in the anterior pituitary gland of the rat. Actin mRNA increases (59%). Ultrastructurally there is a decrease in the number of secretory granules. Indomethacin also prevents the increase in prolactin secretory granules produced by the administration of estradiol. The results indicate that indomethacin inhibits hormonal synthesis in the APG at a transcriptional level. This effect appears selective because mRNA level for actin synthesis in the pituitary gland was higher than in nontreated rats.

  19. A comparison of rat SPECT images obtained using 99mTc derived from 99Mo produced by an electron accelerator with that from a reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galea, R; Ross, C K; Moore, K; Wells, R G; Lockwood, J; Harvey, J T; Isensee, G H

    2013-01-01

    Recent shortages of molybdenum-99 ( 99 Mo) have led to an examination of alternate production methods that could contribute to a more robust supply. An electron accelerator and the photoneutron reaction were used to produce 99 Mo from which technetium-99m ( 99m Tc) is extracted. SPECT images of rat anatomy obtained using the accelerator-produced 99m Tc with those obtained using 99m Tc from a commercial generator were compared. Disks of 100 Mo were irradiated with x-rays produced by a 35 MeV electron beam to generate about 1110 MBq (30 mCi) of 99 Mo per disk. After target dissolution, a NorthStar ARSII unit was used to separate the 99m Tc, which was subsequently used to tag pharmaceuticals suitable for cardiac and bone imaging. SPECT images were acquired for three rats and compared to images for the same three rats obtained using 99m Tc from a standard reactor 99 Mo generator. The efficiency of 99 Mo– 99m Tc separation was typically greater than 90%. This study demonstrated the delivery of 99m Tc from the end of beam to the end user of approximately 30 h. Images obtained using the heart and bone scanning agents using reactor and linac-produced 99m Tc were comparable. High-power electron accelerators are an attractive option for producing 99 Mo on a national scale. (paper)

  20. The In Vitro Mass-Produced Model Mycorrhizal Fungus, Rhizophagus irregularis, Significantly Increases Yields of the Globally Important Food Security Crop Cassava

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceballos, Isabel; Ruiz, Michael; Fernández, Cristhian; Peña, Ricardo

    2013-01-01

    The arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis is formed between arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and plant roots. The fungi provide the plant with inorganic phosphate (P). The symbiosis can result in increased plant growth. Although most global food crops naturally form this symbiosis, very few studies have shown that their practical application can lead to large-scale increases in food production. Application of AMF to crops in the tropics is potentially effective for improving yields. However, a main problem of using AMF on a large-scale is producing cheap inoculum in a clean sterile carrier and sufficiently concentrated to cheaply transport. Recently, mass-produced in vitro inoculum of the model mycorrhizal fungus Rhizophagus irregularis became available, potentially making its use viable in tropical agriculture. One of the most globally important food plants in the tropics is cassava. We evaluated the effect of in vitro mass-produced R. irregularis inoculum on the yield of cassava crops at two locations in Colombia. A significant effect of R. irregularis inoculation on yield occurred at both sites. At one site, yield increases were observed irrespective of P fertilization. At the other site, inoculation with AMF and 50% of the normally applied P gave the highest yield. Despite that AMF inoculation resulted in greater food production, economic analyses revealed that AMF inoculation did not give greater return on investment than with conventional cultivation. However, the amount of AMF inoculum used was double the recommended dose and was calculated with European, not Colombian, inoculum prices. R. irregularis can also be manipulated genetically in vitro, leading to improved plant growth. We conclude that application of in vitro R. irregularis is currently a way of increasing cassava yields, that there is a strong potential for it to be economically profitable and that there is enormous potential to improve this efficiency further in the future. PMID:23950975

  1. The in vitro mass-produced model mycorrhizal fungus, Rhizophagus irregularis, significantly increases yields of the globally important food security crop cassava.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Ceballos

    Full Text Available The arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis is formed between arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF and plant roots. The fungi provide the plant with inorganic phosphate (P. The symbiosis can result in increased plant growth. Although most global food crops naturally form this symbiosis, very few studies have shown that their practical application can lead to large-scale increases in food production. Application of AMF to crops in the tropics is potentially effective for improving yields. However, a main problem of using AMF on a large-scale is producing cheap inoculum in a clean sterile carrier and sufficiently concentrated to cheaply transport. Recently, mass-produced in vitro inoculum of the model mycorrhizal fungus Rhizophagus irregularis became available, potentially making its use viable in tropical agriculture. One of the most globally important food plants in the tropics is cassava. We evaluated the effect of in vitro mass-produced R. irregularis inoculum on the yield of cassava crops at two locations in Colombia. A significant effect of R. irregularis inoculation on yield occurred at both sites. At one site, yield increases were observed irrespective of P fertilization. At the other site, inoculation with AMF and 50% of the normally applied P gave the highest yield. Despite that AMF inoculation resulted in greater food production, economic analyses revealed that AMF inoculation did not give greater return on investment than with conventional cultivation. However, the amount of AMF inoculum used was double the recommended dose and was calculated with European, not Colombian, inoculum prices. R. irregularis can also be manipulated genetically in vitro, leading to improved plant growth. We conclude that application of in vitro R. irregularis is currently a way of increasing cassava yields, that there is a strong potential for it to be economically profitable and that there is enormous potential to improve this efficiency further in the future.

  2. High salt intake increases plasma trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) concentration and produces gut dysbiosis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielinska, Klaudia; Radkowski, Marek; Grochowska, Marta; Perlejewski, Karol; Huc, Tomasz; Jaworska, Kinga; Motooka, Daisuke; Nakamura, Shota; Ufnal, Marcin

    2018-03-22

    A high-salt diet is considered a cardiovascular risk factor; however, the mechanisms are not clear. Research suggests that gut bacteria-derived metabolites such as trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) are markers of cardiovascular diseases. We evaluated the effect of high salt intake on gut bacteria and their metabolites plasma level. Sprague Dawley rats ages 12-14 wk were maintained on either water (controls) or 0.9% or 2% sodium chloride (NaCl) water solution (isotonic and hypertonic groups, respectively) for 2 wk. Blood plasma, urine, and stool samples were analyzed for concentrations of trimethylamine (TMA; a TMAO precursor), TMAO, and indoxyl sulfate (indole metabolite). The gut-blood barrier permeability to TMA and TMA liver clearance were assessed at baseline and after TMA intracolonic challenge test. Gut bacterial flora was analyzed with a 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA) gene sequence analysis. The isotonic and hypertonic groups showed a significantly higher plasma TMAO and significantly lower 24-hr TMAO urine excretion than the controls. However, the TMA stool level was similar between the groups. There was no significant difference between the groups in gut-blood barrier permeability and TMA liver clearance. Plasma indoxyl concentration and 24-hr urine indoxyl excretion were similar between the groups. There was a significant difference between the groups in gut bacteria composition. High salt intake increases plasma TMAO concentration, which is associated with decreased TMAO urine excretion. Furthermore, high salt intake alters gut bacteria composition. These findings suggest that salt intake affects an interplay between gut bacteria and their host homeostasis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Generation of insulin-producing cells from rat mesenchymal stem cells using an aminopyrrole derivative XW4.4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Jingfeng; Huang, Wei; Yu, Wanwan; Xiong, Wei; Mula, Ramanjaneya V R; Zou, Hongbin; Yu, Yongping

    2014-02-05

    Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), a multisystem disease with both biochemical and anatomical/structural consequences, is a major health concern worldwide. Pancreatic islet transplantation provides a promising treatment for T1DM. However, the limited availability of islet tissue or new sources of insulin producing cells (IPCs) that are responsive to glucose hinder this promising approach. Though slow, the development of pancreatic beta-cell lines from rodent or human origin has been steadily progressing. Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent, culture-expanded, non-hematopoietic cells that are currently being investigated as a novel cellular therapy. The in vitro differentiation potential of IPCs has raised hopes for a treatment of clinical diseases associated with autoimmunity. We screened for small molecules that induce pancreatic differentiation of IPCs. There are some compounds which showed positive effects on the DTZ staining. The aminopyrrole derivative compound XW4.4 which shows the best activity among them was found to induce pancreatic differentiation of rat MSCs (rMSCs). The in vitro studies indicated that treatment of rMSCs with compound XW4.4 resulted in differentiated cells with characteristics of IPCs including islet-like clusters, spherical, grape-like morphology, insulin secretion, positive for dithizone, glucose stimulation and expression of pancreatic endocrine cell marker genes. The data has also suggested that hepatocyte nuclear factor 3β (HNF 3β) may be involved in pancreatic differentiation of rMSCs when treated with XW4.4. Results indicate that XW4.4 induced rMSCs support the efforts to derive functional IPCs and serve as a means to alleviate limitations surrounding islet cell transplantation in the treatment of T1DM. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Scopolamine and amphetamine produce similar decision-making deficits on a rat gambling task via independent pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Mason M; Malcolm, Emma; Shoaib, Mohammed; Winstanley, Catharine A

    2015-03-15

    Disorders characterized by disturbed cholinergic signaling, such as schizophrenia, exhibit impaired performance on measures of real-world cost/benefit decision-making. Whether the cholinergic system contributes to the choice deficits observed is currently unknown. We therefore determined the effects of broad-acting agonists and antagonists at the nicotinic and muscarinic receptor on decision making, as measured by the rodent gambling task (rGT). Given the anatomical and functional connectivity of the cholinergic and dopaminergic systems, we also sought to modulate amphetamine's previously reported effect on rGT performance via the cholinergic system. Male rats were trained on the rGT, during which animals chose from four different options. The optimal strategy on the rGT is to favor options associated with smaller immediate rewards and less punishment/loss. Impulsive action was also measured by recording the number of premature responses made. Performance on the rGT was assessed following acute treatment with the muscarinic receptor agonist oxotremorine, the muscarinic receptor antagonist scopolamine, nicotine, and the nicotinic receptor antagonist mecamylamine. Similar to the effect produced by amphetamine, muscarinic receptor antagonism with scopolamine (0.1mg/kg) impaired decision making, albeit to a lesser degree. Prior muscarinic agonism with oxotremorine was unable to attenuate amphetamine's effects on rGT performance. Oxotremorine, nicotine, and mecamylamine did not affect the choice profile. We therefore conclude that modulation of the muscarinic, but not nicotinic, receptor system can affect decision making under conditions of risk and uncertainty. Such findings contribute to a broader understanding of the cognitive deficits observed in disorders in which cholinergic signaling is compromised. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Gestational or acute restraint in adulthood reduces levels of 5α-reduced testosterone metabolites in the hippocampus and produces behavioral inhibition of adult male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia A Walf

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Stressors, during early life or adulthood, can alter steroid-sensitive behaviors, such as exploration, anxiety, and/or cognitive processes. We investigated if exposure to acute stressors in adulthood may alter behavioral and neuroendocrine responses of male rats that were exposed to gestational stress or not. We hypothesized that rats exposed to gestational and acute stress may show behavioral inhibition, increased corticosterone, and altered androgen levels in the hippocampus. Subjects were adult, male offspring of rat dams that were restrained daily on gestational days 14-20, or did not experience this manipulation. Immediately before testing, rats were restraint-stressed for 20 minutes or not. During week 1, rats were tested in a battery of tasks, including the open field, elevated plus maze, social interaction, tailflick, pawlick, and defensive burying tasks. During week 2, rats were trained and tested 24 hours later in the inhibitory avoidance task. Plasma corticosterone and androgen levels, and hippocampal androgen levels, were measured in all subjects. Gestational and acute restraint stress increased plasma levels of corticosterone, and reduced levels of testosterone’s 5α-reduced metabolites, dihydrotestosterone and 3α-androstanediol, but not the aromatized metabolite, estradiol, in plasma or the hippocampus. Gestational and acute restraint stress reduced central entries made in the open field, and latencies to enter the shock-associated side of the inhibitory avoidance chamber during testing. Gestational stress reduced time spent interacting with a conspecific. These data suggest that gestational and acute restraint stress can have actions to produce behavioral inhibition coincident with increased corticosterone and decreased 5α-reduced androgens of adult male rats. Thus, gestational stress altered neural circuits involved in the neuroendocrine response to acute stress in early adulthood.

  6. Prenatal prochloraz treatment significantly increases pregnancy length and reduces offspring weight but does not affect social-olfactory memory in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmytriyeva, Oksana; Klementiev, Boris; Berezin, Vladimir; Bock, Elisabeth

    2013-07-01

    Metabolites of the commonly used imidazole fungicide prochloraz are androgen receptor antagonists. They have been shown to block androgen-driven development and compromise reproductive function. We tested the effect of prochloraz on cognitive behavior following exposure to this fungicide during the perinatal period. Pregnant Wistar rats were administered a 200 mg/kg dose of prochloraz on gestational day (GD) 7, GD11, and GD15. The social recognition test (SRT) was performed on 7-week-old male rat offspring. We found an increase in pregnancy length and a significantly reduced pup weight on PND15 and PND40 but no effect of prenatal prochloraz exposure on social investigation or acquisition of social-olfactory memory. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. Antenatal Corticosteroids and Postnatal Fluid Restriction Produce Differential Effects on AQP3 Expression, Water Handling, and Barrier Function in Perinatal Rat Epidermis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Agren

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Loss of water through the immature skin can lead to hypothermia and dehydration in preterm infants. The water and glycerol channel aquaglyceroporin-3 (AQP3 is abundant in fetal epidermis and might influence epidermal water handling and transepidermal water flux around birth. To investigate the role of AQP3 in immature skin, we measured in vivo transepidermal water transport and AQP3 expression in rat pups exposed to clinically relevant fluid homeostasis perturbations. Preterm (E18 rat pups were studied after antenatal corticosteroid exposure (ANS, and neonatal (P1 rat pups after an 18 h fast. Transepidermal water loss (TEWL and skin hydration were determined, AQP3 mRNA was quantified by RT-PCR, and in-situ hybridization and immunocytochemistry were applied to map AQP3 expression. ANS resulted in an improved skin barrier (lower TEWL and skin hydration, while AQP3 mRNA and protein increased. Fasting led to loss of barrier integrity along with an increase in skin hydration. These alterations were not paralleled by any changes in AQP3. To conclude, antenatal corticosteroids and early postnatal fluid restriction produce differential effects on skin barrier function and epidermal AQP3 expression in the rat. In perinatal rats, AQP3 does not directly determine net water transport through the skin.

  8. IN UTERO EXPOSURE TO THE FUNGICIDE PROCYMIDONE AND DIBUTYL PHTHALATE PRODUCE DOSE ADDITIVE DISRUPTIONS OF MALE RAT SEXUAL DIFFERENTIATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procymidone (PRO) and dibutyl phthalate (DBP) alter male rat sexual differentiation by disrupting the androgen-signaling pathway via distinctly different cellular mechanisms of toxicity. DBP inhibits fetal Leydig cell androgen production whereas PRO binds AR and blocks androgen a...

  9. Effect of Picibanil (OK 432) on the Scavenging Effect of Free Radicals Produced during Liver Regeneration in the Rat

    OpenAIRE

    Okamoto, Ko; Hamazaki, Keisuke; Iwagaki, Hiromi; Orita, Kunzo; Mori, Akitane

    1995-01-01

    We administered a biological response modifier Picibanil (OK-432), attenuated Streptococcus pyogenes, via the dorsal vein of the penis after 70% hepatectomy in rats, and clarified the scavenging effect of Picibanil on free radicals generated in the regenerating liver. A group of 5 rats was intravenously administered with 25 KE/kg of OK-432 after hepatectomy, while the control group was given saline after hepatectomy. Serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase and ...

  10. Purification and characterization of enterocin 62-6, a two-peptide bacteriocin produced by a vaginal strain of Enterococcus faecium: Potential significance in bacterial vaginosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dezwaan, Diane C.; Mequio, Michael J.; Littell, Julia S.; Allen, Jonathan P.; Rossbach, Silvia; Pybus, Vivien

    2009-01-01

    A bacteriocin produced by a vaginal isolate of Enterococcus faecium strain 62-6, designated enterocin 62-6, was characterized following purification and DNA sequence analysis and compared to previously described bacteriocins. Enterocin 62-6 was isolated from brain heart infusion (BHI) culture supernatants using ammonium sulfate precipitation followed by elution from a Sepharose cation exchange column using a continuous salt gradient (0.1–0.7 M NaCl). SDS-PAGE of an active column fraction resulted in an electrophoretically pure protein, which corresponded to the growth inhibition of the sensitive Lactobacillus indicator strain in the gel overlay assay. Purified enterocin 62-6 was shown to be heat- and pH-stable, and sensitive to the proteolytic enzymes α-chymotrypsin and pepsin. Results from mass spectrometry suggested that it comprised two peptides of 5206 and 5219±1 Da, which was confirmed by DNA sequence analysis. The characteristics of enterocin 62-6 as a small, heat- and pH-stable, cationic, hydrophobic, two-peptide, plasmid-borne bacteriocin, with an inhibitory spectrum against a broad range of Gram-positive but not Gram-negative bacteria, were consistent with its classification as a class IIc bacteriocin. Furthermore, its wide spectrum of growth inhibitory activity against Gram-positive bacteria of vaginal origin including lactobacilli, and stability under the acidic conditions of the vagina, are consistent with our hypothesis that it could have potential significance in disrupting the ecology of the vaginal tract and pave the way for the establishment of the abnormal microbiota associated with the vaginal syndrome bacterial vaginosis. This is the first class IIc bacteriocin produced by a strain of E. faecium of vaginal origin to be characterized. PMID:19578555

  11. Blockade of group II metabotropic glutamate receptors produces hyper-locomotion in cocaine pre-exposed rats by interactions with dopamine receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Hyung Shin; Jang, Ju Kyong; Kim, Jeong-Hoon

    2008-09-01

    It was previously reported that blockade of group II metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) produces hyper-locomotion in rats previously exposed to amphetamine, indicating that group II mGluRs are well positioned to modulate the expression of behavioral sensitization by amphetamine. The present study further examined the locomotor activating effects of specific blockade of these receptors after cocaine pre-exposures. First, rats were pre-exposed to seven daily injections of cocaine (15mg/kg, IP). When challenged the next day with an injection of either saline or the group II mGluR antagonist LY341495 (0.5, 1.0 or 2.5mg/kg, IP), they produced hyper-locomotor activity, measured by infrared beam interruptions, to LY341495 compared to saline in a dose-dependent manner. Second, rats were pre-exposed to either saline or seven daily injections of cocaine (15mg/kg, IP). Three weeks later, when they were challenged with an injection of either saline or LY341495 (1.0mg/kg, IP), only rats pre-exposed to cocaine produced hyper-locomotor activity to LY341495 compared to saline. These effects, however, were not present when dopamine D1 (SCH23390; 5 or 10microg/kg), but not D2 (eticlopride; 10 or 50microg/kg), receptor antagonist was pre-injected, indicating that this cocaine-induced hyper-locomotor activity to LY341495 may be mediated in dopamine D1 receptor-dependent manner. These results suggest that group II mGluRs may be adapted to interact with dopaminergic neuronal signaling in mediating the sensitized locomotor activity produced by repeated cocaine pre-exposures.

  12. Clinically Relevant ESBL-Producing K. pneumoniae ST307 and E. coli ST38 in an Urban West African Rat Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina Schaufler

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available High-risk ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-E have been described in wild birds and rodents worldwide. Rats are of special interest not only due to their indicator role for environmental pollution with multi-resistant bacteria but also as possible infection source. Data on the presence of high-risk ESBL-E in urban wildlife from Africa remain scarce, however. Twenty-nine animals from three different rat (Rattus species were captured in the city of Conakry (Guinea, West Africa in 2015. Rectal swabs were analyzed for ESBL-E using selective media. Species typing and phenotypic antimicrobial resistance analysis to broad-spectrum beta-lactams and other classes of antimicrobials was performed for Enterobacteriaceae-like isolates using the VITEK®2 system (BioMérieux, Germany. Confirmed ESBL-producing E. coli and K. pneumoniae were whole-genome sequenced and resistance genes, phylogenetic background and genes related to bacterial fitness and virulence were analyzed. In total, six of twenty-nine rats (20% carried ESBL-E (K. pneumoniae and E. coli. All ESBL-producers were multi-drug resistant with blaCTX−M−15 as the dominating ESBL-type. Interestingly, ESBL-associated clonal lineages E. coli ST38 and K. pneumoniae ST307 were found. The ESBL-plasmid in K. pneumoniae ST307 revealed high sequence similarities to pKPN3-307_TypeC, a >200 kbp IncFII plasmid originating from a human clinical ST307 isolate. This was in contrast to the core genome: the rat isolate was distantly related to the human clinical ST307 isolate (27 SNPs/Mbp. In addition, we identified π-fimbrial, capsule 2, and glycogen synthesis clusters in the rodent ST307 isolate, whose involvement in the adaptation to survival outside the host and in human urinary tracts has been suggested. Our results demonstrate the presence of clinically relevant, ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae ST307 and E. coli ST38 clonal lineages in an urban West African rat population. The human community is likely

  13. Glucocorticoid receptor activation is involved in producing abnormal phenotypes of single-prolonged stress rats: a putative post-traumatic stress disorder model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohda, K; Harada, K; Kato, K; Hoshino, A; Motohashi, J; Yamaji, T; Morinobu, S; Matsuoka, N; Kato, N

    2007-08-10

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a stress-related mental disorder caused by traumatic experience, and presents with characteristic symptoms, such as intrusive memories, a state of hyperarousal, and avoidance, that endure for years. Single-prolonged stress (SPS) is one of the animal models proposed for PTSD. Rats exposed to SPS showed enhanced inhibition of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, which has been reliably reproduced in patients with PTSD, and increased expression of glucocorticoid receptor (GR) in the hippocampus. In this study, we characterized further neuroendocrinologic, behavioral and electrophysiological alterations in SPS rats. Plasma corticosterone recovered from an initial increase within a week, and gross histological changes and neuronal cell death were not observed in the hippocampus of the SPS rats. Behavioral analyses revealed that the SPS rats presented enhanced acoustic startle and impaired spatial memory that paralleled the deficits in hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) and depression. Contextual fear memory was enhanced in the rats 1 week after SPS exposure, whereas LTP in the amygdala was blunted. Interestingly, blockade of GR activation by administering 17-beta-hydroxy-11-beta-/4-/[methyl]-[1-methylethyl]aminophenyl/-17-alpha-[prop-1-ynyl]estra-4-9-diene-3-one (RU40555), a GR antagonist, prior to SPS exposure prevented potentiation of fear conditioning and impairment of LTP in the CA1 region. Altogether, SPS caused a number of behavioral changes similar to those described in PTSD, which marks SPS as a putative PTSD model. The preventive effects of a GR antagonist suggested that GR activation might play a critical role in producing the altered behavior and neuronal function of SPS rats.

  14. Assessment of the significance of direct and indirect pollution inputs to a major salmon-producing river using polyethylene membrane devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moles, Adam; Holland, Larry; Andersson, Ole

    2006-08-01

    Conventional passive sampling devices for monitoring pollution input often prove to be cost-prohibitive when assessing large spatial and temporal scales. The Kenai River, a major salmon-producing river in Alaska (USA), served as the perfect laboratory to test the utility of polyethylene membrane devices for assessing chronic nonpoint-source inputs to a large riverine watershed. Comparison of the relative levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) at a large number of locations over time allowed us to assess the significance and potential source of these compounds in the river. Concentrations of PAH were greatest near urban areas and peaked during the late winter, when streams flows and dilution were low. Vessel activity and PAH levels peaked in July and were heaviest in the lower 16 km of the river, where fishing activity was concentrated. Nearly one-third of the vessels observed on the river were powered by two-stroke engines, which release a higher proportion of unburned fuel into the water than the cleaner burning four-stroke engines. The low concentrations of hydrocarbons upriver of the boat traffic suggest very little remote delivery of these contaminants to the watershed. Polyethylene strips proved to be an excellent, low-cost tool for determining the PAH patterns in a large watershed.

  15. Significance of the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) in brain tissue of rat models of experimental intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Jiami; Liu Shengda

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To study the relationship between the brain tissue expression of MMP-9 and brain water content in rat models of experimental ICH. Methods: Rat models of ICH were prepared with intracerebral (caudate nuclei) injection of autologous noncoagulated blood (50 μl). Animals were sacrificed at 6h, 12h, 24h, 48h, 72h, 120h, lw, 2w and the MMP-9 expressions at the periphery of intracerebral hematoma were examined with immunohisto chemistry. The brain water content was also determined at the same time. Control models were prepared with intracerebral sham injection of normal saline. Results: (1) In the ICH models, the number of MMP-9 positive capillaries at the periphery of hematoma began to rise at 6h (vs that of sham group, P < 0.01 ) with peak at 48h, then gradually dropped. At lwk, the number was still significantly higher than that in the sham group (P <0.01 ). However, there were no expression at 2wk. (2) The brain water content in the ICH group was significantly increased at 12h (vs sham group, P < 0.05) with peak at 72h. At lwk, the brain water content was still significantly higher in the ICH group (P <0.01 ) but at 2wk, the brain water content was about the same in both groups. (3) Animals injected with different amounts of blood (30 μl, 50 μl, 100 μl) showed increased expression of MMP-9 along with the increase of dose (P<0.01). (4) The MMP-9 expression was positively correlated with the brain water content (r=0.8291, P<0.05). Conclusion: In the rat models, MMP-9 expression was activated after ICH. The increase paralleled that of the amount of haemorrhage and brain water content. It was postulated that MMP-9 enhanced development of brain edema through degrading of the blood brain barrier component substances. (authors)

  16. Alcohol-paired contextual cues produce an immediate and selective loss of goal-directed action in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean B Ostlund

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available We assessed whether the presence of contextual cues paired with alcohol would disrupt rats’ capacity to express appropriate goal-directed action control. Rats were first given differential context conditioning such that one set of contextual cues was paired with the injection of ethanol and a second, distinctive set of cues was paired with the injection of saline. All rats were then trained in a third, neutral context to press one lever for grain pellets and another lever for sucrose pellets. They were then given two extinction tests to evaluate their ability to choose between the two actions in response to the devaluation of one of the two food outcomes with one test conducted in the alcohol-paired context and the other conducted in the control (saline-paired context. In the control context, rats exhibited goal-directed action control; i.e., they were able selectively to withhold the action that previously earned the now devalued outcome. However, these same rats were impaired when tested in the alcohol-paired context, performing both actions at the same rate regardless of the current value of their respective outcomes. Subsequent testing revealed that the rats were capable of overcoming this impairment if they were giving response-contingent feedback about the current value of the food outcomes. These results provide a clear demonstration of the disruptive influence that alcohol-paired cues can exert on decision-making in general and goal-directed action selection and choice in particular.

  17. Green tea supplementation produces better neuroprotective effects than red and black tea in Alzheimer-like rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimidt, Helen L; Garcia, Alexandre; Martins, Alexandre; Mello-Carpes, Pamela B; Carpes, Felipe P

    2017-10-01

    Green tea from Camellia sinensis plays a neuroprotective role in different neurodegenerative conditions, such as memory deficits in Alzheimer disease (AD). However, whether other teas from Camellia sinensis present similar neuroprotective effect still is not clear. Here we investigate effects of green, red and black tea supplementation on memory and hippocampus oxidative status in a rat model of Alzheimer-like disease (AD-like). Wistar male rats were supplemented with green, red or black tea during 8weeks before Aβ intra-hippocampal injection (2μL of Aβ-25-35, CA1 region). AD and sham rats were submitted to memory tests. After euthanasia, oxidative status in the bilateral hippocampus was quantified. Green and red teas avoid memory deficits in AD rats, but only green tea also avoids oxidative stress and damage in the hippocampus. Green tea was more effective for neuroprotection than red and black teas from the Camellia sinensis in the AD rat model. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Cardiovascular and behavioral effects produced by administration of liposome-entrapped GABA into the rat central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz, G C; Bahia, A P C O; de Figueiredo Müller-Ribeiro, F C; Xavier, C H; Patel, K P; Santos, R A S; Moreira, F A; Frézard, F; Fontes, M A P

    2015-01-29

    Liposomes are nanosystems that allow a sustained release of entrapped substances. Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the most prevalent inhibitory neurotransmitter of the central nervous system (CNS). We developed a liposomal formulation of GABA for application in long-term CNS functional studies. Two days after liposome-entrapped GABA was injected intracerebroventricularly (ICV), Wistar rats were submitted to the following evaluations: (1) changes in mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR) and renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA) to ICV injection of bicuculline methiodide (BMI) in anesthetized rats; (2) changes in cardiovascular reactivity to air jet stress in conscious rats; and (3) anxiety-like behavior in conscious rats. GABA and saline-containing pegylated liposomes were prepared with a mean diameter of 200 nm. Rats with implanted cannulas targeted to lateral cerebral ventricle (n = 5-8/group) received either GABA solution (GS), empty liposomes (EL) or GABA-containing liposomes (GL). Following (48 h) central microinjection (2 μL, 0.09 M and 99 g/L) of liposomes, animals were submitted to the different protocols. Animals that received GL demonstrated attenuated response of RSNA to BMI microinjection (GS 48 ± 9, EL 43 ± 9, GL 11 ± 8%; P nervous system. Copyright © 2014 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Behavioral and physiological changes produced by a supralethal dose of ionizing radiation: evidence for hormone-influenced sex differences in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mickley, G.A.

    1980-01-01

    A sufficiently large and rapid dose of ionizing radiation produces an immediate but transient behavioral incapacitation. Acute hypotension often accompanies the disorder. Although the etiology of this syndrome is unclear, it has been suggested that an increase in histamine excretion contributes to it. Since histamine is known to interact with the endocrine system and since estrogens have been shown to prolong the life of animals exposed to potentially lethal doses of radiation, it was also hypothesized that females might be relatively less affected by an acute, large dose of ionizing radiation. Male and female rats were trained on an avoidance task, irradiated, and then retested. Females showed a less severe decrement after radiation exposure than males. Likewise, females did not suffer the severe hypotension normally associated with male radiogenic early transient incapacitation (ETI); rather, an acute hypertension was produced in females. A second series of experiments revealed that differences in male and female radiation response were eliminated by gonadectomy. Systemic estradiol injection produced strikingly feminine (i.e., superior) postirradiation avoidance responses as well as hypertension in neutered rats. Testosterone injections had no effect on either measure. Central nervous system alterations have been correlated with the ETI. Therefore, final experiments sought a possible central locus of the action of estradiol. It was found that exposure of the nucleus peopticus medialis to estrogens produces postirradiation benefits in avoidance performance and blood pressure similar to those seen after systemic estradiol treatments. Nucleus amygdaloideus medialis implants produced no such benefits

  20. Prenatal Stress Produces Sex Specific Changes in Depression-like Behavior in Rats: Implications for Increased Vulnerability in Females

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sickmann, Helle Mark; Arentzen, Tine S; Dyrby, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Stress during rat gestation can elicit depression-like physiological and behavioral responses in the offspring. However, human clinical depression is more prevalent among females than males. Accordingly, we examined how repeated variable prenatal stress (PS) alters rat anxiety- and depression...... and measured anxiety- (elevated plus maze, EPM) and depression-like (forced swim test, FST) behaviors in the offspring at a young adult age. As a stressful event later in life (in addition to PS) may be needed to actually trigger an episode of clinical depression, half of the animals were exposed to an acute...... affected in control animals after acute stressor exposure, however, this response was blunted in PS offspring. Moreover, FST immobility, as an indicator of depressive-like behavior, was increased in female but not male PS rats. Altogether, our results identify both sex- and circadian phase-specific effects...

  1. Poly(lactic-co-glycolide) polymer constructs cross-linked with human BMP-6 and VEGF protein significantly enhance rat mandible defect repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Anusuya; Fishero, Brian A; Christophel, J Jared; Li, Ching-Ju; Kohli, Nikita; Lin, Yong; Dighe, Abhijit S; Cui, Quanjun

    2016-04-01

    We have previously shown that the combined delivery of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and bone morphogenetic protein 6 (BMP-6) induces significantly more bone formation than that induced by the delivery of any single factor or a combination of any two factors. We now determine whether the exogenous addition of VEGF and BMP-6 is sufficient for bone healing when MSCs are not provided. Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLAGA) microsphere-based three-dimensional scaffolds (P) were fabricated by thermal sintering of PLAGA microspheres. The scaffolds were chemically cross-linked with 200 ng recombinant human VEGF (P(VEGF)) or BMP-6 (P(BMP-6)) or both (P(VEGF+BMP-6)) by the EDC-NHS-MES method. Release of the proteins from the scaffolds was detected for 21 days in vitro which confirmed their comparable potential to supply the proteins in vivo. The scaffolds were delivered to a critical-sized mandibular defect created in 32 Sprague Dawley rats. Significant bone regeneration was observed only in rats with P(VEGF+BMP-6) scaffolds at weeks 2, 8 and 12 as revealed by micro-computer tomography. Vascular ingrowth was higher in the P(VEGF+BMP-6) group as seen by microfil imaging than in other groups. Trichrome staining revealed that a soft callus formed in P(VEGF), P(BMP-6) and P(VEGF+BMP-6) but not in P. MSCs isolated from rat femurs displayed expression of the bone-specific marker osteocalcin when cultured with P(VEGF), P(BMP-6), or P(VEGF+BMP-6) but not with P. Robust mineralization and increased alkaline phosphatase gene expression were seen in rat MSCs when cultured on P(VEGF+BMP-6) but not on P, P(VEGF), or P(BMP-6). Thus, unlike the delivery of VEGF or BMP-6 alone, the combined delivery of VEGF and BMP-6 to the bone defect significantly enhanced bone repair through the enhancement of angiogenesis and the differentiation of endogenously recruited MSCs into the bone repair site.

  2. N-glycan engineering of a plant-produced anti-CD20-hIL-2 immunocytokine significantly enhances its effector functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marusic, Carla; Pioli, Claudio; Stelter, Szymon; Novelli, Flavia; Lonoce, Chiara; Morrocchi, Elena; Benvenuto, Eugenio; Salzano, Anna Maria; Scaloni, Andrea; Donini, Marcello

    2018-03-01

    Anti-CD20 recombinant antibodies are among the most promising therapeutics for the treatment of B-cell malignancies such as non-Hodgkin lymphomas. We recently demonstrated that an immunocytokine (2B8-Fc-hIL2), obtained by fusing an anti-CD20 scFv-Fc antibody derived from C2B8 mAb (rituximab) to the human interleukin 2 (hIL-2), can be efficiently produced in Nicotiana benthamiana plants. The purified immunocytokine (IC) bearing a typical plant protein N-glycosylation profile showed a CD20 binding activity comparable to that of rituximab and was efficient in eliciting antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) of human PBMC against Daudi cells, indicating its fuctional integrity. In this work, the immunocytokine devoid of the typical xylose/fucose N-glycosylation plant signature (IC-ΔXF) and the corresponding scFv-Fc-ΔXF antibody not fused to the cytokine, were obtained in a glyco-engineered ΔXylT/FucT N. benthamiana line. Purification yields from agroinfiltrated plants amounted to 20-35 mg/kg of leaf fresh weight. When assayed for interaction with FcγRI and FcγRIIIa, IC-ΔXF exhibited significantly enhanced binding affinities if compared to the counterpart bearing the typical plant protein N-glycosylation profile (IC) and to rituximab. The glyco-engineered recombinant molecules also exhibited a strongly improved ADCC and complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC). Notably, our results demonstrate a reduced C1q binding of xylose/fucose carrying IC and scFv-Fc compared to versions that lack these sugar moieties. These results demonstrate that specific N-glycosylation alterations in recombinant products can dramatically affect the effector functions of the immunocytokine, resulting in an overall improvement of the biological functions and consequently of the therapeutic potential. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Metabolic alterations produced by 3-nitropropionic acid in rat striata and cultured astrocytes: quantitative in vitro 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and biochemical characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, C.; Wan, Y.L.; Goh, C.C.; Tsai, M.J.

    1997-01-01

    Quantitative high resolution in vitro 1 H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy was employed to study the metabolic effects of 3-nitropropionic acid associated with aging from perchloric acid extracts of rat striata. Systemic injection of 3-nitropropionic acid in rats at a dose of 10 mg/kg/day for seven consecutive days significantly impaired energy metabolism in rats one, four and eight months of age, as evidenced by a marked elevation of succinate and lactate levels. However, a significant decrease in N-acetyl-l-aspartate level, a neuronal marker, was observed in four- and eight-month-old rats but not in one-month-old rats. This would indicate that rats at four to eight months are more susceptible to 3-nitropropionic acid than those at one month. A significant decrease in GABA level was observed in four-month-old 3-nitropropionic acid-treated rats, which is consistent with the literature that GABAergic neurons are particularly vulnerable to 3-nitropropionic acid treatment. In addition, glutamine and glutamate levels were markedly decreased at four and eight months in 3-nitropropionic acid-treated rats. Since glutamine is synthesized predominantly in glia, the observation above suggests that 3-nitropropionic acid intoxication may involve perturbation of energy metabolism, glial injury and consequent neuronal damage. Astrocytes which are essential in the metabolism of glutamate and glutamine were used to further assess 3-nitropropionic acid-induced toxicity. Glial proliferation, mitochondrial metabolism and glutamine synthetase activity were all reduced by 3-nitropropionic acid treatment with a concomitant increase, in a dose-dependent manner, of lactate levels, suggesting that 3-nitropropionic acid is also detrimental to astrocytes in vivo and thus may affect metabolic interaction between neurons and glia.These results not only imply that 3-nitropropionic acid blocks energy metabolism prior to exerting neurotoxic damage but also demonstrate that the degree of

  4. In situ hybridization reveals that type I and III collagens are produced by pericytes in the anterior pituitary gland of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Ken; Jindatip, Depicha; Kikuchi, Motoshi; Yashiro, Takashi

    2010-12-01

    Type I and III collagens widely occur in the rat anterior pituitary gland and are the main components of the extracellular matrix (ECM). Although ECM components possibly play an important role in the function of the anterior pituitary gland, little is known about collagen-producing cells. Type I collagen is a heterotrimer of two α1(I) chains (the product of the col1a1 gene) and one α2(I) chain (the product of the col1a2 gene). Type III collagen is a homotrimer of α1(III) chains (the product of the col3a1 gene). We used in situ hybridization with digoxigenin-labeled cRNA probes to examine the expression of col1a1, col1a2, and col3a1 mRNAs in the pituitary gland of adult rats. mRNA expression for these collagen genes was clearly observed, and cells expressing col1a1, col1a2, and col3a1 mRNA were located around capillaries in the gland. We also investigated the possible double-staining of collagen mRNA and pituitary hormones, S-100 protein (a marker of folliculo-stellate cells), or desmin (a marker of pericytes). Col1a1 and col3a1 mRNA were identified in desmin-immunopositive cells. Thus, only pericytes produce type I and III collagens in the rat anterior pituitary gland.

  5. β-lipotropin is the major opioid-like peptide of human pituitary and rat pars distalis: lack of significant β-endorphin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liotta, A.S.; Suda, T.; Krieger, D.T.

    1978-01-01

    β-Lipotropin is the predominant opioid peptide of the human pituitary and rat pars distalis and is present in concentrations essentially equimolar with corticotropin. When freshly obtained nonfrozen rat anterior pituitaries were homogenized with 0.2 M HCl, approximately 98% of the immunoreactivity detected utilizing an antiserum that crossreacts equally with β-lipotropin and β-endorphin coeluted with 125 I-labeled human β-lipotropin upon molecular sieve chromatography. The remainder of the activity eluted with synthetic human β-endorphin. Similar results were obtained for human pituitary. HCl homogenization of thawed tissue or homogenization of fresh tissue with acetic acid yielded substantially greater concentrations of β-endorphin and decreased concentrations of β-lipotropin. In human subjects, acute anterior pituitary stimulation using either insulin-induced hypoglycemia or vasopressin administration was associated with increased plasma β-lipotropin and corticotropin levels. At the time of peak concentrations, no significant levels of β-endorphin were detectable. These data indicate the lack of significant amounts of β-endorphin in human pituitary. Additionally, there appears to be no specific intrapituitary conversion of β-lipotropin to β-endorphin

  6. Clinical significance of changes of serum IL-6 and TNF-α levels in rat models of hypoxic-ischemia brain injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niu Tingxian; Shi Zhiyong; Luo Jianjun

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To explore the clinical significance of changes of serum interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) levels in rat models of hypoxic-ischemia (HI) brain injury. Methods: Seventy five rat HI brain injury nodels were prepared with bilateral occlusion of common carotid artery for 24rs followed 2hrs later by hypoxia (breathing 8% oxygen) for 2hrs. One fifth of the animals were sacrificed at 4h, 8h, 12h, 24h and 48h later respectively, the serum and brain homogenate concentrations of IL-6 and TNF-α were determined with RIA and brain tissues were pathologically examined. Results: The concentrations of IL-6 and TNF-α were dynamically changed within 48h in serum and brain homogenate. Peak values occurred at 24h with serum and at 12h with brain homogenate. Meanwhile, levels of both cytokines were significantly higher in the models than those in controls (P<0.01 or P<0.05). Conclusion: The concentrations of IL-6 and TNF-α were dynamically(sham operation only, 15 animals) changed and might be regarded as the clinical markers of degree of HI brain injury. (authors)

  7. Repeated lipopolysaccharide administration produces tolerance to anorexia and fever but not to inhibition of thirst in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nava, F; Carta, G

    2000-11-01

    In 24 h water and food deprived rats, a single lipopolysaccharide treatment (0.25, 0.50 and 1 mg/kg, i.p.) induced inhibition of thirst and hunger as well as fever. Moreover, the same treatment increased serum cytokines, plasma nitrite/nitrate and corticosterone and urinary prostaglandin levels. In another group of 24 h water and food deprived rats, a repeated lipopolysaccharide treatment (0.25, 0. 50 and 1 mg/kg, i.p.), given at 0, 2, 6, 12 and 24 h, induced tolerance to inhibition of food intake and fever, but not to antidipsogenic effect. Moreover, the same repeated treatment stopped the increase in serum cytokines, plasma corticosterone and urinary prostaglandin concentrations and failed to reduce plasma nitrite/nitrate levels. This data, together with the evidence that a pretreatment with N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (L-NAME) (5 and 10 microg per rat) reverses the antidipsogenic effects in lipopolysaccharide tolerant rats, suggests that the persistent reduction of water intake after a repeated lipopolysaccharide treatment is due to the antidipsogenic action of nitric oxide in the brain.

  8. Ontogenesis of neurons producing luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) in the nervus terminalis of the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwanzel-Fukuda, M; Morrell, J I; Pfaff, D W

    1985-08-15

    Immunoreactive luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) was first detected at 15 days of gestation in ganglion cells associated with the peripheral, intracranial, and central parts of the nervus terminalis of the rat. LHRH was not detected in any other structure of the central nervous system at this age. In the 17-day-old fetal rat, 62% of the total LHRH-reactive neuronal population was found in ganglion cells of the nervus terminalis. At this same age, immunoreactive beta-luteinizing hormone (beta-LH) was first seen in gonadotropes of the anterior pituitary gland. At 19 days of gestation, 31% of the total number of LHRH-reactive neurons observed in the rat brain was found in the nervus terminalis, and immunoreactive processes were first seen in the organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis and in the median eminence. Our data indicate that from 15 to 19 days of gestation the nervus terminalis is a principal source of LHRH in the fetal rat. Presence of the decapeptide in the nervus terminalis prior to appearance of beta-LH in the anterior pituitary suggests a possible role for LHRH in this system on maturation of the gonadotropes and differentiation of the brain-pituitary-gonadal axis.

  9. Pediocin PA-1 and a pediocin producing Lactobacillus plantarum strain do not change the HMA rat microbiota

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernbom, Nete; Jelle, N.B.; Brogren, C.-H.

    2009-01-01

    microbiota was in all treatments dominated by lactic acid bacteria and coliforms and no changes in the rat commensal microbiota were detected after ingestion of either of the two L plantarum strains as determined by both culturable methods and molecular methods (DGGE). Both strains were detected...

  10. Cytochemical localization of catalase and several hydrogen peroxide-producing oxidases in the nucleoids and matrix of rat liver peroxisomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenhuis, M.; Wendelaar Bonga, S.E.

    1979-01-01

    The distribution of catalase, amino acid oxidase, α-hydroxy acid oxidase, urate oxidase and alcohol oxidase was studied cytochemically in rat hepatocytes. The presence of catalase was demonstrated with the conventional diaminobenzidine technique. Oxidase activities were visualized with methods based

  11. Effects of glutamate and α2-noradrenergic receptor antagonists on the development of neurotoxicity produced by chronic rotenone in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alam, Mesbah; Danysz, Wojciech; Schmidt, Werner Juergen; Dekundy, Andrzej

    2009-01-01

    Systemic inhibition of complex I by rotenone in rats represents a model of Parkinson's disease (PD). The aim of this study was to elucidate whether neramexane (NMDA, nicotinic α9/α10 and 5-HT 3 receptor antagonist), idazoxan (α 2 -adrenoceptor antagonist) or 2-methyl-6-(phenyl-ethyl)-pyrimidine (MPEP, metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 antagonist) prevents rotenone-induced parkinsonian-like behaviours and neurochemical changes in rats. Rotenone (2.5 mg/kg i.p. daily) was administered over 60 days together with saline, neramexane (5 mg/kg i.p., b.i.d.), idazoxan (2.5 mg/kg i.p., b.i.d.) or MPEP (2.5 mg/kg i.p., b.i.d.). The same doses of neramexane, idazoxan and MPEP were administered to rats treated with vehicle instead of rotenone. Treatment-related effects on parkinsonian-like behaviours, such as hypokinesia/rigidity and locomotor activity, were evaluated. Moreover, concentrations of dopamine, serotonin and their metabolites were measured in rats from each experimental group. Over the 60-day treatment period, the rotenone + saline treated animals developed hypokinesia, expressed as an increase in the bar and grid descent latencies in the catalepsy test, and a decrease in locomotor activity. Neramexane and idazoxan partially prevented the development of catalepsy in rotenone-treated rats. Co-administration of MPEP with rotenone resulted only in a decrease in descent latency in the grid test on day 60. Chronic rotenone treatment reduced concentrations of dopamine and serotonin in the anterior striatum, which was blocked by co-treatment with neramexane or idazoxan but not with MPEP. Only neramexane treatment blocked the rotenone-induced decrease in dopamine levels in the substantia nigra pars compacta. In conclusion, neramexane and idazoxan counteracted to some extent the development of parkinsonian symptoms and neurochemical alterations in the rotenone model of Parkinson's disease.

  12. Chronic administration of ethanol leaf extract of Moringa oleifera Lam. (Moringaceae) may compromise glycaemic efficacy of Sitagliptin with no significant effect in retinopathy in a diabetic rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olurishe, Comfort; Kwanashie, Helen; Zezi, Abdulkadiri; Danjuma, Nuhu; Mohammed, Bisalla

    2016-12-24

    Moringa oleifera Lam. (Moringaceae) has gained awareness for its antidiabetic effect, and is used as alternative therapy or concurrently with orthodox medicines such as sitagliptin in diabetes mellitus. This is without ascertaining the possibility of drug-herb interactions, which could either lead to enhanced antidiabetic efficacy, increased toxicity, or compromised glycaemic control with negative consequence in diabetic retinopathy. To investigate the effect, of sitagliptin (50mg/kg), Moringa oleifera (300mg/kg) leaf extract, and a combination of both on glycaemic control parameters, lenticular opacity and changes in retinal microvasculature in alloxan (150mg/kg i.p) induced diabetic rat model. Seven groups of eight rats per group were used, with groups I, II and VII as normal (NC), diabetic (DC) and post-prandial controls (PPC). Groups III to VI were diabetic rats on sitagliptin (III), M. oleifera (IV), sitagliptin and M. oleifera (SM) (V), for 42 days with 2 weeks delayed treatment in a post-prandial hyperglycaemic group (PPSM) (VI). Glycaemic control parameters, insulin levels, body weights, and effects of retinal microvasculature on lenticular opacity/morphology were investigated. A significant decrease in fasting blood glucose (FBG) levels was displayed in SM group from day 14(60%) (p<0.01) to day 28 (38%) (p<0.01) of treatment, compared to day 1. Thereafter, a steady increase of up to 57% on day 42 compared to day 28 was observed. A significant decrease in random blood glucose (RBG) levels, were demonstrated on day 42 (24%) (p<0.001), compared to day 1. No significant difference was seen in mean serum levels of insulin across groups. No significant changes in body weights. Evidence of mild lenticular opacity was observed, with no significant effect in pathologic lesions in the retina. The chronic co-administration of sitagliptin and M. oleifera showed a progressive decrease in anti-hyperglycaemic effect of sitagliptin, and although it delayed the onset of

  13. Adolescent Social Stress Produces an Enduring Activation of the Rat Locus Coeruleus and Alters its Coherence with the Prefrontal Cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zitnik, Gerard A; Curtis, Andrè L; Wood, Susan K; Arner, Jay; Valentino, Rita J

    2016-01-01

    Early life stress is associated with the development of psychiatric disorders. Because the locus coeruleus-norepinephrine (LC-NE) system is a major stress-response system that is implicated in psychopathology, developmental differences in the response of this system to stress may contribute to increased vulnerability. Here LC single unit and network activity were compared between adult and adolescent rats during resident-intruder stress. In some rats, LC and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) coherence was quantified. The initial stress tonically activated LC neurons and induced theta oscillations, while simultaneously decreasing LC auditory-evoked responses in both age groups. Stress increased LC-mPFC coherence within the theta range. With repeated exposures, adolescent LC neuronal and network activity remained elevated even in the absence of the stressor and were unresponsive to stressor presentation. In contrast, LC neurons of adult rats exposed to repeated social stress were relatively inhibited in the absence of the stressor and mounted robust responses upon stressor presentation. LC sensory-evoked responses were selectively blunted in adolescent rats exposed to repeated social stress. Finally, repeated stress decreased LC-mPFC coherence in the high frequency range (beta and gamma) while maintaining strong coherence in the theta range, selectively in adolescents. Together, these results suggest that adaptive mechanisms that promote stress recovery and maintain basal activity of the brain norepinephrine system in the absence of stress are not fully developed or are vulnerable stress-induced impairments in adolescence. The resulting sustained activation of the LC-NE system after repeated social stress may adversely impact cognition and future social behavior of adolescents. PMID:26361057

  14. The number of postsynaptic currents necessary to produce locomotor- related cyclic information in neurons in the neonatal rat spinal cord

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raastad, Morten; Johnson, Bruce R.; Kiehn, Ole

    1996-01-01

    To understand better how synaptic signaling contributes to network activity, we analyzed the potential contribution of putative unitary postsynaptic currents (PSCs) to locomotor-related information received by spinal interneurons in neonatal rats. The average cyclic modulation of the whole-cell c......-5) of the synapses contributing to the cyclic information need to be active simultaneously. This suggests that individual presynaptic cells in a central locomotor network can have a powerful influence on other neurons....

