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  1. Rutin Attenuates Hepatotoxicity in High-Cholesterol-Diet-Fed Rats

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    AlSharari, Shakir D.; Al-Rejaie, Salim S.; Abuohashish, Hatem M.; Ahmed, Mohamed M.; Hafez, Mohamed M

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objective. High-cholesterol diet (HCD) intends to increase the oxidative stress in liver tissues inducing hepatotoxicity. Rutin is a natural flavonoid (vitamin p) which is known to have antioxidative properties. The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential effects of Rutin on hypercholesterolemia-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Materials and Methods. Male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: G-I control, G-II Rutin, G-III HCD, and G-IV Rutin + HCD. The li...

  2. Hypolipidemic and antioxidant effects of curcumin and capsaicin in high-fat-fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manjunatha, H; Srinivasan, K

    2007-06-01

    The beneficial hypolipidemic and antioxidant influences of the dietary spice compounds curcumin and capsaicin were evaluated. Curcumin, capsaicin, or their combination were included in the diet of high-(30%)-fat-fed rats for 8 weeks. Dietary high-fat-induced hypertriglyceridemia was countered by dietary curcumin, capsaicin, or their combination by 12%-20%. Curcumin, capsaicin, and their combination also produced a slight decrease in serum total cholesterol in these animals. Serum alpha-tocopherol content was increased by dietary curcumin, capsaicin, and their combination in high-fat-fed rats. Serum total thiol content in high-fat-fed animals and serum ascorbic acid in normal animals was elevated by the combination of curcumin and capsaicin. Hepatic glutathione was increased by curcumin, capsaicin, or their combination in normal animals. Hepatic glutathione and alpha-tocopherol were increased, whereas lipid peroxide level was reduced by dietary curcumin and combination of curcumin and capsaicin in high-fat-fed animals. Serum glutathione peroxidase and glutathione transferase in high-fat-fed rats were generally higher as a result of dietary curcumin, capsaicin, and the combination of curcumin and capsaicin. Hepatic glutathione reductase and glutathione peroxidase were significantly elevated by dietary spice principles in high-fat-fed animals. The additive effect of the 2 bioactive compounds was generally not evident with respect to hypolipidemic or antioxidant potential. However, the effectiveness of the combination was higher in a few instances.

  3. Cardiovascular, metabolic, and coronary dysfunction in high-fat-fed obesity-resistant/prone rats.

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    Dake, Brian L; Oltman, Christine L

    2015-03-01

    Obesity is a global epidemic leading to several comorbidities including diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The hypothesis that the genetic background of the obesity-prone rat (OP) predisposes to physiologic, metabolic, and microvascular dysfunction which is exacerbated by a diet high in saturated fats was tested. Male OP and obesity-resistant (OR) rats were fed either a diet containing 10% (chow) or 45% kcal fat (HF) for 42 weeks. Weight of OP rats was greater than OR rats by 8 weeks on both diets. Blood pressure was increased in OP rats on chow and further augmented by HF diet compared to OR rats on similar diets. In contrast to weight and blood pressure, glucose clearance was similar in OR and OP rats on chow and impaired in both models on HF diet. Relaxation to acetylcholine was attenuated in OP rats compared to OR rats by 8 weeks and remained reduced throughout the study. A longer period of time was required to observe vascular dysfunction in HF-fed OR rats. When compared to OR rats, OP rats are prone to develop not only greater obesity but also hypertension and vascular dysfunction on a normal diet which is further augmented with HF diet. © 2015 The Obesity Society.

  4. Rutin Attenuates Hepatotoxicity in High-Cholesterol-Diet-Fed Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlSharari, Shakir D; Al-Rejaie, Salim S; Abuohashish, Hatem M; Ahmed, Mohamed M; Hafez, Mohamed M

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objective. High-cholesterol diet (HCD) intends to increase the oxidative stress in liver tissues inducing hepatotoxicity. Rutin is a natural flavonoid (vitamin p) which is known to have antioxidative properties. The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential effects of Rutin on hypercholesterolemia-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Materials and Methods. Male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: G-I control, G-II Rutin, G-III HCD, and G-IV Rutin + HCD. The liver functions and lipid profile were used to evaluate the HCD-induced hepatotoxicity. Quantitative real time-PCR was carried out to evaluate the expression levels of genes in TGF-β/Smad signaling pathway. Results. Rutin in combination with HCD showed a significant protective effect against hepatotoxicity. HCD caused significant increase in the mRNA expression of transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β), Mothers Against Decapentaplegic Homolog 2 (Smad-2), Mothers Against Decapentaplegic Homolog 4 (Smad-4), Bcl-2-binding component 3 (Bbc3), caspase-3, P53 and Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and decrease in the expression levels of Cyclin depended kinase inhibitor (P21) and Interleukin-3 (IL-3) in hepatic cells. Conclusion. TGF-β/Smad signaling pathway is involved in HCD-induced hepatotoxicity and Rutin inhibits the hepatotoxicity via suppressing this pathway. Therefore, Rutin might be considered as a protective agent for hepatotoxicity.

  5. Rutin Attenuates Hepatotoxicity in High-Cholesterol-Diet-Fed Rats

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    Shakir D. AlSharari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective. High-cholesterol diet (HCD intends to increase the oxidative stress in liver tissues inducing hepatotoxicity. Rutin is a natural flavonoid (vitamin p which is known to have antioxidative properties. The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential effects of Rutin on hypercholesterolemia-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Materials and Methods. Male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: G-I control, G-II Rutin, G-III HCD, and G-IV Rutin + HCD. The liver functions and lipid profile were used to evaluate the HCD-induced hepatotoxicity. Quantitative real time-PCR was carried out to evaluate the expression levels of genes in TGF-β/Smad signaling pathway. Results. Rutin in combination with HCD showed a significant protective effect against hepatotoxicity. HCD caused significant increase in the mRNA expression of transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β, Mothers Against Decapentaplegic Homolog 2 (Smad-2, Mothers Against Decapentaplegic Homolog 4 (Smad-4, Bcl-2-binding component 3 (Bbc3, caspase-3, P53 and Interleukin-6 (IL-6 and decrease in the expression levels of Cyclin depended kinase inhibitor (P21 and Interleukin-3 (IL-3 in hepatic cells. Conclusion. TGF-β/Smad signaling pathway is involved in HCD-induced hepatotoxicity and Rutin inhibits the hepatotoxicity via suppressing this pathway. Therefore, Rutin might be considered as a protective agent for hepatotoxicity.

  6. Lipid Lowering Effect of Punica granatum L. Peel in High Lipid Diet Fed Male Rats

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    Alireza Sadeghipour

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Many herbal medicines have been recommended for the treatment of dyslipidemia. The antilipidemic effect of hydroethanolic extract of pomegranate peel (Punica granatum L. was investigated in high lipid diet fed male rats. Intraperitoneally administration of pomegranate peel extract (50, 100, 200, and 300 mg/kg body weight for 23 days on the levels of serum cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL, HDL, alkaline phosphatase (AP, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, and alanine aminotransferase (ALT in high lipid diet fed male rats was evaluated. Treatment of pomegranate extract decreased body weight in treated rats, significantly. Administration of the plant extract significantly decreased serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL-C, alkaline phosphatise, AST, and ALT levels, whereas it increased serum HDL-C in high lipid diet fed rats in comparison to saline control group. Also, histopathological study showed that treatment of pomegranate peel extract attenuates liver damage in high lipid diet fed rats in comparison to saline group. It is concluded that the plant should be considered as an excellent candidate for future studies on dyslipidemia.

  7. Hypolipidemic effect of Semecarpus anacardium in high cholesterol fed hypercholesterolemic rats.

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    Vinayagam, Kaladevi Siddhi; Khan, Haseena Banu Hedayathullah; Keerthiga, G; Palanivelu, Shanthi; Panchanatham, Sachdanandam

    2012-12-03

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the hypolipidemic effect of Semecarpus anacardium Linn nut milk extract (SA) in high cholesterol fed hyperlipidemic rat model. METHODS: Rats were divided into four groups which included control animals, hypercholesterolemic animals, hypercholesterolemic animals treated with SA (200 mg/kg body weight dissolved in olive oil), and drug control rats. Lipid levels in serum and liver, and lipid metabolising enzymes were determined after treatment. RESULTS: High cholesterol diet significantly (P<0.05) increased the lipid levels in serum and liver and altered the activities of lipid metabolising enzymes. Significant decrease (P<0.05) in plasma and liver lipid levels were observed whereas the drug ameliorated the activities of lipid metabolising enzymes in drug treated groups. CONCLUSIONS: SA demonstrated remarkable hypolipidemic activity in high cholesterol fed hypercholesterolemic rats. The potential antihyperlipidemic action is plausibly due to its underlying antioxidant role.

  8. Metabolic and cardiac changes in high cholesterol-fructose-fed rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axelsen, Lene N; Pedersen, Henrik D; Petersen, Jørgen S

    2010-01-01

    function was examined by in vivo pressure-volume measurements in the left ventricle. Finally, protein and glucose content in the urine was measured and all organs were weighed at the end of the study. Results: Rats fed a HCF diet showed increased cholesterol and decreased high-density lipoprotein (HDL......Introduction: High cholesterol-fructose (HCF) fed rats have previously been described as an animal model of impaired cardiac insulin signaling and decreased contractile performance. In this study, we evaluated the metabolic and cardiac effects of a HCF diet in rats. Methods: Male Sprague......-Dawley rats received a HCF diet for 16 to 17weeks. Body weight was measured weekly and mean arterial blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, fasting plasma insulin, glucose tolerance, and blood lipid levels were measured following 15weeks of feeding. One to 2weeks later, while still on the HCF diet, cardiac...

  9. HYPOLIPIDEMIC EFFECTS OF GARLIC EXTRACTS IN HIGH FAT HIGH CHOLESTEROL DIET FED RATS

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    Sunanda

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Garlic is used widely in food and pharmaceutical preparations in India. The hypolipidemic , anti - atherosclerotic as well fibrinolytic properties of garlic sulphur compounds are known since long time. This principle sulphur compound present in garlic extract and garlic oil is Diallyldisulphide (DADS an unsaturated aliphatic disulphide , which is thought to be mainly responsible for garlic beneficial effects. The present work was under taken to assess usefulness and toxic effects of the garlic extracts in high lipid diet (HLD fed rats. It is evident from results that garlic aqueous extracts have hypolipidemic effects in plasma and fatty changes in liver in high lipid diet rats. These hypolipidemic effects of garlic aqueous extracts may be due to its principle sulfur compound DADS

  10. Reproductive parameters and oxidative stress status of male rats fed with low and high salt diet

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    Bolanle O Iranloye

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Deficiency of minerals and micronutrients has been reported to impair the process of spermatogenesis. Historically, salt has been used by women on their husbands to increase their libido, however, the role of salt diet on sperm parameters are yet to be ascertained. AIM: The present study was designed to determine the effect of low and high salt diet on sperm parameters, oxidative status and reproductive hormone levels of male rats. Materials and Methods: A total of 18 rats were divided into three groups: Group I: (control received 0.3% salt diet, Group II: low salt (received 0.14% salt diet and Group III: high salt (received 8% salt diet. All animals were treated for 6 weeks; after which epididymal sperm parameters; oxidative stress markers (malondialdehyde, glutathione, catalase and superoxide dismutase in the testes and epididymal tissues, as well as follicle stimulating hormone (FSH, luteinizing hormone (LH and testosterone levels were determined. Results: The results showed decreased sperm count in the low salt diet rats while increased sperm count was observed in the high salt diet treated rats. Both low salt and high salt diet fed rats exhibited increased abnormal sperm cells and increased epididymal oxidative stress when compared with their respective control. FSH and testosterone levels were increased in the high salt fed rats while LH level was decreased when compared with the control values. Conclusion: This study suggests that both low and high salt diet play a negative role in the fertility of male rats.

  11. Fecal excretion pattern of bile acids in rats fed high fat diets and neomycin in induced colon tumorigenesis.

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    Panda, S K; Broitman, S A

    1999-09-06

    Neomycin augments colon tumorigenesis in 1,2 - dimethylhydrazine treated rats fed polyunsaturated fat diet and decreases fecal cholic acid excretion, while it inhibits tumorigenesis with increased cholic acid and decreased deoxycholic acid excretions in rats fed high cholesterol diet. Participation of other fecal bile acids seems to be insignificant in relation to colon carcinogenesis.

  12. Virgin coconut oil maintains redox status and improves glycemic conditions in high fructose fed rats.

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    Narayanankutty, Arunaksharan; Mukesh, Reshma K; Ayoob, Shabna K; Ramavarma, Smitha K; Suseela, Indu M; Manalil, Jeksy J; Kuzhivelil, Balu T; Raghavamenon, Achuthan C

    2016-01-01

    Virgin Coconut Oil (VCO), extracted from fresh coconut kernel possess similar fatty acid composition to that of Copra Oil (CO), a product of dried kernel. Although CO forms the predominant dietary constituent in south India, VCO is being promoted for healthy life due to its constituent antioxidant molecules. High fructose containing CO is an established model for insulin resistance and steatohepatitis in rodents. In this study, replacement of CO with VCO in high fructose diet markedly improved the glucose metabolism and dyslipidemia. The animals fed VCO diet had only 17 % increase in blood glucose level compared to CO fed animals (46 %). Increased level of GSH and antioxidant enzyme activities in VCO fed rats indicate improved hepatic redox status. Reduced lipid peroxidation and carbonyl adducts in VCO fed rats well corroborate with the histopathological findings that hepatic damage and steatosis were comparatively reduced than the CO fed animals. These results suggest that VCO could be an efficient nutraceutical in preventing the development of diet induced insulin resistance and associated complications possibly through its antioxidant efficacy.

  13. Extract of mangosteen increases high density lipoprotein levels in rats fed high lipid

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    Dwi Laksono Adiputro

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND In cardiovascular medicine, Garcinia mangostana has been used as an antioxidant to inhibit oxidation of low density lipoproteins and as an antiobesity agent. The effect of Garcinia mangostana on hyperlipidemia is unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of an ethanolic extract of Garcinia mangostana pericarp on lipid profile in rats fed a high lipid diet. METHODS A total of 40 rats were divided into five groups control, high lipid diet, and high lipid diet + ethanolic extract of Garcinia mangostana pericarp at dosages of 200, 400, and 800 mg/kg body weight. The control group received a standard diet for 60 days. The high lipid diet group received standard diet plus egg yolk, goat fat, cholic acid, and pig fat for 60 days with or without ethanolic extract of Garcinia mangostana pericarp by the oral route. After 60 days, rats were anesthesized with ether for collection of blood by cardiac puncture. Analysis of blood lipid profile comprised colorimetric determination of cholesterol, triglyceride, low density lipoprotein (LDL, and high density lipoprotein (HDL. RESULTS From the results of one-way ANOVA it was concluded that there were significant between-group differences in cholesterol, trygliceride, LDL, and HDL levels (p=0.000. Ethanolic extract of Garcinia mangostana pericarp significantly decreased cholesterol, trygliceride, and LDL levels, starting at 400 mg/kg body weight (p=0.000. Ethanolic extract of Garcinia mangostana pericarp significantly increased HDL level starting at 200 mg/kg body weight (p=0.000. CONCLUSION Ethanolic extract of Garcinia mangostana pericarp has a beneficial effect on lipid profile in rats on a high lipid diet.

  14. Arctium lappa ameliorates endothelial dysfunction in rats fed with high fat/cholesterol diets

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    Lee Yun

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Arctium lappa L. (Asteraceae, burdock, is a medicinal plant that is popularly used for treating hypertension, gout, hepatitis, and other inflammatory disorders. This study was performed to test the effect of ethanol extract of Arctium lappa L. (EAL seeds on vascular reactivity and inflammatory factors in rats fed a high fat/cholesterol diet (HFCD. Method EAL-I (100 mg·kg−1/day, EAL-II (200 mg·kg−1/day, and fluvastatin (3 mg·kg−1/day groups initially received HFCD alone for 8 weeks, with EAL supplementation provided during the final 6 weeks. Results Treatment with low or high doses of EAL markedly attenuated plasma levels of triglycerides and augmented plasma levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL in HFCD-fed rats. Chronic treatment with EAL markedly reduced impairments of acetylcholine (ACh-induced relaxation of aortic rings. Furthermore, chronic treatment with EAL significantly lowered systolic blood pressure (SBP and maintained smooth and flexible intimal endothelial layers in HFCD-fed rats. Chronic treatment with EAL suppressed upregulation of intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM-1, vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM-1, and E-selectin in the aorta. Chronic treatment with EAL also suppressed increases in matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-2 expression. These results suggested that EAL can inhibit HFCD-induced vascular inflammation in the rat model. Conclusion The present study provides evidence that EAL ameliorates HFCD-induced vascular dysfunction through protection of vascular relaxation and suppression of vascular inflammation.

  15. Arctium lappa ameliorates endothelial dysfunction in rats fed with high fat/cholesterol diets.

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    Lee, Yun Jung; Choi, Deok Ho; Cho, Guk Hyun; Kim, Jin Sook; Kang, Dae Gill; Lee, Ho Sub

    2012-08-06

    Arctium lappa L. (Asteraceae), burdock, is a medicinal plant that is popularly used for treating hypertension, gout, hepatitis, and other inflammatory disorders. This study was performed to test the effect of ethanol extract of Arctium lappa L. (EAL) seeds on vascular reactivity and inflammatory factors in rats fed a high fat/cholesterol diet (HFCD). EAL-I (100 mg·kg-1/day), EAL-II (200 mg·kg-1/day), and fluvastatin (3 mg·kg-1/day) groups initially received HFCD alone for 8 weeks, with EAL supplementation provided during the final 6 weeks. Treatment with low or high doses of EAL markedly attenuated plasma levels of triglycerides and augmented plasma levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) in HFCD-fed rats. Chronic treatment with EAL markedly reduced impairments of acetylcholine (ACh)-induced relaxation of aortic rings. Furthermore, chronic treatment with EAL significantly lowered systolic blood pressure (SBP) and maintained smooth and flexible intimal endothelial layers in HFCD-fed rats. Chronic treatment with EAL suppressed upregulation of intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1, vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM)-1, and E-selectin in the aorta. Chronic treatment with EAL also suppressed increases in matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 expression. These results suggested that EAL can inhibit HFCD-induced vascular inflammation in the rat model. The present study provides evidence that EAL ameliorates HFCD-induced vascular dysfunction through protection of vascular relaxation and suppression of vascular inflammation.

  16. Excess Folic Acid Increases Lipid Storage, Weight Gain, and Adipose Tissue Inflammation in High Fat Diet-Fed Rats

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    Karen B. Kelly

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Folic acid intake has increased to high levels in many countries, raising concerns about possible adverse effects, including disturbances to energy and lipid metabolism. Our aim was to investigate the effects of excess folic acid (EFA intake compared to adequate folic acid (AFA intake on metabolic health in a rodent model. We conducted these investigations in the setting of either a 15% energy low fat (LF diet or 60% energy high fat (HF diet. There was no difference in weight gain, fat mass, or glucose tolerance in EFA-fed rats compared to AFA-fed rats when they were fed a LF diet. However, rats fed EFA in combination with a HF diet had significantly greater weight gain and fat mass compared to rats fed AFA (p < 0.05. Gene expression analysis showed increased mRNA levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ and some of its target genes in adipose tissue of high fat-excess folic acid (HF-EFA fed rats. Inflammation was increased in HF-EFA fed rats, associated with impaired glucose tolerance compared to high fat-adequate folic acid (HF-AFA fed rats (p < 0.05. In addition, folic acid induced PPARγ expression and triglyceride accumulation in 3T3-L1 cells. Our results suggest that excess folic acid may exacerbate weight gain, fat accumulation, and inflammation caused by consumption of a HF diet.

  17. Excess Folic Acid Increases Lipid Storage, Weight Gain, and Adipose Tissue Inflammation in High Fat Diet-Fed Rats

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    Kelly, Karen B.; Kennelly, John P.; Ordonez, Marta; Nelson, Randal; Leonard, Kelly; Stabler, Sally; Gomez-Muñoz, Antonio; Field, Catherine J.; Jacobs, René L.

    2016-01-01

    Folic acid intake has increased to high levels in many countries, raising concerns about possible adverse effects, including disturbances to energy and lipid metabolism. Our aim was to investigate the effects of excess folic acid (EFA) intake compared to adequate folic acid (AFA) intake on metabolic health in a rodent model. We conducted these investigations in the setting of either a 15% energy low fat (LF) diet or 60% energy high fat (HF) diet. There was no difference in weight gain, fat mass, or glucose tolerance in EFA-fed rats compared to AFA-fed rats when they were fed a LF diet. However, rats fed EFA in combination with a HF diet had significantly greater weight gain and fat mass compared to rats fed AFA (p adipose tissue of high fat-excess folic acid (HF-EFA) fed rats. Inflammation was increased in HF-EFA fed rats, associated with impaired glucose tolerance compared to high fat-adequate folic acid (HF-AFA) fed rats (p < 0.05). In addition, folic acid induced PPARγ expression and triglyceride accumulation in 3T3-L1 cells. Our results suggest that excess folic acid may exacerbate weight gain, fat accumulation, and inflammation caused by consumption of a HF diet. PMID:27669293

  18. Effect of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on lipid profile and liver histology in laboratory rats fed high-fructose diet.

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    Kostogrys, Renata B; Pisulewski, Paweł M

    2010-11-01

    The objective of the study was to assess the effect of CLA on serum lipid profile, plasma malondialdehyde and liver histology in Wistar rats fed high-fructose diet. Eighteen rats were randomly assigned to three experimental groups and fed for the next 21 days. The experimental diets were: I, Control; II, Fructose (63.2% of fructose); and III, CLA+Fructose (1% CLA and 63.2% of fructose). The experimental treatments had no effect on body weight of the rats. The LDL+VLDL cholesterol, TG and liver weight were significantly increased in animals fed Fructose. MDA concentrations were significantly increased in rats fed Fructose diet but CLA+Fructose diet had no effect on this marker. In the same line, the histological examination of the livers showed a series of morphological alterations, notably hepatic steatosis in animals fed high-fructose diet. No signs of the steatosis in rats fed CLA+Fructose diet were observed. In conclusion, CLA in high-fructose diet, decreases serum LDL+VLDL and TG and plasma MDA concentrations as well as liver weight and liver cholesterol, thus opposing the effects of high-fructose diet and showing a potential antiatherogenic effect. Similarly, dietary CLA fed at 1% level (w/w) in high-fructose diet, prevented steatosis observed histologically in livers of rats fed high-fructose diets.

  19. Excess Folic Acid Increases Lipid Storage, Weight Gain, and Adipose Tissue Inflammation in High Fat Diet-Fed Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Karen B; Kennelly, John P; Ordonez, Marta; Nelson, Randal; Leonard, Kelly; Stabler, Sally; Gomez-Muñoz, Antonio; Field, Catherine J; Jacobs, René L

    2016-09-23

    Folic acid intake has increased to high levels in many countries, raising concerns about possible adverse effects, including disturbances to energy and lipid metabolism. Our aim was to investigate the effects of excess folic acid (EFA) intake compared to adequate folic acid (AFA) intake on metabolic health in a rodent model. We conducted these investigations in the setting of either a 15% energy low fat (LF) diet or 60% energy high fat (HF) diet. There was no difference in weight gain, fat mass, or glucose tolerance in EFA-fed rats compared to AFA-fed rats when they were fed a LF diet. However, rats fed EFA in combination with a HF diet had significantly greater weight gain and fat mass compared to rats fed AFA (p folic acid (HF-EFA) fed rats. Inflammation was increased in HF-EFA fed rats, associated with impaired glucose tolerance compared to high fat-adequate folic acid (HF-AFA) fed rats (p folic acid induced PPARγ expression and triglyceride accumulation in 3T3-L1 cells. Our results suggest that excess folic acid may exacerbate weight gain, fat accumulation, and inflammation caused by consumption of a HF diet.

  20. Hypocholesterolemic Effects of Lactic Acid-Fermented Soymilk on Rats Fed a High Cholesterol Diet

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    Mitsuru Fukuda

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The effect of fermented soymilk on rats fed a high cholesterol diet was investigated to clarify the cholesterol-lowering function. Male Sprague-Dawley rats aged 7 weeks were fed a control diet (1% cholesterol, high cholesterol diet, high cholesterol diet containing 11.7% fermented soymilk diet (5% soy protein as final concentration, F-5, or high cholesterol diet containing 23.4% fermented soymilk diet (10% soy protein as final concentration, F-10 for 5 weeks. The liver weight and fat mass were decreased by the ingestion of fermented soymilk. The hepatic triglyceride and cholesterol levels in the F-5 and F-10 groups were significantly lowered compared to those in the control group. The plasma total cholesterol level of the F-10 group was significantly decreased. The expression of SREBP-2, a cholesterol synthesis-related gene, was significantly decreased in liver of the F-5 group, but the expression of CYP7a1, a cholesterol catabolism-related gene, was significantly increased. These results suggest that fermented soymilk can modulate the cholesterol metabolism in rats fed a high cholesterol diet.

  1. Tocotrienols Reverse Cardiovascular, Metabolic and Liver Changes in High Carbohydrate, High Fat Diet-Fed Rats

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    Weng-Yew Wong

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Tocotrienols have been reported to improve lipid profiles, reduce atherosclerotic lesions, decrease blood glucose and glycated haemoglobin concentrations, normalise blood pressure in vivo and inhibit adipogenesis in vitro, yet their role in the metabolic syndrome has not been investigated. In this study, we investigated the effects of palm tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF on high carbohydrate, high fat diet-induced metabolic, cardiovascular and liver dysfunction in rats. Rats fed a high carbohydrate, high fat diet for 16 weeks developed abdominal obesity, hypertension, impaired glucose and insulin tolerance with increased ventricular stiffness, lower systolic function and reduced liver function. TRF treatment improved ventricular function, attenuated cardiac stiffness and hypertension, and improved glucose and insulin tolerance, with reduced left ventricular collagen deposition and inflammatory cell infiltration. TRF improved liver structure and function with reduced plasma liver enzymes, inflammatory cell infiltration, fat vacuoles and balloon hepatocytes. TRF reduced plasma free fatty acid and triglyceride concentrations but only omental fat deposition was decreased in the abdomen. These results suggest that tocotrienols protect the heart and liver, and improve plasma glucose and lipid profiles with minimal changes in abdominal obesity in this model of human metabolic syndrome.

  2. Decreased adipose tissue zinc content is associated with metabolic parameters in high fat fed Wistar rats

    OpenAIRE

    Alexey A. Tinkov; Elizaveta V. Popova; Evgenia R. Gatiatulina; Anastasia A. Skalnaya; Elena N. Yakovenko; Irina B. Alchinova; Mikhail Y. Karganov; Anatoly V. Skalny; Nikonorov, Alexandr A.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Limited data on adipose tissue zinc content in obesity exist. At the same time, the association between adipose tissue zinc content and metabolic parameters in dietary-induced obesity is poorly studied. Therefore, the primary objective of this study is to assess adipose tissue zinc content and its association  with morphometric parameters, adipokine spectrum, proinflammatory cytokines, and apolipoprotein profile in high fat fed Wistar rats. Material and method...

  3. Basis of aggravated hepatic lipid metabolism by chronic stress in high-fat diet-fed rat.

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    Han, Ying; Lin, Min; Wang, Xiaobin; Guo, Keke; Wang, Shanshan; Sun, Mengfei; Wang, Jiao; Han, Xiaoyu; Fu, Ting; Hu, Yang; Fu, Jihua

    2015-03-01

    Our previous study has demonstrated that long-term stress, known as chronic stress (CS), can aggravate nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed rat. In this study, we tried to figure out which lipid metabolic pathways were impacted by CS in the HFD-fed rat. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (6 weeks of age, n = 8 per group) were fed with either standard diet or HFD with or without CS exposure for 8 weeks. Hepatic lipidosis, biochemical, hormonal, and lipid profile markers in serum and liver, and enzymes involved in de novo lipogenesis (DNL) of fatty acids (FAs) and cholesterol, β-oxidation, FAs uptake, triglycerides synthesis, and very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) assembly in the liver were detected. CS exposure reduced hepatic lipidosis but further elevated hepatic VLDL content with aggravated dyslipidemia in the HFD-fed rats. There was a synergism between CS and HFD on VLDL production and dyslipidemia. PCR and western blot assays showed that CS exposure significantly promoted hepatic VLDL assembly in rats, especially in the HFD-fed rats, while it had little impact on DNL, β-oxidation, FAs uptake, and triglycerides synthesis in the HFD-fed rats. This phenomenon was in accordance with elevated serum glucocorticoid level. The critical influence of CS exposure on hepatic lipid metabolism in the HFD-fed rats is VLDL assembly which might be regulated by glucocorticoid.

  4. Inulin oligofructose attenuates metabolic syndrome in high-carbohydrate, high-fat diet-fed rats.

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    Kumar, Senthil A; Ward, Leigh C; Brown, Lindsay

    2016-11-01

    Prebiotics alter bacterial content in the colon, and therefore could be useful for obesity management. We investigated the changes following addition of inulin oligofructose (IO) in the food of rats fed either a corn starch (C) diet or a high-carbohydrate, high-fat (H) diet as a model of diet-induced metabolic syndrome. IO did not affect food intake, but reduced body weight gain by 5·3 and 12·3 % in corn starch+inulin oligofructose (CIO) and high-carbohydrate, high-fat with inulin oligofructose (HIO) rats, respectively. IO reduced plasma concentrations of free fatty acids by 26·2 % and TAG by 75·8 % in HIO rats. IO increased faecal output by 93·2 %, faecal lipid excretion by 37·9 % and weight of caecum by 23·4 % and colon by 41·5 % in HIO rats. IO improved ileal morphology by reducing inflammation and improving the density of crypt cells in HIO rats. IO attenuated H diet-induced increases in abdominal fat pads (C 275 (sem 19), CIO 264 (sem 40), H 688 (sem 55), HIO 419 (sem 32) mg/mm tibial length), fasting blood glucose concentrations (C 4·5 (sem 0·1), CIO 4·2 (sem 0·1), H 5·2 (sem 0·1), HIO 4·3 (sem 0·1) mmol/l), systolic blood pressure (C 124 (sem 2), CIO 118 (sem 2), H 152 (sem 2), HIO 123 (sem 3) mmHg), left ventricular diastolic stiffness (C 22·9 (sem 0·6), CIO 22·9 (sem 0·5), H 27·8 (sem 0·5), HIO 22·6 (sem 1·2)) and plasma alanine transaminase (C 29·6 (sem 2·8), CIO 32·1 (sem 3·0), H 43·9 (sem 2·6), HIO 33·6 (sem 2·0) U/l). IO attenuated H-induced increases in inflammatory cell infiltration in the heart and liver, lipid droplets in the liver and plasma lipids as well as impaired glucose and insulin tolerance. These results suggest that increasing soluble fibre intake with IO improves signs of the metabolic syndrome by decreasing gastrointestinal carbohydrate and lipid uptake.

  5. Effect of Chlorella vulgaris on lipid metabolism in Wistar rats fed high fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hee Sun; Park, Hoon Jung; Kim, Mi Kyung

    2008-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate effects of Chlorella vulgaris on lipid metabolism in rats fed high fat diet. Sixty 6-week-old male Wistar rats were divided into two groups; normal diet group and high fat diet group, then the rats in each group were further divided into three subgroups and fed 0%, 5% and 10% (w/w) chlorella-containing diets, respectively, and raised for 9 weeks. Serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity and total protein and albumin concentration were not different among groups. Serum total lipids and liver TG concentration were significantly lower in 5% and 10% chlorella groups than 0% chlorella group in high fat diet groups (pchlorella groups than 0% chlorella group in high fat diet groups (pchlorella groups than 0% chlorella groups in normal diet and high fat diet groups, respectively (pChlorella vulgaris is effective for prevention of dyslipidemia which may be due to the modulation of lipid metabolism and increased fecal excretion of lipid.

  6. Effects of soy components on blood and liver lipids in rats fed high-cholesterol diets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ching-Yi Lin; Cheng-Yu Tsai; Shyh-Hsiang Lin

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To assess the effects of soy protein, isoflavone, and saponin on liver and blood lipid in rats that consumed high-cholesterol diets.METHODS: High-cholesterol diets (1%) with or without soy material were fed to 6-wk-old male Sprague-Dawley rats for 8 wk. Blood lipids, liver lipids, glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT), and glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT) levels were measured. The in vitro bile acid-binding ability of soy materials was analyzed.RESULTS: The results of in vitro studies showed that soy protein isolate had a significantly higher bile acid-binding ability (8.4±0.8%) than soy saponin (3.1±0.7%) and isoflavone (1.3±0.4%, P<0.05). On the other hand, at the end of the experimental period, rats that consumed soy protein diets had lower GOT and GPT levels than rats that consumed casein under high-cholesterol diets.Rats that consumed soy protein also had lower total cholesterol (TC) levels in the liver than those that consumed casein under high-cholesterol diets. Rats that consumed the soy protein diet containing both saponin and isoflavone had lower hepatic TC level than those that consumed the soy protein diet without isoflavone alone.The effect of different types of proteins on triglyceride was not significant.CONCLUSION: Consumption of soy provided benefits to control lipid levels under high-cholesterol dieting conditions in this rat model of hypercholesterolemia. The major component that reduced hepatic TC was not saponin, but possibly isoflavone.

  7. Hypothyroidism Exacerbates Thrombophilia in Female Rats Fed with a High Fat Diet

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    Harald Mangge

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Clotting abnormalities are discussed both in the context with thyroid dysfunctions and obesity caused by a high fat diet. This study aimed to investigate the impact of hypo-, or hyperthyroidism on the endogenous thrombin potential (ETP, a master indicator of clotting activation, on Sprague Dawley rats fed a normal or high fat diet. Female Sprague Dawley rats (n = 66 were grouped into normal diet (ND; n = 30 and high-fat diet (HFD; n = 36 groups and subdivided into controls, hypothyroid and hyperthyroid groups, induced through propylthiouracil or triiodothyronine (T3 treatment, respectively. After 12 weeks of treatment ETP, body weight and food intake were analyzed. Successfully induced thyroid dysfunction was shown by T3 levels, both under normal and high fat diet. Thyroid dysfunction was accompanied by changes in calorie intake and body weight. In detail, compared to euthyroid controls, hypothyroid rats showed significantly increased—and hyperthyroid animals significantly decreased—ETP levels. High fat diet potentiated these effects in both directions. In summary, we are the first to show that hypothyroidism and high fat diet potentiate the thrombotic capacity of the clotting system in Sprague Dawley rats. This effect may be relevant for cardiovascular disease where thyroid function is poorly understood as a pathological contributor in the context of clotting activity and obesogenic nutrition.

  8. Impaired glucose tolerance in rats fed low-carbohydrate, high-fat diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielohuby, Maximilian; Sisley, Stephanie; Sandoval, Darleen; Herbach, Nadja; Zengin, Ayse; Fischereder, Michael; Menhofer, Dominik; Stoehr, Barbara J M; Stemmer, Kerstin; Wanke, Rüdiger; Tschöp, Matthias H; Seeley, Randy J; Bidlingmaier, Martin

    2013-11-01

    Moderate low-carbohydrate/high-fat (LC-HF) diets are widely used to induce weight loss in overweight subjects, whereas extreme ketogenic LC-HF diets are used to treat neurological disorders like pediatric epilepsy. Usage of LC-HF diets for improvement of glucose metabolism is highly controversial; some studies suggest that LC-HF diets ameliorate glucose tolerance, whereas other investigations could not identify positive effects of these diets or reported impaired insulin sensitivity. Here, we investigate the effects of LC-HF diets on glucose and insulin metabolism in a well-characterized animal model. Male rats were fed isoenergetic or hypocaloric amounts of standard control diet, a high-protein "Atkins-style" LC-HF diet, or a low-protein, ketogenic, LC-HF diet. Both LC-HF diets induced lower fasting glucose and insulin levels associated with lower pancreatic β-cell volumes. However, dynamic challenge tests (oral and intraperitoneal glucose tolerance tests, insulin-tolerance tests, and hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamps) revealed that LC-HF pair-fed rats exhibited impaired glucose tolerance and impaired hepatic and peripheral tissue insulin sensitivity, the latter potentially being mediated by elevated intramyocellular lipids. Adjusting visceral fat mass in LC-HF groups to that of controls by reducing the intake of LC-HF diets to 80% of the pair-fed groups did not prevent glucose intolerance. Taken together, these data show that lack of dietary carbohydrates leads to glucose intolerance and insulin resistance in rats despite causing a reduction in fasting glucose and insulin concentrations. Our results argue against a beneficial effect of LC-HF diets on glucose and insulin metabolism, at least under physiological conditions. Therefore, use of LC-HF diets for weight loss or other therapeutic purposes should be balanced against potentially harmful metabolic side effects.

  9. Effects of L-Carnitine and Cinnamon Extract Treatment on Lens Crystallins of Rats Fed High Fructose Diet

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    Mohamed H. Mahfouz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Rats fed high dietary fructose are documented to form an acquired model of insulin resistance; the present study aims to investigate possible changes in lens crystallins of rats fed high fructose diet and the effects of administration of each exogenous L-Carnitine (CA and Cinnamon Extract (CE on protein glycation, oxidative stress and redox homeostasis in this rat model. Approach: A total number of 60 male Wister rats of body weight 120-160 g were divided into 4 groups of 15 rats each. Group 1 received control diet, while groups 2, 3 and 4: rats received high fructose diet (60g/100 g diet. After 2 weeks from fructose feeding, animals of group 3 were treated with L-carnitine (300 mg g-1 body weight/day i.p., while animals of group 4 were treated with cinnamon extract (0.5 mL/rat/day orally. At the end of experimental period (30 days, serum levels of glucose and insulin were determined. Lenses of each animal were dissected; molecular weights of crystalline, oxidative stress markers, early glycation of lens proteins and carbonyl group were assayed. Results: A significant decline in antioxidants and increase in lipid peroxidation products, protein oxidation and protein glycation were observed in lens samples obtained from fructose-fed rats. Administration of each CA and CE to fructose-fed rats significantly attenuated oxidative damage and protein glycation and returned levels of antioxidants to near those in control group. Chromatographic analysis of lens crystalline of rats fed high fructose diet showed diffused peaks, indicating crystalline aggregation. Conclusion: The results of the present study indicate that dietary fructose disturbs lens integrity and administration of L-carnitine or cinnamon extract may safeguard the lens by minimizing the protein aggregation, preventing glycation and oxidative stress in animals fed high fructose diet. L-carnitine has more potent effects than CE in this animal model.

  10. Lactobacillus species shift in distal esophagus of high-fatdiet-fed rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin Zhao; Xiao-Wei Liu; Ning Xie; Xue-Hong Wang; Yi Cui; Jun-Wen Yang; Lin-Lin Chen; Fang-Gen Lu

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To analyze the microbiota shift in the distal esophagus of Sprague-Dawley rats fed a high-fat diet. METHODS: Twenty Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into high-fat diet and normal control groups of 10 rats each. The composition of microbiota in the mucosa from the distal esophagus was analyzed based on selective culture. A variety of Lactobacillus species were identified by molecular biological techniques. Bacterial DNA from Lactobacillus colonies was extracted, and 16S rDNA was amplified by PCR using bacterial universal primers. The amplified 16S rDNA products were separated by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Every single band was purified from the gel and sent to be sequenced. RESULTS: Based on mucosal bacterial culturing in the distal esophagus, Staphylococcus aureus was absent, and total anaerobes and Lactobacillus species were decreased significantly in the high-fat diet group compared with the normal control group (P < 0.01). Detailed DGGE analysis on the composition of Lactobacillus species in the distal esophagus revealed that Lactobacillus crispatus , Lactobacillus gasseri (L. gasseri ) and Lactobacillus reuteri (L. reuteri ) comprised the Lactobacillus species in the high-fat diet group, while the composition of Lactobacillus species in the normal control group consisted of L. gasseri , Lactobacillus jensenii and L. reuteri . CONCLUSION: High-fat diet led to a mucosal microflora shift in the distal esophagus in rats, especially the composition of Lactobacillus species.

  11. Hypolipidemic effects of aqueous extract of Acalypha capitata leaves in rats fed on high cholesterol diet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nnodim Johnkennedy; Emejulu Adamma; Nwadike Constance Nnedimma

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the hypolipidemic effects of aqueous extract of Acalypha capitata (A. capitata) leaves in rats fed on high cholesterol diet. Methods:Cholesterol diet was administered to Wistar rats at a dose of 40 mg per 0.2 mL 3 times daily for 14 days while the control received distilled water. These animals were treated with extract of A. capitata at doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg. Lipid profiles were observed and compared. Results:Administration of A. capitata caused significant decrease in cholesterol, triglyceride and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol when compared with the control (P<0.05) which was dose dependent. Also, it was observed that high density lipoprotein-cholesterol was significantly increased when compared with the control. Conclusions:This observation suggests that the leaf extract of A. capitata could probably serve as a potential natural product for treatment of hyperlipidaemia.

  12. HYPOGLYCEMIC EFFECT OF 2-HYDROXYCHALCONE ON HIGH FRUCTOSE FED DIABETIC RAT

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    K. Jegatheesan et al.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the project work was to study the effect of Hypoglycemic and Hypolipidemic activity of 2- hydroxychalcone on high fructose diet induced insulin resistance in male Wister Albino rats. Rats were rendered insulin resistant by feeding 66% (w/w fructose and 1.1% (v/w coconut oil mixed with normal pellet diet (NPD for 3 weeks. Insulin resistance high fructose diabetic rats receiving hydroxychalcone intraperitoneally (i.p. at the dose of 25mg/kg body weight daily for 7 consecutive days. At the end of the study blood glucose, serum insulin, glycosylated haemoglobin was estimated. The tissue was used for the assay of enzyme activity of Hexokinase, Glycogen, Glu-6-phosphatase and fru-1, 6 bis phosphatase were also estimated. Fructose diet with 2-hydroxychalcone significantly reduced the blood glucose, insulin, glu-6-phosphatase, fru-1, 6 bis phosphatase and significantly increase the hexokinase and glycogen activity. The flavonoid present in the cinnamon 2-hydroxychalcone were found to exhibit a significant Hypoglycemic activity in fructose fed insulin resistant rats.

  13. Effects of Antioxidants Supplemment, Astaxanthin, Vitamin E, C, in Rat Fed a High-Fat Diet

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    AA Vahidinia

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: obesity is independently associated with increased oxidative stress in men and women. Natural antioxidants showed substantial antioxidative and anti-inflammatory activities in vivo. In this study, we examined the preventive effect of antioxidants supplement and/or restricted diet on the development of obesity induced by feeding a high-fat (HF diet. Materials & Methods: The present study was conducted at Hamadan University of Medical Sciences in 2009. Forty-eight male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to HF purified diet (61% kcal from fat ad libitum, HF restricted (30%, HF supplemented with astaxanthin, vitamin E and C (HFS, HFS restricted (30% for 12 weeks. Daily food intake and weekly body weight gain were measured. The collected data were analyzed by the SPSS software using Colmogroph- Smirnov, One-Way ANOVA, and Two-Way ANOVA. Results: Dietary antioxidants suppressed body weight gain in the HF-diet ad libitum (-9.8%, and in HF restricted diet (-18.14%. Energy intake was not significant in HF with HFS (58.8 and 58.6 kcal/rat/d, respectively and in HF restricted with HFS restricted (41.7 and 41.6 kcal/rat/d, respectively. Conclusion: results of this study suggest that antioxidants supplement might be of value in reducing the likelihood of obesity in rats fed with high-fat diets, especially when accompanying with restricted diets.

  14. Copper metabolism in analbuminaemic rats fed a high-copper diet.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yu, S.; Berg, van den G.J.; Beynen, A.C.

    1995-01-01

    Copper metabolism in male Nagase analbuminaemic (NA) rats was compared with that in male Sprague Dawley (SD) rats fed purified diets containing either 5 or 100 mg Cu/kg diet. Dietary copper loading increased hepatic and kidney copper concentrations in both strains to the same extent, but baseline va

  15. Naringin Improves Diet-Induced Cardiovascular Dysfunction and Obesity in High Carbohydrate, High Fat Diet-Fed Rats

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    Kathleen Kauter

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Obesity, insulin resistance, hypertension and fatty liver, together termed metabolic syndrome, are key risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Chronic feeding of a diet high in saturated fats and simple sugars, such as fructose and glucose, induces these changes in rats. Naturally occurring compounds could be a cost-effective intervention to reverse these changes. Flavonoids are ubiquitous secondary plant metabolites; naringin gives the bitter taste to grapefruit. This study has evaluated the effect of naringin on diet-induced obesity and cardiovascular dysfunction in high carbohydrate, high fat-fed rats. These rats developed increased body weight, glucose intolerance, increased plasma lipid concentrations, hypertension, left ventricular hypertrophy and fibrosis, liver inflammation and steatosis with compromised mitochondrial respiratory chain activity. Dietary supplementation with naringin (approximately 100 mg/kg/day improved glucose intolerance and liver mitochondrial dysfunction, lowered plasma lipid concentrations and improved the structure and function of the heart and liver without decreasing total body weight. Naringin normalised systolic blood pressure and improved vascular dysfunction and ventricular diastolic dysfunction in high carbohydrate, high fat-fed rats. These beneficial effects of naringin may be mediated by reduced inflammatory cell infiltration, reduced oxidative stress, lowered plasma lipid concentrations and improved liver mitochondrial function in rats.

  16. Decreased adipose tissue zinc content is associated with metabolic parameters in high fat fed Wistar rats

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    Alexey A. Tinkov

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Limited data on adipose tissue zinc content in obesity exist. At the same time, the association between adipose tissue zinc content and metabolic parameters in dietary-induced obesity is poorly studied. Therefore, the primary objective of this study is to assess adipose tissue zinc content and its association  with morphometric parameters, adipokine spectrum, proinflammatory cytokines, and apolipoprotein profile in high fat fed Wistar rats. Material and methods. A total of 48 adult female Wistar rats were used in the present study. Rats were fed either control (10% of fat or high fat diet (31.6% of fat. Adipose tissue zinc content was assessed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Rats’ serum was examined for adiponectin, leptin, insulin, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits. Serum glucose and apolipoprotein spectrum were also evaluated. Results. High fat feeding resulted in a significant 34% decrease in adipose tissue zinc content in comparison to the control values. Fat pad zinc levels were significantly inversely associated with morphometric param- eters, circulating leptin, insulin, tumor necrosis factor-α levels and HOMA-IR values. At the same time,      a significant correlation with apolipoprotein A1 concentration was observed. Conclusion. Generally, the obtained data indicate that (1 high fat feeding results in decreased adipose tis- sue zinc content; (2 adipose tissue zinc content is tightly associated with excessive adiposity, inflammation, insulin resistance and potentially atherogenic changes.

  17. Ketoprofen and antinociception in hypo-oestrogenic Wistar rats fed on a high sucrose diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaramillo-Morales, Osmar Antonio; Espinosa-Juárez, Josué Vidal; García-Martínez, Betzabeth Anali; López-Muñoz, Francisco Javier

    2016-10-05

    Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as ketoprofen are the most commonly used analgesics for the treatment of pain. However, no studies have evaluated the analgesic response to ketoprofen in conditions of obesity. The aim of this study was to analyse the time course of nociceptive pain in Wistar rats with and without hypo-oestrogenism on a high sucrose diet and to compare the antinociceptive response using ketoprofen. Hypo-oestrogenic and naïve rats received a hyper caloric diet (30% sucrose) or water ad libitum for 17 weeks, the thermal nociception ("plantar test" method) and body weight were tested during this period. A biphasic response was observed: thermal latency decreased in the 4th week (hyperalgesia), while from 12th to 17th week, thermal latency increased (hypoalgesia) in hypo-oestrogenic rats fed with high sucrose diet compared with the hypo-oestrogenic control group. At 4th and 17th weeks, different doses of ketoprofen (1.8-100mg/kg p.o.), were evaluated in all groups. The administration of ketoprofen at 4th and 17th weeks showed dose-dependent effects in the all groups; however, a greater pharmacological efficacy was observed in the 4th week in the hypo-oestrogenic animals that received sucrose. Nevertheless, in all the groups significantly diminish the antinociceptive effects in the 17th week. Our data showed that nociception was altered in the hypo-oestrogenic animals that were fed sucrose (hyperalgesia and hypoalgesia). Ketoprofen showed a dose-dependent antinociceptive effect at both time points. However, hypo-oestrogenism plus high-sucrose diet modifies the antinociceptive effect of ketoprofen.

  18. Effects of lipoic acid on AMPK and adiponectin in adipose tissue of low- and high-fat-fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto-Hontoria, Pedro L; Pérez-Matute, Patricia; Fernández-Galilea, Marta; Alfredo Martínez, J; Moreno-Aliaga, María J

    2013-03-01

    Lipoic acid (LA) is an antioxidant with antiobesity and antidiabetic properties. Adiponectin is an adipokine with potent anti-inflammatory and insulin-sensitizing properties. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a key enzyme involved in cellular energy homeostasis. Activation of AMPK has been considered as a target to reverse the metabolic abnormalities associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of LA on AMPK phosphorylation and adiponectin production in adipose tissue of low-fat (control diet) and high-fat diet-fed rats. Dietary supplementation with LA reduced body weight and adiposity in control and high-fat-fed rats. LA also reduced basal hyperinsulinemia as well as the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) levels, an index of insulin resistance, in high-fat-fed rats, which was in part independent of their food intake lowering actions. Furthermore, AMPK phosphorylation was increased in white adipose tissue (WAT) from LA-treated rats as compared with pair-fed animals. Dietary supplementation with LA also upregulated adiponectin gene expression in WAT, while a negative correlation between adiposity-corrected adiponectin levels and HOMA index was found. Our present data suggest that the ability of LA supplementation to prevent insulin resistance in high-fat diet-fed rats might be related in part to the stimulation of AMPK and adiponectin in WAT.

  19. A krill oil supplemented diet suppresses hepatic steatosis in high-fat fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferramosca, Alessandra; Conte, Annalea; Burri, Lena; Berge, Kjetil; De Nuccio, Francesco; Giudetti, Anna Maria; Zara, Vincenzo

    2012-01-01

    Krill oil (KO) is a dietary source of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, mainly represented by eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid bound to phospholipids. The supplementation of a high-fat diet with 2.5% KO efficiently prevented triglyceride and cholesterol accumulation in liver of treated rats. This effect was accompanied by a parallel reduction of the plasma levels of triglycerides and glucose and by the prevention of a plasma insulin increase. The investigation of the molecular mechanisms of KO action in high-fat fed animals revealed a strong decrease in the activities of the mitochondrial citrate carrier and of the cytosolic acetyl-CoA carboxylase and fatty acid synthetase, which are both involved in hepatic de novo lipogenesis. In these animals a significant increase in the activity of carnitine palmitoyl-transferase I and in the levels of carnitine was also observed, suggesting a concomitant stimulation of hepatic fatty acid oxidation. The KO supplemented animals also retained an efficient mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, most probably as a consequence of a KO-induced arrest of the uncoupling effects of a high-fat diet. Lastly, the KO supplementation prevented an increase in body weight, as well as oxidative damage of lipids and proteins, which is often found in high-fat fed animals.

  20. A krill oil supplemented diet suppresses hepatic steatosis in high-fat fed rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Ferramosca

    Full Text Available Krill oil (KO is a dietary source of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, mainly represented by eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid bound to phospholipids. The supplementation of a high-fat diet with 2.5% KO efficiently prevented triglyceride and cholesterol accumulation in liver of treated rats. This effect was accompanied by a parallel reduction of the plasma levels of triglycerides and glucose and by the prevention of a plasma insulin increase. The investigation of the molecular mechanisms of KO action in high-fat fed animals revealed a strong decrease in the activities of the mitochondrial citrate carrier and of the cytosolic acetyl-CoA carboxylase and fatty acid synthetase, which are both involved in hepatic de novo lipogenesis. In these animals a significant increase in the activity of carnitine palmitoyl-transferase I and in the levels of carnitine was also observed, suggesting a concomitant stimulation of hepatic fatty acid oxidation. The KO supplemented animals also retained an efficient mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, most probably as a consequence of a KO-induced arrest of the uncoupling effects of a high-fat diet. Lastly, the KO supplementation prevented an increase in body weight, as well as oxidative damage of lipids and proteins, which is often found in high-fat fed animals.

  1. Neuroprotective effect of Sapucaia nuts (Lecythis pisonis)on rats fed with high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal Martins, Marcos; Montezano de Carvalho, Izabela Maria; Magalhães Caetano, Mônica Maria; Lopes Toledo, Renata Celi; Avelar Xavier, Antônio; De Queiroz, José Humberto

    2016-11-29

    Lecythis pisonis Cambess is commonly known as "castanha de sapucaia" in Brazil. Chemical composition studies revealed that this nut is an excellent source of anti-oxidant minerals and of essential lipids. The aim of the present study is to assess the anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory effect of Lecythis pisonis Cambess on the brain tissue of Wistar rats. The animals were divided in four experimental groups (n = 6), total of forty-eight rats. Treatments included the standard diet (AIN-93G) and high-fat food, supplemented with Sapucaianut from 14 to 28 days. The gene expression markers TNF-α, NFkB, ZnSOD and HSP-72 were defined through reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (rtPCR). The anti-oxidant effect was assessed through the thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) and the measurement of the activity performed by superoxide dismutase enzymes. Accordingly, the gene expression of the inflammatory markers NFkB (p65) and TNF-αwas lower in rats fed on diets supplemented with "sapucaia", and they presented significant difference in the Tukey test (p < 0.05). The heat-shock HSP-72 protein and the ZnSOD enzyme raised the gene expression and showed significant statistical difference (p < 0.05) in both groups fed on Sapucaia nut-based diet. Thus, the nutritional properties of the Sapucaia nuts perform important neuroprotective activities because they modulated the anti-oxidant activity and the brain tissue inflammatory process in the assessed animals.

  2. Effects of herbal mixture extracts on obesity in rats fed a high-fat diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei-Yin Chien

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate and compare the effects of three herbal mixture extracts on obesity induced by high-fat diet (HFD in rats. The prescriptions—Pericarpium citri reticulatae and Fructus crataegi—were used as matrix components and mixed with Ampelopsis grossedentata, Salvia miltiorrhiza, and epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG to form T1, T2, and T3 complexes, respectively. Results revealed that HFD feeding significantly increased body weight gain, fat deposition, plasma lipid profiles, hepatic lipid accumulation, and hepatic vacuoles formation, but decreased plasma levels of adiponectin in rats. Only the T1 complex showed the tendency, although not significantly so, for decreased HFD-induced body weight gain. T1 and T3 complexes significantly reduced HFD-induced fat deposition, and plasma levels of triglyceride, total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Only the T1 complex significantly increased HFD-reduced adiponectin levels in plasma, but decreased HFD-increased triglyceride content in liver tissues. All complexes effectively inhibited HFD-induced vacuoles formation. The content of dihydromyricetin, salvianolic acid B, and EGCG in T1, T2, and T3 complexes was 18.25 ± 0.07%, 22.20 ± 0.10%, and 18.86 ± 0.04%, respectively. In summary, we demonstrated that herbal mixture extracts, especially T1 complex, exhibit antiobesity activity in HFD-fed rats.

  3. Effects of herbal mixture extracts on obesity in rats fed a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Mei-Yin; Ku, Yu-Hua; Chang, Jin-Ming; Yang, Chih-Min; Chen, Chao-Hsiang

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate and compare the effects of three herbal mixture extracts on obesity induced by high-fat diet (HFD) in rats. The prescriptions-Pericarpium citri reticulatae and Fructus crataegi-were used as matrix components and mixed with Ampelopsis grossedentata, Salvia miltiorrhiza, and epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) to form T1, T2, and T3 complexes, respectively. Results revealed that HFD feeding significantly increased body weight gain, fat deposition, plasma lipid profiles, hepatic lipid accumulation, and hepatic vacuoles formation, but decreased plasma levels of adiponectin in rats. Only the T1 complex showed the tendency, although not significantly so, for decreased HFD-induced body weight gain. T1 and T3 complexes significantly reduced HFD-induced fat deposition, and plasma levels of triglyceride, total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Only the T1 complex significantly increased HFD-reduced adiponectin levels in plasma, but decreased HFD-increased triglyceride content in liver tissues. All complexes effectively inhibited HFD-induced vacuoles formation. The content of dihydromyricetin, salvianolic acid B, and EGCG in T1, T2, and T3 complexes was 18.25 ± 0.07%, 22.20 ± 0.10%, and 18.86 ± 0.04%, respectively. In summary, we demonstrated that herbal mixture extracts, especially T1 complex, exhibit antiobesity activity in HFD-fed rats. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Taurine ameliorates cholesterol metabolism by stimulating bile acid production in high-cholesterol-fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Shigeru; Fujita, Michiko; Nakamura, Masakazu; Sakono, Masanobu; Nishizono, Shoko; Sato, Masao; Imaizumi, Katsumi; Mori, Mari; Fukuda, Nobuhiro

    2016-03-01

    This study was designed to investigate the effects of dietary taurine on cholesterol metabolism in high-cholesterol-fed rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into two dietary groups (n = 6 in each group): a high-cholesterol diet containing 0.5% cholesterol and 0.15% sodium cholate, and a high-cholesterol diet with 5% (w/w) taurine. The experimental diets were given for 2 weeks. Taurine supplementation reduced the serum and hepatic cholesterol levels by 37% and 32%, respectively. Faecal excretion of bile acids was significantly increased in taurine-treated rats, compared with untreated rats. Biliary bile acid concentrations were also increased by taurine. Taurine supplementation increased taurine-conjugated bile acids by 61% and decreased glycine-conjugated bile acids by 53%, resulting in a significant decrease in the glycine/taurine (G/T) ratio. Among the taurine-conjugated bile acids, cholic acid and deoxycholic acid were significantly increased. In the liver, taurine supplementation increased the mRNA expression and enzymatic activity of hepatic cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase (CYP7A1), the rate-limiting enzyme for bile acid synthesis, by three- and two-fold, respectively. Taurine also decreased the enzymatic activity of acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) and microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP). These observations suggest that taurine supplementation increases the synthesis and excretion of taurine-conjugated bile acids and stimulates the catabolism of cholesterol to bile acid by elevating the expression and activity of CYP7A1. This may reduce cholesterol esterification and lipoprotein assembly for very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) secretion, leading to reductions in the serum and hepatic cholesterol levels. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  5. Effects of two Lactobacillus strains on lipid metabolism and intestinal microflora in rats fed a high-cholesterol diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Xiao-Wei

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The hypocholesterolemic effects of lactic acid bacteria (LAB have now become an area of great interest and controversy for many scientists. In this study, we evaluated the effects of Lactobacillus plantarum 9-41-A and Lactobacillus fermentum M1-16 on body weight, lipid metabolism and intestinal microflora of rats fed a high-cholesterol diet. Methods Forty rats were assigned to four groups and fed either a normal or a high-cholesterol diet. The LAB-treated groups received the high-cholesterol diet supplemented with Lactobacillus plantarum 9-41-A or Lactobacillus fermentum M1-16. The rats were sacrificed after a 6-week feeding period. Body weights, visceral organ and fat pad weights, serum and liver cholesterol and lipid levels, and fecal cholesterol and bile acid concentrations were measured. Liver lipid deposition and adipocyte size were evaluated histologically. Results Compared with rats fed a high-cholesterol diet but without LAB supplementation, serum total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides levels were significantly decreased in LAB-treated rats (p Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium colonies were increased while Escherichia coli colonies were decreased in the LAB-treated groups. Fecal water content was higher in the LAB-treated groups. Compared with rats fed a high-cholesterol diet, administration of Lactobacillus plantarum 9-41-A resulted in decreases in the body weight gain, liver and fat pad weight, and adipocytes size (p Conclusions This study suggests that LAB supplementation has hypocholesterolemic effects in rats fed a high-cholesterol diet. The ability to lower serum cholesterol varies among LAB strains. Our strains might be able to improve the intestinal microbial balance and potentially improve intestinal transit time. Although the mechanism is largely unknown, L. plantarum 9-41-A may play a role in fat metabolism.

  6. Hypocholesterolemic effect of sericin-derived oligopeptides in high-cholesterol fed rats.

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    Lapphanichayakool, Phakhamon; Sutheerawattananonda, Manote; Limpeanchob, Nanteetip

    2017-01-01

    The beneficial effect of cholesterol-lowering proteins and/or peptides derived from various dietary sources is continuously reported. A non-dietary protein from silk cocoon, sericin, has also demonstrated cholesterol-lowering activity. A sericin hydrolysate prepared by enzymatic hydrolysis was also expected to posses this effect. The present study was aimed at investigating the cholesterol-lowering effect of sericin peptides, so called "sericin-derived oligopeptides" (SDO) both in vivo and in vitro. The results showed that SDO at all three doses tested (10 mg kg(-1) day(-1), 50 mg kg(-1) day(-1), and 200 mg kg(-1) day(-1)) suppressed serum total and non-HDL cholesterol levels in rats fed a high-cholesterol diet. Triglyceride and HDL-cholesterol levels were not significantly changed among all groups. The fecal contents of bile acids and cholesterol did not differ among high-cholesterol fed rats. SDO dose-dependently reduced cholesterol solubility in lipid micelles, and inhibited cholesterol uptake in monolayer Caco-2 cells. SDO also effectively bound to all three types of bile salts including taurocholate, deoxytaurocholate, and glycodeoxycholate. Direct interaction with bile acids of SDO may disrupt micellar cholesterol solubility, and subsequently reduce the absorption of dietary cholesterol in intestines. Taking all data together, SDO or sericin peptides exhibit a beneficial effect on blood cholesterol levels and could be potentially used as a health-promoting dietary supplement or nutraceutical product.

  7. Endothelial and vascular dysfunctions and insulin resistance in rats fed a high-fat, high-sucrose diet.

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    Bourgoin, Frédéric; Bachelard, Hélène; Badeau, Mylène; Mélançon, Sébastien; Pitre, Maryse; Larivière, Richard; Nadeau, André

    2008-09-01

    This study was designed to examine the effects of a high-fat, high-sucrose (HFHS) diet on vascular and metabolic actions of insulin. Male rats were randomized to receive an HFHS or regular chow diet for 4 wk. In a first series of experiments, the rats had pulsed Doppler flow probes and intravascular catheters implanted to measure blood pressure, heart rate, and regional blood flows. Insulin sensitivity and vascular responses to insulin were assessed during a euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp performed in conscious rats. In a second series of experiments, new groups of rats were used to examine skeletal muscle glucose transport activity and to determine in vitro vascular reactivity, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) protein expression in muscle and vascular tissues and endothelin content, nitrotyrosine formation, and NAD(P)H oxidase protein expression in vascular tissues. The HFHS-fed rats displayed insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, hypertriglyceridemia, hyperlipidemia, elevated blood pressure, and impaired insulin-mediated renal and skeletal muscle vasodilator responses. A reduction in endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation, accompanied by a decreased eNOS protein expression in muscles and blood vessel endothelium, and increased vascular endothelin-1 protein content were also noted in HFHS-fed rats compared with control rats. Furthermore, the HFHS diet induced a reduced insulin-stimulated glucose transport activity in muscles and increased levels of NAD(P)H oxidase protein and nitrotyrosine formation in vascular tissues. These findings support the importance of eNOS protein in linking metabolic and vascular disease and indicate the ability of a Westernized diet to induce endothelial dysfunction and to alter metabolic and vascular homeostasis.

  8. Effects of hydrogen sulfide on lipid metabolism in liver of high-fat-fed rats

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    Wang GUAN

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the effects of hydrogen sulfide on lipid metabolism in liver of high-fat-fed(H-FD rats.Methods Twenty-four male SD rats were randomly divided into control group,H-FD group and H-FD+NaHS group(8 each.Rats were sacrificed after feeding for eight weeks,and hepatic tissue was obtained and frozen sectioned.They were stained with oil red O,Philipin and HE.The oil red O and Philipin-dyed pictures were measured by image analysis system.Results Oil red O staining showed that the cell shape and structure of hepatic tissue were normal in control group,and massive diffuse lipid deposition and damaged structure in hepatic lobule were found in H-FD group.The lipid deposition decreased significantly,and the damage of hepatic lobule also ameliorated,in H-FD+NaHS group(5818.79±297.45 compared with H-FD group(62612.70±756.46,P < 0.01.Philipin staining showed that the fluorescence signal of total cholesterol was negative in control group,and it was positive in H-FD group where the signal was strong and well distributed.The fluorescence intensity of total cholesterol was significantly weakened in H-FD+NaHS group(52.13±3.70 compared with H-FD group(201.21±3.18,P < 0.01.Moicroscopic examination with HE staining showed that the cell shape and structure of hepatic tissue were normal in control group;the hepatocytes contained big lipid droplets,becoming swollen and rounded with obviously injured central area of hepatic lobule in H-FD group;while the lipid droplets in hepatocytes was distinctly decreased in H-FD+NaHS group,and the shape and structure of hepatocytes recovered to certain extent.Conclusion Exogenous hydrogen sulfide might show a novel regulatory effect on abnormality of lipid metabolism in liver of high-fat-fed rats.

  9. Aspirin prevents bone loss with little mechanical improvement in high-fat-fed ovariectomized rats.

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    Lin, Sien; Lee, Wayne Y W; Huang, Meiling; Fu, Ziwei; Liang, Yanlong; Wu, Haiyou; Xu, Liangliang; Suen, Chun Wai; Huang, Jianping; Wu, Tie; Cui, Liao; Li, Gang

    2016-11-15

    Obesity and osteoporosis are often concurrently happened in the menopausal women. Obesity in menopausal women is not only related to a high risk of cardiovascular disease, but also results in a detrimental effect on bone health. This study aimed to investigate the effects of aspirin, a popular anti-thrombosis drug, on bone quantity and quality in the high-fat-fed animal model. Adult female rats were subjected to either sham operations or ovariectomized operations. The ovariectomized rats were orally administered with deionized water or standardized high fat emulsion with or without aspirin. All rats were injected with calcein before killed for the purpose of double in vivo labeling. Biochemistry, histomorphometry, micro-computed tomography analysis, mechanical test, and component analysis were performed after 12 weeks. In vitro cell culture was also performed to observe the effect of aspirin in osteogenesis. We found that high fat remarkably impaired bone formation and bone biomechanics. Aspirin treatment significantly prevented bone loss by increasing bone formation. In vitro studies also validated the enhancement of osteogenic differentiation. However, aspirin presented no significant improvement in bone mechanical properties. Component analysis shown aspirin could significantly increase the content of mineral, but had limited effect on the content of collagen. In conclusion, aspirin is beneficial for the prevention of bone loss; meanwhile, it may cause an imbalance in the components of bone which may weaken the mechanical properties. The current study provided further evidence that aspirin might not be powerful for the prevention of fracture in osteoporotic patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Seaweed Supplements Normalise Metabolic, Cardiovascular and Liver Responses in High-Carbohydrate, High-Fat Fed Rats

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    Senthil Arun Kumar

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Increased seaweed consumption may be linked to the lower incidence of metabolic syndrome in eastern Asia. This study investigated the responses to two tropical green seaweeds, Ulva ohnoi (UO and Derbesia tenuissima (DT, in a rat model of human metabolic syndrome. Male Wistar rats (330–340 g were fed either a corn starch-rich diet or a high-carbohydrate, high-fat diet with 25% fructose in drinking water, for 16 weeks. High-carbohydrate, high-fat diet-fed rats showed the signs of metabolic syndrome leading to abdominal obesity, cardiovascular remodelling and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Food was supplemented with 5% dried UO or DT for the final 8 weeks only. UO lowered total final body fat mass by 24%, systolic blood pressure by 29 mmHg, and improved glucose utilisation and insulin sensitivity. In contrast, DT did not change total body fat mass but decreased plasma triglycerides by 38% and total cholesterol by 17%. UO contained 18.1% soluble fibre as part of 40.9% total fibre, and increased magnesium, while DT contained 23.4% total fibre, essentially as insoluble fibre. UO was more effective in reducing metabolic syndrome than DT, possibly due to the increased intake of soluble fibre and magnesium.

  11. Seaweed supplements normalise metabolic, cardiovascular and liver responses in high-carbohydrate, high-fat fed rats.

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    Kumar, Senthil Arun; Magnusson, Marie; Ward, Leigh C; Paul, Nicholas A; Brown, Lindsay

    2015-02-02

    Increased seaweed consumption may be linked to the lower incidence of metabolic syndrome in eastern Asia. This study investigated the responses to two tropical green seaweeds, Ulva ohnoi (UO) and Derbesia tenuissima (DT), in a rat model of human metabolic syndrome. Male Wistar rats (330-340 g) were fed either a corn starch-rich diet or a high-carbohydrate, high-fat diet with 25% fructose in drinking water, for 16 weeks. High-carbohydrate, high-fat diet-fed rats showed the signs of metabolic syndrome leading to abdominal obesity, cardiovascular remodelling and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Food was supplemented with 5% dried UO or DT for the final 8 weeks only. UO lowered total final body fat mass by 24%, systolic blood pressure by 29 mmHg, and improved glucose utilisation and insulin sensitivity. In contrast, DT did not change total body fat mass but decreased plasma triglycerides by 38% and total cholesterol by 17%. UO contained 18.1% soluble fibre as part of 40.9% total fibre, and increased magnesium, while DT contained 23.4% total fibre, essentially as insoluble fibre. UO was more effective in reducing metabolic syndrome than DT, possibly due to the increased intake of soluble fibre and magnesium.

  12. Leucine supplementation improves leptin sensitivity in high-fat diet fed rats

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    Xue-Wei Yuan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Several studies have reported the favorable effect of leucine supplementation on insulin resistance or insulin sensitivity. However, whether or not leucine supplementation improves leptin sensitivity remains unclear. Design: Forty-eight male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed with either a high-fat diet (HFD or HFD supplemented with 1.5, 3.0, and 4.5% leucine for 16 weeks. At the end of the experiment, serum leptin level was measured by ELISA, and leptin receptor (ObR in the hypothalamus was examined by immunohistochemistry. The protein expressions of ObR and leptin-signaling pathway in adipose tissues were detected by western blot. Results: No significant differences in body weight and food/energy intake existed among the four groups. Serum leptin levels were significantly lower, and ObR expression in the hypothalamus and adipose tissues was significantly higher in the three leucine groups than in the control group. These phenomena suggested that leptin sensitivity was improved in the leucine groups. Furthermore, the expressions of JAK2 and STAT3 (activated by ObR were significantly higher, and that of SOCS3 (inhibits leptin signaling was significantly lower in the three leucine groups than in the control group. Conclusions: Leucine supplementation improves leptin sensitivity in rats on HFD likely by promoting leptin signaling.

  13. Effect of Bougainvillea spectabilis Leaves on Serum Lipids in Albino Rats Fed with High Fat Diet

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    H. Saikia

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Dyslipidemia is major problem among population those have sedentary life style as well as in diabetics. Bougainvillea spectabilis is most commonly found in India as an ornamental plant and has got anti-diabetic action due to presence of one insulin mimicking agent D-pinitol (3-O-methyl-chiroinositol. The present investigation was undertaken to evaluate the effect of alcoholic extract of leaves of Bougainvillea spectabilis (AEBSL on serum lipid profile in albino rats fed with high fat diet (HFD and to compare it with a standard hypolipidaemic drug simvastatin. Thirty healthy albino rats of both sexes (100-200 g were randomized into 5 groups of 6 animals each. The groups were treated as follows: Group A: normal diet (ND; Group B: HFD (vanaspati ghee + coconut oil mixture in ratio of 3:2 at 10 ml/kg/day; Group C: HFD+ AEBSL (100 mg/kg/day; Group D: HFD + AEBSL (200 mg/kg/day; Group E: HFD + simvastatin (1.8 mg/kg/day. Lipid profile was estimated after 8 weeks of treatment. AEBSL showed a significant (p<0.01 reduction in total cholesterol (TC, Triglyceride (TG, Low density lipoprotein (LDL, Very low density lipoprotein (VLDL levels and significant (p<0.01 increase in high density lipoproteins (HDL in hypercholesteromic rats (Group C and Group D. AEBSL 200 mg/kg/day found to be more effective than AEBSL 100 mg/kg/day. There is also significant improvement in atherogenic index (p<0.01 and increases the percentage of protection AEBSL treated animals. Alcoholic extract of leaves of Bougainvillea spectabilis leaves have excellent lipid lowering potentiality.

  14. Phytase supplementation improves blood zinc in rats fed with high phytate Iranian bread

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    Soodeh Shockravi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: More than one third of energy intake in Iran is provided from bread. Therefore, improving bread mineral bioavailability through dephytinization can play an important role in decreasing the prevalence of many mineral deficiencies. In this study, effect of phytase supplementation on zinc, iron and calcium status in growing rats fed with a diet containing high phytate Iranian bread (Sangak was assessed. Methods: Thirty weanling Wistar male rats were assigned to phytase (Aspergillus niger or control group for 6 weeks. The diet was designed based on Iranian′s food pattern and 34.2% of the energy was supplied from Sangak bread. Food intake, body and organ weight and body height were measured. Zinc was measured in blood, liver and femur. Iron was assessed in blood and liver and calcium was titrated from femur bone. Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS software. Paired sample t-test, Wilcoxon signed-rank test and repeated measurement ANOVA were used for proper analysis of data. Results: Although weekly weight gain was not different between groups, final weight was in favor of control group. Food intakes, liver and femur bone weight did not differ between the two groups. However, the blood zinc was higher in the phytase group (26.2 ± 7.4 vs. 19.2 ± 5.2, P = 0.03. Thus positive effects of phytase supplementation on zinc, independent of growth was found. Other variables did not show any differences between groups. Conclusion: Addition of phytase to diet containing high phytate Iranian bread can improve blood zinc status in growing rats.

  15. Eugenia caryophyllus Extract Exerts Hypocholesterolemic and Antioxidant Effects in High-Cholesterol-Fed Rats

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    Onyenibe Nwozo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background Eugenia caryophyllus (clove is an important aromatic household spice. The plant is believed to possess medicinal properties and is commonly used in herbal preparations by traditional healers in the treatment of different ailments and diseases. Objectives We investigated the lipid-lowering and antioxidant effects of aqueous extract of Eugenia caryophyllus on high-cholesterol-fed rats. Materials and Methods Cholesterol (40 mg/0.3 mL was administered to induce hypercholesterolemia in rats by oral gavage, and Eugenia caryophyllus (100 or 200 mg/kg and Questran (0.26 g/kg were administered five times a week for eight consecutive weeks. Serum lipid-profiles, lipid peroxidation (LPO, and antioxidant parameters were examined in liver and heart post mitochondrial fraction (PMF. Aspartate and alanine aminotransferase (ALT and AST activities and liver tissue histology were used to evaluate tissue toxicity. Results Hypercholesterolemia produced a noticeable decrease in serum HDL-c, whereas a concurrent elevation in serum LDL-c, total cholesterol, and triglycerides as well as serum ALT and AST was observed. Furthermore, hypercholesterolemia remarkably decreased antioxidant status, but LPO content was increased. These indices were significantly attenuated in hypercholesterolemic rats treated with E. caryophyllus extract (100 or 200 mg/kg of body weight. Specifically, reduced glutathione (GSH concentration was increased in a dose dependent manner in liver and heart PMF. Conclusions These results demonstrate that the hypolipidemic and antioxidative effects of aqueous extract of E. caryophyllus might be due to its ability to ameliorate lipid profiles, enhance antioxidant activities, and delay the lipid peroxidation process. This confirms the previously identified protective roles of E. caryophyllus in human health.

  16. Antioxidant and antiapoptotic effects of pine needle powder ingestion and endurance training in high cholesterol-fed rats

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    Seo, Hyobin; Lee, Nam-Ho; Ryu, Sungpil

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] Pine needle is a kind of medicinal plant ingested traditionally for a variety of purposes. Therefore, we examined the antioxidant and antiapoptotic capacities of pine needle ingestion in high cholesterol-fed and endurance exercise-trained rats. [Methods] Animals were divided into six groups as; CON: normal diet control group; EX: normal diet and exercise training group; HC: high cholesterol diet group; HCE: high cholesterol diet and exercise training group; HCP: high cholesterol and...

