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Sample records for rats forty rats

  1. Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey Kondrashov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to perform a chemical analysis of both Alibernet red wine and an alcohol-free Alibernet red wine extract (AWE and to investigate the effects of AWE on nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species production as well as blood pressure development in normotensive Wistar Kyoto (WKY and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs. Total antioxidant capacity together with total phenolic and selected mineral content was measured in wine and AWE. Young 6-week-old male WKY and SHR were treated with AWE (24,2 mg/kg/day for 3 weeks. Total NOS and SOD activities, eNOS and SOD1 protein expressions, and superoxide production were determined in the tissues. Both antioxidant capacity and phenolic content were significantly higher in AWE compared to wine. The AWE increased NOS activity in the left ventricle, aorta, and kidney of SHR, while it did not change NOS activity in WKY rats. Similarly, increased SOD activity in the plasma and left ventricle was observed in SHR only. There were no changes in eNOS and SOD1 expressions. In conclusion, phenolics and minerals included in AWE may contribute directly to increased NOS and SOD activities of SHR. Nevertheless, 3 weeks of AWE treatment failed to affect blood pressure of SHR.

  2. treated rats

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    aghomotsegin

    2014-01-08

    Jan 8, 2014 ... nucleus, bizarre segmentation; (I) shows hypersegmentation, bizarre segmentation of neutrophils in the shape of ring nucleus with polychromatophilic RBCs. 1998; Muller and Tobin, 1980). The current study shows that rats administered C. edulis hydro-ethanol extract, orally for 28 days, developed anemia, ...

  3. Oxidative stress of crystalline lens in rat menopausal model

    OpenAIRE

    Acer, Semra; Pekel, Gökhan; Küçükatay, Vural; Karabulut, Aysun; Yağcı, Ramazan; Çetin, Ebru Nevin; Akyer, Şahika Pınar; Şahin, Barbaros

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: To evaluate lenticular oxidative stress in rat menopausal models. Methods: Forty Wistar female albino rats were included in this study. A total of thirty rats underwent oophorectomy to generate a menopausal model. Ten rats that did not undergo oophorectomy formed the control group (Group 1). From the rats that underwent oophorectomy, 10 formed the menopause control group (Group 2), 10 were administered a daily injection of methylprednisolone until the end of the study (Gro...

  4. ischemic brain injury in neonatal rats

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pharmacotherapy Group, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Benin, Benin City, ... Methods: Forty-eight rats (P7-pups) were randomly assigned to one of four groups: ... Keywords: Hypoxic–ischemic brain injury, α-Lipoic acid, Cerebral infarct area, Edema, Antioxidants, .... Of the 48 rats initially used in the current study, 5.

  5. Effect of dietary soy isoflavones on bone loss in ovariectomized rats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To determine the effect of dietary soy isoflavone supplementation on bone loss in ovariectomized (OVX) rats. Methods: Forty-eight rats were assigned randomly to groups of OVX rats receiving soy isoflavones (20, 30, or 40 mg/kg of body weight daily), untreated OVX rats, or untreated intact rats. After 8 weeks, bone ...

  6. RatMap--rat genome tools and data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Greta; Johnson, Per; Andersson, Lars; Klinga-Levan, Karin; Gómez-Fabre, Pedro M; Ståhl, Fredrik

    2005-01-01

    The rat genome database RatMap (http://ratmap.org or http://ratmap.gen.gu.se) has been one of the main resources for rat genome information since 1994. The database is maintained by CMB-Genetics at Goteborg University in Sweden and provides information on rat genes, polymorphic rat DNA-markers and rat quantitative trait loci (QTLs), all curated at RatMap. The database is under the supervision of the Rat Gene and Nomenclature Committee (RGNC); thus much attention is paid to rat gene nomenclature. RatMap presents information on rat idiograms, karyotypes and provides a unified presentation of the rat genome sequence and integrated rat linkage maps. A set of tools is also available to facilitate the identification and characterization of rat QTLs, as well as the estimation of exon/intron number and sizes in individual rat genes. Furthermore, comparative gene maps of rat in regard to mouse and human are provided.

  7. Rat Genome Database (RGD)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Rat Genome Database (RGD) is a collaborative effort between leading research institutions involved in rat genetic and genomic research to collect, consolidate,...

  8. Immunology taught by rats

    OpenAIRE

    Klenerman, P; Barnes, EJ

    2017-01-01

    Immunology may be best taught by viruses, and possibly by humans, but the rats of New York City surprisingly also have plenty to offer. A survey published in 2014 of the pathogens carried by rats trapped in houses and parks in Manhattan identified a huge burden of infectious agents in these animals, including several novel viruses. Among these are Norway rat hepaciviruses (NrHVs), which belong to the same family as hepatitis C virus (HCV). NrHVs were found in rat livers, raising the possibili...

  9. RatMap—rat genome tools and data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Greta; Johnson, Per; Andersson, Lars; Klinga-Levan, Karin; Gómez-Fabre, Pedro M.; Ståhl, Fredrik

    2005-01-01

    The rat genome database RatMap (http://ratmap.org or http://ratmap.gen.gu.se) has been one of the main resources for rat genome information since 1994. The database is maintained by CMB–Genetics at Göteborg University in Sweden and provides information on rat genes, polymorphic rat DNA-markers and rat quantitative trait loci (QTLs), all curated at RatMap. The database is under the supervision of the Rat Gene and Nomenclature Committee (RGNC); thus much attention is paid to rat gene nomenclature. RatMap presents information on rat idiograms, karyotypes and provides a unified presentation of the rat genome sequence and integrated rat linkage maps. A set of tools is also available to facilitate the identification and characterization of rat QTLs, as well as the estimation of exon/intron number and sizes in individual rat genes. Furthermore, comparative gene maps of rat in regard to mouse and human are provided. PMID:15608244

  10. SWEEP Project RAT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Lars Bo; Madsen, Søren; Petersen, L. B.

    This report presents the results from the design analyses made for the clustered suction caisson used as foundation for a Riser Access Tower (RAT). The RAT is intended built next to the K15-FA-1 Platform in the Dutch Sector of the North Sea....

  11. Colon of the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindstroem, C.G.; Rosengren, J.-E.; Fork, F.-T.

    1979-01-01

    The anatomy and radiologic appearance of the colon in rats are described on the basis of 300 animals treated with carcinogenic agents and 40 normal rats. The macroscopic and microscopic appearance of the mucosa varies in the different parts of the colon. Lymphoid plaques are normal structures. The results justify a new anatomic nomenclature. (Auth.)

  12. Individually reared rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraeuchi, K.; Gentsch, C.; Feer, H.

    1981-01-01

    The influence of social isolation in rats on postsynaptic alpha 1 - and beta-adrenergic receptors, on the cAMP generating system and on the presynaptic uptake mechanism in the central noradrenergic system was examined in different brain regions. Rearing rats in isolation from the 19th day of life for 12 weeks leads in all regions to a general tendency for a reduction in 3 H-DHA binding, to an enhanced 3 H-WB4101 binding and to a decreased responsiveness of the noradrenaline sensitive cAMP generating system. These changes reach significance only in the pons-medulla-thallamusregion. Isolated rats showed an increased synaptosomal uptake of noradrenaline, most pronounced and significant in the hypothalamus. Our data provide further support for a disturbance in central noradrenergic function in isolated rats. (author)

  13. Structure of the vitreoretinal border region in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR rats)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heegaard, Steffen

    1993-01-01

    Øjenpatologi, vitreoretinal border region, inner limiting membrane of the retina, spontaneously hypertensive rats, SHR rats, ultrastructure......Øjenpatologi, vitreoretinal border region, inner limiting membrane of the retina, spontaneously hypertensive rats, SHR rats, ultrastructure...

  14. Rat bite fever.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaastra, W.; Boot, R.G.A.; Ho, H.; Lipman, L.J.A.

    2009-01-01

    Rat bite fever (RBF) is a bacterial zoonosis for which two causal bacterial species have been identified: Streptobacillis moniliformis and Spirillum minus. Haverhill fever (HF) is a form of S. moniliformis infection believed to develop after ingestion of contaminated food or water. Here the

  15. Laughing rats are optimistic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafal Rygula

    Full Text Available Emotions can bias human decisions- for example depressed or anxious people tend to make pessimistic judgements while those in positive affective states are often more optimistic. Several studies have reported that affect contingent judgement biases can also be produced in animals. The animals, however, cannot self-report; therefore, the valence of their emotions, to date, could only be assumed. Here we present the results of an experiment where the affect-contingent judgement bias has been produced by objectively measured positive emotions. We trained rats in operant Skinner boxes to press one lever in response to one tone to receive a food reward and to press another lever in response to a different tone to avoid punishment by electric foot shock. After attaining a stable level of discrimination performance, the animals were subjected to either handling or playful, experimenter-administered manual stimulation - tickling. This procedure has been confirmed to induce a positive affective state in rats, and the 50-kHz ultrasonic vocalisations (rat laughter emitted by animals in response to tickling have been postulated to index positive emotions akin to human joy. During the tickling and handling sessions, the numbers of emitted high-frequency 50-kHz calls were scored. Immediately after tickling or handling, the animals were tested for their responses to a tone of intermediate frequency, and the pattern of their responses to this ambiguous cue was taken as an indicator of the animals' optimism. Our findings indicate that tickling induced positive emotions which are directly indexed in rats by laughter, can make animals more optimistic. We demonstrate for the first time a link between the directly measured positive affective state and decision making under uncertainty in an animal model. We also introduce innovative tandem-approach for studying emotional-cognitive interplay in animals, which may be of great value for understanding the emotional

  16. Tubuloglomerular feedback in Dahl rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsen, F M; Leyssac, P P; Holstein-Rathlou, N H

    1998-01-01

    in both Dahl-S and salt-resistant Dahl rats on high- and low-salt diets. TGF was investigated in the closed-loop mode with a videometric technique, in which the response in late proximal flow rate to perturbations in Henle flow rate was measured. All Dahl rats showed a similar compensatory response...

  17. Neutron radiography of osteopetrotic rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graf, B.; Renard, G.; Le Gall, J.; Laporte, A.

    1983-01-01

    The osteopetrotic disease is characterized by bone and cartilage tissue coexistence in the medullary space of long bones. The authors have studied ''congenital osteopetrosis'' of ''op'' rats. Comparing radiography, neutrography and histology, the evolution of the ''osteopetrotic disease'' and the healing of the ill rats by a single injection of bone marrow from normal animals is shown. (Auth.)

  18. The three-kidney rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Provoost, A.P.; Van Aken, M.

    1984-01-01

    In contrast to the numerous research into the adaption of renal function when nephons are lost, much less attention has been paid to the effects of an extra kidney. Through the availability of inbred rat strains, techniques to transplant rat kidneys, and methods to measure total and individual kidney function repeatedly in the same animal, it became possible to study the renal function in rats with three kidneys. Adult male rats of a highly inbred Wistar strain were used. Nine recipients of a third kidney (3-K) were compared with 5 sham operated control (2-K) rats. The total GFR, as measured by the plasma clearance of Cr-5l EDTA, was taken 1,3,6,9, and 15 weeks after operation. The contribution of each kidney to the total renal function was determined by a Tc-99m DTPA scan performed at weeks 10 and 16. After transplantation the total GFR of 3-K rats was, in general, not different from the value before transplantation or from that of 2-K rats. The lack of increase of the GFR of 3-K rats was not the result of a non-functioning graft

  19. Do rats have orgasms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaus, James G.; Scardochio, Tina; Parada, Mayte; Gerson, Christine; Quintana, Gonzalo R.; Coria-Avila, Genaro A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Although humans experience orgasms with a degree of statistical regularity, they remain among the most enigmatic of sexual responses; difficult to define and even more difficult to study empirically. The question of whether animals experience orgasms is hampered by similar lack of definition and the additional necessity of making inferences from behavioral responses. Method Here we define three behavioral criteria, based on dimensions of the subjective experience of human orgasms described by Mah and Binik, to infer orgasm-like responses (OLRs) in other species: 1) physiological criteria that include pelvic floor and anal muscle contractions that stimulate seminal emission and/or ejaculation in the male, or that stimulate uterine and cervical contractions in the female; 2) short-term behavioral changes that reflect immediate awareness of a pleasurable hedonic reward state during copulation; and 3) long-term behavioral changes that depend on the reward state induced by the OLR, including sexual satiety, the strengthening of patterns of sexual arousal and desire in subsequent copulations, and the generation of conditioned place and partner preferences for contextual and partner-related cues associated with the reward state. We then examine whether physiological and behavioral data from observations of male and female rats during copulation, and in sexually-conditioned place- and partner-preference paradigms, are consistent with these criteria. Results Both male and female rats display behavioral patterns consistent with OLRs. Conclusions The ability to infer OLRs in rats offers new possibilities to study the phenomenon in neurobiological and molecular detail, and to provide both comparative and translational perspectives that would be useful for both basic and clinical research. PMID:27799081

  20. Do rats have orgasms?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James G. Pfaus

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although humans experience orgasms with a degree of statistical regularity, they remain among the most enigmatic of sexual responses; difficult to define and even more difficult to study empirically. The question of whether animals experience orgasms is hampered by similar lack of definition and the additional necessity of making inferences from behavioral responses. Method: Here we define three behavioral criteria, based on dimensions of the subjective experience of human orgasms described by Mah and Binik, to infer orgasm-like responses (OLRs in other species: 1 physiological criteria that include pelvic floor and anal muscle contractions that stimulate seminal emission and/or ejaculation in the male, or that stimulate uterine and cervical contractions in the female; 2 short-term behavioral changes that reflect immediate awareness of a pleasurable hedonic reward state during copulation; and 3 long-term behavioral changes that depend on the reward state induced by the OLR, including sexual satiety, the strengthening of patterns of sexual arousal and desire in subsequent copulations, and the generation of conditioned place and partner preferences for contextual and partner-related cues associated with the reward state. We then examine whether physiological and behavioral data from observations of male and female rats during copulation, and in sexually-conditioned place- and partner-preference paradigms, are consistent with these criteria. Results: Both male and female rats display behavioral patterns consistent with OLRs. Conclusions: The ability to infer OLRs in rats offers new possibilities to study the phenomenon in neurobiological and molecular detail, and to provide both comparative and translational perspectives that would be useful for both basic and clinical research.

  1. The academic rat race

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landes, Xavier; Andersen, Martin Marchman; Nielsen, Morten Ebbe Juul

    2012-01-01

    : an increased pressure to produce articles (in peer-reviewed journals) has created an unbalanced emphasis on the research criterion at the expense of the latter two. More fatally, this pressure has turned academia into a rat race, leading to a deep change in the fundamental structure of academic behaviour......, and entailing a self-defeating and hence counter-productive pattern, where more publications is always better and where it becomes increasingly difficult for researchers to keep up with the new research in their field. The article identifies the pressure to publish as a problem of collective action. It ends up...

  2. Effect of Cocoa Butter and Sunflower Oil Supplementation on Performance, Immunoglobulin, and Antioxidant Vitamin Status of Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Ebru Yıldırım; Miyase Çınar; İlkay Yalçınkaya; Hüsamettin Ekici; Nurgül Atmaca; Enes Güncüm

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of cocoa butter and sunflower oil alone and in combination on performance, some biochemical parameters, immunoglobulin, and antioxidant vitamin status in Wistar rats. Forty-eight male rats were assigned to four groups, consisting of 12 rats with 3 replicates. Control received balanced rat diet without oil, cocoa butter group received 3.5% cocoa butter, sunflower oil group received 3.5% sunflower oil, the last group received 1.75% sunflower oil + 1.75% cocoa...

  3. The Rat Race

    CERN Multimedia

    Stephen Haywood

    Dear Muriel, Being an animal, you are probably more familiar with rats than most of us. Yet it seems to me that our Community (not just ATLAS) is stuck in a huge "rat race". I am somewhat mystified as to how we have got ourselves into this and I wonder whether you or your readers could explain this - I give my own observations below. In HEP and ATLAS specifically, we are all working long hours and we are all becoming exhausted. There are people at Point 1 who are working day and night, every day of the week; there are people writing software who send emails round the clock, including weekends. It is one thing to have bursts of activity which require us to put in some longer hours, but in ATLAS, the bursts last months or years. I have been on ATLAS 14 years and it has felt like one endless rush. Why do we do this? We are all highly motivated, we love our work and want to succeed individually and collectively. We are parts of various teams, and we do not want to let the side down. We worked hard at school an...

  4. [Glomerular changes in the contralateral kidney in the rat with experimental hydronephrosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo Bernabéu, R; Gázquez Ortiz, A; Bonillo Morales, A; Sierra Planas, M A; Ocaña Losa, J M; Romanos Lezcano, A

    1985-10-31

    We have studied under optic and electronmicroscopes the alterations of glomeruli in contralateral kidneys of rats with experimental hydronephrosis. Forty-eight Wistar rats, divided into two groups (control and experimental) were used. They were sacrificed 3, 6, 9 and 12 days after ureteral obstruction. There was a slight hypertrophy of glomeruli and hiperplasia of other components accompanied by a increased development of podocytes.

  5. Tissue levels of iron, copper, zinc and magnesium in iron deficient rats

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of iron deficiency on the levels of iron, copper, zinc and magnesium in the brain, liver, kidney, heart and lungs of albino rats (Rattus novergicus) was investigated. Forty rats were divided into two groups and the first group was fed a control diet containing 1.09g iron/kg diet while the test group was fed diet ...

  6. Serotonin metabolism in rat brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schutte, H.H.

    1976-01-01

    The metabolism of serotonin in rat brain was studied by measuring specific activities of tryptophan in plasma and of serotonin, 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid and tryptophan in the brain after intravenous injection of tritiated tryptophan. For a detailed analysis of the specific activities, a computer simulation technique was used. It was found that only a minor part of serotonin in rat brain is synthesized from tryptophan rapidly transported from the blood. It is suggested that the brain tryptophan originates from brain proteins. It was also found that the serotonin in rat brain is divided into more than one metabolic compartment

  7. Beta-endorphin in genetically hypoprolactinemic rat: IPL nude rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, H.; Sabbagh, I.; Abou-Samra, A.B.; Bertrand, J.

    1986-01-01

    Beta-endorphin has been reported to regulate not only stress- and suckling-induced but also basal prolactin secretion. In the aim to better evaluate the endogenous beta-endorphin-prolactin interrelation, the authors measured beta-endorphin levels in a new rat strain, genetically hypoprolactinemic and characterized by a total lack of lactation: IPL nude rat. Beta-endorphin was measured using a specific anti-h-β endorphin in plasma and extracts of anterior and neurointermediate lobes of the pituitary, hypothalamus and brain. Pituitary extracts were also chromatographed on Sephadex G50 column. Results obtained showed that in IPL nude females on diestrus and males, the beta-endorphin contents of the neurointermediate lobe was significantly lower than in normal rats, while the values found in the other organs and plasma were similar. However, elution pattern of the anterior pituitary extracts from male rats showed greater immunoactivity eluting as I 125 h-beta-endorphin than in normal rat; this was not the case for the female rat. These results are consistent with a differential regulation of beta-endorphin levels of anterior and neurointermediate lobe by catecholamines. Moreover they suggest that PRL secretion was more related to neurointermediate beta-endorphin. 40 references, 2 figures, 4 tables

  8. Beta-endorphin in genetically hypoprolactinemic rat: IPL nude rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, H.; Sabbagh, I.; Abou-Samra, A.B.; Bertrand, J.

    1986-01-20

    Beta-endorphin has been reported to regulate not only stress- and suckling-induced but also basal prolactin secretion. In the aim to better evaluate the endogenous beta-endorphin-prolactin interrelation, the authors measured beta-endorphin levels in a new rat strain, genetically hypoprolactinemic and characterized by a total lack of lactation: IPL nude rat. Beta-endorphin was measured using a specific anti-h-..beta.. endorphin in plasma and extracts of anterior and neurointermediate lobes of the pituitary, hypothalamus and brain. Pituitary extracts were also chromatographed on Sephadex G50 column. Results obtained showed that in IPL nude females on diestrus and males, the beta-endorphin contents of the neurointermediate lobe was significantly lower than in normal rats, while the values found in the other organs and plasma were similar. However, elution pattern of the anterior pituitary extracts from male rats showed greater immunoactivity eluting as I/sup 125/ h-beta-endorphin than in normal rat; this was not the case for the female rat. These results are consistent with a differential regulation of beta-endorphin levels of anterior and neurointermediate lobe by catecholamines. Moreover they suggest that PRL secretion was more related to neurointermediate beta-endorphin. 40 references, 2 figures, 4 tables.

  9. Intramitochondrial autonomy in rat tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subramanian, M.; Rajwade, M.S.; Satav, J.G.; Katyare, S.S.; Fatterpaker, P.; Sreenivasan, A.

    1974-01-01

    The biogenesis of mitochondria in rat liver and their protein turnover has been investigated using 1- 14 C leucine. The results indicate that intramitochondrial autonomy exists both with respect to their genesis and turnover. (M.G.B.)

  10. Autoshaping in micrencephalic rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldstein, L.H.; Oakley, D.A.

    1989-01-01

    An autoshaping procedure in which the illumination of a lever was predictive of food reinforcement was used to compare learning in rats with micrencephaly induced by irradiation on the 16th day of gestation and in sham-irradiated controls. Both groups showed equivalent levels of lever-directed activity, and the micrencephalic animals differentiated as well as the control animals between the predictive lever and a nonpredictive lever. The micrencephalic animals were able to redistribute their lever-directed activity when the significance of the levers was reversed and did so more readily than the control animals. Results support the claim that association learning survives either traumatic or developmental neocortical damage and have implications for remedial procedures following both head injury and developmental cerebral pathology in humans

  11. Autoshaping in micrencephalic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, L H; Oakley, D A

    1989-06-01

    An autoshaping procedure in which the illumination of a lever was predictive of food reinforcement was used to compare learning in rats with micrencephaly induced by irradiation on the 16th day of gestation and in sham-irradiated controls. Both groups showed equivalent levels of lever-directed activity, and the micrencephalic animals differentiated as well as the control animals between the predictive lever and a nonpredictive lever. The micrencephalic animals were able to redistribute their lever-directed activity when the significance of the levers was reversed and did so more readily than the control animals. Results support the claim that association learning survives either traumatic or developmental neocortical damage and have implications for remedial procedures following both head injury and developmental cerebral pathology in humans.

  12. Biokinetics of radiotellurium in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, Y.; Sahoo, S.K.; Kim, S.; Homma-Takeda, S.; Watanabe, Y.; Inaba, J.

    2003-01-01

    Radiotellurium is present in the environment primarily due to its release during nuclear reactor accidents. Little is known of tellurium metabolism in juveniles, although the element is relatively abundant and has a number of industrial uses. A biokinetic study of radiotellurium in rats was done using gamma-ray counting. Wistar strain rats were used to determine the uptake of H 2 123 Te m O 3 by the whole-body retention of juvenile rats and the conceptus in relation to its gestational stages, by measurements in the placenta, fetal membranes, fetal fluid, and fetus. The whole-body retention of 123 Te m in juvenile rats was higher than that of adult rats. The relative concentration in the placenta and fetal membranes was higher than in the fetus. No activity was observed in the fetal fluid. These results indicate that the placenta and fetal membranes play significant roles as barriers to the transfer of 123 Te m into the fetus. The ratio, relative concentration in fetus/relative concentration in mother (C F /C M ), was calculated. The C F /C M ratio was dependent on the stage of gestation and ranged from 0.2 to 0.5. A little 123 Te m was transferred to the suckling rats through the mother's milk when the isotope was administered intravenously to the mother. (author)

  13. Progression of nephropathy after islet of langerhans transplantation in alloxan-induced diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Tadeu Spadella

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available We studied the effects of islet of Langerhans transplantation (IT on the kidney lesions of rats with alloxan-induced diabetes. Forty-five inbred male Lewis rats were randomly assigned to 3 experimental groups: group Gl included 15 non-diabetic control rats (NC, group GIT included 15 alloxan-induced diabetic rats (DC, and group III included 15 alloxan-induced diabetic rats that received pancreatic islet transplantation prepared by nonenzymatic method from normal donor Lewis rats and injected into the portal vein (IT. Each group was further divided into 3 subgroups of 5 rats which were sacrificed at 1, 3, and 6 months of follow-up, respectively. Clinical and laboratorial parameters were recorded in the mentioned periods in the 3 experimental groups. For histology, the kidneys of all rats of each subgroup were studied and 50 glomeruli and 50 tubules of each kidney were analyzed using light microscopy by two different investigators in a double blind study. The results showed progressive glomerular basement membrane thickening (GBMT, mesangial enlargement (ME, and Bowman's capsule thickening (BCT in the 3 experimental groups throughout the follow-up. These alterations were significantly more severe in DC rats at 6 months when compared to NC rats (p < 0.01. However, the degree of GBMT, ME, and BCT observed in DC rats was not statistically different from IT rats at 1, 3, and 6 months. In addition, Armanni-Ebstein lesions of the tubules (AE and tubular lumen protein (PRO observed in DC rats were also observed in IT rats all over the study. These lesions were never present in NC rats. We conclude that IT did not prevent progression of kidney lesions in alloxan-induced diabetic rats within 6 months after transplantation.

  14. Tryptophan depletion affects compulsive behaviour in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merchán, A; Navarro, S V; Klein, A B

    2017-01-01

    investigated whether 5-HT manipulation, through a tryptophan (TRP) depletion by diet in Wistar and Lister Hooded rats, modulates compulsive drinking in schedule-induced polydipsia (SIP) and locomotor activity in the open-field test. The levels of dopamine, noradrenaline, serotonin and its metabolite were......-depleted HD Wistar rats, while the LD Wistar and the Lister Hooded rats did not exhibit differences in SIP. In contrast, the TRP-depleted Lister Hooded rats increased locomotor activity compared to the non-depleted rats, while no differences were found in the Wistar rats. Serotonin 2A receptor binding...

  15. Some pharmacological effects of cinnamon and ginger herbs in obese diabetic rats

    OpenAIRE

    Shalaby, Mostafa Abbas; Saifan, Hamed Yahya

    2014-01-01

    Aims: The present study was designed to assess some pharmacological effects of cinnamon (CAE) and ginger (GAE) aqueous extracts in obese diabetic rats, and to elucidate the potential mechanisms. Materials and Methods: Forty-two Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into 6 equal groups. Group 1 was a negative control and the other groups were rendered obese by feeding rats on high-fat diet for 4 weeks. The obese rats were subcutaneously injected with alloxan for 5*days to induce diabetes. Group ...

  16. Population Structure of Rat-Derived Pneumocystis carinii in Danish Wild Rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmer, Robert J.; Settnes, Osvald P.; Lodal, Jens

    2000-01-01

    The rat model of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia is frequently used to study human P. carinii infection, but there are many differences between the rat and human infections. We studied naturally acquired P. carinii in wild rats to examine the relevance of the rat model for human infection. P. cari...

  17. DOPA, norepinephrine, and dopamine in rat tissues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eldrup, E; Richter, Erik; Christensen, N J

    1989-01-01

    We studied the effect of unilateral sympathectomy on rat quadriceps and gastrocnemius muscle concentrations of endogenous dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA), dopamine (DA), and norepinephrine (NE) and assessed the relationships between these catecholamines in several rat tissues. Catecholamines were...

  18. False Context Fear Memory in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Sarah; Holmes, Nathan M.; Westbrook, R. Frederick

    2015-01-01

    Four experiments used rats to study false context fear memories. In Experiment 1, rats were pre-exposed to a distinctive chamber (context A) or to a control environment (context C), shocked after a delay in a second chamber (context B) and tested either in B or A. Rats pre-exposed to A froze just as much as control rats in B but more than control…

  19. Importance Rat Liver Morphology and Vasculature in Surgical Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vdoviaková, Katarína; Vdoviaková, Katarína; Petrovová, Eva; Krešáková, Lenka; Maloveská, Marcela; Teleky, Jana; Jenčová, Janka; Živčák, Jozef; Jenča, Andrej

    2016-12-02

    BACKGROUND The laboratory rat is one of the most popular experimental models for the experimental surgery of the liver. The objective of this study was to investigate the morphometric parameters, physiological data, differences in configuration of liver lobes, biliary system, and vasculature (arteries, veins, and lymphatic vessels) of the liver in laboratory rats. In addition, this study supports the anatomic literature and identified similarities and differences with human and other mammals. MATERIAL AND METHODS Forty laboratory rats were dissected to prepare corrosion casts of vascular system specimens (n=20), determine the lymph vessels and lymph nodes (n=10), and for macroscopic anatomical dissection (n=10) of the rat liver. The results are listed in percentages. The anatomical nomenclature of the liver morphology, its arteries, veins, lymph nodes, and lymphatic vessels are in accordance with Nomina Anatomica Veterinaria. RESULTS We found many variations in origin, direction, and division of the arterial, venous, and lymphatic systems in rat livers, and found differences in morphometric parameters compared to results reported by other authors. The portal vein was formed by 4 tributaries in 23%, by 3 branches in 64%, and by 2 tributaries in 13%. The liver lymph was drained to the 2 different lymph nodes. The nomenclature and morphological characteristics of the rat liver vary among authors. CONCLUSIONS Our results may be useful for the planing of experimental surgery and for cooperation with other investigation methods to help fight liver diseases in human populations.

  20. Oxidative stress of crystalline lens in rat menopausal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acer, Semra; Pekel, Gökhan; Küçükatay, Vural; Karabulut, Aysun; Yağcı, Ramazan; Çetin, Ebru Nevin; Akyer, Şahika Pınar; Şahin, Barbaros

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate lenticular oxidative stress in rat menopausal models. Forty Wistar female albino rats were included in this study. A total of thirty rats underwent oophorectomy to generate a menopausal model. Ten rats that did not undergo oophorectomy formed the control group (Group 1). From the rats that underwent oophorectomy, 10 formed the menopause control group (Group 2), 10 were administered a daily injection of methylprednisolone until the end of the study (Group 3), and the remaining 10 rats were administered intraperitoneal streptozocin to induce diabetes mellitus (Group 4). Total oxidant status (TOS), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), and oxidative stress index (OSI) measurements of the crystalline lenses were analyzed. The mean OSI was the lowest in group 1 and highest in group 4. Nevertheless, the difference between the groups was not statistically significant in terms of OSI (p >0.05). The mean TOS values were similar between the groups (p >0.05), whereas the mean TAC of group 1 was significantly higher than that of the other groups (p <0.001). Our results indicate that menopause may not promote cataract formation.

  1. Oxidative stress of crystalline lens in rat menopausal model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semra Acer

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Purpose: To evaluate lenticular oxidative stress in rat menopausal models. Methods: Forty Wistar female albino rats were included in this study. A total of thirty rats underwent oophorectomy to generate a menopausal model. Ten rats that did not undergo oophorectomy formed the control group (Group 1. From the rats that underwent oophorectomy, 10 formed the menopause control group (Group 2, 10 were administered a daily injection of methylprednisolone until the end of the study (Group 3, and the remaining 10 rats were administered intraperitoneal streptozocin to induce diabetes mellitus (Group 4. Total oxidant status (TOS, total antioxidant capacity (TAC, and oxidative stress index (OSI measurements of the crystalline lenses were analyzed. Results: The mean OSI was the lowest in group 1 and highest in group 4. Nevertheless, the difference between the groups was not statistically significant in terms of OSI (p >0.05. The mean TOS values were similar between the groups (p >0.05, whereas the mean TAC of group 1 was significantly higher than that of the other groups (p <0.001. Conclusions: Our results indicate that menopause may not promote cataract formation.

  2. Influence of hypoandrogenism in skin wound healing resistance in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denny Fabrício Magalhães Veloso

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of the present study is to verify the effect of testosterone depletion on healing of surgical skin wounds at different ages and postoperative times. Methods: Forty-four Wistar male rats were divided into four groups: Group 1y (n = 11 – young control, sham-operated rats (30 days-old; Group 1A (n = 10 – adult control, sham-operated rats (three to four months old; Group 2Y (n = 10 – young rats after bilateral orchiectomy; and Group 2A (n = 11 – adult rats after bilateral orchiectomy. After six months, a linear incision was performed on the dorsal region of the animals. The resistance of the wound healing was measured in a skin fragment with a tensiometer, on the 7th and 21st postoperative days. Rresults: The wound healing resistance was higher in Group 1Y than in Group 2Y after seven days (p < 0.05. Wound healing resistance at 21 days was higher than at seven days in all groups (p < 0.05. Late wound healing resistance was not different between young and adult rats. Cconclusions: Bilateral orchiectomy decreased the wound healing resistance only in young animals at the seventh postoperative day.

  3. Hypoandrogenism related to early skin wound healing resistance in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petroianu, A; Veloso, D F M; Alberti, L R; Figueiredo, J A; Rodrigues, F H O Carmo; Carneiro, B G M Carvalho E

    2010-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to verify the effect of testosterone depletion on healing of surgical skin wounds at different ages and post-operative periods. Forty-four Wistar male rats were divided into four groups: Group 1Y (n = 11) - young control, sham-operated rats (30-day old); Group 1A (n = 10) - adult control, sham-operated rats (3 to 4-month old); Group 2Y (n = 10) - young rats after bilateral orchiectomy; and Group 2A (n = 11) - adult rats after bilateral orchiectomy. After 6 months, a linear incision was performed on the dorsal region of the animals. The resistance of the wound healing was measured in a skin fragment using a tensiometer, on the 7th and 21st post-operative days. The wound healing resistance was higher in Group 1Y than in Group 2Y after 7 days (P Wound healing resistance at 21 days was higher than at 7 days in all groups (P wound healing resistance was not different between young and adult rats. It is concluded that bilateral orchiectomy diminished the wound healing resistance only in young animals at the 7th post-operative day.

  4. EFFECT OF ETHANOL ON HEPATOBILIARY TRANSPORT OF CATIONIC DRUGS - A STUDY IN THE ISOLATED-PERFUSED RAT-LIVER, RAT HEPATOCYTES AND RAT MITOCHONDRIA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    STEEN, H; MEIJER, DKF; Merema, M.T.

    The effect of ethanol on the hepatic uptake of various cationic drugs was studied in isolated perfused rat livers, isolated rat hepatocytes and isolated rat liver mitochondria. In isolated rat hepatocytes and in isolated perfused rat livers, the uptake of the model organic cation

  5. The serotonin transporter knockout rat : A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olivier, Jocelien; Cools, Alexander; Ellenbroek, Bart A.; Cuppen, E.; Homberg, Judith; Kalueff, Allan V.; LaPorte, Justin L.

    2010-01-01

    This chapter dicusses the most recent data on the serotonin transporter knock-out rat, a unique rat model that has been generated by target-selected N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU) driven mutagenesis. The knock-out rat is the result of a premature stopcodon in the serotonin transporter gene, and the

  6. Tuberculosis Detection by Giant African Pouched Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poling, Alan; Weetjens, Bart; Cox, Christophe; Beyene, Negussie; Durgin, Amy; Mahoney, Amanda

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, operant discrimination training procedures have been used to teach giant African pouched rats to detect tuberculosis (TB) in human sputum samples. This article summarizes how the rats are trained and used operationally, as well as their performance in studies published to date. Available data suggest that pouched rats, which can…

  7. Teratology studies in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroy, Mariline; Allais, Linda

    2013-01-01

    The rat is the rodent species of choice for the regulatory safety testing of xenobiotics, such as medicinal products, food additives, and other chemicals. Many decades of experience and extensive data have accumulated for both general and developmental toxicology investigations in this species. The high fertility and large litter size of the rat are advantages for teratogenicity testing. The study designs are well defined in the regulatory guidelines and are relatively standardized between testing laboratories across the world. Teratology studies address maternal- and embryo-toxicity following exposure during the period of organogenesis. This chapter describes the design and conduct of a teratology study in the rat in compliance with the regulatory guidelines. The procedures for the handling and housing of the pregnant animals, the caesarean examinations and the sampling of fetuses for morphological examinations are described. The utility and design of preliminary studies and the inclusion of satellite animals in the main study for toxicokinetic sampling are discussed.

  8. Voluntary Sleep Loss in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oonk, Marcella; Krueger, James M.; Davis, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: Animal sleep deprivation (SDEP), in contrast to human SDEP, is involuntary and involves repeated exposure to aversive stimuli including the inability of the animal to control the waking stimulus. Therefore, we explored intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS), an operant behavior, as a method for voluntary SDEP in rodents. Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were implanted with electroencephalography/electromyography (EEG/EMG) recording electrodes and a unilateral bipolar electrode into the lateral hypothalamus. Rats were allowed to self-stimulate, or underwent gentle handling-induced SDEP (GH-SDEP), during the first 6 h of the light phase, after which they were allowed to sleep. Other rats performed the 6 h ICSS and 1 w later were subjected to 6 h of noncontingent stimulation (NCS). During NCS the individual stimulation patterns recorded during ICSS were replayed. Results: After GH-SDEP, ICSS, or NCS, time in nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep increased. Further, in the 24 h after SDEP, rats recovered all of the REM sleep lost during SDEP, but only 75% to 80% of the NREM sleep lost, regardless of the SDEP method. The magnitude of EEG slow wave responses occurring during NREM sleep also increased after SDEP treatments. However, NREM sleep EEG slow wave activity (SWA) responses were attenuated following ICSS, compared to GH-SDEP and NCS. Conclusions: We conclude that ICSS and NCS can be used to sleep deprive rats. Changes in rebound NREM sleep EEG SWA occurring after ICSS, NCS, and GH-SDEP suggest that nonspecific effects of the SDEP procedure differentially affect recovery sleep phenotypes. Citation: Oonk M, Krueger JM, Davis CJ. Voluntary sleep loss in rats. SLEEP 2016;39(7):1467–1479. PMID:27166236

  9. Rat bite fever without fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stehle, P; Dubuis, O; So, A; Dudler, J

    2003-09-01

    Rat bite fever is a rarely reported acute febrile bacterial illness caused by Streptobacillus moniliformis or Spirillum minus following a rat bite. It is classically characterised by abrupt onset of fever with rigors, myalgias, headache, and the appearance of a generalised maculopapular petechial skin rash. Polyarthritis complicates the course of the disease in up to 50% of infected patients, and numerous hurdles can make the diagnosis particularly difficult in the absence of fever or rash, as in the present case. A high degree of awareness is necessary to make the correct diagnosis in such cases. Diagnosis has important prognostic implications as the disease is potentially lethal, but easily treatable.

  10. The effect of caffeine on orthodontic tooth movement in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Shirazi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: to determine the effect of different doses of caffeine on orthodontic tooth movement (OTM in rats. Materials and Methods: Forty male 250-300 g Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups of ten animals each and received 0 (control, 1 g/l, 2 g/l and 3 g/l caffeine in tap water for 3 days. Orthodontic appliances were ligated between the maxillary first molars and incisors on the 4th day of the study period. All rats were sacrificed after 2 weeks of treatment after which OTM was measured. Hematoxylin/eosin-stained sections of the molars were prepared and the mesial roots were examined for resorption-lacunae depth and osteoclast number. ANOVA was used for statistical analysis (P

  11. Effects of acute and chronic administration of methylprednisolone on oxidative stress in rat lungs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronaldo Lopes Torres

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the effects of acute and chronic administration of methylprednisolone on oxidative stress, as quantified by measuring lipid peroxidation (LPO and total reactive antioxidant potential (TRAP, in rat lungs. Methods: Forty Wistar rats were divided into four groups: acute treatment, comprising rats receiving a single injection of methylprednisolone (50 mg/kg i.p.; acute control, comprising rats i.p. injected with saline; chronic treatment, comprising rats receiving methylprednisolone in drinking water (6 mg/kg per day for 30 days; and chronic control, comprising rats receiving normal drinking water. Results: The levels of TRAP were significantly higher in the acute treatment group rats than in the acute control rats, suggesting an improvement in the pulmonary defenses of the former. The levels of lung LPO were significantly higher in the chronic treatment group rats than in the chronic control rats, indicating oxidative damage in the lung tissue of the former. Conclusions: Our results suggest that the acute use of corticosteroids is beneficial to lung tissue, whereas their chronic use is not. The chronic use of methylprednisolone appears to increase lung LPO levels.

  12. Treatment of diabetic rats with encapsulated islets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweet, Ian R; Yanay, Ofer; Waldron, Lanaya; Gilbert, Merle; Fuller, Jessica M; Tupling, Terry; Lernmark, Ake; Osborne, William R A

    2008-12-01

    Immunoprotection of islets using bioisolator systems permits introduction of allogeneic cells to diabetic patients without the need for immunosuppression. Using TheraCyte immunoisolation devices, we investigated two rat models of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), BB rats and rats made diabetic by streptozotocin (STZ) treatment. We chose to implant islets after the onset of diabetes to mimic the probable treatment of children with T1DM as they are usually diagnosed after disease onset. We encapsulated 1000 rat islets and implanted them subcutaneously (SQ) into diabetic biobreeding (BB) rats and STZ-induced diabetic rats, defined as two or more consecutive days of blood glucose>350 mg/dl. Rats were monitored for weight and blood glucose. Untreated BB rats rapidly lost weight and were euthanized at >20% weight loss that occurred between 4 and 10 days from implantation. For period of 30-40 days following islet implantation weights of treated rats remained steady or increased. Rapid weight loss occurred after surgical removal of devices that contained insulin positive islets. STZ-treated rats that received encapsulated islets showed steady weight gain for up to 130 days, whereas untreated control rats showed steady weight loss that achieved >20% at around 55 days. Although islet implants did not normalize blood glucose, treated rats were apparently healthy and groomed normally. Autologous or allogeneic islets were equally effective in providing treatment. TheraCyte devices can sustain islets, protect allogeneic cells from immune attack and provide treatment for diabetic-mediated weight loss in both BB rats and STZ-induced diabetic rats.

  13. Induced Chronic Prostatitis in Rats

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Similarly, compared with reference group (176.1 ± 12.1 pg/ml), IL-1β level of prostate tissues of high-dose PCS ..... Fig 1: Effect of PCS extract on the histomorphology of prostate tissues in rats. ... involved with cellular recruitment, fever, acute.

  14. Isolating Lysosomes from Rat Liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pryor, Paul R

    2016-04-01

    This protocol describes the generation of a fraction enriched in lysosomes from rat liver. The lysosomes are rapidly isolated using density-gradient centrifugation with gradient media that retain the osmolarity of the lysosomes such that they are functional and can be used in in vitro assays. © 2016 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  15. CCl4 cirrhosis in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer-Nielsen, A; Poulsen, H E; Hansen, B A

    1991-01-01

    Cirrhosis of the rat liver was induced by a 12 week individualized CCl4/phenobarbital treatment. After treatment, all surviving animals (81%) showed cirrhosis of the liver. The cirrhosis induced was irreversible when evaluated 24 weeks after cessation of treatment. Quantitative liver function...

  16. Whiskers aid anemotaxis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yan S W; Graff, Matthew M; Bresee, Chris S; Man, Yan B; Hartmann, Mitra J Z

    2016-08-01

    Observation of terrestrial mammals suggests that they can follow the wind (anemotaxis), but the sensory cues underlying this ability have not been studied. We identify a significant contribution to anemotaxis mediated by whiskers (vibrissae), a modality previously studied only in the context of direct tactile contact. Five rats trained on a five-alternative forced-choice airflow localization task exhibited significant performance decrements after vibrissal removal. In contrast, vibrissal removal did not disrupt the performance of control animals trained to localize a light source. The performance decrement of individual rats was related to their airspeed threshold for successful localization: animals that found the task more challenging relied more on the vibrissae for localization cues. Following vibrissal removal, the rats deviated more from the straight-line path to the air source, choosing sources farther from the correct location. Our results indicate that rats can perform anemotaxis and that whiskers greatly facilitate this ability. Because air currents carry information about both odor content and location, these findings are discussed in terms of the adaptive significance of the interaction between sniffing and whisking in rodents.

  17. Acute renal failure in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cederholm, C.; Almen, T.; Bergquist, D.; Golman, K.; Takolander, R.; Malmoe Allmaenna Sjukhus

    1989-01-01

    It was demonstrated in rats that renal injury which follows transient renal hypoxia is potentiated by the contrast media metrizoate, ioxaglate, iopamidol and iohexol. Intravenous injection of 1 g I/kg of all four media alone to 82 rats caused no significant increase in serum urea 1, 3 and 7 days later. The percentage increase of serum urea is given in median values and interquartile range (in parentheses). Bilateral renal arterial occlusion alone for 40 minutes in 42 rats increased serum urea one day later by 40% (20-130). Intravenous injection of the media followed in one hour by bilateral renal arterial occlusion for 40 minutes in 104 rats caused serum urea to increase one day later by 130% (70-350) after metrizoate, by 220% (50-380) after ioxaglate, by 290 % (60-420) after iopamidol and by 160% (50-330) after iohexol. There were no significant differences between the potentiating effects of the various media on ischemic renal failure. (orig.)

  18. August rats are more resistant to arrhythmogenic effect of myocardial ischemia and reperfusion than Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belkina, L M; Kirillina, T N; Pshennikova, M G; Arkhipenko, Yu V

    2002-06-01

    As differentiated from Wistar rats, myocardial ischemia and reperfusion produce no ventricular fibrillation in August rats. Pretreatment with nitric oxide synthase inhibitor Nw-nitro-L-arginine increased mortality rate in August rats with acute myocardial infarction from 20 to 40%. Under these conditions mortality rate in Wistar rats increased from 50 to 71%. Interstrain differences in the resistance of these animals to the arrhythmogenic effect of ischemia are probably associated with higher activity of the nitric oxide system in August rats compared to Wistar rats.

  19. Diminished hormonal responses to exercise in trained rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galbo, H; Richter, Erik; Holst, J J

    1977-01-01

    Male rats (120 g) either were subjected to a 12-wk physical training program (T rats) or were sedentary controls (C rats). Subsequently the rats were killed at rest or after a 45- or 90-min forced swim. At rest, T rats had higher liver and muscle glycogen concentrations but lower plasma insulin...

  20. Dithiobiuret toxicity in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, K.D.

    1985-01-01

    Raising the daily dose of dithiobiuret (DTB) in male rats from 0.5 to 1 to 5 mg/kg shortened the latency to the onset of flaccid muscle tone and associated diminished performance in a treadmill test from 7 to 5 to 3 days, respectively. Concomitant with the development of flaccid muscle tone gastrocnemius muscle contractions elicited by high frequency motor nerve stimulation were lower in peak tension and tended to fade more rapidly in DTB-treated rats than in control rats. Remarkably, rats treated with highly daily doses (10-16 mg/kg) of DTB were resistant to the expected development of DTB-induced flaccid muscle tone, and tetanic contractile abnormalities but a corresponding refractoriness to body weight loss, decreased fed and water intake, diuresis, and depression in water balance was not present. This nonselectivity of the refractory responses supported the results of a histopathological study indicating that DTB-induced neuromuscular toxicity was unlikely to be secondary to effect on other organ systems. It is not known whether the ultimate neurotoxin is DTB or a metabolite. In this regard, two pathways for the metabolism of DTB were proposed based on the results of thin-layer chromatography of urine samples from rats treated with either 14 C- or 35 S-DTB. One pathway involved the reversible oxidation of DTB to the disulfide-containing compound thiuret, and the other involved the replacement of a sulfur atom with oxygen to form monothiobiuret. Thiuret, but not monothiobiuret, possessed comparable toxicity to STB. This further suggested that redox cycling between DTB and thiuret could be an important contributing factor to the toxicity of DTB

  1. Sexual dimorphism in hybrids rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Falgueras, Alicia; Pinos, Helena; Fernández, Rosa; Collado, Paloma; Pasaro, Eduardo; Segovia, Santiago; Guillamon, Antonio

    2006-12-06

    Laboratory rat strains descend from Wistar rats as a consequence of artificial selection. Previously we reported that the medial posterior division of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BSTMP) was sexually dimorphic in Wistar and Long-Evans strains while the medial anterior division (BSTMA) and the locus coeruleus (LC) only showed sex differences in the ancestor Wistar strain. The lateral posterior division (BSTLP) was isomorphic in both strains. The present work studies the number of neurons in the BSTMP, BSTMA, BSTLP and LC of male and female Wistar and Long-Evans rats (F(0)) and their hybrid F(1) and F(2) generations. The BSTMP is sexually dimorphic in the F(0), F(1) and F(2) generations while sex differences in the LC are only seen in F(0) Wistar rats but not in the F(0) Long-Evans or the F(1) and F(2) hybrid generations. Sex differences in the BSTMA are seen in F(0) Wistar but not in F(0) Long-Evans rats and completely disappear in the F(2) generations. The number of neurons in the LC of both males and females decreased in heterozygotic individuals (F(1)) but increased in homozygotic (F(2)). However, the number of neurons in the BSTMP changes significantly over the generations, although the ratio of neurons (female/male) is stable and unaffected in homo- or heterozygosis. Thus, the mechanism that regulates the neuronal female/male ratio would be different from the one that controls the number of neurons. The facts that sex differences in the BSTMP are not affected by homo- or heterozygosis and that they are seen in several mammalian orders suggest the existence of a "fixed" type of brain sex differences in the Mammalia Class.

  2. Piroxicam decreases postirradiation colonic neoplasia in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northway, M G; Scobey, M W; Cassidy, K T; Geisinger, K R

    1990-12-01

    This study evaluated the effects of the nonsteroidal antiinflammatory agent piroxicam on chronic radiation proctitis in the rat. Forty female Wistar rats received a 2250-cGy dose of irradiation to the distal 2 cm of the colon. Twenty received piroxicam 8.0 mg/kg orally 30 minutes before exposure and 24 hours after exposure; 20 rats served as irradiated controls. All animals were evaluated by colonoscopy 1 and 3 weeks postexposure and every third week until death or killing at 1 year. At killing, colons were removed for light microscopic examination. One year postirradiation results showed no differences in mortality, vascular changes, acute inflammation, colitis cystica profunda, or rectal stricture between the control and piroxicam-treated groups. However, at 1 year postirradiation the control group demonstrated neoplasia in 15 of 19 animals compared with eight of 20 animals in the piroxicam-treated group. The first endoscopic appearance of colonic neoplasm occurred at 15 weeks postirradiation in one control irradiated rat whereas the first evidence of endoscopic neoplasm in the piroxicam-treated group did not occur until 36 weeks postirradiation. Histologic examination documented a tendency toward a greater presence of adenocarcinomas in the control group compared with the piroxicam-treated group. The authors conclude that piroxicam treatment significantly decreased the incidence of colonic neoplasia in general as well as delayed the endoscopic appearance of colonic neoplasia in rats after pelvic irradiation.

  3. Piroxicam decreases postirradiation colonic neoplasia in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Northway, M.G.; Scobey, M.W.; Cassidy, K.T.; Geisinger, K.R.

    1990-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of the nonsteroidal antiinflammatory agent piroxicam on chronic radiation proctitis in the rat. Forty female Wistar rats received a 2250-cGy dose of irradiation to the distal 2 cm of the colon. Twenty received piroxicam 8.0 mg/kg orally 30 minutes before exposure and 24 hours after exposure; 20 rats served as irradiated controls. All animals were evaluated by colonoscopy 1 and 3 weeks postexposure and every third week until death or killing at 1 year. At killing, colons were removed for light microscopic examination. One year postirradiation results showed no differences in mortality, vascular changes, acute inflammation, colitis cystica profunda, or rectal stricture between the control and piroxicam-treated groups. However, at 1 year postirradiation the control group demonstrated neoplasia in 15 of 19 animals compared with eight of 20 animals in the piroxicam-treated group. The first endoscopic appearance of colonic neoplasm occurred at 15 weeks postirradiation in one control irradiated rat whereas the first evidence of endoscopic neoplasm in the piroxicam-treated group did not occur until 36 weeks postirradiation. Histologic examination documented a tendency toward a greater presence of adenocarcinomas in the control group compared with the piroxicam-treated group. The authors conclude that piroxicam treatment significantly decreased the incidence of colonic neoplasia in general as well as delayed the endoscopic appearance of colonic neoplasia in rats after pelvic irradiation. 41 references

  4. Glucose turnover in 48-hour-fasted running rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonne, B.; Mikines, K.J.; Galbo, H.

    1987-01-01

    In fed rats, hyperglycemia develops during exercise. This contrasts with the view based on studies of fasted human and dog that euglycemia is maintained in exercise and glucose production (R/sub a/) controlled by feedback mechanisms. Forty-eight-hour-fasted rats (F) were compared to fed rats (C) and overnight food-restricted (FR) rats. [3- 3 H]- and [U- 14 C]glucose were infused and blood and tissue sampled. During running (21 m/min, 0% grade) R/sub a/ increased most in C and least in F and only in F did R/sub a/ not significantly exceed glucose disappearance. Plasma glucose increased more in C (3.3 mmol/1) than in FR (1.6 mmol/l) and only modestly (0.6 mmol/l) and transiently in F. Resting liver glycogen and exercise glycogenolysis were highest in C and similar in FR and F. Resting muscle glycogen and exercise glycogenolysis were highest in C and lowest in F. During running, lactate production and gluconeogenesis were higher in FR than in F. At least in rats, responses of production and plasma concentration of glucose to exercise depend on size of liver and muscle glycogen stores; glucose production matches increase in clearance better in fasted than in fed states. Probably glucose production is stimulated by feedforward mechanisms and feedback mechanisms are added if plasma glucose decreases

  5. Piroxicam decreases postirradiation colonic neoplasia in the rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Northway, M.G.; Scobey, M.W.; Cassidy, K.T.; Geisinger, K.R. (Wake Forest Univ., Winston Salem, NC (USA))

    1990-12-01

    This study evaluated the effects of the nonsteroidal antiinflammatory agent piroxicam on chronic radiation proctitis in the rat. Forty female Wistar rats received a 2250-cGy dose of irradiation to the distal 2 cm of the colon. Twenty received piroxicam 8.0 mg/kg orally 30 minutes before exposure and 24 hours after exposure; 20 rats served as irradiated controls. All animals were evaluated by colonoscopy 1 and 3 weeks postexposure and every third week until death or killing at 1 year. At killing, colons were removed for light microscopic examination. One year postirradiation results showed no differences in mortality, vascular changes, acute inflammation, colitis cystica profunda, or rectal stricture between the control and piroxicam-treated groups. However, at 1 year postirradiation the control group demonstrated neoplasia in 15 of 19 animals compared with eight of 20 animals in the piroxicam-treated group. The first endoscopic appearance of colonic neoplasm occurred at 15 weeks postirradiation in one control irradiated rat whereas the first evidence of endoscopic neoplasm in the piroxicam-treated group did not occur until 36 weeks postirradiation. Histologic examination documented a tendency toward a greater presence of adenocarcinomas in the control group compared with the piroxicam-treated group. The authors conclude that piroxicam treatment significantly decreased the incidence of colonic neoplasia in general as well as delayed the endoscopic appearance of colonic neoplasia in rats after pelvic irradiation. 41 references.

  6. The effect of caffeine on orthodontic tooth movement in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirazi, Mohsen; Vaziri, Hamed; Salari, Behzad; Motahhari, Pouria; Etemad-Moghadam, Shahroo; Dehpour, Ahmad Reza

    2017-01-01

    Objective(s): to determine the effect of different doses of caffeine on orthodontic tooth movement (OTM) in rats. Materials and Methods: Forty male 250-300 g Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups of ten animals each and received 0 (control), 1 g/l, 2 g/l and 3 g/l caffeine in tap water for 3 days. Orthodontic appliances were ligated between the maxillary first molars and incisors on the 4th day of the study period. All rats were sacrificed after 2 weeks of treatment after which OTM was measured. Hematoxylin/eosin-stained sections of the molars were prepared and the mesial roots were examined for resorption-lacunae depth and osteoclast number. ANOVA was used for statistical analysis (Presorption-lacunae depths demonstrated significant differences between each of the caffeine groups and control rats (P0.05). Conclusion: According to our findings, one of the effects of caffeine consumption during orthodontic treatment in rats was decreased root resorption. Additionally, concentrations of 2 g/l and 3 g/l inhibited OTM which seems to be due to its influence on osteoclast numbers. PMID:28392897

  7. Effect of Weightlessness on Neutrophils and Lymphocytes of Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khusi Muhammad Saqib, Zia-ur-Rahman1 and Saeed Ahmad Nagra2

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, two hundreds and forty healthy albino young (n=120 and old (n=120 rats were used during winter and summer season. Rats were divided into four groups in each season i.e. young and old, consisting of male (n=30 and female (n=30 in each age category. In each age  sex matched rats, three subgroups were made and have been given the name as cage control (CC group, horizontal restrained group (HR and head down suspended (HDS group. For winter season, the room temperature of experimental period ranged from 20 to 23°C and for summer season, the experimental room temperature ranged from 30 to 33°C. A 12 hours light/12 hours dark cycle with ad libitum food offered each day to an individual rats as well as fresh water (at normal temperature were provided every day from 9-10 h (morning Rats were decapitated on day 7th (n=5 and day 28th (n=5 of experimental period from all groups to collected the blood in a hepranized tubes for the estimation of lymphocytes and neutrophils. Appropriate statistical analysis was performed to estimate the difference between age, days, treatments and their possible interactions during each season. During winter and summer seasons, male and female rats did show a significant decrease in lymphocytes, however a significant increase in the neutrophils percent was also observed in the HR and HDS groups. During summer, a significant increase in neutrophils and a decrease in lymphocytes were observed in male and female rats of HR and HDS groups.

  8. Effects of heroin on rat prosocial behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomek, Seven E; Stegmann, Gabriela M; Olive, M Foster

    2018-05-04

    Opioid use disorders are characterized in part by impairments in social functioning. Previous research indicates that laboratory rats, which are frequently used as animal models of addiction-related behaviors, are capable of prosocial behavior. For example, under normal conditions, when a 'free' rat is placed in the vicinity of rat trapped in a plastic restrainer, the rat will release or 'rescue' the other rat from confinement. The present study was conducted to determine the effects of heroin on prosocial behavior in rats. For 2 weeks, rats were given the opportunity to rescue their cagemate from confinement, and the occurrence of and latency to free the confined rat was recorded. After baseline rescuing behavior was established, rats were randomly selected to self-administer heroin (0.06 mg/kg/infusion i.v.) or sucrose pellets (orally) for 14 days. Next, rats were retested for rescuing behavior once daily for 3 days, during which they were provided with a choice between freeing the trapped cagemate and continuing to self-administer their respective reinforcer. Our results indicate that rats self-administering sucrose continued to rescue their cagemate, whereas heroin rats chose to self-administer heroin and not rescue their cagemate. These findings suggest that rats with a history of heroin self-administration show deficits in prosocial behavior, consistent with specific diagnostic criteria for opioid use disorder. Behavioral paradigms providing a choice between engaging in prosocial behavior and continuing drug use may be useful in modeling and investigating the neural basis of social functioning deficits in opioid addiction. © 2018 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  9. Incorporation of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids of marine or vegetable origin into rat enterocyte phospholipids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Christian; Christensen, Michael Søberg; Høy, Carl-Erik

    1997-01-01

    were: Palm oil diet (PD), 0.6 wt% n-3 PUFA; fish oil diet (FD), 32 wt% n-3 PUFA (C20-C22); and linseed oil diet (LD), 32 wt% n-3 PUFA (C18:3n-3). Forty weanling male Wistar rats were fed PD for 34 days and then divided into three groups. Two groups of sixteen rats each were then fed FD or LD...

  10. Pulmonary Complications of Gastric Fluid and Bile Salts Aspiration, an Experimental Study in Rat

    OpenAIRE

    Samareh Fekri, Mitra; Poursalehi, Hamid Reza; Najafipour, Hamid; Dabiri, Shahriar; Shokoohi, Mostafa; Siahposht Khacheki, Ali; Shahrokhi, Nader; Malekpour Afshar, Reza; Lashkarizadeh, Mohammad Reza

    2013-01-01

    Objective(s): Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD) is one of the most common digestive disorders that frequently lead to pulmonary complications due to gastric fluid aspiration. In the present experimental study, chronic aspiration of gastric fluid, its components and bile salts in rat lung was performed to find out the main factor(s) causing pulmonary complications of gastric fluid aspiration. Materials and Methods: Forty eight male rats weighted 250-300 g were selected in six groups. Afte...

  11. Aggravation of serum Hepatocyte Growth Factor levels during hepato carcinogenesis in Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdelgawad, M.R.; Ghareeb, N.A.