  15. Inhibition by etomoxir of rat liver carnitine octanoyltransferase is produced through the co-ordinate interaction with two histidine residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morillas, M; Clotet, J; Rubí, B; Serra, D; Ariño, J; Hegardt, F G; Asins, G

    2000-10-15

    Rat peroxisomal carnitine octanoyltransferase (COT), which facilitates the transport of medium-chain fatty acids through the peroxisomal membrane, is irreversibly inhibited by the hypoglycaemia-inducing drug etomoxir. To identify the molecular basis of this inhibition, cDNAs encoding full-length wild-type COT, two different variant point mutants and one variant double mutant from rat peroxisomal COT were expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, an organism devoid of endogenous COT activity. The recombinant mutated enzymes showed activity towards both carnitine and decanoyl-CoA in the same range as the wild type. Whereas the wild-type version expressed in yeast was inhibited by etomoxir in an identical manner to COT from rat liver peroxisomes, the activity of the enzyme containing the double mutation H131A/H340A was completely insensitive to etomoxir. Individual point mutations H131A and H340A also drastically reduced sensitivity to etomoxir. Taken together, these results indicate that the two histidine residues, H131 and H340, are the sites responsible for inhibition by etomoxir and that the full inhibitory properties of the drug will be shown only if both histidines are intact at the same time. Our data demonstrate that both etomoxir and malonyl-CoA inhibit COT by interacting with the same sites.

  16. Photodynamic effect produced by HeNe radiation in Harderian glands of Wistar rats: an experimental model for PDT studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Reis, Edmyr R.; Nicola, Ester M. D.; Metze, Konradin; Nicola, Jorge H.

    2000-06-01

    In rats, the Harderian Gland secret Protoporphirin IX which is retained at acinar lumina. Since this photosensitizer is important for PDT of malignant tumors, we propose to study this gland as a model to help understanding PDT with endogenous photosensitizers. Twenty Wistar SPF adult rats were submitted to surgical exposure of both Harderian glands, revealing red fluorescence upon UV, characterizing the protoporphirin IX presence. After that, one gland of each pair (one kept as control) was irradiated with an 8 mW HeNe (6328 angstrom) for 45 minutes, delivering about 2.7 joules/mm2. After 24 hours a group of 10 animals were scarified and the glands removed for histological analysis. The remaining animals were subjected to the same procedure but the glands were removed immediately after laser treatment. Histological and fluorescence analysis immediately after laser irradiation showed cell fragmentation with loss of acinar architecture with diffusion of protoporphirin in the cytoplasm of damaged cells, as well as interstitial edema. After 24 hours these alterations were more pronounced with accentuated loss of intraluminal protoporphirin and beginning of leukocytic demarcation of necrotic areas. The innate Harderian glands of rats, exposed to HeNe laser, showed a similar behavior as tumor tissue under PDT.

  17. The reversible P2Y12 antagonist ACT-246475 causes significantly less blood loss than ticagrelor at equivalent antithrombotic efficacy in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, Markus; Kramberg, Markus; Hess, Patrick; Morrison, Keith; Ernst, Roland; Haag, Franck; Weber, Edgar; Clozel, Martine; Baumann, Martine; Caroff, Eva; Hubler, Francis; Riederer, Markus A; Steiner, Beat

    2017-10-01

    The P2Y 12 receptor is a validated target for prevention of major adverse cardiovascular events in patients with acute coronary syndrome. The aim of this study was to compare two direct-acting, reversible P2Y 12 antagonists, ACT-246475 and ticagrelor, in a rat thrombosis model by simultaneous quantification of their antithrombotic efficacy and surgery-induced blood loss. Blood flow velocity was assessed in the carotid artery after FeCl 3 -induced thrombus formation using a Doppler flow probe. At the same time, blood loss after surgical wounding of the spleen was quantified. Continuous infusions of ACT-246475 and ticagrelor prevented the injury-induced reduction of blood flow in a dose-dependent manner. High doses of both antagonists normalized blood flow and completely abolished thrombus formation as confirmed by histology. Intermediate doses restored baseline blood flow to ≥65%. However, ACT-246475 caused significantly less increase of blood loss than ticagrelor; the difference in blood loss was 2.6-fold (P ACT-246475 and ticagrelor on vascular tone. At concentrations needed to achieve maximal antithrombotic efficacy, ticagrelor compared with ACT-246475 significantly increased carotid blood flow velocity in vivo (P = 0.003), induced vasorelaxation of precontracted rat femoral arteries, and inhibited contraction of femoral artery induced by electrical field stimulation or by phenylephrine. Overall, ACT-246475 showed a significantly wider therapeutic window than ticagrelor. The absence of vasodilatory effects due to high selectivity of ACT-246475 for P2Y 12 provides potential arguments for the observed safety advantage of ACT-246475 over ticagrelor. © 2017 The Authors. Pharmacology Research & Perspectives published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd, British Pharmacological Society and American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  18. The role of biological activity of hydrohumate, produced from peat, in formation of adaptive response of rats under influence of chronic stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyanna, O. L.; Chorna, V. I.; Stepchenko, L. M.

    2009-04-01

    It is well known that humic compounds are the most distributed in nature among the organic matter. It is believed that humic polyphenol preparations, produced from the peat, represent adaptogenes and immunomodulators. But the total mechanism of their adaptogenic action is still completely unclear. In response to extraordinary irritant action, one of the most sensitive to stress and highly reactive systems of organism, endosomal-lysosomal cellular apparatus takes part. It is believed that humic compounds are able to penetrate through plasmatic membrane and by this way to affect on lysosomal proteases function. Among the wide range of lysosomal proteases, cysteine cathepsin L (EC 3.4.22.15) was in interest due to its powerful endopeptidase activity and widespread localization. Purpose. The aim of the work was to investigate the influence of humic acids on intracellular proteolysis in blood plasma and heart muscle of rats in adaptive-restorative processes developing in rat organisms as a result of chronic stress action. The experiment was held on Wistar's rats (160-200 g weight) which were divided into 4 groups: 1 - the control group; 2 - the animals which were received the hydrohumate with water (10 mg hydrohumate (0,1% solution) per 1 kg of weight) during 3 weeks; 3 - the group of stressed rats (test "forced swimming" for 2 hours); 4 - the stressed rats which received the hydrohumate. The activity of lysosomal cysteine cathepsin L was determined spectrophotometrically by usage 1% azocasein, denaturated by 3 M urea, as substrate. It was obtained that under hydrohumate influence the activity of lysosomal cysteine cathepsin L in rat blood plasma changed on 20% in comparison with control group that is suggested to be caused by leakage of tissue cathepsins from organs and tissues and kidneys' filtration of these cysteine enzymes in urine. In rat heart tissues it was obtained that cathepsin L activity level was on 26,8% higher in rats which were under stress influence in

  19. A Soxhlet Extract of Gongronema latifolium Retains Moderate Blood Glucose Lowering Effect and Produces Structural Recovery in the Pancreas of STZ-Induced Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bassel Al-Hindi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Gongronema latifolium Benth. (GL possesses considerable glucose lowering effects able to be utilized on a large-scale. This paper investigates the effects of a Soxhlet extract on hyperglycemia, Langerhans islets and glucose uptake by abdominal muscles. Methods: Ethanol and a Soxhlet apparatus were used to obtain GL ethanolic Soxhlet extract (GLES. It was then administered to randomly-segregated male Sprague-Dawley, normal and STZ-induced diabetic rats, using oral gavage to evaluate blood glucose levels (BGLs, serum lipid profile, insulin levels and the pancreas post-treatment. Results: GLES significantly (p < 0.05 decreased BGLs of normal rats in glucose tolerance testing at a dose of 2 g/kg b.w. but failed to do so in diabetic rats undergoing acute 7-h treatment. Given twice-daily, 1 g/kg b.w. of GLES moderately controlled diabetic BGLs starting from day 10. After 14 days of treatment, 1 g/kg and 0.5 g/kg b.w. of GLES caused 44% and 50% respective increases in the average area of Langerhans islets compared to DC. Using isolated rat abdominal muscle, GLES was found to be a mild insulin-sensitizer. GC-MS analysis revealed the presence of the known glucose-lowering phytosterol, Sitostenone. Conclusion: Despite retaining moderate antidiabetic activity, Soxhlet extraction of Gongronema latifolium probably leads to the destruction of active heat-liable compounds.

  20. Influence of GABA and GABA-producing Lactobacillus brevis DPC 6108 on the development of diabetes in a streptozotocin rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, T M; Patterson, E; Wall, R; O'Sullivan, O; Fitzgerald, G F; Cotter, P D; Dinan, T G; Cryan, J F; Ross, R P; Stanton, C

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate if dietary administration of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-producing Lactobacillus brevis DPC 6108 and pure GABA exert protective effects against the development of diabetes in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic Sprague Dawley rats. In a first experiment, healthy rats were divided in 3 groups (n=10/group) receiving placebo, 2.6 mg/kg body weight (bw) pure GABA or L. brevis DPC 6108 (~10(9)microorganisms). In a second experiment, rats (n=15/group) were randomised to five groups and four of these received an injection of STZ to induce type 1 diabetes. Diabetic and non-diabetic controls received placebo [4% (w/v) yeast extract in dH2O], while the other three diabetic groups received one of the following dietary supplements: 2.6 mg/kg bw GABA (low GABA), 200 mg/kg bw GABA (high GABA) or ~10(9) L. brevis DPC 6108. L. brevis DPC 6108 supplementation was associated with increased serum insulin levels (Pfood intake. Insulin was decreased (P0.05), compared with non-diabetic controls while all other diabetic groups displayed reduced diversity (P<0.05). L. brevis DPC 6108 attenuated hyperglycaemia induced by diabetes but additional studies are needed to understand the mechanisms involved in this reduction.

  1. Significance of volatile compounds produced by spoilage bacteria in vacuum-packed cold-smoked salmon ( Salmo salar ) analyzed by GC-MS and multivariate regression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Lasse Vigel; Huss, Hans Henrik; Dalgaard, Paw

    2001-01-01

    alcohols, which were produced by microbial activity. Partial least- squares regression of volatile compounds and sensory results allowed for a multiple compound quality index to be developed. This index was based on volatile bacterial metabolites, 1- propanol and 2-butanone, and 2-furan......, 1- penten-3-ol, and 1-propanol. The potency and importance of these compounds was confirmed by gas chromatography- olfactometry. The present study provides valuable information on the bacterial reactions responsible for spoilage off-flavors of cold-smoked salmon, which can be used to develop...

  2. Fluoxetine, 17-β estradiol or folic acid combined with intra-lateral septal infusions of neuropeptide Y produced antidepressant-like actions in ovariectomized rats forced to swim.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Hernández, Miguel; Téllez-Alcántara, N Patricia

    2011-12-01

    Folic acid is antidepressant, either alone or combined with several antidepressant drugs. However, the antidepressant-like actions of folic acid combined with intra-lateral septal (LSN) infusions of neuropeptide Y (NPY) in the forced swimming test (FST) have not been tested before. Thus, systemic injections of fluoxetine (20.0mg/kg, Pfluoxetine (15.0 mg/kg, P<0.05; s.c.) combined with subthreshold doses of NPY (2.5 μg/rat, P<0.05; intra-LSN) and these combinations produced antidepressant-like actions; which were canceled by BIBP 3226 (a NPY-Y1 receptor antagonist). It is concluded that folic acid produced antidepressant-like effects probably through the participation of the NPY Y1 receptors found in the lateral septal nuclei. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. [Effects of melaxen and valdoxan on the activity of glutathione antioxidant system and NADPH-producing enzymes in rat heart under experimental hyperthyroidism conditions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorbenko, M V; Popova, T N; Shul'gin, K K; Popov, S S

    2013-01-01

    The effects of melaxen and valdoxan on the activity of glutathione antioxidant system and some NADPH-producing enzymes have been studied under conditions of experimental hyperthyroidism in rat heart. Under the action of these drugs, reduced glutathione (GSH) content increased as compared to values observed under the conditions of pathology. It has been established that the activities of glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione peroxidase (GP), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, and NADP isocitrate dehydrogenase (increased under pathological conditions) change toward the intact control values upon the introduction of both drugs. The influence of melaxen and valdoxan, capable of producing antioxidant effect, leads apparently to the inhibition of free-radical oxidation processes and, as a consequence, the reduction of mobilization degree of the glutathione antioxidant system.

  4. Targeted Temperature Management at 33°C or 36°C Produces Equivalent Neuroprotective Effects in the Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion Rat Model of Ischemic Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung Ho; Lim, Jisoo; Chung, Yong Eun; Chung, Sung Phil; Park, Incheol; Kim, Chul Hoon; You, Je Sung

    2018-01-15

    Targeted temperature management (TTM, 32°C to 36°C) is one of the most successful achievements in modern resuscitation medicine. It has become standard treatment for survivors of sudden cardiac arrest to minimize secondary brain damage. TTM at 36°C is just as effective as TTM at 33°C and is actually preferred because it reduces adverse TTM-associated effects. TTM also likely has direct neuroprotective effects in ischemic brains in danger of stroke. It remains unclear, however, whether higher temperature TTM is equally effective in protecting the brain from the effects of stroke. Here, we asked whether TTM at 36°C is as effective as TTM at 33°C in improving outcomes in a middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model of ischemic stroke. After dividing rats randomly into MCAO, MCAO+33°C TTM, MCAO+36°C TTM and sham groups, we subjected all of them except for the sham group to MCAO for 3 h (for the behavioral tests) or 4 h (for all other biochemical analyses). We found TTM protocols at both 33°C and 36°C produce comparable reductions of infarct volumes in the MCAO territory and equally attenuate the extracellular release of high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) in post-ischemic brains. Both TTM conditions prevent the mRNA induction of a major pro-inflammatory cytokine, TNF-α, in the ischemic penumbra region. Finally, both TTM protocols produce similar improvements in neurological outcomes in rats, as measured by a battery of behavior tests 21 h after the start of reperfusion. These data acquired in a rat MCAO model suggest TTM at 36°C has excellent therapeutic potential for improving clinical outcomes for patients with acute ischemic stroke.

  5. Reply to the ''Comment on 'The significance of the distribution of hot spots on the interpretation of laser-produced plasma experiments' ''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arad, B.; Eliezer, S.

    1979-01-01

    We disagree with the conclusion reached by Goel, Gupta, and Bhatnagar that the effect of hot spots is not significant in analyzing scaling laws using transformed variables. We believe they have overlooked the main points of our analysis

  6. Ghrelin increases intracellular Ca²⁺ concentration in the various hormone-producing cell types of the rat pituitary gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Mami; Aizawa, Sayaka; Tanaka, Toru; Sakai, Takafumi; Sakata, Ichiro

    2012-09-20

    Ghrelin, isolated from the stomach as an endogenous ligand for the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R), has potent growth hormone release ability in vivo and in vitro. Although GHS-R is abundantly expressed in the pituitary gland, there is no direct evidence of a relationship between hormone-producing cells and functional GHS-R in the pituitary gland. The aim of this study was to determine which anterior pituitary cells respond to ghrelin stimulation in male rats. We performed Fura-2 Ca(2+) imaging analysis using isolated pituitary cells, and performed immunocytochemistry to identify the type of pituitary hormone-producing cells. In Fura-2 Ca(2+) imaging analysis, ghrelin administration increased the intracellular Ca(2+) concentration in approximately 50% of total isolated anterior pituitary cells, and 20% of these cells strongly responded to ghrelin. Immunocytochemical analysis revealed that 82.9 ± 1.3% of cells that responded to ghrelin stimulation were GH-immunopositive. On the other hand, PRL-, LH-, and ACTH-immunopositive cells constituted 2.0 ± 0.3%, 12.6 ± 0.3%, and 2.5 ± 0.8% of ghrelin-responding pituitary cells, respectively. TSH-immunopositive cells did not respond to ghrelin treatment. These results suggest that ghrelin directly acts not only on somatotrophs, but also on mammotrophs, gonadotrophs, and corticotrophs in the rat pituitary gland. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Hypoxis hemerocallidea Significantly Reduced Hyperglycaemia and Hyperglycaemic-Induced Oxidative Stress in the Liver and Kidney Tissues of Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Male Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oluwafemi O. Oguntibeju

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Hypoxis hemerocallidea is a native plant that grows in the Southern African regions and is well known for its beneficial medicinal effects in the treatment of diabetes, cancer, and high blood pressure. Aim. This study evaluated the effects of Hypoxis hemerocallidea on oxidative stress biomarkers, hepatic injury, and other selected biomarkers in the liver and kidneys of healthy nondiabetic and streptozotocin- (STZ- induced diabetic male Wistar rats. Materials and Methods. Rats were injected intraperitoneally with 50 mg/kg of STZ to induce diabetes. The plant extract-Hypoxis hemerocallidea (200 mg/kg or 800 mg/kg aqueous solution was administered (daily orally for 6 weeks. Antioxidant activities were analysed using a Multiskan Spectrum plate reader while other serum biomarkers were measured using the RANDOX chemistry analyser. Results. Both dosages (200 mg/kg and 800 mg/kg of Hypoxis hemerocallidea significantly reduced the blood glucose levels in STZ-induced diabetic groups. Activities of liver enzymes were increased in the diabetic control and in the diabetic group treated with 800 mg/kg, whereas the 200 mg/kg dosage ameliorated hepatic injury. In the hepatic tissue, the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP, catalase, and total glutathione were reduced in the diabetic control group. However treatment with both doses improved the antioxidant status. The FRAP and the catalase activities in the kidney were elevated in the STZ-induced diabetic group treated with 800 mg/kg of the extract possibly due to compensatory responses. Conclusion. Hypoxis hemerocallidea demonstrated antihyperglycemic and antioxidant effects especially in the liver tissue.

  8. Photochemically-induced ischemia of the rat sciatic nerve produces a dose-dependent and highly reproducible mechanical, heat and cold allodynia, and signs of spontaneous pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupers, R; Yu, W; Persson, J K; Xu, X J; Wiesenfeld-Hallin, Z

    1998-05-01

    Sensory abnormalities and changes in spontaneous behavior were examined after a photochemically induced ischemic lesion of the rat sciatic nerve. Male adult rats were anesthetized and the sciatic nerve was exposed. After the intravenous injection of a photosensitizing dye, erythrosin B, the exposed nerve was irradiated just proximal to the nerve trifurcation with light from an argon laser. Three different irradiation times were used, 30 s, 1 and 2 min. In sham-operated rats, the exposed sciatic nerve was irradiated for 2 min without prior injection of the erythrosin B. Rats were tested for the presence of mechanical, cold and heat allodynia or hyperalgesia. All the animals in the 1- and 2-min irradiation groups developed mechanical, cold and heat allodynia after nerve irradiation. A significant dose-dependent effect of laser exposure time was observed for all modalities tested (2 min > 1 min > 30 s = sham). The maximum effects were observed at 3 and 7 days postirradiation and remained present for up to 10 weeks. No significant contralateral effects were observed in any of the groups. In three separate groups of rats (1, 2 and 4 min of laser exposure), the presence of possible signs of spontaneous pain (paw shaking, paw elevation and freezing behavior) was tested. A significant and exposure time-dependent increase in spontaneous paw elevation and paw shaking was observed which was maximal at week 1, but resolved at 4 weeks (4 min > 2 min > 1 min > sham). In addition, animals in all ischemic groups, but not in the sham group, showed a significant increase in freezing behavior up to 4 weeks after nerve irradiation. Light microscopic evaluation of nerves removed 7 days post-irradiation, i.e. when maximal allodynia was observed, showed clear evidence of demyelination of large myelinated fibers. These data indicate that photochemically-induced peripheral nerve ischemia is associated with abnormal pain-related behaviors, including mechanical, thermal and cold allodynia

  9. Effect of Maternal Intake of Organically or Conventionally Produced Feed on Oral Tolerance Development in Offspring Rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melballe Jensen, Maja; Halekoh, Ulrich; Stokes, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    (organic or conventional) or a chow. Second-generation rats were exposed to ovalbumin (OVA) via their mother’s milk and subsequently challenged with OVA after weaning onto the chow diet. In the chow diet group feeding the dams OVA resulted in suppression of the pups’ anti-OVA antibody response to the OVA...... challenge (total OVA-specific IgG was 197 for the OVA-treated chow diet group and 823 for the control chow diet group (arbitrary ELISA units)). In contrast, OVA exposure of the dams from the plant-based dietary groups did not result in a similar suppression. Cultivation system had no effect...... on the immunological biomarkers, except for a higher spleen prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) concentration in pups originating from dams fed the conventional plant-based diet (223 ng/L) than from those fed the organic plant-based diet (189 ng/L)....

  10. Biodistribution study of 153Sm-EDTMP produced by irradiation of natural and enriched Samarium, in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meftahi, M.; Bahrami Samani, A.; Babaei, M. H.; Shamsaei Zafarghandi, M.; Ghannadi Maragheh, M.

    2010-01-01

    ''1 53 Sm-EDTMP is one of the well known radiopharmaceuticals for pain palliation of bone metastases. Despite that, it is used just in a few countries. It is due to some reasons like being costly enriched samarium that usually used as target for irradiation and short half-life of 153 Sm. In this investigation, certain amounts of radiopharmaceuticals prepared by irradiation of enriched and natural samarium were injected to some normal rats. Then, the rodents were sacrificed and some of their organs were removed. All of the mentioned stages were performed in order to consider the possibility of exploiting natural samarium instead of enriched samarium by study of biodistribution of both radiopharmaceuticals in various organs especially in bone as the target tissue. At the end, the acceptable results were obtained using natural samarium in comparison with the enriched samarium from the point of view of the biodistribution studies.

  11. Overexpression of human GATA-1 and GATA-2 interferes with spine formation and produces depressive behavior in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miyeon Choi

    Full Text Available Functional consequences to which vertebrate GATA transcription factors contribute in the adult brain remain largely an open question. The present study examines how human GATA-1 and GATA-2 (hGATA-1 and hGATA-2 are linked to neuronal differentiation and depressive behaviors in rats. We investigated the effects of adeno-associated viral expression of hGATA-1 and hGATA-2 (AAV-hGATA1 and AAV-hGATA2 in the dentate gyrus (DG of the dorsal hippocampus on dendrite branching and spine number. We also examined the influence of AAV-hGATA1 and AAV-hGATA2 infusions into the dorsal hippocampus on rodent behavior in models of depression. Viral expression of hGATA-1 and hGATA-2 cDNA in rat hippocampal neurons impaired dendritic outgrowth and spine formation. Moreover, viral-mediated expression of hGATA-1 and hGATA-2 in the dorsal hippocampus caused depressive-like deficits in the forced swim test and learned helplessness models of depression, and decreased the expression of several synapse-related genes as well as spine number in hippocampal neurons. Conversely, shRNA knockdown of GATA-2 increased synapse-related gene expression, spine number, and dendrite branching. The results demonstrate that hGATA-1 and hGATA-2 expression in hippocampus is sufficient to cause depressive like behaviors that are associated with reduction in spine synapse density and expression of synapse-related genes.

  12. The chemical digestion of Ti6Al7Nb scaffolds produced by Selective Laser Melting reduces significantly ability of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to form biofilm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junka, Adam F; Szymczyk, Patrycja; Secewicz, Anna; Pawlak, Andrzej; Smutnicka, Danuta; Ziółkowski, Grzegorz; Bartoszewicz, Marzenna; Chlebus, Edward

    2016-01-01

    In our previous work we reported the impact of hydrofluoric and nitric acid used for chemical polishing of Ti-6Al-7Nb scaffolds on decrease of the number of Staphylococcus aureus biofilm forming cells. Herein, we tested impact of the aforementioned substances on biofilm of Gram-negative microorganism, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, dangerous pathogen responsible for plethora of implant-related infections. The Ti-6Al-7Nb scaffolds were manufactured using Selective Laser Melting method. Scaffolds were subjected to chemical polishing using a mixture of nitric acid and fluoride or left intact (control group). Pseudomonal biofilm was allowed to form on scaffolds for 24 hours and was removed by mechanical vortex shaking. The number of pseudomonal cells was estimated by means of quantitative culture and Scanning Electron Microscopy. The presence of nitric acid and fluoride on scaffold surfaces was assessed by means of IR and rentgen spetorscopy. Quantitative data were analysed using the Mann-Whitney test (P ≤ 0.05). Our results indicate that application of chemical polishing correlates with significant drop of biofilm-forming pseudomonal cells on the manufactured Ti-6Al-7Nb scaffolds ( p = 0.0133, Mann-Whitney test) compared to the number of biofilm-forming cells on non-polished scaffolds. As X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy revealed the presence of fluoride and nitrogen on the surface of scaffold, we speculate that drop of biofilm forming cells may be caused by biofilm-supressing activity of these two elements.

  13. Infusions of allopregnanolone into the hippocampus and amygdala, but not into the nucleus accumbens and medial prefrontal cortex, produce antidepressant effects on the learned helplessness rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirayama, Yukihiko; Muneoka, Katsumasa; Fukumoto, Makoto; Tadokoro, Shigenori; Fukami, Goro; Hashimoto, Kenji; Iyo, Masaomi

    2011-10-01

    Patients with depression showed a decrease in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid allopregnanolone (ALLO). But antidepressants increased the contents of ALLO in the rat brain. We examined the antidepressant-like effects of infusion of ALLO into the cerebral ventricle, hippocampus, amygdala, nucleus accumbens, or prefrontal cortex of learned helplessness (LH) rats (an animal model of depression). Of these regions, infusions of ALLO into the cerebral ventricle, the CA3 region of hippocampus, or the central region of amygdala exerted antidepressant-like effects. Infusion of ALLO into the hippocampal CA3 region or the central amygdala did not produce memory deficits or locomotor activation in the passive avoidance and open field tests. It is well documented that ALLO exerts its effects through GABA receptors. Therefore, we examined the antagonistic effects of flumazenil (a GABA receptor antagonist) on the antidepressant-like effects of ALLO. Coinfusion of flumazenil with ALLO into the hippocampal CA3 region, but not into the central amygdala, blocked the antidepressant-like effects of ALLO. However, coinfusion of (+)MK801 (an NMDA receptor antagonist), but not cycloheximide (a protein synthesis inhibitor), blocked the antidepressant-like effects of ALLO in the central amygdala. These results suggest that ALLO exerts antidepressant-like effects in the CA3 region of hippocampus through the GABA system and in the central region of amygdala, dependently on the activation of the glutamatergic mechanisms. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. Energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis of zinc and calcium in organelles of insulin-producing cells of the mouse, rat, and a fish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falkmer, S; Odselius, R [Lund Univ. (Sweden); Blondel, B; Prentki, M; Wollheim, C B [Geneva Univ. (Switzerland)

    1985-01-01

    By means of energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis in the scanning-transmission electron microscope, spectra were obtained from quick-frozen, cryo-ultramicrotome-cut, freeze-dried sections of insulin cells from a fish and a mouse. It was shown that both zinc and calcium are present in significant quantities in native islet cell ..beta.. granules. In the ..beta.. granules of the rat RINm5F insuloma cells calcium, but not zinc, seemed to accumulate; the zinc contents in the secretion granules of these neoplastic ..beta.. cells were probably below the detection limit.

  15. Maternal exposure of rats to nicotine via infusion during gestation produces neurobehavioral deficits and elevated expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein in the cerebellum and CA1 subfield in the offspring at puberty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Rahman, Ali; Dechkovskaia, Anjelika M.; Sutton, Jazmine M.; Chen, Wei-Chung; Guan, Xiangrong; Khan, Wasiuddin A.; Abou-Donia, Mohamed B.

    2005-01-01

    Maternal smoking during pregnancy is known to be a significant contributor to developmental neurological health problems in the offspring. In animal studies, nicotine treatment via injection during gestation has been shown to produce episodic hypoxia in the developing fetus. Nicotine delivery via mini osmotic pump, while avoiding effects due to hypoxia-ischemia, it also provides a steady level of nicotine in the plasma. In the present study timed-pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats (300-350 g) were treated with nicotine (3.3 mg/kg, in bacteriostatic water via s.c. implantation of mini osmotic pump) from gestational days (GD) 4-20. Control animals were treated with bacteriostatic water via s.c. implantation of mini osmotic pump. Offspring on postnatal day (PND) 30 and 60, were evaluated for changes in the ligand binding for various types of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and neuropathological alterations. Neurobehavioral evaluations for sensorimotor functions, beam-walk score, beam-walk time, incline plane and grip time response were carried out on PND 60 offspring. Beam-walk time and forepaw grip time showed significant impairments in both male and female offspring. Ligand binding densities for [ 3 H]epibatidine, [ 3 H]cytisine and [ 3 H]α-bungarotoxin did not show any significant changes in nicotinic acetylcholine receptors subtypes in the cortex at PND 30 and 60. Histopathological evaluation using cresyl violet staining showed significant decrease in surviving Purkinje neurons in the cerebellum and a decrease in surviving neurons in the CA1 subfield of hippocampus on PND 30 and 60. An increase in glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) immuno-staining was observed in cerebellum white matter as well as granular cell layer of cerebellum and the CA1 subfield of hippocampus on PND 30 and 60 of both male and female offspring. These results indicate that maternal exposure to nicotine produces significant neurobehavioral deficits, a decrease in the surviving neurons and an

  16. Repetitive long-term hyperbaric oxygen treatment (HBOT administered after experimental traumatic brain injury in rats induces significant remyelination and a recovery of sensorimotor function.

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    Klaus Kraitsy

    Full Text Available Cells in the central nervous system rely almost exclusively on aerobic metabolism. Oxygen deprivation, such as injury-associated ischemia, results in detrimental apoptotic and necrotic cell loss. There is evidence that repetitive hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT improves outcomes in traumatic brain-injured patients. However, there are no experimental studies investigating the mechanism of repetitive long-term HBOT treatment-associated protective effects. We have therefore analysed the effect of long-term repetitive HBOT treatment on brain trauma-associated cerebral modulations using the lateral fluid percussion model for rats. Trauma-associated neurological impairment regressed significantly in the group of HBO-treated animals within three weeks post trauma. Evaluation of somatosensory-evoked potentials indicated a possible remyelination of neurons in the injured hemisphere following HBOT. This presumption was confirmed by a pronounced increase in myelin basic protein isoforms, PLP expression as well as an increase in myelin following three weeks of repetitive HBO treatment. Our results indicate that protective long-term HBOT effects following brain injury is mediated by a pronounced remyelination in the ipsilateral injured cortex as substantiated by the associated recovery of sensorimotor function.

  17. In a rat model of night work, activity during the normal resting phase produces desynchrony in the hypothalamus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgado-Delgado, Roberto; Nadia, Saderi; Angeles-Castellanos, M; Buijs, Ruud M; Escobar, Carolina

    2010-12-01

    Internal synchrony among external cycles and internal oscillators allows adaptation of physiology to cyclic demands for homeostasis. Night work and shift work lead to a disrupted phase relationship between external time cues and internal rhythms, also losing internal coherence among oscillations. This process results in internal desynchrony (ID) in which behavioral, hormonal, and metabolic variables cycle out of phase. It is still not clear whether ID originates at a peripheral or at a central level. In order to determine the possible role of hypothalamic oscillators in ID, we explored with a rat model of "night work" daily rhythms of activity and clock gene expression in the hypothalamus. This study provides evidence that wakefulness and activity during the normal resting phase lead to a shift in the diurnal rhythms of c-Fos and induce a rhythm of PER1 in the arcuate and dorsomedial nucleus of the hypothalamus, both associated with metabolism and regulation of the sleep/wake cycle. Moreover, the number of orexin (ORX)-positive neurons and c-Fos in the perifornical area increased during the working period, suggesting a relevant switch of activity in this brain region induced by the scheduled activity; however, the colocalization of c-Fos in ORX-positive cells was not increased. In contrast, the suprachiasmatic nucleus and the paraventricular nucleus remained locked to the light/dark cycle, resulting in ID in the hypothalamus. Present data suggest that ID occurs already at the level of the first output projections from the SCN, relaying nuclei that transmit temporal signals to other brain areas and to the periphery.

  18. Comparative Immunohistochemical Analysis of Ochratoxin A Tumourigenesis in Rats and Urinary Tract Carcinoma in Humans; Mechanistic Significance of p-S6 Ribosomal Protein Expression

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    Sarah Pinder

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Ochratoxin A (OTA is considered to be a possible human urinary tract carcinogen, based largely on a rat model, but no molecular genetic changes in the rat carcinomas have yet been defined. The phosphorylated-S6 ribosomal protein is a marker indicating activity of the mammalian target of rapamycin, which is a serine/threonine kinase with a key role in protein biosynthesis, cell proliferation, transcription, cellular metabolism and apoptosis, while being functionally deregulated in cancer. To assess p-S6 expression we performed immunohistochemistry on formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tumours and normal tissues. Marked intensity of p-S6 expression was observed in highly proliferative regions of rat renal carcinomas and a rare angiosarcoma, all of which were attributed to prolonged exposure to dietary OTA. Only very small OTA-generated renal adenomas were negative for p-S6. Examples of rat subcutaneous fibrosarcoma and testicular seminoma, as well as of normal renal tissue, showed no or very weak positive staining. In contrast to the animal model, human renal cell carcinoma, upper urinary tract transitional cell carcinoma from cases of Balkan endemic nephropathy, and a human angiosarcoma were negative for p-S6. The combined findings are reminiscent of constitutive changes in the rat tuberous sclerosis gene complex in the Eker strain correlated with renal neoplasms, Therefore rat renal carcinogenesis caused by OTA does not obviously mimic human urinary tract tumourigenesis.

  19. Efeitos Cardiovasculares, Renais e Hepáticos Produzidos pela Administração Crônica de Ayahuasca em Ratos Hipertensos/Cardiovascular, Renal and Hepatic Effects Produced by Chronic Administration of Ayahuasca in Hypertensive Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Cunha Santos

    2013-12-01

    daily water and Group Y (n = 7: DT daily ayahuasca. Rats pressures were measured once a week and after euthanasia, blood samples were collected for laboratory analysis of renal and hepatic function. The liver, kidney and heart were reserved for histopathological analysis. Results: The administration of Ayahuasca produced no significant change in blood pressure patterns, systolic and diastolic, as seems to have been no significant histopathological changes; SGOT and serum urea showed significant differences when comparing the groups Y and T. Discussion: There are no similar studies in the scientific literature, but the existing ones corroborate for non-toxic action of the tea. Conclusion: Chronic use of Ayahuasca in hypertensive rats caused no significant change in blood pressure.

  20. Comparison of Antiobesity Effects Between Gochujangs Produced Using Different Koji Products and Tabasco Hot Sauce in Rats Fed a High-Fat Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Hee-Kyoung; Shin, Hye-Won; Jang, Eun-Seok; Moon, Byoung-Seok; Lee, Choong-Hwan; Lee, Jae-Joon

    2018-03-01

    In this study, we compared the antiobesity effects between gochujangs prepared using different koji products and Tabasco hot sauce in rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD). Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed HFD containing four different types of 10% gochujang powder or 0.25% commercial Tabasco sauce powder for 8 weeks. The body weight gain, liver and epididymal and mesenteric fat pad weights, serum leptin levels, and lipogenesis-related mRNA levels of HFD-gochujang supplementation groups were significantly decreased compared with those of the HFD group. In addition, gochujang supplement significantly reduced adipocyte size; hepatic triglyceride and total cholesterol levels; the occurrence of fatty liver deposits and steatosis by inhibiting lipogenesis through downregulation of fatty acid synthase, acetly-CoA carboxylase, and glucose-6-phosphate-dehydrogenase. These effects were greater in the gochujang-supplemented groups than the Tabasco hot sauce-supplemented group. The gochujang prepared by nutritious giant embryo rice koji and soybean koji was most effective in terms of antiobesity effects, compared with the other tested gochujangs. In gochujangs, the antiobesity effects are mediated by high levels of secondary metabolites such as isoflavone, soyasaponin, capsaicin, and lysophosphatidylcholine. The current results indicated that the gochujang products have the potential to reduce fat accumulation and obesity.

  1. Coadministration of alloxan and nicotinamide in rats produces biochemical changes in blood and pathological alterations comparable to the changes in type II diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vattam, K K; Raghavendran, Hrb; Murali, M R; Savatey, H; Kamarul, T

    2016-08-01

    In the present study, thirty six male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into six groups and were injected with varying doses of alloxan (Ax) and nicotinamide (NA). The serum levels of glucose, insulin, and adiponectin were measured weekly up to 4 weeks. Elevated levels of glucose were observed in all groups on days 7, 14, 21, and 28, except in groups a and f (control). The serum insulin levels were significantly elevated in groups b and c on day 7, when compared with that in group f, whereas a decrease in the serum insulin levels was observed in groups d and e on days 21 and 28. The adiponectin levels showed inconsistencies on days 7 and 14. However, significant decrease in the adiponectin levels was observed on days 21 and 28. Histological section of the pancreas showed mild (group a), moderate (group b) to severe (groups c, d, and e) degenerative changes. Concomitant fatty changes in the liver and inflammatory infiltration of the kidney were markedly observed in all the treated groups, when compared to control. These results suggested that the use of selective combination of Ax120 + NA50 injection demonstrated type II diabetes mellitus in rats. © The Author(s) 2015.

  2. Decrement in operant performance produced by NMDA receptor antagonists in the rat: tolerance and cross-tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dravolina, O A; Zvartau, E E; Bespalov, A Y

    2000-04-01

    Current perspectives on the clinical use of NMDA receptor antagonists infer repeated administration schedules for the management of different pathological states. The development of tolerance and cross-tolerance between different NMDA receptor antagonists may be an important factor contributing to the clinical efficacy of these drugs. The present study aimed to characterize the development of tolerance and cross-tolerance to the ability of various site-selective NMDA receptor antagonists to produce a decrement of operant responding (multiple extinction 9 s fixed-interval 1-s schedule of water reinforcement). Acute administration of D-CPPen (SDZ EAA 494; 1-5.6 mg/kg), dizocilpine (MK-801; 0.03-0.3 mg/kg), memantine (0.3-17 mg/kg), ACEA-1021 (10-56 mg/kg), and eliprodil (1-30 mg/kg) differentially affected operant responding. Both increases and decreases in response rates and accuracy of responding were observed. Repeated preexposure to D-CPPen (5.6 mg/kg, once a day for 7 days) attenuated a behavioral disruption produced by an acute challenge with D-CPPen or ACEA-1021, but potentiated the effects of dizocilpine, memantine, and eliprodil. Based on the present results, one can suggest that the repeated administration of a competitive NMDA receptor antagonist differentially affects the functional activity of various sites on NMDA receptor complex.

  3. Exercise is More Effective at Altering Gut Microbial Composition and Producing Stable Changes in Lean Mass in Juvenile versus Adult Male F344 Rats.

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    Agnieszka Mika

    Full Text Available The mammalian intestine harbors a complex microbial ecosystem that influences many aspects of host physiology. Exposure to specific microbes early in development affects host metabolism, immune function, and behavior across the lifespan. Just as the physiology of the developing organism undergoes a period of plasticity, the developing microbial ecosystem is characterized by instability and may also be more sensitive to change. Early life thus presents a window of opportunity for manipulations that produce adaptive changes in microbial composition. Recent insights have revealed that increasing physical activity can increase the abundance of beneficial microbial species. We therefore investigated whether six weeks of wheel running initiated in the juvenile period (postnatal day 24 would produce more robust and stable changes in microbial communities versus exercise initiated in adulthood (postnatal day 70 in male F344 rats. 16S rRNA gene sequencing was used to characterize the microbial composition of juvenile versus adult runners and their sedentary counterparts across multiple time points during exercise and following exercise cessation. Alpha diversity measures revealed that the microbial communities of young runners were less even and diverse, a community structure that reflects volatility and malleability. Juvenile onset exercise altered several phyla and, notably, increased Bacteroidetes and decreased Firmicutes, a configuration associated with leanness. At the genus level of taxonomy, exercise altered more genera in juveniles than in the adults and produced patterns associated with adaptive metabolic consequences. Given the potential of these changes to contribute to a lean phenotype, we examined body composition in juvenile versus adult runners. Interestingly, exercise produced persistent increases in lean body mass in juvenile but not adult runners. Taken together, these results indicate that the impact of exercise on gut microbiota

  4. Hypocholesterolemic impact of newly isolated sophorolipids produced by microbial conversion of safflower oil cake in rats fed high-fat and cholesterol diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nooman, M.U.; Mahmoud, M.H.; Al-kashef, A.S.; Rashad, M. M.

    2017-01-01

    The present study aims to produce low cost sophorolipids, and to evaluate their potential hypocholesterolemic impact. Sophorolipids were produced by Candida bombicola grown on safflower oil cake, extracted by methanol followed by ethyl acetate with a yield of 24.4 and 48.3 g·100 g−1 mixed substrate, respectively. Their structure was confirmed by FTIR and 1H NMR and proven to be safe when subjected to an acute toxicity test. A biological experiment was done on 42 male albino rats classified into six groups for 4 weeks following an induction period for hypercholesterolemia of 8 weeks. The two extracts and their mixture were examined for their hypocholesterolemic effect compared to rosuvastatin. The results revealed a reduction in total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, atherogenic index, liver transaminases’ activity and malondialdehyde. They also revealed an elevation in high density lipoprotein cholesterol and antioxidant enzymes which was more efficient than rosuvastatin. Histopathological examination confirmed these results. In conclusion, the newly isolated sophorolipids are powerful hypocholesterolemic compounds which are even more efficient and safer than rosuvastatin. [es

  5. Hypocholesterolemic impact of newly isolated sophorolipids produced by microbial conversion of safflower oil cake in rats fed high-fat and cholesterol diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. U. Nooman

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to produce low cost sophorolipids, and to evaluate their potential hypocholesterolemic impact. Sophorolipids were produced by Candida bombicola grown on safflower oil cake, extracted by methanol followed by ethyl acetate with a yield of 24.4 and 48.3 g·100 g-1 mixed substrate, respectively. Their structure was confirmed by FTIR and 1H NMR and proven to be safe when subjected to an acute toxicity test. A biological experiment was done on 42 male albino rats classified into six groups for 4 weeks following an induction period for hypercholesterolemia of 8 weeks. The two extracts and their mixture were examined for their hypocholesterolemic effect compared to rosuvastatin. The results revealed a reduction in total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, atherogenic index, liver transaminases’ activity and malondialdehyde. They also revealed an elevation in high density lipoprotein cholesterol and antioxidant enzymes which was more efficient than rosuvastatin. Histopathological examination confirmed these results. In conclusion, the newly isolated sophorolipids are powerful hypocholesterolemic compounds which are even more efficient and safer than rosuvastatin.

  6. Glucagon-like peptide-1 acutely affects renal blood flow and urinary flow rate in spontaneously hypertensive rats despite significantly reduced renal expression of GLP-1 receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ronn, Jonas; Jensen, Elisa P; Wewer Albrechtsen, Nicolai J

    2017-01-01

    to increased mean arterial pressure (MAP) and increased renal blood flow (RBF). In hypertensive animal models, GLP-1 has been reported both to increase and decrease MAP. The aim of this study was to examine expression of renal GLP-1 receptors in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and to assess the effect......Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is an incretin hormone increasing postprandial insulin release. GLP-1 also induces diuresis and natriuresis in humans and rodents. The GLP-1 receptor is extensively expressed in the renal vascular tree in normotensive rats where acute GLP-1 treatment leads...... in the kidney from SHR. However, acute intrarenal infusion of GLP-1 increased MAP, RBF, dieresis, and natriuresis without affecting heart rate in both rat strains. These results suggest that the acute renal effects of GLP-1 in SHR are caused either by extrarenal GLP-1 receptors activating other mechanisms (e...

  7. Ileal transposition surgery produces ileal length-dependent changes in food intake, body weight, gut hormones and glucose metabolism in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramzy, A R; Nausheen, S; Chelikani, P K

    2014-03-01

    Enhanced stimulation of the lower gut is hypothesized to play a key role in the weight loss and resolution of diabetes following bariatric surgeries. Ileal transposition (IT) permits study of the effects of direct lower gut stimulation on body weight, glucose homeostasis and other metabolic adaptations without the confounds of gastric restriction or foregut exclusion. However, the underlying mechanisms and the length of the ileum sufficient to produce metabolic benefits following IT surgery remain largely unknown. To determine the effects of transposing varying lengths of the ileum to upper jejunum on food intake, body weight, glucose tolerance and lower gut hormones, and the expression of key markers of glucose and lipid metabolism in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue in rats. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (n=9/group) were subjected to IT surgery with translocation of 5, 10 or 20 cm of the ileal segment to proximal jejunum or sham manipulations. Daily food intake and body weight were recorded, and an intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test was performed. Blood samples were assayed for hormones and tissue samples for mRNA (RT-qPCR) and/or protein abundance (immunoblotting) of regulatory metabolic markers. We demonstrate that IT surgery exerts ileal length-dependent effects on multiple parameters including: (1) decreased food intake and weight gain, (2) improved glucose tolerance, (3) increased tissue expression and plasma concentrations of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and peptide YY (PYY), and decreased leptin concentrations and (4) upregulation of key markers of glucose metabolism (glucose transporter-4 (GLUT-4), insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1), adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK), hexokinase (HK) and phosphofructokinase (PFK)) together with a downregulation of lipogenic markers (fatty acid synthase (FAS)) in muscle and adipose tissue. Together, our data demonstrate that the reduction in food intake and weight gain, increase in lower

  8. Sequence-Based Discovery Demonstrates That Fixed Light Chain Human Transgenic Rats Produce a Diverse Repertoire of Antigen-Specific Antibodies

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    Katherine E. Harris

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available We created a novel transgenic rat that expresses human antibodies comprising a diverse repertoire of heavy chains with a single common rearranged kappa light chain (IgKV3-15-JK1. This fixed light chain animal, called OmniFlic, presents a unique system for human therapeutic antibody discovery and a model to study heavy chain repertoire diversity in the context of a constant light chain. The purpose of this study was to analyze heavy chain variable gene usage, clonotype diversity, and to describe the sequence characteristics of antigen-specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs isolated from immunized OmniFlic animals. Using next-generation sequencing antibody repertoire analysis, we measured heavy chain variable gene usage and the diversity of clonotypes present in the lymph node germinal centers of 75 OmniFlic rats immunized with 9 different protein antigens. Furthermore, we expressed 2,560 unique heavy chain sequences sampled from a diverse set of clonotypes as fixed light chain antibody proteins and measured their binding to antigen by ELISA. Finally, we measured patterns and overall levels of somatic hypermutation in the full B-cell repertoire and in the 2,560 mAbs tested for binding. The results demonstrate that OmniFlic animals produce an abundance of antigen-specific antibodies with heavy chain clonotype diversity that is similar to what has been described with unrestricted light chain use in mammals. In addition, we show that sequence-based discovery is a highly effective and efficient way to identify a large number of diverse monoclonal antibodies to a protein target of interest.

  9. Low mercury concentration produces vasoconstriction, decreases nitric oxide bioavailability and increases oxidative stress in rat conductance artery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Núbia Belem Lemos

    Full Text Available Mercury is an environmental pollutant that reduces nitric oxide (NO bioavailability and increases oxidative stress, having a close link with cardiovascular diseases, as carotid atherosclerosis, myocardial infarction, coronary heart disease and hypertension. One of the main sites affected by oxidative stress, which develops atherosclerosis, is the aorta. Under acute exposure to low mercury concentrations reactive oxygen species (ROS production were only reported for resistance vessels but if low concentrations of mercury also affect conductance arteries it is still unclear. We investigated the acute effects of 6 nM HgCl(2 on endothelial function of aortic rings measuring the reactivity to phenylephrine in rings incubated, or not, with HgCl(2 for 45 min, the protein expression for cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2 and the AT1 receptor. HgCl(2 increased Rmax and pD2 to phenylephrine without changing the vasorelaxation induced by acetylcholine and sodium nitroprusside. Endothelial damage abolished the increased reactivity to phenylephrine. The increase of Rmax and pD2 produced by L-NAME was smaller in the presence of HgCl(2. Enalapril, losartan, indomethacin, furegrelate, the selective COX-2 inhibitor NS 398, superoxide dismutase and the NADPH oxidase inhibitor apocynin reverted HgCl(2 effects on the reactivity to phenylephrine, COX-2 protein expression was increased, and AT1 expression reduced. At low concentration, below the reference values, HgCl(2 increased vasoconstrictor activity by reducing NO bioavailability due to increased ROS production by NADPH oxidase activity. Results suggest that this is due to local release of angiotensin II and prostanoid vasoconstrictors. Results also suggest that acute low concentration mercury exposure, occurring time to time could induce vascular injury due to endothelial oxidative stress and contributing to increase peripheral resistance, being a high risk factor for public health.

  10. The Acute Administration of the Selective Dopamine D3 Receptor Antagonist SB-277011A Reverses Conditioned Place Aversion Produced by Naloxone Precipitated Withdrawal From Acute Morphine Administration in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    RICE, ONARAE V.; GARDNER, ELIOT L.; HEIDBREDER, CHRISTIAN A.; ASHBY, CHARLES R.