  17. Consumption of Japanese Yam Improves Lipid Metabolism in High-Cholesterol Diet-Fed Rats.

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    Kusano, Yuri; Tsujihara, Nobuko; Masui, Hironori; Kozai, Hana; Takeuchi, Wakako

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the effects of dietary Japanese yam (Dioscorea japonica Thunb.) on lipid metabolism. Male Wistar rats (6 wk old) were fed a high-cholesterol diet for 6 wk and then supplemented with 26% of Japanese yam or 0.5% of its constituent diosgenin for a further 4 wk of high-cholesterol feeding (C6-J4 and C6-D4 groups, respectively). In the C6-J4 group, body weight gains significantly decreased, but skeletal muscle fiber sizes in quadriceps significantly increased compared with the other groups. Furthermore, Japanese yam supplementation resulted in the reduction of triglyceride contents in their liver, quadriceps, and intra-abdominal visceral fat. Diosgenin supplementation resulted in an increase in the numbers of skeletal muscle fibers and decrease in the fat accumulations in liver and of the lipid contents in quadriceps. Although quadriceps cholesterol contents decreased concomitantly with increased serum HDL-cholesterol in both the groups, fecal bile acid, fecal cholesterol contents, and fecal weight were higher in the C6-J4 group than in the C6-D4 group. Meanwhile, we demonstrated that Japanese yam inhibited micellar cholesterol solubility in vitro in a concentration-dependent manner. These results suggest that Japanese yam is more effective than diosgenin in reducing fat accumulation and improving cholesterol metabolism during chronic consumption of a high-cholesterol diet.

  18. Melatonin effect on plasma adiponectin, leptin, insulin, glucose, triglycerides and cholesterol in normal and high fat-fed rats.

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    Ríos-Lugo, María J; Cano, Pilar; Jiménez-Ortega, Vanesa; Fernández-Mateos, María P; Scacchi, Pablo A; Cardinali, Daniel P; Esquifino, Ana I

    2010-11-01

    Melatonin effect on body weight progression, mean levels and 24-hr pattern of circulating adiponectin, leptin, insulin, glucose, triglycerides and cholesterol were examined in rats fed a normal or a high-fat diet. In experiment 1, rats fed a normal diet were divided into two groups: receiving melatonin (25 μg/mL drinking water) or vehicle for 9 wk. In experiment 2, animals were divided into three groups: two fed with a high-fat diet (35% fat) and melatonin (25 μg/mL) or vehicle in drinking water for 11 wk, while a third group was given a normal diet (4% fat). At the end of experiments, groups of eight rats were killed at six different time intervals throughout a 24-hr period. Melatonin administration for 9 wk decreased body weight gain from the 3rd wk on without affecting food intake. A significant reduction in circulating insulin, glucose and triglyceride mean levels and disrupted daily patterns of plasma adiponectin, leptin and insulin were observed after melatonin. In high fat-fed rats, melatonin attenuated body weight increase, hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia, as well as the increase in mean plasma adiponectin, leptin, triglycerides and cholesterol levels. The high-fat diet disrupted normal 24-hr patterns of circulating adiponectin, insulin and cholesterol, the effects on insulin and cholesterol being counteracted by melatonin. Nocturnal plasma melatonin concentration in control and obese rats receiving melatonin for 11 wk attained values 21-24-fold greater than controls. The results indicate that melatonin counteracts some of the disrupting effects of diet-induced obesity in rats. © 2010 The Authors. Journal of Pineal Research © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  19. Piperine potentiates the hypocholesterolemic effect of curcumin in rats fed on a high fat diet.

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    Tu, Yaosheng; Sun, Dongmei; Zeng, Xiaohui; Yao, Nan; Huang, Xuejun; Huang, Dane; Chen, Yuxing

    2014-07-01

    It has previously been demonstrated that curcumin possesses a hypocholesterolemic effect and potentiates numerous pharmacological effects of curcumin, however, the mechanisms underlying this hypocholesterolemic effect and the interaction between curcumin and piperine remain to be elucidated. In the present study, male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed on a high-fat diet (HFD) to establish a hyperlipidemia (HLP) model. Co-administration of curcumin plus piperine was found to decrease the levels of total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in the serum and liver, as well as increase the levels of fecal TC, TG and total bile acid, compared with administration of curcumin alone. Curcumin plus piperine also markedly increased the levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Furthermore, compared with administration of curcumin alone, administration of curcumin plus piperine resulted in a significant upregulation of the activity and gene expression of apolipoprotein AI (ApoAI), lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT), cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase (CYP7A1) and low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR). In conclusion, these results indicated that co-administration of curcumin plus piperine potentiates the hypocholesterolemic effects of curcumin by increasing the activity and gene expression of ApoAI, CYP7A1, LCAT and LDLR, providing a promising combination for the treatment of HLP.

  20. Potential fat-lowering and prebiotic effects of enzymatically treated okara in high-cholesterol-fed Wistar rats.

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    Villanueva-Suárez, María-José; Pérez-Cózar, María-Luisa; Mateos-Aparicio, Inmaculada; Redondo-Cuenca, Araceli

    2016-11-01

    This study evaluates the effect of the lipid profile on serum, liver and faeces, and the potential prebiotic effect of diets supplemented with enzymatically treated okara (okara(ET)) in high-cholesterol fed Wistar rats. Triglyceride levels were significantly reduced in the serum (p < 0.01) and liver (p < 0.01) of okara(ET) treated rats. Total lipids, triglycerides and bile acids were significantly higher (p < 0.001) in the faeces of rats fed the okara(ET) diet. The pH of faecal contents from treated okara(ET) rats was lower (p < 0.001), probably due to the significantly higher (p < 0.001) production of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA). Okara(ET), therefore, reduced triglycerides in serum and liver, and increased the excretion of total lipids, triglycerides and bile acids, improving the lipid profile in rats fed with high-cholesterol diets. Okara(ET) fibre can improve intestinal transit by increasing faecal bulk. The decreased pH and increased SCFA production indicated that okara(ET) fibre fermentation occurred, suggesting a potential prebiotic effect.

  1. Effect of L-Carnitine on Skeletal Muscle Lipids and Oxidative Stress in Rats Fed High-Fructose Diet

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    Panchamoorthy Rajasekar

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available There is evidence that high-fructose diet induces insulin resistance, alterations in lipid metabolism, and oxidative stress in rat tissues. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of L-carnitine (CAR on lipid accumulation and peroxidative damage in skeletal muscle of rats fed high-fructose diet. Fructose-fed animals (60 g/100 g diet displayed decreased glucose/insulin (G/I ratio and insulin sensitivity index (ISI0,120 indicating the development of insulin resistance. Rats showed alterations in the levels of triglycerides, free fatty acids, cholesterol, and phospholipids in skeletal muscle. The condition was associated with oxidative stress as evidenced by the accumulation of lipid peroxidation products, protein carbonyls, and aldehydes along with depletion of both enzymic and nonenzymic antioxidants. Simultaneous intraperitoneal administration of CAR (300 mg/kg/day to fructose-fed rats alleviated the effects of fructose. These rats showed near-normal levels of the parameters studied. The effects of CAR in this model suggest that CAR supplementation may have some benefits in patients suffering from insulin resistance.

  2. Effect of troglitazone on vascular and glucose metabolic actions of insulin in high-sucrose-fed rats.

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    Santuré, Marta; Pitre, Maryse; Nadeau, André; Bachelard, Hélène

    2003-08-01

    In rats, diets high in simple sugar induce insulin resistance and alter vascular reactivity. The present study was designed to evaluate the effects of 5 weeks treatment with troglitazone on insulin sensitivity, regional hemodynamics, and vascular responses to insulin in chow-fed and high-sucrose-fed rats. Male rats were randomly divided in 4 groups to receive a regular chow diet in the absence (group 1) or presence of troglitazone (0.2% in food; group 2), or a sucrose-enriched diet in the absence (group 3) or presence of troglitazone (group 4) for 5 weeks. The rats were instrumented with Doppler flow probes and intravascular catheters to determine blood pressure, heart rate, and regional blood flows. Insulin sensitivity was assessed by the euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp technique. Glucose transport activity was examined in isolated muscles. Sucrose feeding was found to induce insulin resistance and to impair the insulin-mediated skeletal muscle vasodilation. Treatment with troglitazone was found to increase whole-body insulin sensitivity in sucrose- and chow-fed rats, but had no effect on skeletal muscle glucose transport activity measured in isolated muscles from both dietary groups. Changes in regional hemodynamics were observed in both dietary cohorts treated with troglitazone, and the hindquarter vasoconstrictor response to insulin noted in sucrose-fed rats was abolished by the treatment. The vascular effects of troglitazone, and its insulin-related attenuating effects on contractile tone, could have contributed, in part, to improve insulin action on peripheral glucose disposal, presumably by improving blood flow distribution and glucose delivery.

  3. Dissociation between PGC-1alpha and GLUT-4 expression in skeletal muscle of rats fed a high-fat diet.

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    Higashida, Kazuhiko; Higuchi, Mitsuru; Terada, Shin

    2009-12-01

    It has recently been reported that a 4-wk high-fat diet gradually increases skeletal muscle peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR) gamma coactivator-1alpha (PGC-1alpha) protein content, which has been suggested to regulate GLUT-4 gene transcription. However, it has not been reported that a high-fat diet enhances GLUT-4 mRNA expression and protein content in skeletal muscle, suggesting that an increase in PGC-1alpha protein content is not sufficient to induce muscle GLUT-4 biogenesis in a high-fat fed animal. Therefore, we first evaluated the relationship between PGC-1alpha and GLUT-4 expression in skeletal muscle of rats fed a high-fat diet for 4 wk. The PGC-1alpha protein content in rat epitrochlearis muscle significantly increased by twofold after the 4-wk high-fat diet feeding. However, the high-fat diet had no effect on GLUT-4 protein content and induced a 30% decrease in GLUT-4 mRNA expression in rat skeletal muscle (p<0.05). To clarify the mechanism by which a high-fat diet downregulates GLUT-4 mRNA expression, we next examined the effect of PPARdelta activation, which is known to occur in response to a high-fat diet, on GLUT-4 mRNA expression in L6 myotubes. Incubation with 500 nM GW501516 (PPARdelta activator) for 24 h significantly decreased GLUT-4 mRNA in L6 myotubes. Taken together, these findings suggest that a high-fat diet downregulates GLUT-4 mRNA, possibly through the activation of PPARdelta, despite an increase in PGC-1alpha protein content in rat skeletal muscle, and that a posttranscriptional regulatory mechanism maintains GLUT-4 protein content in skeletal muscle of rats fed a high-fat diet.

  4. Betaine alleviates hepatic lipid accumulation via enhancing hepatic lipid export and fatty acid oxidation in rats fed with a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Li; Huang, Danping; Hu, Qiaolin; Wu, Jing; Wang, Yizhen; Feng, Jie

    2015-06-28

    To assess the effects of betaine on hepatic lipid accumulation and investigate the underlying mechanism, thirty-two male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 100 (sd 2·50) g were divided into four groups, and started on one of four treatments: basal diet, basal diet with betaine administration, high-fat diet and high-fat diet with betaine administration. The results showed that no significant difference of body weight was found among experimental groups. Compared with high-fat diet-fed rats, a betaine supplementation decreased (Pbetaine-homocysteine methyltransferase concentration [corrected] as well as its mRNA abundance and lecithin level were found increased (Pbetaine supplementation in both basal diet-fed rats and high-fat diet-fed rats. Betaine administration in high-fat diet-fed rats exhibited a higher (Pbetaine administration in high-fat diet-fed rats elevated (Pbetaine administration in high-fat diet group; meanwhile the gene expression of hepatic AMP-activated protein kinase was increased (Pbetaine administration enhanced hepatic lipid export and fatty acid oxidation in high-fat diet-fed rats, thus effectively alleviating fat accumulation in the liver.

  5. Effects of two Lactobacillus strains on lipid metabolism and intestinal microflora in rats fed a high-cholesterol diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background The hypocholesterolemic effects of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have now become an area of great interest and controversy for many scientists. In this study, we evaluated the effects of Lactobacillus plantarum 9-41-A and Lactobacillus fermentum M1-16 on body weight, lipid metabolism and intestinal microflora of rats fed a high-cholesterol diet. Methods Forty rats were assigned to four groups and fed either a normal or a high-cholesterol diet. The LAB-treated groups received the high-cholesterol diet supplemented with Lactobacillus plantarum 9-41-A or Lactobacillus fermentum M1-16. The rats were sacrificed after a 6-week feeding period. Body weights, visceral organ and fat pad weights, serum and liver cholesterol and lipid levels, and fecal cholesterol and bile acid concentrations were measured. Liver lipid deposition and adipocyte size were evaluated histologically. Results Compared with rats fed a high-cholesterol diet but without LAB supplementation, serum total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides levels were significantly decreased in LAB-treated rats (p cholesterol levels. Hepatic cholesterol and triglyceride levels and liver lipid deposition were significantly decreased in the LAB-treated groups (p cholesterol and bile acids levels were significantly increased after LAB administration (p cholesterol diet, administration of Lactobacillus plantarum 9-41-A resulted in decreases in the body weight gain, liver and fat pad weight, and adipocytes size (p cholesterol diet. The ability to lower serum cholesterol varies among LAB strains. Our strains might be able to improve the intestinal microbial balance and potentially improve intestinal transit time. Although the mechanism is largely unknown, L. plantarum 9-41-A may play a role in fat metabolism. PMID:21722398

  6. Isoflavone and Protein Constituents of Lactic Acid-Fermented Soy Milk Combine to Prevent Dyslipidemia in Rats Fed a High Cholesterol Diet

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    Maki Kobayashi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A high cholesterol diet induces dyslipidemia. This study investigated whether isoflavone aglycones in lactic acid-fermented soy milk (LFS improve lipid metabolism in rats fed a high cholesterol diet. Male Sprague-Dawley rats aged seven weeks were fed an AIN-93G diet, a 1% cholesterol diet (a high cholesterol diet, a high-cholesterol diet containing 4% isoflavone extract of LFS (LFS extract diet, a high-cholesterol diet containing 19.4% ethanol-washed LFS (ethanol-washed LFS diet, isoflavone-poor diet, or a high cholesterol diet containing 23.2% intact LFS (intact LFS diet for five weeks. The plasma total cholesterol (TC level was increased in the rats fed the LFS extract diet compared with those fed the high cholesterol diet. The TC level was decreased by the intact LFS and ethanol-washed LFS diets. The cholesterol-lowering effect was stronger in the rats fed the intact LFS diet than those fed the ethanol-washed LFS diet. The plasma triglyceride (TG level was unchanged in the rats fed the LFS extract diet, but it decreased in rats fed the intact LFS and ethanol-washed LFS diets. Although, compared with the high cholesterol diet, the LFS extract and ethanol-washed LFS diets did not reduce hepatic cholesterol and TG, both levels were remarkably lowered by the intact LFS diet. These results suggest that the improvement in lipid metabolism of rats fed a high-cholesterol diet containing LFS isoflavone aglycones is not due to an independent effect but due to a cooperative effect with soy protein.

  7. Isoflavone and Protein Constituents of Lactic Acid-Fermented Soy Milk Combine to Prevent Dyslipidemia in Rats Fed a High Cholesterol Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Maki; Egusa, Shintaro; Fukuda, Mitsuru

    2014-01-01

    A high cholesterol diet induces dyslipidemia. This study investigated whether isoflavone aglycones in lactic acid-fermented soy milk (LFS) improve lipid metabolism in rats fed a high cholesterol diet. Male Sprague-Dawley rats aged seven weeks were fed an AIN-93G diet, a 1% cholesterol diet (a high cholesterol diet), a high-cholesterol diet containing 4% isoflavone extract of LFS (LFS extract diet), a high-cholesterol diet containing 19.4% ethanol-washed LFS (ethanol-washed LFS diet, isoflavone-poor diet), or a high cholesterol diet containing 23.2% intact LFS (intact LFS diet) for five weeks. The plasma total cholesterol (TC) level was increased in the rats fed the LFS extract diet compared with those fed the high cholesterol diet. The TC level was decreased by the intact LFS and ethanol-washed LFS diets. The cholesterol-lowering effect was stronger in the rats fed the intact LFS diet than those fed the ethanol-washed LFS diet. The plasma triglyceride (TG) level was unchanged in the rats fed the LFS extract diet, but it decreased in rats fed the intact LFS and ethanol-washed LFS diets. Although, compared with the high cholesterol diet, the LFS extract and ethanol-washed LFS diets did not reduce hepatic cholesterol and TG, both levels were remarkably lowered by the intact LFS diet. These results suggest that the improvement in lipid metabolism of rats fed a high-cholesterol diet containing LFS isoflavone aglycones is not due to an independent effect but due to a cooperative effect with soy protein. PMID:25514389

  8. Cardioprotective and renoprotective effects ofCocos nucifera water in offspring of high fat diet fed Wistar rat dams

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Opeyemi Oreofe Akindele; Yinusa Raji

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the effects ofCocos nucifera (C. nucifera) water on the cardiovascular and renal functions of offspring from rat dams fed high fat diet during gestation. Methods: Four groups of pregnant Wistar rats were treated from gestation day 1 to 21; namely, control (1 mL/100 g distilled water),C. nuciferawater (1 mL/100 gC. nuciferawater), high fat diet (1 mL/100 g distilled water + 30% butter: 70% standard rodent diet) and high fat diet +C. nuciferawater (1 mL/100 gC. nuciferawater + 30% butter: 70% standard rodent diet). All dams received standard rodent diet from gestation day 22, and offspring were weaned to standard rodent diet on postnatal day 28. On postnatal day 120, serum and cardiac levels of malondialdehyde, interleukin-1β and high sensitivity C-reactive protein were determined in offspring. Serum creatinine and urea levels as well as histology of heart and kidney tissue were assessed. Data were analyzed using One-wayANOVA andP Results: Male high fat diet offspring showed significantly increased (P Conclusions:C. nucifera water exerts cardioprotective and renoprotective effects on offspring of rat dams fed high fat diet during gestation via an anti-inflammatory mechanism.

  9. Effects of grape wine and apple cider vinegar on oxidative and antioxidative status in high cholesterol-fed rats

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    Atıf Can Seydim

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oxidative stress is the result of an imbalance between the rates of free radical production and elimination via endogenous antioxidant mechanisms such as antioxidant enzymes, which include glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px, superoxide dismutase (SOD, and catalase (CAT. There are mainly two vinegar production methods. The first is the surface method which is also known as the traditional method. The second method is known as the industrial method or submerged method which involves the use of a submerged culture with supplemented aeration. Objective: The aim of this study is to determine the effects of grape and apple cider vinegar consumption against oxidative stress in rats fed a high cholesterol diet. Methods: Fifty-four male, adult Wistar albino rats were included in this study. Rats were fed for 7 weeks by oral gavage as given in the experimental procedure. Rats were sacrificed at the end of the experiment and blood samples were collected. Catalase (CAT activity, malondialdehyde level (MDA, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px activity, superoxide dismutase (SOD activity were analyzed. Grape and apple vinegar fermentation products prepared using both the surface culture method and submerged methods were prepared. The total antioxidant activity of vinegar samples were measured by Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC and 2,2’-azinobis (3- ethlybenzthiazoline-6- sulfonic acid (ABTS methods. Results: Levels of CAT, GSH-Px, SOD in high cholesterol diet group (CHCNT were significantly decreased while MDA levels were significantly increased when compared to control-diet group (CNT (P<0.05. Levels of MDA, which is the end-product of lipid peroxidation, were significantly decreased in the apple cider vinegar administered groups when compared to the CHCNT (P<0.05. GSH-Px levels were significantly increased in rat groups, which were fed with the vinegars produced by traditional surface methods (P=0.03, P=0.001 respectively as compared to the

  10. Platelet hyperaggregability in high-fat fed rats: A role for intraplatelet reactive-oxygen species production

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    Monteiro Priscila F

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adiposity greatly increases the risk of atherothrombotic events, a pathological condition where a chronic state of oxidative stress is reported to play a major role. This study aimed to investigate the involvement of (NO-soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC signaling pathway in the platelet dysfunction from high fat-fed (HFF rats. Methods Male Wistar rats were fed for 10 weeks with standard chow (SCD or high-fat diet (HFD. ADP (10 μM- and thrombin (100 mU/ml-induced washed platelet aggregation were evaluated. Measurement of intracellular levels of ROS levels was carried out using flow cytometry. Cyclic GMP levels were evaluated using ELISA kits. Results High-fat fed rats exhibited significant increases in body weight, epididymal fat, fasting glucose levels and glucose intolerance compared with SCD group. Platelet aggregation induced by ADP (n = 8 and thrombin from HFD rats (n = 8 were significantly greater (P n = 6. N-acetylcysteine (NAC; 1 mM and PEG-catalase (1000 U/ml fully prevented the increased ROS production and platelet hyperaggregability in HFD group. The NO donors sodium nitroprusside (SNP; 10 μM and SNAP (10 μM, as well as the NO-independent soluble guanylyl cyclase stimulator BAY 41-2272 (10 μM inhibited the platelet aggregation in HFD group with lower efficacy (P P n = 4. Conclusions Metabolic abnormalities as consequence of HFD cause platelet hyperaggregability involving enhanced intraplatelet ROS production and decreased NO bioavailability that appear to be accompanied by potential defects in the prosthetic haem group of soluble guanylyl cyclase.

  11. Preventive effect of curcumin on inflammation, oxidative stress and insulin resistance in high-fat fed obese rats.

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    Maithilikarpagaselvi, Nachimuthu; Sridhar, Magadi Gopalakrishna; Swaminathan, Rathinam Palamalai; Sripradha, Ramalingam

    2016-06-01

    The present study investigated the beneficial effects of curcumin on inflammation, oxidative stress and insulin resistance in high-fat fed male Wistar rats. Five-month-old male Wistar rats (n=20) were divided into two groups (10 rats in each group). Among the two groups, one group received 30 % high-fat diet (HFD) and another group received 30 % HFD with curcumin (200 mg/kg body weight). Food intake, body weight and biochemical parameters were measured at the beginning and at the end of the study. After 10 weeks, oxidative stress parameters in skeletal muscle and hepatic triacylglycerol (TAG) content were estimated. Histological examinations of the liver samples were performed at the end of the experiment. High-fat feeding caused increase in body weight, liver and adipose tissue mass. Rats fed with HFD showed increased levels of fasting plasma glucose, insulin, Homeostasis Model Assessment for Insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), total cholesterol (TC), TAG, very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-c) and decreased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c). There was also increase in the plasma inflammatory markers [tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), C-reactive protein (CRP)] and skeletal muscle oxidative stress parameters [malondialdehyde (MDA), total oxidant status (TOS)] in these rats. In addition, high-fat feeding increased liver TAG content and caused fat accumulation in the liver. Treatment with curcumin significantly reduced body weight, relative organ weights (liver, adipose tissue), glucose, insulin and HOMA-IR. Curcumin supplementation decreased plasma levels of TC, TAG, VLDL-c, TNF-α and increased HDL-c. Administration of curcumin also reduced MDA, TOS in skeletal muscle, hepatic TAG content and liver fat deposition. Curcumin supplementation improved HFD-induced dyslipidemia, oxidative stress, inflammation and insulin resistance.

  12. Endurance training increases leptin expression in the retroperitoneal adipose tissue of rats fed with a high-sugar diet.

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    de Queiroz, Karina Barbosa; Guimarães, Juliana Bohnen; Coimbra, Cândido Celso; Rodovalho, Gisele Vieira; Carneiro, Cláudia Martins; Evangelista, Elísio Alberto; Guerra-Sá, Renata

    2014-01-01

    The presence of leptin receptors in white adipose tissue (WAT) suggests a type of peripheral control during the development of obesity and other metabolic disorders. Both diet composition and exercise influence serum leptin; however, the effect of their combination on long-term WAT leptin metabolism is unknown. In this study, rats fed with standard or high-sugar diets (HSD) were simultaneously subjected to running training for 4- and 8-week periods, and the retroperitoneal WAT (rWAT) was evaluated for adipocyte cell size, lipid and catecholamine content, Lep, OB-Rb and Ucp2 mRNA transcription levels, and circulating leptin and non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA). The HSD groups displayed a higher adiposity index and rWAT weight, Lep mRNA and protein upregulation, and a period-dependent effect on OB-Rb mRNA expression. Exercise decreased serum leptin and upregulated the OB-Rb mRNA levels. However, in rats fed with an HSD, the increase in OB-Rb mRNA and reduction in catecholamine levels resulted in a high level of adiposity and hyperleptinemia. The combination of training and an HSD decreases the NEFA levels and upregulating the Ucp2 mRNA expression in the 4-week period, while downregulating the Ucp2 mRNA expression in the 8-week period without changing the NEFA levels. Our results suggest that an HSD induces an increase in leptin expression in rWAT, while reducing adipocytes via leptin-mediated lipolysis after an 8-week period. In exercised rats fed an HSD, TAG synthesis and storage overlaps with lipolysis, promoting fat store development and Lep mRNA and plasma protein upregulation in adult rats.

  13. Glucose tolerance, lipids, and GLP-1 secretion in JCR:LA-cp rats fed a high protein fiber diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimer, Raylene A; Russell, James C

    2008-01-01

    We have shown that individually, dietary fiber and protein increase secretion of the anorexigenic and insulinotropic hormone, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). Our objective was to combine, in one diet, high levels of fiber and protein to maximize GLP-1 secretion, improve glucose tolerance, and reduce weight gain. Lean (+/?) and obese (cp/cp) male James C Russell corpulent (JCR:LA-cp) rats lacking a functional leptin receptor were fed one of four experimental diets (control, high protein (HP), high fiber (HF, prebiotic fiber inulin), or combination (CB)) for 3 weeks. An oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was performed to evaluate plasma GLP-1, insulin and glucose. Plasma lipids and intestinal proglucagon mRNA expression were determined. Energy intake was lower with the HF diet in lean and obese rats. Weight gain did not differ between diets. Higher colonic proglucagon mRNA in lean rats fed a CB diet was associated with higher GLP-1 secretion during OGTT. The HP diet significantly reduced plasma glucose area under the curve (AUC) during OGTT in obese rats, which reflected both an increased GLP-1 AUC and higher fasting insulin. Diets containing inulin resulted in the lowest plasma triglyceride and total cholesterol levels. Overall, combining HP with HF in the diet increased GLP-1 secretion in response to oral glucose, but did not improve glucose tolerance or lipid profiles more than the HF diet alone did. We also suggest that glycemic and insulinemic response to prebiotics differ among rat models and future research work should examine their role in improving glucose tolerance in diet-induced vs. genetic obesity with overt hyperleptinemia.

  14. Changes in gut microbiota in rats fed a high fat diet correlate with obesity-associated metabolic parameters.

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    Lecomte, Virginie; Kaakoush, Nadeem O; Maloney, Christopher A; Raipuria, Mukesh; Huinao, Karina D; Mitchell, Hazel M; Morris, Margaret J

    2015-01-01

    The gut microbiota is emerging as a new factor in the development of obesity. Many studies have described changes in microbiota composition in response to obesity and high fat diet (HFD) at the phylum level. In this study we used 16s RNA high throughput sequencing on faecal samples from rats chronically fed HFD or control chow (n = 10 per group, 16 weeks) to investigate changes in gut microbiota composition at the species level. 53.17% dissimilarity between groups was observed at the species level. Lactobacillus intestinalis dominated the microbiota in rats under the chow diet. However this species was considerably less abundant in rats fed HFD (Pobese phenotype, we correlated their abundance with metabolic parameters associated with obesity. Of the taxa contributing the most to dissimilarity between groups, 10 presented significant correlations with at least one of the tested parameters, three of them correlated positively with all metabolic parameters: Phascolarctobacterium, Proteus mirabilis and Veillonellaceae, all propionate/acetate producers. Lactobacillus intestinalis was the only species whose abundance was negatively correlated with change in body weight and fat mass. This species decreased drastically in response to HFD, favouring propionate/acetate producing bacterial species whose abundance was strongly correlated with adiposity and deterioration of metabolic factors. Our observations suggest that these species may play a key role in the development of obesity in response to a HFD.

  15. Additional effect of metformin and celecoxib against lipid dysregulation and adipose tissue inflammation in high-fat fed rats with insulin resistance and fatty liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Chieh-Hua; Hung, Yi-Jen; Hsieh, Po-Shiuan

    2016-10-15

    We investigated the effects of metformin and celecoxib on obesity-induced adipose tissue inflammation, insulin resistance (IR), fatty liver, and high blood pressure in high-fat (HF) fed rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed with either regular or HF diet for 8 weeks. Rats fed with regular diet were treated with vehicle for further 4 weeks. HF fed rats were divided into 6 groups, namely, vehicle, celecoxib (30mg/kg/day), metformin (300mg/kg/day), metformin (150mg/kg/day), metformin (300mg/kg/day) with celecoxib (30mg/kg/day), and metformin (150mg/kg/day) with celecoxib (15mg/kg/day) for additional 4 weeks. Increased body weight in HF fed rats was significantly reduced by metformin alone and metformin combined with celecoxib. The increases in the HOMA-IR value and the area under the curve of glucose following an oral glucose tolerance test, systolic blood pressure, and adipocyte size were significantly diminished in treated rats, especially rats undergoing combined treatment. Treatments with either celecoxib or in combination with metformin resulted in a reduction in AT macrophage infiltration and decreases in levels of adipose tissue TNF-α, MCP-1, and leptin levels in high-fat (HF) fed rats. Furthermore, the elevated hepatic triglycerides content was significantly decreased in the combined treatment group compared to that of groups of celecoxib or metformin alone. Celecoxib exerts a synergistic beneficial effect with metformin on and obesity-associated metabolic and cardiovascular disorders in high-fat fed rats. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Cardioprotective and renoprotective effects of Cocos nucifera water in offspring of high fat diet fed Wistar rat dams

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    Olufadekemi Tolulope Kunle-Alabi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the effects of Cocos nucifera (C. nucifera water on the cardiovascular and renal functions of offspring from rat dams fed high fat diet during gestation. Methods: Four groups of pregnant Wistar rats were treated from gestation day 1 to 21; namely, control (1 mL/100 g distilled water, C. nucifera water (1 mL/100 g C. nucifera water, high fat diet (1 mL/100 g distilled water + 30% butter: 70% standard rodent diet and high fat diet + C. nucifera water (1 mL/100 g C. nucifera water + 30% butter: 70% standard rodent diet. All dams received standard rodent diet from gestation day 22, and offspring were weaned to standard rodent diet on postnatal day 28. On postnatal day 120, serum and cardiac levels of malondialdehyde, interleukin-1β and high sensitivity C-reactive protein were determined in offspring. Serum creatinine and urea levels as well as histology of heart and kidney tissue were assessed. Data were analyzed using One-way ANOVA and P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Male high fat diet offspring showed significantly increased (P < 0.05 serum interleukin-1β compared with C. nucifera water offspring. The increase in serum high sensitivity C-reactive protein observed in female high fat diet offspring was not present in high fat diet + C. nucifera water offspring.Heart tissues from high fat diet offspring showed scanty fibers and congested myocardium with mild fibrosis. Male high fat diet offspring kidneys showed mesangial cell hyperplasia, fat infiltration and mild tubular necrosis. These were accompanied with alterations in serum urea and creatinine levels in high fat diet + C. nucifera water offspring. Conclusions: C. nucifera water exerts cardioprotective and renoprotective effects on offspring of rat dams fed high fat diet during gestation via an anti-inflammatory mechanism.

  17. Colon luminal content and epithelial cell morphology are markedly modified in rats fed with a high-protein diet

    OpenAIRE

    Andriamihaja, Mireille; Davila-Gay, Anne-Marie; Eklou, Mamy; Petit, Nathalie; Delpal, Serge; Allek, Fadhila; Blais, Anne; Delteil, Corine; Tomé, Daniel; Blachier, Francois

    2010-01-01

    Andriamihaja M, Davila A, Eklou-Lawson M, Petit N, Delpal S, Allek F, Blais A, Delteil C, Tome D, Blachier F. Colon luminal content and epithelial cell morphology are markedly modified in rats fed with a high-protein diet. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 299: G1030-G1037, 2010. First published August 5, 2010; doi: 10.1152/ajpgi.00149.2010.-Hyperproteic diets are used in human nutrition to obtain body weight reduction. Although increased protein ingestion results in an increased transf...

  18. Endothelial dysfunction in high fructose containing diet fed rats: Increased nitric oxide and decreased endothelin-1 levels in liver tissue

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    Zeki Arı

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Dietary high fructose consumption which is closely associated with endothelial dysfunction via insulin re-sistance has recently increased in developed countries. Insulin resistance has a promoter effect on many metabolic disorders such as syndrome X, polycystic ovary syndrome, Type 2 diabetes mellitus etc. Our aim in this study is to understand the impact of increased fructose intake on metabolisms of glucose, insulin and endothelial dysfunction by measuring nitric oxide (NO and endothelin-1 (ET-1 levels in hepatic tissue which is crucial in fructose metabolism.Materials and Methods: We designed an animal study to understand increased fructose intake on hepatic endothe-lium. Twenty adult male albino rats were divided into two groups; the study group (group 1, n=10 received isocaloric fructose enriched diet (fructose-fed rats, containing 18.3% protein, 60.3% fructose and 5.2% fat while the control group received purified regular chow (group 2, n=10 for 2 weeks. After feeding period, blood and hepatic tissue samples were collected and glucose, insulin, NO and ET-1 levels were analysed.Results: We found increased fasting glucose and insulin levels and impaired glucose tolerance in fructose fed rats. Higher NO and lower ET–1 levels were also detected in hepatic tissue samples of the group 1.Conclusion: Increased fructose consumption has deleterious effects on glucose tolerance, insulin resistance and may cause to endothelial dysfunction.

  19. Long-term globular adiponectin administration improves adipose tissue dysmetabolism in high-fat diet-fed Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matafome, P; Rodrigues, T; Pereira, A; Letra, L; Azevedo, H; Paixão, A; Silvério, M; Almeida, A; Sena, C; Seiça, R

    2014-10-01

    Adiponectin administration to obese or type 2 diabetic patients is still far off, due to its expensive costs and absence of studies demonstrating the effectiveness of its chronic administration. We performed long-term globular adiponectin administration, testing its usefulness in improving adipose tissue metabolism. Adiponectin (98 υg/day) was administered through a subcutaneous minipump with continued release (28 days) to Wistar rats fed a high-fat diet. Adiponectin decreased body weight and adipocyte size, while decreasing circulating leptin levels. More, adiponectin was able to increase IkappaBalpha and PPARgamma levels and to prevent high-fat diet-induced impairment of insulin signalling, especially in epididymal adipose tissue. This resulted in improved glucose profile. High-fat diet caused an impairment of lipolysis in epididymal adipose tissue, which was partially restored by adiponectin treatment. Long-term globular adiponectin administration was able to improve pathways of insulin signalling and lipid storage in adipose tissue of high-fat diet-fed rats, contributing to a better metabolic profile.

  20. Antidiabetic Effect of Fresh Nopal (Opuntia ficus-indica) in Low-Dose Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats Fed a High-Fat Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Seung Hwan; Kang, Il-Jun; Lim, Soon Sung

    2017-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate α-glucosidase inhibitory and antidiabetic effects of Nopal water extract (NPWE) and Nopal dry power (NADP) in low-dose streptozotocin- (STZ-) induced diabetic rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD). The type 2 diabetic rat model was induced by HFD and low-dose STZ. The rats were divided into four groups as follows: (1) nondiabetic rats fed a regular diet (RD-Control); (2) low-dose STZ-induced diabetic rats fed HFD (HF-STZ-Control); (3) low-dose STZ-induced diabetic rats fed HFD and supplemented with NPWE (100 mg/kg body weight, HF-STZ-NPWE); and (4) low-dose STZ-induced diabetic rats fed HFD and supplemented with comparison medication (rosiglitazone, 10 mg/kg, body weight, HF-STZ-Rosiglitazone). In results, NPWE and NADP had IC50 values of 67.33 and 86.68 μg/mL, both of which exhibit inhibitory activities but lower than that of acarbose (38.05 μg/mL) while NPWE group significantly decreased blood glucose levels compared to control and NPDP group on glucose tolerance in the high-fat diet fed rats model (P < 0.05). Also, the blood glucose levels of HR-STZ-NPWE group were significantly lower (P < 0.05) than HR-STZ-Control group on low-dose STZ-induced diabetic rats fed HFD. Based on these findings, we suggested that NPWE could be considered for the prevention and/or treatment of blood glucose and a potential use as a dietary supplement.

  1. Antidiabetic Effect of Fresh Nopal (Opuntia ficus-indica in Low-Dose Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats Fed a High-Fat Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung Hwan Hwang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate α-glucosidase inhibitory and antidiabetic effects of Nopal water extract (NPWE and Nopal dry power (NADP in low-dose streptozotocin- (STZ- induced diabetic rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD. The type 2 diabetic rat model was induced by HFD and low-dose STZ. The rats were divided into four groups as follows: (1 nondiabetic rats fed a regular diet (RD-Control; (2 low-dose STZ-induced diabetic rats fed HFD (HF-STZ-Control; (3 low-dose STZ-induced diabetic rats fed HFD and supplemented with NPWE (100 mg/kg body weight, HF-STZ-NPWE; and (4 low-dose STZ-induced diabetic rats fed HFD and supplemented with comparison medication (rosiglitazone, 10 mg/kg, body weight, HF-STZ-Rosiglitazone. In results, NPWE and NADP had IC50 values of 67.33 and 86.68 μg/mL, both of which exhibit inhibitory activities but lower than that of acarbose (38.05 μg/mL while NPWE group significantly decreased blood glucose levels compared to control and NPDP group on glucose tolerance in the high-fat diet fed rats model (P<0.05. Also, the blood glucose levels of HR-STZ-NPWE group were significantly lower (P<0.05 than HR-STZ-Control group on low-dose STZ-induced diabetic rats fed HFD. Based on these findings, we suggested that NPWE could be considered for the prevention and/or treatment of blood glucose and a potential use as a dietary supplement.

  2. Antidiabetic Effect of Fresh Nopal (Opuntia ficus-indica) in Low-Dose Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats Fed a High-Fat Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Seung Hwan; Kang, Il-Jun

    2017-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate α-glucosidase inhibitory and antidiabetic effects of Nopal water extract (NPWE) and Nopal dry power (NADP) in low-dose streptozotocin- (STZ-) induced diabetic rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD). The type 2 diabetic rat model was induced by HFD and low-dose STZ. The rats were divided into four groups as follows: (1) nondiabetic rats fed a regular diet (RD-Control); (2) low-dose STZ-induced diabetic rats fed HFD (HF-STZ-Control); (3) low-dose STZ-induced diabetic rats fed HFD and supplemented with NPWE (100 mg/kg body weight, HF-STZ-NPWE); and (4) low-dose STZ-induced diabetic rats fed HFD and supplemented with comparison medication (rosiglitazone, 10 mg/kg, body weight, HF-STZ-Rosiglitazone). In results, NPWE and NADP had IC50 values of 67.33 and 86.68 μg/mL, both of which exhibit inhibitory activities but lower than that of acarbose (38.05 μg/mL) while NPWE group significantly decreased blood glucose levels compared to control and NPDP group on glucose tolerance in the high-fat diet fed rats model (P < 0.05). Also, the blood glucose levels of HR-STZ-NPWE group were significantly lower (P < 0.05) than HR-STZ-Control group on low-dose STZ-induced diabetic rats fed HFD. Based on these findings, we suggested that NPWE could be considered for the prevention and/or treatment of blood glucose and a potential use as a dietary supplement. PMID:28303158

  3. Inhibition of angiotensin-1-converting enzyme activity by two varieties of ginger (Zingiber officinale) in rats fed a high cholesterol diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinyemi, Ayodele Jacob; Ademiluyi, Adedayo Oluwaseun; Oboh, Ganiyu

    2014-03-01

    Angiotensin-1-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors are widely used in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. This study sought to investigate the inhibitory effect of two varieties of ginger (Zingiber officinale) commonly consumed in Nigeria on ACE activity in rats fed a high cholesterol diet. The inhibition of ACE activity of two varieties of ginger (Z. officinale) was investigated in a high cholesterol (2%) diet fed to rats for 3 days. Feeding high cholesterol diets to rats caused a significant (Pginger varieties. Rats that were fed 4% white ginger had the greatest inhibitory effect as compared with a control diet. Furthermore, there was a significant (Pginger (either 2% or 4%) caused a significant (Pginger had the greatest reduction as compared with control diet. In conclusion, both ginger varieties exhibited anti-hypercholesterolemic properties in a high cholesterol diet fed to rats. This activity of the gingers may be attributed to its ACE inhibitory activity. However, white ginger inhibited ACE better in a high cholesterol diet fed to rats than red ginger. Therefore, both gingers could serve as good functional foods/nutraceuticals in the management/treatment of hypertension and other cardiovascular diseases.

  4. Effects of dietary consumption of cranberry powder on metabolic parameters in growing rats fed high fructose diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanal, Ramesh C; Rogers, Theodore J; Wilkes, Samuel E; Howard, Luke R; Prior, Ronald L

    2010-10-01

    The effect of dietary consumption of a cranberry powder (CP) containing increased amounts of procyanidins and other phytochemicals on metabolic parameters associated with metabolic syndrome was investigated in growing rats fed a high fructose diet. Dietary treatments were control (starch based), high fructose (HF), and HF containing either 3.3, 6.6, or 33 g CP/kg diet. Fasting plasma glucose and triglycerides tended to be higher with HF feeding and were reduced by feeding CP. The area under curve following an oral glucose tolerance test was 35-50% higher in animals fed HF diet vs. control and was decreased to control levels by the low or medium but not high CP diet. Feeding CP tended to lower fasting plasma insulin. Homeostatic models of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and β-cell function (HOMA-BCF) were lowest in animals fed low or medium CP diets (p metabolic parameters associated with metabolic syndrome and the medium level of CP in the diet produced a better response than the lower and higher CP levels. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2010

  5. Physical exercise remodels visceral adipose tissue and mitochondrial lipid metabolism in rats fed a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha-Rodrigues, Sílvia; Rodríguez, Amaia; Becerril, Sara; Ramírez, Beatriz; Gonçalves, Inês O; Beleza, Jorge; Frühbeck, Gema; Ascensão, António; Magalhães, José

    2017-03-01

    We aimed to investigate the effects of two physical exercise models, voluntary physical activity (VPA) and endurance training (ET) as preventive and therapeutic strategies, respectively, on lipid accumulation regulators and mitochondrial content in VAT of rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD). Sprague-Dawley rats (6 weeks old, n=60) were assigned into sedentary and VPA groups fed isoenergetic diets: standard (S, 35 kcal% fat) or HFD (71 kcal% fat). The VPA groups had free access to wheel running during the entire protocol. After 9 weeks, half of the sedentary animals were exercised on a treadmill while maintaining the dietary treatments. The HFD induced no changes in plasma non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) and glycerol levels and decreased oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) subunit IV and increased truncated/full-length sterol regulatory element-binding transcription factor 1c (SREBP1c) ratio in epididymal white adipose tissue (eWAT). VPA decreased plasma glycerol levels, aquaglyceroporin 7 (AQP7) and increased subunit I of cytochrome c oxidase (COX) protein, in standard diet fed animals. Eight weeks of ET decreased body weight, visceral adiposity and adipocyte size and plasma NEFA and glycerol levels, as well as AQP7 protein expression in eWAT. ET increased fatty acid translocase (FAT/CD36), mitochondrial content of complexes IV and V subunits, mitochondrial biogenesis and dynamic (mitofusins and optic atrophy 1)-related proteins. Moreover, lipogenesis-related markers (SREBP1c and acetyl CoA carboxylase) were reduced after 8 weeks of ET. In conclusion, ET-induced alterations reflect a positive effect on mitochondrial function and the overall VAT metabolism of HFD-induced obese rats.

  6. Dietary Shiitake Mushroom (Lentinus edodes Prevents Fat Deposition and Lowers Triglyceride in Rats Fed a High-Fat Diet

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    D. Handayani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available High-fat diet (HFD induces obesity. This study examined the effects of Shiitake mushroom on the prevention of alterations of plasma lipid profiles, fat deposition, energy efficiency, and body fat index induced by HFD. Rats were given a low, medium, and high (7, 20, 60 g/kg = LD-M, MD-M, HD-M Shiitake mushroom powder in their high-fat (50% in kcal diets for 6 weeks. The results showed that the rats on the HD-M diet had the lowest body weight gain compared to MD-M and LD-M groups (P<0.05. The total fat deposition was significantly lower (−35%, P<0.05 in rats fed an HD-M diet than that of HFD group. Interestingly, plasma triacylglycerol (TAG level was significantly lower (−55%, P<0.05 in rats on HD-M than HFD. This study also revealed the existence of negative correlations between the amount of Shiitake mushroom supplementation and body weight gain, plasma TAG, and total fat masses.

  7. Isoflavone Regulates Lipid Metabolism via Expression of Related Genes in OVX Rats Fed on a High-fat Diet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO-LIN NA; JUNKO EZAKI; FUMIE SUGIYAMA; HONG-BIN CUI; YOSHIKO ISHIMI

    2008-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of isoflavone on body weight, fat mass, and gene expression in relation to lipid metabolism. Methods Thirty-six female SD rats were variectomized or sham-operated and fed on a high-fat diet. Two months later, abdominal incision was made, blood was collected to separate serum, and the liver and adipose tissue were immediately collected and weighed. Some portions of these tissues were frozen in liquid nitrogen and stored at -80℃. Results Ovariectomy (OVX) with a high-fat diet could induce obesity in rats, while treatment with isoflavone significantly inhibited the increase in body weight and fat mass in abdomen. Serum total cholesterol and leptin were significantly decreased in isoflavone group, compared with the OVX group. The mRNA expression of liver fatty acid synthase (FAS) in the OVX group was significantly higher than that in sham-operated group, while this difference was not observed in the isoflavone group. The mRNA expression of liver hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) in the OVX rats tended to be lower than that in the sham-operated rats. Furthermore, a large amount of isoflavone maintained the mRNA expression at a sham level. Conclusion lsoflavone may prevent obesity induced by ovariectomy with a high-fat diet, in part by modulating gene expression related to lipid metabolism.

  8. Sardine protein diet increases plasma glucagon-like peptide-1 levels and prevents tissue oxidative stress in rats fed a high-fructose diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madani, Zohra; Sener, Abdullah; Malaisse, Willy J; Dalila, Ait Yahia

    2015-11-01

    The current study investigated whether sardine protein mitigates the adverse effects of fructose on plasma glucagon‑like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and oxidative stress in rats. Rats were fed casein (C) or sardine protein (S) with or without high‑fructose (HF) for 2 months. Plasma glucose, insulin, GLP‑1, lipid and protein oxidation and antioxidant enzymes were assayed. HF rats developed obesity, hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, insulin resistance and oxidative stress despite reduced energy and food intakes. High plasma creatinine and uric acid levels, in addition to albuminuria were observed in the HF groups. The S‑HF diet reduced plasma glucose, insulin, creatinine, uric acid and homeostasis model assessment‑insulin resistance index levels, however increased GLP‑1 levels compared with the C‑HF diet. Hydroperoxides were reduced in the liver, kidney, heart and muscle of S‑HF fed rats compared with C‑HF fed rats. A reduction in liver, kidney and heart carbonyls was observed in S‑HF fed rats compared with C‑HF fed rats. Reduced levels of nitric oxide (NO) were detected in the liver, kidney and heart of the S‑HF fed rats compared with C‑HF fed rats. The S diet compared with the C diet reduced levels of liver hydroperoxides, heart carbonyls and kidney NO. The S‑HF diet compared with the C‑HF diet increased the levels of liver and kidney superoxide dismutase, liver and muscle catalase, liver, heart and muscle glutathione peroxidase and liver ascorbic acid. The S diet prevented and reversed insulin resistance and oxidative stress, and may have benefits in patients with metabolic syndrome.

  9. Green tea decoction improves glucose tolerance and reduces weight gain of rats fed normal and high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snoussi, Chahira; Ducroc, Robert; Hamdaoui, Mohamed Hédi; Dhaouadi, Karima; Abaidi, Houda; Cluzeaud, Francoise; Nazaret, Corinne; Le Gall, Maude; Bado, André

    2014-05-01

    Green tea containing polyphenols exerts antidiabetic and antiobesity effects, but the mechanisms involved are not fully understood. In this study, we first analyzed and compared polyphenol compounds [epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), epigallocatechin (EGC)] in decoction of green tea leaves versus usual green tea extracts. Second, the effects of acute (30 min) or chronic (6 weeks) oral administration of green tea decoction (GTD) on intestinal glucose absorption were studied in vitro in Ussing chamber, ex vivo using isolated jejunal loops and in vivo through glucose tolerance tests. Finally, we explore in rat model fed normal or high-fat diet the effects of GTD on body weight, blood parameters and on the relative expression of glucose transporters SGLT-1, GLUT2 and GLUT4. GTD cooked for 15 min contained the highest amounts of phenolic compounds. In fasted rats, acute administration of GTD inhibited SGLT-1 activity, increased GLUT2 activity and improved glucose tolerance. Similarly to GTD, acute administration of synthetic phenolic compounds (2/3 EGCG+1/3 EGC) inhibited SGLT-1 activity. Chronic administration of GTD in rat fed high-fat diet reduced body weight gain, circulating triglycerides and cholesterol and improved glucose tolerance. GTD-treated rats for 6 weeks display significantly reduced SGLT-1 and increased GLUT2 mRNA levels in the jejunum mucosa. Moreover, adipose tissue GLUT4 mRNA levels were increased. These results indicate that GTD, a traditional beverage rich in EGCG and EGC reduces intestinal SGLT-1/GLUT2 ratio, a hallmark of regulation of glucose absorption in enterocyte, and enhances adipose GLUT4 providing new insights in its possible role in the control of glucose homeostasis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Dietary Docosahexaenoic Acid and Eicosapentaenoic Acid Influence Liver Triacylglycerol and Insulin Resistance in Rats Fed a High-Fructose Diet

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    Gabriela Salim de Castro

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to examine the benefits of different amounts of omega-3 (n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids from fish oil (FO on lipid metabolism, insulin resistance and gene expression in rats fed a high-fructose diet. Male Wistar rats were separated into two groups: Control (C, n = 6 and Fructose (Fr, n = 32, the latter receiving a diet containing 63% by weight fructose for 60 days. After this period, 24 animals from Fr group were allocated to three groups: FrFO2 (n = 8 receiving 63% fructose and 2% FO plus 5% soybean oil; FrFO5 (n = 8 receiving 63% fructose and 5% FO plus 2% soybean oil; and FrFO7 (n = 8 receiving 63% fructose and 7% FO. Animals were fed these diets for 30 days. Fructose led to an increase in liver weight, hepatic and serum triacylglycerol, serum alanine aminotransferase and HOMA1-IR index. These alterations were reversed by 5% and 7% FO. FO had a dose-dependent effect on expression of genes related to hepatic β-oxidation (increased and hepatic lipogenesis (decreased. The group receiving the highest FO amount had increased markers of oxidative stress. It is concluded that n-3 fatty acids may be able to reverse the adverse metabolic effects induced by a high fructose diet.

  11. Metformin HCl has curative effect on rebuilding of ventricular diastolic functions in high-fat-diet fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topal, Askin Ender; Kelle, Ilker; Akkoc, Hasan; Yilmaz, Sedat; Yilmaz, Sedat; Akkus, Murat

    2017-05-01

    Myocardial lipid accumulation due to diabetes and/or obesity plays a role in the progression of left ventricular diastolic dysfunction. Our aims were to exhibit the correlation between histopathologic stage of the liver and cardiac functions, and to evaluate the effects of metformin HCl and rosiglitazone on myocardial functions. Thirty-two male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups to exhibit the correlation between histopathologic stage of the liver and cardiac functions and to determine whether metformin HCl and rosiglitazone have effects on cardiac functions. For 20 weeks, one group was fed standard rat basic diet, whereas the other groups were on high-fat-diet. During the last 4 weeks, metformin HCl was given to the third group, rosiglitazone to the fourth group. Histological evaluation of rat livers yielded significantly higher steatosis grade in high-fat-diet group and different fibrosis stages among groups. Also, there was significant correlation between diastolic functions and steatosis grade/fibrosis stage of rat liver. Electrophysiological study of hearts via Langendorff technique showed better coronary perfusion pressures and diastolic functions in standard-diet and metformin HCl groups compared to other groups. Metformin HCl improves LV diastolic dysfunction and coronary perfusion pressures.

  12. Bioavailability of magnesium from inorganic and organic compounds is similar in rats fed a high phytic acid diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertinato, Jesse; Plouffe, Louise J; Lavergne, Christopher; Ly, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    A large section of the North American population is not meeting recommended intakes for magnesium (Mg). Supplementation and consumption of Mg-fortified foods are ways to increase intake. Currently, information on Mg bioavailability from different compounds and their efficacy in improving Mg status is scant. This study compared the relative ability of inorganic and organic Mg compounds to preserve the Mg status of rats when fed at amounts insufficient to retain optimal Mg status. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n=12/diet group) were fed one of eight test diets supplemented with phytic acid (5 g/kg diet) and low levels of Mg (155 mg elemental Mg/kg diet) from Mg oxide, Mg sulphate, Mg chloride, Mg citrate, Mg gluconate, Mg orotate, Mg malate or ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid disodium Mg salt for five weeks. Rats were also fed three control diets that did not contain added phytic acid but were supplemented with 500 (NMgO, normal), 155 (LMgO, low) or 80 (DMgO, deficient) mg of Mg per kg diet as Mg oxide. Mg concentrations in femur, serum and urine showed a graded decrease in rats fed the control diets with lower Mg. Mg concentrations did not differ (P≥0.05) between rats fed the different test diets. Addition of phytic acid to the diet did not affect the Mg status of the rats. The results indicate that any differences in the Mg bioavailability of the compounds were small and physiologically irrelevant.

  13. Electrical vagus nerve stimulation decreases food consumption and weight gain in rats fed a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Krzysztof; Bugajski, A; Thor, P

    2011-12-01

    There is growing evidence that vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) has a suppressive effect on both short- and long-term feeding in animal models. We previously showed that long-term VNS (102 days) with low-frequency electrical impulses (0.05 Hz) decreased food intake and body weight in rats. In the present study, we investigated the effect of high frequency (10 Hz) VNS on feeding behavior and appetite in rats fed a high-fat diet; peptide secretion and other parameters were assessed as well. Adult male Wistar rats were each implanted subcutaneously with a microstimulator (MS) and fed a high-fat diet throughout the entire study period (42 days). The left vagus nerve was stimulated by rectangular electrical pulses (10 ms, 200 mV, 10 Hz, 12 h a day) generated by the MS. Body weight and food intake were measured each morning. At the end of the experimental period, animals were euthanized and blood samples were taken. Serum levels of ghrelin, leptin and nesfatin-1 were assessed using radioimmunoassays. Adipose tissue content was evaluated by weighing epididymal fat pads, which were incised at the time of sacrifice. To determine whether VNS activated the food-related areas of the brain, neuronal c-Fos induction in the nuclei of the solitary tract (NTS) was assessed. Chronic vagus nerve stimulation significantly decreased food intake, body weight gain and epididymal fat pad weight in animals that received VNS compared with control animals. Significant neuronal responses in the NTS were observed following VNS. Finally, serum concentrations of ghrelin were increased, while serum levels of leptin were decreased. Although not significant, serum nesfatin-1 levels were also elevated. These results support the theory that VNS leads to reductions in food intake, body weight gain and adipose tissue by increasing brain satiety signals conducted through the vagal afferents. VNS also evoked a feed-related hormonal response, including elevated blood concentrations of nesfatin-1.

  14. Effects of xanthohumol-rich extract from the hop on fatty acid metabolism in rats fed a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yui, Kazuki; Kiyofuji, Ayane; Osada, Kyoichi

    2014-01-01

    Xanthohumol is the major prenylated flavonoid of female inflorescences of the hop plant (Humulus lupulus L.) and is a hydrophobic flavonoid. We examined the effects of dietary xanthohumol-rich hop extract in obese rats that was induced by feeding a high-fat diet. Dietary xanthohumol-rich hop extract significantly lowered the body weight gain of these rats compared to rats fed a high-fat diet without the extract. The increase of body weight, liver weight, and triacylglycerol levels in the plasma and liver of the rats fed a high-fat diet was ameliorated by dietary xanthohumol-rich hop extract. Dietary xanthohumol-rich hop extract tended to reduce hepatic fatty acid synthesis through the reduction of hepatic SREBP1c mRNA expression in the rats fed a high-fat diet. The excreted of triacylglycerol into feces also was promoted by dietary xanthohumol-rich hop extract. Plasma adiponectin levels in the rats fed a high-fat diet also tended to be elevated by dietary xanthohumol-rich hop extract. Thus, xanthohumol-rich hop extract may inhibit the increase of body weight, liver weight, and triacylglycerol in the plasma and liver induced by feeding high-fat diet through the regulation of hepatic fatty acid metabolism and inhibition of intestinal fat absorption. Therefore, xanthohumol-rich hop extract may exert preventive function on the increase of body weight and tissue triacylglycerol levels by overnutrition.

  15. Moderately Low Magnesium Intake Impairs Growth of Lean Body Mass in Obese-Prone and Obese-Resistant Rats Fed a High-Energy Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertinato, Jesse; Lavergne, Christopher; Rahimi, Sophia; Rachid, Hiba; Vu, Nina A; Plouffe, Louise J; Swist, Eleonora

    2016-04-28

    The physical and biochemical changes resulting from moderately low magnesium (Mg) intake are not fully understood. Obesity and associated co-morbidities affect Mg metabolism and may exacerbate Mg deficiency and physiological effects. Male rats selectively bred for diet-induced obesity (OP, obese-prone) or resistance (OR, obese-resistant) were fed a high-fat, high-energy diet containing moderately low (LMg, 0.116 ± 0.001 g/kg) or normal (NMg, 0.516 ± 0.007 g/kg) Mg for 13 weeks. The growth, body composition, mineral homeostasis, bone development, and glucose metabolism of the rats were examined. OP and OR rats showed differences (p < 0.05) in many physical and biochemical measures regardless of diet. OP and OR rats fed the LMg diet had decreased body weight, lean body mass, decreased femoral size (width, weight, and volume), and serum Mg and potassium concentrations compared to rats fed the NMg diet. The LMg diet increased serum calcium (Ca) concentration in both rat strains with a concomitant decrease in serum parathyroid hormone concentration only in the OR strain. In the femur, Mg concentration was reduced, whereas concentrations of Ca and sodium were increased in both strains fed the LMg diet. Plasma glucose and insulin concentrations in an oral glucose tolerance test were similar in rats fed the LMg or NMg diets. These results show that a moderately low Mg diet impairs the growth of lean body mass and alters femoral geometry and mineral metabolism in OP and OR rats fed a high-energy diet.

  16. Moderately Low Magnesium Intake Impairs Growth of Lean Body Mass in Obese-Prone and Obese-Resistant Rats Fed a High-Energy Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse Bertinato

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The physical and biochemical changes resulting from moderately low magnesium (Mg intake are not fully understood. Obesity and associated co-morbidities affect Mg metabolism and may exacerbate Mg deficiency and physiological effects. Male rats selectively bred for diet-induced obesity (OP, obese-prone or resistance (OR, obese-resistant were fed a high-fat, high-energy diet containing moderately low (LMg, 0.116 ± 0.001 g/kg or normal (NMg, 0.516 ± 0.007 g/kg Mg for 13 weeks. The growth, body composition, mineral homeostasis, bone development, and glucose metabolism of the rats were examined. OP and OR rats showed differences (p < 0.05 in many physical and biochemical measures regardless of diet. OP and OR rats fed the LMg diet had decreased body weight, lean body mass, decreased femoral size (width, weight, and volume, and serum Mg and potassium concentrations compared to rats fed the NMg diet. The LMg diet increased serum calcium (Ca concentration in both rat strains with a concomitant decrease in serum parathyroid hormone concentration only in the OR strain. In the femur, Mg concentration was reduced, whereas concentrations of Ca and sodium were increased in both strains fed the LMg diet. Plasma glucose and insulin concentrations in an oral glucose tolerance test were similar in rats fed the LMg or NMg diets. These results show that a moderately low Mg diet impairs the growth of lean body mass and alters femoral geometry and mineral metabolism in OP and OR rats fed a high-energy diet.

  17. Anti-obesity efficacy of nanoemulsion oleoresin capsicum in obese rats fed a high-fat diet

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    Kim JY

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Joo-Yeon Kim,1,* Mak-Soon Lee,1,* Sunyoon Jung,1 Hyunjin Joo,1 Chong-Tai Kim,2 In-Hwan Kim,3 Sangjin Seo,1 Soojung Oh,1 Yangha Kim11Department of Nutritional Science and Food Management, Ewha Womans University, Seoul, Republic of Korea; 2Functional Materials Research Group, Korea Food Research Institute, Seongnam, Gyeonggi, Republic of Korea; 3Department of Food and Nutrition, Korea University, Seoul, Republic of Korea *These authors contributed equally to this workPurpose: This study determined the effects of oleoresin capsicum (OC and nanoemulsion OC (NOC on obesity in obese rats fed a high-fat diet.Methods: The rats were randomly separated into three groups: a high-fat (HF diet group, HF + OC diet group, and HF + NOC diet group. All groups were fed the diet and water ad libitum for 14 weeks.Results: NOC reduced the body weight and adipose tissue mass, whereas OC did not. OC and NOC reduced mRNA levels of adipogenic genes, including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR-γ, sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c, and fatty acid-binding protein in white adipose tissue. The mRNA levels of genes related to β-oxidation or thermogenesis including PPAR-α, palmitoyltransferase-1α, and uncoupling protein-2 were increased by the OC and NOC relative to the HF group. Both OC and NOC clearly stimulated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK activity. In particular, PPAR-α, palmitoyltransferase-1α, uncoupling protein-2 expression, and AMPK activity were significantly increased in the NOC group compared to in the OC group. NOC decreased glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase activity whereas OC did not.Conclusion: From these results, NOC could be suggested as a potential anti-obesity agent in obese rats fed a HF diet. The effects of the NOC on obesity were associated with changes of multiple gene expression, activation of AMPK, and inhibition of glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase in white adipose tissue.Keywords: oleoresin capsicum

  18. Swimming exercise increases serum irisin level and reduces body fat mass in high-fat-diet fed Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yun; Li, Hongwei; Shen, Shi-Wei; Shen, Zhen-Hai; Xu, Ming; Yang, Cheng-Jian; Li, Feng; Feng, Yin-Bo; Yun, Jing-Ting; Wang, Ling; Qi, Hua-Jin

    2016-05-13

    It has been shown that irisin levels are reduced in skeletal muscle and plasma of obese rats; however, the effect of exercise training on irisin level remains controversial. We aim to evaluate the association of swimming exercise with serum irisin level and other obesity-associated parameters. Forty healthy male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to 4 groups: a normal diet and sedentary group (ND group), normal diet and exercise group (NDE group), high-fat diet and sedentary group (HFD group), and high-fat diet and exercise group (HFDE group. After 8 consecutive weeks of swimming exercise, fat mass and serum irisin level was determined. Higher serum irisin levels were detected in the HFDE group (1.15 ± 0.28 μg/L) and NDE group (1.76 ± 0.17 μg/L) than in the HFD group (0.84 ± 0.23 μg/L) or the ND group (1.24 ± 0.29 μg/L), respectively (HFDE group vs. HFD group, P Swimming exercise decreases body fat mass in high-fat-fed Wistar rats, which may be attributable to elevated irisin levels induced by swimming exercise.

  19. Changes in gut microbiota in rats fed a high fat diet correlate with obesity-associated metabolic parameters.

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    Virginie Lecomte

    Full Text Available The gut microbiota is emerging as a new factor in the development of obesity. Many studies have described changes in microbiota composition in response to obesity and high fat diet (HFD at the phylum level. In this study we used 16s RNA high throughput sequencing on faecal samples from rats chronically fed HFD or control chow (n = 10 per group, 16 weeks to investigate changes in gut microbiota composition at the species level. 53.17% dissimilarity between groups was observed at the species level. Lactobacillus intestinalis dominated the microbiota in rats under the chow diet. However this species was considerably less abundant in rats fed HFD (P<0.0001, this being compensated by an increase in abundance of propionate/acetate producing species. To further understand the influence of these species on the development of the obese phenotype, we correlated their abundance with metabolic parameters associated with obesity. Of the taxa contributing the most to dissimilarity between groups, 10 presented significant correlations with at least one of the tested parameters, three of them correlated positively with all metabolic parameters: Phascolarctobacterium, Proteus mirabilis and Veillonellaceae, all propionate/acetate producers. Lactobacillus intestinalis was the only species whose abundance was negatively correlated with change in body weight and fat mass. This species decreased drastically in response to HFD, favouring propionate/acetate producing bacterial species whose abundance was strongly correlated with adiposity and deterioration of metabolic factors. Our observations suggest that these species may play a key role in the development of obesity in response to a HFD.

  20. Bone density and tissue lead accretion in growing rats fed low high calcium with or without supplemental clinoptilolite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pond, W.G.; Ho, H.; Su, D.R. [Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (United States)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    The toxicity of lead in animals and humans is well documented. The naturally occurring zeolite, clinoptilolite, is known to offer protection against ammonium ion toxicity in rats and sheep and to counteract cadmium-induced iron deficiency anemia in rats and swine. The cation-exchange and adsorption properties of clinoptilolite suggest is possible role in reducing tissue uptake of ingested lead by animals. Evidence supporting this role was reported in growing pigs whose liver and kidney concentrations of lead were significantly reduced by the addition of 1.0% clinoptilolite to diets containing 500 or 1000ppm of lead. The basal diet was a highly fortified milk-replacer containing about 1% calcium supplied by milk constituents. High dietary calcium is known to reduce tissue uptake of lead and protect the pig from the tissue pathology associated with lead ingestion. The objective of this experiment was to test the hypothesis that dietary clinoptilolite and calcium levels affect the growth, tissue uptake and bone morphology of growing rats fed diets containing toxic levels of lead. 20 refs., 3 tabs.

  1. Effects of telmisartan and olmesartan on insulin sensitivity and renal function in spontaneously hypertensive rats fed a high fat diet

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    Hayato Yanagihara

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Although telmisartan, an angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB, has an agonistic action for proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR-γ in vitro, it remains to be determined whether telmisartan exerts such an action in vivo using a non-toxic dose (<5 mg/kg in rats. To address the issue, telmisartan (2 mg/kg and olmesartan (2 mg/kg, another ARB without PPAR-γ agonistic action, were given to spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR fed a high fat diet (HFD. HFD decreased plasma adiponectin, and caused insulin resistance, hypertriglyceridemia and renal damage, which were improved by ARBs. Protective effects of telmisartan and olmesartan did not significantly differ. In addition, in vitro study showed that 1 μM of telmisartan did not elevate the mRNA expression of adipose protein 2, which is a PPAR-γ-stimulated adipogenic marker gene, in preadipocytes with 3% albumin. To obtain 1 μM of plasma concentration, oral dose of telmisartan was calculated to be 6 mg/kg, which indicates that PPAR-γ agonistic action is negligible with a non-toxic dose of telmisartan (<5 mg/kg in rats. This study showed that 2 mg/kg of telmisartan and olmesartan ameliorated insulin resistance, hypertriglyceridemia and renal damage in SHR fed a HFD. As beneficial effects of telmisartan and olmesartan did not significantly differ, these were mediated through the PPAR-γ-independent actions.

  2. Antihyperlipidemic effect of sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) protein isolate in rats fed a normal and high cholesterol diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Arundhati; Dhar, Pubali; Ghosh, Santinath

    2010-01-01

    The dietary influence of sesame protein isolate (protein content 91.5%), produced from dehulled, defatted sesame meal, on blood and tissue lipid profile and lipid peroxidation has been assessed in normal and hypercholesterolemic rats. To evaluate their hypocholesterolemic and antioxidative activity in vivo, we fed 18% sesame protein isolate with or without 2% cholesterol in comparison with casein to rats for 28 d. We determined plasma total protein, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol, triacylglycerol as well as susceptibility of plasma and erythrocyte membrane lipid to oxidation ex vivo. Liver tissue lipid, cholesterol, phospholipids, and lipid peroxidations were also determined. The total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and triacylglycerol levels were significantly reduced in the sesame protein isolate and isolate containing cholesterol group than the corresponding control casein groups. HDL-cholesterol level was also increased in sesame protein isolate (41%) and protein isolate containing cholesterol group (38%) than the corresponding control casein and casein containing cholesterol groups. There was 49% and 64% lowering of plasma lipid peroxidation as well as 36% and 56% lowering of lipoprotein oxidation susceptibility (LOS) in the 2 experimental groups (sesame protein isolate and isolate containing cholesterol group) than the corresponding control (casein and casein containing cholesterol) groups. There was significant lowering of erythrocyte membrane lipid peroxidation (68% and 63% lowering in sesame protein isolate and isolate containing cholesterol groups) and liver lipid peroxidation (61% and 76% lowering in the 2 experimental groups than the corresponding control casein groups). Therefore, our results indicate that sesame protein isolate decreases cholesterol concentration in plasma, increases HDL-cholesterol, and also decreases plasma and erythrocyte membrane lipid peroxidation with or

  3. Antiatherogenic Effect of Camellia japonica Fruit Extract in High Fat Diet-Fed Rats

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    Hyun-Ho Lee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypercholesterolemia is a well-known etiological factor for cardiovascular disease and a common symptom of most types of metabolic disorders. Camellia japonica is a traditional garden plant, and its flower and seed have been used as a base oil of traditional cosmetics in East Asia. The present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of C. japonica fruit extracts (CJF in a high fat diet- (HFD- induced hypercholesterolemic rat model. CJF was administered orally at three different doses: 100, 400, and 800 mg·kg−1·day−1 (CJF 100, 400, and 800, resp.. Our results showed that CJF possessed strong cholesterol-lowering potency as indicated by the decrease in serum total cholesterol (TC, triglyceride (TG, and low-density lipoprotein (LDL, accompanied by an increase in serum high-density lipoprotein (HDL. Furthermore, CJF reduced serum lipid peroxidation by suppressing the formation of thiobarbituric acid reactive substance. In addition, oil red O (ORO staining of rat arteries showed decreased lipid-positive staining in the CJF-treated groups compared to the control HFD group. Taken together, these results suggest that CJF could be a potent herbal therapeutic option and source of a functional food for the prevention and treatment of atherosclerosis and other diseases associated with hypercholesterolemia.

  4. Effect of High Intensity Interval and Continuous Swimming Training on Body Mass Adiposity Level and Serum Parameters in High-Fat Diet Fed Rats

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    Guilherme L. da Rocha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the effects of interval and continuous training on the body mass gain and adiposity levels of rats fed a high-fat diet. Forty-eight male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into two groups, standard diet and high-fat diet, and received their respective diets for a period of four weeks without exercise stimuli. After this period, the animals were randomly divided into six groups (n=8: control standard diet (CS, control high-fat diet (CH, continuous training standard diet (CTS, continuous training high-fat diet (CTH, interval training standard diet (ITS, and interval training high-fat diet (ITH. The interval and continuous training consisted of a swimming exercise performed over eight weeks. CH rats had greater body mass gain, sum of adipose tissues mass, and lower serum high density lipoprotein values than CS. The trained groups showed lower values of feed intake, caloric intake, body mass gain, and adiposity levels compared with the CH group. No significant differences were observed between the trained groups (CTS versus ITS and CTH versus ITH on body mass gains and adiposity levels. In conclusion, both training methodologies were shown to be effective in controlling body mass gain and adiposity levels in high-fat diet fed rats.

  5. Immunohistochemical expression of intrarenal renin angiotensin system components in response to tempol in rats fed a high salt diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Gabriel; Della Penna, Silvana Lorena; Kouyoumdzian, Nicolás Martín; Choi, Marcelo Roberto; Gorzalczany, Susana; Fernández, Belisario Enrique; Toblli, Jorge Eduardo; Rosón, María Inés

    2017-01-01

    AIM To determine the effect of tempol in normal rats fed high salt on arterial pressure and the balance between antagonist components of the renal renin-angiotensin system. METHODS Sprague-Dawley rats were fed with 8% NaCl high-salt (HS) or 0.4% NaCl (normal-salt, NS) diet for 3 wk, with or without tempol (T) (1 mmol/L, administered in drinking water). Mean arterial pressure (MAP), glomerular filtration rate (GFR), and urinary sodium excretion (UVNa) were measured. We evaluated angiotensin II (Ang II), angiotensin 1-7 (Ang 1-7), angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), mas receptor (MasR), angiotensin type 1 receptor (AT1R) and angiotensin type 2 receptor (AT2R) in renal tissues by immunohistochemistry. RESULTS The intake of high sodium produced a slight but significant increase in MAP and differentially regulated components of the renal renin-angiotensin system (RAS). This included an increase in Ang II and AT1R, and decrease in ACE-2 staining intensity using immunohistochemistry. Antioxidant supplementation with tempol increased natriuresis and GFR, prevented changes in blood pressure and reversed the imbalance of renal RAS components. This includes a decrease in Ang II and AT1R, as increase in AT2, ACE2, Ang (1-7) and MasR staining intensity using immunohistochemistry. In addition, the natriuretic effects of tempol were observed in NS-T group, which showed an increased staining intensity of AT2, ACE2, Ang (1-7) and MasR. CONCLUSION These findings suggest that a high salt diet leads to changes in the homeostasis and balance between opposing components of the renal RAS in hypertension to favour an increase in Ang II. Chronic antioxidant supplementation can modulate the balance between the natriuretic and antinatriuretic components of the renal RAS. PMID:28101449

  6. Sesamin exerts renoprotective effects by enhancing NO bioactivity in renovascular hypertensive rats fed with high-fat-sucrose diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiang-Qi; Kong, Xiang; Zhou, Yong; Huang, Kai; Yang, Jie-Ren; Li, Xin-Li

    2012-05-15

    In the present study, we aimed to evaluate the protective effect of sesamin on kidney damage and renal endothelial dysfunction in two-kidney, one-clip renovascular hypertensive rats fed with a high-fat-sucrose diet (2K1C rats on HFS diet). Sesamin was intragastrically administered to 2K1C rats on HFS diet for eight weeks. Then, we measured the levels of serum hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂), total antioxidant capability (T-AOC), renal malonaldehyde (MDA), total-erythrocuprein (T-SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-P(X)). The expressions of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), nitrotyrosine and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase subunit p47(phox) in the left and right renal cortexes were detected by Western blotting. Pathological changes in the left and right renal cortexes were observed by periodic acid-schiff staining (PAS) and Masson's staining. Treatment with sesamin (120 and 60mg/kg⁻¹·d⁻¹) in 2K1C rats on HFS diet improved renal function, corrected structural abnormalities, and attenuated renal oxidative stress. Furthermore, sesamin increased eNOS protein expression and reduced nitrotyrosine and p47phox protein expression. These results demonstrated that long-term treatment with sesamin had renoprotective effect and improved renal endothelial dysfunction via upregulation of eNOS expression and reduction of NO oxidative inactivation in both clipped and contralateral kidneys of 2K1C rats on HFS diet, and sesamin may have a favorably therapeutic value in treating chronic kidney disease in patients with hypertension and hyperlipemia.

  7. Resveratrol increases nephrin and podocin expression and alleviates renal damage in rats fed a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Qing-Rong; Ren, Yan-Long; Zhu, Jia-Jia; Hu, Yan-Jin; Zheng, Jin-Su; Fan, Hui; Xu, Yuan; Wang, Guang; Liu, Wen-Xian

    2014-07-14

    Resveratrol is well known for its anti-inflammation and anti-oxidant properties, and has been shown to be effective in alleviating the development of obesity. The purpose of this investigation was to analyze the effect of resveratrol on renal damage in obese rats induced by a high-fat diet (HFD) and its possible mechanisms. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups: control, HFD, and HFD plus resveratrol (treated with 100 mg/kg/day resveratrol). Body weight, serum and urine metabolic parameters, and kidney histology were measured. Meanwhile, the activities of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), the content of malondialdehyde (MDA), and the protein levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α), monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), nephrin and podocin in kidney were detected. Our work showed that resveratrol alleviated dyslipidemia and renal damage induced by HFD, decreased MDA level and increased SOD activity. Furthermore, the elevated NF-κB activity, increased TNF-α and MCP-1 levels, and reduced expressions of nephrin and podocin induced by HFD were significantly reversed by resveratrol. These results suggest resveratrol could ameliorate renal injury in rats fed a HFD, and the mechanisms are associated with suppressing oxidative stress and NF-κB signaling pathway that in turn up-regulate nephrin and podocin protein expression.