    2010-01-01

    Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) has an essential role during liver development and it plays an important role in the regeneration and repair of injured tissues and acting as a mitogen, motogen and morphogens for a variety of epithelial cells. The role of HGF in carcinogenesis is in straggle and so, the present study aimed to through light through the level of HGF during different steps of carcinogenesis. Forty male rats were given diethylnitrosamine (DEN) in drinking water (100 mg/l) for up to 16 weeks. Eight rats were sacrificed at 8, 12 and 16 weeks. Besides, 8 hepatoma bearing rats were exposed to a single dose gamma irradiation (3 Gy) were sacrificed after 2 weeks from exposure (2 rats died, 36 hrs post irradiation) and 8 hepatoma bearing rats were sacrificed after 4 weeks from receiving a combined antioxidant (N-acetylcysteine and Lmethionine). Serum HGF was assayed by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Serum HGF level in DEN treated rats and in exposed hepatoma bearing rats was significantly higher than in control rats whereas, serum HGF level after treatment with N acetylcysteine and L-methionine for 4 weeks was significantly decreased than DEN treated rats and concluded that serum HGF may play a role during promotion and progression of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and during treatment

  12. Genome Editing in Rats Using TALE Nucleases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesson, Laurent; Remy, Séverine; Ménoret, Séverine; Usal, Claire; Thinard, Reynald; Savignard, Chloé; De Cian, Anne; Giovannangeli, Carine; Concordet, Jean-Paul; Anegon, Ignacio

    2016-01-01

    The rat is an important animal model to understand gene function and model human diseases. Since recent years, the development of gene-specific nucleases has become important for generating new rat models of human diseases, to analyze the role of genes and to generate human antibodies. Transcription activator-like (TALE) nucleases efficiently create gene-specific knockout rats and lead to the possibility of gene targeting by homology-directed recombination (HDR) and generating knock-in rats. We describe a detailed protocol for generating knockout and knock-in rats via microinjection of TALE nucleases into fertilized eggs. This technology is an efficient, cost- and time-effective method for creating new rat models.

  13. Cerveau isolé and pretrigeminal rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zernicki, B; Gandolfo, G; Glin, L; Gottesmann, C

    1984-01-01

    Cortical and hippocampal EEG activity was analysed in 14 cerveau isole and 8 pretrigerninal rats. In the acute stage, waking EEG patterns were absent in the cerveau isole, whereas sleep EEG patterns were absent in the pretrigeminal preparations. However, already on the second day the EEG waking-sleep cycle recovered in the majority of rats. Paradoxically, stimuli directed to the caudal part of preparations evoked stronger cortical and hippocampal EEG arousal than olfactory and visual stimuli. The behavior of the caudal part was observed in 25 preparations. Although in abortive form, the rats did show some locomotor and grooming behavior, and could be fed orally. The peripheral events of paradoxical sleep appeared only on the fourth or fifth day of survival of the cerveau isole rats. It is concluded that the activity of the isolated cerebrum of the rat is similar to that of cat preparations, but that functions of the caudal neuraxis are superior in rats.

  14. Pubertal neurocranium growth in thymectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rino, W; Teixeira, D

    1979-01-01

    Differences in neurocranium growth at puberty were studied in rats of both sexes thymectomized and sham-thymectomized at 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12 and 14 days of age and in controls of matched age and sex; skull length, width and height, and skull base length and face length were measured. The neurocranium of the thymectomized rats was significantly smaller than that of the sham-thymectomized and control rats of both sexes and in all age-groups.

  15. Treatment of diabetic rats with encapsulated islets

    OpenAIRE

    Sweet, Ian R; Yanay, Ofer; Waldron, Lanaya; Gilbert, Merle; Fuller, Jessica M; Tupling, Terry; Lernmark, Ake; Osborne, William R A

    2008-01-01

    Immunoprotection of islets using bioisolator systems permits introduction of allogeneic cells to diabetic patients without the need for immunosuppression. Using TheraCyte? immunoisolation devices, we investigated two rat models of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), BB rats and rats made diabetic by streptozotocin (STZ) treatment. We chose to implant islets after the onset of diabetes to mimic the probable treatment of children with T1DM as they are usually diagnosed after disease onset. We enca...

  16. Rat bite fever in a pet lover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, B B; Paller, A S; Katz, B Z

    1998-02-01

    Rat-bite fever is an uncommon bacterial illness resulting from infection with Streptobacillus moniliformis that is often transmitted by the bite of a rat. The cutaneous findings in rat-bite fever are nonspecific but have been described as maculopapular or petechial. We describe a 9-year-old girl with acrally distributed hemorrhagic pustules, fever, and arthralgias. Diagnosis was delayed because of difficulty in identifying the pathologic organism. She was successfully treated with 10 days of ceftriaxone.

  17. Harmful effect of protein difficiency on lipids, glucose, insulin and estradiol levels in female albino rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Mahdy, A.A.; El-Sherbiny, E.M.; Bayomi, M.M.

    2005-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate the harmful effect of protein deficient diet on some biochemical activities in serum of female rats. Protein malnutrition is a well known socioeconomic problem in different parts of the world. Many studies were investigated on the biological parameters following protein malnutrition in human and experimental animals. Forty albino female rats were divided into 3 groups. The first group (10 rats) fed 18% protein diet and served as normal control and the other two groups, each contains 15 rats, fed 5% protein for 21 and 45 days, respectively, and served as malnourished groups. The results showed significant decrease in total body weight, serum glucose, insulin and estradiol levels in the third group as well as decrease in the total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and VLDL-cholesterol and triglycerides concentrations that compared to normal control rats

  18. Phosphodiesterases in the rat ovary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Tonny Studsgaard; Stahlhut, Martin; Andersen, Claus Yding

    2015-01-01

    that augmented cAMP levels stimulate primordial follicle growth. The present study examined the gene expression, enzyme activity and immunolocalization of the different cAMP hydrolysing PDEs families in the rat ovary. Further, the effect of PDE4 inhibition on primordial follicle activation in cultured neonatal......Phosphodiesterases (PDEs) are important regulators of the intracellular cAMP concentration, which is a central second messenger that affects a multitude of intracellular functions. In the ovaries, cAMP exerts diverse functions, including regulation of ovulation and it has been suggested...... rat ovaries was also evaluated. We found varied expression of all eight families in the ovary with Pde7b and Pde8a having the highest expression each accounting for more than 20% of the total PDE mRNA. PDE4 accounted for 15-26% of the total PDE activity. Immunoreactive PDE11A was found in the oocytes...

  19. Isolation of rat adrenocortical mitochondria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solinas, Paola [Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States); Department of Medicine, Center for Mitochondrial Disease, School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States); Fujioka, Hisashi [Electron Microscopy Facility, Department of Pharmacology, Center for Mitochondrial Disease, School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States); Tandler, Bernard [Department of Biological Sciences, School of Dental Medicine, Center for Mitochondrial Disease, School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States); Hoppel, Charles L., E-mail: charles.hoppel@case.edu [Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States); Department of Medicine, Center for Mitochondrial Disease, School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States)

    2012-10-12

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A method for isolation of adrenocortical mitochondria from the adrenal gland of rats is described. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The purified isolated mitochondria show excellent morphological integrity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The properties of oxidative phosphorylation are excellent. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The method increases the opportunity of direct analysis of adrenal mitochondria from small animals. -- Abstract: This report describes a relatively simple and reliable method for isolating adrenocortical mitochondria from rats in good, reasonably pure yield. These organelles, which heretofore have been unobtainable in isolated form from small laboratory animals, are now readily accessible. A high degree of mitochondrial purity is shown by the electron micrographs, as well as the structural integrity of each mitochondrion. That these organelles have retained their functional integrity is shown by their high respiratory control ratios. In general, the biochemical performance of these adrenal cortical mitochondria closely mirrors that of typical hepatic or cardiac mitochondria.

  20. Renal function in streptozotocin-diabetic rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, P K; Christiansen, J S; Steven, K

    1981-01-01

    to the rise in kidney glomerular filtration rate (diabetic rats: 37.0 nl/min; control rats: 27.9 nl/min). Likewise renal plasma flow was significantly higher in the diabetic rats (4.1 ml/min) than in the control group (3.0 ml/min). Glomerular capillary pressure was identical in both groups (56.0 and 56.0 mm......-1mmHg-1). Kidney weight was significantly higher in the diabetic rats (1.15 g; control rats: 0.96 g) while body weight was similar in both groups (diabetic rats: 232 g; control rats: 238 g). Calculations indicate that the increases in transglomerular hydraulic pressure, renal plasma flow......Renal function was examined with micropuncture methods in the insulin-treated streptozotocin-diabetic rat. Kidney glomerular filtration rate was significantly higher in the diabetic rats (1.21 ml/min) than in the control group (0.84 ml/min) Nephron glomerular filtration rate increased in proportion...

  1. X-ray lethality in diabetic rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cember, H.; Thorson, T.M. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Rats were made diabetic with streptozotocin and were irradiated with X-rays at various exposure levels in order to determine the LD-50/30 day dose. Non-diabetic control rats were exposed in a similar manner. The LD-50 exposures for the diabetic rats and the control rats were 436 R, and 617 R respectively. In view of the high prevalence of diabetes among the adult population, this finding may have important implications for diabetic workers who may be exposed accidentally to high levels of ionizing radiation

  2. Automatic Training of Rat Cyborgs for Navigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yipeng; Wu, Zhaohui; Xu, Kedi; Gong, Yongyue; Zheng, Nenggan; Zheng, Xiaoxiang; Pan, Gang

    2016-01-01

    A rat cyborg system refers to a biological rat implanted with microelectrodes in its brain, via which the outer electrical stimuli can be delivered into the brain in vivo to control its behaviors. Rat cyborgs have various applications in emergency, such as search and rescue in disasters. Prior to a rat cyborg becoming controllable, a lot of effort is required to train it to adapt to the electrical stimuli. In this paper, we build a vision-based automatic training system for rat cyborgs to replace the time-consuming manual training procedure. A hierarchical framework is proposed to facilitate the colearning between rats and machines. In the framework, the behavioral states of a rat cyborg are visually sensed by a camera, a parameterized state machine is employed to model the training action transitions triggered by rat's behavioral states, and an adaptive adjustment policy is developed to adaptively adjust the stimulation intensity. The experimental results of three rat cyborgs prove the effectiveness of our system. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to tackle automatic training of animal cyborgs.

  3. Toxicity and repellency to rats of actidione

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traub, R.; DeWitt, J.B.; Welch, J.F.; Newman, D.

    1950-01-01

    The antibiotic actidione was found to be highly repellent to laboratory rats and to significantly reduce gnawing attacks upon treated paperboards. Rats refused to accept food or water containing this material even under conditions of acute starvation and died of starvation and thirst,rather than accept water containing l.0 mg. of actidione per liter. The compound is highly toxic to .rats with the minimum .lethal dose by oral administration being approximately l.0 mg./Kg body weight. Paperboard treated with the compound resisted gnawing attacks by specially trained and motivated rats for periods of two hundred hours, although similar .untreated boards were pierced within thirty-to sixty minutes.

  4. Influence of local tetracycline on the microbiota of alveolar osteitis in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Bosco, Joseane Maria Dias; Oliveira, Sérgio Ricardo de; Bosco, Álvaro Francisco; Schweitzer, Christiane Marie; Jardim Júnior, Elerson Gaetti

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of local tetracycline on the occurrence of alveolar osteitis in rats, and on the microbiota associated to this infection. Forty Wistar rats were randomly assigned to 4 groups (n=10): I - the rats had the maxillary right incisor extracted and the alveolar wound did not receive any treatment; II - adrenaline and Ringer-PRAS were introduced into the alveolar wound; III - the alveolar wound was irrigated with sterile saline; and IV - the al...

  5. Effect of TheraCyte-encapsulated parathyroid cells on lumbar fusion in a rat model

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Sung-Hsiung; Huang, Shun-Chen; Lui, Chun-Chung; Lin, Tzu-Ping; Chou, Fong-Fu; Ko, Jih-Yang

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Implantation of TheraCyte 4 × 106 live parathyroid cells can increase the bone marrow density of the spine of ovariectomized rats. There has been no published study examining the effect of such implantation on spinal fusion outcomes. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of TheraCyte-encapsulated parathyroid cells on posterolateral lumbar fusions in a rat model. Materials and methods Forty Sprague-Dawley rats underwent single-level, intertransverse process spinal fu...

  6. [Pharmacokinetics of crocetin in rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tong-zheng; Qian, Zhi-yu

    2002-05-01

    To develop an HPLC method for the determination of crocetin in rat plasma and study the pharmacokinetics in rats. Hypersil C18 column (5 microns, 4.6 mm x 200 mm) was used at column temperature 30 degrees C. The mobile phase consisted of methanol-water-acetic acid (75:24.5:0.5) at the flow rate of 1.0 mL.min-1. The UV detection wave length was 423 nm. The calibration curve was linear (gamma = 0.9996) in the range from 0.49 microgram.mL-1 to 7.87 micrograms.mL-1 for crocetin. The mean recovery was 105.2%. The lowest detectable concentration of crocetin was 0.14 microgram.mL-1 (S/N = 3). The RSDs of within-day and between-day were all less than 5%. The plasma crocetin was steady. The HPLC method of determination of crocetin in the plasma was established. After single dose of 50 mg.kg-1 ig in 10 rats, the main pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated as follows: T1/2 alpha (30 +/- 6) min, Tmax(65 +/- 16) min, Cmax(5.0 +/- 1.0) microgram.mL-1, AUC0-T(845 +/- 109) microgram.min.mL-1, Vd(5.0 +/- 0.8) L.kg-1. Crocetin was shown to be absorbed into the blood through the gastrointestinal tract. This method is quick, precise and reliable. Crocetin was shown to be quickly absorbed in rats.

  7. Stevia preferences in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez Martínez, Paula; Argüelles Luis, Juan; Perillán Méndez, Carmen

    2016-11-01

    The Stevia rebaudiana plant is likely to become a major source of high-potency sweetener for the growing natural-food market. S. rebaudiana is the source of a number of sweet diterpenoid glycosides, but the major sweet constituents are rebaudioside A and stevioside. These two constituents have similar pharmacokinetic and metabolic profiles in rats and humans, and thus, studies carried out with either steviol glycoside are relevant to both. Other studies illustrate the diversity of voluntary sweet intake in mammals. This study was done using a series of two-bottle tests that compared a wide range of sweetener concentrations versus saccharin concentrations and versus water. Wistar rats displayed preferences for stevia extract and pure rebaudioside A solutions over water at a range of concentrations (0.001% to 0.3%), and their intake peak occurred at 0.1% concentration. They also preferred solutions prepared with a commercial rebaudioside A plus erythritol mixture to water, and their peak was at 2% concentration. The present study provides new information about the responses of Wistar rats to stevia compounds and commercial stevia products such as Truvia. These results could help with the appropriate dosage selection for focused behavioral and physiological studies on stevia.

  8. Determination of rat vertebral bone compressive fatigue properties in untreated intact rats and zoledronic-acid-treated, ovariectomized rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwers, J.E.M.; Ruchselman, M.; Rietbergen, van B.; Bouxsein, M.L.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Compressive fatigue properties of whole vertebrae, which may be clinically relevant for osteoporotic vertebral fractures, were determined in untreated, intact rats and zoledronic-acid-treated, ovariectomized rats. Typical fatigue behavior was found and was similar to that seen in other

  9. Modulation of rat behaviour by using a rat-like robot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Qing; Ishii, Hiroyuki; Kinoshita, Shinichi; Takanishi, Atsuo; Okabayashi, Satoshi; Iida, Naritoshi; Kimura, Hiroshi; Shibata, Shigenobu

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we study the response of a rat to a rat-like robot capable of generating different types of behaviour (stressful, friendly, neutral). Experiments are conducted in an open-field where a rat-like robot called WR-4 is put together with live rats. The activity level of each rat subject is evaluated by scoring its locomotor activity and frequencies of performing rearing (rising up on its hind limbs) and body grooming (body cuddling and head curling) actions, whereas the degree of preference of that is indicated by the robot–rat distance and the frequency of contacting WR-4. The moving speed and behaviour of WR-4 are controlled in real-time based on the feedback from rat motion. The activity level and degree of preference of rats for each experimental condition are analysed and compared to understand the influence of robot behaviour. The results of this study show that the activity level and degree of preference of the rat decrease when exposed to a stressful robot, and increase when the robot exhibit friendly behaviour, suggesting that a rat-like robot can modulate rat behaviour in a controllable, predictable way. (paper)

  10. Grooming behavior of spontaneously hypertensive rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buuse, M. van den; Jong, Wybren de

    1987-01-01

    In an open field spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) exhibited lower scores for grooming when compared to their normotensive controls, the Wistar Kyoto rats (WKY). After i.c.v. injection of 1 μg ACTH1–24 cumulative 50-min grooming scores were lower in SHR. Analysis of subscores indicated that the

  11. Morphological and neurohistological changes in adolescent rats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pregnancy was confirmed and the pregnant rats were divided into 3 groups based on the 3 trimesters (A, B, C), with each group having a control and a treated subgroup. The Control Groups (A1, B1, ... offspring of tobacco smokers. Keywords: Cortex, Histology, Prenatal nicotine, Adolescent rats, Neurological abnormalities ...

  12. Target-selected mutagenesis of the rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, B.M.; Mudde, J.B.; Plasterk, R.; Cuppen, E.

    2004-01-01

    The rat is one of the most extensively studied model organisms, and with its genome being sequenced, tools to manipulate gene function in vivo have become increasingly important. We here report proof of principle for target-selected mutagenesis as a reverse genetic or knockout approach for the rat.

  13. Optical coherence tomography of the rat cochlea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wong, B. J. F.; de Boer, JF; Park, B.H.; Chen, ZP; Nelson, JS

    2000-01-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) was used to image the internal structure of a rat cochlea (ex vivo). Immediately following sacrifice, the temporal bone of a Sprague-Dawley rat was harvested. Axial OCT cross sectional images lover regions of interest, 1x1 mm-2x8 mm) were obtained with a spatial

  14. Same-Different Categorization in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasserman, Edward A.; Castro, Leyre; Freeman, John H.

    2012-01-01

    Same-different categorization is a fundamental feat of human cognition. Although birds and nonhuman primates readily learn same-different discriminations and successfully transfer them to novel stimuli, no such demonstration exists for rats. Using a spatial discrimination learning task, we show that rats can both learn to discriminate arrays of…

  15. in Alloxan-induced Diabetic Rats

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    Group 4: Diabetic rats that were administered. 500 mg/kg body weight extracts. Group 5: Diabetic rats that were administered. 300 mg/kg body weight of metformin. The drug and extracts treatment was done for a period of 21 days using orogastric tube. Collection of blood samples. Following 21 days of extract administration, ...

  16. Bromsulphalein (BSP) clearance in ageing rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hollander, C.F.; Leeuw-Israel, F.R. de; Arp-Neefjes, J.M.

    1968-01-01

    Liver function in ageing rats was studied, using the bromsulphalein (BSP) clearance test. The test was done on ultramicro scale. This made it possible to repeat the test several times in the same animal and to start a longitudinal study. In 3-month-old rats the BSP retentions, measured 15, 30 and 45

  17. Rebaudioside A inhibits pentylenetetrazol-induced convulsions in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yigit Uyanikgil

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The safety of patients with epilepsy consuming sweetening agents, which is becoming increasingly prevalent for various reasons, is a topic that should be emphasized as sensitively as it is for other diseases. Patients with epilepsy consume sweetening agents for different reasons such being diabetic or overweight. They can occasionally be exposed to sweetening agents unrestrainedly through consuming convenience food, primarily beverages. This study aimed to investigate the effects of rebaudioside A (Reb-A, which is a steviol glycoside produced from the herb Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni, on epileptic seizures and convulsions induced by pentylenetetrazole (PTZ. Forty-eight male rats were used. Twenty-four rats were administered 35 mg/kg PTZ to trigger epileptiform activity; the remaining 24 rats were administered 70 mg/kg PTZ to trigger the convulsion model. The epileptiform activity was evaluated by spike percentage, whereas convulsion was evaluated by Racine's Convulsion Scale and the onset time of the first myoclonic jerk. Statistical analysis revealed a statistically significant decrease in the Racine's Convulsion Scale score and increase in the latency of first myoclonic jerk in a dose-dependent manner for the rat groups in which PTZ epilepsy had been induced and Reb-A had been administered. For the groups that were administered Reb-A, the spike decrease was apparent in a dose-dependent manner, based on the spike percentage calculation. These results indicated that Reb-A has positive effects on PTZ-induced convulsions.

  18. Pro blood clotting activity of Scoparia dulcis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ediriweera, E R H S S; Jayakody, J R A C; Ratnasooriya, W D

    2011-04-01

    Scoparia dulcis Linn (Family: Scrophulariaceae, Sinhala: WalKoththamalli) is a perennial herb growing in many tropical countries including Sri Lanka. Traditional Physicians in rural down south areas apply crushed S. dulcis plant on cuts and bruises to stop bleeding. S. dulcis may also have Rakta Sthambhana property. The study on effect of decoction (water extract) of S. dulcis on blood clotting time in rats was carried out to investigate this. Two groups of rats, 12 males and 42 females were used in this experimental study. Forty-two female rats were assigned into seven equal groups (n = 6/gp). Different doses of DE (25, 50, 100, 1000, 1500 mg/kg) (group 1-5) or 2 ml of distilled water (DW) (group 6) were orally administered. 0.1 ml of vitamin K was injected intramuscularly (group 7) as reference drug to seventh the group. Twelve male rats were assigned into two equal groups (n = 6/gp), 2 ml of distilled water (DW) and doses of DE (1500 mg/kg) were orally administered. Clotting time was determined on the Days 1, 2, and 7 using Lee and White method. In the DE treated groups with all doses, there was no reduction in clotting time on the Day 1 but a significant reduction of clotting time (P dulcis has proclotting activity (rakthasthambhana property) and this was faster than vitamin K.

  19. Photobiomodulation laser improves the early repair process of hypothyroid rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzêda e Silva, V. D.; Rodriguez, T. T.; Xavier, F. C. A.; dos Santos, J. N.; Vasconcelos, R. M.; Ramalho, L. M. P.

    2018-04-01

    Delay in wound healing has been observed in the hypothyroidism disfunction. Laser light can modulate various biological phenomena acting on different cell types. However, there are few reports in the literature regarding the effects of laser on wound healing of hypothyroid models. This study aimed to evaluate the differences in reepithelialization process of cutaneous wounds on hypothyroid and euthyroid rats treated with laser phototherapy. Forty-eight rats were divided into two main groups: euthyroid (EU) and hypothyroid (HYPO). Hypothyroidism was induced by Thyroidectomy. Each group was divided into subgroups: control (without laser) and laser groups. Standard surgical wound was created on the dorsum of each rat. The irradiation protocols (λ660 nm, 40 mW, CW; 10 J/cm2) was carried out immediately after wounding and repeated every 24h during 3 and 7 days. After animal death, specimens were taken, routinely processed, cut, stained with hematoxylin-eosin, and underwent histological analysis. Three days after the surgery, it was possible to observe initial reepithelialization in more advanced stages in the wound area of the irradiated hypothyroid group when compared to control hypothyroid group (p<0.05). No significant difference was found in the experimental period of 7 days among the groups. It was concluded that the laser light did influence reepithelialization process on hypothyroid rats in early stages of healing process.

  20. Shaofu Zhuyu Decoction Regresses Endometriotic Lesions in a Rat Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanghui Zhu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The current therapies for endometriosis are restricted by various side effects and treatment outcome has been less than satisfactory. Shaofu Zhuyu Decoction (SZD, a classic traditional Chinese medicinal (TCM prescription for dysmenorrhea, has been widely used in clinical practice by TCM doctors to relieve symptoms of endometriosis. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of SZD on a rat model of endometriosis. Forty-eight female Sprague-Dawley rats with regular estrous cycles went through autotransplantation operation to establish endometriosis model. Then 38 rats with successful ectopic implants were randomized into two groups: vehicle- and SZD-treated groups. The latter were administered SZD through oral gavage for 4 weeks. By the end of the treatment period, the volume of the endometriotic lesions was measured, the histopathological properties of the ectopic endometrium were evaluated, and levels of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA, CD34, and hypoxia inducible factor- (HIF- 1α in the ectopic endometrium were detected with immunohistochemistry. Furthermore, apoptosis was assessed using the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT deoxyuridine 5′-triphosphate (dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL assay. In this study, SZD significantly reduced the size of ectopic lesions in rats with endometriosis, inhibited cell proliferation, increased cell apoptosis, and reduced microvessel density and HIF-1α expression. It suggested that SZD could be an effective therapy for the treatment and prevention of endometriosis recurrence.

  1. Biological response of rats fed with tofu treated with high hydrostatic pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Préstamo, G; Arroyo, G

    2000-10-01

    Emerging technologies for food preservation have arisen in recent years, such as high-pressure (HP) hydrostatic treatment, and the biological response for this kind of food preservation is not well-known. Forty female rats (six weeks old) were used in the experiment to evaluate the biological effects of HP treatment of tofu. The animals were divided into groups that were fed with tofu (untreated), tofu treated with HP, and conventional food (as control) for 28 days. The glucose level, mineral content (calcium, potassium, zinc, and magnesium), shinbone maximum shear force, weight of the body, and weight of organs (heart, liver, spleen, and kidneys) were analyzed. The biological response for the rats was that significant differences were found in the calcium amount determined on the serum of the rats fed with untreated tofu and those fed with tofu treated with HP, and the calcium amount was lower on the rats fed with tofu treated with HP. Also, there were significant differences in the weight of the liver, and it was lower in the rats fed with tofu treated with HP. It was quite remarkable how the weight of the body and organs were smaller in the rats fed with tofu in comparison to the weight of the control rats. In the other components assayed no significant differences were found. HP produces a potential effect on tofu as it is observed in the rats response to the tofu treated with HP.

  2. Adrenergic blockade in diabetic and uninephrectomized rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thulesen, J; Poulsen, Steen Seier; Jørgensen, P E

    1999-01-01

    The present study reports on the effects of adrenergic blocking agents on the renal growth and on the renal content and urinary excretion of epidermal growth factor (EGF) in streptozotocin-induced diabetic or uninephrectomized rats. Diabetic and uninephrectomized rats were allocated to groups...... treated with either saline or adrenergic antagonists and compared to controls and sham-operated controls, respectively. 24-hour urine samples were obtained on days 7, 14, and 21 and renal tissue samples on day 21. The 24-hour urinary excretion of EGF from controls and saline-treated diabetic rats...... was comparable. In adrenergic antagonist treated diabetic rats, it was reduced by at least 40% throughout the study period. Uninephrectomy caused a 50% reduction in the urinary excretion of EGF. This was not influenced by treatment with an adrenergic antagonist. After 3 weeks, saline-treated diabetic rats had...

  3. Transfer RNA methylases in rat placenta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jagtiani, S.K.; Narurkar, L.M.; Narurkar, M.V.

    1977-01-01

    Presence of tRNA methylases (5-adenosylmethionine : tRNA methyltransferases) was demonstrated at various stages of gestation in rat placenta, the enzyme being 50-100% higher than that of adult rat liver during early gestation. Placental tRNA methylases were shown to differ from those of liver in the extent of methylation. Glycine methyltransferase (S-adenosylmethionine : glycine methyltransferase), a regulatory enzyme in adult rat liver, was absent in placenta throughout gestation. The placental tRNA methylases could be inhibited in vitro by semipurified glycine methyltransferase from adult rat liver. The high placental tRNA methylase activity was comparable with the inhibitor-free enzyme activity of the adult rat liver. S-adenosyl-[Me- 14 C]-methionine was used in the investigation. (author)

  4. Development of ELISA kit for rat albumin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Zhigang; Han Shiquan; Liu Yibing; Xu Wenge; Jia Juanjuan

    2009-01-01

    The Anti-rat albumin serum was prepared by immunized the sheep with rat albumin. A ELISA method was established for rat albumin. The measurement range of the assay was 1-50 mg/L, sensitivity of the assay was 0.42 mg/L, recovery rate was 85.0%-106.0%. Intra-and inter-assay variation coefficients were <8.9% and <12.8% respectively. The correlation coefficients between measured and expected values were 0.999 after serial dilution of the urine samples with high concentrations of rat albumin. A good correlation was observed between the ELISA and RIA methods, and the kit for rat albumin might provide a convenience in exploitation of renal drugs and experimental injury of the kidney. (authors)

  5. Metabolism of methylphenidate in dog and rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egger, H.; Bartlett, F.; Dreyfuss, R.; Karliner, J.

    1981-01-01

    The urinary metabolites of methylphenidate in the dog and rat were investigated. After oral administration of 14C-labeled methylphenidate, approximately 86% and 63% of the dose was recovered in the urine of the dog and rat, respectively. Less than 1% of the dose was excreted as unchanged drug. Metabolism involved oxidation, hydrolysis, and conjugation processes. The primary hydrolytic product was alpha-phenyl-2-piperidineacetic acid (24%, dog; 35-40%, rat). The primary metabolites of oxidation were methyl 6-oxo-alpha-phenyl-2-piperidineacetate (3%, dog; 1.5%, rat) and the glucuronide of alpha-(p-hydroxyphenyl)-2-piperidineacetic acid (10%, rat). The former also underwent extensive biotransformation, including: 1) hydrolysis to the lactam acid (27%, dog; 7-10%, rat) and subsequent carboxylic acid O-glucuronidation (15%, dog); or 2) hydroxylation at the 5-position (1%, dog; 2%, rat) and subsequent hydrolysis (4%, dog; 15-17%, rat); or 3) 5-O-glucuronidation (12%, dog). Additional minor metabolites from methyl-6-oxo-alpha-phenyl-2-piperidineacetate were the phenolic O-glucuronide of methyl alpha-(p-hydroxyphenyl)-6-oxo-2-piperidineacetate (1%, dog), and the 4-O-glucuronide of methyl 4-hydroxy-6-oxo-alpha-phenyl-2-piperidineacetate (1%, dog), and the taurine amide conjugate of alpha-(p-hydroxyphenyl)-6-oxo-2-piperidineacetic acid (1%, dog). Additional products from methylphenidate conjugation included methyl 1-carbamoyl-alpha-phenyl-2-piperidineacetate (1%, dog or rat) and its carboxylic acid hydrolysis product (1%, rat). The chirality of the major metabolites isolated from dog urine showed that metabolism was partially stereoselective in all investigated cases, except in the formation of alpha-phenyl-2-piperidineacetic acid

  6. Genetic susceptibility to mammary carcinogenesis in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamiya, Kenji; Nitta, Yumiko [Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). Research Inst. for Radiation Biology and Medicine

    1999-06-01

    The Copenhagen (COP) rat strain has previously been shown to be genetically resistant to chemical induction of breast cancer, while Wistar/Furth (WF) and Fischer 344 (F344) animals are relatively susceptible. We have compared the carcinogenic response of these three strains of rats to N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU) with that to {sup 60}Co gamma rays. High incidences of mammary carcinomas were induced by MNU in the F344 and WF rats (100%), whereas the COP strain proved resistant (11.8%). In contrast, radiation-induced mammary carcinomas in COP rats developed in a similar incidence (37.0%) to those in the F344 (22.6%) and WF (26.9%) strains. The low incidence of papillary carcinomas in MNU-treated COP rats appeared to be directly related to the COP genetic resistance controlled by the Mcs genes. Ionizing radiation did, however, induce papillary carcinomas in all the three strains of rats. These carcinomas were more differentiated than MNU-induced cancers with regard to the two mammary differentiation markers, rat milk fat globule membrane (R-MFGM) and {alpha}-smooth muscle actin ({alpha}-SMA). Furthermore, ionizing radiation but not MNU induced mammary adenomas in all three strains, especially in COP rats. Such adenomas had differentiation marker profiles similar to these of carcinomas induced by {sup 60}Co gamma rays. When transplanted into syngenic hosts, growth of adenomas was 17 {beta}-estradiol (E{sub 2})-dependent and they progressed to carcinomas. Furthermore, one microcarcinoma was observed to develop from adenoma tissue in a radiation-exposed COP rat. The findings suggest that radiation and chemical carcinogens are likely to induce mammary cancers through different pathways or from different cell populations. The induction of relatively high incidences of mammary carcinomas and adenomas by radiation in COP rats may correlate with the genetically modulated and highly differentiated physiological status of their mammary glands. (author)

  7. Social exclusion intensifies anxiety-like behavior in adolescent rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyunchan; Noh, Jihyun

    2015-05-01

    Social connection reduces the physiological reactivity to stressors, while social exclusion causes emotional distress. Stressful experiences in rats result in the facilitation of aversive memory and induction of anxiety. To determine the effect of social interaction, such as social connection, social exclusion and equality or inequality, on emotional change in adolescent distressed rats, the emotional alteration induced by restraint stress in individual rats following exposure to various social interaction circumstances was examined. Rats were assigned to one of the following groups: all freely moving rats, all rats restrained, rats restrained in the presence of freely moving rats and freely moving rats with a restrained rat. No significant difference in fear-memory and sucrose consumption between all groups was found. Change in body weight significantly increased in freely moving rats with a restrained rat, suggesting that those rats seems to share the stressful experience of the restrained rat. Interestingly, examination of the anxiety-like behavior revealed only rats restrained in the presence of freely moving rats to have a significant increase, suggesting that emotional distress intensifies in positions of social exclusion. These results demonstrate that unequally excluded social interaction circumstances could cause the amplification of distressed status and anxiety-related emotional alteration. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Influence of estrogen replacement and aging on the expression of nerve growth factor in the urethra of female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucchi, Eliana V M; Jármy-Di Bella, Zsuzsanna I K; Castro, Rodrigo A; Takano, Claudia C; Simões, Manuel J; Girão, Manoel J B C; Sartori, Marair G F

    2012-06-01

    To evaluate the expression of nerve growth factor (NGF) in the urethra of adult female rats in different hormonal status using immunohistochemical assay. Forty-eight rats (Rattus norvegicus albinus, Rodentia, Mammalia) from the CEDEME-UNIFESP laboratory animal facility were used in the study. Rats were divided into four groups: group A, 12 non-neutered rats; group B, 12 oophorectomized rats; group C, 12 castrated rats treated with 17β-estradiol for 30 days; and group D, 12 aging rats. Animals were killed by lethal injection and their urethra was removed. NGF expression was evaluated by means of immunohistochemistry using mouse monoclonal primary IgG antibody anti-NGF diluted 1:600, and read under 400× magnification. Digital analysis of the images was done by Imagelab software. The intensity of the dark brown color was used as a measure of NGF cytoplasmatic expression, and was used to quantify the percentage of epithelial and muscular layer cells showing this neurotrophin. After oophorectomy, rats showed a significant increase in NGF expression in the periurethral muscular layer. Compared with oophorectomized rats, NGF expression increased in the epithelial layer and diminished in the periurethral smooth muscle following estrogen administration. In 18-month-old rats, NGF expression was diminished in both epithelial and muscular layers. Hormonal status led to significant differences in NGF protein expression in urethral epithelium and periurethral smooth muscle. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. The protective effect of aqueous extracts of roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L. UKMR-2) against red blood cell membrane oxidative stress in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed, Jamaludin; Shing, Saw Wuan; Idris, Muhd Hanis Md; Budin, Siti Balkis; Zainalabidin, Satirah

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effects of aqueous extracts of roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L. UKMR-2) against red blood cell (RBC) membrane oxidative stress in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes. METHODS: Forty male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 230-250 g were randomly divided into four groups (n = 10 rats each): control group (N), roselle-treated control group, diabetic group, and roselle-treated diabetic group. Roselle was administered by force-f...

  10. Dithiobiuret metabolism in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, K.D.; Porter, W.R.; Peterson, R.E.

    1982-01-01

    Our main objective was to describe the metabolism of dithiobiuret (DTB) in the adult, male rat. Based on the thin-layer chromatographic analysis of urine from animals treated with [ 14 C] or [ 35 S] labeled DTB, two pathways for metabolism are proposed. One pathway is reversible and involves the oxidation of DTB to thiuret and the reduction of thiuret back to DTB. The other pathway consists of the desulfurization of DTB to monothiobiuret. The liver appears to desulfurate DTB because DTB-derived [35S] was eliminated from the liver more rapidly than [ 14 C]. The liver was the only tissue where the elimination kinetics of [ 35 S] and [ 14 C] DTB were different. DTB-derived radioactivity in urine that co-chromatographed with DTB, monothiobiuret, thiuret and sulfate was quantitated along with that of three uncharacterized metabolites. The presence of these unknown metabolites suggests that DTB metabolism is complex. The present study is the first description of the metabolic fate of DTB in the rat and serves as a starting point for determining whether DTB neurotoxicity is caused by the parent compound or a metabolite

  11. Lessons From Experiments in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Gramsbergen

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available In this essay a few relevant aspects of the neural and behavioral development of the brain in the human and in the rat are reviewed and related to the consequences of lesions in the central and peripheral nervous system at early and later age. Movements initially are generated by local circuits in the spinal cord and without the involvement of descending projections. After birth, both in humans and in rats it seems that the devlopment of postural control is the limiting factor for several motor behaviors to mature. Strong indications exist that the cerebellum is significantly involved in this control. Lesions in the CNS at early stages interfere with fundamental processes of neural development, such as the establishment of fiber connections and cell death patterns. Consequently, the functional effects are strongly dependent on the stage of development. The young and undisturbed CNS, on the other hand, has a much greater capacity than the adult nervous system for compensating abnormal reinnervation in the peripheral nervous system. Animal experiments indicated that the cerebellar cortex might play an important part in this compensation. This possibility should be investigated further as it might offer important perspectives for treatment in the human.

  12. Autoprotection in acetaminophen intoxication in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalhoff, K; Laursen, H; Bangert, K

    2001-01-01

    and liver tissue were collected before and 12, 24, 36, and 48 hr after the toxic dose and were analysed for hepatic glutathione and cysteine contents, hepatic glutathione-S-transferase and blood alanine aminotransferase activity, as well as acetaminophen concentration in plasma. Steady-state mRNA levels......Autoprotection by acetaminophen, i.e. increased resistance to toxic effects caused by pretreatment, is a well-known phenomenon. The purpose of the present work was to identify mechanisms for increased acetaminophen tolerance induced by pretreatment of rats. One group of female Wistar rats...... (pretreated rats) received acetaminophen orally in increasing doses (1 to 4.3 g/kg) twice a week for 3 weeks, one group (naïve rats) received the vehicle. At time zero pretreated rats received a toxic dose of 7.5 g/kg (100% lethal in naïve rats), and naïve rats received a toxic dose of 4.3 g/kg. Blood...

  13. Cerebral ammonia metabolism in hyperammonemic rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, A J; Mora, S N; Cruz, N F; Gelbard, A S

    1985-06-01

    The short-term metabolic fate of blood-borne (/sup 13/N)ammonia was determined in the brains of chronically (8- or 14-week portacaval-shunted rats) or acutely (urease-treated) hyperammonemic rats. Using a freeze-blowing technique it was shown that the overwhelming route for metabolism of blood-borne (/sup 13/N)ammonia in normal, chronically hyperammonemic and acutely hyperammonemic rat brain was incorporation into glutamine (amide). However, the rate of turnover of (/sup 13/N)ammonia to L-(amide-/sup 13/N)glutamine was slower in the hyperammonemic rat brain than in the normal rat brain. The activities of several enzymes involved in cerebral ammonia and glutamate metabolism were also measured in the brains of 14-week portacaval-shunted rats. The rat brain appears to have little capacity to adapt to chronic hyperammonemia because there were no differences in activity compared with those of weight-matched controls for the following brain enzymes involved in glutamate/ammonia metabolism: glutamine synthetase, glutamate dehydrogenase, aspartate aminotransferase, glutamine transaminase, glutaminase, and glutamate decarboxylase. The present findings are discussed in the context of the known deleterious effects on the CNS of high ammonia levels in a variety of diseases.

  14. Abstract numerical discrimination learning in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniuchi, Tohru; Sugihara, Junko; Wakashima, Mariko; Kamijo, Makiko

    2016-06-01

    In this study, we examined rats' discrimination learning of the numerical ordering positions of objects. In Experiments 1 and 2, five out of seven rats successfully learned to respond to the third of six identical objects in a row and showed reliable transfer of this discrimination to novel stimuli after being trained with three different training stimuli. In Experiment 3, the three rats from Experiment 2 continued to be trained to respond to the third object in an object array, which included an odd object that needed to be excluded when identifying the target third object. All three rats acquired this selective-counting task of specific stimuli, and two rats showed reliable transfer of this selective-counting performance to test sets of novel stimuli. In Experiment 4, the three rats from Experiment 3 quickly learned to respond to the third stimulus in object rows consisting of either six identical or six different objects. These results offer strong evidence for abstract numerical discrimination learning in rats.

  15. Total parenteral nutrition in diabetic rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norcross, E.D.; Stein, T.P.

    1986-01-01

    Parenteral Nutrition with hypertonic glucose is frequently given to diabetic patients. Large amounts of insulin can be required. The purpose of this investigation was to develop a totally parenterally nourished diabetic rat model. 200 g Female Sprague Dawley rats were made diabetic by i.v. injection of streptozotocin (50 mg/kg). Rats were then allowed to recover for at least 1 week before undergoing surgical insertion of a central venous catheter for parenteral feeding. TPN was begun 3 days after surgery. Prior to this they were allowed unlimited access to food and water. Control (non-streptozotocin treated) rats were run at the same time. Protein turnover was investigated by using 15 N glycine. Preliminary results: diabetic rats given mostly fat as a calorie source survived well in the absence of exogenous insulin whereas those that were given glucose only as their non-protein calorie source showed poor survival even with exogenous insulin. N balance and protein turnover in the lipid treated diabetic rats were comparable to the non-diabetic control rats

  16. Embryogenesis-promoting factors in rat serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katoh, M; Kimura, R; Shoji, R

    1998-06-15

    Regarding whole rat embryo cultures in vitro, rat serum as a culture medium is known to support the normal growth of rat embryos in the organogenesis phase. The purpose of the present study was to isolate the embryogenesis-promoting factors from rat serum as a first step in the development of a defined serum-free medium for a whole embryo culture system. Pooled rat serum after heat inactivation was fractionated into three major peaks (frA, containing a region of void volume, frB, and frC) by gel filtration. The 9.5-day rat embryos that were cultivated for 48 hr in essential salt medium containing frB (with a molecular size range of 100-500 kDa) revealed normal growth. Three proteins (27 kDa, 76 kDa, and 190 kDa) that had the embryogenesis-promoting effects were isolated from 3-hr delayed centrifuged rat serum by the ion exchange chromatography. The 76-kDa protein was found to be rat transferrin by immunoblotting. The 27-kDa protein was identified as apo-AI (the major apoprotein of high-density lipoprotein) by immunoblotting. High-density lipoprotein obtained from pooled rat serum by a NaBr density gradient ultracentrifugation was found to have a positive effect on embryogenesis. The 10-kDa protein was also identified as alpha 1-inhibitor 3 by immunoblotting. In addition, the embryogenesis-promoting effect of the fraction containing 27-kDa and 190-kDa proteins declined within a short period of storage at -20 degrees C. This decrease was countered by supplementing its fraction (D-2) with albumin isolated from rat serum. These results in the present study suggest that transferrin, high-density lipoprotein, and alpha 1-inhibitor 3 in rat serum may be embryogenesis-promoting factors, and that albumin appeared to play a role in the embryogenesis of rat embryos in whole embryo cultures.

  17. [Action mechanism of electroacupuncture at stomach meridian acupoints for oxidative damage in rats with gastric ulcer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zongbao; Wang, Yadong; Liu, Qiong; Liu, Mi; Chen, Huijuan; Chang, Xiaorong

    2016-06-12

    To observe the effects of electroacupuncture (EA) at stomach meridian acupoints on expression of oxidation damage factors in serum and gastric mucosal cells in rats with gastric ulcer, and to explore the mechanism of EA at stomach meridian acupoints for oxidative damage in rats with gastric ulcer. Forty clean-grade SD rats were randomly divided into a normal group, a model group, a stomach meridian group and a gallbladder meridian group, ten rats in each one. Except the normal group, rats in the remaining groups were applied the restraint-cold stress method to establish the model of gastric ulcer. Rats in the normal group and model group received no treatment; rats in the stomach meridian group were treated with EA at "Liangmen" (ST 21) and "Zusanli" (ST 36); rats in the gallbladder meridian group were treated with EA at "Riyue" (GB 24) and "Yanglingquan" (GB 34). The EA was given for 30 min, once a day for 7 days totally. The change of gastric mucosal morphology was observed by routine light microscope; enzyme linked immunosorbent assay was used to detect the expressions of malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-px) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-2(IL-2), interleukin-6(IL-6) in serum and gastric mucosal cells of rats. After treatment, compared with the model group, the gastric mucosal damage index was decreased in the stomach meridian group and gallbladder meridian group (both P stomach meridian group (all P stomach meridian group rats ( P stomach meridian acupoints is likely to inhibit the expressions of oxidative damage factors to promote the repair of gastric mucosal injury, which indicates the correlation between meridians and zang-fu .

  18. Histometric study of socket healing after tooth extraction in rats treated with diclofenac

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yugoshi Luciana Ibara

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to investigate if diclofenac administration interferes with the time course of alveolar wound healing in rats. Forty-two Wistar rats were used, 21 rats received 10 mg/kg/day of diclofenac one day before and 4 days after extraction of the right maxillary incisors and 21 rats received saline. The animals were sacrificed 7, 14 and 21 days after tooth extraction. Progressive new bone formation and a decrease in the volume fraction of blood clot and connective tissue from 1 to 3 weeks after tooth extraction was quantified using the histometric point-counting method. Diclofenac treatment caused a significant delay in new bone formation in association with an impairment of blood clot remission/organization.

  19. Effect of camelina oil on the structure of aortas in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pawlowska, Marta; Harrison, Adrian Paul; Piersiak, Tomasz

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine whether a disturbance of hormonal homeostasis caused by ovariectomy influences the elasticity and wall structure of the abdominal aorta and whether camelina oil administration has an effect on the properties of the abdominal aorta in rats after...... ovariectomy. Forty Wistar female rats (220-240 g) were used in the experiment: 10 animals underwent a sham ovary repositioning operation (SHO), and 30 were ovariectomized (OVX). After 7 days of convalescence, the SHO rats and OVX1 rats were given physiological saline intragastrically for 6 weeks, while......), and images were obtained by light and confocal microscopy. Ovariectomy caused a significant decrease in the elasticity of the aorta, as well as in the volume of collagen III and elastin in the tunica intima and media, but no changes in the volume of collagen I, the total wall thickness or the thickness...

  20. Establishment of a novel dwarf rat strain: cartilage calcification insufficient (CCI) rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Masami; Watanabe, Minoru; Yokomi, Izuru; Matsumoto, Naoki; Sudo, Katsuko; Satoh, Hitoshi; Igarashi, Tsuneo; Seki, Azusa; Amano, Hitoshi; Ohura, Kiyoshi; Ryu, Kakei; Shibata, Shunichi; Nagayama, Motohiko; Tanuma, Jun-ichi

    2015-01-01

    Rats with dwarfism accompanied by skeletal abnormalities, such as shortness of the limbs, tail, and body (dwarf rats), emerged in a Jcl-derived Sprague-Dawley rat colony maintained at the Institute for Animal Experimentation, St. Marianna University Graduate School of Medicine. Since the dwarfism was assumed to be due to a genetic mutation based on its frequency, we bred the dwarf rats and investigated their characteristics in order to identify the causative factors of their phenotypes and whether they could be used as a human disease model. One male and female that produced dwarf progeny were selected, and reproduction was initiated by mating the pair. The incidence of dwarfism was 25.8% among the resultant litter, and dwarfism occurred in both genders, suggesting that it was inherited in an autosomal recessive manner. At 12 weeks of age, the body weights of the male and female dwarf rats were 40% and 57% of those of the normal rats, respectively. In soft X-ray radiographic and histological examinations, shortening and hypoplasia of the long bones, such as the tibia and femur, were observed, which were suggestive of endochondral ossification abnormalities. An immunohistochemical examination detected an aggrecan synthesis disorder, which might have led to delayed calcification and increased growth plate thickening in the dwarf rats. We hypothesized that the principal characteristics of the dwarf rats were systemically induced by insufficient cartilage calcification in their long bones; thus, we named them cartilage calcification insufficient (CCI) rats.

  1. Establishment of a novel dwarf rat strain: cartilage calcification insufficient (CCI) rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    TANAKA, Masami; WATANABE, Minoru; YOKOMI, Izuru; MATSUMOTO, Naoki; SUDO, Katsuko; SATOH, Hitoshi; IGARASHI, Tsuneo; SEKI, Azusa; AMANO, Hitoshi; OHURA, Kiyoshi; RYU, Kakei; SHIBATA, Shunichi; NAGAYAMA, Motohiko; TANUMA, Jun-ichi

    2014-01-01

    Rats with dwarfism accompanied by skeletal abnormalities, such as shortness of the limbs, tail, and body (dwarf rats), emerged in a Jcl-derived Sprague-Dawley rat colony maintained at the Institute for Animal Experimentation, St. Marianna University Graduate School of Medicine. Since the dwarfism was assumed to be due to a genetic mutation based on its frequency, we bred the dwarf rats and investigated their characteristics in order to identify the causative factors of their phenotypes and whether they could be used as a human disease model. One male and female that produced dwarf progeny were selected, and reproduction was initiated by mating the pair. The incidence of dwarfism was 25.8% among the resultant litter, and dwarfism occurred in both genders, suggesting that it was inherited in an autosomal recessive manner. At 12 weeks of age, the body weights of the male and female dwarf rats were 40% and 57% of those of the normal rats, respectively. In soft X-ray radiographic and histological examinations, shortening and hypoplasia of the long bones, such as the tibia and femur, were observed, which were suggestive of endochondral ossification abnormalities. An immunohistochemical examination detected an aggrecan synthesis disorder, which might have led to delayed calcification and increased growth plate thickening in the dwarf rats. We hypothesized that the principal characteristics of the dwarf rats were systemically induced by insufficient cartilage calcification in their long bones; thus, we named them cartilage calcification insufficient (CCI) rats. PMID:25736479

  2. Protective effects of piperine on lead acetate induced-nephrotoxicity in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Agus Sudjarwo

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: In this study, we investigated the protective effects of piperine on lead acetate-induced renal damage in rat kidney tissue. Materials and Methods: Forty male rats were divided into 5 groups: negative control (rats were given aquadest daily, positive control (rats were given lead acetate 30 mg/kg BW orally once a day for 60 days, and the treatment group (rats were given piperine 50 mg; 100 mg and 200 mg/kg BW orally once a day for 65 days, and on 5th day, were given lead acetate 30 mg/kg BW one hr after piperine administration for 60 days. On day 65 levels of blood urea nitrogen (BUN, creatinine, malondialdehyde (MDA, Superoxide Dismutase (SOD, and Glutathione Peroxidase (GPx were measured. Also, kidney samples were collected for histopathological studies. Results: The results revealed that lead acetate toxicity induced a significant increase in the levels of BUN, creatinine, and MDA; moreover, a significant decrease in SOD and GPx. Lead acetate also altered kidney histopathology (kidney damage, necrosis of tubules compared to the negative control. However, administration of piperine significantly improved the kidney histopathology, decreased the levels of BUN, creatinine, and MDA, and also significantly increased the SOD and GPx in the kidney of lead acetate-treated rats. Conclusion: From the results of this study it was concluded that piperine could be a potent natural herbal product exhibiting nephroprotective effect against lead acetate induced nephrotoxicity in rats.

  3. Volumetric changes in the aging rat brain and its impact on cognitive and locomotor functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamezah, Hamizah Shahirah; Durani, Lina Wati; Ibrahim, Nor Faeizah; Yanagisawa, Daijiro; Kato, Tomoko; Shiino, Akihiko; Tanaka, Sachiko; Damanhuri, Hanafi Ahmad; Ngah, Wan Zurinah Wan; Tooyama, Ikuo

    2017-12-01

    Impairments in cognitive and locomotor functions usually occur with advanced age, as do changes in brain volume. This study was conducted to assess changes in brain volume, cognitive and locomotor functions, and oxidative stress levels in middle- to late-aged rats. Forty-four male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups: 14, 18, 23, and 27months of age. 1 H magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed using a 7.0-Tesla MR scanner system. The volumes of the lateral ventricles, medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), hippocampus, striatum, cerebellum, and whole brain were measured. Open field, object recognition, and Morris water maze tests were conducted to assess cognitive and locomotor functions. Blood was taken for measurements of malondialdehyde (MDA), protein carbonyl content, and antioxidant enzyme activity. The lateral ventricle volumes were larger, whereas the mPFC, hippocampus, and striatum volumes were smaller in 27-month-old rats than in 14-month-old rats. In behavioral tasks, the 27-month-old rats showed less exploratory activity and poorer spatial learning and memory than did the 14-month-old rats. Biochemical measurements likewise showed increased MDA and lower glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity in the 27-month-old rats. In conclusion, age-related increases in oxidative stress, impairment in cognitive and locomotor functions, and changes in brain volume were observed, with the most marked impairments observed in later age. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Influence of creatine supplementation on indicators of glucose metabolism in skeletal muscle of exercised rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Barbosa de Araújo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of creatine supplementation in the diet on indicators of glucose metabolism in skeletal muscle of exercised rats. Forty Wistar adult rats were distributed into four groups for eight weeks: 1 Control: sedentary rats that received balanced diet; 2 Creatine control: sedentary rats that received supplementation of 2% creatine in the balanced diet; 3 Trained: rats that ran on a treadmill at the Maximal Lactate Steady State and received balanced diet; and 4 Supplemented-trained: rats that ran on a treadmill at the Maximal Lactate Steady State and received creatine supplementation (2% in the balanced diet. The hydric intake increased and the body weight gain decreased in the supplemented-trained group. In the soleus muscle, the glucose oxidation increased in both supplemented groups. The production of lactate and glycemia during glucose tolerance test decreased in the supplemented-trained group. Creatine supplementation in conjunction with exercise training improved muscular glycidic metabolism of rats.

  5. Ontogenic changes in selenite metabolism in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostadalova, I.; Babicky, A.; Kopoldova, J.

    1982-01-01

    Radioselenium concentration and excretion was studied after administration of 75 Se-labelled selenite to male rats during ontogeny. The concentration of radioselenium in individual organs decreases with increasing age. The largest differences between young and adults were in the quantity and quality of excreted substances. During 2 h after the administration of 20 μmol selenite/kg young rats excreted 2.4% of the dose, essentially in the urine only, whilst adults excreted a total of 11%, distributed equally in breath and urine. The part excreted as methylated metabolites was 0.1% of the administered dose in young and 6.3% in adult rats. These results support the hypothesis that the differences in the sensitivity to the toxic action of selenite between young and adult rats can be due to ontogenic differences in selenium metabolism. (orig.)

  6. Tissue disposition of bifenthrin in the rat

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Tissue disposition of bifenthrin in the rat and oral and intravenous administration. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Hughes , M., D. Ross...

  7. Dietary GABA and food selection by rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tews, J K; Repa, J J; Harper, A E

    1986-01-01

    To obtain further information pertaining to amino acid-induced alterations in feeding behavior, studies were performed to examine the food choices made by rats fed low protein diets made more or less aversive by the addition of various amino acids. When rats were allowed to choose between two diets, they preferred a low protein control, threonine-imbalanced or nonprotein diet to one containing 2.5% gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). Acceptance increased when GABA content was lowered to 1.5%; rats preferred this diet when the alternative diet was made sufficiently aversive. There were large individual differences among rats selecting from pairs of unacceptable diets. Avoidance of, or preference for, a given diet is clearly affected by the relative aversive qualities of the offered pair of diets.

  8. Experimental Salmonella typhimurium infections in rats. I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougen, H P; Jensen, E T; Klausen, B

    1989-01-01

    The course of experimentally induced Salmonella typhimurium infection was studied in three groups of inbred LEW rats: homozygous +/+, athymic rnu/rnu and isogeneic thymus-grafted rnu/rnu rats. In the first experiment the animals were inoculated intraperitoneally with 10(8) bacteria and all animals...... became severely septicemic and died within a week of inoculation, irrespective of presence or absence of thymus. In the second experiment the animals were inoculated with 10(6) bacteria, and both euthymic and thymus-grafted animals responded with high titres of anti bacterial antibodies while these were...... very low in the athymic nude animals. Polyclonal antibody production was only observed in the euthymic animals and only regarding IgG. Athymic rats were not able to clear the infection, while the thymus-grafted animals reacted like euthymic rats: Very few animals housed the bacteria four weeks after...

  9. Black ginseng extract ameliorates hypercholesterolemia in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyn Saba

    2016-04-01

    Conclusion: Administration of BG extracts to Sprague Dawley rats fed with high-cholesterol diet ameliorated hypercholesterolemia, which was mediated via modulation of cholesterol-metabolizing marker genes. This data throw a light on BG's cardioprotective effects.

  10. Reactive Protein Synthesis in Pregnant Rats

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    olayemitoyin

    Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, University of Lagos, Nigeria. Summary: Genistein ... Oral exposure of pregnant rats to genistein precipitated hypothyroidism, altered some metabolic hormones with a ... consumption. Exposure to ...

  11. Tritium metabolism in rat tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, H.

    1982-01-01

    As part of a series of studies designed to evaluate the relative radiotoxicity of various tritiated compounds, metabolism of tritium in rat tissues was studied after administration of tritiated water, leucine, thymidine, and glucose. The distribution and retention of tritium varied widely, depending on the chemical compound administered. Tritium introduced as tritiated water behaved essentially as body water and became uniformly distributed among the tissues. However, tritium administered as organic compounds resulted in relatively high incorporation into tissue constituents other than water, and its distribution differed among the various tissues. Moreover, the excretion rate of tritium from tissues was slower for tritiated organic compounds than for tritiated water. Administrationof tritiated organic compounds results in higher radiation doses to the tissues than does administration of tritiated water. Among the tritiated compounds examined, for equal radioactivity administered, leucine gave the highest radiation dose, followed in turn by thymidine, glucose, and water. (author)

  12. How rats combine temporal cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilhardi, Paulo; Keen, Richard; MacInnis, Mika L M; Church, Russell M

    2005-05-31

    The procedures for classical and operant conditioning, and for many timing procedures, involve the delivery of reinforcers that may be related to the time of previous reinforcers and responses, and to the time of onsets and terminations of stimuli. The behavior resulting from such procedures can be described as bouts of responding that occur in some pattern at some rate. A packet theory of timing and conditioning is described that accounts for such behavior under a wide range of procedures. Applications include the food searching by rats in Skinner boxes under conditions of fixed and random reinforcement, brief and sustained stimuli, and several response-food contingencies. The approach is used to describe how multiple cues from reinforcers and stimuli combine to determine the rate and pattern of response bouts.

  13. Epidermal growth factor in the rat prostate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tørring, Niels; Jørgensen, P E; Poulsen, Steen Seier

    1998-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) induces proliferation in prostate epithelial and stromal cells in primary culture. This investigation was set up to characterize the time and spatial expression of EGF in the rat prostate.......Epidermal growth factor (EGF) induces proliferation in prostate epithelial and stromal cells in primary culture. This investigation was set up to characterize the time and spatial expression of EGF in the rat prostate....

  14. Epidermal growth factor reactivity in rat milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raaberg, Lasse; Nexø, Ebba; Tollund, L

    1990-01-01

    whey elutes as a broad peak corresponding to a Stokes radius of 4.0 nm (an approximate molecular weight of 80 kDa). Almost no 6 kDa EGF is present. Judged by gel filtration of whey pre-incubated with 125I-EGF (6 kDa), no binding protein for EGF is present in rat whey. When rat milk is incubated...

  15. Genetically determined differences in the resistance to myocardial infarction in Wistar and August rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belkina, L M; Saltykova, V A; Pshennikova, M G

    2001-06-01

    In intact August rats, the cardiac contractile function at rest was by 76% higher than in Wistar rats, while their hearts, both intact and after acute myocardial infarction, were more resistant to isometric load than the hearts of Wistar rats. Postinfarction mortality in August rats was 18% vs. 70% in Wistar rats. Adrenoreactivity of the myocardium in August rats was decreased compared to that in Wistar rats. These peculiarities can determine high resistance of August rats to myocardial infarction.

  16. Factors influencing zinc bioavailability in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahalko, J.R.; Johnson, P.E.; Swan, P.B.

    1986-01-01

    The amount of Zn fed, its source, and the Zn status of experimental animals may affect Zn bioavailability. To test this, rats were fed doses of Zn from ZnCl 2 or from various foods labeled extrinsically. Three weeks before and after the test meal, rats were fed an AIN diet modified in Zn content. Absorption was calculated by monitoring whole body retention and extrapolating to zero time. In rats fed 12 ppm Zn and test doses of 6 to 275 μg, absorption decreased from 80 to 50%, and the amount absorbed increased quadratically (r 2 = 0.998), but turnover was unaffected. Rats fed 38 or 77 ppm Zn absorbed less of test doses of 290, 613, or 1700 μg Zn than did those fed 12 ppm, and their Zn turnover rate was higher. In two 2 x 7 factorial experiments, rats fed 12 or 38 ppm Zn were given 16 or 98 μg Zn from 7 Zn sources. Bioavailability from some foods was higher than from ZnCl 2 except in rats eating only 12 ppm Zn and receiving the small dose. There were greater differences in bioavailability among foods when tested at the higher Zn status or dose. This may explain inconsistencies seen in comparing Zn bioavailability by traditional growth assay with that seen in 65 Zn tracer studies. The authors conclude that Zn status of the experimental animal, as well as the amount of Zn and its source, will affect Zn bioavailability

  17. Modifying factors in rat mammary gland carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shellabarger, C.J.

    1975-01-01

    The spontaneous incidence of mammary adenocarcinomas and mammary fibroadenomas in rats was found to be related to the strain of rat studied. Strains of rats that are sensitive to chemical carcinogens in regard to induced mammary neoplasia tend to be the same strains of rats that are sensitive to radiation. Methylcholantrene (MCA) and x-rays appeared to act in an additive fashion on the induction of mammary adenocarcinomas when they were given together. Lactating and older rats lose responsiveness to chemical carcinogens but do not lose responsiveness to radiation. Radiation appears to act in a scopal fashion in the induction of mammary neoplasia. Mammary neoplasia induction was not changed when low LET radiation was split into 2 equal fractions and high LET radiation was more effective than low LET radiation in inducing mammary neoplasia. It is suggested that DMBA can act as an initiator for the induction of mammary adenocarcinomas, that phorbol can act as a promotor, and that viruses may induce mammary neoplasia. Diethylstilbestrol (DES) and radiation appeared to act synergistically in the induction of mammary adenocarcinomas in one strain of rat but not in another strain. (U.S.)