    2014-01-01

    We examined the effect of SB-277011A, a selective D3 receptor antagonist, on the conditioned place aversion (CPA) response associated with naloxone-induced withdrawal from acute morphine administration in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Morphine (5.6 mg/kg i.p.) was given, followed 4 hrs later by naloxone (0.3 mg/kg i.p.) and prior to placing the animals in one specific chamber of the test apparatus. All animals were subjected to 2 of these trials. A significant CPA occurred in animals that received an i.p. injection of vehicle 30 minutes prior to the measurement of chamber preference. The pretreatment of animals (30 minutes prior to testing) with 3 mg/kg i.p. of SB-277011A did not significantly alter the CPA compared to animals treated with vehicle (1 ml/kg i.p. of deionized distilled water). In contrast, the acute pretreatment of animals with 6, 12 or 24 mg/kg i.p. of SB-277011A significantly decreased the CPA compared to vehicle-treated animals. In fact, the 12 and 24 mg/kg doses of SB-277011A significantly increased the time spent in the chamber where animals were paired with morphine and naloxone. These results suggest that the selective antagonism of D3 receptors attenuates the CPA produced by a model of naloxone-induced withdrawal from acute morphine dependence. PMID:21905128

  11. Postnatal exposure to PCB 153 and PCB 180, but not to PCB 52, produces changes in activity level and stimulus control in outbred male Wistar Kyoto rats

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    Walaas S

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs are a class of organic compounds that bioaccumulate due to their chemical stability and lipophilic properties. Humans are prenatally exposed via trans-placental transfer, through breast milk as infants, and through fish, seafood and fatty foods as adolescents and adults. Exposure has several reported effects ranging from developmental abnormalities to cognitive and motor deficiencies. In the present study, three experimental groups of rats were orally exposed to PCBs typically found in human breast milk and then behaviorally tested for changes in measures of stimulus control (percentage lever-presses on the reinforcer-producing lever, activity level (responses with IRTs > 0.67 s, and responses with short IRTs ( Methods Male offspring from Wistar Kyoto (WKY/NTac dams purchased pregnant from Taconic Farms (Germantown, NY were orally given PCB at around postnatal day 8, 14, and 20 at a dose of 10 mg/kg body weight at each exposure. Three experimental groups were exposed either to PCB 52, PCB 153, or PCB 180. A fourth group fed corn oil only served as controls. From postnatal day 25, for 33 days, the animals were tested for behavioral changes using an operant procedure. Results PCB exposure did not produce behavioral changes during training when responding was frequently reinforced using a variable interval 3 s schedule. When correct responses were reinforced on a variable interval 180 s schedule, animals exposed to PCB 153 or PCB 180 were less active than controls and animals exposed to PCB 52. Stimulus control was better in animals exposed to PCB 180 than in controls and in the PCB 52 group. Also, the PCB 153 and PCB 180 groups had fewer responses with short IRTs than the PCB 52 group. No effects of exposure to PCB 52 were found when compared to controls. Conclusions Exposure to PCBs 153 and 180 produced hypoactivity that continued at least five weeks after the last exposure. No effects of

  12. Ultrastructural analysis of early toxic effects produced by bee venom phospholipase A2 and melittin in Sertoli cells in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilinca, Mariana; Florea, Adrian

    2018-01-01

    In this study, we aimed to investigate the testicular toxicity of two molecules derived from bee venom (BV): phospholipase A2 (PlA2) and melittin (Mlt). Ultrastructural effects of purified BV PlA2 and Mlt were assessed consecutive to repeated dose (30 days) and acute toxicity studies. For the subchronic treatment, PlA2 and Mlt were injected in daily doses equivalent to those released by a bee sting (105 μg PlA2/kg/day and 350 μg Mlt/kg/day), while in the acute treatment their doses corresponded to those released by 100 bee stings (9.3 mg PlA2/kg and 31 mg Mlt/kg). Both PlA2 and Mlt affected the Leydig cells and the cells in seminiferous tubules, the Sertoli cells first of all. PlA2 injection resulted in detachment of the Sertoli cells from the surrounding cells, and extracellular vacuolations, cytoplasmic vacuolations in their basal region and in branches as well, detachment of spermatids, residual bodies and sometimes even spermatocytes into the lumen, changes that had a higher magnitude after the acute treatment. Mlt injection induced similar ultrastructural alterations, but more severe, including degeneration of cellular organelles and cellular necrosis, resulting into rarefaction of the seminiferous epithelium; the ultrastructural changes had a higher magnitude after the 30 repeated dose treatment. We concluded that either of the two molecules tested here, PlA2 and Mlt, were Sertoli cells toxicants at the used doses, and they participated both in the BV testicular toxicity. We consider the observed changes as part of a preceding mechanism of the more severe alterations produced by the BV. It also remains possible that these early unspecific changes reported here could represent the response of the SCs not only to the components of bee venom, but to molecules of other venoms as well. The Sertoli cells were the primary target of PlA2 and Mlt in the spermatogenic epithelium, and their alteration led to further degenerative changes of the germ cells. Since

  13. Glucagon-like peptide-1 acutely affects renal blood flow and urinary flow rate in spontaneously hypertensive rats despite significantly reduced renal expression of GLP-1 receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronn, Jonas; Jensen, Elisa P; Wewer Albrechtsen, Nicolai J; Holst, Jens Juul; Sorensen, Charlotte M

    2017-12-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is an incretin hormone increasing postprandial insulin release. GLP-1 also induces diuresis and natriuresis in humans and rodents. The GLP-1 receptor is extensively expressed in the renal vascular tree in normotensive rats where acute GLP-1 treatment leads to increased mean arterial pressure (MAP) and increased renal blood flow (RBF). In hypertensive animal models, GLP-1 has been reported both to increase and decrease MAP. The aim of this study was to examine expression of renal GLP-1 receptors in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and to assess the effect of acute intrarenal infusion of GLP-1. We hypothesized that GLP-1 would increase diuresis and natriuresis and reduce MAP in SHR. Immunohistochemical staining and in situ hybridization for the GLP-1 receptor were used to localize GLP-1 receptors in the kidney. Sevoflurane-anesthetized normotensive Sprague-Dawley rats and SHR received a 20 min intrarenal infusion of GLP-1 and changes in MAP, RBF, heart rate, dieresis, and natriuresis were measured. The vasodilatory effect of GLP-1 was assessed in isolated interlobar arteries from normo- and hypertensive rats. We found no expression of GLP-1 receptors in the kidney from SHR. However, acute intrarenal infusion of GLP-1 increased MAP, RBF, dieresis, and natriuresis without affecting heart rate in both rat strains. These results suggest that the acute renal effects of GLP-1 in SHR are caused either by extrarenal GLP-1 receptors activating other mechanisms (e.g., insulin) to induce the renal changes observed or possibly by an alternative renal GLP-1 receptor. © 2017 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society.

  14. Short-term administration of an aqueous extract of kalanchoe integra var. crenata (Andr.) Cuf leaves produces no major organ damage in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asiedu-Gyekye, Isaac J; Antwi, Daniel A; Awortwe, Charles; N'guessan, Benoit Banga; Nyarko, Alexander K

    2014-02-03

    Kalanchoe intergra (Ki) leaf extract is an orally administered multipurpose plant medicine in Ghana and other parts of the world for the treatment of ulcers, pain and adenoma of the prostate gland. There is paucity of information concerning its short-term usage. The present study is aimed at conducting histopathological and biochemical studies in a 14-day sub-acute toxicity studies using female Sprague-Dawley rats. Crude extract of Ki leaves was prepared and freeze-dried. A 14-day sub-acute toxicity studies was conducted using 2 week old nulliparous and non-pregnant female Sprague-Dawley rats (120-150g). Reconstituted Ki was administered at a dosage of 900mgkg(-1) (high dose), 300mgkg(-1) with a control group receiving an equivalent volume of distilled water (as vehicle) by gastric lavage. Histopathological studies of major organs and blood chemistry analysis were performed on blood obtained via cardiac puncture into EDTA tubes after euthanisation. There was a significant decrease in urea (p<0.016) and creatinine levels (p<0.001) in both the high and low dose groups. There was an increase in ALP levels (P=0.01) in both the high and low dose groups. ALT and AST rather decreased significantly in both the high and low dose groups (p<0.0001). Histopathological results did not show any abnormalities in all the H&E stained paraffin sections. Thus the photomicrographs of the liver, kidney and heart were within histopathological limits. Ki leaf extract is non-toxic when administered by the oral route over a time period of 14 days at the above doses. © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd All rights reserved.

  15. CRISPR/Cas9-mediated targeting of the Rosa26 locus produces Cre reporter rat strains for monitoring Cre-loxP-mediated lineage tracing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yuanwu; Yu, Lei; Pan, Shuo; Gao, Shan; Chen, Wei; Zhang, Xu; Dong, Wei; Li, Jing; Zhou, Rui; Huang, Lan; Han, Yunlin; Bai, Lin; Zhang, Li; Zhang, Lianfeng

    2017-10-01

    The rat is an important laboratory animal for physiological, toxicological and pharmacological studies. Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated 9 (Cas9) is a simple and efficient tool to generate precise genetic modifications in rats, which will promote the accumulation of genetic resources and enable more precise studies of gene function. To monitor Cre-loxP-mediated excision in vivo, we generated a Cre reporter rat strain (Rosa26-imCherry) by knockin of a Cre reporter cassette at the Rosa26 locus using CRISPR/Cas9. Rosa26-imCherry rats exhibited inducible expression of the mCherry cassette (imCherry) using the Cre-loxP system, whereas normal rats exhibited ubiquitous expression of eGFP but not mCherry in the whole body. Injection of adeno-associated virus serotype 9-Cre into the hippocampus and skeletal muscle resulted in mCherry expression in virus-infected cells. Cre-loxP-mediated mCherry expression was then evaluated by crossing Rosa26-imCherry rats with transgenic rats ubiquitously expressing CAG-Cre, heart-specific α-MHC-Cre transgenic rats and liver-specific Alb-Cre knockin rats. Finally, using the established system the expression pattern of Cre driven by two endogenous gene promoters (Wfs1-Cre knockin rat, FabP2-Cre knockin rat) was traced. In summary, we demonstrated excision of the loxP-flanked allele in Rosa26-imCherry rats via activation of mCherry expression in the presence of Cre recombinase. This newly established Rosa26-imCherry rat strain represents a useful tool to facilitate Cre-expression pattern determination and tracing experiments. © 2017 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  16. Effects of the NMDA receptor antagonist, D-CPPene, on sensitization to the operant decrement produced by naloxone in morphine-treated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bespalov, A Y; Medvedev, I O; Sukhotina, I A; Zvartau, E E

    2001-04-01

    Sensitization to the rate-decreasing effects of opioid antagonists induced by acute pretreatment with opioid agonists has been suggested to reflect initial changes in opioid systems that underlie physical dependence. Glutamate receptors are implicated in the development and expression of opioid dependence, and antagonists acting at the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) subtype of glutamate receptors have been shown repeatedly to attenuate the severity of opioid withdrawal. The present study evaluated the ability of a competitive NMDA receptor antagonist, D-CPPene (SDZ EAA 494; 3-(2-carboxypiperazin-4-yl)-1-propenyl-1-phosphonic acid), to affect morphine-induced sensitization to naloxone in rats trained to lever-press on a multiple-trial, fixed-ratio 10 schedule of food reinforcement. D-CPPene (0.3-3 mg/kg) was administered either 4 h or 30 min prior to the test session. Morphine (10 mg/kg) or its vehicle was administered 4 h before naloxone challenge (0.3-3 mg/kg). D-CPPene failed to prevent morphine-induced potentiation of the naloxone-produced decrement in operant performance. Thus, these results suggest that agonist-induced sensitization to behavioral effects of opioid antagonists may be insensitive to NMDA receptor blockade.

  17. The nitric oxide donor sodium nitroprusside attenuates recognition memory deficits and social withdrawal produced by the NMDA receptor antagonist ketamine and induces anxiolytic-like behaviour in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevlopoulou, Aikaterini; Touzlatzi, Ntilara; Pitsikas, Nikolaos

    2016-03-01

    Experimental evidence indicates that the non-competitive N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist ketamine impairs cognition and can mimic certain aspects of positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia in rodents. Nitric oxide (NO) is considered as an intracellular messenger in the brain, and its abnormalities have been linked to schizophrenia. The present study was designed to investigate the ability of the NO donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP) to counteract schizophrenia-like behavioural deficits produced by ketamine in rats. The ability of SNP to reverse ketamine-induced memory deficits and social withdrawal were assessed using the novel object recognition task (NORT) and the social interaction test, respectively. Furthermore, since anxiety disorders are noted to occur commonly in schizophrenics, the effects of SNP on anxiety-like behaviour were examined using the light/dark test. Locomotor activity was also assessed as an independent measure of the potential motoric effects of this NO donor. SNP (0.3 and 1 mg/kg) reversed ketamine (3 mg/kg)-induced short-term recognition memory deficits. SNP (1 mg/kg) counteracted the ketamine (8 mg/kg)-induced social isolation in the social interaction test. The anxiolytic-like effects in the light/dark test of SNP (1 mg/kg) cannot be attributed to changes in locomotor activity. Our findings illustrate a functional interaction between the nitrergic and glutamatergic system that may be of relevance for schizophrenia-like behavioural deficits. The data also suggest a role of NO in anxiety.

  18. Alterations in Ca2+-dependent and Ca2+-independent release of catecholamines in preparations of rat brain produced by ethanol treatment in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lynch, M.A.; Pagonis, C.; Samuel, D.; Littleton, J.M.

    1985-01-01

    Compared to preparations from control animals, superfused striatal slice preparations from brains of rats treated chronically with ethanol released a significantly greater fraction of stored [ 3 H] dopamine on depolarisation in 40 mM K + . Similarly, the electrically-evoked release of [ 3 H]-norepinephrine from cortical slices and of [ 3 H]-dopamine from striatal slices is also increased, although with this mechanism of depolarisation the change is significant only in the case of [ 3 H] norepinephrine release. In contrast to this tendency to enhancement of Ca 2+ -dependent depolarisation-induced release, a reduced fraction of stored [ 3 H]-catecholamines was released from these preparations by the indirect sympathomimetics tyramine and (+)-amphetamine. The catecholamine release induced by these indirect sympathomimetics is largely independent of external Ca 2+ and the results are interpreted as suggesting that chronic alcohol treatment changes the distribution of catecholamine neurotransmitters between storage pools in the nerve terminal which do or do not require Ca 2+ entry for release

  19. Significant changes in the amounts of neurotransmitter and related substances in rat brain induced by subacute exposure to low levels of toluene and xylene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honma, T.; Sudo, A.; Miyagawa, M.; Sato, M.; Hasegawa, H.

    1983-01-01

    Rats were exposed to toluene and xylene at 200-800 ppm for 30 days. After exposure, changes in the dopamine, norepinephrine, serotonin, acetylcholine (ACh), cyclic AMP, cyclic GMP, GABA, glutamic acid, glutamine, aspartic acid, taurine, glycine and alanine content of different areas of the brain were investigated. ACh in the striatum and whole brain were reduced dose-dependently by toluene and xylene. The reduction at 800 ppm of the solvents was in the range of 10 to 20% of the ACh content of the control rats. Toluene and xylene caused different changes in monoamine content other than ACh, but the changes were not dose-dependent. Among the seven free amino acids that are the main amino acid components of the brain, the glutamine content was increased by toluene and xylene at 800 ppm. Decrease in ACh and increase in glutamine in the brain appear to be phenomena common to many kinds of organic solvents including toluene and xylene after acute and subacute exposure.

  20. Extracellular magnesium enhances the damage to locomotor networks produced by metabolic perturbation mimicking spinal injury in the neonatal rat spinal cord in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margaryan, G; Mladinic, M; Mattioli, C; Nistri, A

    2009-10-06

    An acute injury to brain or spinal cord produces profound metabolic perturbation that extends and exacerbates tissue damage. Recent clinical interventions to treat this condition with i.v. Mg(2+) to stabilize its extracellular concentration provided disappointing results. The present study used an in vitro spinal cord model from the neonatal rat to investigate the role of extracellular Mg(2+) in the lesion evoked by a pathological medium mimicking the metabolic perturbation (hypoxia, aglycemia, oxidative stress, and acid pH) occurring in vivo. Damage was measured by taking as outcome locomotor network activity for up to 24 h after the primary insult. Pathological medium in 1 mM Mg(2+) solution (1 h) largely depressed spinal reflexes and suppressed fictive locomotion on the same and the following day. Conversely, pathological medium in either Mg(2+)-free or 5 mM Mg(2+) solution evoked temporary network depression and enabled fictive locomotion the day after. While global cell death was similar regardless of extracellular Mg(2+) solution, white matter was particularly affected. In ventral horn the number of surviving neurons was the highest in Mg(2+) free solution and the lowest in 1 mM Mg(2+), while motoneurons were unaffected. Although the excitotoxic damage elicited by kainate was insensitive to extracellular Mg(2+), 1 mM Mg(2+) potentiated the effect of combining pathological medium with kainate at low concentrations. These results indicate that preserving Mg(2+) homeostasis rendered experimental spinal injury more severe. Furthermore, analyzing ventral horn neuron numbers in relation to fictive locomotion expression might provide a first estimate of the minimal size of the functional locomotor network.

  1. Cardiovascular and hematologic effects produced by chronic treatment with etoricoxib in normotensive rats Efeitos cardiovasculares e hematológicos produzidos pelo tratamento crônico com etoricoxib em ratos normotensos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilo César do Vale Baracho

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Evaluate the cardiovascular and hematological effects produced by chronic treatment with two dosis of etoricoxib in Wistar normotensive rats. METHODS: Thirty rats have been used and divided into one control group and two etoricoxib (10mg/kg and 30mg/kg treatments groups for 60 days. The mean arterial pressure (MAP was taken during the whole experimental period and at the end of this period, under anesthesia blood samples were taken, and further the withdrawn of the aorta, heart, brain, liver, and kidneys for the anatomopathologic study. RESULTS: The treatment with etoricoxib (30mg/Kg produced a significant increase of the MAP from the 28th day of the experiment and from the platelets when compared to the control group and to the group treated with 10mg/Kg, besides producing a highly significant difference in hematocrit and in the red blood cells in relation to the control group. On the other hand the treatment with etoricoxib has not caused histopathological changes when compared to the control. CONCLUSION: These data show that the chronic treatment with etoricoxib leads to increase of the MAP, and to important hematological changes which seem to be associated to the hemoconcentration although not producing anatomopathological significant changes.OBJETIVO: Avaliar os efeitos cardiovasculares e hematológicos produzidos pelo tratamento crônico com duas doses de etoricoxib em ratos Wistar normotensos. MÉTODOS: Foram utilizados 30 ratos divididos em um grupo controle e dois grupos tratamentos (10mg/kg e 30mg/kg de etoricoxib por 60 dias. A pressão arterial média (PAM dos animais foi aferida durante todo o período experimental e, ao final deste, sob anestesia, foram coletadas amostras de sangue, além da retirada da aorta, coração, cérebro, fígado e rins para estudo anatomopatológico. RESULTADOS: O tratamento com etoricoxib (30mg/Kg produziu aumento significativo da PAM a partir do 28° dia do experimento e das plaquetas quando

  2. Dynamics of intraocular IFN-γ, IL-17 and IL-10-producing cell populations during relapsing and monophasic rat experimental autoimmune uveitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrike Kaufmann

    Full Text Available A major limitation of most animal models of autoimmune diseases is that they do not reproduce the chronic or relapsing-remitting pattern characteristic of many human autoimmune diseases. This problem has been overcome in our rat models of experimentally induced monophasic or relapsing-remitting autoimmune uveitis (EAU, which depend on the inducing antigen peptides from retinal S-Antigen (monophasic EAU or interphotoreceptor retinoid-binding protein (relapsing EAU. These models enable us to compare autoreactive and regulatory T cell populations. Intraocular, but not peripheral T cells differ in their cytokine profiles (IFN-γ, IL-17 and IL-10 at distinct time points during monophasic or relapsing EAU. Only intraocular T cells concomitantly produced IFN-γ, IL-17 and/or IL-10. Monophasic EAU presented rising numbers of cells expressing IFN-γ and IL-17 (Th1/Th17 and cells expressing IL-10 or Foxp3. During relapsing uveitis an increase of intraocular IFN-γ+ cells and a concomitant decrease of IL-17+ cells was detected, while IL-10+ populations remained stable. Foxp3+ cells and cells expressing IL-10, even in combination with IFN-γ or IL-17, increased during the resolution of monophasic EAU, suggesting a regulatory role for these T cells. In general, cells producing multiple cytokines increased in monophasic and decreased in relapsing EAU. The distinct appearance of certain intraocular populations with characteristics of regulatory cells points to a differential influence of the ocular environment on T cells that induce acute and monophasic or relapsing disease. Here we provide evidence that different autoantigens can elicit distinct and differently regulated immune responses. IFN-γ, but not IL-17 seems to be the key player in relapsing-remitting uveitis, as shown by increased, synchronized relapses after intraocular application of IFN-γ. We demonstrated dynamic changes of the cytokine pattern during monophasic and relapsing-remitting disease

  3. Fumonisin FB1 treatment acts synergistically with methyl donor deficiency during rat pregnancy to produce alterations of H3- and H4-histone methylation patterns in fetuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellanda, Hélène; Forges, Thierry; Bressenot, Aude; Chango, Abalo; Bronowicki, Jean-Pierre; Guéant, Jean-Louis; Namour, Fares

    2012-06-01

    Prenatal folate and methyl donor malnutrition lead to epigenetic alterations that could enhance susceptibility to disease. Methyl-deficient diet (MDD) and fumonisin FB1 are risk factors for neural tube defects and cancers. Evidence indicates that FB1 impairs folate metabolism. Folate receptors and four heterochromatin markers were investigated in rat fetuses liver derived from dams exposed to MDD and/or FB1 administered at a dose twice higher than the provisional maximum tolerable daily intake (PMTDI = 2 μg/kg/day). Even though folate receptors transcription seemed up-regulated by methyl depletion regardless of FB1 treatment, combined MDD/FB1 exposure might reverse this up-regulation since folate receptors transcripts were lower in the MDD/FB1 versus MDD group. Methyl depletion decreased H4K20me3. Combined MDD/FB1 decreased H4K20me3 even more and increased H3K9me3. The elevated H3K9me3 can be viewed as a defense mechanism inciting the cell to resist heterochromatin disorganization. H3R2me2 and H4K16Ac varied according to this mechanism even though statistical significance was not consistent. Considering that humans are exposed to FB1 levels above the PMTDI, this study is relevant because it suggests that low doses of FB1 interact with MDD thus contributing to disrupt the epigenetic landscape. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Relative accretion of /sup 99m/Tc-polyphosphate by forming and resorbing bone systems in rats: its significance in the pathologic basis of bone scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, D.A.; Tow, D.E.; Kapur, K.K.; Wells, H.

    1976-01-01

    The relative roles of osteogenesis and osteolysis in the production of positive radionuclide images of skeletal lesions were investigated. The uptake of /sup 99m/Tc-polyphosphate (Tc-PP) by each process was measured in an animal model that permitted bone formation and resorption to be studied independently. Ten rats received intramuscular implants of bone-forming demineralized matrix (DM) and resorbing devitalized bone (DV). Radiographs and Tc-PP scintiscans were made each week thereafter. At 6 to 10 weeks, the implants and normal bone samples were removed, counted for /sup 99m/Tc, and examined histologically. The uptake of Tc-PP by DM implants was first detected on images made 3 weeks after implantation, and by DV implants, 1 to 2 weeks later. Serial radiography showed progressive calcification of DM and resorption of DV implants. Microscopic examinations of undecalcified sections, stained with a modified Goldner preparation, revealed vital-bone formation in the DM implants and osteoclastic resorption in the DV. Activity counts per gram of DM and DV implants were, respectively, 200 percent and 90 percent that of normal bone. Since only the bone-forming system (DM) accumulated Tc-PP at greater than normal concentrations, this study indicates that positive bone images of osteolytic lesions solely reflect compensatory osteogenic responses

  5. Evaluation by electronic paramagnetic resonance of the number of free radicals produced in irradiated rat bone; Evaluation par resonance paramagnetique electronique du nombre de radicaux libres produits dans l'os de rat irradie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marble, G; Valderas, R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1966-07-01

    The number of long half-life free radicals created by gamma irradiation in the bones of the rat has been determined from the electrons paramagnetic resonance spectrum. This number decreases slowly with time (calculated half life: 24 days). It is proportional to the dose of gamma radiation given to the rat. The method could find interesting applications in the field of biological dosimetry. (authors) [French] Le nombre de radicaux libres a vie longue crees par irradiation gamma dans l'os de rat a ete determine a partir du spectre de resonance paramagnetique electronique. Ce nombre decroit lentement avec le temps (demi-vie calculee {approx_equal} 24 jours). IL est proportionnel a la dose de rayonnement gamma delivree au rat. La methode pourra trouver en dosimetrie biologique des applications interessantes. (auteurs)

  6. Evaluation by electronic paramagnetic resonance of the number of free radicals produced in irradiated rat bone; Evaluation par resonance paramagnetique electronique du nombre de radicaux libres produits dans l'os de rat irradie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marble, G.; Valderas, R. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1966-07-01

    The number of long half-life free radicals created by gamma irradiation in the bones of the rat has been determined from the electrons paramagnetic resonance spectrum. This number decreases slowly with time (calculated half life: 24 days). It is proportional to the dose of gamma radiation given to the rat. The method could find interesting applications in the field of biological dosimetry. (authors) [French] Le nombre de radicaux libres a vie longue crees par irradiation gamma dans l'os de rat a ete determine a partir du spectre de resonance paramagnetique electronique. Ce nombre decroit lentement avec le temps (demi-vie calculee {approx_equal} 24 jours). IL est proportionnel a la dose de rayonnement gamma delivree au rat. La methode pourra trouver en dosimetrie biologique des applications interessantes. (auteurs)

  7. Distribution of radiolabeled L-glutamate and D-aspartate from blood into peripheral tissues in naive rats: Significance for brain neuroprotection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klin, Yael; Zlotnik, Alexander; Boyko, Matthew; Ohayon, Sharon; Shapira, Yoram; Teichberg, Vivian I.

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → Blood glutamate has a half-life time of 2-3 min. → Blood glutamate is submitted to rapid decarboxylation. → Blood glutamate and its metabolites are mainly absorbed in skeletal muscle and liver. → The skeletal muscle and liver are now targets for potential drugs affording brain neuroprotection. -- Abstract: Excess L-glutamate (glutamate) levels in brain interstitial and cerebrospinal fluids (ISF and CSF, respectively) are the hallmark of several neurodegenerative conditions such as stroke, traumatic brain injury or amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Its removal could prevent the glutamate excitotoxicity that causes long-lasting neurological deficits. As in previous studies, we have established the role of blood glutamate levels in brain neuroprotection, we have now investigated the contribution of the peripheral organs to the homeostasis of glutamate in blood. We have administered naive rats with intravenous injections of either L-[1- 14 C] Glutamic acid (L-[1- 14 C] Glu), L-[G- 3 H] Glutamic acid (L-[G- 3 H] Glu) or D-[2,3- 3 H] Aspartic acid (D-[2,3- 3 H] Asp), a non-metabolized analog of glutamate, and have followed their distribution into peripheral organs. We have observed that the decay of the radioactivity associated with L-[1- 14 C] Glu and L-[G- 3 H] Glu was faster than that associated with glutamate non-metabolized analog, D-[2,3- 3 H] Asp. L-[1- 14 C] Glu was subjected in blood to a rapid decarboxylation with the loss of 14 CO 2 . The three major sequestrating organs, serving as depots for the eliminated glutamate and/or its metabolites were skeletal muscle, liver and gut, contributing together 92% or 87% of total L-[U- 14 C] Glu or D-[2,3- 3 H] Asp radioactivity capture. L-[U- 14 C] Glu and D-[2,3- 3 H] Asp showed a different organ sequestration pattern. We conclude that glutamate is rapidly eliminated from the blood into peripheral tissues, mainly in non-metabolized form. The liver plays a central role in glutamate metabolism

  8. Distribution of radiolabeled L-glutamate and D-aspartate from blood into peripheral tissues in naive rats: Significance for brain neuroprotection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klin, Yael [Department of Neurobiology, The Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100 (Israel); Zlotnik, Alexander; Boyko, Matthew; Ohayon, Sharon; Shapira, Yoram [The Division of Anesthesiology, Soroka Medical Center and Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva (Israel); Teichberg, Vivian I., E-mail: Vivian.teichberg@weizmann.ac.il [Department of Neurobiology, The Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100 (Israel)

    2010-09-03

    Research highlights: {yields} Blood glutamate has a half-life time of 2-3 min. {yields} Blood glutamate is submitted to rapid decarboxylation. {yields} Blood glutamate and its metabolites are mainly absorbed in skeletal muscle and liver. {yields} The skeletal muscle and liver are now targets for potential drugs affording brain neuroprotection. -- Abstract: Excess L-glutamate (glutamate) levels in brain interstitial and cerebrospinal fluids (ISF and CSF, respectively) are the hallmark of several neurodegenerative conditions such as stroke, traumatic brain injury or amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Its removal could prevent the glutamate excitotoxicity that causes long-lasting neurological deficits. As in previous studies, we have established the role of blood glutamate levels in brain neuroprotection, we have now investigated the contribution of the peripheral organs to the homeostasis of glutamate in blood. We have administered naive rats with intravenous injections of either L-[1-{sup 14}C] Glutamic acid (L-[1-{sup 14}C] Glu), L-[G-{sup 3}H] Glutamic acid (L-[G-{sup 3}H] Glu) or D-[2,3-{sup 3}H] Aspartic acid (D-[2,3-{sup 3}H] Asp), a non-metabolized analog of glutamate, and have followed their distribution into peripheral organs. We have observed that the decay of the radioactivity associated with L-[1-{sup 14}C] Glu and L-[G-{sup 3}H] Glu was faster than that associated with glutamate non-metabolized analog, D-[2,3-{sup 3}H] Asp. L-[1-{sup 14}C] Glu was subjected in blood to a rapid decarboxylation with the loss of {sup 14}CO{sub 2}. The three major sequestrating organs, serving as depots for the eliminated glutamate and/or its metabolites were skeletal muscle, liver and gut, contributing together 92% or 87% of total L-[U-{sup 14}C] Glu or D-[2,3-{sup 3}H] Asp radioactivity capture. L-[U-{sup 14}C] Glu and D-[2,3-{sup 3}H] Asp showed a different organ sequestration pattern. We conclude that glutamate is rapidly eliminated from the blood into peripheral tissues

  9. Histochemical detection of the in vivo produced cellular aldehydes by means of direct Schiff's reaction in CCl/sub 4/ intoxicated rat liver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taper, H.S.; Somer, M.P.; Lans, M.; Gerlache, J. de; Roberfroid, M.

    1988-04-01

    A histochemical technique for detection of the in vivo induced cellular aldehydes based on the direct Schiff's reaction is reported in this paper. CCl/sub 4/-intoxicated rat liver was used as an experimental model. Fresh and non-pretreated rat liver cryostat sections fixed in 10% formol calcium solution and washed in distilled water were exposed to Schiff's reagent. The sections were then immersed in two baths of sodium bisulphite solution, then in water, dehydrated in ethanol, cleared in xylene and mounted in a synthetic anhydrous mounting medium. As Schiff positive areas presented well circumscribed foci which increased with time following intoxication, semiquantitative planimetric measurements were feasible. The direct Schiff's reaction detects cellular aldehydes in a sensitive, rapid histologically and topographically estimable way. The appearance of these aldehydes precedes distinctly morphological alterations detectable by other histochemical of histological techniques. No positive results were obtained in control, non-intocicated rat livers. Inhibitons of this direct Schiff's was obtained in positive control rat liver sections preincubated in solutions of aldehyde blockers. Histochemical detection of aldehydes may give useful information on different aspects of tissue and organ intoxication such as their topography, appearance, evolution, extension, consequences and effects of treatment. The direct Schiff's reaction can be considered as a valuable tool in fundamental and applied reasearch dealing with various toxicological, environmental, pathological, cancer-related and therapeutic problems.

  10. Influence of Dietary Avocado on Gut Health in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paturi, Gunaranjan; Butts, Christine A; Bentley-Hewitt, Kerry L

    2017-09-01

    This study investigated the impact of diets containing various levels of avocado (5, 10 and 15%) on gut health in rats fed for six weeks. Avocado-fed rats had significantly higher food intakes while their body weights remained similar to the control diet-fed rats. No significant changes in intestinal bacterial populations (ileum, cecum and colon) were found in rats fed avocado diets compared to the control diet. Ileum and colon tissues of rats fed avocado diets showed significantly higher expression of genes (β-defensin 1, mucin 3 or mucin 4) and a greater number of mucin-producing goblet cells in the colon. The percentage of avocado in the diet had varying effects in altering the biomarkers, whereby diet containing 15% avocado was the more effective diet. This study delivers new knowledge on the role of avocado on gut health in rats.

  11. Dietary gamma oryzanol plays a significant role in the anti-inflammatory activity of rice bran oil by decreasing pro-inflammatory mediators secreted by peritoneal macrophages of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Y Poorna Chandra; Sugasini, D; Lokesh, B R

    2016-10-28

    Ricebran oil (RBO) is promoted as heart friendly oil because of its ability to maintain serum lipids at desirable levels. Inflammation also plays an important role on cardiovascular health. The role of minor constituents present in unsaponifiable fraction (UF) of RBO on inflammatory markers is not well understood. To evaluate this, we have taken RBO with UF (RBO-N), RBO stripped of UF (RBO-MCR) and RBO-MCR supplemented with UF from RBO (UFRBO) or Gamma-Oryzanol (γ-ORY) were added in AIN-93 diets which was then fed to Wistar rats for a period of 60 days. Groundnut oil with UF (GNO-N), UF removed GNO (GNO-MCR) and GNO-MCR supplemented with UF from RBO or γ-ORY was also used for comparison. The peritoneal macrophages from the rats were activated and pro-inflammatory mediators such as Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS), eicosanoids, cytokines, hydrolytic enzymes of lysosomal origin were monitored. The results indicated that UF of RBO and γ-ORY supplemented in the dietary oils play a significant role in reducing the secretion of pro-inflammatory mediators by macrophages. Hence γ-ORY in RBO significantly contributed to the anti-inflammatory properties of RBO. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Plasma membrane ordering agent pluronic F-68 (PF-68) reduces neurotransmitter uptake and release and produces learning and memory deficits in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, M. S.; Prendergast, M. A.; Terry, A. V. Jr

    1999-01-01

    A substantial body of evidence indicates that aged-related changes in the fluidity and lipid composition of the plasma membrane contribute to cellular dysfunction in humans and other mammalian species. In the CNS, reductions in neuronal plasma membrane order (PMO) (i.e., increased plasma membrane fluidity) have been attributed to age as well as the presence of the beta-amyloid peptide-25-35, known to play an important role in the neuropathology of Alzheimer's disease (AD). These PMO increases may influence neurotransmitter synthesis, receptor binding, and second messenger systems as well as signal transduction pathways. The effects of neuronal PMO on learning and memory processes have not been adequately investigated, however. Based on the hypothesis that an increase in PMO may alter a number of aspects of synaptic transmission, we investigated several neurochemical and behavioral effects of the membrane ordering agent, PF-68. In cell culture, PF-68 (nmoles/mg SDS extractable protein) reduced [3H]norepinephrine (NE) uptake into differentiated PC-12 cells as well as reduced nicotine stimulated [3H]NE release. The compound (800-2400 microg/kg, i.p., resulting in nmoles/mg SDS extractable protein in the brain) decreased step-through latencies and increased the frequencies of crossing into the unsafe side of the chamber in inhibitory avoidance training. In the Morris water maze, PF-68 increased the latencies and swim distances required to locate a hidden platform and reduced the time spent and distance swam in the previous target quadrant during transfer (probe) trials. PF-68 did not impair performance of a well-learned working memory task, the rat delayed stimulus discrimination task (DSDT), however. Studies with 14C-labeled PF-68 indicated that significant (pmoles/mg wet tissue) levels of the compound entered the brain from peripheral (i.p.) injection. No PF-68 related changes were observed in swim speeds or in visual acuity tests in water maze experiments, rotorod

  13. Significance of CaV3.2 T-type Ca2+ channels for pressure- and flow-dependent vasomotor responses in rat and mouse mesenteric small arteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars Jørn; Björling, K.; Hansen, Pernille B. Lærkegaard

    RNA was similar in WT vs. CaV3.2-/- mice. CONCLUSION: FMVD responses appear to rely on an endothelium-dependent hyperpolarization in rat small mesenteric arteries. CaV3.2 channels are negative feedback modulators of myogenic tone in small mesenteric artery in young mice. The age-dependent decline in CaV3...... in young CaV3.2-/- mice (8-15 weeks) vs. age-matched WT mice (Pyoung WT mice, the CaV3.2 blocker NiCl2 (30 µM) significantly enhanced myogenic tone (P... was not seen (N=4). In young and old CaV3.2-/- mice no effects of NiCl2 were observed. The FMVD response in rat mesenteric arteries was not blocked by L-NAME, but was almost abolished by the SKCa/IKCa channel blockers apamin/TRAM-34 (50 nM/1 µM) (P

  14. In vivo polymerization of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) in the living rat hippocampus does not cause a significant loss of performance in a delayed alternation task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Liangqi; Shaw, Crystal L.; Kuo, Chin-chen; Griffin, Amy L.; Martin, David C.

    2014-04-01

    -polymerization time intervals, the polymerization did not cause significant deficits in performance of the DA task, suggesting that hippocampal function was not impaired by PEDOT deposition. However, GFAP+ and ED-1+ cells were also found at the deposition two weeks after the polymerization, suggesting potential secondary scarring. Therefore, less extensive deposition or milder deposition conditions may be desirable to minimize this scarring while maintaining decreased system impedance.

  15. Implantes de biomateriais em falha óssea produzida na fíbula de ratos Biomaterial implants in bone fractures produced in rat fibulas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Yassuhiro Shirane

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a importância do colágeno e hidroxiapatita na regeneração de fraturas provocadas experimentalmente na fíbula de ratos. MÉTODOS: Utilizou-se 15 ratos nos quais foram submetidos à cirurgia para retirada de um fragmento da fíbula sendo o local enxertado com tubos de silicone preenchidos com hidroxiapatita e colágeno. RESULTADOS: Ocorreu pouca neoformação óssea no interior dos tubos preenchidos com os biomateriais sendo em maior quantidade naqueles com colágeno. CONCLUSÃO: Os biomateriais usados apresentaram biocompatibilidade e capacidade osteocondutora capaz de estimular a osteogênese mesmo nos ossos com funções mecânicas e morfológicas secundárias como a fíbula de ratos.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the importance of collagen and hydroxyapatite in the regeneration of fractures experimentally induced in the fibulas of mice. METHOD: 15 rats were submitted to a surgery for the removal of a fragment of the fibula. The fragment was replaced by a silicone tube filled with hydroxyapatite and collagen. RESULTS: Little bone neoformation occurred inside the tubes filled with biomaterials, the largest amount occurring in those with collagen. CONCLUSION: The biomaterials used demonstrated biocompatibility and osteoconductive capacity capable of stimulating osteogenesis, even in bones with secondary mechanical and morphological functions such as the fibula of the rat.

  16. Training on motor and visual spatial learning tasks in early adulthood produces large changes in dendritic organization of prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens in rats given nicotine prenatally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammad, A; Mychasiuk, R; Hosain, S; Nakahashi, A; Carroll, C; Gibb, R; Kolb, B

    2013-11-12

    Experience-dependent plasticity is an ongoing process that can be observed and measured at multiple levels. The first goal of this study was to examine the effects of prenatal nicotine on the performance of rats in three behavioral tasks (elevated plus maze (EPM), Morris water task (MWT), and Whishaw tray reaching). The second goal of this experiment sought to examine changes in dendritic organization following exposure to the behavioral training paradigm and/or low doses of prenatal nicotine. Female Long-Evans rats were administered daily injections of nicotine for the duration of pregnancy and their pups underwent a regimen of behavioral training in early adulthood (EPM, MWT, and Whishaw tray reaching). All offspring exposed to nicotine prenatally exhibited substantial increases in anxiety. Male offspring also showed increased efficiency in the Whishaw tray-reaching task and performed differently than the other groups in the probe trial of the MWT. Using Golgi-Cox staining we examined the dendritic organization of the medial and orbital prefrontal cortex as well as the nucleus accumbens. Participation in the behavioral training paradigm was associated with dramatic reorganization of dendritic morphology and spine density in all brain regions examined. Although both treatments (behavior training and prenatal nicotine exposure) markedly altered dendritic organization, the effects of the behavioral experience were much larger than those of the prenatal drug exposure, and in some cases interacted with the drug effects. Copyright © 2013 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects and significance of electrical stimulation Of the vagus nerve on plasma levels of nitric oxide and endothelin in severe acute pancreatitis in rats%电刺激迷走神经对大鼠重症急性胰腺炎血浆内皮素和一氧化氮水平的影响及意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金鑫; 冯利; 胡永毅; 陶坤; 赵国海

    2013-01-01

    the left cervical vagus nerve trunk proximal part for 20 min after VNC induction. Groups of rats were sacrificed atlh,3h,6h. Endothelin and nitric oxide leavels were measured in blood of each group rats and histological changes of the pancreas were observed. Results Compared with rats in Sham group, ET and NO levels,the value of ET/NO and pancreatic histopathological score were significantly higher in rats of the SAP group and VNC group ( P < 0. 05 ). In VNC group, NO level was not increased obviously, the value of ET/NO and pancreatic histopathological score upgraded dramatically compared to SAP group (P <0. 05). In VNS group, the value of ET/NO and pancreatic histopathological score were obviously depressed, and NO level was significantly arised compared to SAP group and VNC group (P <0. 05). Conclusion Electrical stimulation of vagus nerves can relief injury degree of severe acute pancreatitis in rats by increaseing NO produce and release and lessening the disequilibrium of N0/ET ratio to improve microcirculation disorder.

  18. Administration of a co-crystal of tramadol and celecoxib in a 1:1 molecular ratio produces synergistic antinociceptive effects in a postoperative pain model in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlos, Manuel; Portillo-Salido, Enrique; Brenchat, Alex; Aubel, Bertrand; Buxens, Jordi; Fisas, Angels; Codony, Xavier; Romero, Luz; Zamanillo, Daniel; Vela, José Miguel

    2018-06-19

    Drug combination for the treatment of pain is common clinical practice. Co-crystal of Tramadol-Celecoxib (CTC) consists of two active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs), namely the atypical opioid tramadol and the preferential cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor celecoxib, at a 1:1 molecular ratio. In this study, a non-formulated 'raw' form of CTC administered in suspension (referred to as ctc susp ) was compared with both tramadol and celecoxib alone in a rat plantar incision postoperative pain model. For comparison, the strong opioids morphine and oxycodone, and a tramadol plus acetaminophen combination at a molecular ratio of 1:17 were also tested. Isobolographic analyses showed that ctc susp exerted synergistic mechanical antiallodynic (experimental ED 50 =2.0±0.5mg/kg, i.p.; theoretical ED 50 =3.8±0.4mg/kg, i.p.) and thermal (experimental ED 50 =2.3±0.5mg/kg, i.p.; theoretical ED 50 =9.8±0.8mg/kg, i.p.) antihyperalgesic effects in the postoperative pain model. In contrast, the tramadol and acetaminophen combination showed antagonistic effects on both mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia. No synergies between tramadol and celecoxib on locomotor activity, motor coordination, ulceration potential and gastrointestinal transit were observed after the administration of ctc susp . Overall, rat efficacy and safety data revealed that ctc susp provided synergistic analgesic effects compared with each API alone, without enhancing adverse effects. Moreover, ctc susp showed similar efficacy but improved safety ratio (80, measured as gastrointestinal transit vs postoperative pain ED 50 ratios) compared with the strong opioids morphine (2.5) and oxycodone (5.8). The overall in vivo profile of ctc susp supports the further investigation of CTC in the clinical management of moderate-to-severe acute pain as an alternative to strong opioids. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Alcohol and acute pancreatitis. An experimental study in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalovaara, P; Apaja, M

    1978-01-01

    The effect of chronic alcohol pretreatment and various pancreatobiliary secretions on the severity of experimental pancreatitis was studied in the rat. 95 rats were pretreated with ethanol (20% w/v, 1.1 ml/100 g body weight) five times weekly for 10 to 12 weeks by gastric intubation. 88 rats served as controls. Pancreatic lesions were produced by retograde injection of different pancreatobiliary secretions into the pancreatic ducts. The secretions were collected from both normal and chronically alcohol-fed rats, and each was used for induction of experimental pancreatitis in the control and alcohol pretreated rats. Bile obtained from normal rats was no more toxic to the pancreas than 0.9% saline solution, while bile obtained from the chronically alcohol-fed rats caused significantly more serious lesions to the pancreas than did normal rat bile. Bile-pancreatic juice (mixture of secretions at papilla of Vater) of normal and chronically alcohol-fed rats was as toxic as the bile of the alcohol-fed rats. Alcohol pretreatment had no significant effect on the severity of pancreatitis when control and alcohol-fed groups separately or the whole material according to pretreatment was examined. These results suggest that the metabolic effects of ethanol on the pancreas as such do not sensitize the pancreas to acute pancreatitis. An exogenous mechanism is required. The reflux of toxic alcoholic bile into the pancreas might act as an induction factor in acute alcohol pancreatitis.

  20. Hypoglycemic of Cajanus scarabaeoides in glucose overloaded and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suman Pattanayak, Siva Shankar Nayak, Durgaprasad Panda and Vikas Shende

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In light of traditional claim of Cajanus scarabaeoides (L in the treatment of diabetes, we studied the effects of different solvent extracts in normal, glucose over loaded normal rats and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. The methanolic extract (500 mg/kg orally was produce significantly reduce blood glucose level at normal, glucose over loaded normal rats, and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats after 15 days treatment; whereas petroleum ether and chloroform extract (500 mg/kg orally did not exhibit any significant effect on three groups of rats. Histopathology studies on pancreas of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats shows inflammatory changes in pancreatic islets, results from selective destroy of insulin producing β-cells. These changes are inhibited by C. scarabaeoides methanolic extract and gliclazide. The antidiabetic activity of methanolic extract may be due to the presence of flavonoids.

  1. 12 WEEK EXPOSURE TO CARBONYL SULFIDE PRODUCES BRAIN LESIONS AND CHANGES IN BRAINSTEM AUDITORY (BAER) AND SOMATOSENAORY (SEP) EVOKED POTENTIALS IN FISCHER 344N RATS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbonyl sulfide (COS) is a chemical intermediate in the production of pesticides and herbicides, is a metabolite of carbon disulfide, is produced by the combustion of organic material, and is found occurring in nature. COS was included in a Toxic Substances Control Act request f...

  2. Absorption and transport of radioactive 57Co-vitamin B12 in experimental giardiasis in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deka, N.C.; Sehgal, A.K.; Chnuttani, P.N.

    1981-01-01

    Giardiasis was produced in weanling albino rats by feeding suspension of Giardia lamblia cysts isolated from human stool. Experiments were carried out to assess the absorption and transport through intestinal wall of 57 Co-vitamin B 12 in these rats. The results showed a significant impairment of the absorption of the vitamin in the rats with experimental giardiasis. However, the transport of the vitamin B 12 was unimpaired. (author)

  3. In vitro vascular effects produced by crude aqueous extract of green marine algae, Cladophora patentiramea (Mont.) Kützing, in aorta from normotensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Yee-Ling; Mok, Shiueh-Lian

    2010-01-01

    To investigate the antihypertensive activity of aqueous extracts obtained from Malaysian coastal seaweeds and to determine the pharmacological mechanisms of the extracts on rat aorta in vitro. The antihypertensive activity of 11 species of seaweeds (5 brown, 1 red and 5 green algae) were tested by cumulative addition of the extracts to phenylephrine (PE)-precontracted Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) aortic rings in in vitro isometric contraction studies. Mechanisms for vasorelaxant effect were investigated in the presence of various antagonists. Of the 11 species tested, 2 showed a vasorelaxant effect. Further investigation of the mechanisms of action of the aqueous extract of green alga, Cladophora patentiramea (AECP),showed that the vascular relaxant effect was endothelium- and concentration-dependent. A maximum relaxation of 45.8 +/- 4.6% (n = 8, p < 0.001) was obtained at 0.1 mg/ml of extract, after which the response was found to reduce in a concentration-dependent manner to 15.7 +/- 4.9% (n = 8, p < 0.001) at the highest extract concentration tested. Pretreatment of endothelium-intact aortic rings with Nomega-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, 30 microM), (1)H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ, 10 microM) and methylene blue (100 microM) resulted in a complete blockade of AECP-induced vasorelaxation. However, the relaxant effects of the extract were not blocked by atropine (1 microM), indomethacin (10 microM) and glibenclamide (10 microM), although the maximum relaxant responses were enhanced in the presence of glibenclamide. Our data showed that the in vitro vascular relaxant effect of AECPwas mediated through endothelium-dependent nitric oxide-cGMP pathway, and was not associated with the release of vasodilator prostaglandins, activation of muscarinic receptors, or ATP-sensitive potassium channels opening. Copyright 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Live Staining and Isolation of Specific Hormone-Producing Cells from Rat Anterior Pituitary by Cytochemistry with Lectins and Cholera Toxin B Subunit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, Motoshi; Kusumoto, Kenji; Fujiwara, Ken; Takahashi, Kozue; Tando, Yukiko; Yashiro, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    Anterior pituitary glands contain five types of hormone-producing cells. Distinguishing and isolating specific types of living cells are essential for studying their function. Although many such attempts have been made, the results have been disappointing. In the present study, we labeled specific types of living hormone-producing cells by using potential differences in sugar chains on the cell surfaces. Cytochemical analysis with lectins and cholera toxin B subunit revealed that PNA, S-WGA, and cholera toxin B subunit recognized sugar chains specific to prolactin cells, ACTH cells, and GH cells, respectively, and that UEA-I recognized most of prolactin cells and GH cells. Next, fluorescence-activated cell sorting was used to isolate GH cells labeled by fluoresceinated cholera toxin B. The purity of the GH cell fraction estimated by immunocytochemistry and quantitative real-time PCR for cell type-specific genes was more than 98%, which was higher than that reported in earlier studies, including those using transgenic animals. We conclude that cytochemistry with lectins and cholera toxin B subunit is a straightforward, acceptable method of isolating specific types of anterior pituitary cells and that the cells isolated by this method can serve as useful materials in the study of anterior pituitary cells

  5. High pressure and [Ca2+] produce an inverse modulation of synaptic input strength, network excitability and frequency response in the rat dentate gyrus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas I Talpalar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Hyperbaric environments induce the high pressure neurological syndrome (HPNS characterized by hyperexcitability of the central nervous system and memory impairment. Human divers and other animals experience the HPNS at pressures beyond 1.1 MPa. High pressure depresses synaptic transmission and alters its dynamics in various animal models. Medial perforant path (MPP synapses connecting the medial entorhinal cortex with the hippocampal formation are suppressed by 50% at 10.1MPa. Reduction of synaptic inputs is paradoxically associated with enhanced ability of dentate gyrus’ granule cells to generate spikes at high pressure. This mechanism allows MPP inputs to elicit standard granule cell outputs at 0.1 -25 Hz frequencies under hyperbaric conditions. An increased postsynaptic gain of MPP inputs probably allows diving animals to perform in hyperbaric environments, but makes them vulnerable to high intensity/frequency stimuli producing hyperexcitability. Increasing extracellular Ca2+ (Ca2+o partially reverted pressure-mediated depression of MPP inputs and increased MPP’s low-pass filter properties. We postulated that raising Ca2+o in addition to increase synaptic inputs may reduce network excitability in the dentate gyrus potentially improving its function and reducing sensitivity to high intensity and pathologic stimuli. For this matter, we activated the MPP with single and 50 Hz frequency stimuli that simulated physiologic and deleterious conditions, while assessing the granule cell’s output under various conditions of pressure and Ca2+o. Our results reveal that pressure and Ca2+o produce an inverse modulation on synaptic input strength and network excitability. These coincident phenomena suggest a potential general mechanism of networks that adjusts gain as an inverse function of synaptic inputs’ strength. Such mechanism may serve for adaptation to variable pressure and other physiological and pathological conditions and may explain the

  6. Reduced incidence of stress ulcer in germ-free Sprague Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paré, W P; Burken, M I; Allen, E D; Kluczynski, J M

    1993-01-01

    Recent findings with respect to the role of spiral gram-negative bacteria in peptic ulcer disease have stimulated interest in discerning the role of these agents in stress ulcer disease. We tested the hypothesis that a standard restraint-cold ulcerogenic procedure would fail to produce ulcers in axenic rats. Axenic, as well as normal Sprague Dawley rats, were exposed to a cold-restraint procedure. The germ-free condition was maintained throughout the study in the axenic rats. Axenic rats had significantly fewer ulcers as compared to normal rats exposed to the standard cold-restraint procedure, as well as handling control rats. The data represent the first report suggesting a microbiologic component in the development of stress ulcer using the rat model.

  7. Regulation of brain aromatase activity in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roselli, C.E.; Ellinwood, W.E.; Resko, J.A.