  8. Resveratrol Increases Nephrin and Podocin Expression and Alleviates Renal Damage in Rats Fed a High-Fat Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing-Rong Pan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Resveratrol is well known for its anti-inflammation and anti-oxidant properties, and has been shown to be effective in alleviating the development of obesity. The purpose of this investigation was to analyze the effect of resveratrol on renal damage in obese rats induced by a high-fat diet (HFD and its possible mechanisms. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups: control, HFD, and HFD plus resveratrol (treated with 100 mg/kg/day resveratrol. Body weight, serum and urine metabolic parameters, and kidney histology were measured. Meanwhile, the activities of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB and superoxide dismutase (SOD, the content of malondialdehyde (MDA, and the protein levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α, monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1, nephrin and podocin in kidney were detected. Our work showed that resveratrol alleviated dyslipidemia and renal damage induced by HFD, decreased MDA level and increased SOD activity. Furthermore, the elevated NF-κB activity, increased TNF-α and MCP-1 levels, and reduced expressions of nephrin and podocin induced by HFD were significantly reversed by resveratrol. These results suggest resveratrol could ameliorate renal injury in rats fed a HFD, and the mechanisms are associated with suppressing oxidative stress and NF-κB signaling pathway that in turn up-regulate nephrin and podocin protein expression.

  9. Decreased rate of protein synthesis, caspase-3 activity, and ubiquitin-proteasome proteolysis in soleus muscles from growing rats fed a low-protein, high-carbohydrate diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batistela, Emanuele; Pereira, Mayara Peron; Siqueira, Juliany Torres; Paula-Gomes, Silvia; Zanon, Neusa Maria; Oliveira, Eduardo Brandt; Navegantes, Luiz Carlos Carvalho; Kettelhut, Isis C; Andrade, Claudia Marlise Balbinotti; Kawashita, Nair Honda; Baviera, Amanda Martins

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the changes in the rates of both protein synthesis and breakdown, and the activation of intracellular effectors that control these processes in soleus muscles from growing rats fed a low-protein, high-carbohydrate (LPHC) diet for 15 days. The mass and the protein content, as well as the rate of protein synthesis, were decreased in the soleus from LPHC-fed rats. The availability of amino acids was diminished, since the levels of various essential amino acids were decreased in the plasma of LPHC-fed rats. Overall rate of proteolysis was also decreased, explained by reductions in the mRNA levels of atrogin-1 and MuRF-1, ubiquitin conjugates, proteasome activity, and in the activity of caspase-3. Soleus muscles from LPHC-fed rats showed increased insulin sensitivity, with increased levels of insulin receptor and phosphorylation levels of AKT, which probably explains the inhibition of both the caspase-3 activity and the ubiquitin-proteasome system. The fall of muscle proteolysis seems to represent an adaptive response that contributes to spare proteins in a condition of diminished availability of dietary amino acids. Furthermore, the decreased rate of protein synthesis may be the driving factor to the lower muscle mass gain in growing rats fed the LPHC diet.

  10. Effect of ethyl pyruvate on skeletal muscle metabolism in rats fed on a high fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olek, Robert A; Ziolkowski, Wieslaw; Wierzba, Tomasz H; Kaczor, Jan J

    2013-07-01

    Impaired mitochondrial capacity may be implicated in the pathology of chronic metabolic diseases. To elucidate the effect of ethyl pyruvate supplementation on skeletal muscles metabolism we examined changes in activities of mitochondrial and antioxidant enzymes, as well as sulfhydryl groups oxidation (an indirect marker of oxidative stress) during the development of obesity. After 6 weeks feeding of control or high fat diet, Wistar rats were divided into four groups: control diet, control diet and ethyl pyruvate, high fat diet, and high fat diet and ethyl pyruvate. Ethyl pyruvate was administered as 0.3% solution in drinking water, for the following 6 weeks. High fat diet feeding induced the increase of activities 3-hydroxyacylCoA dehydrogenase, citrate synthase, and fumarase. Moreover, higher catalase and superoxide dismutase activities, as well as sulfhydryl groups oxidation, were noted. Ethyl pyruvate supplementation did not affect the mitochondrial enzymes' activities, but induced superoxide dismutase activity and sulfhydryl groups oxidation. All of the changes were observed in soleus muscle, but not in extensor digitorum longus muscle. Additionally, positive correlations between fasting blood insulin concentration and activities of catalase (p = 0.04), and superoxide dismutase (p = 0.01) in soleus muscle were noticed. Prolonged ethyl pyruvate consumption elevated insulin concentration, which may cause modifications in oxidative type skeletal muscles.

  11. Preload recruitable stroke work in the presence of intact cardiovascular reflexes in rats fed a diet high in unsaturated fats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trifunovic, B; Woodiwiss, A J; Norton, G R

    1995-01-15

    A decreased inotropic effect of myocardial beta receptor agonists in animals receiving diets high in unsaturated fats (UNSAT) has been demonstrated. The effect of an UNSAT diet on myocardial systolic performance under different loading conditions, in the presence of intact cardiovascular reflexes, has not been examined. We investigated the effect of an UNSAT diet on preload recruitable stroke work (SW) in the anaesthetised, open chest, ventilated rat. A control (CONTROL, 11% by energy), a high saturated fat (SAT, 37% by energy) and a high UNSAT (37% by energy) diet were fed to three groups of rats. At three months, systolic myocardial performance (stroke work: SW) at increasing left ventricular end diastolic pressures (LVEDP) was measured within a physiological preload range. There were no significant differences in either the slope or the intercept of the LVEDP/SW relation were found between the three diet groups. Systemic vascular resistance and heart rate decreased to the same extent in the three diet groups over the range of preloads examined. This occurred as a consequence of intact baroreceptor reflexes. Hence dietary modulation of unsaturated fats does not influence myocardial contraction over a wide range of physiological preloads in the presence of intact baroreceptor reflexes.

  12. Effects of telmisartan and olmesartan on insulin sensitivity and renal function in spontaneously hypertensive rats fed a high fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagihara, Hayato; Ushijima, Kentaro; Arakawa, Yusuke; Aizawa, Ken-Ichi; Fujimura, Akio

    2016-07-01

    Although telmisartan, an angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB), has an agonistic action for proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ in vitro, it remains to be determined whether telmisartan exerts such an action in vivo using a non-toxic dose (olmesartan (2 mg/kg), another ARB without PPAR-γ agonistic action, were given to spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) fed a high fat diet (HFD). HFD decreased plasma adiponectin, and caused insulin resistance, hypertriglyceridemia and renal damage, which were improved by ARBs. Protective effects of telmisartan and olmesartan did not significantly differ. In addition, in vitro study showed that 1 μM of telmisartan did not elevate the mRNA expression of adipose protein 2, which is a PPAR-γ-stimulated adipogenic marker gene, in preadipocytes with 3% albumin. To obtain 1 μM of plasma concentration, oral dose of telmisartan was calculated to be 6 mg/kg, which indicates that PPAR-γ agonistic action is negligible with a non-toxic dose of telmisartan (olmesartan ameliorated insulin resistance, hypertriglyceridemia and renal damage in SHR fed a HFD. As beneficial effects of telmisartan and olmesartan did not significantly differ, these were mediated through the PPAR-γ-independent actions. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Hypocholesterolemic effect of daily fisetin supplementation in high fat fed Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Min-Jeong; Cho, Yoonsu; Moon, Jiyoung; Jeon, Hyun Ju; Lee, Seung-Min; Chung, Ji Hyung

    2013-07-01

    We aimed to test whether fisetin could modulate cholesterol homeostasis in rats with diet-induced hypercholesterolemia, and further investigated the underlying mechanisms by which fisetin exerts its cholesterol lowering effect. Blood lipid profile, hepatic cholesterol content, as well as gene expressions in cholesterol metabolism were examined. Elevated levels of total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol, along with hepatic cholesterol content in a high fat group were found to be significantly reduced by fisetin. The high fat diet significantly decreased hepatic mRNA levels of LDLR, SREBP2, HMGCR and PCSK9 in comparison to the control diet, however, fisetin did not further elicit any changes in mRNA levels of the same genes. The high fat diet dramatically increased the transcript levels of CYP7A1, which was subsequently reversed by the fisetin. In HepG2 cells, fisetin was found to increase the levels of a nuclear form of SREBP2 and LDLR. In conclusion, fisetin supplementation displayed hypocholesterolemic effects by modulating the expression of genes associated with cholesterol and bile acid metabolism. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of Dietary Carbohydrate Replaced with Wild Rice (Zizania latifolia (Griseb Turcz on Insulin Resistance in Rats Fed with a High-Fat/Cholesterol Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengkai Zhai

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Wild rice (WR is a very nutritious grain that has been used to treat diabetes in Chinese medicinal practice. City diet (CD is based on the diet consumed by Asian area residents in modern society, which is rich in saturated fats, cholesterol and carbohydrates. The present study was aimed at evaluating the effects of replacing white rice and processed wheat starch of CD with WR as the chief source of dietary carbohydrates on insulin resistance in rats fed with a high-fat/cholesterol diet. Except the rats of the low-fat (LF diet group, the rats of the other three groups, including to high-fat/cholesterol (HFC diet, CD and WR diet, were fed with high-fat/cholesterol diets for eight weeks. The rats fed with CD exhibited higher weight gain and lower insulin sensitivity compared to the rats consuming a HFC diet. However, WR suppressed high-fat/cholesterol diet-induced insulin resistance. WR decreased liver homogenate triglyceride and free fatty acids levels, raised serum adiponectin concentration and reduced serum lipocalin-2 and visfatin concentrations. In addition, the WR diet potently augmented the relative expressions of adiponectin receptor 2, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors, alpha and gamma, and abated relative expressions of leptin and lipocalin-2 in the tissues of interest. These findings indicate that WR is effective in ameliorating abnormal glucose metabolism and insulin resistance in rats, even when the diet consumed is high in fat and cholesterol.

  15. Liraglutide prevents microvascular insulin resistance and preserves muscle capillary density in high-fat diet-fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Weidong; Fu, Zhuo; Aylor, Kevin W; Barrett, Eugene J; Liu, Zhenqi

    2016-09-01

    Muscle microvasculature critically regulates endothelial exchange surface area to facilitate transendothelial delivery of insulin, nutrients, and oxygen to myocytes. Insulin resistance blunts insulin-mediated microvascular recruitment and decreases muscle capillary density; both contribute to lower microvascular blood volume. Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and its analogs are able to dilate blood vessels and stimulate endothelial cell proliferation. In this study, we aim to determine the effects of sustained stimulation of the GLP-1 receptors on insulin-mediated capillary recruitment and metabolic insulin responses, small arterial endothelial function, and muscle capillary density. Rats were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) for 4 wk with or without simultaneous administration of liraglutide and subjected to a euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp for 120 min after an overnight fast. Insulin-mediated muscle microvascular recruitment and muscle oxygenation were determined before and during insulin infusion. Muscle capillary density was determined and distal saphenous artery used for determination of endothelial function and insulin-mediated vasodilation. HFD induced muscle microvascular insulin resistance and small arterial vessel endothelial dysfunction and decreased muscle capillary density. Simultaneous treatment of HFD-fed rats with liraglutide prevented all of these changes and improved insulin-stimulated glucose disposal. These were associated with a significantly increased AMPK phosphorylation and the expressions of VEGF and its receptors. We conclude that GLP-1 receptor agonists may exert their salutary glycemic effect via improving microvascular insulin sensitivity and muscle capillary density during the development of insulin resistance, and early use of GLP-1 receptor agonists may attenuate metabolic insulin resistance as well as prevent cardiovascular complications of diabetes. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  16. Pu-erh tea, green tea, and black tea suppresses hyperlipidemia, hyperleptinemia and fatty acid synthase through activating AMPK in rats fed a high-fructose diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hsiu-Chen; Lin, Jen-Kun

    2012-02-01

    Although green tea extract has been reported to suppress hyperlipidemia, it is unclear how tea extracts prepared from green, oolong, black and pu-erh teas modulate fatty acid synthase expression in rats fed on a high-fructose diet. In this animal study, we evaluated the hypolipidemic and hypoleptinemia effect of these four different tea leaves fed to male Wistar rats for 12 weeks. The results showed that a fructose-rich diet significantly elevated serum triacylglycerols, cholesterol, insulin, and leptin concentrations, as compared with those in the control group. Interestingly, consuming tea leaves for 12 weeks almost normalized the serum triacylglycerols concentrations. Again, rats fed with fructose/green tea and fructose/pu-erh tea showed the greatest reduction in serum TG, cholesterol, insulin and leptin levels. In contrast, serum cholesterol and insulin concentrations of the fructose/oolong tea-fed rats did not normalize. The relative epididymal adipose tissue weight was lower in all rats supplemented with tea leaves than those fed with fructose alone. There was molecular evidence of improved lipid homeostasis according to fatty acid synthase (FAS) protein expression. Furthermore, supplementation of green, black, and pu-erh tea leaves significantly decreased hepatic FAS mRNA and protein levels, and increased AMPK phosphorylation, compared with those of rats fed with fructose only. These findings suggest that the intake of green, black, and pu-erh tea leaves ameliorated the fructose-induced hyperlipidemia and hyperleptinemia state in part through the suppression of FAS protein levels and increased AMPK phosphorylation.

  17. In Vivo Lipid Regulation Mechanism of Polygoni Multiflori Radix in High-Fat Diet Fed Rats

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    Pei Lin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mechanisms of the water extracts of Polygoni Multiflori Radix (PMR and its processed products (PMRP on liver lipid metabolism were observed in this paper. Aqueous extract of PMR and PMRP was given to nonalcoholic fatty liver model rats, respectively. PMR was better in reducing the contents of very low density lipoprotein (VLDL than PMRP and the positive control groups. In the aspect of regulating TG, medium dose PMR reduced the activity of diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT to 1536±47.69 pg/mL (P<0.001 and promoted the expression of hepatic lipase (HL to 23.59±0.2758 U/mL (P<0.05. HL promotion ability of medium dose PMR was similar with the simvastatin positive control. Both medium and high dose of PMR showed significant alterations in TC, which were related to the downregulation effects on hydroxyl methyl-glutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMGCR and upregulation effects on cholesterol 7-alpha-hydroxylase or cytochrome P450 7A (CYP7A. Quantitative relationships research indicated that the prominent effect on inhibiting the content of HMGCR (r=0.756, P<0.05 was strongly positive correlated with to the TC regulation effects. Effects of PMR on enhancing decomposition rate or reducing de novo synthesis rate of TG and TC were better than PMRP.

  18. Tea decoctions prevent body weight gain in rats fed high-fat diet; black tea being more efficient than green tea

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    Mohamed Hédi Hamdaoui

    2016-12-01

    Conclusion: Chronic GTD and BTD prevent fat storage in the liver, lowering blood lipids and glucose, increasing fecal excretion of TG, decreasing AT and weight gains in rats fed HFD, with a strong effect of BTD compared to GTD. Therefore, these beverages containing high amounts of TPC and caffeine could constitute a natural alternative in the prevention of obesity.

  19. Trigonella foenum-graecum water extract improves insulin sensitivity and stimulates PPAR and γ gene expression in high fructose-fed insulin-resistant rats

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    Abbas Mohammadi

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: This study demonstrates the beneficial effects of trigonella foenum-graecum extract on insulin resistance in rats fed on a high-fructose diet. At least three mechanisms are involved, including direct insulin-like effect, increase in adiponectin levels, and PPARγ protein expression.

  20. Gut microbiota are linked to increased susceptibility to hepatic steatosis in low aerobic capacity rats fed an acute high fat diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poor aerobic fitness is linked to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and increased all-cause mortality. We previously found that low capacity running (LCR) rats fed acute high fat diet (HFD; 45% kcal from fat) for 3 days resulted in positive energy balance and increased hepatic steatosis compared with...

  1. Nopal feeding reduces adiposity, intestinal inflammation and shifts the cecal microbiota and metabolism in high-fat fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran-Ramos, Sofia; He, Xuan; Chin, Elizabeth L; Tovar, Armando R; Torres, Nimbe; Slupsky, Carolyn M; Raybould, Helen E

    2017-01-01

    Nopal is a cactus plant widely consumed in Mexico that has been used in traditional medicine to aid in the treatment of type-2 diabetes. We previously showed that chronic consumption of dehydrated nopal ameliorated hepatic steatosis in obese (fa/fa) rats; however, description of the effects on other tissues is sparse. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of nopal cladode consumption on intestinal physiology, microbial community structure, adipose tissue, and serum biochemistry in diet-induced obese rats. Rats were fed either a normal fat (NF) diet or a HF diet containing 4% of dietary fiber from either nopal or cellulose for 6 weeks. Consumption of nopal counteracted HF-induced adiposity and adipocyte hypertrophy, and induced profound changes in intestinal physiology. Nopal consumption reduced biomarkers of intestinal inflammation (mRNA expression of IL-6) and oxidative stress (ROS), modfied gut microbiota composition, increasing microbial diversity and cecal fermentation (SCFA), and altered the serum metabolome. Interestingly, metabolomic analysis of dehydrated nopal revealed a high choline content, which appeared to generate high levels of serum betaine, that correlated negatively with hepatic triglyceride (TAG) levels. A parallel decrease in some of the taxa associated with the production of trimethylamine, suggest an increase in choline absorption and bioavailability with transformation to betaine. The latter may partially explain the previously observed effect of nopal on the development of hepatic steatosis. In conclusion, this study provides new evidence on the effects of nopal consumption on normal and HF-diet induced changes in the intestine, the liver and systemic metabolism.

  2. Nopal feeding reduces adiposity, intestinal inflammation and shifts the cecal microbiota and metabolism in high-fat fed rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran-Ramos, Sofia; He, Xuan; Chin, Elizabeth L.; Tovar, Armando R.; Torres, Nimbe; Slupsky, Carolyn M.; Raybould, Helen E.

    2017-01-01

    Nopal is a cactus plant widely consumed in Mexico that has been used in traditional medicine to aid in the treatment of type-2 diabetes. We previously showed that chronic consumption of dehydrated nopal ameliorated hepatic steatosis in obese (fa/fa) rats; however, description of the effects on other tissues is sparse. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of nopal cladode consumption on intestinal physiology, microbial community structure, adipose tissue, and serum biochemistry in diet-induced obese rats. Rats were fed either a normal fat (NF) diet or a HF diet containing 4% of dietary fiber from either nopal or cellulose for 6 weeks. Consumption of nopal counteracted HF-induced adiposity and adipocyte hypertrophy, and induced profound changes in intestinal physiology. Nopal consumption reduced biomarkers of intestinal inflammation (mRNA expression of IL-6) and oxidative stress (ROS), modfied gut microbiota composition, increasing microbial diversity and cecal fermentation (SCFA), and altered the serum metabolome. Interestingly, metabolomic analysis of dehydrated nopal revealed a high choline content, which appeared to generate high levels of serum betaine, that correlated negatively with hepatic triglyceride (TAG) levels. A parallel decrease in some of the taxa associated with the production of trimethylamine, suggest an increase in choline absorption and bioavailability with transformation to betaine. The latter may partially explain the previously observed effect of nopal on the development of hepatic steatosis. In conclusion, this study provides new evidence on the effects of nopal consumption on normal and HF-diet induced changes in the intestine, the liver and systemic metabolism. PMID:28196086

  3. Arecoline improves vascular endothelial function in high fructose-fed rats via increasing cystathionine-Ylyase expression and activating KATp channels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong-yan LING; Guang WANG; Wei ZHANG; Xing LI; Shou-hong ZHOU; Bi HU

    2012-01-01

    Aim:To investigate the effect of arecoline,a major component of betel nut,on vascular endothelial function in high fructose-fed rats and the potential mechanisms underlying the effect.Methods:Male Wistar rats were fed a high-fructose or control diet for 16 weeks.At the beginning of week 13,the rats were injected ip with low (0.5 mg·kg 1·d-1),medi u m (1.0 mg·kg1·d-1) or high (5.0 mg·kg 1·d 1) doses of arecoline for 4 weeks.At the termination of the treatments,blood was collected,fasting blood glucose (FBG) and serum insulin (FSI) levels were measured,and insulin sensitivity index (ISI) was calculated.The thoracic aortas were isolated and aortic rings were prepared for studying ACh-induced endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation (EDVR).The mRNA and protein expression of cystathionine-y-lyase (CSE) in the thoracic aortas was analyzed using RTPCR and Western blot analysis,respectively.Results:In high fructose-fed rats,the levels of FBG and FSI were remarkably increased,whereas the ISI and the mRNA and protein expression of CSE were significantly decreased.ACh-induced EDVR in the aortic rings from high fructose-fed rats was remarkably reduced.These changes were reversed by treatment with high dose arecoline.Pretreatment of the aortic rings rings from high fructose-fed rats with the CSE inhibitor propargylglycine (10 mmol/L) orthe ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channel blocker glibenclamide (10 mmol/L) abolished the restoration of ACh-induced EDVR by high dose arecoline.On the contrary,treatment with high dose arecoline significantly impaired ACh-induced EDVR in the aortic rings from control rats,and pretreatment with propargylglycine or glibenclamide did not cause further changes.Conclusion:Arecoline treatment improves ACh-induced EDVR in high fructose-fed rats,and the potential mechanism of action might be associated with increase of CSE expression and activation of KATP channels by arecoline.

  4. Arecoline improves vascular endothelial function in high fructose-fed rats via increasing cystathionine-γ-lyase expression and activating KATP channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Hong-yan; Wang, Guang; Zhang, Wei; Li, Xing; Zhou, Shou-hong; Hu, Bi

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the effect of arecoline, a major component of betel nut, on vascular endothelial function in high fructose-fed rats and the potential mechanisms underlying the effect. Methods: Male Wistar rats were fed a high-fructose or control diet for 16 weeks. At the beginning of week 13, the rats were injected ip with low (0.5 mg·kg−1·d−1), medium (1.0 mg·kg−1·d−1) or high (5.0 mg·kg−1·d−1) doses of arecoline for 4 weeks. At the termination of the treatments, blood was collected, fasting blood glucose (FBG) and serum insulin (FSI) levels were measured, and insulin sensitivity index (ISI) was calculated. The thoracic aortas were isolated and aortic rings were prepared for studying ACh-induced endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation (EDVR). The mRNA and protein expression of cystathionine-γ-lyase (CSE) in the thoracic aortas was analyzed using RT-PCR and Western blot analysis, respectively. Results: In high fructose-fed rats, the levels of FBG and FSI were remarkably increased, whereas the ISI and the mRNA and protein expression of CSE were significantly decreased. ACh-induced EDVR in the aortic rings from high fructose-fed rats was remarkably reduced. These changes were reversed by treatment with high dose arecoline. Pretreatment of the aortic rings rings from high fructose-fed rats with the CSE inhibitor propargylglycine (10 mmol/L) or the ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channel blocker glibenclamide (10 mmol/L) abolished the restoration of ACh-induced EDVR by high dose arecoline. On the contrary, treatment with high dose arecoline significantly impaired ACh-induced EDVR in the aortic rings from control rats, and pretreatment with propargylglycine or glibenclamide did not cause further changes. Conclusion: Arecoline treatment improves ACh-induced EDVR in high fructose-fed rats, and the potential mechanism of action might be associated with increase of CSE expression and activation of KATP channels by arecoline. PMID:22820911

  5. Arecoline improves vascular endothelial function in high fructose-fed rats via increasing cystathionine-γ-lyase expression and activating K(ATP) channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Hong-yan; Wang, Guang; Zhang, Wei; Li, Xing; Zhou, Shou-hong; Hu, Bi

    2012-08-01

    To investigate the effect of arecoline, a major component of betel nut, on vascular endothelial function in high fructose-fed rats and the potential mechanisms underlying the effect. Male Wistar rats were fed a high-fructose or control diet for 16 weeks. At the beginning of week 13, the rats were injected ip with low (0.5 mg·kg(-1)·d(-1)), medium (1.0 mg·kg(-1)·d(-1)) or high (5.0 mg·kg(-1)·d(-1)) doses of arecoline for 4 weeks. At the termination of the treatments, blood was collected, fasting blood glucose (FBG) and serum insulin (FSI) levels were measured, and insulin sensitivity index (ISI) was calculated. The thoracic aortas were isolated and aortic rings were prepared for studying ACh-induced endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation (EDVR). The mRNA and protein expression of cystathionine-γ-lyase (CSE) in the thoracic aortas was analyzed using RT-PCR and Western blot analysis, respectively. In high fructose-fed rats, the levels of FBG and FSI were remarkably increased, whereas the ISI and the mRNA and protein expression of CSE were significantly decreased. ACh-induced EDVR in the aortic rings from high fructose-fed rats was remarkably reduced. These changes were reversed by treatment with high dose arecoline. Pretreatment of the aortic rings rings from high fructose-fed rats with the CSE inhibitor propargylglycine (10 mmol/L) or the ATP-sensitive potassium (K(ATP)) channel blocker glibenclamide (10 mmol/L) abolished the restoration of ACh-induced EDVR by high dose arecoline. On the contrary, treatment with high dose arecoline significantly impaired ACh-induced EDVR in the aortic rings from control rats, and pretreatment with propargylglycine or glibenclamide did not cause further changes. Arecoline treatment improves ACh-induced EDVR in high fructose-fed rats, and the potential mechanism of action might be associated with increase of CSE expression and activation of K(ATP) channels by arecoline.

  6. Emodin, a Naturally Occurring Anthraquinone Derivative, Ameliorates Dyslipidemia by Activating AMP-Activated Protein Kinase in High-Fat-Diet-Fed Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thing-Fong Tzeng

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the antiobesity and antihyperlipidaemic effects of emodin on high-fat diet (HFD-induced obese rats, and on the regulation of the expression of the genes involved in lipid metabolism to elucidate the mechanisms. After being fed HFD for two weeks, Wistar rats were dosed orally with emodin (40 and 80 mg kg−1 or pioglitazone (20 mg kg−1, once daily for eight weeks. Emodin (80 mg kg−1 per day displayed similar characteristics to pioglitazone (20 mg kg−1 per day in reducing body weight gain, plasma lipid levels as well as coronary artery risk index and atherogenic index of HFD-fed rats. Emodin also caused dose related reductions in the hepatic triglyceride and cholesterol contents and lowered hepatic lipid droplets accumulation in HFD-fed rats. Emodin and pioglitazone enhanced the phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK and its primary downstream targeting enzyme, acetyl-CoA carboxylase, up-regulated gene expression of carnitine palmitoyl transferase 1, and down-regulated sterol regulatory element binding protein 1 and fatty acid synthase protein levels in hepatocytes of HFD-fed rats. Our findings suggest emodin could attenuate lipid accumulation by decreasing lipogenesis and increasing mitochondrial fatty acid β-oxidation mediated by activation of the AMPK signaling pathway.

  7. In vitro TNF-α- and noradrenaline-stimulated lipolysis is impaired in adipocytes from growing rats fed a low-protein, high-carbohydrate diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feres, Daniel D S; Dos Santos, Maísa P; Buzelle, Samyra L; Pereira, Mayara P; de França, Suélem A; Garófalo, Maria A R; Andrade, Cláudia M B; Froelich, Mendalli; de Almeida, Fhelipe J S; Frasson, Danúbia; Chaves, Valéria E; Kawashita, Nair H

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α)- and noradrenaline (NE)-stimulated lipolysis in retroperitoneal (RWAT) and epididymal (EAT) white adipose tissue as a means of understanding how low-protein, high-carbohydrate (LPHC) diet-fed rats maintain their lipid storage in a catabolic environment (marked by increases in serum TNF-α and corticosterone and sympathetic flux to RWAT and EAT), as previously observed. Adipocytes or tissues from the RWAT and EAT of rats fed an LPHC diet and rats fed a control (C) diet for 15 days were used in the experiments. The adipocytes from both tissues of the LPHC rats exhibited lower TNF-α- stimulated lipolysis compared to adipocytes from the C rats. The intracellular lipolytic agents IBMX, DBcAMPc and FSK increased lipolysis in both tissues from rats fed the C and LPHC diets compared to basal lipolysis; however, the effect was approximately 2.5-fold lower in adipocytes from LPHC rats. The LPHC diet induced a marked reduction in the β3 and α2-AR, adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) and hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) content in RWAT and EAT. The LPHC diet did not affect TNF-α receptor 1 content but did induce a reduction in ERK p44/42 in both tissues. The present work indicates that RWAT and EAT from LPHC rats have an impairment in the lipolysis signaling pathway activated by NE and TNF-α, and this impairment explains the reduced response to these lipolytic stimuli, which may be fundamental to the maintenance of lipid storage in LPHC rats.

  8. Absence of an inhibitory effect of a vegetables-fruit mixture on the initiation and promotion phases of azoxymethane-induced colorectal carcinogenesis in rats fed low- or high-fat diets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijnkels, J.M.; Hollanders, V.M.H.; Woutersen, R.A.; Koeman, J.H.; Alink, G.M.

    1998-01-01

    The potential inhibitory effects of a vegetables-fruit mixture on the initiation and promotion phases of azoxymethane-induced colorectal carcinogenesis were examined in rats fed low- or high-fat diets. Rats were fed low-fat diets (20 energy percent, Diets A and B) or high-fat diets (40 energy percen

  9. Absence of an inhibitory effect of a vegetables-fruit mixture on the initiation and promotion phases of azoxymethane-induced colorectal carcinogenesis in rats fed low- or high-fat diets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijnkels, J.M.; Hollanders, V.M.H.; Woutersen, R.A.; Koeman, J.H.; Alink, G.M.

    1998-01-01

    The potential inhibitory effects of a vegetables-fruit mixture on the initiation and promotion phases of azoxymethane-induced colorectal carcinogenesis were examined in rats fed low- or high-fat diets. Rats were fed low-fat diets (20 energy percent, Diets A and B) or high-fat diets (40 energy percen

  10. Curcumin prevents inflammatory response, oxidative stress and insulin resistance in high fructose fed male Wistar rats: Potential role of serine kinases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maithilikarpagaselvi, Nachimuthu; Sridhar, Magadi Gopalakrishna; Swaminathan, Rathinam Palamalai; Zachariah, Bobby

    2016-01-25

    Emerging evidence suggests that high fructose consumption may be a potentially important factor responsible for the rising incidence of insulin resistance and diabetes worldwide. The present study investigated the preventive effect of curcumin on inflammation, oxidative stress and insulin resistance in high fructose fed male Wistar rats at the molecular level. Fructose feeding for 10 weeks caused oxidative stress, inflammation and insulin resistance. Curcumin treatment attenuated the insulin resistance by decreasing IRS-1 serine phosphorylation and increasing IRS-1 tyrosine phosphorylation in the skeletal muscle of high fructose fed rats. It also attenuated hyperinsulinemia, glucose intolerance and HOMA-IR level. Curcumin administration lowered tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), C reactive protein (CRP) levels and downregulated the protein expression of cyclo-oxygenase 2 (COX-2), protein kinase theta (PKCθ). In addition, inhibitor κB alpha (IκBα) degradation was prevented by curcumin supplementation. Treatment with curcumin inhibited the rise of malondialdehyde (MDA), total oxidant status (TOS) and suppressed the protein expression of extracellular kinase ½ (ERK ½), p38 in the skeletal muscle of fructose fed rats. Further, it enhanced Glutathione Peroxidase (GPx) activity in the muscle of fructose fed rats. At the molecular level, curcumin inhibited the activation of stress sensitive kinases and inflammatory cascades. Our findings conclude that curcumin attenuated glucose intolerance and insulin resistance through its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. Thus, we suggest the use of curcumin as a therapeutic adjuvant in the management of diabetes, obesity and their associated complications.

  11. Preventive Effects of Drinking Hydrogen-Rich Water on Gingival Oxidative Stress and Alveolar Bone Resorption in Rats Fed a High-Fat Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiki Yoneda

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity induces gingival oxidative stress, which is involved in the progression of alveolar bone resorption. The antioxidant effect of hydrogen-rich water may attenuate gingival oxidative stress and prevent alveolar bone resorption in cases of obesity. We examined whether hydrogen-rich water could suppress gingival oxidative stress and alveolar bone resorption in obese rats fed a high-fat diet. Male Fischer 344 rats (n = 18 were divided into three groups of six rats each: a control group (fed a regular diet and drinking distilled water and two experimental groups (fed a high-fat diet and drinking distilled water or hydrogen-rich water. The level of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine was determined to evaluate oxidative stress. The bone mineral density of the alveolar bone was analyzed by micro-computerized tomography. Obese rats, induced by a high-fat diet, showed a higher gingival level of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine and a lower level of alveolar bone density compared to the control group. Drinking hydrogen-rich water suppressed body weight gain, lowered gingival level of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine, and reduced alveolar bone resorption in rats on a high-fat diet. The results indicate that hydrogen-rich water could suppress gingival oxidative stress and alveolar bone resorption by limiting obesity.

  12. Preventive Effects of Drinking Hydrogen-Rich Water on Gingival Oxidative Stress and Alveolar Bone Resorption in Rats Fed a High-Fat Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoneda, Toshiki; Tomofuji, Takaaki; Kunitomo, Muneyoshi; Ekuni, Daisuke; Irie, Koichiro; Azuma, Tetsuji; Machida, Tatsuya; Miyai, Hisataka; Fujimori, Kouhei; Morita, Manabu

    2017-01-13

    Obesity induces gingival oxidative stress, which is involved in the progression of alveolar bone resorption. The antioxidant effect of hydrogen-rich water may attenuate gingival oxidative stress and prevent alveolar bone resorption in cases of obesity. We examined whether hydrogen-rich water could suppress gingival oxidative stress and alveolar bone resorption in obese rats fed a high-fat diet. Male Fischer 344 rats (n = 18) were divided into three groups of six rats each: a control group (fed a regular diet and drinking distilled water) and two experimental groups (fed a high-fat diet and drinking distilled water or hydrogen-rich water). The level of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine was determined to evaluate oxidative stress. The bone mineral density of the alveolar bone was analyzed by micro-computerized tomography. Obese rats, induced by a high-fat diet, showed a higher gingival level of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine and a lower level of alveolar bone density compared to the control group. Drinking hydrogen-rich water suppressed body weight gain, lowered gingival level of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine, and reduced alveolar bone resorption in rats on a high-fat diet. The results indicate that hydrogen-rich water could suppress gingival oxidative stress and alveolar bone resorption by limiting obesity.

  13. Efficacy of Oral Curcuminoid Fraction from Curcuma xanthorrhiza and Curcuminoid Cider in High-cholesterol Fed Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauren, Flavia Maria; Yanti; Lay, Bibiana Widiati

    2016-01-01

    Hypercholesterolemia is one of the most important risk factors for atherosclerosis and subsequent cardiovascular diseases. The present work was aimed to study the efficacy of curcuminoid fraction from Curcuma xanthorrhiza and its curcuminoid cider in reducing blood cholesterol level and four genes related to oxidative stress, including cluster of differentiation 44 (CD44), intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 (LOX-1) in high-cholesterol fed rats in vivo. Twenty-four male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into six groups, namely normal group diet, high-cholesterol diet (HCD) 2%, HCD + 100 mg/kg b.w. curcuminoid fraction, HCD + 300 mg/kg b.w. curcuminoid fraction, HCD + cider 1% v/v, and HCD + curcuminoid cider 2% v/v for 4 weeks. Total cholesterol levels were measured at day 1, 14, and 28. Vascular tissues and organs from lung and liver were collected for RNA extraction, followed by quantitative analysis using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Our results demonstrated that among all the treatment groups, curcuminoid cider at 2% v/v significantly lowered total cholesterol level compared to those of positive control. Real-time PCR data showed both curcuminoid fractions (100 and 300 mg/kg) and curcuminoid cider (1 and 2% v/v) inhibited the gene expression of CD44, ICAM-1, iNOS, and LOX-1, indicating their hypocholesterolemic effects via attenuating genes related to oxidative stress in rats in vivo. Oral administration of curcuminoid fraction and its cider product may exert potential inhibitory effects on oxidative stress related-genes for preventing hypercholesterolemia-induced atherosclerosis in vivo. Curcuminoid and its cider significantly inhibited the gene expression of CD44, ICAM-1, iNOS, and LOX-1 in rats in vivoCurcuminoid and its cider suppressed oxidative stress-related genes inducing formation of atherosclerosisCurcuminoid and its cider may offer

  14. Efficacy of Oral Curcuminoid Fraction from Curcuma xanthorrhiza and Curcuminoid Cider in High-cholesterol Fed Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauren, Flavia Maria; Yanti; Lay, Bibiana Widiati

    2016-01-01

    Background: Hypercholesterolemia is one of the most important risk factors for atherosclerosis and subsequent cardiovascular diseases. Objective: The present work was aimed to study the efficacy of curcuminoid fraction from Curcuma xanthorrhiza and its curcuminoid cider in reducing blood cholesterol level and four genes related to oxidative stress, including cluster of differentiation 44 (CD44), intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 (LOX-1) in high-cholesterol fed rats in vivo. Materials and Methods: Twenty-four male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into six groups, namely normal group diet, high-cholesterol diet (HCD) 2%, HCD + 100 mg/kg b.w. curcuminoid fraction, HCD + 300 mg/kg b.w. curcuminoid fraction, HCD + cider 1% v/v, and HCD + curcuminoid cider 2% v/v for 4 weeks. Total cholesterol levels were measured at day 1, 14, and 28. Vascular tissues and organs from lung and liver were collected for RNA extraction, followed by quantitative analysis using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Results: Our results demonstrated that among all the treatment groups, curcuminoid cider at 2% v/v significantly lowered total cholesterol level compared to those of positive control. Real-time PCR data showed both curcuminoid fractions (100 and 300 mg/kg) and curcuminoid cider (1 and 2% v/v) inhibited the gene expression of CD44, ICAM-1, iNOS, and LOX-1, indicating their hypocholesterolemic effects via attenuating genes related to oxidative stress in rats in vivo. Conclusion: Oral administration of curcuminoid fraction and its cider product may exert potential inhibitory effects on oxidative stress related-genes for preventing hypercholesterolemia-induced atherosclerosis in vivo. SUMMARY Curcuminoid and its cider significantly inhibited the gene expression of CD44, ICAM-1, iNOS, and LOX-1 in rats in vivoCurcuminoid and its cider suppressed oxidative stress

  15. Silk and silkworm pupa peptides suppress adipogenesis in preadipocytes and fat accumulation in rats fed a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sun Hee; Park, Dongsun; Yang, Goeun; Bae, Dae-Kwon; Yang, Yun-Hui; Kim, Tae Kyun; Kim, Dajeong; Kyung, Jangbeen; Yeon, Sungho; Koo, Kyo Chul; Lee, Jeong-Yong; Hwang, Seock-Yeon; Joo, Seong Soo; Kim, Yun-Bae

    2012-12-01

    The objective was to confirm the anti-obesity activity of a silk peptide (SP) and a silkworm pupa peptide (SPP) in rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD) and to elucidate their action mechanism(s) in a preadipocyte culture system. In an in vitro mechanistic study, the differentiation and maturation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes were stimulated with insulin (5 μg/mL), and effects of SP and SPP on the adipogenesis of mature adipocytes were assessed. In an in vivo anti-obesity study, male C57BL/6 mice were fed an HFD containing SP or SPP (0.3, 1.0, or 3.0%) for 8 weeks, and blood and tissue parameters of obesity were analyzed. Hormonal stimulation of preadipocytes led to a 50-70% increase in adipogenesis. Polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analyses revealed increases in adipogenesis-specific genes (leptin and Acrp30) and proteins (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ and Acrp30). The hormone-induced adipogenesis and activated gene expression was substantially inhibited by treatment with SP and SPP (1-50 μg/mL). The HFD markedly increased body weight gain by increasing the weight of epididymal and mesenteric fat. Body and fat weights were significantly reduced by SP and SPP, in which decreases in the area of abdominal adipose tissue and the size of epididymal adipocytes were confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging and microscopic examination, respectively. Long-term HFD caused hepatic lipid accumulation and increased blood triglycerides and cholesterol, in addition to their regulatory factors Acrp30 and leptin. However, SP and SPP recovered the concentrations of Acrp30 and leptin, and attenuated steatosis. SP and SPP inhibit the differentiation of preadipocytes and adipogenesis by modulating signal transduction pathways and improve HFD-induced obesity by reducing lipid accumulation and the size of adipocytes.

  16. Urine and Serum Metabolite Profiling of Rats Fed a High-Fat Diet and the Anti-Obesity Effects of Caffeine Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyang Yeon Kim

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigated the clinical changes induced by a high fat diet (HFD and caffeine consumption in a rat model. The mean body weight of the HFD with caffeine (HFDC-fed rat was decreased compared to that of the HFD-fed rat without caffeine. The levels of cholesterol, triglycerides (TGs, and free fatty acid, as well as the size of adipose tissue altered by HFD, were improved by caffeine consumption. To investigate the metabolites that affected the change of the clinical factors, the urine and serum of rats fed a normal diet (ND, HFD, and HFDC were analyzed using ultra performance liquid chromatography quadruple time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF-MS, gas chromatography (GC-TOF-MS, and linear trap quadruple mass spectrometry (LTQ-XL-MS combined with multivariate analysis. A total of 68 and 52 metabolites were found to be different in urine and serum, respectively. After being fed caffeine, some glucuronide-conjugated compounds, lysoPCs, CEs, DGs, TGs, taurine, and hippuric acid were altered compared to the HFD group. In this study, caffeine might potentially inhibit HFD-induced obesity and we suggest possible biomarker candidates using MS-based metabolite profiling.

  17. Urine and serum metabolite profiling of rats fed a high-fat diet and the anti-obesity effects of caffeine consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyang Yeon; Lee, Mee Youn; Park, Hye Min; Park, Yoo Kyoung; Shon, Jong Cheol; Liu, Kwang-Hyeon; Lee, Choong Hwan

    2015-02-13

    In this study, we investigated the clinical changes induced by a high fat diet (HFD) and caffeine consumption in a rat model. The mean body weight of the HFD with caffeine (HFDC)-fed rat was decreased compared to that of the HFD-fed rat without caffeine. The levels of cholesterol, triglycerides (TGs), and free fatty acid, as well as the size of adipose tissue altered by HFD, were improved by caffeine consumption. To investigate the metabolites that affected the change of the clinical factors, the urine and serum of rats fed a normal diet (ND), HFD, and HFDC were analyzed using ultra performance liquid chromatography quadruple time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF-MS), gas chromatography (GC-TOF-MS), and linear trap quadruple mass spectrometry (LTQ-XL-MS) combined with multivariate analysis. A total of 68 and 52 metabolites were found to be different in urine and serum, respectively. After being fed caffeine, some glucuronide-conjugated compounds, lysoPCs, CEs, DGs, TGs, taurine, and hippuric acid were altered compared to the HFD group. In this study, caffeine might potentially inhibit HFD-induced obesity and we suggest possible biomarker candidates using MS-based metabolite profiling.

  18. Wholegrain barley β-glucan fermentation does not improve glucose tolerance in rats fed a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belobrajdic, Damien P; Jobling, Stephen A; Morell, Matthew K; Taketa, Shin; Bird, Anthony R

    2015-02-01

    Fermentation of oat and barley β-glucans is believed to mediate in part their metabolic health benefits, but the exact mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, we sought to test the hypothesis that barley β-glucan fermentation raises circulating incretin hormone levels and improves glucose control, independent of other grain components. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 30) were fed a high-fat diet for 6 weeks and then randomly allocated to 1 of 3 dietary treatments for 2 weeks. The low- (LBG, 0% β-glucan) and high- (HBG, 3% β-glucan) β-glucan diets contained 25% wholegrain barley and similar levels of insoluble dietary fiber, available carbohydrate, and energy. A low-fiber diet (basal) was included for comparison. Immediately prior to the dietary intervention, gastric emptying rate (using the (13)C-octanoic breath test) and postprandial glycemic response of each diet were determined. At the end of the study, circulating gut hormone levels were determined; and a glucose tolerance test was performed. The rats were then killed, and indices of cecal fermentation were assessed. Diet did not affect live weight; however, the HBG diet, compared to basal and LBG, reduced food intake, tended to slow gastric emptying, increased cecal digesta mass and individual and total short-chain fatty acid pools, and lowered digesta pH. In contrast, circulating levels of glucose, insulin, gastric-inhibitory peptide, and glucagon-like peptide-1, and glucose tolerance were unaffected by diet. In conclusion, wholegrain barley β-glucan suppressed feed intake and increased cecal fermentation but did not improve postprandial glucose control or insulin sensitivity. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Chungtaejeon, a Korean fermented tea, prevents the risk of atherosclerosis in rats fed a high-fat atherogenic diet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Keshav Raj Paudel; Ung-Won Lee; Dong-Wook Kim

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Hypercholesterolemia is one of the wel-established risk factors for cardiovascular mortality and morbidity in coronary heart disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-atherogenic effect of Chungtaejeon (CTJ, a Korean fermented tea) aqueous extract on proliferation and migration of human aortic smooth muscle cels (HASMCs)in vivo andin vitro. METHODS: The authors used high-fat atherogenic diet (HFAD) to induce hyperlipidemia in Wistar rats inin vivoanimal experiments and used HASMCs forin vitro cel experiments. For thein vitro cel experiment, the proliferation of HASMCs was evaluated using the MTT assay. Similarly, the expression of matrix metaloproteinases (MMPs) in HASMCs was measured using gelatin zymography. Antimigratory activity of CTJ was revealed using the wound-healing model and Boyden’s chamber assay. In thein vivo experiment, CTJ was administered in three different doses for 20 d from the initiation of the HFAD. After 20 d, the serum lipid proifle and total lipid contents in liver were measured. RESULTS:Treatment with CTJ for 24 h dose-dependently inhibited the proliferation and migration of HASMCs and expression of MMP-2 in HASMCs. The oral administration of CTJ at concentrations of 200 and 400 mg/kg decreased the levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, total serum cholesterol and hepatic cholesterol of HFAD-fed rats. CONCLUSION: CTJ possessed strong antiproliferative, antimigratory, as wel as lipid-lowering activities. Thus, CTJ can be considered as a therapeutic option in the treatment of high-fat diet-induced atherosclerosis.

  20. Comparison of enzymatically synthesized inulin, resistant maltodextrin and clofibrate effects on biomarkers of metabolic disease in rats fed a high-fat and high-sucrose (cafeteria) diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugatani, Junko; Osabe, Makoto; Wada, Tadashi; Yamakawa, Kasumi; Yamazaki, Yasuhiro; Takahashi, Tadanobu; Ikari, Akira; Miwa, Masao

    2008-06-01

    While naturally occurring inulin has anti-hyperlipidemic effects in animals and humans, health effects of synthetic inulin with different degrees of fructose polymerization remain poorly understood. Our study aimed at distinguishing health effects of synthetic inulin with different degrees of fructose polymerization (DP) from those of resistant maltodextrin and clofibrate. We examined effects of synthetic inulin on serum and liver lipid profiles and blood biochemical parameters in rats fed a high-fat and high-sucrose (HF, cafeteria) diet when compared to resistant maltodextrin and clofibrate. Treatment with inulin (average DP = 6-8, 16-17 and 23) and resistant maltodextrin for 3 weeks reduced the elevation in liver levels of triacylglycerol and total cholesterol of rats fed the cafeteria diet but not the standard diet. In these groups, inulin (average DP = 16-17) significantly reduced the portal plasma glucose level. Moreover, the levels of portal plasma propionate and circulating serum adiponectin, which were decreased in cafeteria rats, recovered to nearly normal levels after administration of inulin (average DP = 16-17). In addition, the dietary inulin suppressed elevation in levels of portal plasma insulin and circulating serum leptin and induction of acetyl-CoA carboxylase and fatty acid synthase mRNAs in the liver of cafeteria rats, consistent with the reduction of liver lipids. The dietary inulin and clofibrate markedly reduced triacylglycerol levels in serum very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) and liver and epididymal adipose tissue weights of cafeteria rats; the extent of suppression by the dietary inulin was higher than that by clofibrate. No additive or synergistic effect of the dietary inulin and clofibrate was found in decrease in circulating serum VLDL and liver lipid levels. These observations indicate that the dietary inulin may prevent the development of metabolic disease such as hyperlipidemia and hyperinsulinemia caused by intake of cafeteria

  1. Apricot and pumpkin oils reduce plasma cholesterol and triacylglycerol concentrations in rats fed a high-fat diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramadan, Mohamed F.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Non-conventional oilseeds are being taken into greater consideration because their constituents have unique chemical properties and may increase the supply of edible oils. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of apricot kernel oil (AO and pumpkin kernel oil (PO on the lipid profiles and liver functions of rats fed high fat diets. The high fat diet resulted in great alterations in plasma lipid profiles and liver functions. Twenty-four male albino rats were used over a 28 day period. The animals were divided into 4 groups, where group 1 represents the negative control which were a fed basal diet, while group 2 received a high fat diet to serve as the hypercholesterolemic group (positive control. The other two groups were given a high fat diet supplemented with AO and PO. Group 3 was treated daily with AO (1g/Kg body weight, while group 4 was treated with PO (1g/Kg body weight. The plasma lipid profile and liver functions in the different groups were determined after 14 and 28 days. The rats in the treated groups (AO and PO showed significantly lower levels of total cholesterol (TC, total triglycerides (TG, low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C, alanine-aminotransferase (ALT and aspartateaminotransferase (AST activities as well as high levels of high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C and total protein in comparison with the hypercholesterolemic group. It could be concluded that AO and PO under study are useful for the treatment of hypercholesterolemia.

    Las semillas oleaginosas no convencionales están siendo consideradas debido a que sus componentes tienen propiedades químicas únicas y pueden aumentar la oferta de los aceites comestibles. El propósito del presente estudio fue investigar el efecto de los aceites de semilla de albaricoque (AO y de calabaza (PO sobre los perfiles de lípidos y las funciones del hígado de ratas alimentadas con una dieta rica en grasas. Las dietas ricas en grasas dan lugar

  2. Functional food supplements to ameliorate the secondary complications in high fructose fed diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gite, S S; Yadav, S A; Nilegaonkar, S S; Agte, V V

    2017-05-24

    Functional foods are the most natural and safest source of health ingredients, providing health benefits beyond basic nutrition, and hence can be used as supplements for the prevention of secondary complications in diabetes. Persistent diabetes may cause glycation of various tissue proteins such as of those in lens, kidney, blood, and brain, which may further lead to the development of pathological conditions such as cataract and cardiovascular diseases. This study on adult rats was designed to assess if the functional food supplements A and B (proprietary blends of antioxidant rich plant materials) can reduce secondary complications such as cataract, dyslipidemia, and oxidative stress under severe diabetic conditions. After nine weeks of intervention of the supplements, it was found that the % HbA1c levels in the formulation group B significantly (p functional foods in the effective management of secondary complications associated with severe diabetic conditions.

  3. Kinetics of eicosapentaenoic acid in brain, heart and liver of conscious rats fed a high n-3 PUFA containing diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igarashi, Miki; Chang, Lisa; Ma, Kaizong; Rapoport, Stanley I

    2013-01-01

    Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3), a precursor of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), may benefit cardiovascular and brain health. Quantifying EPA's in vivo kinetics might elucidate these effects. [1-(14)C]EPA was infused i.v. for 5min in unanesthetized male rats fed a standard EPA-DHA diet. Plasma and microwaved tissue were analyzed. Kinetic parameters were calculated using our compartmental model. At 5min, 31-48% of labeled EPA in brain and heart was oxidized, 7% in liver. EPA incorporation rates from brain and liver precursor EPA-CoA pools into lipids, mainly phospholipids, were 36 and 2529nmol/s/g×10(-4), insignificant for heart. Deacylation-reacylation half-lives were 22h and 38-128min. Conversion rates to DHA equaled 0.65 and 25.1nmol/s/g×10(-4), respectively. The low brain concentration and incorporation rate and high oxidation of EPA suggest that, if EPA has a beneficial effect in brain, it might result from its suppression of peripheral inflammation and hepatic conversion to bioactive DHA.

  4. Nerium oleander Distillate Improves Fat and Glucose Metabolism in High-Fat Diet-Fed Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Levent Bas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (35 mg/kg bw in all rats of five groups after being fed for 2 weeks high-fat diet. Type 2 diabetic Nerium-oleander- (NO- administered groups received the NO distillate at a dose of 3.75, 37.5, and 375 μg/0.5 mL of distilled water (NO-0.1, NO-1, NO-10, resp.; positive control group had 0.6 mg glibenclamide/kg bw/d by gavage daily for 12 weeks. Type 2 diabetic negative control group had no treatment. NO distillate administration reduced fasting blood glucose, HbA1c, insulin resistance, total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein, atherogenic index, triglyceride-HDL ratio, insulin, and leptin levels. Improved beta cell function and HDL concentration were observed by NO usage. HDL percentage in total cholesterol of all NO groups was similar to healthy control. NO-10 distillate enhanced mRNA expressions of peroxisome proliferator-activated-receptor- (PPAR- α, β, and γ in adipose tissue and PPAR-α–γ in liver. The findings from both in vivo and in vitro studies suggest that the considerable beneficial effect of NO distillate administration at a dose of 375 μg/0.5 mL of distilled water may offer new approaches to treatment strategies that target both fat and glucose metabolism in type 2 diabetes.

  5. Kaempferol regulates the lipid-profile in high-fat diet-fed rats through an increase in hepatic PPARα levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chia Ju; Tzeng, Thing-Fong; Liou, Shorong-Shii; Chang, Yuan-Shiun; Liu, I-Min

    2011-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the antiobesity and antihyperlipidemic effects of the flavonoid kaempferol (3,5,7,4'-tetrahydroxyflavone). After being fed a high-fat diet (HFD) for two weeks, rats were dosed orally with kaempferol (75, 150, or 300 mg/kg) or fenofibrate (100 mg/kg) once daily for eight weeks. Fenofibrate is an antilipemic agent that exerts its therapeutic effects through activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPAR α). Kaempferol (300 mg/kg/day) produced effects similar to fenofibrate in reducing body weight gain, visceral fat-pad weights, plasma lipid levels, as well as the coronary artery risk and atherogenic indices of HFD-fed rats. Kaempferol also caused dose-related reductions in hepatic triglyceride and cholesterol content and lowered hepatic lipid droplet accumulation and the size of epididymal adipocytes in HFD-fed rats. Kaempferol and fenofibrate reversed the HFD-induced downregulation of hepatic PPAR α. HFD-induced reductions in the hepatic levels of acyl-CoA oxidase (ACO), and cytochrome P450 isoform 4A1 (CYP4A1) proteins were reversed by kaempferol and fenofibrate. The elevated expression of hepatic sterol regulatory element binding proteins (SREBPs) in HFD-fed rats were lowered by kaempferol and fenofibrate. These results suggest that kaempferol reduced the accumulation of visceral fat and improved hyperlipidemia in HFD-fed obese rats by increasing lipid metabolism through the downregulation of SREBPs and promoting the hepatic expression of ACO and CYP4A1, secondary to a direct upregulation hepatic PPAR α expression.

  6. Antibiotic-induced imbalances in gut microbiota aggravates cholesterol accumulation and liver injuries in rats fed a high-cholesterol diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xu; Wang, Tao; Liang, Shan; Li, Wei; Wu, Xiaoli; Jin, Feng

    2015-11-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that maintenance of homeostasis between gut microbiota and host plays an important role in human health. Many diseases, such as those affecting the liver, have been linked to imbalances in gut microbial communities. However, it is not clear whether an imbalance in gut microbiota promotes the onset of liver injury or if the imbalance results from the pathological state. In the current study, antibiotics were used to disturb the gut microbiota of both rats fed a high-cholesterol diet and rats fed a normal diet (controls). The prevalence of Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes were reduced, and Proteobacteria was greatly increased in the guts of rats after antibiotic treatment. The antibiotic-induced perturbation of gut microbiota aggravated cholesterol accumulation and liver injury in rats fed a high-cholesterol diet. This may have been due to an increase in intestinal permeability and plasma lipopolysaccharide (LPS), which lead to an increase in LPS absorption and activation of TLR4 signaling, resulting in the synthesis of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines in liver tissues. This study suggests that imbalances in gut microbiota may be a predisposing factor for the onset of metabolic diseases and liver injuries related to cholesterol and high-cholesterol diets. Modulation of gut microbiota could be a novel target for preventing cholesterol-related metabolic disorders.

  7. Dietary phytic acid modulates characteristics of the colonic luminal environment and reduces serum levels of proinflammatory cytokines in rats fed a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okazaki, Yukako; Katayama, Tetsuyuki

    2014-12-01

    Dietary phytic acid (PA; myo-inositol [MI] hexaphosphate) is known to inhibit colon carcinogenesis in rodents. Dietary fiber, which is a negative risk factor of colon cancer, improves characteristics of the colonic environment, such as the content of organic acids and microflora. We hypothesized that dietary PA would improve the colonic luminal environment in rats fed a high-fat diet. To test this hypothesis, rats were fed diets containing 30% beef tallow with 2.04% sodium PA, 0.4% MI, or 1.02% sodium PA + 0.2% MI for 3 weeks. Compared with the control diet, the sodium PA diet up-regulated cecal organic acids, including acetate, propionate, and n-butyrate; this effect was especially prominent for cecal butyrate. The sodium PA + MI diet also significantly increased cecal butyrate, although this effect was less pronounced when compared with the sodium PA diet. The cecal ratio of Lactobacillales, cecal and fecal mucins (an index of intestinal barrier function), and fecal β-glucosidase activity were higher in rats fed the sodium PA diet than in those fed the control diet. The sodium PA, MI, and sodium PA + MI diets decreased levels of serum tumor necrosis factor α, which is a proinflammatory cytokine. Another proinflammatory cytokine, serum interleukin-6, was also down-regulated by the sodium PA and sodium PA + MI diets. These data showed that PA may improve the composition of cecal organic acids, microflora, and mucins, and it may decrease the levels of serum proinflammatory cytokines in rats fed a high-fat, mineral-sufficient diet.

  8. Molecular factors involved in the hypolipidemic- and insulin-sensitizing effects of a ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) extract in rats fed a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Las Heras, Natalia; Valero-Muñoz, María; Martín-Fernández, Beatriz; Ballesteros, Sandra; López-Farré, Antonio; Ruiz-Roso, Baltasar; Lahera, Vicente

    2017-02-01

    Hypolipidemic and hypoglycemic properties of ginger in animal models have been reported. However, information related to the mechanisms and factors involved in the metabolic effects of ginger at a hepatic level are limited. The aim of the present study was to investigate molecular factors involved in the hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects of a hydroethanolic ginger extract (GE) in the liver of rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD). The study was conducted in male Wistar rats divided into the following 3 groups: (i) Rats fed a standard diet (3.5% fat), the control group; (ii) rats fed an HFD (33.5% fat); and (iii) rats fed an HFD treated with GE (250 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1)) for 5 weeks (HFD+GE). Plasma levels of glucose, insulin, lipid profile, leptin, and adiponectin were measured. Liver expression of glycerol phosphate acyltransferase (GPAT), cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR), PPARα and PPARγ, glucose transporter 2 (GLUT-2), liver X receptor, sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP1c), connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), and collagen I was measured. Data were analyzed using a 1-way ANOVA, followed by a Newman-Keuls test if differences were noted. The study showed that GE improved lipid profile and attenuated the increase of plasma levels of glucose, insulin, and leptin in HFD rats. This effect was associated with a higher liver expression of PPARα, PPARγ, and GLUT-2 and an enhancement of plasma adiponectin levels. Furthermore, GE reduced liver expression of GPAT, SREBP1c, CTGF, and collagen I. The results suggest that GE might be considered as an alternative therapeutic strategy in the management of overweight and hepatic and metabolic-related alterations.

  9. Green tea supplementation benefits body composition and improves bone properties in obese female rats fed with high-fat diet and caloric restricted diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Chwan-Li; Han, Jia; Wang, Shu; Chung, Eunhee; Chyu, Ming-Chien; Cao, Jay J

    2015-12-01

    This study investigated the effects of green tea polyphenols (GTP) supplementation on body composition, bone properties, and serum markers in obese rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD) or a caloric restricted diet (CRD). Forty-eight female rats were fed an HFD ad libitum for 4 months, and then either continued on the HFD or the CRD with or without 0.5% GTP in water. Body composition, bone efficacy, and serum markers were measured. We hypothesized that GTP supplementation would improve body composition, mitigate bone loss, and restore bone microstructure in obese animals fed either HFD or CRD. CRD lowered percent fat mass; bone mass and trabecular number of tibia, femur and lumbar vertebrae; femoral strength; trabecular and cortical thickness of tibia; insulin-like growth factor-I and leptin. CRD also increased percent fat-free mass; trabecular separation of tibia and femur; eroded surface of tibia; bone formation rate and erosion rate at tibia shaft; and adiponectin. GTP supplementation increased femoral mass and strength (P = .026), trabecular thickness (P = .012) and number (P = .019), and cortical thickness of tibia (P diet type × GTP) on osteoblast surface/bone surface, mineral apposition rate at periosteal and endocortical bones, periosteal bone formation rate, and trabecular thickness at femur and lumbar vertebrate (P composition and improved bone microstructure and strength in obese rats fed with HFD or HFD followed by CRD diet. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Intake of Tibetan Hull-Less Barley is Associated with a Reduced Risk of Metabolic Related Syndrome in Rats Fed High-Fat-Sucrose Diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingxiao Gong

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess the effects of whole grain Tibetan hull-less barley on metabolic related syndrome induced by high-fat-sucrose diets in rats. The diets were designed to reflect the dietary patterns of Chinese individuals (>30% energy fat with refined wheat flour (HFS-W or Tibetan hull-less barley (HFS-THB as the main carbohydrate sources. Rats fed HFS-W had increased body weight, abdominal fat deposition, liver weight, liver fat deposition, triglyceride (TG, fasting blood glucose (FBG, serum fasting insulin (FINS, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR scores, and decreased low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C levels compared to rats fed a basal diet (BD. However, rats fed HFS-THB had reduced body weight gain, dyslipidemia, and insulin resistance. These findings indicate that whole Tibetan hull-less barley is a functional food that can reduce the prevalence of metabolic related syndrome induced by high-fat-sucrose diets.

  11. High incidence of lipid deposition in the liver of rats fed a diet supplemented with branched-chain amino acids under vitamin B6 deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaimoto, Tae; Shibuya, Mayumi; Nishikawa, Kazutaka; Maeda, Hideo

    2013-01-01

    Male Wistar rats were fed four diets composed of purified 20% vitamin-free casein diet with (+) or without (-) vitamin B(6) (7.0 mg of pyridoxine HCl/kg of diet) and with (+) or without (-) branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) of valine, leucine, and isoleucine (4.75%): B(6)(+)BCAA(-); B(6)(+)BCAA(+); B(6)(-)BCAA(-); and B(6)(-)BCAA(+) for 21 d. Among rats fed the B(6)(-)BCAA(+) diet, about a half showed lipid deposition in the liver. On the other hand, serum triacylglycerol levels in the B(6)(-)BCAA(+) group tended to be decreased. Hepatic triacylglycerol and cholesterol levels tended to increase in the B(6)(-)BCAA(+) group compared with the other three groups. Serum apolipoprotein B and apolipoprotein E (apo E) levels in the B(6)(-)BCAA(+) group were the lowest among the three groups. In contrast, hepatic apo E levels in the B(6)(-)BCAA(+) group were the highest among the three groups. High-performance liquid chromatography of pooled serum of rats with lipid deposits revealed that triacylglycerol and cholesterol levels in very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) were decreased compared with other diet groups. These results strongly suggest that one of the mechanisms of lipid deposition in rats fed a B(6)(-)BCAA(+) diet is due to impaired secretion of VLDL.

  12. Sodium alginate oligosaccharides attenuate hypertension and associated kidney damage in Dahl salt-sensitive rats fed a high-salt diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terakado, Shouko; Ueno, Mai; Tamura, Yuki; Toda, Natsuko; Yoshinaga, Mariko; Otsuka, Kie; Numabe, Atsushi; Kawabata, Yukari; Murota, Itsuki; Sato, Nobuyuki; Uehara, Yoshio

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the antihypertensive effects of sodium alginate oligosaccharides, enzymatic products of high molecular natural alginate from sea weeds, in Dahl salt-sensitive (Dahl S) rats were investigated. Dahl S rats fed a high-salt (4% NaCl) diet were treated with sodium alginate oligosaccharides (4% or 8% w/w) for 7 weeks. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) was measured by the tail-cuff method, and hypertensive cardiovascular benefits and kidney damage were assessed. Glomerular function and morphological sclerosis were determined. SBP increased in an age-dependent manner in the untreated Dahl S rats. Sodium alginate oligosaccharide treatment attenuated the increase in SBP in a dose-dependent manner. The heart and aortic walls weighed less in the rats treated with sodium alginate oligosaccharides than in the untreated rats. The SBP reduction was associated with a decrease in urinary protein excretion and an increase in the creatinine clearance rate. Sodium alginate oligosaccharides significantly attenuated hypertensive glomerular sclerosis and arterial injury in the kidney. Fractional excretion of sodium (FENa) decreased in low-salt Dahl S rats and increased with a salt challenge. The alginate oligosaccharides decreased FENa in high-salt Dahl S rats. The results of this study suggest that sodium alginate oligosaccharides attenuate salt-induced hypertension in Dahl S rats. This reduction is associated with decreases in cardiovascular and renal damage.

  13. Decreased vascular H2S production is associated with vascular oxidative stress in rats fed a high-fat western diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Trisha A; Nguyen, Jason C D; Hart, Joanne L

    2016-07-01

    A Western-style high-fat diet is known to cause vascular dysfunction and oxidative stress. H2S contributes to the regulation of vascular function and acts as a vasoprotective molecule; however, the effects of high-fat diet on vascular H2S production and function are not known. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of high-fat diet on vascular function and H2S production. Wistar hooded rats were fed a western diet (WD, 21 % fat) or control rat chow (6 % fat) for 12 weeks. At the end of the experiment, the aorta was collected for assessing vascular function and NO and H2S bioavailability. Superoxide anion production was quantitated by lucigenin-enhanced chemiluminescence. The expression of NADPH oxidase subunit Nox2 and the H2S-producing protein cystathionine-γ-lyase (CSE) were examined by Western blotting. WD rats had significantly higher body weight and body fat than control (p muscle cell function was unaffected. Vascular superoxide production and Nox2 expression were significantly increased in the aorta from WD rats. L-Cysteine-induced vasorelaxation was reduced in the WD group (p fat feeding induces vascular oxidative stress and a reduction in endothelial function. Furthermore, there is a reduced capacity for both basal and stimulated vascular H2S production via CSE in fat fed rats.

  14. Early postweaning exercise improves central leptin sensitivity in offspring of rat dams fed high-fat diet during pregnancy and lactation

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Maternal high-fat (HF) diet has long-term consequences on the metabolic phenotype of the offspring. Here, we determined the effects of postweaning exercise in offspring of rat dams fed HF diet during gestation and lactation. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were maintained on chow or HF diet throughout gestation and lactation. All pups were weaned onto chow diet on postnatal day (PND) 21. At 4 wk of age, male pups were given free access to running wheels (RW) or remained sedentary (SED) for 3 wk,...

  15. Increased diuresis, renal vascular reactivity, and blood pressure levels in young rats fed high sodium, moderately high fructose, or their association: a comparative evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Silva, Rita de Cássia Vilhena A F; de Souza, Priscila; da Silva-Santos, José Eduardo

    2016-12-01

    Excessive intakes of sodium or fructose have been described as risk factors for hypertension. We hypothesized that even a moderately high fructose diet (6% fructose), either alone or in combination with high sodium (4% NaCl), may impair diuresis and renal and systemic vascular reactivity, contributing to the onset of high blood pressure in rats. Male Wistar rats were fed chow containing 4% NaCl (HS), 6% fructose (MHF), or both 4% NaCl and 6% fructose (HSMHF) for 6 weeks and had their diuresis, plasma creatinine, vascular reactivity of perfused kidneys and systemic arterial pressure evaluated. We found no differences in augmented diuresis among animals given HS, MHF, or HSMHF diets. After 6 weeks both the HS and HSMHF groups had increased weight in their left kidneys, but only the HSMHF group showed augmented plasma creatinine. The effects of phenylephrine on renal vascular perfusion pressure were similarly enhanced in kidneys from the HS, MHF, and HSMHF groups, but not on the systemic arterial pressure. Although when evaluated in anesthetized rats, only the HSMHF group presented augmented blood pressure, evaluation in conscious animals revealed that both the MHF and HSMHF diets, but not the HS alone, were able to induce tachycardia and hypertension. In conclusion, a MHF diet containing 6% fructose was enough to render the renal vascular bed hyperreactive to phenylephrine and to induce both hypertension and tachycardia. The combination of 6% fructose with 4% NaCl led to plasma accumulation of creatinine and accelerated the development of tachycardia.

  16. Comparative proteomic analysis of fibrotic liver of rats fed high fat diet contained lard versus corn oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hualin; Sit, Wat-Hung; Tipoe, George Lim; Liu, Zhiguo; Wan, Jennifer Man-Fan

    2017-02-01

    The influences of dietary fatty acids on the progress of chronic liver diseases have attracted lots of attentions, but the mechanisms of the effects of lipids rich in saturated fatty acids or PUFAs on hepatic fibrogenesis remain unclear. Female Fischer 344 rats were fed normal chow or chow plus 20% (w/w) of corn oil or lard, respectively, and injected CCl4 twice a week for 4 weeks to induce liver fibrosis. Masson's staining was adopted to illustrate the fibrosis level. The mRNA expression level of α-SMA and the DNA methylation level of its promoter region were analyzed. A 2-DE gel based proteomic approach was constructed to investigate the differential expression level of hepatic proteome between three diet groups. Histological evaluations and α-SMA expression analysis illustrated the high corn oil intake has no effects on hepatic fibrogenesis, but lard intake aggravated liver fibrosis, partly attributed to DNA demethylation of α-SMA promoter region. 2-DE Gel based proteomic study demonstrated excessive lard consumption elevated the expression of fibrosis related alpha-1-antitrypsin precursor, and endoplasmic reticulum stress related proteins such as heat shock cognate 71 kDa, eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4A1 and protein disulfide isomerase associated 3. Moreover, unlike corn oil rich in PUFAs, lard had no effects to elevate the expression of glutathione S-transferases, but decreased the expression of iron store related proteins heme binding protein 1 and ferritin. Lard intake aggravates CCl4 induced liver fibrosis via enhancing the expression of fibrogenesis and ER stress related proteins, and disturbing the hepatic transmethylation reaction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of chromium picolinate and melatonin either in single or in a combination in high carbohydrate diet-fed male Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doddigarla, Zephy; Ahmad, Jamal; Parwez, Iqbal

    2016-01-01

    This study is designed to know the effects of chromium picolinate (CrPic) and melatonin (Mel) each alone and in a combination on high carbohydrate diet-fed (HCD-fed) male Wistar rats that exhibit insulin resistance (IR), hyperglycemia, and oxidative stress. Wistar rats have been categorized into five groups. Each group consisted of six male Wistar rats, control rats (group I), HCD (group II), HCD + CrPic (group III), HCD + Mel (group IV), and HCD + CrPic + Mel (group V). Insignificant differences were observed in serum levels of superoxide dismutase, nitric oxide, and zinc in group III, group IV, and group V when each group was compared with group II rats respectively. Significant differences were observed in group III, group IV, and group V when each group was compared with group II in homeostasis model assessment-estimated IR (P < 0.05, <0.0.05, <0.05), and in the levels of blood glucose (P < 0.05, <0.0.05, <0.05), total cholesterol (P < 0.05, <0.001, <0.001), triacylglycerols (<0.05, <0.001, <0.001), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (P < 0.05, <0.001, <0.001), malondialdehyde (P < 0.05, <0.05, <0.001), catalase (P <0.05, <0.05, <0.05), glutathione (P < 0.05, <0.05, <0.05), Mel (P < 0.05, <0.05, <0.001), and copper (P < 0.05, <0.05, < 0.001). In view of these results, HCD-fed male Wistar rats that are destined to attain IR and T2DM through diet can be prevented by giving CrPic and Mel administration in alone or in a combination.

  18. Rats prone to obesity under a high-carbohydrate diet have increased post-meal CCK mRNA expression and characteristics of rats fed a high-glycemic index diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine eChaumontet

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We previously reported that rats prone to obesity exhibit an exaggerated increase in glucose oxidation and an exaggerated decline in lipid oxidation under a low-fat high-carbohydrate (LF/HC diet. The aim of the present study was to investigate the mechanisms involved in these metabolic dysregulations. After a one week adaptation to laboratory conditions, 48 male Wistar rats were fed a LF/HC diet for 3 weeks. During weeks 2 and 3, glucose tolerance tests (GTT, insulin tolerance tests (ITT and meal tolerance tests (MTT were performed to evaluate blood glucose, plasma and insulin. Glucose and lipid oxidation were also assayed during the GTT. At the end of the study, body composition was measured in all the rats, and they were classified as carbohydrate resistant (CR or carbohydrate sensitive (CS according to their adiposity. Before sacrifice, 24 of the 48 rats received a calibrated LF/HC meal. Liver, muscle and intestine tissue samples were taken to measure mRNA expression of key genes involved in glucose, lipid and protein metabolism. ITT, GTT and MTT showed that CS rats were neither insulin resistant nor glucose intolerant, but mRNA expression of CCK in the duodenum was higher and that of CPT1, PPARα and PGC1α in liver were lower than in CR rats. From these results, we make the hypothesis that in CS rats, CCK increased pancreatic secretion which may favor a quicker absorption of carbohydrates and consequently induces an enhanced inhibition of lipid oxidation in the liver leading to a progressive accumulation of fat preferentially in visceral deposits. Such a mechanism may explain why CS rats share many characteristics observed in rats fed a high glycemic index diet.

  19. Preventative effect of Zingiber officinale on insulin resistance in a high-fat high-carbohydrate diet-fed rat model and its mechanism of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yiming; Tran, Van H; Kota, Bhavani P; Nammi, Srinivas; Duke, Colin C; Roufogalis, Basil D

    2014-08-01

    Insulin resistance is a core component of metabolic syndrome and usually precedes the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus. We have examined the preventative effect of an ethanol extract of ginger (Zingiber officinale, Zingiberaceae) on insulin resistance in a high-fat high-carbohydrate (HFHC) diet-fed rat model of metabolic syndrome. The HFHC control rats displayed severe insulin resistance, whilst rats treated with ginger extract (200 mg/kg) during HFHC diet feeding showed a significant improvement of insulin sensitivity using the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) after 10 weeks (p ginger, dose-dependently (from 50 to 150 μM) increased AMPK α-subunit phosphorylation in L6 skeletal muscle cells. This was accompanied by a time-dependent marked increment of PGC-1α mRNA expression and mitochondrial content in L6 skeletal muscle cells. These results suggest that the protection from HFHC diet-induced insulin resistance by ginger is likely associated with the increased capacity of energy metabolism by its major active component (S)-[6]-gingerol.

  20. NEU-P11, a novel melatonin agonist, inhibits weight gain and improves insulin sensitivity in high-fat/high-sucrose-fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    She, Meihua; Deng, Xiaojian; Guo, Zhenyu; Laudon, Moshe; Hu, Zhuowei; Liao, Duanfang; Hu, Xiaobo; Luo, Yi; Shen, Qingyun; Su, Zehong; Yin, Weidong

    2009-04-01

    Evidences indicate that a complex relationship exists among sleep disorders, obesity and insulin resistance. NEU-P11 is a novel melatonin agonist used in treatment of psychophysiological insomnia, and in animal studies NEU-P11 showed sleep-promoting effect. In this study, we applied NEU-P11 on obese rats to assess its potential melatoninergic effects in vivo. Obese models were established using high-fat/high-sucrose-fed for 5 months. NEU-P11 (10mg/kg)/melatonin (4mg/kg)/vehicle were administered by a daily intraperitoneal injection respectively for 8 weeks. Our results showed that NEU-P11 or melatonin inhibited both body weight gain and deposit of abdominal fat with no influence on food intake. The impaired insulin sensitivity and antioxidative potency were improved and the levels of plasma glucose, total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG) decreased with an increased in HDL-cholesterol (HDL-c) after NEU-P11 or melatonin administration. These data suggest that NEU-P11, like melatonin, decreased body weight gain and improved insulin sensitivity and metabolic profiles in obese rats. We conclude that NEU-P11 has a melatoninergic effect on regulating body weight in obese rats and also improving metabolic profiles and efficiently enhancing insulin sensitivity.