  18. Diuron-induced rat bladder epithelial cytotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Rocha, Mitscheli S; Arnold, Lora L; Pennington, Karen L; Muirhead, David; Dodmane, Puttappa R; Anwar, Muhammad M; Battalora, Michael; De Camargo, João Lauro V; Cohen, Samuel M

    2012-12-01

    Diuron, a substituted urea herbicide, is carcinogenic to the rat urinary bladder at high dietary levels (2500 ppm). To further elucidate the mode of action, this study aimed to determine the time course and sequence of bladder cytotoxic and proliferative changes induced by diuron treatment of male Wistar rats. Rats were randomized into two groups (control and 2500 ppm diuron) and treated for 28 days. Ten rats from each group were terminated on each of study days 1, 3, 7, or 28. Scanning electron micro scopy (SEM) showed urothelial cell swelling beginning on day 1, and by day 28, showed extensive necrosis, exfoliation and piling up of cells suggestive of hyperplasia. No difference in the bromo deoxyuridine labeling index was detected. In a second experiment, rats were randomized into control and diuron-treated groups and treated for 7 days or 8 weeks. After 7 days, transmission electron microscopy showed cell degenerative changes and distention of the cytoplasm, organelles, and nuclei characteristic of cytolysis. This resulted in protrusion of the superficial cells into the lumen, corresponding to the cell swelling observed previously by SEM. After 8 weeks, bladders in the diuron-treated group showed an increased incidence of simple hyperplasia by light microscopy (6/10, p diuron exposure in rats.

  19. Radiation nephropathy in young and adult rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jongejan, H.T.; van der Kogel, A.J.; Provoost, A.P.; Molenaar, J.C.

    1987-01-01

    The effects of bilateral kidney irradiation were compared in young and adult rats. During a 1 year period after a single dose of 0, 7.5, 10, 12.5, or 15 Gy on both kidneys, renal function (glomerular filtration rate and effective renal plasma flow), urine composition, and systolic blood pressure were measured periodically. The first changes after irradiation were observed in the glomerular filtration rate and urine osmolality. One month after 10, 12.5, and 15 Gy, glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and urine osmolality had declined below control values in the young rats. After this initial decline, renal function increased at control rate or even more during the third and fourth month after irradiation but decreased progressively thereafter. In the adult rats, GFR and urine osmolality started to decrease 3 months after 10, 12.5, and 15 Gy. A rise in systolic blood pressure and proteinuria started 2-3 months after 12.5 and 15 Gy in both age groups. Early changes in the glomerular filtration rate with a drop in urine osmolality in young rats, occurring during a period of rapid renal development indicated an irradiation-induced inhibition of glomerular and tubular development. Although renal function deteriorated at a later time in adult rats, dose-response relationships obtained in young and adult rats did not show significant differences

  20. Reproductive toxicity of Samanea tubulosa on rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Rafaella Luz de Araújo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Samanea tubulosa is a plant used for medicinal and feeding purposes. However, ingestion of S. tubulosa pods has been associated with bovine abortion. Thus, the aim of this work was to investigate the effects of diet containing 5% of S. tubulosa pod meal on male and female Wistar rats. Diet was administered to male rats (n = 10 for 60 days before mating. Female rats (n = 10 received the treatment for 30 days, during cohabitation and from gestational day (GD 0 to GD20. Treated animals were mated with untreated rats. In male rats, plant consumption caused decreased food consumption and 20% fertility index reduction. Litters from treated males presented lower body weight and crown–rump length. Female rats treated with the plant increased water and food intake and body weight. Decreases in fertility, fecundity and gestation indices and increase of placenta weight and mean number of corpora lutea were found. Thus, owing to the possible general and reproductive toxic effects, long-term consumption of S. tubulosa is not recommended for phytotherapic or food purposes.

  1. Regulation of brain aromatase activity in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roselli, C.E.; Ellinwood, W.E.; Resko, J.A.

    1984-01-01

    The distribution and regulation of aromatase activity in the adult rat brain with a sensitive in vitro assay that measures the amount of 3 H 2 O formed during the conversion of [1 beta- 3 H]androstenedione to estrone. The rate of aromatase activity in the hypothalamus-preoptic area (HPOA) was linear with time up to 1 h, and with tissue concentrations up to 5 mgeq/200 microliters incubation mixture. The enzyme demonstrated a pH optimum of 7.4 and an apparent Michaelis-Menten constant (Km) of 0.04 microns. The greatest amount of aromatase activity was found in amygdala and HPOA from intact male rats. The hippocampus, midbrain tegmentum, cerebral cortex, cerebellum, and anterior pituitary all contained negligible enzymatic activity. Castration produced a significant decrease in aromatase activity in the HPOA, but not in the amygdala or cerebral cortex. The HPOAs of male rats contained significantly greater aromatase activity than the HPOAs of female rats. In females, this enzyme activity did not change during the estrous cycle or after ovariectomy. Administration of testosterone to gonadectomized male and female rats significantly enhanced HPOA aromatase activities to levels approximating those found in HPOA from intact males. Therefore, the results suggest that testosterone, or one of its metabolites, is a major steroidal regulator of HPOA aromatase activity in rats

  2. Radio protective effects of selenium on rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakir, A.; Alya, G

    2005-11-01

    Potential radio-protective effects of different selenium supplement concentrations of 4, 8, 15 and 30 ppm were evaluated in rats. Four groups of rats were administered different concentrations of selenium in drinking water for 30 days before irradiation starting from the ablactation which considered as day 0. The results showed that the sodium selenite of 4 ppm and 8 ppm enhance the 30-day survival of irradiated rats at 7 Gy ( sup 6 sup 0 Co source, whole body irradiation dose rate of 1 Gy x min sup - sup 1) compared to the control group. The mean cumulated probability of survival of rats was 69%+-6 (mean+-S.E.) and 77%+-6 in 4 and 8 ppm groups, respectively, versus 42%+-9 for control group (P<0.001). It was also indicated that sodium selenite with concentrations of 15 and 30 ppm had no significant reduction in mortality. The mean cumulated probability of survival of rats was 50%+-12 (P=0.39) and 49%+-14 (P=0.04), respectively. The toxic effects of selenium were observed at 15 ppm and 30 ppm, survivals after 30 days of selenium intake were 76% and 46%, respectively. It was concluded that 4 and 8 ppm sodium selenite have a radio-protective effect. 15 and 30 ppm sodium selenite had no radio-protective effects in rats, this may be due to a synergism of toxicity and radiation effects. (author)

  3. Testosterone like Activity of Ethanolic and Aqueous Extracts of Mucuna pruriens Seeds and its Effects on Serum Biochemical Metabolites in Immature Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazir Ahmad*, Zia-ur-Rahman1, Nafees Akhtar and Shujait Ali

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Testosterone like activity of seeds of Mucuna pruriens and its effects on serum biochemical metabolites in immature male rats were investigated. Forty eight immature male rats were divided into four equal groups. Rats of groups A and B were orally given ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Mucuna pruriens seeds daily at the dose rate of 500 mg/kg body weight, respectively, for 14 days. Rats of group C were injected with testosterone at the dose rate of 2.5 mg/kg body weight daily, while rats of group D served as controls. After 7 days, six rats from each group were euthanized, while the remaining six rats from each group were euthanized after 14 days of treatment. Rats given ethanolic extract gained higher weight compared to controls (P<0.05. Testis weight was the highest in rats treated with testosterone. The effect of treatments on the weight of the liver and the kidneys was non significant. Rats given ethanolic or aqueous extract had higher serum testosterone concentration than controls. Similarly, rats given ethanolic or aqueous extract had higher serum total proteins, total cholesterol and HDL cholesterol compared to controls. Moreover, ethanolic extract treated rats also had higher total cholesterol and HDL cholesterol than aqueous extract treated rats. However, differences in serum total proteins, total cholesterol and HDL cholesterol between control and testosterone injected rats were non significant. Serum triglycerides, LDL cholesterol and ALT activity did not differ among rats of four groups. Serum AST activity and urea were lower in rats treated with ethanolic or aqueous extract compared to controls. Thus, seeds of Mucuna pruriens had testosterone like activity and increased serum total proteins, total cholesterol and HDL cholesterol, with no adverse effects on the serum LDL cholesterol, liver or kidney functions.

  4. [Preventive effects of pueraria on presbycusis in rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wangyan; Yao, Qi; Liu, Weihong; Zhang, Bibo; Wang, Ying; Liu, Bo

    2009-08-01

    To investigate the preventive effects of Pueraria on presbycusis in rats. Thirty-two 24-26 month old Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups, and were treated with different dosages of Pueraria (1, 2, 4, 0 g x kg(-1) x d(-1)) separately for 4 weeks. Auditory brainstem response (ABR) was used to detect the change of hearing threshold of rats. Hemorheological items of rats were checked in each group. Compared with control group, the hearing threshold and hemorheological items of rats was significantly improved after treated with Pueraria (Ppresbycusis of rats.

  5. Histopathological Study of Cyclosporine Pulmonary Toxicity in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Said Said Elshama

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cyclosporine is considered one of the common worldwide immunosuppressive drugs that are used for allograft rejection prevention. However, articles that address adverse effects of cyclosporine use on the vital organs such as lung are still few. This study aims to investigate pulmonary toxic effect of cyclosporine in rats by assessment of pulmonary histopathological changes using light and electron microscope examination. Sixty male adult albino rats were divided into three groups; each group consists of twenty rats. The first received physiological saline while the second and third groups received 25 and 40 mg/kg/day of cyclosporine, respectively, by gastric gavage for forty-five days. Cyclosporine reduced the lung and body weight with shrinkage or pyknotic nucleus of pneumocyte type II, degeneration of alveoli and interalveolar septum beside microvilli on the alveolar surface, emphysema, inflammatory cellular infiltration, pulmonary blood vessels congestion, and increase of fibrous tissues in the interstitial tissues and around alveoli with negative Periodic Acid-Schiff staining. Prolonged use of cyclosporine induced pulmonary ultrastructural and histopathological changes with the lung and body weight reduction depending on its dose.

  6. Fish oil versus arachis oil food supplementation in relation to pregnancy duration in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, S.F.; Hansen, Harald S.; Jensen, B.

    1990-01-01

    Throughout pregnancy, Lewis rats were fed standard rat chow supplemented with 15% (w/w) of either MaxEPA fish oil (FO) or arachis oil (AO); a third group was fed standard rat chow only (St) (n = 15, 15, and 16 rats, respectively). Compared to AO-rats, FO-rats had substantially higher levels of n-3...

  7. Evaluations of cytotoxicity of Smilax myosotiflora and its effects on sexual hormone levels and testicular histology in male rats

    OpenAIRE

    Wan, Muhammad Hilmi; Ahmad, Norliza; Sul'ain, Mohd Dasuki

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the cytotoxicity of Smilax myosotiflora (S. myosotiflora) methanolic extract and its effects on sexual hormone levels and testicular histology in male rats. Methods: The cytotoxicity of S. myosotiflora methanolic extract was investigated by employing brine shrimp lethality assay. Forty eight male rats were randomly divided into four groups (Groups I–IV) of 12 each. Rats in Group I were administered with 0.5 mL of distilled water (vehicle), whilst Groups II, III an...

  8. Increased radiosensitivity of cerebral capillaries in neonatal Gunn rats as compared to Sprague-Dawley rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landolt, R.; Arn, D.

    1979-01-01

    The extent of petechial haemorrhages of the cerebral cortex examined between 14 hours and 4 days after X-irradiation to the head was compared in Sprague-Dawley and homozygous Gunn rats with congenital hyperbilirubinaemia. Animals 1 to 2 days old received single doses of either 250, 500 or 750 rad. By means of a special scoring scale the degree of the damage to the micro vasculature was semi-quantitatively estimated. In both strains a significant difference in effect was obtained between 250 and 500 rad, but not between 500 and 750 rad. The shape of the dose-effect curve in Gunn rats was similar to that of Sprague-Dawley rats, but displaced upwards. In Gunn rats the effect of 250 rad was greater that that of 750 rad in Sprague-Dawley rats. Possible radiosensitizing mechanisms are discussed with reference to the literature and these results. (author)

  9. Chronic intracerebroventricular morphine and lactation in rats: dependence and tolerance in relation to oxytocin neurones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayner, V C; Robinson, I C; Russell, J A

    1988-02-01

    1. Acutely, opioids inhibit oxytocin secretion. To study the responses of oxytocin neurones during chronic opioid exposure, forty-five lactating rats were infused continuously from a subcutaneous osmotically driven mini-pump via a lateral cerebral ventricle with morphine sulphate solution from day 2 post-partum for 5-7 days; the infusion rate was increased 2- or 2.5-fold each 40 h from 10 micrograms/h initially up to 50 micrograms/h; controls were infused with vehicle (1 microliter/h, twenty-eight rats) or were untreated (eight rats). 2. Maternal behaviour was disrupted in 27% of the morphine-treated rats; in rats that remained maternal morphine did not affect body weight or water intake but increased rectal temperature by 0.82 +/- 0.14 degrees C (mean +/- S.E.M.) across the first 4 days. 3. Weight gain of the litters of maternal morphine-treated rats was reduced by 32% during 7 days, predominantly in the first day of treatment when milk transfer was also reduced. Observation of pup behaviour during suckling showed decreased frequency of milk ejections on only the second day of morphine treatment. Plasma concentration of prolactin after 6 days was similar in maternal morphine-treated and control rats, but reduced by 90% in non-maternal morphine-treated rats, indicating normal control of prolactin secretion by suckling in morphine-treated rats. 4. Oxytocin and vasopressin contents, measured by radioimmunoassay, in the supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei and in the neurohypophysis were similar between fourteen maternal morphine-treated, twelve vehicle-treated and eight untreated lactating rats; thus exposure to morphine did not involve increased production and storage of oxytocin. 5. Distribution of [3H]morphine infused intracerebroventricularly into six virgin female rats for 6 days was measured by scintillation counting of tissue extracts. Morphine concentration in the hypothalamus and neurohypophysis was 2.7 and 12.8 micrograms/g, respectively, and in blood

  10. Social structure predicts genital morphology in African mole-rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianne L Seney

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available African mole-rats (Bathyergidae, Rodentia exhibit a wide range of social structures, from solitary to eusocial. We previously found a lack of sex differences in the external genitalia and morphology of the perineal muscles associated with the phallus in the eusocial naked mole-rat. This was quite surprising, as the external genitalia and perineal muscles are sexually dimorphic in all other mammals examined. We hypothesized that the lack of sex differences in naked mole-rats might be related to their unusual social structure.We compared the genitalia and perineal muscles in three African mole-rat species: the naked mole-rat, the solitary silvery mole-rat, and the Damaraland mole-rat, a species considered to be eusocial, but with less reproductive skew than naked mole-rats. Our findings support a relationship between social structure, mating system, and sexual differentiation. Naked mole-rats lack sex differences in genitalia and perineal morphology, silvery mole-rats exhibit sex differences, and Damaraland mole-rats are intermediate.The lack of sex differences in naked mole-rats is not an attribute of all African mole-rats, but appears to have evolved in relation to their unusual social structure and reproductive biology.

  11. Social structure predicts genital morphology in African mole-rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seney, Marianne L; Kelly, Diane A; Goldman, Bruce D; Sumbera, Radim; Forger, Nancy G

    2009-10-15

    African mole-rats (Bathyergidae, Rodentia) exhibit a wide range of social structures, from solitary to eusocial. We previously found a lack of sex differences in the external genitalia and morphology of the perineal muscles associated with the phallus in the eusocial naked mole-rat. This was quite surprising, as the external genitalia and perineal muscles are sexually dimorphic in all other mammals examined. We hypothesized that the lack of sex differences in naked mole-rats might be related to their unusual social structure. We compared the genitalia and perineal muscles in three African mole-rat species: the naked mole-rat, the solitary silvery mole-rat, and the Damaraland mole-rat, a species considered to be eusocial, but with less reproductive skew than naked mole-rats. Our findings support a relationship between social structure, mating system, and sexual differentiation. Naked mole-rats lack sex differences in genitalia and perineal morphology, silvery mole-rats exhibit sex differences, and Damaraland mole-rats are intermediate. The lack of sex differences in naked mole-rats is not an attribute of all African mole-rats, but appears to have evolved in relation to their unusual social structure and reproductive biology.

  12. Automated registration of tail bleeding in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, Peter B; Henriksen, Lars; Andresen, Per R; Lauritzen, Brian; Jensen, Kåre L; Juhl, Trine N; Tranholm, Mikael

    2008-05-01

    An automated system for registration of tail bleeding in rats using a camera and a user-designed PC-based software program has been developed. The live and processed images are displayed on the screen and are exported together with a text file for later statistical processing of the data allowing calculation of e.g. number of bleeding episodes, bleeding times and bleeding areas. Proof-of-principle was achieved when the camera captured the blood stream after infusion of rat whole blood into saline. Suitability was assessed by recording of bleeding profiles in heparin-treated rats, demonstrating that the system was able to capture on/off bleedings and that the data transfer and analysis were conducted successfully. Then, bleeding profiles were visually recorded by two independent observers simultaneously with the automated recordings after tail transection in untreated rats. Linear relationships were found in the number of bleedings, demonstrating, however, a statistically significant difference in the recording of bleeding episodes between observers. Also, the bleeding time was longer for visual compared to automated recording. No correlation was found between blood loss and bleeding time in untreated rats, but in heparinized rats a correlation was suggested. Finally, the blood loss correlated with the automated recording of bleeding area. In conclusion, the automated system has proven suitable for replacing visual recordings of tail bleedings in rats. Inter-observer differences can be eliminated, monotonous repetitive work avoided, and a higher through-put of animals in less time achieved. The automated system will lead to an increased understanding of the nature of bleeding following tail transection in different rodent models.

  13. Effect of radiation on rat skin collagen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nogami, Akira

    1980-01-01

    I. Albino male rats were exposed for 16 weeks to ultraviolet light (UVL) which has principle emission at 305 nm. There were no significant changes between control and UVL-exposed skins in the total hydroxyproline content. However, a little increase of citrate-soluble collagen, a little decrease of insoluble collagen and a decrease of aldehyde content in soluble collagen were observed with UVL exposure. Total acid glycosaminoglycan in skin increased 30% or more from control. These results show that the effect of UVL on rat skin in vivo was merely inflammation phenomenon and that the 'aging' process of skin was not caused in our experimental conditions. II. The effects of radiation on the solubility of rat skin collagen were examined under various conditions. 1) When intact rats were exposed to a single dose of radiation from 43 kVp X-ray source, the solubility in skin collagen did not change at 4,000 R dosage, while in irradiation of 40,000 R a decreased solubility in collagen was observed. When rats were given 400 R a week for 12 weeks, there was no changes in the solubility of collagen during experimental period. 2) In vitro exposure to skins, an irradiation of 40,000 R from 43 kVp X-ray source caused a decrease in the solubility of collagen. While an irradiation of 40,000 R of dosage from 200 kVp X-ray source resulted in the increase in soluble collagen and the decrease in insoluble collagen. 3) When intact rats were given a single dose of 40,000 R from 60 Co- gamma -ray, insoluble collagen decreased in both young and adult rats. Similar changes in collagen solubility were observed in vitro gamma -irradiation. (author)

  14. Pre-existing liver cirrhosis reduced the toxic effect of diethylene glycol in a rat model due to the impaired hepatic alcohol dehydrogenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming Xing Huang; Xiao Mou Peng; Lin Gu; Gui Hua Chen

    2011-09-01

    Hepatic metabolizing enzymes of diethylene glycol (DEG) are impaired in liver diseases. Thus, the purpose of this study was to increase our understandings in metabolism and toxicology of DEG by clarifying the influences of pre-existing liver disease. Forty Sprague-Dawley rats with carbon tetrachloride-induced liver cirrhosis and 20 control rats were intraperitoneally administered a single dose of DEG, and randomly killed 1, 2, 5 or 8 days following exposure. Compared with control rats, the model rats had significantly higher blood CO(2)-combining power, lower blood urine nitrogen, serum creatinine and alanine aminotransferase levels on the second day and a lower mortality rate on the eighth day following DEG exposure. Enlargements of liver and kidneys and degeneration and necrosis of hepatocytes and renal tubules in the model rats was also less serious than in the control rats. Urine DEG levels were significantly higher on the first day in the model rats than the control rats (46.65 ± 8.79 mg vs 18.88 ± 6.18 mg, p activity in the model rats was significantly lower than that in the control rats, which was positively related to renal damage. The toxic effects of DEG in rats with pre-existing liver cirrhosis are significantly reduced, which may be due to the decreased hepatic ADH activity. It suggests that the metabolite of ADH is responsible for DEG poisoning, and this toxic metabolite may mainly originate in the liver.

  15. [Pinealectomy and early castration in the female Wistar rat].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slama-Scemama, A

    1976-05-17

    Pinealectomy does not significantly modify the level of pituitary and plasma gonadotropins in intact and in castrated female Rats from brith to 75 days of age. Only the weight of the thyroid gland is higher in pinealectomized rats.

  16. Patterns of blood pressure variability in normotensive and hypertensive rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holstein-Rathlou, N H; He, J; Wagner, A J

    1995-01-01

    We sought patterns in mean arterial pressure of normotensive rats and alterations in chronic hypertension. Pressure was recorded for 4-6 days by telemetry from conscious, unrestrained rats and sampled digitally at 3 Hz, using normotensive Sprague-Dawley rats, spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR)...... the day; less pronounced in 2K,1C; and not detectable in SHR. There are regular patterns of blood pressure fluctuations and specific modifications to the patterns by different forms of hypertension.......We sought patterns in mean arterial pressure of normotensive rats and alterations in chronic hypertension. Pressure was recorded for 4-6 days by telemetry from conscious, unrestrained rats and sampled digitally at 3 Hz, using normotensive Sprague-Dawley rats, spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR...

  17. Classical clinical signs in rats experimemtally infected with Trypanosoma brucei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nwoha Rosemary Ijeoma Ogechi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate clinical signs in Trypanosoma brucei infection in albino rats. Methods: Fourteen rats grouped into 2 with 7 rats in each group were used to determine classical clinical manifestation of Trypanosoma brucei infection in rats. Group A rats were uninfected control and Group B rats were infected with Trypanosoma brucei. Results: Parasitaemia was recorded in Group B by (3.86±0.34 d and the peak of parasitaemia was observed at Day 5 post infection. Classical signs observed included squint eyes, raised whiskers, lethargy, no weight loss, pyrexia, isolation from the other rats, and starry hair coat. Conclusions: These signs could be diagnostic or aid in diagnosis of Trypanosoma brucei infection in rats.

  18. [Pituitary function of dysgenesic femal rats. Studies with grafting method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhems, E; Busquet, J

    1975-01-01

    Misulban administered to pregnant rats on the 15th day of gestation provoked gonadal dysgenesia in the offspring. Study of the pituitary function of dysgenesic female rats, realized by grafting method, showed gonadotrophic hypersecretion.

  19. Water metabolism and modification of tritium excretion in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichimasa, Y.; Akita, Y.

    1982-01-01

    1. The intake and excretion of tritium were studied in rats exposed to tritiated water vapor. The metabolism of tritium was also investigated in rats given single administrations of tritiated water and in rats given daily administrations (per os or i.p.). The results were essentially in accord with those reported previously. 2. Amounts of drinking water consumed and urine excreted by rats drinking water with 0.15% saccharin were 1.5 to 2 times higher than in rats drinking tap water. The tritium activity in various tissues of rats drinking water with 0.15% saccharin decreased to about half of that of rats drinking tap water. A similar tendency was observed also in rats drinking beer. The diuretic agent sodium acetazolamide also enhanced the urinary excretion of tritium. (author)

  20. Uptake of trace elements in adult and suckling rat lenses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nabekura, Tomohiro; Ito, Yoshimasa; Minami, Takeshi; Hirunuma, Rieko; Enomoto, Shuichi

    2001-01-01

    The uptake of trace elements in the lens was compared in adult and suckling rat lenses. Multitracers, including 15 trace elements, As, Be, Co, Fe, Mn, Rb, Rh, Ru, Sc, Se, Sr, Y, V, Zn, and Zr, were incubated with the lenses for 4 hr and their concentrations in the lens were measured. A high uptake rate of Zn was observed in the lenses of both adult and suckling rats in comparison with those of the other elements, and the Zn concentration in the lens of suckling rats was higher than that of adult rats. The uptake rate of Sr was higher in adult rats than in suckling rats. On the other contrary, Rb and Se concentrations in the lens were higher in suckling rats than in adult rats. The present study suggests that the different mechanisms depending on development serve to transport trace elements into the lens. (author)

  1. Absorption of plutonium in the iron-deficient rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ragan, H.A.

    1977-01-01

    Iron deficiency did not enhance absorption of plutonium following intragastric gavage of rats. Absorption of plutonium citrate in both control and iron-deficient rats was about 0.03% of the administered dose

  2. (Urginea Altissima), Against the Field Rat, Arvicanthis Abyssinicus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bernt Lindtjorn

    the field rat, Arvicanthis abyssincus with the aim of developing locally based ... inhabited by humans and is commonly found in open ... rat, A. abyssinicus in a choice and non-choice tests. ..... sowing control of house mice (Mus domesticus):.

  3. Biochemical and Haematological Indices of Weanly Albino Rats Fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    acer

    ABSTRACT: Malnutrition is a public health problem in Nigeria accounting for more than 50% of ... weanly albino rats using nutritional, biochemical ... groundnut (16%), soy beans (16%), crayfish ... consumption was observed in rats on PC and.

  4. Ulinastatin Reduces T Cell Apoptosis in Rats with Severe Acute ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    in rats with severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) and to elucidate its underlying molecular mechanism. Methods: Thirty .... on T lymphocytes apoptosis in SAP rat model and elucidated ..... oxygen radicals, the exhaustion of adenine nucleotide and ...

  5. Healing effect of Shaoshang Yuhe yihao on burns in rats

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    tissue expressions of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) were determined along with skin histopathology. ... Polygonum cuspidatum Sieb. et Zucc., Aloe vera var. chinensis ... anesthetizing the rats after the rat hair was shaved. The top of ...

  6. Inhibition of heterotopic osteogenesis in rats by a new bioerodible system for local delivery of indomethacin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solheim, E; Pinholt, E M; Bang, G

    1992-01-01

    A study was done to evaluate the effect of a system for the local delivery of indomethacin on demineralized bone-induced formation of heterotopic bone in the abdominal muscles of rats. Two separate investigations were conducted on a total of forty-eight Wistar rats. In both series, two types of i...... of bone, as demonstrated by light microscopy and by uptake of 85Sr. The polyorthoester, with or without the drug, caused little tissue reaction and was resorbed almost completely at four weeks....

  7. The effects of acute gasoline vapour inhalation on some haematological indices of albino Wistar rats

    OpenAIRE

    Chukwudi Onyeka John Okonkwo; Ailende Daniel Ehileboh; Eddy Nwobodo; Charles Chijioke Dike

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To find out if Gasoline vapour has some effects on haematological indices when inhaled by experimental rats. Methods: The standard method for laboratory operating procedure recommended by World Health Organization was used in all the analysis done. Forty two albino Wistar rats comprising twenty one males (160–220 g) and twenty one females (140–190 g) were sampled into six groups consisting of four test groups and two control groups. The test groups were exposed to gasoline vapou...

  8. Biological effects of 137Cs, incorporated into organism of rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monakhov, A.S.; Strekalov, S.A.; Sokolov, A.V.; Aver'yanova, T.K.

    1987-01-01

    Results of investigating mutagenous and hemotoxic effects of 137 Cs on blood lymphocytes of rats are presented. 137 Cs was orally administrated into organism of rats as 270 kBq/g chloride solution. 137 Cs mutagenous effect was studied on metaphase plates of rat blood lymphocytes in course of rats lifetime experiment. It is stated that 137 Cs inducing severe disturbances of genetic material in a great quantity of blood lymphocytes, causes their total killing

  9. Tumorigenicity of sodium ascorbate in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, S M; Anderson, T A; de Oliveira, L M; Arnold, L L

    1998-06-15

    Sodium ascorbate, like other sodium salts such as saccharin, glutamate, and bicarbonate, produces urinary alterations when fed at high doses to rats, which results in mild superficial urothelial cytotoxicity and regeneration but not tumors in a standard 2-year bioassay. Sodium saccharin was shown to produce a low incidence of bladder tumors in rats if administered in a two-generation bioassay. In the present study, we evaluated sodium ascorbate in a two-generation bioassay that involved feeding to the male and female parental F344 rats for 4 weeks before mating, feeding the dams during gestation and lactation, and then feeding the weaned (at 28 days of age) male F1 generation rats for the remainder of their lifetime (up to 128 weeks of the experiment). Dietary levels of 1.0, 5.0, and 7.0% sodium ascorbate were tested. At 5.0 and 7.0% sodium ascorbate, there was an increase in urinary bladder urothelial papillary and nodular hyperplasia and the induction of a few papillomas and carcinomas. There was a dose-responsive increase in renal pelvic calcification and hyperplasia and inhibition of the aging nephropathy of rats even at the level of 1% sodium ascorbate. Because the short-term urothelial effects of sodium ascorbate in rats are inhibited by treatments producing urinary acidification to pH sodium ascorbate to evaluate the long-term effects. The combination of 7.0% sodium ascorbate plus 2.78% NH4Cl in the diet was toxic, and the group was terminated early during the course of the experiment. The group fed 5.0% sodium ascorbate plus 2.04% NH4Cl showed complete inhibition of the urothelial effects of sodium ascorbate and significant inhibition of its renal effects. We also demonstrated the presence of a calcium phosphate-containing urinary precipitate in rats fed sodium ascorbate at all doses, in a dose-responsive manner. The formation of the precipitate was inhibited by coadministration with NH4Cl. The proliferative effects of sodium ascorbate on the male rat

  10. From engineering to editing the rat genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meek, Stephen; Mashimo, Tomoji; Burdon, Tom

    2017-08-01

    Since its domestication over 100 years ago, the laboratory rat has been the preferred experimental animal in many areas of biomedical research (Lindsey and Baker The laboratory rat. Academic, New York, pp 1-52, 2006). Its physiology, size, genetics, reproductive cycle, cognitive and behavioural characteristics have made it a particularly useful animal model for studying many human disorders and diseases. Indeed, through selective breeding programmes numerous strains have been derived that are now the mainstay of research on hypertension, obesity and neurobiology (Okamoto and Aoki Jpn Circ J 27:282-293, 1963; Zucker and Zucker J Hered 52(6):275-278, 1961). Despite this wealth of genetic and phenotypic diversity, the ability to manipulate and interrogate the genetic basis of existing phenotypes in rat strains and the methodology to generate new rat models has lagged significantly behind the advances made with its close cousin, the laboratory mouse. However, recent technical developments in stem cell biology and genetic engineering have again brought the rat to the forefront of biomedical studies and enabled researchers to exploit the increasingly accessible wealth of genome sequence information. In this review, we will describe how a breakthrough in understanding the molecular basis of self-renewal of the pluripotent founder cells of the mammalian embryo, embryonic stem (ES) cells, enabled the derivation of rat ES cells and their application in transgenesis. We will also describe the remarkable progress that has been made in the development of gene editing enzymes that enable the generation of transgenic rats directly through targeted genetic modifications in the genomes of zygotes. The simplicity, efficiency and cost-effectiveness of the CRISPR/Cas gene editing system, in particular, mean that the ability to engineer the rat genome is no longer a limiting factor. The selection of suitable targets and gene modifications will now become a priority: a challenge where

  11. The effect of zinc on healing of renal damage in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehipour, Mehdi; Monabbati, Ahmad; Ensafdaran, Mohammad Reza; Adib, Ali; Babaei, Amir Hossein

    2017-07-01

    Several studies have previously been performed to promote kidney healing after injuries. Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of zinc on renal healing after traumatic injury in rats. Forty healthy female rats were selected and one of their kidneys was incised. Half of the incisions were limited only to the cortex (renal injury type I) and the other ones reached the pelvocalyceal system of the kidney (renal injury type II). All the rats in the zinc treated group (case group) received 36.3 mg zinc sulfate (contained 8.25 mg zinc) orally. After 28 days, the damaged kidneys were removed for histopathological studies. In the rats with type I injury, kidney inflammation of the case group was significantly lower than that of the control group. However, the result was not significant in rats with type II injury. Tissue loss and granulation tissue formation were significantly lower in the case group than the control group in both type I and II kidney injuries. Overall, Zinc can contribute to better healing of the rat's kidneys after a traumatic injury.

  12. Activity of the hypothalamo-pituitary ovarian axis in hypothyroid rats with or without triiodothyronine replacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortega, E.; Rodriguez, E.; Ruiz, E.; Osorio, C.

    1990-01-01

    The hypothalamic pituitary ovarian axis in adult female rats with 131-I induced hypothyroidism was studied before and after triiodothyronine (T3) replacement. Forty days after 131-I, hypothyroid (H) rats showed irregular cycles with predominantly diestrous vaginal smears, atrophied and underweight ovaries, and decreased serum T3, T4, LH and estradiol (E 2 ). T3 replacement restored normal cycles and ovary weight and increased serum E 2 levels above control values, while LH levels remained below the limit of detection of the RIA. The GnRH stimulation test performed on the day that the rats exhibited diestrous vaginal smears elicited a greater increase in FSH than in LH in H rats and a greater increase in LH than in FSH in both H-T3 treated and control rats. The data suggest that the lack of thyroid hormones in adult female rats seems to produce a reversion of sexual hormones to a prepubertal pattern, while T3 treatment restored normal estrous cycles and ovarian function

  13. Long-term sequential changes of radiation proctitis and angiopathy in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doi, Hiroshi; Kamikonya, Norihiko; Takada, Yasuhiro

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to establish an experimental rat model for late radiation proctitis, and to examine the assessment strategy for late radiation proctitis. A total of 57 Wistar rats were used. Forty-five of the rats were exposed to selective rectal irradiation with a single fraction of 25 Gy. These rats were sacrificed at the 4th, 12th, 24th, and 37th week following irradiation. The remaining 12 rats comprised the control group without irradiation. The rectal mucosa of each rat was evaluated macroscopically and pathologically. The number of vessels in the rectal mucosa was counted microscopically. In addition, the vascular stenosis was evaluated. In the results, the degree of clinical and macroscopic findings decreased following acute proctitis and developed later. In the pathological examination, mucosal changes and microangiopathy were followed up, as well. The absolute number of vessels in the rectum was the greatest at the 12th week following irradiation and was the lowest in the control group. The severity of the microangiopathy was also well evaluated. To conclude, we established an animal experimental model of late radiation proctitis, and also established an assessment strategy to evaluate objectively the severity of late radiation proctitis with focusing on microangiopathy using an animal experimental model. This model can be used as an animal experimental model of radiation-induced microangiopathy. (author)

  14. [Effect of tail-suspension on the reproduction of adult male rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Dang-xia; Qiu, Shu-dong; Wang, Zhi-yong; Zhang, Jie

    2006-04-01

    To study the effects on the male reproduction in adult male rats and its mechanisms through simulated weightlessness using tail-suspension, in order to do a basic works of exploring the effects on human being's reproduction in outer space. Forty Spraque-Dawley adult male rats were randomly divided into four groups, two experimental groups and two control groups. Rats in the two experimental groups were tail-suspended for 14 d and 28 d respectively, then we examined the weight and morphology of testis, the quality and amount of sperm, also tested the serum hormone by radioimmunoassay and analyzed apoptosis rate of testicular cells by TUNEL in the experimental rats and control rats. After tail-suspension, the weight of testis, the sperm count and sperm motility significantly decreased (P 0.05). These changes were not significant between two experimental groups (P > 0.05). In addition, the seminiferous tubules became atrophy with the reduction of the layers of seminiferous epithelium, and sperm amount in lumens of seminiferous tubules decreased in experimental groups. The above were more remarkable in the 28 d experimental group. Simulating weightlessness has a harmful effect on reproduction of adult male rats. These may be caused by inducing apoptosis. The blocking apoptosis of testicular cells may be useful in improving the harmful effect.

  15. The protective role of crocin in tartrazine induced nephrotoxicity in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdemli, Mehmet Erman; Gul, Mehmet; Altinoz, Eyup; Zayman, Emrah; Aksungur, Zeynep; Bag, Harika Gozukara

    2017-12-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the changes in rat kidney tissues after administration of tartrazine (T) and crocine (Cr). The latter was applied for its protective properties. The present study was conducted with the approval of Inonu University, Faculty of Medicine, Experimental Animals Ethics Committee. Forty rats were randomly divided into 4 equal groups (Control, T, Cr, T + Cr). At the end of the experiment, the rats were decapitated. Biochemical and histopathological studies were conducted on excised rat kidney tissues. It was determined that there was a significant increase in MDA, TOS, SOD, CAT, Bun, Creatinine levels in tartrazine administered rat kidney tissues for 21 days, while GSH and TAS levels decreased (P ≤ 0.05) when compared to all other groups. On the other hand, it was identified that Cr administration statistically significantly increased GSH and TAS levels in rat kidney tissues when compared to all other groups and decreased MDA and TOS levels to control group levels (P tartrazine toxicity agent. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  16. Opiates and cerebral functional activity in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trusk, T.C.

    1986-01-01

    Cerebral activity was measured using the free-fatty acid [1- 14 C] octanoate as a fast functional tracer in conscious, unrestrained rats 5 minutes after intravenous injection of heroin, cocaine or saline vehicle. Regional changes of octanoate labeling density in the autoradiograms relative to saline-injected animals were used to determine the functional activity effects of each drug. Heroin and cocaine each produced a distinctive pattern of activity increases and suppression throughout the rat brain. Similar regional changes induced by both drugs were found in limbic brain regions implicated in drug reinforcement. Labeled octanoate autoradiography was used to measure the cerebral functional response to a tone that had previously been paired to heroin injections. Rats were trained in groups of three consisting of one heroin self-administration animal, and two animals receiving yoked infusion of heroin or saline. A tone was paired with each infusion during training. Behavioral experiments in similarly trained rats demonstrated that these training conditions impart secondary reinforcing properties to the tone in animals previously self-administering heroin, while the tone remains behaviorally neutral in yoked-infusion rats. Cerebral functional activity was measured during presentation of the tone without drug infusion. Octanoate labeling density changed in fifteen brain areas in response to the tone previously paired to heroin without response contingency. Labeling density was significantly modified in sixteen regions as a result of previously pairing the tone to response-contingent heroin infusions

  17. Working Memory Systems in the Rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bratch, Alexander; Kann, Spencer; Cain, Joshua A; Wu, Jie-En; Rivera-Reyes, Nilda; Dalecki, Stefan; Arman, Diana; Dunn, Austin; Cooper, Shiloh; Corbin, Hannah E; Doyle, Amanda R; Pizzo, Matthew J; Smith, Alexandra E; Crystal, Jonathon D

    2016-02-08

    A fundamental feature of memory in humans is the ability to simultaneously work with multiple types of information using independent memory systems. Working memory is conceptualized as two independent memory systems under executive control [1, 2]. Although there is a long history of using the term "working memory" to describe short-term memory in animals, it is not known whether multiple, independent memory systems exist in nonhumans. Here, we used two established short-term memory approaches to test the hypothesis that spatial and olfactory memory operate as independent working memory resources in the rat. In the olfactory memory task, rats chose a novel odor from a gradually incrementing set of old odors [3]. In the spatial memory task, rats searched for a depleting food source at multiple locations [4]. We presented rats with information to hold in memory in one domain (e.g., olfactory) while adding a memory load in the other domain (e.g., spatial). Control conditions equated the retention interval delay without adding a second memory load. In a further experiment, we used proactive interference [5-7] in the spatial domain to compromise spatial memory and evaluated the impact of adding an olfactory memory load. Olfactory and spatial memory are resistant to interference from the addition of a memory load in the other domain. Our data suggest that olfactory and spatial memory draw on independent working memory systems in the rat. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Gastric secretion elicited by conditioning in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caboclo, José Liberato Ferreira; Cury, Francico de Assis; Borin, Aldenis Albanese; Caboclo, Luís Otávio Sales Ferreira; Ribeiro, Maria Fernanda Sales Caboclo; de Freitas, Pedro José; Andersson, Sven

    2009-01-01

    To investigate whether interdigestive gastric acid secretion can be controlled by a possible memory-related cortical mechanism. To evaluate gastric secretion in rats, we used a methodology that allows gastric juice collection in rats in their habitual conditions (without any restraining) by pairing sound as the conditioning stimulus (CS) and food as the unconditioning stimulus (US). The levels of gastric acid secretion under basal conditions and under sound stimulation were recorded and the circulating gastrin levels determined. When the gastric juice was collected in the course of the conditioning procedure, the results showed that under noise stimulation a significant increase in gastric acid secretion occurred after 10 days of conditioning (p<0.01). The significance was definitively demonstrated after 13 days of conditioning (p<0.001). Basal secretions of the conditioned rats reached a significant level after 16 days of conditioning. The levels of noise-stimulated gastric acid secretion were the highest so far described in physiological experiments carried out in rats and there were no significant increases in the circulating gastrin levels. The results point to the important role played by cortical structures in the control of interdigestive gastric acid secretion in rats. If this mechanism is also present in humans, it may be involved in diseases caused by inappropriate gastric acid secretion during the interprandial periods.

  19. Opiates and cerebral functional activity in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trusk, T.C.

    1986-01-01

    Cerebral activity was measured using the free-fatty acid (1-/sup 14/C) octanoate as a fast functional tracer in conscious, unrestrained rats 5 minutes after intravenous injection of heroin, cocaine or saline vehicle. Regional changes of octanoate labeling density in the autoradiograms relative to saline-injected animals were used to determine the functional activity effects of each drug. Heroin and cocaine each produced a distinctive pattern of activity increases and suppression throughout the rat brain. Similar regional changes induced by both drugs were found in limbic brain regions implicated in drug reinforcement. Labeled octanoate autoradiography was used to measure the cerebral functional response to a tone that had previously been paired to heroin injections. Rats were trained in groups of three consisting of one heroin self-administration animal, and two animals receiving yoked infusion of heroin or saline. A tone was paired with each infusion during training. Behavioral experiments in similarly trained rats demonstrated that these training conditions impart secondary reinforcing properties to the tone in animals previously self-administering heroin, while the tone remains behaviorally neutral in yoked-infusion rats. Cerebral functional activity was measured during presentation of the tone without drug infusion. Octanoate labeling density changed in fifteen brain areas in response to the tone previously paired to heroin without response contingency. Labeling density was significantly modified in sixteen regions as a result of previously pairing the tone to response-contingent heroin infusions.

  20. Hematological changes in opium addicted diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadikaram, Gholamreza; Sirati-Sabet, Majid; Asiabanha, Majid; Shahrokhi, Nader; Jafarzadeh, Abdollah; Khaksari, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    Chronic opioid treatment in animal models has shown to alter hematological parameters. The aim of this study was to evaluate the biological effects of opium on the number of peripheral blood cells and red blood cells (RBCs) indices in diabetic rats. Peripheral blood samples were collected from diabetic, opium-addicted, diabetic opium-addicted and normal male and female rats and hematological parameters were measured. The mean number of white blood cells (WBCs) was significantly higher in diabetic opium-addict females compared to diabetic non-addict female group. In both male and female, the mean number of neutrophils was significantly higher and the mean number of lymphocytes was lower in diabetic opium-addicted rats than those observed in diabetic non-addicted group. In diabetic opium-addicted male group the mean counts of RBC significantly increased as compared with diabetic male group. However, in diabetic addicted female, the mean number of RBCs was significantly lower than diabetic non-addicted female group. In both males and females, the mean number of platelets was significantly lower in diabetic addict rats compared to diabetic non-addict group. Generally, the results indicated that opium addiction has different effects on male and female rats according to the number of WBC, RBC and RBC indices. It could also be concluded that in the opium-addicts the risk of infection is enhanced due to the weakness of immune system as a result of the imbalance effect of opium on the immune cells.

  1. Cardiopulmonary Changes with Moderate Decompression in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, R.; Little, T.; Doursout, M.-F.; Butler, B. D.; Chelly, J. E.

    1996-01-01

    Sprague-Dawley rats were compressed to 616 kPa for 120 min then decompressed at 38 kPa/min to assess the cardiovascular and pulmonary responses to moderate decompression stress. In one series of experiments the rats were chronically instrumented with Doppler ultrasonic probes for simultaneous measurement of blood pressure, cardiac output, heart rate, left and right ventricular wall thickening fraction, and venous bubble detection. Data were collected at base-line, throughout the compression/decompression protocol, and for 120 min post decompression. In a second series of experiments the pulmonary responses to the decompression protocol were evaluated in non-instrumented rats. Analyses included blood gases, pleural and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) protein and hemoglobin concentration, pulmonary edema, BAL and lung tissue phospholipids, lung compliance, and cell counts. Venous bubbles were directly observed in 90% of the rats where immediate post-decompression autopsy was performed and in 37% using implanted Doppler monitors. Cardiac output, stroke volume, and right ventricular wall thickening fractions were significantly decreased post decompression, whereas systemic vascular resistance was increased suggesting a decrease in venous return. BAL Hb and total protein levels were increased 0 and 60 min post decompression, pleural and plasma levels were unchanged. BAL white blood cells and neutrophil percentages were increased 0 and 60 min post decompression and pulmonary edema was detected. Venous bubbles produced with moderate decompression profiles give detectable cardiovascular and pulmonary responses in the rat.

  2. Somatostatin ontogenesis in the gastrointestinal and pancreatic tract: study in normal rats and during a induced diabetes in neonates rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunha, M.C.

    1980-01-01

    The ontogenic studies of somatostatin of pancreas, ileum and duodenum of Wistar rats and the rats with induced diabetes were done. The radioimmunologic method to dose the somatostatin was used. (L.M.J.)

  3. Phenotypic Characterization of LEA Rat: A New Rat Model of Nonobese Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadashi Okamura

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Animal models have provided important information for the genetics and pathophysiology of diabetes. Here we have established a novel, nonobese rat strain with spontaneous diabetes, Long-Evans Agouti (LEA rat derived from Long-Evans (LE strain. The incidence of diabetes in the males was 10% at 6 months of age and 86% at 14 months, while none of the females developed diabetes. The blood glucose level in LEA male rats was between 200 and 300 mg/dl at 120 min according to OGTT. The glucose intolerance in correspondence with the impairment of insulin secretion was observed in male rats, which was the main cause of diabetes in LEA rats. Histological examination revealed that the reduction of β-cell mass was caused by progressive fibrosis in pancreatic islets in age-dependent manner. The intracytoplasmic hyaline droplet accumulation and the disappearance of tubular epithelial cell layer associated with thickening of basement membrane were evident in renal proximal tubules. The body mass index and glycaemic response to exogenous insulin were comparable to those of control rats. The unique characteristics of LEA rat are a great advantage not only to analyze the progression of diabetes, but also to disclose the genes involved in type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  4. Effect of Yushen zhuyun decoction on rats with diminished ovarian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the effect of Yushen zhuyun decoction (YSZYF) on rats with diminished ovarian reserve (DOR). Methods: High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to determine the major phytochemical constituents of YSZYF. Rats with DOR (DOR rats) were prepared by administration of ...

  5. Haematological and Serum Biochemical Variables in rats Treated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The haematology and serum biochemical effects of oral administration of the ethanolic extract of the root of Moringa oleifera at 50, 100 and 150 mg/kg were investigated in 30 mated female Wistar rats. The rats were assigned into five groups of six rats each. Group A was given 50mg/kg of the extract; group B, 100mg/kg; ...

  6. Activation of peripheral leukocytes in rat pregnancy and experimental preeclampsia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faas, MM; Schuiling, GA; Linton, EA; Sargent, IL; Redman, CWG

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to search for activation markers of peripheral leukocytes in experimental preeclampsia in the rat. STUDY DESIGN: Experimental preeclampsia was induced in 14-day-pregnant rats by infusion of endotoxin (1.0 mu g/kg body weight). For comparison, rats with normal

  7. Effects of Culling on Leptospira interrogans Carriage by Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byers, Kaylee A.; Donovan, Christina M.; Bidulka, Julie J.; Stephen, Craig; Patrick, David M.; Himsworth, Chelsea G.

    2018-01-01

    We found that lethal, urban rat control is associated with a significant increase in the odds that surviving rats carry Leptospira interrogans. Our results suggest that human interventions have the potential to affect and even increase the prevalence of zoonotic pathogens within rat populations. PMID:29350160

  8. ( Cola Nitida Rubra ) on Reproductive Hormones in Rats

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Our previous study suggests that aqueous extract of kola nut had effect on reproductive hormones in male rats. This study evaluates the effects of kola nut extract on plasma level of testosterone and luteinizing hormones in male rats. 30 adult male rats were used. These were divided into three groups: group A served as ...

  9. Effect of thiabendazole on some rat hepatic xenobiotic metabolising enzymes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Price, R.J.; Scott, M.P.; Walters, D.G.; Stierum, R.H.; Groten, J.P.; Meredith, C.; Lake, B.G.

    2004-01-01

    The effect of thiabendazole (TB) on some rat hepatic xenobiotic metabolising enzymes has been investigated. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed control diet or diets containing 102-5188 ppm TB for 28 days. As a positive control for induction of hepatic xenobiotic metabolism, rats were also fed diets

  10. Immature rats show ovulatory defects similar to those in adult rats lacking prostaglandin and progesterone actions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanchez-Criado Jose E

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Gonadotropin-primed immature rats (GPIR constitute a widely used model for the study of ovulation. Although the equivalence between the ovulatory process in immature and adult rats is generally assumed, the morphological and functional characteristics of ovulation in immature rats have been scarcely considered. We describe herein the morphological aspects of the ovulatory process in GPIR and their response to classical ovulation inhibitors, such as the inhibitor of prostaglandin (PG synthesis indomethacin (INDO and a progesterone (P receptor (PR antagonist (RU486. Immature Wistar rats were primed with equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG at 21, 23 or 25 days of age, injected with human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG 48 h later, and sacrificed 16 h after hCG treatment, to assess follicle rupture and ovulation. Surprisingly, GPIR showed age-related ovulatory defects close similar to those in adult rats lacking P and PG actions. Rats primed with eCG at 21 or 23 days of age showed abnormally ruptured corpora lutea in which the cumulus-oocyte complex (COC was trapped or had been released to the ovarian interstitum, invading the ovarian stroma and blood and lymphatic vessels. Supplementation of immature rats with exogenous P and/or PG of the E series did not significantly inhibit abnormal follicle rupture. Otherwise, ovulatory defects were practically absent in rats primed with eCG at 25 days of age. GPIR treated with INDO showed the same ovulatory alterations than vehicle-treated ones, although affecting to a higher proportion of follicles. Blocking P actions with RU486 increased the number of COC trapped inside corpora lutea and decreased ovulation. The presence of ovulatory defects in GPIR, suggests that the capacity of the immature ovary to undergo the coordinate changes leading to effective ovulation is not fully established in Wistar rats primed with eCG before 25 days of age.

  11. Regulation of Taurine transporter activity in cultured rat retinal ganglion cells and rat retinal Muller Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eissa, Laila A.; Smith, Sylvia B.; El-sherbeny, Amira A.

    2006-01-01

    Diabetic retinopathy is one of the most common complications of diabetes. The amino acid taurine is believed to play an antioxidant protective role in diabetic retinopathy through the scavenging of the reactive species. It is not well established whether taurine uptake is altered in retina cells during diabetic conditions. Thus, the present study was designed to investigate the changes in taurine transport in cultures of rat retinal Muller cells and rat retinal ganglion cells under conditions associated with diabetes. Taurine was abundantly taken up by retinal Muller cells and rat retinal ganglion cells under normal glycemic condition. Taurine was actively transported to rat Muller cells and rat retinal ganglion cells in a Na and Cl dependant manner. Taurine uptake further significantly elevated in both type of cells after the incubation with high glucose concentration. This effect could be attributed to the increase in osmolarity. Because Nitric Oxide (NO) is a molecule implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetes, we also determined the activity of taurine transporter in cultured rat retinal Muller cells and rat retinal ganglion cells in the presence of the NO donors, SIN-1 and SNAP. Taurine uptake was elevated above control value after 24-h incubation with low concentration of NO donors. We finally investigated the ability of neurotoxic glutamate to change taurine transporter activity in both types of cells. Uptake of taurine was significantly increased in rat retinal ganglion cells when only incubated with high concentration of glutamate. Our data provide evidence that taurine transporter is present in cultured rat retinal ganglion and Muller cells and is regulated by hyperosmolarity. The data are relevant to disease such as diabetes and neuronal degeneration where retinal cell volume may dramatically change. (author)

  12. Locus coeruleus lesions and PCOS: role of the central and peripheral sympathetic nervous system in the ovarian function of rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farideh Zafari Zangeneh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is a complex endocrine and metabolic disorder associated with ovulatory dysfunction”. “Autonomic and central nervous systems play important roles in the regulation of ovarian physiology”. The noradrenergic nucleus locus coeruleus (LC plays a central role in the regulation of the sympathetic nervous system and synaptically connected to the preganglionic cell bodies of the ovarian sympathetic pathway and its activation is essential to trigger spontaneous or induced LH surges. This study evaluates sympathetic outflow in central and peripheral pathways in PCO rats. Objective: Our objectives in this study were (1 to estimate LC activity in rats with estradiol valerate (EV-induced PCO; (2 to antagonized alpha2a adrenoceptor in systemic conditions with yohimbine. Materials and Methods: Forty two rats were divided into two groups: 1 LC and yohimbine and 2 control. Every group subdivided in two groups: eighteen rats were treated with estradiol valerate for induction of follicular cysts and the remainders were sesame oil groups. Results: Estradiol concentration was significantly augmented by the LC lesion in PCO rats (p<0.001, while LC lesion could not alter serum concentrations of LH and FSH, like yohimbine. The morphological observations of ovaries of LC lesion rats showed follicles with hyperthecosis, but yohimbine reduced the number of cysts, increased corpus lutea and developed follicles. Conclusion: Rats with EV-induced PCO increased sympathetic activity. LC lesion and yohimbine decreased the number of cysts and yohimbine increased corpus lutea and developed follicles in PCO rats.

  13. Threonine phosphorylation of rat liver glycogen synthase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arino, J.; Arro, M.; Guinovart, J.J.

    1985-01-01

    32 P-labeled glycogen synthase specifically immunoprecipitated from 32 P-phosphate incubated rat hepatocytes contains, in addition to [ 32 P] phosphoserine, significant levels of [ 32 P] phosphothreonine. When the 32 P-immunoprecipitate was cleaved with CNBr, the [ 32 P] phosphothreonine was recovered in the large CNBr fragment (CB-2, Mapp 28 Kd). Homogeneous rat liver glycogen synthase was phosphorylated by all the protein kinases able to phosphorylate CB-2 in vitro. After analysis of the immunoprecipitated enzyme for phosphoaminoacids, it was observed that only casein kinase II was able to phosphorylate on threonine and 32 P-phosphate was only found in CB-2. These results demonstrate that rat liver glycogen synthase is phosphorylated at threonine site(s) contained in CB-2 and strongly indicate that casein kinase II may play a role in the ''in vivo'' phosphorylation of liver glycogen synthase. This is the first protein kinase reported to phosphorylate threonine residues in liver glycogen synthase

  14. Iron appetite and latent learning in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, S C; Vasselli, J R; Milam, K M

    1977-11-01

    Two experiments are reported which show that rats are capable of forming an association between the presence of iron in a solution when it is not specifically needed and a subsequent state of iron deficiency. Specifically, rats were trained to lever press for water while thirsty. One group received ferrous ions in addition to the water. When these rats were subsequently rendered iron deficient, they lever pressed more under extinction conditions as a graded function of lower hemoglobin levels. Controls that either did not receive ferrous ions during training or received solutions other than ferrous solutions during training did not respond this way under extinction conditions. This is therefore a type of latent learning previously demonstrated only for sodium appetite.

  15. Metabolic neural mapping in neonatal rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DiRocco, R.J.; Hall, W.G.

    1981-01-01

    Functional neural mapping by 14 C-deoxyglucose autoradiography in adult rats has shown that increases in neural metabolic rate that are coupled to increased neurophysiological activity are more evident in axon terminals and dendrites than neuron cell bodies. Regions containing architectonically well-defined concentrations of terminals and dendrites (neuropil) have high metabolic rates when the neuropil is physiologically active. In neonatal rats, however, we find that regions containing well-defined groupings of neuron cell bodies have high metabolic rates in 14 C-deoxyglucose autoradiograms. The striking difference between the morphological appearance of 14 C-deoxyglucose autoradiograms obtained from neonatal and adult rats is probably related to developmental changes in morphometric features of differentiating neurons, as well as associated changes in type and locus of neural work performed

  16. Biobreeding rat islets exhibit reduced antioxidative defense and N-acetyl cysteine treatment delays type 1 diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdani, Marika; Henschel, Angela M.; Kansra, Sanjay; Fuller, Jessica M.; Geoffrey, Rhonda; Jia, Shuang; Kaldunski, Mary L.; Pavletich, Scott; Prosser, Simon; Chen, Yi-Guang; Lernmark, Åke; Hessner, Martin J.

    2014-01-01

    Islet-level oxidative stress has been proposed as a trigger for type 1 diabetes (T1D), and release of cytokines by infiltrating immune cells further elevates reactive oxygen species (ROS), exacerbating β cell duress. To identify genes/mechanisms involved with diabeto-genesis at the β cell level, gene expression profiling and targeted follow-up studies were used to investigate islet activity in the biobreeding (BB) rat. Forty-day-old spontaneously diabetic lymphopenic BB DRlyp/lyp rats (before T cell insulitis) as well as nondiabetic BB DR+/+ rats, nondiabetic but lymphopenic F344lyp/lyp rats, and healthy Fischer (F344) rats were examined. Gene expression profiles of BB rat islets were highly distinct from F344 islets and under-expressed numerous genes involved in ROS metabolism, including glutathione S-transferase (GST) family members (Gstm2, Gstm4, Gstm7, Gstt1, Gstp1, and Gstk1), superoxide dismutases (Sod2 and Sod3), peroxidases, and peroxiredoxins. This pattern of under-expression was not observed in brain, liver, or muscle. Compared with F344 rats, BB rat pancreata exhibited lower GST protein levels, while plasma GST activity was found significantly lower in BB rats. Systemic administration of the antioxidant N-acetyl cysteine to DRlyp/lyp rats altered abundances of peripheral eosinophils, reduced severity of insulitis, and significantly delayed but did not prevent diabetes onset. We find evidence of β cell dysfunction in BB rats independent of T1D progression, which includes lower expression of genes related to antioxidative defense mechanisms during the pre-onset period that may contribute to overall T1D susceptibility. PMID:23111281

  17. Helminth parasites in black rats (Rattus rattus) and brown rats (Rattus norvegicus) from different environments in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franssen, Frits; Swart, Arno; van Knapen, Frans|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/070114749; van der Giessen, Joke

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Rattus norvegicus (brown rat) and Rattus rattus (black rat) are known carriers of bacteria, viruses, and parasites of zoonotic and veterinary importance. Moreover, rats may play a role in the transmission of muscle larvae of the zoonotic nematode Trichinella spiralis to farm animals. We

  18. Second hand tobacco smoke adversely affects the bone of immature rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo César Rosa

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the influence of secondhand cigarette smoke exposure on longitudinal growth of the tibia of growing rats and some parameters of bone quality. METHODS: Forty female rats were randomly divided into four groups: control: rats were sham exposed; 30 days: rats were exposed to tobacco smoke for 30 days; 45 days: rats were exposed to tobacco smoke for 45 days; and 60 days: rats were exposed to tobacco smoke for 60 days. Blood samples were collected to evaluate the levels of cotinine and alkaline phosphatase. Both tibias were dissected and weighed; the lengths were measured, and the bones were then stored in a freezer for analysis of bone mineral content and mechanical resistance (maximal load and stiffness. RESULTS: Exposure of rats to tobacco smoke significantly compromised bone health, suggesting that the harmful effects may be time dependent. Harmful effects on bone growth were detected and were more pronounced at 60-day follow-ups with a 41.8% reduction in alkaline phosphatase levels (p<0.01 and a decrease of 11.25% in tibia length (p<0.001. Furthermore, a 41.5% decrease in bone mineral density was observed (p<0.001, leading to a 42.8% reduction in maximum strength (p<0.001 and a 56.7% reduction in stiffness (p<0.001. CONCLUSION: Second hand cigarette smoke exposure in rats affected bones that were weaker, deforming them and making them osteopenic. Additionally, the long bone was shorter, suggesting interference with growth. Such events seem to be related to time of exposure.