    1984-01-01

    The distribution and regulation of aromatase activity in the adult rat brain with a sensitive in vitro assay that measures the amount of 3 H 2 O formed during the conversion of [1 beta- 3 H]androstenedione to estrone. The rate of aromatase activity in the hypothalamus-preoptic area (HPOA) was linear with time up to 1 h, and with tissue concentrations up to 5 mgeq/200 microliters incubation mixture. The enzyme demonstrated a pH optimum of 7.4 and an apparent Michaelis-Menten constant (Km) of 0.04 microns. The greatest amount of aromatase activity was found in amygdala and HPOA from intact male rats. The hippocampus, midbrain tegmentum, cerebral cortex, cerebellum, and anterior pituitary all contained negligible enzymatic activity. Castration produced a significant decrease in aromatase activity in the HPOA, but not in the amygdala or cerebral cortex. The HPOAs of male rats contained significantly greater aromatase activity than the HPOAs of female rats. In females, this enzyme activity did not change during the estrous cycle or after ovariectomy. Administration of testosterone to gonadectomized male and female rats significantly enhanced HPOA aromatase activities to levels approximating those found in HPOA from intact males. Therefore, the results suggest that testosterone, or one of its metabolites, is a major steroidal regulator of HPOA aromatase activity in rats

  8. Amelioration of cadmium- and mercury-induced liver and kidney damage in rats by genetically engineered probiotic Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 producing pyrroloquinoline quinone with oral supplementation of citric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghuvanshi, Ruma; Chaudhari, Archana; Kumar, G Naresh

    2016-01-01

    Antioxidants, chelating agents, and probiotics are used to manage the toxic effects of cadmium (Cd) and mercury (Hg). The aim of this study was to investigate the combined effects of antioxidants, chelating agents, and probiotics against heavy metal toxicity. Genetically modified probiotic Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 (EcN-20) producing a potent water soluble antioxidant pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) was supplemented with oral citric acid and compared with another genetically modified probiotic EcN-21 producing PQQ and citric acid against oxidative stress induced by Cd and Hg. Rats were independently given 100 ppm Cd and 80 ppm Hg in drinking water for 4 wk. EcN-20 was found to be more effective than EcN-2 (EcN strain with genomic integration of vgb and gfp genes) with orally given PQQ against oxidative stress induced by Cd and Hg. EcN-20 supplemented with oral citric acid was more effective against Cd and Hg toxicity compared with EcN-2+citric acid (oral), EcN-2+PQQ (oral), EcN-2+PQQ (oral)+citric acid (oral), EcN-20, and EcN-21. However, protection shown by EcN-21 was similar to EcN-20. The combination therapy involving probiotic EcN-20 producing PQQ with citric acid given orally was found to be a moderately effective strategy against toxicity induced by Cd and Hg, whereas the protective effect of EcN-21 was the same as EcN-20. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Behavioral and Neurochemical Studies in Stressed and Unstressed Rats Fed on Protein, Carbohydrate and Fat Rich Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samia Moin§, Saida Haider*, Saima Khaliq1, Saiqa Tabassum and Darakhshan J. Haleem

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Stress produces behavioral and neurochemical deficits. To study the relationship between adaptation to stress and macronutrient intake, the present study was designed to monitor the effects of different diets on feed intake, growth rate and serotonin (5-Hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT metabolism following exposure to restraint stress in rats. Rats were divided into four groups (n=12 as control, sugar, protein and fat rich diet fed rats. After 5 weeks of treatment animals of each group were divided into unrestrained and restrained animals (n=6. Rats of restrained group were given immobilization stress for 2 hours/day for 5 days. Food intake and growth rates of unrestrained and restrained rats were monitored daily. Rats were decapitated on 6th day to collect brain samples for neurochemical estimation. Results show that sugar diet fed rats produced adaptation to stress early as compared to normal diet fed rats. Food intake and growth rates of unrestrained and restrained rats were comparable on 3rd day in sugar diet fed rats and on 4th day in normal diet fed rats. Stress decreased food intake and growth rates of protein and fat treated rats. Repeated stress did not alter brain 5-HT and 5-HIAA levels of normal diet fed rats and sugar diet fed rats. Protein diet fed restrained rats showed elevated brain 5-HT levels. Fat diet fed restrained rats significantly decreased brain TRP and 5-HIAA levels. Finding suggested that carbohydrate diet might protect against stressful conditions. Study also showed that nutritional status could alter different behaviors in response to a stressful environment.

  10. Agmatine ameliorates adjuvant induced arthritis and inflammatory cachexia in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taksande, Brijesh G; Gawande, Dinesh Y; Chopde, Chandrabhan T; Umekar, Milind J; Kotagale, Nandkishor R

    2017-02-01

    The present study investigated the pharmacological effect of agmatine in Complete Freud Adjuvant (CFA) induced arthritis and cachexia in rats. The rats were injected with CFA (0.1ml/rat) to induced symptoms of arthritis. Day 8 onwards of CFA administration, rats were injected daily with agmatine for next 7days, and arthritis score, body weights and food intake were monitored daily (g). Since cachexia is known to produce severe inflammation, malnutrition and inhibition of albumin gene expression, we have also monitored the total proteins, albumin, TNF-α and IL-6 levels in arthritic rats and its modulation by agmatine. In the present study, CFA treated rats showed a progressive reduction in both food intake and body weight. In addition analysis of blood serum of arthritis animals showed a significant reduction in proteins and albumin and significant elevation in tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and Interleukins (IL)-6. Chronic agmatine (20-40mg/kg, ip) treatment not only attenuated the signs of arthritis but also reverses anorexia and body weight loss in CFA treated rats. In addition, agmatine restored total protein and albumin and reduces TNF-α and IL-6 levels in arthritis rats. These results suggest that agmatine administration can prevent the body weights loss and symptoms of arthritis via inhibition of inflammatory cytokines. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Choline acetyltransferase and TrkA expression, as well as the improvement in cognition produced by E2 and P4 in ovariectomized rats, are blocked by ICI 182 780 and RU486.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa-Raya, Judith; Cruz-Raya, Ulises; López-Martínez, Margarita; Picazo, Ofir

    2018-01-09

    Treatment with 17-β estradiol and progesterone improves the performance of ovariectomized rats in an autoshaping learning task, representing cognitive improvement. To test whether this is attributable to genomic mechanisms, the antiestrogen ICI 182 780 or antiprogesterone RU486 was injected into ovariectomized animals primed previously with estrogen or progesterone, respectively. Compared with the vehicle control, each hormone administered alone produced an elevated expression of choline acetyltransferase and TrkA, along with an improvement in performance on the behavioral test. E2+ICI reverted the increase in these two proteins. However, RU alone elicited higher ChAT expression. With this exception, there was a clear linear regression between the number of conditioned responses and the level of ChAT and TrkA in the basal forebrain. The results suggest that TrkA may be more important than ChAT for regulating autoshaping learning tasks, and that genomic mechanisms in the basal forebrain could possibly underlie hormonal improvement of cognition.

  12. Alterations on monoamines concentration in rat hippocampus produced by lipoic acid Alterações na concentração de monoaminas no hipocampo de ratos produzidas pelo ácido lipóico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ítala Mônica de Sales Santos

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The purposes of the present study were to verify monoamines (dopamine (DA, norepinephrine (NE, serotonin (5-HT, and their metabolites (3,4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC, homovanillic acid (HVA and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA contents in rat hippocampus after lipoic acid (LA administration. Wistar rats were treated with 0.9% saline (i.p., control group and LA (10, 20 or 30 mg/kg, i.p., LA10, LA20 and LA30 groups, respectively. After the treatments all groups were observed for 24 h. The NE and DA levels were increased only in 20 mg/kg dose of LA in rat hippocampus. Serotonin content and in their metabolite 5-HIAA levels was decreased in same dose of LA. On the other hand, in DOPAC and HVA levels did not show any significant change. The alterations in hippocampal monoamines can be suggested as a possible of brain mechanism of action from this antioxidant. The outcome of the study may have therapeutic implications in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases.O objetivo do presente estudo foi verificar a concentração das monoaminas (dopamina (DA, norepinefrina (NA, serotonina (5-HT, e seus metabólitos (ácido 3,4-hidroxifenil (DOPAC, ácido homovanílico (HVA e 5 ácido hydroxiindolacético (5-HIAA no hipocampo de ratos após administração do ácido lipóico (AL. Ratos Wistar foram tratados com solução salina 0,9% (i.p., grupo controle e AL (10, 20 ou 30 mg/kg, i.p., AL10, AL20 e AL30 grupos, respectivamente. Após os tratamentos todos os grupos foram observados durante 24 h. O conteúdo de DA no hipocampo de ratos foi aumentado apenas com AL na dose de 20 mg/kg dose. A concentração de serotonina e do seu metabólito 5-HIAA também foi diminuída com esta dose de AL. Por outro lado, os níveis de DOPAC e de HVA não mostrram nenhuma mudança significativa. As alterações na concentração das monoaminas hipocampais podem ser sugeridas como um possível mecanismo de ação cerebral deste antioxidante. O resultado do estudo pode

  13. Multiparameter Investigation of Significant Lightning Producing Storms in Northeastern Colorado

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gauthier, Michael

    1999-01-01

    We present a regional, summer season, climatology of cloud to ground (CG) lightning immediately east of the central Rocky mountains from 1996-98 using data from the National Lightning Detection Network (NLDN...

  14. Lasting Adaptations in Social Behavior Produced by Social Disruption and Inhibition of Adult Neurogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opendak, Maya; Offit, Lily; Monari, Patrick; Schoenfeld, Timothy J.; Sonti, Anup N.; Cameron, Heather A.

    2016-01-01

    Research on social instability has focused on its detrimental consequences, but most people are resilient and respond by invoking various coping strategies. To investigate cellular processes underlying such strategies, a dominance hierarchy of rats was formed and then destabilized. Regardless of social position, rats from disrupted hierarchies had fewer new neurons in the hippocampus compared with rats from control cages and those from stable hierarchies. Social disruption produced a preference for familiar over novel conspecifics, a change that did not involve global memory impairments or increased anxiety. Using the neuropeptide oxytocin as a tool to increase neurogenesis in the hippocampus of disrupted rats restored preference for novel conspecifics to predisruption levels. Conversely, reducing the number of new neurons by limited inhibition of adult neurogenesis in naive transgenic GFAP–thymidine kinase rats resulted in social behavior similar to disrupted rats. Together, these results provide novel mechanistic evidence that social disruption shapes behavior in a potentially adaptive way, possibly by reducing adult neurogenesis in the hippocampus. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT To investigate cellular processes underlying adaptation to social instability, a dominance hierarchy of rats was formed and then destabilized. Regardless of social position, rats from disrupted hierarchies had fewer new neurons in the hippocampus compared with rats from control cages and those from stable hierarchies. Unexpectedly, these changes were accompanied by changes in social strategies without evidence of impairments in cognition or anxiety regulation. Restoring adult neurogenesis in disrupted rats using oxytocin and conditionally suppressing the production of new neurons in socially naive GFAP–thymidine kinase rats showed that loss of 6-week-old neurons may be responsible for adaptive changes in social behavior. PMID:27358459

  15. Effect of Folic Acid Supplementation on Renal Phenotype and Epigenotype in Early Weanling Intrauterine Growth Retarded Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaori He

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: The objective of this study was to examine the responses of p53 promoter methylation involved in kidney structure and function of early weaning intrauterine growth retarded (IUGR rats to dietary folic acid supplementation. Method: Sprague-Dawley rats were fed isocaloric diets containing either 21% protein diet (normal feed or 10% protein diet throughout pregnancy and normal feed during lactation. After weaning, Offspring were then fed onto normal feed and normal feed supplemented with 5 mg folic acid/kg feed for a month, this produced 4 dietary groups (maternal diet/ weanling diet: Con, Folic, IUGR and IUGR+Folic. Renal function, renal structure, p53 promoter methylation and protein expression of offspring rats were measured at postnatal 2 months and 3 months. Results: Glomerular volume, blood urea nitrogen, 24 hours urine protein were significantly elevated in IUGR rats compared with Con rats but were decreased by dietary folic acid supplementation. p53 protein expression in IUGR rats were significantly higher than that in Con rats, and p53 promoter methylation status in IUGR rats was reduced significantly compared with Con rats. However, the changes in p53 gene expression and DNA methylation status of IUGR rats were reversed by dietary folic acid supplementation. Conclusions: Our study showed for the first time that folic acid supplementation during early period of life could reverse the abnormality in renal p53 methylation status and protein expression, glomerular volume and renal function of IUGR rats offspring.

  16. EFFECT OF FLUMETHRIN ON HEMATOLOGICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL CHANGES IN RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aruna K. Singh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of daily oral administration of flumethrin on the blood and tissue enzyme activity in albino rats was investigated. In the present study 12 (6 female and 6 male rats were used and divided in to two groups. The first group served as the control group; the second group received flumethrin (1% pour on formulation at dose rate of 2 mg/kg bw orally daily for 14 days. On 15th day, animals were sacrificed and blood and liver samples were collected. Flumethrin neither altered the hemoglobin level significantly nor the blood cell counts of rats. Flumethrin significantly altered the enzymatic activity of serum and liver tissue and also the serum and tissue protein. Flumethrin leads to increased MDA level, SOD and catalase activity in liver and blood samples of rats. The present study suggests that flumethrin is having toxic effect, producing oxidative stress in animal's body.

  17. Striatal output markers do not alter in response to circling behaviour in 6-OHDA lesioned rats produced by acute or chronic administration of the monoamine uptake inhibitor BTS 74 398.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, E L; Cheetham, S; Jenner, P

    2008-01-01

    The monoamine uptake inhibitor BTS 74 398 induces ipsilateral circling in 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) lesioned rats without induction of abnormal motor behaviours associated with L-dopa administration. We examined whether this was reflected in the expression of peptide mRNA in the direct and indirect striatal output pathways.6-OHDA lesioning of the nigrostriatal pathway increased striatal expression of PPE-A mRNA and decreased levels of PPT mRNA with PPE-B mRNA expression remaining unchanged. Acute L-dopa administration normalised PPE-A mRNA and elevated PPT mRNA while PPE-B mRNA expression remained unchanged. Acute administration of BTS 74 398 did not alter striatal peptide mRNA levels. Following chronic treatment with L-dopa, PPE-A mRNA expression in the lesioned striatum continued to be normalised and PPT mRNA was increased compared to the intact side. PPE-B mRNA expression was also markedly increased relative to the non-lesioned striatum. Chronic BTS 74 398 administration did not alter mRNA expression in the 6-OHDA lesioned striatum although small increases in PPT mRNA expression in the intact and sham lesioned striatum were observed. The failure of BTS 74 398 to induce changes in striatal neuropeptide mRNA correlated with its failure to induce abnormal motor behaviours or behavioural sensitisation but does not explain how it produces a reversal of motor deficits. An action in another area of the brain appears likely and may explain the subsequent failure of BTS 74 398 and related compounds to exert anti-parkinsonian actions in man.

  18. SWIMMING ENHANCES BONE MASS ACQUISITION IN GROWING FEMALE RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanne McVeigh

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Growing bones are most responsive to mechanical loading. We investigated bone mass acquisition patterns following a swimming or running exercise intervention of equal duration, in growing rats. We compared changes in bone mineral properties in female Sprague Dawley rats that were divided into three groups: sedentary controls (n = 10, runners (n = 8 and swimmers (n = 11. Runners and swimmers underwent a six week intervention, exercising five days per week, 30min per day. Running rats ran on an inclined treadmill at 0.33 m.s-1, while swimming rats swam in 25oC water. Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry scans measuring bone mineral content (BMC, bone mineral density (BMD and bone area at the femur, lumbar spine and whole body were recorded for all rats before and after the six week intervention. Bone and serum calcium and plasma parathyroid hormone (PTH concentrations were measured at the end of the 6 weeks. Swimming rats had greater BMC and bone area changes at the femur and lumbar spine (p < 0.05 than the running rats and a greater whole body BMC and bone area to that of control rats (p < 0.05. There were no differences in bone gain between running and sedentary control rats. There was no significant difference in serum or bone calcium or PTH concentrations between the groups of rats. A swimming intervention is able to produce greater beneficial effects on the rat skeleton than no exercise at all, suggesting that the strains associated with swimming may engender a unique mechanical load on the bone

  19. [Subcutaneous transplants of juvenile rat testicular tissues continue to develop and secret androgen in adult rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhou; Wang, Tong; Cui, Jiangbo; Song, Yajuan; Ma, Xianjie; Su, Yingjun; Peng, Pai

    2017-12-01

    Objective To explore the effects of subcutaneous microenvironment of adult rats on survival, development and androgen secretion of Leydig cells of transplanted juvenile rat testis. Methods Healthy adult SD rats were randomly divided into control group, sham group, castrated group and non-castrated group. Rats in the control group were kept intact, no testis was transplanted subcutaneously after adult recipients were castrated in the sham group; 5-7-day juvenile rat testes were transplanted subcutaneously in the castrated group, with one testis per side; Testes resected from juvenile rats were directly transplanted subcutaneously on both sides of the recipients in the non-castrated group. The grafts were obtained and weighed 4 weeks later. Then the histological features of the grafts were examined by HE staining; the expression and distribution of hydroxysteroid 17-beta dehydrogenase 1 (HSD-17β1) were investigated by immunohistochemistry; and the serum androgen level was determined by ELISA. Results The average mass of grafts obtained from the castrated group was significantly higher than that of the non-castrated group. Immunohistochemistry indicated that Leydig cells were visible in the tissues from both the castrated and non-castrated groups, but the number of HSD-17β1-posotive cells in the castrated group was larger than that in the non-castrated group. ELISA results showed that the serum androgen level was higher in the control group and non-castrated group than in the sham group and castrated group, and compared with the sham group, the serum androgen level in the castrated group was significantly higher. Conclusion The juvenile rat testis subcutaneously transplanted could further develop under the adult recipient rat skin, and the Leydig cells of grafts harbored the ability to produce and secret androgen.

  20. Producing cement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, E G

    1923-09-12

    A process and apparatus are described for producing Portland cement in which pulverized shale is successively heated in a series of inclined rotary retorts having internal stirrers and oil gas outlets, which are connected to condensers. The partially treated shale is removed from the lowermost retort by a conveyor, then fed separately or conjointly into pipes and thence into a number of vertically disposed retorts. Each of these retorts may be fitted interiorly with vertical arranged conveyors which elevate the shale and discharge it over a lip, from whence it falls to the bottom of the retorts. The lower end of each casing is furnished with an adjustable discharge door through which the spent shale is fed to a hopper, thence into separate trucks. The oil gases generated in the retorts are exhausted through pipes to condensers. The spent shale is conveyed to a bin and mixed while hot with ground limestone. The admixed materials are then ground and fed to a rotary kiln which is fired by the incondensible gases derived from the oil gases obtained in the previous retorting of the shale. The calcined materials are then delivered from the rotary kiln to rotary coolers. The waste gases from the kiln are utilized for heating the retorts in which the ground shale is heated for the purpose of extracting therefrom the contained hydrocarbon oils and gases.

  1. Tumorigenicity of sodium ascorbate in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, S M; Anderson, T A; de Oliveira, L M; Arnold, L L

    1998-06-15

    Sodium ascorbate, like other sodium salts such as saccharin, glutamate, and bicarbonate, produces urinary alterations when fed at high doses to rats, which results in mild superficial urothelial cytotoxicity and regeneration but not tumors in a standard 2-year bioassay. Sodium saccharin was shown to produce a low incidence of bladder tumors in rats if administered in a two-generation bioassay. In the present study, we evaluated sodium ascorbate in a two-generation bioassay that involved feeding to the male and female parental F344 rats for 4 weeks before mating, feeding the dams during gestation and lactation, and then feeding the weaned (at 28 days of age) male F1 generation rats for the remainder of their lifetime (up to 128 weeks of the experiment). Dietary levels of 1.0, 5.0, and 7.0% sodium ascorbate were tested. At 5.0 and 7.0% sodium ascorbate, there was an increase in urinary bladder urothelial papillary and nodular hyperplasia and the induction of a few papillomas and carcinomas. There was a dose-responsive increase in renal pelvic calcification and hyperplasia and inhibition of the aging nephropathy of rats even at the level of 1% sodium ascorbate. Because the short-term urothelial effects of sodium ascorbate in rats are inhibited by treatments producing urinary acidification to pH sodium ascorbate to evaluate the long-term effects. The combination of 7.0% sodium ascorbate plus 2.78% NH4Cl in the diet was toxic, and the group was terminated early during the course of the experiment. The group fed 5.0% sodium ascorbate plus 2.04% NH4Cl showed complete inhibition of the urothelial effects of sodium ascorbate and significant inhibition of its renal effects. We also demonstrated the presence of a calcium phosphate-containing urinary precipitate in rats fed sodium ascorbate at all doses, in a dose-responsive manner. The formation of the precipitate was inhibited by coadministration with NH4Cl. The proliferative effects of sodium ascorbate on the male rat

  2. Gas revenue increasingly significant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Megill, R.E.

    1991-01-01

    This paper briefly describes the wellhead prices of natural gas compared to crude oil over the past 70 years. Although natural gas prices have never reached price parity with crude oil, the relative value of a gas BTU has been increasing. It is one of the reasons that the total amount of money coming from natural gas wells is becoming more significant. From 1920 to 1955 the revenue at the wellhead for natural gas was only about 10% of the money received by producers. Most of the money needed for exploration, development, and production came from crude oil. At present, however, over 40% of the money from the upstream portion of the petroleum industry is from natural gas. As a result, in a few short years natural gas may become 50% of the money revenues generated from wellhead production facilities

  3. Investigations into the analysis of the rate of decay of the compound action potentials recorded from the rat sciatic nerve after death: significance for the prediction of the post-mortem period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nokes, L D; Daniel, D; Flint, T; Barasi, S

    1991-01-01

    There have been a number of papers that have reported the investigations of electrical stimulation of muscle groups in order to determine the post-mortem period. To the authors knowledge, no techniques have been described that analyse the compound action potentials (CAP) of various nerve fibre groups after death. This paper reports the monitoring of both the amplitude and latency changes of the CAP recorded from a stimulated rat sciatic nerve after death. Initial results suggest that the method my be useful in determining the early post-mortem period within 1 or 2 h after death. It may also be of use in measuring nerve conduction delay in various pathological conditions that can affect the neural network; for example diabetes.

  4. Endogenous synthesis of taurine and GABA in rat ocular tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinaemaeki, A.A.

    1988-01-01

    The endogenous production of taurine and ..gamma..-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in rat ocular tissues was investigated. The activities of taurine-producing enzyme, cysteine sulfinic acid decarboxylase (CSAD), and GABA-synthesizing enzyme, glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD), were observed in the retina, lens, iris-ciliary body and cornea. The highest specific activity of CSAD was in the cornea and that of GAD in the retina. The discrepancy between CSAD activity and taurine content within the ocular tissues indicates that intra- or extraocular transport processes may regulate the concentration of taurine on the rat eye. The GAD activity and the content of GABA were distributed in parallel within the rat ocular tissues. The quantitative results suggest that the GAD/GABA system has functional significance only in the retina of the rat eye.

  5. Endogenous synthesis of taurine and GABA in rat ocular tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinaemaeki, A.A.

    1988-01-01

    The endogenous production of taurine and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in rat ocular tissues was investigated. The activities of taurine-producing enzyme, cysteine sulfinic acid decarboxylase (CSAD), and GABA-synthesizing enzyme, glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD), were observed in the retina, lens, iris-ciliary body and cornea. The highest specific activity of CSAD was in the cornea and that of GAD in the retina. The discrepancy between CSAD activity and taurine content within the ocular tissues indicates that intra- or extraocular transport processes may regulate the concentration of taurine on the rat eye. The GAD activity and the content of GABA were distributed in parallel within the rat ocular tissues. The quantitative results suggest that the GAD/GABA system has functional significance only in the retina of the rat eye. (author)

  6. Effect of Iron Enriched Bread Intake on the Oxidative Stress Indices in Male Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharareh Heidari

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Contrary to the proven benefits of iron, few concerns in producing the oxidative stress is remained problematic. Objectives The aim of the study was to evaluate the oxidative stress in the male Wistar rats fed bread supplemented with iron in different doses i.e., 35 (basic, 70 (two fold, 140 (four fold, and 210 mg/kg (six fold with or without NaHCO3 (250 mg/kg. Methods In this experimental study Iron, ceruloplasmin, ferritin, total iron binding capacity (TIBC, albumin, total protein, uric acid and plasma superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GPX, catalase (CAT, malondialdehyde (MDA, and total antioxidant capacity (TAC, were evaluated in 30 rats at the first and last day of the experiment (day 30. In addition, phytic acid levels were detected in all baked breads. The data were analyzed by ANOVA and t test procedure though SPSS statistical software version 20. Results Serum iron level in rats that received basic level of iron plus NaHCO3 decreased significantly in the last day of the trial. Higher level of serum iron was seen in rats that received iron twofold, fourfold and sixfold and rats that received iron fourfold plus NaHCO3. Serum ceruloplasmin and ferritin in groups of rats that received fourfold level of iron plus NaHCO3 and rats that received iron sixfold showed a significant increase (P ≤ 0.05. Serum total protein and uric acid in rats that received basic level of iron plus NaHCO3 and rats that received twofold level of iron showed a significant decrease. Serum total protein levels in rats that received fourfold level of iron showed a significant decrease. Bread with NaHCO3 showed higher phytic acid levels than other groups. Conclusions These results indicate that oxidative stress was not induced, whereas some antioxidant activities were significantly changed in rats that received iron-enriched bread.

  7. Delta receptor antagonism, ethanol taste reactivity, and ethanol consumption in outbred male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higley, Amanda E; Kiefer, Stephen W

    2006-11-01

    Naltrexone, a nonspecific opioid antagonist, produces significant changes in ethanol responsivity in rats by rendering the taste of ethanol aversive as well as producing a decrease in voluntary ethanol consumption. The present study investigated the effect of naltrindole, a specific antagonist of delta opioid receptors, on ethanol taste reactivity and ethanol consumption in outbred rats. In the first experiment, rats received acute treatment of naltrexone, naltrindole, or saline followed by the measurement of ethanol consumption in a short-term access period. The second experiment involved the same treatments and investigated ethanol palatability (using the taste-reactivity test) as well as ethanol consumption. Results indicated that treatment with 3 mg/kg naltrexone significantly affected palatability (rendered ethanol more aversive, Experiment 2) and decreased voluntary ethanol consumption (Experiments 1 and 2). The effects of naltrindole were inconsistent. In Experiment 1, 8 mg/kg naltrindole significantly decreased voluntary ethanol consumption but this was not replicated in Experiment 2. The 8 mg/kg dose produced a significant increase in aversive responding (Experiment 2) but did not affect ingestive responding. Lower doses of naltrindole (2 and 4 mg/kg) were ineffective in altering rats' taste-reactivity response to and consumption of ethanol. While these data suggest that delta receptors are involved in rats' taste-reactivity response to ethanol and rats' ethanol consumption, it is likely that multiple opioid receptors mediate both behavioral responses.

  8. Neuropeptide Y in the central nucleus of amygdala regulates the anxiolytic effect of agmatine in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taksande, Brijesh G; Kotagale, Nandkishor R; Gawande, Dinesh Y; Bharne, Ashish P; Chopde, Chandrabhan T; Kokare, Dadasaheb M

    2014-06-01

    In the present study, modulation of anxiolytic action of agmatine by neuropeptide Y (NPY) in the central nucleus of amygdala (CeA) is evaluated employing Vogel's conflict test (VCT) in rats. The intra-CeA administration of agmatine (0.6 and 1.2µmol/rat), NPY (10 and 20pmol/rat) or NPY Y1/Y5 receptors agonist [Leu(31), Pro(34)]-NPY (30 and 60pmol/rat) significantly increased the number of punished drinking licks following 15min of treatment. Combination treatment of subeffective dose of NPY (5pmol/rat) or [Leu(31), Pro(34)]-NPY (15pmol/rat) and agmatine (0.3µmol/rat) produced synergistic anxiolytic-like effect. However, intra-CeA administration of selective NPY Y1 receptor antagonist, BIBP3226 (0.25 and 0.5mmol/rat) produced anxiogenic effect. In separate set of experiment, pretreatment with BIBP3226 (0.12mmol/rat) reversed the anxiolytic effect of agmatine (0.6µmol/rat). Furthermore, we evaluated the effect of intraperitoneal injection of agmatine (40mg/kg) on NPY-immunoreactivity in the nucleus accumbens shell (AcbSh), lateral part of bed nucleus of stria terminalis (BNSTl) and CeA. While agmatine treatment significantly decreased the fibers density in BNSTl, increase was noticed in AcbSh. In addition, agmatine reduced NPY-immunoreactive cells in the AcbSh and CeA. Immunohistochemical data suggest the enhanced transmission of NPY from the AcbSh and CeA. Taken together, this study suggests that agmatine produced anxiolytic effect which might be regulated via modulation of NPYergic system particularly in the CeA. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  9. Opiates and cerebral functional activity in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trusk, T.C.

    1986-01-01

    Cerebral activity was measured using the free-fatty acid [1- 14 C] octanoate as a fast functional tracer in conscious, unrestrained rats 5 minutes after intravenous injection of heroin, cocaine or saline vehicle. Regional changes of octanoate labeling density in the autoradiograms relative to saline-injected animals were used to determine the functional activity effects of each drug. Heroin and cocaine each produced a distinctive pattern of activity increases and suppression throughout the rat brain. Similar regional changes induced by both drugs were found in limbic brain regions implicated in drug reinforcement. Labeled octanoate autoradiography was used to measure the cerebral functional response to a tone that had previously been paired to heroin injections. Rats were trained in groups of three consisting of one heroin self-administration animal, and two animals receiving yoked infusion of heroin or saline. A tone was paired with each infusion during training. Behavioral experiments in similarly trained rats demonstrated that these training conditions impart secondary reinforcing properties to the tone in animals previously self-administering heroin, while the tone remains behaviorally neutral in yoked-infusion rats. Cerebral functional activity was measured during presentation of the tone without drug infusion. Octanoate labeling density changed in fifteen brain areas in response to the tone previously paired to heroin without response contingency. Labeling density was significantly modified in sixteen regions as a result of previously pairing the tone to response-contingent heroin infusions

  10. Opiates and cerebral functional activity in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trusk, T.C.

    1986-01-01

    Cerebral activity was measured using the free-fatty acid (1-/sup 14/C) octanoate as a fast functional tracer in conscious, unrestrained rats 5 minutes after intravenous injection of heroin, cocaine or saline vehicle. Regional changes of octanoate labeling density in the autoradiograms relative to saline-injected animals were used to determine the functional activity effects of each drug. Heroin and cocaine each produced a distinctive pattern of activity increases and suppression throughout the rat brain. Similar regional changes induced by both drugs were found in limbic brain regions implicated in drug reinforcement. Labeled octanoate autoradiography was used to measure the cerebral functional response to a tone that had previously been paired to heroin injections. Rats were trained in groups of three consisting of one heroin self-administration animal, and two animals receiving yoked infusion of heroin or saline. A tone was paired with each infusion during training. Behavioral experiments in similarly trained rats demonstrated that these training conditions impart secondary reinforcing properties to the tone in animals previously self-administering heroin, while the tone remains behaviorally neutral in yoked-infusion rats. Cerebral functional activity was measured during presentation of the tone without drug infusion. Octanoate labeling density changed in fifteen brain areas in response to the tone previously paired to heroin without response contingency. Labeling density was significantly modified in sixteen regions as a result of previously pairing the tone to response-contingent heroin infusions.

  11. Cardiopulmonary Changes with Moderate Decompression in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, R.; Little, T.; Doursout, M.-F.; Butler, B. D.; Chelly, J. E.

    1996-01-01

    Sprague-Dawley rats were compressed to 616 kPa for 120 min then decompressed at 38 kPa/min to assess the cardiovascular and pulmonary responses to moderate decompression stress. In one series of experiments the rats were chronically instrumented with Doppler ultrasonic probes for simultaneous measurement of blood pressure, cardiac output, heart rate, left and right ventricular wall thickening fraction, and venous bubble detection. Data were collected at base-line, throughout the compression/decompression protocol, and for 120 min post decompression. In a second series of experiments the pulmonary responses to the decompression protocol were evaluated in non-instrumented rats. Analyses included blood gases, pleural and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) protein and hemoglobin concentration, pulmonary edema, BAL and lung tissue phospholipids, lung compliance, and cell counts. Venous bubbles were directly observed in 90% of the rats where immediate post-decompression autopsy was performed and in 37% using implanted Doppler monitors. Cardiac output, stroke volume, and right ventricular wall thickening fractions were significantly decreased post decompression, whereas systemic vascular resistance was increased suggesting a decrease in venous return. BAL Hb and total protein levels were increased 0 and 60 min post decompression, pleural and plasma levels were unchanged. BAL white blood cells and neutrophil percentages were increased 0 and 60 min post decompression and pulmonary edema was detected. Venous bubbles produced with moderate decompression profiles give detectable cardiovascular and pulmonary responses in the rat.

  12. Treatment of Partial Thickness Burns with a Novel Extracellular Matrix in Rats (Rattus norvegicus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-20

    partial thickness burn was produced using a brass scale weight. Groups of 10 rats were randomly assigned to the various treatments . Jackets made from...Objectives: The objective this study was to examine the cellular and immune responses to various extracellular matrices (ECM) in a rat burn model...significant difference between treatments in terms of mean wound area (p = 0.77). Histologic examination revealed that all of the grafts were infected, with

  13. Characterization of renal hyperemia in portal hypertensive rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Premen, A.J.; Banchs, V.; Go, V.L.W.; Benoit, J.N.; Granger, D.N.

    1986-01-01

    In anesthetized sham-operated control (C) and portal vein stenosed (PVS) rats, renal blood flow (RBF) was measured with radioactive microspheres on days 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 following surgery. On day 2, only a small increase in RBF (19%) was produced in PVS versus C rats. However, by day 4, a significant increase in RBF (35%) was observed in PVS versus C animals. By day 6, the renal hyperemia in PVS rats reached a maximal value that was 42% higher than in C rats. Thereafter (on days 8 and 10), the renal hyperemia remained at the maximal value. In a separate group of 10-day PVS rats, glucagon antiserum failed to attenuate the 44% increase in RBF observed in PVS versus C rats. Radioimmunoassay of C and PVS plasma (10-day samples) revealed that vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, substance P, cholecystokinin/gastrin, neurotensin, pancreatic polypeptide, beta-endorphin, and peptide histidine-isoleucine amide are not elevated in arterial plasma of PVS rats. These data indicate that the renal hyperemia induced by chronic portal hypertension is manifested within 4 days after the hypertensive insult. Our studies also suggest that at least 9 blood-borne gastrointestinal peptides are not directly involved in the renal response to portal vein stenosis

  14. Characterization of renal hyperemia in portal hypertensive rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Premen, A.J.; Banchs, V.; Go, V.L.W.; Benoit, J.N.; Granger, D.N.

    1986-03-01

    In anesthetized sham-operated control (C) and portal vein stenosed (PVS) rats, renal blood flow (RBF) was measured with radioactive microspheres on days 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 following surgery. On day 2, only a small increase in RBF (19%) was produced in PVS versus C rats. However, by day 4, a significant increase in RBF (35%) was observed in PVS versus C animals. By day 6, the renal hyperemia in PVS rats reached a maximal value that was 42% higher than in C rats. Thereafter (on days 8 and 10), the renal hyperemia remained at the maximal value. In a separate group of 10-day PVS rats, glucagon antiserum failed to attenuate the 44% increase in RBF observed in PVS versus C rats. Radioimmunoassay of C and PVS plasma (10-day samples) revealed that vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, substance P, cholecystokinin/gastrin, neurotensin, pancreatic polypeptide, beta-endorphin, and peptide histidine-isoleucine amide are not elevated in arterial plasma of PVS rats. These data indicate that the renal hyperemia induced by chronic portal hypertension is manifested within 4 days after the hypertensive insult. Our studies also suggest that at least 9 blood-borne gastrointestinal peptides are not directly involved in the renal response to portal vein stenosis.

  15. Efeitos da esplenectomia na peritonite causada por lesão traumática do cólon: estudo em ratos Effects of splenectomy on peritonitis produced by a colonic injury: study in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Sérgio Nassif

    2004-09-01

    A2 (normal with colon lesion sutured and 22 for Group B (spleen removed. The animals were submitted to a laparatomy through a midline abdominal incision and peritonitis was induced by a colonic lesion in the colon previously distended with 2 ml of saline introduced in the rectum. Bacteriological studies of the abdominal wash obtained with a sterilized swab and microscopic studies of samples of the segment of the sutured colon obtained at 48hrs, 96hrs and on the 12 post op day, were made in each group. All rats were submitted to an autopsy on the day of death or on the 12th post op day when the survivors were sacrificed. RESULTS: Similar bacteria were found in the three groups. E. coli (100%; Enterococcus fecalis (97%; Klebsiela pneumoniae (70%; Citrobacter freundi (70% and Enterobacter aglomerans (63%. In the first 96 hours the rats without spleen had a lesser inflammatory reaction when compared to the group with spleen. The leading cause of death was generalized peritonitis in the first 96 hours. There was a significant statistical difference in the mortality rate between Group B (80%, Group A2 (no mortality and Group A1 (35%. CONCLUSION: There was a significant statistical difference in the mortality rate caused by peritonitis between the groups with splenectomy when compared to the group with no splenectomy.

  16. Neutron irradiation of rat embryos in utero

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogel, H.H. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    In the rat radiation is most effective in producing congenital anomalies during the organ-forming period (days 9 to 13), which is approximately equivalent to the 14th to 50th days of human pregnancy. We have exposed female Sprague--Dawley rats on the 18th day of pregnancy to single whole-body doses of fission neutrons (20 to 150 rads). After 20 rads there was a small decrease in body weight which lasted from birth to weaning. During this period 9% of the irradiated rats died compared with 4% of the controls. After 50 rads, 65/275 (23.6%) of the rats died between birth and weaning, and the body-weight loss of the survivors was increased. After 100 rads, 62/133 (47%) died at birth or day 1 and 103/133 (77.4%) died before weaning. A large and significant decrease in body weight persisted in the survivors. After 150 rads of fission neutrons, all 95 rats died within 48 hr of birth. From cross-fostering experiments, we believe this is a direct effect of radiation on the embryos and not an indirect action through the mother or her milk. The LD 50 for the period from birth to weaning is approximately 75 rads of fission neutrons. Studies of organ weight were conducted daily for the first week after birth in an attempt to find the cause of radiation mortality. Body weight of the irradiated animals averaged only about one-half that of the controls. The liver, kidney, brain, and testes of the neutron-irradiated rats weighed significantly less than those of the controls. The weights of the spleen, lungs, duodenum, and stomach were decreased but not significantly. The bone marrow appeared depleted in the irradiated long bones, but the spleen maintained active hematopoiesis 1 to 2 months after neutron exposure

  17. Significant Radionuclides Determination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo A. Ziegler

    2001-07-31

    The purpose of this calculation is to identify radionuclides that are significant to offsite doses from potential preclosure events for spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level radioactive waste expected to be received at the potential Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). In this calculation, high-level radioactive waste is included in references to DOE SNF. A previous document, ''DOE SNF DBE Offsite Dose Calculations'' (CRWMS M&O 1999b), calculated the source terms and offsite doses for Department of Energy (DOE) and Naval SNF for use in design basis event analyses. This calculation reproduces only DOE SNF work (i.e., no naval SNF work is included in this calculation) created in ''DOE SNF DBE Offsite Dose Calculations'' and expands the calculation to include DOE SNF expected to produce a high dose consequence (even though the quantity of the SNF is expected to be small) and SNF owned by commercial nuclear power producers. The calculation does not address any specific off-normal/DBE event scenarios for receiving, handling, or packaging of SNF. The results of this calculation are developed for comparative analysis to establish the important radionuclides and do not represent the final source terms to be used for license application. This calculation will be used as input to preclosure safety analyses and is performed in accordance with procedure AP-3.12Q, ''Calculations'', and is subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (DOE 2000) as determined by the activity evaluation contained in ''Technical Work Plan for: Preclosure Safety Analysis, TWP-MGR-SE-000010'' (CRWMS M&O 2000b) in accordance with procedure AP-2.21Q, ''Quality Determinations and Planning for Scientific, Engineering, and Regulatory Compliance Activities''.

  18. Long-term BPA infusions. Evaluation in the rat brain tumor and rat spinal cord models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coderre, J.A.; Micca, P.L.; Nawrocky, M.M.; Joel, D.D.; Morris, G.M.

    2000-01-01

    In the BPA-based dose escalation clinical trial, the observations of tumor recurrence in areas of extremely high calculated tumor doses suggest that the BPA distribution is non-uniform. Longer (6-hour) i.v. infusions of BPA are evaluated in the rat brain tumor and spinal cord models to address the questions of whether long-term infusions are more effective against the tumor and whether long-term infusions are detrimental in the central nervous system. In the rat spinal cord, the 50% effective doses (ED 50 ) for myeloparesis were not significantly different after a single i.p. injection of BPA-fructose or a 6 hour i.v. infusion. In the rat 9L gliosarcoma brain tumor model, BNCT following 2-hr or 6-hr infusions of BPA-F produced similar levels of long term survival. (author)

  19. The Effects of Phrenic Nerve Degeneration by Axotomy and Crush on the Electrical Activities of Diaphragm Muscles of Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkiş, Mehmet Eşref; Kavak, Servet; Sayır, Fuat; Him, Aydin

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of axotomy and crush-related degeneration on the electrical activities of diaphragm muscle strips of experimental rats. In the present study, twenty-one male Wistar-albino rats were used and divided into three groups. The animals in the first group were not crushed or axotomized and served as controls. Phrenic nerves of the rats in the second and third groups were crushed or axotomized in the diaphragm muscle. Resting membrane potential (RMP) was decreased significantly in both crush and axotomy of diaphragm muscle strips of experimental rats (p phrenic nerves may produce electrical activities in the diaphragm muscle of the rat by depolarization time and half-repolarization time prolonged in crush and axotomy rats.

  20. Biological response of rats fed with tofu treated with high hydrostatic pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Préstamo, G; Arroyo, G

    2000-10-01

    Emerging technologies for food preservation have arisen in recent years, such as high-pressure (HP) hydrostatic treatment, and the biological response for this kind of food preservation is not well-known. Forty female rats (six weeks old) were used in the experiment to evaluate the biological effects of HP treatment of tofu. The animals were divided into groups that were fed with tofu (untreated), tofu treated with HP, and conventional food (as control) for 28 days. The glucose level, mineral content (calcium, potassium, zinc, and magnesium), shinbone maximum shear force, weight of the body, and weight of organs (heart, liver, spleen, and kidneys) were analyzed. The biological response for the rats was that significant differences were found in the calcium amount determined on the serum of the rats fed with untreated tofu and those fed with tofu treated with HP, and the calcium amount was lower on the rats fed with tofu treated with HP. Also, there were significant differences in the weight of the liver, and it was lower in the rats fed with tofu treated with HP. It was quite remarkable how the weight of the body and organs were smaller in the rats fed with tofu in comparison to the weight of the control rats. In the other components assayed no significant differences were found. HP produces a potential effect on tofu as it is observed in the rats response to the tofu treated with HP.

  1. Effects of MK-801 upon local cerebral glucose utilization in conscious rats and in rats anaesthetised with halothane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurumaji, A.; McCulloch, J.

    1989-01-01

    The effects of MK-801 (0.5 mg/kg i.v.), a non-competitive N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) antagonist, upon local cerebral glucose utilization were examined in conscious, lightly restrained rats and in rats anaesthetised with halothane in nitrous oxide by means of the quantitative autoradiographic [14C]-2-deoxyglucose technique. In the conscious rats, MK-801 produced a heterogenous pattern of altered cerebral glucose utilization with significant increases being observed in 12 of the 28 regions of gray matter examined and significant decreases in 6 of the 28 regions. Pronounced increases in glucose use were observed after MK-801 in the olfactory areas and in a number of brain areas in the limbic system (e.g., hippocampus molecular layer, dentate gyrus, subicular complex, posterior cingulate cortex, and mammillary body). In the cerebral cortices, large reductions in glucose use were observed after administration of MK-801, whereas in the extrapyramidal and sensory-motor areas, glucose use remained unchanged after MK-801 administration in conscious rats. In the halothane-anaesthetised rats, the pattern of altered glucose use after MK-801 differed qualitatively and quantitatively from that observed in conscious rats. In anaesthetised rats, significant reductions in glucose use were noted after MK-801 in 10 of the 28 regions examined, with no area displaying significantly increased glucose use after administration of the drug. In halothane-anaesthetised rats, MK-801 failed to change the rates of glucose use in the olfactory areas, the hippocampus molecular layer, and the dentate gyrus

  2. Implantes de hidroxiapatita em falhas ósseas produzidas no fêmur de ratos submetidos ao tabagismo passivo Hydroxyapatite implants in bone defects produced in rat femurs submitted to passive tobacco exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Cerizza Pinheiro

    2008-10-01

    menores quando comparados com os do grupo controle. CONCLUSÃO: A neoformação óssea em defeitos do esqueleto pode ocorrer naturalmente em animais submetidos ao tabagismo passivo, no entanto, de forma mais lenta e em menor proporção.INTRODUCTION: Defects with bone mass loss are frequently treated with bone autografts. Endografts of bones using biomaterials, such as hydroxyapatite (HA also have been used for the same purpose, replacing autografts. However, bone tissue health conditions are basic for osteointegration of the implant. Thus, excessive tobacco consumption, either as an active or as a passive smoker, may harm the process of bone neoformation with a hydroxyapatite implant due to its deleterious effects to bone tissue. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the nutritional status of the animals and the process of bone neoformation when porous hydroxyapatite granules are implanted in bone defects of the femur of rats submitted to passive tobacco exposure. METHOD: Porous hydroxyapatite granules were implanted in bone defects produced in the left distal femoral epiphysis of rats subjected to prolonged passive tobacco exposure. The animals were followed along the treatment of tobacco exposure during six months, to evaluate their physical conditions. After eight weeks of the bone implant with the biomaterial, the animals were sacrificed and the specimens of the implant region were submitted to routine histological testing, and maintained in paraffin blocks for morphometric histological and radiological analysis. RESULTS: The mass variation of the experimental group was found to be more intense than that of the control group. As to radiological findings, the control group had an apparent more radio lucent and organized image. In the morphological analysis, there was a better closing of the bone defect and osteointegration of hydroxyapatite in the control group. Upon comparing the volume of bone formed in the receiving area of the femur between the control and the experimental group

  3. Influence of long-term treatment of the rat with clebopride on the morphology of the mammary gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lima, T C; Morato, G S; Loch, S; Tames, D R

    1990-01-01

    The substituted benzamides or orthopramides are used to treat gastrointestinal and psychotic disorders. The orthopramide clebopride, a potent dopaminergic antagonist, blocks emesis in dogs and stereotyped behavior in rodents. Since the release of prolactin is inhibited by dopamine, antidopaminergic drugs may be useful to increase lactation in nursing mothers. The present work examines the morphological and histological alterations produced by long-term treatment of puerperal and virgin female rats with clebopride. Clebopride induced significant hyperplasia of parenchymal secretory units and stimulated milk secretion in both groups of rats. However, only in virgin rats was mammary weight significantly increased.

  4. Reiki improves heart rate homeostasis in laboratory rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Ann Linda; Wagers, Christina; Schwartz, Gary E

    2008-05-01

    To determine whether application of Reiki to noise-stressed rats can reduce their heart rates (HRs) and blood pressures. In a previous study, we showed that exposure of rats to 90 dB white noise for 15 minutes caused their HRs and blood pressures to significantly increase. Reiki has been shown to significantly decrease HR and blood pressure in a small group of healthy human subjects. However, use of humans in such studies has the disadvantage that experimental interpretations are encumbered by the variable of belief or skepticism regarding Reiki. For that reason, noise-stressed rats were used as an animal model to test the efficacy of Reiki in reducing elevated HR and blood pressure. Three unrestrained, male Sprague-Dawley rats implanted with radiotelemetric transducers were exposed daily for 8 days to a 15-minute white noise regimen (90 dB). For the last 5 days, the rats received 15 minutes of Reiki immediately before the noise and during the noise period. The experiment was repeated on the same animals but using sham Reiki. The animals were housed in a quiet room in University of Arizona Animal Facility. Mean HRs and blood pressure were determined before Reiki/sham Reiki, during Reiki/sham Reiki, and during the noise in each case. Reiki, but not sham Reiki, significantly reduced HR compared to initial values. With Reiki, there was a high correlation between change in HR and initial HR, suggesting a homeostatic effect. Reiki, but not sham Reiki, significantly reduced the rise in HR produced by exposure of the rats to loud noise. Neither Reiki nor sham Reiki significantly affected blood pressure. Reiki is effective in modulating HR in stressed and unstressed rats, supporting its use as a stress-reducer in humans.

  5. Peony glycosides reverse the effects of corticosterone on behavior and brain BDNF expression in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Qing-Qiu; Huang, Zhen; Ip, Siu-Po; Xian, Yan-Fang; Che, Chun-Tao

    2012-02-01

    Repeated injections of corticosterone (CORT) induce the dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, resulting in depressive-like behavior. This study aimed to examine the antidepressant-like effect and the possible mechanisms of total glycosides of peony (TGP) in the CORT-induced depression model in rats. The results showed that the 3-week CORT injections induced the significant increase in serum CORT levels in rats. Repeated CORT injections also caused depression-like behavior in rats, as indicated by the significant decrease in sucrose consumption and increase in immobility time in the forced swim test. Moreover, it was found that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) protein levels in the hippocampus and frontal cortex were significantly decreased in CORT-treated rats. Treatment of the rats with TGP significantly suppressed the depression-like behavior and increased brain BDNF levels in CORT-treated rats. The results suggest that TGP produces an antidepressant-like effect in CORT-treated rats, which is possibly mediated by increasing BDNF expression in the hippocampus and frontal cortex. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Analgesic effect of Minocycline in rat model of inflammation-induced visceral pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannampalli, Pradeep; Pochiraju, Soumya; Bruckert, Mitchell; Shaker, Reza; Banerjee, Banani; Sengupta, Jyoti N.

