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Sample records for rats exposed chronically

  1. Bone metabolism of male rats chronically exposed to cadmium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brzoska, Malgorzata M.; Moniuszko-Jakoniuk, Janina

    2005-01-01

    Recently, based on a female rat model of human exposure, we have reported that low-level chronic exposure to cadmium (Cd) has an injurious effect on the skeleton. The purpose of the current study was to investigate whether the exposure may also affect bone metabolism in a male rat model and to estimate the gender-related differences in the bone effect of Cd. Young male Wistar rats received drinking water containing 0, 1, 5, or 50 mg Cd/l for 12 months. The bone effect of Cd was evaluated using bone densitometry and biochemical markers of bone turnover. Renal handling of calcium (Ca) and phosphate, and serum concentrations of vitamin D metabolites, calcitonin, and parathormone were estimated as well. At treatment with 1 mg Cd/l, corresponding to the low environmental exposure in non-Cd-polluted areas, the bone mineral content (BMC) and density (BMD) at the femur and lumbar spine (L1-L5) and the total skeleton BMD did not differ compared to control. However, from the 6th month of the exposure, the Z score BMD indicated osteopenia in some animals and after 12 months the bone resorption very clearly tended to an increase. The rats' exposure corresponding to human moderate (5 mg Cd/l) and especially relatively high (50 mg Cd/l) exposure dose- and duration-dependently disturbed the processes of bone turnover and bone mass accumulation leading to formation of less dense than normal bone tissue. The effects were accompanied by changes in the serum concentration of calciotropic hormones and disorders in Ca and phosphate metabolism. It can be concluded that low environmental exposure to Cd may be only a subtle risk factor for skeletal demineralization in men. The results together with our previous findings based on an analogous model using female rats give clear evidence that males are less vulnerable to the bone effects of Cd compared to females

  2. Proteomic analysis of liver in rats chronically exposed to fluoride.

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    Heloísa Aparecida Barbosa da Silva Pereira

    Full Text Available Fluoride (F is a potent anti-cariogenic element, but when ingestion is excessive, systemic toxicity may be observed. This can occur as acute or chronic responses, depending on both the amount of F and the time of exposure. The present study identified the profile of protein expression possibly associated with F-induced chronic hepatotoxicity. Weanling male Wistar rats (three-weeks old were divided into three groups and treated with drinking water containing 0, 5 or 50 mg/L F for 60 days (n=6/group. At this time point, serum and livers were collected for F analysis, which was done using the ion-sensitive electrode, after hexamethyldisiloxane-facilitated diffusion. Livers were also submitted to histological and proteomic analyses (2D-PAGE followed by LC-MS/MS. Western blotting was done for confirmation of the proteomic data A dose-response was observed in serum F levels. In the livers, F levels were significantly increased in the 50 mg/L F group compared to groups treated with 0 and 5 mg/L F. Liver morphometric analysis did not reveal alterations in the cellular structures and lipid droplets were present in all groups. Proteomic quantitative intensity analysis detected 33, 44, and 29 spots differentially expressed in the comparisons between control vs. 5 mg/L F, control vs. 50 mg/L F, and 5 mg/L vs. 50 mg/L F, respectively. From these, 92 proteins were successfully identified. In addition, 18, 1, and 5 protein spots were shown to be exclusive in control, 5, and 50 mg/L F, respectively. Most of proteins were related to metabolic process and pronounced alterations were seen for the high-F level group. In F-treated rats, changes in the apolipoprotein E (ApoE and GRP-78 expression may account for the F-induced toxicity in the liver. This can contribute to understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying hepatoxicity induced by F, by indicating key-proteins that should be better addressed in future studies.

  3. Haematological evaluation of Wistar rats exposed to chronic doses ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two groups (A and B) were respectively exposed to CdCl2 (0.25 and 2.5 mg/kg), two other groups (C and D) respectively received HgCl2 (0.12 and 1.2 mg/kg) and the last two groups (E and F) were respectively treated with the combination of these two metals: (0.25 mg/kg Cd + 0.12 mg/kg Hg) and (2.5 mg/kg Cd + 1.2 ...