  19. [Effect of piperine on 5-HT and synaptophysin expression of rats with irritable bowel syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shu-Juan; Wang, Ren-Ye; Xue, Ji-Xiong; Pan, Jian-Chun

    2013-12-01

    This study is to explore the amelioration of piperine on chronic acute combining stress rat with depression-like behavior, visceral sensitivity, and its effect on the expression of serotonin (5-HT) and synaptophysin. Forty two SD rats were divided into seven groups: blank group, model group, piperine (12.5, 25, 50 and 100 mgkg-1, ig) and imipramine (10 mgkg-1, ip) groups. The rat model of irritable bowel syndrome was established by chronic acute combining stress, and then to evaluate depression-like behavior and visceral sensitivity. The expressions of 5-HT and synaptophysin in the hippocampus and colon were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and Western blotting, respectively. The duration of immobility of IBS rat in the forced swimming test had been significantly increased, the sucrose consumption of IBS rat had been reduced and visceral sensitivity was obviously elevated in the IBS model group as compared with those in the normal control group (P<0.05, P<0.01). As compared with those in the normal control group, the expression of 5-HT significantly decreased, 5-HIAA/5-HT ratio significantly increased in the hippocampus of IBS model group (P<0.05), but opposite presentations were noted in the colon (P<0.05). As compared with that in the normal control group, the synaptophysin expression in the hippocampus decreased significantly but obviously increased in the colon (P<0.05). Piperine improved the behavior of IBS rats, and reversed the levels of 5-HT and 5-HIAA, and 5-HIAA/5-HT proportion in the hippocampus and colon (P<0.05); besides, they significantly reverse the synaptophysin level in the hippocampus and colon (P<0.05). The presence of depression and visceral sensitivity had been changed in IBS rats, with abnormal expression of 5-HT and synaptophysin in the brain-gut system. Piperine can ameliorate the changes of the behavior and regulation of serotonin and synaptophysin expression in IBS rat model.

  20. Protective effects of Tualang honey on bone structure in experimental postmenopausal rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Sarah Mohamad Zaid

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of Tualang honey on trabecular structure and compare these effects with those of calcium supplementation in ovariectomized rats. METHODS: Forty female, Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into five groups (n =8: four controls and one test arm. The control arm comprised a baseline control, sham-operated control, ovariectomized control, and ovariectomized calcium-treated rats (receiving 1% calcium in drinking water ad libitum. The test arm was composed of ovariectomized, Tualang honey-treated rats (received 0.2 g/kg body weight of Tualang honey. Both the sham-operated control and ovariectomized control groups received vehicle treatment (deionized water, and the baseline control group was sacrificed without treatment. RESULTS: All rats were orally gavaged daily for six weeks after day one post-surgery. The bone structural analysis of rats in the test arm group showed a significant increase in the bone volume per tissue volume (BV/TV, trabecular thickness (Tb.Th and trabecular number (Tb.N and a significant decrease in inter-trabecular space (Tb.Sp compared with the ovariectomized control group. The trabecular thickness (Tb.Th in the test arm group was significantly higher compared with the ovariectomized-calcium treated group, and the inter-trabecular space (Tb.Sp in the test arm group was significantly narrower compared with the ovariectomized-calcium treated group. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, ovariectomized rats that received Tualang honey showed more improvements in trabecular bone structure than the rats that received calcium.

  1. Protective effects of Tualang honey on bone structure in experimental postmenopausal rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaid, Siti Sarah Mohamad; Sulaiman, Siti Amrah; Othman, Nor Hayati; Soelaiman, Ima-Nirwana; Shuid, Ahmad Nazrun; Mohamad, Norazlina; Muhamad, Norliza

    2012-07-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of Tualang honey on trabecular structure and compare these effects with those of calcium supplementation in ovariectomized rats. Forty female, Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into five groups (n =8): four controls and one test arm. The control arm comprised a baseline control, sham-operated control, ovariectomized control, and ovariectomized calcium-treated rats (receiving 1% calcium in drinking water ad libitum). The test arm was composed of ovariectomized, Tualang honey-treated rats (received 0.2 g/kg body weight of Tualang honey). Both the sham-operated control and ovariectomized control groups received vehicle treatment (deionized water), and the baseline control group was sacrificed without treatment. All rats were orally gavaged daily for six weeks after day one post-surgery. The bone structural analysis of rats in the test arm group showed a significant increase in the bone volume per tissue volume (BV/TV), trabecular thickness (Tb.Th) and trabecular number (Tb.N) and a significant decrease in inter-trabecular space (Tb.Sp) compared with the ovariectomized control group. The trabecular thickness (Tb.Th) in the test arm group was significantly higher compared with the ovariectomized-calcium treated group, and the inter-trabecular space (Tb.Sp) in the test arm group was significantly narrower compared with the ovariectomized-calcium treated group. In conclusion, ovariectomized rats that received Tualang honey showed more improvements in trabecular bone structure than the rats that received calcium.

  2. [Effects of warm needling moxibustion on knee cartilage and morphology in rats with knee osteoarthritis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yongliang; Mi, Yiqun; Gang, Jiahong; Wang, Huamin

    2016-02-01

    To observe the effects of warm needling moxibustion on body mass, knee cartilage andmorphology in rats with knee osteoarthritis (KOA). Forty SD rats were randomly divided into a normalgroup, a model group, a medication group and a warm needling group, 10 rats in each one. Except the normalgroup, the rats in the remaining three groups were injected with papain to establish the model of KOA. After themodeling, rats in the model group did not receive any treatment; rats in the warm needling group were treated withwarm needling moxibustion at bilateral "Xiqian"; rats in the medication group were treated with intragastric administration of meloxicam; rats in the normal group were treated with 0. 9% NaCl solution (identical dose as medication group) and immobilized as the warm needling group. The treatment was given once a day for consecutive20 days. The body mass, scale of knee cartilage and morphological changes were observed in each group after'treatment. The increasing of body mass in the medication group and warm needling group was faster than!that in the model group, but slower than that in the normal group (all Pwarm needling group was not statistically significant (P>0. 05). The scale of knee cartilage in thewarm needling group and medication group was significantly lower than that in the model group (both Pwarm needling group was lower than that in the medication group (Pwarm needlinggroup were superior to those in the medication group. The warm needling moxibustion could effectively reduce the knee pain, improve the recovery of knee cartilage, which is a safe and effective treatment.

  3. Effect of TheraCyte-encapsulated parathyroid cells on lumbar fusion in a rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Sung-Hsiung; Huang, Shun-Chen; Lui, Chun-Chung; Lin, Tzu-Ping; Chou, Fong-Fu; Ko, Jih-Yang

    2012-09-01

    Implantation of TheraCyte 4 × 10(6) live parathyroid cells can increase the bone marrow density of the spine of ovariectomized rats. There has been no published study examining the effect of such implantation on spinal fusion outcomes. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of TheraCyte-encapsulated parathyroid cells on posterolateral lumbar fusions in a rat model. Forty Sprague-Dawley rats underwent single-level, intertransverse process spinal fusions using iliac crest autograft. The rats were randomly assigned to two groups: Group 1 rats received sham operations on their necks (control; N = 20); Group 2 rats were implanted with TheraCyte-encapsulated 4 × 10(6) live parathyroid cells into the subcutis of their necks (TheraCyte; N = 20). Six weeks after surgery the rats were killed. Fusion was assessed by inspection, manual palpation, radiography, and histology. Blood was drawn to measure the serum levels of calcium, phosphorus, and intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH). Based on manual palpation, the control group had a fusion rate of 33 % (6/18) and the TheraCyte group had a fusion rate of 72 % (13/18) (P = 0.044). Histology confirmed the manual palpation results. Serum iPTH levels were significantly higher in the TheraCyte group compared with the control group (P TheraCyte-encapsulated 4 × 10(6) live parathyroid cells than in control rats without significant change in serum calcium or phosphorus concentrations. As with any animal study, the results may not extrapolate to a higher species. Further studies are needed to determine if these effects are clinically significant.

  4. Nylon filament coated with paraffin for intraluminal permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Xia-Lin; Wu, Ping; Ji, Ai-Min

    2012-06-21

    A variety of intraluminal nylon filament has been used in rat middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) models. However the lesion extent and its reproducibility vary among laboratories. The properties of nylon filament play a part of reasons for these variations. In the present study, we used paraffin-coated nylon filament for rat MCAO model, tested the effects and advanced improvement for making the rat MCAO. Forty male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomized into two groups, MCAO with traditional uncoated nylon filament (uMCAO) and MCAO with paraffin-coated nylon filament (cMCAO), three rats as normal group and sham group respectively. Assessment included mortality rates, model success rates, neurological deficit evaluation, and infarct volume. The study showed two rats died in uMCAO group, no rat died in cMCAO group within the 12h. The model success rate of uMCAO was 100%, while the uMCAO group was 55% (n=20, two died within 12h, seven rats were excluded as the brain slices showed no TTC staining due to subarachanoid hemorrhage). Neurological evaluation demonstrated group cMCAO had more worse neurological outcomes than group uMCAO, and the difference was statistically signification (pparaffin-coated nylon filament intraluminal occlusion provide better occlusion of middle cerebral artery than the uncoated nylon filament, improve the consistent of model, and raise the success rate to reduce the number of experimental animals. These positive results are much encouraging and interesting. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Neutron irradiation of rat embryos in utero

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogel, H.H. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    In the rat radiation is most effective in producing congenital anomalies during the organ-forming period (days 9 to 13), which is approximately equivalent to the 14th to 50th days of human pregnancy. We have exposed female Sprague--Dawley rats on the 18th day of pregnancy to single whole-body doses of fission neutrons (20 to 150 rads). After 20 rads there was a small decrease in body weight which lasted from birth to weaning. During this period 9% of the irradiated rats died compared with 4% of the controls. After 50 rads, 65/275 (23.6%) of the rats died between birth and weaning, and the body-weight loss of the survivors was increased. After 100 rads, 62/133 (47%) died at birth or day 1 and 103/133 (77.4%) died before weaning. A large and significant decrease in body weight persisted in the survivors. After 150 rads of fission neutrons, all 95 rats died within 48 hr of birth. From cross-fostering experiments, we believe this is a direct effect of radiation on the embryos and not an indirect action through the mother or her milk. The LD 50 for the period from birth to weaning is approximately 75 rads of fission neutrons. Studies of organ weight were conducted daily for the first week after birth in an attempt to find the cause of radiation mortality. Body weight of the irradiated animals averaged only about one-half that of the controls. The liver, kidney, brain, and testes of the neutron-irradiated rats weighed significantly less than those of the controls. The weights of the spleen, lungs, duodenum, and stomach were decreased but not significantly. The bone marrow appeared depleted in the irradiated long bones, but the spleen maintained active hematopoiesis 1 to 2 months after neutron exposure

  6. Oxidative stress in normal and diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, M D; Canal, J R; Pérez, C

    1999-01-01

    Parameters related to oxidative stress were studied in a group of 10 Wistar diabetic rats and 10 control rats. The levels of total erythrocyte catalase activity in the diabetic animals were significantly (pC18:2) ratios. Greater vitaminE/triglyceride (TG) ratio, however, appeared in the control group. The corresponding vitamin A ratios (vitaminA/TG, vitaminA/PUFA, vitaminA/C 18:2) were higher in the control group. Our work corroborates the findings that fatty acid metabolism presents alterations in the diabetes syndrome and that the antioxidant status is affected.

  7. Renal alterations in prediabetic rats with periodontitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Carla Cruvinel Pontes; Holmstrup, Palle; Buschard, Karsten

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Periodontitis was shown to have an impact on glucose levels in prediabetic and diabetic rats. The Zucker fatty rat (ZFR) is a well-characterized model of prediabetes presenting with impaired glucose tolerance, hyperinsulinemia, dyslipidemia, and moderate hypertension. The aim...... IValpha1, fibronectin, and nephrin. Urinary albumin excretion and creatinine clearance were also evaluated. RESULTS: In prediabetic ZFRs, periodontitis was associated with kidney hypertrophy (P = 0.03) and a tendency for increased glomerular volume (P = 0.06). In lean littermates, elevated fibronectin m...

  8. Immunity to Fasciola hepatica in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armour, J.; Dargie, J.D.

    1974-01-01

    Experiments were carried out which demonstrated an acquired immunity to Fasciola hapatica in the rat. It was shown that this immunity could be transferred to recipients using either lymphoid cells or serum from infected donor rats. The extent of the protection obtained by cells appeared to be related to the quantity and persistence of the antigenic stimulus in the donor. Likewise, the degree of immunity conferred by immune serum was dependent upon the volume transferred. The significance of these results in relation to the mechanism of immunity to fascioliasis is discussed

  9. Characterization of rat lung ICAM-1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck-Schimmer, B; Schimmer, R C; Schmal, H

    1998-01-01

    studies, rat pulmonary artery endothelial cells (RPAEC), rat alveolar macrophages and aortic rings were stimulated (as described below) and evaluated for ICAM-1 expression. TREATMENT: RPAEC and macrophages were stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and recombinant murine tumour necrosis factor alpha...... peaked at 4 h, while lung ICAM- I protein peaked at 6 h. CONCLUSIONS: Quantitation of ICAM-1 expression in vitro and in vivo suggests that ICAM-1 plays a central role in two lung inflammatory models. Furthermore, lung ICAM-1 upregulation involves at least two cell types: vascular endothelial cells...

  10. Absorption of pentacaine from ulcerous rat stomach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomcikova, O.; Babulova, A.; Durisova, M.; Trnovec, T.; Benes, L.

    1985-01-01

    Pentacaine is a local anaesthetic which exhibited positive effects on healing of model ulcers in the rat stomach. The in situ disappearance of pentacaine from the ulcerous and intact rat stomach was studied. Gastric ulcers were produced by oral administration of phenylbutazone (200 mg/kg) 3.5 h before absorption experiment. Pentacaine exhibited a biexponential decrease from the lumen of the stomach, the rate of which was essentially the same in both groups. The total amount of pentacaine absorbed was small because of extremly low absorption rate. (author)

  11. Fenbendazole treatment and litter size in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Nancy A; Bieszczak, Jeremiah R; Verhulst, Steven; Disney, Kimberly E; Montgomery, Kyle E; Toth, Linda A

    2006-11-01

    Fenbendazole is commonly used in laboratory animal medicine as an anthelmintic for elimination of pinworms. It is generally regarded as a safe drug with minimal side effects. In our facility, 2 breeding colonies of rats were treated with fenbendazole to eliminate pinworms. Analysis of the breeding records revealed that feeding Sprague-Dawley rats a diet containing fenbendazole on a continuous basis for 7 consecutive weeks was associated with a significant reduction in litter size. Although the mechanism underlying this effect is unknown, the finding prompts caution when using fenbendazole to treat valuable breeding colonies or strains that are poor breeders.

  12. The oncogenic action of ionizing radiation on rat skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, F.J.

    1991-01-01

    Progress has occurred in several areas corresponding to the specific aims of the proposal: (1) Progression and multiple events in radiation carcinogenesis of rat skin as a function of LET; (2) cell cycle kinetics of irradiated rat epidermis as determined by double labeling and double emulsion autoradiography; (3) oncogene activation detected by in situ hybridization in radiation-induced rat skin tumors; (4) amplification of the c-myc oncogene in radiation-induced rat skin tumors as a function of LET; and (5) transformation of rat skin keratinocytes by ionizing radiation in combination with c-Ki-ras and c-myc oncogenes. 111 refs., 13 figs., 12 tabs

  13. Acetaminophen-induced liver injury in rats and mice: Comparison of protein adducts, mitochondrial dysfunction, and oxidative stress in the mechanism of toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGill, Mitchell R.; Williams, C. David; Xie, Yuchao; Ramachandran, Anup; Jaeschke, Hartmut

    2012-01-01

    Acetaminophen (APAP) overdose is the most common cause of acute liver failure in the West. In mice, APAP hepatotoxicity can be rapidly induced with a single dose. Because it is both clinically relevant and experimentally convenient, APAP intoxication has become a popular model of liver injury. Early data demonstrated that rats are resistant to APAP toxicity. As a result, mice are the preferred species for mechanistic studies. Furthermore, recent work has shown that the mechanisms of APAP toxicity in humans are similar to mice. Nevertheless, some investigators still use rats. New mechanistic information from the last forty years invites a reevaluation of the differences between these species. Comparison may provide interesting insights and confirm or exclude the rat as an option for APAP studies. To this end, we treated rats and mice with APAP and measured parameters of liver injury, APAP metabolism, oxidative stress, and activation of the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). Consistent with earlier data, we found that rats were highly resistant to APAP toxicity. Although overall APAP metabolism was similar in both species, mitochondrial protein adducts were significantly lower in rats. Accordingly, rats also had less oxidative stress. Finally, while mice showed extensive activation and mitochondrial translocation of JNK, this could not be detected in rat livers. These data support the hypothesis that mitochondrial dysfunction is critical for the development of necrosis after APAP treatment. Because mitochondrial damage also occurs in humans, rats are not a clinically relevant species for studies of APAP hepatotoxicity. Highlights: ► Acetaminophen overdose causes severe liver injury only in mice but not in rats. ► APAP causes hepatic GSH depletion and protein adduct formation in rats and mice. ► Less protein adducts were measured in rat liver mitochondria compared to mouse. ► No oxidant stress, peroxynitrite formation or JNK activation was present in rats. ► The

  14. Rats demonstrate helping behavior toward a soaked conspecific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Nobuya; Tan, Ling; Tate, Kazushi; Okada, Maya

    2015-09-01

    Helping behavior is a prosocial behavior whereby an individual helps another irrespective of disadvantages to him or herself. In the present study, we examined whether rats would help distressed, conspecific rats that had been soaked with water. In Experiment 1, rats quickly learned to liberate a soaked cagemate from the water area by opening the door to allow the trapped rat into a safe area. Additional tests showed that the presentation of a distressed cagemate was necessary to induce rapid door-opening behavior. In addition, it was shown that rats dislike soaking and that rats that had previously experienced a soaking were quicker to learn how to help a cagemate than those that had never been soaked. In Experiment 2, the results indicated that rats did not open the door to a cagemate that was not distressed. In Experiment 3, we tested behavior when rats were forced to choose between opening the door to help a distressed cagemate and opening a different door to obtain a food reward. Irrespective of how they learned to open the door, in most test trials, rats chose to help the cagemate before obtaining a food reward, suggesting that the relative value of helping others is greater than the value of a food reward. These results suggest that rats can behave prosocially and that helper rats may be motivated by empathy-like feelings toward their distressed cagemate.

  15. [Subcutaneous transplants of juvenile rat testicular tissues continue to develop and secret androgen in adult rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhou; Wang, Tong; Cui, Jiangbo; Song, Yajuan; Ma, Xianjie; Su, Yingjun; Peng, Pai

    2017-12-01

    Objective To explore the effects of subcutaneous microenvironment of adult rats on survival, development and androgen secretion of Leydig cells of transplanted juvenile rat testis. Methods Healthy adult SD rats were randomly divided into control group, sham group, castrated group and non-castrated group. Rats in the control group were kept intact, no testis was transplanted subcutaneously after adult recipients were castrated in the sham group; 5-7-day juvenile rat testes were transplanted subcutaneously in the castrated group, with one testis per side; Testes resected from juvenile rats were directly transplanted subcutaneously on both sides of the recipients in the non-castrated group. The grafts were obtained and weighed 4 weeks later. Then the histological features of the grafts were examined by HE staining; the expression and distribution of hydroxysteroid 17-beta dehydrogenase 1 (HSD-17β1) were investigated by immunohistochemistry; and the serum androgen level was determined by ELISA. Results The average mass of grafts obtained from the castrated group was significantly higher than that of the non-castrated group. Immunohistochemistry indicated that Leydig cells were visible in the tissues from both the castrated and non-castrated groups, but the number of HSD-17β1-posotive cells in the castrated group was larger than that in the non-castrated group. ELISA results showed that the serum androgen level was higher in the control group and non-castrated group than in the sham group and castrated group, and compared with the sham group, the serum androgen level in the castrated group was significantly higher. Conclusion The juvenile rat testis subcutaneously transplanted could further develop under the adult recipient rat skin, and the Leydig cells of grafts harbored the ability to produce and secret androgen.

  16. Effect of x-irradiation in rats bearing walker-256-carcinosarcoma and normal rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehara, Kazuhiko

    1978-01-01

    Serum protein fractions and total proteins were studied with bloods obtained from the rats exposed each to the partial-, whole-bodies and the transplanted tumors (Walker-256-carcinosarcoma transplanted in the right hind leg). The electrophoretic variation induced in the sera of tumor-bearing rats (Group II), and the content of total proteins decreased. Early irradiation to the tumor part of rats less induced the variations of the electrophoretic pattern and the decrease of the amount of serum total proteins. When the distant metastasis appeared during irradiation treatment, the electrophoretic patterns and content of total proteins changed proportionally to the variation in sera of Group II. On the other hand, the γ-globulin (G) fraction increased in the long-term survival rat. The separation of the rat serum β-G into two peaks of β 1 - and β 2 -G was shown only in Group IV (late irradiation to the right hind leg). This finding supposed that some factors involve in the sera of rats with transplanted primary tumor grown up to a fixed size and guessed the appearance of the distant metastasis during x-irradiation. The percentages of the albumin and γ-G decreased slightly and those of the α 1 -, α 2 - and β-G increased slightly in the rats with 300 rad partial-body (the right hind leg) x-irradiation daily for 20 days. The remarkable decrease of the albumin and γ-G, the increase of the α 1 - and β-G, the marked increase of the α 2 -G and the decrease of serum total proteins were demonstrated for the sera of rats with 1,000 rad whole-body x-irradiation at a time. These phenomena seem to be related to the destructive and reticuloendothelial injury by the exposure. (auth.)

  17. Palmitoylated PrRP analog decreases body weight in DIO rats but not in ZDF rats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Holubová, Martina; Zemenová, Jana; Mikulášková, Barbora; Panajotová, V.; Stöhr, J.; Haluzík, M.; Kuneš, Jaroslav; Železná, Blanka; Maletínská, Lenka

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 229, č. 2 (2016), s. 85-96 ISSN 0022-0795 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-08679S; GA TA ČR(CZ) TE01020028 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : prolactin-releasing peptide * lipidization * diet-induced obesity * ZDF rats * food intake * rat Subject RIV: FB - Endocrinology, Diabetology, Metabolism, Nutrition Impact factor: 4.706, year: 2016

  18. Palmitoylated PrRP analog decreases body weight in DIO rats but not in ZDF rats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Holubová, M.; Zemenová, J.; Mikulášková, Barbora; Panajotová, V.; Stöhr, J.; Haluzík, M.; Kuneš, Jaroslav; Železná, B.; Maletínská, L.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 229, č. 2 (2016), s. 85-96 ISSN 0022-0795 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR(CZ) TE01020028; GA ČR(CZ) GA15-08679S Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : prolactin-releasing peptide * lipidization * diet-induced obesity * ZDF rats * food intake rat Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 4.706, year: 2016

  19. Efficacy and Safety of Gwakhyangjeonggi-San Retention Enema in Normal Rats and Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunyoung Song

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to establish a protocol of retention-enema experiments and evaluate the antihypertensive effect and the safety of Gwakhyangjeonggi-san retention enema. Normal and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs were divided into treatment and control groups, respectively. We applied the Gwakhyangjeonggi-san extract by decoction and 0.9% NaCl in each group, estimated the blood pressure and body weight, and performed HPLC analysis. ALT, AST, BUN, and creatinine were examined. The systolic blood pressure within each group in normal rats differed significantly in time effect, and so did the diastolic blood pressure in the treatment group of normal rats. The systolic, diastolic, and mean blood pressure showed significant differences in group effect in the treatment group of the SHRs. The time effect of the body weight in both groups of normal rats differed significantly, so did group × time and time effects in both groups of SHRs. AST, ALT, BUN, and creatinine showed no significant difference between groups. We concluded that the Gwakhyangjeonggi-san retention enema has a hypotensive effect in normal rats within the regular range of blood pressure, but an antihypertensive effect in SHRs. Also, the intervention is safe and does not affect the liver and kidney functions in normal rats.

  20. Rats do not eat alone in public: Food-deprived rats socialize rather than competing for baits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omri Weiss

    Full Text Available Limited resources result in competition among social animals. Nevertheless, social animals also have innate preferences for cooperative behavior. In the present study, 12 dyads of food-deprived rats were tested in four successive trials, and then re-tested as eight triads of food-deprived rats that were unfamiliar to each other. We found that the food-deprived dyads or triads of rats did not compete for the food available to them at regular spatially-marked locations that they had previously learnt. Rather, these rats traveled together to collect the baits. One rat, or two rats in some triads, lead (ran ahead to collect most of the baits, but "leaders" differed across trials so that, on average, each rat ultimately collected similar amounts of baits. Regardless of which rat collected the baits, the rats traveled together with no substantial difference among them in terms of their total activity. We suggest that rats, which are a social species that has been found to display reciprocity, have evolved to travel and forage together and to share limited resources. Consequently, they displayed a sort of 'peace economy' that on average resulted in equal access to the baits across trials. For social animals, this type of dynamics is more relaxed, tolerant, and effective in the management of conflicts. Rather than competing for the limited available food, the food-deprived rats socialized and coexisted peacefully.

  1. Juvenile female rats, but not male rats, show renewal, reinstatement, and spontaneous recovery following extinction of conditioned fear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chun Hui J; Ganella, Despina E; Kim, Jee Hyun

    2017-12-01

    Anxiety disorders emerge early, and girls are significantly more likely to develop anxiety compared to boys. However, sex differences in fear during development are poorly understood. Therefore, we investigated juvenile male and female rats in the relapse behaviors following extinction of conditioned fear. In all experiments, 18-d-old rats first received three white-noise-footshock pairings on day 1. On day 2, extinction involved 60 white-noise alone trials. In experiment 1, we examined renewal by testing the rats in either the same or different context as extinction on day 3. Male rats did not show renewal, however, female rats showed renewal. Experiment 2 investigated reinstatement by giving rats either a mild reminder footshock or context exposure on day 3. When tested the next day, male rats did not show reinstatement, whereas female rats showed reinstatement. Experiment 3 investigated spontaneous recovery by testing the rats either 1 or 5 d following extinction. Male rats did not show any spontaneous recovery whereas female rats did. Taken together, fear regulation appear to be different in males versus females from early in development, which may explain why girls are more prone to suffer from anxiety disorders compared to boys. © 2017 Park et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  2. Extracellular ATP induces albuminuria in pregnant rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faas, M.M.; van der Schaaf, G.; Borghuis, T.; Jongman, R.M.; van Pampus, Maria; de Vos, P.; van Goor, Harry; Bakker, W.W.

    BACKGROUND: As circulating plasma ATP concentrations are increased in pre-eclampsia, we tested whether increased plasma ATP is able to induce albuminuria during pregnancy. METHODS: Pregnant (day 14) and non-pregnant rats were infused with ATP (3000 microg/kg bw) via a permanent jugular vein cannula.

  3. Gastric emptying of oils in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palin, K.J.; Whalley, D.R.; Wilson, C.G.; Phillips, A.J.; Davis, S.S.

    1982-01-01

    Sulphur colloid, labelled with technetium 99 and emulsified with arachis oil, miglyol 812 or liquid paraffin, was administered orally to male rats. A gamma camera, linked to a computer was used for imaging for 108 mins. after administration. The efficiency of the oils to aid stomach emptying was compared and arachis oil found to be the most effective. (U.K.)

  4. Spatial Memory in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats (SHR)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sontag, Thomas-A.; Fuermaier, Anselm B. M.; Hauser, Joachim; Kaunzinger, Ivo; Tucha, Oliver; Lange, Klaus W.

    2013-01-01

    The spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) is an established animal model of ADHD. It has been suggested that ADHD symptoms arise from deficits in executive functions such as working memory, attentional control and decision making. Both ADHD patients and SHRs show deficits in spatial working memory.

  5. Developmental neurotoxicity of Propylthiouracil in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Marta Axelstad; Hansen, P.; Christiansen, S.

    2007-01-01

    early in pregnancy may cause adverse effects on the offspring. This has led to increased concern about thyroid hormone disrupting chemicals (TDCs) in our environment. We have studied how developmental exposure to the known antithyroid agent propylthiouracil (PTU) affects the development of rat pups...... behaviour and hearing function. This supports that exposure to TDC's in general may cause long-lasting developmental neurotoxicity....

  6. Estrogen induces glomerulosclerosis in analbuminemic rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joles, JA; van Goor, H; Koomans, HA

    Progression of chronic renal disease: is usually more rapid in males, both In humans and in experimental animals. Estrogen-replacement studies indicate that this may be related to the beneficial effects of estrogen on the lipoprotein profile. However, in hyperlipidemic analbuminemic rats (NAR),

  7. DNA isolation from rat tail or ear

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuppen, E.

    2010-01-01

    This protocol describes a rapid procedure for isolating DNA from rat tail or ear punches. The simplest version of the protocol can be scaled for use in 96-well (deep-well) plates. The quality of the DNA is sufficient for any polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based genotyping approach.

  8. Gastrointestinal absorption of Np in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wirth, R.; Volf, V.

    1985-01-01

    The effect of Np mass and the acidity of the administered Np solutions as well as the age, sex and nutritional status of the animals injected or gavaged with 239Np or 237Np were determined. The latter factor proved to be dominant for absorption of Np from the gut. Thus in fasting weanling and young adult male rats, the absorption of 239Np was sixfold higher (0.18% and 0.12%, respectively) than in fed ones (0.03% and 0.02%, respectively). Absorption by fasted adult females was 0.05% of the administered 239Np, about half of that of adult males. Raising the Np-mass gavaged to fasted female rats to 1 and 10 mg 237Np/kg resulted in an absorption of 0.23% and 0.26%, respectively. Thus, an increased absorption of Np in adult rats seems to be expected only if a large mass is ingested. No dependence of the absorption of Np on nitric acid concentration was found. The data obtained after oral administration of 238Pu and 239Np to adult rats suggest that the f1 factor recommended by the ICRP for fractional absorption of soluble Np compounds from the gut should be decreased, whereas the f1 factor for soluble Pu compounds should be raised

  9. Rat Lungworm Expands into North America

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-01-21

    Emily York, integrated pest management specialist at the Sam Noble Museum of Natural History, discusses the rat lungworm expansion in North America.  Created: 1/21/2016 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 1/21/2016.

  10. Sequential causal learning in humans and rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu, H.; Rojas, R.R.; Beckers, T.; Yuille, A.; Love, B.C.; McRae, K.; Sloutsky, V.M.

    2008-01-01

    Recent experiments (Beckers, De Houwer, Pineño, & Miller, 2005;Beckers, Miller, De Houwer, & Urushihara, 2006) have shown that pretraining with unrelated cues can dramatically influence the performance of humans in a causal learning paradigm and rats in a standard Pavlovian conditioning paradigm.

  11. Episodic-like memory in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babb, Stephanie J; Crystal, Jonathon D

    2006-07-11

    A fundamental question in comparative cognition is whether animals remember unique, personal past experiences. It has long been argued that memories for specific events (referred to as episodic memory) are unique to humans. Recently, considerable evidence has accumulated to show that food-storing birds possess critical behavioral elements of episodic memory, referred to as episodic-like memory in acknowledgment of the fact that behavioral criteria do not assess subjective experiences. Here we show that rats have a detailed representation of remembered events and meet behavioral criteria for episodic-like memory. We provided rats with access to locations baited with distinctive (e.g., grape and raspberry) or nondistinctive (regular chow) flavors. Locations with a distinctive flavor replenished after a long but not a short delay, and locations with the nondistinctive flavor never replenished. One distinctive flavor was devalued after encoding its location by prefeeding that flavor (satiation) or by pairing it with lithium chloride (acquired taste aversion), while the other distinctive flavor was not devalued. The rats selectively decreased revisits to the devalued distinctive flavor but not to the nondevalued distinctive flavor. The present studies demonstrate that rats selectively encode the content of episodic-like memories.

  12. A microculture technique for rat lymphocyte transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, V J; Allardyce, R A

    1979-01-01

    We report the development of an economical microculture technique suitable for measuring rat lymphocyte response to mitogens and in mixed lymphocyte reactions. The effects of varying culture conditions, i.e. source of serum, addition and concentration of 2-mercaptoethanol, mitogen concentrations, culture incubation times, absorption of serum, lymphocyte numbers and microtitre plate well shape are described.

  13. In Utero Hepatocellular Transplantation in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Muñoz-Sáez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This work represents a step forward in the experimental design of an in utero hepatocellular transplantation model in rats. We focused on the enrichment optimization of isolated fetal hepatocytes suspension, arranging the surgery methodology of in utero transplantation, monitoring the biodistribution of the transplanted hepatocytes, and assessing the success of the transplants. Rat fetuses have been transplanted at the 17th embryonic day (ED17 with fetal hepatocytes isolated from rats at the end of pregnancy (ED21. We assessed possible differences between lymphocyte population, CD4 positive, CD8 positive, double-positive T-cells, and anti-inflammatory cytokines interleukins 4 and 10 (IL4 and IL10 as well. Cellular viability reached the rates of 90–95%. Transplanted groups had a limited success. Transplanted hepatocytes were not able to pass through the hematoplacental barrier. The hepatocytes injected were primarily located in the liver. There was an upward trend in the whole amount of T CD4 and T CD8 cells. There was an increased IL4 in the transplanted groups observed in the pregnant rats. The possibility to induce tolerance in fetuses with a hepatocyte transplant in utero could be a key point to avoid the immunosuppression treatments which must be undergone by transplanted patients.

  14. Transfer of memory retrieval cues in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, James F; Fitz, Kelly I; Riccio, David C

    2007-06-01

    Two experiments using rats were conducted to determine whether the retrieval of a memory could be brought under the control of new contextual cues that had not been present at the time of training. In Experiment 1, rats were trained in one context and then exposed to different contextual cues immediately, 60 min, or 120 min after training. When tested in the shifted context, rats that had been exposed shortly after training treated the shifted context as if it were the original context. The control that the previously neutral context had over retrieval disappeared with longer posttraining delays, suggesting the importance of an active memory representation during exposure. Experiment 2 replicated the basic finding and demonstrated that the transfer of retrieval cues was specific to the contextual cues present during exposure. These findings with rats are consistent with findings from infant research (see, e.g., Boller & Rovee-Collier, 1992) that have shown that a neutral context can come to serve as a retrieval cue for an episode experienced elsewhere.

  15. Oxytocin biotransformation in the rat limbic brain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burbach, J.P.H.; Schotman, P.; Kloet, E.R. de

    2006-01-01

    Two peptide fragments of oxytocin were isolated by high-pressure liquid chromatography from digests of oxytocin obtained after exposure to a SPM preparation of the rat limbic brain. The structures of these peptides, being Gln-Asn-Cys(O)x-Pro-Leu-GlyNH2 and Gln-Asn-Cys(-S-S-Cys)-Pro-Leu-GlyNH2, were

  16. Taurine content of tissues of irradiated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhalaya, M.Ya.; Bogatyrev, G.P.; Kudryashov, Yu.B.; Yartsev, E.I.

    1976-01-01

    The taurine content of tissues (liver, stomach, small intestine and spleen) of rats irradiated with doses of 700 and 450 rads has been studied. Phase changes have been found in the taurine content of radiosensitive tissues in the course of radiation injury development

  17. Serum testosterone concentration in chloroquine- treated rats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ONOS

    2010-07-05

    Jul 5, 2010 ... The effects of ascorbic acid (vitamin C) and alpha-tocopherol (vitamin E) were studied on serum testosterone ... chloroquine are probably mediated via the generation of free radicals. ... Effects of ascorbic acid and alpha-tocopherol on serum testosterone concentration in chloroquine-treated rats. Groups.

  18. Morphological and neurohistological changes in adolescent rats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    olayemitoyin

    Pregnancy was confirmed and the pregnant rats were divided into 3 groups based on the 3 trimesters ... form of attention deficit hyperactive disorder characterised by ..... Yoshinaga K., Rice C., Krenn J., Pilot R.L. (1979). Effects of nicotine on ...

  19. Toluene depresses plasma corticosterone in pregnant rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, K. S.; Hansen, A. M.; Hass, Ulla

    2003-01-01

    of corticosteroids from the maternal to the foetal compartment. Pregnant rats were subjected to either 1500 ppm toluene 6 hr/day and/or a schedule of "Chronic mild stress" during the last two weeks of gestation. Exposure to toluene was associated with reduced birth weight and lower maternal weight gain, the latter...

  20. METABOLISM AND DOSIMETRY OF VINCLOZOLIN IN RAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinclozolin (V) is an agricultural fungicide. V administered to rats is hydrolyzed to 2-[[(3,5-dichlorophenyl)-carbamoyl]oxy]-2-methyl-3-butenoic acid (M1) and 3',5'-dichloro-2-hydroxy-2-methylbut-3-enanilide (M2). V, M1and M2 are antiandrogenic by interacting with the androgen r...

  1. Prenatal Caffeine Exposure Impairs Pregnancy in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Yadegari

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: In recent years, concerns have been raised about human reproductive disorders. Caffeine consumption is increasing by the world’s population and there is a relationship between caffeine intake and adverse reproductive outcomes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of caffeine on implantation sites, number of live births, birth weight, crown-rump length (CRL and abnormality in pregnant rats. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 40 female albino rats (170-190 g were randomly divided into two experimental and two control groups (n=10/each group. In both experimental groups, animals received caffeine intraperitoneally (IP: 150 mg/kg/day on days 1-5 of pregnancy. In experimental group 1, treated animals were euthanized on day 7of pregnancy and the number of implantation sites was counted. In experimental group 2, treated animals maintained pregnant and after delivery, the number of live births, birth weight, CRL and abnormality of neonates were investigated. In control group, animals received IP injections of distilled water. Data were analyzed by independent t test. Results: Results showed that administration of caffeine significantly decreased the number of implantation sites, number of live births and CRL as compared with control group (P<0.05. There were no significant differences regarding birth weight and abnormality of neonate rats between experimental and control groups. Conclusion: These results suggest that caffeine caused anti-fertility effect and significantly decreased CRL in neonate rats.

  2. The rat incisor in toxicologic pathology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijpers, M.H.M.; Kooij, A.J. van de; Slootweg, P.J.

    1996-01-01

    Microscopic examination of the incisors of rats and mice may reveal toxicologically significant changes. First, the incisor morphology reflects the nutritional status of the animal: fluctuations of mineral metabolism and vitamin availability are disclosed by the rodent incisors, because the incisors

  3. Behavioral effects of etiracetam in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolthuis, O.L.

    1981-01-01

    The effects of etiracetam, a structural analogue or piracetam, were investigated in rats on Y-maze discrimination acquisition, on open field behavior, on one-trial passive avoidance learning and on shuttlebox acquisition and extinction. The results indicate that this drug significantly enhances

  4. Following Exhaustive Exercise in Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    reza Badalzadeh

    2014-12-01

    Conclusion: Long-term treatment of rats with cinnamon and regular training improved cardiac hemodynamic through an additive effect. The positive effects of cinnamon and regular training on cardiac function were associated with a reduced serum MDA level and an improved blood lipid profile.

  5. Cytoarchitecture in cultured rat neocortex explants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, B. M.; Ruijter, J. M.; Romijn, H. J.

    1988-01-01

    Neocortex explants obtained from 6-day-old rat pups and cultured in a serum-free medium from 5 hr to 13 days in vitro (DIV) show preservation of cytoarchitectural characteristics. Major changes in the size of the explants and their layers occur during the first 2 DIV. A radial arrangement of neurons

  6. Swelling of rat hepatocytes stimulates glycogen synthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baquet, A.; Hue, L.; Meijer, A. J.; van Woerkom, G. M.; Plomp, P. J.

    1990-01-01

    In hepatocytes from fasted rats, several amino acids are known to stimulate glycogen synthesis via activation of glycogen synthase. The hypothesis that an increase in cell volume resulting from amino acid uptake may be involved in the stimulation of glycogen synthesis is supported by the following

  7. Disposition of hexobarbital enantiomers in the rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Graaff, M; Vermeulen, N P; Joeres, R P; Breimer, D D

    1983-01-01

    The enantiomers of hexobarbital (HB), designated as (+)-HB and (-)-HB, were administered orally to separate groups of rats. Blood concentration-time curves of the parent compounds and the metabolites 3'-hydroxyhexobarbital (OH-HB) and 3'-ketohexobarbital (K-HB) were determined, as well as the

  8. seed on haematological parameters of albino rats

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Ejere

    2015-06-23

    Jun 23, 2015 ... and its indices (haemoglobin content, pack cell volume, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular haemoglobin ... demands in plant-based proteins for humans and livestock, ... hypogea) and animal based proteins (Siddhuraju et al.,. 1995 ..... difference in the packed cell volume (PCV) of albino rats.

  9. Muscle fragments on a scaffold in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jangö, Hanna; Gräs, Søren; Christensen, Lise

    2015-01-01

    -PLGA scaffolds seeded with autologous MFF affected some histological and biomechanical properties of native tissue repair in an abdominal wall defect model in rats. The method thus appears to be a simple tissue engineering concept with potential relevance for native tissue repair of POP....

  10. Lipogenesis in maintenance cultures of rat hepatocytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geelen, Math J.H.; Gibson, David M.

    1975-01-01

    Induction of the several enzymes in the liver cytosol catalyzing de novo synthesis of fatty acids from glucose has been demonstrated in intact animals. When carbohydrate is provided to previously starved rats the metabolism of liver switches from a gluconeogenic-ketogenic economy to a

  11. Curcumin inhibits amygdaloid kindled seizures in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DU, Peng; Li, Xin; Lin, Hao-Jie; Peng, Wei-Feng; Liu, Jian-Ying; Ma, Yu; Fan, Wei; Wang, Xin

    2009-06-20

    Curcumin can reduce the severity of seizures induced by kainate acid (KA), but the role of curcumin in amygdaloid kindled models is still unknown. This study aimed to explore the effect of curcumin on the development of kindling in amygdaloid kindled rats. With an amygdaloid kindled Sprague-Dawley (SD) rat model and an electrophysiological method, different doses of curcumin (10 mgxkg(-1)xd(-1) and 30 mgxkg(-1)xd(-1) as low dose groups, 100 mgxkg(-1)xd(-1) and 300 mgxkg(-1)xd(-1) as high dose groups) were administrated intraperitoneally during the whole kindling days, by comparison with the course of kindling, afterdischarge (AD) thresholds and the number of ADs to reach the stages of class I to V seizures in the rats between control and experimental groups. One-way or two-way ANOVA and Fisher's least significant difference post hoc test were used for statistical analyses. Curcumin (both 100 mgxkg(-1)xd(-1) and 300 mgxkg(-1)xd(-1)) significantly inhibited the behavioral seizure development in the (19.80 +/- 2.25) and (21.70 +/- 2.21) stimulations respectively required to reach the kindled state. Rats treated with 100 mgxkg(-1)xd(-1) curcumin 30 minutes before kindling stimulation showed an obvious increase in the stimulation current intensity required to evoke AD from (703.3 +/- 85.9) microA to (960.0 +/- 116.5) microA during the progression to class V seizures. Rats treated with 300 mgxkg(-1)xd(-1) curcumin showed a significant increase in the stimulation current intensity required to evoke AD from (735.0 +/- 65.2) microA to (867.0 +/- 93.4) microA during the progression to class V seizures. Rats treated with 300 mgxkg(-1)xd(-1) curcumin required much more evoked ADs to reach the stage of class both IV (as (199.83 +/- 12.47) seconds) and V seizures (as (210.66 +/- 10.68) seconds). Rats treated with 100 mgxkg(-1)xd(-1) curcumin required much more evoked ADs to reach the stage of class V seizures (as (219.56 +/- 18.24) seconds). Our study suggests that curcumin has

  12. The Effect of Tamoxifen Administration and γ-Irradiation on Thyroid Hormones Levels in Rats Bearing Mammary Tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdelgawad, M.R.

    2013-01-01

    Breast Cancer is the most common malignancy among women in most developed and developing regions of the world, in female, tamoxifen acting as an oestrogen antagonist on the breast. Thyroid hormones can stimulate the proliferation in vitro of certain tumor cell lines. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the effect of tamoxifen and/ or irradiation treatment on thyroid hormones in rats' mammary tumours. Forty-two female Sprague-Dawely rats randomly divided into seven groups' proliferation (6 rats each). Control group, normal rats supplemented with tamoxifen for 3 weeks, normal rats exposed to a single dose 3Gy γ-rays, rats treated with Dimethylbenz (a) anthracene (DMBA) dissolved in corn oil (30ppm) sc and followed for 6 months until breast cancer occurrence, breast cancer bearing rats supplemented with tamoxifen for 3 weeks twice a day, breast cancer bearing rats exposed to a single dose 3Gy γ-rays, breast cancer bearing rats exposed to a single dose 3Gy γ-rays and supplemented with tamoxifen for 3 weeks twice a day. At the end of the experiment, mammary tumours and control rats were sacrificed after 3 weeks from different treatments and serum thyroid hormones and estradiol (E2) levels were assayed using commercial kits. Results show T4 and E2 levels not triiodothyronine (T3) were altered in different experimental groups. It could be concluded that γ-irradiation promote the expression of neoplastic potential by affecting both E2 and thyroid hormones and tamoxifen may alter the thyroid hormones. Tamoxifen administration and γ-irradiation may have worth effects on thyroxin (T4) and E2 levels. It is recommended to further studies towards the bystander effect of γ-rays exposure and tamoxifen treatment on the tissue culture and molecular biology scale.

  13. Nasopharyngeal deposition and retention of an insoluble aerosol in rats

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    Calamosca, M.; Pagano, P. (ENEA, Bologna (Italy))

    1991-01-01

    Forty-four female Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed, nose-only, to a 0.67 {mu}m CMAD radiolabelled Carnauba wax aerosol. The animals were sacrificed immediately after a given exposure to determine the rapid nasopharyngeal clearance rate. Clearance times were 12, 20, 30 and 44 min and 1, 2, 4, 8, 190, 357, and 549 h. Aerosol amounts remaining in the nasopharynx as a function of time were fitted to a two term exponential decay equation of the form: R(t)=Aexp(-K{sub 1}t) +Bexp(-K{sub 2}t) where the constants were found to be A=0.156{+-}0.007, K{sub 1}=3.2{+-}0.3 h{sup -1}, B=0.011{+-} 0.003, and K{sub 2}=0.008{+-} 0.010h{sup -1}. The relative deposition in the nasal region was found to be 20{+-}5%. (author).

  14. Cyclosporine a inhibits apoptosis of rat gingival epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Su; Liu, Peihong; Li, Yanwu; Hou, Lin; Chen, Li; Qin, Chunlin

    2014-08-01

    The use of cyclosporine A (CsA) induces hyperplasia of the gingival epithelium in a site-specific response manner, but the molecular mechanism via which the lesion occurs is unclear. The present research aims to investigate the site-specific effect of CsA on the apoptosis of gingival epithelium associated with gingival hyperplasia. Forty Wistar rats were divided into CsA-treated and non-treated groups. Paraffin-embedded sections of mandibular first molars were selected for hematoxylin and eosin staining, immunohistochemistry analyses of bcl-2 and caspase-3, and the staining of terminal deoxynucleotidyl transfer-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL). The area of the whole gingival epithelium and the length of rete pegs were measured, and the number of bcl-2- and caspase-3-positive cells in the longest rete peg were counted. The analysis of variance for factorial designs and Fisher least significant difference test for post hoc analysis were used to determine the significance levels. In CsA-treated rats, bcl-2 expression was significantly upregulated, whereas caspase-3 expression was downregulated, along with a reduced number of TUNEL-positive cells. The site-specific distribution of bcl-2 was consistent with the site-specific hyperplasia of the gingival epithelium in CsA-treated rats. CsA inhibited gingival epithelial apoptosis via the mitochondrial pathway and common pathway. The antiapoptotic protein bcl-2 might play a critical role in the pathogenesis of the site-specific hyperplasia of gingival epithelium induced by CsA. There were mechanistic differences in the regulation of apoptosis for cells in the attached gingival epithelium, free gingival epithelium, and junctional epithelium.

  15. Gastric emptying in rats with acetaminophen-induced hepatitis

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    G. Hessel

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to study the gastric emptying (GE of liquids in fasted and sucrose-fed rats with toxic hepatitis induced by acetaminophen. The GE of three test meals (saline, glucose and mayonnaise was evaluated in Wistar rats. For each meal, the animals were divided into two groups (N = 24 each. Group I was fed a sucrose diet throughout the experiment (66 h while group II was fasted. Forty-two hours after the start of the experiment, each group was divided into two subgroups (N = 12 each. Subgroup A received a placebo and subgroup B was given acetaminophen (1 g/kg. Twenty-four hours later, the GE of the three test meals was assessed and blood samples were collected to measure the serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST and acetaminophen. In group IB, the mean AST and ALT values were 515 and 263 IU/l, respectively, while for group IIB they were 4014 and 2472 IU/l, respectively. The mean serum acetaminophen levels were higher in group IIB (120 µg/ml than in group IB (87 µg/ml. The gastric retention values were significantly higher in group IIB than in group IIA for all three test meals: saline, 51 vs 35%; glucose, 52 vs 38% and mayonnaise, 51 vs 29% (median values. The correlation between gastric retention and AST levels was significant (P<0.05 for group IIB for the three test meals: r = 0.73, 0.67 and 0.68 for saline, glucose and mayonnaise, respectively. We conclude that GE is altered in rats with hepatic lesions induced by acetaminophen, and that these alterations may be related to the liver cell necrosis caused by the drug.

  16. Protein synthesis in the growing rat lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelley, J.; Chrin, L.

    1986-01-01

    Developmental control of protein synthesis in the postnatal growth of the lung has not been systematically studied. In male Fischer 344 rats, lung growth continues linearly as a function of body weight (from 75 to 450 g body weight). To study total protein synthesis in lungs of growing rats, we used the technique of constant intravenous infusion of tritiated leucine, an essential amino acid. Lungs of sacrificed animals were used to determine the leucine incorporation rate into newly synthesized protein. The specific radioactivity of the leucine associated with tRNA extracted from the same lungs served as an absolute index of the precursor leucine pool used for lung protein synthesis. On the basis of these measurements, we were able to calculate the fractional synthesis rate (the proportion of total protein destroyed and replaced each day) of pulmonary proteins for each rat. Under the conditions of isotope infusion, leucyl-tRNA very rapidly equilibrates with free leucine of the plasma and of the extracellular space of the lung. Infusions lasting 30 minutes or less yielded linear rates of protein synthesis without evidence of contamination of lung proteins by newly labeled intravascular albumin. The fractional synthesis rate is considerably higher in juvenile animals (55% per day) than in adult rats (20% per day). After approximately 12 weeks of age, the fractional synthesis rate remains extremely constant in spite of continued slow growth of the lung. It is apparent from these data that in both young and adult rats the bulk of total protein synthesis is devoted to rapidly turning over proteins and that less than 4 percent of newly made protein is committed to tissue growth

  17. Hypercholesterolemia downregulates autophagy in the rat heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giricz, Zoltán; Koncsos, Gábor; Rajtík, Tomáš; Varga, Zoltán V; Baranyai, Tamás; Csonka, Csaba; Szobi, Adrián; Adameová, Adriana; Gottlieb, Roberta A; Ferdinandy, Péter

    2017-03-23

    We have previously shown that efficiency of ischemic conditioning is diminished in hypercholesterolemia and that autophagy is necessary for cardioprotection. However, it is unknown whether isolated hypercholesterolemia disturbs autophagy or the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathways. Therefore, we investigated whether isolated hypercholesterolemia modulates cardiac autophagy-related pathways or programmed cell death mechanisms such as apoptosis and necroptosis in rat heart. Male Wistar rats were fed either normal chow (NORM; n = 9) or with 2% cholesterol and 0.25% cholic acid-enriched diet (CHOL; n = 9) for 12 weeks. CHOL rats exhibited a 41% increase in plasma total cholesterol level over that of NORM rats (4.09 mmol/L vs. 2.89 mmol/L) at the end of diet period. Animals were sacrificed, hearts were excised and briefly washed out. Left ventricles were snap-frozen for determination of markers of autophagy, mTOR pathway, apoptosis, and necroptosis by Western blot. Isolated hypercholesterolemia was associated with a significant reduction in expression of cardiac autophagy markers such as LC3-II, Beclin-1, Rubicon and RAB7 as compared to controls. Phosphorylation of ribosomal S6, a surrogate marker for mTOR activity, was increased in CHOL samples. Cleaved caspase-3, a marker of apoptosis, increased in CHOL hearts, while no difference in the expression of necroptotic marker RIP1, RIP3 and MLKL was detected between treatments. This is the first comprehensive analysis of autophagy and programmed cell death pathways of apoptosis and necroptosis in hearts of hypercholesterolemic rats. Our data show that isolated hypercholesterolemia suppresses basal cardiac autophagy and that the decrease in autophagy may be a result of an activated mTOR pathway. Reduced autophagy was accompanied by increased apoptosis, while cardiac necroptosis was not modulated by isolated hypercholesterolemia. Decreased basal autophagy and elevated apoptosis may be responsible for the

  18. Telmisartan attenuates diabetes induced depression in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aswar, Urmila; Chepurwar, Shilpa; Shintre, Sumit; Aswar, Manoj

    2017-04-01

    Role of brain renin angiotensin system (RAS) is well understood and various clinical studies have proposed neuroprotective effects of ARB's. It is also assumed that diabetic depression is associated with activation of brain RAS, HPA axis dysregulation and brain inflammatory events. Therefore, the present study was designed to investigate the antidepressant effect of low dose telmisartan (TMS) in diabetes induced depression (DID) in rats. Diabetes was induced by injecting streptozotocin. After 21days of treatment the rats were subjected to forced swim test (FST). The rats, with increased immobility time, were considered depressed and were treated with vehicle or TMS (0.05mg/kg, po) or metformin (200mg/kg, po) or fluoxetine (20mg/kg, po). A separate group was also maintained to study the combination of metformin and TMS. At the end of 21days of treatments, FST, open field test (OFT) and elevated plus maze (EPM) paradigm were performed. Blood was drawn to estimate serum cortisol, nitric oxide (NO), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β). Persistent hyperglycemia resulted in depression and anxiety in rats as observed by increased immobility, reduced latency for immobility, reduced open arm entries and time spent. The depressed rats showed a significant rise in serum cortisol, NO, IL-6 and IL-1β (pdepression and anxiety. It also significantly attenuated serum cortisol, NO, IL-6 and IL-1β (pdepressive mood, reduces pro-inflammatory mediators and ameliorates the HPA axis function; thereby providing beneficial effects in DID. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o.

  19. Ontogeny of the rat hepatic adrenoceptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMillian, M.K.

    1985-01-01

    Hepatic alpha-1, alpha-2, and beta-2 adrenoceptors were characterized during development of the rat through Scatchard analysis of ( 3 H)-prazosin, ( 3 H)-rauwolscine and ( 125 I)-pindolol binding to washed particle membrane preparations. Major changes in adrenoceptor number occur shortly before birth and at weaning. The fetal rat liver is characterized by a large number of alpha-2 adrenoceptors which falls 10-20 fold at birth. The number of hepatic beta adrenoceptors decreases 30-50% during the third week after birth increases slightly at weaning, then decreases gradually in the adult. Hepatic alpha-1 adrenoceptor number increases 3-5 fold at weaning to become the predominant adrenoceptor in the adult rat liver. The basis for the fall in alpha-2 number at birth remains unclear. The fall in beta receptor number at the end of the second week post-natally appears dependent on increased insulin and corticosterone secretion as well as increased NE release form nerve terminals. The basis for the increase in beta number at weaning and the sex-dependent loss of beta function but not receptor number in the adult rat remains unknown. The dramatic increases in alpha-1 number and function at weaning are dependent on increased adrenocortical secretion, adrenalectomy prevents the normal. This effect of adrenocorticoids might be mediated through glycogen, as glycogen depletion during fasting decreases alpha-1 receptor number and function at weaning are dependent on increased adrenocortical secretion, adrenalectomy prevents the normal. This effect of adrenocorticoids might be mediated through glycogen, as glycogen depletion during fasting decreases alpha-1 receptor number and function. These findings suggest that hepatic adrenoceptor number adapts from the low carbohydrate diet of the suckling rat to the high carbohydrate diet of the adult at weaning

  20. Thallium kinetics in rat cardiac transplant rejection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barak, J.H.; LaRaia, P.J.; Boucher, C.A.; Fallon, J.T.; Buckley, M.J.

    1988-01-01

    Cardiac transplant rejection is a very complex process involving both cellular and vascular injury. Recently, thallium imaging has been used to assess acute transplant rejection. It has been suggested that changes in thallium kinetics might be a sensitive indicator of transplant rejection. Accordingly, thallium kinetics were assessed in vivo in acute untreated rat heterotopic (cervical) transplant rejection. Male Lewis rats weighing 225-250 g received heterotopic heart transplants from syngeneic Lewis rats (group A; n = 13), or allogeneic Brown Norway rats (group B; n = 11). Rats were imaged serially on the 2nd and the 7th postoperative days. Serial cardiac thallium content was determined utilizing data collected every 150 sec for 2 hr. The data were fit to a monoexponential curve and the decay rate constant (/sec) derived. By day 7 all group B hearts had histological evidence of severe acute rejection, and demonstrated decreased global contraction. Group A hearts showed normal histology and contractility. However, thallium uptakes and washout of the two groups were the same. Peak thallium uptake of group B was +/- 3758 1166 counts compared with 3553 +/- 950 counts in the control group A (P = 0.6395); The 2-hr percentage of washout was 12.1 +/- 1.04 compared with 12.1 +/- 9.3 (P = 1.0000); and the decay constant was -0.00002065 +/- 0.00001799 compared with -0.00002202 +/- 0.00001508 (P = 0.8409). These data indicate that in vivo global thallium kinetics are preserved during mild-to-severe acute transplant rejection. These findings suggest that the complex cellular and extracellular processes of acute rejection limit the usefulness of thallium kinetics in the detection of acute transplant rejection

  1. Cerebral microbleeds in a neonatal rat model.

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    Brianna Carusillo Theriault

    Full Text Available In adult humans, cerebral microbleeds play important roles in neurodegenerative diseases but in neonates, the consequences of cerebral microbleeds are unknown. In rats, a single pro-angiogenic stimulus in utero predisposes to cerebral microbleeds after birth at term, a time when late oligodendrocyte progenitors (pre-oligodendrocytes dominate in the rat brain. We hypothesized that two independent pro-angiogenic stimuli in utero would be associated with a high likelihood of perinatal microbleeds that would be severely damaging to white matter.Pregnant Wistar rats were subjected to intrauterine ischemia (IUI and low-dose maternal lipopolysaccharide (mLPS at embryonic day (E 19. Pups were born vaginally or abdominally at E21-22. Brains were evaluated for angiogenic markers, microhemorrhages, myelination and axonal development. Neurological function was assessed out to 6 weeks.mRNA (Vegf, Cd31, Mmp2, Mmp9, Timp1, Timp2 and protein (CD31, MMP2, MMP9 for angiogenic markers, in situ proteolytic activity, and collagen IV immunoreactivity were altered, consistent with an angiogenic response. Vaginally delivered pups exposed to prenatal IUI+mLPS had spontaneous cerebral microbleeds, abnormal neurological function, and dysmorphic, hypomyelinated white matter and axonopathy. Pups exposed to the same pro-angiogenic stimuli in utero but delivered abdominally had minimal cerebral microbleeds, preserved myelination and axonal development, and neurological function similar to naïve controls.In rats, pro-angiogenic stimuli in utero can predispose to vascular fragility and lead to cerebral microbleeds. The study of microbleeds in the neonatal rat brain at full gestation may give insights into the consequences of microbleeds in human preterm infants during critical periods of white matter development.

  2. NMR characteristics of rat mammary tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osbakken, M.; Kreider, J.; Taczanowsky, P.

    1984-01-01

    12 rats were injected intradermally with 13762A rat mammary adenocarcinoma (1 x 10/sup 6/ cells). 3 rats died before completion of the study and 2 rat had tumor regression; the first 3 were excluded from data analysis. NMR imaging with a 1.5K gauss resistive magnet at 2, 3, 4, and 5 weeks after injection demonstrated increasing tumor mass. Saturation recovery (SR), inversion recovery (IR), and spin echo (SE) pulse sequence images and T/sub 1/ calculation were done for tumor characterization. (Tumor size was too small to identify at 2 weeks.) 3 rats were sacrificed after the last 3 imaging periods for histological studies, done to distinguish solid tumor mass from necrosis. Planimetry of tumor areas showed that as tumors grew in size, the ratio of necrotic area to area of solid tumor increased (week 3 = .3 +- .11; week 4 = .45 +- .07; week 5 = .51 +- 05); simultaneous calculated T/sub 1/ values also increased (week 3 = .35 +- .15; week 4 = .45 +- .06; week 5 = .42 +- 03). Qualitative NMR image T/sub 1/ values also increased as evidenced by progression of SR and IR tumor image intensity from very bright compared to the rest of the body at week 3 to less intense than other structures at week 5. These findings indicate that change in T/sub 1/ may be secondary to the pathophysiological change in the tumor (the increasing in necrosis, associated with increased free water). Thus, the range of T/sub 1/ values obtained in tumors in this study (and in previous studies) may be due to change in tumor physiology and anatomy. Careful correlation of histological with NMR data may allow ultimate use of NMR relaxation characteristics for determination of the physiological state of tumors

  3. Rats socially-reared and full fed learned an autoshaping task, showing less levels of fear-like behaviour than fasted or singly-reared rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Hernández, Miguel; Téllez-Alcántara, N Patricia

    2004-07-01

    During the learning of instrumental tasks, rats are usually fasted to increase reinforced learning. However, fasting produces several undesirable side effects. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that control rats, i.e. full-fed and group-reared rats, will learn an autoshaping task to the same level as fasted or singly-reared rats. The interaction between fasting and single-rearing of rats was also tested. Results showed that control rats and fasted rats acquired the autoshaping task similarly, independently of rearing condition or gender. However, fasted or singly-reared rats produced fear-like behaviour, since male rats group-reared and fasted (85% body/wt, P autoshaping task to the same level as fasted or singly-reared rats. However, fasting or single-rearing produced fear-like behaviour. Thus, the training of control rats in autoshaping tasks may be an option that improves animal welfare.