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigates the analgesic effect of minocycline, a semi-synthetic tetracycline antibiotic, in a rat model of inflammation-induced visceral pain. Inflammation was induced in male rats by intracolonic administration of tri-nitrobenzenesulphonic acid (TNBS). Visceral hyperalgesia was assessed by comparing the viscero-motor response (VMR) to graded colorectal distension (CRD) prior and post 7 days after TNBS treatment. Electrophysiology recordings from CRD-sensitive pelvic nerve afferents (PNA) and lumbo-sacral (LS) spinal neurons were performed in naïve and inflamed rats. Colonic inflammation produced visceral hyperalgesia characterized by increase in the VMRs to CRD accompanied with simultaneous activation of microglia in the spinal cord and satellite glial cells (SGCs) in the dorsal root ganglions (DRGs). Selectively inhibiting the glial activation following inflammation by araC (Arabinofuranosyl Cytidine) prevented the development of visceral hyperalgesia. Intrathecal minocycline significantly attenuated the VMR to CRD in inflamed rats, whereas systemic minocycline produced a delayed effect. In electrophysiology experiments, minocycline significantly attenuated the mechanotransduction of CRD-sensitive PNAs and the responses of CRD-sensitive LS spinal neurons in TNBS-treated rats. While the spinal effect of minocycline was observed within 5 min of administration, systemic injection of the drug produced a delayed effect (60 min) in inflamed rats. Interestingly, minocycline did not exhibit analgesic effect in naïve, non-inflamed rats. The results demonstrate that intrathecal injection of minocycline can effectively attenuate inflammation-induced visceral hyperalgesia. Minocycline might as well act on neuronal targets in the spinal cord of inflamed rats, in addition to the widely reported glial inhibitory action to produce analgesia. PMID:24485889

  7. The mechanisms underlying the hypolipidaemic effects of Grifola frondosa in the liver of rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinrun Ding

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the hypolipidaemic effects of Grifola frondosa and its regulation mechanism involved in lipid metabolism in liver of rats fed a high-cholesterol diet. The body weights and serum lipid levels of control rats, of hyperlipidaemic rats and of hyperlipidaemic rats treated with oral Grifola frondosa were determined. mRNA expression and concentration of key lipid metabolism enzymes were investigated. Serum cholesterol, triacylglycerol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels were markedly decreased in hyperlipidaemic rats treated with Grifola frondosa compared with untreated hyperlipidaemic rats. mRNA expression of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGCR, acyl-coenzyme A: cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT2, apolipoprotein B (ApoB, fatty acid synthase (FAS and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC1 were significantly down-regulated, while expression of cholesterol 7-alpha-hydroxylase (CYP7A1 was significantly up-regulated in the livers of treated rats compared with untreated hyperlipidaemic rats. The concentrations of these enzymes also paralleled the observed changes in mRNA expression. Two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2-DE and Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS were used to identify twenty proteins differentially expressed in livers of rats treated with Grifola frondosa compared with untreated hyperlipidemic rats. Of these twenty proteins, seven proteins were down-regulated and thirteen proteins were up-regulated. These findings indicate that the hypolipidaemic effects of Grifola frondosa reflected its modulation of key enzymes involved in cholesterol and triacylglycerol biosynthesis, absorption and catabolic pathways. Grifola frondosa may exert anti-atherosclerotic effects by inhibiting LDL oxidation through down-regulation and up-regulating proteins expression in the liver of rats. Therefore, Grifola frondosa may produce both hypolipidaemic

  8. Significant accomplishments, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    BTS data is vital to improve transportation decision making, as well as evaluations of performance and what works in the nations transportation systems. As BTS continues its course of producing relevant, accurate, and timely transportation d...

  9. Combined lesions of hippocampus and subiculum Do not produce deficits in a nonspatial social olfactory memory task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, S; Murphy, D; Qureshi, U; Sutton, P; O'Keefe, J

    2000-07-15

    Rats transmit information to each other about which foods are safe to eat. If a rat smells a food odor on the breath of another rat, it is subsequently more likely to eat that food than an alternative. Work by Galef et al. (1988) has shown that the observer rat forms an association between two olfactory stimuli on the breath of the demonstrator rat that has eaten the food, the food odor and carbon disulphide, which is normally present in the rat breath. Bunsey and Eichenbaum (1995) claimed that the hippocampus/subicular region is required for the long-term retention of this nonspatial form of associative memory on the basis that combined lesions of the hippocampus and subiculum produced a deficit, but lesions of either structure alone did not. We report here a failure to repeat this finding. Rats with either combined lesions of the hippocampus and subiculum or with amygdala lesions were tested on their ability to remember this association either immediately (testing short-term memory) or after a 24 hr delay (testing long-term memory). Neither lesion group exhibited significant memory deficits on this nonspatial associative task at either test interval. In contrast, a deficit was observed on a spatial memory task (forced-choice alternation t-maze) for animals with combined lesions of the hippocampus and subiculum. These results contradict the findings of Bunsey and Eichenbaum (1995) and support the idea that the hippocampus/subicular region is not required for this nonspatial associative memory.

  10. Individually reared rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraeuchi, K.; Gentsch, C.; Feer, H.

    1981-01-01

    The influence of social isolation in rats on postsynaptic alpha 1 - and beta-adrenergic receptors, on the cAMP generating system and on the presynaptic uptake mechanism in the central noradrenergic system was examined in different brain regions. Rearing rats in isolation from the 19th day of life for 12 weeks leads in all regions to a general tendency for a reduction in 3 H-DHA binding, to an enhanced 3 H-WB4101 binding and to a decreased responsiveness of the noradrenaline sensitive cAMP generating system. These changes reach significance only in the pons-medulla-thallamusregion. Isolated rats showed an increased synaptosomal uptake of noradrenaline, most pronounced and significant in the hypothalamus. Our data provide further support for a disturbance in central noradrenergic function in isolated rats. (author)

  11. Transdifferentiated rat pancreatic progenitor cells (AR42J-B13/H) respond to phenobarbital in a rat hepatocyte-specific manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, M; Haltalli, M; Currie, R; Wright, J; Gooderham, N J

    2016-07-01

    Phenobarbital (PB) is known to produce species-specific effects in the rat and mouse, being carcinogenic in certain mouse strains, but only in rats if treated after a DNA damaging event. PB treatment in the rat and mouse also produces disparate effects on cell signalling and miRNA expression profiles. These responses are induced by short term and prolonged PB exposure, respectively, with the latter treatments being difficult to examine mechanistically in primary hepatocytes due to rapid loss of the original hepatic phenotype and limited sustainability in culture. Here we explore the rat hepatocyte-like B13/H cell line as a model for hepatic response to PB exposure in both short-term and longer duration treatments. We demonstrate that PB with Egf treatment in the B13/H cells resulted in a significant increase in Erk activation, as determined by the ratio of phospho-Erk to total Erk, compared to Egf alone. We also show that an extended treatment with PB in the B13/H cells produces a miRNA response similar to that seen in the rat in vivo, via the time-dependent induction of miR-182/96. Additionally, we confirm that B13/H cells respond to Car activators in a typical rat-specific manner. These data suggest that the B13/H cells produce temporal responses to PB that are comparable to those reported in short-term primary rat hepatocyte cultures and in the longer term are similar to those in the rat in vivo. Finally, we also show that Car-associated miR-122 expression is decreased by PB treatment in B13/H cells, a PB-induced response that is common to the rat, mouse and human. We conclude that the B13/H cell system produces a qualitative response comparable to the rat, which is different to the response in the mouse, and that this model could be a useful tool for exploring the functional consequences of PB-sensitive miRNA changes and resistance to PB-mediated tumours in the rat. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. August rats are more resistant to arrhythmogenic effect of myocardial ischemia and reperfusion than Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belkina, L M; Kirillina, T N; Pshennikova, M G; Arkhipenko, Yu V

    2002-06-01

    As differentiated from Wistar rats, myocardial ischemia and reperfusion produce no ventricular fibrillation in August rats. Pretreatment with nitric oxide synthase inhibitor Nw-nitro-L-arginine increased mortality rate in August rats with acute myocardial infarction from 20 to 40%. Under these conditions mortality rate in Wistar rats increased from 50 to 71%. Interstrain differences in the resistance of these animals to the arrhythmogenic effect of ischemia are probably associated with higher activity of the nitric oxide system in August rats compared to Wistar rats.

  13. A single administration of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin that produces reduced food and water intake induces long-lasting expression of corticotropin-releasing factor, arginine vasopressin, and proopiomelanocortin in rat brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Bo-Hyun; Hong, Chang Gwun; Kim, Soo-Young; Kim, Hyun-Ju; Shin, Seung Keon; Kang, Seungwoo; Lee, Kuem-Ju; Kim, Yong-Ku; Lee, Min-Soo; Shin, Kyung-Ho

    2008-01-01

    The mechanism by which a single administration of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) reduces food and water intake is unclear. We examined whether such a food and water intake-reducing single administration of TCDD induced changes in corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), arginine vasopressin (AVP), and proopiomelanocortin (POMC) expression in rat brain. To observe time-dependent changes in these neuropeptides, male Sprague-Dawley rats were given TCDD (50 μg/kg) and terminated 1, 2, 4, or 7 days later. In addition, to observe dose-dependent changes in feeding and neuropeptides, rats were also given a range of TCDD doses (12.5, 25, or 50 μg/kg) and terminated 14 days later. TCDD suppressed food and water intake over 14 days in a dose-dependent manner. TCDD treatment also increased CRF and POMC mRNA levels in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and arcuate nucleus, respectively, in a dose- and time-dependent manner. These increases were related to decreased food intake following TCDD administration. TCDD treatment increased AVP and CRF mRNA levels in the PVN, and these increases were related to decreased water intake. Interestingly, the increases in CRF, AVP and POMC expression were observed 7 to 14 days after TCDD administration. These results suggest that a single administration of TCDD induced long-lasting increases in CRF, AVP, and POMC mRNA levels in the hypothalamus and that these changes are related to reduced food and water intake 7 to 14 days after TCDD administration

  14. The maternal immune activation (MIA) model of schizophrenia produces pre-pulse inhibition (PPI) deficits in both juvenile and adult rats but these effects are not associated with maternal weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Amy R; Bilkey, David K

    2010-12-01

    The developmental onset of deficits in sensorimotor-gating was examined in the maternal immune activation (MIA) animal model of schizophrenia. Pre-pulse inhibition (PPI) deficits were evident in juvenile MIA rats. This parallels the sensorimotor-gating deficits observed in groups at high-risk of schizophrenia. PPI deficits were independent of maternal weight loss following the MIA manipulation, suggesting that this measure may not be a useful marker of treatment efficacy. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Analysis of toxicity produced by inhalation of trichloroethylene within rat and mice`s respiratory epithelium; Comparazione del danno indotto dall`inalazione di tricloroetilene nell`epitelio nasale e tracheobronchiale del ratto e del topo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mancuso, M.T.; Fravolini, M.E.; Parasacchi, P.; Lombardi, C.C.; Giovanetti, A. [ENEA, Casaccia (Italy). Area Energia Ambiente e Salute

    1994-05-01

    The aim of this study was to define the sites of cytotoxicity within the respiratory tract (nasal cavity and tracheobronchial tree) after acute inhalation of trichloroethylene (TCE), an organic solvent requiring metabolic activation by cytochrome P-450 enzymatic system to exert its toxic effects. Two animals species, rats and mice, were exposed to 3500 and 7000 ppm of TCE for 30 minutes. The morphological analysis of the respiratory epithelium has underlined a species-specific difference in the cellular sensitivity after treatment with TCE. This work is a part of ENEA (Italian Agency for New Technologies, Energy and the Environment) INTO program, environmental department, sector of effects on man and ecosystem.

  16. Sodium pump activity and calcium relaxation in vascular smooth muscle of deoxycorticosterone acetate-salt rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soltis, E.E.; Field, F.P.

    1986-01-01

    The Na + -K + pump activity was determined in femoral arterial smooth muscle from deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-salt hypertensive rats using potassium relaxation and ouabain-sensitive 86 Rb uptake as indices. The membrane-stabilizing effect of calcium and its relation to Na + -K + pump activity also were examined. Femoral arteries from DOCA-salt rats exhibited a greater relaxation in response to potassium addition after contraction with norepinephrine in a low potassium (0.6 mM) Krebs solution. The concentration of potassium required to produce a 50% relaxation was significantly less in DOCA-salt rats. Ouabain-sensitive 86 Rb uptake was significantly greater at 3, 10, and 20 minutes of 86 Rb incubation in femoral arteries from DOCA-salt rats. Linear regression analysis revealed a significant correlation between the uptake of 86 Rb and time of incubation in both control and DOCA-salt rats. A significant difference in the slopes of the regression lines showed that the rate of uptake was greater in DOCA-salt rats. No difference was observed in ouabain-insensitive 86 Rb uptake. A dose-dependent relaxation in response to increasing concentrations of calcium following contraction to norepinephrine was observed in femoral arteries from control and DOCA-salt rats. The relaxation was directly dependent on the level of extracellular potassium and was blocked by ouabain. Femoral arteries from DOCA-salt rats relaxed to a significantly greater extent in response to calcium at each level of potassium when compared with controls. These results provide further evidence for an increase in Na + -K + pump activity in vascular smooth muscle from DOCA-salt hypertensive rats

  17. Spirulina vesicolor Improves Insulin Sensitivity and Attenuates Hyperglycemia-Mediated Oxidative Stress in Fructose-Fed Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walaa Hozayen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The current study aimed to investigate the anti-hyperglycemic, anti-hyperlipidemic and insulin sensitizing effects of the cyanobacterium Spirulina vesicolor extract in fructose-fed rats. Materials and Methods: Rats were fed 30% fructose solution in drinking water for 4 weeks. Animals exhibited hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia were selected for further investigations. Diabetic and control rats were orally supplemented with 50 mg/kg body weight S. vesicolor extract for 4 weeks. Results: At the end of 8 weeks, fructose-fed rats showed significant increase in serum glucose, insulin, cholesterol, triglycerides, cardiovascular risk indices and insulin resistance. Treatment of the fructose-fed rats with S. vesicolor extract improved this metabolic profile. Fructose feeding produced a significant increase in serum tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α and a decrease in adiponectin levels. In addition, fructose-fed rats exhibited a significant increase in liver, kidney and heart lipid peroxidation levels, and declined antioxidant defenses. Supplementation of the fructose-fed rats with S. vesicolor extract reversed these alterations. Conclusion: S. vesicolor attenuates hyperglycemia-mediated oxidative stress and inflammation, and is thus effective in improving insulin sensitivity in fructose-fed rats. [J Complement Med Res 2016; 5(1.000: 57-64

  18. Plerocercoid growth factor (PGF), a human growth hormone (hGH) analogue produced by the tapeworm Spirometra mansonoides, has direct insulin-like action in adipose tissue of normal rats in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salem, M.A.M.; Phares, C.K.

    1986-01-01

    The metabolic actions of GH can be divided into acute (insulin-like) and chronic (lipolytic/anti-insulin). The insulin-like actions of GH are most readily elicited in GH-deficient animals as GH induces resistance to its own insulin-like action. Like GH, PGF stimulates growth and cross-reacts with anti-hGH antibodies. Independent experiments were conducted comparing the direct actions of PGF to insulin or hGH in vitro. Insulin-like effects were determined by the ability of PGF, insulin or hGH to stimulate [U- 14 C]glucose metabolism in epidydimal fat pads from normal rats and by inhibition of epinephrine-stimulated lipolysis. Direct stimulation of lipolysis was used as anti-insulin activity. To determine if PGF competes for insulin or GH receptors, adipocytes (3 x 10 5 cells/ml) were incubated with either [ 125 I]insulin or [ 125 I]hGH +/- PGF, +/- insulin or +/- hGH. PGF stimulated glucose oxidation and 14 C-incorporation into lipids. Insulin, hGH and PGF inhibited lipolysis (33%, 29% and 34%, respectively). Adipose tissue was very sensitive to the lipolytic effect of hGH but PGF was neither lipolytic nor did it confer refractoriness to its insulin-like action. PGF bound to GH but not to insulin receptors. Therefore, PGF had direct insulin-like effects but did not stimulate lipolysis in tissue from normal rats in vitro

  19. Sibutramine effects on the reproductive performance of pregnant overweight and non-overweight rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francia-Farje, Luis Alberto Domingo; Silva, Denise Salioni; Volpato, Gustavo Tadeu; Fernandes, Glaura Scantamburlo Alves; Carnietto, Nilson; Cicogna, Antonio Carlos; Kempinas, Wilma De Grava

    2010-01-01

    It is well established that sibutramine produces weight loss and is used frequently in women of childbearing age. However, the potential adverse consequences attributed to sibutramine use by women who may become pregnant is not known. It was thus of interest to determine the effects of sibutramine on the reproductive performance of pregnant rats. Overweight as well as non-overweight female Wistar rats were treated with sibutramine (6 mg/kg) orally, daily for 15 d and then mated with normal male rats. Pregnancy was confirmed and treatment continued with sibutramine until d 14 of pregnancy. On d 20 of pregnancy all rats were anesthetized for determination of various maternal and fetal parameters. There was a significant maternal weight reduction at the end of pregnancy in the non-overweight drug-treated group compared to the control (non-overweight, no drug). Sibutramine alone and overweight condition alone produced a significant increase in postimplantation loss and placental index. In the overweight with or without sibutramine groups a significant decrease in fetal weight was noted. Data suggest that sibutramine alone or the condition of excess weight in the absence of drugs produced impaired reproductive performance. However, treatment of overweight rats with sibutramine did not further exacerbate fetal loss compared to sibutramine alone or the effects noted with excess weight alone.

  20. Rats socially-reared and full fed learned an autoshaping task, showing less levels of fear-like behaviour than fasted or singly-reared rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Hernández, Miguel; Téllez-Alcántara, N Patricia

    2004-07-01

    During the learning of instrumental tasks, rats are usually fasted to increase reinforced learning. However, fasting produces several undesirable side effects. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that control rats, i.e. full-fed and group-reared rats, will learn an autoshaping task to the same level as fasted or singly-reared rats. The interaction between fasting and single-rearing of rats was also tested. Results showed that control rats and fasted rats acquired the autoshaping task similarly, independently of rearing condition or gender. However, fasted or singly-reared rats produced fear-like behaviour, since male rats group-reared and fasted (85% body/wt, P autoshaping task to the same level as fasted or singly-reared rats. However, fasting or single-rearing produced fear-like behaviour. Thus, the training of control rats in autoshaping tasks may be an option that improves animal welfare.

  1. Effect of Diet on Metabolism of Laboratory Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, P. C.; Riskowski, G. L.; McKee, J. S.

    1996-01-01

    In previous studies when rats were fed a processed, semipurified, extruded rodent food bar (RFB) developed for space science research, we noted a difference in the appearance of gastrointestinal tissue (GI); therefore the following study evaluated GI characteristics and growth and metabolic rates of rats fed chow (C) or RFB. Two hundred and twenty-four rats (78 g mean body weight) were randomly assigned to 28 cages and provided C or RFB. Each cage was considered the experimental unit and a 95 percent level of significance, indicated by ANOVA, was used for inference. After each 30-, 60-, and 90-day period, eight cages were shifted from the C to RFB diet and housing density was reduced by two rats per cage. The two rats removed from each cage were sacrificed and used for GI evaluation. Metabolic rates of the rats in each cage were determined by indirect calorimetry. No differences in body weight were detected at 0, 30, 60 or 90 days between C and RFB. Heat production (kcal/hr/kg), CO2 production (L/hr/kg) and O2 consumption (L/hr/kg) were different by light:dark and age with no effect of diet. Respiratory quotient was different by age with no effect of light:dark or diet. Rats on the C diet ate less food and drank more water than those on RFB. C rats produced more fecal and waste materials than the RFB. GI lengths increased with age but were less in RFB than C. GI full and empty weights increased with age but weighed less in RFB than C. Gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) numbers increased with age with no effect of diet. No differences in ileum-associated GALT area were detected between C and RFB. Switching C to RFB decreased GI length, GI full and empty weights, with no changes in GALT number or area. We concluded RFB decreased GI mass without affecting metabolic rate or general body growth.

  2. Influence Of Ginger (Zingiber Officinale) Supplementation Against GAMMA Rays Induced Immunosuppression In Male Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mangood, S.A.; Kassab, F.M.A.

    2013-01-01

    The influence of ginger (Zingiber officinale) supplementation against gamma rays-induced immunosuppression in male albino rats was investigated in the present study. Twenty four male albino rats were divided into four equal groups; control group (receiving no treatment), ginger group where the rats received ginger orally at a dose of 15 g/rat/day for 120 consecutive days, gamma radiation group which subjected to a single 6 Gy whole body gamma radiation and gamma radiation plus ginger group where each rat after taking daily 15 g of ginger for 120 consecutive days was subjected to 6 Gy whole body irradiation. Complete blood pictures and immunoglobulin G (IgG) and M (IgM) were estimated and spleen tissue was also examined histologically. The data obtained revealed that exposure to 6 Gy of gamma radiation caused significant decrease in the body weight, spleen weight, IgG, IgM, erythroide and leucoid elements and produced histological damage in spleen tissue. On the other hand, ginger as a protective agent, caused significant amelioration in the changes produced by irradiation especially immunoglobulins leading to the conclusion that ginger supplementation for 120 days caused modulation of the humoral immune response in irradiated rats. In conclusion, these findings indicated that ginger has the regulatory effect against gamma rays-induced immunosuppression.

  3. Dai-Kenchu-To, a Herbal Medicine, Attenuates Colorectal Distention-induced Visceromotor Responses in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakaya, Kumi; Nagura, Yohko; Hasegawa, Ryoko; Ito, Hitomi; Fukudo, Shin

    2016-10-30

    Dai-kenchu-to (DKT), a traditional Japanese herbal medicine, is known to increase gastrointestinal motility and improve ileal function. We tested our hypotheses that (1) pretreatment with DKT would block the colorectal distention-induced visceromotor response in rats, and (2) pretreatment with DKT would attenuate colorectal distention-induced adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) release and anxiety-related behavior. Rats were pretreated with vehicle or DKT (300 mg/kg/5 mL, per os). Visceromotor responses were analyzed using electromyography in response to colorectal distention (10, 20, 40, 60, and 80 mmHg for 20 seconds at 3-minutes intervals). Anxiety-related behavior was measured during exposure to an elevated-plus maze after colorectal distention. Plasma ACTH and serum corticosterone levels were measured after exposure to the elevated-plus maze. Colorectal distention produced robust contractions of the abdominal musculature, graded according to stimulus intensity, in vehicle-treated rats. At 40, 60, and 80 mmHg of colorectal distention, the visceromotor responses of DKT-treated rats was significantly lower than that of vehicle-treated rats. At 80 mmHg, the amplitude was suppressed to approximately one-third in DKT-treated rats, compared with that in vehicle-treated rats. Smooth muscle compliance and the velocity of accommodation to 60 mmHg of stretching did not significantly differ between the vehicle-treated and DKT-treated rats. Similarly, the DKT did not influence colorectal distention-induced ACTH release, corticosterone levels, or anxiety-related behavior in rats. Our results suggest that DKT attenuates the colorectal distention-induced visceromotor responses, without increasing smooth muscle compliance, ACTH release or anxiety-related behavior in rats.

  4. EVALUATIN OF ANTIHYPERTENSIVE ACTIVITY OF SONCHUS ASPER L. IN RATS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushtaq, Muhammad Naveed; Akhtar, Muhammad Shoaib; Alamgeer; Ahmad, Taseer; Khan, Hafeez Ullah; Maheen, Safirah; Ahsan, Haseeb; Naz, Huma; Asif, Hira; Younis, Waqas; Tabassum, Nazia

    2016-01-01

    The present investigation was carried out to evaluate the effect of aerial parts of Sonchus asper L. in normotensive, glucose and egg feed diet induced hypertensive rats. Aqueous-methanolic extract of Sonchus asper in 250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg doses was studied in normotensive and glucose induced hypertensive rats using the non-invasive technique. The results obtained showed that the extract has significantly (p < 0.5 - p < 0.001) decreased the blood pressure and heart rate in dose dependent manner. The dose 1000 mg/kg of the extract produced the maximum antihypertensive effect and was selected for further experiments. The extract was found to prevent the rise in blood pressure of egg and glucose fed rats as compared to control group in 21 days study. The LD50 of the plant extract was 3500 mg/kg b.w. in mice and sub-chronic toxicity study showed that there was no significant alteration in the blood chemistry of the extract treated rats. It is conceivable, therefore, that the aqueous-methanolic extract of Sonchus asper has exerted considerable antihypertensive activity in rats and has duly supported traditional medicinal use of plant in hypertension.

  5. Detecting Novelty and Significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Vera; Bradley, Margaret M.; Codispoti, Maurizio; Lang, Peter J.

    2013-01-01

    Studies of cognition often use an “oddball” paradigm to study effects of stimulus novelty and significance on information processing. However, an oddball tends to be perceptually more novel than the standard, repeated stimulus as well as more relevant to the ongoing task, making it difficult to disentangle effects due to perceptual novelty and stimulus significance. In the current study, effects of perceptual novelty and significance on ERPs were assessed in a passive viewing context by presenting repeated and novel pictures (natural scenes) that either signaled significant information regarding the current context or not. A fronto-central N2 component was primarily affected by perceptual novelty, whereas a centro-parietal P3 component was modulated by both stimulus significance and novelty. The data support an interpretation that the N2 reflects perceptual fluency and is attenuated when a current stimulus matches an active memory representation and that the amplitude of the P3 reflects stimulus meaning and significance. PMID:19400680

  6. Significant NRC Enforcement Actions

    Data.gov (United States)

    Nuclear Regulatory Commission — This dataset provides a list of Nuclear Regulartory Commission (NRC) issued significant enforcement actions. These actions, referred to as "escalated", are issued by...

  7. Effect of a Brazilian regional basic diet on the prevalence of caries in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, J T; Couto, G B L; Vasconcelos, M M V B; Melo, M M D C; Guedes, R C A; Cordeiro, M A C

    2002-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of a regional basic diet (RBD) on the prevalence of caries in the molar teeth of rats of both sexes aged 23 days. The animals were divided into six groups of 10 rats each receiving the following diets for 30 and 60 days after weaning: RBD, a cariogenic diet, and a commercial diet. The prevalence and penetration of caries in the molar teeth of the rats was then analyzed. The RBD produced caries in 37.5% of the teeth of animals fed 30 days, and in 83.4% of animals fed 60 days, while the cariogenic diet produced caries in 72.5% and 77.5% of the teeth of animals fed 30 and 60 days, respectively. Rats fed the RBD for 30 days had caries in the enamel in 38% of their teeth, 48% had superficial dentin caries, and 7.5% moderate dentin caries. The effect of the RBD did not differ significantly from that of the cariogenic diet in terms of the presence of caries in rats fed 60 days. The penetration depth of the caries produced by the RBD was the same as that produced by the cariogenic diet. Our results show that the RBD has the same cariogenic potential as the cariogenic diet. Since the RBD is the only option for the low-income population, there should be a study of how to compensate for the cariogenicity of this diet.

  8. Effect of a Brazilian regional basic diet on the prevalence of caries in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.T. Pinheiro

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of a regional basic diet (RBD on the prevalence of caries in the molar teeth of rats of both sexes aged 23 days. The animals were divided into six groups of 10 rats each receiving the following diets for 30 and 60 days after weaning: RBD, a cariogenic diet, and a commercial diet. The prevalence and penetration of caries in the molar teeth of the rats was then analyzed. The RBD produced caries in 37.5% of the teeth of animals fed 30 days, and in 83.4% of animals fed 60 days, while the cariogenic diet produced caries in 72.5% and 77.5% of the teeth of animals fed 30 and 60 days, respectively. Rats fed the RBD for 30 days had caries in the enamel in 38% of their teeth, 48% had superficial dentin caries, and 7.5% moderate dentin caries. The effect of the RBD did not differ significantly from that of the cariogenic diet in terms of the presence of caries in rats fed 60 days. The penetration depth of the caries produced by the RBD was the same as that produced by the cariogenic diet. Our results show that the RBD has the same cariogenic potential as the cariogenic diet. Since the RBD is the only option for the low-income population, there should be a study of how to compensate for the cariogenicity of this diet.

  9. USA coal producer perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porco, J. [Alpha Natural Resources, Latrobe, PA (US). Alpha Energy Global Marketing

    2004-07-01

    The focus is on the Central Appalachian coal industry. Alpha Natural Resources was formed in 2002 from Pittston Coal's Virginia and Coastal operations. AMCI's U.S. operations and Mears Enterprises in Pennsylvania were acquired later. The company produces 20-21 million tonnes per year and sells 20 million tonnes of steam coal and 10 million tonnes of exports, including some coal that is brokered. Foundry coke is a major product. Capital investment has resulted in increased productivity. Central Appalachia is expected to continue as a significant coal-producing region for supplying metallurgical coke. Production is expected to stabilize, but not increase; so the mines will have a longer life. 31 slides/overheads are included.

  10. Progressive behavioral changes during the maturation of rats with early radiation-induced hypoplasia of fascia dentata granule cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mickley, G.A.; Ferguson, J.L.; Mulvihill, M.A.; Nemeth, T.J.

    1989-01-01

    Localized exposure of the neonatal rat brain to X-rays produces neuronal hypoplasia specific to the granule cell layer of the hippocampal dentate gyrus. This brain damage causes locomotor hyperactivity, slowed acquisition of passive avoidance tasks and long bouts of spontaneous turning (without reversals) in a bowl apparatus. Here we report how these behavioral deficits change as a function of subject aging and behavioral test replications. Portions of the neonatal rat cerebral hemispheres were X-irradiated in order to selectively damage the granule cells of the dentate gyrus. The brains of experimental animals received a fractionated dose of X rays (13 Gy total) over postnatal days 1 to 16 and control animals were sham-irradiated. Rats between the ages of 71-462 days were tested 3 separate times on each of the following 3 behavioral tests: (1) spontaneous locomotion, (2) passive avoidance acquisition, and (3) spontaneous circling in a large plastic hemisphere. Rats with radiation-induced damage to the fascia dentata exhibited long bouts of slow turns without reversals. Once they began, irradiated subjects perseverated in turning to an extent significantly greater than sham-irradiated control subjects. This irradiation effect was significant during all test series. Moreover, in time, spontaneous perseverative turning was significantly potentiated in rats with hippocampal damage but increased only slightly in controls. Early radiation exposure produced locomotor hyperactivity in young rats. While activity levels of controls remained fairly stable throughout the course of the experiment, the hyperactivity of the irradiated animals decreased significantly as they matured

  11. Clofibrate prevents and reverses the hemodynamic manifestations of hyperthyroidism in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Gómez, Isabel; Cruz, Antonio; Moreno, Juan Manuel; Soler, Agatángelo; Osuna, Antonio; Vargas, Félix

    2008-03-01

    This study analyzed the effects of the chronic administration of clofibrate, a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPARalpha) agonist, on the development and established hemodynamic, morphologic, metabolic, and renal manifestations of hyperthyroidism in rats. The prevention study used four groups of male Wistar rats: control, clofibrate (240 mg/kg/day by gavage), T(4)(75 microg thyroxine/rat/day s.c.), and T(4)+clofibrate. All treatments were maintained for 3 weeks. Body weight (BW), tail systolic blood pressure (SBP), and heart rate (HR) were recorded weekly. Finally, temperature, SBP, pulse pressure (PP) and HR were recorded in conscious rats, and morphologic, metabolic, plasma, and renal variables were measured. The reversion study used two groups of rats, T(4)(treated for 6 weeks) and T(4)+clofibrate, measuring their hemodynamic variables and temperature for 3 weeks. T(4) increased BP, HR, PP, and temperature when compared with control rats. Clofibrate prevented and reversed the increase in SBP, HR, PP, and temperature produced by T(4) administration, reduced plasma thyroid hormone levels, and increased plasma thyroid-stimulating hormone values and phenol-uridine diphosphate-glucuronosyl-transferase (UGT) activity. However, clofibrate did not modify the cardiac or renal hypertrophy, polyphagia, polydipsia, or proteinuria of hyperthyroid rats. In normal rats, clofibrate treatment did not significantly change thyroid hormone levels, phenol-UGT activity, or any hemodynamic, morphologic, or renal variables. Chronic clofibrate treatment suppressed the hemodynamic manifestations and increased temperature of hyperthyroidism, an effect that can be produced by direct antithyroid effects. However, clofibrate administration did not modify the morphologic, metabolic, or renal alterations of hyperthyroid rats, indicating specificity in the antithyroid actions of clofibrate.

  12. Influência da nifedipina no bloqueio neuromuscular produzido pelo atracúrio e pelo cisatracúrio: estudo em preparações nervo frênico-diafragma de rato Influencia de la nifedipina en el bloqueo neuromuscular producido por atracurio y cisatracurio: estudio en preparación nervio frénico diafragma de ratón Influence of nifedipine on the neuromuscular block produced by atracurium and cistracurium: study in rat phrenic-diaphragmatic nerve preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silmara Rodrigues de Sousa

    2006-04-01

    neuromuscular del atracurio y del cisatracurio, no cambió el potencial de membrana y produjo el aumento inicial en la frecuencia de los PPTM, seguida de bloqueo. CONCLUSIONES: La nifedipina, en la concentración empleada, potenció el bloqueo neuromuscular que el atracurio e cisatracurio produjeron. Estudios electrofisiológicos demostraron una acción presináptica y la ausencia de acción despolarizante sobre la fibra muscular.BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Calcium channel blockers may interact with neuromuscular blockers, increasing its effects. Research studies about this interaction display controversial results. In some studies these drugs produced neuromuscular blockage, or contracture, or no effect at all was proved over skeletal neuromuscular response. This study assessed the nifedipine effects over muscular responses and its possible interaction with neuromuscular blockers in rat diaphragm. METHODS: A number of 25 rats were used, weighing between 250 and 300 g and sacrificed under anesthesia with intraperitoneal pentobarbital (40 mg.kg-1. Preparation was mounted according to the technique described by Bulbring. Diaphragm was kept under tension, connected to an isometric transducer and subjected to an indirect stimulation of 0.1 Hz frequency. Diaphragm contractions were registered on a physiograph. In order to evaluate the effect of these drugs on neuromuscular transmission, they were added separately or associated to the preparation, on the following concentrations: nifedipine (4 µg.mL-1; atracurium (20 µg.mL-1; cistracurium (3 µg.mL-1. On phrenic-nerve preparation, the assessed items were: 1 the extent of diaphragm muscle response to indirect stimulation, before and 45 minutes after adding nifedipine and neuromuscular blockers separately and after the association of both drugs; 2 nifedipine effects on membrane potentials (MP and miniature end-plate potentials (MEPP. RESULTS: Employed separately, nifedipine did not alter the extent of muscular responses, but it did

  13. Influência do lítio no bloqueio neuromuscular produzido pelo atracúrio e pelo cisatracúrio: estudo em preparações nervo frênico-diafragma de rato Influencia del litio en el bloqueo neuromuscular producido por el atracurio y por el cisatracurio: estudio en preparo nervio frénico-diafragma del ratón Influence of lithium on the neuromuscular blockade produced by atracurium and cisatracurium: study on rat phrenic nerve-diaphragm preparations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samanta Cristina Antoniassi Fernandes

    2007-06-01

    alteraciones en los potenciales de placa terminal en miniatura mostraron una acción presináptica.BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Lithium is widely used for the treatment of bipolar disorders and can interact with neuromuscular blockers. There is a controversy about the mechanisms by which it affects neuromuscular transmission and its interaction with neuromuscular blockers. The objective of this study was to evaluate, on the rat diaphragm, the effects of lithium on the muscular response and indirect stimulation, and the possible interaction with neuromuscular blockers. METHODS: Rats weighing between 250 and 300 g were sacrificed under urethane anesthesia. The phrenic nerve-diaphragm preparation was assembled according to the Bulbring technique. The diaphragm was kept under tension, connected to an isometric transducer, and submitted to indirect stimulation with a frequency of 0.1 Hz. The contractions of the diaphragm were registered on a physiograph. The analysis of the amplitude of the muscular responses evaluated: the effects of the isolated drugs: lithium (1.5 mg.mL-1; atracurium (20 µg.mL-1, and cisatracurium (3 µg.mL-1; the lithium-neuromuscular blockers association; and the effects of lithium on the neuromuscular blockade produced by atracurium (35 µg.mL-1 and cisatracurium (5 µg.mL-1. The effects were evaluated before and 45 minutes after the addition of the drugs. The effects of lithium on membrane potentials (MP and miniature end-plate potentials (MEPP were also evaluated. RESULTS: Lithium by itself did not change the amplitude of the muscular responses, but it decreased significantly the neuromuscular blockade produced by atracurium and cisatracurium. It did not change MP and caused an initial increase in MEPP. CONCLUSIONS: Lithium by itself did not compromise neuromuscular transmission and increased the resistance to the effects of atracurium and cisatracurium. It did not show any action on the muscle fiber, and the changes in miniature end-plate potentials

  14. Effect of coffee drinking on cell proliferation in rat urinary bladder epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lina, B A; Rutten, A A; Woutersen, R A

    1993-12-01

    A possible effect of freshly brewed drip coffee on urinary bladder carcinogenesis was investigated in male Wistar rats using cell proliferation in urinary bladder epithelium as the indicator of tumour promotion. Male rats were given either undiluted coffee brew (100% coffee), coffee diluted 10 times (10% coffee) or tap water (controls), as their only source of drinking fluid for 2 or 6 wk. Uracil, known to induce cell proliferation in urinary bladder epithelium, was included in the study as a positive control. In rats receiving 100% coffee, body weights, liquid intake and urinary volume were decreased. Neither histopathological examination of urinary bladder tissue nor the bromodeoxyuridine labelling index revealed biologically significant differences between rats receiving coffee and the tap water controls. Uracil increased the labelling index and induced hyperplasia of the urinary bladder epithelium, as expected. It was concluded that these results produced no evidence that drinking coffee predisposes to tumour development in the urinary bladder.

  15. Increased number of anaerobic bacteria in the infected root canal in type 2 diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwama, Akihiro; Morimoto, Taisuke; Tsuji, Masahito; Nakamura, Koki; Higuchi, Naoya; Imaizumi, Ichiro; Shibata, Naoki; Yamasaki, Masahiro; Nakamura, Hiroshi

    2006-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between type 2 diabetes mellitus and anaerobic bacteria detected in infected root canals. Normal Wistar rats (control) received a standard laboratory diet with water (group A), and GK rats (type 2 diabetes mellitus rats) a normal laboratory diet with water (group B) or a 30% sucrose solution (group C). Chemotaxis assay was conducted on polymorphonuclear leukocytes from the 3 groups, and the numbers of anaerobic bacteria in infected root canals were determined. In the chemotaxis assay on the polymorphonuclear leukocytes, the chemotactic response of cells in group C was lower than that for groups A and B (P obligate anaerobic bacteria which stained gram negative, were significantly more numerous in group C (P < .01) than in groups A and B. The metabolic condition produced by type 2 diabetes mellitus in rats might lower the general host resistance against bacterial infection.

  16. Antioxidants as recipes for efavirenz-induced liver damage: A study in albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elias Adikwu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Hepatotoxicity is a clinical challenge associated with the use of efavirenz (EFV. This study investigated the effects of n-acetylcysteine (NAC, vitamins C and E on EFV-induced hepatotoxicity in albino rats. Methods: Rats were divided into groups and administered with NAC (20mg/kg, Vit C (50mg/kg, Vit  E (50mg/kg, Vit C+ E and 60mg/kg of EFV respectively. Rats were also divided into groups and pretreated with NAC, Vit C, E, and combined doses of Vit C+E prior to treatment with EFV for 15 days respectively. After drug administration rats were sacrificed and serum was collected and evaluated for liver function parameters. Rats were dissected, liver was collected weighed and evaluated for alkaline phosphatase (ALP, alanine aminotransferase (AST, aspartate aminotransferase (ALT, gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, malondialdehyde (MDA, super oxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, glutathione (GSH, gluthatione peroxidase (GPX levels and pathological damage. Results: Effects were not significant (p>0.05 on body and liver weights, however, the levels of AST, ALT, AST, GGT, LDH, CB, TB and MDA were increased significantly (p<0.05 whereas SOD, CAT, SOD, GSH and GPX were decreased significantly (p<0.05 in EFV-treated rats in comparison to control. The liver of EFV-treated rats showed necrosis of hepatocytes. Nevertheless, EFV-induced alterations in the above parameters were significantly (p<0.05 ameliorated in antioxidants pretreated rats.  The combined doses of Vit C and E produced the best and significant (p<0.05 ameliorative effects in comparison to their individual doses. Conclusion: This study shows the prospects of antioxidants as candidates for the treatments of efavirenz-induced hepatotoxicity.

  17. Exposure to heavy charged particles affects thermoregulation in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kandasamy, S.B.; Hunt, W.A.; Dalton, T.K.; Joseph, J.A.; Harris, A.H.; Rabin, B.M.

    1994-01-01

    Rats exposed to 0.1-5 Gy of heavy particles ( 56 Fe, 40 Ar, 20 Ne or 4 He) showed dose-dependent changes in body temperature. Lower doses of all particles produced hyperthermia, and higher doses of 20 Ne and 56 Fe produced hypothermia. Of the four HZE particles, 56 Fe particles were the most potent and 4 He particles were the least potent in producing changes in thermoregulation. The 20 Ne and 40 Ar particles produced an intermediate level of change in body temperature. Significantly greater hyperthermia was produced by exposure to 1 Gy of 20 Ne, 40 Ar and 56 Fe particles than by exposure to 1 Gy of 60 Co γ rays. Pretreating rats with the cyclo-oxygenase inhibitor indomethacin attenuated the hyperthermia produced by exposure to 1 Gy of 56 Fe particles, indicating that prostaglandins mediate 56 Fe-particle-induced hyperthermia. The hypothermia produced by exposure to 5 Gy of 56 Fe particles is mediated by histamine and can be attenuated by treatment with the antihistamines mepyramine and cimetidine. 15 refs., 4 figs

  18. Inulin-type fructan improves diabetic phenotype and gut microbiota profiles in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian; Yu, Hongyue; Xiao, Xinhua; Hu, Ling; Xin, Fengjiao; Yu, Xiaobing

    2018-01-01

    Accumulating research has addressed the linkage between the changes to gut microbiota structure and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Inulin is one type of soluble dietary fiber that can alleviate T2D. As a prebiotic, inulin cannot be digested by humans, but rather is digested by probiotics. However, whether inulin treatment can benefit the entire gut bacteria community remains unknown. In this study, we evaluated the differences in gut microbiota composition among diabetic, inulin-treated diabetic, normal control, and inulin-treated normal control rats. A diabetic rat model was generated by a high-fat diet and streptozotocin injections (HF/STZ). Inulin was orally administered to normal and diabetic rats. To determine the composition of the gut microbiota, fecal DNA extraction and 16S rRNA gene 454 pyrosequencing were performed. We found that inulin treatment reduced fasting blood glucose levels and alleviated glucose intolerance and blood lipid panels in diabetic rats. Additionally, inulin treatment increased the serum glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) level, reduced serum IL-6 level, Il6 expression in epididymal adipose tissue, and Pepck , G6pc expression in liver of diabetic rats. Pyrophosphate sequencing of the 16s V3-V4 region demonstrated an elevated proportion of Firmicutes and a reduced abundance of Bacteroidetes at the phylogenetic level in diabetic rats compared to normal control rats. The characteristics of the gut microbiota in control and inulin-treated rats were similar. Inulin treatment can normalize the composition of the gut microbiota in diabetic rats. At the family and genus levels, probiotic bacteria Lactobacillus and short-chain fatty acid (SCFA)-producing bacteria Lachnospiraceae , Phascolarctobacterium , and Bacteroides were found to be significantly more abundant in the inulin-treated diabetic group than in the non-treated diabetic group. In addition, inulin-treated rats had a lower abundance of Desulfovibrio , which produce lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The

  19. Participation of endogenous opioids in the antinociception induced by resistance exercise in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.S. Galdino

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Exercise is a low-cost intervention that promotes health and contributes to the maintenance of the quality of life. The present study was designed to investigate the influence of different resistance exercise protocols on the nociceptive threshold of rats. Female Wistar rats were used to perform exercises in a weight-lifting exercise model. The following groups were examined (N = 6 per group: untrained rats (control group; an acute protocol group consisting of rats submitted to 15 sets of 15 repetitions of resistance exercise (acute group; rats exercised with 3 sets of 10 repetitions, three times per week for 12 weeks (trained group, and a group consisting of trained rats that were further submitted to the acute protocol (trained-acute group. The nociceptive threshold was measured by the paw-withdrawal test, in which the withdrawal threshold (escape reaction was measured by an apparatus applying force to the plantar surface of the animal paw. The opioid antagonist naloxone (2 mg/kg was administered subcutaneously 10 min before the exercise protocols. The trained group demonstrated antinociception only up to day 45 of the 12-week training period. A significant increase (37%, P < 0.05 in the nociceptive threshold was produced immediately after exercise, decreasing to 15% after 15 min, when the acute exercise protocol was used. Naloxone reversed this effect. These data show that the acute resistance exercise protocol was effective in producing antinociception for 15 min. This antinociceptive effect is mediated by the activation of opioid receptors.

  20. Effects of Sex and Stress on Trigeminal Neuropathic Pain-Like Behavior in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korczeniewska, Olga Anna; Khan, Junad; Tao, Yuanxiang; Eliav, Eli; Benoliel, Rafael

    2017-01-01

    significantly increased pinprick response difference scores compared to nRS-IOCCI rats, and the von Frey thresholds were significantly lower in females than in males. RS-sham females-but not RS-sham males-developed persistently reduced thresholds and increased pinprick response difference scores. RS produced an increased bilateral sensitivity to stimuli applied to the vibrissal pad following infraorbital nerve injury, irrespective of sex. This observed sensitivity subsequently persisted in RS-sham female rats but not in RS-sham male rats. Stress induced a significant but moderate increase in pain-like behavior in female rats compared to male rats. RS had no significant sex effects on IFN-γ levels, EPM parameters, or body weight gain. This suggests that stress may have a selective effect on pain-like behavior in both sexes, but the possible mechanisms are unclear.

  1. Can Ayahuasca and sleep loss change sexual performance in male rats?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarenga, T A; Polesel, D N; Matos, G; Garcia, V A; Costa, J L; Tufik, S; Andersen, M L

    2014-10-01

    The ingestion of the beverage Ayahuasca usually occurs in religious ceremonies that are performed during the night leading to sleep deprivation. The purpose of the present study was to characterize the acute effects of Ayahuasca upon the sexual response of sleep deprived male rats. One group of sexually experienced male Wistar rats were submitted to a paradoxical sleep deprivation (PSD) protocol for 96h, while another group spent the same amount of time in the home cage (CTRL). After this period, either saline or Ayahuasca drink (250, 500 and 1000μgmL(-1)) was administered by gavage and sexual behavior and hormonal concentrations were measured. Ayahuasca alone significantly decreased sexual performance at all doses. However, in sleep deprived rats, the lower dose increased sexual performance while the intermediate dose produced a detrimental effect on sexual response compared to the CTRL rats at the same dose. Regarding the hormonal analyses, a lower testosterone concentration was observed in sleep-deprived saline rats in relation to the CTRL group. Progesterone was significantly lower only in PSD rats at the dose 500μgmL(-1) compared with CTRL-500μgmL(-1) group. Corticosterone was unchanged among the groups evaluated. Our results suggest that Ayahuasca intake markedly impaired sexual performance alone, but, when combined with sleep deprivation, had significant, but heterogeneous, effects on male sexual response. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Both hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism increase atrial fibrillation inducibility in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Youhua; Dedkov, Eduard I; Teplitsky, Diana; Weltman, Nathan Y; Pol, Christine J; Rajagopalan, Viswanathan; Lee, Bianca; Gerdes, A Martin

    2013-10-01

    Evidence indicates that cardiac hypothyroidism may contribute to heart failure progression. It is also known that heart failure is associated with an increased risk of atrial fibrillation (AF). Although it is established that hyperthyroidism increases AF incidence, the effect of hypothyroidism on AF is unclear. This study investigated the effects of different thyroid hormone levels, ranging from hypothyroidism to hyperthyroidism on AF inducibility in thyroidectomized rats. Thyroidectomized rats with serum-confirmed hypothyroidism 1 month after surgery were randomized into hypothyroid (N=9), euthyroid (N=9), and hyperthyroid (N=9) groups. Rats received placebo, 3.3-mg l-thyroxine (T4), or 20-mg T4 pellets (60-day release form) for 2 months, respectively. At the end of treatment, hypothyroid, euthyroid, and hyperthyroid status was confirmed. Hypothyroid animals showed cardiac atrophy and reduced cardiac systolic and diastolic functions, whereas hyperthyroid rats exhibited cardiac hypertrophy and increased cardiac function. Hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism produced opposite electrophysiological changes in heart rates and atrial effective refractory period, but both significantly increased AF susceptibility. AF incidence was 78% in hypothyroid, 67% in hyperthyroid, and the duration of induced AF was also longer, compared with 11% in the euthyroid group (all Phyperthyroidism lead to increased AF vulnerability in a rat thyroidectomy model. Our results stress that normal thyroid hormone levels are required to maintain normal cardiac electrophysiology and to prevent cardiac arrhythmias and AF.

  3. Both Hypothyroidism and Hyperthyroidism Increase Atrial Fibrillation Inducibility in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Youhua; Dedkov, Eduard I.; Teplitsky, Diana; Weltman, Nathan Y.; Pol, Christine J.; Rajagopalan, Viswanathan; Lee, Bianca; Gerdes, A. Martin

    2014-01-01

    Background Evidence indicates that cardiac hypothyroidism may contribute to heart failure (HF) progression. It is also known that HF is associated with an increased risk of atrial fibrillation (AF). While it is established that hyperthyroidism increases AF incidence, the effect of hypothyroidism on AF is unclear. This study investigated the effects of different thyroid hormone levels, ranging from hypothyroidism to hyperthyroidism on AF inducibility in thyroidectomized rats. Methods and Results Thyroidectomized rats with serum confirmed hypothyroidism 1 month after surgery were randomized into hypothyroid (n=9), euthyroid (n=9) and hyperthyroid (n=9) groups. Rats received placebo, 3.3mg L-thyroxine (T4), or 20 mg T4 pellets (60 day release form) for 2 months, respectively. At the end of treatment, hypothyroid, euthyroid and hyperthyroid status was confirmed. Hypothyroid animals showed cardiac atrophy and reduced cardiac systolic and diastolic function, while hyperthyroid rats exhibited cardiac hypertrophy and increased cardiac function. Hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism produced opposite electrophysiological changes in heart rates and atrial effective refractory period, but both significantly increased AF susceptibility. AF incidence was 78% in hypothyroid, 67% in hyperthyroid, and the duration of induced AF was also longer, compared with 11% in the euthyroid group (all phyperthyroidism lead to increased AF vulnerability in a rat thyroidectomy model. Our results stress that normal thyroid hormone levels are required to maintain normal cardiac electrophysiology and prevent cardiac arrhythmias and AF. PMID:24036190

  4. Treadmill exercise alleviates short-term memory impairment in 6-hydroxydopamine-induced Parkinson's rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Han-Sam; Shin, Mal-Soon; Song, Wook; Jun, Tae-Won; Lim, Baek-Vin; Kim, Young-Pyo; Kim, Chang-Ju

    2013-01-01

    Progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons in substantia nigra is a key pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease. In the present study, we investigated the effects of treadmill exercise on short-term memory, apoptotic dopaminergic neuronal cell death and fiber loss in the nigrostriatum, and cell proliferation in the hippocampal dentate gyrus of Parkinson's rats. Parkinson's rats were made by injection of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) into the striatum using stereotaxic instrument. Four weeks after 6-OHDA injection, the rats in the 6-OHDA-injection group exhibited significant rotational asymmetry following apomorphine challenge. The rats in the exercise groups were put on the treadmill to run for 30 min once a day for 14 consecutive days starting 4 weeks after 6-OHDA injection. In the present results, extensive degeneration of the dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra with loss of dopaminergic fibers in the striatum were produced in the rats without treadmill running, which resulted in short-term memory impairment. However, the rats performing treadmill running for 2 weeks alleviated nigrostriatal dopaminergic cell loss and alleviated short-term memory impairment with increasing cell proliferation in the hippocampal dentate gyrus of Parkinson's rats. The present results show that treadmill exercise may provide therapeutic value for the Parkinson's disease.