  4. Proteomic analysis of urine in rats chronically exposed to fluoride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Claudia Ayumi Nakai; Leite, Aline de Lima; da Silva, Thelma Lopes; dos Santos, Lucilene Delazari; Nogueira, Fábio César Sousa; Santos, Keity Souza; de Oliveira, Rodrigo Cardoso; Palma, Mario Sérgio; Domont, Gilberto Barbosa; Buzalaf, Marília Afonso Rabelo

    2011-01-01

    Urine is an ideal source of materials to search for potential disease-related biomarkers as it is produced by the affected tissues and can be easily obtained by noninvasive methods. 2-DE-based proteomic approach was used to better understand the molecular mechanisms of injury induced by fluoride (F(-)) and define potential biomarkers of dental fluorosis. Three groups of weanling male Wistar rats were treated with drinking water containing 0 (control), 5, or 50 ppm F(-) for 60 days (n = 15/group). During the experimental period, the animals were kept individually in metabolic cages, to analyze the water and food consumption, as well as fecal and urinary F(-) excretion. Urinary proteome profiles were examined using 2-DE and Colloidal Coomassie Brilliant Blue staining. A dose-response regarding F(-) intake and excretion was detected. Quantitative intensity analysis revealed 8, 11, and 8 significantly altered proteins between control vs. 5 ppm F(-), control vs. 50 ppm F(-) and 5 ppm F(-) vs. 50 ppm F(-) groups, respectively. Two proteins regulated by androgens (androgen-regulated 20-KDa protein and α-2μ-globulin) and one related to detoxification (aflatoxin-B1-aldehyde-reductase) were identified by MALDI-TOF-TOF MS/MS. Thus, proteomic analysis can help to better understand the mechanisms underlying F(-) toxicity, even in low doses. Copyright © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Effect of acetaminophen administration to rats chronically exposed to depleted uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gueguen, Y.; Grandcolas, L.; Baudelin, C.; Grison, S.; Tissandie, E.; Jourdain, J.R.; Paquet, F.; Voisin, P.; Aigueperse, J.; Gourmelon, P.; Souidi, M.

    2007-01-01

    The extensive use of depleted uranium (DU) in both civilian and military applications results in the increase of the number of human beings exposed to this compound. We previously found that DU chronic exposure induces the expression of CYP enzymes involved in the metabolism of xenobiotics (drugs). In order to evaluate the consequences of these changes on the metabolism of a drug, rats chronically exposed to DU (40 mg/l) were treated by acetaminophen (APAP, 400 mg/kg) at the end of the 9-month contamination. Acetaminophen is considered as a safe drug within the therapeutic range but in the case of overdose or in sensitive animals, hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity could occur. In the present work, plasma concentration of APAP was higher in the DU group compared to the non-contaminated group. In addition, administration of APAP to the DU-exposed rats increased plasma ALT (p < 0.01) and AST (p < 0.05) more rapidly than in the control group. Nevertheless, no histological alteration of the liver was observed but renal injury characterized by incomplete proximal tubular cell necrosis was higher for the DU-exposed rats. Moreover, in the kidney, CYP2E1 gene expression, an important CYP responsible for APAP bioactivation and toxicity, is increased (p < 0.01) in the DU-exposed group compared to the control group. In the liver, CYP's activities were decreased between control and DU-exposed rats. These results could explain the worse elimination of APAP in the plasma and confirm our hypothesis of a modification of the drug metabolism following a DU chronic contamination

  6. Possible cause for altered spatial cognition of prepubescent rats exposed to chronic radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation.

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    Narayanan, Sareesh Naduvil; Kumar, Raju Suresh; Karun, Kalesh M; Nayak, Satheesha B; Bhat, P Gopalakrishna

    2015-10-01

    The effects of chronic and repeated radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation (RFEMR) exposure on spatial cognition and hippocampal architecture were investigated in prepubescent rats. Four weeks old male Wistar rats were exposed to RF-EMR (900 MHz; SAR-1.15 W/kg with peak power density of 146.60 μW/cm(2)) for 1 h/day, for 28 days. Followed by this, spatial cognition was evaluated by Morris water maze test. To evaluate the hippocampal morphology; H&E staining, cresyl violet staining, and Golgi-Cox staining were performed on hippocampal sections. CA3 pyramidal neuron morphology and surviving neuron count (in CA3 region) were studied using H&E and cresyl violet stained sections. Dendritic arborization pattern of CA3 pyramidal neuron was investigated by concentric circle method. Progressive learning abilities were found to be decreased in RF-EMR exposed rats. Memory retention test performed 24 h after the last training revealed minor spatial memory deficit in RF-EMR exposed group. However, RF-EMR exposed rats exhibited poor spatial memory retention when tested 48 h after the final trial. Hirano bodies and Granulovacuolar bodies were absent in the CA3 pyramidal neurons of different groups studied. Nevertheless, RF-EMR exposure affected the viable cell count in dorsal hippocampal CA3 region. RF-EMR exposure influenced dendritic arborization pattern of both apical and basal dendritic trees in RF-EMR exposed rats. Structural changes found in the hippocampus of RF-EMR exposed rats could be one of the possible reasons for altered cognition.

  7. Quantitative and qualitative changes in the lymphocytes of rats chronically exposed to radiation and chemical factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, V.V.