  4. Antioxidant potential properties of mushroom extract (Agaricus bisporus) against aluminum-induced neurotoxicity in rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waly, Mostafa I; Guizani, Nejib

    2014-09-01

    Aluminum (Al) is an environmental toxin that induces oxidative stress in neuronal cells. Mushroom cultivar extract (MCE) acted as a potent antioxidant agent and protects against cellular oxidative stress in human cultured neuronal cells. This study aimed to investigate the neuroprotective effect of MCE against Al-induced neurotoxicity in rat brain. Forty Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 4 groups (10 rats per group), control group, MCE-fed group, Al-administered group and MCE/Al-treated group. Animals were continuously fed ad-libitum their specific diets for 4 weeks. At the end of the experiment, all rats were sacrificed and the brain tissues were homogenized and examined for biochemical measurements of neurocellular oxidative stress indices [glutathione (GSH), Total Antioxidant Capacity (TAC), antioxidant enzymes and oxidized dichlorofluorescein (DCF)]. Al-administration caused inhibition of antioxidant enzymes and a significant decrease in GSH and TAC levels, meanwhile it positively increased cellular oxidized DCF level, as well as Al concentration in brain tissues. Feeding animals with MCE had completely offset the Al-induced oxidative stress and significantly restrict the Al accumulation in brain tissues of Al-administered rats. The results obtained suggest that MCE acted as a potent dietary antioxidant and protects against Al-mediated neurotoxicity, by abrogating neuronal oxidative stress.

  5. Effects of aspirin and enoxaparin in a rat model of liver fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chen-Jie; Yang, Zhi-Hui; Shi, Xiao-Liu; Liu, De-Liang

    2017-09-21

    To examine the effects of aspirin and enoxaparin on liver function, coagulation index and histopathology in a rat model of liver fibrosis. METHODS Forty-five male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into the control group (n = 5) and model group (n = 40). Thioacetamide (TAA) was used to induce liver fibrosis in the model group. TAA-induced fibrotic rats received TAA continuously (n = 9), TAA + low-dose aspirin (n = 9), TAA + high-dose aspirin (n = 9) or TAA + enoxaparin (n = 9) for 4 wk. All rats were euthanized after 4 wk, and both hematoxylin-eosin and Masson staining were performed to observe pathological changes in liver tissue. Liver fibrosis was assessed according to the METAVIR score. Compared with untreated cirrhotic controls, a significant improvement in fibrosis grade was observed in the low-dose aspirin, high-dose aspirin and enoxaparin treated groups, especially in the high-dose aspirin treated group. Alanine aminotransferase and total bilirubin were higher, albumin was lower and both prothrombin time and international normalized ratio were prolonged in the four treatment groups compared to controls. No significant differences among the four groups were observed. Aspirin and enoxaparin can alleviate liver fibrosis in this rat model.

  6. Biochemical studies on gamma irradiated male rats fed on whey protein concentrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, N.E; Anwar, M.M.; El-bostany, N.A.

    2010-01-01

    This study carried out to investigate the possible role of whey protein protein concentrate in ameliorating some biochemical disorders induced in gamma irradiated male rats. Forty eight male albino rats were divided into four equal groups: Group 1 fed on normal diet during experimental period. Group 2 where the diet contain 15 % whey protein concentrate instead of soybean protein . Group 3 rats were exposed to whole body gamma radiation with single dose of 5 Gy and fed on the normal diet. Group 4 rate exposed to 5 Gy then fed on diet contain 15 % whey protein concentrate, the rats were decapitated after two and four weeks post irradiation. Exposure to whole body irradiation caused significant elevation of serum ALT, AST, glucose, urea, creatinine and total triiodothyronine with significant decrease in total protein, albumin and thyroxin. Irradiated rats fed on whey protein concentrate revealed significant improvement of some biochemical parameters. It could be conclude that whey protein concentrate may be considered as a useful protein source for reducing radiation injury via metabolic pathway.

  7. The effect of microgravity on tissue structure and function of rat testis

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    Ye Ding

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available To explore whether an environment of weightlessness will cause damage to the reproductive system of animals, we used the tail-suspension model to simulate microgravity, and investigated the effect of microgravity on the tissue structure and function of the testis in sexually mature male rats. Forty-eight male Wistar rats weighing 200-250 g were randomly assigned to three groups (N = 16 each: control, tail traction, and tail suspension. After the rats were suspended for 7 or 14 days, morphological changes of testis were evaluated by histological and electron microscopic methods. The expression of HSP70, bax/bcl-2 and AR (androgen receptor in testis was measured by immunohistochemistry. Obvious pathological lesions were present in the testis after the rats were suspended for 7 or 14 days. We detected overexpression of HSP70 and an increase of apoptotic cells, which may have contributed to the injury to the testis. The expression of AR, as an effector molecule in the testis, was significantly decreased in the suspended groups compared to control (P < 0.01. We also observed that, with a longer time of suspension, the aforementioned pathological damage became more serious and some pathological injury to the testis was irreversible. The results demonstrated that a short- or medium-term microgravity environment could lead to severe irreversible damage to the structure of rat testis.

  8. Hypospermatogenesis and spermatozoa maturation arrest in rats induced by mobile phone radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meo, Sultan Ayoub; Arif, Muhammad; Rashied, Shahzad; Khan, Muhammad Mujahid; Vohra, Muhammad Saeed; Usmani, Adnan Mahmood; Imran, Muhammad Babar; Al-Drees, Abdul Majeed

    2011-05-01

    To determine the morphological changes induced by mobile phone radiation in the testis of Wistar albino rats. Cohort study. Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, from April 2007 to June 2008. Forty male Wistar albino rats were divided in three groups. First group of eight served as the control. The second group [group B, n=16] was exposed to mobile phone radiation for 30 minutes/day and the third group [group C, n=16] was exposed to mobile phone radiation for 60 minutes/day for a total period of 3 months. Morphological changes in the testes induced by mobile phone radiations were observed under a light microscope. Exposure to mobile phone radiation for 60 minutes/day caused 18.75% hypospermatogenesis and 18.75% maturation arrest in the testis of albino rats compared to matched controls. However, no abnormal findings were observed in albino rats that were exposed to mobile phone radiation for 30 minutes/day for a total period of 3 months. Long-term exposure to mobile phone radiation can cause hypospermatogenesis and maturation arrest in the spermatozoa in the testis of Wistar albino rats.

  9. Analysis of the Ki-67 index in the vaginal epithelium of castrated rats treated with tamoxifen

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    Afif Rieth Nery-Aguiar

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Vaginal atrophy and breast cancer are common conditions in postmenopausal women and tamoxifen is the standard endocrine treatment for hormone-sensitive tumors. The present study aimed to assess the effect of tamoxifen on Ki-67 protein expression in the vaginal epithelium of castrated rats. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Forty Wistar-Hannover adult, virgin, castrated rats were randomly divided into two groups, group I (control, n=20 and group II (tamoxifen, n=20, receiving 0.5 ml of propylene glycol and 250 µg of tamoxifen diluted in 0.5 ml of propylene glycol, respectively, daily by gavage for 30 days. On the 31st day, the rats were euthanized and their vaginas were removed and fixed in 10% buffered formalin for the immunohistochemical study of Ki-67 protein expression. Data were analyzed by the Levene and Student’s t tests (p<0.05. RESULTS: The mean index of Ki-67 expression in the rat vagina of groups I and II was 4.04±0.96 and 26.86±2.19, respectively (p<0.001. CONCLUSIONS: According to the results of the present study, tamoxifen, at the dose and treatment length used, induced a significant increase in the cell proliferation of the vaginal mucosa in castrated rats, as evaluated by Ki-67 protein expression.

  10. Sex differences in the stress response in SD rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jing; Wu, Xue-Yan; Zhu, Qiong-Bin; Li, Jia; Shi, Li-Gen; Wu, Juan-Li; Zhang, Qi-Jun; Huang, Man-Li; Bao, Ai-Min

    2015-05-01

    Sex differences play an important role in depression, the basis of which is an excessive stress response. We aimed at revealing the neurobiological sex differences in the same study in acute- and chronically-stressed rats. Female Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into 6 groups: chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS), acute foot shock (FS) and controls, animals in all 3 groups were sacrificed in proestrus or diestrus. Male SD rats were randomly divided into 3 groups: CUMS, FS and controls. Comparisons were made of behavioral changes in CUMS and control rats, plasma levels of corticosterone (CORT), testosterone (T) and estradiol (E2), and of the hypothalamic mRNA-expression of stress-related molecules, i.e. estrogen receptor α and β, androgen receptor, aromatase, mineralocorticoid receptor, glucocorticoid receptor, corticotropin-releasing hormone, arginine vasopressin and oxytocin. CUMS resulted in disordered estrus cycles, more behavioral and hypothalamic stress-related molecules changes and a stronger CORT response in female rats compared with male rats. Female rats also showed decreased E2 and T levels after FS and CUMS, while male FS rats showed increased E2 and male CUMS rats showed decreased T levels. Stress affects the behavioral, endocrine and the molecular response of the stress systems in the hypothalamus of SD rats in a clear sexual dimorphic way, which has parallels in human data on stress and depression. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Alcohol and acute pancreatitis. An experimental study in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalovaara, P; Apaja, M

    1978-01-01

    The effect of chronic alcohol pretreatment and various pancreatobiliary secretions on the severity of experimental pancreatitis was studied in the rat. 95 rats were pretreated with ethanol (20% w/v, 1.1 ml/100 g body weight) five times weekly for 10 to 12 weeks by gastric intubation. 88 rats served as controls. Pancreatic lesions were produced by retograde injection of different pancreatobiliary secretions into the pancreatic ducts. The secretions were collected from both normal and chronically alcohol-fed rats, and each was used for induction of experimental pancreatitis in the control and alcohol pretreated rats. Bile obtained from normal rats was no more toxic to the pancreas than 0.9% saline solution, while bile obtained from the chronically alcohol-fed rats caused significantly more serious lesions to the pancreas than did normal rat bile. Bile-pancreatic juice (mixture of secretions at papilla of Vater) of normal and chronically alcohol-fed rats was as toxic as the bile of the alcohol-fed rats. Alcohol pretreatment had no significant effect on the severity of pancreatitis when control and alcohol-fed groups separately or the whole material according to pretreatment was examined. These results suggest that the metabolic effects of ethanol on the pancreas as such do not sensitize the pancreas to acute pancreatitis. An exogenous mechanism is required. The reflux of toxic alcoholic bile into the pancreas might act as an induction factor in acute alcohol pancreatitis.

  12. Methionine metabolism after portacaval shunt in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benjamin, L.E.; Steele, R.D.

    1985-01-01

    The effect of portacaval shunt (PCS) on methionine metabolism in the rat was investigated. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to PCS and maintained on an 18% casein diet. Growth curves of operated rats were similar to controls. PCS rats excreted more urinary 35 SO 4 and less [ 35 S]taurine than controls after intraperitoneal injection of 0.3 mmol/100 g [ 35 S]methionine or [ 35 S]cysteine. Total urinary taurine excretion was similar in PCS and control rats after a methionine or cysteine load; however, under basal conditions PCS rats had higher urinary taurine levels than controls, indicating that PCS may cause the taurine pool to be expanded. Hepatic methionine, S-adenosylmethionine, and cysteine pools were significantly decreased in PCS rats, while S-adenosylhomocysteine levels were unchanged. Relative rates of transsulfuration in PCS and control rats were studied by following the decrease in the 3 H-to- 35 S ratio in liver protein after injection of [methyl-3H]methionine and [ 35 S]methionine, and no difference in flux of 35 S from [ 35 S]methionine to [ 35 S]cysteine was found. Similarly, total hepatic activities of methionine adenosyltransferase, cystathionine synthase, and cystathionine gamma-lyase were unchanged in PCS rats. These results indicate that altered methionine metabolism in PCS rats is not explained by changes in conversion of methionine to cysteine via the transsulfuration pathway

  13. Influence of age and magnesium on calcium metabolism in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McElroy, S.T.; Link, J.E.; Dowdy, R.P.; Zinn, K.R.; Ellersieck, M.R.

    1991-01-01

    This study evaluates the effect of dietary magnesium concentration on calcium metabolism in rats of differing ages. Young (3 wk) and old (18 mo) Fischer 344 rats were fed the AIN-76A diet modified to contain either low (218 mg/kg) or adequate (419 mg/kg) Mg for 4 wk. Some rats subsequently underwent a metabolic balance study (12 d duration). Other rats were gavaged with approximately 220 KBq (6 microCi) of 47 Ca; daily fecal and urine collections were made and periodic whole body radioactivity determined. Femurs were removed and analyzed. Calcium retention and balance were not affected by Mg in young rats. In old rats low Mg intake increased apparent Ca balance. Young rats retained about 3.25 times more of the original dose of 47 Ca than did old rats. Young rats retained more 47 Ca in the femur than did old rats; Mg intake had little effect. Aging accelerated Ca turnover rate, and whole body retention data suggest that adequate Mg does not significantly reduce Ca turnover

  14. [Establishment of rat model of psychical erectile dysfunction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiu-lin; Wang, Shu-ren; Duan, Jin

    2006-01-01

    To set up a method of establishing the animal model of psychical erectile dysfunction with emotional stress. All thirty-six male rats with normal sexual function were divided into three groups, i. e. normal group, model group and demasculinized group randomly according to their weights. The rats in the model group were suspended upside down in midair over the water and irritated repeatedly. Two weeks later, the sexual abilities of all rats, i. e. the times of mounting and intromitting the estrus female rats, the latent period of mounting, intromission and ejaculation, were recorded, and the number of rats that had sexual activities was also counted. And the hemorheology indices of the rats were measured. Compared with the normal rats, the latency of mounting [(152.5 +/- 24.6) s vs (42.4 +/- 9.6) s] and intromission [(437.0 +/- 67.7) s vs (130.8 +/- 39.1) s] of the model rats were longer (P 0.05). The hemorheology indices, e. g. blood viscosity, hematocrit (Hct) and red cell aggregation (RCA), of the model rats was significant higher than that of the normal and demasculinized rats (P erectile dysfunction can be made ideally with psychical stress.

  15. The combined fixed-dose antituberculous drugs alter some reproductive functions with oxidative stress involvement in wistar rats

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    O. Awodele, B.Pharm M.Sc MPH PhD D.Sc FPCPharm FASI

    Full Text Available The reproductive toxicity of combined fixed-dose first-line antituberculosis (CFDAT regimen was assessed in rats. Thirty-two (32 Wistar rats weighing 168.1 ± 8.0 g were divided into four groups of eight rats per group. Two groups of male and female rats were administered oral distilled water (1.6 ml and CFDAT drugs containing rifampicin, isoniazid, pyrazinamide and ethambutol (RIPE, 92.5 mg/m2 per body surface area respectively for forty-five days. Serum follicle stimulating hormone, luteinizing and testosterone were reduced significantly (p  0.05 levels in the treated females. In addition, RIPE reduced (p < 0.05 total proteins levels and increased (p < 0.05, 53% catalase levels in male but not female animals. Superoxide dismutase, glutathione-S-transferase, glutathione peroxidase, reduced glutathione levels as well as lipid peroxidation were unaltered in all rats respectively. Histopathological studies revealed congested peritesticular vessels and no changes in the ovary when compared with control. Overall, our results demonstrate reproductive toxicity potentials of RIPE in the rat, thus, suggesting that these reproductive parameters be monitored during antituberculous chemotherapy. Keywords: Fixed dose combined antituberculous drugs, Sub-chronic study, Reproductive toxicity, Rats

  16. The interaction between dietary Fe, Cu and stress in Cu-67 retention and serum ceruloplasmin (Cp) activity in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pellett, L.; Kattelmann, K.; Zinn, K.; Trokey, D.; Forrester, I.; Gordon, D.T.

    1991-01-01

    The objectives of the study were to determine the effects of dietary Fe and stress on Cu-67 retention and serum Cp activity in the rat. A 2 x 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments was utilized. Male Sprague Dawley weanling rats were fed AIN-76 diets ad lib containing 0.8 ppm Cu (CuD) or 5.7 ppm Cu (CuA) with 22.5 ppm Fe (FeA) or 280 ppm Fe (FeE). After 19 days, one-half of the animals of each treatment were stressed by an intramuscular injection of 0.1 ml turpentine/100 gm body weight. Forty-eight hours later, animals were gavaged with Cu-67 and counted over a 7 day period in a whole body high resolution gamma counter. Cu-67 retention was 20% higher in CuD rats compared to CuA rats. There were no significant effects caused by Fe or stress or the interaction between these variables on Cu-67 retention. In rats fed FeE-CuA diets, serum Cp activity was significantly depressed compared to rats fed FeA-CuA diets. These reductions in the acute phase protein Cp, were 85% and 70% in nonstressed and stressed rats, respectively. The results of this study suggest that the negative interaction effects of excess Fe on Cu utilization does not occur at the site of Cu absorption, but within the body and specifically in the liver

  17. [Effects of telmisartan on resistin expression in a rat model of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis and insulin resistance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiuzan; Wang, Yanrong; Liu, Yingli; Yang, Qian; Wang, Xiuru; Wang, Qiang; Zhang, Chenming; Wang, Bangmao

    2015-04-01

    To investigate the effects of telmisartan on expression of resistin in serum and liver under conditions of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and insulin resistance using a rat model system. Forty-five male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into a normal control group (NC, n=10), a model control group (MC, n=15), a polyene phosphatidylcholine prevention group (PP, n=10), and a telmisartan prevention group (TP, n=10). The NC group was given a standard diet and the other groups were given a high-fat diet for 16 weeks in order to induce NASH. At the end of week 12, 5 rats in the MC group were sacrificed for pathology confirmation of the NASH model. At the end of week 12, the TP group was given telmisartan (8.0 mg/kg/d) and the PP group was given polyene phosphatidylcholine (8.4 mg/kg/d) for an additional 4 weeks by intragastric administration. At the end of week 16, all rats were sacrificed and body weights recorded. Serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), resistin, insulin and fasting blood glucose were measured. The insulin resistance value, HOMA-IR, was assessed by homeostasis mode assessment. Liver expression of the resistin protein was detected by western blotting and of the resistin mRNA was detected by RT-PCR. The F test and LSD test were used for statistical analyses. Compared to the NC group, the body weight and HOMA-IR of rats in the MC group were significantly increased (Pinsulin resistance were significantly lower in the TP group than in the MC group of rats (all Pinsulin resistance in NASH rats by decreasing the expression of serum resistin, and liver resistin protein and mRNA.

  18. Some pharmacological effects of cinnamon and ginger herbs in obese diabetic rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalaby, Mostafa Abbas; Saifan, Hamed Yahya

    2014-01-01

    Aims: The present study was designed to assess some pharmacological effects of cinnamon (CAE) and ginger (GAE) aqueous extracts in obese diabetic rats, and to elucidate the potential mechanisms. Materials and Methods: Forty-two Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into 6 equal groups. Group 1 was a negative control and the other groups were rendered obese by feeding rats on high-fat diet for 4 weeks. The obese rats were subcutaneously injected with alloxan for 5*days to induce diabetes. Group 2 was a positive control, and Groups 3, 4, 5 and 6 were orally given CAE in doses 200 and 400 mg/kg and GAE in the same doses, respectively for 6 weeks. Blood samples were collected for serum biochemical analyses. Kidneys were dissected out to assay activity of tissue antioxidant enzymes: Superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and catalase. Results: CAE and GAE significantly reduced body weight and body fat mass; normalized serum levels of liver enzymes; improved lipid profile; decreased blood glucose and leptin and increased insulin serum levels in obese diabetic rats. Both extracts also increased activity of kidney antioxidant enzymes. Conclusion: CAE and GAE exhibit anti-obesity, hepatoprotective, hypolipidemic, antidiabetic and anti-oxidant effects in obese diabetic rats. These results confirm the previous reports on both extracts. The potential mechanisms underlying these effects are fully discussed and clarified. Our results affirm the traditional use of cinnamon and ginger for treating patients suffering from obesity and diabetes. The obese diabetic rat model used in this study is a novel animal model used in pharmacology researches. PMID:26401364

  19. Effects of Di-(2-ethylhexyl Phthalate on the Hypothalamus–Uterus in Pubertal Female Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Te Liu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The pollution of endocrine disruptors and its impact on human reproductive system have attracted much attention. Di-(2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP, an environmental endocrine disruptor, is widely used in food packages, containers, medical supplies and children’s toys. It can cause diseases such as infertility, sexual precocity and uterine bleeding and thus arouse concerns from the society and scholars. The effect of DEHP on pubertal female reproductive system is still not well-studied. This study was to investigate the effects of DEHP on the hypothalamus–uterus in pubertal female rats, reveal the reproductive toxicity of DEHP on pubertal female rats and its mechanism, and provide scientific evidence for the evaluation of toxicity and toxic mechanism of DEHP on reproductive system. Forty-eight pubertal female rats were randomly divided into four groups and respectively administered via oral gavage 0, 250, 500, or 1000 mg/kg/d DEHP in 0.1 mL corn oil/20 g body weight for up to four weeks. Compared with control rats, the DEHP-treated rats showed: (1 higher gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH level in the hypothalamus; (2 higher protein levels of GnRH in the hypothalamus; and (3 higher mRNA and protein levels of GnRH receptor (GnRHR in the uterus. Our data reveal that DEHP exposure may lead to a disruption in pubertal female rats and an imbalance of hypothalamus–uterus. Meanwhile, DEHP may, through the GnRH in the hypothalamus and its receptor on the uterus, lead to diseases of the uterus. DEHP may impose a negative influence on the development and functioning of the reproductive system in pubertal female rats.

  20. Effects of Di-(2-ethylhexyl) Phthalate on the Hypothalamus–Uterus in Pubertal Female Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Te; Jia, Yiyang; Zhou, Liting; Wang, Qi; Sun, Di; Xu, Jin; Wu, Juan; Chen, Huaiji; Xu, Feng; Ye, Lin

    2016-01-01

    The pollution of endocrine disruptors and its impact on human reproductive system have attracted much attention. Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), an environmental endocrine disruptor, is widely used in food packages, containers, medical supplies and children’s toys. It can cause diseases such as infertility, sexual precocity and uterine bleeding and thus arouse concerns from the society and scholars. The effect of DEHP on pubertal female reproductive system is still not well-studied. This study was to investigate the effects of DEHP on the hypothalamus–uterus in pubertal female rats, reveal the reproductive toxicity of DEHP on pubertal female rats and its mechanism, and provide scientific evidence for the evaluation of toxicity and toxic mechanism of DEHP on reproductive system. Forty-eight pubertal female rats were randomly divided into four groups and respectively administered via oral gavage 0, 250, 500, or 1000 mg/kg/d DEHP in 0.1 mL corn oil/20 g body weight for up to four weeks. Compared with control rats, the DEHP-treated rats showed: (1) higher gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) level in the hypothalamus; (2) higher protein levels of GnRH in the hypothalamus; and (3) higher mRNA and protein levels of GnRH receptor (GnRHR) in the uterus. Our data reveal that DEHP exposure may lead to a disruption in pubertal female rats and an imbalance of hypothalamus–uterus. Meanwhile, DEHP may, through the GnRH in the hypothalamus and its receptor on the uterus, lead to diseases of the uterus. DEHP may impose a negative influence on the development and functioning of the reproductive system in pubertal female rats. PMID:27845755

  1. Visceral organ mass and hepatic protein synthetic capacity in fed and fasted rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burrin, D.G.; Britton, R.A.; Ferrell, C.L.

    1986-01-01

    Forty-two male rats (avg wt. = 320 g) were used to assess the effect of severe nutrient restriction (72 h fast) on visceral organ mass and hepatic protein synthetic capacity as measured by in vitro incorporation of U- 14 -C-VALINE ( 14 C-VAL) into isolated hepatocytes. Organ weights expressed as a percent of empty body weight for fed vs. fasted rats were; liver (5.21 +/- .54 vs 3.82 +/- .46), kidney (.87 +/- 0.6 vs .89 +/- .05), stomach (.60 +/- .06 vs .61 +/- .06), intestines (3.70 +/- .44 vs 3.41 +/- .37). No differences were observed in in vitro oxygen consumption (15.7 +/- 3.1 vs 16.1 +/- 3.3, umole min -1 g -1 dry tissue) or 14 -C VAL incorporation (4.93 +/- 1.28 vs 4.31 +/- 1.48, dpm min -1 mg -1 dry tissue) for hepatocytes from fed vs. fasted rats. Analysis of perfused liver tissue indicated fed rats had higher protein (152.1 +/- 16.3 vs 136.6 +/- 29.6, mg/g tissue) and RNA (8.81 +/- 1.66 vs 5.97 +/- 1.87, mg/g tissue) with lower DNA (2.19 +/- .31 vs 3.19 +/- .54, mg/g tissue) compared to fasted rats. Protein-nucleic acid ratios suggest liver tissue from fed rats had a greater capacity for protein synthesis compared to fasted rats, however, this was not evident from in vitro hepatocyte 14 -C VAL incorporation estimates. These data indicate that severe nutrient restriction (72 h fast) affects visceral organ mass largely by reduced liver and gut size as well as decreased hepatic protein synthetic capacity

  2. Functional adaptation in female rats: the role of estrogen signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susannah J Sample

    Full Text Available Sex steroids have direct effects on the skeleton. Estrogen acts on the skeleton via the classical genomic estrogen receptors alpha and beta (ERα and ERβ, a membrane ER, and the non-genomic G-protein coupled estrogen receptor (GPER. GPER is distributed throughout the nervous system, but little is known about its effects on bone. In male rats, adaptation to loading is neuronally regulated, but this has not been studied in females.We used the rat ulna end-loading model to induce an adaptive modeling response in ovariectomized (OVX female Sprague-Dawley rats. Rats were treated with a placebo, estrogen (17β-estradiol, or G-1, a GPER-specific agonist. Fourteen days after OVX, rats underwent unilateral cyclic loading of the right ulna; half of the rats in each group had brachial plexus anesthesia (BPA of the loaded limb before loading. Ten days after loading, serum estrogen concentrations, dorsal root ganglion (DRG gene expression of ERα, ERβ, GPER, CGRPα, TRPV1, TRPV4 and TRPA1, and load-induced skeletal responses were quantified. We hypothesized that estrogen and G-1 treatment would influence skeletal responses to cyclic loading through a neuronal mechanism. We found that estrogen suppresses periosteal bone formation in female rats. This physiological effect is not GPER-mediated. We also found that absolute mechanosensitivity in female rats was decreased, when compared with male rats. Blocking of adaptive bone formation by BPA in Placebo OVX females was reduced.Estrogen acts to decrease periosteal bone formation in female rats in vivo. This effect is not GPER-mediated. Gender differences in absolute bone mechanosensitivity exist in young Sprague-Dawley rats with reduced mechanosensitivity in females, although underlying bone formation rate associated with growth likely influences this observation. In contrast to female and male rats, central neuronal signals had a diminished effect on adaptive bone formation in estrogen-deficient female rats.

  3. Origins of albino and hooded rats: implications from molecular genetic analysis across modern laboratory rat strains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Kuramoto

    Full Text Available Albino and hooded (or piebald rats are one of the most frequently used laboratory animals for the past 150 years. Despite this fact, the origin of the albino mutation as well as the genetic basis of the hooded phenotype remained unclear. Recently, the albino mutation has been identified as the Arg299His missense mutation in the Tyrosinase gene and the hooded (H locus has been mapped to the ∼460-kb region in which only the Kit gene exists. Here, we surveyed 172 laboratory rat strains for the albino mutation and the hooded (h mutation that we identified by positional cloning approach to investigate possible genetic roots and relationships of albino and hooded rats. All of 117 existing laboratory albino rats shared the same albino missense mutation, indicating they had only one single ancestor. Genetic fine mapping followed by de novo sequencing of BAC inserts covering the H locus revealed that an endogenous retrovirus (ERV element was inserted into the first intron of the Kit gene where the hooded allele maps. A solitary long terminal repeat (LTR was found at the same position to the ERV insertion in another allele of the H locus, which causes the so called Irish (h(i phenotype. The ERV and the solitary LTR insertions were completely associated with the hooded and Irish coat patterns, respectively, across all colored rat strains examined. Interestingly, all 117 albino rat strains shared the ERV insertion without any exception, which strongly suggests that the albino mutation had originally occurred in hooded rats.

  4. The effects of metformin on ovum implantation and pregnancy outcome in rats with induced PCOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mesbah F

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is the most common cause of anovulatory infertility. Metformin which is effectively used for the treatment of anovulatory PCOS improves pregnancy rate and endometrial receptivity and reduces the risk of miscarriage. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of metformin on the endometrium, the number of fetuses and hormonal levels of PCOS rats."n"nMethods: Forty female adult Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned randomly into four equal groups. Group I: control rats, group II: rats receiving metformin (150 mg/kg/day, group III: Estradiol Valerate-induced PCOS rats (4 mg/rat and group IV: induced PCOS rats receiving metformin. Body weight and serum levels of glucose, LH, FSH, testosterone, progesterone and estradiol were measured. Following mating, each group was divided into two subgroups and the rats were sacrificed on the 5th and 15th day of gestation to evaluate endometrial reaction to implantation and fetus count, respectively."n"nResults: Hormone assay showed a significant increase in testosterone, estradiol, LH, FSH and blood glucose levels in group III compared to the controls (P≤0.01 and a significant decrease in blood glucose in group IV versus group III (P≤0

  5. Generation and characterization of rat liver stem cell lines and their engraftment in a rat model of liver failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuijk, Ewart W.; Rasmussen, Shauna; Blokzijl, Francis; Huch, Meritxell; Gehart, Helmuth; Toonen, Pim; Begthel, Harry; Clevers, Hans; Geurts, Aron M.; Cuppen, Edwin

    2016-01-01

    The rat is an important model for liver regeneration. However, there is no in vitro culture system that can capture the massive proliferation that can be observed after partial hepatectomy in rats. We here describe the generation of rat liver stem cell lines. Rat liver stem cells, which grow as cystic organoids, were characterized by high expression of the stem cell marker Lgr5, by the expression of liver progenitor and duct markers, and by low expression of hepatocyte markers, oval cell markers, and stellate cell markers. Prolonged cultures of rat liver organoids depended on high levels of WNT-signalling and the inhibition of BMP-signaling. Upon transplantation of clonal lines to a Fah−/− Il2rg−/− rat model of liver failure, the rat liver stem cells engrafted into the host liver where they differentiated into areas with FAH and Albumin positive hepatocytes. Rat liver stem cell lines hold potential as consistent reliable cell sources for pharmacological, toxicological or metabolic studies. In addition, rat liver stem cell lines may contribute to the development of regenerative medicine in liver disease. To our knowledge, the here described liver stem cell lines represent the first organoid culture system in the rat. PMID:26915950

  6. Identification of rat Rosa26 locus enables generation of knock-in rat lines ubiquitously expressing tdTomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Toshihiro; Kato-Itoh, Megumi; Yamaguchi, Tomoyuki; Tamura, Chihiro; Sanbo, Makoto; Hirabayashi, Masumi; Nakauchi, Hiromitsu

    2012-11-01

    Recent discovery of a method for derivation and culture of germline-competent rat pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) enables generation of transgenic rats or knock-out rats via genetic modification of such PSCs. This opens the way to use rats, as is routine in mice, for analyses of gene functions or physiological features. In mouse or human, one widely used technique to express a gene of interest stably and ubiquitously is to insert that gene into the Rosa26 locus via gene targeting of PSCs. Rosa26 knock-in mice conditionally expressing a reporter or a toxin gene have contributed to tracing or ablation of specific cell lineages. We successfully identified a rat orthologue of the mouse Rosa26 locus. Insertion of tdTomato, a variant of red fluorescent protein, into the Rosa26 locus of PSCs of various rat strains allows ubiquitous expression of tdTomato. Through germline transmission of one Rosa26-tdTomato knock-in embryonic stem cell line, we also obtained tdTomato knock-in rats. These expressed tdTomato ubiquitously throughout their bodies, which indicates that the rat Rosa26 locus conserves functions of its orthologues in mouse and human. The new tools described here (targeting vectors, knock-in PSCs, and rats) should be useful for a variety of research using rats.

  7. Xenotransplantation of uterine leiomyoma in Wistar rats: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Willane Bandeira de; Garcia, João Batista Santos; Nogueira Neto, João; Furtado, Pablo Gustavo Ribeiro; Anjos, Jonhnathan Adriano Araújo dos

    2015-07-01

    To evaluate whether xenografts derived from hysterectomized patients would implant successfully and lead to uterine leiomyoma in Wistar rats. This experimental study examined six female Wistar rats implanted with uterine leiomyoma obtained from patients who underwent hysterectomies at the gynecological surgery service of the HUUFMA. The rats were divided into two groups. Group I consisted of three rats in which the uterine leiomyoma had been implanted in the parietal peritoneum, and group II consisted of three rats in which the uterine leiomyoma was implanted in the subcutaneous tissue. The immunosuppressant mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) was administered orally by gavage (at a dose of 40 mg/kg of body weight) to prevent transplant rejection starting 15 days before the transplant and continuing throughout the entire experiment. After four weeks, necrosis and neovascularization were evaluated histologically in both groups and were classified as either absent or present. Lymphocytic inflammatory infiltration was also examined and classified as mild, moderate or intense (by hematoxylin and eosin staining), and fibrosis was classified as grade I-III (by Masson's trichrome staining). Necrosis was absent from all three rats in group I and was observed in only one rat from group II. Neovascularization was present in two rats from group I and in only one rat from group II. The lymphocytic inflammatory infiltrate was mild in two rats and moderate in one rat from group I, and it was moderate in two rats and intense in one rat from group II. Two rats from group 1 exhibited grade III fibrosis, and one rat presented grade I fibrosis. In group II, two rats presented grade I fibrosis and one rat had grade II fibrosis. When necrosis and neovascularization were evaluated as variables, group I demonstrated greater evidence of successful implantation when compared to group II, indicating that the peritoneal implantation technique produces better results than the subcutaneous approach (p

  8. The local effect of octreotide on mechanical pain sensitivity is more sensitive in DA rats than DA.1U rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Fan-Rong; Wang, Hui-Sheng; Guo, Yuan; Zhao, Yan

    2016-02-01

    A recent study by the authors indicated that major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes are associated with the differences in basal pain sensitivity and in formalin model between Dark-Agouti (DA) and novel congenic DA.1U rats, which have the same genetic background as DA rats except for the u alleles of MHC. The objective of the present study is to investigate whether there is a difference in the pristane-induced arthritis (PIA) model and local analgesic effect of octreotide (OCT) between DA and DA.1U rats. The hindpaw mechanical withdrawal threshold (MWT) and heat withdrawal latency (HWL) were observed. The C unit firings of the tibial nerve evoked by non-noxious and noxious toe movements were recorded by electrophysiological methods in normal and PIA models in DA and DA.1U rats before and after local OCT administration. The expression of somatostatin receptor 2A (SSTR2A) was observed by immunohistochemistry. The results demonstrate that DA rats have a higher mechanical sensitivity than DA.1U rats after PIA. Local OCT administration significantly elevated MWT in DA rats under normal and PIA sate, but not in DA.1U rats. The electrophysiological experiments showed OCT significantly attenuated the firings of C units evoked by non-noxious and noxious stimulation in DA rats more than those in DA.1U rats both in normal and PIA states. In addition, the expression of SSTR2A in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord was significantly higher in DA than in DA.1U rats. All of the findings suggest a higher local analgesic effect of OCT in DA rats than DA.1U rats, which might be associated with the MHC genes. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  9. The petit rat (pet/pet), a new semilethal mutant dwarf rat with thymic and testicular anomalies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiba, Junko; Suzuki, Katsushi; Suzuki, Hiroetsu

    2008-12-01

    The petit rat (pet/pet) is a recently discovered semilethal mutant dwarf. The neonatal pet/pet rats had a low body weight and small thymus and testis. During the first 3 d after birth, 50% of the male and 80% of the female pet/pet pups were lost or found dead. Surviving pet/pet rats showed marked retardation of postnatal growth, and their body weights were 41% (female rats) and 32% (male rats) of those of normal rats at the adult stage. The pet/pet rats exhibited proportional dwarfism, and their longitudinal bones were shorter than those of controls without skeletal malformations. Most organs of male pet/pet rats, especially the thymus, testis, adipose tissue surrounding the kidney, and accessory sex organs, weighed markedly less at 140 d of age than did those of their normal counterparts. The thymus of pet/pet rats was small with abnormal thymic follicles. Testes from pet/pet rats exhibited 2 patterns of abnormal histology. Spermatogenesis was present in testes that were only slightly anomalous, but the seminiferous tubules were reduced in diameter. In severely affected testes, most of the seminiferous tubules showed degeneration, and interstitial tissue was increased. Plasma growth hormone concentrations did not differ between pet/pet and normal male rats. The dwarf phenotype of pet/pet rats was inherited as an autosomal recessive trait. These results indicate that the pet/pet rat has a semilethal growth-hormone-independent dwarf phenotype that is accompanied by thymic and testicular anomalies and low birth weight.

  10. 5α-reductase activity in rat adipose tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zyirek, M.; Flood, C.; Longcope, C.

    1987-01-01

    We measured the 5 α-reductase activity in isolated cell preparations of rat adipose tissue using the formation of [ 3 H] dihydrotestosterone from [ 3 H] testosterone as an endpoint. Stromal cells were prepared from the epididymal fat pad, perinephric fat, and subcutaneous fat of male rats and from perinephric fat of female rats. Adipocytes were prepared from the epididymal fat pad and perinephric fat of male rats. Stromal cells from the epididymal fat pad and perinephric fat contained greater 5α-reductase activity than did the adipocytes from these depots. Stromal cells from the epididymal fat pad contained greater activity than those from perinephric and subcutaneous depots. Perinephric stromal cells from female rats were slightly more active than those from male rats. Estradiol (10 -8 M), when added to the medium, caused a 90% decrease in 5α-reductase activity. Aromatase activity was minimal, several orders of magnitude less than 5α-reductase activity in each tissue studied

  11. Secretion of hepatic triglycerides into plasma of rats fed retinol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahuja, H.C.; Misra, U.K.

    1975-01-01

    The effect of feeding 33 mg of retinol daily for two days on liver and plasma lipids of rats has been studied. The secretion of liver TG into plasma of retinol fed rats has been measured by the use of palmitic acid-1- 14 C and of Triton WR 1339. Liver and plasma lipids, TG, phospholipids and PC were significantly higher in retinol fed rats as compared to control rats. The incorporation of palmitic acid-1- 14 C into liver TG, PC and PE was significantly higher in retinol fed rats. The labelling pattern with time of liver and plasma TG and PC shows that the secretion of liver TG and PC into plasma was impaired in retinol fed rats. (auth.)

  12. Sulfur amino acids metabolism in magnesium deficient rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tojo, H.; Kosokawa, Y.; Yamaguchi, K.

    1984-01-01

    Effect of magnesium (Mg) deficiency on sulfur amino acid metabolism was investigated in rats. Young male rats were fed on the diet containing either 2.26 (deficient rats) or 63.18 mg Mg/100g diet (control and low protein rats) for 2 weeks. A remarkable decrease of body weight gain, serum Mg contents and a slight decreases in the hematological parameters such as Hb, Ht and RBC was observed, while the hepatic Mg and Ca was not significantly changed. Erythema and cramps were observed 5 days after feeding on the Mg-depleted diet. The hepatic glutathione and cysteine contents increased in Mg-deficient rats. However, no significant change of cysteine dioxygenase (CDO) activity and taurine content in Mg-deficient rat liver was observed. These results suggest that Mg deficiency affects the utilization and biosynthesis of hepatic glutathione but not the cysteine catabolism.

  13. Taurine in the osmoregulation of the Brattleboro rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nieminen, M.J.; Tuomisto, L.; Solatunturi, E.; Eriksson, L.; Paasonen, M.K.

    1988-01-01

    The function of taurine in mammalian osmoregulation was studied in the Brattleboro rat with hereditary hypothalamic diabetes insipidus (DI). DI rats are chronically dehydrated because of their inability to synthesize vasopressin. One day of water deprivation did not affect the water balance in rats with normal vasopressin synthesis, whereas DI rats were markedly dehydrated and lost considerably body weight. Taurine content and 3 H-taurine accumulation by platelets were significantly higher in DI rats, with a further increase after one day of water deprivation. In DI rats, water deprivation also evoked a clear taurine increase in skeletal muscle and in the brain. These findings indicate that taurine has an osmoregulatory function in mammals

  14. Influence of Dietary Avocado on Gut Health in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paturi, Gunaranjan; Butts, Christine A; Bentley-Hewitt, Kerry L

    2017-09-01

    This study investigated the impact of diets containing various levels of avocado (5, 10 and 15%) on gut health in rats fed for six weeks. Avocado-fed rats had significantly higher food intakes while their body weights remained similar to the control diet-fed rats. No significant changes in intestinal bacterial populations (ileum, cecum and colon) were found in rats fed avocado diets compared to the control diet. Ileum and colon tissues of rats fed avocado diets showed significantly higher expression of genes (β-defensin 1, mucin 3 or mucin 4) and a greater number of mucin-producing goblet cells in the colon. The percentage of avocado in the diet had varying effects in altering the biomarkers, whereby diet containing 15% avocado was the more effective diet. This study delivers new knowledge on the role of avocado on gut health in rats.

  15. Development of rat telencephalic neurons after prenatal x-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norton, S.

    1979-01-01

    Telencephalic neurons of rats, irradiated at day 15 of gestation with 125 R, develop synaptic connections on dendrites during maturation which appear to be normal spines in Golgi-stained light microscope preparations. At six weeks of postnatal age both control and irradiated rats have spiny dendritic processes on cortical pyramidal cells and caudate Golgi type II neurons. However, when the rats are 6 months old the irradiated rats have more neurons with beaded dendritic processes that lack spines or neurons and are likely to be degenerating neurons. The apparently normal development of the neurons followed by degeneration in the irradiated rat has a parallel in previous reports of the delayed hyperactivity which develops in rats irradiated on the fifteenth gestational day

  16. City rats: insight from rat spatial behavior into human cognition in urban environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaski, Osnat; Portugali, Juval; Eilam, David

    2011-09-01

    The structure and shape of the urban environment influence our ability to find our way about in the city. Understanding how the physical properties of the environment affect spatial behavior and cognition is therefore a necessity. However, there are inherent difficulties in empirically studying complex and large-scale urban environments. These include the need to isolate the impact of specific urban features and to acquire data on the physical activity of individuals. In the present study, we attempted to overcome the above obstacles and examine the relation between urban environments and spatial cognition by testing the spatial behavior of rats. This idea originated from the resemblance in the operative brain functions and in the mechanisms and strategies employed by humans and other animals when acquiring spatial information and establishing an internal representation, as revealed in past studies. Accordingly, we tested rats in arenas that simulated a grid urban layout (e.g. Manhattan streets) and an irregular urban layout (e.g. Jerusalem streets). We found that in the grid layout, rat movement was more structured and extended over a greater area compared with their restricted movement in the irregular layout. These movement patterns recall those of humans in respective urban environments, illustrating that the structure and shape of the environment affect spatial behavior similarly in humans and rats. Overall, testing rats in environments that simulate facets of urban environments can provide new insights into human spatial cognition in urban environments.

  17. Beta Adrenergic Regulation of Intrapulmonary Arteriovenous Anastomoses in Intact Rat and Isolated Rat Lungs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa L. Bates

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Intrapulmonary arteriovenous anastomoses (IPAVA allow large diameter particles of venous origin to bypass the pulmonary capillary bed and embolize the systemic arterial circulation. IPAVA have been routinely observed in healthy humans with exercise, hypoxia, and catecholamine infusion, but the mechanism by which they are recruited is not well-defined. We hypothesized that beta-adrenergic receptor stimulation recruits IPAVA and that receptor blockade would limit hypoxia-induced IPAVA recruitment. To test our hypothesis, we evaluated the transpulmonary passage of microspheres in intact rats and isolated rats lung infused with the beta-adrenergic receptor agonist isoproterenol. We also evaluated IPAVA recruitment in intact rats with hypoxia and the beta-adrenergic receptor blocker propranolol. We found that IPAVA are recruited in the intact rat by isoproterenol and their recruitment by hypoxia can be minimized by propranolol, suggesting a role for the adrenergic system in the recruitment of IPAVA by hypoxia. IPAVA recruitment is completely abolished by ventilation with 100% oxygen. Isoproterenol also recruits IPAVA in isolated rat lungs. The fact that isoproterenol can recruit IPAVA in isolated lungs, without increased pulmonary flow, suggests that elevated cardiac output is not required for IPAVA recruitment.

  18. Effect of high dietary calcium on weight management in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamad, M.T.

    2012-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to find out a suitable dietary regime to maintain a lower prevalence of overweight or obesity by adjusting the diet components. Therefore, male Swiss albino rats were selected according to their ages and divided into two main groups, i.e., premature and mature groups. Each rat group was divided into 4 subgroups and each subgroup was fed on a diet of varied composition. Serum levels of lipids, calcium, phosphorous and testosterone were determined in addition to body weight measurement. The results indicate non-significant decrease of percentage of body weight gain in premature rats fed on high-calcium diets while significant decrease of percentage of body weight gain in mature rats fed on the same diet composition. The levels of serum HDL-C, LDL-C, triglycerides and testosterone were significantly decreased in premature rats fed high- calcium diets. In premature rats, only rat subgroup fed on high calcium from milk, showed a significant decrease in serum cholesterol levels. Calcium and phosphorus levels exhibited non- significant change between premature rats. In mature rats, LDL-C data demonstrate nonsignificant changes while cholesterol and triglyceride levels were significantly decreased in rats fed high -calcium diet compared to control. HDL-C level revealed a significant decrease in sera of mature rats fed on high calcium from milk. Serum testosterone levels were significantly decreased in mature rats fed low- fat diets or low fat diets supplemented with high- calcium level. In general, one would suggest to consume low fat diet (4%) supplemented with high calcium from dry skimmed milk fortified with hydroxyapatite as suitable dietary program to avoid overweight or obesity.

  19. The Metabolism of Tetralin in Fischer 344 Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-04-01

    would die from the disease . The relevance of nephropathy observed in male rats exposed to various hydrocarbons to the occurrence of renal neoplasia in man...34 often obscure pathologic evaluations. "Old-rat nephropathy" is a common degenerative kidney disease predominantly seen in the male rat. By careful...studies have been performed with n-hexane and n-heptane to characterize their metabolism and role in neurotoxicity (Perbellini et al., 1982; Bahima et

  20. Striatal grafts in a rat model of Huntington's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guzman, R; Meyer, M; Lövblad, K O

    1999-01-01

    Survival and integration into the host brain of grafted tissue are crucial factors in neurotransplantation approaches. The present study explored the feasibility of using a clinical MR scanner to study striatal graft development in a rat model of Huntington's disease. Rat fetal lateral ganglionic...... time-points graft location could not be further verified. Measures for graft size and ventricle size obtained from MR images highly correlated with measures obtained from histologically processed sections (R = 0.8, P fetal rat lateral ganglionic...

  1. Tobacco Induced Priapism in Wister Rat: A Case Report | Ugbor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In an eight-week study on the effect of potash-tobacco dust ingestion on rats, a persistent penile erection for days was observed amongst some of the rats under study. This study involved a total of 42 Wister rats of weights ranging between 150-300g and grouped into four groups (A, B, C and D). Group A served as control, ...

  2. The oncogenic action of ionizing radiation on rat skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, F.J.; Garte, S.J.

    1990-01-01

    An extensive experiment involving approximately 400 rats exposed to the neon ion beam at the Bevalac in Berkeley, CA and to electrons is nearing completion. Progress is described in three areas corresponding to the specific aims of the proposal: (1) carcinogenesis and DNA strand breaks in rat skin following exposure by the neon ions or electrons; (2) oncogene activation in radiation-induced rat skin cancers; (3) DNA strand breaks in the epidermis as a function of radiation penetration. 59 refs., 4 tabs

  3. Energy intake of rats fed a cafeteria diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prats, E; Monfar, M; Castellà, J; Iglesias, R; Alemany, M

    1989-02-01

    The proportion of lipid, carbohydrate and protein energy self-selected by male and female rats from a cafeteria diet has been studied for a 48-day period (36-day in female rats). The diet consisted in 12 different items and was offered daily, in excess and under otherwise standard conditions, to rats--caged in groups of three--from weaning to adulthood. Groups of control animals were studied in parallel and compared with the cafeteria groups. Cafeteria diet fed groups of rats ingested more energy and lowered their metabolic efficiency with age. Male rats ate more than females and increased their body weight even after female practically stopped growing. There was a wide variation in the aliments consumed each day by the cafeteria-fed rats. However, the proportion of lipid, protein and carbohydrate the rats ate remained constant. Male rats ingested more lipid than females. Carbohydrate consumption was constant in control and cafeteria fed groups of rats independently of sex. Protein consumption was higher in cafeteria rats than in controls, but the differences were not so important as with liquid. Fiber content of the cafeteria diet was lower than that of the control diet. The cafeteria diet selected by the rats was, thus, hypercaloric and hyperlipidic, with practically the same amount of carbohydrate than the control diet, slightly hyperproteic and, nevertheless, remarkably constant in its composition with respect to time. Cafeteria rats had a higher water intake than controls. All these trends were maintained despite the observed changes in the animals' tastes and their differential consumption of the ailments of the diet.

  4. Mutagenicity of comfrey (Symphytum Officinale) in rat liver

    OpenAIRE

    Mei, N; Guo, L; Fu, P P; Heflich, R H; Chen, T

    2005-01-01

    Comfrey is a rat liver toxin and carcinogen that has been used as a vegetable and herbal remedy by humans. In order to evaluate the mechanisms underlying its carcinogenicity, we examined the mutagenicity of comfrey in the transgenic Big Blue rat model. Our results indicate that comfrey is mutagenic in rat liver and the types of mutations induced by comfrey suggest that its tumorigenicity results from the genotoxicity of pyrrolizidine alkaloids in the plant.

  5. Mutagenicity of comfrey (Symphytum Officinale) in rat liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, N; Guo, L; Fu, P P; Heflich, R H; Chen, T

    2005-03-14

    Comfrey is a rat liver toxin and carcinogen that has been used as a vegetable and herbal remedy by humans. In order to evaluate the mechanisms underlying its carcinogenicity, we examined the mutagenicity of comfrey in the transgenic Big Blue rat model. Our results indicate that comfrey is mutagenic in rat liver and the types of mutations induced by comfrey suggest that its tumorigenicity results from the genotoxicity of pyrrolizidine alkaloids in the plant.

  6. Coenzyme metabolism in rat liver transketolase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorbach, Z.V.; Kubyshin, V.L.; Maglysh, S.S.; Zabrodskaya, S.V.

    1987-01-01

    On the basis of the results of kinetic investigations, two binding sites for hydroxythiamine diphosphate were determined in apotransketolase, with sharply differing values of K/sub i/: (7-22) x 10 -9 and (13.0-19.7) x 10 -8 M. A study was made of the turnover rate of thiamine diphosphate in holotransketolase in rat liver tissue by a radioisotope method, using [ 14 C] thiamine as the labeled precursor. The half-substitution time and rate constant of degradation of the coenzyme in transketolase are close in absolute values to the analogous indices for the protein portion of the enzyme and constitute 153 h and 0.108 day -1 , respectively. Rat liver transketolase exists in vivo in the form of a substituted α-carbanion. Replacement of thiamine diphosphate by hydroxythiamine diphosphate in the holoenzyme has no effect on the formation of the intermediate α-carbanion form of the enzyme

  7. Pharmacokinetics of vinyl chloride in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolt, H.M.; Laib, R.J.; Kappus, H.; Buchter, A.

    1977-01-01

    When rats are exposed to [ 14 C]vinyl chloride in a closed system, the vinyl chloride present in the atmosphere equilibrates with the animals' organism within 15 min. The course of equilibration could be determined using rats which had been given 6-nitro-1,2,3-benzothiadiazole. This compound completely blocks metabolism of vinyl chloride. The enzymes responsible for metabolism of vinyl chloride are saturated at an atmospheric concentration of vinyl chloride of 250 ppm. Pharmacokinetic analysis shows that no significant cumulation of vinyl chloride or its major metabolites is to be expected on repeated administration of vinyl chlorides. This may be consistent with the theory that a reactive, shortly living metabolite which occurs in low concentration only, may be responsible for the toxic effects of vinyl chloride

  8. Neurodevelopmental Reflex Testing in Neonatal Rat Pups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Antoinette T; Armstrong, Edward A; Yager, Jerome Y

    2017-04-24

    Neurodevelopmental reflex testing is commonly used in clinical practice to assess the maturation of the nervous system. Neurodevelopmental reflexes are also referred to as primitive reflexes. They are sensitive and consistent with later outcomes. Abnormal reflexes are described as an absence, persistence, reappearance, or latency of reflexes, which are predictive indices of infants that are at high risk for neurodevelopmental disorders. Animal models of neurodevelopmental disabilities, such as cerebral palsy, often display aberrant developmental reflexes, as would be observed in human infants. The techniques described assess a variety of neurodevelopmental reflexes in neonatal rats. Neurodevelopmental reflex testing offers the investigator a testing method that is not otherwise available in such young animals. The methodology presented here aims to assist investigators in examining developmental milestones in neonatal rats as a method of detecting early-onset brain injury and/or determining the effectiveness of therapeutic interventions. The methodology presented here aims to provide a general guideline for investigators.

  9. Radiation-induced mesotheliomas in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, F.F.; Haley, P.J.; Hubbs, A.F.; Hoover, M.D.; Lundgren, D.L.

    1990-01-01

    Mesotheliomas have been reported in rats that inhaled plutonium, but these tumors have not been extensively studied. To investigate a possible role for inhaled radionuclides in the induction of mesotheliomas, four life-span studies conducted at the Inhalation Toxicology Research Institute are reviewed. A total of 3076 F344 rats were exposed by inhalation to aerosols of 239 PuO 2 , mixed uranium-plutonium oxide, or 144 CeO 2 . Results showed that a low incidence of pleural mesotheliomas was induced by either alpha- or beta-emitting radionuclides deposited and retained in the lung. Chronic alpha irradiation was more effective per unit dose in producing mesotheliomas than chronic beta irradiation of the lung by a factor of 15. 7 refs., 1 tab., 7 figs

  10. Radiation-induced mesotheliomas in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahn, F.F.; Haley, P.J.; Hubbs, A.F.; Hoover, M.D.; Lundgren, D.L.

    1990-01-01

    Mesotheliomas have been reported in rats that inhaled plutonium, but these tumors have not been extensively studied. To investigate a possible role for inhaled radionuclides in the induction of mesotheliomas, four life-span studies conducted at the Inhalation Toxicology Research Institute are reviewed. A total of 3076 F344 rats were exposed by inhalation to aerosols of {sup 239}PuO{sub 2}, mixed uranium-plutonium oxide, or {sup 144}CeO{sub 2}. Results showed that a low incidence of pleural mesotheliomas was induced by either alpha- or beta-emitting radionuclides deposited and retained in the lung. Chronic alpha irradiation was more effective per unit dose in producing mesotheliomas than chronic beta irradiation of the lung by a factor of 15. 7 refs., 1 tab., 7 figs. (MHB)

  11. Gluconeogenesis in lethally X-irradiated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paulikova, E.; Ahlers, I.; Praslicka, M.

    1983-01-01

    The in vivo incorporation of U- 14 C-alanine into blood glucose and liver glycogen was measured in rats irradiated with a single whole body lethal dose of X-rays. Changes in gluconeogenic enzyme activities were studied in the liver. Increased incorporation of 14 C-alanine into blood glucose and liver glycogen were found after irradiation. Liver phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and glycogenic activity underwent almost parallel changes and were significantly elevated from the 6th to the 48th hour, with resultant accumulation of glycogen. Glucose-6-phosphatase activity was depressed and there was a negative correlation between it and liver glycogen concentration. Maximum fructose-1,6-diphosphatase activity was found at 48 hours. The results show that glycogen accumulation in the liver and the raised blood glucose level in X-irradiated rats are based on raised gluconeogenesis. (author)

  12. Gluconeogenesis in lethally X-irradiated rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paulikova, E.; Ahlers, I.; Praslicka, M. (Univerzita P.J. Safarika, Kosice (Czechoslovakia). Katedra Vseobecnej Biologie)

    1983-02-01

    The in vivo incorporation of U-/sup 14/C-alanine into blood glucose and liver glycogen was measured in rats irradiated with a single whole body lethal dose of X-rays. Changes in gluconeogenic enzyme activities were studied in the liver. Increased incorporation of /sup 14/C-alanine into blood glucose and liver glycogen were found after irradiation. Liver phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and glycogenic activity underwent almost parallel changes and were significantly elevated from the 6th to the 48th hour, with resultant accumulation of glycogen. Glucose-6-phosphatase activity was depressed and there was a negative correlation between it and liver glycogen concentration. Maximum fructose-1,6-diphosphatase activity was found at 48 hours. The results show that glycogen accumulation in the liver and the raised blood glucose level in X-irradiated rats are based on raised gluconeogenesis.

  13. Proteome analysis of the hypercholestrolemic rat, RICO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, S.Y.; Park, K.-S.; Paik, Y.-K.; Seong, J.-K.

    2001-01-01

    In an attempt to develop novel markers for hypercholesterolemia, hepatic tissues and serum prepared from hypeicholesterolemic rat (i e RICO) were analyzed by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2DE) and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-ToF). Results were compared to those of paired inbreed rat (WKY). Comparative analysis of the respective spot patterns in 2DE revealed that the numbers of differential expression proteins were identified in serum and liver tissues of RICO. Some of the representative proteins annotated in 2DE were apolipoprotein family and numerous lipid metabolism related proteins. Especially, we found that protein disulfide isomerase subunits (ER-60) in 2DE have differential post-translational modification pattern by MALDI-ToF analysis. Our results suggest that the proteomic analysis of these proteins might be a novel approach to identify the molecular events in detail during lipid disorder such atherosclerosis

  14. Microarray Analysis of the Developing Rat Mandible

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hideo KABURAGI; Naoyuki SUGANO; Maiko OSHIKAWA; Ryosuke KOSHI; Naoki SENDA; Kazuhiro KAWAMOTO; Koichi ITO

    2007-01-01

    To analyze the molecular events that occur in the developing mandible, we examined the expression of 8803 genes from samples taken at different time points during rat postnatal mandible development.Total RNA was extracted from the mandibles of 1-day-old, 1-week-old, and 2-week-old rats. Complementary RNA (cRNA) was synthesized from cDNA and biotinylated. Fragmented cRNA was hybridized to RGU34A GeneChip arrays. Among the 8803 genes tested, 4344 were detectable. We identified 148 genes with significantly increased expression, and 19 genes with significantly decreased expression. A comprehensive analysis appears to be an effective method of studying the complex process of development.

  15. Pinocytosis in the rat visceral yolk sac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duncan, R.; Lloyd, J.B.

    1978-01-01

    Low temperature, 2,4-dinitrophenol and moniodoacetate could each completely abolish the pinocytic uptake of 125 I-labelled polyvinylpyrrolidone, 125 I-labelled bovine serum albumin or colloidal 198 Au by 17.5-day rat visceral yolk sac cultured in vitro. Cytochalasin B and colchicine caused a partial and dose-dependent inhibition. It is concluded that the mechanism of pinocytic uptake of these substrates is not micropinocytosis as conventionally defined. Removal of extracellular calcium or the presence of theophylline inhibited liquid-phase pinocytosis by the rat yolk sac, whereas addition of ouabain caused a biphasic response: a slight stimulation of pinosome formation at a low concentration, and an inhibitory effect at a higher concentration. (Auth.)

  16. Concussion: comparison of humans and rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkinson, D; West, M; Pathiraja, T

    1978-01-01

    Concussion is the most primitive and probably the most simple central nervous system response to an outside agent. Although millions of neurons undergo a very rapid reversal with loss and restoration of function, many physicians argue that every knockout blow leaves some residual damage, i.e., some or all of these neurons stop short of recovery. Clinical experience shows a wide discrepancy in the appearance or persistence of certain signs and symptoms after all types of head injury, but particularly after concussing blows, when third party or grievance cases are involved. Using slow motion filmstrips of boxing ring knockouts, we established a grading system for concussion and duplicated these grades in nonanesthetized rats. When we compared the performance, learning, and memory of concussed rats with their preconcussion performance and with the performance of nonconcussed controls, we were unable to find any differences.