  5. Reduced platelet-mediated and enhanced leukocyte-mediated fibrinolysis in experimentally induced diabetes in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winocour, P.D.; Colwell, J.A.

    1985-01-01

    Studies of fibrinolytic activity in diabetes mellitus have produced conflicting results. This may be a result of methodologic insensitivity or of variable contributions of the different blood components to whole blood fibrinolysis. To explore these two possibilities, the authors used a sensitive solid-phase radiometric assay to examine the fibrinolytic activity of whole blood, platelet-rich plasma, leukocytes, and platelet- and leukocyte-poor plasma prepared from control rats and rats with streptozocin-induced diabetes at various times after induction of diabetes. Fibrinolytic activity of whole blood from diabetic rats after 7 days was significantly reduced, and remained reduced after longer durations of diabetes up to 28 days. Platelet-rich plasma from diabetic rats had decreased fibrinolytic activity, which followed the same time course of changes as in whole blood. The platelet contribution to whole blood fibrinolysis was further reduced in vivo after 14 days of diabetes by a reduced whole blood platelet count. In contrast, fibrinolytic activity of leukocytes from diabetic rats became enhanced after 7 days of diabetes. After 49 days of diabetes, the whole blood leukocyte count was reduced, and in vivo would offset the enhanced activity. Plasma fibrinolytic activity was small compared with that of whole blood and was unaltered in diabetic rats. The authors conclude that altered platelet function contributes to decreased fibrinolytic activity of whole blood in diabetic rats, and that this may be partially offset by enhanced leukocyte-mediated fibrinolysis

  6. In vivo effects of Faizol Ubat Batuk, a herbal product on aminopyrine metabolism in rat hepatocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abas Hj Hussin

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Traditional medicines, in particular herbal products, have been used abundantly over the years in curing several diseases. Pharmacological interactions of herbal products with modern drugs, however, remain to some extent unknown. Herein, we examined whether co-administration of Faizol Ubat Batuk (FUB, a mixture of aqueous extract of different plants, modifies the metabolism of aminopyrine, a conventional analgesic drug, in rat liver. We used rat hepatocytes outfitted by collagenase perfusion technique. Determination of aminopyrine n-demethylase activity was performed using the Nash colorimetric method, by measuring the amount of formaldehyde produced. Compared to control treatment, FUB significantly increased the hepatic metabolism of aminopyrine in healthy adult male rats. In contrast, the hepatic metabolism of aminopyrine in adult female rats was decreased. Besides, a biphasic effect in n-demethylase activity was observed in young male rats treated with FUB. In a subsequent experiment, FUB did not change the metabolism of aminopyrine in streptozotocin (STZ-diabetic adult male rats. In conclusion, administration of FUB could affect phase I aminopyrine metabolism in rat heptocytes. In addition, the effects of FUB on hepatic n-demethylase activity were gender and disease dependent.

  7. Significant Tsunami Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, P. K.; Furtney, M.; McLean, S. J.; Sweeney, A. D.

    2014-12-01

    Tsunamis have inflicted death and destruction on the coastlines of the world throughout history. The occurrence of tsunamis and the resulting effects have been collected and studied as far back as the second millennium B.C. The knowledge gained from cataloging and examining these events has led to significant changes in our understanding of tsunamis, tsunami sources, and methods to mitigate the effects of tsunamis. The most significant, not surprisingly, are often the most devastating, such as the 2011 Tohoku, Japan earthquake and tsunami. The goal of this poster is to give a brief overview of the occurrence of tsunamis and then focus specifically on several significant tsunamis. There are various criteria to determine the most significant tsunamis: the number of deaths, amount of damage, maximum runup height, had a major impact on tsunami science or policy, etc. As a result, descriptions will include some of the most costly (2011 Tohoku, Japan), the most deadly (2004 Sumatra, 1883 Krakatau), and the highest runup ever observed (1958 Lituya Bay, Alaska). The discovery of the Cascadia subduction zone as the source of the 1700 Japanese "Orphan" tsunami and a future tsunami threat to the U.S. northwest coast, contributed to the decision to form the U.S. National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program. The great Lisbon earthquake of 1755 marked the beginning of the modern era of seismology. Knowledge gained from the 1964 Alaska earthquake and tsunami helped confirm the theory of plate tectonics. The 1946 Alaska, 1952 Kuril Islands, 1960 Chile, 1964 Alaska, and the 2004 Banda Aceh, tsunamis all resulted in warning centers or systems being established.The data descriptions on this poster were extracted from NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) global historical tsunami database. Additional information about these tsunamis, as well as water level data can be found by accessing the NGDC website www.ngdc.noaa.gov/hazard/

  8. Opiate-like electroencephalographic and behavioral effects of electroconvulsive shock in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tortella, F C; Cowan, A; Belenky, G L; Holaday, J W

    1981-12-03

    Rats were studied (a) after a single transauricular electroshock (acute ECS) and (b) following 10 consecutive once-daily shocks (chronic ECS). ECS produced a generalized convulsion marked by a polyspike EEG seizure. The seizure was followed by a period of postictal depression (PID) characterized by EEG high-voltage synchrony, EMG quietening, and an associated stuporous behavior in the rat. Acute ECS produced a maximal of 33 +/- 8 (S.E.) percent above control in the EEG voltage output during postictus, with the PID lasting 2680 +/- 658 sec. Chronic ECS resulted in a significant enhancement of these acute responses. Pretreating rats with naloxone (0.3-10 mg/kg s.c.) antagonized the postictal effects of acute ECS, but not of chronic ECS. These naloxone-sensitive postictal EEG and behavioral changes appear to reflect a release of endogenous opioid peptides during ictus, a finding consistent with the hypothesis that electroshock activates opioid systems.

  9. Evaluation of toxicity after one-months treatment with Bauhinia forficata decoction in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepato, Maria Teresa; Baviera, Amanda Martins; Vendramini, Regina Célia; Brunetti, Iguatemy Lourenço

    2004-01-01

    Background Previous experiments have shown that a decoction of Bauhinia forficata leaves reduces the changes in carbohydrate and protein metabolism that occur in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes. In the present investigation, the serum activities of enzymes known to be reliable toxicity markers were monitored in normal and streptozotocin-diabetic rats to discover whether the use of B. forficata decoction has toxic effects on liver, muscle or pancreas tissue or on renal microcirculation. Methods An experimental group of normal and streptozotocin-diabetic rats received an aqueous decoction of fresh B. forficata leaves (150 g/L) by mouth for 33 days while a control group of normal and diabetic rats received water for the same length of time. The serum activity of the toxicity markers lactate dehydrogenase, creatine kinase, amylase, angiotensin-converting enzyme and bilirubin were assayed before receiving B. forficata decoction and on day 19 and 33 of treatment. Results The toxicity markers in normal and diabetic rats were not altered by the diabetes itself nor by treatment with decoction. Whether or not they received B. forficata decoction the normal rats showed a significant increase in serum amylase activity during the experimental period while there was a tendency for the diabetic rats, both treated and untreated with decoction, to have lower serum amylase activities than the normal rats. Conclusions Administration of an aqueous decoction of B. forficata is a potential treatment for diabetes and does not produce toxic effects measurable with the enzyme markers used in our study. PMID:15186500

  10. Exploring a post-traumatic stress disorder paradigm in Flinders sensitive line rats to model treatment-resistant depression I: bio-behavioural validation and response to imipramine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Sarel Jacobus; Harvey, Brian Herbert

    2017-08-01

    Co-morbid depression with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is often treatment resistant. In developing a preclinical model of treatment-resistant depression (TRD), we combined animal models of depression and PTSD to produce an animal with more severe as well as treatment-resistant depressive-like behaviours. Male Flinders sensitive line (FSL) rats, a genetic animal model of depression, were exposed to a stress re-stress model of PTSD [time-dependent sensitisation (TDS)] and compared with stress-naive controls. Seven days after TDS stress, depressive-like and coping behaviours as well as hippocampal and cortical noradrenaline (NA) and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5HIAA) levels were analysed. Response to sub-chronic imipramine treatment (IMI; 10 mg/kg s.c.×7 days) was subsequently studied. FSL rats demonstrated bio-behavioural characteristics of depression. Exposure to TDS stress in FSL rats correlated negatively with weight gain, while demonstrating reduced swimming behaviour and increased immobility versus unstressed FSL rats. IMI significantly reversed depressive-like (immobility) behaviour and enhanced active coping behaviour (swimming and climbing) in FSL rats. The latter was significantly attenuated in FSL rats exposed to TDS versus unstressed FSL rats. IMI reversed reduced 5HIAA levels in unstressed FSL rats, whereas exposure to TDS negated this effect. Lowered NA levels in FSL rats were sustained after TDS with IMI significantly reversing this in the hippocampus. Combining a gene-X-environment model of depression with a PTSD paradigm produces exaggerated depressive-like symptoms that display an attenuated response to antidepressant treatment. This work confirms combining FSL rats with TDS exposure as a putative animal model of TRD.

  11. Social exclusion intensifies anxiety-like behavior in adolescent rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyunchan; Noh, Jihyun

    2015-05-01

    Social connection reduces the physiological reactivity to stressors, while social exclusion causes emotional distress. Stressful experiences in rats result in the facilitation of aversive memory and induction of anxiety. To determine the effect of social interaction, such as social connection, social exclusion and equality or inequality, on emotional change in adolescent distressed rats, the emotional alteration induced by restraint stress in individual rats following exposure to various social interaction circumstances was examined. Rats were assigned to one of the following groups: all freely moving rats, all rats restrained, rats restrained in the presence of freely moving rats and freely moving rats with a restrained rat. No significant difference in fear-memory and sucrose consumption between all groups was found. Change in body weight significantly increased in freely moving rats with a restrained rat, suggesting that those rats seems to share the stressful experience of the restrained rat. Interestingly, examination of the anxiety-like behavior revealed only rats restrained in the presence of freely moving rats to have a significant increase, suggesting that emotional distress intensifies in positions of social exclusion. These results demonstrate that unequally excluded social interaction circumstances could cause the amplification of distressed status and anxiety-related emotional alteration. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Effects of the hexahydroxyhexane myoinositol on bone uptake of radiocalcium in rats: Effect of inositol and vitamin D2 on bone uptake of 45Ca in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angeloff, L.G.; Skoryna, S.C.; Henderson, I.W.D.

    1977-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of inositol and vitamin D 2 on bone uptake of 45 Ca in rats. The radioactive calcium was administered to young rats by orogastric intubation (2 μci/100 g body weight (b.wt.)) with inositol (20 mg/100 g b.wt) and/or vitamin D 2 (500 IU/100g b.wt) to normal rats. Bone uptake of 45 Ca was measured after 24 hours by standard technique. Inositol alone produced a 48% increase in calcium uptake. It is concluded that inositol significantly increases bone uptake to radioactive calcium (P>0.005). Simultaneous administration of vitamin D 2 decreases the effect of inositol considerably, while vitamin D 2 has no significant effect. (author)

  13. Produção de concentrados de frutose por inulinases de Penicillium janczewskii e atividade sobre o nível de glicose plasmática em ratos diabéticos Fructose syrups produced by inulinases from Penicillium janczewskii and activity on plasma glucose level in diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemeire A. Bom Pessoni

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available A frutose é utilizada atualmente como adoçante para diabéticos, sendo produzida comercialmente por hidrólise do amido, sob um processo de alto custo que envolve três etapas enzimáticas usando alfa-amilase, amiloglicosidase e glicose isomerase. Uma alternativa para a produção de concentrados de frutose é a hidrólise enzimática da inulina, polímero de frutose encontrado em Asteráceas, incluindo espécies nativas do cerrado. Nesse caso, através de uma única etapa enzimática obtêm-se concentrados com até 95% de frutose. Embora baixos níveis desse açúcar possam ser metabolizados na ausência de insulina, seu efeito sobre a redução do nível de glicose plasmática ainda não está completamente esclarecido. No presente trabalho foi avaliada a ação da frutose produzida por hidrólise da inulina de Vernonia herbacea (Asteraceae por inulinases de Penicillium janczewskii no nível de glicose plasmática de ratos diabéticos. Dentre os animais diabéticos tratados não foi verificada mortalidade, havendo redução de 46% em média (pFructose has been used as sweetener by patients with diabetes. This sugar is usually produced from starch by a high-cost enzymatic process, which envolves the utilization of alpha-amylase, amyloglucosidase and glucose isomerase. Fructose can be alternatively produced by the enzymatic hydrolysis of inulin, a polymer of fructose stored as reserve in a number of Asteraceae species. Using only one enzymatic step, inulin can be converted into syrups containing up to 95% fructose. In the present work, fructose syrup was produced from inulin of Vernonia herbacea by hydrolysis with extracellular inulinases from Penicillium janczewskii and evaluated with respect to the effect on plasma glucose level in diabetic rats. Reduction of ca. 46% (p<1% Tukey test of glucose levels in the plasma and no mortality were observed when rats were treated with hydrolysate of inulin. The high amounts of inulin stored by V

  14. Antihypertensive activity of blueberries fermented by Lactobacillus plantarum DSM 15313 and effects on the gut microbiota in healthy rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrén, Irini Lazou; Xu, Jie; Önning, Gunilla; Olsson, Crister; Ahrné, Siv; Molin, Göran

    2015-08-01

    The aim of the present animal study was to examine the anti-hypertensive capacity of two probiotic products combining blueberries and the tannase producing probiotic bacteria Lactobacillus plantarum DSM 15313 and to investigate if such an effect is linked to a change in the gut microbiota. Male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into six groups of nine each. Three groups of the animals were treated with N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) in the drinking water (40 mg/L) to induce a hypertensive state, and the other three groups were not treated with L-NAME (healthy rats). Two blueberry products differing in their phenolic acid content were tested and each rat received 2 g/day of the fermented blueberry powders for 4 weeks. The effects of the study products on the blood pressure, blood lipids, inflammatory markers, organ weights as well as caecal microbiota of the healthy (non-L-NAME-treated) rats were analyzed. After four weeks, healthy rats consuming freeze dried fermented blueberries with probiotics had a significant reduction in blood pressure compared to the control rats. In rats with L-NAME induced hypertension there was a significant reduction of the blood pressure after two weeks treatment. The probiotic product with a higher content of phenolic acids reduced ALAT in the healthy rats. Furthermore, ingestion of the probiotic blueberry products resulted in changes of the gut microbiota in the healthy rats. Blueberries fermented with the tannase producing bacteria L. plantarum DSM 15313 have anti-hypertensive properties and may reduce the risk for cardiovascular diseases. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  15. Significance of local cerebral glucose utilization determined by the autoradiographic (/sup 14/C)deoxyglucose method in experimentally induced coma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakurada, O.; Kobayashi, M.; Ueno, H.; Ishii, S. (Juntendo Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1982-01-01

    Bilateral lesions made in the midbrain reticular formation of the rat produced behavioral akinesia. These animals neither ate nor drank. EEGs of these animals usually showed high voltage slow waves at rest. Slight EEG arousal response was demonstrated by clapping, touching and pinching only in rats with moderate impairment. Concerning the rates of local cerebral glucose utilization (LCGU) measured by means of the autoradiographic (/sup 14/C) deoxyglucose method, 13 structures exhibited significant reductions in 28 gray structures examined when compared with sham operated rats. Lesions in the midbrain reticular formation resulted in reduction of LCGU in the neocortex, ventral nucleus of the thalamus, subthalamic nucleus, and medial and lateral geniculated bodies, mamillary body, septal nucleus and caudateputamen. Structures which did not show any significant change in LCGU were those related to the paleo and archi-cortices. These findings suggest the existence of two types of ascending activating systems. Administration of 30 mg/kg of pentobarbital reduced LCGU diffusely throughout the brain. When thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) was administered to rats with lesions in the midbrain reticular formation, reversal of the reduction of LCGU was observed in the dorsomedial nucleus of the thalamus and the mamillary body. Reversal of LCGU in the dorsomedial nucleus of thalamus was especially significant and its level exceeded the level of the sham control value. This suggests TRH might exert its function through the dorsomedial nucleus of the thalamus and mamillary body. When TRH was administered to rats treated with pentobarbital, significant reversal was observed in the following structures: the lateral and ventral nucleus of the thalamus, dentate gyrus, caudate-putamen, nucleus accumbens, pontine gray matter, and raphe nucleus.

  16. Testing Significance Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joachim I. Krueger

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The practice of Significance Testing (ST remains widespread in psychological science despite continual criticism of its flaws and abuses. Using simulation experiments, we address four concerns about ST and for two of these we compare ST’s performance with prominent alternatives. We find the following: First, the 'p' values delivered by ST predict the posterior probability of the tested hypothesis well under many research conditions. Second, low 'p' values support inductive inferences because they are most likely to occur when the tested hypothesis is false. Third, 'p' values track likelihood ratios without raising the uncertainties of relative inference. Fourth, 'p' values predict the replicability of research findings better than confidence intervals do. Given these results, we conclude that 'p' values may be used judiciously as a heuristic tool for inductive inference. Yet, 'p' values cannot bear the full burden of inference. We encourage researchers to be flexible in their selection and use of statistical methods.

  17. Safety significance evaluation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lew, B.S.; Yee, D.; Brewer, W.K.; Quattro, P.J.; Kirby, K.D.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that the Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PG and E), in cooperation with ABZ, Incorporated and Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC), investigated the use of artificial intelligence-based programming techniques to assist utility personnel in regulatory compliance problems. The result of this investigation is that artificial intelligence-based programming techniques can successfully be applied to this problem. To demonstrate this, a general methodology was developed and several prototype systems based on this methodology were developed. The prototypes address U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) event reportability requirements, technical specification compliance based on plant equipment status, and quality assurance assistance. This collection of prototype modules is named the safety significance evaluation system

  18. Predicting significant torso trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nirula, Ram; Talmor, Daniel; Brasel, Karen

    2005-07-01

    Identification of motor vehicle crash (MVC) characteristics associated with thoracoabdominal injury would advance the development of automatic crash notification systems (ACNS) by improving triage and response times. Our objective was to determine the relationships between MVC characteristics and thoracoabdominal trauma to develop a torso injury probability model. Drivers involved in crashes from 1993 to 2001 within the National Automotive Sampling System were reviewed. Relationships between torso injury and MVC characteristics were assessed using multivariate logistic regression. Receiver operating characteristic curves were used to compare the model to current ACNS models. There were a total of 56,466 drivers. Age, ejection, braking, avoidance, velocity, restraints, passenger-side impact, rollover, and vehicle weight and type were associated with injury (p < 0.05). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (83.9) was significantly greater than current ACNS models. We have developed a thoracoabdominal injury probability model that may improve patient triage when used with ACNS.

  19. Learned helplessness activates hippocampal microglia in rats: A potential target for the antidepressant imipramine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata, Masaaki; Ishida, Hisahito; Kaneko, Koichi; Shirayama, Yukihiko

    An accumulating body of evidence has demonstrated that inflammation is associated with the pathology of depression. We recently found that psychological stress induces inflammation in the hippocampus of the rat brain through the inflammasome, a component of the innate immune system. Microglia, the resident macrophages in the brain, play a central role in the innate immune system and express inflammasomes; thus, we hypothesized that hippocampal microglia would be key mediators in the development of depression via stress-induced inflammation. To test this hypothesis and to determine how antidepressants modulate microglial function, we used immunohistochemistry to examine the morphological changes that occur in the hippocampal microglia of rats exposed to the learned helplessness (LH) paradigm. We noted significantly increased numbers of activated microglia in the granule cell layer, hilus, CA1, and CA3 regions of the hippocampi of LH rats. Conversely, administering imipramine to LH rats for 7days produced a significant decrease in the number of activated microglia in the hilus, but not in the other examined regions. Nonetheless, there were no significant differences in the combined number of activated and non-activated microglia either in LH or LH+imipramine rats relative to control rats. In addition, treating the naïve rats with imipramine or fluvoxamine produced no discernible microglial changes. These data suggest that stress activates hippocampal microglia, while certain antidepressants decrease the number of activated microglia in the hilus, but not in other hippocampal regions. Therefore, the hilus represents a candidate target region for the antidepressant imipramine. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Tumor significant dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Supe, S.J.; Nagalaxmi, K.V.; Meenakshi, L.

    1983-01-01

    In the practice of radiotherapy, various concepts like NSD, CRE, TDF, and BIR are being used to evaluate the biological effectiveness of the treatment schedules on the normal tissues. This has been accepted as the tolerance of the normal tissue is the limiting factor in the treatment of cancers. At present when various schedules are tried, attention is therefore paid to the biological damage of the normal tissues only and it is expected that the damage to the cancerous tissues would be extensive enough to control the cancer. Attempt is made in the present work to evaluate the concent of tumor significant dose (TSD) which will represent the damage to the cancerous tissue. Strandquist in the analysis of a large number of cases of squamous cell carcinoma found that for the 5 fraction/week treatment, the total dose required to bring about the same damage for the cancerous tissue is proportional to T/sup -0.22/, where T is the overall time over which the dose is delivered. Using this finding the TSD was defined as DxN/sup -p/xT/sup -q/, where D is the total dose, N the number of fractions, T the overall time p and q are the exponents to be suitably chosen. The values of p and q are adjusted such that p+q< or =0.24, and p varies from 0.0 to 0.24 and q varies from 0.0 to 0.22. Cases of cancer of cervix uteri treated between 1978 and 1980 in the V. N. Cancer Centre, Kuppuswamy Naidu Memorial Hospital, Coimbatore, India were analyzed on the basis of these formulations. These data, coupled with the clinical experience, were used for choice of a formula for the TSD. Further, the dose schedules used in the British Institute of Radiology fraction- ation studies were also used to propose that the tumor significant dose is represented by DxN/sup -0.18/xT/sup -0.06/

  1. an assessment of timber trees producing valuable fruits and seeds ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    It is observed that most of the timber trees producing valuable fruits and seeds have low ... sector of the economy by providing major raw materials (saw logs, ... the trees also produce industrial raw materials like latex, ... villagers while avoiding some of the ecological costs of ..... enzymes of rats with carbon tetrachloride.

  2. Effects of lysine clonixinate on cyclooxygenase I and II in rat lung and stomach preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franchi, A M; Di Girolamo, G; de los Santos, A R; Martí, M L; Gimeno, M A

    1998-06-01

    Lysine clonixinate (LC) is a drug of antiinflammatory antipyretic and analgesic activity that produces minor digestive side-effects. This fact induced us to think that LC is possibly a weak COX-1 inhibitor. In order to investigate our hypothesis we inhibited cyclooxygenase activity with LC or indomethacin (INDO) in rat lung and stomach obtained from rats treated with lipopolysacharide (LPS) and control rats. Rat lung preparations incubated with 14C-arachidonic acid synthesise mainly PGE2. LC at 2.5 and 4.1 x 10(-5) M does not modify the basal production of PGE2 (probably COX-1) but at 6.8 x 10(-5) M significantly inhibited PGE2 production (approximately 48.5% inhibition, P<0.001). On the other hand, INDO at 10(-6) inhibited the basal production of PGE2 by around 73%. In LPS-treated rats, the production of PGE2 was significantly higher than in the lungs of control rats, probably due to the induction of COX-2. The addition of LC at 2.7 and 4.1 x 10(-5) M recovered the control values of PGE2 inhibiting, probably only from COX-2 activity. LC at higher concentrations (6.8 x 10(-5) M) and INDO 10(-6) M inhibited PGE2 formed by COX-2 and also partly by COX-1 activity.

  3. Effect of tribulus terrestris saponins on behavior and neuroendocrine in chronic mild stress depression rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhe; Zhang, Dongdong; Hui, Shan; Zhang, Yingjin; Hu, Suiyu

    2013-04-01

    To observe the effect of tribulus terrestris saponins (TTS) on behavior and neuroendocrine of chronic mild stress (CMS) depression rats. Thirty male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly allocated to six groups: vehicle group, CMS group, CMS + fluoxetine group and CMS + TTS of low-dosage (0.375 g/kg), medium-dosage (0.75 g/kg) and high-dosage (2.25 g/kg) groups. All rats except the vehicle group singly housed and exposed an unpredicted sequence of mild stressors. The behavior of rats was detected by open-field test (OFT) and sucrose preference test (SPT). The concentration of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) in serum of the rats were detected by radioimmunoassay. The concentration of cortisol (CORT) in serum was detected by enzyme immunoassay. CMS procedure not only significantly decreased the scores of crossing, rears and grooming in OFT and the sucrose preference in SPT (all P < 0.01), but also markedly increased serum CRH and CORT levels (both P < 0.05). Treatment with TTS (0.75 and 2.25 g/kg) could significantly prevent all of these abnormalities induced by CMS (P < 0.05, P < 0.01). CMS can affect rat behavior and neuroendocrine and cause depression. TTS has the antagonism on CMS and produce antidepressive effects.

  4. Electroacupuncture reduces the evoked responses of the spinal dorsal horn neurons in ankle-sprained rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae Hyo; Kim, Hee Young; Chung, Kyungsoon

    2011-01-01

    Acupuncture is shown to be effective in producing analgesia in ankle sprain pain in humans and animals. To examine the underlying mechanisms of the acupuncture-induced analgesia, the effects of electroacupuncture (EA) on weight-bearing forces (WBR) of the affected foot and dorsal horn neuron activities were examined in a rat model of ankle sprain. Ankle sprain was induced manually by overextending ligaments of the left ankle in the rat. Dorsal horn neuron responses to ankle movements or compression were recorded from the lumbar spinal cord using an in vivo extracellular single unit recording setup 1 day after ankle sprain. EA was applied to the SI-6 acupoint on the right forelimb (contralateral to the sprained ankle) by trains of electrical pulses (10 Hz, 1-ms pulse width, 2-mA intensity) for 30 min. After EA, WBR of the sprained foot significantly recovered and dorsal horn neuron activities were significantly suppressed in ankle-sprained rats. However, EA produced no effect in normal rats. The inhibitory effect of EA on hyperactivities of dorsal horn neurons of ankle-sprained rats was blocked by the α-adrenoceptor antagonist phentolamine (5 mg/kg ip) but not by the opioid receptor antagonist naltrexone (10 mg/kg ip). These data suggest that EA-induced analgesia in ankle sprain pain is mediated mainly by suppressing dorsal horn neuron activities through α-adrenergic descending inhibitory systems at the spinal level. PMID:21389301

  5. COMPARISON OF ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF NIGELLA SATIVA AND DICLOFENAC SODIUM IN ALBINO RATS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashir, Muhammad Usman; Qureshi, Hamid Javaid; Saleem, Tahira

    2015-01-01

    Nigella sativa or "Kalonji" is a naturally occurring plant in Pakistan and other countries which possesses a wide range of medicinal properties, the anti-inflammatory property being one of these. Diclofenac sodium is a commonly used anti-inflammatory drug. The purpose of this study was to compare the anti-inflammatory effect of ethanolic extract of Nigella sativa seeds with that of diclofenac sodium in albino rats. This laboratory randomized controlled trial (RCT) was conducted in the Physiology Department, Services Institute of Medical Sciences (SIMS), Lahore. The study was carried out on 90 male albino rats. Five percent formalin in a dose of 50 µl was injected into sub-plantar surface of right hind paw of each rat to produce inflammation. The rats were randomly divided into three groups of thirty each. Group A was given normal saline (control); group B was given Nigella sativa seed extract; and group C received diclofenac sodium, as a reference drug. Increase in paw diameter, and total and differential leukocyte counts were measured as markers of inflammation. Nigella sativa seeds extract caused significant (pdiclofenac sodium; however, the extract was comparatively less potent than diclofenac sodium. The extract had no significant effect (p>0.05) on the total or differential leukocyte counts. Our results suggest that ethanolic extract of Nigella sativa seeds possesses potent anti-inflammatory effect, in albino rats however, this effect is comparatively less but prolonged than that produced by diclofenac sodium.

  6. Uranium chemistry: significant advances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazzanti, M.

    2011-01-01

    The author reviews recent progress in uranium chemistry achieved in CEA laboratories. Like its neighbors in the Mendeleev chart uranium undergoes hydrolysis, oxidation and disproportionation reactions which make the chemistry of these species in water highly complex. The study of the chemistry of uranium in an anhydrous medium has led to correlate the structural and electronic differences observed in the interaction of uranium(III) and the lanthanides(III) with nitrogen or sulfur molecules and the effectiveness of these molecules in An(III)/Ln(III) separation via liquid-liquid extraction. Recent work on the redox reactivity of trivalent uranium U(III) in an organic medium with molecules such as water or an azide ion (N 3 - ) in stoichiometric quantities, led to extremely interesting uranium aggregates particular those involved in actinide migration in the environment or in aggregation problems in the fuel processing cycle. Another significant advance was the discovery of a compound containing the uranyl ion with a degree of oxidation (V) UO 2 + , obtained by oxidation of uranium(III). Recently chemists have succeeded in blocking the disproportionation reaction of uranyl(V) and in stabilizing polymetallic complexes of uranyl(V), opening the way to to a systematic study of the reactivity and the electronic and magnetic properties of uranyl(V) compounds. (A.C.)

  7. Meaning and significance of

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ph D Student Roman Mihaela

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The concept of "public accountability" is a challenge for political science as a new concept in this area in full debate and developement ,both in theory and practice. This paper is a theoretical approach of displaying some definitions, relevant meanings and significance odf the concept in political science. The importance of this concept is that although originally it was used as a tool to improve effectiveness and eficiency of public governance, it has gradually become a purpose it itself. "Accountability" has become an image of good governance first in the United States of America then in the European Union.Nevertheless,the concept is vaguely defined and provides ambiguous images of good governance.This paper begins with the presentation of some general meanings of the concept as they emerge from specialized dictionaries and ancyclopaedies and continues with the meanings developed in political science. The concept of "public accontability" is rooted in economics and management literature,becoming increasingly relevant in today's political science both in theory and discourse as well as in practice in formulating and evaluating public policies. A first conclusin that emerges from, the analysis of the evolution of this term is that it requires a conceptual clarification in political science. A clear definition will then enable an appropriate model of proving the system of public accountability in formulating and assessing public policies, in order to implement a system of assessment and monitoring thereof.

  8. Immediate and Long-Term Outcome of Acute H2S Intoxication Induced Coma in Unanesthetized Rats: Effects of Methylene Blue.

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    Takashi Sonobe

    Full Text Available Acute hydrogen sulfide (H2S poisoning produces a coma, the outcome of which ranges from full recovery to severe neurological deficits. The aim of our study was to 1--describe the immediate and long-term neurological effects following H2S-induced coma in un-anesthetized rats, and 2--determine the potential benefit of methylene blue (MB, a compound we previously found to counteract acute sulfide cardiac toxicity.NaHS was administered IP in un-sedated rats to produce a coma (n = 34. One minute into coma, the rats received MB (4 mg/kg i.v. or saline. The surviving rats were followed clinically and assigned to Morris water maze (MWM and open field testing then sacrificed at day 7.Sixty percent of the non-treated comatose rats died by pulseless electrical activity. Nine percent recovered with neurological deficits requiring euthanasia, their brain examination revealed major neuronal necrosis of the superficial and middle layers of the cerebral cortex and the posterior thalamus, with variable necrosis of the caudate putamen, but no lesions of the hippocampus or the cerebellum, in contrast to the typical distribution of post-ischemic lesions. The remaining animals displayed, on average, a significantly less effective search strategy than the control rats (n = 21 during MWM testing. Meanwhile, 75% of rats that received MB survived and could perform the MWM test (P<0.05 vs non-treated animals. The treated animals displayed a significantly higher occurrence of spatial search than the non-treated animals. However, a similar proportion of cortical necrosis was observed in both groups, with a milder clinical presentation following MB.In conclusion, in rats surviving H2S induced coma, spatial search patterns were used less frequently than in control animals. A small percentage of rats presented necrotic neuronal lesions, which distribution differed from post-ischemic lesions. MB dramatically improved the immediate survival and spatial search strategy in the

  9. Sprague-Dawley and Fischer Female Rats Differ in Acute Effects of Fluoxetine on Sexual Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miryala, C.S.J.; Hiegel, C.; Uphouse, L.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), fluoxetine, leads to sexual dysfunction in a substantial proportion of women. In studies with the Fischer inbred rat, the 5-HT1A receptor has been implicated in this sexual dysfunction. Whether this association with 5-HT1A receptors holds for other rat strains is not known. Aim The effects of acute fluoxetine on sexual behavior in two strains of rats that differ in their response to a 5-HT1A receptor agonist were examined. Whether the strain difference is comparable in naturally cycling and hormonally primed, ovariectomized rats was determined. Main Outcome Measures Lordosis to mount ratios, lordosis quality, and proceptive behaviors were quantified. Sprague-Dawley and Fischer females were compared on each of these measures. The IC50 for inhibition of lordosis behavior was determined. Methods Proestrous rats and ovariectomized rats, hormonally primed with estradiol benzoate and progesterone, were treated with varying doses of fluoxetine. Sexual behavior was examined before and after treatment with the SSRI. Results In both the intact and the hormonally-primed, ovariectomized model, Sprague-Dawley females were less sensitive to the effects of fluoxetine on sexual behavior. In both groups, fluoxetine showed dose-dependency in behavioral inhibition, but a higher dose was required for Sprague-Dawley than for Fischer females. Naturally cycling, proestrous rats required a higher dose of fluoxetine than hormonally-primed ovariectomized rats to produce significant inhibition of sexual behavior. Thus, the strain difference in the response to fluoxetine does not parallel strain differences in the response to a 5-HT1A receptor agonist. Conclusions Acute treatment with fluoxetine inhibits lordosis behavior in both Fischer and Sprague-Dawley females and the strain difference cannot be explained by reported strain differences in the response to a 5-HT1A receptor agonist. Fluoxetine’s inhibition of female rat

  10. Phosphorus-31 magnetic resonance spectroscopy of experimentally induced arthritis in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blatter, D.D.

    1987-01-01

    Phosphorus-31 magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) of the hind paws of rats was performed at 1.5 Tesla before and during the course of an experimentally-induced inflammatory arthritis. Arthritis was induced by daily subcutaneous administration of 6-sulfanilamidoindazole, an antibacterial sulfa known to produce an acute, self-limited arthritis and periarthritis in the hind paws of rats. Phosphorus-31 spectra obtained after the development of clinical arthritis showed a significant (p 31 P MRS may permit evaluation of the severity of an inflammatory arthritis with greater accuracy than the bony changes definable by plain roentgenograms. (orig.)

  11. Direct and indirect cardiovascular actions of cathinone and MDMA in the anaesthetized rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsufyani, Hadeel A; Docherty, James R

    2015-07-05

    The stimulants cathinone (from Khat leaves) and methylenedioxymeth-amphetamine (MDMA) produce adrenoceptor mediated tachycardia and vasopressor actions that may be the result of direct receptor stimulation, actions on the noradrenaline transporter, and/or displacement of noradrenaline from nerve terminals. Effects of cathinone or MDMA were compared with those of the indirect sympathomimetic tyramine. Male Wistar rats were anaesthetized with pentobarbitone for blood pressure and heart rate recording. Some rats were sympathectomised by treatment with 6-hydroxydopamine. In the anaesthetised rat, cathinone, MDMA and tyramine (all 0.001-1 mg/kg) produced marked tachycardia, tyramine produced marked pressor responses and MDMA produced small pressor responses. The tachycardia to cathinone and MDMA was almost abolished by propranolol (1mg/kg). Pretreatment with cocaine (1mg/kg) did not significantly affect the tachycardia to cathinone or MDMA, but reduced the response to tyramine. However, in sympathectomised rats, the tachycardia to cathinone or MDMA was markedly attenuated, but the tachycardia to tyramine was only partially reduced. Blood pressure effects of tyramine and MDMA were also markedly attenuated by sympathectomy. The results demonstrate firstly that cocaine may not be the most suitable agent for assessing direct versus indirect agonism in cardiovascular studies. Secondly, the use of chemical sympathectomy achieved the desired goal of demonstrating that cardiac β-adrenoceptor mediated actions of cathinone and MDMA are probably largely indirect. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Brookhaven Linac Isotope Producer

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Brookhaven Linac Isoptope Producer (BLIP)—positioned at the forefront of research into radioisotopes used in cancer treatment and diagnosis—produces commercially...

  13. Bioavailability of iron to rats from processed soybean fractions determined by intrinsic and extrinsic labeling techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weaver, C.M.; Nelson, N.; Elliott, J.G.

    1984-01-01

    Intrinsic and extrinsic labeling techniques were used to measure iron bioavailability from soybean fractions (isolated soy protein, defatted flour, soy hulls, insoluble material and whey) by iron-depleted and non-iron-depleted rats. As expected, absorption of iron was higher in the iron-depleted than in the non-iron-depleted rats. In the iron-depleted group, significantly more iron was absorbed from soy whey than from other fractions. No other significant difference in iron absorption associated with iron source was observed. The higher absorption rate of iron from whey by the iron-depleted rats probably was related to a lower quantity of food consumed during the test meal by this group. Intrinsic and extrinsic labeling techniques produced similar assessments of bioavailability of iron

  14. Protective Role of Carnitine against the Harmful Biological Effects of Paracetamol and Radiation Exposure in Male Albino Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd El Rahman, N.A.

    2012-01-01

    L-carnitine, a natural component of mammalian tissue, is a necessary factor in the utilization of long-chain fatty acids to produce energy. Furthermore it has been shown to protect cells from per oxidative stress. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of L-carnitine on hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity induced by paracetamol, γ-radiation, and paracetamol + γ-radiation. Male albino rats were divided into 8 groups. 1-Control group: rats not subject to any treatment, 2-Carnitine group: rats received L-carnitine (0.5 ml/Kg body weight) via intraperitoneal injection during 21 days, 3-Paracetamol group: rats received paracetamol (50 mg/kg body) via intraperi-toneal injection during 21 days, 4- Carnitine + Paracetamol group: rats received L-carnitine in parallel to paracetamol treatment, 5- Radiation groups: rats were whole body gamma irradiated with 7 Gy, 6- Carnitine + Radiation group: rats received L-carnitine for 21 days before whole body gamma irradiation with 7Gy, 7- Paracetamol + Radiation group: rats received paracetamol during 21 days before whole body gamma irradiation, 8- Carnitine + Paracetamol + Radiation group: rats received L-carnitine parallel to paracetamol during 21 days before whole body gamma irradiation.The results demonstrated that rats receiving paracetamol, as well as whole body gamma irradiated rats and rats receiving paracetamol and irradiated showed a significant increase of alanine amino transferase (ALT), aspartate amino transferase (AST), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities, and a significant decrease of gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) activity indicating liver injury. A significant increase of urea, creatinine and uric acid levels was recorded also indicating kidney damage. Alteration in liver and kidney functions was accompanied by a significant increase in the content of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) associated with a significant decrease in glutathione (GSH) content and superoxide

  15. Identification of a Major Locus Contributing to Erythrocyte 2,3-Diphosphoglycerate Variability in Hooded (Long-Evans) Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, N. A.; Brewer, G. J.

    1977-01-01

    The erythrocyte glycolytic intermediate 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (DPG) and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) play an important role in oxygen transport and delivery by binding to hemoglobin (Hb) and reducing its affinity for oxygen. Considerable quantitative variability in the levels of DPG and ATP exists in human populations and in a population of hooded (Long-Evans) rats we have studied. This paper presents the results of studies on the genetic component of DPG-level variation in an outbred population of hooded rats. Beginning with about 100 rats, a two-way selection experiment was initiated. Pairs of rats with the highest DPG levels were mated to produce a High-DPG rat strain and animals with the lowest DPG levels were mated to produce a Low-DPG strain. Mean DPG levels responded rapidly to selection and, from generation 3 on, the differences between strain means were highly significant. Ten High-DPG strain rats were intercrossed with 10 Low-DPG strain rats of generation 10 to produce an F1 generation in which the DPG levels were almost as high as those of High-DPG animals. This indicates partial dominance of High-DPG alleles. The F2 DPG-level distribution showed two distinct subpopulations. The high DPG subpopulation contained three times as many animals as the low DPG subpopulation. From these results and the statistical analyses performed, it was concluded that the DPG differences between strains were due to an allelic difference at one major locus, the allele carried by the High-DPG strain showing partial dominance over the allele carried by the Low-DPG strain. It appears that this locus may also effect ATP levels to a large extent and is polymorphic in hooded rat populations. Identification of this locus gives us a useful tool for studies of the physiological effects of DPG variability, as well as providing an example of a major gene effect in a quantitatively varying trait. PMID:863239

  16. Estudo das telas cirúrgicas de polipropileno/poliglecaprone e de polipropileno/polidioxanona/celulose oxidada regenerada na cicatrização de defeito produzido na parede abdominal de ratos Study of surgical meshes of polypropylene/polyglecaprone and polypropylene/polydioxanone/oxidized regenerated cellulose on the healing of defects produced in abdominal wall of rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Regina Zanello Pundek

    2010-06-01

    different surgical meshes (Proceed® and Ultrapro® on the healing of defects produced in abdominal wall of rats evaluating the macroscopic, microscopic and tensiometric parameters. METHOD: Thirty two Wistar rats were divided into two groups of 16 animals and four groups of eight animals euthanized within 15 and 30 days for evaluation. The macroscopic variables were: the presence of hematoma at the edges of the sutures of the surgical mesh in the abdominal wall; the knitting of the surgical mesh and the edge of the wound; presence of infection at the surgical site; presence of viscera fistulas on the surgical mesh; presence of adhesions in the abdominal cavity; presence of incisional hernia. During microscopy the stages of the inflammatory process of healing where evaluated, and tensiometry evaluated the tensile force required to rupture the material. RESULTS: The knitting of the mesh and the edge of the surgical wound was better in the 15 days Ultrapro subgroup than in the 15 days Proceed subgroup; within 30 days the knitting was similar in both subgroups. There was no significant difference for the variable of macroscopy. Both groups in both periods had the same proportion of cases with chronic inflammation, but there were higher scores of inflammation in the 15 days Ultrapro subgroup than the 30 days Ultrapro subgroup. The subgroup 15 days Ultrapro showed greater rupture strength than the subgroup 15 days Proceed, but in 30 days there were no difference. Ultrapro showed equal rupture strength in both periods, but 30 days Proceed showed greater rupture strength than 15 days Proceed. CONCLUSION: The meshes are similar in variables.

  17. Use of radiotelemetry to evaluate respiratory depression produced by chronic methadone administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewanowitsch, Tanya; White, Jason M; Irvine, Rodney J

    2004-01-26

    Illicit and therapeutic opioid administration can result in overdose due to opioid-induced respiratory depression. Research investigating the respiratory depressant effects of opioids has been limited due to difficulties associated with acquiring long-term respiratory data. This study examined the novel use of radiotelemetry to measure respiratory rate, heart rate, locomotor activity and blood pressure in rats treated chronically with methadone. Over 4 days of treatment, respiratory rate decreased, but partial tolerance appeared to develop during active (night) periods. Decreased heart rate was observed during the night periods and tolerance appeared to develop to this effect. Activity and blood pressure did not change with treatment. The effects of naloxone hydrochloride and naloxone methiodide administration on the methadone-treated rats were also examined and both antagonists increased respiratory rate and heart rate, with only naloxone hydrochloride producing significant increases in activity. Radiotelemetry offers a means of evaluating drug effects on respiratory rate continually in ambulatory, unstressed animals.

  18. Producing charcoal from wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pogorelov, V.A.

    1983-01-01

    Experimental works to use wood wastes for producing charcoal are examined, which are being conducted in the Sverdlovsk assembly and adjustment administration of Soyuzorglestekhmontazh. A wasteless prototype installation for producing fine charcoal is described, along with its subsequent briqueting, which is made on the basis of units which are series produced by the factories of the country. The installation includes subassemblies for preparing and drying the raw material and for producing the charcoal briquets. In the opinion of specialists, the charcoal produced from the wastes may be effectively used in ferrous and nonferrous metallurgy and in the production of pipes.

  19. Biochemical Studies for Producing Biscuits from Irradiated Tomato Processed Wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Kuraieef, A.N.

    2012-01-01

    This study was carried out to produce biscuits as therapeutic diets. Raw materials of tomato processed waste (TPW) were used as a source of some amino acids and elements, (phosphorus, potassium and magnesium), besides amino acids (Phenyl alanine was found to be the first limiting amino acids while lysine was the second limiting one). It was present about 30.66% fiber and 28.1% protein. The total tomato processed wastes remain un-utilized and they not only add to the disposal problem but also aggravate environmental pollution. Tomato processed wastes were irradiated at two doses (1.5 and 2.5 kGy) for preservation. Biscuits were made with supplementation of 5, 10 and 15% (TPW). All samples of biscuits were examined for chemical composition and organoleptic evaluation. Biological assay was carried out on rats fed biscuits containing 15% irradiated and non-irradiated (TPW). The weight gain, serum cholesterol and triglycerides were determined, besides the internal organs. The results obtained showed that 15% (TPW) biscuit had the highest content of lysine, isoleucine and fiber (6.36 and 24.80, respectively) and also scored a good grade. Weight gain, cholesterol and triglycerides were reduced comparable to control and there was significant changes were recorded irradiation treatment on the rats internal organs

  20. Laughing rats are optimistic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafal Rygula

    Full Text Available Emotions can bias human decisions- for example depressed or anxious people tend to make pessimistic judgements while those in positive affective states are often more optimistic. Several studies have reported that affect contingent judgement biases can also be produced in animals. The animals, however, cannot self-report; therefore, the valence of their emotions, to date, could only be assumed. Here we present the results of an experiment where the affect-contingent judgement bias has been produced by objectively measured positive emotions. We trained rats in operant Skinner boxes to press one lever in response to one tone to receive a food reward and to press another lever in response to a different tone to avoid punishment by electric foot shock. After attaining a stable level of discrimination performance, the animals were subjected to either handling or playful, experimenter-administered manual stimulation - tickling. This procedure has been confirmed to induce a positive affective state in rats, and the 50-kHz ultrasonic vocalisations (rat laughter emitted by animals in response to tickling have been postulated to index positive emotions akin to human joy. During the tickling and handling sessions, the numbers of emitted high-frequency 50-kHz calls were scored. Immediately after tickling or handling, the animals were tested for their responses to a tone of intermediate frequency, and the pattern of their responses to this ambiguous cue was taken as an indicator of the animals' optimism. Our findings indicate that tickling induced positive emotions which are directly indexed in rats by laughter, can make animals more optimistic. We demonstrate for the first time a link between the directly measured positive affective state and decision making under uncertainty in an animal model. We also introduce innovative tandem-approach for studying emotional-cognitive interplay in animals, which may be of great value for understanding the emotional

  1. A gut reaction: the combined influence of exercise and diet on gastrointestinal microbiota in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batacan, R B; Fenning, A S; Dalbo, V J; Scanlan, A T; Duncan, M J; Moore, R J; Stanley, D

    2017-06-01

    Intestinal microbiota modulates the development of clinical conditions, including metabolic syndrome and obesity. Many of these conditions are influenced by nutritional and exercise behaviours. This study aimed to investigate the ability of exercise to re-shape the intestinal microbiota and the influence of the diet on the process. A rat model was used to examine the intestinal microbiota responses to four activity conditions, including: high-intensity interval training (HIIT), light-intensity training (LIT), sedentary and normal control, each containing two nutritional conditions: high-fat high-fructose diet (HF) and standard chow (SC) diet. No significant differences in microbiota were apparent between activity conditions in rats fed a HF diet but changes in the presence/absence of phylotypes were observed in the LIT and HIIT groups. In rats fed SC, significant differences in intestinal microbiota were evident between exercised and nonexercised rats. Both LIT and HIIT induced significant differences in intestinal microbiota in SC-fed rats compared to their respective SC-fed controls. Characterization of the exercise-induced bacterial phylotypes indicated an increase in bacteria likely capable of degrading resistant polysaccharides and an increase in short chain fatty acid producers. While a significant effect of exercise on microbiota composition occurred in SC-fed rats, the HF-fed rats microbiota showed little response. These data suggest that a HF diet prevented microbiota differentiation in response to exercise. The importance of diet-exercise interaction is extended to the level of intestinal bacteria and gut health. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  2. Lack of effect on rat testicular organogenesis after in utero exposure to 3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Ramy, Rosy; Ould Elhkim, Mostafa; Poul, Martine; Forest, Maguelone G; Leduque, Patrick; Le Magueresse-Battistoni, Brigitte

    2006-10-01

    3-Monochloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD) is a food-born contaminant known to display toxic effects on male reproduction, producing infertility in rats and humans. Using the rat as a model, we investigated whether or not testicular organogenesis, which, in the rat species, occurs during the second half of gestation, was at particular risk regarding 3-MCPD toxicity. Pregnant rats were given daily doses of 5, 10 or 25 mg/kg BW of 3-MCPD from days 11.5-18.5 postcoitum (dpc). On 19.5 dpc, testes were removed from fetuses for histological examination and testosterone analysis. Eight genes were selected among the differentiation markers of testicular cell lineages, and their expression was studied by RT-PCR. The levels of 3-MCPD and its main metabolite, beta-chlorolactic acid, were assayed in fetal tissues and dam plasma. Our results show a statistically significant decrease in the mean body weight gain of pregnant rats treated with 10 and 25 mg/kg BW of 3-MCPD. Fetal testes exposed to 3-MCPD exhibited normal histology and produced testosterone at levels that were similar to controls. In addition, 3-MCPD did not alter gene expression in the fetal testes. This lack of effect occurred under conditions where 3-MCPD and beta-chlorolactic acid were found to readily cross the placental barrier and diffuse throughout the fetal tissues. Our findings indicate that 3-MCPD has minimal effect on rat testicular organogenesis.

  3. [Pinealectomy and early castration in the female Wistar rat].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slama-Scemama, A

    1976-05-17

    Pinealectomy does not significantly modify the level of pituitary and plasma gonadotropins in intact and in castrated female Rats from brith to 75 days of age. Only the weight of the thyroid gland is higher in pinealectomized rats.

  4. Delay discounting of oral morphine and sweetened juice rewards in dependent and non-dependent rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey-Lewis, Colin; Perdrizet, Johnna; Franklin, Keith B J

    2014-07-01

    Opioid-dependent humans are reported to show accelerated delay discounting of opioid rewards when compared to monetary rewards. It has been suggested that this may reflect a difference in discounting of consumable and non-consumable goods not specific to dependent individuals. Here, we evaluate the discounting of similar morphine and non-morphine oral rewards in dependent and non-dependent rats We first tested the analgesic and rewarding effects of our morphine solution. In a second experiment, we assigned rats randomly to either dependent or non-dependent groups that, 30 min after daily testing, received 30 mg/kg subcutaneous dose of morphine, or saline, respectively. Delay discounting of drug-free reward was examined prior to initiation of the dosing regimen. We tested discounting of the morphine reward in half the rats and retested the discounting of the drug-free reward in the other half. All tests were run 22.5 h after the daily maintenance dose. Rats preferred the morphine cocktail to the drug-free solution and consumed enough to induce significant analgesia. The control quinine solution did not produce these effects. Dependent rats discounted morphine rewards more rapidly than before dependence and when compared to discounting drug-free rewards. In non-dependent rats both reward types were discounted similarly. These results show that morphine dependence increases impulsiveness specifically towards a drug reward while morphine experience without dependence does not.