  1. Longitudinal assessment of food intake, fecal energy loss, and energy expenditure after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery in high-fat-fed obese rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Andrew C; Zheng, Huiyuan; Townsend, R Leigh; Patterson, Laurel M; Holmes, Gregory M; Berthoud, Hans-Rudolf

    2013-04-01

    The efficacy of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery to produce weight loss has been well-documented, but few studies have measured the key components of energy balance, food intake, and energy expenditure longitudinally. Male Sprague-Dawley rats on a high-fat diet underwent either RYGB, sham operation, or pair feeding and were compared to chow-fed lean controls. Body weight and composition, food intake and preference, energy expenditure, fecal output, and gastric emptying were monitored before and up to 4 months after intervention. Despite the recovery of initially decreased food intake to levels slightly higher than before surgery and comparable to sham-operated rats after about 1 month, RYGB rats maintained a lower level of body weight and fat mass for 4 months that was not different from chow-fed age-matched controls. Energy expenditure corrected for lean body mass at 1 and 4 months after RYGB was not different from presurgical levels and from all other groups. Fecal energy loss was significantly increased at 6 and 16 weeks after RYGB compared to sham operation, and there was a progressive decrease in fat preference after RYGB. In this rat model of RYGB, sustained weight loss is achieved by a combination of initial hypophagia and sustained increases in fecal energy loss, without change in energy expenditure per lean mass. A shift away from high-fat towards low-fat/high-carbohydrate food preference occurring in parallel suggests long-term adaptive mechanisms related to fat absorption.

  2. Protective Effect of Vanillic Acid against Hyperinsulinemia, Hyperglycemia and Hyperlipidemia via Alleviating Hepatic Insulin Resistance and Inflammation in High-Fat Diet (HFD)-Fed Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Wen-Chang; Wu, James Swi-Bea; Chen, Chen-Wen; Kuo, Po-Ling; Chien, Hsu-Min; Wang, Yuh-Tai; Shen, Szu-Chuan

    2015-12-02

    Excess free fatty acid accumulation from abnormal lipid metabolism results in the insulin resistance in peripheral cells, subsequently causing hyperinsulinemia, hyperglycemia and/or hyperlipidemia in diabetes mellitus (DM) patients. Herein, we investigated the effect of phenolic acids on glucose uptake in an insulin-resistant cell-culture model and on hepatic insulin resistance and inflammation in rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD). The results show that vanillic acid (VA) demonstrated the highest glucose uptake ability among all tested phenolic acids in insulin-resistant FL83B mouse hepatocytes. Furthermore, rats fed HFD for 16 weeks were orally administered with VA daily (30 mg/kg body weight) at weeks 13-16. The results show that levels of serum insulin, glucose, triglyceride, and free fatty acid were significantly decreased in VA-treated HFD rats (p hyperlipidemia in HFD rats. Moreover, VA significantly reduced values of area under the curve for glucose (AUCglucose) in oral glucose tolerance test and homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index, suggesting the improving effect on glucose tolerance and insulin resistance in HFD rats. The Western blot analysis revealed that VA significantly up-regulated expression of hepatic insulin-signaling and lipid metabolism-related protein, including insulin receptor, phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase, glucose transporter 2, and phosphorylated acetyl CoA carboxylase in HFD rats. VA also significantly down-regulated hepatic inflammation-related proteins, including cyclooxygenase-2 and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 expressions in HFD rats. These results indicate that VA might ameliorate insulin resistance via improving hepatic insulin signaling and alleviating inflammation pathways in HFD rats. These findings also suggest the potential of VA in preventing the progression of DM.

  3. Protective Effect of Vanillic Acid against Hyperinsulinemia, Hyperglycemia and Hyperlipidemia via Alleviating Hepatic Insulin Resistance and Inflammation in High-Fat Diet (HFD-Fed Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Chang Chang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Excess free fatty acid accumulation from abnormal lipid metabolism results in the insulin resistance in peripheral cells, subsequently causing hyperinsulinemia, hyperglycemia and/or hyperlipidemia in diabetes mellitus (DM patients. Herein, we investigated the effect of phenolic acids on glucose uptake in an insulin-resistant cell-culture model and on hepatic insulin resistance and inflammation in rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD. The results show that vanillic acid (VA demonstrated the highest glucose uptake ability among all tested phenolic acids in insulin-resistant FL83B mouse hepatocytes. Furthermore, rats fed HFD for 16 weeks were orally administered with VA daily (30 mg/kg body weight at weeks 13–16. The results show that levels of serum insulin, glucose, triglyceride, and free fatty acid were significantly decreased in VA-treated HFD rats (p < 0.05, indicating the protective effects of VA against hyperinsulinemia, hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia in HFD rats. Moreover, VA significantly reduced values of area under the curve for glucose (AUCglucose in oral glucose tolerance test and homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR index, suggesting the improving effect on glucose tolerance and insulin resistance in HFD rats. The Western blot analysis revealed that VA significantly up-regulated expression of hepatic insulin-signaling and lipid metabolism-related protein, including insulin receptor, phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase, glucose transporter 2, and phosphorylated acetyl CoA carboxylase in HFD rats. VA also significantly down-regulated hepatic inflammation-related proteins, including cyclooxygenase-2 and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 expressions in HFD rats. These results indicate that VA might ameliorate insulin resistance via improving hepatic insulin signaling and alleviating inflammation pathways in HFD rats. These findings also suggest the potential of VA in preventing the progression of DM.

  4. Fish Oil and Microalga Omega-3 as Dietary Supplements: A Comparative Study on Cardiovascular Risk Factors in High-Fat Fed Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haimeur, Adil; Mimouni, Virginie; Ulmann, Lionel; Martineau, Anne-Sophie; Messaouri, Hafida; Pineau-Vincent, Fabienne; Tremblin, Gérard; Meskini, Nadia

    2016-09-01

    Dietary supplementation with marine omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) can have beneficial effects on a number of risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). We compared the effects of two n-3 PUFA rich food supplements (freeze-dried Odontella aurita and fish oil) on risk factors for CVD. Male rats were randomly divided into four groups of six animals each and fed with the following diets: control group (C) received a standard diet containing 7 % lipids; second group (HF high fat) was fed with a high-fat diet containing 40 % lipids; third group (HFFO high fat+fish oil) was fed with the high-fat diet supplemented with 0.5 % fish oil; and fourth group (HFOA high fat+O. aurita) received the high-fat diet supplemented with 12 % of freeze-dried O. aurita. After 8 weeks rats fed with the high-fat diet supplemented with O. aurita displayed a significantly lower bodyweight than those in the other groups. Both the microalga and the fish oil significantly reduced insulinemia and serum lipid levels. O. aurita was more effective than the fish oil in reducing hepatic triacyglycerol levels and in preventing high-fat diet-induced steatosis. O. aurita and fish oil also reduced platelet aggregation and oxidative status induced by high fat intake. After an OA supplementation, the adipocytes in the HFOA group were smaller than those in the HF group. Freeze-dried O. aurita showed similar or even greater biological effects than the fish oil. This could be explained by a potential effect of the n-3 PUFA but also other bioactive compounds of the microalgae.

  5. Modulation of Microbiota-Gut-Brain Axis by Berberine Resulting in Improved Metabolic Status in High-Fat Diet-Fed Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honglin Sun

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate whether or not berberine could improve metabolic status of high-fat-fed rats through modulation of microbiota-gut-brain axis. Methods: Berberine was administered on high-fat-fed Sprague-Dawley rats. Brain-gut hormones were detected, and changes of gut microbiota were analyzed by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Results: Berberine could reduce weight gain and lipolysis in the high-fat diet-fed group. Moreover, trends of ameliorated insulin resistance and decreased endogenous glucose production were observed. In addition, the microbiota-gut-brain axis was found to be modulated, including structural and diversity changes of microbiota, elevated serum glucagon-like peptide-1 and neuropeptide Y level, decreased orexin A level, up-regulated glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor mRNA level as well as ultra-structural improvement of the hypothalamus. Conclusion: Taken together, our findings suggest that berberine improved metabolic disorders induced by high-fat diet through modulation of the microbiota-gut-brain axis.

  6. Structural changes of gut microbiota during berberine-mediated prevention of obesity and insulin resistance in high-fat diet-fed rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Zhang

    Full Text Available Berberine, a major pharmacological component of the Chinese herb Coptis chinensis, which was originally used to treat bacterial diarrhea, has recently been demonstrated to be clinically effective in alleviating type 2 diabetes. In this study, we revealed that berberine effectively prevented the development of obesity and insulin resistance in high-fat diet (HFD-fed rats, which showed decreased food intake. Increases in the levels of serum lipopolysaccharide-binding protein, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and leptin and decrease in the serum level of adiponectin corrected for body fat in HFD-fed rats were also significantly retarded by the co-administration of berberine at 100 mg/kg body weight. Bar-coded pyrosequencing of the V3 region of 16S rRNA genes revealed a significant reduction in the gut microbiota diversity of berberine-treated rats. UniFrac principal coordinates analysis revealed a marked shift of the gut microbiota structure in berberine-treated rats away from that of the controls. Redundancy analysis identified 268 berberine-responding operational taxonomic units (OTUs, most of which were essentially eliminated, whereas a few putative short-chain fatty acid (SCFA-producing bacteria, including Blautia and Allobaculum, were selectively enriched, along with elevations of fecal SCFA concentrations. Partial least square regression models based on these 268 OTUs were established (Q(2>0.6 for predicting the adiposity index, body weight, leptin and adiponectin corrected for body fat, indicating that these discrete phylotypes might have a close association with the host metabolic phenotypes. Taken together, our findings suggest that the prevention of obesity and insulin resistance by berberine in HFD-fed rats is at least partially mediated by structural modulation of the gut microbiota, which may help to alleviate inflammation by reducing the exogenous antigen load in the host and elevating SCFA levels in the intestine.

  7. Açai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) Upregulates Paraoxonase 1 Gene Expression and Activity with Concomitant Reduction of Hepatic Steatosis in High-Fat Diet-Fed Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lage, Nara Nunes; Lopes, Juliana Márcia Macedo; de Lima, Wanderson Geraldo

    2016-01-01

    Açai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.), a fruit from the Amazon region, has emerged as a promising source of polyphenols. Açai consumption has been increasing owing to ascribed health benefits and antioxidant properties; however, its effects on hepatic injury are limited. In this study, we evaluated the antioxidant effect of filtered açai pulp on the expression of paraoxonase (PON) isoforms and PON1 activity in rats with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The rats were fed a standard AIN-93M (control) diet or a high-fat (HF) diet containing 25% soy oil and 1% cholesterol with or without açai pulp (2 g/day) for 6 weeks. Our results show that açai pulp prevented low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation, increased serum and hepatic PON1 activity, and upregulated the expression of PON1 and ApoA-I in the liver. In HF diet-fed rats, treatment with açai pulp attenuated liver damage, reducing fat infiltration and triglyceride (TG) content. In rats receiving açai, increased serum PON1 activity was correlated with a reduction in hepatic steatosis and hepatic injury. These findings suggest the use of açai as a potential therapy for liver injuries, supporting the idea that dietary antioxidants are a promising approach to enhance the defensive systems against oxidative stress. PMID:27642496

  8. Açai (Euterpe oleracea Mart. Upregulates Paraoxonase 1 Gene Expression and Activity with Concomitant Reduction of Hepatic Steatosis in High-Fat Diet-Fed Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Rebeca Pereira

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Açai (Euterpe oleracea Mart., a fruit from the Amazon region, has emerged as a promising source of polyphenols. Açai consumption has been increasing owing to ascribed health benefits and antioxidant properties; however, its effects on hepatic injury are limited. In this study, we evaluated the antioxidant effect of filtered açai pulp on the expression of paraoxonase (PON isoforms and PON1 activity in rats with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD. The rats were fed a standard AIN-93M (control diet or a high-fat (HF diet containing 25% soy oil and 1% cholesterol with or without açai pulp (2 g/day for 6 weeks. Our results show that açai pulp prevented low-density lipoprotein (LDL oxidation, increased serum and hepatic PON1 activity, and upregulated the expression of PON1 and ApoA-I in the liver. In HF diet-fed rats, treatment with açai pulp attenuated liver damage, reducing fat infiltration and triglyceride (TG content. In rats receiving açai, increased serum PON1 activity was correlated with a reduction in hepatic steatosis and hepatic injury. These findings suggest the use of açai as a potential therapy for liver injuries, supporting the idea that dietary antioxidants are a promising approach to enhance the defensive systems against oxidative stress.

  9. Effects of salicylic acid-induced wine rich in anthocyanins on metabolic parameters and adipose insulin signaling in high-fructose fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez Lanzi, Cecilia; de Rosas, Inés; Perdicaro, Diahann J; Ponce, María Teresa; Martinez, Liliana; Miatello, Roberto M; Cavagnaro, Bruno; Vazquez Prieto, Marcela A

    2016-12-01

    We evaluated the effects of Syrah red wine treated with salicylic acid (RW SA) and its control red wine (RW) on metabolic parameters, systolic blood pressure and adipose tissue insulin signaling in high-fructose (F) fed rats. Grape treated with SA increased the anthocyanin (ANTs) levels in RW. F induced increased systolic blood pressure, dislipidemia and insulin resistance (HOMA:IR). F rats treated with RW significantly prevented these alterations while RW SA partially attenuated triglycerides levels and HOMA:IR without modifications in HDL cholesterol levels. F impaired the adipose tissue response to insulin. Supplementation with RW and RW SA partially attenuated these alterations. Rats supplemented with RW SA had lesser beneficial effects on metabolic alterations than control RW, while both RW and RW SA attenuated altered adipose response to insulin. More studies are necessary to deeply evaluate the effect on SA-induced RW rich in ANTs levels on metabolic alterations associated to MetS.

  10. Rice Bran Protein Hydrolysates Improve Insulin Resistance and Decrease Pro-inflammatory Cytokine Gene Expression in Rats Fed a High Carbohydrate-High Fat Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonloh, Kampeebhorn; Kukongviriyapan, Veerapol; Kongyingyoes, Bunkerd; Kukongviriyapan, Upa; Thawornchinsombut, Supawan; Pannangpetch, Patchareewan

    2015-08-03

    A high carbohydrate-high fat (HCHF) diet causes insulin resistance (IR) and metabolic syndrome (MS). Rice bran has been demonstrated to have anti-dyslipidemic and anti-atherogenic properties in an obese mouse model. In the present study, we investigated the beneficial effects of rice bran protein hydrolysates (RBP) in HCHF-induced MS rats. After 12 weeks on this diet, the HCHF-fed group was divided into four subgroups, which were orally administered RBP 100 or 500 mg/kg, pioglitazone 10 mg/kg, or tap water for a further 6 weeks. Compared with normal diet control group, the MS rats had elevated levels of blood glucose, lipid, insulin, and HOMA-IR. Treatment with RBP significantly alleviated all those changes and restored insulin sensitivity. Additionally, RBP treatment increased adiponectin and suppressed leptin levels. Expression of Ppar-γ mRNA in adipose tissues was significantly increased whereas expression of lipogenic genes Srebf1 and Fasn was significantly decreased. Levels of mRNA of proinflammatory cytokines, Il-6, Tnf-α, Nos-2 and Mcp-1 were significantly decreased. In conclusion, the present findings support the consumption of RBP as a functional food to improve insulin resistance and to prevent the development of metabolic syndrome.

  11. Effect of dietary supplementation with olive and sunflower oils on lipid profile and liver histology in rats fed high cholesterol diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duavy, Sandra Mara Pimentel; Salazar, Gerson Javier Torres; Leite, Gerlânia de Oliveira; Ecker, Assis; Barbosa, Nilda Vargas

    2017-06-01

    To compare the effects of high-monounsaturated (MUFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) against the metabolic disorders elicited by a high-cholesterol diet (HC) in rats. Using in vivo dietary manipulation, rats were fed with different diets containing 4% soybean oil (cholesterol free diet) and 1% HC containing 12% olive oil (HC + OO) enriched with MUFA and 12% sunflower oil (HC + SO) enriched with PUFA for 60 d. Serum lipid levels and hepatic steatosis were evaluated after the treatment period. Comparatively, rats treated with HC + OO diet experienced a decrease in the serum LDL-C, VLDL-C and CT levels compared to those fed with HC + SO diet (P zone 1. HC + OO diet has high absorption velocity in the acinar zone 1 of liver compared to the HC + SO diet. Based on this, the reduction of the LDL-C, VLDL-C and CT serum levels in the animals treated with HC + OO diet may have been caused by the delay in the FA release to the blood. Copyright © 2017 Hainan Medical University. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Dietary phytic acid prevents fatty liver by reducing expression of hepatic lipogenic enzymes and modulates gut microflora in rats fed a high-sucrose diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekita, Ayaka; Okazaki, Yukako; Katayama, Tetsuyuki

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of phytic acid (PA) on fatty liver and gut microflora in rats fed a high-sucrose (HSC) diet. Three groups of rats were fed a high-starch (HSR) diet or an HSC diet with or without 1.02% sodium PA for 12 d. We evaluated hepatic weight, total lipids, and triacylglycerol (TG) levels, the activities and expression of hepatic lipogenic enzymes (glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, malic enzyme 1, and fatty acid synthetase), and fecal microflora. The HSC diet significantly increased hepatic total lipids and TG levels, and the activities and expression of the hepatic lipogenic enzymes compared with the HSR diet. These upregulations were clearly suppressed by dietary PA. Consumption of PA elevated the fecal ratio of Lactobacillus spp. and depressed the ratio of Clostridium cocoides, and suppressed the elevation in the ratio of C. leptum induced by the HSC diet. This work showed that dietary PA ameliorates sucrose-induced fatty liver through reducing the expression of hepatic lipogenesis genes and modulates gut microflora in rats. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Polyphenolic compounds of red wine: relationship with the antioxidant properties and effects on the metabolic syndrome induced in high-fructose fed rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Di Majo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiologists have observed that a diet rich in polyphenolic compounds may provide a positive effects due to their antioxidant properties. Red wine is an excellent source of polyphenolic compounds. Objective of this work is a review of the polyphenolic compounds of red wine. The first study evaluates the antioxidant properties of Sicilian red wines in relationship with their polyphenolic composition; the second investigates the corrective offects of some phenolic molecules on the metabolic syndrome induced in high-fructose fed rats.

  14. The involvement of ginseng berry extract in blood flow via regulation of blood coagulation in rats fed a high-fat diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Hee Kim

    2017-04-01

    Conclusion: These results suggest the possibility that GBx can ameliorate blood flow by decreasing intima-media thickness via the regulation of blood coagulation factors related to lipid metabolites in rats fed a HFD.

  15. Metabolic effects of the iodothyronine functional analogue TRC150094 on the liver and skeletal muscle of high-fat diet fed overweight rats: an integrated proteomic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestri, Elena; Glinni, Daniela; Cioffi, Federica; Moreno, Maria; Lombardi, Assunta; de Lange, Pieter; Senese, Rosalba; Ceccarelli, Michele; Salzano, Anna Maria; Scaloni, Andrea; Lanni, Antonia; Goglia, Fernando

    2012-07-06

    A novel functional iodothyronine analogue, TRC150094, which has a much lower potency toward thyroid hormone receptor (α1/β1) activation than triiodothyronine, has been shown to be effective at reducing adiposity in rats simultaneously receiving a high-fat diet (HFD). Here, by combining metabolic, functional and proteomic analysis, we studied how the hepatic and skeletal muscle phenotypes might respond to TRC150094 treatment in HFD-fed overweight rats. Drug treatment increased both the liver and skeletal muscle mitochondrial oxidative capacities without altering mitochondrial efficiency. Coherently, in terms of individual respiratory in-gel activity, blue-native analysis revealed an increased activity of complex V in the liver and of complexes II and V in tibialis muscle in TCR150094-treated animals. Subsequently, the identification of differentially expressed proteins and the analysis of their interrelations gave an integrated view of the phenotypic/metabolic adaptations occurring in the liver and muscle proteomes during drug treatment. TRC150094 significantly altered the expression of several proteins involved in key liver metabolic pathways, including amino acid and nitrogen metabolism, and fructose and mannose metabolism. The canonical pathways most strongly influenced by TRC150094 in tibialis muscle included glycolysis and gluconeogenesis, amino acid, fructose and mannose metabolism, and cell signaling. The phenotypic/metabolic influence of TRC150094 on the liver and skeletal muscle of HFD-fed overweight rats suggests the potential clinical application of this iodothyronine analogue in ameliorating metabolic risk parameters altered by diet regimens.

  16. Adipose tissue stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 index is increased and linoleic acid is decreased in obesity-prone rats fed a high-fat diet

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    Cedernaes Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fatty acid (FA composition and desaturase indices are associated with obesity and related metabolic conditions. However, it is unclear to what extent desaturase activity in different lipid fractions contribute to obesity susceptibility. Our aim was to test whether desaturase activity and FA composition are linked to an obese phenotype in rats that are either obesity prone (OP or resistant (OR on a high-fat diet (HFD. Methods Two groups of Sprague–Dawley rats were given ad libitum (AL-HFD or calorically restricted (HFD-paired; pair fed to calories consumed by chow-fed rats access to a HFD. The AL-HFD group was categorized into OP and OR sub-groups based on weight gain over 5 weeks. Five different lipid fractions were examined in OP and OR rats with regard to proportions of essential and very long-chain polyunsaturated FAs: linoleic acid (LA, alpha-linolenic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, docosahexaenoic acid and the stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD-1 product 16:1n-7. FA ratios were used to estimate activities of the delta-5-desaturase (20:4n-6/20:3n-6, delta-6-desaturase (18:3n-6/18:2n-6, stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD-1; 16:1n-7/16:0, SCD-16 and 18:1n-9/18:0, SCD-18, de novo lipogenesis (16:0/18:2n-6 and FA elongation (18:0/16:0. Fasting insulin, glucose, adiponectin and leptin concentrations were measured in plasma. Results After AL-HFD access, OP rats had a significantly higher SCD-16 index and 16:1n-7 proportion, but a significantly lower LA proportion, in subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT triacylglycerols, as well as significantly higher insulin and leptin concentrations, compared with OR rats. No differences were found between the two phenotypes in liver (phospholipids; triacylglycerols or plasma (cholesterol esters; phospholipids lipid fractions or for plasma glucose or adiponectin concentrations. For the desaturase indices of the HFD-paired rats, the only significant differences compared with the OP or OR rats were higher

  17. High-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry fingerprinting of metabolites from cecum and distal colon contents of rats fed resistant starch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Timothy J. [Ames Laboratory; Jones, Roger W. [Ames Laboratory; Ai, Yongfeng [Iowa State University; Houk, Robert S. [Ames Laboratory; Jane, Jay-lin [Iowa State University; Zhao, Yinsheng [Iowa State University; Birt, Diane F. [Iowa State University; McClelland, John F. [Ames Laboratory

    2013-12-04

    Time-of-flight mass spectrometry along with statistical analysis was utilized to study metabolic profiles among rats fed resistant starch (RS) diets. Fischer 344 rats were fed four starch diets consisting of 55 % (w/w, dbs) starch. A control starch diet consisting of corn starch was compared against three RS diets. The RS diets were high-amylose corn starch (HA7), HA7 chemically modified with octenyl succinic anhydride, and stearic-acid-complexed HA7 starch. A subgroup received antibiotic treatment to determine if perturbations in the gut microbiome were long lasting. A second subgroup was treated with azoxymethane (AOM), a carcinogen. At the end of the 8-week study, cecal and distal colon content samples were collected from the sacrificed rats. Metabolites were extracted from cecal and distal colon samples into acetonitrile. The extracts were then analyzed on an accurate-mass time-of-flight mass spectrometer to obtain their metabolic profile. The data were analyzed using partial least-squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA). The PLS-DA analysis utilized a training set and verification set to classify samples within diet and treatment groups. PLS-DA could reliably differentiate the diet treatments for both cecal and distal colon samples. The PLS-DA analyses of the antibiotic and no antibiotic-treated subgroups were well classified for cecal samples and modestly separated for distal colon samples. PLS-DA analysis had limited success separating distal colon samples for rats given AOM from those not treated; the cecal samples from AOM had very poor classification. Mass spectrometry profiling coupled with PLS-DA can readily classify metabolite differences among rats given RS diets.

  18. Colon luminal content and epithelial cell morphology are markedly modified in rats fed with a high-protein diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andriamihaja, Mireille; Davila, Anne-Marie; Eklou-Lawson, Mamy; Petit, Nathalie; Delpal, Serge; Allek, Fadhila; Blais, Anne; Delteil, Corine; Tomé, Daniel; Blachier, François

    2010-11-01

    Hyperproteic diets are used in human nutrition to obtain body weight reduction. Although increased protein ingestion results in an increased transfer of proteins from the small to the large intestine, there is little information on the consequences of the use of such diets on the composition of large intestine content and on epithelial cell morphology and metabolism. Rats were fed for 15 days with either a normoproteic (NP, 14% protein) or a hyperproteic isocaloric diet (HP, 53% protein), and absorptive colonocytes were observed by electron microscopy or isolated for enzyme activity studies. The colonic luminal content was recovered for biochemical analysis. Absorbing colonocytes were characterized by a 1.7-fold reduction in the height of the brush-border membranes (P = 0.0001) after HP diet consumption when compared with NP. This coincided in the whole colon content of HP animals with a 1.8-fold higher mass content (P = 0.0020), a 2.2-fold higher water content (P = 0.0240), a 5.2-fold higher protease activity (P = 0.0104), a 5.5-fold higher ammonia content (P = 0.0008), and a more than twofold higher propionate, valerate, isobutyrate, and isovalerate content (P hyperproteic diet ingestion causes marked changes both in the luminal environment of colonocytes and in the characteristics of these cells, demonstrating that hyperproteic diet interferes with colonocyte metabolism and morphology. Possible causal relationships between energy metabolism, reduced height of colonocyte brush-border membranes, and reduced water absorption are discussed.

  19. Effect of aqueous extract of Ajuga iva supplementation on plasma lipid profile and tissue antioxidant status in rats fed a high-cholesterol diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenni, A; Yahia, D Ait; Boukortt, F O; Prost, J; Lacaille-Dubois, M A; Bouchenak, M

    2007-01-19

    The present study was designed to explore the possible antioxidant and hypolipidemic effects of the aqueous extract of Ajuga iva (0.5% in the diet) in rats fed a high-cholesterol (1%) diet (HCD). The results indicated that the HCD-Ai versus HCD treatment led to many changes in biochemical parameters. They showed a decrease of plasma total cholesterol (TC) and VLDL-cholesterol but an increase of HDL(2)-cholesterol. The triacylglycerol contents were reduced in plasma and in VLDL. The lipid peroxidation determined by TBARS was decreased by 75% in plasma. TBARS in liver, heart and kidneys were highly reduced excepted in the adipose tissue. Ajuga iva treatment enhanced superoxide dismutase activity in liver and kidney. Glutathione reductase activity was lowered in adipose tissue but increased in liver and in kidney. A significant increase was noted in glutathione peroxidase activity in liver, heart and kidney but a low value in adipose tissue was observed. In conclusion, the present study demonstrates that in addition to its potent TG and TC-lowering effects, Ajuga iva is effective in improving the antioxidant status by reducing lipid peroxidation in plasma and tissues and enhancing the antioxidant enzymes in rats fed high-cholesterol diet. Furthermore, Ajuga iva may reduce intestinal cholesterol absorption.

  20. A water-alcohol extract of Citrus grandis whole fruits has beneficial metabolic effects in the obese Zucker rats fed with high fat/high cholesterol diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raasmaja, Atso; Lecklin, Anne; Li, Xiang Ming; Zou, Jianqiang; Zhu, Guo-Guang; Laakso, Into; Hiltunen, Raimo

    2013-06-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest that citrus fruits and compounds such as flavonoids, limonoids and pectins have health promoting effects. Our aim was to study the effects of Citrus grandis (L.) Osbeck var. tomentosa hort. fruit extract on the energy metabolism. A whole fruit powder from dry water and alcohol extracts of C. grandis containing 19% naringin flavonoid was prepared. The effects of the citrus extract were followed in the obese Zucker rats fed with the HFD. The circulatory levels of GLP-1 decreased significantly by the extract in comparison to the HFD group, whereas the decreased ghrelin levels were reversed. The levels of PYY were decreased in all HFD groups. The leptin amounts decreased but not significantly whereas insulin and amylin were unchanged. The cholesterol and glucose levels were somewhat but not systematically improved in the HFD fed rats. Further studies are needed to identify the active compounds and their mechanisms.

  1. Gallic acid ameliorates hyperglycemia and improves hepatic carbohydrate metabolism in rats fed a high-fructose diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Da-Wei; Chang, Wen-Chang; Wu, James Swi-Bea; Shih, Rui-Wen; Shen, Szu-Chuan

    2016-02-01

    Herein, we investigated the hypoglycemic effect of plant gallic acid (GA) on glucose uptake in an insulin-resistant cell culture model and on hepatic carbohydrate metabolism in rats with a high-fructose diet (HFD)-induced diabetes. Our hypothesis is that GA ameliorates hyperglycemia via alleviating hepatic insulin resistance by suppressing hepatic inflammation and improves abnormal hepatic carbohydrate metabolism by suppressing hepatic gluconeogenesis and enhancing the hepatic glycogenesis and glycolysis pathways in HFD-induced diabetic rats. Gallic acid increased glucose uptake activity by 19.2% at a concentration of 6.25 μg/mL in insulin-resistant FL83B mouse hepatocytes. In HFD-induced diabetic rats, GA significantly alleviated hyperglycemia, reduced the values of the area under the curve for glucose in an oral glucose tolerance test, and reduced the scores of the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance index. The levels of serum C-peptide and fructosamine and cardiovascular risk index scores were also significantly decreased in HFD rats treated with GA. Moreover, GA up-regulated the expression of hepatic insulin signal transduction-related proteins, including insulin receptor, insulin receptor substrate 1, phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase, Akt/protein kinase B, and glucose transporter 2, in HFD rats. Gallic acid also down-regulated the expression of hepatic gluconeogenesis-related proteins, such as fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase, and up-regulated expression of hepatic glycogen synthase and glycolysis-related proteins, including hexokinase, phosphofructokinase, and aldolase, in HFD rats. Our findings indicate that GA has potential as a health food ingredient to prevent diabetes mellitus.

  2. Energy restriction and exercise modulate angiopoietins and vascular endothelial growth factor expression in the cavernous tissue of high-fat diet-fed rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    In(ě)s Tomada; Nuno Tomada; Henrique Almeida; Delminda Neves

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the effect of a high-fat (HF) diet,energy restriction and exercise on the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF),angiopoietin (Ang) 1 and 2,and their receptors in rat corpus cavernosum (CC).Male Wistar rats were fed adlibitum with an HF diet for 8 or 16 weeks.After 8 weeks of the HF diet,a group of rats was subjected to energy restriction with or without exercise for 8 weeks.Control animals had free access to standard diet for the same period.After euthanasia,blood was collected and the penises removed for immunofluorescence assays (VEGF,VEGF receptor (VEGFR) 1 and 2,Ang1,Ang2 and Tie2) and semiquantification of VEGF,VEGFR1,VEGFR2,Ang1,Ang2,Tie2,endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and Akt/phospho-Akt by Western blotting.HF diet-fed rats exhibited lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) levels,higher systolic blood pressure and an increased atherogenic index.A significant increase in Ang2 expression in the CC was verified and coupled to a decrease in VEGF and VEGFRs.The Akt pathway was activated by the HF diet.Energy restriction and exercise increased eNOS expression and restored most HF diet-induced modifications except for VEGFR2 expression.These results emphasize the role of diet on vascular function regulation,demonstrating that cavernous imbalance of VEGF/VEGFRs and Angs/rie2 systems occurs before serum lipid changes and obesity onset,antedating structural atherosclerotic features.

  3. Tocotrienol rich tocomin attenuates oxidative stress and improves endothelium-dependent relaxation in aortae from rats fed a high-fat western diet

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    Saher F Ali

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available We have previously reported that tocomin, a mixture high in tocotrienol content and also containing tocopherol, acutely preserves endothelial function in the presence of oxidative stress. In this study we investigated whether tocomin treatment would preserve endothelial function in aortae isolated from rats fed a high fat diet known to cause oxidative stress. Wistar hooded rats were fed a western diet (WD, 21% fat or control rat chow (SD, 6% fat for 12 weeks. Tocomin (40 mg/kg/day sc or its vehicle (peanut oil was administered for the last 4 weeks of the feeding regime. Aortae from WD rats showed an impairment of endothelium-dependent relaxation that was associated with an increased expression of the NADPH oxidase Nox2 subunit and an increase in the vascular generation of superoxide measured using L-012 chemiluminescence. The increase in vascular oxidative stress was accompanied by a decrease in basal NO release and impairment of the contribution of NO to ACh-induced relaxation. The impaired relaxation is likely contributed to by a decreased expression of eNOS, calmodulin and phosphorylated Akt and an increase in caveolin-Tocotrienol rich tocomin, which prevented the diet-induced changes in vascular function, reduced vascular superoxide production and abolished the diet-induced changes in eNOS and other protein expression. Using selective inhibitors of nitric oxide synthase (NOS, soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC and calcium activated potassium (KCa channels we demonstrated that tocomin increased NO mediated relaxation, without affecting the contribution of endothelium-dependent hyperpolarization type relaxation to the endothelium-dependent relaxation. The beneficial actions of tocomin in this diet-induced model of obesity suggests that it may have potential to be used as a therapeutic agent to prevent vascular disease in obesity.

  4. Effects of combined dietary chromium(III) propionate complex and thiamine supplementation on insulin sensitivity, blood biochemical indices, and mineral levels in high-fructose-fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Król, Ewelina; Krejpcio, Zbigniew; Michalak, Sławomir; Wójciak, Rafał W; Bogdański, Paweł

    2012-12-01

    Insulin resistance is the first step in glucose intolerance and the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus, thus effective prevention strategies should also include dietary interventions to enhance insulin sensitivity. Nutrients, such as microelement chromium(III) and thiamine, play regulatory roles in carbohydrate metabolism. The objective of this study was to evaluate the insulin-sensitizing potential of the combined supplementary chromium(III) propionate complex (CrProp) and thiamine in insulin resistance animal model (rats fed a high-fructose diet). The experiment was carried out on 40 nine-week-old male Wistar rats divided into five groups (eight animals each). Animals were fed ad libitum: the control diet (AIN-93 M) and high-fructose diets with and without a combination of two levels of CrProp (0.1 and 1 mg Cr/kg body mass/day) and two levels of thiamine (0.5 and 10 mg/kg body mass/day) for 8 weeks. At the end of the experiment rats were sacrificed to collect blood and internal organs for analyses of blood biochemical and hematologic indices as well as tissular microelement levels that were measured using appropriate methods. It was found that both supplementary CrProp and thiamine (given alone) have significant insulin-sensitizing and moderate blood-lipid-lowering properties, while the combined supplementation with these agents does not give synergistic effects in insulin-resistant rats. CrProp given separately increased kidney Cu and Cr levels, while thiamine alone increased hepatic Cu contents and decreased renal Zn and Cu contents.

  5. Hypolipidemic, antiobesity and cardioprotective effects of sardinelle meat flour and its hydrolysates in high-fat and fructose diet fed Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jemil, Ines; Abdelhedi, Ola; Nasri, Rim; Mora, Leticia; Marrekchi, Rim; Jamoussi, Kamel; ElFeki, Abdelfattah; Hajji, Mohamed; Toldrá, Fidel; Nasri, Moncef

    2017-05-01

    The present study aims to evaluate the antiobesity, hypolipidemic and cardioprotective effects of fermented sardinelle (Sardinella aurita) protein hydrolysates (FSPHs) produced with two proteolytic bacteria, Bacillus subtilis A26 (FSPH-A26) and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens An6 (FSPH-An6). Wistar rats were fed during 10weeks a standard laboratory diet, a high caloric diet (HCD) and a HCD coupled with the oral administration of sardinelle meat flour (SMF) or FSPHs. HCD caused hyperlipidemia and increased body weight (BW). The daily oral administration of FSPHs or SMF reduced the total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) serum levels, and increased the level of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c). Nevertheless, FSPHs were found to be more efficient than SMF. FSPHs also lowered hepatic TC and TG content and decreased the pancreatic lipase activity. Further, the administration of FSPHs or SMF decreased the BW gain, the food intake and the relative epididymal adipose tissue weight. FSPHs exhibited a potent cardioprotective effect against heart attack, which was demonstrated by returning atherogenic indexes to their normal levels and the conservation of standard histological structure of the heart and aorta. The overall results indicate that FSPHs contained bioactive peptides which significantly attenuated hyperlipidemia, and might reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in rats fed HCD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of black adzuki bean (Vigna angularis, Geomguseul extract on body composition and hypothalamic neuropeptide expression in rats fed a high-fat diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina Kim

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obesity is often considered to result from either excessive food intake or insufficient physical activity. Adzuki beans have been evaluated as potential remedies for various health conditions, and recent studies have reported their effects on the regulation of lipid metabolism, but it remains to be determined whether they may be effective in overcoming obesity by regulating appetite and satiety. Objective: This study investigated the effect of black adzuki bean (BAB extract on body composition and hypothalamic neuropeptide expression in Sprague Dawley rats (Rattus norvegicus fed a high-fat diet. Design: The rats were fed for 8 weeks with a control diet containing 10 kcal% from fat (CD, a high-fat diet containing 60 kcal% from fat (HD, or a high-fat diet with 1% or 2% freeze-dried ethanolic extract powder of BAB (BAB-1 and BAB-2. Results: The body weights and epididymal fat weights were significantly reduced and the serum lipid profiles were improved in the group fed the diet containing BAB compared to the HD group. The expression of AGRP mRNA significantly decreased in the BAB groups, and treatment with BAB-2 resulted in a marked induction of the mRNA expression of POMC and CART, which are anorexigenic neuropeptides that suppress food intake. Furthermore, mRNA expression levels of ObRb, a gene related to leptin sensitivity in the hypothalamus, were significantly higher in the BAB groups than in the HD group. Conclusions: These results suggest that supplementation with BAB has a significant effect on body weight via regulation of hypothalamic neuropeptides.

  7. Carrot Juice Administration Decreases Liver Stearoyl-CoA Desaturase 1 and Improves Docosahexaenoic Acid Levels, but Not Steatosis in High Fructose Diet-Fed Weanling Wistar Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahesh, Malleswarapu; Bharathi, Munugala; Reddy, Mooli Raja Gopal; Kumar, Manchiryala Sravan; Putcha, Uday Kumar; Vajreswari, Ayyalasomayajula; Jeyakumar, Shanmugam M.

    2016-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the most prevalent liver diseases associated with an altered lifestyle, besides genetic factors. The control and management of NAFLD mostly depend on lifestyle modifications, due to the lack of a specific therapeutic approach. In this context, we assessed the effect of carrot juice on the development of high fructose-induced hepatic steatosis. For this purpose, male weanling Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups, fed either a control (Con) or high fructose (HFr) diet of AIN93G composition, with or without carrot juice (CJ) for 8 weeks. At the end of the experimental period, plasma biochemical markers, such as triglycerides, alanine aminotransferase, and β-hydroxy butyrate levels were comparable among the 4 groups. Although, the liver injury marker, aspartate aminotransferase, levels in plasma showed a reduction, hepatic triglycerides levels were not significantly reduced by carrot juice ingestion in the HFr diet-fed rats (HFr-CJ). On the other hand, the key triglyceride synthesis pathway enzyme, hepatic stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD1), expression at mRNA level was augmented by carrot juice ingestion, while their protein levels showed a significant reduction, which corroborated with decreased monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), particularly palmitoleic (C16:1) and oleic (C18:1) acids. Notably, it also improved the long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; C22:6) content of the liver in HFr-CJ. In conclusion, carrot juice ingestion decreased the SCD1-mediated production of MUFA and improved DHA levels in liver, under high fructose diet-fed conditions. However, these changes did not significantly lower the hepatic triglyceride levels. PMID:27752492

  8. Sirtuin 1 and 7 mediate resveratrol-induced recovery from hyper-anxiety in high-fructose-fed prediabetic rats

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B RAGHUNATH REDDY; SWATI MAITRA; PRIYA JHELUM; K PRAVEEN KUMAR; PANKAJ K BAGUL; GAGANDEEP KAUR; SANJAY K BANERJEE; ARVIND KUMAR; SUMANA CHAKRAVARTY

    2016-09-01

    Hyperglycaemia in diabetes is either caused by reduced availability of insulin (type 1 diabetes, T1D) or insulinresistance to the cells (type 2 diabetes, T2D). In recent years, the prevalence of T2D has increased to an alarmingproportion, encompassing 95% of the total diabetic burden, probably due to economy-driven changes in lifestyle.Recent epidemiological studies show comorbid depression, anxiety and related mental illness. To explore themolecular mechanisms underlying this comorbid conditions, we used Sprague–Dawley rats on high-fructose dietfor 8 weeks to induce prediabetic condition. Rats with this metabolic syndrome also showed hyper-anxiety when theywere subjected to anxiety-related behavioural assays. Rats were administered with resveratrol, an activator of sirtuins,and metformin, a standard antidiabetic drug, simultaneously with fructose. We observed that resveratrol was moreeffective in protecting from both the metabolic (prediabetic) and affective (anxiety) disorders than metformin.Molecular studies showed that recovery was associated with the upregulation of few nuclear sirtuins that actepigenetically – Sirt 1 and 7, which were significantly attenuated in the striatum of prediabetic rats. In conclusion,our study showed that hyper-anxiety associated with prediabetic condition is ameliorated by resveratrol throughmodulation of sirtuins, which is more or less similar to metformin.

  9. ANTI-OBESITY PROPERTY OF HEXANE EXTRACT FROM THE LEAVES OF GYMNEMA SYLVESTRE IN HIGH FED CAFETERIA DIET INDUCED OBESITY RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaushik Manish

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The hexane extract of leaves of Gymnema sylvestre was evaluated for its anti-obesity activity in the simplified high fed cafeteria diet induced obesity in Sprague dawley rats. Group-I (normal control were fed on only basal diet without any treatment, Group-II (obesity control were induced obesity and only on basal diet without any treatment, Group-III and Group IV were induced obesity and treated with hexane fraction of Gymnema sylvestre (150 mg/kg and 250 mg/kg body weight respectively. Group V were induced obesity and treated with Atorvastatin as a standard drug. A significant (P>0.001 reduce in increased body weight, temperature due to obesity was observed after 45th day of treatment as compared to the normal and standard group. The extract also improved the cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL and HDL level. Blood samples were collected from retro-orbital plexus. Observed data was found statistically significant in reduction of extract-treated obesity rats. The effect of the extract was comparable to that of standard drug Atorvastatin (50mg/kg body weight.

  10. Hypocholesterolemic effects of curcumin via up-regulation of cholesterol 7a-hydroxylase in rats fed a high fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Minji; Kim, Yangha

    2010-06-01

    There is an increasing interest in curcumin (Curcuma longa L.) as a cardiovascular disease (CVD) protective agent via decreased blood total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-cholesterol) level. The aim of this study was to investigate further the potential mechanism in the hypocholesterolemic effect of curcumin by measuring cholesterol 7a-hydroxylase (CYP7A1), a rate limiting enzyme in the biosynthesis of bile acid from cholesterol, at the mRNA level. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a 45% high fat diet or same diet supplemented with curcumin (0.1% wt/wt) for 8 weeks. The curcumin diet significantly decreased serum triglyceride (TG) by 27%, total cholesterol (TC) by 33.8%, and LDL-cholesterol by 56%, respectively as compared to control group. The curcumin-supplemented diet also significantly lowered the atherogenic index (AI) by 48% as compared to control group. Hepatic TG level was significantly reduced by 41% in rats fed with curcumin-supplemented diet in comparison with control group (P curcumin diet significantly increased fecal TG and TC. The curcumin diet up-regulated hepatic CYP7A1 mRNA level by 2.16-fold, compared to control group p (P curcumin.

  11. Anti-obesity effect of ethanolic extract from Cosmos caudatus Kunth leaf in lean rats fed a high fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Hafeedza Abdul; Sahib, Najla Gooda; Saari, Nazamid; Abas, Faridah; Ismail, Amin; Mumtaz, Muhammad Waseem; Hamid, Azizah Abdul

    2017-02-22

    Obesity is a major health concern both in developed and developing countries. The use of herbal medicines became the subject of interest for the management of obesity due to its natural origin, cost effectiveness and minimal side effects. The present study aimed at investigating anti-obesity potential of ethanolic extract from Cosmos caudatus Kunth leaf (EECCL). In this study, the rats were randomly divided into six groups i.e., (1) Normal Diet (ND); (2) Normal Diet and 175 mg/kgBW of EECCL (ND + 175 mg/kgBW); (3) Normal Diet and 350 mg/kgBW of EECCL (ND + 350 mg/kgBW); (4) High Fat Diet (HFD); (5) High Fat Diet and 175 mg/kgBW of EECCL (HFD + 175 mg/kgBW); (6) High Fat Diet and 350 mg/kgBW of EECCL (HFD + 350 mg/kgBW). The anti-obesity potential was evaluated through analyses of changes in body weight, visceral fat weight, and blood biochemicals including total cholesterol, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c), leptin, insulin, adiponectin, ghrelin and fecal fat content. In addition, metabolite profiling of EECCL was carried out using NMR spectroscopy. Rats receiving EECCL together with HFD showed significant (p rats receiving HFD only. At the end of study, the body weight gain of EECCL treated rats was not significantly (p > 0.05) different with those of ND rats. Other related obesity biomarkers including plasma lipid profiles, insulin, leptin, ghrelin and adiponectin levels also showed significant improvement (p < 0.05). Administration of EECCL caused significant (p < 0.05) increase in fecal fat excretion, which validates the hypothesis of lipase inhibition, an anti-obesity mechanism similar to standard drug of Orlistat. The (1)H-NMR spectra of EECCL ascertained the presence of catechin, quercetin, rutin, kaempherol and chlorogenic acid in the extract. Conclusively, EECCL showed anti-obesity properties by inhibition of intestinal lipid absorption and

  12. Effects of dietary inulin, statin, and their co-treatment on hyperlipidemia, hepatic steatosis and changes in drug-metabolizing enzymes in rats fed a high-fat and high-sucrose diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugatani Junko

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rats fed a high-fat and high-sucrose (HF diet develop hepatic steatosis and hyperlipidemia. There are several reports that a change in nutritional status affects hepatic levels of drug-metabolizing enzymes. Synthetic inulin is a dietary component that completely evades glucide digestion. Supplementing a HF diet with inulin ameliorates hypertriglycemia and hepatic steatosis, but not hypercholesterolemia. This study aimed at distinguishing the effects of synthetic inulin and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitor (statin, which inhibit cholesterol biosynthesis. Methods We examined effects of co-treatment with synthetic inulin (5% and fluvastatin (0, 4, and 8 mg/kg, per os on body weight, epidydimal white adipose tissue weight, serum and hepatic lipid profiles, and hepatic cytochrome P450 (CYP mRNA and protein profiles in rats fed a standard diet or a HF diet for 3 weeks. Results Treatment with the synthetic inulin (5% or fluvastatin at 4 mg/kg (lethal dose in rats fed the HF diet, 8 mg/kg ameliorated the elevation in hepatic triacylglycerol and total cholesterol levels in rats fed the HF diet. Whereas co-treatment with the inulin (5% and fluvastatin (4 mg/kg had a tendency to more strongly suppress the elevation in serum levels of very low density lipoprotein triacylglycerol than either treatment alone, no additive or synergistic effect was found in decrease in hepatic lipid levels. Hepatic levels of CYP1A1/2 and CYP2E1 mRNA and protein and methoxyresorufin O-demethylase and ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase activities were reduced in rats fed the HF diet. The synthetic inulin alleviated the reduction in hepatic levels of CYP1A1/2 and CYP2E1 mRNA and protein more strongly than fluvastatin, and no synergistic effects were observed on co-treatment. Furthermore, hepatic levels of aryl hydrocarbon receptor mRNA were decreased in rats fed the HF diet and recovered to near normal values with the intake of dietary inulin

  13. Early postweaning exercise improves central leptin sensitivity in offspring of rat dams fed high-fat diet during pregnancy and lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Bo; Liang, Nu-Chu; Ewald, Erin R; Purcell, Ryan H; Boersma, Gretha J; Yan, Jianqun; Moran, Timothy H; Tamashiro, Kellie L K

    2013-11-01

    Maternal high-fat (HF) diet has long-term consequences on the metabolic phenotype of the offspring. Here, we determined the effects of postweaning exercise in offspring of rat dams fed HF diet during gestation and lactation. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were maintained on chow or HF diet throughout gestation and lactation. All pups were weaned onto chow diet on postnatal day (PND) 21. At 4 wk of age, male pups were given free access to running wheels (RW) or remained sedentary (SED) for 3 wk, after which all rats remained sedentary, resulting in four groups: CHOW-SED, CHOW-RW, HF-SED, and HF-RW. Male HF offspring gained more body weight by PND7 compared with CHOW pups and maintained this weight difference through the entire experiment. Three weeks of postweaning exercise did not affect body weight gain in either CHOW or HF offspring, but reduced adiposity in HF offspring. Plasma leptin was decreased at the end of the 3-wk running period in HF-RW rats but was not different from HF-SED 9 wk after the exercise period ended. At 14 wk of age, intracerebroventricular injection of leptin suppressed food intake in CHOW-SED, CHOW-RW, and HF-RW, while it did not affect food intake in HF-SED group. At death, HF-RW rats also had higher leptin-induced phospho-STAT3 level in the arcuate nucleus than HF-SED rats. Both maternal HF diet and postweaning exercise had effects on hypothalamic neuropeptide and receptor mRNA expression in adult offspring. Our data suggest that postweaning exercise improves central leptin sensitivity and signaling in this model.

  14. Shugan Xiaozhi Decoction Attenuates Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis by Enhancing PPARα and L-FABP Expressions in High-Fat-Fed Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-feng Xing

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the effects of Shugan Xiaozhi decoction (SX on nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH induced by high-fat diet in rats. The rats were randomly divided into 6 groups, namely, control, model, fenofibrate, and three different dosage of SX (10, 20, and 40 g/kg/day, p.o.. After establishing the NASH model, at 8 weeks of the experiment, treatments were administrated intragastrically to the fenofibrate and SX groups. All rats were killed after 4 weeks of treatment. Compared with the model group, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, free fatty acid (FFA, total cholesterol (TC, triacylglycerol (TG, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL serum in the serum were significantly reduced in all SX treatment groups in a dose-dependent manner. Evidence showed that SX could protect the liver by upregulating the gene and protein expressions of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα and liver fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP in a dose-dependent manner. Chemical constituents of SX were further analyzed by ultraperformance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-MS and 30 chemicals in the ethanolic extract were tentatively identified. To conclude, our results clearly indicated that SX could protect liver functions and relieve hepatic steatosis and inflammation.

  15. Carnitine supplementation in high-fat diet-fed rats does not ameliorate lipid-induced skeletal muscle mitochondrial dysfunction in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessels, Bart; van den Broek, Nicole M A; Ciapaite, Jolita; Houten, Sander M; Wanders, Ronald J A; Nicolay, Klaas; Prompers, Jeanine J

    2015-10-01

    Muscle lipid overload and the associated accumulation of lipid intermediates play an important role in the development of insulin resistance. Carnitine insufficiency is a common feature of insulin-resistant states and might lead to incomplete fatty acid oxidation and impaired export of lipid intermediates out of the mitochondria. The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that carnitine supplementation reduces high-fat diet-induced lipotoxicity, improves muscle mitochondrial function, and ameliorates insulin resistance. Wistar rats were fed either normal chow or a high-fat diet for 15 wk. One group of high-fat diet-fed rats was supplemented with 300 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1) L-carnitine during the last 8 wk. Muscle mitochondrial function was measured in vivo by (31)P magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) and ex vivo by high-resolution respirometry. Muscle lipid status was determined by (1)H MRS (intramyocellular lipids) and tandem mass spectrometry (acylcarnitines). High-fat diet feeding induced insulin resistance and was associated with decreases in muscle and blood free carnitine, elevated levels of muscle lipids and acylcarnitines, and an increased number of muscle mitochondria that showed an improved capacity to oxidize fat-derived substrates when tested ex vivo. This was, however, not accompanied by an increase in muscle oxidative capacity in vivo, indicating that in vivo mitochondrial function was compromised. Despite partial normalization of muscle and blood free carnitine content, carnitine supplementation did not induce improvements in muscle lipid status, in vivo mitochondrial function, or insulin sensitivity. Carnitine insufficiency, therefore, does not play a major role in high-fat diet-induced muscle mitochondrial dysfunction in vivo.

  16. The effects of leptin in combination with a cannabinoid receptor 1 antagonist, AM 251, or cannabidiol on food intake and body weight in rats fed a high-fat or a free-choice high sugar diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wierucka-Rybak, M; Wolak, M; Bojanowska, E

    2014-08-01

    High intake of fats and sugars has prompted a rapid growth in the number of obese individuals worldwide. To further investigate whether simultaneous pharmacological intervention in the leptin and cannabinoid system might change food and water intake, preferences for palatable foods, and body weight, we have examined the effects of concomitant intraperitoneal administration of leptin and AM 251, a cannabinoid 1 (CB1) receptor antagonist, or cannabidiol (CBD), a plant cannabinoid, in rats maintained on either a high-fat (HF) diet (45% energy from fat) or free-choice (FC) diet consisting of high-sucrose and normal rat chow (83% and 61% energy from carbohydrates, respectively). Leptin at a dose of 100 μg/kg injected individually for 3 subsequent days to rats fed a HF diet reduced significantly the daily caloric intake and inhibited body weight gain. The hormone had no significant effects, however, on either caloric intake, body weight or food preferences in rats fed an FC diet. Co-injection of leptin and 1 mg/kg AM 251 resulted in a further significant decrease in HF diet intake and a profound reduction in body weight gain both in HF diet- and FC diet-fed rats. This drug combination, however, had no effect on the consumption of high-sucrose chow. In contrast, 3mg/kg of CBD co-injected with leptin did not modify leptin effects on food intake in rats maintained on an FC or HF diet. None of the drug combinations affected water consumption. It is concluded that the concomitant treatment with leptin and AM 251 attenuated markedly body weight gain in rats maintained on high-calorie diets rich in fat and carbohydrates but did not affect preferences for sweet food.

  17. Effect of different exercise protocols on metabolic profiles and fatty acid metabolism in skeletal muscle in high-fat diet-fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Youqing; Xu, Xiangfeng; Yue, Kai; Xu, Guodong

    2015-05-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of mild-intensity endurance, high-intensity interval, and concurrent exercise on preventing high-fat diet-induced obesity. Male rats were divided into five groups, control diet/sedentary group, high-fat diet/sedentary, high-fat diet/endurance exercise, high-fat diet/interval exercise (HI), and high-fat diet/concurrent exercise. All exercise groups were made to exercise for 10 weeks, with matched running distances. Body weight, fat content, blood metabolites, quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI), and adipocyte and liver lipid droplet size were assessed, and the expression of fatty acid metabolism-related genes was quantified. All exercise protocols reduced body weight, adiposity, serum triglycerides, and fasting glucose and also improved QUICKI to some extent. However, only HI prevented obesity and its associated pathologies completely. The expression of stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturase-1 was elevated in all rats fed a high-fat diet whereas carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (CPT1) expression was increased with exercise. Rev-erbα expression was elevated only in the HI group, which also had the highest level of CPT1 expression. The HI-induced increase in Rev-erbα and CPT1 expression was associated with the complete prevention of diet-induced obesity. Moreover, the increased caloric expenditure achieved with this protocol was preferential over other exercise regimens, and might be used to improve lipid metabolism. © 2015 The Obesity Society.

  18. [Effect of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on gut microbiota and endotoxin levels in portal vein of rats fed with high-fat diet].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Zhan-jiang; Yu, Jian-chun; Kang, Wei-ming; Ma, Zhi-qiang; Ye, Xin; Tian, Shu-bo

    2014-10-01

    To investigate the effect of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3PUFAs) on gut microbiota and endotoxin levels in portal vein of rats fed with a high-fat diet (HFD). Thirty-six male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups and fed with normal control diet (CD), HFD, CD supplemented with n-3PUFAs, and HFD supplemented with n-3PUFAs, respectively. Fresh fecal samples were collected to analyze the gut microbiota 10 weeks after feeding. DNA was exacted from the fresh fecal samples. Quantitative PCR was used to detect the composition of the gut microbiota. The endotoxin levels were detected through modified azo chromogenic substrate limulus amebocyte lysate assay. The differences in body weight before breeding in each group were not statistically significant among these four groups (P=0.613). The increase in the body weight was significantly larger in the HFD group than in the CD group (P=0.0002), CD+n-3PUFAs group (P=0.0001), and HFD+n-3PUFAs group (P=0.022). There were significantly more firmicutes (P=0.002) and enterobacteriales (P=0.022) and significantly less bacteroidetes (P=0.026) and bifidobactera (P=0.034) in the gut of rats from HFD group than those from the CD group. There were significantly more bacteroidetes in the fecal samples of the rats from the CD+n-3PUFAs group compared to those from the CD group (P=0.043). There were significantly more firmicutes (P=0.044)and enterobacteriales (P=0.012) and less bacteroidetes (P=0.042) in the fecal samples of the rats from HFD group compared to those from the HFD+n-3PUFAs group. The endotoxin in plasma form portal vein of rats in HFD group were significantly higher than in CD group (P=0.007) and HFD+n-3PUFAs group (P=0.042) but showed no significant difference between CD+n-3PUFAs and CD group (P=0.210). HFD can increase body weight and change gut microbiota. Supplementation of n-3PUFAs can partially counteract such gut dysbiosis, lower endotoxin level in portal vein blood, and improve the body

  19. Uninephrectomized High-Fat-Fed Nicotinamide-Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats: A Model for the Investigation of Diabetic Nephropathy in Type 2 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmitriev, Yuri V.; Chefu, Svetlana G.; Pchelin, Ivan Yu.; Bairamov, Alekber A.; Alexeyeva, Nina P.; Shatalov, Ivan S.

    2016-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes (DM2) could be reproduced in rats with alimentary obesity by using low doses of streptozotocin (LD-STZ) as well as STZ in high doses with preliminary nicotinamide (NA) administration. However, STZ could induce tubulotoxicity. Aim. To develop rat model of DN in NA-STZ-induced DM2 and compare it with LD-STZ-model in order to choose the most relevant approach for reproducing renal glomerular and tubular morphofunctional diabetic changes. Starting at 3 weeks after uninephrectomy, adult male Wistar rats were fed five-week high-fat diet and then received intraperitoneally either LD-STZ (40 mg/kg) or NA (230 mg/kg) followed by STZ (65 mg/kg). Control uninephrectomized vehicle-injected rats received normal chow. At weeks 10, 20, and 30 (the end of the study), metabolic parameters, creatinine clearance, albuminuria, and urinary tubular injury markers (NGAL, KIM-1) were evaluated as well as renal ultrastructural and light microscopic changes at weeks 20 and 30. NA-STZ-group showed higher reproducibility and stability of metabolic parameters. By week 10, in NA-STZ-group NGAL level was significantly lower compared to LD-STZ-group. By week 30, diabetic groups showed early features of DN. However, morphofunctional changes in NA-STZ-group appeared to be more pronounced than those in STZ-group despite lower levels of KIM-1 and NGAL. We proposed a new rat model of DM2 with DN characterized by stable metabolic disorders, typical renal lesions, and lower levels of tubular injury markers as compared to LD-STZ-induced diabetes. PMID:28090542

  20. Multi-Strain Probiotics Inhibit Cardiac Myopathies and Autophagy to Prevent Heart Injury in High-Fat Diet-Fed Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Chao-Hung; Tsai, Cheng-Chih; Kuo, Wei-Wen; Ho, Tsung-Jung; Day, Cecilia-Hsuan; Pai, Pei-ying; Chung, Li-Chin; Huang, Chun-Chih; Wang, Hsueh-Fang; Liao, Po-Hsiang; Huang, Chih-Yang

    2016-01-01

    High-fat diets induce obesity, leading to cardiomyocyte fibrosis and autophagy imbalance. In addition, no previous studies have indicated that probiotics have potential health effects associated with cardiac fibrosis and autophagy in obese rats. This study investigates the effects of probiotics on high-fat (HF) diet-induced obesity and cardiac fibrosis and autophagy in rat hearts. Eight-week-old male Wistar rats were separated randomly into five equally sized experimental groups: Normal diet (control) and high-fat (HF) diet groups and groups fed a high-fat diet supplemented with low (HL), medium (HM) or high (HH) doses of multi-strain probiotic powders. These experiments were designed for an 8-week trial period. The myocardial architecture of the left ventricle was evaluated using Masson's trichrome staining and immunohistochemistry staining. Key probiotics-related pathway molecules were analyzed using western blotting. Abnormal myocardial architecture and enlarged interstitial spaces were observed in HF hearts. These interstitial spaces were significantly decreased in groups provided with multi-strain probiotics compared with HF hearts. Western blot analysis demonstrated that key components of the TGF/MMP2/MMP9 fibrosis pathways and ERK5/uPA/ANP cardiac hypertrophy pathways were significantly suppressed in probiotic groups compared to the HF group. Autophagy balance is very important in cardiomyocytes. In this study, we observed that the beclin-1/LC3B/Atg7 autophagy pathway in HF was increased after probiotic supplementation was significantly decreased. Together, these results suggest that oral administration of probiotics may attenuate cardiomyocyte fibrosis and cardiac hypertrophy and the autophagy-signaling pathway in obese rats.

  1. Regular tart cherry intake alters abdominal adiposity, adipose gene transcription, and inflammation in obesity-prone rats fed a high fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seymour, E M; Lewis, Sarah K; Urcuyo-Llanes, Daniel E; Tanone, Ignasia I; Kirakosyan, Ara; Kaufman, Peter B; Bolling, Steven F

    2009-10-01

    Obesity, systemic inflammation, and hyperlipidemia are among the components of metabolic syndrome, a spectrum of phenotypes that can precede the development of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Animal studies show that intake of anthocyanin-rich extracts can affect these phenotypes. Anthocyanins can alter the activity of tissue peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), which affect energy substrate metabolism and inflammation. However, it is unknown if physiologically relevant, anthocyanin-containing whole foods confer similar effects to concentrated, anthocyanin extracts. The effect of anthocyanin-rich tart cherries was tested in the Zucker fatty rat model of obesity and metabolic syndrome. For 90 days, rats were pair-fed a higher fat diet supplemented with either 1% (wt/wt) freeze-dried, whole tart cherry powder or with a calorie- and macronutrient-matched control diet. Tart cherry intake was associated with reduced hyperlipidemia, percentage fat mass, abdominal fat (retroperitoneal) weight, retroperitoneal interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) expression, and plasma IL-6 and TNF-alpha. Tart cherry diet also increased retroperitoneal fat PPAR-alpha and PPAR-gamma mRNA (P = .12), decreased IL-6 and TNF-alpha mRNA, and decreased nuclear factor kappaB activity. In conclusion, in at-risk obese rats fed a high fat diet, physiologically relevant tart cherry consumption reduced several phenotypes of metabolic syndrome and reduced both systemic and local inflammation. Tart cherries may reduce the degree or trajectory of metabolic syndrome, thereby reducing risk for the development of type 2 diabetes and heart disease.

  2. Intermittent hypoxia upregulates hepatic heme oxygenase-1 and ferritin-1, thereby limiting hepatic pathogenesis in rats fed a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Hideyuki; Yoshida, Ken-Ichi

    2016-07-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is prevalent in patients with sleep apnea syndrome (SAS). Intermittent hypoxia (IH) and a high-fat diet (HFD) reproduce SAS and NAFLD, respectively, in rodents. In this study, rats were fed either an HFD or a standard diet (SD) for 2 weeks, and breathed either IH air or normoxic air for 4 days (early phase) or 6 weeks (late phase), with the same diets maintained during the exposure. HFD increased hepatic lipid accumulation, as detected by oil-red staining and triglyceride content. However, IH exposure reversed the hepatic steatosis at the late phase in these HFD-rats. IH exposure also increased hepatic expression of HO-1 and iron-binding protein ferritin-1 at the late phase, in association with increase in serum iron, bilirubin, and hepatic levels of lipid peroxides, such as 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE). IH exposure increased serum levels of hemoglobin (Hb) at the early phase and immunofluorescence of Hb and HO-1 in CD68-positive Kupffer cells (KCs) at the late phase. These findings support that IH induces erythrocytosis, erythro-phagocytosis, and generation of Hb in the KCs. The Hb promotes HO-1 expression in KCs, thereby produces iron, bilirubin, and carbon monoxide (CO). The iron would be either sequestrated by ferritin-1, transferred to the bone marrow for erythropoiesis, or would produce hydroxyradicals and HNE in the liver of rats fed an HFD. HNE might also contribute to the upregulation of HO-1, transferrin-1, and IκB, thereby limiting hepatic steatosis and inflammation via inhibition of nuclear factor κB (NFκB) activation.

  3. Effects of apple cider vinegars produced with different techniques on blood lipids in high-cholesterol-fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budak, Nilgun H; Kumbul Doguc, Duygu; Savas, Cagri M; Seydim, Atif C; Kok Tas, Tugba; Ciris, Metin I; Guzel-Seydim, Zeynep B

    2011-06-22

    Red delicious apples were used to produce natural apple cider with and without inclusion of maceration. Traditional surface and industrial submersion methods were then applied to make vinegar from apple ciders. Apple cider vinegar samples produced with inclusion of maceration in the surface method had the highest total phenolic content, chlorogenic acid, ORAC, and TEAC levels. Cholesterol and apple vinegar samples were administered using oral gavage to all groups of rats except the control group. Apple cider vinegars, regardless of the production method, decreased triglyceride and VLDL levels in all groups when compared to animals on high-cholesterol diets without vinegar supplementation. Apple cider vinegars increased total cholesterol and HDL and LDL cholesterol levels and decreased liver function tests when compared to animals on a high-cholesterol diet without vinegar supplementation. A high-cholesterol diet resulted in hepatic steatosis. VSBM and VSB groups significantly decreased steatosis.

  4. Saponins, especially platycodin D, from Platycodon grandiflorum modulate hepatic lipogenesis in high-fat diet-fed rats and high glucose-exposed HepG2 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Yong Pil [Department of Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Pharmaceutical Engineering, International University of Korea, Jinju (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Jae Ho; Kim, Hyung Gyun; Khanal, Tilak; Song, Gye Young [Department of Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Nam, Myoung Soo [College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hyun-Sun [Molecular Cancer Research Center, Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Young Chul; Lee, Young Chun [Division of Food Science, International University of Korea, Jinju (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Hye Gwang, E-mail: hgjeong@cnu.ac.kr [Department of Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-03-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) plays a central role in controlling hepatic lipid metabolism through modulating the downstream acetyl CoA carboxylase (ACC) and sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c) pathway. Saponins, particularly platycodin D, from the roots of Platycodon grandiflorum (Changkil saponins, CKS) have a variety of pharmacological properties, including antioxidant and hepatoprotective properties. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of CKS on hepatic lipogenesis and on the expression of genes involved in lipogenesis, and the mechanisms involved. CKS attenuated fat accumulation and the induction of the lipogenic genes encoding SREBP-1c and fatty acid synthase in the livers of HFD-fed rats and in steatotic HepG2 cells. Blood biochemical analyses and histopathological examinations showed that CKS prevented liver injury. CKS and platycodin D each increased the phosphorylation of AMPK and acetyl-CoA carboxylase in HFD-fed rats and HepG2 cells. The use of specific inhibitors showed that platycodin D activated AMPK via SIRT1/CaMKKβ in HepG2 cells. This study demonstrates that CKS or platycodin D alone can regulate hepatic lipogenesis via an AMPK-dependent signalling pathway. - Highlights: ► CKS attenuated fat accumulation in HFD-fed rats and in steatotic HepG2 cells. ► CKS and its major component, platycodin D, inhibited the levels of SREBP-1 and FAS. ► CKS and platycodin D increased the phosphorylation of AMPK and ACC. ► Platycodin D activated AMPK via SIRT1/CaMKKβ in HepG2 cells.

  5. Activation of β3-adrenoceptors increases in vivo free fatty acid uptake and utilization in brown but not white fat depots in high-fat-fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Amy; Kjellstedt, Ann; Carreras, Alba; Böttcher, Gerhard; Peng, Xiao-Rong; Seale, Patrick; Oakes, Nicholas; Lindén, Daniel

    2016-12-01

    Activation of brown adipose tissue (BAT) and browning of white adipose tissue (WAT) present potential new therapies for obesity and type 2 diabetes. Here, we examined the effects of β3-adrenergic stimulation on tissue-specific uptake and storage of free fatty acids (FFA) and its implications for whole body FFA metabolism in diet-induced obese rats using a multi-radiotracer technique. Male Wistar rats were high fat-fed for 12 wk and administered β3-agonist CL316,243 (CL, 1 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1)) or saline via osmotic minipumps during the last 3 wk. The rats were then fasted and acutely infused with a tracer mixture ([(14)C]palmitate and the partially metabolized R-[(3)H]bromopalmitate) under anesthesia. CL infusion decreased body weight gain and fasting plasma glucose levels. While core body temperature was unaffected, infrared thermography showed an increase in tail heat dissipation following CL infusion. Interestingly, CL markedly increased both FFA storage and utilization in interscapular and perirenal BAT, whereas the flux of FFA to skeletal muscle was decreased. In this rat model of obesity, only sporadic populations of beige adipocytes were detected in the epididymal WAT depot of CL-infused rats, and there was no change in FFA uptake or utilization in WAT following CL infusion. In summary, β3-agonism robustly increased FFA flux to BAT coupled with enhanced utilization. Increased BAT activation most likely drove the increased tail heat dissipation to maintain thermostasis. Our results emphasize the quantitative role of brown fat as the functional target of β3-agonism in obesity. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  6. The mechanism underlying the synergetic hypocholesterolemic effect of sesamin and α-tocopherol in rats fed a high-cholesterol diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogi, Tomohiro; Tomimori, Namino; Ono, Yoshiko; Kiso, Yoshinobu

    2011-01-01

    Sesamin is a major lignan in sesame seed. We confirmed that ingestion of sesamin and α-tocopherol synergistically reduced the concentration of blood cholesterol in rats given a high-cholesterol diet. To elucidate the molecular mechanism behind this effect, we analyzed the gene-expression profiles in rat liver after co-ingestion of sesamin and α-tocopherol. Six-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a 1% cholesterol diet (HC) or HC containing 0.2% sesamin, 1% α-tocopherol or sesamin + α-tocopherol for 10 days. Blood samples were collected on days 1, 3, 7, and 10 and livers were excised on day 10. The gene expressions of ATP-binding cassette, sub-family G (WHITE), members 5 (ABCG5) and 8 (ABCG8) were significantly increased, while the gene expression of apolipoprotein (Apo) A4 was significantly decreased. ABCG5 and ABCG8 form a functional heterodimer that acts as a cholesterol efflux transporter, which contributes to the excretion of cholesterol from the liver. ApoA4 controls the secretion of ApoB, which is a component of low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol. These studies indicate that the cholesterol-lowering mechanism underlying the effects of co-ingestion of sesamin and α-tocopherol might be attributable to increased biliary excretion of cholesterol and reduced ApoB secretion into the bloodstream.

  7. Effect of Elderberry (Sambucus nigra L. Extract Supplementation in STZ-Induced Diabetic Rats Fed with a High-Fat Diet

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    Ângelo C. Salvador

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Elderberry (Sambucus nigra L. lipophilic and polar extract dietary supplementation effects were evaluated according to diabetes management indices, using an in vivo model. A research pipeline was constructed, that ranged from extract preparation, partial chemical characterization and toxicity evaluation, to examining the elderberry extract dietary supplementation effects on biofluid and tissues. Extracts toxicity was screened using an Aliivibrio fischeri bioluminescence model. A concentration of up to 60 mg/L was selected, and rat doses for oral supplementation were computed applying the interspecies correlation between A. fischeri and rats. Wistar type 2 diabetic rats, induced by streptozotocin (STZ, were fed a high-fat diet and supplemented for 4 weeks at doses of 190 and 350 mg/kg body weight/day of lipophilic and polar extract, respectively. As far as we know, lipophilic elderberry extract supplementation was assessed for the first time, while polar extract was administrated at higher doses and for a shorter period compared to previous studies, aiming to evaluate subacute supplementation effects. The polar extract modulated glucose metabolism by correcting hyperglycemia, while the lipophilic extract lowered insulin secretion. Both extracts lowered insulin resistance, without remarkable alterations to hematological indices, sera lipids and sera and tissular trace element homeostasis. In conclusion, elderberries are a potential source of bioactive compounds for formulations to be used as co-adjuvants in diabetes management.

  8. Abdominal adiposity, insulin and bone quality in young male rats fed a high-fat diet containing soybean or canola oil

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    Carlos Alberto Soares da Costa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: A low ratio of omega-6/omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids is associated with healthy bone properties. However, fatty diets can induce obesity. Our objective was to evaluate intra-abdominal adiposity, insulin, and bone growth in rats fed a high-fat diet containing low ratios of omega-6/omega-3 provided in canola oil. METHODS: After weaning, rats were grouped and fed either a control diet (7S, a high-fat diet containing soybean oil (19S or a high-fat diet of canola oil (19C until they were 60 days old. Differences were considered to be significant if p<0.05. RESULTS: After 60 days, the 19S and 19C groups showed more energy intake, body density growth and intraabdominal fat mass. However, the 19S group had a higher area (200% and a lower number (44% of adipocytes, while the 7S and 19C groups did not differ. The serum concentrations of glucose and insulin and the insulin resistance index were significantly increased in the 19C group (15%, 56%, and 78%, respectively compared to the 7S group. Bone measurements of the 19S and 19C groups showed a higher femur mass (25% and a higher lumbar vertebrae mass (11% and length (5%. Computed tomography analysis revealed more radiodensity in the proximal femoral epiphysis and lumbar vertebrae of 19C group compared to the 7S and 19S groups. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that the amount and source of fat used in the diet after weaning increase body growth and fat depots and affect insulin resistance and, consequently, bone health.

  9. Attenuation of hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia in high calorie fed/streptozotocin-treated rats by hydromethanolic extract of Padina tetrastromatica

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    Divya S. Mohan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the effect of defatted hydromethanolic extract of Padina tetrastromatica on carbohydrate metabolism and serum lipid profile were evaluated. Diabetes mellitus was induced in male Wistar rats by feeding high calorie/energy diet for two months followed by a single intraperitoneal injecttion of streptozotocin. Diabetic rats were administered with the extract intragastrically at doses of 150, 300, 450, and 600 mg/kg body weight daily for 45 days. Treatment with graded doses showed a dose dependent reduction in blood glucose and glycated hemoglobin levels. Treatment significantly increased the activity of hexokinase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and glycogen content while there was significant reduction in the activity of glucose-6-phosphatase and fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase. Serum lipid profile was also brought back to near normal levels in a dose dependent manner. The present study clearly indicates the antihyperglycemic and hypolipidemic effects of P. tetrastromatica at an optimum dose of 450 mg/kg body weight.