  17. Rat1p maintains RNA polymerase II CTD phosphorylation balance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jimeno-González, Silvia; Schmid, Manfred; Malagon, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    . Here we describe a function of Rat1p in regulating phosphorylation levels of the C-terminal domain (CTD) of the largest RNAPII subunit, Rpb1p, during transcription elongation. The rat1-1 mutant exhibits highly elevated levels of CTD phosphorylation as well as RNAPII distribution and transcription...... termination defects. These phenotypes are all rescued by overexpression of the CTD phosphatase Fcp1p, suggesting a functional relationship between the absence of Rat1p activity, elevated CTD phosphorylation, and transcription defects. We also demonstrate that rat1-1 cells display increased RNAPII...

  18. High prevalence of Leptospira spp. in sewer rats (Rattus norvegicus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krøjgaard, L H; Villumsen, S; Markussen, M D K

    2009-01-01

    Earlier studies on the ecology of leptospirosis in temperate regions focused mainly on free-ranging rats in rural areas. Here we report on the occurrence of Leptospira spp. in Rattus norvegicus living in sewers in a suburban area in Copenhagen, Denmark. In 2006-2007, about 30 rats were captured...... in sewers at each of six different locations. Rat kidneys were screened by PCR for pathogenic Leptospira spp. In one location no infected rats were found, whereas the prevalence in the remaining five locations ranged between 48% and 89%. Micro-agglutination tests showed that serogroup Pomona, Sejroe...

  19. ENU mutagenesis to generate genetically modified rat models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Boxtel, Ruben; Gould, Michael N; Cuppen, Edwin; Smits, Bart M G

    2010-01-01

    The rat is one of the most preferred model organisms in biomedical research and has been extremely useful for linking physiology and pathology to the genome. However, approaches to genetically modify specific genes in the rat germ line remain relatively scarce. To date, the most efficient approach for generating genetically modified rats has been the target-selected N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU) mutagenesis-based technology. Here, we describe the detailed protocols for ENU mutagenesis and mutant retrieval in the rat model organism.

  20. Tonic immobility and factors influencing its duration in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikal, K

    1991-01-01

    The author developed a method for inducing tonic immobility (paroxysmal inhibition) in rats and mice. By means of a plexiglass plate and plexiglass box the rat is immobilised, rotated at 180 degrees and subjected to constant pressure corresponding to the weight of the plexiglass plate. This way it is possible to prolong substantially tonic immobility in rats without using foregoing time consuming and interfering, so called sensitizing procedures. The duration of TI can be influenced by pharmacologic and nonpharmacological interventions. A longer duration of TI appeared to be typical for rats tending to react in other situations with anxiety, motor inhibition and submission.

  1. Spreading depression analysis of contact behaviour of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikal, K

    1977-08-01

    Social contact behaviour induced by spreading cortical depression was studied in rats. The controls looked for and remained in contact, whereas between the rats with spreading cortical depression and their other partners there was no contact. This phenomenon is due mainly to the absence of an active urge for contact. The contact behaviour of rats is evidently controlled by the cerebral cortex or by subcortical areas of the brain which are inhibited after the elicitation of spreading depression. The experiments show that the contact behaviour of rats has at least two components - an active urge for contact and passive tolerance of contact.

  2. Database of Physiological Parameters for Early Life Rats and Mice

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Database of Physiological Parameters for Early Life Rats and Mice provides information based on scientific literature about physiological parameters. Modelers...

  3. Influence of Samarium on Learning and Memory Function of Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Sixty-four Spraque-Dawley(SD)big rats with weaning weight of (195±15) g were randomly divided into 4 groups with 8 males and 8 females each group. One group drunk with de-ionized water served as control and was also used for analysis of the background. The other three groups rats were raised by de-ionized water containing low, middle and high concentrations of Sm for four months, then learning and memory tests were carried out in Y-electric maze. Compared with the control rats, the learning and memory of rats in low and middle groups shows a deterioration trend, exhibiting the function degradation of rats' brain. It may results from the rare earth elements through blood-brain barrier affecting the normal physiological functions of rats' brain. In addition, the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) in rats' brain decreases, while the content of malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration increases. The decreased SOD activity and the increased MDA mean the degeneration the ability of anti-oxidation in rats' brain, which are accordance with the degradation of learning and memory function of rats in low and middle Sm groups.

  4. Effect of moderate exercise on peritoneal neutrophils from juvenile rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braz, Glauber Ruda; Ferreira, Diorginis Soares; Pedroza, Anderson Apolonio; da Silva, Aline Isabel; Sousa, Shirley Maria; Pithon-Curi, Tania Cristina; Lagranha, Claudia

    2015-09-01

    Previous studies showed that moderate exercise in adult rats enhances neutrophil function, although no studies were performed in juvenile rats. We evaluated the effects of moderate exercise on the neutrophil function in juvenile rats. Viability and neutrophils function were evaluated. Moderate exercise did not impair the viability and mitochondrial transmembrane potential of neutrophils, whereas there was greater reactive oxygen species production (164%; p < 0.001) and phagocytic capacity (29%; p < 0.05). Our results suggest that moderate exercise in juvenile rats improves neutrophil function, similar to adults.

  5. Suppressed serum prolactin in sinoaortic-denervated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexander, N.; Melmed, S.; Morris, M.

    1987-01-01

    The authors investigated the effect of arterial baroreceptor deafferentation on serum and pituitary prolactin (PRL) and on catecholamines in median eminence (ME) and anterior and posterior pituitaries. Male Wistar rats were sinoaortic denervated (SAD) or sham operated (SO). Three days after surgery serum prolactin, measured by radioimmunoassay, was suppressed in SAD rats, and dopamine (DA) and norepinephrine (NE) concentrations, measured by radioenzymatic or high-performance liquid chromatography electron capture methods, were significantly reduced in ME of SAD rats. Simultaneously, anterior pituitary of SAD rats had significant increases in both catecholamines, whereas posterior pituitary showed no changes. Four hours after surgery serum PRL was also reduced in SAD rats, but no changes in ME catecholamines were found. Mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate were measured before and after injection of bromocriptine in SAD and SO rats 3 days after surgery. Bromocriptine markedly suppressed serum PRL in both groups and reduced MAP from 144 +/- 10 to 84 +/- 5 and from 116 +/- 2 to 99 +/- 3 in SAD and SO rats, respectively; heart rate was reduced in SAD rats. They conclude that the SAD rat is a model of hypertension with suppressed serum PRL and that interruption of arterial baroreceptor nerves suppresses PRL secretion probably by modulating tuberoinfundibular turnover of catecholamines

  6. Thrombolytic and anticoagulation treatment in a rat embolic stroke model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Rune Skovgaard; Overgaard, K; Meden, P

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The effects of pentasaccharide (PENTA), given alone or combined with thrombolysis using recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA), on infarct size and clinical outcome were evaluated in a rat embolic stroke model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ninety-two rats were embolized unilateral...... alone or combined with rt-PA did not significantly increase mortality or tendency for hemorrhage.......OBJECTIVES: The effects of pentasaccharide (PENTA), given alone or combined with thrombolysis using recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA), on infarct size and clinical outcome were evaluated in a rat embolic stroke model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ninety-two rats were embolized unilaterally...

  7. Exenatide Induces Impairment of Autophagy Flux to Damage Rat Pancreas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhiqiang; Huang, Lihua; Yu, Xiao; Yu, Can; Zhu, Hongwei; Li, Xia; Han, Duo; Huang, Hui

    2017-01-01

    The study aimed to explore the alteration of autophagy in rat pancreas treated with exenatide. Normal Sprague-Dawley rats and diabetes-model rats induced by 2-month high-sugar and high-fat diet and streptozotocin injection were subcutaneously injected with exenatide, respectively, for 10 weeks, with homologous rats treated with saline as control. Meanwhile, AR42J cells, pancreatic acinar cell line, were cultured with exenatide at doses of 5 pM for 3 days. The pancreas was disposed, and several sections were stained with hematoxylin-eosin. Immunohistochemistry was used to measure the expressions of glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor (GLP-1R) and cysteine-aspartic acid protease-3 in rat pancreas, and Western blot was used to test the expressions of GLP-1R, light chain 3B-I and -II, and p62 in rat pancreas and AR42J cells. The data were expressed as mean (standard deviation) and analyzed by unpaired Student's t-test. Exenatide can induce pathological changes in rat pancreas. The GLP-1R, p62, light chain 3B-II, and cysteine-aspartic acid protease-3 in rat pancreas and AR42J cells treated with exenatide were significantly overexpressed. Exenatide can activate and upregulate its receptor, GLP-1R, then impair autophagy flux and activate apoptosis in the pancreatic acinar cell, thus damaging rat pancreas.

  8. Characterizing a Rat Brca2 Knockout Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-05-01

    Brca2 was tested in various tumor inducing experimental settings [49,52] * activated form Hs = Homo sapiens ; Rn = Rattus norvegicus; MMTV...sequencing gDNA from a wild-type 2 SD rat over a region of intron 21 that contains the splicing branch site 2 (underlined). ( el The same sequence from the...from the El pups at 1 week of age for macromolecule isolation. We also visually checked all Fk pups for gross abnormalities in physi- cal

  9. Proteomic profiling of the rat hypothalamus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedroso Amanda P

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The hypothalamus plays a pivotal role in numerous mechanisms highly relevant to the maintenance of body homeostasis, such as the control of food intake and energy expenditure. Impairment of these mechanisms has been associated with the metabolic disturbances involved in the pathogenesis of obesity. Since rodent species constitute important models for metabolism studies and the rat hypothalamus is poorly characterized by proteomic strategies, we performed experiments aimed at constructing a two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE profile of rat hypothalamus proteins. Results As a first step, we established the best conditions for tissue collection and protein extraction, quantification and separation. The extraction buffer composition selected for proteome characterization of rat hypothalamus was urea 7 M, thiourea 2 M, CHAPS 4%, Triton X-100 0.5%, followed by a precipitation step with chloroform/methanol. Two-dimensional (2-D gels of hypothalamic extracts from four-month-old rats were analyzed; the protein spots were digested and identified by using tandem mass spectrometry and database query using the protein search engine MASCOT. Eighty-six hypothalamic proteins were identified, the majority of which were classified as participating in metabolic processes, consistent with the finding of a large number of proteins with catalytic activity. Genes encoding proteins identified in this study have been related to obesity development. Conclusion The present results indicate that the 2-DE technique will be useful for nutritional studies focusing on hypothalamic proteins. The data presented herein will serve as a reference database for studies testing the effects of dietary manipulations on hypothalamic proteome. We trust that these experiments will lead to important knowledge on protein targets of nutritional variables potentially able to affect the complex central nervous system control of energy homeostasis.

  10. Oxalic acid decreases calcium absorption in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weaver, C.M.; Martin, B.R.; Ebner, J.S.; Krueger, C.A.

    1987-01-01

    Calcium absorption from salts and foods intrinsically labeled with 45 Ca was determined in the rat model. Calcium bioavailability was nearly 10 times greater for low oxalate kale, CaCO 3 and CaCl 2 than from CaC 2 O 4 (calcium oxalate) and spinach (high in oxalates). Extrinsic and intrinsic labeling techniques gave a similar assessment of calcium bioavailability from kale but not from spinach

  11. Validation of a radioimmunoassay for rat insulin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delattre, E.; Boschero, A.C.

    1984-01-01

    A methodological approach that permits, in a radioimmunoassay, the evaluation of rat insulin by using bovine insulin as reference is presented. As in general the technics for radioimmunoassay of different substances follow the same principles (competitive inhibition), we believe that the methodology presented here could be used for evaluation of other hormones when the adequated referential, of know biological activity, is not available. (Author) [pt

  12. Radial oxygen gradients over rat cortex arterioles

    OpenAIRE

    Galler, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: We present the results of the visualisation of radial oxygen gradients in rats’ cortices and their use in neurocritical management. Methods: PO2 maps of the cortex of 10 wistar rats were obtained with a camera (SensiMOD, PCO, Kehlheim, Germany). Those pictures were analyzed and edited by a custom-made software. We chose a vessel for examination. A matrix, designed to evaluate the cortical O2 partial pressure, was placed vertically to the artery and afterwards multiple regio...

  13. Neurosteroids exhibit anticonvulsant action in immature rats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mareš, Pavel

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 46, č. S8 (2005), s. 115-116 ISSN 0013-9580. [Joint Annual Meeting of the American Epilepsy Society and American Clinical Neurophysiology Society. 02.12.2005-06.12.2005, Washington, DC] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IBS5011007 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : neurosteroids * anticonvulsants * immature rats Subject RIV: ED - Physiology

  14. Occurrence of riboflavinyl glucoside in rat urine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohkawa, Hiroshi; Ohishi, Nobuko; Yagi, Kunio

    1983-01-01

    To investigate the metabolism of riboflavin, [2- 14 C]-riboflavin was administered orally to a rat. The urine pooled for 24 h after administration was fractionated by paper and silica gel thin layer chromatographies using various solvent systems. Among the radioactive metabolites, riboflavinyl glucoside was found along with 7-carboxy lumichrome and 8-carboxy lumichrome. The radioactivity of riboflavinyl glucoside comprised about 6 % of the total radioactivity excreted in the urine during 24 h. (author)

  15. Urinary metabolites of tetrahydronorharman in the rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greiner, B.; Rommelspacher, H.

    1982-01-01

    The metabolism of THN in the rat was studied in vivo by use of /sup 14/C-radiolabelled compound. Structures of major urinary metabolites were determined by exact spectral data. Their concentrations were measured by liquid scintillation counting. It was found that THN is submitted to endogenous transformation, and that the excreted derivatives form three groups of similar concentration: unchanged substance, hydroxylated/conjugated compounds, and aromatic metabolites. Structures and proposed pathways are summed in diagram.

  16. Urinary metabolites of tetrahydronorharman in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greiner, B.; Rommelspacher, H.

    1982-01-01

    The metabolism of THN in the rat was studied in vivo by use of 14 C-radiolabelled compound. Structures of major urinary metabolites were determined by exact spectral data. Their concentrations were measured by liquid scintillation counting. It was found that THN is submitted to endogenous transformation, and that the excreted derivatives form three groups of similar concentration: unchanged substance, hydroxylated/conjugated compounds, and aromatic metabolites. Structures and proposed pathways are summed in diagram

  17. Chemical Renal Denervation in the Rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Consigny, Paul M., E-mail: paul.consigny@av.abbott.com; Davalian, Dariush, E-mail: dariush.davalian@av.abbott.com [Abbott Vascular, Innovation Incubator (United States); Donn, Rosy, E-mail: rosy.donn@av.abbott.com; Hu, Jie, E-mail: jie.hu@av.abbott.com [Abbott Vascular, Bioanalytical and Material Characterization (United States); Rieser, Matthew, E-mail: matthew.j.rieser@abbvie.com; Stolarik, DeAnne, E-mail: deanne.f.stolarik@abbvie.com [Abbvie, Analytical Pharmacology (United States)

    2013-12-03

    Introduction: The recent success of renal denervation in lowering blood pressure in drug-resistant hypertensive patients has stimulated interest in developing novel approaches to renal denervation including local drug/chemical delivery. The purpose of this study was to develop a rat model in which depletion of renal norepinephrine (NE) could be used to determine the efficacy of renal denervation after the delivery of a chemical to the periadventitial space of the renal artery. Methods: Renal denervation was performed on a single renal artery of 90 rats (n = 6 rats/group). The first study determined the time course of renal denervation after surgical stripping of a renal artery plus the topical application of phenol in alcohol. The second study determined the efficacy of periadventitial delivery of hypertonic saline, guanethidine, and salicylic acid. The final study determined the dose–response relationship for paclitaxel. In all studies, renal NE content was determined by liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry. Results: Renal NE was depleted 3 and 7 days after surgical denervation. Renal NE was also depleted by periadventitial delivery of all agents tested (hypertonic saline, salicylic acid, guanethidine, and paclitaxel). A dose response was observed after the application of 150 μL of 10{sup −5} M through 10{sup −2} M paclitaxel. Conclusion: We developed a rat model in which depletion of renal NE was used to determine the efficacy of renal denervation after perivascular renal artery drug/chemical delivery. We validated this model by demonstrating the efficacy of the neurotoxic agents hypertonic saline, salicylic acid, and guanethidine and increasing doses of paclitaxel.

  18. Rabbiteye blueberry prevents osteoporosis in ovariectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tao; Wu, Shou-Mian; Xu, Zhi-Yuan; Ou-Yang, Sheng

    2014-08-08

    It has been forecasted that the rabbiteye blueberry could inhibit osteoporosis. However, the inhibition and prevention of osteoporosis via rabbiteye blueberry are still elusive. This study was aim to evaluate the anti-osteoporosis effects of rabbiteye blueberry in ovariectomized rats. Thirty rats were randomly divided into three groups of ten rats each as follows: sham-operated group (SG), ovariectomized model control group (OMG), and ovariectomized rabbiteye blueberry treatment group (OBG). The blood mineral levels, the alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, and osteoprotegerin (OPG) level were determined. The expression analyses of type I collagen, integrin-β1, and focal adhesion kinase (FAK) were performed. Besides, the bone mineral density (BMD) and bone histomorphometry (BH) were measured. The ALP activity in SG and OBG was significantly lower than that in OMG. For the OPG level, the significant increase of OPG level in OBG was indicated compared with the other groups. The mRNA expression levels of type I collagen, integrin-β1, and FAK in OMG were significantly lower than those in other groups. The BMD in OMG were all significantly lower than those in SG and OBG. For BH, blueberry significantly improved the trabecular bone volume fraction, trabecular thickness, mean trabecular bone number, and bone formation rate, and decreased the trabecular separation, the percent of bone resorption perimeter, and mean osteoclast number in OBG compared with OMG. The rabbiteye blueberries had an effective inhibition in bone resorption, bone loss, and reduction of bone strength of ovariectomized rats and could improve the BMD, osteogenic activity, and trabecular bone structure.

  19. Social opportunity and ethanol drinking in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomie, Arthur; Burger, Kelly M; Di Poce, Jason; Pohorecky, Larissa A

    2004-11-01

    Two experiments were designed to evaluate the effects of pairings of ethanol sipper conditioned stimulus (CS) with social opportunity unconditioned stimulus (US) on ethanol sipper CS-directed drinking in rats. In both experiments, rats were deprived of neither food nor water, and initiation of drinking of unsweetened 3% ethanol was evaluated, as were the effects of increasing the concentration of unsweetened ethanol (3-10%) across sessions. In Experiment 1, Group Paired (n=8) received 35 trials per session wherein the ethanol sipper CS was presented for 10 s immediately prior to 15 s of social opportunity US. All rats initiated sipper CS-directed drinking of 3% ethanol. Increasing the concentration of ethanol in the sipper CS [(3%, 4%, 6%, 8%, 10% (vol./vol.)] across sessions induced escalation of daily g/kg ethanol intake. To evaluate the hypothesis that the drinking in Group Paired was due to autoshaping, Experiment 2 included a pseudoconditioning control that received sipper CS and social opportunity US randomly with respect to one another. All rats in Group Paired (n=6) and in Group Random (n=6) initiated sipper CS-directed drinking of 3% ethanol and daily mean g/kg ethanol intake in the two groups was comparable. Also comparable was daily g/kg ethanol intake, which increased for both groups with the availability of higher concentrations of ethanol in the sipper CS, up to a maximum of approximately 0.8 g/kg ethanol intake of 10% ethanol. Results indicate that random presentations of ethanol sipper CS and social opportunity US induced reliable initiation and escalation of ethanol intake, and close temporally contiguous presentations of CS and US did not induce still additional ethanol intake. This may indicate that autoshaping CR performance is not induced by these procedures, or that high levels of ethanol intake induced by factors related to pseudoconditioning produces a ceiling effect. Implications for ethanol drinking in humans are discussed.

  20. Chemical Renal Denervation in the Rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Consigny, Paul M.; Davalian, Dariush; Donn, Rosy; Hu, Jie; Rieser, Matthew; Stolarik, DeAnne

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The recent success of renal denervation in lowering blood pressure in drug-resistant hypertensive patients has stimulated interest in developing novel approaches to renal denervation including local drug/chemical delivery. The purpose of this study was to develop a rat model in which depletion of renal norepinephrine (NE) could be used to determine the efficacy of renal denervation after the delivery of a chemical to the periadventitial space of the renal artery. Methods: Renal denervation was performed on a single renal artery of 90 rats (n = 6 rats/group). The first study determined the time course of renal denervation after surgical stripping of a renal artery plus the topical application of phenol in alcohol. The second study determined the efficacy of periadventitial delivery of hypertonic saline, guanethidine, and salicylic acid. The final study determined the dose–response relationship for paclitaxel. In all studies, renal NE content was determined by liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry. Results: Renal NE was depleted 3 and 7 days after surgical denervation. Renal NE was also depleted by periadventitial delivery of all agents tested (hypertonic saline, salicylic acid, guanethidine, and paclitaxel). A dose response was observed after the application of 150 μL of 10 −5  M through 10 −2  M paclitaxel. Conclusion: We developed a rat model in which depletion of renal NE was used to determine the efficacy of renal denervation after perivascular renal artery drug/chemical delivery. We validated this model by demonstrating the efficacy of the neurotoxic agents hypertonic saline, salicylic acid, and guanethidine and increasing doses of paclitaxel

  1. Chemical renal denervation in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consigny, Paul M; Davalian, Dariush; Donn, Rosy; Hu, Jie; Rieser, Matthew; Stolarik, Deanne

    2014-02-01

    The recent success of renal denervation in lowering blood pressure in drug-resistant hypertensive patients has stimulated interest in developing novel approaches to renal denervation including local drug/chemical delivery. The purpose of this study was to develop a rat model in which depletion of renal norepinephrine (NE) could be used to determine the efficacy of renal denervation after the delivery of a chemical to the periadventitial space of the renal artery. Renal denervation was performed on a single renal artery of 90 rats (n = 6 rats/group). The first study determined the time course of renal denervation after surgical stripping of a renal artery plus the topical application of phenol in alcohol. The second study determined the efficacy of periadventitial delivery of hypertonic saline, guanethidine, and salicylic acid. The final study determined the dose-response relationship for paclitaxel. In all studies, renal NE content was determined by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Renal NE was depleted 3 and 7 days after surgical denervation. Renal NE was also depleted by periadventitial delivery of all agents tested (hypertonic saline, salicylic acid, guanethidine, and paclitaxel). A dose response was observed after the application of 150 μL of 10(-5) M through 10(-2) M paclitaxel. We developed a rat model in which depletion of renal NE was used to determine the efficacy of renal denervation after perivascular renal artery drug/chemical delivery. We validated this model by demonstrating the efficacy of the neurotoxic agents hypertonic saline, salicylic acid, and guanethidine and increasing doses of paclitaxel.

  2. D-RATS 2011: RAFT Protocol Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utz, Hans

    2011-01-01

    A brief overview presentation on the protocol used during the D-RATS2011 field test for file transfer from the field-test robots at Black Point Lava Flow AZ to Johnson Space Center, Houston TX over a simulated time-delay. The file transfer actually uses a commercial implementation of an open communications standard. The focus of the work lies on how to make the state of the distributed system observable.

  3. Enhanced flavor-nutrient conditioning in obese rats on a high-fat, high-carbohydrate choice diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wald, Hallie S; Myers, Kevin P

    2015-11-01

    Through flavor-nutrient conditioning rats learn to prefer and increase their intake of flavors paired with rewarding, postingestive nutritional consequences. Since obesity is linked to altered experience of food reward and to perturbations of nutrient sensing, we investigated flavor-nutrient learning in rats made obese using a high fat/high carbohydrate (HFHC) choice model of diet-induced obesity (ad libitum lard and maltodextrin solution plus standard rodent chow). Forty rats were maintained on HFHC to induce substantial weight gain, and 20 were maintained on chow only (CON). Among HFHC rats, individual differences in propensity to weight gain were studied by comparing those with the highest proportional weight gain (obesity prone, OP) to those with the lowest (obesity resistant, OR). Sensitivity to postingestive food reward was tested in a flavor-nutrient conditioning protocol. To measure initial, within-meal stimulation of flavor acceptance by post-oral nutrient sensing, first, in sessions 1-3, baseline licking was measured while rats consumed grape- or cherry-flavored saccharin accompanied by intragastric (IG) water infusion. Then, in the next three test sessions they received the opposite flavor paired with 5 ml of IG 12% glucose. Finally, after additional sessions alternating between the two flavor-infusion contingencies, preference was measured in a two-bottle choice between the flavors without IG infusions. HFHC-OP rats showed stronger initial enhancement of intake in the first glucose infusion sessions than CON or HFHC-OR rats. OP rats also most strongly preferred the glucose-paired flavor in the two-bottle choice. These differences between OP versus OR and CON rats suggest that obesity is linked to responsiveness to postoral nutrient reward, consistent with the view that flavor-nutrient learning perpetuates overeating in obesity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Vitamin K requirement in Danish anticoagulant-resistant Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Mette D.; Heiberg, Ann-Charlotte; Nielsen, Robert

    2003-01-01

    Norway rats, Rattus norvegicus, Denmark, anticoagulant rodenticide resistance, vitamin K requirement......Norway rats, Rattus norvegicus, Denmark, anticoagulant rodenticide resistance, vitamin K requirement...

  5. Adaptation of the cardiovascular system to postinfarction cardiosclerosis in rats with congenital adrenoreactivity of the myocardium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usacheva, M A; Popkova, E V; Smirnova, E A; Saltykova, V A; Belkina, L M

    2007-12-01

    Three months after myocardial infarction the severity of heart failure and size of postinfarction scars in August rats with inherently reduced adrenoreactivity of the myocardium were similar to those in Wistar rats. The mortality rate in August rats was 2.5-fold lower than in Wistar rats. During the postinfarction period, myocardial adrenoreactivity in August rats remained lower, while the efficiency of cardiac function was 62% higher than in Wistar rats. The incidence of epinephrine-induced arrhythmias in August rats was much lower than in Wistar rats.

  6. Antihypertensive action of non-natriuretic doses of furosemide in Dahl salt-sensitive rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugan, Ketil; Petersen, Jørgen Søberg; Spannow, Jesper

    1997-01-01

    Farmakologi, blood pressure, Dahl rats, furosemide, sodium balance, total body sodium, non-natriuretic......Farmakologi, blood pressure, Dahl rats, furosemide, sodium balance, total body sodium, non-natriuretic...

  7. Long-term BPA infusions. Evaluation in the rat brain tumor and rat spinal cord models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coderre, J.A.; Micca, P.L.; Nawrocky, M.M.; Joel, D.D.; Morris, G.M.

    2000-01-01

    In the BPA-based dose escalation clinical trial, the observations of tumor recurrence in areas of extremely high calculated tumor doses suggest that the BPA distribution is non-uniform. Longer (6-hour) i.v. infusions of BPA are evaluated in the rat brain tumor and spinal cord models to address the questions of whether long-term infusions are more effective against the tumor and whether long-term infusions are detrimental in the central nervous system. In the rat spinal cord, the 50% effective doses (ED 50 ) for myeloparesis were not significantly different after a single i.p. injection of BPA-fructose or a 6 hour i.v. infusion. In the rat 9L gliosarcoma brain tumor model, BNCT following 2-hr or 6-hr infusions of BPA-F produced similar levels of long term survival. (author)

  8. Fetal rat pancreas transplantation in BB rats: immunohistochemical and functional evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yderstræde, Knud Bonnet; Starklint, Henrik; Steinbrüchel, Daniel Andreas

    1993-01-01

    Spontaneously diabetic BB/Wor rats received either a syngeneic fetal pancreas transplant or adult islets. In the former, 4-8 fetal pancreases were transplanted, and in the latter, 3-5000 islets. Transplantation was performed by transferring a blood clot containing the pancreases or islets...... to the renal subcapsular space. Insulin therapy was undertaken postoperatively, except in one experiment with adult islets. Of the fetal pancreas transplanted BB rats, 52% became normoglycaemic, and 21% remained so throughout an observation period of 10 months. Nephrectomy caused a prompt return of diabetes...... that recurrent diabetes is not inevitable following syngeneic fetal pancreas transplantation to spontaneously diabetic BB rats. Recurrent diabetes was only occasionally associated with mononuclear cell infiltration. Transplanted tissue was well-preserved and vascularized; mega-islets were a constant finding....

  9. Progesterone impairs social recognition in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bychowski, Meaghan E; Auger, Catherine J

    2012-04-01

    The influence of progesterone in the brain and on the behavior of females is fairly well understood. However, less is known about the effect of progesterone in the male system. In male rats, receptors for progesterone are present in virtually all vasopressin (AVP) immunoreactive cells in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST) and the medial amygdala (MeA). This colocalization functions to regulate AVP expression, as progesterone and/or progestin receptors (PR)s suppress AVP expression in these same extrahypothalamic regions in the brain. These data suggest that progesterone may influence AVP-dependent behavior. While AVP is implicated in numerous behavioral and physiological functions in rodents, AVP appears essential for social recognition of conspecifics. Therefore, we examined the effects of progesterone on social recognition. We report that progesterone plays an important role in modulating social recognition in the male brain, as progesterone treatment leads to a significant impairment of social recognition in male rats. Moreover, progesterone appears to act on PRs to impair social recognition, as progesterone impairment of social recognition is blocked by a PR antagonist, RU-486. Social recognition is also impaired by a specific progestin agonist, R5020. Interestingly, we show that progesterone does not interfere with either general memory or olfactory processes, suggesting that progesterone seems critically important to social recognition memory. These data provide strong evidence that physiological levels of progesterone can have an important impact on social behavior in male rats. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Growth hormone aggregates in the rat adenohypophysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrington, M.; Hymer, W. C.

    1990-01-01

    Although it has been known for some time that GH aggregates are contained within the rat anterior pituitary gland, the role that they might play in pituitary function is unknown. The present study examines this issue using the technique of Western blotting, which permitted visualization of 11 GH variants with apparent mol wt ranging from 14-88K. Electroelution of the higher mol wt variants from gels followed by their chemical reduction with beta-mercaptoethanol increased GH immunoassayability by about 5-fold. With the blot procedure we found 1) that GH aggregates greater than 44K were associated with a 40,000 x g sedimentable fraction; 2) that GH aggregates were not present in glands from thyroidectomized rats, but were in glands from the thyroidectomized rats injected with T4; 3) that GH aggregates were uniquely associated with a heavily granulated somatotroph subpopulation isolated by density gradient centrifugation; and 4) that high mol wt GH forms were released from the dense somatotrophs in culture, since treatment of the culture medium with beta-mercaptoethanol increased GH immunoassayability by about 5-fold. Taken together, the results show that high mol wt GH aggregates are contained in secretory granules of certain somatotrophs and are also released in aggregate form from these cells in vitro.

  11. Aluminum neurotoxicity in the rat brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yumoto, S [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine; Ohashi, H; Nagai, H; Kakimi, S; Ogawa, Y; Iwata, Y; Ishii, K

    1993-12-31

    To investigate the etiology of Alzheimer`s disease, we administered aluminum to healthy rats and examined the aluminum uptake in the brain and isolated brain cell nuclei by particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analysis. Ten days after the last injection, Al was detected in the rat brain and in isolated brain cell nuclei by PIXE analysis. Al was also demonstrated in the brain after 15 months of oral aluminum administration. Moreover, Al was detected in the brain and isolated brain cell nuclei from the patients with Alzheimer`s disease. Silver impregnation studies revealed that spines attached to the dendritic processes of cortical nerve cells decreased remarkably after aluminum administration. Electron microscopy revealed characteristic inclusion bodies in the hippocampal nerve cells 75 days after the injection. These morphological changes in the rat brain after the aluminum administration were similar to those reportedly observed in the brain of Alzheimer`s disease patients. Our results indicate that Alzheimer`s disease is caused by irreversible accumulation of aluminum in the brain, as well as in the nuclei of brain cells. (author).

  12. Visual Categorization of Natural Movies by Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinken, Kasper; Vermaercke, Ben

    2014-01-01

    Visual categorization of complex, natural stimuli has been studied for some time in human and nonhuman primates. Recent interest in the rodent as a model for visual perception, including higher-level functional specialization, leads to the question of how rodents would perform on a categorization task using natural stimuli. To answer this question, rats were trained in a two-alternative forced choice task to discriminate movies containing rats from movies containing other objects and from scrambled movies (ordinate-level categorization). Subsequently, transfer to novel, previously unseen stimuli was tested, followed by a series of control probes. The results show that the animals are capable of acquiring a decision rule by abstracting common features from natural movies to generalize categorization to new stimuli. Control probes demonstrate that they did not use single low-level features, such as motion energy or (local) luminance. Significant generalization was even present with stationary snapshots from untrained movies. The variability within and between training and test stimuli, the complexity of natural movies, and the control experiments and analyses all suggest that a more high-level rule based on more complex stimulus features than local luminance-based cues was used to classify the novel stimuli. In conclusion, natural stimuli can be used to probe ordinate-level categorization in rats. PMID:25100598

  13. Visual categorization of natural movies by rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinken, Kasper; Vermaercke, Ben; Op de Beeck, Hans P

    2014-08-06

    Visual categorization of complex, natural stimuli has been studied for some time in human and nonhuman primates. Recent interest in the rodent as a model for visual perception, including higher-level functional specialization, leads to the question of how rodents would perform on a categorization task using natural stimuli. To answer this question, rats were trained in a two-alternative forced choice task to discriminate movies containing rats from movies containing other objects and from scrambled movies (ordinate-level categorization). Subsequently, transfer to novel, previously unseen stimuli was tested, followed by a series of control probes. The results show that the animals are capable of acquiring a decision rule by abstracting common features from natural movies to generalize categorization to new stimuli. Control probes demonstrate that they did not use single low-level features, such as motion energy or (local) luminance. Significant generalization was even present with stationary snapshots from untrained movies. The variability within and between training and test stimuli, the complexity of natural movies, and the control experiments and analyses all suggest that a more high-level rule based on more complex stimulus features than local luminance-based cues was used to classify the novel stimuli. In conclusion, natural stimuli can be used to probe ordinate-level categorization in rats. Copyright © 2014 the authors 0270-6474/14/3410645-14$15.00/0.

  14. Aluminum neurotoxicity in the rat brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yumoto, S.; Ohashi, H.; Nagai, H.; Kakimi, S.; Ogawa, Y.; Iwata, Y.; Ishii, K.

    1992-01-01

    To investigate the etiology of Alzheimer's disease, we administered aluminum to healthy rats and examined the aluminum uptake in the brain and isolated brain cell nuclei by particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analysis. Ten days after the last injection, Al was detected in the rat brain and in isolated brain cell nuclei by PIXE analysis. Al was also demonstrated in the brain after 15 months of oral aluminum administration. Moreover, Al was detected in the brain and isolated brain cell nuclei from the patients with Alzheimer's disease. Silver impregnation studies revealed that spines attached to the dendritic processes of cortical nerve cells decreased remarkably after aluminum administration. Electron microscopy revealed characteristic inclusion bodies in the hippocampal nerve cells 75 days after the injection. These morphological changes in the rat brain after the aluminum administration were similar to those reportedly observed in the brain of Alzheimer's disease patients. Our results indicate that Alzheimer's disease is caused by irreversible accumulation of aluminum in the brain, as well as in the nuclei of brain cells. (author)

  15. Metabolism and pharmacokinetics of rhynchophylline in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Ma, Chao-Mei; Hattori, Masao

    2010-01-01

    The alkaloid, rhynchophylline (RHY), from the stems and hooks of Uncaria rhynchophylla was revealed in recent years to have protective effect on neuronal damage. The present research was carried out to investigate the in vivo metabolism of this bioactive alkaloid. After administering RHY to rats, LC-MS detected RHY in plasma, bile, brain, urine and feces, the glucuronides, 11-hydroxyrhynchophylline 11-O-beta-D-glucuronide (M1) and 10-hydroxyrhynchophylline 10-O-beta-D-glucuronide (M2) in bile, and 11-hydroxyrhynchophylline (M3) and 10-hydroxyrhynchophylline (M4) in urine and feces. Within 24 h, 78.0% of RHY was excreted into the feces and 12.6% into the urine of rats after oral administration of 37.5 mg/kg. Monitoring by LC-MS showed that 9.4% of RHY was metabolized to M3 and M4 in a ratio of about 1 : 1. RHY was also detected in the brain (0.650 ng/g) at 3 h after oral administration of the same dose. Cytochrome P450 (CYP) in rat liver microsomes played a key role in RHY hydroxylation. Specific inhibition of CYP isozymes indicated that CYP2D, CYP1A1/2 and CYP2C participated in RHY hydroxylation, but not CYP3A.

  16. Toxicological evaluation of dimethoate in male rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tawfik, S.M.F.

    2004-01-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the harmful effects and biochemical changes caused by dimethoate, an organophosphorus insecticide, at two different doses which represents 1/50 of LD 5 0 (4.3 mg/kg body weight/day) or 1/10 of LD 5 0 (21.5 mg/kg body weight/day). After thirty days of daily oral administrations to male rats, serum total lipids, triglycerides, cholesterol and high density lipoprotein levels were estimated. Also, its toxic effects on serum total protein, albumin, globulin and glucose levels were studied. The glucose level at the early periods after the treatment with dimethoate using D-(U-I4C) glucose was studied. The results showed significant increases in serum total lipids, triglycerides, y-globulin and glucose levels. On the other hand, cholesterol, HDL, total protein and albumin levels in serum of rats were decreased after dimethoate treatment. In conclusion, the data obtained in the present study indicated that dimethoate has harmful effects on the parameters under investigation after thirty days of daily treatments and also on glucose level after few hours of its administration compared to control rats

  17. Trace element distribution in the rat cerebellum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwiatek, W.M.; Long, G.J.; Pounds, J.G.; Reuhl, K.R.; Hanson, A.L.; Jones, K.W.

    1989-10-01

    Spatial distributions and concentrations of trace elements (TE) in the brain are important because TE perform catalytic structural functions in enzymes which regulate brain function and development. We have investigated the distributions of TE in rat cerebellum. Structures were sectioned and analyzed by the Synchrotron Radiation Induced X-ray Emission (SRIXE) method using the NSLS X-26 white-light microprobe facility. Advantages important for TE analysis of biological specimens with x-ray microscopy include short time of measurement, high brightness and flux, good spatial resolution, multielemental detection, good sensitivity, and non-destructive irradiation. Trace elements were measured in thin rat brain sections of 20-micrometers thickness. The analyses were performed on sample volumes as small as 0.2 nl with Minimum Detectable Limits (MDL) of 50 ppb wet weight for Fe, 100 ppb wet weight for Cu, and Zn, and 1 ppM wet weight for Pb. The distribution of TE in the molecular cell layer, granule cell layer and fiber tract of rat cerebella was investigated. Both point analyses and two-dimensional semi-quantitative mapping of the TE distribution in a section were used

  18. Obesity-resistant S5B rats showed great cocaine conditioned place preference than the obesity-prone OM rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thanos, P.K.; Wang, G.; Thanos, P.K..; Kim, R.; Cho, J.; Michaelides, M.; Anderson, B.J.; Primeaux, S.D.; Bray, G.A.; Wang, G.-J.; Robinson, J.K.; Volkow, N.D.

    2010-12-01

    Dopamine (DA) and the DA D2 receptor (D2R) are involved in the rewarding and conditioned responses to food and drug rewards. Osborne-Mendel (OM) rats are genetically prone and S5B/P rats are genetically resistant to obesity when fed a high-fat diet. We hypothesized that the differential sensitivity of these two rat strains to natural rewards may also be reflected in sensitivity to drugs of abuse. Therefore, we tested whether OM and S5B/P rats showed a differential preference to cocaine using conditioned place preference (CPP). To also evaluate whether there is specific involvement of the D2R in this differential conditioning sensitivity, we then tested whether the D2R agonist bromocriptine (BC) would differentially affect the effects of cocaine in the two strains. OM and S5B/P rats were conditioned with cocaine (5 or 10 mg/kg) in one chamber and saline in another for 8 days. Rats were then tested for cocaine preference. The effects of BC (0.5, 1, 5, 10, 20 mg/kg) on cocaine preference were then assessed in subsequent test sessions. OM rats did not show a significant preference for the cocaine-paired chamber on test day. Only the S5B/P rats showed cocaine CPP. Later treatment with only the highest dose of BC resulted in reduced cocaine CPP in S5B/P rats when treated with 5 mg/kg cocaine and in OM rats treated with 10 mg/kg cocaine. Our results indicated that obesity-resistant S5B rats showed greater cocaine CPP than the obesity-prone OM rats. These findings do not support a theory of common vulnerability for reinforcer preferences (food and cocaine). However, they show that BC reduced cocaine conditioning effects supporting at least a partial regulatory role of D2R in conditioned responses to drugs.

  19. Acoustic noise improves motor learning in spontaneously hypertensive rats, a rat model of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Söderlund, Göran B W; Eckernäs, Daniel; Holmblad, Olof; Bergquist, Filip

    2015-03-01

    The spontaneously hypertensive (SH) rat model of ADHD displays impaired motor learning. We used this characteristic to study if the recently described acoustic noise benefit in learning in children with ADHD is also observed in the SH rat model. SH rats and a Wistar control strain were trained in skilled reach and rotarod running under either ambient noise or in 75 dBA white noise. In other animals the effect of methylphenidate (MPH) on motor learning was assessed with the same paradigms. To determine if acoustic noise influenced spontaneous motor activity, the effect of acoustic noise was also determined in the open field activity paradigm. We confirm impaired motor learning in the SH rat compared to Wistar SCA controls. Acoustic noise restored motor learning in SH rats learning the Montoya reach test and the rotarod test, but had no influence on learning in Wistar rats. Noise had no effect on open field activity in SH rats, but increased corner time in Wistar. MPH completely restored rotarod learning and performance but did not improve skilled reach in the SH rat. It is suggested that the acoustic noise benefit previously reported in children with ADHD is shared by the SH rat model of ADHD, and the effect is in the same range as that of stimulant treatment. Acoustic noise may be useful as a non-pharmacological alternative to stimulant medication in the treatment of ADHD. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Genetic profiling of two phenotypically distinct outbred rats derived from a colony of the Zucker fatty rats maintained at Tokyo Medical University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi, Satoshi; Kuramoto, Takashi; Kashiwazaki, Naomi; Yokoi, Norihide

    2016-01-01

    The Zucker fatty (ZF) rat is an outbred rat and a well-known model of obesity without diabetes, harboring a missense mutation (fatty, abbreviated as fa) in the leptin receptor gene (Lepr). Slc:Zucker (Slc:ZF) outbred rats exhibit obesity while Hos:ZFDM-Leprfa (Hos:ZFDM) outbred rats exhibit obesity and type 2 diabetes. Both outbred rats have been derived from an outbred ZF rat colony maintained at Tokyo Medical University. So far, genetic profiles of these outbred rats remain unknown. Here, we applied a simple genotyping method using Ampdirect reagents and FTA cards (Amp-FTA) in combination with simple sequence length polymorphisms (SSLP) markers to determine genetic profiles of Slc:ZF and Hos:ZFDM rats. Among 27 SSLP marker loci, 24 loci (89%) were fixed for specific allele at each locus in Slc:ZF rats and 26 loci (96%) were fixed in Hos:ZFDM rats, respectively. This indicates the low genetic heterogeneity in both colonies of outbred rats. Nine loci (33%) showed different alleles between the two outbred rats, suggesting considerably different genetic profiles between the two outbred rats in spite of the same origin. Additional analysis using 72 SSLP markers further supported these results and clarified the profiles in detail. This study revealed that genetic profiles of the Slc:ZF and Hos:ZFDM outbred rats are different for about 30% of the SSLP marker loci, which is the underlying basis for the phenotypic difference between the two outbred rats. PMID:27795491

  1. SWIMMING ENHANCES BONE MASS ACQUISITION IN GROWING FEMALE RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanne McVeigh

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Growing bones are most responsive to mechanical loading. We investigated bone mass acquisition patterns following a swimming or running exercise intervention of equal duration, in growing rats. We compared changes in bone mineral properties in female Sprague Dawley rats that were divided into three groups: sedentary controls (n = 10, runners (n = 8 and swimmers (n = 11. Runners and swimmers underwent a six week intervention, exercising five days per week, 30min per day. Running rats ran on an inclined treadmill at 0.33 m.s-1, while swimming rats swam in 25oC water. Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry scans measuring bone mineral content (BMC, bone mineral density (BMD and bone area at the femur, lumbar spine and whole body were recorded for all rats before and after the six week intervention. Bone and serum calcium and plasma parathyroid hormone (PTH concentrations were measured at the end of the 6 weeks. Swimming rats had greater BMC and bone area changes at the femur and lumbar spine (p < 0.05 than the running rats and a greater whole body BMC and bone area to that of control rats (p < 0.05. There were no differences in bone gain between running and sedentary control rats. There was no significant difference in serum or bone calcium or PTH concentrations between the groups of rats. A swimming intervention is able to produce greater beneficial effects on the rat skeleton than no exercise at all, suggesting that the strains associated with swimming may engender a unique mechanical load on the bone

  2. Impaired NaCl taste thresholds in Zn deprived rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brosvic, G.M.; Slotnick, B.M.; Nelson, N.; Henkin, R.I.

    1986-01-01

    Zn deficiency is a relatively common cause of loss of taste acuity in humans. In some patients replacement with exogenous Zn results in rapid reversal of the loss whereas in others prolonged treatment is needed to restore normal taste function. To study this 300 gm outbred Sprague Dawley rats were given Zn deficient diet (< 1 ppm Zn) supplemented with Zn in drinking water (0.1 gm Zn/100 gm body weight). Rats were trained in an automated operant conditions procedure and NaCl taste thresholds determined. During an initial training period and over two replications mean thresholds were 0.006% and mean plasma Zn was 90 +/- 2 μg/dl (M +/- SEM) determined by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Rats were then divided into two groups; in one (3 rats) Zn supplement was removed, in the other (4 rats), pair-fed with the former group, Zn supplement was continued. In 10 days NaCl thresholds in Zn deprived rats increased significantly (0.07%, p < 0.01) and in 17 days increased 13 fold (0.08%) but thresholds for pair fed, supplemented rats remained constant (0.006%). There was no overlap in response between any rat in the two groups. Plasma Zn at 17 days in Zn-deprived rats was significantly below pair-fed rats (52 +/- 13 vs 89 +/- 6 μg/dl, respectively, P < 0.01). At this time Zn-deprived rats were supplemented with Zn for 27 days without any reduction in taste thresholds. These preliminary results are consistent with previous observations in Zn deficient patients

  3. Modulatory Role of Folic Acid Administration on Some Biochemical and Hormonal Disturbances in Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, N.E.

    2013-01-01

    Fried food which is the most easier and fast food prepared especially out the home door became a serious risk because of the high concentrations of acrylamide identified mainly in potatoes and grains based foods that are cooked at very high temperature e.g. frying, grilling or baking. In the current study, forty eight adult male rats were classified into the following groups (12 rats/group): 1- control group: rats received only normal diet, 2- folic acid group: rats received folic acid (25 mg/kg/day) using stomach tube throughout the experimental period (ten weeks), 3- acrylamide group: rats received acrylamide (30 mg/kg) using stomach tube for ten weeks and 4- folic acid and acrylamide group: rats received folic acid (25 mg/kg/day) along with acrylamide (30 mg/kg./day) using stomach tube through the experimental period. After five and ten weeks of the experimental period, the animals were sacrificed by decapitation then thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione (GSH) were determined in testis and brain homogenates. Also, gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), acid phosphatase (ACP), total protein, albumin, urea, creatinine, triiodothyronine, thyroxine, testosterone and estradiol were determined in serum. In addition, histological examinations of testis and brain tissues were examined. The results obtained revealed that administration of acrylamide induced significant increase in TBARS, and reduction in SOD and GSH in testis and brain homogenate. Also, significant increase in GGT, ALP, ACP, urea, creatinine and estradiol levels in serum was recorded. A marked significant decrease in total protein, albumin, T3, T4 and testosterone in serum was observed in acrylamide group. Histological investigations showed degenerative changes in both testis and brain tissues through the experimental period. Significant improvements in biochemical and histological structure were recorded in acrylamide groups

  4. Physiological and Histopathological Investigations on the Effects of -Lipoic Acid in Rats Exposed to Malathion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atef M. Al-Attar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to evaluate the influence of -lipoic acid treatment in rats exposed to malathion. Forty adult male rats were used in this study and distributed into four groups. Animals of group 1 were untreated and served as control. Rats of group 2 were orally given malathion at a dose level of 100 mg/kg body weight (BW for a period of one month. Experimental animals of group 3 were orally given -lipoic acid at a dose level of 20 mg/kg BW and after 3 hours exposed to malathion at the same dose given to group 2. Rats of group 4 were supplemented with -lipoic acid at the same dose given to group 3. The activities of serum glutamic oxaloacetic acid transaminase (GOT, glutamic pyruvic acid transaminase (GPT, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, and acid phosphatase (ACP, and the values of creatinine, urea, and uric acid were statistically increased, while the values of total protein and total albumin were significantly decreased in rats exposed to malathion. Moreover, administration of malathion for one month resulted in damage of liver and kidney structures. Administration of -lipoic acid before malathion exposure to rat can prevent severe alterations of hematobiochemical parameters and disruptions of liver and kidney structures. In conclusion, this study obviously demonstrated that pretreatment with -lipoic acid significantly attenuated the physiological and histopathological alterations induced by malathion. Also, the present study identifies new areas of research for development of better therapeutic agents for liver, kidney, and other organs' dysfunctions and diseases.

  5. Effect of Zuogui Pill () on monoamine neurotransmitters and sex hormones in climacteric rats with panic attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao-Yu; Wang, Xiao-Yun

    2017-03-01

    To explore the effects of Chinese medicine prescription Zuogui Pill (, ZGP) on monoamine neurotransmitters and sex hormones in climacteric rats with induced panic attacks. Forty-eight climacteric female rats were randomized into 6 groups with 8 rats in each group: the control group, the model group, the low-, medium- and high-dose ZGP groups and the alprazolam group. Rats in the low-, medium- and high-dose ZGP groups were administered 4.725, 9.45, or 18.9 g/kg ZGP by gastric perfusion, respectively. The alprazolam group was treated by gastric perfusion with 0.036 mg/kg alprazolam. The control and model groups were treated with distilled water. The animals were pretreated once daily for 8 consecutive weeks. The behaviors of rats in the open fifield test and the elevated T-maze (ETM) were observed after induced panic attack, and the levels of brain monoamine neurotransmitters and the plasma levels of sex hormones were measured. Compared with the control group, the mean ETM escape time and the levels of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and noradrenalin (NE) of the model group were signifificantly reduced (P<0.05), Compared with the model group, the mean ETM escape time and the 5-HT and NE levels of all the ZGP groups increased signifificantly (P<0.05 or P<0.01). However, no signifificant difference was observed in the levels of sex hormones between the groups. Pretreatment with ZGP in climacteric rats may improve the behavior of panic attack, which may be related to increased 5-HT and NE in the brain.

  6. Eucommia leaf extract (ELE) prevents OVX-induced osteoporosis and obesity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenping; Fujikawa, Takahiko; Mizuno, Kaito; Ishida, Torao; Ooi, Kazuya; Hirata, Tetsuya; Wada, Atsunori

    2012-01-01

    The cortex of Eucommia ulmoides Oliver is widely used to treat kidney deficiency in traditional Chinese medicine. Its leaves have recently been reported to have anti-obesity properties in metabolic syndrome-like rat models. Due to a sharp decline in estrogen production, obesity, together with osteoporosis, are common problems in postmenopausal women. In this study, we examined the potential effect of Eucommia leaf extract (ELE) in preventing osteoporosis and obesity induced by ovariectomy (OVX). Forty-six female Wistar rats were divided into six groups: Sham-Cont, OVX-Cont, and four OVX groups administered estradiol and different concentrations of ELE 1.25%, ELE 2.5%, and ELE 5%. Treatments were administered after ovariectomy at six weeks of age and continued for 12 weeks. OVX induced a significant decrease in the bone mineral density (BMD) of the lumbar, femora, and tibiae, together with a marked increase in body mass index (BMI). The administration of 5% ELE led to a significant increase in tibial and femoral BMD, as well as significantly increased bone-strength parameters when compared with OVX-Cont rats. According to the suppressed Dpd and increased osteocalcin concentrations in ELE 5% rats, we suggest that varying proportions of bone formation and bone absorption contributed to the enhanced BMD in the femora and tibiae. In addition, significant decreases in body weight, BMI and fat tissue in 5% ELE rats were also observed. These results suggest that ELE may have curative properties for BMD and BMI in OVX rats, and could provide an alternative therapy for the prevention of both postmenopausal osteoporosis and obesity.

  7. Testosterone improves erectile function through inhibition of reactive oxygen species generation in castrated rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Li

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Testosterone is overwhelmingly important in regulating erectile physiology. However, the associated molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to explore the effects and mechanisms of testosterone in erectile dysfunction (ED in castrated rats. Forty male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized to four groups (control, sham-operated, castration and castration-with-testosterone-replacement. Reactive oxygen species (ROS production was measured by dihydroethidium (DHE staining. Erectile function was assessed by the recording of intracavernous pressure (ICP and mean arterial blood pressure (MAP. Protein expression levels were examined by western blotting. We found that castration reduced erectile function and that testosterone restored it. Nitric oxide synthase (NOS activity was decrease in the castrated rats, and testosterone administration attenuated this decrease (each p < 0.05. The testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP and cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP concentrations were lower in the castrated rats, and testosterone restored these levels (each p < 0.05. Furthermore, the cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 and prostacyclin synthase (PTGIS expression levels and phospho-endothelial nitric oxide synthase (p-eNOS, Ser1177/endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS ratio were reduced in the castrated rats compared with the controls (each p < 0.05. In addition, the p40phox and p67phox expression levels were increased in the castrated rats, and testosterone reversed these changes (each p < 0.05. Overall, our results demonstrate that testosterone ameliorates ED after castration by reducing ROS production and increasing the activity of the eNOS/cGMP and COX-2/PTGIS/cAMP signaling pathways.

  8. Establishment and evaluation of a rat model of inhalation lung injury induced by ship smog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin-xin DUAN

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective To establish and evaluate a rat model of inhalation lung injury induced by ship smog. Methods A rat model of inhalation lung injury was established by analyzing the composition of ship materials after combustion. Forty- two healthy male Wistar rats were randomly divided into normal control group and 2, 6, 12, 24, 48 and 72h groups (6 eachafter inhalation, these rats were killed at each time point, and the changes of arterial blood gas, coagulation function, the lung water content (% were detected. Macroscopic and microscopic changes in lung tissues were observed to judge the degree of lung injury. Results The main components after combustion of 7 kinds of nonmetal materials on ship included CO, CO2, H2S, NOx and other harmful gases in this study, AIKE in one gas detector was used to monitor O2, CO, CO2 and H2S, and their concentrations remained relatively stable within 15 minutes, and the injury time was 15 minutes. The rats presented with shortness of breath and mouth breathing. Smoke inhalation caused a significant hypoxemia, the concentration of blood COHb reached a peak value 2h and the lung water content (% did 6h after inhalation (P<0.05. It is metabolic acidosis in the early stage after inhalation, but metabolic acidosis combined with respiratory acidosis in the later period. Histopathological observation showed diffuse hemorrhage, edema and inflammatory cell infiltration in the lung tissue as manifestations of lung injury, and the injury did not recover at 72h after inhalation, the change of blood coagulation function was not statistically significant. Conclusion A rat model of inhalation lung injury induced by ship smog has been successfully established, and has the advantages of easy replication, stability and reliability, thus can be used to research and treat inhalation lung injury induced by ship smog in naval war environment and other cases. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2018.03.14

  9. [Effect of electroacupuncture intervention on learning-memory ability and injured hippocampal neurons in depression rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Wu-Ye; Jiao, Shuang; Lu, Jun; Tu, Ya; Song, Ying-Zhou; Wu, Qian; A, Ying-Ge

    2014-04-01

    To observe the effect of electroacupuncture (EA) stimulation of "Baihui" (GV 20)-"Yintang" (EX-HN 3) on changes of learning-memory ability and hippocampal neuron structure in chronic stress-stimulation induced depression rats. Forty-eight SD rats were randomly divided into normal, model, EA and medication (Fluoxetine) groups, with 12 rats in each group. The depression model was established by chronic unpredictable mild stress stimulation (swimming in 4 degrees C water, fasting, water deprivation, reversed day and night, etc). Treatment was applied to "Baihui" (GV 20) and "Yintang" (EX-HN 3) for 20 min, once every day for 21 days. For rats of the medication group, Fluoxetine (3.3 mg/kg) was given by gavage (p.o.), once daily for 21 days. The learning-memory ability was detected by Morris water maze tests. The pathological and ultrastructural changes of the hippocampal tissue and neurons were assessed by H.E. staining, light microscope and transmission electron microscopy, respectively. Compared to the normal group, the rats' body weight on day 14 and day 21 after modeling was significantly decreased in the model group (P learning-memory ability. Observations of light microscope and transmission electron microscope showed that modeling induced pathological changes such as reduction in hippocampal cell layers, vague and broken cellular membrane, and ultrastructural changes of hippocampal neurons including swelling and reduction of mitochondria and mitochondrial crests were relived after EA and Fluoxetine treatment. EA intervention can improve the learning-memory ability and relieving impairment of hippocampal neurons in depression rats, which may be one of its mechanisms underlying bettering depression.

  10. Structure of the vitreoretinal border region in spontaneously diabetic BB rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heegaard, S

    1993-01-01

    The morphology of the vitreoretinal border region, also termed the inner limiting membrane, was examined in spontaneously diabetic rats (BB rats), in non-diabetes-prone rats (WB rats) and in Buffalo rats (BUF rats) by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM......). This was performed in order to visualize a possible increase in thickness of the lamina densa or in the whole vitreoretinal border region complex with duration of diabetes. The median thickness of the lamina densa in the three groups varied between 34 and 68 nm. In BB rats the thickness decreased with age...... and duration of diabetes. In WB rats the lamina densa thickened up to the 9th month and then decreased to the level of the young rats. In BUF rats the lamina densa decreased in thickness with age. The median thickness of the whole vitreoretinal border region varied between: BB rats: 84 and 126 nm (SEM) and 68...

  11. Effect of head irradiation with X-rays on neuroendocrine in male rats of hypothalamic arcuate nucleus lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong Shouliang; Li Xiuyi; Wei Jun; Liu Shuzheng

    1992-01-01

    It has been demonstrated that neonatal administration of monosodium glutamine (MSG) results in clearly defined lesions of the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus. The present study showed that neuroendocrine function changed significantly in adulthood when baby rats were injected with MSG (4 mg/g BW, ip) 2 and 4 days after their birth. The serum LH, FSH, TSH and GH and serum and urine testosterone (TS) levels and pituitary cAMP content were lower in MSG treated rats than those of intact rats, but the serum PRL level increased significantly and the testicular cAMP content did not change. Forty eight hours after head irradiation with 10 Gy X-rays in the male rats treated with MSG, the serum LH, FSH, TSH and GH and serum and urine TS levels tended to decrease, while the serum PRL level tended to increase and the pituitary and testicular cAMP contents didn't change. The results suggest that the functional irregularity of neuroendocrine system in MSG treated rats with extensive lesions of hypothalamic arcuate nucleus were not so significant as those of intact rats in response to irradiation

  12. Effect of the aqueous extract of Foeniculum vulgare (fennel on the kidney in experimental PCOS female rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somayyeh Sadrefozalayi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Foeniculum vulgare seed (F. vulgare is a herbal plant which is used with phytoestrogene compounds for polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS treatment. In this research, renoprotective effect of the aqueous extract of Foeniculum vulgare (AEF in experimental PCOS female rats is studied. Materials and Methods: Forty female rats were randomly divided into five groups. The first group served as control,was injected with an equivalent volume (0.2 ml of normal saline, and received normal diet. Animals in the second group were non poly cystic ovary syndrome (PCOS rats which were treated with intragastric administration of aqueous extract of F. vulgare (150 mg/kg b.w.. In the third group, the rats were treated with intraperitoneal injection of estradiolvalerate (EV (4 mg in 0.2 ml of sesame oil. The fourth groups were treated with EV and AEF (150mg/kg bw with the same route.  The fifth groups were treated with EV and AEF (100mg/kg bw. After 4 weeks of study, all of the rats were sacrificed, their kidneys tissues were processed for light microscopy, and some biochemical parameters of serum were measured. Results: The mean values of blood urea nitrogen in PCOS rats treated with low dose of AEF and EV and non-treated, was significantly (p

  13. [Change of hippocampal NMDA receptor and emotional behavior and spatial learning and memory in status epilepticus rat model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei-Ping; Lou, Yan; Li, Zhen-Zhong; Li, Pan; Duan, Rui-Sheng

    2007-02-01

    SD rats were utilized for the purpose of the exploration of effects of status epilepticus (SE) on their emotional behavior, spatial learning and memory, and explorating its molecular mechanism. Forty maturity male SD rats, weighing (200 +/- 20) g were divided randomly and equally into SE group (SG) and normal control group (NG). The SG rats were induced by Pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) and the control animals received a saline (0.9%) solution. The change of emotional behavior in two groups were tested in elevated plus maze. Furthermore, Morris water maze was applied to evaluate the effects by SE on spatial learning and memory in rats. At the same time, N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor NR1 subunit mRNA in the hippocampus was determined by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). In elevated plus test, SE rats increased the times of visits as well as the time spent on the open arms of the elevated plus maze (P emotional behavior and damage of spatial learning and memory in rats. NR1 might be involved in the patho- and physiological process in causing these behavioral changes.