    1986-01-01

    Quantitative and qualitative characteristics of lymphocytes in peripheral blood, thymus and spleen of rats chronically exposed to combined external γ-radiation trichlorfon pesticide effect have been studied. It is shown that chronical combined trichlorfon and γ irradiation effect is accompanied by suppression of lymphopoiesis already at the early stages of the experience. The observed effects are formed depending on both daily and cumulative doses of the effect. The development of the combined effect is based on the summation of effects of chronical effect of ionizing radiation and pesticide. The revealed changes in lymphocytes population exposed to radiation and chemical factors can lead to substantial decrease of natural immunity thereby decreasing to various diseases

  8. Neuroinflammation and Behavior in HIV-1 Transgenic Rats Exposed to Chronic Adolescent Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowson, Sydney A; Harrell, Constance S; Bekhbat, Mandakh; Gangavelli, Apoorva; Wu, Matthew J; Kelly, Sean D; Reddy, Renuka; Neigh, Gretchen N

    2016-01-01

    Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has improved prognosis for people living with HIV (PLWH) and dramatically reduced the incidence of AIDS. However, even when viral load is controlled, PLWH develop psychiatric and neurological disorders more frequently than those living without HIV. Adolescents with HIV are particularly susceptible to the development of psychiatric illnesses and neurocognitive impairments. While both psychiatric and neurocognitive disorders have been found to be exacerbated by stress, the extent to which chronic stress and HIV-1 viral proteins interact to impact behavior and relevant neuroinflammatory processes is unknown. Determination of the individual contributions of stress and HIV to neuropsychiatric disorders is heavily confounded in humans. In order to isolate the influence of HIV-1 proteins and chronic stress on behavior and neuroinflammation, we employed the HIV-1 transgenic (Tg) rat model, which expresses HIV-1 proteins with a gag and pol deletion, allowing for viral protein expression without viral replication. This Tg line has been characterized as a model of HAART-controlled HIV-1 infection due to the lack of viral replication but continued presence of HIV-1 proteins. We exposed male and female adolescent HIV-1 Tg rats to a mixed-modality chronic stress paradigm consisting of isolation, social defeat and restraint, and assessed behavior, cerebral vascularization, and neuroinflammatory endpoints. Stress, sex, and presence of the HIV-1 transgene impacted weight gain in adolescent rats. Female HIV-1 Tg rats showed decreases in central tendency during the light cycle in the open field regardless of stress exposure. Both male and female HIV-1 Tg rats exhibited decreased investigative behavior in the novel object recognition task, but no memory impairments. Adolescent stress had no effect on the tested behaviors. Microglia in female HIV-1 Tg rats exhibited a hyper-ramified structure, and gene expression of complement factor B was

  9. Effect of nephrotoxic treatment with gentamicin on rats chronically exposed to uranium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouas, Caroline; Stefani, Johanna; Grison, Stéphane; Grandcolas, Line; Baudelin, Cédric; Dublineau, Isabelle; Pallardy, Marc; Gueguen, Yann

    2011-01-11

    Uranium is a radioactive heavy metal with a predominantly chemical toxicity, affecting especially the kidneys and more particularly the proximal tubular structure. Until now, few experimental studies have examined the effect of chronic low-dose exposure to uranium on kidney integrity: these mainly analyse standard markers such as creatinine and urea, and none has studied the effect of additional co-exposure to a nephrotoxic agent on rats chronically exposed to uranium. The aim of the present study is to examine the potential cumulative effect of treating uranium-exposed rats with a nephrotoxic drug. Neither physiological indicators (diuresis and creatinine clearance) nor standard plasma and urine markers (creatinine, urea and total protein) levels were deteriorated when uranium exposure was combined with gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity. A histological study confirmed the preferential impact of gentamicin on the tubular structure and showed that uranium did not aggravate the histopathological renal lesions. Finally, the use of novel markers of kidney toxicity, such as KIM-1, osteopontin and kallikrein, provides new knowledge about the nephrotoxicity threshold of gentamicin, and allows us to conclude that under our experimental conditions, low dose uranium exposure did not induce signs of nephrotoxicity or enhance renal sensitivity to another nephrotoxicant. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of nephrotoxic treatment with gentamicin on rats chronically exposed to uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rouas, Caroline; Stefani, Johanna; Grison, Stephane; Grandcolas, Line; Baudelin, Cedric; Dublineau, Isabelle; Pallardy, Marc; Gueguen, Yann