  5. Decrease of Plasma Glucose by Hibiscus taiwanensis in Type-1-Like Diabetic Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lin-Yu; Chung, Hsien-Hui

    2013-01-01

    Hibiscus taiwanensis (Malvaceae) is widely used as an alternative herb to treat disorders in Taiwan. In the present study, it is used to screen the effect on diabetic hyperglycemia in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats (STZ-diabetic rats). The extract of Hibiscus taiwanensis showed a significant plasma glucose-lowering action in STZ-diabetic rats. Stems of Hibiscus taiwanensis are more effective than other parts to decrease the plasma glucose in a dose-dependent manner. Oral administration of Hibiscus taiwanensis three times daily for 3 days into STZ-diabetic rats increased the sensitivity to exogenous insulin showing an increase in insulin sensitivity. Moreover, similar repeated administration of Hibiscus taiwanensis for 3 days in STZ-diabetic rats produced a marked reduction of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) expression in liver and an increased expression of glucose transporter subtype 4 (GLUT 4) in skeletal muscle. Taken together, our results suggest that Hibiscus taiwanensis has the ability to lower plasma glucose through an increase in glucose utilization via elevation of skeletal GLUT 4 and decrease of hepatic PEPCK in STZ-diabetic rats. PMID:23690841

  6. Kidney in potassium depletion. II. K+ handling by the isolated perfused rat kidney

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, M.; Katz, A.I.

    1987-01-01

    In a companion paper the authors reported a large increment in Na + -K + -ATPase activity and [ 3 H]ouabain binding the inner stripe of outer medullary collecting tubules from K-depleted rats. To test the hypothesis that the increased number of Na + -K + pumps in these animals may be involved in potassium reabsorption they examined the effect of ouabain on K excretion by isolated, perfused kidneys from rats fed a K-free diet for 3 wk. Kidneys from K-depleted rats retain potassium avidly, both the fractional (FE/sub K/) and absolute K excretion being approximately fivefold lower than in control kidneys. Ouabain (5 mM) increased FE/sub K/ in kidneys from each K-depleted rat; similar results were obtained when kidneys were perfused with low and high potassium concentrations. In contrast, ouabain produced a variable effect in control kidneys, that depended on the perfusate potassium concentration. In K-depleted rats amiloride did not significantly alter K excretion and did not block the ouabain-induced kaliuresis, suggesting that the latter is not due to enhanced secretion secondary to increased distal fluid delivery. These results provide evidence for ouabain-sensitive potassium reabsorption in kidneys of chronically K-depleted rats, and suggest an explanation for the increased Na + -K + -ATPase observed in such animals

  7. Effects of organic and conventional rice on protein efficiency ratio and pesticide residue in rats

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    Wanpen Mesomya

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The comparative effects of organic rice and conventional rice on the protein efficiency ratio (PER in rats were investigated by feeding 40 male Sprague-Dawley rats for four weeks with three experimental diets containing polished conventional rice (PCR, unpolished conventional rice (UCR, unpolished organic rice (UOR and a control protein diet (casein under standardised conditions. All diets were prepared according to AOAC guidelines. The results showed no statistically significant difference (P > 0.05 among the values of PER (2.75 ± 0.14 - 2.80 ± 0.09 in rats fed with diets containing PCR, UCR or UOR. Similar growth was also observed among the three groups fed with different experimental diets. Additionally, residues of pesticides, viz. carbofuran, methyl parathion, p-nitrophenol and -cyfluthrin, in rat blood and rice samples were determined using liquid chromatography–electrospray ionisation tandem mass spectrometry. Pesticide residues were not detected in all serum samples of experimental rats and only p-nitrophenol was found (8.23 ± 0.65 - 12.84 ± 2.58 mg/kg in all samples of the cooked rice diets, indicating that organic rice produced similar effect as conventional rice on PER and growth in rats.

  8. Expression and mechanism of high mobility group box protein-1 in retinal tissue of diabetic rats

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    Shuang Jiang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To investigate the expression and mechanism of high mobility group box protein-1(HMGB1in the retina of diabetic rats. METHODS:Sixty SD rats were randomly divided into diabetic group and control group. Diabetic rat model was produced by intraperitioneal injection of 1% STZ with 60mg/Kg weight. The rats in control group received intraperitioneal injection of normal saline with same dosage. After injection, the rats were sacrificed and eyeballs were enucleated for HE staining, the retina fluorescence angiography, TUNEL and Western Blot detection at 1, 2 and 4mo for the expressions of HMGB1 and NF-κB. RESULTS:Compared with the control group, the retinal cells disorder, cell densities decreases, microvasculars occlusion were founded with inner and outer nuclear layer thinning and ganglion cell apoptosis. The fluorescence angiography showed that peripheral capillaries became circuitous and vascular occlusion and non-perfusion area could be seen. The expressions of HMGB1 and NF-κB were higher than those of control with time dependence and they had significant positive correlations(PCONCLUSION:The expression of HMGB1 increases in diabetic rat retina, which may involve in the occurrence of diabetic retinopathy through the NF- κB pathway.

  9. Supplementation of Citrus maxima Peel Powder Prevented Oxidative Stress, Fibrosis, and Hepatic Damage in Carbon Tetrachloride (CCl4) Treated Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Mohammed Riaz Hasan; Sagor, Md Abu Taher; Tabassum, Nabila; Potol, Md Abdullah; Hossain, Hemayet; Alam, Md Ashraful

    2015-01-01

    Citrus maxima peel is rich in natural phenolic compounds and has a long use in the traditional medicine. HPLC-DAD analysis on Citrus maxima peel powder exhibited the presence of various phenolic compounds such as caffeic acid and (-)-epicatechin. To determine the plausible hepatoprotective activity of Citrus maxima peel powder, we used carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) treated rat model. Liver damage in rats was confirmed by measuring the AST, ALT, and ALP enzyme activities. In addition, lipid peroxidation products (MDA), nitric oxide, advanced protein oxidation products level (APOP), and catalase activities were also analyzed along with the histological profiling for the inflammatory cell infiltration, collagen, and iron deposition in liver. Dietary supplementation of Citrus maxima peel powder exhibited significant reduction of serum AST, ALT, and ALP activities in carbon tetrachloride treated rats. Moreover, Citrus maxima peel powder also showed a significant reduction of the oxidative stress markers (MDA, NO, and APOP level) and restored the catalase activity in CCl4 treated rats. Histological examination of the liver section revealed reduced inflammatory cells infiltration, collagen, and iron deposition in CCl4 treated rats. The results from this study demonstrated that Citrus maxima peel powder produced significant hepatoprotective action in CCl4 administered rats.

  10. Supplementation of Citrus maxima Peel Powder Prevented Oxidative Stress, Fibrosis, and Hepatic Damage in Carbon Tetrachloride (CCl4 Treated Rats

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    Mohammed Riaz Hasan Chowdhury

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Citrus maxima peel is rich in natural phenolic compounds and has a long use in the traditional medicine. HPLC-DAD analysis on Citrus maxima peel powder exhibited the presence of various phenolic compounds such as caffeic acid and (−-epicatechin. To determine the plausible hepatoprotective activity of Citrus maxima peel powder, we used carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 treated rat model. Liver damage in rats was confirmed by measuring the AST, ALT, and ALP enzyme activities. In addition, lipid peroxidation products (MDA, nitric oxide, advanced protein oxidation products level (APOP, and catalase activities were also analyzed along with the histological profiling for the inflammatory cell infiltration, collagen, and iron deposition in liver. Dietary supplementation of Citrus maxima peel powder exhibited significant reduction of serum AST, ALT, and ALP activities in carbon tetrachloride treated rats. Moreover, Citrus maxima peel powder also showed a significant reduction of the oxidative stress markers (MDA, NO, and APOP level and restored the catalase activity in CCl4 treated rats. Histological examination of the liver section revealed reduced inflammatory cells infiltration, collagen, and iron deposition in CCl4 treated rats. The results from this study demonstrated that Citrus maxima peel powder produced significant hepatoprotective action in CCl4 administered rats.

  11. effect of electromagnetic fields from cellular phone base stations on some physiological and biophysical properties of rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmoud, A.H.

    2006-01-01

    the hazards of exposure to EMFs are observed on different tissues, the mechanistic by which EMFs can produce such effect still need to be delineated. the present study aims to monitor the possibility of modulation in the different physiological and biophysical properties of the organs after exposure to microwave produced from mobile phone base station at frequency of 900 MHz. one hundred and ten pregnant rats were exposed for periods of 5 and 12 week's at distances of 8,15 and 25 meter from the station antenna (0.01,0.05 and 0.036 MW/cm 2 ) the groups exposed for 5 weeks classified into two halves, one half was used for direct effect studies and the other was used for delayed effects studies (45 days post irradiation). haematological investigations demonstrated non significant changes in (RBC's), (Hb),(PCV) and (MCV)of exposed and delayed rats for 5,12 weeks. the young's of exposed rats show non considerable increase in RBC's, Hb and PCV. significant increases were observed in serum total protein , albumin and globulin levels in 5 and 12 weeks exposed rats and more significant increase in delayed rats

  12. Chronic Rumex Patientia Seed Feeding Improves Passive Avoidance Learning and Memory in Streptozotocin-Diabetic Rats

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    Tourandokht Baluchnejadmojarad

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available A B S T R A C T Introduction: Diabetes mellitus is accompanied with disturbances in learning, memory, and cognitive skills in the human society and experimental animals. Due to anti-diabetic and antioxidant activity of Rumex patientia (RP, this research study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of chronic Rumex patientia feeding on alleviation of learning and memory disturbance in streptozotocindiabetic rats. Methods: Male Wistar rats were divided into control, diabetic, RP-treatedcontrol and -diabetic groups. For induction of diabetes, streptozotcin (STZ was administered at a dose of 60 mg/Kg. Meanwhile, RP-treated groups received RP seed powder mixed with standard pelleted food at a weight ratio of 6% for 4 weeks. For evaluation of learning and memory, initial latency (IL and step-through latency (STL were determined at the end of study using passive avoidance test. Results: It was found out that regarding initial latency, there was no significant difference among the groups. In addition, diabetic rats developed a significant impairment in retention and recall in passive avoidance test (p<0.01, as it is evident by a lower STL. Furthermore, RP treatment of diabetic rats did produce a significant improvement in retention and recall (p<0.05. Discussion: Taken together, chronic RP feeding could improve retention and recall capability in passive avoidance test in STZ-diabetic rats

  13. Effects of chronic lead intoxication on rat serotoninergic system and anxiety behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansar, Wafa; Bouyatas, My Mustapha; Ahboucha, Samir; Gamrani, Halima

    2012-01-01

    Chronic lead exposure has been shown to produce behavioral disturbances in human and animal models. These disturbances are associated with alterations in monoaminergic neurotransmission in the central nervous system (CNS), some of which have been attributed to serotonin (5-HT). This study was undertaken to investigate the chronic effects of lead exposure on the serotoninergic system in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) and the consequences of its toxicity on rat behavior. Adult male Wistar rats were chronically exposed for 3 months to 0.5% lead acetate in drinking water. The serotoninergic system was evaluated using immunohistochemistry and the anxiety behavior was assessed by the light/dark box test. The results show that chronic lead exposure induces a significant increase of blood and brain lead levels in treated rats compared with controls. The density of the immunoreactive serotoninergic cell bodies was significantly higher in treated rats in all parts of the DRN. Assessment of animal behavior using the light/dark box test showed that lead-treated rats spent significantly more time in the light chamber compared with controls (P=0.001). These findings suggest that lead exposure may possibly induce increased anxiety as a consequence of changes in neuronal 5-HT content in the DRN. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  14. Quantitative evaluation of 99mTc-GSA for fatty liver and ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimoto, Mitsunori

    1996-01-01

    99m Tc-GSA (GSA) liver scintigraphy was performed in rats with fatty liver and ischemia-reperfusion injury to study the usefulness of GSA in evaluating these pathological processes. Fatty liver was produced by feeding rats a choline-deficient diet. The rats with fatty liver were divided into five groups according to the length of the diet (controls, two weeks, six weeks, 10 weeks, and 12 weeks). In the rats dieted for two weeks and six weeks, regional hepatic ischemia was also induced by clamping the left hepatic artery and the left portal vein for 10 minutes, then reperfusion was performed for 15 minutes. GSA was administered via the IVC. t 90 , or the time at which the liver time activity curve reached ninety percent of its peak value, was used as an index of GSA hepatic uptake, Ku and Kd, determined by two compartment analysis, were also used as indices. In rats of the fatty liver group, we confirmed microscopically that various degrees of fatty infiltration existed according to the diet period, and t 90 became significantly longer according to the severity of fatty infiltration. Ku and Kd also decreased according to the severity of fatty infiltration. In the rats with fatty infiltration and ischemia-reperfusion injury, t 90 also increased according to the severity of fatty infiltration, becoming longer than in the rats without ischemia-reperfusion injury. Quantitative analysis of GSA liver scintigraphy was useful for evaluating fatty liver and ischemia-reperfusion injury. (author)

  15. Behavioural inflexibility in a comorbid rat model of striatal ischemic injury and mutant hAPP overexpression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levit, Alexander; Regis, Aaron M; Garabon, Jessica R; Oh, Seung-Hun; Desai, Sagar J; Rajakumar, Nagalingam; Hachinski, Vladimir; Agca, Yuksel; Agca, Cansu; Whitehead, Shawn N; Allman, Brian L

    2017-08-30

    Alzheimer disease (AD) and stroke coexist and interact; yet how they interact is not sufficiently understood. Both AD and basal ganglia stroke can impair behavioural flexibility, which can be reliably modeled in rats using an established operant based set-shifting test. Transgenic Fischer 344-APP21 rats (TgF344) overexpress pathogenic human amyloid precursor protein (hAPP) but do not spontaneously develop overt pathology, hence TgF344 rats can be used to model the effect of vascular injury in the prodromal stages of Alzheimer disease. We demonstrate that the injection of endothelin-1 (ET1) into the dorsal striatum of TgF344 rats (Tg-ET1) produced an exacerbation of behavioural inflexibility with a behavioural phenotype that was distinct from saline-injected wildtype & TgF344 rats as well as ET1-injected wildtype rats (Wt-ET1). In addition to profiling the types of errors made, interpolative modeling using logistic exposure-response regression provided an informative analysis of the timing and efficiency of behavioural flexibility. During set-shifting, Tg-ET1 committed fewer perseverative errors than Wt-ET1. However, Tg-ET1 committed significantly more regressive errors and had a less efficient strategy change than all other groups. Thus, behavioural flexibility was more vulnerable to striatal ischemic injury in TgF344 rats. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Protective Effect of Ethyl Acetate Fraction of Stereospermum Suaveolens Against Hepatic Oxidative Stress in STZ Diabetic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramanian, Thirumalaiswamy; Senthilkumar, G P; Karthikeyan, M; Chatterjee, Tapan Kumar

    2013-07-01

    Stereospermum suaveolens is a folk remedy for the treatment of diabetes and liver disorders in southern parts of India. In the present study, the protective effect of the ethyl acetate fraction of ethanol extract from S. suaveolens against hepatic oxidative stress was evaluated in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats for 14 days. The ethyl acetate fraction was administered orally to the STZ diabetic rats at the doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg. Blood glucose level was measured according to glucose oxidase method. In order to determine hepatoprotective activity, changes in the levels of serum biomarker enzymes such as aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), and serum alkaline phosphatase (SALP) were assessed in the ethyl acetate fraction treated diabetic rats and were compared with the levels in diabetic control rats. In addition, the antioxidant activity of ethyl acetate fraction was evaluated using various hepatic parameters such as thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT). It was found that administration of ethyl acetate fraction (200 and 400 mg/kg) produced a significant (P SALP, while elevating the GSH levels, and SOD and CAT activities in diabetic rats. Histopathologic studies also revealed the protective effect of ethyl acetate fraction on the liver tissues of diabetic rats. It was concluded from this study that the ethyl acetate fraction from ethanol extract of S. suaveolens modulates the activity of enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidants and enhances the defense against hepatic oxidative stress in STZ-induced diabetic rats.

  17. Power Producer Production Valuation

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    M. Kněžek

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The ongoing developments in the electricity market, in particular the establishment of the Prague Energy Exchange (PXE and the associated transfer from campaign-driven sale to continuous trading, represent a significant change for power companies.  Power producing companies can now optimize the sale of their production capacities with the objective of maximizing profit from wholesale electricity and supporting services. The Trading Departments measure the success rate of trading activities by the gross margin (GM, calculated by subtracting the realized sales prices from the realized purchase prices and the production cost, and indicate the profit & loss (P&L to be subsequently calculated by the Control Department. The risk management process is set up on the basis of a business strategy defining the volumes of electricity that have to be sold one year and one month before the commencement of delivery. At the same time, this process defines the volume of electricity to remain available for spot trading (trading limits. 

  18. Taste aversion learning produced by combined treatment with subthreshold radiation and lithium chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabin, B.M.; Hunt, W.A.; Lee, J.

    1987-01-01

    These experiments were designed to determine whether treatment with two subthreshold doses of radiation or lithium chloride, either alone or in combination, could lead to taste aversion learning. The first experiment determined the thresholds for a radiation-induced taste aversion at 15-20 rad and for lithium chloride at 0.30-0.45 mEq/kg. In the second experiment it was shown that exposing rats to two doses of 15 rad separated by up to 3 hr produced a taste aversion. Treatment with two injections of lithium chloride (0.30 mEq/kg) did not produce a significant reduction in preference. Combined treatment with radiation and lithium chloride did produce a taste aversion when the two treatments were administered within 1 hr of each other. The results are discussed in terms of the implications of these findings for understanding the nature of the unconditioned stimuli leading to the acquisition of a conditioned taste aversion

  19. Antinociceptive activity of Sempervivum tectorum L. extract in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kekesi, Gabriella; Dobos, Ildiko; Benedek, György; Horvath, Gyöngyi

    2003-11-01

    The extract of Sempervivum tectorum L. (Crassulaceae) containing several flavonoids is widely used as an antiinflammatory agent in folk medicine. Previous studies have demonstrated that various flavonoids or flavonoid-containing plant extracts produce significant antinociception, but no data are available concerning their antinociceptive effect especially at the spinal level. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the antinociceptive activity of Sempervivum tectorum L. extract on acute and inflammatory pain sensitivity in awake rats. The pain sensitivity was assessed by the acute tail- flick test in intact rats and by the paw withdrawal test after carrageenan-induced inflammation using heat stimulus. The plant extract was administered intraperitoneally and intrathecally in rats. The intraperitoneal injection of a high dose of the extract (1000 mg/kg) significantly (p < 0.05) increased the paw withdrawal latency of the inflamed paw. The intrathecal administration (30-300 micro g) caused a small, but significant increase (10%-15%) in tail- flick latency. In the carrageenan-induced inflammatory model, the intrathecally applied extract (30-1000 micro g) significantly decreased, but did not relieve the thermal hyperalgesia. The results suggest that the spinal cord does not seem to play an important role in the antinociceptive effects of this plant extract. Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Ability of Lactobacillus fermentum to overcome host α-galactosidase deficiency, as evidenced by reduction of hydrogen excretion in rats consuming soya α-galacto-oligosaccharides

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    Sesma Fernando

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Soya and its derivatives represent nutritionally high quality food products whose major drawback is their high content of α-galacto-oligosaccharides. These are not digested in the small intestine due to the natural absence of tissular α-galactosidase in mammals. The passage of these carbohydrates to the large intestine makes them available for fermentation by gas-producing bacteria leading to intestinal flatulence. The aim of the work reported here was to assess the ability of α-galactosidase-producing lactobacilli to improve the digestibility of α-galacto-oligosaccharides in situ. Results Gnotobiotic rats were orally fed with soy milk and placed in respiratory chambers designed to monitor fermentative gas excretion. The validity of the animal model was first checked using gnotobiotic rats monoassociated with a Clostridium butyricum hydrogen (H2-producing strain. Ingestion of native soy milk by these rats caused significant H2 emission while ingestion of α-galacto-oligosaccharide-free soy milk did not, thus validating the experimental system. When native soy milk was fermented using the α-galactosidase-producing Lactobacillus fermentum CRL722 strain, the resulting product failed to induce H2 emission in rats thus validating the bacterial model. When L. fermentum CRL722 was coadministered with native soy milk, a significant reduction (50 %, P = 0.019 in H2 emission was observed, showing that α-galactosidase from L. fermentum CRL722 remained active in situ, in the gastrointestinal tract of rats monoassociated with C. butyricum. In human-microbiota associated rats, L. fermentum CRL722 also induced a significant reduction of H2 emission (70 %, P = 0.004. Conclusion These results strongly suggest that L. fermentum α-galactosidase is able to partially alleviate α-galactosidase deficiency in rats. This offers interesting perspectives in various applications in which lactic acid bacteria could be used as a vector for

  1. A putative role for hypothalamic glucocorticoid receptors in hypertension induced by prenatal undernutrition in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Hernán; Soto-Moyano, Rubén; Ruiz, Samuel; Hernández, Alejandro; Sierralta, Walter; Olivares, Ricardo; Núñez, Héctor; Flores, Osvaldo; Morgan, Carlos; Valladares, Luis; Gatica, Arnaldo; Flores, Francisco J

    2010-10-08

    Prenatal undernutrition induces hypertension later in life, possibly by disturbing the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis through programming decreased expression of hypothalamic glucocorticoid receptors. We examined the systolic blood pressure, heart rate and plasma corticosterone response to intra-paraventricular dexamethasone, mifepristone and corticosterone in eutrophic and prenatally undernourished young rats. Undernutrition was induced during fetal life by restricting the diet of pregnant mothers to 10 g daily (40% of diet consumed by well-nourished controls). At day 40 of postnatal life (i) intra-paraventricular administration of dexamethasone significantly reduced at least for 24h both the systolic pressure (-11.6%), the heart rate (-20.8%) and the plasma corticosterone (-40.0%) in normal animals, while producing lower effects (-5.5, -8.7, and -22.3%, respectively) on undernourished rats; (ii) intra-paraventricular administration of the antiglucocorticoid receptor ligand mifepristone to normal rats produced opposite effects (8.2, 20.3, and 48.0% increase, respectively) to those induced by dexamethasone, being these not significant in undernourished animals; (iii) intra-paraventricular corticosterone did not exert any significant effect. Results suggest that the low sensitivity of paraventricular neurons to glucocorticoid receptor ligands observed in prenatally undernourished rats could be due to the already reported glucocorticoid receptor expression, found in the hypothalamus of undernourished animals. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Rebaudioside A inhibits pentylenetetrazol-induced convulsions in rats

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    Yigit Uyanikgil

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The safety of patients with epilepsy consuming sweetening agents, which is becoming increasingly prevalent for various reasons, is a topic that should be emphasized as sensitively as it is for other diseases. Patients with epilepsy consume sweetening agents for different reasons such being diabetic or overweight. They can occasionally be exposed to sweetening agents unrestrainedly through consuming convenience food, primarily beverages. This study aimed to investigate the effects of rebaudioside A (Reb-A, which is a steviol glycoside produced from the herb Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni, on epileptic seizures and convulsions induced by pentylenetetrazole (PTZ. Forty-eight male rats were used. Twenty-four rats were administered 35 mg/kg PTZ to trigger epileptiform activity; the remaining 24 rats were administered 70 mg/kg PTZ to trigger the convulsion model. The epileptiform activity was evaluated by spike percentage, whereas convulsion was evaluated by Racine's Convulsion Scale and the onset time of the first myoclonic jerk. Statistical analysis revealed a statistically significant decrease in the Racine's Convulsion Scale score and increase in the latency of first myoclonic jerk in a dose-dependent manner for the rat groups in which PTZ epilepsy had been induced and Reb-A had been administered. For the groups that were administered Reb-A, the spike decrease was apparent in a dose-dependent manner, based on the spike percentage calculation. These results indicated that Reb-A has positive effects on PTZ-induced convulsions.

  3. Impaired insulin secretion in the spontaneous diabetes rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, K; Toyota, T; Kakizaki, M; Kudo, M; Takebe, K; Goto, Y

    1982-08-01

    Dynamics of insulin and glucagon secretion were investigated by using a new model of spontaneous diabetes rats produced by the repetition of selective breeding in our laboratories. The perfusion experiments of the pancreas showed that the early phase of insulin secretion to continuous stimulation with glucose was specifically impaired, although the response of the early phase to arginine was preserved. The glucose-induced insulin secretion in the nineth generation (F8) which had a more remarkably impaired glucose tolerance was more reduced than in the sixth generation (F5). No significant difference of glucagon secretion in response to arginine or norepinephrine was noted between the diabetes rats and control ones. The present data indicate that the defective insulin secretion is a primary derangement in a diabetic state of the spontaneous diabetes rat. This defect in the early phase of glucose-induced insulin secretion suggests the specific impairment of the recognition of glucose by the pancreatic beta-cells. The spontaneous diabetes rats are very useful as a model of disease for investigating pathophysiology of non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus.

  4. Modulating effect of the nootropic drug, piracetam on stress- and subsequent morphine-induced prolactin secretion in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matton, A.; Engelborghs, S.; Bollengier, F.; Finné, E.; Vanhaeist, L.

    1996-01-01

    1. The effect of the nootropic drug, piracetam on stress- and subsequent morphine-induced prolactin (PRL) secretion was investigated in vivo in male rats, by use of a stress-free blood sampling and drug administration method by means of a permanent indwelling catheter in the right jugular vein. 2. Four doses of piracetam were tested (20, 100, 200 and 400 mg kg-1), being given intraperitoneally 1 h before blood sampling; control rats received saline instead. After a first blood sample, rats were subjected to immobilization stress and received morphine, 6 mg kg-1, 90 min later. 3. Piracetam had no effect on basal plasma PRL concentration. 4. While in the non-piracetam-treated rats, stress produced a significant rise in plasma PRL concentration, in the piracetam-pretreated rats PRL peaks were attenuated, especially in the group given 100 mg kg-1 piracetam, where plasma PRL concentration was not significantly different from basal values. The dose-response relationship showed a U-shaped curve; the smallest dose had a minor inhibitory effect and the highest dose had no further effect on the PRL rise. 5. In unrestrained rats, morphine led to a significant elevation of plasma PRL concentration. After the application of immobilization stress it lost its ability to raise plasma PRL concentration in the control rats, but not in the piracetam-treated rats. This tolerance was overcome by piracetam in a significant manner but with a reversed dose-response curve; i.e. the smaller the dose of piracetam, the higher the subsequent morphine-induced PRL peak. 6. There is no simple explanation for the mechanism by which piracetam induces these contradictory effects. Interference with the excitatory amino acid system, which is also involved in opiate action, is proposed speculatively as a possible mediator of the effects of piracetam. PMID:8821540

  5. Effect of nigella sativa seeds extract on serum c-reactive protein in albino rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bashir, M.U.; Qureshi, H.

    2014-01-01

    C-reactive protein (CRP) is an acute phase protein. It predicts future risk of cardiovascular diseases. Different medicinal plants and their active ingredients possess the ability to reduce serum CRP levels and hence inflammatory disorders and cardiovascular diseases. In our study, ethanolic extract of Nigella sativa seeds was evaluated in albino rats for its possible effect on serum CRP levels. Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the effect of ethanolic extract of Nigella sativa seeds on an acute inflammatory biomarker/mediator, C-reactive protein (CRP) in albino rats. Study Design: Randomized controlled trial (RCT). Place and Duration of Study: Physiology Department, Services Institute of Medical Sciences (SIMS), Lahore; from September to November, 2009. Subjects and Methods: The study was carried out on 90 male albino rats. Five percent (5%) formalin in a dose of 50 meu1 was injected into sub-plantar surface of right hind paw of each rat to produce inflammation. The rats were randomly divided into three groups of thirty each. Group A was given normal saline (control); group B was given Nigella sativa seed extract; and group C received diclofenac sodium, as a reference drug. CRP levels in each group were measured from blood samples taken 25 hours after giving formalin. Results: The ethanolic extract of Nigella sativa seeds, given intraperitoneally, caused highly significant (p<0.001) reduction in serum CRP levels as compared to control group. The reduction in CRP levels by ethanolic extract of Nigella sativa was also significantly (p<0.05) more than that produced by diclofenac sodium. Conclusion: Our results suggest that Nigella sativa possesses ability to reduce serum CRP levels significantly, after production of artificial inflammation, in albino rats. (author)

  6. A New Rat Model of Epileptic Spasms Based on Methylazoxymethanol-Induced Malformations of Cortical Development

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    Eun-Hee Kim

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Malformations of cortical development (MCDs can cause medically intractable epilepsies and cognitive disabilities in children. We developed a new model of MCD-associated epileptic spasms by treating rats prenatally with methylazoxymethanol acetate (MAM to induce cortical malformations and postnatally with N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA to induce spasms. To produce cortical malformations to infant rats, two dosages of MAM (15 mg/kg, intraperitoneally were injected to pregnant rats at gestational day 15. In prenatally MAM-exposed rats and the controls, spasms were triggered by single (6 mg/kg on postnatal day 12 (P12 or 10 mg/kg on P13 or 15 mg/kg on P15 or multiple doses (P12, P13, and P15 of NMDA. In prenatally MAM-exposed rats with single NMDA-provoked spasms at P15, we obtain the intracranial electroencephalography and examine the pretreatment response to adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH or vigabatrin. Rat pups prenatally exposed to MAM exhibited a significantly greater number of spasms in response to single and multiple postnatal NMDA doses than vehicle-exposed controls. Vigabatrin treatment prior to a single NMDA dose on P15 significantly suppressed spasms in MAM group rats (p < 0.05, while ACTH did not. The MAM group also showed significantly higher fast oscillation (25–100 Hz power during NMDA-induced spasms than controls (p = 0.047. This new model of MCD-based epileptic spasms with corresponding features of human spasms will be valuable for future research of the developmental epilepsy.

  7. Modification Of Cesium Toxicity By Prussian Blue In Adult Male Albino Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MANGOOD, S.A.; HAGGAG, A.M.

    2009-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to asses the toxicological effects of stable cesium chloride, and investigate the possible therapeutic role of Prussian blue (PB) in adult male albino rats.Thirty two adult male albino rats were used in this study and classified to 4 groups (8 rats/group) as follows:1- Group one (G1): rats were considered as controls and kept on the commercial diet without any treatments.2-Group two (G2): treated with daily oral cesium chloride (50 mg/300 g body weight).3-Group three (G3): treated with daily oral Prussian blue (250 mg/rats).4-Group four (G4): treated with cesium chloride at a daily oral dose of 50 mg/300 g body weight + Prussian blue at a daily oral dose of 250 mg/rats.All animals were administered the CsCl and/or PB via intubation tube and the duration of this study was 35 consecutive days. Hemoglobin (Hb), hematocrit (Ht%), red blood cells (RBC), white blood cells (WBC), folic acid, vitamin B12, total protein, albumin, globulin, A/G ratio, ALT, AST, total bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase, blood glucose, urea, creatinine, creatine phosphokinase (CPK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), sodium, potassium, calcium and inorganic phosphorous and body weight were determined in all groups.The data obtained revealed that the intake of stable cesium chloride in adult male rats caused significant decreases in the Hb, hematocrit, folic acid, vitamin B12 and potassium contents, with significant increases in WBC count, urea and creatinine levels and no effect on the other parameters. On the other hand, PB as a therapeutic agent caused significant amelioration in the changes produced by CsCl with variable degrees leading to the conclusion that the therapeutic agents might provide a protection against the toxicological effects of CsCl.

  8. Pubertal neurocranium growth in thymectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rino, W; Teixeira, D

    1979-01-01

    Differences in neurocranium growth at puberty were studied in rats of both sexes thymectomized and sham-thymectomized at 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12 and 14 days of age and in controls of matched age and sex; skull length, width and height, and skull base length and face length were measured. The neurocranium of the thymectomized rats was significantly smaller than that of the sham-thymectomized and control rats of both sexes and in all age-groups.

  9. Biologically produced sulfur

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleinjan, W.E.; Keizer, de A.; Janssen, A.J.H.

    2003-01-01

    Sulfur compound oxidizing bacteria produce sulfur as an intermediate in the oxidation of hydrogen sulfide to sulfate. Sulfur produced by these microorganisms can be stored in sulfur globules, located either inside or outside the cell. Excreted sulfur globules are colloidal particles which are

  10. Consumers and Producers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Maira (Elisa)

    2018-01-01

    markdownabstractIn the last few decades, advances in information and communication technology have dramatically changed the way consumers and producers interact in the marketplace. The Internet and social media have torn down the information barrier between producers and consumers, leading to

  11. Producers and oil markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greaves, W.

    1993-01-01

    This article attempts an assessment of the potential use of futures by the Middle East oil producers. It focuses on Saudi Arabia since the sheer size of Saudi Arabian sales poses problems, but the basic issues discussed are similar for the other Middle East producers. (Author)

  12. Caffeine and Aspirin Protecting Albino Rats A gainst Biochemical and Histological Disorders Induced by Whole Body Gamma Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd El-Rahman, N.A.; Sherif, N.H.

    2015-01-01

    Caffeine is an alkaloid (purine derivative) that contains flavonoids, where as aspirin, natural component of mammalian tissue ( acetylsalicylic acid) is one of the most commonly used non steroidal anti - inflammatory , and it is a necessary factor in the utilization of long - chain fatty acids to produce energy. Furthermore, it has been shown to protect cells from per oxidative stress. Th e objective of the present study is to evaluate the efficacy of caffeine (1,3,7 - trimethyl xanthine) 80 mg/kg b.wt. a nd aspirin ( acetylsalicylic acid) in the amelioration of the physiological and histological changes in stomach and intestine of rats exposed to gamma irradiation . Male albino rats were divided into 8 groups. 1 - Control group: rats not subject to any treatment, 2 - Caffeine group: rats received caffeine ( 80 ml/Kg body weight )via intraperitoneal injection for 21 days, 3 - Aspirin group: rats received aspirin (150 mg / kg body) via intraperitoneal injection for 21 days , 4 - Caffeine + Aspirin group: rats received caffeine a nd aspirin treatment, 5 - Radiation groups: rats were whole body gamma irradiated at 8 Gy , 6 - Caffeine + Radiation group: rats received caffeine for 21 days before whole body gamma irradiation at 8 Gy, 7 - Aspirin + Radiation group: rats received aspirin during 21 days before w hole body gamma irradiation , 8 - Caffeine + Aspirin + Radiation group: rats received caffeine parallel to aspirin for 21 days before whole body gamma irradiation. Animals were sacrificed 24 hrs post irradiation. The results demonstrated that rats exposed to whole body gamma irradiation showed a significant increase in alanine amino transferase (AL ) , aspartate amino transferase ( AST), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities, and a significant decrease in total protein indicating liver injury. A significant increase in urea, creatinine, Na + ,and K + were recorded indicating kidney damage. Alteration of liver and kidney functions was accompanied by a significant

  13. The academic rat race

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landes, Xavier; Andersen, Martin Marchman; Nielsen, Morten Ebbe Juul

    2012-01-01

    : an increased pressure to produce articles (in peer-reviewed journals) has created an unbalanced emphasis on the research criterion at the expense of the latter two. More fatally, this pressure has turned academia into a rat race, leading to a deep change in the fundamental structure of academic behaviour......, and entailing a self-defeating and hence counter-productive pattern, where more publications is always better and where it becomes increasingly difficult for researchers to keep up with the new research in their field. The article identifies the pressure to publish as a problem of collective action. It ends up...

  14. Release from proactive interference in rat spatial working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, William A; MacDonald, Hayden; Brown, Lyn; Macpherson, Krista

    2017-09-01

    A three-phase procedure was used to produce proactive interference (PI) in one trial on an eight-arm radial maze. Rats were forced to enter four arms for reward on an initial interference phase, to then enter the four remaining arms on a target phase, and to then choose among all eight arms on a retention test, with only the arms not visited in the target phase containing reward. Control trials involved only the target phase and the retention test. Lower accuracy was found on PI trials than on control trials, but performance on PI trials significantly exceeded chance, showing some retention of target memories. Changes in temporal and reward variables between the interference, target, and retention test phases showed release from PI, but changes in context and pattern of arm entry did not. It is suggested that the release from PI paradigm can be used to understand spatial memory encoding in rats and other species.

  15. Brain protection by methylprednisolone in rats with spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chia-Mao; Lee, Ming-Hsueh; Wang, Ting-Chung; Weng, Hsu-Huei; Chung, Chiu-Yen; Yang, Jen-Tsung

    2009-07-01

    Traumatic spinal cord injury is clinically treated by high doses of methylprednisolone. However, the effect of methylprednisolone on the brain in spinal cord injury patients has been little investigated. This experimental study examined Bcl-2 and Bax protein expression and Nissl staining to evaluate an apoptosis-related intracellular signaling event and final neuron death, respectively. Spinal cord injury produced a significant apoptotic change and cell death not only in the spinal cord but also in the supraventricular cortex and hippocampal cornu ammonis 1 region in the rat brains. The treatment of methylprednisolone increased the Bcl-2/Bax ratio and prevented neuron death for 1-7 days after spinal cord injury. These findings suggest that rats with spinal cord injury show ascending brain injury that could be restricted through methylprednisolone management.

  16. Effects of leucine supplemented diet on intestinal absorption in tumor bearing pregnant rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Mello Maria

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is known that amino acid oxidation is increased in tumor-bearing rat muscles and that leucine is an important ketogenic amino acid that provides energy to the skeletal muscle. Methods To evaluate the effects of a leucine supplemented diet on the intestinal absorption alterations produced by Walker 256, growing pregnant rats were distributed into six groups. Three pregnant groups received a normal protein diet (18% protein: pregnant (N, tumor-bearing (WN, pair-fed rats (Np. Three other pregnant groups were fed a diet supplemented with 3% leucine (15% protein plus 3% leucine: leucine (L, tumor-bearing (WL and pair-fed with leucine (Lp. Non pregnant rats (C, which received a normal protein diet, were used as a control group. After 20 days, the animals were submitted to intestinal perfusion to measure leucine, methionine and glucose absorption. Results Tumor-bearing pregnant rats showed impairment in food intake, body weight gain and muscle protein content, which were less accentuated in WL than in WN rats. These metabolic changes led to reduction in both fetal and tumor development. Leucine absorption slightly increased in WN group. In spite of having a significant decrease in leucine and methionine absorption compared to L, the WL group has shown a higher absorption rate of methionine than WN group, probably due to the ingestion of the leucine supplemented diet inducing this amino acid uptake. Glucose absorption was reduced in both tumor-bearing groups. Conclusions Leucine supplementation during pregnancy in tumor-bearing rats promoted high leucine absorption, increasing the availability of the amino acid for neoplasic cells and, mainly, for fetus and host utilization. This may have contributed to the better preservation of body weight gain, food intake and muscle protein observed in the supplemented rats in relation to the non-supplemented ones.

  17. Effects of leucine supplemented diet on intestinal absorption in tumor bearing pregnant rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ventrucci, Gislaine; Mello, Maria Alice Roston de; Gomes-Marcondes, Maria Cristina Cintra

    2002-01-01

    It is known that amino acid oxidation is increased in tumor-bearing rat muscles and that leucine is an important ketogenic amino acid that provides energy to the skeletal muscle. To evaluate the effects of a leucine supplemented diet on the intestinal absorption alterations produced by Walker 256, growing pregnant rats were distributed into six groups. Three pregnant groups received a normal protein diet (18% protein): pregnant (N), tumor-bearing (WN), pair-fed rats (Np). Three other pregnant groups were fed a diet supplemented with 3% leucine (15% protein plus 3% leucine): leucine (L), tumor-bearing (WL) and pair-fed with leucine (Lp). Non pregnant rats (C), which received a normal protein diet, were used as a control group. After 20 days, the animals were submitted to intestinal perfusion to measure leucine, methionine and glucose absorption. Tumor-bearing pregnant rats showed impairment in food intake, body weight gain and muscle protein content, which were less accentuated in WL than in WN rats. These metabolic changes led to reduction in both fetal and tumor development. Leucine absorption slightly increased in WN group. In spite of having a significant decrease in leucine and methionine absorption compared to L, the WL group has shown a higher absorption rate of methionine than WN group, probably due to the ingestion of the leucine supplemented diet inducing this amino acid uptake. Glucose absorption was reduced in both tumor-bearing groups. Leucine supplementation during pregnancy in tumor-bearing rats promoted high leucine absorption, increasing the availability of the amino acid for neoplasic cells and, mainly, for fetus and host utilization. This may have contributed to the better preservation of body weight gain, food intake and muscle protein observed in the supplemented rats in relation to the non-supplemented ones

  18. treated rats

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    aghomotsegin

    2014-01-08

    Jan 8, 2014 ... nucleus, bizarre segmentation; (I) shows hypersegmentation, bizarre segmentation of neutrophils in the shape of ring nucleus with polychromatophilic RBCs. 1998; Muller and Tobin, 1980). The current study shows that rats administered C. edulis hydro-ethanol extract, orally for 28 days, developed anemia, ...

  19. Antioxidant Protective Effect of Glibenclamide and Metformin in Combination with Honey in Pancreas of Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omotayo Owomofoyon Erejuwa

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Hyperglycemia exerts toxic effects on the pancreatic β-cells. This study investigated the hypothesis that the common antidiabetic drugs glibenclamide and metformin, in combination with tualang honey, offer additional protection for the pancreas of streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetic rats against oxidative stress and damage. Diabetes was induced in male Sprague Dawley rats by a single dose of STZ (60 mg/kg; ip. Diabetic rats had significantly elevated levels of lipid peroxidation (TBARS, up-regulated activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione peroxidase (GPx while catalase (CAT activity was significantly reduced. Glibenclamide and metformin produced no significant effects on TBARS and antioxidant enzymes except GPx in diabetic rats. In contrast, the combination of glibenclamide, metformin and honey significantly up-regulated CAT activity and down-regulated GPx activity while TBARS levels were significantly reduced. These findings suggest that tualang honey potentiates the effect of glibenclamide and metformin to protect diabetic rat pancreas against oxidative stress and damage.

  20. Diethylene glycol-induced toxicities show marked threshold dose response in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landry, Greg M., E-mail: Landry.Greg@mayo.edu [Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology, & Neuroscience, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, Shreveport, LA (United States); Dunning, Cody L., E-mail: cdunni@lsuhsc.edu [Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology, & Neuroscience, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, Shreveport, LA (United States); Abreo, Fleurette, E-mail: fabreo@lsuhsc.edu [Department of Pathology, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, Shreveport, LA (United States); Latimer, Brian, E-mail: blatim@lsuhsc.edu [Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology, & Neuroscience, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, Shreveport, LA (United States); Orchard, Elysse, E-mail: eorcha@lsuhsc.edu [Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology, & Neuroscience, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, Shreveport, LA (United States); Division of Animal Resources, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, Shreveport, LA (United States); McMartin, Kenneth E., E-mail: kmcmar@lsuhsc.edu [Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology, & Neuroscience, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, Shreveport, LA (United States)

    2015-02-01

    Diethylene glycol (DEG) exposure poses risks to human health because of widespread industrial use and accidental exposures from contaminated products. To enhance the understanding of the mechanistic role of metabolites in DEG toxicity, this study used a dose response paradigm to determine a rat model that would best mimic DEG exposure in humans. Wistar and Fischer-344 (F-344) rats were treated by oral gavage with 0, 2, 5, or 10 g/kg DEG and blood, kidney and liver tissues were collected at 48 h. Both rat strains treated with 10 g/kg DEG had equivalent degrees of metabolic acidosis, renal toxicity (increased BUN and creatinine and cortical necrosis) and liver toxicity (increased serum enzyme levels, centrilobular necrosis and severe glycogen depletion). There was no liver or kidney toxicity at the lower DEG doses (2 and 5 g/kg) regardless of strain, demonstrating a steep threshold dose response. Kidney diglycolic acid (DGA), the presumed nephrotoxic metabolite of DEG, was markedly elevated in both rat strains administered 10 g/kg DEG, but no DGA was present at 2 or 5 g/kg, asserting its necessary role in DEG-induced toxicity. These results indicate that mechanistically in order to produce toxicity, metabolism to and significant target organ accumulation of DGA are required and that both strains would be useful for DEG risk assessments. - Highlights: • DEG produces a steep threshold dose response for kidney injury in rats. • Wistar and F-344 rats do not differ in response to DEG-induced renal injury. • The dose response for renal injury closely mirrors that for renal DGA accumulation. • Results demonstrate the importance of DGA accumulation in producing kidney injury.

  1. Behavioral sensitization after repeated formaldehyde exposure in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorg, B A; Hochstatter, T

    1999-01-01

    Multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) is a phenomenon whereby individuals report increased sensitivity to chemicals in the environment, and attribute their sensitivities to prior exposure to the same or often structurally unrelated chemicals. A leading hypothesis suggests that MCS is akin to behavioral sensitization observed in rodents after repeated exposure to drugs of abuse or environmental stressors. Sensitization occurring within limbic circuitry of the central nervous system (CNS) may explain the multisymptom complaints in individuals with MCS. The present studies represent the continuing development of an animal model for MCS, the basis of which is the CNS sensitization hypothesis. Three behaviors were assessed in rats repeatedly exposed to formaldehyde (Form) inhalation. In the first series of experiments, rats were given high-dose Form exposure (11 parts per million [ppm]; 1 h/day x 7 days) or low-dose Form exposure (1 ppm; either 1 h/day x 7 days or 1 h/day x 5 days/week x 4 weeks). Within a few days after discontinuing daily Form, cocaine-induced locomotor activity was elevated after high-dose Form or 20 days of low-dose Form inhalation. Approximately 1 month later, cocaine-induced locomotor activity remained significantly elevated in the 20-day Form-exposed rats. The second experiment assessed whether prior exposure to Form (20 days, as above) would alter the ability to condition to an odor (orange oil) paired with footshock. The results suggested a tendency to increase the conditioned fear response to the odor but not the context of the footshock box, and a decreased tendency to extinguish the conditioned fear response to odor. The third experiment examined whether CNS sensitization to daily cocaine or stress would alter subsequent avoidance responding to odor (Form). Daily cocaine significantly elevated approach responses to Form, while daily stress pretreatment produced a trend in the opposite direction, producing greater avoidance of Form. Preliminary

  2. Renal function in streptozotocin-diabetic rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, P K; Christiansen, J S; Steven, K

    1981-01-01

    to the rise in kidney glomerular filtration rate (diabetic rats: 37.0 nl/min; control rats: 27.9 nl/min). Likewise renal plasma flow was significantly higher in the diabetic rats (4.1 ml/min) than in the control group (3.0 ml/min). Glomerular capillary pressure was identical in both groups (56.0 and 56.0 mm......-1mmHg-1). Kidney weight was significantly higher in the diabetic rats (1.15 g; control rats: 0.96 g) while body weight was similar in both groups (diabetic rats: 232 g; control rats: 238 g). Calculations indicate that the increases in transglomerular hydraulic pressure, renal plasma flow......Renal function was examined with micropuncture methods in the insulin-treated streptozotocin-diabetic rat. Kidney glomerular filtration rate was significantly higher in the diabetic rats (1.21 ml/min) than in the control group (0.84 ml/min) Nephron glomerular filtration rate increased in proportion...

  3. Bioavailability of isoflavones from soy products in equol producers and non-producers in Japanese women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayako Miura

    2016-12-01

    Conclusions: The results in this study suggest that bioavailability of isoflavones are different between equol producers and non-producers, because the 24 h urinary excretion of equol in the equol producers were significantly lower than those in the equol non-producers.

  4. Curcumin ameliorates diclofenac sodium-induced nephrotoxicity in male albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Ahmady Y; Gad, Amany M; El-Raouf, Ola M Abd

    2017-10-01

    Exposure to drugs often results in toxicity in the kidney which represents the major control system maintaining homeostasis of the body and thus is especially susceptible to xenobiotics. Nephrotoxicity is a life-threatening side-effect of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Diclofenac is one of the most frequently prescribed NSAIDs and have been reported to cause multiple organs damage. Curcumin (CUR) exhibits nephroprotective properties. Therefore, rats were divided into four groups; rats of groups 3 and 4 received diclofenac (100 mg/kg, i.m.), whereas rats of groups 2 and 4 received CUR (100 mg/kg, p.o.) for 3 days. Diclofenac revealed a significant increase in urea and creatinine levels and malondialdehyde concentration and marked reduction in catalase activity and reduced glutathione concentration. Histopathologically, diclofenac produced fatty changes and eosinophilic casts were detected in the renal tubules, those were attenuated by administration of CUR prior diclofenac. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. The hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus has a pivotal role in regulation of prolactin release in lactating rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiss, J Z; Kanyicska, B; Nagy, G Y

    1986-08-01

    The affect of paraventricular nucleus (PVN) lesions on PRL secretory response to suckling was studied in adult female rats. Basal levels of PRL were similar in the control and lesioned groups. Substantial decreases in PRL levels occurred after separation of pups from their mothers in the control as well as lesioned animals. When mothers and pups were reunited, the circulating PRL concentrations of the control groups rose immediately from basal values of 50-100 micrograms/liter to reach peaks of 450-550 micrograms/liter. PVN lesions significantly decreased the suckling-induced rise of PRL levels. Furthermore, PVN lesions abolished the high amplitude, episodic pattern of PRL release in continuously lactating rats. These findings are consistent with the view that PVN neurons produce PRL releasing factor(s), which is (are) required for normal secretory patterns of PRL in lactating rats.

  6. [Preventive effects of pueraria on presbycusis in rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wangyan; Yao, Qi; Liu, Weihong; Zhang, Bibo; Wang, Ying; Liu, Bo

    2009-08-01

    To investigate the preventive effects of Pueraria on presbycusis in rats. Thirty-two 24-26 month old Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups, and were treated with different dosages of Pueraria (1, 2, 4, 0 g x kg(-1) x d(-1)) separately for 4 weeks. Auditory brainstem response (ABR) was used to detect the change of hearing threshold of rats. Hemorheological items of rats were checked in each group. Compared with control group, the hearing threshold and hemorheological items of rats was significantly improved after treated with Pueraria (Ppresbycusis of rats.