  10. Effects of raftilose on serum biochemistry and liver morphology in rats fed with normal or high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia-Sá, Inês; de-Sousa-Lopes, Hugo; Martins, Maria J; Azevedo, Isabel; Moura, Eduardo; Vieira-Coelho, Maria A

    2013-08-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is the leading cause of chronic liver injury in developed countries. Oligofructose (OFS) is a prebiotic with proven benefits for health. The aim of the study is to evaluate the effect of 10% OFS on hepatic morphology and lipid metabolism in Wistar Kyoto rats submitted to normal diet (ND) or high-fat diet (FD). Animals were treated for 7 weeks. Lipid profile and serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity were measured and liver histology evaluated at the end of the study. Ten percent OFS reduced triglyceride (TAG) levels when added to any of the diet regimens; 10% OFS decreased plasmatic urea in ND and plasmatic and urinary urea levels in FD; ND + 10% OFS treated rats showed lower ALP activity than controls. FD increased ALP activity, an effect not reversed by OFS. Animals submitted to FD have microscopic hepatic changes: marked steatosis with disarranged centrilobular zone structure; enlarged sinusoids; enlarged mitochondria and an increase in number and volume of adiposomes. Supplementation with 10% OFS in FD reversed those effects. In conclusion, 10% OFS supplementation prevented deleterious effects of FD such as alterations on lipid profile (TAG elevation) and hepatic morphologic changes. OFS decreased ALP activity in animals subjected to ND, which may have contributed to the differences on lipid metabolism. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Effect of quinoa seeds (Chenopodium quinoa) in diet on some biochemical parameters and essential elements in blood of high fructose-fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paśko, Paweł; Zagrodzki, Paweł; Bartoń, Henryk; Chłopicka, Joanna; Gorinstein, Shela

    2010-12-01

    The effect of Chenopodium quinoa seeds on lipid profile, glucose level, protein metabolism and selected essential elements (Na, K, Ca, Mg) level was determined in high-fructose fed male Wistar rats. Fructose decreased significantly LDL [42%, pquinoa indicated, that these seeds effectively reduced serum total cholesterol [26%, pQuinoa seeds also significantly reduced the level of glucose [10%, pquinoa seeds were added into the diet the decrease of HDL level was inhibited. Quinoa seeds did not prevent any adverse effect of increasing triglyceride level caused by fructose. It was shown in this study that quinoa seeds can reduce most of the adverse effects exerted by fructose on lipid profile and glucose level.

  12. Hepatoprotective and Antioxidant Potential of Organic and Conventional Grape Juices in Rats Fed a High-Fat Diet

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    Iselde Buchner

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the antioxidant and hepatoprotective effect of the chronic use of conventional (CGJ or organic (OGJ grape juice from the Bordeaux variety grape on oxidative stress and cytoarchitecture in the liver of rats supplemented with a high-fat diet (HFD for three months. The results demonstrated that HFD induced an increase in thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS, catalase (CAT activity and 2′,7′-dihydrodichlorofluorescein (DCFH oxidation and a decrease in sulfhydryl content and superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione peroxidase (GPx activities. HFD also induced hepatocellular degeneration and steatosis. These alterations were prevented by CGJ and OGJ, where OGJ was more effective. Therefore, it was concluded that HFD induced oxidative stress and liver damage and that the chronic use of grape juice was able to prevent these alterations.

  13. Grape pomace and grape pomace extract improve insulin signaling in high-fat-fructose fed rat-induced metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez Lanzi, Cecilia; Perdicaro, Diahann Jeanette; Antoniolli, Andrea; Fontana, Ariel Ramón; Miatello, Roberto Miguel; Bottini, Rubén; Vazquez Prieto, Marcela Alejandra

    2016-03-01

    In this study the effect of diet supplementation with grape pomace (GP) and grape pomace extract (GPE) on insulin sensitive tissues (adipose, liver and muscle) was evaluated in an experimental model of metabolic syndrome (MetS). MetS was developed by giving a high-fat-fructose (HFF) diet to Wistar rats. Six weeks of HFF diet induced weight gain, which was partially attenuated by GP (1 g per kg per day) and GPE (300 mg per kg per day) supplementation. HFF diet increased systolic blood pressure, triglycerides, insulin resistance (HOMA:IR) and inflammation (c-reactive protein (CRP)). Supplementation with GP prevented SBP, triglycerides and CRP increased and partially attenuated insulin resistance. On the other hand, GPE partially reduced SBP and triglycerides and significantly prevented insulin resistance and inflammation. Also, HFF diet induced higher triglycerides content and enhanced NADPH oxidase activity in the liver. Also, HFF diet increased the epididymal adipose tissue weight, enlarged adipocyte size, and c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) activation, probably contributing to a pro-inflammatory cytokine pattern (higher resistin) and lower adiponectin protein expression. These alterations may result in an impairment of insulin signaling cascade observed in adipose, liver and muscle tissue (IRS1, Akt, and extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK1/2)) from HFF rats. Supplementation with GP and to a greater extent GPE attenuated liver triglyceride content and adiposity and restored adipose, liver and muscle response to insulin. These findings show that supplementation with GP and GPE to a greater extent can counteract adiposity, inflammation, liver damage and impaired insulin signaling associated to MetS, supporting the utilization of winemaking residues in food industry/human health due to their high amount of bioactive compounds.

  14. Microarray analysis of gene expression in liver, adipose tissue and skeletal muscle in response to chronic dietary administration of NDGA to high-fructose fed dyslipidemic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haiyan; Shen, Wen-Jun; Li, Yihang; Bittner, Alex; Bittner, Stefanie; Tabassum, Juveria; Cortez, Yuan F; Kraemer, Fredric B; Azhar, Salman

    2016-01-01

    Nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA), the main metabolite of Creosote Bush, has been shown to have profound effects on the core components of metabolic syndrome, including lowering of blood glucose, free fatty acids and triglyceride levels, attenuating elevated blood pressure in several rodent models of dyslipidemia, and improving body weight, insulin resistance, diabetes and hypertension. In the present study, a high-fructose diet fed rat model of hypertriglyceridemia, dyslipidemia, insulin resistance and hepatic steatosis was employed to investigate the global transcriptional changes in the lipid metabolizing pathways in three insulin sensitive tissues: liver, skeletal muscle and adipose tissue in response to chronic dietary administration of NDGA. Sprague-Dawley male rats (SD) were fed a chow (control) diet, high-fructose diet (HFrD) or HFrD supplemented with NDGA (2.5 g/kg diet) for eight weeks. Dietary administration of NDGA decreased plasma levels of TG, glucose, and insulin, and attenuated hepatic TG accumulation. DNA microarray expression profiling indicated that dietary administration of NDGA upregulated the expression of certain genes involved in fatty acid oxidation and their transcription regulator, PPARα, decreased the expression of a number of lipogenic genes and relevant transcription factors, and differentially impacted the genes of fatty acid transporters, acetyl CoA synthetases, elongases, fatty acid desaturases and lipid clearance proteins in liver, skeletal muscle and adipose tissues. These findings suggest that NDGA ameliorates hypertriglyceridemia and steatosis primarily by inhibiting lipogenesis and enhancing fatty acid catabolism in three major insulin responsive tissues by altering the expression of key enzyme genes and transcription factors involved in de novo lipogenesis and fatty acid oxidation.

  15. Independent and Combined Effects of Lactitol, Polydextrose, and Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron on Postprandial Metabolism and Body Weight in Rats Fed a High-Fat Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olli, Kaisa; Saarinen, Markku T; Forssten, Sofia D; Madetoja, Mari; Herzig, Karl-Heinz; Tiihonen, Kirsti

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is related to the consumption of energy-dense foods in addition to changes in the microbiome where a higher abundance of gut Bacteroidetes can be found in lean subjects or after weight loss. Lactitol, a sweet-tasting sugar alcohol, is a common sugar-replacement in foods. Polydextrose (PDX), a highly branched glucose polymer, is known to reduce energy intake. Here, we test if the combined effects of lactitol or PDX in combination with Bacteroides species will have a beneficial metabolic response in rats fed a high-fat (HF) diet. A total of 175 male Wistar rats were fed either a LF or HF diet. Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron (10(10) bacteria/animal/day) was orally administered with or without lactitol (1.6-2 g/animal/day) or PDX (2 g/animal/day) for 8 days. Postprandial blood samples, cecal digesta, and feces were collected on the last day. Measurements included: body weight, feed consumption, cecal short-chain fatty acids, fecal dry matter and heat value, blood glucose, insulin, triglyceride, and satiety hormone concentrations. Lactitol and PDX decreased the mean body weight when administered with B. thetaiotaomicron or when lactitol was administered alone. Levels of postprandial plasma triglycerides declined with lactitol and PDX when administered with B. thetaiotaomicron. For intestinal hormone release, lactitol - alone or with B. thetaiotaomicron - increased the release of gastrointestinal peptide tyrosine tyrosine (PYY) as well as the area under the curve (AUC) measured for PYY (0-8 h). In addition, levels of insulin AUC (0-8 h) decreased in the lactitol and PDX-supplemented groups. Lactitol and PDX may both provide additional means to regulate postprandial metabolism and weight management, whereas the addition of B. thetaiotaomicron in the tested doses had only minor effects on the measured parameters.

  16. Effect of dietary Garcinia cambogia extract on serum essential minerals (calcium, phosphorus, magnesium) and trace elements (iron, copper, zinc) in rats fed with high-lipid diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürsel, Feraye Esen; Ateş, Atila; Bilal, Tanay; Altiner, Ayşen

    2012-09-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of Garcinia cambogia extract on serum calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), magnesium (Mg), iron (Fe), zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu) concentrations in rats fed with the normal or the high-lipid and -cholesterol diet. Thirty 1-year-old female Sprague-Dawley rats (pathogen-free), weighing an average of 229 g, were randomly assigned to three experimental groups of ten animals each. Diets and tap water were given ad libitum for 75 days. Group 1 (control group) was fed with basal diet (2 % liquid vegetable oil, 0 % cholesterol), while the diets of groups 2 and 3 contained vegetable oil (2 % liquid vegetable oil and 5 % hydrogenated vegetable oil) and cholesterol (3 %) in high levels. 4,5 % G. cambogia extract containing 65 % HCA was added to the diet of group 3 as from day 45. Blood samples were withdrawn on days 0, 45 and 75. Serum mineral levels were analyzed using standard enzymatic colorimetric methods with a spectrophotometer. All significant differences were pcambogia extract than in the control group on day 45. Serum Mg level was significantly higher in group 2 than in the control group on day 45. Serum Fe levels were significantly lower in the control group than in the other groups on days 45 and 75. Serum Zn level of the group fed with high-lipid diet and G. cambogia extract was significantly higher than in the control group on day 75. Serum Cu levels were significantly higher in group 2 than in the control group, and in group 3 than in group 2 on day 75. In conclusion, a diet containing the high fat amounts may lead to the increase in circular levels of some minerals due to the short-chain fatty acid production lowering the luminal pH which increases mineral solubility, or serving as a fuel for mucosal cells and stimulating cell proliferation in the large intestine. G. cambogia extract may be used in the P and Cu deficiencies due to increases resulting in the present P and Cu amounts in G. cambogia extract, or the use of

  17. A Combination of Flaxseed Oil and Astaxanthin Improves Hepatic Lipid Accumulation and Reduces Oxidative Stress in High Fat-Diet Fed Rats

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    Jiqu Xu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Hepatic lipid accumulation and oxidative stress are crucial pathophysiological mechanisms for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD. Thus, we examined the effect of a combination of flaxseed oil (FO and astaxanthin (ASX on hepatic lipid accumulation and oxidative stress in rats fed a high-fat diet. ASX was dissolved in flaxseed oil (1 g/kg; FO + ASX. Animals were fed diets containing 20% fat, where the source was lard, or 75% lard and 25% FO + ASX, or 50% lard and 50% FO + ASX, or FO + ASX, for 10 weeks. Substitution of lard with FO + ASX reduced steatosis and reduced hepatic triacylglycerol and cholesterol. The combination of FO and ASX significantly decreased hepatic sterol regulatory element-binding transcription factor 1 and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase but increased peroxisome proliferator activated receptor expression. FO + ASX significantly suppressed fatty acid synthase and acetyl CoA carboxylase but induced carnitine palmitoyl transferase-1 and acyl CoA oxidase expression. FO + ASX also significantly elevated hepatic SOD, CAT and GPx activity and GSH, and markedly reduced hepatic lipid peroxidation. Thus, FO and ASX may reduce NAFLD by reversing hepatic steatosis and reducing lipid accumulation and oxidative stress.

  18. A Combination of Flaxseed Oil and Astaxanthin Improves Hepatic Lipid Accumulation and Reduces Oxidative Stress in High Fat-Diet Fed Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jiqu; Rong, Shuang; Gao, Hui; Chen, Chang; Yang, Wei; Deng, Qianchun; Huang, Qingde; Xiao, Lingyun; Huang, Fenghong

    2017-01-01

    Hepatic lipid accumulation and oxidative stress are crucial pathophysiological mechanisms for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Thus, we examined the effect of a combination of flaxseed oil (FO) and astaxanthin (ASX) on hepatic lipid accumulation and oxidative stress in rats fed a high-fat diet. ASX was dissolved in flaxseed oil (1 g/kg; FO + ASX). Animals were fed diets containing 20% fat, where the source was lard, or 75% lard and 25% FO + ASX, or 50% lard and 50% FO + ASX, or FO + ASX, for 10 weeks. Substitution of lard with FO + ASX reduced steatosis and reduced hepatic triacylglycerol and cholesterol. The combination of FO and ASX significantly decreased hepatic sterol regulatory element-binding transcription factor 1 and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase but increased peroxisome proliferator activated receptor expression. FO + ASX significantly suppressed fatty acid synthase and acetyl CoA carboxylase but induced carnitine palmitoyl transferase-1 and acyl CoA oxidase expression. FO + ASX also significantly elevated hepatic SOD, CAT and GPx activity and GSH, and markedly reduced hepatic lipid peroxidation. Thus, FO and ASX may reduce NAFLD by reversing hepatic steatosis and reducing lipid accumulation and oxidative stress. PMID:28335388

  19. Metabolomic and Lipidomic Analysis of Serum Samples following Curcuma longa Extract Supplementation in High-Fructose and Saturated Fat Fed Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tranchida, Fabrice; Shintu, Laetitia; Rakotoniaina, Zo; Tchiakpe, Léopold; Deyris, Valérie; Hiol, Abel; Caldarelli, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    We explored, using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) metabolomics and fatty acids profiling, the effects of a common nutritional complement, Curcuma longa, at a nutritionally relevant dose with human use, administered in conjunction with an unbalanced diet. Indeed, traditional food supplements have been long used to counter metabolic impairments induced by unbalanced diets. Here, rats were fed either a standard diet, a high level of fructose and saturated fatty acid (HFS) diet, a diet common to western countries and that certainly contributes to the epidemic of insulin resistance (IR) syndrome, or a HFS diet with a Curcuma longa extract (1% of curcuminoids in the extract) for ten weeks. Orthogonal projections to latent structures discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) on the serum NMR profiles and fatty acid composition (determined by GC/MS) showed a clear discrimination between HFS groups and controls. This discrimination involved metabolites such as glucose, amino acids, pyruvate, creatine, phosphocholine/glycerophosphocholine, ketone bodies and glycoproteins as well as an increase of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) and a decrease of n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). Although the administration of Curcuma longa did not prevent the observed increase of glucose, triglycerides, cholesterol and insulin levels, discriminating metabolites were observed between groups fed HFS alone or with addition of a Curcuma longa extract, namely some MUFA and n-3 PUFA, glycoproteins, glutamine, and methanol, suggesting that curcuminoids may act respectively on the fatty acid metabolism, the hexosamine biosynthesis pathway and alcohol oxidation. Curcuma longa extract supplementation appears to be beneficial in these metabolic pathways in rats. This metabolomic approach highlights important serum metabolites that could help in understanding further the metabolic mechanisms leading to IR.

  20. Dietary thylakoids reduce visceral fat mass and increase expression of genes involved in intestinal fatty acid oxidation in high-fat fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenblom, Eva-Lena; Egecioglu, Emil; Montelius, Caroline; Ramachandran, Deepti; Bonn, Britta; Weström, Björn; Mansouri, Abdelhak; Langhans, Wolfgang; Erlanson-Albertsson, Charlotte

    2016-09-01

    Thylakoids reduce body weight gain and body fat accumulation in rodents. This study investigated whether an enhanced oxidation of dietary fat-derived fatty acids in the intestine contributes to the thylakoid effects. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a high-fat diet with (n = 8) or without thylakoids (n = 8) for 2 wk. Body weight, food intake, and body fat were measured, and intestinal mucosa was collected and analyzed. Quantitative real-time PCR was used to measure gene expression levels of key enzymes involved in fatty acid transport, fatty acid oxidation, and ketogenesis. Another set of thylakoid-treated (n = 10) and control rats (n = 10) went through indirect calorimetry. In the first experiment, thylakoid-treated rats (n = 8) accumulated 25% less visceral fat than controls. Furthermore, fatty acid translocase (Fat/Cd36), carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1a (Cpt1a), and mitochondrial 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA synthase 2 (Hmgcs2) genes were upregulated in the jejunum of the thylakoid-treated group. In the second experiment, thylakoid-treated rats (n = 10) gained 17.5% less weight compared with controls and their respiratory quotient was lower, 0.86 compared with 0.91. Thylakoid-intake resulted in decreased food intake and did not cause steatorrhea. These results suggest that thylakoids stimulated intestinal fatty acid oxidation and ketogenesis, resulting in an increased ability of the intestine to handle dietary fat. The increased fatty acid oxidation and the resulting reduction in food intake may contribute to the reduced fat accumulation in thylakoid-treated animals.

  1. Swimming Exercise Alleviated Insulin Resistance by Regulating Tripartite Motif Family Protein 72 Expression and AKT Signal Pathway in Sprague-Dawley Rats Fed with High-Fat Diet

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    Jie Qi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to investigate whether swimming exercise could improve insulin resistance (IR by regulating tripartite motif family protein 72 (TRIM72 expression and AKT signal pathway in rats fed with high-fat diet. Five-week-old rats were classified into 3 groups: standard diet as control (CON, high-fat diet (HFD, and HFD plus swimming exercise (Ex-HFD. After 8 weeks, glucose infusion rate (GIR, markers of oxidative stress, mRNA and protein expression of TRIM72, protein of IRS, p-AKTSer473, and AKT were determined in quadriceps muscles. Compared with HFD, the GIR, muscle SOD, and GSH-Px were significantly increased (p<0.05, resp., whereas muscle MDA and 8-OHdG levels were significantly decreased (p<0.05 and p<0.01 in Ex-HFD. Expression levels of TRIM72 mRNA and protein in muscles were significantly reduced (p<0.05 and p<0.01, whereas protein expression levels of IRS-1, p-AKTSer473, and AKT were significantly increased in Ex-HFD compared with HFD (p<0.01, p<0.01, and p<0.05. These results suggest that an 8-week swimming exercise improves HFD-induced insulin resistance maybe through a reduction of TRIM72 in skeletal muscle and enhancement of AKT signal transduction.

  2. Metabolic effects of berberine on liver phosphatidate phosphohydrolase in rats fed on high lipogenic diet:an additional mechanism for the hypolipidemic effects of berberine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Esfandiar Heidarian; Mahmoud Rafieian-Kopaei; Abolfazle Khoshdel; Morteza Bakhshesh

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effects of berberine (BBR) on the liver phosphatidate phosphohydrolase (PAP) and plasma lipids in rats fed on high lipogenic and normal diet.Methods:diet. Group II received standard diet plus 90 mg/kg BBR and Groups IV received lipogenic diet (containing sunflower oil, cholesterol and ethanol) without treatment. Groups III and V received lipogenic diet plus 90 mg/kg BBR and 30 mg/kg gemfibrozil, respectively. On Day 60 of the experiment, blood samples were collected and PAP, total cholesterol, triglyceride, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, very low density lipoprotein, malondialdehyde, plasma antioxidant, and liver histopathology assessments were conducted.Results:Forty rats were randomly divided into 5 groups. Group I (control) received standard malondialdehyde levels decreased significantly (P<0.05) in Group III compared to Group IV (24.94%, 36.11%, 21.18%, 36.86% and 19.59%, respectively). The liver triglyceride and cholesterol in Groups III and V had a remarkable decrease (P<0.001) compared with Group IV (24.94% and 49.13%, respectively). There was a significant reduction (P<0.05) in atherogenic index in Groups III compared with Group IV. PAP, plasma triglyceride, total cholesterol, very low density lipoprotein, and Conclusions: These results clearly suggested that BBR could be effective in reducing liver PAP, lipid abnormality, liver triglyceride and lateral side effects of hyperlipidemia.

  3. Splenotoxicity associated with splenic sarcomas in rats fed high doses of D & C Red No. 9 or aniline hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberger, M A; Albert, R H; Montgomery, S B

    1985-10-01

    A histopathologic review of F344 rat spleens from the National Toxicology Program-National Cancer Institute bioassays of barium salt of 5-chloro-2-(2-hydroxy-1-naphthalenyl)-azo-4-methylbenzenesulfonic acid [(D & C Red No. 9) CAS: 516-00-21] and aniline HCI (CAS: 142-04-1) was conducted to assess splenotoxic changes associated with splenic sarcomas induced by these aromatic amines. Four splenic changes--fatty metamorphosis (FM), splenic fibrosis (FIB), capsule hyperplasia (CH), and hemorrhage--were markedly increased in incidence and severity in males treated with high doses of either D & C Red No. 9 or aniline HCI. Females treated with high doses of either of these compounds showed similar but less severe changes. FIB and FM showed strong group correlations with tumor incidence (r greater than or equal to 0.87). All groups that demonstrated FM also demonstrated splenic sarcomas; groups without the FM lesions did not exhibit splenic tumors. The morphologic similarity of the FIB and CH lesions to the induced splenic sarcomas suggests that these lesions are preneoplastic. Moreover, the treatment-related splenic lesions appear to be precursors of the induced splenic sarcomas. Carcinogenicity studies with serial sacrifices at varying intervals will be required for experimental verification of these conclusions. A schema, based on the findings of the study, suggests a hypothetical pathway for the progression of the treatment-related splenic lesions from onset to tumor formation.

  4. Differential effects of low-fat and high-fat diets on fed-state hepatic triacylglycerol secretion, hepatic fatty acid profiles, and DGAT-1 protein expression in obese-prone Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heden, Timothy D; Morris, E Matthew; Kearney, Monica L; Liu, Tzu-Wen; Park, Young-Min; Kanaley, Jill A; Thyfault, John P

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of short-term low-fat (LF) and high-fat (HF) diets on fed-state hepatic triacylglycerol (TAG) secretion, the content of proteins involved in TAG assembly and secretion, fatty acid oxidation (FAO), and the fatty acid profile of stored TAG. Using selectively bred obese-prone Sprague-Dawley rats, we directly measured fed-state hepatic TAG secretion, using Tyloxapol (a lipoprotein lipase inhibitor) and a standardized oral mixed meal (45% carbohydrate, 40% fat, 15% protein) bolus in animals fed a HF or LF diet for 2 weeks, after which the rats were maintained on their respective diet for 1 week (washout) prior to the liver being excised to measure protein content, FAO, and TAG fatty acid profiles. Hepatic DGAT-1 protein expression was ∼27% lower in HF- than in LF-fed animals (p hepatic TAG secretion rate was ∼39% lower (p Hepatic TAG content was ∼2-fold higher (p profile of liver TAG in HF-fed animals closely resembled the diet, whereas in LF-fed animals, the fatty acid profile consisted of mostly de novo synthesized fatty acids. FAO was not altered by diet. LF and HF diets differentially alter fed-state hepatic TAG secretion, hepatic fatty acid profiles, and DGAT-1 protein expression.

  5. Effects of chitosan and water-soluble chitosan micro- and nanoparticles in obese rats fed a high-fat diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu SH

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Hong-liang Zhang,1,2 Xiao-bin Zhong,1 Yi Tao,3 Si-hui Wu,4 Zheng-quan Su21Department of Pharmacy, First Affiliated Hospital of Guangxi Medical University, Nanning, 2Key Research Center of Liver Regulation for Hyperlipemia SATCM/Level 3 Laboratory of Lipid Metabolism, Guangdong TCM Key Laboratory for Metabolic Diseases, Guangdong Pharmaceutical University, 3HEC Pharm Group, Dongguan, 4Department of Pharmacy, Guangdong Food and Drug Vocational Technical School, Guangzhou, ChinaPurpose: This study determined the effects of chitosan (CTS and water-soluble chitosan (WSC microparticles (MPs and nanoparticles (NPs in rats with high-fat diet-induced obesity.Methods: The rats were randomly separated into eight groups: a normal diet group (the blank control, a high-fat emulsion group (the negative control, CTS and WSC control groups, CTS-MP and WSC-MP groups, and CTS-NP and WSC-NP groups. All groups (except the blank control group were fed the high-fat diet for 4 weeks to establish the obesity model. Different samples were administered orally once daily to the treatment groups for 4 weeks.Results: A significantly lower weight gain was observed in the WSC-MP and WSC-NP groups, as well as in the CTS-MP and CTS-NP groups, compared with rats given a normal diet and a high-fat diet (P < 0.05. The WSC-MP rats had the least weight gain among all the groups. The food intake in the eight groups had the same trend as weight gain. CTS and WSC MPs and NPs significantly reduced the final amounts of epididymal and perirenal white adipose tissue. Liver weight was reduced in the CTS-MP group compared to rats fed a high-fat diet. Serum total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol were significantly reduced in all treatment groups, with the WSC-MP and CTS-MP groups showing a more significant reduction than the other groups. Triacylglycerol levels were significantly reduced in the WSC-NP group compared to the high-fat group. The mortality rates of CTS-MP, CTS

  6. Early adaptive response of the retina to a pro-diabetogenic diet: Impairment of cone response and gene expression changes in high-fructose fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thierry, Magalie; Pasquis, Bruno; Buteau, Bénédicte; Fourgeux, Cynthia; Dembele, Doulaye; Leclere, Laurent; Gambert-Nicot, Ségolène; Acar, Niyazi; Bron, Alain M; Creuzot-Garcher, Catherine P; Bretillon, Lionel

    2015-06-01

    The lack of plasticity of neurons to respond to dietary changes, such as high fat and high fructose diets, by modulating gene and protein expression has been associated with functional and behavioral impairments that can have detrimental consequences. The inhibition of high fat-induced rewiring of hypothalamic neurons induced obesity. Feeding rodents with high fructose is a recognized and widely used model to trigger obesity and metabolic syndrome. However the adaptive response of the retina to short term feeding with high fructose is poorly documented. We therefore aimed to characterize both the functional and gene expression changes in the neurosensory retina of Brown Norway rats fed during 3 and 8 days with a 60%-rich fructose diet (n = 16 per diet and per time point). Glucose, insulin, leptin, triacylglycerols, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and fructosamine were quantified in plasma (n = 8 in each group). Functionality of the inner retina was studied using scotopic single flash electroretinography (n = 8 in each group) and the individual response of rod and cone photoreceptors was determined using 8.02 Hz Flicker electroretinography (n = 8 in each group). Analysis of gene expression in the neurosensory retina was performed by Affymetrix genechips, and confirmed by RT-qPCR (n = 6 in each group). Elevated glycemia (+13%), insulinemia (+83%), and leptinemia (+172%) was observed after 8 days of fructose feeding. The cone photoreceptor response was altered at day 8 in high fructose fed rats (Δ = 0.5 log unit of light stimulus intensity). Affymetrix analysis of gene expression highlighted significant modulation of the pathways of eIF2 signaling and endoplasmic reticulum stress, regulation of eIF4 and p70S6K signaling, as well as mTOR signaling and mitochondrial dysfunction. RT-qPCR analysis confirmed the down regulation of Crystallins, Npy, Nid1 and Optc genes after 3 days of fructose feeding, and up regulation of End2. Meanwhile, a trend

  7. Photoperiod regulates lean mass accretion, but not adiposity, in growing F344 rats fed a high fat diet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander W Ross

    Full Text Available In this study the effects of photoperiod and diet, and their interaction, were examined for their effects on growth and body composition in juvenile F344 rats over a 4-week period. On long (16L:8D, relative to short (8L:16D, photoperiod food intake and growth rate were increased, but percentage adiposity remained constant (ca 3-4%. On a high fat diet (HFD, containing 22.8% fat (45% energy as fat, food intake was reduced, but energy intake increased on both photoperiods. This led to a small increase in adiposity (up to 10% without overt change in body weight. These changes were also reflected in plasma leptin and lipid levels. Importantly while both lean and adipose tissue were strongly regulated by photoperiod on a chow diet, this regulation was lost for adipose, but not lean tissue, on HFD. This implies that a primary effect of photoperiod is the regulation of growth and lean mass accretion. Consistent with this both hypothalamic GHRH gene expression and serum IGF-1 levels were photoperiod dependent. As for other animals and humans, there was evidence of central hyposomatotropism in response to obesity, as GHRH gene expression was suppressed by the HFD. Gene expression of hypothalamic AgRP and CRH, but not NPY nor POMC, accorded with the energy balance status on long and short photoperiod. However, there was a general dissociation between plasma leptin levels and expression of these hypothalamic energy balance genes. Similarly there was no interaction between the HFD and photoperiod at the level of the genes involved in thyroid hormone metabolism (Dio2, Dio3, TSHβ or NMU, which are important mediators of the photoperiodic response. These data suggest that photoperiod and HFD influence body weight and body composition through independent mechanisms but in each case the role of the hypothalamic energy balance genes is not predictable based on their known function.

  8. A study of anti-hyperlipidemia, hypolipedimic and anti-atherogenic activity of fruit of emblica officinalis (amla in high fat fed albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeevangi Santoshkumar, Manjunath S, Sakhare Pranavkumar M

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available : Emblica Officinalis (Amla, belonging to the genus, Phyllanthus emblica is widely used for medicinal purpose. Its fruits have been used traditionally as a hypolipidemic. Objectives: The present study was aimed to evaluate hypolipedimic and anti-atherogenic activity of fruit of Emblica officinalis in high fat fed albino rats. Materials and Methods: For study of anti-hyperlipidemic, hypolipidemic, and anti-atherogenic activity. 5 groups of 6 animals in each received normal saline, E. Officinalis powder, high fat diet, High fat diet plus E. Officinalis powder both and Atorvastatin respectively for 8 weeks. Hyperlipidemia was induced by feeding animals with high fat diet per orally, consisting of coconut oil and vanaspati ghee, daily ad libitum. At the end of the study, blood samples of the animals were sent for the estimation of the lipid profile and effects of test drug studied by comparing levels of Total Cholesterol, Triglycerides, HDL, LDL, and Atherogenic index. The statistical significance between groups was analysed by using one way ANOVA, followed by Dunnet’s multiple comparison test. Results: Fruit of Amla showed significant anti-hyperlipidemic, hypolipidemic, and anti-atherogenic effect. All these effects may contribute to its anti-atherogenic activity. Conclusion: Present study revealed the antihyperlipidemic, hypolipidemic, and anti-atherogenic effect of Amla fruit powder and can be safely used in the treatment of mild to moderate cases of hyperlipidemia considering its easy availability, cost effectiveness, and other beneficial effects.

  9. Effects of Solanum torvum fruit water extract on hyperlipidemia and sex hormones in high-fat fed male rats

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    Supaporn Wannasiri

    2017-05-01

    Conclusions: S. torvum extract can reverse the level of sex hormones to their normal level and reduce serum cholesterol in HFD-induced obese male rats. Furthermore, the long term oral administration of S. torvum extract is harmless.

  10. Effects of fisetin supplementation on hepatic lipogenesis and glucose metabolism in Sprague-Dawley rats fed on a high fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Yoonsu; Chung, Ji Hyung; Do, Hyun Ju; Jeon, Hyun Ju; Jin, Taewon; Shin, Min-Jeong

    2013-08-15

    The modulatory effects of daily fisetin supplementation for 8 weeks on genes involved in hepatic lipogenesis and gluconeogenesis and hyperglycemia in rats fed a high fat (HF) diet were evaluated. Elevated levels of triglyceride (TG), along with hepatic TG content and glucose concentrations in a high fat diet group were found to be reduced by fisetin supplementation. The high fat diet significantly increased hepatic mRNA expressions of PPARγ, SREBP1C and SCD-1 genes in comparison to the control diet, which was subsequently reversed by supplementation with fisetin. In addition, fisetin supplementation significantly reduced hepatic mRNA abundance of FAS, ATPCL and G6Pase compared to the control group. Finally, epididymal mRNA abundance of GLUT4 was significantly increased by fisetin supplementation, compared to levels in the control and HF groups. Enhancement of GLUT4 expression by fisetin was further confirmed in differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Fisetin supplementation decreases cardiovascular risks by ameliorating hepatic steatosis and lowering circulating glucose concentrations.

  11. Insulin resistance in two animal models of obesity: A comparison of HISS-dependent and HISS-independent insulin action in high-fat diet-fed and Zucker rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afonso, Ricardo Alexandre; Lautt, W Wayne; Ribeiro, Rogério Tavares; Legare, Dallas J; Macedo, Maria Paula

    2007-01-01

    Normal postprandial insulin sensitivity depends on the action of the hepatic insulin sensitizing substance (HISS), which requires hepatic parasympathetic nerve activation. Since HISS action is impaired in several pathological models, including the genetically-modified obese Zucker rat (OZR), we compared the HISS-dependent and HISS-independent components of insulin action between the OZR model, and the high-fat diet (HFD)-fed rats. We hypothesize that both models present an impaired HISS action, accounting for the decrease in insulin sensitivity. Male Sprague-Dawley rats fed a HFD for 1 week (n = 5) and OZR (n = 5) were used as obese models. Standard diet-fed (STD, n = 5) and lean Zucker rats (LZR, n = 6) were the HFD and OZR non-obese controls, respectively. Rats were 9-weeks-old when tested. Insulin sensitivity was measured in the fed state, before and after atropine blockade of HISS release), using the Rapid Insulin Sensitivity Test (RIST, mg glucose/kg bw). HISS-dependent action was the difference between control and post-atropine RISTs. HISS action was impaired in both the obese groups (HFD vs STD: 40.1 +/- 5.0 vs 117.0 +/- 3.8 mg glucose/kg bw, p < 0.001; OZR vs LZR: 34.4 +/- 12.8 vs 115.9 +/- 19.4 mg glucose/kg bw, p < 0.01), whereas the HISS-independent component (post-atropine RIST), i.e., insulin action per se, was decreased only in the OZR (OZR vs LZR: 39.3 +/- 3.5 vs 173.3 +/- 20.5 mg glucose/kg bw, p < 0.001). According to our data, the insulin resistance mechanisms are different in the two obesity models studied: in the HFD-fed rats, only the HISS-dependent component is impaired, whereas in the OZR both components of nsulin action are equally impaired.

  12. Exercise training improves relaxation response and SOD-1 expression in aortic and mesenteric rings from high caloric diet-fed rats

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    Antunes Edson

    2008-05-01

    expression and reduction in triglycerides levels. Conclusion The improvement in endothelial function by physical preconditioning in mesenteric and aortic arteries from high caloric fed-rats was directly related to an increase in NO bioavailability to the smooth muscle mostly due to SOD-1 up regulation.

  13. Protective effect of pinitol against D-galactosamine-induced hepatotoxicity in rats fed on a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yusi; Park, Chung-Mu; Cho, Chung-Won; Song, Young-Sun

    2008-07-01

    The protective effect of pinitol against D-galactosamine (GalN)-induced liver damage was examined. Forty male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into normal control, GalN control, and pinitol groups (0.5%, 1%, and 2%). After 8 weeks of feeding, a single dose of GalN (650 mg/kg) was administered 24 h before their sacrifice. The serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) levels were significantly increased after an injection with GalN (Ppinitol supplementation at the level of 0.5% reversed these changes to normal levels. Significant decreases in serum triglyceride and cholesterol and increases in hepatic cholesterol were observed in GalN-intoxicated rats. However, supplementation with pinitol significantly attenuated these trends. In addition, pinitol elevated the Mn-superoxide dismutase, glutathione reductase, and catalase activities, prevented hepatic lipid peroxidation, and restored the hepatic GSH levels and cytochrome P450 2E1 function. Thus, 0.5% pinitol supplementation protected the rats from the hepatotoxicity induced by GalN, at least part of its effect being attributable to attenuation of the oxidative stress and inflammatory process promoted by GalN.

  14. Cardiac and metabolic changes in long-term high fructose-fat fed rats with severe obesity and extensive intramyocardial lipid accumulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axelsen, Lene N; Lademann, Jacob B; Petersen, Jørgen S

    2010-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome and obesity-related diseases are affecting more and more people in the Western world. The basis for an effective treatment of these patients is a better understanding of the underlying pathophysiology. Here, we characterize fructose- and fat-fed rats (FFFRs) as a new animal model...... of metabolic syndrome. Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a 60 kcal/100 kcal fat diet with 10% fructose in the drinking water. After 6, 12, 18, 24, 36, and 48 wk of feeding, blood pressure, glucose tolerance, plasma insulin, glucose, and lipid levels were measured. Cardiac function was examined by in vivo pressure...... AMPK at 6 wk of feeding. This study characterizes a new animal model of the metabolic syndrome that could be beneficial in future studies of metabolic syndrome and cardiac complications....

  15. Doenjang, a fermented soybean paste, decreased visceral fat accumulation and adipocyte size in rats fed with high fat diet more effectively than nonfermented soybeans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Chung Shil; Park, Sang Chul; Song, Kye Yong

    2012-01-01

    Soybean is known to have an anti-obesity effect. We compared the anti-obesity effect of doenjang, a fermented soybean paste, with that of nonfermented soybeans in rats. Steamed soybeans and doenjang (steamed soybeans fermented and aged for 10 months) were sampled and freeze-dried. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed basal (BA) (5% fat), high fat (HF) (30% fat), HF+steamed soybeans (SOY), or HF+doenjang (DJ) diet ad libitum for 8 weeks. HF significantly increased body weight gain, liver weight, hepatic triglyceride (TG) and cholesterol levels, and epididymal fat pad weight compared with BA. Compared with HF, body weight gain and hepatic TG and cholesterol levels were significantly lower in SOY and DJ groups, but they were not significantly different from each other. DJ significantly reduced visceral fat weight and epididymal adipocyte size compared with HF, whereas SOY resulted in a mild reduction without significance. This was possibly because DJ showed lowered fatty acid synthase (FAS) activity and elevated carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT)-1 activity in liver tissue more than SOY. SOY and DJ did not affect serum total and high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels compared with HF; however, DJ significantly lowered the atherogenic index and serum leptin level. In conclusion, doenjang, a fermented soybean product, was more effective than soybeans for preventing diet-induced visceral fat accumulation, possibly because of its greater effects on CPT-1 activity stimulation and FAS activity suppression. These effects may be due in part to the higher content of aglycone isoflavones in doenjang.

  16. Ambient fine particulate matter and ozone exposures induce inflammation in epicardial and perirenal adipose tissues in rats fed a high fructose diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lixian; Liu, Cuiqing; Xu, Xiaohua; Ying, Zhekang; Maiseyeu, Andrei; Wang, Aixia; Allen, Katryn; Lewandowski, Ryan P; Bramble, Lori A; Morishita, Masako; Wagner, James G; Dvonch, J; Sun, Zhichao; Yan, Xiaowei; Brook, Robert D; Rajagopalan, Sanjay; Harkema, Jack R; Sun, Qinghua; Fan, Zhongjie

    2013-08-22

    Inflammation and oxidative stress play critical roles in the pathogenesis of inhaled air pollutant-mediated metabolic disease. Inflammation in the adipose tissues niches are widely believed to exert important effects on organ dysfunction. Recent data from both human and animal models suggest a role for inflammation and oxidative stress in epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) as a risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disease. We hypothesized that inhalational exposure to concentrated ambient fine particulates (CAPs) and ozone (O3) exaggerates inflammation and oxidative stress in EAT and perirenal adipose tissue (PAT). Eight- week-old Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a normal diet (ND) or high fructose diet (HFr) for 8 weeks, and then exposed to ambient AIR, CAPs at a mean of 356 μg/m3, O3 at 0.485 ppm, or CAPs (441 μg/m3) + O3 (0.497 ppm) in Dearborn, MI, 8 hours/day, 5 days/week, for 9 days over 2 weeks. EAT and PAT showed whitish color in gross, and less mitochondria, higher mRNA expression of white adipose specific and lower brown adipose specific genes than in brown adipose tissues. Exposure to CAPs and O3 resulted in the increase of macrophage infiltration in both EAT and PAT of HFr groups. Proinflammatory genes of Tnf-α, Mcp-1 and leptin were significantly upregulated while IL-10 and adiponectin, known as antiinflammatory genes, were reduced after the exposures. CAPs and O3 exposures also induced an increase in inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) protein expression, and decrease in mitochondrial area in EAT and PAT. We also found significant increases in macrophages of HFr-O3 rats. The synergetic interaction of HFr and dirty air exposure on the inflammation was found in most of the experiments. Surprisingly, exposure to CAPs or O3 induced more significant inflammation and oxidative stress than co-exposure of CAPs and O3 in EAT and PAT. EAT and PAT are both white adipose tissues. Short-term exposure to CAPs and O3, especially with high

  17. The Effects of Yerba Maté (Ilex Paraguariensis) consumption on IL-1, IL-6, TNF-α and IL-10 production by bone marrow cells in wistar rats fed a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmo, Luciana Simão; Rogero, Marcelo Macedo; Cortez, Mayara; Yamada, Monica; Jacob, Patrícia Silva; Bastos, Deborah Helena Markowicz; Borelli, Primavera; Ambrósio Fock, Ricardo

    2013-01-01

    An excessive consumption of a high-fat diet (HFD) results in becoming overweight or obese, which triggers a chronic inflammatory condition that is associated with a high white blood cell count. Because of the potential for yerba maté (Ilex paraguariensis) (YM) to impact obesity, this study aimed to investigate the effects of YM consumption on the hematological response and on the production of interleukin (IL)-1α, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and IL-10 by bone marrow cells from Wistar rats fed a HFD. Male Wistar rats were fed a control (CON) or HFD diet for twelve weeks. At the end of this period, the rats received YM (1 g/kg/day body weight) for 4 weeks. After euthanasia, hemograms and myelograms were evaluated, while the bone marrow cells were cultured in the presence or absence of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to evaluate the production of IL-1α, IL-6, TNF-α, and IL-10. The consumption of YM reduced the body weight, the body adiposity, and the cholesterol levels in HFD-fed rats. Bone marrow cells from the HFD group produced more IL-1α, IL-6, and TNF-α, and less IL-10, when compared to cells from the control group, and YM consumption reduced the IL-1α, IL-6, and TNF-α production by the cells. However, cells from the HFD rats that were stimulated with LPS increased their IL-1α, IL-6, and TNF-α production, but YM consumption did not change this result. In summary, the consumption of YM affects the production of IL-1α, IL-6, and TNF-α by bone marrow cells, promotes weight loss, decreases the number of white blood cells, and significantly improves serum cholesterol level in HFD-fed rats. However, the bone marrow cells from the HFD+YM-fed rats challenged with LPS did not show improvement in the inflammatory response compared to the cells from animals fed only a HFD that were also challenged with LPS.

  18. Phytosterol esters attenuate hepatic steatosis in rats with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease rats fed a high-fat diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Lihua; Qu, Dan; Zhang, Qing; jiang, Jing; Zhou, Haiyue; Jiang, Rui; Li, Yating; Zhang, Yao; Yan, Hongli

    2017-01-01

    Given the adverse effects of drugs used for NAFLD treatment, identifying novel and effective natural compound to prevent NAFLD is urgently needed. In the present study, the effects of phytosterol esters (PSEs) on NAFLD were explored. Adult SD rats were randomized into five groups: normal chow diet (NC), high-fat diet (HF), low-, medium- and high-dose PSE treatment plus high-fat diet groups (PSEL, PSEM, and PSEH). Our results showed that the levels of LDL-C in the PSEL group and hepatic TG, TC, and FFA in the three PSEs groups were significantly decreased. Notably, the uric acid (UA) level was significantly decreased by PSEs intervention. The hepatic inflammatory stress was ameliorated via the inhibition of the cytokines, including TGF-β, IL-6, IL-10 and CRP in the PSEs intervention groups. Further, the oxidative status was improved by PSE treatment through adjusting the enzyme activity (SOD and XOD) and decreasing the MDA level. These beneficial effects of PSE may have been partly due to its regulation on the expression of TGF-β1, TGF-β2, TNF-α, UCP-2, PPAR-α and PPAR-γ in hepatic tissue at both mRNA and protein level. The results of this study suggest that PSEs may be used as therapeutic agents for the prevention and progression of NAFLD and that hyperuricemia is induced by high-fat diet consumption. PMID:28169366

  19. Ethanol extract of lotus (Nelumbo nucifera) root exhibits an anti-adipogenic effect in human pre-adipocytes and anti-obesity and anti-oxidant effects in rats fed a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Jeong Soon; Lee, Yun Ju; Kim, Kyoung Soo; Kim, Sung Hoon; Chang, Kyung Ja

    2014-03-01

    Lotus (Nelumbo Nucifera) root, a well-known medicinal plant in Asia, is reported to have various therapeutic benefits, including anti-diabetes, anti-hypertension, and anti-hyperlipidaemia. We hypothesized that the ethanol extract of lotus root (ELR) would exhibit an anti-adipogenic effect in human pre-adipocytes as well as anti-obesity and anti-oxidant effects in rats fed a high-fat diet. Treatment with ELR in human pre-adipocytes resulted in inhibition of lipid accumulation and attenuated expression of adipogenic transcription factors such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma and adipocyte marker genes, such as glucose transporter 4 and leptin. Administration of ELR resulted in a significant decrease in relative weights of adipose tissues in rats fed a high-fat diet. Consumption of a high-fat diet resulted in an increase in serum total cholesterol (TC) and triglyceride (TG) levels; however, administration of ELR resulted in a decrease in the levels of TC and TG. Administration of ELR resulted in a decrease in the level of serum leptin and insulin. Administration of ELR in rats fed a high-fat diet resulted in a decrease in hepatic thiobarbituric acid reactive substance content, elevated by a high-fat diet and an increase in superoxide dismutase activity and hepatic glutathione content. These results suggest that lotus root exerts anti-oxidant and anti-obesity effects and could be used as a functional and nutraceutical ingredient in combatting obesity-related diseases.

  20. Zygophyllum gaetulum attenuates hypercholesterolemia and protects against oxidative stress in rats fed a high-cholesterol diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadia Berzou

    2014-12-01

    Conclusion: These results show that Zygophyllum gaetulum aqueous extract improves hypercholesterolemia and oxidative stress induced by a high cholesterol diet and consequently may protect against cardiovascular diseases. [J Exp Integr Med 2014; 4(4.000: 255-260

  1. A high protein moderate carbohydrate diet fed at discrete meals reduces early progression of N-methyl-N-nitrosourea-induced breast tumorigenesis in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singletary Keith W

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Breast cancer is the most prevalent cancer in American women. Dietary factors are thought to have a strong influence on breast cancer incidence. This study utilized a meal-feeding protocol with female Sprague-Dawley rats to evaluate effects of two ratios of carbohydrate:protein on promotion and early progression of breast tissue carcinomas. Mammary tumors were induced by N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU at 52 d of age. Post-induction, animals were assigned to consume either a low protein high carbohydrate diet (LPHC; 15% and 60% of energy, respectively or a high protein moderate carbohydrate diet (HPMC; 35% and 40% of energy, respectively for 10 wk. Animals were fed 3 meals/day to mimic human absorption and metabolism patterns. The rate of palpable tumor incidence was reduced in HPMC relative to LPHC (12.9 ± 1.4%/wk vs. 18.2 ± 1.3%/wk. At 3 wk, post-prandial serum insulin was larger in the LPHC relative to HPMC (+136.4 ± 33.1 pmol/L vs. +38.1 ± 23.4 pmol/L, while at 10 wk there was a trend for post-prandial IGF-I to be increased in HPMC (P = 0.055. There were no differences in tumor latency, tumor surface area, or cumulative tumor mass between diet groups. The present study provides evidence that reducing the dietary carbohydrate:protein ratio attenuates the development of mammary tumors. These findings are consistent with reduced post-prandial insulin release potentially diminishing the proliferative environment required for breast cancer tumors to progress.

  2. Hypolipidemic and Antioxidative Effects of Aqueous Enzymatic Extract from Rice Bran in Rats Fed a High-Fat and -Cholesterol Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Xin Wang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aqueous enzymatic extract from rice bran (AEERB was rich in protein, γ-oryzanol and tocols. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of AEERB on the regulation of lipid metabolism and the inhibition of oxidative damage. Methods: The antioxidant activity of AEERB in vitro was measured in terms of radical scavenging capacity, ferric reducing ability power (FRAP and linoleic acid emulsion system-ferric thiocyanate method (FTC. Male Wistar rats were fed with a normal diet and a high-fat and high-cholesterol diet with or without AEERB. After treatment, biochemical assays of serum, liver and feces lipid levels, the antioxidant enzyme activity, malondialdehyde (MDA and protein carbonyl were determined. Result: AEERB is completely soluble in water and rich in hydrophilic and lipophilic functional ingredients. AEERB scavenged DPPH• and ABTS•+ and exhibited antioxidant activity slightly lower than that of ascorbic acid in the linoleic acid system. The administration of AEERB reduced serum lipid levels and the atherogenic index compared with those of the hyperlipidemic diet group (HD. The administration of AEERB significantly lowered liver lipid levels, inhibited hepatic 3-hydroxyl-3-methylglutaryl CoA reductase activity, and efficiently promoted the fecal excretion of total lipids and total cholesterol (TC (p < 0.05. Dietary AEERB enhanced antioxidant status in the serum, liver and brain by increasing the antioxidant enzyme activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px and decreasing the content of MDA and protein carbonyl. Conclusions: The results indicated that AEERB might act as a potent hypolipidemic and antioxidant functional food.

  3. Dahl salt-sensitive rats develop hypovitaminosis D and hyperparathyroidism when fed a standard diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thierry-Palmer, Myrtle; Cephas, Stacy; Sayavongsa, Phouyong; Doherty, Akins; Arnaud, Sara B.

    2005-01-01

    The Dahl salt-sensitive rat (S), a model for salt-sensitive hypertension, excretes protein-bound 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) into urine when fed a low salt diet. Urinary 25-OHD increases during high salt intake. We tested the hypothesis that continuous loss of 25-OHD into urine would result in low plasma 25-OHD concentration in mature S rats raised on a standard diet. Dahl S and salt-resistant (R) male rats were raised to maturity (12-month-old) on a commercial rat diet (1% salt) and switched to 0.3% (low) or 2% (high) salt diets 3 weeks before euthanasia. Urine (24 h) was collected at the end of the dietary treatments. Urinary 25-OHD and urinary 25-OHD binding activity of S rats were three times that of R rats, resulting in lower plasma 25-OHD and 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D concentrations in S rats than in R rats (P < 0.001). Plasma parathyroid hormone concentrations of S rats were twice that of R rats. S rats fed 2% salt had higher plasma 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D concentrations than those fed 0.3% salt (P = 0.002). S rats excreted more calcium into urine than R rats (P < 0.001) and did not exhibit the expected calciuric response to salt. Proteinuria of the S rats was three times that of the R rats, suggesting kidney damage in the S rats. Low plasma 25-OHD and 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D and high plasma 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D and PTH concentrations seen in the mature S rats have also been reported for elderly patients with low-renin (salt-induced) hypertension. An implication of this study is that low vitamin D status may occur with age in salt-sensitive individuals, even when salt intake is normal.

  4. Hypocholesterolemic effects of crude extract of leaf of Moringa oleifera Lam in high-fat diet fed wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasi, S; Nwobodo, E; Ofili, J O

    2000-01-01

    The leaves of Moringa oleifera Lam (Moringaceae) are used by the Indians in their herbal medicine as a hypocholesterolemic agent in obese patients. The scientific basis for their use in hypercholesterolemia was therefore examined. It was found that administration of the crude leaf extract of Moringa oleifera along with high-fat diet decreased the high-fat diet-induced increases in serum, liver, and kidney cholesterol levels by 14.35% (115-103.2 mg/100 ml of serum), 6.40% (9.4-8.8 mg/g wet weight) and 11.09% (1.09-0.97 mg/g wet weight) respectively. The effect on the serum cholesterol was statistically significant. No significant effect on serum total protein was observed. However, the crude extract increased serum albumin by 15.22% (46-53 g/l). This value was also found to be statistically significant. It was concluded that the leaves of Moringa oleifera have definite hypocholesterolemic activity and that there is valid pharmacological basis for employing them for this purpose in India.

  5. Tripterygium Glycosides Tablet Ameliorates Renal Tubulointerstitial Fibrosis via the Toll-Like Receptor 4/Nuclear Factor Kappa B Signaling Pathway in High-Fat Diet Fed and Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ze-jun Ma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tripterygium glycosides tablet (TGT is a Chinese traditional medicine that has been shown to protect podocytes from injury and reduce the proteinuria. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of TGT on renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis and its potential mechanism in high-fat diet fed and STZ-induced diabetic rats. Rats were randomly divided into normal control rats (NC group, diabetic rats without drug treatment (DM group, and diabetic rats treated with TGT (1, 3, or 6 mg/kg/day, respectively for 8 weeks. The results showed that 24 h proteinuria and urinary N-acetyl-glucosaminidase (NAG in diabetic rats were decreased by TGT treatment without affecting blood glucose. Masson’s trichrome stains showed that apparent renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis was found in DM group, which was ameliorated by TGT treatment. The expression of α-SMA was significantly decreased, accompanied by increased expression of E-cadherin in TGT-treated rats, but not in untreated DM rats. Further studies showed that TGT administration markedly reduced expression of TLR4, NF-κB, IL-1β, and MCP-1 in TGT-treated diabetic rats. These results showed that TGT could ameliorate renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis, the mechanism which may be at least partly associated with the amelioration of EMT through suppression of the TLR4/NF-κB pathway.

  6. Grape seed and skin extract reduces pancreas lipotoxicity, oxidative stress and inflammation in high fat diet fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aloui, Faten; Charradi, Kamel; Hichami, Aziz; Subramaniam, Selvakumar; Khan, Naim Akhtar; Limam, Ferid; Aouani, Ezzedine

    2016-12-01

    Obesity is related to an elevated risk of diabetes and the mechanisms whereby fat adversely affects the pancreas are poorly understood. We studied the effect of a high fat diet (HFD) on pancreas steatosis, oxidative stress and inflammation as well as the putative protection afforded by grape seed and skin extract (GSSE). HFD induced body weight gain, without affecting insulinemia, nor glycemia and dropped adiponectemia. HFD also provoked the ectopic deposition of cholesterol and triglyceride, and an oxidative stress characterized by increased lipoperoxidation and carbonylation, inhibition of antioxidant enzyme activities such as CAT, GPx and SOD, depletion of zinc and a concomitant increase in calcium and H2O2. HFD induced pro-inflammatory chemokines mRNA as RANTES and MCP1 as well as cytokines expression as TNFα, IL6 and IL1β. Importantly GSSE counteracted all the deleterious effects of HFD on pancreas in vivo i-e lipotoxicity, oxidative stress and inflammation. In conclusion, GSSE could find potential applications in fat-induced pancreas lipotoxicity and dysfunction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Variations in the efficacy of resistant maltodextrin on body fat reduction in rats fed different high-fat models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Hui-Fang; Pan, Min-Hsiung; Ho, Chi-Tang; Tseng, Yu-Han; Wang, William Wei-Li; Chau, Chi-Fai

    2014-01-08

    Many studies have utilized a variety of methods to induce obesity in rodents, but they often received inconsistent results. The present study intended to use resistant maltodextrin (RMD) as a means to investigate the variations in its efficacy on body fat accumulation under the influence of four high-fat (HF) models of 23% or 40% total fat, comprising soybean oil, lard, and/or condensed milk. Results indicated that integrating condensed milk into the diets could help increase diet intake, boost energy intake, increase weight gain, and enhance fat formation. Supplementation of RMD (2.07 g/kg) notably reduced total body fat levels in three HF models, with the exception of a condensed-milk-added 40%-fat diet that may have misrepresented the functions of RMD. The uses of the 23% HF diets, with and without milk, and the milk-free 40% HF diet were therefore recommended as suitable models for antiobesity evaluations of RMD, or other fiber-rich products.

  8. Obesity-prone high-fat-fed rats reduce caloric intake and adiposity and gain more fat-free mass when allowed to self-select protein from carbohydrate: fat intake

    OpenAIRE

    Azzout-Marniche, Dalila; Chalvon Demersay, Tristan; Pimentel, Gregory; Chaumontet, Catherine; Nadkarni, Nachiket A.; Piedcoq, Julien; Fromentin, Gilles; Tomé, Daniel; Gaudichon, Claire

    2016-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that, for rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD), a prioritization of maintaining protein intake may increase energy consumption and hence result in obesity, particularly for individuals prone to obesity ("fat sensitive," FS, vs. "fat resistant," FR). Male Wistar rats (n = 80) first received 3 wk of HFD (protein 15%, fat 42%, carbohydrate 42%), under which they were characterized as being FS (n = 18) or FR (n = 20) based on body weight gain. They then continued on the same HF...

  9. Possible role of intestinal fatty acid oxidation in the eating-inhibitory effect of the PPAR-α agonist Wy-14643 in high-fat diet fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimian Azari, Elnaz; Leitner, Claudia; Jaggi, Thomas; Langhans, Wolfgang; Mansouri, Abdelhak

    2013-01-01

    PPAR-α plays a key role in lipid metabolism; it enhances fatty acid oxidation (FAO) and ketogenesis. Pharmacological PPAR-α activation improves insulin sensitivity and reduces food intake, but its mechanisms of action remain unknown. We here report that intraperitoneal (IP) administration of the PPAR-α agonist Wy-14643 (40 mg/kg BW) reduced food intake in adult male rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD, 49% of the energy) mainly through an increase in the latency to eat after injection, and without inducing a conditioned taste avoidance. Also, IP administered Wy-14643 caused an acute (the first 60 min) decrease in the respiratory quotient (RQ) and an increase in hepatic portal vein β-hydroxybutyrate level (at 35 min) without affecting plasma non-esterified fatty acids. Given the known stimulatory effect of PPAR-α on FAO and ketogenesis, we measured the protein expression level of carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 (CPT 1A) and mitochondrial 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A synthase (HMG-CoAS2), two key enzymes for FAO and ketogenesis, respectively, in liver, duodenum and jejunum. Wy-14643 induced a significant increase in the expression of CPT 1A in the jejunum and duodenum and of HMG-CoAS2 in the jejunum, but neither CPT 1A nor HMG-CoAS2 expression was increased in the liver. The induction of CPT 1A and HMG-CoAS2 expression was associated with a decrease in the lipid droplet content selectively in the jejunum. Our findings indicate that Wy-14643 stimulates FAO and ketogenesis in the intestine, in particular in the jejunum, rather than in the liver, thus supporting the hypothesis that PPAR-α activation inhibits eating by stimulating intestinal FAO.

  10. Possible role of intestinal fatty acid oxidation in the eating-inhibitory effect of the PPAR-α agonist Wy-14643 in high-fat diet fed rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elnaz Karimian Azari

    Full Text Available PPAR-α plays a key role in lipid metabolism; it enhances fatty acid oxidation (FAO and ketogenesis. Pharmacological PPAR-α activation improves insulin sensitivity and reduces food intake, but its mechanisms of action remain unknown. We here report that intraperitoneal (IP administration of the PPAR-α agonist Wy-14643 (40 mg/kg BW reduced food intake in adult male rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD, 49% of the energy mainly through an increase in the latency to eat after injection, and without inducing a conditioned taste avoidance. Also, IP administered Wy-14643 caused an acute (the first 60 min decrease in the respiratory quotient (RQ and an increase in hepatic portal vein β-hydroxybutyrate level (at 35 min without affecting plasma non-esterified fatty acids. Given the known stimulatory effect of PPAR-α on FAO and ketogenesis, we measured the protein expression level of carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 (CPT 1A and mitochondrial 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A synthase (HMG-CoAS2, two key enzymes for FAO and ketogenesis, respectively, in liver, duodenum and jejunum. Wy-14643 induced a significant increase in the expression of CPT 1A in the jejunum and duodenum and of HMG-CoAS2 in the jejunum, but neither CPT 1A nor HMG-CoAS2 expression was increased in the liver. The induction of CPT 1A and HMG-CoAS2 expression was associated with a decrease in the lipid droplet content selectively in the jejunum. Our findings indicate that Wy-14643 stimulates FAO and ketogenesis in the intestine, in particular in the jejunum, rather than in the liver, thus supporting the hypothesis that PPAR-α activation inhibits eating by stimulating intestinal FAO.

  11. Reshaping faecal gut microbiota composition by the intake of trans-resveratrol and quercetin in high-fat sucrose diet-fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etxeberria, U; Arias, N; Boqué, N; Macarulla, M T; Portillo, M P; Martínez, J A; Milagro, F I

    2015-06-01

    Diet-induced obesity is associated to an imbalance in the normal gut microbiota composition. Resveratrol and quercetin, widely known for their health beneficial properties, have low bioavailability, and when they reach the colon, they are targets of the gut microbial ecosystem. Hence, the use of these molecules in obesity might be considered as a potential strategy to modulate intestinal bacterial composition. The purpose of this study was to determine whether trans-resveratrol and quercetin administration could counteract gut microbiota dysbiosis produced by high-fat sucrose diet (HFS) and, in turn, improve gut health. Wistar rats were randomised into four groups fed an HFS diet supplemented or not with trans-resveratrol [15 mg/kg body weight (BW)/day], quercetin (30 mg/kg BW/day) or a combination of both polyphenols at those doses. Administration of both polyphenols together prevented body weight gain and reduced serum insulin levels. Moreover, individual supplementation of trans-resveratrol and quercetin effectively reduced serum insulin levels and insulin resistance. Quercetin supplementation generated a great impact on gut microbiota composition at different taxonomic levels, attenuating Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio and inhibiting the growth of bacterial species previously associated to diet-induced obesity (Erysipelotrichaceae, Bacillus, Eubacterium cylindroides). Overall, the administration of quercetin was found to be effective in lessening HFS-diet-induced gut microbiota dysbiosis. In contrast, trans-resveratrol supplementation alone or in combination with quercetin scarcely modified the profile of gut bacteria but acted at the intestinal level, altering the mRNA expression of tight-junction proteins and inflammation-associated genes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Changes in intestinal barrier function and gut microbiota in high-fat diet-fed rats are dynamic and region dependent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, M Kristina; Boudry, Gaëlle; Lemay, Danielle G; Raybould, Helen E

    2015-05-15

    A causal relationship between the pathophysiological changes in the gut epithelium and altered gut microbiota with the onset of obesity have been suggested but not defined. The aim of this study was to determine the temporal relationship between impaired intestinal barrier function and microbial dysbiosis in the small and large intestine in rodent high-fat (HF) diet-induced obesity. Rats were fed HF diet (45% fat) or normal chow (C, 10% fat) for 1, 3, or 6 wk; food intake, body weight, and adiposity were measured. Barrier function ex vivo using FITC-labeled dextran (4,000 Da, FD-4) and horseradish peroxidase (HRP) probes in Ussing chambers, gene expression, and gut microbial communities was assessed. After 1 wk, there was an immediate but reversible increase in paracellular permeability, decrease in IL-10 expression, and decrease in abundance of genera within the class Clostridia in the ileum. In the large intestine, HRP flux and abundance of genera within the order Bacteroidales increased with time on the HF diet and correlated with the onset of increased body weight and adiposity. The data show immediate insults in the ileum in response to ingestion of a HF diet, which were rapidly restored and preceded increased passage of large molecules across the large intestinal epithelium. This study provides an understanding of microbiota dysbiosis and gut pathophysiology in diet-induced obesity and has identified IL-10 and Oscillospira in the ileum and transcellular flux in the large intestine as potential early impairments in the gut that might lead to obesity and metabolic disorders. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  13. Triglyceride kinetics in fasted and fed E. coli septic rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lanza-Jacoby, S.; Tabares, A. (Jefferson Medical Coll., Philadelphia, PA (United States))

    1990-02-26

    The mechanism for the development of hypertriglyceridemia during gram-negative sepsis was studies by examining the liver production and clearance of very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) triglyceride (TG). To assess the liver output and peripheral clearance the kinetics of VLDL-TG were determined by a constant intravenous infusion of (2-{sup 3}H) glycerol-labeled VLDL in fasted control, fasted E. coli-treated, fed control, and fed E.coli-treated rats. Lewis inbred rats, 275-300 g, were made septic with 8 {times} 10{sup 7} live E.coli colonies per 100 g body weight. Twenty-four hours following E.coli injection serum TG of fasted E.coli-treated rats was elevated by 170% which was attributed to a 67% decrease in the clearance rate of VLDL-TG in fasted E.coli-treated rats compared with their fasted controls. The secretion of VLDL-TG declined by 31% in the livers of the fasted E.coli-treated rats which was accompanied by a 2-fold increase in the composition of liver TG. In a second series of experiments control and E.coli-treated rats were fed intragastrically (IG) a balanced solution containing glucose plus fat as the sources of nonprotein calories. Serum TG were 26% lower in the fed E.coli-treated rats because the clearance rate increased by 86%. The secretion of TG in the fed septic rats increased by 40% but this difference was not significant. In the septic rat the ability to clear triglycerides from the plasma depends upon the nutritional state.

  14. Obesity-prone high-fat-fed rats reduce caloric intake and adiposity and gain more fat-free mass when allowed to self-select protein from carbohydrate:fat intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzout-Marniche, Dalila; Chalvon-Demersay, Tristan; Pimentel, Grégory; Chaumontet, Catherine; Nadkarni, Nachiket A; Piedcoq, Julien; Fromentin, Gilles; Tomé, Daniel; Gaudichon, Claire; Even, Patrick C

    2016-06-01

    We tested the hypothesis that, for rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD), a prioritization of maintaining protein intake may increase energy consumption and hence result in obesity, particularly for individuals prone to obesity ("fat sensitive," FS, vs. "fat resistant," FR). Male Wistar rats (n = 80) first received 3 wk of HFD (protein 15%, fat 42%, carbohydrate 42%), under which they were characterized as being FS (n = 18) or FR (n = 20) based on body weight gain. They then continued on the same HFD but in which protein (100%) was available separately from the carbohydrate:fat (50:50%) mixture. Under this second regimen, all rats maintained their previous protein intake, whereas intake of fat and carbohydrate was reduced by 50%. This increased protein intake to 26% and decreased fat intake to 37%. Adiposity gain was prevented in both FR and FS rats, and gain in fat-free mass was increased only in FS rats. At the end of the study, the rats were killed 2 h after ingestion of a protein meal, and their tissues and organs were collected for analysis of body composition and measurement of mRNA levels in the liver, adipose tissue, arcuate nucleus, and nucleus accumbens. FS rats had a higher expression of genes encoding enzymes involved in lipogenesis in the liver and white adipose tissue. These results show that FS rats strongly reduced food intake and adiposity gain through macronutrient selection, despite maintenance of a relatively high-fat intake and overexpression of genes favoring lipogenesis.

  15. A Root-Based Combination Supplement Containing Pueraria lobata and Rehmannia glutinosa and Exercise Preserve Bone Mass in Ovariectomized Rats Fed a High-Fat Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ok, Hyang Mok; Gebreamanuel, Meron Regu; Oh, Sang A; Jeon, Hyejin; Lee, Won Jun; Kwon, Oran

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a supplement containing Pueraria lobata/Rehmannia glutinosa (PR) root extracts on bone turnover in ovariectomized (OVX) rats (a model for postmenopausal osteoporosis). Female Sprague-Dawley rats (8 weeks old) were randomized into eight groups: sham-operated rats with low-fat control diet + vehicle, OVX rats with low-fat control diet + vehicle, OVX rats with high-fat diet (HFD) + vehicle, OVX rats with HFD + vehicle + exercise, OVX rats with HFD + PR (400 mg/kg body weight/day p.o.), OVX rats with HFD + PR + exercise, OVX rats with HFD + 17β-estradiol (0.5 mg/kg body weight/day p.o.), OVX rats with HFD + 17β-estradiol + exercise. Bone microarchitecture, bone turnover markers (e.g., plasma alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin), expressions of osteogenic and resorptive gene markers in the bone were measured. Eight weeks of PR and/or aerobic exercise improved cortical microarchitecture of the femur and decreased markers of bone turnover and expression of skeletal osteoclastogenic genes in the femur. PR supplementation combined with exercise preserved bone loss induced by estrogen deficiency and should be investigated further as an alternative to hormone replacement therapy for preventing osteoporosis in postmenopausal women.

  16. Effects of high-intensity interval versus mild-intensity endurance training on metabolic phenotype and corticosterone response in rats fed a high-fat or control diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Youqing; Huang, Guoyuan; McCormick, Bryan P; Song, Tao; Xu, Xiangfeng

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of high-intensity interval training (HI) to mild-intensity endurance training (ME), combined with a high-fat diet (HFD) or control diet (CD) on metabolic phenotype and corticosterone levels in rats. Fifty-three rats were randomized to 6 groups according to diet and training regimen as follows: CD and sedentary (CS, n = 11), CD and ME (CME, n = 8), CD and HI (CHI, n = 8), HFD and sedentary (HS, n = 10), HFD and ME (HME, n = 8), and HFD and HI (HHI, n = 8). All exercise groups were trained for 10 weeks and had matched running distances. Dietary intake, body composition, blood metabolites, and corticosterone levels were measured. Histological lipid droplets were observed in the livers. The HFD led to hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia and higher body fat (all, P 0.06), as well as higher corticosterone levels (P training improved fat weight, glucose, and lipid profiles, and reduced corticosterone levels (P training compared to ME training. Reductions in HFD-induced body weight gain, blood glucose and lipid profiles, and corticosterone levels, as well as improvements in QUICKI were better with HHI compared to HME. Correlation analyses revealed that corticosterone levels were significantly associated with phenotype variables (P training, HI training contributes to greater improvements in metabolic and corticosterone responses, leading to a greater reduction in susceptibility to HFD-induced disorders.

  17. Energy intake of rats fed a cafeteria diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prats, E; Monfar, M; Castellà, J; Iglesias, R; Alemany, M

    1989-02-01

    The proportion of lipid, carbohydrate and protein energy self-selected by male and female rats from a cafeteria diet has been studied for a 48-day period (36-day in female rats). The diet consisted in 12 different items and was offered daily, in excess and under otherwise standard conditions, to rats--caged in groups of three--from weaning to adulthood. Groups of control animals were studied in parallel and compared with the cafeteria groups. Cafeteria diet fed groups of rats ingested more energy and lowered their metabolic efficiency with age. Male rats ate more than females and increased their body weight even after female practically stopped growing. There was a wide variation in the aliments consumed each day by the cafeteria-fed rats. However, the proportion of lipid, protein and carbohydrate the rats ate remained constant. Male rats ingested more lipid than females. Carbohydrate consumption was constant in control and cafeteria fed groups of rats independently of sex. Protein consumption was higher in cafeteria rats than in controls, but the differences were not so important as with liquid. Fiber content of the cafeteria diet was lower than that of the control diet. The cafeteria diet selected by the rats was, thus, hypercaloric and hyperlipidic, with practically the same amount of carbohydrate than the control diet, slightly hyperproteic and, nevertheless, remarkably constant in its composition with respect to time. Cafeteria rats had a higher water intake than controls. All these trends were maintained despite the observed changes in the animals' tastes and their differential consumption of the ailments of the diet.

  18. Renal and Hepatic Function in Hypercholesterolemic Rats Fed Jamaican Bitter Yam (Dioscorea polygonoides).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKoy, Marsha-Lyn; Grant, Kevin; Asemota, Helen; Simon, Oswald; Omoruyi, Felix

    2015-06-01

    We reported that Jamaican bitter yam (Dioscorea polygonoides) has antilipemic potential in rats; however there is limited data on the toxicological profile of the yam. We therefore investigated the effects of bitter yam consumption for 6 or 12 weeks on renal and hepatic function in rats fed a high (4%) cholesterol diet. Twenty four rats were divided into six groups (n = 4); three of which were used for each investigation (6 or 12 weeks). One group was administered 4% cholesterol diet, while the yam group had the cholesterol diet supplemented with 5% bitter yam. The control group was fed standard rat chow. Liver and kidney function tests were performed on serum, liver and kidney. Histological studies were conducted on liver samples. Acute toxicity tests were performed in rats and mice administered a single high dose of bitter yam (10 g/kg). Activities of liver and kidney AST and ALT differed (p ≤ .02) between control rats and those fed cholesterol with bitter yam for 12 weeks. Albumin to globulin ratio was reduced (p = .03) in rats fed cholesterol with bitter yam for 6 weeks as compared to the control group. Serum urea concentration was higher (p yam as compared to normal chow for 6 weeks. The cholesterol diet caused extensive fat deposition in liver cells; however this was inhibited by co-administration of bitter yam. Long-term administration of Jamaican bitter yam may induce slight changes in renal and hepatic functions.

  19. A lower proportion of dietary saturated/monounsaturated/polyunsaturated fatty acids reduces the expression of adiponectin in rats fed a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xuefeng; Zhang, Yi; Lin, Jieyi; Pen, Anfang; Ying, Chenjiang; Cao, Wenhong; Mao, Limei

    2012-04-01

    The role for the amount of different dietary fatty acids in regulating expression of adiponectin and metabolism of glucose and lipids has been implicated, but the optimal amount has not been established yet. To address this issue, we fed male Wistar rats with either chow diet or various high-fat diets (HFDs) for 12 weeks. The HFDs contained the same percentage of fat (35% energy from fat) but had different proportions of saturated/monounsaturated/polyunsaturated (S/M/P) (1:1.7:1.2, 1:1:1, 2:1.5:1, 1:2:1, or 1:1:2) fat. Glucose and lipid metabolism and adiponectin expression were subsequently examined. In comparison with chow diet, HFD with any proportion of S/M/P increased energy intake but had no obvious effect on body weight gain. The HFD with the S/M/P proportion at 1:1:1 or 1:1:2 significantly decreased the serum triglyceride level and increased the serum level of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in comparison with the HFD with the S/M/P proportion at 1:1.7:1.2, 2:1.5:1, or 1:2:1. The HFD containing the highest level of saturated fatty acids (S/M/P proportion at 2:1.5:1) increased levels of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and blood glucose. Levels of serum insulin and the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance index were significantly increased by HFD with S/M/P proportions at 1:1.7:1.2, 1:1:1, 2:1.5:1, or 1:2:1 but not by the HFD with the S/M/P proportions at 1:1:2 (containing the highest level of polyunsaturated fatty acids). Levels of adiponectin messenger RNA in subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissues were reduced by the HFD with the S/M/P proportion at 1:1.7:1.2 or 1:1:1 but increased by the HFD with the S/M/P proportion at 1:1:2. These changes in expression of adiponectin were inversely associated with those in levels of triglyceride, insulin, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance. Together, the proportion of different fatty acids in diets plays an important role in expression of adiponectin and

  20. Dahl salt-sensitive rats develop hypovitaminosis D and hyperparathyroidism when fed a standard diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thierry-Palmer, Myrtle; Cephas, Stacy; Sayavongsa, Phouyong; Doherty, Akins; Arnaud, Sara B.

    2005-01-01

    The Dahl salt-sensitive rat (S), a model for salt-sensitive hypertension, excretes protein-bound 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) into urine when fed a low salt diet. Urinary 25-OHD increases during high salt intake. We tested the hypothesis that continuous loss of 25-OHD into urine would result in low plasma 25-OHD concentration in mature S rats raised on a standard diet. Dahl S and salt-resistant (R) male rats were raised to maturity (12-month-old) on a commercial rat diet (1% salt) and switched to 0.3% (low) or 2% (high) salt diets 3 weeks before euthanasia. Urine (24 h) was collected at the end of the dietary treatments. Urinary 25-OHD and urinary 25-OHD binding activity of S rats were three times that of R rats, resulting in lower plasma 25-OHD and 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D concentrations in S rats than in R rats (P Plasma parathyroid hormone concentrations of S rats were twice that of R rats. S rats fed 2% salt had higher plasma 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D concentrations than those fed 0.3% salt (P = 0.002). S rats excreted more calcium into urine than R rats (P plasma 25-OHD and 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D and high plasma 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D and PTH concentrations seen in the mature S rats have also been reported for elderly patients with low-renin (salt-induced) hypertension. An implication of this study is that low vitamin D status may occur with age in salt-sensitive individuals, even when salt intake is normal.