  14. Protective Effects of Withania somnifera Root on Inflammatory Markers and Insulin Resistance in Fructose-Fed Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Samadi Noshahr

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: We investigated the effects of Withania somnifera root (WS on insulin resistance, tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α, and interleukin-6 (IL-6 in fructose-fed rats. Methods: Forty-eight Wistar-Albino male rats were randomly divided into four groups (n=12; Group I as control, Group II as sham-treated with WS by 62.5mg/g per diet, Group III fructose-fed rats received 10%W/V fructose, and Group IV fructose- and WS-fed rats. After eight weeks blood samples were collected to measure glucose, insulin, IL-6, and TNF-α levels in sera. Results: Blood glucose, insulin, homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-R, IL-6, and TNF-α levels were all significantly greater in the fructose-fed rats than in the controls. Treatment with WS significantly (P < 0.05 inhibited the fructose-induced increases in glucose, insulin, HOMA-R, IL-6, and TNF-α. Conclusion: Our data suggest that WS normalizes hyperglycemia in fructose-fed rats by reducing inflammatory markers and improving insulin sensitivity.

  15. Development of acute hydrocephalus does not change brain tissue mechanical properties in adult rats, but in juvenile rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pong, Alice C; Jugé, Lauriane; Bilston, Lynne E; Cheng, Shaokoon

    2017-01-01

    Regional changes in brain stiffness were previously demonstrated in an experimental obstructive hydrocephalus juvenile rat model. The open cranial sutures in the juvenile rats have influenced brain compression and mechanical properties during hydrocephalus development and the extent by which closed cranial sutures in adult hydrocephalic rat models affect brain stiffness in-vivo remains unclear. The aims of this study were to determine changes in brain tissue mechanical properties and brain structure size during hydrocephalus development in adult rat with fixed cranial volume and how these changes were related to brain tissue deformation. Hydrocephalus was induced in 9 female ten weeks old Sprague-Dawley rats by injecting 60 μL of a kaolin suspension (25%) into the cisterna magna under anaesthesia. 6 sham-injected age-matched female SD rats were used as controls. MR imaging (9.4T, Bruker) was performed 1 day before and then at 3 days post injection. T2-weighted anatomical MR images were collected to quantify ventricle and brain tissue cross-sectional areas. MR elastography (800 Hz) was used to measure the brain stiffness (G*, shear modulus). Brain tissue in the adult hydrocephalic rats was more compressed than the juvenile hydrocephalic rats because the skulls of the adult hydrocephalic rats were unable to expand like the juvenile rats. In the adult hydrocephalic rats, the cortical gray matter thickness and the caudate-putamen cross-sectional area decreased (Spearman, P hydrocephalus is complex and is not solely dependent on brain tissue deformation. Further studies on the interactions between brain tissue stiffness, deformation, tissue oedema and neural damage are necessary before MRE can be used as a tool to track changes in brain biomechanics in hydrocephalus.

  16. Isoproterenol effects evaluated in heart slices of human and rat in comparison to rat heart in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrmann, Julia E.; Heale, Jason; Bieraugel, Mike; Ramos, Meg; Fisher, Robyn L.; Vickers, Alison E.M.

    2014-01-01

    Human response to isoproterenol induced cardiac injury was evaluated by gene and protein pathway changes in human heart slices, and compared to rat heart slices and rat heart in vivo. Isoproterenol (10 and 100 μM) altered human and rat heart slice markers of oxidative stress (ATP and GSH) at 24 h. In this in vivo rat study (0.5 mg/kg), serum troponin concentrations increased with lesion severity, minimal to mild necrosis at 24 and 48 h. In the rat and the human heart, isoproterenol altered pathways for apoptosis/necrosis, stress/energy, inflammation, and remodeling/fibrosis. The rat and human heart slices were in an apoptotic phase, while the in vivo rat heart exhibited necrosis histologically and further progression of tissue remodeling. In human heart slices genes for several heat shock 70 kD members were altered, indicative of stress to mitigate apoptosis. The stress response included alterations in energy utilization, fatty acid processing, and the up-regulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase, a marker of increased oxidative stress in both species. Inflammation markers linked with remodeling included IL-1α, Il-1β, IL-6 and TNFα in both species. Tissue remodeling changes in both species included increases in the TIMP proteins, inhibitors of matrix degradation, the gene/protein of IL-4 linked with cardiac fibrosis, and the gene Ccl7 a chemokine that induces collagen synthesis, and Reg3b a growth factor for cardiac repair. This study demonstrates that the initial human heart slice response to isoproterenol cardiac injury results in apoptosis, stress/energy status, inflammation and tissue remodeling at concentrations similar to that in rat heart slices. - Highlights: • Human response to isoproterenol induced cardiac injury evaluated in heart slices. • Isoproterenol altered apoptosis, energy, inflammation and remodeling pathways. • Human model verified by comparison to rat heart slices and rat heart in vivo. • Human and rat respond to isoproterenol

  17. Effect of irradiation on glycosaminoglycans connect in rat tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drozdz, M; Kucharz, E; Glowacki, A; Zylka, J

    1981-01-01

    Glycosaminoglycan (GAGs) fractions were determined in tissues (skin, liver, lungs, aortic wall) and blood serum of rats irradiated with a single dose of 500 R. An increase of total GAGs as well as changes in the fractions were found in the tissues and urine of exposed rats.

  18. Gastrointestinal helminths and external parasites of domestic rats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A survey of domestic rats was conducted to investigate the prevalence of gastrointestinal helminths and external parasites in Maiduguri municipal between February and June 2015. Rats were randomly collected from residential sites within Maiduguri metropolis by trapping using mechanical and glue board traps. Trapped ...

  19. Day-to-day reliability of gait characteristics in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raffalt, Peter Christian; Nielsen, Louise R; Madsen, Stefan

    2018-01-01

    day-to-day reliability of the gait pattern parameters observed in rats during treadmill walking. The results of the present study may serve as a reference material that can help future intervention studies on rat gait characteristics both with respect to the selection of outcome measures...

  20. Rat macrophages: membrane glycoproteins in differentiation and function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, T. K.; Döpp, E. A.; Dijkstra, C. D.

    2001-01-01

    Macrophages (mphi) play a crucial role in the immune system. The rat offers unique advantages for studying the biology of mphi. Firstly, monoclonal antibodies (mAb) against many rat mphi surface glycoproteins have become available. These have not only demonstrated a considerable heterogeneity among

  1. Pharmacokinetic Interaction between Magnolol and Piperine in Rats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the pharmacokinetic mechanism of interaction between magnolol and piperine when co-administered to rats. Methods: The rats were divided into five groups as follows: magnolol group (625 mg/kg); low dose of piperine group (20 mg/kg); high dose of piperine group (40 mg/kg); low dose of piperine ...

  2. Chronic Tea Consumption Lowers Blood Pressure in Rats: Some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chronic Tea Consumption Lowers Blood Pressure in Rats: Some Associated Mechanisms. ... Nigerian Journal of Health and Biomedical Sciences ... In experiment 5, group 9 (kept on NF and indomethacin solution) also had similar BP as group 10 (kept on ... KEY WORDS: Blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR), rats, tea.

  3. Intelligence-Augmented Rat Cyborgs in Maze Solving.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yipeng Yu

    Full Text Available Cyborg intelligence is an emerging kind of intelligence paradigm. It aims to deeply integrate machine intelligence with biological intelligence by connecting machines and living beings via neural interfaces, enhancing strength by combining the biological cognition capability with the machine computational capability. Cyborg intelligence is considered to be a new way to augment living beings with machine intelligence. In this paper, we build rat cyborgs to demonstrate how they can expedite the maze escape task with integration of machine intelligence. We compare the performance of maze solving by computer, by individual rats, and by computer-aided rats (i.e. rat cyborgs. They were asked to find their way from a constant entrance to a constant exit in fourteen diverse mazes. Performance of maze solving was measured by steps, coverage rates, and time spent. The experimental results with six rats and their intelligence-augmented rat cyborgs show that rat cyborgs have the best performance in escaping from mazes. These results provide a proof-of-principle demonstration for cyborg intelligence. In addition, our novel cyborg intelligent system (rat cyborg has great potential in various applications, such as search and rescue in complex terrains.

  4. Intelligence-Augmented Rat Cyborgs in Maze Solving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yipeng; Pan, Gang; Gong, Yongyue; Xu, Kedi; Zheng, Nenggan; Hua, Weidong; Zheng, Xiaoxiang; Wu, Zhaohui

    2016-01-01

    Cyborg intelligence is an emerging kind of intelligence paradigm. It aims to deeply integrate machine intelligence with biological intelligence by connecting machines and living beings via neural interfaces, enhancing strength by combining the biological cognition capability with the machine computational capability. Cyborg intelligence is considered to be a new way to augment living beings with machine intelligence. In this paper, we build rat cyborgs to demonstrate how they can expedite the maze escape task with integration of machine intelligence. We compare the performance of maze solving by computer, by individual rats, and by computer-aided rats (i.e. rat cyborgs). They were asked to find their way from a constant entrance to a constant exit in fourteen diverse mazes. Performance of maze solving was measured by steps, coverage rates, and time spent. The experimental results with six rats and their intelligence-augmented rat cyborgs show that rat cyborgs have the best performance in escaping from mazes. These results provide a proof-of-principle demonstration for cyborg intelligence. In addition, our novel cyborg intelligent system (rat cyborg) has great potential in various applications, such as search and rescue in complex terrains.

  5. Tracks: The New York City Rat Information Portal

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast, featuring Daniel Kass, Acting Deputy Commissioner of Environmental Health for the New York City (NYC) Department of Health and Mental Hygiene, provides information about the NYC Rat Information Portal. It details the background and uses of the Rat Portal, as well as next steps for the NYC Environmental Public Health Tracking Program.

  6. Impact of organic hydroperoxides on rat testicular tissue and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of hydroperoxides on testicular tissue and epididymal sperm were investigated. Male Wistar rats aged 10 - 12 weeks were randomly placed in groups and received standard rat chow and water ad libitum. Animals were injected intraperitoneally with saline (0.5 ml), t-butyl hydroperoxide (5, 10, 20 and 40 ìM; 0.5 ...

  7. Differentiation ability of rat postnatal dental pulp cells in vitro.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, W.; Walboomers, X.F.; Wolke, J.G.C.; Bian, Z.; Fan, M.W.; Jansen, J.A.

    2005-01-01

    The current rapid progression in stem cell research has enhanced our knowledge of dental tissue regeneration. In this study, rat dental pulp cells were isolated and their differentiation ability was evaluated. First, dental pulp cells were obtained from maxillary incisors of male Wistar rats.

  8. Surgical sterilization of the African giant pouched rats | Werema ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... to all principles of surgery. This study has demonstrated the three surgical procedures for African Giant pouched rats as being useful to veterinarians in public/private practice and/or in biomedical research facilities. Keywords: Surgical sterilization, ovariectomy, ovariohysterectomy, orchidectomy, African giant pouched rats ...

  9. Biological studies on albino rats fed with Sorghum bicolor starch ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Partially purified amylase was extracted from the culture medium of Rhizopus sp. grown in potato dextrose broth for 48 h at room temperature by precipitation with 96.9% ethanol. The enzyme was used to hydrolyze sorghum starch. The hydrolyzed product was afterwards formulated into rat feed, which was fed to albino rats ...

  10. Management of experimental benign prostatic hyperplasia in rats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The usefulness of diet containing Telfairia occidentalis seeds, in managing benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) in rats was studied. Twenty male Wistar rats were divided into four equal groups. BPH was induced by sub-cutaneous injection of dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and estradiol valerate (ratio, 10:1) every other day for ...

  11. Clinical Signs and Organ Pathology in Rats Exposed To Graded ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Olaleye

    pyrethroids-containing insecticides on farm and market produce and in human ... Key words: Pyrethroids, insecticides, rats, tissue pathology, public health hazard ... ingredients, differing in chemical structure or in ... meat shops, in poultry pens and on dogs and cats ... A total of 54 (27 male and 27 female) albino rats.

  12. Morphological Characterization of the African Giant Rat (Cricetomys ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    olayemitoyin

    gambianus, Waterhouse) Brain Across Age Groups: Gross Features of. Cortices ... Keywords: African giant rats, Brain, Morphology, Cerebrum, Cerebellum, Olfactory bulb ..... as shrinkage with aging rather than selective .... lasting increase in the number of proliferating cells, ... radial glia in the adult rat dentate gyrus.

  13. Possible hypocholesterolemic effect of ginger and rosemary oils in rats

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Group (Ic): rats received i.p 2.5 g/Kg b.w of rosemary oil. Group (Id): Rats received i.p 5 g/Kg b.w mixture of ginger oil and rosemary oil (1:1). The second main ... Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL ...

  14. Effects of salmon calcitonin on fracture healing in ovariectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaolin; Luo, Xinle; Yu, Nansheng; Zeng, Bingfang

    2007-01-01

    To explore the effects of salmon calcitonin on the healing process of osteoporotic fractures in ovariectomized rats. We performed this study in The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical College, Guangzhou, China, during the period March 2002 to December 2004. We used 120 female adult Wistar rats in this experiment, among which 90 underwent ovariectomy (OVX) and the other 30 had sham-operation. All rats had their left tibias fractured 3 months later. The 90 OVX rats were randomly divided into 3 groups with 30 in each, while the 30 sham-operated rats served as control group. After the fracture the rats had subcutaneous injection of normal saline, salmon calcitonin and estrogen, respectively. X-ray film, histological examination, bone mineral density (BMD) measurement and biomechanics testing were carried out to evaluate the fracture healing. Compared with OVX rats treated with normal saline, the rats with salmon calcitonin had significantly higher BMD values in the left tibia, higher max torque, shear stress of the left tibia 8 weeks after fracture (pnormalization of microstructure of bone trabeculae. Salmon calcitonin can, not only increase BMD in osteoporotic bone, but also enhance the bone biomechanical properties and improve the process of fracture healing in fractured osteoporotic bone.

  15. Central insulin and macronutrient intake in the rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chavez, M; Riedy, CA; VanDijk, G; Woods, SC; Riedy, Christine A.; Woods, Stephen C.

    1997-01-01

    When rats are maintained on a standard laboratory diet, the infusion of low doses of insulin into the cerebroventricular system causes a reduction of food intake and body weight. It was recently reported that, if rats are maintained on a high-fat diet (56% calories as fat), they are insensitive to

  16. Biochemical and pathological studies in rats following dietary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biochemical and pathological studies in rats following dietary supplementation with high levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids and vitamin E. ... Furthermore, high dietary supplementation of vitamin E showed no deleterious effects on rats and no pathological changes in the liver, kidney and heart tissues were observed in the ...

  17. The histogenesis of lymph nodes in rat and rabbit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eikelenboom, P.; Nassy, J. J.; Post, J.; Versteeg, J. C.; Langevoort, H. L.

    1978-01-01

    The histogenesis of the popliteal lymph node in the rat and the popliteal and inguinal lymph nodes in the rabbit was examined by light microscopy. Special emphasis has been laid on the initial lymphocyte population in the lymph node anlage. In the rat on the seventeenth day of gestation lymphoid

  18. Influence of Chloramphenicol and Amoxicillin on Rat Liver ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined the effect of chloramphenicol and amoxicillin on liver microsomal enzymes Ca2+-ATPase and Glucose-6-Phosphatase (G-6-P) and lipid peroxidation in rats. Male Wistar strain rats weighing 120 – 195 g were divided into four groups. Group one, the control group, received physiological saline, group ...

  19. Aqueous Root Extract in Loperamide- Induced Constipated Rats

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    central nervous system (CNS) depressant action of the plant has ... administration was done using metal oropharyngeal ... weight of constipated rats before treatment. .... constipation, abdominal bloating and refractory ... found in the plasma membrane and endoplasmic .... induced production of prostaglandins in rat isolated.

  20. Biochemical response of normal albino rats to the addition of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Experiments were conducted to determine the biochemical effect of Hibiscus cannabinus and Murraya koenigii extracts on normal albino rats using standard methods. Analyses carried out indicated that the aqueous leaf extract of H. cannabinus and M. koenigii exhibited significant hypolipideamic activity in normal rats.

  1. Performance of rats orogastrically dosed with faecal strains of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Albino rats (Rattus norvegicus) were orogastrically dosed with faecal strains of Lactobacillus acidophilus and simultaneously infected with Escherichia coli, while the control was challenged with E. coli alone. The treatment was repeated the second day and post ingestion period of 18 days follow. It was observed that rats ...

  2. Testosterone supplementation restores vasopressin innervation in the senescent rat brain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goudsmit, E.; Fliers, E.; Swaab, D. F.

    1988-01-01

    The vasopressin (AVP) innervation in the male rat brain is decreased in senescence. This decrease is particularly pronounced in brain regions where AVP fiber density is dependent on plasma levels of sex steroids. Since plasma testosterone levels decrease progressively with age in the rat, the

  3. Decreased bilirubin transport in the perfused liver of endotoxemic rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelofsen, H.; van der Veere, C. N.; Ottenhoff, R.; Schoemaker, B.; Jansen, P. L.; Oude Elferink, R. P.

    1994-01-01

    Hyperbilirubinemia associated with sepsis is frequently observed in humans. In this study, an experimental rat model was developed to study bilirubin metabolism and transport during endotoxemia. Rats were injected intravenously with a single bolus of lipopolysaccharide (1 mg/kg); after 18 hours, the

  4. DECREASED BILIRUBIN TRANSPORT IN THE PERFUSED LIVER OF ENDOTOXEMIC RATS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ROELOFSEN, H; VANDERVEERE, CN; OTTENHOFF, R; SCHOEMAKER, B; JANSEN, PLM; ELFERINK, RPJO

    1994-01-01

    Background/Aims: Hyperbilirubinemia associated with sepsis is frequently observed in humans. In this study, an experimental rat model was developed to study bilirubin metabolism and transport during endotoxemia. Methods: Rats were injected intravenously with a single bolus of lipopolysaccharide (1

  5. Serum-thyroxine levels in microwave-exposed rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, S.T.; Lebda, N.; Michaelson, S.M.; Pettit, S.

    1985-01-01

    The nature of the response of the thyroid gland in animals exposed to microwave irradiation is controversial. Animal experimentation has contributed to the controversy because both increased and decreased thyroid functions have been reported. The thyroxine concentration in rats as representative of thyroid function in animals exposed to 2.45-GHz, 120-Hz amplitude-modulated microwaves has been studied. These studies covered a long time span; rats from two commercial sources (BS and CR) were used and subjected to different numbers of exposures, and therefore these data were evaluated for their stability. Two factors could influence in the result significantly, i.e., source of animal and number of sham exposures. Rats used in the 2-hr exposures were from two different commercial sources; rats from CR had a higher (but normal) thyroxine concentration than did rats from BS. Therefore the data of these animals were separated by commercial source for reevaluation. Instead of increased thyroxine concentration in rats exposed at 25, 30, and 40 mW/cm 2 , changes were not noted in any microwave-exposed rats. The influence of sham exposure revealed that appropriate concurrent control and specification of animal source are needed in longitudinal studies. Furthermore, statistical procedures used can greatly influence the conclusions. Thus the specificity of changes in thyroxine concentration in rats exposed to microwaves because of its sporadic occurrence and because of inconsistencies among experiments was doubted

  6. A Rat Excised Larynx Model of Vocal Fold Scar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welham, Nathan V.; Montequin, Douglas W.; Tateya, Ichiro; Tateya, Tomoko; Choi, Seong Hee; Bless, Diane M.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To develop and evaluate a rat excised larynx model for the measurement of acoustic, aerodynamic, and vocal fold vibratory changes resulting from vocal fold scar. Method: Twenty-four 4-month-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to 1 of 4 experimental groups: chronic vocal fold scar, chronic vocal fold scar treated with 100-ng basic…

  7. Effects of salmon calcitonin on fracture healing in ovariectomized rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Xiaolin; Zeng, Bingfang; Luo, Xinle; Yu, Nansheng

    2007-01-01

    Objective was to explore the effects of salmon calcitonin on the healing process of osteoporotic fractures in ovariectomized rats. We performed this study in the First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhaou Medical College, Guangzhaou, China during the period March 2002 to December 2004. We used 120 female adult Wistar rats in this experiment, among which 90 underwent ovariectomy (OVX) and the other 30 had shamoperation. All rats had their left tibias fractured 3 months later. The 90 OVX rats were randomly divided into 3 groups with 30 in each, while the 30 shamoperated rats served as control group. After the fracture rats had subcutaneous injection of normal saline, salmon calcitonin and estrogen, respectively. X-ray film, histological examination, bone mineral density (BMD) measurement and biomechanics testing were carried out to evaluate the fracture healing. Compared with OVX rats treated normal saline, the rats with salmon calcitonin had significantly higher BMD values in the left tibia, higher max torque, shear stress of the left tibia 8 weeks after fracture (p<0.05), and presented with stronger callus formation, shorter fracture healing time and faster normalization of microstructure of bone trabeculae. Salmon calcitonin can, not only increase in osteoporotic bone biomechanical properties and improve the process of fractured osteoporotic bone. (author)

  8. Transplacental absorption of 238Pu in rats and guinea pigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, M.F.

    1980-01-01

    Pregnant rats and guinea pigs were injected intravenously with 238 Pu citrate to determine if the potential for in utero accumulation of 238 Pu by these two species is related to the stage of development at which immunity is gained. Although guinea pigs retained more 238 Pu after birth than rats, the difference was not significant

  9. Ceftriaxone attenuates hypoxic-ischemic brain injury in neonatal rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Yen

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Perinatal brain injury is the leading cause of subsequent neurological disability in both term and preterm baby. Glutamate excitotoxicity is one of the major factors involved in perinatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE. Glutamate transporter GLT1, expressed mainly in mature astrocytes, is the major glutamate transporter in the brain. HIE induced excessive glutamate release which is not reuptaked by immature astrocytes may induce neuronal damage. Compounds, such as ceftriaxone, that enhance the expression of GLT1 may exert neuroprotective effect in HIE. Methods We used a neonatal rat model of HIE by unilateral ligation of carotid artery and subsequent exposure to 8% oxygen for 2 hrs on postnatal day 7 (P7 rats. Neonatal rats were administered three dosages of an antibiotic, ceftriaxone, 48 hrs prior to experimental HIE. Neurobehavioral tests of treated rats were assessed. Brain sections from P14 rats were examined with Nissl and immunohistochemical stain, and TUNEL assay. GLT1 protein expression was evaluated by Western blot and immunohistochemistry. Results Pre-treatment with 200 mg/kg ceftriaxone significantly reduced the brain injury scores and apoptotic cells in the hippocampus, restored myelination in the external capsule of P14 rats, and improved the hypoxia-ischemia induced learning and memory deficit of P23-24 rats. GLT1 expression was observed in the cortical neurons of ceftriaxone treated rats. Conclusion These results suggest that pre-treatment of infants at risk for HIE with ceftriaxone may reduce subsequent brain injury.

  10. ENU mutagenesis to generate genetically modified rat models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Boxtel, R.; Gould, M.; Cuppen, E.; Smits, B.M.

    2010-01-01

    The rat is one of the most preferred model organisms in biomedical research and has been extremely useful for linking physiology and pathology to the genome. However, approaches to genetically modify specific genes in the rat germ line remain relatively scarce. To date, the most efficient approach

  11. INAA for interelement correlations in rats after mercuric chloride exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tandon, L.; Kasarskis, E.J.; Ehmann, W.D.

    1991-01-01

    Motor neurons in rat spinal cord have been shown to have a selective affinity for Hg in a study by Moeller-Madsen and Dansher (1986). In a related animal model study the authors have exposed seventeen rats to mercuric chloride through drinking water continuously for eight months. A control group of rats was given regular water. Rat brain, spinal cord, and kidney were irradiated with thermal neutrons for determination of Hg and 16 other elements by INAA. As expected, Hg was increased in all tissues from treated rats. Cs was significantly elevated in spinal cord of Hg-dosed rats. Kidney had a significant decrease in As, Co, and K with a significant increase in Br and Se in Hg-dosed rats. These results in rats are contrasted with data (Khare, et al., 1990) from patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) to determine if the elemental imbalances in this neurodegenerative disease are primary alterations, or merely secondary effects related to Hg levels

  12. Attenuation of cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The rats received a single dose injection of 10 mg/kg cisplatin. Other groups of rats received zerumbone (100 and 200 mg/kg), corn oil or the vehicle, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) intraperitoneally for 4 days prior to cisplatin-injections. All animals were decapitated 16 h after cisplatin injection. Trunk blood was collected and ...

  13. Heart dysfunction and fibrosis in rat treated with myocardial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Because cardiovascular disease remains a serious problem in modern human society, the aim of this study was to establish the rat model animal and to compare the heart dysfunction and fibrosis with SD and LE rats when treated with myocardial ischemia and reperfusion operation. A 20-minute thoracotomy was performed ...

  14. Increased hepatic glycogen synthetase and decreased phosphorylase in trained rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galbo, H; Saugmann, P; Richter, Erik

    1979-01-01

    Rats were either physically trained by a 12 wk swimming program or were freely eating or weight matched, sedentary controls. Trained rats had a higher relative liver weight and total hepatic glycogen synthetase (EC 2.4.1.11) activity and a lower phosphorylase (EC 2.4.1.1) activity than the other...

  15. Agmatine ameliorates adjuvant induced arthritis and inflammatory cachexia in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taksande, Brijesh G; Gawande, Dinesh Y; Chopde, Chandrabhan T; Umekar, Milind J; Kotagale, Nandkishor R

    2017-02-01

    The present study investigated the pharmacological effect of agmatine in Complete Freud Adjuvant (CFA) induced arthritis and cachexia in rats. The rats were injected with CFA (0.1ml/rat) to induced symptoms of arthritis. Day 8 onwards of CFA administration, rats were injected daily with agmatine for next 7days, and arthritis score, body weights and food intake were monitored daily (g). Since cachexia is known to produce severe inflammation, malnutrition and inhibition of albumin gene expression, we have also monitored the total proteins, albumin, TNF-α and IL-6 levels in arthritic rats and its modulation by agmatine. In the present study, CFA treated rats showed a progressive reduction in both food intake and body weight. In addition analysis of blood serum of arthritis animals showed a significant reduction in proteins and albumin and significant elevation in tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and Interleukins (IL)-6. Chronic agmatine (20-40mg/kg, ip) treatment not only attenuated the signs of arthritis but also reverses anorexia and body weight loss in CFA treated rats. In addition, agmatine restored total protein and albumin and reduces TNF-α and IL-6 levels in arthritis rats. These results suggest that agmatine administration can prevent the body weights loss and symptoms of arthritis via inhibition of inflammatory cytokines. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of housing rats within a pyramid on stress parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Surekha; Rao, Guruprasad; Murthy, K Dilip; Bhat, P Gopalakrishna

    2003-11-01

    The Giza pyramids of Egypt have been the subject of much research. Pyramid models with the same base to height ratio as of the Great Pyramid of Giza, when aligned on a true north-south axis, are believed to generate, transform and transmit energy. Research done with such pyramid models has shown that they induced greater relaxation in human subjects, promoted better wound healing in rats and afforded protection against stress-induced neurodegnerative changes in mice. The present study was done to assess the effects of housing Wistar rats within the pyramid on the status of oxidative damage and antioxidant defense in their erythrocytes and cortisol levels in their plasma. Rats were housed in cages under standard laboratory conditions. Cages were left in the open (normal control), under a wooden pyramid model (experimental rats) or in a cubical box of comparable dimensions (6 hr/day for 14 days). Erythrocyte malondialdehyde and plasma cortisol levels were significantly decreased in rats kept within the pyramid as compared to the normal control and those within the square box. Erythrocyte reduced glutathione levels, erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activities were significantly increased in the rats kept in the pyramid as compared to the other two groups. There was no significant difference in any of the parameters between the normal control and rats kept in the square box. The results showed that exposure of adult female Wistar rats to pyramid environment reduces stress oxidative stress and increases antioxidant defense in them.

  17. Histological evaluation of the prefrontal cortex of infantile Wistar rats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Primiparous Wistar rats were mated, and pregnancy was confirmed. A daily dose of 0.03 mg/kg of nicotine was administered intra-peritoneally to each treated rat for five consecutive days during their first two weeks of gestation. The rate of development and maturation of brain cells was reduced, as well as a reduction in the ...

  18. Histological Studies Of The Pancreas Of Wistar Rats Following ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was to find the probable effect of Nicotiana tabacum (snuff) on the histological features of the pancreas of adult wistar rats. Nicotiana tabacum is a product of smokeless tobacco which contains many toxins and high levels of nicotine. Twenty male wistar rats weighing 200-210g were used for this study. The control ...

  19. Composition of Muscle Fiber Types in Rat Rotator Cuff Muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rui, Yongjun; Pan, Feng; Mi, Jingyi

    2016-10-01

    The rat is a suitable model to study human rotator cuff pathology owing to the similarities in morphological anatomy structure. However, few studies have reported the composition muscle fiber types of rotator cuff muscles in the rat. In this study, the myosin heavy chain (MyHC) isoforms were stained by immunofluorescence to show the muscle fiber types composition and distribution in rotator cuff muscles of the rat. It was found that rotator cuff muscles in the rat were of mixed fiber type composition. The majority of rotator cuff fibers labeled positively for MyHCII. Moreover, the rat rotator cuff muscles contained hybrid fibers. So, compared with human rotator cuff muscles composed partly of slow-twitch fibers, the majority of fast-twitch fibers in rat rotator cuff muscles should be considered when the rat model study focus on the pathological process of rotator cuff muscles after injury. Gaining greater insight into muscle fiber types in rotator cuff muscles of the rat may contribute to elucidate the mechanism of pathological change in rotator cuff muscles-related diseases. Anat Rec, 299:1397-1401, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Evaluation of selected parameters of rat liver and kidney function ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of administration of yohimbine, an aphrodisiac on some functional parameters of rat liver and kidney were investigated. White male albino rats weighing between 200-250g were grouped into two such that one group was orally administered with 14mg/kg body weight on daily basis for 15days while the control ...

  1. Effect of dental materials on gluconeogenesis in rat kidney tubules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reichl, F.X.; Durner, J.; Mückter, H.; Elsenhans, B.; Forth, W.; Kunzelmann, K.H.; Hickel, R.; Spahl, W.; Hume, W.R.; Moes, G.W.

    1999-01-01

    The effect of dental composite components triethyleneglycoldimethacrylate (TEGDMA) and hydroxyethylmethacrylate (HEMA) as well as mercuric chloride (HgCl2) and methylmercury chloride (MeHgCl) on gluconeogenesis was investigated in isolated rat kidney tubules. From starved rats kidney tubules were

  2. Aversion substance(s) of the rat coagulating glands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawienowski, Anthony M.; Berry, Iver J.; Kennelly, James J.

    1982-01-01

    The aversive substance(s) present in adult male urine were not found in castrate rat urine. Removal of the coagulating glands also resulted in a loss of the aversion compounds. The aversion substances were restored to the urine after androgen treatment of the castrate rats.

  3. Preganglionic innervation of the pancreas islet cells in the rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    LUITEN, PGM; TERHORST, GJ; KOOPMANS, SJ; RIETBERG, M; STEFFENS, AB

    1984-01-01

    The position and number of preganglionic somata innervating the insulin-secreting β-cells of the endocrine pancreas were investigated in Wistar rats. This question was approached by comparing the innervation of the pancreas of normal rats with the innervation of the pancreas in alloxan-induced

  4. Factors modulating social influence on spatial choice in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisbing, Teagan A; Saxon, Marie; Sayde, Justin M; Brown, Michael F

    2015-07-01

    Three experiments examined the conditions under which the spatial choices of rats searching for food are influenced by the choices made by other rats. Model rats learned a consistent set of baited locations in a 5 × 5 matrix of locations, some of which contained food. In Experiment 1, subject rats could determine the baited locations after choosing 1 location because all of the baited locations were on the same side of the matrix during each trial (the baited side varied over trials). Under these conditions, the social cues provided by the model rats had little or no effect on the choices made by the subject rats. The lack of social influence on choices occurred despite a simultaneous social influence on rats' location in the testing arena (Experiment 2). When the outcome of the subject rats' own choices provided no information about the positions of other baited locations, on the other hand, social cues strongly controlled spatial choices (Experiment 3). These results indicate that social information about the location of food influences spatial choices only when those cues provide valid information that is not redundant with the information provided by other cues. This suggests that social information is learned about, processed, and controls behavior via the same mechanisms as other kinds of stimuli. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. New acylated bradykinin analogues: effect on rat blood pressure and rat uterus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dawidowska, O.; Prahl, A.; Wierzba, T.; Nowakowski, L.; Kowalczyk, W.; Slaninová, Jiřina; Lammek, B.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 11, - (2005), s. 436-439 ISSN 1075-2617 Grant - others:SCSR(PL) 0160/T09/2004/26; SCSR(PL) DS8000-5-0023-4 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4055905 Keywords : bradykinin * B2 antagonists * rat blood pressure assay Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 1.803, year: 2005

  6. Differential expression of parvalbumin interneurons in neonatal phencyclidine treated rats and socially isolated rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaalund, Sanne Simone; Riise, Jesper; Broberg, Brian

    2013-01-01

    of parvalbumin-positive interneurons (PV(+) interneurons). In this study we examined PV(+) expression in two rat models of cognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia, the environmental social isolation (SI) and pharmacological neonatal phencyclidine (neoPCP) models. Using a stereological method, the optical...

  7. Chronic consumption of fructose rich soft drinks alters tissue lipids of rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Botezelli Jose D

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fructose-based diets are apparently related to the occurrence of several metabolic dysfunctions, but the effects of the consumption of high amounts of fructose on body tissues have not been well described. The aim of this study was to analyze the general characteristics and the lipid content of different tissues of rats after chronic ingestion of a fructose rich soft drink. Methods Forty-five Wistar rats were used. The rats were divided into three groups (n = 15 and allowed to consume water (C, light Coca Cola ® (L or regular Coca Cola® (R as the sole source of liquids for eight weeks. Results The R group presented significantly higher daily liquid intake and significantly lower food intake than the C and L groups. Moreover, relative to the C and L groups, the R group showed higher triglyceride concentrations in the serum and liver. However, the L group animals presented lower values of serum triglycerides and cholesterol than controls. Conclusions Based on the results, it can be concluded that daily ingestion of a large amount of fructose- rich soft drink resulted in unfavorable alterations to the lipid profile of the rats.

  8. Effects of glibenclamide on memory retention of passive avoidance learning in rats

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    MH. Esmaeili

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Glucose increases memory in rats, and inhibit memory impairments produced by morphine. One mechanism by which glucose might act on memory via regulating the ATP-sensitive potassium channel. Objective: The aim of present study was to investigate the effects of glibenclamide on memory retention of passive avoidance learning in rats. Methods: This experimental study has been conducted in Qazvin University of Medical Sciences (2016. Forty male Wistar rats were divided into: Control, DMSO and glibenclamide groups (n=8. All rats were trained in a passive avoidance task (50 Hz, 1 mA, 3 s. DMSO (0.2 ml or glibenclamide (1, 2, 5 mg/kg, i.p. were injected for 10 days before training. Retention test was done 48 h later. Memory retention of each animal was measured as latency takes to enter the dark chamber. Findings: The time spent in the light chamber area before entering to the dark area and total time spent in the light chamber in the glibenclamide groups were less than control group. These times in the glibenclamide (5 mg/kg group was significantly lower than control group (P<0.05, conversely total time spent in the dark chamber in the glibenclamide groups were higher than control group. Conclusion: Glibenclamide, as an ATP-sensitive potassium channel blocker, may reduce memory retention by increasing insulin levels and, consequently, reducing blood glucose levels.

  9. Palm Tocotrienol-Rich Fraction Improves Vascular Proatherosclerotic Changes in Hyperhomocysteinemic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ku-Zaifah Norsidah

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effects of palm tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF on aortic proatherosclerotic changes in rats fed with a high methionine diet. Forty-two male Wistar rats were divided into six groups. The first group was the control (fed with a basal diet. Another five groups were fed with 1% methionine diet for 10 weeks. From week 6 onward, folate (8 mg/kg diet or palm TRF (30, 60, and 150 mg/kg diets was added into the diet of the last four rat groups, respectively. The high methionine diet raised the plasma total homocysteine and aortic lipid peroxidation, which were reduced by the palm TRF and folate supplementations. Plasma nitric oxide was reduced in the high methionine group compared to the control (3.72±0.57 versus 6.65±0.53 μmol/L, P<0.05, which reduction was reversed by the palm TRF (60 and 150 mg/kg and folate supplementations. The increased aortic vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 expression in the methionine group (2.58±0.29 was significantly reduced by the folate (1.38±0.18 and palm TRF at 150 mg/kg (1.19±0.23. Palm TRF was comparable to folate in reducing high methionine diet-induced plasma hyperhomocysteinemia, aortic oxidative stress, and inflammatory changes in rats.

  10. The effect of recombinant growth hormone on intestinal anastomotic wound healing in rats with obstructive jaundice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cağlikülekçi, Mehmet; Ozçay, Necdet; Oruğ, Taner; Aydoğ, Gülden; Renda, Nurten; Atalay, Fuat

    2002-03-01

    Several clinical and experimental studies have shown that obstructive jaundice delays wound healing. Growth hormone may prevent delayed wound healing, since it has effects on the release of mediators in jaundice, as well as increasing the protein synthesis. Forty male Wistar rats were allocated to four groups: Group I (n=10): intestinal anastomosis to normal small bowel, Group II (n=10): intestinal anastomosis to normal small bowel followed by growth hormone therapy (2mg/kg/day, subcutaneously), Group III (n=10): intestinal anastomosis to obstructive jaundice rat's small bowel, Group IV (n=10): intestinal anastomosis to obstructive jaundice rat's small bowel followed by growth hormone therapy at the same dosage The animals were observed for seven days then killed. Intraabdominal adhesions, anastomotic complications and anastomotic bursting pressures were recorded and tissue samples from the anastomotic site were obtained to measure hydroxyproline levels and for histopathologic examination. Growth hormone had a beneficial effect on the healing of intestinal anastomosis in both jaundiced and non-jaundiced rats. This was demonstrated by clinical and mechanical parameters such as a significant increase in anastomotic bursting pressure, hydroxyproline content and histopathological scores. Growth hormone reverses the adverse effects of obstructive jaundice on small bowel anastomotic healing. It can be hypothesized that this effect is due to augmentation of insulin-like growth factors, protection of hepatocytes, enhancement of intestinal epithelization, and reversal of the resultant malnutritional state caused by growth hormone in obstructive jaundice.

  11. Does exercise deprivation increase the tendency towards morphine dependence in rats?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakhaee, Mohammad Reza; Sheibani, Vahid; Ghahraman Tabrizi, Kourosh; Marefati, Hamid; Bahreinifar, Sareh; Nakhaee, Nouzar

    2010-01-01

    Exercise deprivation has been concluded to have some negative effectson psychological well-being. This study was conducted to find outwhether exercise deprivation may lead to morphine dependence in rats. Forty male Wistar rats weighing 162 ± 9 g were housed in clear plasticcages in groups of two under standard laboratory conditions. The studyhad two phases. In phase I, the animals were randomly divided intoexercised (E) and unexercised (UE) groups (n = 20 each) and treadmillrunning was performed based on a standard protocol for three weeks. Atthe end of the training period, plasma β-endorphin levels weredetermined in four rats from each group. In phase II, the animals wereprovided with two bottles, one containing tap water and the other 25mg/l morphine sulfate in tap water for a total of 12 weeks. At the end ofthis phase naloxone was injected intraperitoneally to precipitatemorphine withdrawal. THERE WAS NO SIGNIFICANT DIFFERENCE BETWEEN UE AND E GROUPS INMORPHINE CONSUMPTION (MG/KG/WK) [ F(1,14) = 0.2, P = 0.690; time:F(11,154) =18.72, P exercise does not increasethe tendency of morphine dependence in rats.

  12. The Healing Effect of Sesame Oil, Camphor and Honey on Second Degree Burn Wounds in Rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaghardoost, Reza; Mousavi Majd, Seyed GholamReza; Tebyanian, Hamid; Babavalian, Hamid; Malaei, Leila; Niazi, Mitra; Javdani, Ali

    2018-01-01

    Many studies were carried out to improve sophisticated dressings to accelerate healing processes and reduce the microbial burden in burn wounds. This study evaluated the healing effect of herbal ointment containing extract of sesame oil, camphor and honey on second degree burn wounds in rats in comparison with daily dressing oil vaseline. Forty rats were randomly assigned to two equal groups. A deep second degree burn was formed on the back of each rat with using a standard burning technique. The burns were dressed daily with herbal ointment containing extract of sesame oil, camphor and honey in group 1, dressing oil vaseline in group 2. The response to treatment was evaluated by digital photography during the treatment on 0, 7, 14, 21, 28 days. Histological scoring was undertaken for scar tissue samples on 0, 7, 14, 21, 28 days. Considerable epithelization in the herbal ointment group vs. the control group over the study period was noted. Neovascularization was significantly higher in herbal ointment treated rats as well. In terms of difference of wound surface area, maximal healing was noticed in herbal ointment extract of sesame oil, camphor and honey group and the minimal repair in the control group. The greatest rate of healing was in the herbal ointment group containing sesame oil, camphor and honey, so the herbal ointment as a suitable substitute for dressing and healing of burn wound injuries is recommended.

  13. Protective Effect of Vitamin E Against Lead-induced Memory and Learning Impairment in Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salehi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Lead (Pb2+ is a neurotoxin substance that has been known for its adverse effects on central nervous system and memory. Previous studies reported the potential effect of vitamin E as a memory enhancer. Objectives The purpose of the present study was to assess the protective effects of vitamin E against Pb-induced amnesia. Materials and Methods Forty-eight male Wistar rats (200-250 g were divided equally into the saline, Pb, Pb + vitamin E, and vitamin E alone groups. To induce Pb toxicity, rats received water that contained 0.2% Pb instead of regular water for 1 month. Rats pretreated, treated or post treated with vitamin E (150 mg/kg for 2 months. Passive avoidance learning was assessed using Shuttle-Box after two months. Retention was tested 24 and 48 hours after training. Results The results showed that Pb caused impairment in acquisition and retrieval processes in passive avoidance learning. Vitamin E reversed learning and memory deficits in pre, post or co- exposure with Pb (P < 0.001. Conclusions According to the results of this study, administration of vitamin E to rats counteracts the negative effects of Pb on learning and memory. To more precisely extrapolate these findings to humans, future clinical studies are warranted.

  14. Comparison of topical sucralfate and silver sulfadiazine cream in second degree burns in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beheshti, Akram; Shafigh, Younes; Zangivand, Amir-Abdollah; Samiee-Rad, Fatemeh; Hassanzadeh, Gholamreza; Shafigh, Navid

    2013-01-01

    The most prevalent topical treatment for partial thickness burns is silver sulfadiazine 1% (SSD). Recent studies have shown that the healing of partial thickness burns is delayed with the use of SSD. One of the potential burn dressings is sucralfate. With this study the authors have aimed to analyze comparatively the effects of sucralfate and SSD on second degree burn wounds in rats. Forty-eight male rats were divided into three equal groups. A burn model was constituted on the back of all rats. The burned areas in the first, second and third groups were covered daily with sucralfate, SSD and cold cream (control), respectively. At the end of the 7th, 14th, 21st and 28th day, the rats were anesthetized and the burned skin tissue samples were collected for histopathological examination. At the end of the study, the epidermis and horny layer was completely formed in the SSD and sucralfate group; however the appendix of skin was just formed in the sucralfate group. Also the percentage of wound healing was calculated at 76%, 91% and 100% respectively in the control, silver sulfadiazine and sucralfate groups. Sucralfate is known to have multiple beneficial effects on wound healing. Using topical sucralfate accelerates the burn wound healing process in comparison with both the control and SSD groups and can be used as an adjunctive or alternative agent in the future.

  15. Effects of Paricalcitol and Aliskiren Combination Therapy on Experimental Diabetic Nephropathy Model in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zehra Eren

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of combination of aliskiren with paricalcitol on experimental diabetic nephropathy (DN model in rats. Methods: Forty male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into 5 groups of 8 rats each, namely the control (Group C, diabetes (Group D, aliskiren (Group A, paricalcitol (Group P, and aliskiren plus paricalcitol (Group A+P groups. Aliskiren was given by oral-gavage at a dose of 50 mg/kg/day once daily for 12 weeks. Paricalcitol was given by intraperitoneally at a dose of 0,4 µg/kg/three day of week for 12 weeks. Renal function parameters, oxidative stress biomarkers, mRNA expression of renin-angiotensin system parameters and kidney histology were determined. Results: Group A+P had lower mean albümin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR (p=0.004 as well as higher creatinine clearance (CCr (pConclusion: Our data seem to suggest a potential role of aliskiren plus paricalcitol acting synergystically for reducing the progression of diabetic nephropathy in an experimental rat model.

  16. Effect of Iranian Honey bee (Apis Mellifera Venom on Blood Glucose and Insulin in Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyedeh Mahbubeh Mousavi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes is an important disease. This disease is a metabolic disorder characterized by hyperglycemia resulting from perturbation in insulin secretion, insulin action or both. Honey bee venom contains a wide range of polypeptide agents. The principle components of bee venom are mellitin and phospholipase A2. These components increase insulin secretion from the β-cells of pancreas. This study was conducted to show the hypoglycemic effect of honey bee venom on alloxan induced diabetic male rats.Methods: Eighteen adult male rats weighting 200±20 g were placed into 3 randomly groups: control, alloxan monohy­drate-induced diabetic rat and treated group that received honey bee venom daily before their nutrition for four months. Forty eight hours after the last injection, blood was collected from their heart, serum was dissented and blood glucose, insulin, triglyceride and total cholesterol were determined.Results: Glucose serum, triglyceride and total cholesterol level in treated group in comparison with diabetic group was significantly decreased (P< 0.01. On the other hand, using bee venom causes increase in insulin serum in com­parison with diabetic group (P< 0.05.Conclusion: Honeybee venom (apitoxin can be used as therapeutic option to lower blood glucose and lipids in dia­betic rats.

  17. Effects of albumin/glutaraldehyde glue on healing of colonic anastomosis in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despoudi, Kalliopi; Mantzoros, Ioannis; Ioannidis, Orestis; Cheva, Aggeliki; Antoniou, Nikolaos; Konstantaras, Dimitrios; Symeonidis, Savvas; Pramateftakis, Manousos George; Kotidis, Efstathios; Angelopoulos, Stamatis; Tsalis, Konstantinos

    2017-01-01

    AIM To evaluate the effect of local surgical adhesive glue (albumin/glutaraldehyde-Bioglue) on the healing of colonic anastomoses in rats. METHODS Forty Albino-Wistar male rats were randomly divided into two groups, with two subgroups of ten animals each. In the control group, an end-to-end colonic anastomosis was performed after segmental resection. In the Bioglue group, the anastomosis was protected with extraluminar application of adhesive glue containing albumin and glutaraldehyde. Half of the rats were sacrificed on the fourth and the rest on the eighth postoperative day. Anastomoses were resected and macroscopically examined. Bursting pressures were calculated and histological features were graded. Other parameters of healing, such as hydroxyproline and collagenase concentrations, were evaluated. The experimental data were summarized and computed from the results of a one-way ANOVA. Fisher’s exact test was applied to compare percentages. RESULTS Bursting pressures, adhesion formation, inflammatory cell infiltration, and collagen deposition were significantly higher on the fourth postoperative day in the albumin/glutaraldehyde group than in the control group. Furthermore, albumin/glutaraldehyde significantly increased adhesion formation, inflammatory cell infiltration, neoangiogenesis, and collagen deposition on the eighth postoperative day. There was no difference in fibroblast activity or hydroxyproline and collagenase concentrations. CONCLUSION Albumin/glutaraldehyde, when applied on colonic anastomoses, promotes their healing in rats. Therefore, the application of protective local agents in colonic anastomoses leads to better outcomes. PMID:28883693

  18. Operant conditioning of rat navigation using electrical stimulation for directional cues and rewards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Maan-Gee; Jun, Gayoung; Choi, Hyo-Soon; Jang, Hwan Soo; Bae, Yong Chul; Suk, Kyoungho; Jang, Il-Sung; Choi, Byung-Ju

    2010-07-01

    Operant conditioning is often used to train a desired behavior in an animal. The contingency between a specific behavior and a reward is required for successful training. Here, we compared the effectiveness of two different mazes for training turning behaviors in response to directional cues in Sprague-Dawley rats. Forty-three rats were implanted with electrodes into the medial forebrain bundle and the left and right somatosensory cortices for reward and cues. Among them, thirteen rats discriminated between the left and right somatosensory stimulations to obtain rewards. They were trained to learn ipsilateral turning response to the stimulation of the left or right somatosensory cortex in either the T-maze (Group T) or the E| maze (Group W). Performance was measured by the navigation speed in the mazes. Performances of rats in Group T were enhanced faster than those in Group W. A significant correlation between performances during training and performance in final testing was observed in Group T starting with the fifth training session while such a correlation was not observed in Group W until the tenth training session. The training mazes did not however affect the performances in the final test. These results suggest that a simple maze is better than a complicated maze for training animals to learn directions and direct cortical stimulation can be used as a cue for direction training. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Watermelon consumption improves inflammation and antioxidant capacity in rats fed an atherogenic diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Mee Young; Hartig, Nicole; Kaufman, Katy; Hooshmand, Shirin; Figueroa, Arturo; Kern, Mark

    2015-03-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in the United States. Watermelon, rich in antioxidants and other bioactive components, may be a viable method to improve CVD risk factors through reduced oxidative stress. The purpose of the study was to determine the effects of watermelon powder consumption on lipid profiles, antioxidant capacity, and inflammation in dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-treated rats fed an atherogenic diet. We hypothesized that watermelon would increase antioxidant capacity and reduce blood lipids and inflammation through modulation of related gene expression. Forty male-weanling (21 days old) Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 4 groups (10 per group, total N = 40) in a 2 diets (control or 0.33% watermelon) × 2 treatments (with or without DSS) factorial design using an atherogenic diet. Watermelon-fed groups exhibited significantly lower serum triglycerides, total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (Pwatermelon-fed rats than the control (P= .001). In addition, oxidative stress as measured by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances was significantly lower in watermelon groups (P= .001). Total antioxidant capacity, superoxide dismutase, and catalase activities were greater in watermelon groups (Pwatermelon was consumed (Pwatermelon group without DSS (Pwatermelon improves risk factors for CVD in rats through better lipid profiles, lower inflammation, and greater antioxidant capacity by altering gene expression for lipid metabolism. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Efficacy of maslinic acid and fenbendazole on muscle larvae of Trichinella zimbabwensis in laboratory rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukaratirwa, S; Gcanga, L; Kamau, J

    2016-01-01

    Trichinellosis is a zoonotic disease caused by nematode species of the genus Trichinella. Anthelmintics targeting the intestinal adults and muscle-dwelling larvae of Trichinella spp. have been tested, with limited success. This study was aimed at determining the efficacy of maslinic acid and fenbendazole on muscle larvae of Trichinella zimbabwensis in laboratory rats. Forty-two Sprague-Dawley rats, with an average weight of 270 g and 180 g for males and females respectively, were infected with T. zimbabwensis larvae. Infected rats were randomly assigned to three groups which were subjected to single treatments with each of maslinic acid, fenbendazole and a combination of both on day 25 post-infection (pi), and three groups which were subjected to double treatments with each of these drugs and a combination on days 25 and 32 pi. The untreated control group received a placebo. In single-treatment groups, the efficacy of each treatment, measured by rate of reduction in muscle larvae, was significant (P0.05). We conclude that the efficacy of maslinic acid against larval stages of T. zimbabwensis in rats was comparable to that of fenbendazole, with no side-effects observed, making maslinic acid a promising anthelmintic against larval stages of Trichinella species.

  1. Establishment and application of rat model of acute β-irradiated skin injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Guoliang; Lu Xing'an; Tang Jun; Wang Xiuzhen; Wu Shiliang; Tian Ye

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To establish an experimental rat model of acute β-irradiated skin injury and to study the effects of superoxide dismutase (SOD) on wound healing. Methods: Areas of buttock skin (20 mm x 40 mm) of 40 male SD rats were irradiated with 45 Gy/β-rays generated by linear accelerator, and then the forty rats were divided into two groups randomly: treatment group administrated with SOD (n=20) and control group administrated with normal saline (NS) (n=20). The wound healing time and rate were observed. The pathological changes were observed by light microscopy. The expressions of VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor) and bFGF (basic fibroblast growth factor) were determined by SP immunohistochemical method. Results: The deep second-degree burns was observed following 45 Gy irradiation. The wound healing time in treatment group was shorter than that of the control group (P<0.05). Strongly positive (+ + +) expression of VEGF, bFGF in treatment group and positive (+ +) expression of VEGF, bFGF in the control group were observed 6 weeks, 7 weeks and 8 weeks after the irradiation, while only weakly positive (+) expressions of VEGF and bFGF in both groups 4 weeks, 5 weeks and 9 weeks after the irradiation. Conclusions: The wound model of acute β-irradiated skin injury in rat was established and used in study of the effect of medicine on wound healing. SOD can promote the wound healing of acute β-irradiated skin injury. (authors)

  2. Curcumin Alleviates Diabetic Retinopathy in Experimental Diabetic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fang; Yu, Jinqiang; Ke, Feng; Lan, Mei; Li, Dekun; Tan, Ke; Ling, Jiaojiao; Wang, Ying; Wu, Kaili; Li, Dai

    2018-03-29

    To investigate the potential protective effects of curcumin on the retina in diabetic rats. An experimental diabetic rat model was induced by a low dose of streptozotocin combined with a high-energy diet. Rats which had blood glucose levels ≥11.6 mmol/L were used as diabetic rats. The diabetic rats were randomly divided into 3 groups: diabetic rats with no treatment (DM), diabetic rats treated with 100 mg/kg curcumin (DM + Cur 100 mg/kg), and diabetic rats treated with 200 mg/kg curcumin (DM + Cur 200 mg/kg). Curcumin was orally administered daily for 16 weeks. After 16 weeks of administration, the rats were euthanized, and eyes were dissected. Retinal histology was examined, and the thickness of the retina was measured. Ultrastructural changes of retinal ganglion cells, inner layer cells, retinal capillary, and membranous disks were observed by electron microscopy. Malondialdehyde, superoxide dismutase, and total antioxidant capacity were measured by ELISA. Expression levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in retina tissues were examined by immunohistochemical staining and ELISA. Expression levels of Bax and Bcl-2 in retina tissues were determined by immunohistochemical staining and Western blotting. Curcumin reduced the blood glucose levels of diabetic rats and decreased diabetes-induced body weight loss. Curcumin prevented attenuation of the retina in diabetic rats and ameliorated diabetes-induced ultrastructure changes of the retina, including thinning of the retina, apoptosis of the retinal ganglion cells and inner nuclear layer cells, thickening of retinal capillary basement membrane and disturbance of photoreceptor cell membranous disks. We also found that curcumin has a strong antioxidative ability in the retina of diabetic rats. It was observed that curcumin attenuated the expression of VEGF in the retina of diabetic rats. We also discovered that curcumin had an antiapoptotic effect by upregulating the expression of Bcl-2 and downregulating

  3. Dynamic autoregulation and renal injury in Dahl rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsen, F M; Andersen, C B; Leyssac, P P

    1997-01-01

    of hypertension, a gradual impairment of autoregulatory control of renal blood flow might expose the glomerular circulation to periods of elevated pressure, resulting in renal injuries in Dahl S rats. Dynamic autoregulatory capacity was assessed in Dahl S and Dahl salt-resistant (Dahl R) rats, SHR, and Sprague......-Dawley rats by inducing broad-band fluctuations in the arterial blood pressure and simultaneously measuring renal blood flow. Dynamic autoregulation was estimated by the transfer function using blood pressure as the input and renal blood flow as the output. Renal morphological injuries were evaluated in Dahl......The Dahl salt-sensitive (Dahl S) rat develops hypertension and renal injuries when challenged with a high salt diet and has been considered to be a model of chronic renal failure. Renal injuries appear very early in life compared with the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR). During the course...

  4. Hypoxia and the initiation of erythropoietin production. [Rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schooley, J.C.; Mahlmann, L.J.

    1975-01-01

    The initiation of erythropoietin production in rats by hypoxia is dependent upon the magnitude of the hypoxic exposure, the position of the oxygen dissociation curve at the time of the hypoxic exposure, and the animal's endocrine status. Normal male rats produce more erythropoietin and elevate their intraerythrocytic 2,3-DPG levels more than female rats exposed to the same degree of hypoxia. Hypophysectomized rats produce erythropoietin following severe hypoxic exposure, but do not elevate their 2,3-DPG levels above control values. Respiratory acidosis in rats produced by breathing 10 percent CO/sub 2/ or by the injection of acetazolamide inhibits the initiation of erythropoietin production by hypoxic environments, but this inhibition is minimal in animals with metabolic acidosis produced by ureterligation. Changes in serum erythropoietin levels and the in vitro P/sub 50/ appear to be two separate but interrelated physiological events which occur during the adaptation of animals to hypoxic environments.

  5. The formation of rats' choroidal neovascularization induced by acrolein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guan-Feng Wang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To investigate the formation of rats' choroidal neovascularization(CNVinduced by acrolein. METHODS:Twelve Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups. Acrolein 200μL(2.5 mg/kg/dwas poured into the rats' stomach for 4wk as acrolein 4wk and for 8wk as acrolein 8wk group. The same volume of fresh water was also done to the rats as the control group. Remove all eye balls and embed into paraffin with HE staining.RESLUTS:The RPE-Bruch membrane was intact with no obvious abnormality in the control group and acrolein 4wk group. Lost in the continuity of RPE and the movement of choroidal neovascularization were found in the acrolein 8wk. CONCLUSION:The long time use of acrolein can induce the formation of choroial neovascularization in rats.

  6. Clonic Seizures in GAERS Rats after Oral Administration of Enrofloxacin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauquier, Sebastien H; Jiang, Jonathan L; Lai, Alan; Cook, Mark J

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of oral enrofloxacin on the epileptic status of Genetic Absence Epilepsy Rats from Strasbourg (GAERS). Five adult female GAERS rats, with implanted extradural electrodes for EEG monitoring, were declared free of clonic seizures after an 8-wk observation period. Enrofloxacin was then added to their drinking water (42.5 mg in 750 mL), and rats were observed for another 3 days. The number of spike-and-wave discharges and mean duration of a single discharge did not differ before and after treatment, but 2 of the 5 rats developed clonic seizures after treatment. Enrofloxacin should be used with caution in GAERS rats because it might induce clonic seizures. PMID:27298247

  7. Carbon tetrachloride treatment induces anorexia independently of hepatitis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, T; Okabe, S

    2000-08-01

    Oxidative stress is involved in the development of anorexia. In the present study, we examined the possible involvement of anorexia in oxygen radical-induced hepatitis. A low dose of carbon tetrachloride (1 ml/kg of a 1:1 solution with olive oil) was orally administered to rats with and without food restriction. In rats with food restriction, carbon tetrachloride treatment induced hepatitis and reduced the body weight gain. In contrast, carbon tetrachloride treatment did not induce hepatitis in rats without food restriction, but the body weight was decreased. In these rats, the loss of body weight was accompanied by a decrease in food intake. The present results indicate that the administration of a low dose of carbon tetrachloride to rats without food restriction induced anorexia independently of hepatitis.

  8. Soybean diet breast tumor incidence in irradiated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troll, W.; Wiesner, R.

    1980-01-01

    The relationship between feeding a diet rich in protease inhibitors and the reduction of mammary cancer induced by x-irradiation in Sprague-Dawley rats was examined. Of a total of 145 irradiated animals, 44% of the 45 rats fed a raw soybean diet containing a high concentration of protease inhibitor developed mammary tumors as compared to 74% of 50 rats fed a casein diet containing no protease inhibitor. Animals fed Purina rat chow which contained low levels of protease inhibitor exhibited a 70% mammary tumor incidence. No spontaneous neoplasms were found in any of the non-irradiated animals on the raw soybean diet whereas about 10% of the animals on the protease-free diet developed tumors. Thus, soybeans which are rich in protease inhibitors reduced the induction of mammary cancer in x-irradiated rats. This suggested that diets rich in protease inhibitors may contribute to reducing cancer incidence in man. (author)

  9. Thyroid and pancreatic hormones in lethally irradiated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahlersova, E.; Ahlers, I.; Praslicka, M.