  7. Balanites aegyptiaca ameliorates insulin secretion and decreases pancreatic apoptosis in diabetic rats: Role of SAPK/JNK pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanin, Kamel M A; Mahmoud, Mohamed O; Hassan, Hossam M; Abdel-Razik, Abdel-Razik H; Aziz, Lourin N; Rateb, Mostafa E

    2018-06-01

    SAPK-JNK pathway performs a significant role in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. Balanites aegyptiaca (BA) is used as an anti-diabetic agent in folk medicine however its hypoglycemic mechanism is not fully elucidated. The current study aimed to evaluate the effect of crude extract, butanol, and dichloromethane fractions from BA on the stress-activated protein kinase/c-Jun N-terminal kinase (SAPK-JNK) pathway in experimental diabetic rats. Six groups of male Wistar rats were included: normal control, diabetic, diabetic rats treated with crude, butanol or dichloromethane fraction from BA (50 mg/kg BW) and diabetic rats treated with gliclazide as a reference drug for one month. Our results suggested a protective role of treatment of diabetic rats with BA against oxidative stress-induced SAPK-JNK pathway. Moreover, BA treatment produced a reduction in plasma glucose, HbA 1c , lactic acid, lipid profile, malondialdehyde levels and produced an increase in insulin, reduced glutathione levels, catalase and superoxide dismutase activities compared with untreated diabetic rats. Moreover, it decreased apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1, c-Jun N-terminal kinase 1, protein 53 and increased insulin receptor substrate 1 in rat pancreas while it increased glucose transporter 4 in rat muscle. Analysis of BA extracts by LC-HRMS revealed the presence of different saponins with reported hypoglycemic effect. In conclusion, BA exerted hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic, insulinotropic and antioxidant effects. Additionally, it reduced apoptosis in pancreatic β-cells and increased glucose uptake in muscle. These results suggest that the hypoglycemic effect of BA is due to the inhibition of the SAPK-JNK pathway. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Early histological and functional effects of chronic copper exposure in rat liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cisternas, Felipe A; Tapia, Gladys; Arredondo, Miguel; Cartier-Ugarte, Denise; Romanque, Pamela; Sierralta, Walter D; Vial, María T; Videla, Luis A; Araya, Magdalena

    2005-10-01

    Cu is an essential trace element capable of producing toxic effects in animals and man when ingested acutely or chronically in excess. Although chronic Cu exposure is increasingly recognized as a public health issue, its early effects remain largely unknown. We approached the significance of a moderate chronic Cu load in young rats to correlate early hepatic histopathological changes with functional alterations of liver cells. For this purpose, supplementation with 1,200 ppm of Cu in rat food for 16 weeks was chosen. In these conditions, Cu load elicited a significant decrease in growth curves. There were mild light microscopy alterations in Cu-treated rats, although increasing intracellular Cu storage was correlated with longer Cu exposure both by histological and biochemical measurements. Ultrastructural alterations included lysosomal inclusions as well as mitochondrial and nuclear changes. Liver perfusion studies revealed higher rates of basal O(2) consumption and colloidal carbon-induced O(2) uptake in Cu-treated rats, with enhanced carbon-induced O(2)/carbon uptake ratios and NF-kappaB DNA binding activity. These changes were time-dependent and returned to control values after 12 or 16 weeks. It is concluded that subchronic Cu loading in young rats induces early hepatic morphological changes, with enhancement in Küpffer cell-dependent respiratory burst activity and NF-kappaB DNA binding, cellular responses that may prevent or alleviate the hepatotoxicity of the metal.

  9. Antioxidant effect of vitamin E and 5-aminosalicylic acid on acrylamide induced kidney injury in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajeh, Nisreen A.; Al-Dhaheri, Najlaa M.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: To explore renal toxicity caused by sub-acute exposure of acrylamide and to study the protective effect of 5-Aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) and Vitamin E (vit-E)on Acrylamide (ACR) induced renal toxicity. Methods: This study was conducted at King Fahad Medical Research Centre, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, between August and November 2015. A total of 49 adult Wistar rats (250 ± 20g) aged 60 days were kept in a controlled environment and used in the present study. The rats were divided into 7 groups (control, ACR alone, ACR+5-ASA, ACR+vit-E, ACR+ASA+vit-E, vit-E alone, and ASA alone). After 5 days of ACR oral gavage treatment, the rats were observed for 24 hours then killed. Histopathology for the kidney and lactate dehydrogenase assay were carried out. Results: Acrylamide produced significant pathological changes in the kidney with acute tubular necrosis in the distal tubules that could be reversed by concomitant injection of rat with 5-ASA. Together with vitamin E, 5-ASA, showed maximum renal protection. No statistically significant difference was observed in either body weights or lactate dehydrogenase activity of ACR treated rats. Conclusion: Acrylamide exposure leads to adverse clinical pathologies of renal tubules, which were reversed by a concomitant treatment with 5-ASA and vitamin-E PMID:28133684

  10. Antioxidant effect of vitamin E and 5-aminosalicylic acid on acrylamide induced kidney injury in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisreen A. Rajeh

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available exposure of acrylamide and to study the protective effect of 5-Aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA and Vitamin E (vit-Eon Acrylamide (ACR induced renal toxicity. Methods: This study was conducted at King Fahad Medical Research Centre, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, between August and November 2015. A total of 49 adult Wistar rats (250 ± 20g aged 60 days were kept in a controlled environment and used in the present study. The rats were divided into 7 groups (control, ACR alone, ACR+5-ASA, ACR+vit-E, ACR+ASA+vit-E, vit-E alone, and ASA alone. After 5 days of ACR oral gavage treatment, the rats were observed for 24 hours then killed. Histopathology for the kidney and lactate dehydrogenase assay were carried out. Results: Acrylamide produced significant pathological changes in the kidney with acute tubular necrosis in the distal tubules that could be reversed by concomitant injection of rat with 5-ASA. Together with vitamin E, 5-ASA, showed maximum renal protection. No statistically significant difference was observed in either body weights or lactate dehydrogenase activity of ACR treated rats. Conclusion: Acrylamide exposure leads to adverse clinical pathologies of renal tubules, which were reversed by a concomitant treatment with 5-ASA and vitamin-E

  11. Protective effects of Rosmarinic acid against renal ischaemia/reperfusion injury in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozturk, H.; Ozturk, H.; Terzi, E.H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the potential protective effects of Rosmarinic acid (RA) on rats exposed to ischaemia/reperfusion renal injury. Methods: The prospective study was conducted at Abant Izzet Baysal University, Turkey, and comprised 21 male Spraque Dawley rats weighing 250-270g each. They were divided into three equal groups. Unilaterally nephrectomised rats were subjected to 60 minutes of left renal ischaemia followed by 60 minutes of reperfusion. Group 1 had shamoperated animals; group 2 had ischaemia/reperfusion untreated animals; and group 3 had ischaemia/reperfusion animals treated with rosmarinic acid. Serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, tissue malondialdehyde, glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activities, and light microscopic findings were evaluated. SPSS 17 was used for statistical analysis. Results: Treatment of rats with rosmarinic acid produced a reduction in the serum levels of creatinine and blood urea nitrogen compared to the other groups. However, no statistically significant difference was found. The levels of malondialdehyde and myeloperoxidase were decreased in the renal tissue of group 3, while glutathione peroxidose and superoxide dismutase levels remained unchanged. The injury score decreased in the treatment group rats compared to the untreated group. Rosmarinic acid significantly decreased focal glomerular necrosis, dilatation of Bowman's capsule, degeneration of tubular epithelium, necrosis in tubular epithelium, and tubular dilatation. Conclusions: Rosmarinic acid prevented ischaemia/reperfusion injury in the kidneys by decreasing oxidative stress. (author)

  12. Producing the Spielberg Brand

    OpenAIRE

    Russell, J.

    2016-01-01

    This chapter looks at the manufacture of Spielberg’s brand, and the limits of its usage. Spielberg’s directorial work is well known, but Spielberg’s identity has also been established in other ways, and I focus particularly on his work as a producer. At the time of writing, Spielberg had produced (or executive produced) 148 movies and television series across a range of genres that takes in high budget blockbusters and low budget documentaries, with many more to come. In these texts, Spielber...

  13. Anti-hyperlipidemic action of Zingiber officinale (Ginger juice in alloxan induced diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selima Sultana

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Hyperlipidemia is an important modifiable risk factor contributing to atterosclerosis in diabetes mellitus. Zingiber officinale (ginger widely consumed as spice is known for its hypoglycemic and hypochlosteremic actions. The present study was undertaken to investigate anti-hyperlipidemic action of ginger juice in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Male Wister rats, 130-150 g wt, fed on standard diet and water ad libitum were divided into 4 groups (n=6 in each group: group I non-diabetic control, group II non-diabetic treated; group III diabetic control and group IV diabetic treated. Diabetes was induced by Inj. alloxan 150 mg Kg–1 b.w., i.p. (group III & IV on Day 2. Rats having blood glucose level of >7 mmol/l on day 5 (72 hrs after alloxan Inj. were considered diabetic and selected for experimentation. Both non-diabetic and diabetic treated groups (Gr II & IV received Zingiber officinale (ginger juice (4 ml Kg–1 b.w., p.o. for 10 days (day 2-day 11 through Ryles tube. On Day 12, animals were sacrificed under light ether anaesthesia, blood was collected by cardiac puncture and serum separated for estimation of lipids. Zingiber officinale (ginger juice significantly (p<0.01 decreased alloxan induced hyperglycemia (group IV, but had no effect on blood glucose level in normal rats (group II; significantly (p<0.001 reduced alloxan induced hyperlipidemia, but produced no significant lipid lowering effects in normal rats (group II. The results suggest a significant anti-hyperlipidemic action of Zingiber officinale (ginger juice in alloxan induced diabetic rats. The findings may be clinically significant and exploited. Ibrahim Med. Coll. J. 2012; 6(2: 55-58

  14. Effect of DA-9701 on colorectal distension-induced visceral hypersensitivity in a rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun Ran; Min, Byung-Hoon; Lee, Tae Ho; Son, Miwon; Rhee, Poong-Lyul

    2014-07-01

    DA-9701 is a newly developed drug made from the vegetal extracts of Pharbitidis semen and Co-rydalis tuber. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of DA-9701 on colorectal distension (CRD)-induced visceral hypersensitivity in a rat model. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to neonatal colon irritation (CI) using CRD at 1 week after birth (CI group). At 6 weeks after birth, CRD was applied to these rats with a pressure of 20 to 90 mm Hg, and changes in the mean arterial pressure (MAP) were measured at baseline (i.e., without any drug administration) and after the administration of different doses of DA-9701. In the absence of DA-9701, the MAP changes after CRD were significantly higher in the CI group than in the control group at all applied pressures. In the control group, MAP changes after CRD were not significantly affected by the administration of DA-9701. In the CI group, however, the administration of DA-9701 resulted in a significant decrease in MAP changes after CRD. The administration of DA-9701 at a dose of 1.0 mg/kg produced a more significant decrease in MAP changes than the 0.3 mg/kg dose. The administration of DA-9701 resulted in a significant increase in pain threshold in rats with CRD-induced visceral hypersensitivity.

  15. Changes in intestinal absorption of nutrients and brush border glycoproteins after total parenteral nutrition in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, S; Tanaka, S; Yoshioka, M; Serizawa, H; Tashiro, H; Shiozaki, H; Imaeda, H; Tsuchiya, M

    1992-01-01

    The effect of total parenteral nutrition on nutrients absorption and glycoprotein changes of brush border membrane was examined in rat small intestine. In total parenteral nutrition rats, a marked decrease in activity of brush border enzymes was observed mainly in the proximal and middle segments of the intestine. Galactose perfusion of jejunal segment showed that hexose absorption was significantly inhibited, while intestinal absorption of glycine or dipeptide, glycylglycine was not significantly affected by total parenteral nutrition treatment. When brush border membrane glycoprotein profile was examined by [3H]-glucosamine or [3H]-fucose incorporation into jejunal loops, significant changes were observed in the glycoprotein pattern of brush border membrane especially in the high molecular weight range over 120 kDa after total parenteral nutrition treatment, suggesting strong dependency of glycoprotein synthesis on luminal substances. Molecular weight of sucrase isomaltase in brush border membrane detected by specific antibody showed no significant difference, however, in total parenteral nutrition and control rats. Also, molecular weight of specific sodium glucose cotransporter of intestinal brush border membrane detected by selective photoaffinity labelling was not altered in total parenteral nutrition rats. It may be that prolonged absence of oral food intake may produce significant biochemical changes in brush border membrane glycoprotein and absorptive capacity of small intestine, but these changes were not observed in all brush border membrane glycoproteins. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:1582592

  16. Study on the effects of consumption of milk containing Lactobacillus acidophilus on serum lipid trends and weight gain of rats fed high lipid diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Mirzaei

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Despite the significant progresses made in the reduction of mortality due to cardiovascular diseases, they are still the primary cause of death in many countries and hyperlipidemia is an important causal agent of cardiovascular diseases. Probiotics are food supplements containing live microbes which balance the flora of the digestive system and produce positive effects in the host body. L.acidophilus is a beneficial bacterium used in the production of probiotic products .The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of consumption of milk containing L.acidophilus on serum lipid trends of rats fed high lipid diet. This is an experimental study in which 30 male albino Wistar rats with a body weight of 200±15 gr. were randomly allocated to two groups of treatment and control each containing 15 rats which were adapted to a high lipid diet (11.74% and water containing 25% milk within a week. Rats in both groups received high lipid diet and water containing 25% milk for 60 days with the exception that rats in the treatment group received water containing L. acidophilus at a level of 109 CFU/rat/day throughout the experiment. Independent t-test revealed that at a level of α= 0.05, mean levels of total cholesterol and LDL-C of rats in the treatment group was significantly lower than the control group (p

  17. Gamma radiation induced alterations in the ultrastructure of pancreatic islet, metabolism and enzymes in wistar rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daoo, J.V.; Suryawanshi, S.A. [Inst. of Science, Bombay (India)

    1992-07-01

    Effects of gamma irradiation (600 rads) on the ultrastructure of pancreatic islet, metabolism and some enzymes in wistar rat, are reported. Electron microscopic observations of endocrine pancreas revealed prominent changes in beta cells while alpha and delta cells were not much affected. Irradiation also inflicted hyperglycemia, increase in liver and muscle glycogen and decrease in insulin level. It has also increased the activity of enzymes but failed to produce significant changes in protein, lipid and mineral metabolism. (auth0008.

  18. A β Damages Learning and Memory in Alzheimer's Disease Rats with Kidney-Yang Deficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Qi, Dongmei; Qiao, Yongfa; Zhang, Xin; Yu, Huijuan; Cheng, Bin; Qiao, Haifa

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies demonstrated that Alzheimer's disease was considered as the consequence produced by deficiency of Kidney essence. However, the mechanism underlying the symptoms also remains elusive. Here we report that spatial learning and memory, escape, and swimming capacities were damaged significantly in Kidney-yang deficiency rats. Indeed, both hippocampal A β 40 and 42 increases in Kidney-yang deficiency contribute to the learning and memory impairments. Specifically, damage of synapti...

  19. Hypoxia and the initiation of erythropoietin production. [Rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schooley, J.C.; Mahlmann, L.J.

    1975-01-01

    The initiation of erythropoietin production in rats by hypoxia is dependent upon the magnitude of the hypoxic exposure, the position of the oxygen dissociation curve at the time of the hypoxic exposure, and the animal's endocrine status. Normal male rats produce more erythropoietin and elevate their intraerythrocytic 2,3-DPG levels more than female rats exposed to the same degree of hypoxia. Hypophysectomized rats produce erythropoietin following severe hypoxic exposure, but do not elevate their 2,3-DPG levels above control values. Respiratory acidosis in rats produced by breathing 10 percent CO/sub 2/ or by the injection of acetazolamide inhibits the initiation of erythropoietin production by hypoxic environments, but this inhibition is minimal in animals with metabolic acidosis produced by ureterligation. Changes in serum erythropoietin levels and the in vitro P/sub 50/ appear to be two separate but interrelated physiological events which occur during the adaptation of animals to hypoxic environments.

  20. Effects of antioxidant vitamins along with atorvastatin and atorvastatin–niacin combination on diet-induced hypercholesterolemia in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Solanki, Yogendrasinh B; Bhatt, Rajendra V

    2010-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of antioxidant vitamins along with atorvastatin and atorvastatinniacin combination on diet-induced hypercholesterolemia in rats. High cholesterol diet produced a significant increase in the serum total cholesterol, LDL-C, VLDL-C, TG, atherogenic index and decrease in HDL-C and HDL/LDL ratio. The lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress were significantly high in the hyperlipidemic control group. Atorvastatin improved atherogenic index but not the HDL/...

  1. Agricultural Producer Certificates

    Data.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County of Maryland — A Certified Agricultural Producer, or representative thereof, is an individual who wishes to sell regionally-grown products in the public right-of-way. A Certified...

  2. Comparison of anti-inflammatory activity of nigella sativa and diclofenac sodium in albino rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bashir, M.U.; Qureshi, H.J.; Saleem, T.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Nigella sativa or Kalonji is a naturally occurring plant in Pakistan and other countries which possesses a wide range of medicinal properties, the anti-inflammatory property being one of these. Diclofenac sodium is a commonly used anti-inflammatory drug. The purpose of this study was to compare the anti-inflammatory effect of ethanolic extract of Nigella sativa seeds with that of diclofenac sodium in albino rats. Method: This laboratory randomized controlled trial (RCT) was conducted in the Physiology Department, Services Institute of Medical Sciences (SIMS), Lahore. The study was carried out on 90 male albino rats. Five percent formalin in a dose of 50 meu was injected into sub-plantar surface of right hind paw of each rat to produce inflammation. The rats were randomly divided into three groups of thirty each. Group A was given normal saline (control); group B was given Nigella sativa seed extract; and group C received diclofenac sodium, as a reference drug. Increase in paw diameter, and total and differential leukocyte counts were measured as markers of inflammation. Results: Nigella sativa seeds extract caused significant (p<0.05) reduction in the paw inflammatory response in albino rats. The effect was longer in duration than the effect caused by diclofenac sodium; however, the extract was comparatively less potent than diclofenac sodium. The extract had no significant effect (p>0.05) on the total or differential leukocyte counts. Conclusion: Our results suggest that ethanolic extract of Nigella sativa seeds possesses potent anti-inflammatory effect, in albino rats however, this effect is comparatively less but prolonged than that produced by diclofenac sodium. (author)

  3. DNA adduct formation and mutation induction by aristolochic acid in rat kidney and liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mei, Nan; Arlt, Volker M.; Phillips, David H.; Heflich, Robert H.; Chen, Tao

    2006-01-01

    results in kidney tumors in rats also results in significant increases in DNA adduct formation and cII MF in kidney. Although the same treatment does not produce tumors in rat liver, it does induce DNA adducts and mutations in this tissue, albeit at lower levels than in kidney

  4. DNA adduct formation and mutation induction by aristolochic acid in rat kidney and liver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mei, Nan [Division of Genetic and Reproductive Toxicology, National Center for Toxicological Research, FDA, Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States)]. E-mail: nan.mei@fda.hhs.gov; Arlt, Volker M. [Section of Molecular Carcinogenesis, Institute of Cancer Research, Cotswold Road, Sutton, Surrey SM2 5NG (United Kingdom); Phillips, David H. [Section of Molecular Carcinogenesis, Institute of Cancer Research, Cotswold Road, Sutton, Surrey SM2 5NG (United Kingdom); Heflich, Robert H. [Division of Genetic and Reproductive Toxicology, National Center for Toxicological Research, FDA, Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States); Chen, Tao [Division of Genetic and Reproductive Toxicology, National Center for Toxicological Research, FDA, Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States)

    2006-12-01

    rats. These results indicate that the AA treatment that eventually results in kidney tumors in rats also results in significant increases in DNA adduct formation and cII MF in kidney. Although the same treatment does not produce tumors in rat liver, it does induce DNA adducts and mutations in this tissue, albeit at lower levels than in kidney.

  5. Methods for producing diterpenes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention discloses that by combining different di TPS enzymes of class I and class II different diterpenes may be produced including diterpenes not identified in nature. Surprisingly it is revealed that a di TPS enzyme of class I of one species may be combined with a di TPS enzyme...... of class II from a different species, resulting in a high diversity of diterpenes, which can be produced....

  6. Polysaccharide-producing microalgae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braud, J.P.; Chaumont, D.; Gudin, C.; Thepenier, C.; Chassin, P.; Lemaire, C.

    1982-11-01

    The production of extracellular polysaccharides is studied with Nostoc sp (cyanophycus), Porphiridium cruentum, Rhodosorus marinus, Rhodella maculata (rhodophyci) and Chlamydomonas mexicana (chlorophycus). The polysaccharides produced are separated by centrifugation of the culture then precipitation with alcohol. Their chemical structure was studied by infrared spectrometry and acid hydrolysis. By their rheological properties and especially their insensitivity to temperatrure and pH variations the polysaccharides produced by Porphryridium cruentum and Rhodella maculata appear as suitable candidates for industrial applications.

  7. Toxicity and repellency to rats of actidione

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traub, R.; DeWitt, J.B.; Welch, J.F.; Newman, D.

    1950-01-01

    The antibiotic actidione was found to be highly repellent to laboratory rats and to significantly reduce gnawing attacks upon treated paperboards. Rats refused to accept food or water containing this material even under conditions of acute starvation and died of starvation and thirst,rather than accept water containing l.0 mg. of actidione per liter. The compound is highly toxic to .rats with the minimum .lethal dose by oral administration being approximately l.0 mg./Kg body weight. Paperboard treated with the compound resisted gnawing attacks by specially trained and motivated rats for periods of two hundred hours, although similar .untreated boards were pierced within thirty-to sixty minutes.

  8. RANTES: a new prostaglandin dependent endogenous pyrogen in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, E; Miñano, F J

    2000-09-01

    Fever, a hallmark of disease, is a highly complex process initiated by the action of a number of endogenous pyrogens on the thermosensitive cells of the brain. We describe the activity of RANTES, a chemotactic cytokine, as intrinsically pyrogenic in the rat, when it is delivered directly to the thermosensitive region of the rat's anterior hypothalamic, pre-optic area (AH/POA). RANTES, microinjected into the AH/POA in a dose of 1, 5, 10, 15, 25 or 50 pg, produces an immediate and intense dose-related fever following injection. Increasing the dose to 100 pg did not result in a further increase in the febrile response. No significant change in body temperature was produced by heat-inactivated RANTES. The intrahypothalamic injection of antibodies against RANTES (2.0 microg, 15 min prior to RANTES) significantly blocked the fever induced by this chemokine. Pretreatment with ibuprofen blocked the fever induced by RANTES. In order of potency, the magnitude of the febrile response induced by RANTES was greater than that produced with equipotent doses of either macrophage inflammatory protein-1beta or interleukin-6. The results thus demonstrate that RANTES is the most potent endopyrogen discovered thus far and exerts its action directly on pyrogen-sensitive cells of the AH/POA through a prostaglandin-dependent pathway.

  9. Melatonin counteracts changes in hypothalamic gene expression of signals regulating feeding behavior in high-fat fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ríos-Lugo, María J; Jiménez-Ortega, Vanesa; Cano-Barquilla, Pilar; Mateos, Pilar Fernández; Spinedi, Eduardo J; Cardinali, Daniel P; Esquifino, Ana I

    2015-03-01

    Previous studies indicate that the administration of melatonin caused body weight and abdominal visceral fat reductions in rodent models of hyperadiposity. The objective of the present study performed in high-fat fed rats was to evaluate the activity of melatonin on gene expression of some medial basal hypothalamus (MBH) signals involved in feeding behavior regulation, including neuropeptide Y (NPY), proopiomelanocortin (POMC), prolactin-releasing peptide (PrRP), leptin- and insulin-receptors (R) and insulin-R substrate (IRS)-1 and -2. Blood levels of leptin and adiponectin were also measured. Adult Wistar male rats were divided into four groups (n=16 per group): (i) control diet (3% fat); (ii) high-fat (35%) diet; (iii) high-fat diet+melatonin; (iv) control diet+melatonin. Rats had free access to high-fat or control chow and one of the following drinking solutions: (a) tap water; (b) 25 μg/mL of melatonin. After 10 weeks, the high-fat fed rats showed augmented MBH mRNA levels of NPY, leptin-R, PrRP, insulin-R, IRS-1 and IRS-2. The concomitant administration of melatonin counteracted this increase. Feeding of rats with a high-fat diet augmented expression of the MBH POMC gene through an effect insensitive to melatonin treatment. The augmented levels of circulating leptin and adiponectin seen in high-fat fed rats were counteracted by melatonin as was the augmented body weight: melatonin significantly attenuated a body weight increase in high-fat fed rats without affecting chow or water consumption. Melatonin augmented plasma leptin and adiponectin in control rats. The results indicate that an effect on gene expression of feeding behavior signals at the central nervous system (CNS) may complement a peripheral rise of the energy expenditure produced by melatonin to decrease body weight in high-fat fed rats.

  10. Assessment of antidiabetic potential of Cynodon dactylon extract in streptozotocin diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Santosh Kumar; Kesari, Achyut Narayan; Gupta, Rajesh Kumar; Jaiswal, Dolly; Watal, Geeta

    2007-11-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate the hypoglycemic and antidiabetic effect of single and repeated oral administration of the aqueous extract of Cynodon dactylon (Family: Poaceae) in normal and streptozotocin induced diabetic rats, respectively. The effect of repeated oral administration of aqueous extract on serum lipid profile in diabetic rats was also examined. A range of doses, viz. 250, 500 and 1000mg/kg bw of aqueous extract of Cynodon dactylon were evaluated and the dose of 500mg/kg was identified as the most effective dose. It lowers blood glucose level around 31% after 4h of administration in normal rats. The same dose of 500mg/kg produced a fall of 23% in blood glucose level within 1h during glucose tolerance test (GTT) of mild diabetic rats. This dose has almost similar effect as that of standard drug tolbutamide (250mg/kg bw). Severely diabetic rats were also treated daily with 500mg/kg bw for 14 days and a significant reduction of 59% was observed in fasting blood glucose level. A reduction in the urine sugar level and increase in body weight of severe diabetic rats were additional corroborating factors for its antidiabetic potential. Total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein (LDL) and triglyceride (TG) levels were decreased by 35, 77 and 29%, respectively, in severely diabetic rats whereas, cardioprotective, high density lipoprotein (HDL) was increased by 18%. These results clearly indicate that aqueous extract of Cynodon dactylon has high antidiabetic potential along with significant hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects.

  11. biochemical studies on toxicological aspects of sevin pesticide in gamma irradiated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afifi, E.A.A.; Osman, H.F.

    2009-01-01

    this study was carried out to investigate the toxic effect of daily oral administration of 28 mg/kg of the carbamate insecticide(sevin) and/ or whole body gamma irradiation at dose levels of 30.0 Gy and 6.0 Gy for consecutive 4 weeks on male albino rats which produced several alterations in blood biochemical components. results revealed significant increases in the liver, kidney and spleen relative weights, total leucocytic counts , haematocrit values, hemoglobin concentration, cholesterol,triglycerides and glucose levels. on the other hand significant decreases in whole body weights,red blood cells counts and blood hemoglobin content were recorded for rats treated with sevin alone,sevin +3 Gy and 6 Gy gamma irradiation treatment.using radioimmunoassay technique revealed that ,serum levels of triiodothyronine was significantly increased, while thyroxine hormone was significantly decreased at all different experimental periods and doses

  12. Naltrexone potentiates 4-aminopyridine seizures in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihály, A; Bencsik, K; Solymosi, T

    1990-01-01

    The effects of a pharmacological blockade of the mu opiate receptors on the manifestation of tonic-clonic seizures were investigated in freely moving animals. 4-aminopyridine, a specific blocker of the neuronal K+ channels was used to produce generalized convulsions. After pretreatment of adult rats with 1 mg/kg naltrexone HCl, 3, 5, 7, 9, 14 mg/kg 4-aminopyridine was injected intraperitoneally, and the latencies of the symptoms generated by 4-aminopyridine were measured. Naltrexone HCl decreased these latencies and enhanced the seizures significantly. The experiments provided further evidence for the existence of a tonic anticonvulsant opioid system in the brain.

  13. Early developmental and temporal characteristics of stress-induced secretion of pituitary-adrenal hormones in prenatally stressed rat pups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, L K; Kalin, N H

    1991-08-30

    Previous experiments revealed that 14-day-old prenatally stressed rats have significantly elevated concentrations of plasma adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) and corticosterone suggesting these animals have an overactive hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) system. In these studies, however, stress-induced hormone levels were determined only immediately after exposure to an acute stressor. Therefore, in the current study, we examined in postnatal days 7, 14 and 21 prenatally stressed rats the stress-induced time course of this pituitary-adrenal hormone elevation. Plasma ACTH and corticosterone were measured in the basal state and at 0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 4.0 h after a 10-min exposure period to foot shocks administered in the context of social isolation. Results indicated that at all 3 ages, plasma ACTH in prenatally stressed rats was significantly elevated. Corticosterone concentrations were also significantly higher in prenatally stressed than in control rats, especially in day 14 rats. Analysis of stress-induced hormone fluctuations over time indicated that by 14 days of age, both prenatally stressed than in control and control rats had significant increases in plasma ACTH and corticosterone after exposure to stress. Furthermore, although prenatally stressed rats had significantly higher pituitary-adrenal hormone concentrations than control animals, the post-stress temporal patterns of decline in ACTH and corticosterone levels were similar between groups. Results suggest that throughout the preweaning period, prenatal stress produces an HPA system that functions in a manner similar to that of controls but at an increased level.

  14. Electroacupuncture Alleviates Pain Responses and Inflammation in a Rat Model of Acute Gout Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenxin Chai

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute gout arthritis is one of the most painful inflammatory conditions. Treatments for gout pain are limited to colchicine, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and corticosteroids, which oftentimes result in severe adverse effects. Electroacupuncture (EA has been proved to be effective in relieving many inflammatory pain conditions with few side effects. Here, we aim to investigate the therapeutic potentials of EA on pain and inflammation of a rat model of acute gout arthritis and underlying mechanisms. We found that 2/100 Hz EA produced the most robust analgesic effect on mechanical hyperalgesia of acute gout arthritis rat model compared with 2 and 100 Hz. EA produced similar analgesic effect compared with indomethacin. 2/100 Hz EA also significantly alleviates the ongoing pain behavior, thermal hyperalgesia, and ankle edema. Locally applied μ and κ-opioid receptor antagonists but not adenosine A1 receptor antagonist significantly abolished the analgesic effect of EA. Locally applied μ and κ-opioid receptor agonists produced significant antiallodynia on acute gout arthritis rats, mimicking EA. Furthermore, 2/100 Hz EA upregulated β-endorphin expression in inflamed ankle skin tissue. Our results demonstrated, for the first time, that EA can be used for relieving acute gout arthritis with effect dependent on peripheral opioid system and comparable with the one obtained with indomethacin.

  15. Effects of Culling on Leptospira interrogans Carriage by Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byers, Kaylee A.; Donovan, Christina M.; Bidulka, Julie J.; Stephen, Craig; Patrick, David M.; Himsworth, Chelsea G.

    2018-01-01

    We found that lethal, urban rat control is associated with a significant increase in the odds that surviving rats carry Leptospira interrogans. Our results suggest that human interventions have the potential to affect and even increase the prevalence of zoonotic pathogens within rat populations. PMID:29350160

  16. Analgesic Effect of Intra-Articular Injection of Temperature-Responsive Hydrogel Containing Bupivacaine on Osteoarthritic Pain in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Taemin; Seol, Dong Rim; Hahm, Suk-Chan; Ko, Cheolwoong; Kim, Eun-Hye; Chun, Keyoungjin; Kim, Junesun; Lim, Tae-Hong

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined the analgesic effects of slow-releasing bupivacaine from hydrogel on chronic arthritic pain in rats. Osteoarthritis (OA) was induced by monosodium iodoacetate (MIA) injection into the right knee joint. Hydrogel (HG: 20, 30, and 50 μL) and temperature-sensitive hydrogel containing bupivacaine (T-gel: 20, 30, and 50 μL) were injected intra-articularly 14 days after MIA injection. Behavioral tests were conducted. The rats showed a significant decrease in weight load and paw withdrawal threshold (PWT). Intra-articular 0.5% bupivacaine (10 and 20 μL) significantly reversed MIA-induced decreased PWT, with no effect on weight load. In normal rats, hydrogel did not produce significant changes in PWT but at 30 and 50 μL slightly decreased weight bearing; T-gel did not cause any changes in both the weight load and PWT. In OA rats, T-gel at 20 μL had a significant analgesic effect for 2 days, even though T-gel at 50 μL further reduced the weight load, demonstrating that intra-articular T-gel (20 μL) has long-lasting analgesic effects in OA rats. Thus, T-gel designed to deliver analgesics into the joint cavity could be an effective therapeutic tool in the clinical setting. PMID:26881207

  17. Beta-endorphin in genetically hypoprolactinemic rat: IPL nude rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, H.; Sabbagh, I.; Abou-Samra, A.B.; Bertrand, J.

    1986-01-01

    Beta-endorphin has been reported to regulate not only stress- and suckling-induced but also basal prolactin secretion. In the aim to better evaluate the endogenous beta-endorphin-prolactin interrelation, the authors measured beta-endorphin levels in a new rat strain, genetically hypoprolactinemic and characterized by a total lack of lactation: IPL nude rat. Beta-endorphin was measured using a specific anti-h-β endorphin in plasma and extracts of anterior and neurointermediate lobes of the pituitary, hypothalamus and brain. Pituitary extracts were also chromatographed on Sephadex G50 column. Results obtained showed that in IPL nude females on diestrus and males, the beta-endorphin contents of the neurointermediate lobe was significantly lower than in normal rats, while the values found in the other organs and plasma were similar. However, elution pattern of the anterior pituitary extracts from male rats showed greater immunoactivity eluting as I 125 h-beta-endorphin than in normal rat; this was not the case for the female rat. These results are consistent with a differential regulation of beta-endorphin levels of anterior and neurointermediate lobe by catecholamines. Moreover they suggest that PRL secretion was more related to neurointermediate beta-endorphin. 40 references, 2 figures, 4 tables

  18. Beta-endorphin in genetically hypoprolactinemic rat: IPL nude rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, H.; Sabbagh, I.; Abou-Samra, A.B.; Bertrand, J.

    1986-01-20

    Beta-endorphin has been reported to regulate not only stress- and suckling-induced but also basal prolactin secretion. In the aim to better evaluate the endogenous beta-endorphin-prolactin interrelation, the authors measured beta-endorphin levels in a new rat strain, genetically hypoprolactinemic and characterized by a total lack of lactation: IPL nude rat. Beta-endorphin was measured using a specific anti-h-..beta.. endorphin in plasma and extracts of anterior and neurointermediate lobes of the pituitary, hypothalamus and brain. Pituitary extracts were also chromatographed on Sephadex G50 column. Results obtained showed that in IPL nude females on diestrus and males, the beta-endorphin contents of the neurointermediate lobe was significantly lower than in normal rats, while the values found in the other organs and plasma were similar. However, elution pattern of the anterior pituitary extracts from male rats showed greater immunoactivity eluting as I/sup 125/ h-beta-endorphin than in normal rat; this was not the case for the female rat. These results are consistent with a differential regulation of beta-endorphin levels of anterior and neurointermediate lobe by catecholamines. Moreover they suggest that PRL secretion was more related to neurointermediate beta-endorphin. 40 references, 2 figures, 4 tables.

  19. Inhibitory Effects of Two Varieties of Tunisian Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) Extracts on Gastrointestinal Transit in Rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souli, Abdelaziz; Sebai, Hichem; Rtibi, Kais; Chehimi, Latifa; Sakly, Mohsen; Amri, Mohamed; El-Benna, Jamel; Marzouki, Lamjed

    2015-09-01

    The present study was undertaken to determine whether total and methanol juice extracts of two Tunisian Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) varieties (Garsi and Gabsi) protect against diarrhea as well as their effects on gastrointestinal transit (GIT) in healthy rats. In this respect, male Wistar rats were used and divided into control- and pomegranate-treated groups. The antidiarrheal activity was evaluated using the castor oil-induced diarrhea method and the GIT was assessed using charcoal meal. Our results showed that total and methanol P. granatum juice extracts produced a significant dose-dependent protection against castor oil-induced diarrhea. Pomegranate extracts and juice also decreased the GIT significantly and dose dependently. Importantly, the Garsi variety appeared to be more effective than the Gabsi variety on these two parameters. These findings suggest that pomegranate extracts have a potent antidiarrheal property in rats confirming their efficiency in the Tunisian traditional medicine.

  20. Immediate and Long-Term Outcome of Acute H2S Intoxication Induced Coma in Unanesthetized Rats: Effects of Methylene Blue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonobe, Takashi; Chenuel, Bruno; Cooper, Timothy K; Haouzi, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Acute hydrogen sulfide (H2S) poisoning produces a coma, the outcome of which ranges from full recovery to severe neurological deficits. The aim of our study was to 1--describe the immediate and long-term neurological effects following H2S-induced coma in un-anesthetized rats, and 2--determine the potential benefit of methylene blue (MB), a compound we previously found to counteract acute sulfide cardiac toxicity. NaHS was administered IP in un-sedated rats to produce a coma (n = 34). One minute into coma, the rats received MB (4 mg/kg i.v.) or saline. The surviving rats were followed clinically and assigned to Morris water maze (MWM) and open field testing then sacrificed at day 7. Sixty percent of the non-treated comatose rats died by pulseless electrical activity. Nine percent recovered with neurological deficits requiring euthanasia, their brain examination revealed major neuronal necrosis of the superficial and middle layers of the cerebral cortex and the posterior thalamus, with variable necrosis of the caudate putamen, but no lesions of the hippocampus or the cerebellum, in contrast to the typical distribution of post-ischemic lesions. The remaining animals displayed, on average, a significantly less effective search strategy than the control rats (n = 21) during MWM testing. Meanwhile, 75% of rats that received MB survived and could perform the MWM test (Pcoma, spatial search patterns were used less frequently than in control animals. A small percentage of rats presented necrotic neuronal lesions, which distribution differed from post-ischemic lesions. MB dramatically improved the immediate survival and spatial search strategy in the surviving rats.

  1. Mycotoxins: significance to global economics and health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mycotoxins are fungal metabolites produced my micro-fungi (molds and mildews) that have significant impacts on global economics and health. Some of these metabolites are beneficial, but most are harmful and have been associated with well-known epidemics dating back to medieval times. The terms ‘myco...

  2. Bullying in Academe: Prevalent, Significant, and Incessant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassell, Macgorine A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the top-down perspective of bullying and mobbing of professors by analyzing why it is prevalent, significant, and incessant and then proposes a framework to produce a caring, respectful, and safe environment for professors to engage in their teaching, scholarship, and service. The author suggests that the failure of…

  3. A Method for Recording Urethral Pressure Profiles in Female Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengfei Xu

    Full Text Available Urethral pressure profile (UPP and leak-point pressure (LPP measurements as well as external urethral sphincter (EUS electromyography (EMG and videourodynamic analyses are the primary methods for evaluating urethral function in humans. However, UPP recording in female rats, a widely used animal model, is challenging due to their small body sizes. This study reports a novel method for recording UPP in female rats.Seventeen anesthetized female rats were studied. LPP data for 14 rats were included. The other 3 rats were excluded because of death or abnormal urogenital organs. UPP curves were recorded using a modified water-perfusion catheter system, with the lateral hole facing the 3-, 6-, 9-, and 12-o'clock positions in a randomized sequence. LPP, functional urethral length (FUL and maximum urethral closure pressure (MUCP were analyzed.The mean LPP was 64.39 ± 20.29 cm H2O. The mean FUL and MUCP values at the 3-, 6-, 9-, and 12-o'clock positions were 12.90 ± 1.20, 16.70 ± 1.95, 13.90 ± 2.42, and 11.60 ± 0.97 mm, respectively, and 38.70 ± 11.85, 33.90 ± 11.82, 37.40 ± 11.95, and 71.90 ± 23.01 cm H2O, respectively. The FUL at the 6-o'clock position and MUCP at the 12-o'clock position were significantly greater than those at the other 3 positions. The FUL and MUCP of repeated UPP recordings were not significantly different than those of the first recordings.UPP recording using a modified method based on a water-perfusion catheter system is feasible and replicable in female rats. It produces UPP curves that sensitively and appreciably reflect detailed pressure changes at different points within the urethra and thus provides opportunity to evaluate urethral structures, especially the urethral sphincter, in detail. These results may enhance the utility of female rat models in research of urinary sphincter mechanisms.

  4. Development and comparison of a minimally-invasive model of autologous clot pulmonary embolism in Sprague-Dawley and Copenhagen rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanapareddy Nina

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Experimental models of pulmonary embolism (PE that produce pulmonary hypertension (PH employ many different methods of inducing acute pulmonary occlusion. Many of these models induce PE with intravenous injection of exogenous impervious objects that may not completely reproduce the physiological properties of autologous thromboembolism. Current literature lacks a simple, well-described rat model of autlogous PE. Objective: Test if moderate-severity autologous PE in Sprague-Dawley (SD and Copenhagen (Cop rats can produce persistent PH. Methods blood was withdrawn from the jugular vein, treated with thrombin-Ca++ and re-injected following pretreatment with tranexamic acid. Hemodynamic values, clot weights and biochemical measurements were performed at 1 and 5 days. Results Infusion of clot significantly increased the right ventricular peak systolic pressure to 45-55 mm Hg, followed by normalization within 24 hours in SD rats, and within 5 days in COP rats. Clot lysis was 95% (24 hours and 97% (5 days in SD rats and was significantly lower in COP rats (70%, 24 hours; 87% 5 days. Plasma D-dimer was elevated in surgical sham animals and was further increased 8 hours after pulmonary embolism. Neither strain showed a significant increase in bronchoalveolar chemotactic activity, myeloperoxidase activity, leukocyte infiltration, or chemokine accumulation, indicating that there was no significant pulmonary inflammation. Conclusions Both SD and COP rats exhibited near complete fibrinolysis of autologous clot PE within 5 days. Neither strain developed persistent PH. Experimental models of PE designed to induce sustained PH and a robust inflammatory response appear to require significant, persistent pulmonary vascular occlusion.

  5. H2S induced coma and cardiogenic shock in the rat: Effects of phenothiazinium chromophores

    Science.gov (United States)

    SONOBE, TAKASHI; HAOUZI, PHILIPPE

    2015-01-01

    Context Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) intoxication produces an acute depression in cardiac contractility-induced circulatory failure, which has been shown to be one of the major contributors to the lethality of H2S intoxication or to the neurological sequelae in surviving animals. Methylene blue (MB), a phenothiazinium dye, can antagonize the effects of the inhibition of mitochondrial electron transport chain, a major effect of H2S toxicity. Objectives We investigated whether MB could affect the immediate outcome of H2S-induced coma in unanesthetized animals. Second, we sought to characterize the acute cardiovascular effects of MB and two of its demethylated metabolites—azure B and thionine—in anesthetized rats during lethal infusion of H2S. Materials and methods First, MB (4 mg/kg, intravenous [IV]) was administered in non-sedated rats during the phase of agonal breathing, following NaHS (20 mg/kg, IP)-induced coma. Second, in 4 groups of urethane-anesthetized rats, NaHS was infused at a rate lethal within 10 min (0.8 mg/min, IV). Whenever cardiac output (CO) reached 40% of its baseline volume, MB, azure B, thionine, or saline were injected, while sulfide infusion was maintained until cardiac arrest occurred. Results Seventy-five percent of the comatose rats that received saline (n = 8) died within 7 min, while all the 7 rats that were given MB survived (p = 0.007). In the anesthetized rats, arterial, left ventricular pressures and CO decreased during NaHS infusion, leading to a pulseless electrical activity within 530 s. MB produced a significant increase in CO and dP/dtmax for about 2 min. A similar effect was produced when MB was also injected in the pre-mortem phase of sulfide exposure, significantly increasing survival time. Azure B produced an even larger increase in blood pressure than MB, while thionine had no effect. Conclusion MB can counteract NaHS-induced acute cardiogenic shock; this effect is also produced by azure B, but not by thionine, suggesting

  6. Neural Mechanisms and Delayed Gastric Emptying of Liquid Induced Through Acute Myocardial Infarction in Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunez, Wilson Ranu Ramirez; Ozaki, Michiko Regina; Vinagre, Adriana Mendes; Collares, Edgard Ferro; Almeida, Eros Antonio de

    2015-01-01

    In pathological situations, such as acute myocardial infarction, disorders of motility of the proximal gut can trigger symptoms like nausea and vomiting. Acute myocardial infarction delays gastric emptying (GE) of liquid in rats. Investigate the involvement of the vagus nerve, α 1-adrenoceptors, central nervous system GABA B receptors and also participation of paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus in GE and gastric compliance (GC) in infarcted rats. Wistar rats, N = 8-15 in each group, were divided as INF group and sham (SH) group and subdivided. The infarction was performed through ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery. GC was estimated with pressure-volume curves. Vagotomy was performed by sectioning the dorsal and ventral branches. To verify the action of GABA B receptors, baclofen was injected via icv (intracerebroventricular). Intravenous prazosin was used to produce chemical sympathectomy. The lesion in the PVN of the hypothalamus was performed using a 1mA/10s electrical current and GE was determined by measuring the percentage of gastric retention (% GR) of a saline meal. No significant differences were observed regarding GC between groups; vagotomy significantly reduced % GR in INF group; icv treatment with baclofen significantly reduced %GR. GABA B receptors were not conclusively involved in delaying GE; intravenous treatment with prazosin significantly reduced GR% in INF group. PVN lesion abolished the effect of myocardial infarction on GE. Gastric emptying of liquids induced through acute myocardial infarction in rats showed the involvement of the vagus nerve, alpha1- adrenergic receptors and PVN

  7. Biokinetics of radiotellurium in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, Y.; Sahoo, S.K.; Kim, S.; Homma-Takeda, S.; Watanabe, Y.; Inaba, J.

    2003-01-01

    Radiotellurium is present in the environment primarily due to its release during nuclear reactor accidents. Little is known of tellurium metabolism in juveniles, although the element is relatively abundant and has a number of industrial uses. A biokinetic study of radiotellurium in rats was done using gamma-ray counting. Wistar strain rats were used to determine the uptake of H 2 123 Te m O 3 by the whole-body retention of juvenile rats and the conceptus in relation to its gestational stages, by measurements in the placenta, fetal membranes, fetal fluid, and fetus. The whole-body retention of 123 Te m in juvenile rats was higher than that of adult rats. The relative concentration in the placenta and fetal membranes was higher than in the fetus. No activity was observed in the fetal fluid. These results indicate that the placenta and fetal membranes play significant roles as barriers to the transfer of 123 Te m into the fetus. The ratio, relative concentration in fetus/relative concentration in mother (C F /C M ), was calculated. The C F /C M ratio was dependent on the stage of gestation and ranged from 0.2 to 0.5. A little 123 Te m was transferred to the suckling rats through the mother's milk when the isotope was administered intravenously to the mother. (author)

  8. Producing metallurgic coke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abe, T.; Isida, K.; Vada, Y.

    1982-11-18

    A mixture of power producing coals with coal briquets of varying composition is proposed for coking in horizontal chamber furnaces. The briquets are produced from petroleum coke, coal fines or semicoke, which make up less than 27 percent of the mixture to be briquetted and coals with a standard coking output of volatile substances and coals with high maximal Gizeler fluidity. The ratio of these coals in the mixture is 0.6 to 2.1 or 18 to 32 percent, respectively. Noncaking or poorly caking coals are used as the power producing coals. The hardness of the obtained coke is DJ15-30 = 90.5 to 92.7 percent.

  9. Rat embryonic palatal shelves respond to TCDD in organ culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbott, B.D.; Birnbaum, L.S.

    1990-01-01

    TCDD (2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin), a highly toxic environmental contaminant, is teratogenic in mice, inducing cleft palate (CP) and hydronephrosis at doses which are not overtly maternally or embryo toxic. Palatal shelves of embryonic mice respond to TCDD, both in vivo and in organ culture, with altered differentiation of medial epithelial cells. By contrast, in the rat TCDD produces substantial maternal, embryonic, and fetal toxicity, including fetal lethality, with few malformations. In this study the possible effects of maternal toxicity on induction of cleft palate were eliminated by exposure of embryonic rat palatal shelves in organ culture. The shelves were examined for specific TCDD-induced alterations in differentiation of the medial cells. On Gestation Day (GD) 14 or 15 palatal shelves from embryonic F344 rats were placed in organ culture for 2 to 3 days (IMEM:F12 medium, 5% FBS, 0.1% DMSO) containing 0, 1 x 10(-8), 1 x 10(-9), 1 x 10(-10), or 5 x 10(-11) M TCDD. The medial epithelial peridermal cells degenerated on shelves exposed to control media or 5 x 10(-11) M TCDD. Exposure to 10(-10), 10(-9), and 10(-8) M TCDD inhibited this degeneration in 20, 36, and 60% of the shelves, respectively, and was statistically significant at the two highest doses. A normally occurring decrease in [3H]TdR incorporation was inhibited in some GD 15 shelves cultured with 10(-10) and 10(-9) M TCDD. The medial cells of TCDD-exposed shelves continued to express high levels of immunohistochemically detected EGF receptors. The altered differentiation of rat medial epithelium is similar to that reported for TCDD-exposed mouse medial cells in vivo and in vitro. However, in order to obtain these responses, the cultured rat shelves require much higher concentrations of TCDD than the mouse shelves

  10. Normobaric, intermittent hypoxia conditioning is cardio- and vasoprotective in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manukhina, Eugenia B; Belkina, Ludmila M; Terekhina, Olga L; Abramochkin, Denis V; Smirnova, Elena A; Budanova, Olga P; Mallet, Robert T; Downey, H Fred

    2013-12-01

    Favorable versus detrimental cardiovascular responses to intermittent hypoxia conditioning (IHC) are heavily dependent on experimental or pathological conditions, including the duration, frequency and intensity of the hypoxia exposures. Recently, we demonstrated that a program of moderate, normobaric IHC (FIO2 9.5-10% for 5-10 min/cycle, with intervening 4 min normoxia, 5-8 cycles/day for 20 days) in dogs afforded robust cardioprotection against infarction and arrhythmias induced by coronary artery occlusion-reperfusion, but this protection has not been verified in other species. Accordingly, in this investigation cardio- as well as vasoprotection were examined in male Wistar rats completing the normobaric IHC program or a sham program in which the rats continuously breathed atmospheric air. Myocardial ischemia and reperfusion (IR) was imposed by occlusion and reperfusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery in in situ experiments and by subjecting isolated, perfused hearts to global ischemia-reperfusion. Cardiac arrhythmias and myocardial infarct size were quantified in in situ experiments. Endothelial function was evaluated from the relaxation to acetylcholine of norepinephrine-precontracted aortic rings taken from in situ IR experiments, and from the increase in coronary flow produced by acetylcholine in isolated hearts. IHC sharply reduced cardiac arrhythmias during ischemia and decreased infarct size by 43% following IR. Endothelial dysfunction in aorta was marked after IR in sham rats, but not significant in IHC rats. Similar findings were found for the coronary circulations of isolated hearts. These findings support the hypothesis that moderate, normobaric IHC is cardio- and vasoprotective in a rat model of IR.

  11. Characterization of a frozen shoulder model using immobilization in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Du Hwan; Lee, Kil-Ho; Lho, Yun-Mee; Ha, Eunyoung; Hwang, Ilseon; Song, Kwang-Soon; Cho, Chul-Hyun

    2016-12-08

    The objective of this study was to investigate serial changes for histology of joint capsule and range of motion of the glenohumeral joint after immobilization in rats. We hypothesized that a rat shoulder contracture model using immobilization would be capable of producing effects on the glenohumeral joint similar to those seen in patients with frozen shoulder. Sixty-four Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into one control group (n = 8) and seven immobilization groups (n = 8 per group) that were immobi