  1. Canagliflozin potentiates GLP-1 secretion and lowers the peak of GIP secretion in rats fed a high-fat high-sucrose diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hira, Tohru; Koga, Toshiki; Sasaki, Kazuyo; Hara, Hiroshi

    2017-10-14

    The glucose-induced secretion of incretins, including glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), is dependent on luminal glucose levels and transport of glucose via the sodium-glucose transporter 1 (SGLT1) in the small intestine. Because GLP-1 and GIP function in decreasing and increasing the body weight, respectively, we aimed to analyze the effect of transient inhibition of SGLT1 by canagliflozin on incretin secretion in an obese rat model. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were maintained on a high-fat high-sucrose diet for 6-7 weeks, and plasma GLP-1 and GIP levels were measured during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). In addition, GLP-1 secretion was examined in a murine GLP-1 producing enteroendocrine cell line, GLUTag. Concomitant administration of 10 mg/kg canagliflozin with glucose loading suppressed glucose excursion, increased total GLP-1 levels, and reduced total GIP levels in systemic circulation, as revealed in the OGTT. Total and active GLP-1 levels were increased in portal blood, whereas total and active GIP levels tended to be decreased 15 min after the administration of canagliflozin with glucose. Canagliflozin (at 0.1-30 μM) did not directly affect release of GLP-1 in vitro. These results suggest that the oral administration of canagliflozin suppresses GIP secretion via the inhibition of SGLT1 in the upper part of the intestine and enhances GLP-1 secretion by increasing the glucose delivery to the lower part of the small intestine in an obese rodent model. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of Partial Sleep Deprivation on Lipid Profile in High Fat Diet-Fed Rats in the Presence and Absence of Vitamin C

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    Hossein Najafzadeh

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The daily stress and shift working cause insomnia. In other hands, fatty food consumption increased this disorder. The aim of present study is evaluation additive effect of partial insomnia and high fatty diet with or without vitamin C on serum lipid profile in rats.Materials and Methods: Fifty six rats in 7 groups (8 rats each group were conducted for study during 26 days as: 1: normal diet+normal sleep, 2: high fatty diet+normal sleep, 3: normal diet+insomnia, 4: high fatty diet+insomnia, 5: high fatty diet+normal sleep+vitamin C, 6: high fatty diet+insomnia+vitamin C, 7: normal diet+insomnia+ vitamin C. The lipid profile was examined at end of study. Results: Results shown the high fatty diet+insomnia increased triglyceride, LDL, VLDL level and decreased HDL level with comparison to high fatty diet+normal sleep group. But only insomnia did not change serum lipid profile. High fatty diet increased level of cholesterol (p<0.05. The normal diet increased body weight but high fatty diet decreased it significantly. Liver weight ratio was elevated by high fatty diet+insomnia. The vitamin C decreased cholesterol and increased HDL level in group of rats which received high fatty diet+insomnia. Conclusion: In conclusion, the present study shown the only insomnia did not affect on serum lipid profile while insomnia along with high fatty diet increased lipid high risk factors in blood.

  3. A high multivitamin diet fed to Wistar rat dams during pregnancy increases maternal weight gain later in life and alters homeostatic, hedonic and peripheral regulatory systems of energy balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pannia, Emanuela; Cho, Clara E; Kubant, Ruslan; Sánchez-Hernández, Diana; Huot, Pedro S P; Chatterjee, Diptendu; Fleming, Alison; Anderson, G Harvey

    2015-02-01

    High multivitamin (10-fold, HV) and high folic acid (Fol) diets fed to pregnant Wistar rats increase body weight and characteristics of the metabolic syndrome in their offspring. Our objective was to determine the effects of a HV maternal diet on dams and whether methyl vitamins contribute to these effects. Pregnant Wistar rats were fed AIN-93G diets containing either (1) recommended multivitamins (RV, control), (2) HV, (3) HV with recommended Fol (HVRF; 1-fold Fol), or (4) RV with high methyl group vitamins (HMethyl; 10-fold Fol, vitamin B12 and B6). All groups were fed a RV diet during lactation until weaning and a RV high fat (HF; 60% fat) diet for 16 weeks post-weaning. The HV, HVRF and HMethyl diet fed dams gained 45% more weight from 2 to 15 weeks post-weaning and their weight gain (WG) was positively associated with cumulative post-weaning food intake (FI). However, only HV dams had a reduced preference for a sucrose solution, lower mesolimbic dopamine (DA) turnover in the nucleus accumbens (NAc), and higher expression of several genes involved in FI regulation in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus (ARC). Energy conserving peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (Ppar)-γ in adipose and -α in liver was also greater in these dams consistent with their WG. In conclusion, HV, HVRF and HMethyl maternal diets exacerbate maternal WG when dams are exposed to a HF diet post-weaning. However, the diets differed in their effects on central and peripheral regulatory systems of energy balance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Vescalagin from Pink Wax Apple [Syzygium samarangense (Blume) Merrill and Perry] Alleviates Hepatic Insulin Resistance and Ameliorates Glycemic Metabolism Abnormality in Rats Fed a High-Fructose Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Da-Wei; Chang, Wen-Chang; Wu, James Swi-Bea; Shih, Rui-Wen; Shen, Szu-Chuan

    2016-02-10

    This study investigates the ameliorative effect of vescalagin (VES) isolated from Pink wax apple fruit on hepatic insulin resistance and abnormal carbohydrate metabolism in high-fructose diet (HFD)-induced hyperglycemic rats. The results show that in HFD rats, VES significantly reduced the values of the area under the curve for glucose in an oral glucose tolerance test and the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance index. VES significantly enhanced the activity of hepatic antioxidant enzymes while reducing thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances in HFD rats. Western blot assay revealed that VES reduced hepatic protein expression involved in inflammation pathways while up-regulating expression of hepatic insulin signaling-related proteins. Moreover, VES up-regulated the expression of hepatic glycogen synthase and hepatic glycolysis-related proteins while down-regulating hepatic gluconeogenesis-related proteins in HFD rats. This study suggests some therapeutic potential of VES in preventing the progression of diabetes mellitus.

  5. Effects of secoisolariciresinol diglucoside lignan-enriched flaxseed powder on body weight, visceral fat, lipid profile, adipokines, and blood pressure in rats fed a high-fructose and high-fat diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    The potential effects of secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG) lignan-enriched flaxseed powder LEFP) on body weight, visceral fat, lipid profile, adipokines, and blood pressure were investigated using Sprague-Dawley rats. The animals were divided into three groups (n=8) that were fed either a norm...

  6. AKTIVITAS ANTIOKSIDATIF DAN HIPOKOLESTEROLEMIK EKSTRAK TEH HIJAU DAN TEH WANGI PADA TIKUS YANG DIBERI RANSUM KAYA ASAM LEMAK TIDAK JENUH GANDA [Antioxidative and Hipocholesterolemic Activity of Green Tea and Jasmine Green Tea Extracts in Rats Fed with High Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids (PUFA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Astuti 2

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate in-vivo the antioxidative and hipocholesterolemic activity of green tea and jasmine green tea extracts in 3.5-month-old Sprague Dawley male rats given high PUFA diet for 4 weeks. In rats fed with (adlibidom or forcely adted high PUFA diet supplemented with green tea extract, serum and liver homogenate malondialdehyde level and the liver homogenate cholesterol level were greater than rats fed with the high PUFA diet supplemented with jasmine green tea extract pn the control. In contrast, no change was observed in serum cholesterol level in rats fed with the high PUFA diet containing green tea or jasmine green tea extract as compared with the high PUFA diet.

  7. Cytokine profile of rats fed a diet containing shrimp

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    Elizabeth Lage Borges

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Studies have shown that shrimps reduced the tensile strength of scars in rat skin. The aim of the present study was to assess the cytokine profile of rats fed shrimp. METHODS: Group 1 (control received a regular diet and Group 2 (experimental received a diet containing 33% shrimp for nine days. The two diets contained the same amounts of proteins, fats and carbohydrates. Serum cytokine levels were determined by ELISA and a segment of the jejunum was taken to investigate its histological morphology and eosinophil infiltrate. RESULTS: The experimental group had lower serum levels of interleukin-4 (IL-4 (14.4±1.9 versus 18.11±2.6pg/mL; p<0.05 and IL-10 (5.0±0.98 versus 7.5±1.2pg/mL; p<0.05 and higher levels of IL-6 (17.8±2.3 versus 3.2±0.4pg/mL, p<0.001 than controls. Morphologically, the shrimp-based diet caused an architectural disorganization of the intestinal mucosa and a greater amount of eosinophils in the jejunal villus. CONCLUSION: Our data suggests that shrimp consumption leads to a significant increase in the cytokine IL-6, a decrease in the immunomodulatory cytokine IL-10 in the serum of rats, and high eosinophil infiltration in the jejunum. The cytokine profile typical of inflammation and the histological aspect of the jejunum are compatible with food allergy.

  8. Antidiabetic and Hypolipidemic Activities of Curculigo latifolia Fruit:Root Extract in High Fat Fed Diet and Low Dose STZ Induced Diabetic Rats

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    Nur Akmal Ishak

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Curculigo latifolia fruit is used as alternative sweetener while root is used as alternative treatment for diuretic and urinary problems. The antidiabetic and hypolipidemic activities of C. latifolia fruit:root aqueous extract in high fat diet (HFD and 40 mg streptozotocin (STZ induced diabetic rats through expression of genes involved in glucose and lipid metabolisms were investigated. Diabetic rats were treated with C. latifolia fruit:root extract for 4 weeks. Plasma glucose, insulin, adiponectin, lipid profiles, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, gamma glutamyltransferase (GGT, urea, and creatinine levels were measured before and after treatments. Regulations of selected genes involved in glucose and lipid metabolisms were determined. Results showed the significant (P<0.05 increase in body weight, high density lipoprotein (HDL, insulin, and adiponectin levels and decreased glucose, total cholesterol (TC, triglycerides (TG, low density lipoprotein (LDL, urea, creatinine, ALT, and GGT levels in diabetic rats after 4 weeks treatment. Furthermore, C. latifolia fruit:root extract significantly increased the expression of IRS-1, IGF-1, GLUT4, PPARα, PPARγ, AdipoR1, AdipoR2, leptin, LPL, and lipase genes in adipose and muscle tissues in diabetic rats. These results suggest that C. latifolia fruit:root extract exerts antidiabetic and hypolipidemic effects through altering regulation genes in glucose and lipid metabolisms in diabetic rats.

  9. A prescribed Chinese herbal medicine improves glucose profile and ameliorates oxidative stress in Goto-Kakisaki rats fed with high fat diet.

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    Lin Wu

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress (OS plays a role in hyperglycemia induced islet β cell dysfunction, however, studies on classic anti-oxidants didn't show positive results in treating diabetes. We previously demonstrated that the prescribed Chinese herbal medicine preparation "Qing Huo Yi Hao" (QHYH improved endothelial function in type 2 diabetic patients. QHYH protected endothelial cells from high glucose-induced damages by scavenging superoxide anion and reducing production of reactive oxygen species. Its active component protected C2C12 myotubes against palmitate-induced oxidative damage and mitochondrial dysfunction. In the present study, we investigated whether QHYH protected islet β cell function exacerbated by high fat diet (HFD in hyperglycemic GK rats. 4-week-old male rats were randomly divided into high HFD feeding group (n = 20 and chow diet feeding group (n = 10. Each gram of HFD contained 4.8 kcal of energy, 52% of which from fat. Rats on HFD were further divided into 2 groups given either QHYH (3 ml/Kg/d or saline through gastric tube. After intervention, serum glucose concentrations were monitored; IPGTTs were performed without anesthesia on 5 fasting rats randomly chosen from each group on week 4 and 16. Serum malondialdehyde (MDA concentrations and activities of serum antioxidant enzymes were measured on week 4 and 16. Islet β cell mass and OS marker staining was done by immunohistochemistry on week 16. QHYH prevented the exacerbation of hyperglycemia in HFD feeding GK rats for 12 weeks. On week 16, it improved the exacerbated glucose tolerance and prevented the further loss of islet β cell mass induced by HFD. QHYH markedly decreased serum MDA concentration, increased serum catalase (CAT and SOD activities on week 4. However, no differences of serum glucose concentration or OS were observed on week 16. We concluded that QHYH decreased hyperglycemia exacerbated by HFD in GK rats by improving β cell function partly via its

  10. Time-related fatty acid profiles of plasma and lymph after gastric administration of fats to rats fed high-fat diets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Porsgaard, Trine; Straarup, E. M.; Brand, C. L.

    2000-01-01

    We examined in rats the intestinal absorption of 4 different dietary fats (rapeseed oil (RO), rapeseed oil interesterified with decanoic acid (R/C10), olive oil (OO), and butter) after feeding a high-fat (30 wt-%) diet rich in trans-fatty acids (mainly trans-C18:1) for 3 weeks. The trans...

  11. Astragaloside IV Improves Metabolic Syndrome and Endothelium Dysfunction in Fructose-Fed Rats

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    Feng Zhao

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of metabolic syndrome has increased in modern society and the condition is proving to be a common precursor of cardiovascular disease. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether astragaloside IV, a major active constituent of Astragalus membranaceus (Fisch Bge., is able to prevent the development of hypertension and endothelial dysfunction in fructose-fed rats. Rats were fed with 10% fructose in their drinking water for 8 weeks. From the beginning of week 5, two groups of fructose-fed rats were treated with 0.5 or 2 mg/kg, i.p., astragaloside IV. Another group of fructose-fed rats, injected with the same volume of vehicle (dimethylsulfoxide, DMSO from week 5, served as the control group. At the end of the treatment period, blood pressure, blood glucose, glucose tolerance, blood insulin and lipids were determined. In addition, in vitro experiments were conducted at the end of the eight week treatment period to evaluate endothelium-dependent aortic vasorelaxation, as well as myocardial and aortic tissue levels of nitrate and nitrite (NOx and cGMP. Fructose-fed rats developed clustering signs of metabolic syndrome, such as increased bodyweight, mild hypertension, hyperinsulinaemia, hypertriglyceridaemia, impaired glucose tolerance and impaired endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation. Administration of astragaloside IV reduced blood pressure and triglyceride levels in fructose-fed rats and high dose of astragaloside IV also improved glucose tolerance and endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation. The astragaloside IV-induced improvement in vasorelaxation was associated with increased levels of aortic NOx and cGMP and was abrogated by blockade of nitric oxide synthase with NG-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME. On the basis of its favourable effects on lipid metabolism, endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation and the nitric oxide–cGMP-related pathway, astragaloside IV may be useful in ameliorating food-induced metabolic syndrome.

  12. Synthesis, Spectral Characterization, and Biochemical Evaluation of Antidiabetic Properties of a New Zinc-Diosmin Complex Studied in High Fat Diet Fed-Low Dose Streptozotocin Induced Experimental Type 2 Diabetes in Rats

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    Veerasamy Gopalakrishnan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In view of the established antidiabetic properties of zinc, the present study was aimed at evaluating the hypoglycemic properties of a new zinc-diosmin complex in high fat diet fed-low dose streptozotocin induced experimental type 2 diabetes in rats. Zinc-diosmin complex was synthesized and characterized by various spectral studies. The complexation between zinc ions and diosmin was further evidenced by pH-potentiometric titrations and Job’s plot. Diabetic rats were orally treated with zinc-diosmin complex at a concentration of 20 mg/kg b.w./rat/day for 30 days. At the end of the experimental period, the rats were subjected to oral glucose tolerance test. In addition, HOMA-IR and various biochemical parameters related to glucose homeostasis were analyzed. Treatment with zinc-diosmin complex significantly improved the glucose homeostasis in diabetic rats. Treatment with zinc-diosmin complex significantly improved insulin sensitivity, at least in part, through enhancing protein metabolism and alteration in the levels of muscle and liver glycogen. The assay of clinical marker enzymes revealed the nontoxic nature of the complex. Determination of renal tissue markers such as blood urea and serum creatinine indicates the renoprotective nature of the complex. These findings suggest that zinc-diosmin complex is nontoxic and has complimentary potential to develop as an antihyperglycemic agent for the treatment of diabetes mellitus.

  13. The physico-chemical properties of dietary fibre determine metabolic responses, short-chain Fatty Acid profiles and gut microbiota composition in rats fed low- and high-fat diets.

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    Frida Fåk

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate how physico-chemical properties of two dietary fibres, guar gum and pectin, affected weight gain, adiposity, lipid metabolism, short-chain fatty acid (SCFA profiles and the gut microbiota in male Wistar rats fed either low- or high-fat diets for three weeks. Both pectin and guar gum reduced weight gain, adiposity, liver fat and blood glucose levels in rats fed a high-fat diet. Methoxylation degree of pectin (low, LM and high (HM and viscosity of guar gum (low, medium or high resulted in different effects in the rats, where total blood and caecal amounts of SCFA were increased with guar gum (all viscosities and with high methoxylated (HM pectin. However, only guar gum with medium and high viscosity increased the levels of butyric acid in caecum and blood. Both pectin and guar gum reduced cholesterol, liver steatosis and blood glucose levels, but to varying extent depending on the degree of methoxylation and viscosity of the fibres. The medium viscosity guar gum was the most effective preparation for prevention of diet-induced hyperlipidaemia and liver steatosis. Caecal abundance of Akkermansia was increased with high-fat feeding and with HM pectin and guar gum of all viscosities tested. Moreover, guar gum had distinct bifidogenic effects independent of viscosity, increasing the caecal abundance of Bifidobacterium ten-fold. In conclusion, by tailoring the viscosity and possibly also the degree of methoxylation of dietary fibre, metabolic effects may be optimized, through a targeted modulation of the gut microbiota and its metabolites.

  14. Evaluation of the Effects and Mechanism of L-Citrulline on Anti-obesity by Appetite Suppression in Obese/Diabetic KK-Ay Mice and High-Fat Diet Fed SD Rats.

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    Kudo, Maya; Yoshitomi, Hisae; Momoo, Maki; Suguro, Shiori; Yamagishi, Yoshie; Gao, Ming

    2017-01-01

    L-Citrulline (L-Cit), a free amino acid from watermelon, has effects on hypertension and anti-oxidization; however, there are few reports of effects related to obesity. This study investigated the effects and mechanism of L-Cit on anti-obesity in obese/diabetic KK-Ay mice and high-fat diet fed Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. L-Cit induced significant reduction of food intake, body weight and fat tissue mass in obese/diabetic KK-Ay mice. Moreover, blood glucose level did not change but free fatty acid level and serum insulin level were significantly decreased by treatment with L-Cit, suggesting that L-Cit improved glucose and fatty metabolism in obesity model mice. As well as obese/diabetic KK-Ay mice, there was a significant decrease in food intake and a tendency of body weight to decrease in high-fat diet fed SD rats treated with L-Cit. Also, levels of proopiomelanocortin (POMC), a food intake suppression peptide, increased in the hypothalamus. Our study suggests that L-Cit improves metabolic syndrome through decreased body weight by appetite suppression.

  15. Endurance training blocks uncoupling protein 1 up-regulation in brown adipose tissue while increasing uncoupling protein 3 in the muscle tissue of rats fed with a high-sugar diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Queiroz, Karina Barbosa; Rodovalho, Gisele Vieira; Guimarães, Juliana Bohnen; de Lima, Daniel Carvalho; Coimbra, Cândido Celso; Evangelista, Elísio Alberto; Guerra-Sá, Renata

    2012-09-01

    The mitochondrial uncoupling proteins (UCPs) of interscapular brown adipose tissue (iBAT) and of muscles play important roles in energy balance. For instance, the expression of UCP1 and UCP3 are modulated by free fatty acid gradients induced by high-sugar diets and acute exercise that is dependent on sympathetic stimulation. However, the effects of endurance training in animals fed with high-sugar diets are unknown. This study aims to evaluate the long-term effects of diet and exercise on UCP1 and UCP3 levels and energy balance efficiency. Rats fed with standard or high-sugar (HSD) diets were simultaneously subjected to running training over an 8-week period. After the training period, the rats were decapitated, and the iBAT and gastrocnemius muscle tissues were removed for evaluation of the β₃-receptor, Ucp1, and Ucp3 mRNA and protein expression, which were analyzed by quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and Western blot, respectively. Groups fed with an HSD displayed a higher adiposity index and iBAT weight (P tissues. In association with an HSD, training restored the increasing β₃-receptor mRNA and greatly up-regulated the levels of Ucp3 mRNA. Therefore, training blocked the HSD-induced up-regulation of UCP1 expression in iBAT, whereas it up-regulated the expression of Ucp3 mRNA in muscle. These results suggest that training enhances the relationship between Ucp1/Ucp3 mRNA levels, which could result in higher energy efficiency, but not when HSD-induced elevated sympathetic activity is maintained.

  16. Partial Replacement with Menhaden Oil Improves Peripheral Neuropathy in High-Fat-Fed Low-Dose Streptozotocin Type 2 Diabetic Rat

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    Lawrence J. Coppey

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. To determine the effect of partial replacement of a high-fat diet with menhaden oil on diabetic neuropathy in an animal model of type 2 diabetes. Materials and Methods. High-fat/low-dose streptozotocin diabetic rats were used to examine the influence of replacing 50% of the source of the high-fat diet (lard with menhaden oil, a natural source of n-3 fatty acids, on diabetic neuropathy. Endpoints included analyses of glucose tolerance, fatty liver disease, serum and liver fatty acid composition, serum lipid and adiponectin levels, motor and sensory nerve conduction velocity, thermal sensitivity and innervation of the hindpaw. Results. Diabetic rats were insulin resistant and menhaden oil did not improve whole animal glucose utilization. Menhaden oil did not improve elevated HbA1C levels or serum lipid levels but serum levels of adiponectin were significantly increased and hepatic steatosis was significantly improved. Diabetic rats were thermal hypoalgesic, had reduced motor and sensory nerve conduction velocities and intraepidermal nerve fiber profiles were decreased in the hindpaw and these endpoints were significantly improved with menhaden oil. Conclusions. We found that enrichment of a high-fat diet with menhaden oil improved a number of endpoints associated with diabetic neuropathy.

  17. Partial Replacement with Menhaden Oil Improves Peripheral Neuropathy in High-Fat-Fed Low-Dose Streptozotocin Type 2 Diabetic Rat

    OpenAIRE

    Coppey, Lawrence J.; Amey Holmes; Davidson, Eric P.; Yorek, Mark A.

    2012-01-01

    Aims. To determine the effect of partial replacement of a high-fat diet with menhaden oil on diabetic neuropathy in an animal model of type 2 diabetes. Materials and Methods. High-fat/low-dose streptozotocin diabetic rats were used to examine the influence of replacing 50% of the source of the high-fat diet (lard) with menhaden oil, a natural source of n-3 fatty acids, on diabetic neuropathy. Endpoints included analyses of glucose tolerance, fatty liver disease, serum and liver fatty acid com...

  18. Reduced CGP12177 binding to cardiac {beta}-adrenoceptors in hyperglycemic high-fat-diet-fed, streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thackeray, James T.; Parsa-Nezhad, Maryam; Kenk, Miran; Thorn, Stephanie L. [Molecular Function and Imaging Program, National Cardiac PET Centre, Division of Cardiology, University of Ottawa Heart Institute, Ottawa, Ontario, K1Y4W7 (Canada); Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ottawa, Roger Guindon Hall, Ottawa, Ontario, K1H8M5 (Canada); Kolajova, Maria [Molecular Function and Imaging Program, National Cardiac PET Centre, Division of Cardiology, University of Ottawa Heart Institute, Ottawa, Ontario, K1Y4W7 (Canada); Beanlands, Rob S.B. [Molecular Function and Imaging Program, National Cardiac PET Centre, Division of Cardiology, University of Ottawa Heart Institute, Ottawa, Ontario, K1Y4W7 (Canada); Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ottawa, Roger Guindon Hall, Ottawa, Ontario, K1H8M5 (Canada); DaSilva, Jean N., E-mail: jdasilva@ottawaheart.ca [Molecular Function and Imaging Program, National Cardiac PET Centre, Division of Cardiology, University of Ottawa Heart Institute, Ottawa, Ontario, K1Y4W7 (Canada); Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ottawa, Roger Guindon Hall, Ottawa, Ontario, K1H8M5 (Canada)

    2011-10-15

    Introduction: Abnormal sympathetic nervous system and {beta}-adrenoceptor ({beta}-AR) signaling is associated with diabetes. [{sup 3}H]CGP12177 is a nonselective {beta}-AR antagonist that can be labeled with carbon-11 for positron emission tomography. The aim of this study was to examine the suitability of this tracer for evaluation of altered {beta}-AR expression in diabetic rat hearts. Methods: Ex vivo biodistribution with [{sup 3}H]CGP12177 was carried out in normal Sprague-Dawley rats for evaluation of specific binding and response to continuous {beta}-AR stimulation by isoproterenol. In a separate group, high-fat-diet feeding imparted insulin resistance and a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ) or vehicle evoked hyperglycemia (blood glucose >11 mM). [{sup 3}H]CGP12177 biodistribution was assessed at 2 and 8 weeks post-STZ to measure {beta}-AR binding in heart, 30 min following tracer injection. Western blotting of {beta}-AR subtypes was completed in parallel. Results: Infusion of isoproterenol over 14 days did not affect cardiac binding of [{sup 3}H]CGP12177. Approximately half of rats treated with STZ exhibited sustained hyperglycemia and progressive hypoinsulinemia. Myocardial [{sup 3}H]CGP12177 specific binding was unchanged at 2 weeks post-STZ but significantly reduced by 30%-40% at 8 weeks in hyperglycemic but not euglycemic STZ-treated rats compared with vehicle-treated controls. Western blots supported a significant decrease in {beta}{sub 1}-AR in hyperglycemic rats. Conclusions: Reduced cardiac [{sup 3}H]CGP12177 specific binding in the presence of sustained hyperglycemia corresponds to a decrease in relative {beta}{sub 1}-AR expression. These data indirectly support the use of [{sup 11}C]CGP12177 for assessment of cardiac dysfunction in diabetes.

  19. Green tea, black tea, and epigallocatechin modify body composition, improve glucose tolerance, and differentially alter metabolic gene expression in rats fed a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Nora; Bezzina, Rebecca; Hinch, Edward; Lewandowski, Paul A; Cameron-Smith, David; Mathai, Michael L; Jois, Markandeya; Sinclair, Andrew J; Begg, Denovan P; Wark, John D; Weisinger, Harrison S; Weisinger, Richard S

    2009-11-01

    The mechanisms of how tea and epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) lower body fat are not completely understood. This study investigated long-term administration of green tea (GT), black tea (BT), or isolated EGCG (1 mg/kg per day) on body composition, glucose tolerance, and gene expression related to energy metabolism and lipid homeostasis; it was hypothesized that all treatments would improve the indicators of metabolic syndrome. Rats were fed a 15% fat diet for 6 months from 4 weeks of age and were supplied GT, BT, EGCG, or water. GT and BT reduced body fat, whereas GT and EGCG increased lean mass. At 16 weeks GT, BT, and EGCG improved glucose tolerance. In the liver, GT and BT increased the expression of genes involved in fatty acid synthesis (SREBP-1c, FAS, MCD, ACC) and oxidation (PPAR-alpha, CPT-1, ACO); however, EGCG had no effect. In perirenal fat, genes that mediate adipocyte differentiation were suppressed by GT (Pref-1, C/EBP-beta, and PPAR-gamma) and BT (C/EBP-beta), while decreasing LPL, HSL, and UCP-2 expression; EGCG increased expression of UCP-2 and PPAR-gamma genes. Liver triacylglycerol content was unchanged. The results suggest that GT and BT suppressed adipocyte differentiation and fatty acid uptake into adipose tissue, while increasing fat synthesis and oxidation by the liver, without inducing hepatic fat accumulation. In contrast, EGCG increased markers of thermogenesis and differentiation in adipose tissue, while having no effect on liver or muscle tissues at this dose. These results show novel and separate mechanisms by which tea and EGCG may improve glucose tolerance and support a role for these compounds in obesity prevention.

  20. Effects of treatment with sucrose in drinking water on liver histology, lipogenesis and lipogenic gene expression in rats fed high-fiber diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mašek, Tomislav; Filipović, Natalija; Vuica, Ana; Starčević, Kristina

    2017-01-01

    We studied the influence of sucrose in drinking water on liver histology, fatty acid profile and lipogenic genes expression in rats maintained on high-fiber. The experimental groups were: control group (water) and sucrose group (sucrose solution in drinking water, 30% w/v). Liver histology of sucrose treated rats revealed steatosis and increased number of αSMA immunoreactive cells without the signs of fibrosis. Sucrose treatment increased de novo lipogenesis, lipid peroxidation and MUFA content and decreased PUFA content, C18:2n6 and C20:4n6 content in total phospholipids and phosphatidylethanolamine and C18:2n6 content in cardiolipin. RT-qPCR revealed increase in Δ-9-desaturase and SREBP1c gene expression and decrease in the Δ-5-desaturase and elongase 5 expression. Treatment with sucrose extensively changes fatty acid composition of hepatic lipid and phospholipid classes including cardiolipin, increases oxidative stress and causes pathological changes in liver in rats maintained on high-fiber diet.

  1. Chronic CNS oxytocin signaling preferentially induces fat loss in high-fat diet-fed rats by enhancing satiety responses and increasing lipid utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Benjamin W.; Anekonda, Vishwanath T.; Ho, Jacqueline M.; Graham, James L.; Roberts, Zachary S.; Hwang, Bang H.; Ogimoto, Kayoko; Wolden-Hanson, Tami; Nelson, Jarrell; Kaiyala, Karl J.; Havel, Peter J.; Bales, Karen L.; Morton, Gregory J.; Schwartz, Michael W.; Baskin, Denis G.

    2016-01-01

    Based largely on a number of short-term administration studies, growing evidence suggests that central oxytocin is important in the regulation of energy balance. The goal of the current work is to determine whether long-term third ventricular (3V) infusion of oxytocin into the central nervous system (CNS) is effective for obesity prevention and/or treatment in rat models. We found that chronic 3V oxytocin infusion between 21 and 26 days by osmotic minipumps both reduced weight gain associated with the progression of high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity and elicited a sustained reduction of fat mass with no decrease of lean mass in rats with established diet-induced obesity. We further demonstrated that these chronic oxytocin effects result from 1) maintenance of energy expenditure at preintervention levels despite ongoing weight loss, 2) a reduction in respiratory quotient, consistent with increased fat oxidation, and 3) an enhanced satiety response to cholecystokinin-8 and associated decrease of meal size. These weight-reducing effects persisted for approximately 10 days after termination of 3V oxytocin administration and occurred independently of whether sucrose was added to the HFD. We conclude that long-term 3V administration of oxytocin to rats can both prevent and treat diet-induced obesity. PMID:26791828

  2. Chronic CNS oxytocin signaling preferentially induces fat loss in high-fat diet-fed rats by enhancing satiety responses and increasing lipid utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blevins, James E; Thompson, Benjamin W; Anekonda, Vishwanath T; Ho, Jacqueline M; Graham, James L; Roberts, Zachary S; Hwang, Bang H; Ogimoto, Kayoko; Wolden-Hanson, Tami; Nelson, Jarrell; Kaiyala, Karl J; Havel, Peter J; Bales, Karen L; Morton, Gregory J; Schwartz, Michael W; Baskin, Denis G

    2016-04-01

    Based largely on a number of short-term administration studies, growing evidence suggests that central oxytocin is important in the regulation of energy balance. The goal of the current work is to determine whether long-term third ventricular (3V) infusion of oxytocin into the central nervous system (CNS) is effective for obesity prevention and/or treatment in rat models. We found that chronic 3V oxytocin infusion between 21 and 26 days by osmotic minipumps both reduced weight gain associated with the progression of high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity and elicited a sustained reduction of fat mass with no decrease of lean mass in rats with established diet-induced obesity. We further demonstrated that these chronic oxytocin effects result from 1) maintenance of energy expenditure at preintervention levels despite ongoing weight loss, 2) a reduction in respiratory quotient, consistent with increased fat oxidation, and 3) an enhanced satiety response to cholecystokinin-8 and associated decrease of meal size. These weight-reducing effects persisted for approximately 10 days after termination of 3V oxytocin administration and occurred independently of whether sucrose was added to the HFD. We conclude that long-term 3V administration of oxytocin to rats can both prevent and treat diet-induced obesity.

  3. Cooking enhances beneficial effects of pea seed coat consumption on glucose tolerance, incretin, and pancreatic hormones in high-fat-diet-fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi, Zohre; Yang, Kaiyuan; Yang, Han; Jin, Alena; Ozga, Jocelyn; Chan, Catherine B

    2015-04-01

    Pulses, including dried peas, are nutrient- and fibre-rich foods that improve glucose control in diabetic subjects compared with other fibre sources. We hypothesized feeding cooked pea seed coats to insulin-resistant rats would improve glucose tolerance by modifying gut responses to glucose and reducing stress on pancreatic islets. Glucose intolerance induced in male Sprague-Dawley rats with high-fat diet (HFD; 10% cellulose as fibre) was followed by 3 weeks of HFD with fibre (10%) provided by cellulose, raw-pea seed coat (RP), or cooked-pea seed coat (CP). A fourth group consumed low-fat diet with 10% cellulose. Oral and intraperitoneal glucose tolerance tests (oGTT, ipGTT) were done. CP rats had 30% and 50% lower glucose and insulin responses in oGTT, respectively, compared with the HFD group (P < 0.05) but ipGTT was not different. Plasma islet and incretin hormone concentrations were measured. α- and β-cell areas in the pancreas and density of K- and L-cells in jejunum and ileum were quantified. Jejunal expression of hexose transporters was measured. CP feeding increased fasting glucagon-like peptide 1 and glucose-stimulated gastric inhibitory polypeptide responses (P < 0.05), but K- and L-cells densities were comparable to HFD, as was abundance of SGLT1 and GLUT2 mRNA. No significant difference in β-cell area between diet groups was observed. α-cell area was significantly smaller in CP compared with RP rats (P < 0.05). Overall, our results demonstrate that CP feeding can reverse adverse effects of HFD on glucose homeostasis and is associated with enhanced incretin secretion and reduced α-cell abundance.

  4. Brain lipids in rats fed a diet supplemented with hen eggs of modified lipid content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hodžić Aida

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to research the impact of a diet supplemented with egg yolks of modified content, having in mind the type of fat added to the laying hens diet, on the brain lipids and their fatty acid composition in rats. During four weeks of the experiment, 64 Wistar rats, divided into four groups of 16 animals each (eight animals of both sexes, were fed the commercial rat feed (group C, or the feed that contained 70% of the commercial rat feed and 30% of freshly boiled yolks from the eggs originating from laying hens fed with 3% fish oil (group F, 3% palm olein (group P or 3% lard (group L. Concentration and content of total lipids and total cholesterol, as well as the fatty-acid composition of the total brain lipids were determined in the lipid extracts of the rats brains. Under unfavourable conditions, which in our case could be high dietary intake of the total fat due to egg yolk addition, the amount of total fat in the brain tissue or the mass of the organ itself can be changed. Applied dietary treatments could also influence the level of de novo synthesis of total cholesterol in the rat brain. High dietary fat intake, as well as the fat quality regarding its fatty acid composition, appear to be able to significantly influence the fatty acid profile of the total brain lipids in adult rats, whereas the level and quality of the changes also depend on sex.

  5. Anti-diabetic effect of a combination of andrographolide-enriched extract of Andrographis paniculata (Burm f.) Nees and asiaticoside-enriched extract of Centella asiatica L. in high fructose-fat fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugroho, Agung Endro; Lindawati, Novena Yety; Herlyanti, Kyky; Widyastuti, Lina; Pramono, Suwidjiyo

    2013-12-01

    Traditionally, a combination of medicinal plants is commonly used for lowering blood glucose in diabetic patients in order to provide additional benefits of the single drug. A. paniculata and C. asiatica are two traditional medicines form South Asian and Southeast Asain countries consumed by people for treating daibates mellitus and its complications. Hyperglycemia in the rats was stimulated by high fructose-fat diet that consists of 36% fructose, 15% lard, and 5% egg yolks in 0.36 g/200 g body weight for 70 days. The rats were orally administered with the combination of andrographolide-enriched extract of A. paniculata (AEEAP) leaves and asiaticoside-enriched extract of C. asiatica (AEECA) herbs from day 70 for 7 days. Antidiabetic activity was evaluated by estimating mainly the blood glucose levels and other parameters such as HDL, LDL, cholesterol and triglyceride. The results showed that combination at the ratio of 70:30 exhibited a promosing antidiabetic effect in high-fat-fructose-fed rat, and exhibited sinergistic effects on blood cholesterol and HDL levels. It can be concluded that its antidiabetic effect was better than that of single treatment of AEEAP or AEECA. That combination was also potential to develop as a blood glucose-lowering agent for diabetic patients.

  6. Exendin-4 shows no effects on the prostatic index in high-fat-diet-fed rat with benign prostatic hyperplasia by improving insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, J-X; Xiao, Y-C; Hu, Y-R; Hao, M; Kuang, H-Y

    2015-03-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a prevalent disease globally, and accumulating evidence has indicated an association between BPH, insulin resistance (IR) and diabetes. Exendin-4 is widely used in clinics, which could enhance the proliferation of pancreatic β cells. The ability of exendin-4 to promote tumorigenesis has been of concern, and whether exendin-4 would enhance the propagation of BPH is not fully understood. We aimed to determine whether glucagon-like peptide-1 receptors (GLP-1Rs) were expressed in rat prostate and to determine the effect of exendin-4 on prostate of BPH. Male Wistar rats were used and assigned to six groups: normal diet (ND), high-fat diet (HFD), HFD + exendin-4, HFD + BPH, HFD + BPH + exendin-4 and HFD + BPH + rosiglitazone group. After castration, steroids were injected subcutaneously for 4 weeks to induce BPH. Rats were kept on high-fat diet to induce IR. Treatment groups were treated with exendin-4 and rosiglitazone. Prostatic index and HOMA-IR index were used to evaluate the prostatic hyperplasia status and the degree of IR respectively. The expression of GLP-1R was indicated not only by immunohistochemistry, but also by Western blot analysis. The expression of GLP-1R was significantly higher, and HOMA-IR index and body weight significantly decreased after administration of exendin-4. However, no significant differences in the prostatic index were observed between exendin-4 treatment groups and non-exendin-4 treatment groups. Prostatic index was not influenced by exendin-4 maybe by improving IR and weight loss.

  7. Serum lipid profile and retinol in rats fed micronutrient rich edible vegetable oil blend

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JAFAR SALAMAT KHAN

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Khan HN, Farooqi H, Ali S, Khan JS. 2010. Serum lipid profile and retinol in rats fed micronutrient rich edible vegetable oil blend. Nusantara Bioscience 2: 109-116. The animal rats were given 10% oil mixed in fat free diet for one month or six months. In the experiment, the groups of rats were fed with the micronutrient (MN rich blends mixed previously with 1% cholesterol, and their effects were tested on serum lipid profile. Most significant changes in the High Dencity Lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol were observed in one-month study where HDL increased from 24 mg/dl in group to 64 mg/dl in the Mustard palm olein oil blend (MP; in mustard oil (MO alone fed rats, the HDL was 36 mg/dl. Serum retinol was analyzed as one of the important MN in rats receiving the diet mixed with the blend for various duration of time. The results assume great significance as MO or palm olein oil (PO alone could not bring the maximum beneficial effects, and the blends appear to have more merit as health oils in alleviating adverse health condition such as coronary heart disease (CHD, diabetes, obesity and hypertension.

  8. Increasing vitamin A in post-weaning diets reduces food intake and body weight and modifies gene expression in brains of male rats born to dams fed a high multivitamin diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Hernández, Diana; Cho, Clara E; Kubant, Ruslan; Reza-López, Sandra A; Poon, Abraham N; Wang, Jingzhou; Huot, Pedro S P; Smith, Christopher E; Anderson, G Harvey

    2014-10-01

    High multivitamin gestational diets (HV, 10-fold AIN-93G levels) increase body weight (BW) and food intake (FI) in rat offspring weaned to a recommended multivitamin (RV), but not to a HV diet. We hypothesized that high vitamin A (HA) alone, similar to HV, in post-weaning diets would prevent these effects of the HV maternal diet consistent with gene expression in FI and reward pathways. Male offspring from dams fed HV diets were weaned to a high vitamin A (HA, 10-fold AIN-93G levels), HV or RV diet for 29 weeks. BW, FI, expression of genes involved in regulation of FI and reward and global and gene-specific DNA methylation of pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) in the hypothalamus were measured. Both HV and HA diets slowed post-weaning weight gain and modified gene expression in offspring compared to offspring fed an RV post-weaning diet. Hypothalamic POMC expression in HA offspring was not different from either HV or RV, and dopamine receptor 1 was 30% (Pdiets reduces post-weaning weight gain and FI and modifies gene expression in FI and reward pathways.

  9. Influences of dietary vitamin D restriction on bone strength, body composition and muscle in rats fed a high-fat diet: involvement of mRNA expression of MyoD in skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oku, Yuno; Tanabe, Rieko; Nakaoka, Kanae; Yamada, Asako; Noda, Seiko; Hoshino, Ayumi; Haraikawa, Mayu; Goseki-Sone, Masae

    2016-06-01

    Vitamin D insufficiency is associated with a greater risk of osteoporosis and also influences skeletal muscle functions, differentiation and development. The present study investigated the influences of vitamin D restriction on the body composition, bone and skeletal muscle in rats fed a high-fat diet. Sprague-Dawley strain male rats (11weeks old) were divided into four groups and fed experimental diets: a basic control diet (Cont.), a basic control diet with vitamin D restriction (DR), a high-fat diet (F) and a high-fat diet with vitamin D restriction (FDR). At 28days after starting the experimental diets, the visceral fat mass was significantly increased in the F group compared with Cont. group, and the muscle mass tended to decrease in the DR group compared with Cont. group. The total volume of the femur was significantly lower in the DR group compared with Cont. group, and the bone mineral density (BMD) of the femur was significantly lower in the FDR group compared with F group. MyoD is one of the muscle-specific transcription factors. The levels of mRNA expression of MyoD of the gastrocnemius and soleus muscles from the DR group were reduced markedly compared with those from the Cont. group. In conclusion, our findings revealed the influences of a vitamin D-restricted high-fat diet on the bone strength, body composition and muscle. Further studies on vitamin D insufficiency in the regulation of muscle as well as fat and bone metabolism would provide valuable data for the prevention of lifestyle-related disorders, including osteoporosis and sarcopenia.

  10. Myocardial lipids and nucleotides of rats fed olive oil or rapeseed oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beare-Rogers, J L; Gordon, E

    1976-04-01

    After 1 week, the level of myocardial fatty acids was 4 times greater in young rats fed high erucic rapeseed oil than in those fed oliver oil. The proportion of erucic acid was 5.6% in the mitochondrial fraction, 15.1% in the microsomal fraction, and 34.8% in the floating fat fraction. This incorporation of erucic acid into triglycerides of the floating fat was evidence of esterification. The changes in the mitochondrial lipids did not alter the content of adenine nucleotides of the myocardium nor its apparent capacity to oxidize substrates.

  11. Calorie Restriction with a High-Fat Diet Effectively Attenuated Inflammatory Response and Oxidative Stress-Related Markers in Obese Tissues of the High Diet Fed Rats

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    Seungae Park

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity characterized by increased mass of adipose tissue leads to systemic inflammation. Calorie restriction (CR improves parameters associated with immune response and antioxidant defense. We hypothesized that CR with a high fat diet (HFCR regulates local and systemic inflammation and oxidative stress damage in a high fat diet induced obesity (HF group. We investigated effect of HFCR on inflammation and oxidative stress-related markers in liver and adipose tissues as well as adipokines in plasma. HFCR lowered liver triglyceride levels, total cholesterol levels, and the plasma leptin/adiponectin ratio to normal levels and improved glucose tolerance. HFCR also improved fatty liver and normalized adipocyte size and morphology. HFCR reduced lipid peroxidation and decreased the expression levels of inducible nitric oxide synthetase, cyclooxygenase-2, NF-E2-related factor, and heme oxygenase-1 in the liver. Moreover, HFCR suppressed the expression levels of C- reactive protein and manganese superoxide dismutase in the adipose tissue in the HF group. These results suggest that HFCR may have beneficial effects on inflammation and oxidative stress as well as lipid profiles in the HF diet induced obesity. Moreover, HFCR may be a good way to increase compliance in obese patients and to prevent obesity induced complications without changes in dietary pattern.

  12. Safety and Health Benefits of Novel Dietary Supplements Consisting Multiple Phytochemicals, Vitamins, Minerals and Essential Fatty Acids in High Fat Diet Fed Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramprasath, Vanu Ramkumar; Jones, Peter J H

    2016-01-01

    The objective was to determine safety and efficacy of health supplements "Beyond Tangy Tangerine," a multivitamin/mineral complex and combination of multivitamin/mineral complex, "Osteofx," a bone healthy supplement and "Ultimate Essential Fatty Acids" in Sprague Dawley rats consuming high-fat diets. Initially a pilot study was conducted which confirmed palatability and acceptability of supplements. In a second study, rats (n = 15/group) were randomized to Control; Multivitamin/mineral complex (2 g/kg BW) or Combination (2 g Multivitamin/mineral complex, 1.5 g Bone healthy supplement and 0.34 g Essential fatty acids/kg BW). No differences were observed in BW change, feed intake, organ weights or bone mineral composition with supplementations compared to control. Multivitamin/mineral complex supplementation decreased abdominal white adipose tissue weights (WAT) (p = .005), total (p = .033) and fat mass (p = .040), plasma IL-6 (p = .016) and ALKP (p = .038) and elevated plasma calcium (p health by reducing inflammation, abdominal fat mass and plasma triglycerides, as well as promote bone health.

  13. Amelioration of oxidative stress and insulin resistance by soy isoflavones (from Glycine max) in ovariectomized Wistar rats fed with high fat diet: the molecular mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankar, P; Zachariah, Bobby; Vickneshwaran, V; Jacob, Sajini Elizabeth; Sridhar, M G

    2015-03-01

    Estrogen deficiency after menopause accelerates the redox imbalance and insulin signaling, leading to oxidative stress (OS) and insulin resistance (IR). The molecular mechanisms by which the loss of ovarian hormone leads to OS and IR remain unclear. In the present study we found that rats when subjected to ovariectomy (OVX) resulted in reduction of whole blood antioxidants and elevation of oxidant markers. The expression of anti-oxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD1) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX1) was suppressed whereas the pro-oxidative enzyme NADPH oxidase (NOX4) and mitogen activated protein (MAP) kinases ERK 1/2 and p38 were increased at different tissues. Treatment with soy (SIF, 150 mg/kg BW for 12 weeks) extract markedly reversed these metabolic changes and improved OS. Ovariectomized rats also displayed glucose intolerance (GI) and IR as evident from the impaired glucose tolerance test, and reduced expression of adipose and hepatic insulin receptor beta (IRβ) and adipose tissue GLUT4. Treatment with SIF reversed the ovariectomy induced GI and IR. On the other hand, all these metabolic changes were further augmented when ovariectomy was followed by a high fat diet, and these changes were also reversed by SIF. Taken together, these findings emphasized the antioxidant property and anti-diabetic effects of soy isoflavones suggesting the use of this natural phytoestrogen as a strategy for relieving oxidative stress and insulin resistance in postmenopausal women. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Therapeutic effects of tender coconut water on oxidative stress in fructose fed insulin resistant hypertensive rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    D Bhagya; L Prema; T Rajamohan

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective:To investigate whether tender coconut water(TCW)mitigates oxidative stress in fructose fed hypertensive rats.Methods: Male Sprague Dawley rats were fed with fructose rich diet and treated withTCW (4 mL/100 g of body weight) for3 subsequent weeks. Systolic blood pressure was measured every three days using the indirect tail cuff method. At the end of the experimental period, plasma glucose and insulin, serum triglycerides and free fatty acids, lipid peroxidation markers (MDA, hydroperoxides and conjugated dienes) and the activities of antioxidant enzymes were analyzed in all the groups.Results: Treatment withTCW significantly lowered the systolic blood pressure and reduced serum triglycerides and free fatty acids. Plasma glucose and insulin levels and lipid peroxidation markers such asMDA, hydroperoxides and conjugated dienes were significantly reduced in fructose fed rats treated withTCW. Activities of antioxidant enzymes are up regulated significantly inTCW treated rats. Histopathological analysis of liver showed thatTCW treatment reduced the lipid accumulation and inflammatory infiltration without any significant hepatocellular damage.Conclusions: The overall results suggest that, TCW treatment could prevent and reverse high blood pressure induced by high fructose diet probably by inhibition of lipid peroxidation, upregulation of antioxidant status and improved insulin sensitivity.

  15. Increased methylglyoxal formation with upregulation of renin angiotensin system in fructose fed Sprague Dawley rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indu Dhar

    Full Text Available The current epidemic of obesity and type 2 diabetes is attributed to a high carbohydrate diet, containing mainly high fructose corn syrup and sucrose. More than two thirds of diabetic patients have hypertension. Methylglyoxal is a highly reactive dicarbonyl generated during glucose and fructose metabolism, and a major precursor of advanced glycation end products (AGEs. Plasma methylglyoxal levels are increased in hypertensive rats and diabetic patients. Our aim was to examine the levels of methylglyoxal, mediators of the renin angiotensin system and blood pressure in male Sprague-Dawley rats treated with a high fructose diet (60% of total calories for 4 months. The thoracic aorta and kidney were used for molecular studies, along with cultured vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs. HPLC, Western blotting and Q-PCR were used to measure methylglyoxal and reduced glutathione (GSH, proteins and mRNA, respectively. Fructose treated rats developed a significant increase in blood pressure. Methylglyoxal level and protein and mRNA for angiotensin II, AT1 receptor, adrenergic α1D receptor and renin were significantly increased, whereas GSH levels were decreased, in the aorta and/or kidney of fructose fed rats. The protein expression of the receptor for AGEs (RAGE and NF-κB were also significantly increased in the aorta of fructose fed rats. MG treated VSMCs showed increased protein for angiotensin II, AT1 receptor, and α1D receptor. The effects of methylglyoxal were attenuated by metformin, a methylglyoxal scavenger and AGEs inhibitor. In conclusion, we report a strong association between elevated levels of methylglyoxal, RAGE, NF-κB, mediators of the renin angiotensin system and blood pressure in high fructose diet fed rats.

  16. Increased methylglyoxal formation with upregulation of renin angiotensin system in fructose fed Sprague Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhar, Indu; Dhar, Arti; Wu, Lingyun; Desai, Kaushik M

    2013-01-01

    The current epidemic of obesity and type 2 diabetes is attributed to a high carbohydrate diet, containing mainly high fructose corn syrup and sucrose. More than two thirds of diabetic patients have hypertension. Methylglyoxal is a highly reactive dicarbonyl generated during glucose and fructose metabolism, and a major precursor of advanced glycation end products (AGEs). Plasma methylglyoxal levels are increased in hypertensive rats and diabetic patients. Our aim was to examine the levels of methylglyoxal, mediators of the renin angiotensin system and blood pressure in male Sprague-Dawley rats treated with a high fructose diet (60% of total calories) for 4 months. The thoracic aorta and kidney were used for molecular studies, along with cultured vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). HPLC, Western blotting and Q-PCR were used to measure methylglyoxal and reduced glutathione (GSH), proteins and mRNA, respectively. Fructose treated rats developed a significant increase in blood pressure. Methylglyoxal level and protein and mRNA for angiotensin II, AT1 receptor, adrenergic α1D receptor and renin were significantly increased, whereas GSH levels were decreased, in the aorta and/or kidney of fructose fed rats. The protein expression of the receptor for AGEs (RAGE) and NF-κB were also significantly increased in the aorta of fructose fed rats. MG treated VSMCs showed increased protein for angiotensin II, AT1 receptor, and α1D receptor. The effects of methylglyoxal were attenuated by metformin, a methylglyoxal scavenger and AGEs inhibitor. In conclusion, we report a strong association between elevated levels of methylglyoxal, RAGE, NF-κB, mediators of the renin angiotensin system and blood pressure in high fructose diet fed rats.

  17. The influence of bifidobacterium vinegar on the plasama lipid of rat fed with high-fat diet%双歧醋对高脂饮食大鼠血脂的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李金玲; 张德纯; 王春耀; 郭亚楠

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨双歧醋对高脂饮食大鼠血脂的影响作用.方法 48只SD大鼠被随机分成双歧醋低剂量组[1.8 mL/( kg·BW)]、中剂量组[3.4 mL/(kg · BW)]、高剂量组[6.8 mL/(kg · BW)]和市售醋组[3.4 mL/( kg·BW)]、高脂模型组以及正常组,观察双歧醋对高脂饮食大鼠血脂的影响作用,测定指标包括大鼠体重、肝指数、体脂指数、病理学观察肝脏脂肪变性等.结果 实验结果显示,双歧醋各组所有测定指标值都较高脂模型组有明显好转,特别是甘油三酯(TG)和高密度脂蛋白胆固醇(HDL-C)水平双歧杆菌醋的高、中量组与市售醋组比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 双歧醋能有效预防高脂饮食大鼠的血脂水平升高,对预防体重、肝指数升高和肝脏脂肪变性也有一定作用.%Objective To discuss the prophylactic antiobesity effect of bifidobacterium vinegar and possible mechanism. Method 48 SD rats were randomly divided into 6 groups; bifidobacterium vinegar groups of three different doses, ordinary vineger group, high-fat model group and basic group. The effect of bifidobacterium vinegar on rats fed with high-fat diet was observed. Body weight, body fat index, fatty degeneration in liver were determined. Result All indicator values measured were improved obviously compared with high-fat model group. Particularly, TCHO, HDL-C levels of high and medium dosage bifidobacterium vinegar groups were improved obviously compared with ordinary vineger group. Conclusion Bifidobacterium vinegar can prevent rats fed with high-fat diet from development of high TG and HDL-C, and prevent the body weight, liver index, fatty degeneration in liver from increasing in some degree.

  18. Rats Fed Diets with Different Energy Contribution from Fat Do Not Differ in Adiposity

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    Alexander D. Miras

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine whether rats reaching the same body mass, having been fed either a low-fat (LFD or a high-fat diet (HFD, differ in white adipose tissue (WAT deposition. Methods: In experiment 1, 22 Sprague-Dawley rats of the same age were divided into 11 rats with body mass below the batch median and fed a HFD, and 11 above the median and fed a LFD. In experiment 2, 20 Sprague-Dawley rats of the same age and starting body mass were randomised to either a HFD or LFD. When all groups reached similar final body mass, WAT was quantified using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, dissection, and plasma leptin. Results: In experiment 1, both groups reached similar final body mass at the same age; in experiment 2 the HFD group reached similar final body mass earlier than the LFD group. There were no significant differences in WAT as assessed by MRI or leptin between the HFD and LFD groups in both experiments. Dissection revealed a trend for higher retroperitoneal and epididymal adiposity in the HFD groups in both experiments. Conclusions: We conclude that at similar body mass, adiposity is independent of the macronutrient composition of the feeding regimen used to achieve it.

  19. Chromium picolinate and chromium histidinate protects against renal dysfunction by modulation of NF-κB pathway in high-fat diet fed and Streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selcuk Mustafa

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diabetic nephropathy is one of major complications of diabetes mellitus. Although chromium is an essential element for carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, its effects on diabetic nephropathy are not well understood. The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of chromium picolinate (CrPic and chromium histidinate (CrHis on nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB and nuclear factor-E2-related factor-2 (Nrf2 pathway in the rat kidney. Methods Male Wistar rats were divided into six groups. Group I received a standard diet (8% fat and served as a control; Group II was fed with a standard diet and received CrPic; Group III was fed with a standard diet and received CrHis; Group IV received a high fat diet (HFD, 40% fat for 2 weeks and then were injected with streptozotocin (STZ (HFD/STZ; Group V was treated as group IV (HFD/STZ but supplemented with CrPic for 12 weeks. Group VI was treated as group IV (HFD/STZ but supplemented with CrHis. Results The increased NF-κβ p65 in the HFD/STZ group was inhibited by CrPic and CrHis supplementation (P P P Conclusion Our result show that in kidney tissue CrHis/CrPic increases Nrf2 level, parallelly decreases NF-κB and partially restores IκBα levels in HFD/STZ group, suggesting that CrPic and CrHis may play a role in antioxidant defense system via the Nrf2 pathway by reducing inflammation through NF-κβ p65 inhibition. Moreover, a greater reduction in NF-κB expression and greater increases in expressions of IκBα and Nrf2 in diabetic rats supplemented with CrHis than rats supplemented with CrPic suggest that CrHis has more favorable effects than CrPic.

  20. Protein and energy metabolism of young male Wistar rats fed conjugated linoleic acid as structured triacylglycerol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, H.; Hansen, C. H.; Mu, Huiling

    2010-01-01

    Twelve 4-week-old male Wistar rats weighing 100 g were fed diets semi-ad libitum for 22 d containing either 1.5% conjugated linoleic acid (CLA-diet) or high oleic sunflower oil (Control-diet). The CLA was structured triacylglycerol with predominantly cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12 fatty aci...... isomers in the inner position and oleic acid in the other positions of the glycerol molecule. The rats were kept individually in metabolic cages. From days 8-16 energy, nitrogen (N) and carbon...

  1. FEDS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Venable, John; Pries-Heje, Jan; Baskerville, Richard

    2016-01-01

    to enable Design Science Researchers to effectively design and incorporate evaluation activities into a DSR project that can achieve DSR goals and objectives. To address this research gap, this research paper develops, explicates, and provides evidence for the utility of a Framework for Evaluation in Design...... Science (FEDS) together with a process to guide design science researchers in developing a strategy for evaluating the artefacts they develop within a DSR project. A FEDS strategy considers why, when, how, and what to evaluate. FEDS includes a two-dimensional characterisation of DSR evaluation episodes...... on an actual DSR project....

  2. Brain glucose content in fetuses of ethanol-fed rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pullen, G.; Singh, S.P.; Snyder, A.K.; Hoffen, B.

    1986-03-01

    The authors have previously demonstrated impaired placental glucose transfer and fetal hypoglycemia in association with ethanol ingestion by pregnant rats. The present study examines the relationship between glucose availability and fetal brain growth under the same conditions. Rats (EF) were fed ethanol (30% of caloric intake) in liquid diet throughout gestation. Controls received isocaloric diet without ethanol by pair-feeding (PF) or ad libitum (AF). On the 22nd day of gestation fetuses were obtained by cesarean section. Fetal brains were removed and freeze-clamped. Brain weight was significantly reduced (p < 0.001) by maternal ethanol ingestion (206 +/- 2, 212 +/- 4 and 194 +/- 2 mg in AF, FP and EF fetuses respectively). Similarly, fetal brain glucose content was lower (p < 0.05) in the EF group (14.3 +/- 0.9 mmoles/g dry weight) than in the PF (18.6 +/- 1.0) or the AF (16.2 +/- 0.9) groups. The protein: DNA ratio, an indicator of cell size, correlated positively (r = 0.371, p < 0.005) with brain glucose content. In conclusion, maternal ethanol ingestion resulted in lower brain weight and reduced brain glucose content. Glucose availability may be a significant factor in the determination of cell size in the fetal rat brain.

  3. XAS Studies of Se Speciation in Selenite-Fed Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weekley, Claire M.; Aitken, Jade B.; Witting, Paul K.; Harris, Hugh H.

    2014-01-01

    The biological activity of selenium is dependent on its chemical form. Therefore, knowledge of Se chemistry in vivo is required for efficacious use of selenium compounds in disease prevention and treatment. Using X-ray absorption spectroscopy, Se speciation in the kidney, liver, heart, spleen, testis and red blood cells of rats fed control (~0.3 ppm Se) or selenite-supplemented (1 ppm or 5 ppm Se) diets for 3 or 6 weeks, was investigated. X-ray absorption spectroscopy revealed the presence of Se–Se and Se–C species in the kidney and liver, and Se–S species in the kidney, but not the liver. X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectra showed that there was variation in speciation in the liver and kidneys, but Se speciation was much more uniform in the remaining organs. Using principal component analysis (PCA) to interpret the Se K-edge X-ray absorption spectra, we were able to directly compare the speciation of Se in two different models of selenite metabolism – human lung cancer cells and rat tissues. The effects of Se dose, tissue type and duration of diet on selenium speciation in rat tissues were investigated, and a relationship between the duration of the diet (3 weeks versus 6 weeks) and selenium speciation was observed. PMID:25363824

  4. The effects of phentolamine on fructose-fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Kangbin; Kumar, Ujendra; Yuen, Violet G; McNeill, John H

    2012-08-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MS) is a combination of medical disorders that increase the risk of developing cardiovascular disease and diabetes. MS is associated with obesity, increased blood pressure, hyperlipidemia, and hyperglycemia. This study was designed to investigate the pharmacological profile of phentolamine, a nonselective α adrenergic receptor antagonist, in the prevention of increased blood pressure in fructose-fed rats. Phentolamine prevented the fructose-induced increase in systolic blood pressure without affecting insulin sensitivity and major metabolic parameters. The levels of plasma noradrenaline and angiotensin II, 2 proposed contributors to the development of fructose-induced elevated blood pressure, were examined. Neither noradrenaline nor angiotensin II levels were affected by phentolamine treatment. Since overproduction of nitric oxide has been shown to lead to an elevation in peroxynitrite, the role of oxidative stress, a proposed mechanism of fructose-induced elevated blood pressure and insulin resistance, was examined by measuring plasma levels of total nitrate/nitrite. Plasma nitrate/nitrite was significantly elevated in all fructose-fed animals, regardless of treatment with phentolamine. Another proposed contributor toward fructose-induced MS is an elevation in uric acid levels. In this experiment, plasma levels of uric acid were found to be increased by dietary fructose and were unaffected by phentolamine treatment.

  5. FEDS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pries-Heje, Jan; Venable, John; Baskerville, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Evaluation of design artefacts and design theories is a key activity in Design Science Research (DSR), as it provides feedback for further development and (if done correctly) assures the rigour of the research. However, the extant DSR literature provides insufficient guidance on evaluation...... to enable Design Science Researchers to effectively design and incorporate evaluation activities into a DSR project that can achieve DSR goals and objectives. To address this research gap, this research paper develops, explicates, and provides evidence for the utility of a Framework for Evaluation in Design...... Science (FEDS) together with a process to guide design science researchers in developing a strategy for evaluating the artefacts they develop within a DSR project. A FEDS strategy considers why, when, how, and what to evaluate. FEDS includes a two-dimensional characterisation of DSR evaluation episodes...

  6. Betanin reduces the accumulation and cross-links of collagen in high-fructose-fed rat heart through inhibiting non-enzymatic glycation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Junyan; Tan, Chang; Wang, Yiheng; Yang, Shaobin; Tan, Dehong

    2015-02-05

    We attempted to determine whether betanin (from natural pigments) that has antioxidant properties would be protective against fructose-induced diabetic cardiac fibrosis in Sprague-Dawley rats. Fructose water solution (30%) was accessed freely, and betanin (25 and 100 mg/kg/d) was administered by intra-gastric gavage continuously for 60 d. Rats were sacrificed after overnight fast. The rat blood and left ventricle were collected. In vitro antiglycation assay in bovine serum albumin/fructose system was also performed. In rats treated only with fructose, levels of plasma markers: glucose, insulin, HOMA and glycated hemoglobin rised, left ventricle collagen accumulated and cross-linked, profibrotic factor-transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) protein expression increased, and soluble collagen decreased, compared with those in normal rats, showing fructose induces diabetic cardiac fibrosis. Treatment with betanin antagonized the changes of these parameters, demonstrating the antifibrotic role of betanin in the selected diabetic models. In further mechanistic study, betanin decreased protein glycation indicated by the decreased levels of protein glycation reactive intermediate (methylglyoxal), advanced glycation end product (N(ε)-(carboxymethyl) lysine) and receptors for advanced glycation end products (AGEs), antagonized oxidative stress and nuclear factor-κB activation elicited by fructose feeding, suggesting inhibition of glycation, oxidative stress and nuclear factor-κB activation may be involved in the antifibrotic mechanisms. Betanin also showed anitglycative effect in BSA/fructose system, which supported that anitglycation was involved in betanin's protective roles in vivo. Taken together, the potential for using betanin as an auxillary therapy for diabetic cardiomyopathy deserves to be explored further.

  7. Influence of DMBA-induced mammary cancer on the liver CPT I, mit HMG-CoA synthase and PPARalpha mRNA expression in rats fed a low or high corn oil diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moral, Raquel; Solanas, Montserrat; Manzanares, Eva Mónica; Haro, Diego; Escrich, Eduard

    2004-08-01

    Hepatic mitochondrial outer membrane carnitine palmitoyltransferase I (CPT I) and mitochondrial 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA synthase (HMG-CoA synthase) enzymes play a key role in regulation of fatty acid oxidation and in ketogenic pathways, respectively. Their expression are regulated by fatty acids mainly by the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha). To investigate possible mechanisms through which cancer alters the lipid metabolism, we analyzed by Northern blot, the mRNA relative abundance of these proteins in liver from healthy and DMBA-induced mammary tumor-bearing rats fed a low or high corn oil diet. Serum levels of lipids, body weight and mass were also determined. Whereas mRNA steady-state levels of CPT I and mit HMG-CoA synthase were unaffected by the presence of the extra-hepatic tumor, the cancer state seemed to modify the regulation of the expression of these genes by high fat diet. We hypothesize that putative changes in PPARalpha mRNA levels could have contributed to such alterations. These results, together with changes in serum lipid profiles, body weight and mass, indicate fat mobilization and non-enhanced oxidation rates despite a high-fat feeding. This effect of the cancer state could be related to tumor aggressiveness and suggest a preferential redirection of long-chain fatty acids into energetic and specific pathways of the cancer cells.

  8. The role of dietary fatty acids in predicting myocardial structure in fat-fed rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miller Melissa L

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity increases the risk for development of cardiomyopathy in the absence of hypertension, diabetes or myocardial ischemia. Not all obese individuals, however, progress to heart failure. Indeed, obesity may provide protection from cardiovascular mortality in some populations. The fatty acid milieu, modulated by diet, may modify obesity-induced myocardial structure and function, lending partial explanation for the array of cardiomyopathic phenotypy in obese individuals. Methods Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed 1 of the following 4 diets for 32 weeks: control (CON; 50% saturated fat (SAT; 40% saturated fat + 10% linoleic acid (SAT+LA; 40% saturated fat + 10% α-linolenic acid (SAT+ALA. Serum leptin, insulin, glucose, free fatty acids and triglycerides were quantitated. In vivo cardiovascular outcomes included blood pressure, heart rate and echocardiographic measurements of structure and function. The rats were sacrificed and myocardium was processed for fatty acid analysis (TLC-GC, and evaluation of potential modifiers of myocardial structure including collagen (Masson's trichrome, hydroxyproline quantitation, lipid (Oil Red O, triglyceride quantitation and myocyte cross sectional area. Results Rats fed SAT+LA and SAT+ALA diets had greater cranial LV wall thickness compared to rats fed CON and SAT diets, in the absence of hypertension or apparent insulin resistance. Treatment was not associated with changes in myocardial function. Myocardial collagen and triglycerides were similar among treatment groups; however, rats fed the high-fat diets, regardless of composition, demonstrated increased myocyte cross sectional area. Conclusions Under conditions of high-fat feeding, replacement of 10% saturated fat with either LA or ALA is associated with thickening of the cranial LV wall, but without concomitant functional changes. Increased myocyte size appears to be a more likely contributor to early LV thickening in response to

  9. Inhibitory Activities of Zygophyllum album: A Natural Weight-Lowering Plant on Key Enzymes in High-Fat Diet-Fed Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kais Mnafgui

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a serious health problem that increased risk for many complications, including diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The results showed EZA, which found rich in flavonoids and phenolic compounds, exhibited an inhibitory activity on pancreatic lipase in vitro with IC50 of 91.07 μg/mL. In vivo administration of this extract to HFD-rats lowered body weight and serum leptin level; and inhibited lipase activity of obese rats by 37% leading to notable decrease of T-Ch, TGs and LDL-c levels accompanied with an increase in HDL-c concentration in serum and liver of EZA treated HFD-rats. Moreover, the findings revealed that EZA helped to protect liver tissue from the appearance of fatty cysts. Interestingly, supplementation of EZA modulated key enzyme related to hypertension such as ACE by 36% in serum of HFD animals and improve some of serum electrolytes such as Na+, K+, Cl−, Ca2+ and Mg2+. Moreover, EZA significantly protected the liver-kidney function by reverted back near to normal the values of the liver-kidney dysfunction indices AST&ALT, ALP, CPK and GGT activities, decreased T-Bili, creat, urea and uric acid rates. In conclusion, these results showed a strong antihypelipidemic effect of EZA which can delay the occurrence of dislipidemia and hypertension.

  10. Inhibitory Activities of Zygophyllum album: A Natural Weight-Lowering Plant on Key Enzymes in High-Fat Diet-Fed Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mnafgui, Kais; Hamden, Khaled; Ben Salah, Hichem; Kchaou, Mouna; Nasri, Mbarek; Slama, Sadok; Derbali, Fatma; Allouche, Noureddine; Elfeki, Abdelfattah

    2012-01-01

    Obesity is a serious health problem that increased risk for many complications, including diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The results showed EZA, which found rich in flavonoids and phenolic compounds, exhibited an inhibitory activity on pancreatic lipase in vitro with IC50 of 91.07 μg/mL. In vivo administration of this extract to HFD-rats lowered body weight and serum leptin level; and inhibited lipase activity of obese rats by 37% leading to notable decrease of T-Ch, TGs and LDL-c levels accompanied with an increase in HDL-c concentration in serum and liver of EZA treated HFD-rats. Moreover, the findings revealed that EZA helped to protect liver tissue from the appearance of fatty cysts. Interestingly, supplementation of EZA modulated key enzyme related to hypertension such as ACE by 36% in serum of HFD animals and improve some of serum electrolytes such as Na+, K+, Cl−, Ca2+ and Mg2+. Moreover, EZA significantly protected the liver-kidney function by reverted back near to normal the values of the liver-kidney dysfunction indices AST&ALT, ALP, CPK and GGT activities, decreased T-Bili, creat, urea and uric acid rates. In conclusion, these results showed a strong antihypelipidemic effect of EZA which can delay the occurrence of dislipidemia and hypertension. PMID:23258993

  11. The mechanism of bifidobacterium vinegar affecting the plasma lipid of rats fed with high-fat diet%双歧醋对高脂饮食大鼠血脂影响的机制探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李金玲; 张德纯; 刘永云; 陈翠竹; 王春耀

    2012-01-01

    Objective To discuss the prophylactic antiobesity effect of bifidobacterium vinegar and its possible mechanism. Methods 48 SD rats were randomly divided into 6 groups; bifidobacterium vinegar groups of three different doses, ordinary vineger group, high-fat model group and basic group. The possible mechanism of bifidobacterium vinegar affecting the plasma lipid of rats fed with high-fat diet was observed. The lipidoses in liver were measured; mRNA expression of LDLR and HMGCoA reductase in liver tissue were detected by immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR. Results The levels of HMGCoA re-ductase of bifidobacterium vinegar groups were depressed obviously compared with that of high-fat model group. Conclusion Bifidobacterium vinegar can prevent the occurance of high-fat in rats through adjusting the LDLR and HMGCoA reductase in liver to some degree.%目的 探讨双歧醋对高脂饮食大鼠血脂的影响机制.方法 48只SD大鼠被随机分成双歧醋低剂量组[1.8 mL/(kg·BW)]、中剂量组[3.4 mL/(kg· BW)]、高剂量组[6.8 mL/(kg·BW)]和市售醋组[3.4 mL/(kg·BW)]、高脂模型组以及基础对照组,观察双歧醋对高脂饮食大鼠血脂的影响作用机制,测定指标包括大鼠肝脏脂质、大鼠LDLR的免疫组化分析,HMGCoA还原酶和LDLR的RT-PCR分析.结果 双歧醋各组对于HMGCoA还原酶表达有抑制作用,但可以上调LDLR的基因和蛋白质表达.结论 双歧醋可以通过调节HMGCoA还原酶和LDLR的表达预防高脂饮食大鼠高血脂的发生.

  12. Comparison of Serum Adiponectin in Smoke-induced Pulmonary Emphysema Rats Fed Different Diets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rui-Ying Wang; Hu Liu; Li-Juan Ma; Jian-Ying Xu

    2016-01-01

    Background:Smoking and body mass index (BMI) are the key risk factors for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).Adiponectin with both anti-inflammatory and pro-inflammatory properties is a vital modulator of inflammatory processes,which is expressed in epithelial cells in the airway in COPD-emphysema.The aim of this study was to examine the effects of adiponectin on tobacco smoke-induced emphysema in rats,which were fed different diets.Methods:Seventy-six adult (6-8 weeks old) male Sprague-Dawley rats (average weight 220 ± 20 g) were exposed to smoke or smoke-free room atmosphere and fed different diets (regular,high-fat,or low-fat diets) for 6 months.The rats were randomly divided into six groups.They are nonsmoke-exposed regular diet (n 10),nonsmoke-exposed high-fat diet (n =14),nonsmoke-exposed low-fat diet (n =14),smoke-exposed regular diet (n = 10),smoke-exposed high-fat diet (n =14),and smoke-exposed low-fat diet groups (n =14).A full 23 factorial design was used to evaluate the effect of independent variables on smoke exposure and different rearing methods.Serum adiponectin and inflammatory cytokines were measured by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).Results:Serum adiponectin levels in rats fed low-fat and regular diets exposed to smoke exposure were remarkably higher than that of rats exposed to room air while serum adiponectin levels of fat-rich diet rats exposed to tobacco smoke were lower than that of rats exposed to room air.Compared with regular diet or low-fat diet group,serum adiponectin levels in high-fat diet rats exposed to tobacco smoke were lower (t =6.932,11.026;all P < 0.001).BMI was inversely correlated with serum adiponectin levels (r =-0.751,P =0.012).Serum interleukin 6 (IL-6),tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α),and 4-hydroxy 2-nonenal (HNE) levels in rats exposed to low-fat or fat-rich diets were remarkably higher than that of rats exposed to normal diets (IL-6,t =4.196,3.480;P < 0.01,P =0.001;TNF-α,t =4

  13. Comparative study between the effect of the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-alpha ligands fenofibrate and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on activation of 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase-alpha1 in high-fat fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motawi, Tarek M Kamal; Hashem, Reem M; Rashed, Laila A; El-Razek, Sabry M Abd

    2009-10-01

    Obesity is a risk factor for type 2 diabetes mellitus. It results from an energy imbalance in which energy intake exceeds energy expenditure. The cellular fuel gauge 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a heterotrimeric protein consisting of one catalytic subunit (alpha) and two non-catalytic subunits (beta and gamma), and approximately equal levels of alpha1 and alpha2 complexes are present in the liver. AMPK regulates metabolic pathways in response to metabolic stress and in particular ATP depletion to switch on energy-producing catabolic pathways such as beta-oxidation of fatty acids and switch off energy-depleting processes such as synthesis of fatty acid and cholesterol. A high-fat diet alters AMPK-alpha1 gene expression in the liver and skeletal muscle of rats and results in body weight gain and hyperglycaemia. The aim of this study was to investigate and compare the potential effects of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-alpha agonists fenofibrate and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in modulation of AMPK-alpha1 activity in liver and skeletal muscle of high-fat diet fed rats. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was used for determination of AMPK-alpha1 in liver and soleus muscle and both PPAR-alpha and CPT-1 in hepatic tissues. Serum, total cholesterol, triacylglycerol, fatty acid and fasting blood glucose were determined colorimetrically. Both PPAR-alpha agonists, fenofibrate and n-3 PUFA, increased the mRNA expression of AMPK-alpha1 activity in liver and skeletal muscle of obese diabetic rats. Fenofibrate was superior in its activation of hepatic mRNA expression of AMPK-alpha 1 to exert more lipolytic effect and body weight reduction, as estimated through the decrease of triacylglycerol output and serum levels of fatty acid on the one hand and the increase in CPT-1 mRNA expression, the key enzyme in beta-oxidation of fatty acid, on the other hand. n-3 PUFA activated AMPK-alpha1 mRNA expression in skeletal muscle much

  14. Immune functions in the Fisher rat fed beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas) blubber from the contaminated St. Lawrence estuary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lapierre, P.; Guise, S. De [Univ. du Quebec, Montreal, Quebec (Canada). Dept. des Sciences Biologiques; Muir, D.C.G. [Freshwater Inst., Winnipeg, Manitoba (Canada); Norstrom, R. [Environment Canada, Hull, Quebec (Canada); Beland, P. [St. Lawrence National Inst. of Ecotoxicology, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Fournier, M. [Univ. du Quebec, Montreal, Quebec (Canada). Dept. des Sciences Biologiques]|[INRS-Sante, Pointe-Claire, Quebec (Canada)]|[IML, Mont Joli, Quebec (Canada). Dept. of Fisheries and Oceans

    1999-02-01

    In order to assess the immunotoxic potential of food naturally contaminated with PCBs and other organohalogens, Fisher rats were fed a diet in which the lipids originated from the blubber of either a highly polluted St. Lawrence beluga or a relatively uncontaminated Arctic beluga. After a period of 2 months, different immune functions were evaluated, including lymphoblastic transformation, natural killer cell activity, plaque-forming cells, phagocytosis, oxidative burst, and immunophenotyping. For all assays, rats fed at St. Lawrence beluga blubber diet or a mixture of Arctic and St. Lawrence beluga blubber diet were not different from control rats fed a diet containing Arctic beluga blubber. These results are inconsistent with the well-known immunosuppressive effects of organochlorines in numerous species and with the lesions suggestive of organochlorine-related immunosuppression that are observed in St. Lawrence belugas. The lack of observable immunotoxic effects in rats fed contaminated beluga blubber might be explained by antagonistic effects in the organohalogen mixture, by a response specific to the rat, by a strain-related lack of sensitivity to organochlorines, or by insufficient dose due to the shortness of the exposure period or the route of exposure.