    1985-01-01

    The concentrations of thyroxine, triiodothyronine and reverse triiodothyronine, glucagon and insulin in the serum or plasma were determined by radioimmunoassay in male rats of the Wistar strain 1, 6, 24, 48 and 72 hours after irradiation with 14.35 Gy (1500R) of X-rays. The irradiated and sham-irradiated rats were starved till examination. The concentrations of thyroxine and triiodothyronine dropped 6 hours after irradiation as compared with controls, the concentration of thyroxine also dropped after 72 hours. The level of reverse triiodothyronine in irradiated rats increased in the terminal period. The level of insulin dropped 24 hours after irradiation, at 72 hours it was higher than that in controls. The concentration of glucagon in irradiated rats increased in the terminal phase of radiation disease. The results document the diverse reaction of hormones in lethally irradiated rats and contribute to a deeper recognition of metabolic imbalance in the course of radiation disease. (author)

  10. The resting electrocardiogram of t. cruzi-infected rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinaldo B. Bestetti

    1987-08-01

    Full Text Available A total of 125 rats were infected with the Colômbia strain of T. cruzi (2000 parasites/g shortly after weaning. Of these, 58 survived the acute phase and were used in the present experiment. Twenty eight similar but not infected rats served as controls. All rats were submitted to the resting ECG When they were 6 months old. Classic and 3 precordial leads were employed in order to record the ECG as completely as possible. Electrocardiographic changes similar to those found in human chronic Chagas' heart disease and not previously described in this model were found in 44% of the T. cruzi-infected rats: left axis deviation (22%, right axis deviation (7%, lengthened and bizarre QRS complex (14% and abnormal J point elevation (3%. On the basis of these results, we believe that the resting ECG constitutes a valuable tool for studying experimental chronic Chagas' heart disease in rats.

  11. Parathyroid hormone dependent T cell proliferation in uremic rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lewin, E; Ladefoged, Jens; Brandi, L

    1993-01-01

    Chronic renal failure (CRF) is combined with an impairment of the immune system. The T cell may be a target for the action of parathyroid hormone (PTH). Rats with CRF have high blood levels of PTH. Therefore, the present investigation examined some aspects of the T cell function in both normal...... and CRF rats before and after parathyroidectomy and after an isogenic kidney transplantation. The T cell proliferative response to phytohemagglutinin (PHA) stimulation was significantly higher in peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) cultures obtained from CRF rats than from normal rats. After...... parathyroidectomy the T cells of normal as well as of uremic rats could still be significantly stimulated by PHA, but now no significant difference was seen. When CRF was reversed after an isogenic kidney transplantation and PTH reversed to levels in the normal range, the T cell proliferative response to PHA...

  12. Bioavailability of lead in rats fed human diets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostial, K.; Kello, D.

    1979-01-01

    The bioavailability of lead was studied in rats fed various baby foods (Babymix-turkey, Babymix-vegetables, Frutolino-fruit, Frutamix-bananas, Babyron-S-26, Truefood), cow's milk, bread, liver and standard rat diet. Lead absorption was determined by measuring the whole body retention of 203 Pb 6 days after a single oral application. Highest absorption values ranging from 17 to 20% were obtained in animals fed cow's milk and fruit foods. Rats on other human diets absorbed between 3 and 8% of the radioactive lead dose. Only in animals on rat diet lead absorption was below 1%. It is concluded that rats fed human diets show absorption values similar to those in humans. This might indicate that the bioavailability of lead is primarily dependent on dietary habits. This experimental model, if confirmed by further work, might be useful for obtaining preliminary data on the bioavailability of metals from various foods

  13. The development of radioimmunoassay kit for rat albumin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Zhigang; Han Shiquan; Liu Yibing; Xu Wenge

    2006-01-01

    The Anti-rat albumin serum is prepared by immunized the sheep with rat albumin. A radioimmunoassay method is established for rat albumin. The measurement range of the assay is 1-50 mg/L, sensitivity of the assay is 0.12 mg/L, recovery rate is 97.8%- 108.4%. Intra- and inter-assay variation coefficients are <4.0% and <8.2% respectively. The correlation coefficients between measured and expected values are more than 0.990 after serial dilution of the urine samples with high concentrations of rat albumin. The kit for rat albumin might provide a convenience in exploitation of renal drugs and experimental in- jury of the kidney. (authors)

  14. Intestinal absorption of calcium and magnesium in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erhart, J.

    1981-01-01

    Absorption of Ca and Mg was studied in isolated and perfused jejunum segments of rats using radioactive 45 Ca and 28 Mg. At ion concentrations of 1.5 and 10 mmol in the bath solution, the influence of uraemia, 1,25-(OH) 2 D 3 and the complementary ion was investigated. Absorption of Ca ++ was found to be slightly reduced by uraemia and renormalized by 1,25-(OH) 2 D 3 substitution. Transport of Ca ++ was significantly increased in the presence of Mg ++ , both in healthy rats and in animals with chronic uraemia. Mg ++ absorption, in contrast, was significantly reduced in rats with uraemia, and 1,25-(OH) 2 D 3 substitution was found to reduce it even further. In the presence of Ca ++ , transport of Mg ++ was lowered both in healthy rats and in rats with chronic uraemia. (MG) [de

  15. Histopathological effects of doxorubicin on pancreas in male albino rats

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    I.A. Ali

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the histopathological side effects of doxorubicin on pancreas tissue in male albino rats Rattus norvegicus. This study were used 55 adult rats (2.5-3.5 month of age. The rats divided into two groups, the first group include (35 rats. The second group were (20 rats. Microscopial examination of pancreas lesion demonstrated oedema around the acini, swelling of the epithelial cells of acini, occurance of cystic fibrosis (mucoviscidosis at the concentration of (4,5 mg/kg of body weight ,occurrence of small islets that form of few cells and exocrine-endocrine transformation. There were thickness in the walls of blood vessels, thrombus, congestion of blood vessels, we conclude, that doxorubicin had histopathological effect on pancreas in sub-acute doses more than chronic doses.

  16. Cerveau isolé and pretrigeminal rat preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zernicki, B; Gandolfo, G; Glin, L; Gottesmann, C

    1985-01-01

    Cortical and hippocampal EEG activity was analysed in cerveau isolé and and pretrigeminal rats. In the acute stage, waking EEG patterns were absent in the cerveau isolé, whereas sleep EGG patterns were absent in the preparations. However, already on the second day the EEG waking sleep cycle recovered in the majority of rats. Paradoxically, stimuli directed to the caudal part of the preparations evoked stronger cortical and hippocampal EEG arousal than olfactory and visual stimuli. The rats exhibited some locomotor and grooming behaviour and could be fed orally. It is concluded that the activity of the isolated cerebrum of the rat is similar to that of cat preparations, but that functions of the caudal neuraxis are superior in rats.

  17. Alveolar wound healing in rats fed on high sucrose diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baró, María A; Rocamundi, Marina R; Viotto, Javier O; Ferreyra, Ruth S

    2013-01-01

    The potential for bone repair is influenced by various biochemical, biomechanical, hormonal, and pathological mechanisms and factors such as diet and its components, all of which govern the behavior and function of the cells responsible for forming new bone. Several authors suggest that a high sucrose diet could change the calcium balance and bone composition in animals, altering hard tissue mineralization. The mechanism by which it occurs is unclear. Alveolar healing following tooth extraction has certain characteristics making this type of wound unique, in both animals and humans. The general aim of this study was to evaluate and quantify the biological response during alveolar healing following tooth extraction in rats fed on high sucrose diets, by means of osteocyte lacunae histomorphometry, counting empty lacunae and measuring areas of bone quiescence, formation and resorption. Forty-two Wistar rats of both sexes were divided into two groups: an experimental group fed on modified Stephan Harris diet (43% sucrose) and a control group fed on standard balanced diet. The animals were anesthetized and their left and right lower molars extracted. They were killed at 0 hours, 14, 28, 60 and 120 days. Samples were fixed, decalcified in EDTA and embedded in paraffin to prepare sections for optical microscopy which were stained with hematoxylin/eosin. Histomorphometric analysis showed significant differences in the size of osteocyte lacunae between groups at 28 and 60 days, with the experimental group having larger lacunae. There were more empty lacunae in the experimental group at 14 days, and no significant difference in the areas of bone activity. A high sucrose diet could modify the morphology and quality of bone tissue formed in the alveolus following tooth extraction.

  18. Hepatotoxicity and genotoxicity of gasoline fumes in albino rats

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    Folarin O. Owagboriaye

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Toxic effects of gasoline fumes have been reported, but evidence of its hepatotoxicity and genotoxicity are rare. Therefore, this study assesses hepatotoxicity and genotoxicity of gasoline fumes on forty Albino rats randomly assigned to five experimental treatments (T with eight rats per treatment (T1, T2, T3, T4 and T5. T1(Control was housed in a section of experimental animal house free from gasoline fumes while T2, T3, T4 and T5 were exposed to gasoline fumes in exposure chambers for one, three, five and nine hours daily respectively for twelve weeks. Serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alkaline phosphatase (ALP and histopathological examination of the liver tissues were used as diagnostic markers to assess liver dysfunction. Genotoxicity test was conducted on the lung tissues using randomly amplified polymorphic DNA fingerprinting polymerase chain reaction (RAPD PCR technique. Significant increase (p < 0.05 in the level of ALT, AST and ALP for T2, T3, T4 and T5 compared to T1 were recorded. Photomicrograph examination of the liver sections of T1 showed hepatic tissue with normal liver cell architecture while that of T2, T3, T4 and T5 revealed degenerative changes in the ultrastructural integrity of the hepatic cells. Genotoxicity test revealed DNA bands at a reducing intensity from T1 to T5. Dendrogram showed DNA damage in the lungs of T3, T4 and T5 were closely similar and the genotoxic impact was more in T3. Frequent exposure to gasoline fumes was observed to induce hepatoxicity and genotoxicity, hence impairing the normal liver function and gene structure.

  19. Cardiac Hypertrophy and Brain Natriuretic Peptide Levels in an Ovariectomized Rat Model Fed a High-Fat Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goncalves, Gleisy Kelly; de Oliveira, Thiago Henrique Caldeira; de Oliveira Belo, Najara

    2017-01-01

    Background Heart failure in women increases around the time of menopause when high-fat diets may result in obesity. The heart produces brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), also known as B-type natriuretic peptide. This aims of this study were to assess cardiac hypertrophy and BNP levels in ovariectomized rats fed a high-fat diet. Material/Methods Forty-eight female Wistar rats were divided into four groups: sham-operated rats fed a control diet (SC) (n=12); ovariectomized rats fed a control diet (OC) (n=12); sham-operated rats fed a high-fat diet (SF) (n=12); and ovariectomized rats fed a high-fat diet (OF) (n=12). Body weight and blood pressure were measured weekly for 24 weeks. Rats were then euthanized, and plasma samples and heart tissue were studied for gene expression, hydroxyproline levels, and histological examination. Results A high-fat diet and ovariectomy (group OF) increased the weight body and the systolic blood pressure after three months and five months, respectively. Cardiomyocyte hypertrophy was associated with increased expression of ventricular BNP, decreased natriuretic peptide receptor (NPR)-A and increased levels of hydroxyproline and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β. The plasma levels of BNP and estradiol were inversely correlated; expression of estrogen receptor (ER)β and ERα were reduced. Conclusions The findings of this study showed that, in the ovariectomized rats fed a high-fat diet, the BNP-NPR-A receptor complex was involved in cardiac remodeling. BNP may be a marker of cardiac hypertrophy in this animal model. PMID:29249795

  20. Identification of The First Limiting Amino Acid In Cooked Polished White Rice Fed To Weanling Holtzman Rats

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    Mellova Masrizal

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Forty-eight male weanling rats (91 g were utilized to study the nutritional adequacy of cooked polished white rice. Rats were individually housed, and allowed ad libitum access to one of six treatment diets. Treatment diets were 1 polished white rice plus 10% casein and 0.18% methionine, CAS, 2 polished white rice, WHR, 3 polished white rice plus 0.45% lysine, LYS, 4 polished white rice plus0.40% methionine, MET, 5 polished white rice plus 0.30% threonine, THR, 6 polished white rice plus 0.45% lysine, 0.40% methionine, and 0.40% threonine, COM. Rice was cooked prior diet formulation using a 3 to 1 ratio of water to rice. Vitamins (AIN-76 and AIN minerals were added to all diets to meet NRC (1978 requirements. Rats fed CAS diets were significantly heavier on d 21 (P<0.05 than rats on COM, LYS, MET, THR, or WHR diets, (219.9 vs. 171.6, 153.2, 153.2, 148.3, or 155.4 g respectively. Supplementation of the most deficient essential amino acids, lysine (LYS or methionine (MET did not improve (P>0.05 rat performance over WHR fed rats, Average daily gain (ADG for CAS was 6.1 g/d and ADG for LYS and MET was 3.0 g/d. The addition of threonine (THR significantly (P<0.05 reduced ADG when compared to WHR diets (2.7 vs. 3.0 g/d. When rats were fed to COM diet significant (P<0.05 improvement in ADG was observed compared to WHR fed rats (4.8 vs. 3.0 g/d. The increased gains achieved with COM diet and the poor gains observed with the single amino acid diets (LYS, MET, or THR would suggest that polished white rice is limiting in more than one essential amino acid.

  1. Telomere elongation protects heart and lung tissue cells from fatal damage in rats exposed to severe hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yaping; Zhao, Zhen; Zhu, Zhiyong; Li, Pingying; Li, Xiaolin; Xue, Xiaohong; Duo, Jie; Ma, Yingcai

    2018-02-17

    The effects of acute hypoxia at high altitude on the telomere length of the cells in the heart and lung tissues remain unclear. This study aimed to investigate the change in telomere length of rat heart and lung tissue cells in response to acute exposure to severe hypoxia and its role in hypoxia-induced damage to heart and lung tissues. Forty male Wistar rats (6-week old) were randomized into control group (n = 10) and hypoxia group (n = 30). Rats in control group were kept at an altitude of 1500 m, while rats in hypoxia group were exposed to simulated hypoxia with an altitude of 5000 m in a low-pressure oxygen chamber for 1, 3, and 7 days (n = 10). The left ventricular and right middle lobe tissues of each rat were collected for measurement of telomere length and reactive oxygen species (ROS) content, and the mRNA and protein levels of telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT), hypoxia-inducible factor1α (HIF-1α), and hypoxia-inducible factor1α (HIF-2α). Increased exposure to hypoxia damaged rat heart and lung tissue cells and increased ROS production and telomere length. The mRNA and protein levels of TERT and HIF-1α were significantly higher in rats exposed to hypoxia and increased with prolonged exposure; mRNA and protein levels of HIF-2α increased only in rats exposed to hypoxia for 7 days. TERT was positively correlated with telomere length and the levels of HIF-1α but not HIF-2α. Acute exposure to severe hypoxia causes damage to heart and lung tissues due to the production of ROS but promotes telomere length and adaptive response by upregulating TERT and HIF-1α, which protect heart and lung tissue cells from fatal damage.

  2. Locomotor damage in rats after x-irradiation in Utero

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mullenix, P.; Norton, S.; Culver, B.

    1975-01-01

    Alterations in gait were found in rats after whole-body irradiation with 125 R on day 14, 15, and 16 of gestation. No effects on locomotion were detected after irradiation on day 17 with 125 R or after irradiation on day 14 with 50 R. A technique was set up for quantitative evaluation of locomotion based on a modification of other methods. Walking patterns of irradiated rats were recorded, when they were adults, by requiring them to walk up a 10 0 incline through a corridor after their feet had been dipped in ink. Rats irradiated on gestational day 14 had an in-phase, hopping gait with the sine of the angle between the hind feet and the direction of progression over 0.9. Rats irradiated on gestational days 15 and 16 had an alternating, waddling gait with wider stance and broader angle than control rats. Histologic examination of serial sections of the brains of these rats showed that the 14-day rats lacked all telencephalic commissures except for a few fibers which crossed in some rats. There was a progressive improvement in the condition of the anterior and ventral hippocampal commissures up to day 17, but the corpus callosum and doral hippocampal commissure were lacking or markedly reduced in all day 17 rats. No animals showed damage to the mesencephalic posterior commissure. Since rats which used the in-phase mode of locomotion were never observed to use alternating gait, the possible causal relationship of the commissural damage to the altered locomotor patterns was considered. In view of the restricted period of damage found for the anterior and ventral hippocampal commissures and the restriction of altered locomotion to damage in the same period, primary involvement of the corpus callosum and dorsal hippocampal commissure could be excluded, but a possible role for the other telencephalic commissures remained

  3. Lemon juice has protective activity in a rat urolithiasis model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oussama Abdelkhalek

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of herbal medicines (medicinal plants or phytotherapy has recently gained popularity in Europe and the United States. Nevertheless the exact mechanism of the preventive effects of these products is still far to be clearly established, being its knowledge necessary to successfully apply these therapies to avoid stone formation. Methods The effect of oral lemon juice administration on calcium oxalate urolithiasis was studied in male Wistar rats. Rats were rendered nephrolithic by providing drinking water containing 0.75% ethylene glycol [v/v] (EG and 2% ammonium chloride [w/v] (AC for 10 days. In addition to EG/AC treatment, three groups of rats were also gavage-administered solutions containing 100%, 75% or 50% lemon juice [v/v] (6 μl solution/g body weight. Positive control rats were treated with EG/AC but not lemon juice. Negative control rats were provided with normal drinking water, and were administered normal water by gavage. Each group contained 6 rats. After 10 days, serum samples were collected for analysis, the left kidney was removed and assessed for calcium levels using flame spectroscopy, and the right kidney was sectioned for histopathological analysis using light microscopy. Results Analysis showed that the rats treated with EG/AC alone had higher amounts of calcium in the kidneys compared to negative control rats. This EG/AC-induced increase in kidney calcium levels was inhibited by the administration of lemon juice. Histology showed that rats treated with EG/AC alone had large deposits of calcium oxalate crystals in all parts of the kidney, and that such deposits were not present in rats also treated with either 100% or 75% lemon juice. Conclusion These data suggest that lemon juice has a protective activity against urolithiasis.

  4. Microarray analysis of thioacetamide-treated type 1 diabetic rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devi, Sachin S.; Mehendale, Harihara M.

    2006-01-01

    It is well known that diabetes imparts high sensitivity to numerous hepatotoxicants. Previously, we have shown that a normally non-lethal dose of thioacetamide (TA, 300 mg/kg) causes 90% mortality in type 1 diabetic (DB) rats due to inhibited tissue repair allowing progression of liver injury. On the other hand, DB rats exposed to 30 mg TA/kg exhibit delayed tissue repair and delayed recovery from injury. The objective of this study was to investigate the mechanism of impaired tissue repair and progression of liver injury in TA-treated DB rats by using cDNA microarray. Gene expression pattern was examined at 0, 6, and 12 h after TA challenge, and selected mechanistic leads from microarray experiments were confirmed by real-time RT-PCR and further investigated at protein level over the time course of 0 to 36 h after TA treatment. Diabetic condition itself increased gene expression of proteases and decreased gene expression of protease inhibitors. Administration of 300 mg TA/kg to DB rats further elevated gene expression of proteases and suppressed gene expression of protease inhibitors, explaining progression of liver injury in DB rats after TA treatment. Inhibited expression of genes involved in cell division cycle (cyclin D1, IGFBP-1, ras, E2F) was observed after exposure of DB rats to 300 mg TA/kg, explaining inhibited tissue repair in these rats. On the other hand, DB rats receiving 30 mg TA/kg exhibit delayed expression of genes involved in cell division cycle, explaining delayed tissue repair in these rats. In conclusion, impaired cyclin D1 signaling along with increased proteases and decreased protease inhibitors may explain impaired tissue repair that leads to progression of liver injury initiated by TA in DB rats

  5. Olive Oil effectively mitigates ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleh Hanan A

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Osteoporosis, a reduction in bone mineral density, represents the most common metabolic bone disease. Postmenopausal women are particularly susceptible to osteoporosis when their production of estrogen declines. For these women, fracture is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. This study was conducted to evaluate the protective effects of olive oil supplementation against osteoporosis in ovariectomized (OVX rats. Methods We studied adult female Wistar rats aged 12-14 months, divided into three groups: sham-operated control (SHAM, ovariectomized (OVX, and ovariectomized rats supplemented with extravirgin olive oil (Olive-OVX orally for 12 weeks; 4 weeks before ovariectomy and 8 weeks after. At the end of the experiment, blood samples were collected. Plasma levels of calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, malondialdehyde (MDA, and nitrates were assayed. Specimens from both the tibia and the liver were processed for light microscopic examination. Histomorphometric analysis of the tibia was also performed. Results The OVX-rats showed a significant decrease in plasma calcium levels, and a significant increase in plasma ALP, MDA, and nitrates levels. These changes were attenuated by olive oil supplementation in the Olive-OVX rats. Light microscopic examination of the tibia of the OVX rats revealed a significant decrease in the cortical bone thickness (CBT and the trabecular bone thickness (TBT. In addition, there was a significant increase in the osteoclast number denoting bone resorption. In the Olive-OVX rats these parameters were markedly improved as compared to the OVX group. Examination of the liver specimens revealed mononuclear cellular infiltration in the portal areas in the OVX-rats which was not detected in the Olive-OVX rats. Conclusions Olive oil effectively mitigated ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis in rats, and is a promising candidate for the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis.

  6. Course of Schistosoma mansoni infection in thymectomized rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cioli, D.; Dennert, G.

    1976-01-01

    Inbred rats were thymectomized, irradiated, and reconstituted with T cell-free bone marrow cells. Thymectomized-reconstituted (B rats) and control rats were infected with Schistosoma mansoni cercariae and the number of worms recovered was determined at various times after infection. The extent of immunosuppression was assessed by two criteria: response to an injection of sheep erythrocytes; response to schistosome antigens. Humoral responses to worm antigens were completely suppressed in almost all instances and anti-sheep erythrocytes responses showed a more variable but always very definite depression in B rats. The number of worms in B rats was about 4 times higher than in control animals at 5 weeks and about 3 times higher at 6 weeks. In a different experiment, rats were perfused at 4, 6, and 9 weeks after infection and the number of worms was found to be consistently higher in B rats, by a factor of about 2 at 4 weeks to a factor of about 4 or 6 at subsequent times. Although B rats had more worms than controls even at 9 weeks, a slow drop in their worm burden was noticeable with time in both experiments. Moreover, the size of worms in B rats was smaller than in controls and even 9-week-old worms failed to develop to normal size and appearance and could not be shown to produce fertile eggs. These experiments show a definite involvement of the immune system in the ''self-cure'' phenomenon, but may at the same time suggest that other non-immune mechanisms are involved in determining the pattern of S. mansoni infection in the rat

  7. Impaired myogenic tone in mesenteric arteries from overweight rats

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    Sweazea Karen L

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rats fed high fat (HFD or high sucrose (HSD diets develop increased adiposity as well as impaired vasodilatory responsiveness stemming from oxidative stress. Moreover, HFD rats become hypertensive compared to either control (Chow or HSD fed rats, suggesting elevated vascular tone. We hypothesized that rats with increased adiposity and oxidative stress demonstrate augmented pressure-induced vasoconstriction (i.e. myogenic tone that could account for the hypertensive state. Methods Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed Chow, HFD or HSD for 6 weeks. The effects of oxidative stress and endogenous nitric oxide on myogenic responses were examined in small mesenteric arteries by exposing the arteries to incremental intraluminal pressure steps in the presence of antioxidants or an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase, LNNA (100 μM. Results Contrary to the hypothesis, rats fed either HSD or HFD had significantly impaired myogenic responses despite similar vascular morphology and passive diameter responses to increasing pressures. Vascular smooth muscle (VSM calcium levels were normal in HFD arteries suggesting that diminished calcium sensitivity was responsible for the impaired myogenic response. In contrast, VSM calcium levels were reduced in HSD arteries but were increased with pre-exposure of arteries to the antioxidants tiron (10 mM and catalase (1200 U/mL, also resulting in enhanced myogenic tone. These findings show that oxidative stress impairs myogenic tone in arteries from HSD rats by decreasing VSM calcium. Similarly, VSM calcium responses were increased in arteries from HFD rats following treatment with tiron and catalase, but this did not result in improved myogenic tone. Nitric oxide is involved in the impaired myogenic response in HFD, but not HSD, rats since inhibition with LNNA resulted in maximal myogenic responses at lower intraluminal pressures and VSM calcium levels, further implicating reduced calcium sensitivity in

  8. Speed and accuracy of visual image discrimination by rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela eReinagel

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The trade-off between speed and accuracy of sensory discrimination has most often been studying using sensory stimuli that evolve over time, such as random dot motion discrimination tasks. We previously reported that when rats perform motion discrimination, correct trials have longer reaction times than errors, accuracy increases with reaction time, and reaction time increases with stimulus ambiguity. In such experiments, new sensory information is continually presented, which could partly explain interactions between reaction time and accuracy. The present study shows that a changing physical stimulus is not essential to those findings. Freely behaving rats were trained to discriminate between two static visual images in a self-paced, 2-alternative forced-choice (2AFC reaction time task. Each trial was initiated by the rat, and the two images were presented simultaneously and persisted until the rat responded, with no time limit. Reaction times were longer in correct trials than in error trials, and accuracy increased with reaction time, comparable to results previously reported for rats performing motion discrimination. In the motion task, coherence has been used to vary discrimination difficulty. Here morphs between the previously learned images were used to parametrically vary the image similarity. In randomly interleaved trials, rats took more time on average to respond in trials in which they had to discriminate more similar stimuli. For both the motion and image tasks, the dependence of reaction time on ambiguity is weak, as if rats prioritized speed over accuracy. Therefore we asked whether rats can change the priority of speed and accuracy adaptively in response to a change in reward contingencies. For two rats, the penalty delay was increased from two to six seconds. When the penalty was longer, reaction times increased, and accuracy improved. This demonstrates that rats can flexibly adjust their behavioral strategy in response to the

  9. Rats and mice immunised with chimeric human/mouse proteinase 3 produce autoantibodies to mouse Pr3 and rat granulocytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Geld, Ymke M.; Hellmark, Thomas; Selga, Daina; Heeringa, Peter; Huitema, Minke G.; Limburg, Pieter C.; Kallenberg, Cees G. M.

    2007-01-01

    Aim: In this study, we employed chimeric human/ mouse Proteinase 3 ( PR3) proteins as tools to induce an autoantibody response to PR3 in rats and mice. Method: Rats and mice were immunised with recombinant human PR3 ( HPR3), recombinant murine PR3 ( mPR3), single chimeric human/ mouse PR3 ( HHm,

  10. TGF-mediated oscillations in the proximal intratubular pressure: differences between spontaneously hypertensive rats and Wistar-Kyoto rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holstein-Rathlou, N H; Leyssac, P P

    1986-01-01

    fluid (ATF). When furosemide was added to the ATF in a concentration of 0.1 mM, the oscillations were abolished in both strains of rats. It is concluded that, in both strains of rats the oscillatory phenomena depend upon TGF activity. It is suggested that the irregular pattern of the oscillations...

  11. Disposition of oxymetholone in F344 rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanders, J.M.; Matthews, H.B.

    1991-01-01

    The use of oxymetholone (OXM), a synthetic anabolic steroid structurally related to testosterone, has reportedly resulted in incidences of hepatic toxicity, including tumor formation. In order to characterize further the biological fate of this suspected carcinogen, the present study has investigated the disposition of OXM in F344 rats. Concentrations of OXM-derived radioactivity peaked in blood within 4 hr following oral administration of 5 mg 14 C OXM/kg to male rats, indicating rapid absorption from the GI tract. Liver contained 2-4 times the concentration of OXM-derived radioactivity in blood 4-8 hr after gavage. Within 24 hr, 15 ± 1% of total dose was excreted in urine and 61 ± 6% was excreted in feces. By 72 hr, 17 ± 1% and 80% ± 1% of the total dose had been excreted in urine and feces, respectively. Increasing the dose to 50 mg/kg did not alter the rate or route of 14 C excretion. Fecal elimination of 14 C appeared to be the result of biliary excretion of 14 C appeared to be the result of biliary excretion of OXM-derived radioactivity since approximately 35% of an iv dose of 5 mg/kg was excreted in bile over 7 hr. IV administration resulted in a 6-8 fold increase in blood concentrations of OXM-derived radioactivity 24 hr post-dosing, versus rats gavaged with a similar dose. The major portion of 14 C present in blood appeared to be bound to constituents of plasma. Consecutive daily doses of 50 mg/kg administered by gavage resulted in a 5 fold increase in blood concentrations of OXM equivalents/ml within 7 days, with no increase thereafter. Data developed in this study indicate that upon absorption of OXM from the gut, OXM-derived radioactivity, with an estimated biological half-life of 12-24 hr., sequesters in blood and is eliminated primarily in feces

  12. DDT increases hepatic testosterone metabolism in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sierra-Santoyo, Adolfo; Albores, Arnulfo; Cebrian, Mariano E. [Cinvestav-IPN, Seccion de Toxicologia, Mexico (Mexico); Hernandez, Manuel [Cinvestav-IPN, Departamento de Biologia Celular (Mexico)

    2005-01-01

    DDT and its metabolites are considered as endocrine disruptors able to promote hormone-dependent pathologies. We studied the effects of technical-grade DDT on hepatic testosterone metabolism and testosterone hydroxylase activity ratios in the rat. Male and female Wistar rats were treated by gavage with a single dose of technical-grade DDT (0, 0.1, 1, 10, and 100 mg/kg body weight) and killed 24 h later. Hepatic microsomes were incubated with [4-{sup 14}C]-testosterone and the metabolites were separated by thin-layer chromatography and quantified by radio scanning. DDT increased testosterone biotransformation and modified the profile of metabolites produced in a sex-dependent manner. Males treated with a representative dose (10 mg/kg) produced relatively less androstenedione (AD), 2{alpha}-hydroxytestosterone (OHT), and 16{alpha}-OHT but higher 6{beta}-OHT whereas treated females produced less 7{alpha}-OHT and AD but higher 6{beta}-OHT and 6{alpha}-OHT than their respective controls. In both sexes DDT decreased the relative proportion of AD and increased that of 6{beta}-OHT suggesting that the androgen-saving pathway was affected. The testosterone 6{alpha}-/15{alpha}-OHT ratio, a proposed indicator of demasculinization, was increased in treated males. This effect was in agreement with the demasculinizing ability proposed for DDT. The effects on 6{alpha}-/16{alpha}-OHT and 6-dehydrotestosterone/16{alpha}-OHT ratios followed a similar tendency, with the ratio 6{alpha}-/16{alpha}-OHT being the most sensitive marker. Interestingly, these ratios were reduced in treated females suggesting that technical-grade DDT shifted testosterone hydroxylations toward a more masculine pattern. Thus, technical-grade DDT altered the hepatic sexual dimorphism in testosterone metabolism and decreased the metabolic differences between male and female rats. (orig.)

  13. Regorafenib suppresses sinusoidal obstruction syndrome in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuno, Masayuki; Hatano, Etsuro; Nakamura, Kojiro; Miyagawa-Hayashino, Aya; Kasai, Yosuke; Nishio, Takahiro; Seo, Satoru; Taura, Kojiro; Uemoto, Shinji

    2015-02-01

    Sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (SOS), a form of drug-induced liver injury related to oxaliplatin treatment, is associated with postoperative morbidity after hepatectomy. This study aimed to examine the impact of regorafenib, the first small-molecule kinase inhibitor to show efficacy against metastatic colorectal cancer, on a rat model of SOS. Rats with monocrotaline (MCT)-induced SOS were divided into two groups according to treatment with either regorafenib (6 mg/kg) or vehicle alone, which were administered at 12 and 36 h, respectively, before MCT administration. Histopathologic examination and serum biochemistry tests were performed 48 h after MCT administration. Sinusoidal endothelial cells were evaluated by immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy. To examine whether regorafenib preserved remnant liver function, a 30% hepatectomy was performed in each group. The rats in the vehicle group displayed typical SOS features, whereas these features were suppressed in the regorafenib group. The total SOS scores were significantly lower in the regorafenib group than in the vehicle group. Immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy showed that regorafenib had a protective effect on sinusoidal endothelial cells. The postoperative survival rate after 7 d was significantly better in the regorafenib group than that in the vehicle group (26.7% versus 6.7%, P Regorafenib reduced the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase, which induced matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) activation and decreased the activity of MMP-9, one of the crucial mediators of SOS development. Regorafenib suppressed MCT-induced SOS, concomitant with attenuating extracellular signal-regulated kinase phosphorylation, and MMP-9 activation, suggesting that regorafenib may be a favorable agent for use in combination with oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Retroendocytosis of insulin in rat adipocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levy, J.R.; Olefsky, J.M.

    1986-01-01

    A variety of ligands internalized by receptor-mediated endocytosis follow a short circuit pathway that does not lead to degradation but results in rapid exocytosis of intact ligand, a process termed retroendocytosis. We studied the time course of [ 125 I]iodoinsulin processing and retroendocytosis after internalization in isolated rat adipocytes. After steady state binding and internalization, surface receptor-bound insulin was removed by exposing cells to a low pH at low temperatures. The cells containing internalized [ 125 I]iodoinsulin were reincubated in fresh medium; subsequently, the radioactivity remaining within the cells and released into the medium were analyzed at various times by trichloroacetic acid (TCA) precipitation, Sephadex G-50 gel filtration, and reverse phase HPLC. Cell-associated radioactivity progressively decreased after reincubation in 37 C buffer, with 50% released in 9 min and 85% by 45 min. In the media, TCA-precipitable material appeared quickly, with a t1/2 of 2 min, and plateaued by 10 min. TCA-soluble material was released continually throughout the 45-min period. The release of both TCA-precipitable and TCA-soluble material was temperature and energy dependent. Sephadex G-50 chromatography demonstrated the loss of insulin from the intracellular pool and its appearance in the medium with a time course similar to that of TCA-precipitable material. Reverse phase HPLC demonstrated that the intracellular and medium radioactivity eluting in peak II (insulin peak) on Sephadex G-50 was composed of both intact insulin and intermediates. After the internalization of insulin, rat adipocytes release not only small mol wt degradation products of insulin, but also insulin intermediates and intact insulin. The rate of retroendocytosis reported here is almost identical to the rate of insulin receptor recycling in rat adipocytes

  15. Fate of inhaled azodicarbonamide in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mewhinney, J.A.; Ayres, P.H.; Bechtold, W.E.; Dutcher, J.S.; Cheng, Y.S.; Bond, J.A.; Medinsky, M.A.; Henderson, R.F.; Birnbaum, L.S.

    1987-01-01

    Azodicarbonamide (ADA) is widely used as a blowing agent in the manufacture of expanded foam plastics, as an aging and bleaching agent in flour, and as a bread dough conditioner. Human exposures have been reported during manufacture as well as during use. Groups of male F344/N rats were administered ADA by gavage, by intratracheal instillation, and by inhalation exposure to determine the disposition and modes of excretion of ADA and its metabolites. At 72 hr following gavage, 30% of the administered ADA was absorbed whereas following intratracheal instillation, absorption was 90%. Comparison between groups of rats exposed by inhalation to ADA to achieve body burdens of 24 or 1230 micrograms showed no significant differences in modes or rates of excretion of [ 14 C]ADA equivalents. ADA was readily converted to biurea under physiological conditions and biurea was the only 14 C-labeled compound present in excreta. [ 14 C]ADA equivalents were present in all examined tissues immediately after inhalation exposure, and clearance half-times on the order of 1 day were evident for all tissues investigated. Storage depots for [ 14 C]ADA equivalents were not observed. The rate of buildup of [ 14 C]ADA equivalents in blood was linearly related to the lung content as measured from rats withdrawn at selected times during a 6-hr inhalation exposure at an aerosol concentration of 25 micrograms ADA/liter. In a study extending 102 days after exposure, retention of [ 14 C]ADA equivalents in tissues was described by a two-component negative exponential function. The results from this study indicate that upon inhalation, ADA is rapidly converted to biurea and that biurea is then eliminated rapidly from all tissues with the majority of the elimination via the urine

  16. Black ginseng extract ameliorates hypercholesterolemia in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saba, Evelyn; Jeon, Bo Ra; Jeong, Da-Hye; Lee, Kija; Goo, Youn-Kyoung; Kim, Seung-Hyung; Sung, Chang-Keun; Roh, Seong-Soo; Kim, Sung Dae; Kim, Hyun-Kyoung; Rhee, Man-Hee

    2016-04-01

    Ginseng (Panax ginseng Meyer) is a well-characterized medicinal herb listed in the classic oriental herbal dictionary as "Shin-nong-bon-cho-kyung." Ginseng has diverse pharmacologic and therapeutic properties. Black ginseng (BG, Ginseng Radix nigra) is produced by repeatedly steaming fresh ginseng nine times. Studies of BG have shown that prolonged heat treatment enhances the antioxidant activity with increased radical scavenging activity. Several recent studies have showed the effects of BG on increased lipid profiles in mice. In this study report the effects of water and ethanol extracts of BG on hypercholesterolemia in rats. To our knowledge, this is the first time such an effect has been reported. Experiments were conducted on male Sprague Dawley rats fed with a high-cholesterol diet supplemented with the water and ethanol extracts of BG (200 mg/kg). Their blood cholesterol levels, serum white blood cell levels, and cholesterol-metabolizing marker genes messenger RNA (mRNA) expression were determined. Liver and adipose tissues were histologically analyzed. We found that BG extracts efficiently reduced the total serum cholesterol levels, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) levels with increased food efficiency ratio and increased number of neutrophil cells. It also attenuated the key genes responsible for lipogenesis, that is, acetyl-coenzyme A (CoA) acetyltransferase 2, 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase, and sterol regulatory element-binding protein 2, at the mRNA level inside liver cells. Furthermore, the BG extract also reduced the accumulation of fat in adipose tissues, and inhibited the neutral fat content in liver cells stained with hematoxylin and eosin and oil red O. Administration of BG extracts to Sprague Dawley rats fed with high-cholesterol diet ameliorated hypercholesterolemia, which was mediated via modulation of cholesterol-metabolizing marker genes. This data throw a light on BG's cardioprotective effects.

  17. Effect of honey consumption on intestinal motility in male albino rats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Summary: This study investigated the effects of honey on intestinal motility and transit using twenty (20) male albino rats of Wistar strain weighing 210-220g. The rats were randomly grouped into control and honey-fed (test) groups of ten (10) rats each. The control group was fed on normal rat chow ( Pfizer Company, Nigeria ) ...

  18. Disposition of 14C-erythritol in germfree and conventional rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ommen, B. van; Bie, B. de; Bar, A.

    1996-01-01

    The metabolism and disposition of U-14C-erythritol was examined in four groups of three male and three female, nonfasted rats each. The rats of groups A and D were germfree; the rats of groups B and C were kept under conventional conditions. The rats of group B received an erythritol-supplemented

  19. Conditions and limits of serum LH radioimmunoassay in normal, hypophysectomised or castred rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andre, M.; Boucher, D.; Thieblot, L.

    1976-01-01

    Serum LH was measured by radioimmunoassay (NIAMD Kits) free and linked hormones were separated by double antibodies method. Influence of concentration on antibody-hormone complex is studied. Hypophysectomised rats serum does not modify results. The standard (rat LH-RPl) has the same action as serum LH. Rat serum LH contents are measured in normal or castred rats [fr

  20. Heart resistance to oxidative stress in rats of different genetic strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belkina, L M; Lakomkin, V L; Zhukova, A G; Kirillina, T N; Saltykova, V A; Sazontova, T G; Kapel'ko, V I

    2004-09-01

    In August rats reperfusion after regional myocardial ischemia in situ or intracoronary administration of hydrogen peroxide less significantly suppressed contractile activity of the heart compared to Wistar rats. Activities of catalase and superoxide dismutase in the myocardium during reperfusion remained unchanged in August rats. In Wistar rats a profound inhibition of cardiac function was accompanied by a decrease in enzyme activity.

  1. Gluconeogenesis in rat placenta during foetal development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagewadikar, R.S.; Sharma, C.; Nadkarni, G.B.

    1977-01-01

    Variations in glycogen levels in rat placenta have been correlated with gluconeogenesis in this tissue. Placental homogenate could synthesize substantial amounts of glucose from L-alanine-U- 14 C in early pregnancy. This has been substantiated by the observed enhancement in the activities of glucose 6-phosphatase, fructose 1, 6-diphosphatase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase. Gluconeogenic activity in placenta could proceed till the foetal liver was able to take over this function. The increase or decrease in placental glycogen is concomitant with glycogen synthetase, but not phosphorylase, activity. The reversible catalytic properties of placental aldolase also show subtle functional changes during and late phases of gestation. (author)

  2. Gluconeogenesis in rat placenta during foetal development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagewadikar, R S; Sharma, C; Nadkarni, G B [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India). Biochemistry and Food Technology Div.

    1977-01-01

    Variations in glycogen levels in rat placenta have been correlated with gluconeogenesis in this tissue. Placental homogenate could synthesize substantial amounts of glucose from L-alanine-U-/sup 14/C in early pregnancy. This has been substantiated by the observed enhancement in the activities of glucose 6-phosphatase, fructose 1, 6-diphosphatase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase. Gluconeogenic activity in placenta could proceed till the foetal liver was able to take over this function. The increase or decrease in placental glycogen is concomitant with glycogen synthetase, but not phosphorylase, activity. The reversible catalytic properties of placental aldolase also show subtle functional changes during and late phases of gestation.

  3. Hyperproteic diet and pregnancy of rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, A M; Sticchi, R; Gambardella, P; D'Aponte, D; Ferrante, P

    1986-01-01

    We have studied the effects of a purified diet enriched with animal protein (casein 40%, lactalbumin 20%) on different stages of rat pregnancy. We observed that hyperproteic diet, especially when administered from the first day of pregnancy, induces morphological alterations of liver, adrenal cortex, heart and kidney. Moreover, haematic dosages, carried out on 15th day of pregnancy, have shown moderate but significant increase of glucose and triglycerides and significant decrease of circulating aldosterone and corticosterone as well. Finally an early administration of hyperproteic diet causes less numerous litters and high mortality rate at birth.

  4. Xenotransplantation of piscine islets into hyperglycemic rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, C.; Weil, R. III; McIntosh, R.; Hogle, H.; Warden, G.; Reemtsma, K.

    1975-01-01

    Xenotransplantation of piscine islets into hyperglycemic rats usually lowers the blood sugar level of the recipient. The duration of this effect is prolonged by irradiation of the host or by enclosing donor tissue in synthetic envelopes. This prolongation appears to be related to interference with the host's ability to reject the graft; the duration of the prolongation may be limited by the host tissue reaction surrounding the envelope. The availability of anatomically separate piscine islet tissue makes it potentially useful for xenotransplantation into mammals

  5. Kinetics of glucose transport in rat muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ploug, Thorkil; Galbo, Henrik; Vinten, Jørgen

    1987-01-01

    The effects of insulin and prior muscle contractions, respectively, on 3-O-methylglucose (3-O-MG) transport in skeletal muscle were studied in the perfused rat hindquarter. Initial rates of entry of 3-O-MG in red gastrocnemius, soleus, and white gastrocnemius muscles as a function of perfusate 3-O-MG...... concentration exhibited Michaelis-Menten kinetics. Uptake by simple diffusion could not be detected. The maximum 3-O-MG transport velocity (Vmax) was increased more by maximum isometric contractions (10- to 40-fold, depending on fiber type) than by insulin (20,000 microU/ml; 3- to 20-fold) in both red and white...

  6. Circadian clock components in the rat neocortex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rath, Martin Fredensborg; Rohde, Kristian; Fahrenkrug, Jan

    2013-01-01

    in the rat neocortex. Among these, Per1, Per2, Per3, Cry1, Bmal1, Nr1d1 and Dbp were found to exhibit daily rhythms. The amplitude of circadian oscillation in neocortical clock gene expression was damped and the peak delayed as compared with the SCN. Lesions of the SCN revealed that rhythmic clock gene...... expression in the neocortex is dependent on the SCN. In situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry showed that products of the canonical clock gene Per2 are located in perikarya throughout all areas of the neocortex. These findings show that local circadian oscillators driven by the SCN reside within...... neurons of the neocortex....

  7. Quinine-induced tinnitus in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jastreboff, P J; Brennan, J F; Sasaki, C T

    1991-10-01

    Quinine ingestion reportedly induces tinnitus in humans. To expand our salicylate-based animal model of tinnitus, a series of conditioned suppression experiments was performed on 54 male-pigmented rats using quinine injections to induce tinnitus. Quinine induced changes in both the extent of suppression and recovery of licking, which followed a pattern that paralleled those produced after salicylate injections, and which may be interpreted as the result of tinnitus perception in animals. These changes depended on the dose and time schedule of quinine administration. Additionally, the calcium channel blocker, nimodipine, abolished the quinine-induced effect in a dose-dependent manner.

  8. Methadone as an inducer of apoptotic process in cheek mucosae cells in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Stępień

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Methadone is an opioid medication which can reduce withdrawal symptoms in people addicted to heroin and other drugs. Methadone is used also as a pain reliever and as part of drug addiction detoxification program. Apoptosis is the physiological process that plays a critical role in development and tissue homeostasis. The progress of apoptosis is regulated by signal cascades. The aim of this study was to asses how methadone induces apoptotic process in cheek mucosae cells in rats. Forty albino rats wares divided into two parts and five subgroups each. The biggest histological changes of cheek mucosae was observed in the groups with methadone. There is no indication of ability to regeneration in short time after treatment.

  9. Innovative evaluation of local injective gel of curcumin on the orthodontic tooth movement in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sohrab Asefi

    2018-01-01

    Materials and Methods: Forty rats were used as follows in each group: (1 negative control: Did not receive any appliance or injection; (2 positive control: received 0.03 cc normal saline and appliance; (3 gelatin plus curcumin (G: Received 0.03 cc hydrogel and appliance; and (4 chitosan plus curcumin (Ch: Received 0.03 cc hydrogel and appliance. They were anesthetized and closed nickel-titanium coil springs were installed between the first molars and central incisors unilaterally as the orthodontic appliance. After 21 days, the rats were decapitated, and the distance between the first and second molars was measured by a leaf gauge. Howship's lacunae, blood vessels, osteoclast-like cells, and root resorption lacunae were evaluated in the histological analysis. Data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA, Tukey's test, and t-test (P 0.05.

  10. Differential mesocorticolimbic responses to palatable food in binge eating prone and binge eating resistant female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Elaine B; Culbert, Kristen M; Gradl, Dana R; Richardson, Kimberlei A; Klump, Kelly L; Sisk, Cheryl L

    2015-12-01

    Binge eating is a key symptom of many eating disorders (e.g. binge eating disorder, bulimia nervosa, anorexia nervosa binge/purge type), yet the neurobiological underpinnings of binge eating are poorly understood. The mesocorticolimbic reward circuit, including the nucleus accumbens and the medial prefrontal cortex, is likely involved because this circuit mediates the hedonic value and incentive salience of palatable foods (PF). Here we tested the hypothesis that higher propensity for binge eating is associated with a heightened response (i.e., Fos induction) of the nucleus accumbens and medial prefrontal cortex to PF, using an animal model that identifies binge eating prone (BEP) and binge eating resistant (BER) rats. Forty adult female Sprague-Dawley rats were given intermittent access to PF (high fat pellets) 3×/week for 3 weeks. Based on a pattern of either consistently high or consistently low PF consumption across these feeding tests, 8 rats met criteria for categorization as BEP, and 11 rats met criteria for categorization as BER. One week after the final feeding test, BEP and BER rats were either exposed to PF in their home cages or were given no PF in their home cages for 1h prior to perfusion, leading to three experimental groups for the Fos analysis: BEPs given PF, BERs given PF, and a No PF control group. The total number of Fos-immunoreactive (Fos-ir) cells in the nucleus accumbens core and shell, and the cingulate, prelimbic, and infralimbic regions of the medial prefrontal cortex was estimated by stereological analysis. PF induced higher Fos expression in the nucleus accumbens shell and core and in the prelimbic and infralimbic cortex of BEP rats compared to No PF controls. Throughout the nucleus accumbens and medial prefrontal cortex, PF induced higher Fos expression in BEP than in BER rats, even after adjusting for differences in PF intake. Differences in the neural activation pattern between BEP and BER rats were more robust in prefrontal cortex

  11. Botulinum toxin injection causes hyper-reflexia and increased muscle stiffness of the triceps surae muscle in the rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pingel, Jessica; Wienecke, Jacob; Lorentzen, Jakob

    2016-01-01

    Botulinum toxin is used to diminish spasticity and reduce the risk of development of contractures. Here, we investigated changes in muscle stiffness caused by reflex activity or elastic muscle properties following botulinum toxin injection in the triceps surae muscle in rats. Forty-four rats...... received injection of botulinum toxin in the left triceps surae muscle. Control measurements were performed on the non-injected contralateral side in all rats. Acute experiments were performed 1, 2, 4 and 8 weeks following injection. The triceps surae muscle was dissected free, the Achilles tendon was cut...... and attached to a muscle puller. The resistance of the muscle to stretches of different amplitudes and velocities was systematically investigated. Reflex mediated torque was normalized to the maximal muscle force (Mmax) evoked by supramaximal stimulation of the tibial nerve. Botulinum toxin injection caused...

  12. Optimization of reagent concentration for radioiodination of rat C-peptide II in development of radioimmunoassay procedure for rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B R Manupriya

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Rat C-peptide is a polypeptide molecule made up of 31 amino acids and secreted from pancreas into circulation in two isoforms I and II. Quantification of rat C-peptide II in rat serum is important as it is directly related to the diagnosis of carbohydrate metabolism abnormalities, pancreatic performance analysis, monitoring of hypoglycemia, and diabetes-related illness in rat model. The aim of the present work is to develop a tracer by chloramine-T method for radioimmunoassay (RIA procedure and to determine the optimum amount of chloramine-T required for the preparation of stable radioiodinated product with a specific activity of around 24.97 MBq/μg, corresponding to 1 125I atom per molecule of the peptide. Tyrosylated rat C-peptide II was selected for the radioiodination procedure as rat C-peptide II does not contain either tyrosine or histidine which is mandatory for the incorporation of 125I atom to the rat C-peptide II. Tyrosylated rat C-peptide II was subjected to radioiodination by chloramine-T method with different concentrations of chloramine-T and sodium metabisulfite (MBS to obtain a stable radiolabeled compound. Optimized reaction conditions relating to the concentration of chloramine-T (10 μg and MBS (20 μg yielded a stable 125I-rat C-peptide II with specific activity of 21.01 MBq/μg corresponding to 0.84 125I atoms per molecule of the peptide. Preparation of high integrity tracer of rat C-peptide II was achieved by combining one molecule of oxidant (chloramine-T and two molecule of reductant (MBS.

  13. The Effects of Spaceflight on the Rat Circadian Timing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Charles A.; Murakami, Dean M.; Hoban-Higgins, Tana M.; Fuller, Patrick M.; Robinson, Edward L.; Tang, I.-Hsiung

    2003-01-01

    Two fundamental environmental influences that have shaped the evolution of life on Earth are gravity and the cyclic changes occurring over the 24-hour day. Light levels, temperature, and humidity fluctuate over the course of a day, and organisms have adapted to cope with these variations. The primary adaptation has been the evolution of a biological timing system. Previous studies have suggested that this system, named the circadian (circa - about; dies - a day) timing system (CTS), may be sensitive to changes in gravity. The NASA Neurolab spaceflight provided a unique opportunity to evaluate the effects of microgravity on the mammalian CTS. Our experiment tested the hypotheses that microgravity would affect the period, phasing, and light sensitivity of the CTS. Twenty-four Fisher 344 rats were exposed to 16 days of microgravity on the Neurolab STS-90 mission, and 24 Fisher 344 rats were also studied on Earth as one-G controls. Rats were equipped with biotelemetry transmitters to record body temperature (T(sub b)) and heart rate (HR) continuously while the rats moved freely. In each group, 18 rats were exposed to a 24-hour light-dark (LD 12:12) cycle, and six rats were exposed to constant dim red-light (LL). The ability of light to induce a neuronal activity marker (c-fos) in the circadian pacemaker of the brain, the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), was examined in rats studied on flight days two (FD2) and 14 (FD14), and postflight days two (R+1) and 14 (R+13). The flight rats in LD remained synchronized with the LD cycle. However, their T(sub b), rhythm was markedly phase-delayed relative to the LD cycle. The LD flight rats also had a decreased T(sub b) and a change in the waveform of the T(sub b) rhythm compared to controls. Rats in LL exhibited free-running rhythms of T(sub b), and HR; however, the periods were longer in microgravity. Circadian period returned to preflight values after landing. The internal phase angle between rhythms was different in flight than

  14. MORPHOLOGICAL CHANGES IN THE HIPPOCAMPUS OF RATS IN ACCELERATED AGING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Yu. Maksimova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was the analysis of structural changes with age in the hippocampus of senescenceaccelerated OXYS rats when signs of accelerated brain aging are missing (age 14 days, developments (age 5 months, and active progresses (age 15 months. The study was performed on 15 OXYS rats and 15 Wistar rats (as a control. After dislocation, brains were dissected, fixed with 10% formalin, embedded in paraffin, and serially cut in coronal sections (5μm thickness. These sections were stained with Cresyl violet and examined with a photomicroscope (Carl Zeiss Axiostar plus, Germany. The total number of hippocampal pyramidal cells in the CA1, CA3 and the dentate gyrus regions were estimated in 14-dayold, 5and 15-month-old OXYS and Wistar rats (n = 5 on the 5 slices of each brain sections. The number of neurons with chromatolysis, hyperchromatic with darkly stained cytoplasm and shrunken neurons were calculated as degenerative neurons. The pictures obtained with the program Carl Zeiss Axio Vision 8.0 with increasing 10  100, determined the average area bodies and nuclei of neurons (mkm2. The significant structural changes of neurons in the CA1, CA3 and dentate gyrus regions of the hippocampus in OXYS rats at 5 month of age are revealed by light microscopy. This results indicates the early develop neurodegeneration in OXYS rats. The most pronounced morphological changes occur in the CA1 region of the hippocampus of OXYS rats and irreversible. The degenerative changes of neurons in the hippocampus increases by the age of 15 months. Morphometric analysis of the average area of bodies and the nuclei of hippocampal neurons in CA1, CA3 and the dentate gyrus regions of OXYS and Wistar rats at 14 days of age showed no significant interline differences. At 5 months of age in the CA1 region of the hippocampus of OXYS rats was determined a significantly lower average body size and nuclei of pyramidal neurons compared with Wistar rats. With age, these

  15. The identification and characterization of novel rat hepatitis E virus strains in Bali and Sumbawa, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primadharsini, Putu Prathiwi; Mulyanto; Wibawa, I Dewa Nyoman; Anggoro, Joko; Nishizawa, Tsutomu; Takahashi, Masaharu; Jirintai, Suljid; Okamoto, Hiroaki

    2018-05-01

    All three genetic groups of ratHEV have been found in Indonesia, suggesting the presence of additional variants of ratHEV in unexamined areas of Indonesia. A total of 242 wild rats were captured in Bali and Sumbawa, Indonesia, during 2014-2016. Among them, 4.1% were seropositive for anti-ratHEV IgG and two (0.8%) had detectable ratHEV RNA: ratESUMBAWA-140L and ratEBali2016D-047L, sharing 84.9-85.4% and 86.9-92.1% nucleotide identity with the reported G2 strains, respectively. The provisional criteria supported the notion that the ratEBali2016D-047L and ratESUMBAWA-140L strains were novel G2 variants. These results suggested the spatial distribution of further divergent ratHEV strains in Indonesia.

  16. Histopathological changes by the use of soft reline materials: a rat model study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bail, Michele; Meister, Lissandra Matos Brol; Campagnoli, Eduardo Bauml; Jorge, Janaina Habib; Ban, Manuella de Cassia Iglesias; Sanchez-Ayala, Alfonso; Campanha, Nara Hellen

    2014-01-01

    To assess the histopathological changes of rat palatal mucosa exposed to soft reline materials. Forty-five adult female Wistar rats with controlled living conditions and fed ad libitum were employed. Palatal appliances of heat-polymerized acrylic resin Lucitone 550 were manufactured and worn by forty animals during 14 days. Five animals did not use the appliances (G1) and were used to control the appliance influence. One experimental group (n = 10) used the appliances without any relining material (G2) to control the material effect. Three experimental groups (n = 10) received the following soft reline materials below appliances: Dentusoft (G3), Dentuflex (G4), and Trusoft (G5). Appliances from half of each experimental group(n = 5) was immersed in water bath at 55°C for 10 min before use. Animals were slaughtered and the palates were fixed in 10% buffered formalin. Hematoxylin and eosin stained sections of 5 µm were analyzed by computerized planimetry. Cellular compartment, keratin and total epithelial thickness, and basement membrane length were measured to histopathological description.Analysis of variance and Tukey post-hoc test were used to data examination(α = 0.05). For heat-treatment groups, G4 showed less elongated ridges at the basal layer interface (p = 0.037) than G2. When comparing the conditions with and without heat-treatment, only G2 showed a significant decrease in the cellular compartment, keratin layer and total epithelium thickness (p<0.05). The post-polymerization for Lucitone 550 was an effective method to reduce the changes in the rat palatal mucosa. The soft reline materials tested did not cause significant histopathological changes in the rat palatal mucosa.

  17. Invasive rats on tropical islands: Their population biology and impacts on native species

    OpenAIRE

    Harper, Grant A.; Bunbury, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    The three most invasive rat species, black or ship rat Rattus rattus, brown or Norway rats, R. norvegicus and Pacific rat, R. exulans have been incrementally introduced to islands as humans have explored the world’s oceans. They have caused serious deleterious effects through predation and competition, and extinction of many species on tropical islands, many of which are biodiversity hotspots. All three rat species are found in virtually all habitat types, including mangrove and arid shrub la...

  18. Studies of aluminum in rat brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipman, J.J.; Brill, A.B.; Som, P.; Jones, K.W.; Colowick, S.; Cholewa, M.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of high aluminum concentrations in rat brains were studied using /sup 14/C autoradiography to measure the uptake of /sup 14/C 2-deoxy-D-glucose (/sup 14/C-2DG) and microbeam proton-induced x-ray emission (microPIXE) with a 20-..mu..m resolution to measure concentrations of magnesium, aluminum, potassium, and calcium. The aluminum was introduced intracisternally in the form of aluminum tartrate (Al-T) while control animals were given sodium tartrate (Na-T). The /sup 14/C was administered intravenously. The animals receiving Al-T developed seizure disorders and had pathological changes that included cerebral cortical atrophy. The results showed that there was a decreased uptake of /sup 14/C-2DG in cortical regions in which increased aluminum levels were measured, i.e., there is a correlation between the aluminum in the rat brain and decreased brain glucose metabolism. A minimum detection limit of about 16 ppM (mass fraction) or 3 x 10/sup 9/ Al atoms was obtained for Al under the conditions employed. 14 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Dynamic high resolution imaging of rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyaoka, R.S.; Lewellen, T.K.; Bice, A.N.

    1990-01-01

    A positron emission tomography with the sensitivity and resolution to do dynamic imaging of rats would be an invaluable tool for biological researchers. In this paper, the authors determine the biological criteria for dynamic positron emission imaging of rats. To be useful, 3 mm isotropic resolution and 2-3 second time binning were necessary characteristics for such a dedicated tomograph. A single plane in which two objects of interest could be imaged simultaneously was considered acceptable. Multi-layered detector designs were evaluated as a possible solution to the dynamic imaging and high resolution imaging requirements. The University of Washington photon history generator was used to generate data to investigate a tomograph's sensitivity to true, scattered and random coincidences for varying detector ring diameters. Intrinsic spatial uniformity advantages of multi-layered detector designs over conventional detector designs were investigated using a Monte Carlo program. As a result, a modular three layered detector prototype is being developed. A module will consist of a layer of five 3.5 mm wide crystals and two layers of six 2.5 mm wide crystals. The authors believe adequate sampling can be achieved with a stationary detector system using these modules. Economical crystal decoding strategies have been investigated and simulations have been run to investigate optimum light channeling methods for block decoding strategies. An analog block decoding method has been proposed and will be experimentally evaluated to determine whether it can provide the desired performance

  20. Mirtazapine attenuates cocaine seeking in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa-Méndez, Susana; Leff, Phillipe; Arías-Caballero, Adriana; Hernández-Miramontes, Ricardo; Heinze, Gerardo; Salazar-Juárez, Alberto

    2017-09-01

    Relapse to cocaine use is a major problem in the clinical treatment of cocaine addiction. Antidepressants have been studied for their therapeutic potential to treat cocaine use disorder. Research has suggested that antidepressants attenuate both drug craving and the re-acquisition of drug-seeking and drug-taking behaviors. This study examined the efficacy of mirtazapine, an antidepressant/anxiolytic, in decreasing cocaine seeking in rats. We used the cocaine self-administration paradigm to assess the effects of mirtazapine on rats trained to self-administer cocaine or food under a fixed-ratio schedule. Mirtazapine (30 mg/kg, i.p.) was administered during extinction. Mirtazapine significantly attenuated non-reinforced lever-press responses during extinction. Moreover, the mirtazapine dosed for 30 days during extinction produced sustained attenuation of lever-press responses during re-acquisition of cocaine self-administration, without changing food-seeking behavior. Our results showed that mirtazapine attenuated the re-acquisition of cocaine-seeking responses. Our study pointed to the efficacy of mirtazapine in reducing the risk of drug relapse during abstinence, suggesting for its potential use as a novel pharmacological agent to treat drug abuse. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.