  15. Effects of tempol on altered metabolism and renal vascular responsiveness in fructose-fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulla, Mohammed H; Sattar, Munavvar A; Johns, Edward J

    2016-02-01

    This study investigated the effect of tempol (a superoxide dismutase mimetic) on renal vasoconstrictor responses to angiotensin II (Ang II) and adrenergic agonists in fructose-fed Sprague-Dawley rats (a model of metabolic syndrome). Rats were fed 20% fructose in drinking water (F) for 8 weeks. One fructose-fed group received tempol (FT) at 1 mmol·L(-1) in drinking water for 8 weeks or as an infusion (1.5 mg·kg(-1)·min(-1)) intrarenally. At the end of the treatment regimen, the renal responses to noradrenaline, phenylephrine, methoxamine, and Ang II were determined. F rats exhibited hyperinsulinemia, hyperuricemia, hypertriglyceridemia, and hypertension. Tempol reduced blood glucose and insulin levels (all p fructose-fed rats.

  16. Formate Excretion in Urine of Rats Fed Dimethylaminoazobenzene-rich Diets: The Possibility of Formate Formation from D-Lactate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ohmori,Shinji

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was carried out to evaluate the possibility of degradation of d-lactate into formate and acetaldehyde. In order to induce hyperproduction of d-lactate in rats. Donryu male albino rats were fed diets containing 0.064% 3'-methyl-4-dimethylaminoazobenzene (3'-MDAB, 4'-methyl-4-dimethylaminoazobenzene (4'-MDAB or 2-methyl-4-dimethylaminoazobenzene (2-MDAB for 10 weeks. During the experiment, body mass, food and water intake and volume of urine were documented. Methylglyoxal, d-lactate and formate in the urine samples were determined. On the first day of the eleventh week, methylglyoxal, d-lactate, glutathione and enzymatic activities of demethylation and glyoxalase I and II in liver were measured. Methylglyoxal, d-lactate and clinical chemistry parameters of blood plasma were also measured. The levels of methylglyoxal and d-lactate in livers of rats fed 3'-MDAB were very high, while those of 2-MDAB fed-rats and the control group were the same. The fact that glyoxalase I activity and the level of glutathione, a cofactor of glyoxalase I, were high in the livers of the 3'-MDAB-fed rats can explain the elevated levels of methylglyoxal and d-lactate in the liver. The most striking results were the elevated formate levels in the urine of rats fed 3'- and 4'-MDAB in a precancerous state. The degradation of d-lactate, an end product of the methylglyoxal bypass, into acetaldehyde and formate was suggested as a possible way to explain the results.

  17. Body fat accumulation is greater in rats fed a beef tallow diet than in rats fed a safflower or soybean oil diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuo, Tatsuhiro; Takeuchi, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Hiroo; Suzuki, Masashige

    2002-01-01

    The effects of dietary fats , consisting of different fatty acids, on body fat accumulation and uncoupling protein (UCP) in interscapular brown adipose tissue were studied in rats. Metabolisable energy in experimental diets based on safflower oil, soybean oil or beef tallow was measured strictly (experiment 1). Male Wistar rats were then meal-fed an isoenergetic diet for 8 weeks (experiment 2). Each group of rats showed the same weight gain during the 8-week experimental period. Carcass fat content was greater in rats fed the beef tallow diet than in those fed the with the safflower or soybean oil diets, whereas the weight of abdominal adipose tissue was the same for all three dietary groups. Gene expression of UCP1 and the UCP content of the interscapular brown adipose tissue was lower in the beef tallow diet group than in the other dietary groups. A negative correlation was observed between carcass fat content and n-6 unsaturated fatty acid content in dietary fats. These results suggest that the greater body fat accumulation in rats fed the beef tallow diet results from lower expression of UCP1 mRNA and lower UCP content in brown adipose tissue. n-6 Polyunsaturated fatty acids may be the most effective fatty acids in limiting body fat.

  18. The Effect of Aerobic Exercise to Serum Lipid Metabolism of Rats Fed with High-Fat-Diet%有氧运动对高脂饮食大鼠血脂代谢的影响研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王慧; 黄力平

    2011-01-01

    实验目的:以正常饮食和药物干预为对照,观察8周有氧运动对高脂饮食大鼠血脂代谢的影响。实验材料与方法:SD大鼠40只,随机分为4组,每组10只,分别为:正常饮食组(N)、高脂饮食组(H)、高脂运动组(HE)和高脂药物组(HI),运动方式为跑台运动,灌胃药物为吉非罗齐胶囊。实验持续8周。实验结束后测定大鼠血清甘油三酯(TG)、总胆固醇(TC)、低密度脂蛋白胆固醇(LDL-C)和高密度脂蛋白(HDL-C)。实验结果:H组、HE组大鼠血清TG、TC、LDL-C水平显著升高,HDL-C水平则显著下降;HE组较H组大%To investigate the effect of 8-week aerobic exercise to rats' serum lipids fed with high-fat-diet,compared with Normal and Medicine groups.Methods:40 SD rats were randomly divided into four groups:Normal group(N);High-fat-diet group(H);High-fat-diet with

  19. Decreased beige adipocyte number and mitochondrial respiration coincide with reduced FGF21 gene expression in Sprague Dawley rats fed prenatal low protein and postnatal high fat diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    We have shown that protein malnutrition during fetal growth followed by postnatal high-fat diets results in a rapid increase in subcutaneous adipose tissue mass in the offspring contributing to development of obesity and insulin resistance. Recent studies have shown that the absence of a key transcr...

  20. Chronic administration of grape-seed polyphenols attenuates the development of hypertension and improves other cardiometabolic risk factors associated with the metabolic syndrome in cafeteria diet-fed rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pons, Z.; Margalef, M.; Bravo, F.I.; Arola-Arnal, A.; Muguerza, B.

    2017-01-01

    The effects of grape-seed polyphenols against the development of hypertension and other cardiometabolic conditions associated with the metabolic syndrome (MetS) were studied in rats fed a high-fat, high-carbohydrate diet, known as the cafeteria (CAF) diet. Two groups of Wistar rats were fed standard

  1. Altered nitrogen balance and decreased urea excretion in male rats fed cafeteria diet are related to arginine availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabater, David; Agnelli, Silvia; Arriarán, Sofía; Fernández-López, José-Antonio; Romero, María del Mar; Alemany, Marià; Remesar, Xavier

    2014-01-01

    Hyperlipidic diets limit glucose oxidation and favor amino acid preservation, hampering the elimination of excess dietary nitrogen and the catabolic utilization of amino acids. We analyzed whether reduced urea excretion was a consequence of higher NO x ; (nitrite, nitrate, and other derivatives) availability caused by increased nitric oxide production in metabolic syndrome. Rats fed a cafeteria diet for 30 days had a higher intake and accumulation of amino acid nitrogen and lower urea excretion. There were no differences in plasma nitrate or nitrite. NO(x) and creatinine excretion accounted for only a small part of total nitrogen excretion. Rats fed a cafeteria diet had higher plasma levels of glutamine, serine, threonine, glycine, and ornithine when compared with controls, whereas arginine was lower. Liver carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase I activity was higher in cafeteria diet-fed rats, but arginase I was lower. The high carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase activity and ornithine levels suggest activation of the urea cycle in cafeteria diet-fed rats, but low arginine levels point to a block in the urea cycle between ornithine and arginine, thereby preventing the elimination of excess nitrogen as urea. The ultimate consequence of this paradoxical block in the urea cycle seems to be the limitation of arginine production and/or availability.

  2. Rapid loss of adiponectin-stimulated fatty acid oxidation in skeletal muscle of rats fed a high fat diet is not due to altered muscle redox state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchie, Ian R W; Dyck, David J

    2012-01-01

    A high fat (HF) diet rapidly impairs the ability of adiponectin (Ad) to stimulate fatty acid (FA) oxidation in oxidative soleus muscle, but the underlying mechanism remains elusive. Mere days of HF feeding also increase the muscle's production and accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and shift cellular redox to a more oxidized state. It seems plausible that this shift towards a more oxidized state might act as negative feedback to suppress the ability of Ad to stimulate FA oxidation and generate more ROS. Therefore, we sought to determine whether i) a shift towards a more oxidized redox state (reduction in GSH/2GSSG) coincided with impaired Ad-stimulated palmitate oxidation in oxidative and glycolytic rodent muscle after 5 days of HF feeding (60% kCal), and ii) if supplementation with the antioxidant, N-acetylcysteine (NAC) could prevent the HF-diet induced impairment in Ad-response. Globular Ad (gAd) increased palmitate oxidation in isolated soleus and EDL muscles by 42% and 34%, respectively (pmuscles. HF feeding decreased total GSH (-26%, pmuscle. Furthermore, direct incubations with H(2)O(2) did not impair Ad-stimulated FA oxidation in either muscle. In conclusion, our data indicates that skeletal muscle Ad resistance is rapidly induced in both oxidative and glycolytic muscle, independently of altered cellular redox state.

  3. Effect of Creosote Bush-Derived NDGA on Expression of Genes Involved in Lipid Metabolism in Liver of High-Fructose Fed Rats: Relevance to NDGA Amelioration of Hypertriglyceridemia and Hepatic Steatosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiyan Zhang

    Full Text Available Nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA, the main metabolite of Creosote bush, has been shown to have profound effects on the core components of the metabolic syndrome (MetS, lowering blood glucose, free fatty acids (FFA and triglyceride (TG levels in several models of dyslipidemia, as well as improving body weight (obesity, insulin resistance, diabetes and hypertension, and ameliorating hepatic steatosis. In the present study, a high-fructose diet (HFrD fed rat model of hypertriglyceridemia was employed to further delineate the underlying mechanism by which NDGA exerts its anti-hypertriglyceridemic action. In the HFrD treatment group, NDGA administration by oral gavage decreased plasma levels of TG, glucose, FFA, and insulin, increased hepatic mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation and attenuated hepatic TG accumulation. qRT-PCR measurements indicated that NDGA treatment increased the mRNA expression of key fatty acid transport (L-FABP, CD36, and fatty acid oxidation (ACOX1, CPT-2, and PPARα transcription factor genes and decreased the gene expression of enzymes involved in lipogenesis (FASN, ACC1, SCD1, L-PK and ChREBP and SREBP-1c transcription factors. Western blot analysis indicated that NDGA administration upregulated hepatic insulin signaling (P-Akt, AMPK activity (P-AMPK, MLYCD, and PPARα protein levels, but decreased SCD1, ACC1 and ACC2 protein content and also inactivated ACC1 activity (increased P-ACC1. These findings suggest that NDGA ameliorates hypertriglyceridemia and hepatic steatosis primarily by interfering with lipogenesis and promoting increased channeling of fatty acids towards their oxidation.

  4. Effect of Creosote Bush-Derived NDGA on Expression of Genes Involved in Lipid Metabolism in Liver of High-Fructose Fed Rats: Relevance to NDGA Amelioration of Hypertriglyceridemia and Hepatic Steatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haiyan; Li, Yihang; Hu, Jie; Shen, Wen-Jun; Singh, Madhurima; Hou, Xiaoming; Bittner, Alex; Bittner, Stefanie; Cortez, Yuan; Tabassum, Juveria; Kraemer, Fredric B; Azhar, Salman

    2015-01-01

    Nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA), the main metabolite of Creosote bush, has been shown to have profound effects on the core components of the metabolic syndrome (MetS), lowering blood glucose, free fatty acids (FFA) and triglyceride (TG) levels in several models of dyslipidemia, as well as improving body weight (obesity), insulin resistance, diabetes and hypertension, and ameliorating hepatic steatosis. In the present study, a high-fructose diet (HFrD) fed rat model of hypertriglyceridemia was employed to further delineate the underlying mechanism by which NDGA exerts its anti-hypertriglyceridemic action. In the HFrD treatment group, NDGA administration by oral gavage decreased plasma levels of TG, glucose, FFA, and insulin, increased hepatic mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation and attenuated hepatic TG accumulation. qRT-PCR measurements indicated that NDGA treatment increased the mRNA expression of key fatty acid transport (L-FABP, CD36), and fatty acid oxidation (ACOX1, CPT-2, and PPARα transcription factor) genes and decreased the gene expression of enzymes involved in lipogenesis (FASN, ACC1, SCD1, L-PK and ChREBP and SREBP-1c transcription factors). Western blot analysis indicated that NDGA administration upregulated hepatic insulin signaling (P-Akt), AMPK activity (P-AMPK), MLYCD, and PPARα protein levels, but decreased SCD1, ACC1 and ACC2 protein content and also inactivated ACC1 activity (increased P-ACC1). These findings suggest that NDGA ameliorates hypertriglyceridemia and hepatic steatosis primarily by interfering with lipogenesis and promoting increased channeling of fatty acids towards their oxidation.

  5. Effect of α-Linolenic Acid on Fatty Acid Metabolism of Rats Fed with High Fat Diet%α-亚麻酸对高脂模型大鼠组织脂肪酸代谢的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    禹晓; 邓乾春; 黄凤洪; 黄庆德; 杨金娥

    2012-01-01

    研究不同ALA含量油脂对高脂模型大鼠组织脂肪酸代谢的影响.60只雄性Wistar大鼠分为正常组、高脂组、花生油组、13%、27%和55% ALA含量油脂组,除正常组和高脂组外,其余各组在饲喂高脂饲料的同时采用灌胃方式连续给予2 mL/kg.bw剂量的受试油.试验6周后分别测定大鼠各组织脂肪酸组成.结果表明,高脂饮食能够降低大鼠各组织n-3脂肪酸含量,但摄入不同ALA油脂可显著增加组织n-3脂肪酸含量,并具有一定的剂量效应关系;但ALA及其代谢产物EPA、DPA和DHA的累积具有组织特异性,其中肾和心组织中ALA累积高于血浆、脑及肝组织,肝和脑组织中EPA和DPA含量增加较显著,而肾和心组织中EPA含量不变,各组织DHA含量增加不显著.不同ALA油脂组C18:3(n-6)和C20:3 (n-6)差异不显著,但与花生油组相比,其血浆、脑和肾组织C20:4含量显著降低.因此,富含ALA含量的油脂能够增加组织中ALA及其代谢产物在组织中的含量,提高其在脑组织中的分布比例,这可能是ALA具有心血管保护作用和促进脑生长发育的作用机制之一.%In order to investigate the effect of different ALA levels of oils on fatty acid metabolism of rats fed with high fat diet,rats were divided into control (Cont) group,high fat diet (HFD) group,peanut oil (PO) group,13%, 27% and 55% a-linolenic acid blend oil (ALA-BO) groups. Besides Cont and HFD groups,other rats were fed with high-fat diet and treated simultaneously with corresponding oils (2 ml/kg, bw) orally for 6 weeks. The total fatty acid composition in plasma,liver,brain,kidney and heart were determined. The results showed that high fat diet could reduce the n-3 PUFA levels in all tissues,but increasing ALA intake could result in an incorporation of n-3 PUFA in tissues and also showed a dose-effect relationship. There were some tissue-dependent differences in the increase of n-3 PUFA levels,the increase of ALA in kidney

  6. Zinc deficiency and the activities of lipoprotein lipase in plasma and tissues of rats force-fed diets with coconut oil or fish oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kettler, S I; Eder, K; Kettler, A; Kirchgessner, M

    2000-03-01

    The present study was performed to investigate the effect of zinc deficiency on the activities of lipoprotein lipase in postheparin serum and tissues of rats fed diets containing either coconut oil or fish oil as dietary fat, using a bifactorial experimental design. To ensure an adequate food intake, all the rats were force-fed by gastric tube. Experimental diets contained either 0.8 mg zinc/kg (zinc-deficient diets) or 40 mg zinc/kg (zinc-adequate diets). The effects of zinc deficiency on the activities of lipoprotein lipase in postheparin serum and postprandial triglyceride concentrations and distribution of apolipoproteins in serum lipoproteins depended on the type of dietary fat. Zinc-deficient rats fed the coconut oil diet exhibited a reduced activity of lipoprotein lipase in postheparin serum and adipose tissue, markedly increased concentrations of triglycerides in serum, and a markedly reduced content of apolipoprotein C in triglyceride-rich lipoproteins and high density lipoproteins compared with zinc-adequate rats fed coconut oil. By contrast, zinc-deficient rats fed the fish oil diet did not exhibit reduced activities of lipoprotein lipase in postheparin serum and adipose tissue and increased concentrations of serum lipids compared with zinc-adequate rats fed the fish oil diet. This study suggests that a reduced activity of lipoprotein lipase might contribute to increased postprandial concentrations of serum triglycerides observed in zinc-deficient animals. However, it also demonstrates that the effects of zinc deficiency on lipoprotein metabolism are influenced by dietary fatty acids.

  7. Nephrocalcinosis in Female Rats Fed Diets Containing Either Pectin or Cellulose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Alhaidary

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: There is evidence that the type of fiber influences the development of nephrocalcinosis in rats, but the effect of pectin was unknown. Approach: The effects of dietary pectin and cellulose on kidney calcification were studied in female rats. The diets used contained either 0.4-0.6% phosphorus and either cellulose (10%, w/w or pectin. The purified diets used were balanced for residual calcium, magnesium and phosphorus in the fiber preparations. Results: Increasing the phosphorus concentration of the diet from 0.4-0.6% caused massive nephrocalcinosis in rats fed the cellulose diets. Pectin (10%, w/w versus cellulose in diets containing 0.4% phosphorus significantly increased calcium and phosphorus concentrations in kidney. When compared with cellulose, pectin did not influence the apparent absorption of calcium, phosphorus and magnesium. Urinary concentrations of calcium and magnesium were not affected by pectin feeding, but those of phosphorus were increased. When pectin was given with the diet containing 0.6% phosphorus, its nephrocalcinogenic action as compared with cellulose was not observed. Conclusion: Pectin instead of cellulose in diets containing 0.4% phosphorus induced nephrocalcinosis in female rats. The effect of pectin may be explained by an increase in urinary phosphorus concentration. The lack of nephrocalcinogenic action of pectin in a diet with 0.6% phosphorus indicates that the nephrocalcinosis-inducing effect of high phosphorus intake had overruled any effect of fiber type.

  8. The true stone composition and abnormality of urinary metabolic lithogenic factors of rats fed diets containing melamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Xiaoming; Gu, Xiaojian; Xu, Yan; Sun, Xizhao; Shen, Luming

    2014-06-01

    To better understand the toxicity of melamine to humans, the stone composition and urinary metabolic lithogenic factors of rats fed diets containing melamine including the infant's melamine-induced stone composition were studied. Sixty 4-week-old male rats divided into three groups were, respectively, fed diets containing no melamine (control), 0.1% melamine, and 1% melamine for 4 weeks. At the end of experiment, the collected stones and 24-h urines from rats were, respectively, measured with compositions and metabolic lithogenic parameters. The stone from an infant who ingested melamine-adulterated formula was also included in compositional analysis. Across three groups, the stone was only detected in 1% melamine group, with composition of almost melamine different from the affected infant's stone composed of melamine and uric acid with a ratio of 1:2. Compared with control group, urine calcium and phosphate excretions were significantly increased in 1% melamine group. Urine uric acid excretion was significantly increased but citrate excretion was significantly decreased in 0.1% and 1% melamine groups. Urine oxalate excretion and pH were indicated without any significant difference. In addition based on urine physicochemical characters, melamine-uric acid stone seems difficult to be formed in the rats due to their characters of urine high-pH and low-uric acid. These results demonstrated that (1) the stone composition of rats fed melamine was not and could not be as that of infants fed melamine-adulterated formula, two species had a different mechanism of melamine-induced stone formation; (2) the exposure of melamine could result in abnormalities of urine metabolic lithogenic factors to rats, perhaps as well as human beings.

  9. Behavioral and Neurochemical Studies in Stressed and Unstressed Rats Fed on Protein, Carbohydrate and Fat Rich Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samia Moin§, Saida Haider*, Saima Khaliq1, Saiqa Tabassum and Darakhshan J. Haleem

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Stress produces behavioral and neurochemical deficits. To study the relationship between adaptation to stress and macronutrient intake, the present study was designed to monitor the effects of different diets on feed intake, growth rate and serotonin (5-Hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT metabolism following exposure to restraint stress in rats. Rats were divided into four groups (n=12 as control, sugar, protein and fat rich diet fed rats. After 5 weeks of treatment animals of each group were divided into unrestrained and restrained animals (n=6. Rats of restrained group were given immobilization stress for 2 hours/day for 5 days. Food intake and growth rates of unrestrained and restrained rats were monitored daily. Rats were decapitated on 6th day to collect brain samples for neurochemical estimation. Results show that sugar diet fed rats produced adaptation to stress early as compared to normal diet fed rats. Food intake and growth rates of unrestrained and restrained rats were comparable on 3rd day in sugar diet fed rats and on 4th day in normal diet fed rats. Stress decreased food intake and growth rates of protein and fat treated rats. Repeated stress did not alter brain 5-HT and 5-HIAA levels of normal diet fed rats and sugar diet fed rats. Protein diet fed restrained rats showed elevated brain 5-HT levels. Fat diet fed restrained rats significantly decreased brain TRP and 5-HIAA levels. Finding suggested that carbohydrate diet might protect against stressful conditions. Study also showed that nutritional status could alter different behaviors in response to a stressful environment.

  10. Coadministration of black seeds and turmeric shows enhanced efficacy in preventing metabolic syndrome in fructose-fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Faridah; Gilani, Anwarul-Hassan; Mehmood, Malik Hassan; Siddiqui, Bina S; Khatoon, Nasima

    2015-02-01

    Among noncommunicable diseases, metabolic syndrome (MS), a cluster of metabolic disorders including obesity, hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia and hypertension, is highly prevalent in modern society. Its management requires lifestyle modifications and/or the life-long use of multiple medications, hence demanding development of safe alternative remedies. This study was aimed to establish the efficacy of combined use of black seeds and turmeric using fructose-fed rat model of MS. The high-performance liquid chromatographic fingerprints of turmeric and black seeds showed the presence of curcumin and thymoquinone, respectively, as their major constitutes. Different doses of black seeds and turmeric, individually and in combination, were administered to fructose-fed rats for up to 6 weeks representing characteristic features of MS. At 3 weeks of the treatment, black seeds and turmeric lowered (P turmeric at low doses over individually tested herbs, in improving features of MS.

  11. VIRTUAL DETERMINATION OF BLOOD GLUCOSE OBTAINED FROM FED RATS AND FROM 24-HOUR FASTED RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Maria Treis Trindade

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The normal blood glucose in rats is 100 mg glucose / 100 ml of blood plasma. After a 24hhour fast, a decrease around 30% of this value occurs. This reduction can reach 45% in a prolonged fast. Several processes controlled by neurohormonal mechanisms prevent a more pronounced decrease in blood glucose of animals subjected to fast. These processes are hepatic glycogenolysis, hepatic gluconeogenesis, decrease of glucose utilization and increase of fatty acids use by muscle tissue, and ketone bodies utilization by the central nervous system. OBJECTIVES: This study presents a learning object, mediated by computer, which simulates the determination of blood glucose (glycemia obtained from fed rats and from 24-hour fasted rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: At first, cartoons were planned in order to show the biochemical and methodology fundamentals. The most representative images were selected, edited and inserted into an animation developed with the aid of the Adobe ® Flash 8 software. DISCUSSION AND RESULTS: The animated simulation of a standard glucose curve, followed by virtual evaluation of glucose in blood plasma samples were developed, associated with some questions. This object has been used by students of Biochemistry I (Pharmacy-UFRGS since second semester of 2009. The navigation features, design and interactivity have been evaluated as excellent by about 80% of them. CONCLUSION: Therefore, this learning object can be considered an adequate teaching resource as well as an innovative support in the construction of theoretical and practical knowledge of Biochemistry. Available at: http://www.ufrgs.br/gcoeb/dosagemglicemia/

  12. Formation of Short-Chain Fatty Acids, Excretion of Anthocyanins, and Microbial Diversity in Rats Fed Blackcurrants, Blackberries, and Raspberries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greta Jakobsdottir

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Berries contain high amounts of dietary fibre and flavonoids and have been associated with improved metabolic health. The mechanisms are not clear but the formation of SCFAs, especially propionic and butyric acids, could be important. The potent antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of flavonoids could also be a factor, but little is known about their fate in the gastrointestinal tract. Aim. To compare how blackcurrants, blackberries, raspberries, and Lactobacillus plantarum HEAL19 affect formation of SCFAs, inflammatory status, caecal microbial diversity, and flavonoids. Results and Conclusions. Degradation of the dietary fibre, formation of SCFAs including propionic and butyric acids, the weight of the caecal content and tissue, and the faecal wet and dry weight were all higher in rats fed blackcurrants rather than blackberries or raspberries. However, the microbial diversity of the gut microbiota was higher in rats fed raspberries. The high content of soluble fibre in blackcurrants and the high proportion of mannose-containing polymers might explain these effects. Anthocyanins could only be detected in urine of rats fed blackcurrants, and the excretion was lower with HEAL19. No anthocyanins or anthocyanidins were detected in caecal content or blood. This may indicate uptake in the stomach or small intestine.

  13. Gallic acid attenuates high-fat diet fed-streptozotocin-induced insulin resistance via partial agonism of PPARγ in experimental type 2 diabetic rats and enhances glucose uptake through translocation and activation of GLUT4 in PI3K/p-Akt signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, Gopalsamy Rajiv; Jothi, Gnanasekaran; Antony, Poovathumkal James; Balakrishna, Kedike; Paulraj, Michael Gabriel; Ignacimuthu, Savarimuthu; Stalin, Antony; Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah

    2014-12-15

    In this study, the therapeutic efficacy of gallic acid from Cyamopsis tetragonoloba (L.) Taub. (Fabaceae) beans was examined against high-fat diet fed-streptozotocin-induced experimental type 2 diabetic rats. Molecular-dockings were done to determine the putative binding modes of gallic acid into the active sites of key insulin-signaling markers. Gallic acid (20 mg/kg) given to high-fat diet fed-streptozotocin-induced rats lowered body weight gain, fasting blood glucose and plasma insulin in diabetic rats. It further restored the alterations of biochemical parameters to near normal levels in diabetic treated rats along with cytoprotective action on pancreatic β-cell. Histology of liver and adipose tissues supported the biochemical findings. Gallic acid significantly enhanced the level of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) expression in the adipose tissue of treated rat compared to untreated diabetic rat; it also slightly activated PPARγ expressions in the liver and skeletal muscle. Consequently, it improved insulin-dependent glucose transport in adipose tissue through translocation and activation of glucose transporter protein 4 (GLUT4) in phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/phosphorylated protein kinase B (p-Akt) dependent pathway. Gallic acid docked with PPARγ; it exhibited promising interactions with the GLUT4, glucose transporter protein 1 (GLUT1), PI3K and p-Akt. These findings provided evidence to show that gallic acid could improve adipose tissue insulin sensitivity, modulate adipogenesis, increase adipose glucose uptake and protect β-cells from impairment. Hence it can be used in the management of obesity-associated type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  14. Catabolism of amino acids in livers from cafeteria-fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castro Ghizoni, Cristiane Vizioli; Gasparin, Fabiana Rodrigues Silva; Júnior, Antonio Sueiti Maeda; Carreño, Fernando Olinto; Constantin, Rodrigo Polimeni; Bracht, Adelar; Ishii Iwamoto, Emy Luiza; Constantin, Jorgete

    2013-01-01

    Most studies using a hypercaloric diet to induce obesity have focused on the metabolism of fat and carbohydrates. Less concern has been given to the metabolism of amino acids, despite evidence of modifications in nitrogen metabolism during obesity. The aim of this study was to evaluate amino acid metabolism in livers from cafeteria diet-induced obese rats. Blood parameters were analysed, and histological sections of livers were stained with Sudan III. The enzymatic activities of some enzymes were determined in liver homogenates. Gluconeogenesis, ureagenesis, and oxygen consumption were evaluated in rat livers perfused with glutamine, alanine, or ammonium chloride. Compared to control rats, cafeteria-fed rats demonstrated higher levels of triacylglycerol and glucose in the blood and greater accumulation of fat in livers. Gluconeogenesis and urea production in livers perfused with glutamine and alanine at higher concentrations showed a substantial reduction in cafeteria-fed rats. However, no significant difference was observed among groups perfused with ammonium chloride. The activities of the enzymes alanine aminotransferase, glutaminase, and aspartate aminotransferase in the livers were reduced in cafeteria-fed rats. Taken together, these data are consistent with the hypothesis that livers from cafeteria diet-induced obese rats exhibit a limitation in their maximal capacity to metabolise glutamine and alanine to glucose, ammonia, and urea, not because of an impairment in gluconeogenesis and/or ureagenesis, but rather due to a depression in the activities of enzymes that catalyse the initial steps of amino acid metabolism.

  15. Antiobesity effect of Bauhinia variegata bark extract on female rats fed on hypercaloric diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunasekaran Balamurugan

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to investigate the antiobesity effect of methanolic extract of stem and root barks of Bauhinia variegata Linn in female rats fed with hypercaloric diet. Obesity was induced by administration of hypercaloric diet for 40 days. The plant extract (at the tested doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg exhibited a significant hypolipidemic effect and thus reduced the obesity. The body weight and feed intake was reduced significantly. Treatment of obese animals with the methanolic extract of B. variegata exhibited an increased brain serotonin level and high density lipoprotein with a concomitant decrease in total cholesterol, triglycerides and low density lipo protein. Thus the study indicates that the antiobesity activity of methanolic extract of B. variegata could be attributed to the presence of β-sitosterol in the stems and the tendency of the extract to reduce lipid profile and elicit the brain serotonin level.

  16. Effects of milk from goat fed Crotalaria spectabilis seeds on growing rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosane Maria Trindade de Medeiros

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Seeds of Crotalaria spectabilis, containing the pyrrolizidine alkaloid (PA monocrotaline (MCT, were fed to a lactating dairy goat. Milk from this goat was fed to rats for 8 weeks to determine whether MCT or its toxic metabolites are transferred into the goat’s milk. Rats from the experimental group showed significantly higher (p<0.05 serum levels of ALT, AST, GGT and LDH and less weight gains (p<0.05 than control rats. The most significant lesions in rats consuming the experimental ration were mild to moderate interstitial pneumonia and a vacuolar degeneration and occasionally necrosis of periportal hepatocytes. The results of this study indicate that the PA and/or its metabolites are eliminated in milk.

  17. Vascular filtration function in galactose-fed versus diabetic rats: The role of polyol pathway activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pugliese, G.; Tilton, R.G.; Speedy, A.; Chang, K.; Province, M.A.; Kilo, C.; Williamson, J.R. (Washington Univ. School of Medicine, St Louis, MO (USA))

    1990-07-01

    These studies were undertaken to assess the effects of increased galactose (v increased glucose) metabolism via the polyol pathway on vascular filtration function in the kidneys, eyes, nerves, and aorta. Quantitative radiolabeled tracer techniques were used to assess glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and regional tissue vascular clearance of plasma 131I-bovine serum albumin (BSA) in five groups of male Sprague-Dawley rats: nondiabetic controls, streptozotocin-diabetic rats, nondiabetic rats fed a 50% galactose diet, diabetic rats treated with sorbinil (an aldose reductase inhibitor), and galactose-fed rats treated with sorbinil. Sorbinil was added to the diet to provide a daily dose of approximately .2 mmol/kg body weight. After 2 months of diabetes or galactose ingestion, albumin clearance was increased twofold to fourfold in the eye (anterior uvea, choroid, and retina), sciatic nerve, aorta, and kidney; GFR was increased approximately twofold and urinary excretion of endogenous albumin and IgG were increased approximately 10-fold. Sorbinil treatment markedly reduced or completely prevented all of these changes in galactose-fed, as well as in diabetic rats. These observations support the hypothesis that increased metabolism of glucose via the sorbitol pathway is of central importance in mediating virtually all of the early changes in vascular filtration function associated with diabetes in the kidney, as well as in the eyes, nerves, and aorta. On the other hand, renal hypertrophy in diabetic rats and polyuria, hyperphagia, and impaired weight gain in galactose-fed and in diabetic rats were unaffected by sorbinil and therefore are unlikely to be mediated by increased polyol metabolism.

  18. Endurance training blocks uncoupling protein 1 up-regulation in brown adipose tissue while increasing uncoupling protein 3 in the muscle tissue of rats fed with a high-sugar diet.

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The mitochondrial uncoupling proteins (UCPs) of interscapular brown adipose tissue (iBAT) and of muscles play important roles in energy balance. For instance, the expression of UCP1 and UCP3 are modulated by free fatty acid gradients induced by high-sugar diets and acute exercise that is dependent on sympathetic stimulation. However, the effects of endurance training in animals fed with high-sugar diets are unknown. This study aims to evaluate the long-term effects of diet and exercise on UCP...

  19. Serum and tissue iodine concentrations in rats fed diets supplemented with kombu powder or potassium iodide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Munehiro; Mukama, Ayumi; Hosomi, Ryota; Fukunaga, Kenji; Nishiyama, Toshimasa

    2014-01-01

    Serum and tissue iodine concentration was measured in rats fed a diet supplemented with powdered kombu (Saccharina sculpera) or potassium iodide to evaluate the absorption of iodine from kombu. Eighteen male 5-wk-old Wistar rats were divided into three groups and fed a basal AIN93G diet (iodine content, 0.2 mg/kg) or the basal diet supplemented with iodine (183 mg/kg) either in the form of kombu powder or potassium iodine (KI) for 4 wk. There were no differences in weight gain or serum biochemistry tests (alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase activity, and total serum cholesterol and triglyceride concentration) after iodine supplementation. In addition, serum levels of the thyroid hormones thyroxine and triiodothyronine, as well as thyroid-stimulating hormone, were not affected. On the other hand, serum and tissue (thyroid, liver and kidney) iodine concentrations were markedly elevated after iodine supplementation. There was no difference in thyroid iodine concentration between KI and kombu supplementation. However, there was a significant difference observed in the iodine concentrations of serum, liver and kidney between the two iodine sources; rats fed KI had iodine concentrations in these tissues 1.8 to 1.9 times higher than those in rats fed kombu powder. These results suggest that the absorption of iodine from kombu is reduced compared to that from potassium iodide.

  20. HEPATIC FATTY ACID PROFILE OF RATS FED A TRIHEPTANOIN-BASED KETOGENIC DIET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira de Melo, Ingrid Sofia; Da Rocha Ataide, Terezinha; Lima de Oliveira, Suzana; Bezerra Bueno, Nassib; Duarte de Freitas, Johnnatan; Goulart Sant'Ana, Antônio Euzébio

    2015-07-01

    the aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of consumption of a ketogenic diet supplemented with triheptanoin, a medium-chain anaplerotic triacylglycerol, on the liver fatty acid profile of Wistar rats. three groups of male Wistar rats (n = 10) were submitted to an AIN-93 control diet, a triheptanoin- based ketogenic diet, or a soybean oil-based ketogenic diet for 60 days. Excised livers were subjected to lipid extraction and methylation to obtain fatty acids methyl esters, which were subjected to gas chromatography- mass spectrometry. compared to the rats fed the control diet, those fed ketogenic diets showed a significant reduction in the concentrations of 9-hexadecenoic and 9-octadecenoic acids, whereas those fed triheptanoin showed increased levels of octadecanoic acid. changes in the liver fatty acid profiles of the rats fed a triheptanoin-based or a soybean oil-based ketogenic diet did not seem to be related to the dietary fat source, but rather to the characteristics of the ketogenic diets themselves. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  1. Proteomic changes associated with metabolic syndrome in a fructose-fed rat model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Chu Hsieh

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome (MetS, characterized by a constellation of disorders such as hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, and hypertension, is becoming a major global public health problem. Fructose consumption has increased dramatically over the past several decades and with it the incidence of MetS. However, its molecular mechanisms remain to be explored. In this study, we used male Sprague-Dawley (SD rats to study the pathological mechanism of fructose induced MetS. The SD rats were fed a 60% high-fructose diet for 16 weeks to induce MetS. The induction of MetS was confirmed by blood biochemistry examination. Proteomics were used to investigate the differential hepatic protein expression patterns between the normal group and the MetS group. Proteomic results revealed that fructose-induced MetS induced changes in glucose and fatty acid metabolic pathways. In addition, oxidative stress and endoplasmic reticulum stress-related proteins were modulated by high-fructose feeding. In summary, our results identify many new targets for future investigation. Further characterization of these proteins and their involvement in the link between insulin resistance and metabolic dyslipidemia may bring new insights into MetS.

  2. Biochemical and Haematological Indices of Weanly Albino Rats Fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    acer

    met solely from the breast milk (Walker, 1990). ... showed that the nutrient composition of the diets ... weanly albino rats using nutritional, biochemical .... Values are mean ± SD, n=8; Values bearing different superscripts(a,b,c) differ significantly (P<0.05); MLA=Millet Alone ... due to decrease in the synthetic function of the.

  3. Inhibition of methylation of DNA by dimethylnitrosamine (DMN) in dehydroepiandrosterone-fed rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prasanna, H.R.; Magee, P.N. (Temple University School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA (USA)); Harrington, G.W. (Temple Univ., Philadelphia, PA (USA)); Hart, R.W. (National Center for Toxicological Research, Jefferson, AR (USA))

    1989-01-01

    The influence of the anticarcinogen dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) on the metabolism and macromolecular interactions of the potent hepatocarcinogen dimethylnitrosamine (NDMA) was investigated. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (2-3 mo old) were fed DHEA for 14 d at a dietary level 0.8%. Compared with pair-fed controls, the liver weights of the DHEA-treated animals increased significantly (11.7 vs. 7.1 g) with increase, per total liver, in proteins including those of cytosol and microsomes as well as cytochromes P-450 and b{sub 5}. DNA content of the liver, however, remained constant. Five hours after a single ip dose of ({sup 14}C)NDMA (30 mg/kg body wt, 42 {mu}Ci/rat) DNA methylation was reduced in the DHEA-fed animals as measured by 7-methyl- and O{sup 6}-methylguanine per mole of guanine, by 39 and 31%, respectively. The rate of NDMA metabolism was slightly higher in the DHEA-fed rats as determine in vivo by the exhalation of {sup 14}CO{sub 2} and by the declining concentrations of NDMA in the blood. The incorporation of radioactivity from ({sup 14}C)NDMA into hepatic proteins in vivo was greater (2.1-fold) in the DHEA-fed rats. Our results suggest that feeding rats with the adrenal steroid DHEA enhances the metabolic activation of NDMA in vivo, and that the increased association of NDMA-derived metabolites with increased hepatic cellular proteins may be partially responsible for protection of hepatic DNA from NDMA-induced damage.

  4. Spirulina vesicolor Improves Insulin Sensitivity and Attenuates Hyperglycemia-Mediated Oxidative Stress in Fructose-Fed Rats

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    Walaa Hozayen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The current study aimed to investigate the anti-hyperglycemic, anti-hyperlipidemic and insulin sensitizing effects of the cyanobacterium Spirulina vesicolor extract in fructose-fed rats. Materials and Methods: Rats were fed 30% fructose solution in drinking water for 4 weeks. Animals exhibited hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia were selected for further investigations. Diabetic and control rats were orally supplemented with 50 mg/kg body weight S. vesicolor extract for 4 weeks. Results: At the end of 8 weeks, fructose-fed rats showed significant increase in serum glucose, insulin, cholesterol, triglycerides, cardiovascular risk indices and insulin resistance. Treatment of the fructose-fed rats with S. vesicolor extract improved this metabolic profile. Fructose feeding produced a significant increase in serum tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF- and #945; and a decrease in adiponectin levels. In addition, fructose-fed rats exhibited a significant increase in liver, kidney and heart lipid peroxidation levels, and declined antioxidant defenses. Supplementation of the fructose-fed rats with S. vesicolor extract reversed these alterations. Conclusion: S. vesicolor attenuates hyperglycemia-mediated oxidative stress and inflammation, and is thus effective in improving insulin sensitivity in fructose-fed rats. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2016; 5(1.000: 57-64

  5. Offspring from rat mothers fed a high-fat/high-sucrose diet during gestation and lactation accumulate free fatty acids in the liver when exposed to high fat diet as adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellgren, Lars; Ingvorsen, Camilla

    -fostered by the dams, so that half of the pups born by HFHS mothers was lactated by C dams and vice versa, generating four groups; CC, CH, HC and HH (first letter maternal diet during pregnancy and the second diet during lactation). At weaning all pups were transferred to chow-diet and kept on this diet until the age......Introduction: Maternal diet during gestation and lactation has been implicated as a factor that modifies the risk of developing metabolic diseases later in life. Hepatic lipid accumulation is strongly linked to development of metabolic diseases. Free fatty acids induce ER stress, mitochondrial...... stress and are the substrate for formation of other lipotoxic species, such as ceramide, diacylglycerol and acyl-CoA. We have therefore investigated if the maternal intake of a high fat diet combined with sucrose-rich beverage alters the offsprings ability to metabolically cope with a high-fat challenge...

  6. Lipid Profiles are Altered in Rats Fed with Different Garlic Cultivars

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    Ester Yoshie Yosino da Silva

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Garlic has antioxidant and hypocholesterolemic properties that are attributed to its organosulfur compounds being allicin, which is reported to be the most active of these compounds. We hypothesized that allicin content could reduce plasma concentrations of triglycerides (TG, total cholesterol (TC, HDL (high density lipoproteins, VLDL (very low density lipoproteins, and glucose. Two different cultivars of commercial garlic, Peruano and Jinxiang, were used. Thirty male Wistar rats were distributed into 6 groups and fed for 15 days with standard diet (Control, Control with Peruano garlic treatment (CGP, Control with Jinxiang garlic treatment (CGCH, cholesterol-added control diet (CholC, cholesterol-added diet with Peruano garlic treatment (CholGP, and cholesterol-added diet with Jinxiang garlic treatment (CholGCH. Garlic treatment consisted of a daily oral dose of 1ml of lyophilized garlic. We observed that garlic treatment in Control group significantly reduced plasma TG and VLDL concentrations. The CGCH group presented a significant increase in plasma TC levels (25.5% and glucose (11%. No significant changes in TC, HDL, TG and VLDL were observed in CholGP and CholGCH, but levels of fasting plasma glucose were increased: CholGP (23% and CholGCH (27.5%. Results suggested allicin treatments alter lipid profile in rats. Nevertheless, further studies are necessary to address the increase in plasma glucose levels.

  7. Flaxseed and quercetin improve anti-inflammatory cytokine level and insulin sensitivity in animal model of metabolic syndrome, the fructose-fed rats

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    Hala M. Abdelkarem

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to assess the beneficial effect of quercetin, flaxseed and/or in combination as synergetic in an animal model of metabolic syndrome (MtS, high fructose (HF-fed rats. Fifty male Sprague–Dawley rats, 3-month old and weighing between 110 and 120 g were randomly divided into 2 groups. Rats were given drinking water (−ve control rats or 10% fructose in drinking water (HF; fructose-fed rats with standard chow for 8 weeks. After 4 weeks of fructose feeding, HF-fed rats were further divided into matched 4 subgroups. Different groups of animals (n − 10, each group were administered; 10% HF (5 mg/kg, +ve control, flaxseed (F; 50 mg/kg, quercetin (Q; 50 mg/kg, flaxseed + quercetin, (FQ; 25 mg/kg of each, respectively. All ingredients were given orally once daily and subsequent 4 weeks. Serum glucose, insulin, lipids profile, leptin, and adiponectin were estimated. After 4 weeks of feeding, a significant increase in blood glucose level was observed in HF fed rats compared to normal rats, but this increase was significantly decreased after administration of F, Q and FQ. The raised serum insulin level in HF fed rats was significantly decreased after administration of F and FQ groups. Significantly higher concentrations of triacylglycerols (TG, total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C were observed in HF fed rats and these increases were lower after administration of F, Q and FQ. There was a significant increase in serum high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C in the FQ group. The increased serum leptin level was decreased significantly in F, Q and FQ groups. Whereas the reduction of serum adiponectin level in HF fed rats was increased in F, Q and FQ groups. These data suggested that protective effect of flaxseed and quercetin consumption as functional foods could reduce risk for people with decreased insulin sensitivity and increased oxidative stress, such as those with the metabolic

  8. Action of metadoxine on isolated human and rat alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenases. Effect on enzymes in chronic ethanol-fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parés, X; Moreno, A; Peralba, J M; Font, M; Bruseghini, L; Esteras, A

    1991-01-01

    Metadoxine (pyridoxine-pyrrolidone carboxylate) has been reported to accelerate ethanol metabolism. In the present work we have investigated the effect of metadoxine on the activities of isolated alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenases from rat and man, and on the activity of these enzymes in chronic ethanol-fed rats. Our results indicate that in vitro metadoxine does not activate any of the enzymatic forms of alcohol dehydrogenase (classes I and II) or aldehyde dehydrogenase (low-Km and high-Km, cytosolic and mitochondrial). At concentrations higher than 0.1 mM, metadoxine inhibits rat class II alcohol dehydrogenase, although this would probably not affect the physiological ethanol metabolism. Chronic ethanol intake for 5 weeks results in a 25% decrease of rat hepatic alcohol dehydrogenase (class I) activity as compared with the pair-fed controls. The simultaneous treatment with metadoxine prevents activity loss, suggesting that the positive effect of metadoxine on ethanol metabolism can be explained by the maintenance of normal levels of alcohol dehydrogenase during chronic ethanol intake. No specific effect of chronic exposure to ethanol or to metadoxine was detected on rat aldehyde dehydrogenase activity.

  9. Euterpe edulis effects on cardiac and renal tissues of Wistar rats fed with cafeteria diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Barrios Freitas, Rodrigo; Melato, Fernanda Araujo; Oliveira, Jerusa Maria de; Bastos, Daniel Silva Sena; Cardoso, Raisa Mirella; Leite, João Paulo Viana; Lima, Luciana Moreira

    2017-02-01

    This study's objective was to evaluate the antioxidant and toxic effects of E. edulison cardiac and renal tissues of Wistar rats fed with cafeteria diet. Catalase (CAT), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were measured in cardiac muscle and renal tissue of 60 animals, which were randomly assigned for 10 equal groups. Half of the rats were fed with cafeteria diet and the other half with commercial chow, combined or not to E. edulislyophilized extract, E. edulis deffated lyophilized extract or E. edulisoil. Data were evaluated using ANOVA, followed by the Student-Newman-Keuls test. Data showed a significant increase of CAT activity in cardiac tissue of animals from the groups fed with cafeteria diet associated to E. edulis lyophilized extract at 5%, E. edulis lyophilized extract at 10% and E. edulis deffated lyophilized extract at 10%. In addition, the same result was found in animals from the groups fed with commercial chow and commercial chow combined with E. edulislyophilized extract at 10% in comparison to the group fed exclusively with cafeteria diet. GST and SOD enzyme activity showed significant increase in the heart tissue of animals nourished with commercial chow when compared to the groups fed with cafeteria diet. On the other hand, there were no significant differences enzymatic levels in renal tissues. The oil and the extract of E. edulishad an important role promoting an increase of antioxidant enzymes levels in cardiac muscle, which prevent the oxidative damage resulting from the cafeteria diet in Wistar rats. There were no evidenced signs of lipid peroxidation in renal or in cardiac tissue of the animals studied, indicating that the E. edulisuse did not promote any increase in malondialdehyde cytotoxic products formation. This show that both E. edulis oil and extracts evaluated in this study were well tolerated in the studied doses.

  10. Influence of fenofibrate treatment on triacylglycerides, diacylglycerides and fatty acids in fructose fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopf, Thomas; Schaefer, Hans-Ludwig; Troetzmueller, Martin; Koefeler, Harald; Broenstrup, Mark; Konovalova, Tatiana; Schmitz, Gerd

    2014-01-01

    Fenofibrate (FF) lowers plasma triglycerides via PPARα activation. Here, we analyzed lipidomic changes upon FF treatment of fructose fed rats. Three groups with 6 animals each were defined as control, fructose-fed and fructose-fed/FF treated. Male Wistar Unilever Rats were subjected to 10% fructose-feeding for 20 days. On day 14, fenofibrate treatment (100 mg/kg p.o.) was initiated and maintained for 7 days. Lipid species in serum were analyzed using mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS; LC-FT-MS, GC-MS) on days 0, 14 and 20 in all three groups. In addition, lipid levels in liver and intestine were determined. Short-chain TAGs increased in serum and liver upon fructose-feeding, while almost all TAG-species decreased under FF treatment. Long-chain unsaturated DAG-levels (36:1, 36:2, 36:4, 38:3, 38:4, 38:5) increased upon FF treatment in rat liver and decreased in rat serum. FAs, especially short-chain FAs (12:0, 14:0, 16:0) increased during fructose-challenge. VLDL secretion increased upon fructose-feeding and together with FA-levels decreased to control levels during FF treatment. Fructose challenge of de novo fatty acid synthesis through fatty acid synthase (FAS) may enhance the release of FAs ≤ 16:0 chain length, a process reversed by FF-mediated PPARα-activation.

  11. Influence of fenofibrate treatment on triacylglycerides, diacylglycerides and fatty acids in fructose fed rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Kopf

    Full Text Available Fenofibrate (FF lowers plasma triglycerides via PPARα activation. Here, we analyzed lipidomic changes upon FF treatment of fructose fed rats. Three groups with 6 animals each were defined as control, fructose-fed and fructose-fed/FF treated. Male Wistar Unilever Rats were subjected to 10% fructose-feeding for 20 days. On day 14, fenofibrate treatment (100 mg/kg p.o. was initiated and maintained for 7 days. Lipid species in serum were analyzed using mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS; LC-FT-MS, GC-MS on days 0, 14 and 20 in all three groups. In addition, lipid levels in liver and intestine were determined. Short-chain TAGs increased in serum and liver upon fructose-feeding, while almost all TAG-species decreased under FF treatment. Long-chain unsaturated DAG-levels (36:1, 36:2, 36:4, 38:3, 38:4, 38:5 increased upon FF treatment in rat liver and decreased in rat serum. FAs, especially short-chain FAs (12:0, 14:0, 16:0 increased during fructose-challenge. VLDL secretion increased upon fructose-feeding and together with FA-levels decreased to control levels during FF treatment. Fructose challenge of de novo fatty acid synthesis through fatty acid synthase (FAS may enhance the release of FAs ≤ 16:0 chain length, a process reversed by FF-mediated PPARα-activation.

  12. Two generation reproduction and teratogenicity studies of feeding quinocetone fed to Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xu; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Yu-Lian; Ihsan, Awais; Dai, Meng-Hong; Huang, Ling-Li; Chen, Dong-Mei; Tao, Yan-Fei; Peng, Da-Peng; Liu, Zhen-Li; Yuan, Zong-Hui

    2012-05-01

    To investigate the reproductive toxicity and teratogenic potential of quinocetone, a growth promoting agent, Wistar rats were fed different diets containing 0, 50, 300 and 1800 mg/kg quinocetone or 300 mg/kg olaquindox. Groups of 15 males and 30 females (F(0)) were fed through a 10-week prebreed period as well as during mating, gestation, parturition and lactation. At weaning, 12 males and 24 females of F(1) generation weanlings per group were selected randomly as parents for F(2) generation. Selected F(1) weanlings were exposed to the same diet and treatment as their parents. At the highest quinocetone group, body weights in F(0) and F(1) rats, fetal body weight on day 21 after birth and number of viable fetuses in F(0) and F(1) generation significantly decreased. In teratogenicity study, groups of 12 males and 24 females were fed with the same diets through a 12-week prebreed period and matting periods. Pregnant rats were subjected to cesarean section on GD 20 for teratogenic examination. At the highest quinocetone group, body weights and feed efficiency, fetal body lengths, tail lengths, litter weights and number of viable fetuses significantly decreased. The NOAEL for reproduction/development of quinocetone for rats was estimated to be 300 mg/kg diet.

  13. Lipid composition of liver in rats fed diets supplemented with egg yolks of modified composition

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    Hodžić Aida

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the effects of diets supplemented with egg yolks of modified composition on the fatty-acid composition and lipid content in rat’s liver. During four weeks of the experiment 64 Wistar rats were divided into four groups of 16 individuals each (eight individuals of both sexes and fed a commercial feed mixture for rats (group C or diet containing 70% commercial mixture for rats and 30% freshly cooked egg yolks from laying hens fed diets with 3% fish oil (group F, 3% palm olein (group P or 3% lard (group L. Dietary supplementation with egg yolks significantly increased the hepatic cholesterol pool in rats, regardless of the type of fat in the diet of laying hens from which the eggs originated. The content of α-linolenic acid in the liver of male rats in group P was 4-6 times higher compared to males in the other groups. Liver lipids and their fatty-acid composition differ by both, sex and dietary modified egg yolk composition in rats.

  14. Changes in UCP expression in tissues of Zucker rats fed diets with different protein content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masanés, R M; Yubero, P; Rafecas, I; Remesar, X

    2002-09-01

    The effect of dietary protein content on the uncoupling proteins (UCP) 1, 2 and 3 expression in a number of tissues of Zucker lean and obese rats was studied. Thirty-day-old male Zucker lean (Fa/?) and obese (fa/fa) rats were fed on hyperproteic (HP, 30% protein), standard (RD, 17% protein) or hypoproteic (LP, 9% protein) diets ad libitum for 30 days. Although dietary protein intake affected the weights of individual muscles in lean and obese animals, these weights were similar. In contrast, huge differences were observed in brown adipose tissue (BAT) and liver weights. Lean rats fed on the LP diet generally increased UCP expression, whereas the HP group had lower values. Obese animals, HP and LP groups showed higher UCP expression in muscles, with slight differences in BAT and lower values for UCP3 in subcutaneous adipose tissue. The mean values of UCP expression in BAT of obese rats were lower than in their lean counterpart, whereas the expression in skeletal muscle was increased. Thus, expression of UCPs can be modified by dietary protein content, in lean and obese rats. A possible thermogenic function of UCP3 in muscle and WAT in obese rats must be taken into account.

  15. Effect of Chlorella vulgaris intake on cadmium detoxification in rats fed cadmium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, You Jin; Kwon, Sanghee; Kim, Mi Kyung

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate if dietary Chlorella vulgaris (chlorella) intake would be effective on cadmium (Cd) detoxification in rats fed dietary Cd. Fourteen-week old male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats weighing 415.0 +/- 1.6 g were randomly divided into two groups and fed slightly modified American Institute of Nutrition-93 Growing (AIN-93G) diet without (n=10) or with (n=40) dietary Cd (200 ppm) for 8 weeks. To confirm alteration by dietary Cd intake, twenty rats fed AIN-93G diet without (n=10) and with (n=10) dietary Cd were sacrificed and compared. Other thirty rats were randomly blocked into three groups and fed slightly modified AIN-93G diets replacing 0 (n=10), 5 (n=10) or 10% (n=10) chlorella of total kg diet for 4 weeks. Daily food intake, body weight change, body weight gain/calorie intake, organ weight (liver, spleen, and kidney), perirenal fat pad and epididymal fat pad weights were measured. To examine Cd detoxification, urinary Cd excretion and metallothonein (MT) concentrations in kidney and intestine were measured. Food intake, calorie intake, body weight change, body weight gain/calorie intake, organ weight and fat pad weights were decreased by dietary Cd intake. Urinary Cd excretion and MT concentrations in kidney and small intestine were increased by dietary Cd. After given Cd containing diet, food intake, calorie intake, body weight change, body weight gain/calorie intake, organ weights and fat pad weights were not influenced by dietary chlorella intake. Renal MT synthesis tended to be higher in a dose-dependent manner, but not significantly. And chlorella intake did not significantly facilitate renal and intestinal MT synthesis and urinary Cd excretion. These findings suggest that, after stopping cadmium supply, chlorella supplementation, regardless of its percentage, might not improve cadmium detoxification from the body in growing rats.

  16. Effect of L-lactic acid on calcium absorption in rats fed omeprazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chonan, O; Takahashi, R; Yasui, H; Watanuki, M

    1998-06-01

    We examined the effect of L-lactic acid on calcium absorption in male Wistar rats made achlorhydric by dietary omeprazole, a proton pump inhibitor. The dietary omeprazole intake (0.03 g/100 g of diet) increased the gastric pH and decreased the apparent calcium absorption ratio. Dietary famotidine (0.03 g/100 g of diet), an H2-receptor antagonist, and lower doses of omeprazole (0.005 or 0.01 g/100 g of diet) did not affect the gastric pH or the calcium absorption. In a second experiment, dietary lactic acid (0.5, 1.0, or 2.5 g/100 g of diet) increased the intestinal calcium absorption dose dependently in rats fed omeprazole (0.03 g/100 g of diet). The gastric pH was significantly decreased only in the rats fed higher doses of lactic acid (1.0, or 2.5 g/100 g of diet). In a third experiment, a dietary sour milk beverage containing lactic acid (0.5 g/100 g of diet) increased the intestinal calcium absorption, but did not affect the gastric pH in rats fed omeprazole (0.03 g/100 g of diet). Although the significance of gastric acid in terms of overall calcium absorption is not known, under the present experimental conditions, the inhibition of gastric acid secretion by dietary omeprazole decreased the apparent calcium absorption, and the dietary lactic acid prevented the calcium absorption in rats fed omeprazole.

  17. A mitochondrial-targeted ubiquinone modulates muscle lipid profile and improves mitochondrial respiration in obesogenic diet-fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coudray, Charles; Fouret, Gilles; Lambert, Karen; Ferreri, Carla; Rieusset, Jennifer; Blachnio-Zabielska, Agnieszka; Lecomte, Jérôme; Ebabe Elle, Raymond; Badia, Eric; Murphy, Michael P; Feillet-Coudray, Christine

    2016-04-14

    The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome components including abdominal obesity, dyslipidaemia and insulin resistance is increasing in both developed and developing countries. It is generally accepted that the development of these features is preceded by, or accompanied with, impaired mitochondrial function. The present study was designed to analyse the effects of a mitochondrial-targeted lipophilic ubiquinone (MitoQ) on muscle lipid profile modulation and mitochondrial function in obesogenic diet-fed rats. For this purpose, twenty-four young male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups and fed one of the following diets: (1) control, (2) high fat (HF) and (3) HF+MitoQ. After 8 weeks, mitochondrial function markers and lipid metabolism/profile modifications in skeletal muscle were measured. The HF diet was effective at inducing the major features of the metabolic syndrome--namely, obesity, hepatic enlargement and glucose intolerance. MitoQ intake prevented the increase in rat body weight, attenuated the increase in adipose tissue and liver weights and partially reversed glucose intolerance. At the muscle level, the HF diet induced moderate TAG accumulation associated with important modifications in the muscle phospholipid classes and in the fatty acid composition of total muscle lipid. These lipid modifications were accompanied with decrease in mitochondrial respiration. MitoQ intake corrected the lipid alterations and restored mitochondrial respiration. These results indicate that MitoQ protected obesogenic diet-fed rats from some features of the metabolic syndrome through its effects on muscle lipid metabolism and mitochondrial activity. These findings suggest that MitoQ is a promising candidate for future human trials in the metabolic syndrome prevention.

  18. The antioxidant n-acetylcysteine reduced necrosis, but exacerbated liver fibrosis induced by chronic alcohol in rats fed via total enteral nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despite many years of research, the molecular mechanisms underlying progression of alcoholic liver injury from simple steatosis through steatohepatitis and fibrosis remain in dispute. In the current study male Sprague-Dawley rats (350 g) were chronically fed a high unsaturated fat diet for 120 d usi...

  19. Vagal afferents are essential for maximal resection-induced intestinal adaptive growth in orally fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, David W; Liu, Xiaowen; Holst, Jens J; Raybould, Helen E; Ney, Denise M

    2006-11-01

    Small bowel resection stimulates intestinal adaptive growth by a neuroendocrine process thought to involve both sympathetic and parasympathetic innervation and enterotrophic hormones such as glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2). We investigated whether capsaicin-sensitive vagal afferent neurons are essential for maximal resection-induced intestinal growth. Rats received systemic or perivagal capsaicin or ganglionectomy before 70% midjejunoileal resection or transection and were fed orally or by total parenteral nutrition (TPN) for 7 days after surgery. Growth of residual bowel was assessed by changes in mucosal mass, protein, DNA, and histology. Both systemic and perivagal capsaicin significantly attenuated by 48-100% resection-induced increases in ileal mucosal mass, protein, and DNA in rats fed orally. Villus height was significantly reduced in resected rats given capsaicin compared with vehicle. Sucrase specific activity in jejunal mucosa was not significantly different; ileal mucosal sucrase specific activity was significantly increased by resection in capsaicin-treated rats. Capsaicin did not alter the 57% increase in ileal proglucagon mRNA or the 150% increase in plasma concentration of bioactive GLP-2 resulting from resection in orally fed rats. Ablation of spinal/splanchnic innervation by ganglionectomy failed to attenuate resection-induced adaptive growth. In TPN rats, capsaicin did not attenuate resection-induced mucosal growth. We conclude that vagal afferents are not essential for GLP-2 secretion when the ileum has direct contact with luminal nutrients after resection. In summary, vagal afferent neurons are essential for maximal resection-induced intestinal adaptation through a mechanism that appears to involve stimulation by luminal nutrients.

  20. Effect of Commiphora mukul gum resin on hepatic and renal marker enzymes, lipid peroxidation and antioxidants status in pancreas and heart in fructose fed insulin resistant rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Ramesh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to study the antioxidant efficacy of Commiphora mukul (C. mukul gum resin ethanolic extract in high fructose diet (HFD insulin resistant rats. The male Wistar albino rats were randomly divided into four groups of eight animals each; two of these groups (Control group [C] and Control treated with C. mukul [C + CM] were fed with standard pellet diet and the other two groups (Fructose fed rats [F-group] and fructose fed with C. mukul treated group [F + CM] were fed with high fructose diet (HFD (66%. C. mukul gum resin ethanolic extract (200 mg/kg body weight/day was administered orally to group C + CM and group F + CM. At the end of 60-day experimental period biochemical parameters related to antioxidant, oxidative stress marker enzymes and hepatic and renal marker enzymes of tissues were performed. The fructose fed rats showed increased level of enzymatic activities aspartate aminotransminases (AST, alanine aminotransminases (ALT in liver and kidney and oxidative markers like lipid peroxidation (LPO and protein oxidation (PO in pancreas and heart. Antioxidant enzyme activities were significantly decreased in the pancreas and heart compared to control groups. Administration of C. mukul (200 mg/kg bwt to fructose fed insulin resistant rats for 60 days significantly reversed the above parameters toward normal. In conclusion, our data indicate the preventive role of C. mukul against fructose-induced insulin resistance and oxidative stress; hence this plant could be used as an adjuvant therapy for the prevention and/or management of chronic diseases characterized by hyperinsulinemia, insulin resistance and aggravated antioxidant status.

  1. Hepcidin expression in the liver of rats fed a magnesium-deficient diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishizaki, Natsumi; Kotani, Megumi; Funaba, Masayuki; Matsui, Tohru

    2011-10-01

    Mg deficiency accelerates Fe accumulation in the liver, which may induce various metabolic disturbances. In the present study, we examined the gene expression of Hepcidin, a peptide hormone produced in the liver to regulate intestinal Fe absorption negatively, in Mg-deficient rats. Although liver Fe concentration was significantly higher in rats fed an Mg-deficient diet for 4 weeks than in rats fed a control diet, Hepcidin expression in the liver was comparable between the dietary groups. Previous studies revealed that Fe overload up-regulated Hepcidin expression through transcriptional activation by Fe-induced bone morphogenetic protein (Bmp) 6, a growth/differentiation factor belonging to the transforming growth factor-β family, in the liver. Mg deficiency up-regulated the expression of Bmp6 but did not affect the expression of inhibition of DNA binding 1, a sensitive Bmp-responsive gene. In addition, the expression of Bmp receptors such as activin receptor-like kinase 2 (Alk2), activin receptor type IIA (Actr2a), activin receptor type IIB (Actr2b) and Bmp type II receptor (Bmpr2) was lower in the liver of Mg-deficient rats than in that of control rats. The present study indicates that accumulation of hepatic Fe by Mg deficiency is a stimulant inducing Bmp6 expression but not Hepcidin expression by blunting Bmp signalling possibly resulting from down-regulation of the receptor expression. Unresponsive Hepcidin expression may have a role in Mg deficiency-induced changes related to increased liver Fe.

  2. Effect of TNF-alpha--converting enzyme inhibitor on insulin resistance in fructose-fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Togashi, Nobuhiko; Ura, Nobuyuki; Higashiura, Katsuhiro; Murakami, Hideyuki; Shimamoto, Kazuaki

    2002-02-01

    Insulin resistance is associated with hypertension, obesity, dyslipidemia, and type 2 diabetes. It is well known that tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha is one of the factors linked to obesity-induced insulin resistance; however, there have been no reports on the role of TNF-alpha in insulin resistance in nonobese insulin-resistant hypertensives. We tested the hypothesis that TNF-alpha affects insulin resistance in nonobese insulin-resistant hypertensive fructose-fed rats (FFR) and that a TNF-alpha--converting enzyme (TACE) inhibitor that blocks TNF-alpha secretion improves insulin resistance in FFR. Six-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed either standard chow (control) or fructose-rich chow (FFR) for 6 weeks. For the last two weeks of a six-week period of either diet, the rats were treated with a vehicle (control or FFR) or a TACE inhibitor (100 mg/kg/d of KB-R7785; FFR+TACE-I) in peritoneal injection. At the age of 12 weeks, insulin sensitivity was assessed in all conscious rats by the euglycemic hyperinsulinemic glucose clamp technique. While FFR had higher blood pressure than the control rats (Pobese models but also in nonobese insulin-resistant models.

  3. Influence of integral and decaffeinated coffee brews on metabolic parameters of rats fed with hiperlipidemic diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlia Ariana de Souza Gomes

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of integral and decaffeinated coffee brews (Coffea arabica L and C. canephora Pierre on the metabolic parameters of rats fed with hyperlipidemic diet. Thirty male Wistar rats (initial weight of 270 g ± 20 g were used in the study, which were divided into six groups five each. The treatments were normal diet, hyperlipidemic diet, hyperlipidemic diet associated with integral coffee arabica or canephora brews (7.2 mL/kg/day and hyperlipidemic diet associated to decaffeinated arabica, or canephora brews, using the same dosage. After 41 days, performance analyses were conducted.The rats were then euthanized and the carcasses were used for the analysis of dried ether extract and crude protein. Fractions of adipose tissue were processed for histological analysis. There was a reduction in weight gain and accumulation of lipids in the carcasses, lower diameter of adipocytes and a lower relative weight of the liver and kidneys of rats fed with hyperlipidemic diet associated with integral coffee brew. Integral coffee brew reduced the obesity in the rats receiving hyperlipidemic diet, but the same effect did not occur with the decaffeinated types.

  4. (-) Epigallocatechin Gallate (EGCG) Prevents Lipid Changes and Collagen Abnormalities in Chronic Ethanol-Fed Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaviarasan, S; Viswanathan, P; Ravichandran, M K; Anuradha, C V

    2008-01-01

    ABSTRACT The objective of the study is to examine the influence of (-) epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), a green tea component, on lipid and collagen abnormalities in chronic ethanol-fed rats. Solubility properties, aldehyde content, fluorescence, and peroxidation were analyzed in collagen samples isolated from liver. Chronic alcoholism (6 g/kg/day x 60 days) was associated with fatty liver and collagen accumulation. Significant alterations in the levels of lipids (cholesterol, phospholipids, free fatty acids, and triglycerides) and total collagen were observed in liver. Collagen obtained from ethanol-fed rats showed alterations in solubility properties, increased fluorescence, peroxidation, and aldehyde content. Coadministration of EGCG along with ethanol significantly reduced the levels of liver lipids and collagen, improved the solubility properties of collagen, and caused a reduction in cross-linking as evidenced by a decrease in fluorescence, peroxidation, and aldehyde content. Histology of liver sections of ethanol-fed rats showed accumulation of fat and collagen, which were largely prevented by EGCG administration. The possible mechanisms in the protective action of EGCG in alcoholic liver disease are suggested and discussed.

  5. Dietary (-)-epicatechin mitigates oxidative stress, NO metabolism alterations, and inflammation in renal cortex from fructose-fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince, Paula D; Lanzi, Cecilia Rodríguez; Toblli, Jorge E; Elesgaray, Rosana; Oteiza, Patricia I; Fraga, César G; Galleano, Monica

    2016-01-01

    High fructose consumption has been associated to deleterious metabolic conditions. In the kidney, high fructose causes renal alterations that contribute to the development of chronic kidney disease. Evidence suggests that dietary flavonoids have the ability to prevent/attenuate risk factors of chronic diseases. This work investigated the capacity of (-)-epicatechin to prevent the renal damage induced by high fructose consumption in rats. Male Sprague Dawley rats received 10% (w/v) fructose in the drinking water for 8 weeks, with or without supplementation with (-)-epicatechin (20mg/kg body weight/d) in the rat chow diet. Results showed that, in the presence of mild proteinuria, the renal cortex from fructose-fed rats exhibited fibrosis and decreases in nephrin, synaptopodin, and WT1, all indicators of podocyte function in association with: (i) increased markers of oxidative stress; (ii) modifications in the determinants of NO bioavailability, i.e., NO synthase (NOS) activity and expression; and (iii) development of a pro-inflammatory condition, manifested as NF-κB activation, and associated with high expression of TNFα, iNOS, and IL-6. Dietary supplementation with (-)-epicatechin prevented or ameliorated the adverse effects of high fructose consumption. These results suggest that (-)-epicatechin ingestion would benefit when renal alterations occur associated with inflammation or metabolic diseases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Bioavailability and metabolism of hydroxycinnamates in rats fed with durum wheat aleurone fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calani, Luca; Ounnas, Fayçal; Salen, Patricia; Demeilliers, Christine; Bresciani, Letizia; Scazzina, Francesca; Brighenti, Furio; Melegari, Camilla; Crozier, Alan; de Lorgeril, Michel; Del Rio, Daniele

    2014-08-01

    The consumption of wholemeal cereals has been associated with the reduced risk of several chronic diseases, and the mechanisms behind these protective effects may be linked, besides dietary fiber and micronutrients, to an increased intake of hydroxycinnamates contained in the bran. Among bran fractions, aleurone usually contains the highest concentration of ferulic acid and diferulic acid esters linked to arabinoxylans representing the most relevant subclasses. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the absorption of hydroxycinnamates by measuring the urinary metabolite profiles of rats fed with the two different aleurone fractions (the inner part of the aleurone, named wheat aleurone A, WA-A, and the outer part, named wheat aleurone B, WA-B). An acute feeding experiment with two rat groups consuming equivalent amounts of total ferulic acid from the different aleurone fractions was carried out to evaluate ferulic acid bioavailability as affected by different sources. A chronic feeding experiment was also conducted with two rat groups consuming the same amount of the two different aleurone fractions, carried out to investigate the short-term metabolism and absorption of aleurone phenolics. The results revealed higher increases in the 24 h-excretion of phenolic metabolites/catabolites in aleurone fed rats compared to rats fed with a regular diet. Specifically, in the chronic feeding, ferulic acid was more bioavailable when WA-A was ingested. Based on previous observations, demonstrating various positive physiological responses to ferulic acid and aleurone fractions characterized by higher phenolic bioavailability, our results indicate that the WA-A fraction has potentially interesting nutritional characteristics that might be used for the formulation of new wheat based products.

  7. Petroselinum crispum extract attenuates hepatic steatosis in rats fed with fructose enriched diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, V Yuneesha; Balakrishanan, N; Antony Santiago, J Victor

    2015-01-01

    Non alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common chronic liver disease and ongoing research efforts are focused on understanding the underlying pathophysiology of hepatic steatosis with the anticipation that these efforts will identify novel therapeutic targets. This study investigated the Petroselinum crispum extract in hepatic steatosis in rats fed with fructose enriched diet. Rats were divided into the 4 groups: Group 1 rats received standard pellet diet with corn starch for the entire experimental period of 8 weeks. Group 2 rats received standard pellet diet and 2 gm/kg body weight crude Parsley leaf ethanol extract for the entire experimental period of 8 weeks. Group 3 rats received modified fructose diet. Group 4 rats received modified fructose diet and 2gm/kg crude Parsley leaf ethanol extract. Hepatic function and structure was evaluated in these rats. Modified fructose diet produced dyslipidemia, hepatic steatosis and infiltration of inflammatory cells in the liver and higher plasma hepatic markers. Petroselinum crispum extract reversed metabolic changes such as abnormal crispum extract attenuated chronic changes in modified fructose diet induced NAFLD (Tab. 2, Fig. 3, Ref. 43).

  8. Effects of taurine supplementation on bone mineral density in ovariectomized rats fed calcium deficient diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Mi-Ja

    2009-01-01

    Taurine supplementation has been shown to have a beneficial effect on femur bone mineral content in ovariectomized rats. It therefore seemed desirable to find out whether the beneficial effect of taurine on ovariectomized rats fed calcium deficient diet could also be reproduced. Forty female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into two groups. One group was OVX and the other group received sham operation (SHAM), and received either control diet or a taurine supplemented diet for 6 weeks. All rats were fed on calcium deficient diet (AIN-93: 50% level of calcium) and deionized water. Bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC) were measured in spine and femur. The serum and urine concentrations of calcium and phosphorus were determined. Bone formation was measured by serum osteocalcin and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) concentrations. Bone resorption rate was measured by deoxypyridinoline (DPD) crosslinks immunoassay and corrected for creatinine. Urinary calcium and phosphorus excretion, osteocalcin in blood and cross link value were not significantly different among the groups. Within the OVX group, the taurine supplemented group had not higher femur bone mineral content than the control group. This study established the need for a study on the taurine effect on bone with different calcium levels.

  9. Proteomic analysis of 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE modified proteins in liver mitochondria from chronic ethanol-fed rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly K. Andringa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic ethanol-mediated oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation increases the levels of various reactive lipid species including 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE, which can subsequently modify proteins in the liver. It has been proposed that 4-HNE modification adversely affects the structure and/or function of mitochondrial proteins, thereby impairing mitochondrial metabolism. To determine whether chronic ethanol consumption increases levels of 4-HNE modified proteins in mitochondria, male rats were fed control and ethanol-containing diets for 5 weeks and mitochondrial samples were analyzed using complementary proteomic methods. Five protein bands (approx. 35, 45, 50, 70, and 90 kDa showed strong immunoreactivity for 4-HNE modified proteins in liver mitochondria from control and ethanol-fed rats when proteins were separated by standard 1D SDS-PAGE. Using high-resolution proteomic methods (2D IEF/SDS-PAGE and BN-PAGE we identified several mitochondrial proteins immunoreactive for 4-HNE, which included mitofilin, dimethylglycine dehydrogenase, choline dehydrogenase, electron transfer flavoprotein α, cytochrome c1, enoyl CoA hydratase, and cytochrome c. The electron transfer flavoprotein α consistently showed increased 4-HNE immunoreactivity in mitochondria from ethanol-fed rats as compared to mitochondria from the control group. Increased 4-HNE reactivity was also detected for dimethylglycine dehydrogenase, enoyl CoA hydratase, and cytochrome c in ethanol samples when mitochondria were analyzed by BN-PAGE. In summary, this work identifies new targets of 4-HNE modification in mitochondria and provides useful information needed to better understand the molecular mechanisms underpinning chronic ethanol-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and liver injury.

  10. DNA aptamer raised against advanced glycation end products (AGEs) improves glycemic control and decreases adipocyte size in fructose-fed rats by suppressing AGE-RAGE axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojima, A; Matsui, T; Nakamura, N; Higashimoto, Y; Ueda, S; Fukami, K; Okuda, S; Yamagishi, S

    2015-04-01

    Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) decrease adiponectin expression and suppress insulin signaling in cultured adipocytes through the interaction with a receptor for AGEs (RAGE) via oxidative stress generation. We have recently found that high-affinity DNA aptamer directed against AGE (AGE-aptamer) prevents the progression of experimental diabetic nephropathy by blocking the harmful actions of AGEs in the kidney. This study examined the effects of AGE-aptamer on adipocyte remodeling, AGE-RAGE-oxidative stress axis, and adiponectin expression in fructose-fed rats. Although AGE-aptamer treatment by an osmotic mini pump for 8 weeks did not affect serum insulin levels, it significantly decreased average fasting blood glucose and had a tendency to inhibit body weight gain in fructose-fed rats. Furthermore, AGE-aptamer significantly suppressed the increase in adipocyte size and prevented the elevation in AGEs, RAGE, and an oxidative stress marker, 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), levels in adipose tissues of fructose-fed rats at 14-week-old, while it restored the decrease in adiponectin mRNA levels. Our present study suggests that AGE-aptamer could improve glycemic control and prevent adipocyte remodeling in fructose-fed rats partly by suppressing the AGE-RAGE-mediated oxidative stress generation. AGE-aptamer might be a novel therapeutic strategy for fructose-induced metabolic derangements.

  11. The Anti-Nociceptive Effect of Aloe. Vera Aqueous Extract in Fructose-Fed Male Rats

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    Mohammad Reza Shahraki

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available A B S T R A C T Introduction: Aloe Vera extract is used as an anti-inflammatory and anti-bradikinin agent in laboratory animals. The aim of this survey was to evaluate the ant-nociceptive effect of A. Vera aqueous extract in fructose-fed male rats. Methods: Forty-five Wistar-Albino male rats were equally and randomly divided into five groups including sham operated and four test groups. Sham operated group consumed tap water and the test groups consumed fructoseenriched water. Test groups 2, 3 and 4 additionally received, 0, 100, 150 and 200 mg/kg of A. Vera extract, respectively, whereas the other test group received distilled water daily. Tail flick reaction time, serum glucose and oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT were measured. The results were analyzed by SPSS software using ANOVA and Tukey tests. Results were expressed as mean ± SD. Statistical differences were considered significant at p<0.05. Results: The results showed that tail flick reaction time significantly increased in test group 3 which received 200 mg/kg A. Vera extract comparing with that of sham operated group. However, OGTT and serum glucose value were significantly increased in all fructose-fed male rats comparing with those of sham operated group. Discussion: These results indicated that A. Vera aqueous extract can affect tail flick reaction time in fructose-fed male rats. Further studies are required to show the exact mechanism of anti-nociceptive effect of A. Vera extract.

  12. Effect of intermittent supplementation with selenate on selenium status of rats fed selenium-deficient diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugihara, Satoru; Fukunaga, Kenji; Nishiyama, Toshimasa; Yoshida, Munehiro

    2005-12-01

    To examine the selenium (Se) status of rats intermittently supplemented with Se, we measured tissue Se contents and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities in rats fed a Se-deficient diet intermittently supplemented with selenate. In experiment 1, four groups of male 4-wk-old Wistar rats were fed a Torula yeast-based Se-deficient diet (Se content, diet of each group was supplemented with sodium selenate (0.17 microg Se/g) for 0, 1, 2 or 7 d/wk. The tissue Se contents and GPx activities both increased gradually with an increase in frequency of the selenate supplementation, and significant linear regressions were observed between the frequency and these Se indices. In particular, the correlation coefficient in the liver and plasma indices was nearly equal to a value of 1.0. In experiment 2, three groups of rats were fed the Se-deficient basal diet for 28 d. Among these, one group was daily supplemented with sodium selenate to the Se-deficient diet at a level of 0.17 microg Se/g, and another group was intermittently supplemented with the selenate at a level of 1.19 microg Se/g for 1 d/wk. The tissue Se contents and GPx activities both were increased by the selenate supplementation and no significant difference was observed between daily and weekly supplementation in the Se indices except in erythrocyte Se. These results indicate that Se status in the growth period is dependent on total Se intake in this period and that weekly intermittent supplementation with Se can maintain adequate Se status.

  13. Fish Oil Reduces Hepatic Injury by Maintaining Normal Intestinal Permeability and Microbiota in Chronic Ethanol-Fed Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Jiun-Rong Chen; Ya-Ling Chen; Hsiang-Chi Peng; Yu-An Lu; Hsiao-Li Chuang; Hsiao-Yun Chang; Hsiao-Yun Wang; Yu-Ju Su; Suh-Ching Yang

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the ameliorative effects of fish oil on hepatic injury in ethanol-fed rats based on the intestinal permeability and microbiota. Rats were assigned to 6 groups and fed either a control diet or an ethanol diet such as C (control), CF25 (control with 25% fish oil), CF57 (control with 57% fish oil), E (ethanol), EF25 (ethanol with 25% fish oil), and EF57 (ethanol with 57% fish oil) groups. Rats were sacrificed at the end of 8 weeks. Plasma aspartate aminot...

  14. Effects of Arginine Supplementation on Amino Acid Profiles in Blood and Tissues in Fed and Overnight-Fasted Rats

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    Milan Holecek

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Chronic arginine intake is believed to have favorable effects on the body. However, it might be hypothesized that excessive consumption of an individual amino acid exerts adverse effects on distribution and metabolism of other amino acids. We evaluated the effect of chronic intake of arginine on amino acid concentrations in blood plasma, liver, kidneys, and soleus and extensor digitorum longus muscles. Rats were fed a standard diet or a high-arginine diet (HAD for two months. Half of the animals in each group were sacrificed in the fed state, and the other half after fasting overnight. HAD increased blood plasma concentrations of urea, creatinine, arginine, and ornithine and decreased most other amino acids. Arginine and ornithine also increased in muscles and kidneys; an increase of lysine was observed in both muscle types. Methionine, phenylalanine, threonine, asparagine, glycine, serine, and taurine decreased in most tissues of HAD fed animals. Most of the effects of HAD disappeared after overnight fasting. It is concluded that (i enhanced dietary arginine intake alters distribution of almost all amino acids; and (ii to attain a better assessment of the effects of various nutritional interventions, an appropriate number of biochemical measurements must be performed in both postprandial and postabsorptive states.

  15. Angiotensin-(1-7) Selectively Induces Relaxation and Modulates Endothelium-Dependent Dilation in Mesenteric Arteries of Salt-Fed Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffai, Gábor; Lombard, Julian H

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the acute effects of angiotensin-(1-7) and AVE0991 on active tone and vasodilator responses to bradykinin and acetylcholine in isolated mesenteric arteries from Sprague-Dawley rats fed a high-salt (HS; 4% NaCl) versus a normal salt (NS; 0.4% NaCl) diet. Angiotensin-(1-7) and AVE0991 elicited relaxation, and angiotensin-(1-7) unmasked vasodilator responses to bradykinin in arteries from HS-fed rats. These effects of angiotensin-(1-7) and AVE0991 were inhibited by endothelium removal, A779, PD123319, HOE140 and L-NAME. Angiotensin-(1-7) also restored the acetylcholine-induced relaxation that was suppressed by the HS diet. Vasodilator responses to bradykinin and acetylcholine in the presence of angiotensin-(1-7) were mimicked by captopril and the AT2 receptor agonist CGP42112 in arteries from HS-fed rats. Thus, in contrast to salt-induced impairment of vascular relaxation in response to vasodilator stimuli, angiotensin-(1-7) induces endothelium-dependent and NO-mediated relaxation, unmasks bradykinin responses via activation of mas and AT2 receptors, and restores acetylcholine-induced vasodilation in HS-fed rats. AT2 receptor activation and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition shared the ability of angiotensin-(1-7) to enhance bradykinin and acetylcholine responses in HS-fed rats. These findings suggest a therapeutic potential for mas and/or AT2 receptor activation and ACE inhibition in restoring endothelial function impaired by elevated dietary salt intake or other pathological conditions. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Steroid balance and tissue cholesterol accumulation in germfree and conventional rats fed diets containing saturated and polyunsaturated fats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellogg, T F

    1974-11-01

    Steroid balance studies were conducted on 24 conventional and 12 germfree male rats, 90-120 days old, fed diets containing either 20% safflower or 20% coconut oil. Both germfree and conventional rats fed the safflower oil diets had significantly lower serum cholesterol levels and significantly higher liver cholesterol levels than did the rats fed coconut oil. No significant differences in total fecal neutral sterols, coprostanol, Delta(7)-cholestenol, or total fecal bile acid excretion were seen between dietary groups of rats of either status. There was no evidence of qualitative differences in fecal bile acid excretion as a function of diet. The increased liver cholesterol was in the ester form, with cholesteryl linoleate the largest single component. There was no significant difference in the cholesterol content of the skin, muscle, adipose tissue, or gastrointestinal tract. The significance of a large increase in liver cholesteryl ester, lowered serum cholesterol, and no change in steroid excretion is discussed.

  17. Excess dietary vitamin E lowers the activities of antioxidative enzymes in erythrocytes of rats fed salmon oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eder, Klaus; Flader, Diana; Hirche, Frank; Brandsch, Corinna

    2002-11-01

    In vitro studies suggest that high vitamin E supplementation has prooxidative activity, but very few studies have investigated this effect in vivo. We investigated the effect of excess vitamin E on the antioxidative status of rat erythrocytes and indicators of hemolysis. Six groups of growing male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed purified diets with three different vitamin E doses [100, 1000 and 10,000 mg all-rac-alpha-tocopheryl acetate (TA)/kg diet] and two different dietary fats (salmon oil and lard) for 8 wk. The rats whose diet contained salmon oil and 10,000 mg TA/kg had lower activities of superoxide dismutase (P salmon oil diet with 100 or 10,000 mg TA/kg. In the rats whose diet contained lard, the activities of antioxidant enzymes in erythrocytes and indicators of in vivo hemolysis were independent of the dietary vitamin E concentration. The results of the study suggest that an excessive vitamin E intake, when combined with salmon oil in the diet, lowers the activities of antioxidant enzymes in erythrocytes without affecting in vivo hemolysis.

  18. Lymphatic absorption of α-linolenic acid in rats fed flaxseed oil-based emulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couëdelo, Leslie; Boué-Vaysse, Carole; Fonseca, Laurence; Montesinos, Emeline; Djoukitch, Sandrine; Combe, Nicole; Cansell, Maud

    2011-04-01

    The bioavailability of α-linolenic acid (ALA) from flaxseed oil in an emulsified form v. a non-emulsified form was investigated by using two complementary approaches: the first one dealt with the characterisation of the flaxseed oil emulsion in in vitro gastrointestinal-like conditions; the second one compared the intestinal absorption of ALA in rats fed the two forms of the oil. The in vitro study on emulsified flaxseed oil showed that decreasing the pH from 7·3 to 1·5 at the physiological temperature (37°C) induced instantaneous oil globule coalescence. Some phase separation was observed under acidic conditions that vanished after further neutralisation. The lecithin used to stabilise the emulsions inhibited TAG hydrolysis by pancreatic lipase. In contrast, lipid solubilisation by bile salts (after lipase and phospholipase hydrolysis) was favoured by preliminary oil emulsification. The in vivo absorption of ALA in thoracic lymph duct-cannulated rats fed flaxseed oil, emulsified or non-emulsified, was quantified. Oil emulsification significantly favoured the rate and extent of ALA recovery as measured by the maximum ALA concentration in the lymph (Cmax = 14 mg/ml at 3 h in the emulsion group v. 9 mg/ml at 5 h in the oil group; P v. 26 mg × h/ml for rats fed oil; P < 0·05). On the whole, ALA bioavailability was improved with flaxseed oil ingested in an emulsified state. Data obtained from the in vitro studies helped to partly interpret the physiological results.

  19. Exercise counteracts fatty liver disease in rats fed on fructose-rich diet

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    Voltarelli Fabrício A

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study aimed to analyze the effects of exercise at the aerobic/anaerobic transition on the markers of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD, insulin sensitivity and the blood chemistry of rats kept on a fructose-rich diet. Methods We separated 48 Wistar rats into two groups according to diet: a control group (balanced diet AIN-93 G and a fructose-rich diet group (60% fructose. The animals were tested for maximal lactate-steady state (MLSS in order to identify the aerobic/anaerobic metabolic transition during swimming exercises at 28 and 90 days of age. One third of the animals of each group were submitted to swimming training at an intensity equivalent to the individual MLSS for 1 hours/day, 5 days/week from 28 to 120 days (early protocol. Another third were submitted to the training from 90 to 120 days (late protocol, and the others remained sedentary. The main assays performed included an insulin tolerance test (ITT and tests of serum alanine aminotransferase [ALT] and aspartate aminotransferase [AST] activities, serum triglyceride concentrations [TG] and liver total lipid concentrations. Results The fructose-fed rats showed decreased insulin sensitivity, and the late-exercise training protocol counteracted this alteration. There was no difference between the groups in levels of serum ALT, whereas AST and liver lipids increased in the fructose-fed sedentary group when compared with the other groups. Serum triglycerides concentrations were higher in the fructose-fed trained groups when compared with the corresponding control group. Conclusions The late-training protocol was effective in restoring insulin sensitivity to acceptable standards. Considering the markers here evaluated, both training protocols were successful in preventing the emergence of non-alcoholic fatty liver status disease.

  20. Catalase in testes and epididymidis of wistar rats fed zinc deficient diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedwal, S; Prasad, S; Nair, N; Saini, M R; Bedwal, R S

    2009-01-01

    Catalase activities have been evaluated in testes and caput and cauda epididymis of Wistar rats fed on zinc deficient diet for 2 and 4 weeks. The enzyme activity has been measured as chromic acetate formed by heating of dichromate (in acetic acid) in presence of H(2) O(2) with perchromic acid as an unstable intermediate. Observed non-significant increase in catalase activity in testes as well as in caput and cauda epididymis of 2 weeks experiments has been related to low levels of H(2) O(2) produced in two organs whereas significant (Pspermatozoa in epididymis. Thus, zinc deficiency increases catalase activity in testes and epididymis.

  1. Catalase in testes and epididymidis of wistar rats fed zinc deficient diet

    OpenAIRE

    Bedwal S; Prasad S; Nair N; Saini M; Bedwal R

    2009-01-01

    Catalase activities have been evaluated in testes and caput and cauda epididymis of Wistar rats fed on zinc deficient diet for 2 and 4 weeks. The enzyme activity has been measured as chromic acetate formed by heating of dichromate (in acetic acid) in presence of H 2 O 2 with perchromic acid as an unstable intermediate. Observed non-significant increase in catalase activity in testes as well as in caput and cauda epididymis of 2 weeks experiments has been related to low levels of H 2 O 2 pro...

  2. Muscle and liver protein synthesis in growing rats fed diets containing raw legumes as the main source of protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goena, M.; Santidrian, S.; Cuevillas, F.; Larralde, J.

    1986-03-01

    Although legumes are widely used as protein sources, their effects on protein metabolism remain quite unexplored. The authors have measured the rates of gastrocnemius muscle and liver protein synthesis in growing rats fed ad libitum over periods of 12 days on diets containing raw field bean (Vicia faba L.), raw kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), and raw bitter vetch (Vicia ervilia L.) as the major sources of protein. Diets were isocaloric and contained about 12% protein. Protein synthesis was evaluated by the constant-intravenous-infusion method, using L-//sup 14/C/-tyrosine, as well as by the determination of the RNA-activity (g of newly synthesized protein/day/g RNA). Results showed that, as compared to well-fed control animals, those fed the raw legume diets exhibited a marked reduction in the rate of growth with no changes in the amount of food intake (per 100 g b.wt.). These changes were accompanied by a significant reduction in the rate of muscle protein synthesis in all legume-treated rats, being this reduction greater in the animals fed the Ph. vulgaris and V. ervilia diets. Liver protein synthesis was slightly higher in the rats fed the V. faba and V. ervilia diets, and smaller in the Ph. vulgaris-fed rats. It is suggested that both sulfur amino acid deficiency and the presence of different anti-nutritive factors in raw legumes may account for these effects.

  3. Detection of Riddelliine-Derived DNA Adducts in Blood of Rats Fed Riddelliine

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    Ming W. Chou

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: We have previously shown that riddelliine, a naturally occurring genotoxic pyrrolizidine alkaloid, induces liver tumors in rats and mice through a genotoxic mechanism mediated by the formation of a set of eight 6,7-dihydro-7-hydroxy-1-hydroxymethyl-5Hpyrrolizine ( DHP-derived DNA adducts. In this study we report the formation of these DHP-derived DNA adducts in blood DNA of rats fed riddelliine. In an adduct formation and removal experiment, male and female F344 rats (8 weeks of age were administered riddelliine by gavage at a single dose of 10.0 mg/kg body weight in 0.1 M phosphate buffer. At 8, 24, 48, and 168 hrs after dosing, the levels of DHP-derived DNA adduct in blood and liver were determined by 32P-postlabeling/HPLC. Maximum DNA adduct formation occurred at 48 hr after treatment. From 48 to 168 hours, the adduct levels in female rat blood were 4-fold greater than those in male rats. In a dose response experiment, female rats were gavaged 0.1 and 1.0 mg/kg doses of riddelliine for three consecutive days and the DHPderived DNA adducts in blood DNA were assayed. The levels of the DHP-derived DNA adducts in blood of rats receiving 0.1 and 1.0 mg/kg doses were 12.9 and 51.8 adducts/107 nucleotides. These results suggest that: (i leucocyte DNA can bind with DHP to form a set of DHP-derived DNA adducts generated in liver; (ii DHP-derived DNA adducts in blood can serve as a potential non-invasive biomarkers for assessing the exposure to riddelliine.

  4. Snack food intake in ad libitum fed rats is triggered by the combination of fat and carbohydrates

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    Tobias eHoch

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Snack food like potato chips substantially contributes to energy intake in humans. In contrast to basic food, snacks are consumed additionally to other meals and may thereby lead to non-homeostatic energy intake. Snack food is also frequently associated with hedonic hyperphagia, a food intake independent from hunger.Analysis of brain activity patterns by manganese-enhanced MRI has previously revealed that the intake of potato chips in ad libitum fed rats strongly activates the reward system of the rat brain, which may lead to hedonic hyperphagia. The purpose of the present study was to develop a two-choice preference test to identify molecular determinants of snack food triggering extra food intake in ad libitum fed rats. Different kinds of test food were presented three times a day for ten minutes each time. To minimize the influence of organoleptic properties, each test food was applied in a homogenous mixture with standard chow. Food intake as well as food intake-related locomotor activity were analyzed to evaluate the effects induced by the test foods in the two-choice preference test.In summary, fat (F, carbohydrates (CH, and a mixture of fat and carbohydrates (FCH led to a higher food intake compared to standard chow. Notably, potato chips (PC were highly significantly preferred over standard chow (STD and also over their single main macronutrients F and CH. Only FCH induced an intake comparable to PC. Despite their low energy density, fat-free potato chips (ffPC were also highly significantly preferred over STD and CH, but not over F, FCH and PC.Thus, it can be concluded that the combination of fat and carbohydrates is a major molecular determinant of potato chips triggering hedonic hyperphagia. The applied two-choice preference test will facilitate future studies on stimulating and suppressive effects of other food components on non-homeostatic food intake.

  5. Data on body weight and liver functionality in aged rats fed an enriched strawberry diet

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    Francesca Giampieri

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Here, we present new original data on the effects of strawberry consumption on body weight and liver status of aged rats. Wistar rats aged 19–21 months were fed a strawberry enriched diet prepared by substituting 15% of the total calories with freeze-dried strawberry powder for two months. Body weight, plasma biomarkers of liver injury (alanine transferase, aspartate aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase and liver histological analysis were assessed. These data indicate that strawberry supplementation did not interfere with normal animal maintenance and with liver structure and functionality. For further details and experimental findings please refer to the article “Strawberry consumption improves aging-associated impairments, mitochondrial biogenesis and functionality through the AMP-Activated Protein Kinase signaling cascade” in FOOD CHEMISTRY (Giampieri et al., 2017 [1].

  6. Behavioral analysis of Wistar rats fed with a flaxseed based diet added to an environmental enrichment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo de Meneses, J; Junqueira Lopes, C A; Coca Velarde, L G; Teles Boaventura, G

    2011-01-01

    Flaxseed has a high content of n-3 fatty acids and its intake associated with an environmental enrichment may promote distinct behavioral results upon habituation and animal behavior. This work aimed to evaluating animal behavior under the use of these two tools in the Open Field Test. Thirty-six male Wistar rats were divided into 6 groups (n = 6): FEEG, receiving chow made up of flaxseed and kept in enriched environment; FSEG, receiving flaxseed based diet and kept in a standard environment; CEEG, receiving casein based diet and kept in enriched environment; CSEG, receiving casein based chow and kept in standard environment; MCEEG, receiving chow made up of casein but modified so as to provide the same content of fibers and lipids found in flaxseed diet and kept in enriched environment; MCSEG, receiving modified casein based diet and kept in standard environment. All animals were kept under controlled temperature, collective cages and dark/light cycle, receiving chow and water ad libitum, except for MCEEG and MCSEG, which were pair fed with FEEG and FSEG, respectively. Chow intake and animal body weight were evaluated twice in a week. Animals were maintained in these groups from the first until the second month of life, by the time when 3 day tests in Open Field Test began. Finishing the tests, animals were sacrificed and their brains were obtained in order to calculate the relative brain weight. Our results show an interplay between flaxseed and environmental enrichment in habituation to a new environment, making the animals more manageable and less stressed.

  7. Reduced pain and inflammation in juvenile and adult rats fed a ketogenic diet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David N Ruskin

    Full Text Available The ketogenic diet is a high-fat, low-carbohydrate regimen that forces ketone-based rather than glucose-based cellular metabolism. Clinically, maintenance on a ketogenic diet has been proven effective in treating pediatric epilepsy and type II diabetes, and recent basic research provides evidence that ketogenic strategies offer promise in reducing brain injury. Cellular mechanisms hypothesized to be mobilized by ketone metabolism and underlying the success of ketogenic diet therapy, such as reduced reactive oxygen species and increased central adenosine, suggest that the ketolytic metabolism induced by the diet could reduce pain and inflammation. To test the effects of a ketone-based metabolism on pain and inflammation directly, we fed juvenile and adult rats a control diet (standard rodent chow or ketogenic diet (79% fat ad libitum for 3-4 weeks. We then quantified hindpaw thermal nociception as a pain measure and complete Freund's adjuvant-induced local hindpaw swelling and plasma extravasation (fluid movement from the vasculature as inflammation measures. Independent of age, maintenance on a ketogenic diet reduced the peripheral inflammatory response significantly as measured by paw swelling and plasma extravasation. The ketogenic diet also induced significant thermal hypoalgesia independent of age, shown by increased hindpaw withdrawal latency in the hotplate nociception test. Anti-inflammatory and hypoalgesic diet effects were generally more robust in juveniles. The ketogenic diet elevated plasma ketones similarly in both age groups, but caused slowed body growth only in juveniles. These data suggest that applying a ketogenic diet or exploiting cellular mechanisms associated with ketone-based metabolism offers new therapeutic opportunities for controlling pain and peripheral inflammation, and that such a metabolic strategy may offer significant benefits for children and adults.

  8. Reduced hepatic triglyceride secretion in rats fed docosahexaenoic acid-rich fish oil suppresses postprandial hypertriglyceridemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, I; Kumamaru, J; Nakatani, N; Sakono, M; Murota, I; Imaizumi, K

    2001-04-01

    To evaluate the mechanisms of suppression of postprandial hypertriglyceridemia by fish oil rich in docosahexaenoic acid, the effect on the intestinal absorption of triglyceride, activities of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and hepatic triglyceride lipase (HTGL) and metabolism of chylomicrons (CM) and CM remnants were compared with that of safflower oil in Sprague-Dawley rats in a series of studies. The feeding of fish oil for 3 wk suppressed postprandial hypertriglyceridemia (study 1). Dietary fish oil did not alter the rate of lymphatic absorption of triglyceride (study 2). The activities of LPL and HTGL were measured at 5 h after the beginning of feeding, when serum triglyceride concentrations were highest in both dietary groups. The activities of LPL in adipose tissue and heart were greater (P fish oil (study 3). In contrast, there were no differences in the activities of LPL and HTGL in postheparin plasma between the fish and safflower oil groups (study 4). The clearance rates of CM and CM remnants were measured by injecting intravenously CM collected from rats fed safflower or fish oils with [14C]triolein and [3H]cholesterol (study 5). Dietary oil did not influence the half-lives of CM or CM remnants. The secretion of triglyceride from the liver of rats injected with Triton WR-1339 was lower (P fish oil, than those fed linoleic acid, a major component of safflower oil (study 6). These observations strongly support the hypothesis that in rats, the principal cause of the suppression of postprandial hypertriglyceridemia by fish oil is the depression of triglyceride secretion from the liver.

  9. Impacts of peripheral obestatin on colonic motility and secretion in conscious fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C Y; Chien, E J; Chang, F Y; Lu, C L; Luo, J C; Lee, S D

    2008-09-01

    Obestatin, a novel putative 23-amino acid peptide, was found to be derived from a mammalian preproghrelin gene by using a bioinformatics approach. Although the effects of obestatin on food intake and upper gut motility remain controversial, no studies have been carried out to explore its influence on lower gut motility and secretion. We investigated the impacts of intravenous (IV) injection of obestatin on rat colonic motor and secretory functions. Colonic transit time, fecal pellet output, and fecal content were measured in freely fed, conscious rats, which were chronically implanted with IV and colonic catheters. To test the validity of this animal model, human/rat corticotropin-releasing factor (h/rCRF) served as a stimulatory inducer of colonic motility and secretion. IV injection of obestatin (45, 100, and 300 nmol/kg) did not affect the colonic transit time, whereas IV injection of h/rCRF (30 nmol/kg) effectively accelerated colonic transit time. IV obestatin, in every dose we tested, also did not modify fecal pellet output, frequency of watery diarrhea, total fecal weight, fecal dried solid weight, or fecal fluid weight in the first hour after injection. On the other hand, IV injection of h/rCRF significantly enhanced fecal pellet output, as well as increased the frequency of watery diarrhea, total fecal weight, fecal dried solid weight, and fecal fluid weight during the first hour after injection compared with IV saline controls. In conclusion, peripheral obestatin administration has no impact on colonic motility and secretion in conscious fed rats.

  10. Effects of Ramulus Uncariae et Uncus on body mass, food intake,serum glucose and total antioxidative ability of high-fat-fed obese rats%钩藤水煎剂对高脂性肥胖大鼠体质量、进食量、血糖、胰岛素及抗氧化能力的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗蓉; 金龙; 田雪松; 卫玉玲; 李伟; 郑天珍; 瞿颂义

    2005-01-01

    脂饮食组明显高于正常对照组和钩藤组(P<0.01).[3]摄食量:实验第1~7周末,钩藤组大鼠进食量均明显低于正常对照组(P<0.01);第3,5,6,7周末钩藤组明显低于高脂饮食组(P<0.05~0.01).[4]摄入热量:钩藤组第1,2,4周末明显高于正常对照组(P<0.05~0.01).第3,5,6,7周末钩藤组大鼠明显低于高脂饮食组(P<0.01).[5]空腹血糖:3组大鼠相近.[6]血胰岛素和丙二醛水平:高脂饮食组明显高于正常对照组和钩藤组(P<0.01).[7]游离脂肪酸水平:高脂饮食组明显高于正常对照组(P<0.05),与钩藤组相近.[8]总抗氧化力:高脂饮食组明显低于钩藤组(P<0.01).结论:[1]饮用钩藤水煎剂可明显抑制高脂性肥胖大鼠的体质量、进食量.[2]可降低高脂性肥胖大鼠自由基和血清胰岛素水平,且血清胰岛素水平降低可能是由于游离脂肪酸水平降低所致.[4]饮用钩藤水煎剂可增加高脂性肥胖大鼠的总抗氧化能力.%BACKGROUND: Ramulus Uncariae et Uncus can be used to treat many diseases of cardiovesculer and neurosystem by calming and protecting endothelium and neuron.OBJECTIVE: To study the effects of drinking water extracts of Ramulus Uncariae et Uncus on body mass, food intake, energy intakes, serum glucose, insulin, total antioxidative ability of high-fat-fed rats.DESIGN: A completely randomized and controlled experiment.SETTING: Institute of Physiology, Foundational Medical College of Lanzhou University.MATERIALS: The experiment which is Gansu Province Key Labor of Pre-clinical Research for Chinese Herbs & New Drugs was carried out at the Physiological Laboratory of Institute of Foundational Medical College of Lanzhou University from March 2003 to May 2003. Twenty-seven healthy male SD rats were randomly divided into the following three groups (9 rats each group): namely, the normal control group, the high-fat-fed group and the Ramulus Uncariae et Uncus group.METHODS: [1] The rats of control group

  11. Changes of condyle cartilage in orchidectomized rats fed with young coconut juice: Novel preliminary findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammadbakhoree Yusuh

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Androgens play a very important role in building the skeleton in young adults and help to prevent bone loss and osteoporosis in aging men. In addition, in elderly men, bone mass has been related to estrogen levels rather than to testosterone. Estrogen replacement therapy has, therefore, been proposed to prevent bone loss in males as well as in females. Estrogen,however, has been considered as one of the hormonal risk factors of benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer and also other side effects. Young coconut juice (YCJ, presumably containing phytoestrogen, was investigated in the present study for its possible beneficial effects on delaying osteoporosis using a male rat model, to replace estrogen replacement therapy. In this study, mandibular condylar cartilage was used as the osteoporotic model. We have found that total cartilage thickness, particularly the hypertrophic zone of mandibular condylar cartilage, was thickest in the sham-operated rats receiving YCJ orally fed for a 14-day period, compared with a sham orchidectomized, orchidectomized rats receiving estradiol benzoate, and orchidectomized rats receiving YCJ.

  12. Snack food intake in ad libitum fed rats is triggered by the combination of fat and carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoch, Tobias; Pischetsrieder, Monika; Hess, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Snack food like potato chips substantially contributes to energy intake in humans. In contrast to basic food, snacks are consumed additionally to other meals and may thereby lead to non-homeostatic energy intake. Snack food is also frequently associated with hedonic hyperphagia, a food intake independent from hunger. Analysis of brain activity patterns by manganese-enhanced MRI has previously revealed that the intake of potato chips in ad libitum fed rats strongly activates the reward system of the rat brain, which may lead to hedonic hyperphagia. The purpose of the present study was to develop a two-choice preference test to identify molecular determinants of snack food triggering extra food intake in ad libitum fed rats. Different kinds of test food were presented three times a day for 10 min each time. To minimize the influence of organoleptic properties, each test food was applied in a homogenous mixture with standard chow. Food intake as well as food intake-related locomotor activity were analyzed to evaluate the effects induced by the test foods in the two-choice preference test. In summary, fat (F), carbohydrates (CH), and a mixture of fat and carbohydrates (FCH) led to a higher food intake compared to standard chow. Notably, potato chip test food (PC) was highly significantly preferred over standard chow (STD) and also over their single main macronutrients F and CH. Only FCH induced an intake comparable to PC. Despite its low energy density, fat-free potato chip test food (ffPC) was also significantly preferred over STD and CH, but not over F, FCH, and PC. Thus, it can be concluded that the combination of fat and carbohydrates is a major molecular determinant of potato chips triggering hedonic hyperphagia. The applied two-choice preference test will facilitate future studies on stimulating and suppressive effects of other food components on non-homeostatic food intake.

  13. Membrane physical properties do not explain increased cyclic AMP production in hepatocytes from rats fed menhaden oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizeau, M E; Hazel, J R

    2000-06-01

    To study the effect of altering plasma membrane fatty acid composition on the glucagon signal transduction pathway, cAMP accumulation was measured in hepatocytes from rats fed diets containing either menhaden oil (MO) or coconut oil (CO). Hepatocytes from MO-fed animals produced significantly more cAMP in response to glucagon and forskolin compared to CO-fed animals. Glucagon receptor number and affinity were similar in MO- and CO-fed rats. Liver plasma membranes from MO-fed animals were enriched in long-chain n-3 fatty acids and contained significantly lower amounts of saturated C10-C16 and 18:1n-9 than CO-fed animals. Membrane physical properties were examined using both Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and the fluorescent probe 1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene (DPH). FTIR analysis revealed that below 34 degrees C, CO membranes were more ordered than MO membranes. However, as assay temperature approached 37 degrees C, MO and CO membranes became similarly ordered. DPH polarization values indicated no differences in membrane order at 37 degrees C, whereas membrane order was decreased in CO-fed animals at 25 degrees C. These data indicate the importance of assay temperature in assessing the influence of membrane physical properties on the activity of signal transduction pathways. Whereas increased signal transduction activity has been correlated to reduced membrane order in MO-fed animals, these data indicate that at physiological temperatures membrane order did not vary between groups. Enhanced cAMP accumulation in response to forskolin indicates that adenylate cyclase activity or content may be elevated in MO- vs. CO-fed rats. Enhanced adenylate cyclase activity may result, in part, from changes in specific fatty acids in hepatocyte plasma membranes without demonstrable changes in membrane physical properties.

  14. Dietary fish oil reverse epididymal tissue adiposity, cell hypertrophy and insulin resistance in dyslipemic sucrose fed rat model small star, filled.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soria, Ana; Chicco, Adriana; Eugenia D'Alessandro, María; Rossi, Andrea; Lombardo, Yolanda B.

    2002-04-01

    The present work was designed to assess the possible benefits of (7% w/w) dietary fish oil in reversing the morphological and metabolic changes present in the adipose tissue of rats fed an SRD for a long time. With this purpose, in the epididymal fat tissue, we investigated the effect of dietary fish oil upon: i) the number, size and distribution of cells, ii) the basal and stimulated lipolysis, iii) the lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and the glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase activities, and iv) the antilipolytic action of insulin. The study was conducted on rats fed an SRD during 120 days with fish oil being isocaloric substituted for corn oil for 90-120 days in half the animals. Permanent hypertriglyceridemia, insulin resistance and abnormal glucose homeostasis were present in the rats before the source of fat in the diet was replaced. The major new findings of this study are the following: i) Dietary fish oil markedly reduced the fat pads mass, the hypertrophy of fat cells and improved the altered cell size distribution. ii) The presence of fish oil in the diet corrected the inhibitory effect of high sucrose diet upon the antilipolytic action of insulin, reduced the "in vitro" enhanced basal lipolysis and normalized isoproterenol-stimulated lipolysis. Fat pads lipoprotein lipase activity decreased reaching values similar to those observed in age-matched controls fed a control diet (CD). These effects were not accompanied by any change in rat body weight. All these data suggest that the dyslipemic rats fed a moderate amount of dietary fish oil constitute a useful animal model to study diet-regulated insulin action.

  15. Changes in collagens and chondrocytes in the temporomandibular joint cartilage in growing rats fed a liquid diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uekita, Hiroki; Takahashi, Shigeru; Domon, Takanori; Yamaguchi, Taihiko

    2015-11-01

    The temporomandibular joint (TMJ) of growing rats fed a soft diet is reported to be smaller in size and to have thinner condyle and glenoid fossa cartilage than rats fed a solid diet. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of a soft diet on the collagens and chondrocytes in the growing TMJ cartilage. Forty-eight male Wistar rats were divided into a control group fed a solid diet and an experimental group fed a liquid diet for 1-8 weeks. After the experimental period, the TMJs were harvested and examined histologically, immunohistochemically for collagen types I, II, and X, and with transmission electron microscopy. The condylar cartilage in the experimental rats showed weak immunoreactions for three types of collagens compared with the controls. The ultrastructure had fewer fine collagen fibrils in the experimental rats compared with that of the controls. The glenoid fossa cartilage in the experimental rats showed narrower Alcian blue-positive areas than the control staining. The immunoreactions for three types of collagen in the experimental rats were also weaker than those of the controls. The chondrocytes in the experimental rats appeared dark, had extended thin cytoplasmic processes, and had formed gap junctions, as assessed by transmission electron microscopy. Fewer fine collagen fibrils, but thick bands of collagen fibrils were observed in the glenoid fossa of the experimental cartilage. The results of the present study showed that a liquid diet had deleterious effects on the quality and quantity of collagens and chondrocytes in the TMJ cartilage in growing rats.

  16. Ameliorating effect of olive oil on fertility of male rats fed on genetically modified soya bean

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    Thanaa A. F. El-Kholy

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Genetically modified soya bean (GMSB is a commercialized food. It has been shown to have adverse effects on fertility in animal trials. Extra virgin olive oil (EVOO has many beneficial effects including anti-oxidant properties. The aim of this study is to elucidate if addition of EVOO ameliorates the adverse effects on reproductive organs of rats fed on GMSB containing diet. Methods: Forty adult male albino rats (150–180 g of Sprague Dawley strain were separated into four groups of 10 rats each: Group 1 – control group fed on basal ration, Group 2 – fed on basal ration mixed with EVOO (30%, Group 3 – fed on basal ration mixed with GMSB (15%, and Group 4 – fed on basal ration mixed with GMSB (15% and EVOO (30%. This feeding regimen was administered for 65 days. Blood samples were collected to analyze serum zinc, vitamin E, and testosterone levels. Histopathological and weight changes in sex organs were evaluated. Results: GMSB diet reduced weight of testis (0.66±0.06 vs. 1.7±0.06, p<0.001, epididymis (0.489±0.03 vs. 0.7±0.03, p<0.001, prostate (0.04±0.009 vs. 0.68±0.04, p<0.001, and seminal vesicles (0.057±0.01 vs. 0.8±0.04, p<0.001. GMSB diet adversely affected sperm count (406±7.1 vs. 610±7.8, p<0.001, motility (p<0.001, and abnormality (p<0.001. GMSB diet also reduced serum zinc (p<0.05, vitamin E (p<0.05, and testosterone (p<0.05 concentrations. EVOO diet had no detrimental effect. Addition of EVOO to GMSB diet increased the serum zinc (p<0.05, vitamin E (p<0.05, and testosterone (p<0.05 levels and also restored the weights of testis (1.35±0.16 vs. 0.66±0.06, p<0.01, epididymis (0.614±0.13 vs. 0.489±0.03, p<0.001, prostate (0.291±0.09 vs. 0.04±0.009, p<0.001, seminal vesicle (0.516±0.18 vs. 0.057±0.01, p<0.001 along with sperm count (516±3.1 vs. 406±7.1, p<0.01, motility (p<0.01, and abnormality (p<0.05. Conclusion: EVOO ameliorates the adverse effects of GMSB on reproductive organs in adult male

  17. Evaluation of some selected blood parameters and histopathology of liver and kidney of rats fed protein-substituted mucuna flour and derived protein rich product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngatchic, Josiane Therese Metsagang; Sokeng, Selestion Dongmo; Njintang, Nicolas Yanou; Maoundombaye, Theophile; Oben, Julius; Mbofung, Carl Moses F

    2013-07-01

    This comparative study reports the nutritional and toxicological characteristics of Mucuna pruriens flour and a protein-rich product developed from it. The protein-rich mucuna product (PRMP) was obtained by the three steps procedure: protein solubilization, heat-coagulation and sieving. Three weeks rats (n=6 per group) were fed for 28 days on standard protein-substituted rat feed with mucuna flour or PRMP. The experimental design was a factorial design with three mucuna accessions (Velvet, Black and White) and two treatments (flour and PRMP). The protein content ranged 27.2-31.5 g/100 g for flour and 58.8-61.1% for PRMP. Processing flour into PRMP led to a significant (pKidneys glomerular sclerosis and high creatinine levels were observed in group fed mucuna flour. PRMP then represents a good alternative of using mucuna proteins for human nutrition.

  18. Overexpression of Interleukin-18 Aggravates Cardiac Fibrosis and Diastolic Dysfunction in Fructose-Fed Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Shan-Shan; Bi, Xiu-Ping; Tan, Hong-Wei; Zhang, Yun; Xing, Qi-Chong; Zhang, Wei

    2010-01-01

    Inflammation plays an important role in the pathophysiology of the metabolic syndrome (MS). We determined whether the overexpression of interleukin (IL)-18 could aggravate left ventricular (LV) remodeling and diastolic dysfunction in fructose-fed rats (FFRs). To create an animal model for MS, male Wistar rats received 10% fructose in water for 8 months. We used an adenovirus encoding rat IL-18 to overexpress IL-18 in FFRs by intravenous administration. IL-18 overexpression led to increases in collagen volume fraction and collagen deposition. LV systolic function was unaltered. But the LV end-diastolic pressure and the time constant of isovolumic relaxation (tau) were increased. Peak negative value of time derivative of LV pressure (−dp/dt) was decreased. Isovolumic relaxation time and myocardial index, as assessed by echocardiography, were increased. Overexpression of IL-18 leads to aggravated LV remodeling and dysfunction in FFRs. Attenuation of the inflammatory process may provide a novel therapeutic strategy in treating metabolic cardiomyopathy. PMID:20644901

  19. Garlic and Onion Attenuates Vascular Inflammation and Oxidative Stress in Fructose-Fed Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazquez-Prieto, Marcela Alejandra; Rodriguez Lanzi, Cecilia; Lembo, Carina; Galmarini, Claudio Rómulo; Miatello, Roberto Miguel

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluates the antioxidant and the anti-inflammatory properties of garlic (G) and onion (O) in fructose-fed rats (FFR). Thirty-day-old male Wistar rats were assigned to control (C), F (10% fructose in drinking water), F+T (tempol 1 mM as control antioxidant), F+G, and F+O. Aqueous G and O extracts were administered orally in doses of 150 and 400 mg/kg/d respectively, and along with tempol, were given during the last 8 weeks of a 14-week period. At the end of the study, FFR had developed insulin resistance, aortic NADPH oxidase activity, increased SBP, plasma TBARS and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) expression in mesenteric arteries, and a decrease in heart endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS). Garlic and onion administration to F rats reduced oxidative stress, increased eNOS activity, and also attenuated VCAM-1 expression. These results provide new evidence showing the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effect of these vegetables. PMID:21876795

  20. Salt loading in canola oil fed SHRSP rats induces endothelial dysfunction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annateresa Papazzo

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine if 50 days of canola oil intake in the absence or presence of salt loading affects: (1 antioxidant and oxidative stress markers, (2 aortic mRNA of NADPH oxidase (NOX subunits and superoxide dismutase (SOD isoforms and (3 endothelial function in SHRSP rats. SHRSP rats were fed a diet containing 10 wt/wt% soybean oil or 10 wt/wt% canola oil, and given tap water or water containing 1% NaCl for 50 days. Without salt, canola oil significantly increased RBC SOD, plasma cholesterol and triglycerides, aortic p22 (phox , NOX2 and CuZn-SOD mRNA, and decreased RBC glutathione peroxidase activity. With salt, canola oil reduced RBC SOD and catalase activity, LDL-C, and p22 (phox mRNA compared with canola oil alone, whereas plasma malondialdehyde (MDA was reduced and RBC MDA and LDL-C were higher. With salt, the canola oil group had significantly reduced endothelium-dependent vasodilating responses to ACh and contractile responses to norepinephrine compared with the canola oil group without salt and to the WKY rats. These results indicate that ingestion of canola oil increases O2 (- generation, and that canola oil ingestion in combination with salt leads to endothelial dysfunction in the SHRSP model.

  1. HISTOPATHOLOGICAL STUDIES OF LIVER FUNCTION IN RATS FED ON GINGER LILLY CORM MEAL

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    UGWU OKECHUKWU P.C

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of feeding Gladiolus unguiculata corm on a few liver function markers were evaluated in this study using albino Wistar rats. Twenty rats were randomly divided into four groups of five rats each. Various concentration of G. unguiculata formulations were fed to the test groups excluding the negative control which received normal feed for the 28 days of analysis. At the end of the feeding period the levels of the serum liver function markers of Aspartate aminotransferase (AST, Alanine aminotransferase (ALT, Alkaline phosphatase (ALP and Protein were determined. Mean serum liver function markers were all increased when compared with the control with only AST liver marker deviating. The ALT activity increased from 36.0 + 3.16 in the control to 38.0 + 3.16 in 20%. The AST significantly increased (p<0.05 from 66.0 + 3.16 in the 20% to 88.0 + 3.16 in the control group. ALP significantly increased from 47.0 +3.16 in the control group to 56.0 + 3.16 in 20%. Protein also increased from 7.0 +0.316 in the control group to 7.8 +0.316 in 20%. The results emanating from this study suggest that Gladiolus unguiculata corm formulations might have some deleterious effects on the liver function.

  2. Garlic and Onion Attenuates Vascular Inflammation and Oxidative Stress in Fructose-Fed Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Alejandra Vazquez-Prieto

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the antioxidant and the anti-inflammatory properties of garlic (G and onion (O in fructose-fed rats (FFR. Thirty-day-old male Wistar rats were assigned to control (C, F (10% fructose in drinking water, F+T (tempol 1 mM as control antioxidant, F+G, and F+O. Aqueous G and O extracts were administered orally in doses of 150 and 400 mg/kg/d respectively, and along with tempol, were given during the last 8 weeks of a 14-week period. At the end of the study, FFR had developed insulin resistance, aortic NADPH oxidase activity, increased SBP, plasma TBARS and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1 expression in mesenteric arteries, and a decrease in heart endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS. Garlic and onion administration to F rats reduced oxidative stress, increased eNOS activity, and also attenuated VCAM-1 expression. These results provide new evidence showing the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effect of these vegetables.

  3. Circadian Mechanisms of Food Anticipatory Rhythms in Rats Fed Once or Twice Daily: Clock Gene and Endocrine Correlates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, Danica F.; Katsuyama, Ângela M.; Pavlovski, Ilya; Michalik, Mateusz; Patterson, Zachary; Parfyonov, Maksim; Smit, Andrea N.; Marchant, Elliott G.; Chung, John; Abizaid, Alfonso; Storch, Kai-Florian; de la Iglesia, Horacio; Mistlberger, Ralph E.

    2014-01-01

    Circadian clocks in many brain regions and peripheral tissues are entrained by the daily rhythm of food intake. Clocks in one or more of these locations generate a daily rhythm of locomotor activity that anticipates a regular mealtime. Rats and mice can also anticipate two daily meals. Whether this involves 1 or 2 circadian clocks is unknown. To gain insight into how the circadian system adjusts to 2 daily mealtimes, male rats in a 12∶12 light-dark cycle were fed a 2 h meal either 4 h after lights-on or 4 h after lights-off, or a 1 h meal at both times. After 30 days, brain, blood, adrenal and stomach tissue were collected at 6 time points. Multiple clock genes from adrenals and stomachs were assayed by RT-PCR. Blood was assayed for corticosterone and ghrelin. Bmal1 expression was quantified in 14 brain regions by in situ hybridization. Clock gene rhythms in adrenal and stomach from day-fed rats oscillated in antiphase with the rhythms in night-fed rats, and at an intermediate phase in rats fed twice daily. Corticosterone and ghrelin in 1-meal rats peaked at or prior to the expected mealtime. In 2-meal rats, corticosterone peaked only prior the nighttime meal, while ghrelin peaked prior to the daytime meal and then remained elevated. The olfactory bulb, nucleus accumbens, dorsal striatum, cerebellum and arcuate nucleus exhibited significant daily rhythms of Bmal1 in the night-fed groups that were approximately in antiphase in the day-fed groups, and at intermediate levels (arrhythmic) in rats anticipating 2 daily meals. The dissociations between anticipatory activity and the peripheral clocks and hormones in rats anticipating 2 daily meals argue against a role for these signals in the timing of behavioral rhythms. The absence of rhythmicity at the tissue level in brain regions from rats anticipating 2 daily meals support behavioral evidence that circadian clock cells in these tissues may reorganize into two populations coupled to different meals. PMID:25502949

  4. Identification of The First Limiting Amino Acid In Cooked Polished White Rice Fed To Weanling Holtzman Rats

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    Mellova Masrizal

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Forty-eight male weanling rats (91 g were utilized to study the nutritional adequacy of cooked polished white rice. Rats were individually housed, and allowed ad libitum access to one of six treatment diets. Treatment diets were 1 polished white rice plus 10% casein and 0.18% methionine, CAS, 2 polished white rice, WHR, 3 polished white rice plus 0.45% lysine, LYS, 4 polished white rice plus0.40% methionine, MET, 5 polished white rice plus 0.30% threonine, THR, 6 polished white rice plus 0.45% lysine, 0.40% methionine, and 0.40% threonine, COM. Rice was cooked prior diet formulation using a 3 to 1 ratio of water to rice. Vitamins (AIN-76 and AIN minerals were added to all diets to meet NRC (1978 requirements. Rats fed CAS diets were significantly heavier on d 21 (P<0.05 than rats on COM, LYS, MET, THR, or WHR diets, (219.9 vs. 171.6, 153.2, 153.2, 148.3, or 155.4 g respectively. Supplementation of the most deficient essential amino acids, lysine (LYS or methionine (MET did not improve (P>0.05 rat performance over WHR fed rats, Average daily gain (ADG for CAS was 6.1 g/d and ADG for LYS and MET was 3.0 g/d. The addition of threonine (THR significantly (P<0.05 reduced ADG when compared to WHR diets (2.7 vs. 3.0 g/d. When rats were fed to COM diet significant (P<0.05 improvement in ADG was observed compared to WHR fed rats (4.8 vs. 3.0 g/d. The increased gains achieved with COM diet and the poor gains observed with the single amino acid diets (LYS, MET, or THR would suggest that polished white rice is limiting in more than one essential amino acid.

  5. Muscle protein turnover in rats treated with corticosterone (CC) or/and nandrolone decanoate (ND) and fed an adequate or a low-protein diet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santidrian, S.; Cuevillas, F.; Goena, M.; Larralde, J.

    1986-03-01

    In order to investigate the possible antagonistic effect between glucocorticoids and androgens on muscle protein turnover, the authors have measured the fractional rates of gastrocnemius muscle protein synthesis (k/sub s/) and degradation (k/sub d/) by the constant-intravenous-infusion method using L-//sup 14/C/-tyrosine in rats receiving via s.c. per 100 g b.wt. 10 mg of CC, or 2 mg of ND or CC+ND at the indicated doses, and fed either an 18% or 5% protein diets over a period of 5 days. As an additional index of protein synthesis, RNA activity (g of synthesized protein/day/g RNA) was determined as well. Results showed that as compared to vehicle-injected animals fed the adequate diet, CC-treated rats exhibited a reduction of muscle k/sub d/, while ND-treated rats had an outstanding increase of muscle k/sub s/. However, rats receiving CC+ND showed k/sub s/ and k/sub d/ values similar to those displayed by control animals. Nevertheless, when the steroids were injected to rats fed the low-protein diet, CC has a catabolic effect on muscle protein but by reducing k/sub s/, while the anabolic action of ND is still displayed but by a significant reduction of muscle k/sub d/. CC+ND given to these protein-deficient rats caused an increase in muscle k/sub s/ and a reduction in k/sub d/. These results might indicate that, at least in part, ND antagonizes the catabolic action of high doses of CC on muscle protein metabolism.

  6. [Depression-like and anxiety-related behaviour of rats fed with magnesium-deficient diet].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spasov, A A; Iezhitsa, I N; Kharitonova, M V; Kravchenko, M S

    2008-01-01

    The aims of this study were to estimate of psychomotor activity, emotional status and magnesium (Mg) content in blood of rats fed with Mg-deficient diet for 49 days; and to find out whether the combination of vitamin B6 with Mg will reveal antidepressant- and anxiolytic-like activity and reduce the length of the treatment needed to recover rats from Mg-deficient condition. To induce hypomagnesemia, seventy-nine rats were placed on a Mg-deficient diet (Mg content pyridoxine, MgCl2 x 6H2O alone and in combination with pyridoxine, Magne B6 (Mg lactate with pyridoxine) and Mg sulfate (50 mg Mg and 5 mg vitamin B6 per kg). In our study Mg-deficiency was associated with depleted intraerythrocytic (0.748 +/- 0.036 vs. 1.83 +/- 0.026 mmol/l, p depression-like and anxiety-related behavior in rats. Open field test result in rats including locomotor activity (number of crossed squares) and vertical activity (number of standing on hind paws), number of visiting in central squares were decreased significantly. In the elevated plus maze test, the number of visiting open arms (by 63.6%) and residence time (by 78.5%) of rats were significantly less as compared with the control group. In the forced swimming test, time immobile was significantly increased (by 70.2%) and time of swimming was decreased (by 15%) compared to control. Mg salts alone and in combination with vitamin B6 administered to Mg-deficient rats increased the Mg level in plasma and erythrocytes. Furthermore, this increase was in relation to vitamin B6 given to the animal. It was established, that the application of Mg L-aspartate and MgCl2 x 6H2O in combinations with pyridoxine led to correction of behavioural disturbances of Mg-deficient animals. Antidepressant- and anxiolytic-like activity of studied salts was comparable with those observed in Magne B6 treatment and significantly higher than in Mg sulfate treatment.

  7. Catalase in testes and epididymidis of wistar rats fed zinc deficient diet

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    Bedwal S

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Catalase activities have been evaluated in testes and caput and cauda epididymis of Wistar rats fed on zinc deficient diet for 2 and 4 weeks. The enzyme activity has been measured as chromic acetate formed by heating of dichromate (in acetic acid in presence of H 2 O 2 with perchromic acid as an unstable intermediate. Observed non-significant increase in catalase activity in testes as well as in caput and cauda epididymis of 2 weeks experiments has been related to low levels of H 2 O 2 produced in two organs whereas significant (P< 0.01/0.001 increase in catalase activity in 4-weeks experiments indicate for increased oxidative stress due to phagocytotic activity of Sertoli cells in testes and damaged spermatozoa in epididymis. Thus, zinc deficiency increases catalase activity in testes and epididymis.

  8. Beneficial Effects of Calcitriol on Hypertension, Glucose Intolerance, Impairment of Endothelium-Dependent Vascular Relaxation, and Visceral Adiposity in Fructose-Fed Hypertensive Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Chu-Lin; Pang, Cheng-Yoong; Lee, Tony J. F.; Fang, Te-Chao

    2015-01-01

    Besides regulating calcium homeostasis, the effects of vitamin D on vascular tone and metabolic disturbances remain scarce in the literature despite an increase intake with high-fructose corn syrup worldwide. We investigated the effects of calcitriol, an active form of vitamin D, on vascular relaxation, glucose tolerance, and visceral fat pads in fructose-fed rats. Male Wistar-Kyoto rats were divided into 4 groups (n = 6 per group). Group Con: standard chow diet for 8 weeks; Group Fru: high-fructose diet (60% fructose) for 8 weeks; Group Fru-HVD: high-fructose diet as Group Fru, high-dose calcitriol treatment (20 ng / 100 g body weight per day) 4 weeks after the beginning of fructose feeding; and Group Fru-LVD: high-fructose diet as Group Fru, low-dose calcitriol treatment (10 ng / 100 g body weight per day) 4 weeks after the beginning of fructose feeding. Systolic blood pressure was measured twice a week by the tail-cuff method. Blood was examined for serum ionized calcium, phosphate, creatinine, glucose, triglycerides, and total cholesterol. Intra-peritoneal glucose intolerance test, aortic vascular reactivity, the weight of visceral fat pads, adipose size, and adipose angiotensin II levels were analyzed at the end of the study. The results showed that the fructose-fed rats significantly developed hypertension, impaired glucose tolerance, heavier weight and larger adipose size of visceral fat pads, and raised adipose angiotensin II expressions compared with the control rats. High- and low-dose calcitriol reduced modestly systolic blood pressure, increased endothelium-dependent aortic relaxation, ameliorated glucose intolerance, reduced the weight and adipose size of visceral fat pads, and lowered adipose angiotensin II expressions in the fructose-fed rats. However, high-dose calcitriol treatment mildly increased serum ionized calcium levels (1.44 ± 0.05 mmol/L). These results suggest a protective role of calcitriol treatment on endothelial function, glucose

  9. Beneficial effects of calcitriol on hypertension, glucose intolerance, impairment of endothelium-dependent vascular relaxation, and visceral adiposity in fructose-fed hypertensive rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chu-Lin Chou

    Full Text Available Besides regulating calcium homeostasis, the effects of vitamin D on vascular tone and metabolic disturbances remain scarce in the literature despite an increase intake with high-fructose corn syrup worldwide. We investigated the effects of calcitriol, an active form of vitamin D, on vascular relaxation, glucose tolerance, and visceral fat pads in fructose-fed rats. Male Wistar-Kyoto rats were divided into 4 groups (n = 6 per group. Group Con: standard chow diet for 8 weeks; Group Fru: high-fructose diet (60% fructose for 8 weeks; Group Fru-HVD: high-fructose diet as Group Fru, high-dose calcitriol treatment (20 ng / 100 g body weight per day 4 weeks after the beginning of fructose feeding; and Group Fru-LVD: high-fructose diet as Group Fru, low-dose calcitriol treatment (10 ng / 100 g body weight per day 4 weeks after the beginning of fructose feeding. Systolic blood pressure was measured twice a week by the tail-cuff method. Blood was examined for serum ionized calcium, phosphate, creatinine, glucose, triglycerides, and total cholesterol. Intra-peritoneal glucose intolerance test, aortic vascular reactivity, the weight of visceral fat pads, adipose size, and adipose angiotensin II levels were analyzed at the end of the study. The results showed that the fructose-fed rats significantly developed hypertension, impaired glucose tolerance, heavier weight and larger adipose size of visceral fat pads, and raised adipose angiotensin II expressions compared with the control rats. High- and low-dose calcitriol reduced modestly systolic blood pressure, increased endothelium-dependent aortic relaxation, ameliorated glucose intolerance, reduced the weight and adipose size of visceral fat pads, and lowered adipose angiotensin II expressions in the fructose-fed rats. However, high-dose calcitriol treatment mildly increased serum ionized calcium levels (1.44 ± 0.05 mmol/L. These results suggest a protective role of calcitriol treatment on endothelial

  10. Beneficial effects of calcitriol on hypertension, glucose intolerance, impairment of endothelium-dependent vascular relaxation, and visceral adiposity in fructose-fed hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Chu-Lin; Pang, Cheng-Yoong; Lee, Tony J F; Fang, Te-Chao

    2015-01-01

    Besides regulating calcium homeostasis, the effects of vitamin D on vascular tone and metabolic disturbances remain scarce in the literature despite an increase intake with high-fructose corn syrup worldwide. We investigated the effects of calcitriol, an active form of vitamin D, on vascular relaxation, glucose tolerance, and visceral fat pads in fructose-fed rats. Male Wistar-Kyoto rats were divided into 4 groups (n = 6 per group). Group Con: standard chow diet for 8 weeks; Group Fru: high-fructose diet (60% fructose) for 8 weeks; Group Fru-HVD: high-fructose diet as Group Fru, high-dose calcitriol treatment (20 ng / 100 g body weight per day) 4 weeks after the beginning of fructose feeding; and Group Fru-LVD: high-fructose diet as Group Fru, low-dose calcitriol treatment (10 ng / 100 g body weight per day) 4 weeks after the beginning of fructose feeding. Systolic blood pressure was measured twice a week by the tail-cuff method. Blood was examined for serum ionized calcium, phosphate, creatinine, glucose, triglycerides, and total cholesterol. Intra-peritoneal glucose intolerance test, aortic vascular reactivity, the weight of visceral fat pads, adipose size, and adipose angiotensin II levels were analyzed at the end of the study. The results showed that the fructose-fed rats significantly developed hypertension, impaired glucose tolerance, heavier weight and larger adipose size of visceral fat pads, and raised adipose angiotensin II expressions compared with the control rats. High- and low-dose calcitriol reduced modestly systolic blood pressure, increased endothelium-dependent aortic relaxation, ameliorated glucose intolerance, reduced the weight and adipose size of visceral fat pads, and lowered adipose angiotensin II expressions in the fructose-fed rats. However, high-dose calcitriol treatment mildly increased serum ionized calcium levels (1.44 ± 0.05 mmol/L). These results suggest a protective role of calcitriol treatment on endothelial function, glucose

  11. Adaptive changes in transmembrane transport and metabolism of triiodothyronine in perfused livers of fed and fasted hypothyroid and hyperthyroid rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. de Jong (Marcel); R. Docter (Roel); H.J. van der Hoek (H.); E.P. Krenning (Eric); G. Hennemann

    1994-01-01

    textabstractThe transport and subsequent metabolism of triiodothyronine (T3) were studied in isolated perfused livers of euthyroid, hypothyroid, and hyperthyroid rats, both fed and 48-hour-fasted. T3 kinetics (transport and metabolism) during perfusion were evaluated by a two-pool model, whereas the

  12. Cytokine and Chemokine Expression Associated with Steatohepatitis and Hepatocyte Proliferation in Rats Fed Ethanol Via Total Enteral Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprague-Dawley rats were intragastrically fed low carbohydrate-containing ethanol (EtOH) diets via total enteral nutrition for up to 49 d. Induction of EtOH metabolism and appearance of steatosis preceded development of oxidative stress, inflammation, and cell death. A transitory peak of tumor necro...

  13. Garlic attenuates cardiac oxidative stress via activation of PI3K/AKT/Nrf2-Keap1 pathway in fructose-fed diabetic rat.

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    Raju Padiya

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular complication due to diabetes has remained a major cause of death. There is an urgent need to intervene the cardiac complications in diabetes by nutritional or pharmacological agents. Thus the present study was designed to find out the effectiveness of garlic on cardiac complications in insulin-resistant diabetic rats. METHODS AND RESULTS: SD rats were fed high fructose (65% diet alone or along with raw garlic homogenate (250 mg/kg/day or nutrient-matched (65% corn starch control diet for 8 weeks. Fructose-fed diabetic rats showed cardiac hypertrophy, increased NFkB activity and increased oxidative stress. Administration of garlic significantly decreased (p<0.05 cardiac hypertrophy, NFkB activity and oxidative stress. Although we did not observe any changes in myocardial catalase, GSH and GPx in diabetic heart, garlic administration showed significant (p<0.05 increase in all three antioxidant/enzymes levels. Increased endogenous antioxidant enzymes and gene expression in garlic treated diabetic heart are associated with higher protein expression of Nrf2. Increased myocardial H2S levels, activation of PI3K/Akt pathway and decreased Keap levels in fructose-fed heart after garlic administration might be responsible for higher Nrf2 levels. CONCLUSION: Our study demonstrates that raw garlic homogenate is effective in reducing cardiac hypertrophy and fructose-induced myocardial oxidative stress through PI3K/AKT/Nrf2-Keap1 dependent pathway.

  14. The effect of zinc deficiency on erythrocyte membrane lipids of force-fed rats receiving a diet containing coconut oil or fish oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eder, K; Kirchgessner, M

    1994-06-01

    In the present study, the effect of zinc deficiency on erythrocyte membrane lipids of force-fed rats that received either a diet with coconut oil and safflower oil (86:14, w/w) or a diet with fish oil and safflower oil (91:9, w/w) was investigated. Zinc deficiency caused in the rats fed both types of dietary fat an increase in the amounts of total phospholipids and individual phospholipid classes in erythrocyte membranes. In the rats fed the coconut oil diet, zinc deficiency caused an increase in the proportion of docosahexaenoic acid (22:6) in phosphatidylcholine (PC), diacyl phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), phosphatidylserine (PS), and in total erythrocyte membrane fatty acids. In contrast, in the rats fed the fish oil diet, zinc deficiency caused an increase in the proportion of docosahexaenoic acid only in PC, but not in the other phospholipids. However, in these rats, changes in the ratio between eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5) and the n-3 fatty acids with 20 and 22 carbon atoms were observed in PC, diacyl PE and plasmalogen PE. The most pronounced changes in fatty acid composition due to zinc deficiency in the rats fed both types of fat occurred in PC. There was a relationship between the changes in the composition of plasma total fatty acids and the changes in fatty acid composition of erythrocyte membrane PC caused by zinc deficiency in the rats fed both types of dietary fat. The amount of cholesterol was similar in all treatment groups. However, zinc-deficient rats fed the coconut oil diet-but not those fed the fish oil diet-had an increased ratio between total phospholipids and cholesterol. Thus, the study shows that the effect of zinc deficiency on erythrocyte membrane lipids is to some degree similar for rats fed a coconut oil diet and rats fed a fish oil diet, and to some degree different.

  15. Fructose supplementation worsens the deleterious effects of short-term high-fat feeding on hepatic steatosis and lipid metabolism in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crescenzo, Raffaella; Bianco, Francesca; Coppola, Paola; Mazzoli, Arianna; Tussellino, Margherita; Carotenuto, Rosa; Liverini, Giovanna; Iossa, Susanna

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the short-term effect of high-fat or high-fat-high-fructose feeding on hepatic lipid metabolism and mitochondrial function in adult sedentary rats. Adult male rats were fed a high-fat or high-fat-high-fructose diet for 2 weeks. Body and liver composition, hepatic steatosis, plasma lipid profile and hepatic insulin sensitivity, together with whole-body and hepatic de novo lipogenesis, were assessed. Hepatic mitochondrial mass, functionality, oxidative stress and antioxidant defense were also measured. Rats fed the high-fat-high-fructose diet exhibited significantly higher plasma triglycerides, non-esterified fatty acids, insulin and indexes of hepatic insulin resistance compared with rats fed a low-fat or a high-fat diet. Hepatic triglycerides and ceramide, as well as the degree of steatosis and necrosis, were significantly higher, while liver p-Akt was significantly lower, in rats fed high-fat-high-fructose diet than in rats fed high-fat diet. A significant increase in non-protein respiratory quotient and hepatic fatty acid synthase and stearoyl CoA desaturase activity was found in rats fed the high-fat-high-fructose diet compared with those fed the high-fat diet. Significantly lower mitochondrial oxidative capacity but significantly higher oxidative stress was found in rats fed high-fat and high-fat-high-fructose diets compared with rats fed low-fat diet, while mitochondrial mass significantly increased only in rats fed high-fat-high-fructose diet. In conclusion, short-term consumption of a Western diet, rich in saturated fats and fructose, is more conducive to the development of liver steatosis and deleterious to glucose homeostasis than a high-fat diet. © 2014 The Authors. Experimental Physiology © 2014 The Physiological Society.

  16. Ferulic acid, a natural polyphenol, alleviates insulin resistance and hypertension in fructose fed rats: Effect on endothelial-dependent relaxation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Bassossy, Hany; Badawy, Dina; Neamatallah, Thikryat; Fahmy, Ahmed

    2016-07-25

    Ferulic acid (FER) is a polyphenolic compound contained in various types of fruits. It has a substantial therapeutic effect inhibitory activity against aldose reductase (AR) inhibition. In this study, we examined the effect of FER on fructose-fed rats in comparison to a standard AR inhibitor, zopolrestat (ZOP). We determined the protective role of FER against metabolic syndrome by examining serum insulin/Glucose levels, triglycerides (TGs), cholesterol and advanced glycation end product (AGE) in rats supplied with 10% fructose drinking water. In addition, blood pressure, vascular reactivity of isolated thoracic aortas and acetylcholine-induced NO were all evaluated to estimate the cardiovascular complications of metabolic syndrome (MetS) associated with fructose feeding. Animals were randomly divided into four groups: control, (+10% fructose, Fru), zopolrestat-treated fructose fed (Fru-zop) and ferulic acid-treated fructose fed rats (Fru-Fer). After 12 weeks of FER treatment, we found significant reduction in both hyperinsulinemia and elevated diastolic blood pressure associated with fructose-fed to levels comparable to those achieved with ZOP. Both FER and ZOP significantly augmented the impaired relaxation associated with fructose-fed, whereas neither showed any significant effect on the developed vasoconstriction. Isolated aortas from fructose-fed rats incubated with either FER or ZOP, reinstated normal relaxation response to acetylcholine (ACh). Furthermore, isolated aortas showed attenuated nitric oxide (NO) production following the addition of (ACh), while both FER and ZOP restored normal induction of NO. Taken together, the current study shows that, FER alleviated insulin resistance and hypertension associated with metabolic syndrome compared to the standard AR inhibitor (ZOP). This potential protective effect is at least mediated by restoring endothelial relaxation.

  17. Germinated brown rice ameliorates obesity in high-fat diet induced obese rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, See Meng; Goh, Yong Meng; Mohtarrudin, Norhafizah; Loh, Su Peng

    2016-05-23

    Germinated brown rice (GBR) is a novel functional food that is high in fiber and bioactive compounds with health-promoting properties. This study aims to evaluate anti-obesity effects of GBR in obese rats fed high-fat diet (HFD). Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed HFD for 8 weeks to induce obesity. The rats were then administrated with GBR where the source of dietary carbohydrate of HFD was replaced by either 25 % GBR, 50 % GBR or 100 % GBR for another 8 weeks. Changes in anthropometry, dietary status, biochemical parameters and histopathology of liver and adipose tissue were measured. Rats fed with HFD were showed elevation in body weight gain and in white adipose tissue mass compared with rats consumed commercial diet. The GBR administration in 50 % GBR and 100 % GBR were significantly decreased body weight gains and food intakes as well as improved lipid profiles in obese rats. In addition, the administration of GBR  had reduced adiposity by showing declination in white adipose tissue mass, adipocytes size and leptin level concomitantly with a higher ratio of fat excretion into feces. Micro- and macrovesicular steatosis were evidently attenuated in obese rats fed GBR. These findings demonstrated that GBR exhibited anti-obesity effects through suppression of body weight gain and food intake, improvement of lipid profiles and reduction of leptin level and white adipose tissue mass in obese rats fed HFD.

  18. Impact of chromium histidinate on high fat diet induced obesity in rats

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    Tuzcu Zeynep

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chromium (Cr is an essential trace element that has garnered interest for use as a weight loss aid, but its molecular mechanism in obesity is not clear. In this study, an attempt has been made to investigate the effects of chromium histidinate (CrHis on glucose transporter-2 (GLUT-2, nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1, nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB p65 and the oxidative stress marker 4-hydroxynonenal adducts (HNE expressions in liver of rats fed high fat diet (HFD. Methods Male Wistar rats (n = 40, 8 wk-old were divided into four groups. Group I was fed a standard diet (12% of calories as fat; Group II was fed a standard diet and supplemented with 110 μg CrHis/kg BW/d; Group III was fed a HFD (40% of calories as fat; Group IV was fed HFD and supplemented with 110 μg CrHis/kg BW/d. Results Rats fed HFD possessed greater serum insulin (40 vs.33 pmol/L and glucose (158 vs. 143 mg/dL concentration and less liver Cr (44 vs.82 μg/g concentration than rats fed the control diet. However, rats supplemented with CrHis had greater liver Cr and serum insulin and lower glucose concentration in rats fed HFD (P P P Conclusion These findings demonstrate that supplementation of CrHis is protective against obesity, at least in part, through Nrf2-mediated induction of HO-1 in rats fed high fat diet.

  19. Anti-lipotoxic action of sesamin on renovascular hypertensive rats fed with a high-fat, high-sucrose diet%芝麻素对肾性高压伴高脂高糖饮食大鼠的抗脂毒作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴向起; 杨解人

    2012-01-01

    This study is to observe anti-lipotoxic effect of sesamin on renovascular hypertensive rats fed with a high-fat, high-sucrose diet. Thirty-four complex model rats were induced by two-kidney, one-clip method and on high-fat and refined-carbohydrate diet for thirteen weeks. From the fifth week, intragastric administration of sesamin (120, 60 and 30 mg·kg-1·d-1) lasted for eight weeks. Blood pressure (BP), blood fat (BF), blood glucose (BG), free fatty acids (FFA), insulin (Ins), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-a and interleukin (IL)-6 were determined. Pathological changes of pancreas, perirenal fat and liver were semiquantitatively analyzed. In sesamin (120 and 60 mg·kg-1·d-1) group, it was found that there were decrease of levels of BP, BF, BG, TNF-α, IL-6 and FFA, improvement of insulin resistance and glucose tolerance, alleviation of body weight, humid weight of fat, liver and pancreas and their organ index, and reduction of islet cell hyperplasia and amount of lipid droplet vacuoles in lipocyte and hepatocyte. It is implied that sesamin had anti-lipotoxic effect and its mechanism may be closely associated with the amelioration of insulin resistance via reducing lipidoses in hepatocyte and inflammatory adipokines such as TNF-a and IL-6.%观察芝麻素对肾性高压伴高脂高糖饮食大鼠的抗脂毒作用.两肾一夹术和高脂高糖饮食13周诱导复合模型大鼠34只,于第5周开始连续灌胃给予芝麻素(120、60及30 mg·kg-1·d-1)8周.测定血压、血脂、血糖、游离脂肪酸、胰岛素、TNF-α和IL-6水平;半定量分析胰腺、肾周脂肪、肝脏病理学改变.结果发现,芝麻素(120及60 mg.kg-1·d-1)能降低模型大鼠血压、血脂、血糖、TNF-α、IL-6和FFA水平;改善胰岛素抵抗和糖耐量异常;减轻体重、内脏脂肪、胰腺和肝脏湿重及其脏器指数;减少胰岛细胞增生和脂肪及肝脏细胞中脂滴空泡的数目.提示芝麻素具有抗脂毒作用,其机制可能与肝细

  20. Cardioprotective effect of Kolaviron (Garcinia kola seed extract in cholesterol-fed rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NWANERI-CHIDOZIE V. O.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Flavonoids – a group of polyphenolic substances are naturally present in vegetables, fruits, seeds and beverages such as tea and wine. Studies have shown that flavonoid intake is inversely correlated with mortality from coronary heart diseases and myocardial infarction. The effect of kolaviron (a flavonoid complex extracted from Garcinia kola seeds on the organ weights (lungs, kidneys, heart, spleen and liver of rats administered with cholesterol, five times a week, for eight consecutive weeks was investigated. The results revealed that cholesterol administration at a dose of 30mg/day for eight consecutive weeks caused a significant increase (p<0.001 in relative heart weights of the cholesterol-fed rats when compared with the control. However, co-treatment with kolaviron at doses 100 and 200mg/kg significantly (p<0.001 reduced the cholesterol induced enlargement of the heart. This is a pointer to the cardioprotective potential of kolaviron; and thus suggests a possible use as a dietary supplement for the prevention and management of coronary heart diseases.

  1. Tissue distribution of anthocyanins in rats fed a blackberry anthocyanin-enriched diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felgines, Catherine; Texier, Odile; Garcin, Pauline; Besson, Catherine; Lamaison, Jean-Louis; Scalbert, Augustin

    2009-09-01

    Anthocyanins are natural dietary pigments that could be involved in various health effects. The aim of this study was to investigate the distribution of anthocyanins to various organs (bladder, prostate, testes, heart and adipose tissue) in rats fed with a blackberry anthocyanin-enriched diet for 12 days. Identification and quantification of anthocyanins were carried out by HPLC-DAD. The urinary excretion of total anthocyanins (native anthocyanins and their metabolites) was low (0.20 +/- 0.03%, n = 8). Proportions of anthocyanin derivatives (methylated anthocyanins and glucurono-conjugated derivatives) differed according to the organ considered. The bladder contained the highest levels of anthocyanins followed by the prostate. Prostate, testes and heart contained native cyanidin 3-glucoside and a small proportion of cyanidin monoglucuronide. Cyanidin 3-glucoside and methylated derivatives were present in adipose tissue. Thus, anthocyanin feeding in rats resulted in a wide distribution of anthocyanin derivatives to several organs. Identification of target tissues of anthocyanins may then help to understand the mechanisms of action of anthocyanins in vivo.

  2. Rats fed the dietary supplement vitamix® (ceregumil® with vitamins) show greater physical resistance and antioxidant capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Llebrez, Pedro; López-Ávalos, María Dolores; Grondona, Jesús M; Pérez-Martín, Margarita; Cifuentes, Manuel; Pedraza, Carmen; de Andrés, Amelia Victoria; Jiménez-Palomo, Pedro; Casares-Mira, Jose Esteban; López-Arillo, Isabel

    2008-10-01

    Vitamix® is a dietary product composed of a hydro-alcoholic extract of cereals and pulses with honey, calcium glycerophosphate, vitamins B and D, selenium and fluoride. The basic product, Ceregumil®, patented in 1912, was highly popular as tonic and consumers reported a feeling of health, resistance to illness, and increased predisposition to work and exercise. In the present study we analysed the effect of Vitamix® used as dietary supplement, on several physiological parameters in laboratory rats. We periodically performed hemograms and measured intake and weight, as well as blood levels of glucose, triglycerides, cholesterol, transaminases and malondialdehyde, a lipoperoxidation product. Physical probes were performed and a histochemical study was done in the liver. Rats fed with Vitamix® displayed lower i