    2011-01-01

    Uranium is a radioactive heavy metal with a predominantly chemical toxicity, affecting especially the kidneys and more particularly the proximal tubular structure. Until now, few experimental studies have examined the effect of chronic low-dose exposure to uranium on kidney integrity: these mainly analyse standard markers such as creatinine and urea, and none has studied the effect of additional co-exposure to a nephrotoxic agent on rats chronically exposed to uranium. The aim of the present study is to examine the potential cumulative effect of treating uranium-exposed rats with a nephrotoxic drug. Neither physiological indicators (diuresis and creatinine clearance) nor standard plasma and urine markers (creatinine, urea and total protein) levels were deteriorated when uranium exposure was combined with gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity. A histological study confirmed the preferential impact of gentamicin on the tubular structure and showed that uranium did not aggravate the histopathological renal lesions. Finally, the use of novel markers of kidney toxicity, such as KIM-1, osteopontin and kallikrein, provides new knowledge about the nephrotoxicity threshold of gentamicin, and allows us to conclude that under our experimental conditions, low dose uranium exposure did not induce signs of nephrotoxicity or enhance renal sensitivity to another nephrotoxicant.

  11. Excretion of 14C-labeled cyanide in rats exposed to chronic intake of potassium cyanide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okoh, P.N.

    1983-01-01

    The excretion of an acute dose of 14C-labeled cyanide in urine, feces, and expired air was studied in rats exposed to daily intake of unlabeled KCN in the diet for 6 weeks. Urinary excretion was the main route of elimination of cyanide carbon in these rats, accounting for 83% of the total excreted radioactivity in 12 hr and 89% of the total excreted radioactivity in 24 hr. The major excretion metabolite of cyanide in urine was thiocyanate, and this metabolite accounted for 71 and 79% of the total urinary activity in 12 hr and 24 hr, respectively. The mean total activity excreted in expired air after 12 hr was only 4%, and this value did not change after 24 hr. Of the total activity in expired air in 24 hr, 90% was present as carbon dioxide and 9% as cyanide. When these results were compared with those observed for control rats, it was clear that the mode of elimination of cyanide carbon in both urine and breath was not altered by the chronic intake of cyanide

  12. Paroxetine ameliorates changes in hippocampal energy metabolism in chronic mild stress-exposed rats

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    Khedr LH

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Lobna H Khedr, Noha N Nassar, Ezzeldin S El-Denshary, Ahmed M Abdel-tawab 1Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Misr International University, 2Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University, 3Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt Abstract: The molecular mechanisms underlying stress-induced depression have not been fully outlined. Hence, the current study aimed at testing the link between behavioral changes in chronic mild stress (CMS model and changes in hippocampal energy metabolism and the role of paroxetine (PAROX in ameliorating these changes. Male Wistar rats were divided into three groups: vehicle control, CMS-exposed rats, and CMS-exposed rats receiving PAROX (10 mg/kg/day intraperitoneally. Sucrose preference, open-field, and forced swimming tests were carried out. Corticosterone (CORT was measured in serum, while adenosine triphosphate and its metabolites, cytosolic cytochrome-c (Cyt-c, caspase-3 (Casp-3, as well as nitric oxide metabolites (NOx were measured in hippocampal tissue homogenates. CMS-exposed rats showed a decrease in sucrose preference as well as body weight compared to control, which was reversed by PAROX. The latter further ameliorated the CMS-induced elevation of CORT in serum (91.71±1.77 ng/mL vs 124.5±4.44 ng/mL, P<0.001 as well as the changes in adenosine triphosphate/adenosine diphosphate (3.76±0.02 nmol/mg protein vs 1.07±0.01 nmol/mg protein, P<0.001. Furthermore, PAROX reduced the expression of Cyt-c and Casp-3, as well as restoring NOx levels. This study highlights the role of PAROX in reversing depressive behavior associated with stress-induced apoptosis and changes in hippocampal energy metabolism in the CMS model of depression. Keywords: rats, CMS, hippocampus, paroxetine, apoptosis, adenine nucleotides, cytochrome-c, caspase-3

  13. Chronic impairments in spatial learning and memory in rats previously exposed to chlorpyrfos or diisopropylfluorophosphate.

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    Terry, A V; Beck, W D; Warner, S; Vandenhuerk, L; Callahan, P M

    2012-01-01

    The acute toxicity of organophosphates (OPs) has been studied extensively; however, much less attention has been given to the subject of repeated exposures that are not associated with overt signs of toxicity (i.e., subthreshold exposures). The objective of this study was to determine if the protracted spatial learning impairments we have observed previously after repeated subthreshold exposures to the insecticide chlorpyrifos (CPF) or the alkylphosphate OP, diisopropylfluorophosphate (DFP) persisted for longer periods after exposure. Male Wistar rats (beginning at two months of age) were initially injected subcutaneously with CPF (10.0 or 18.0mg/kg) or DFP (0.25 or 0.75 mg/kg) every other day for 30 days. After an extended OP-free washout period (behavioral testing begun 50 days after the last OP exposure), rats previously exposed to CPF, but not DFP, were impaired in a radial arm maze (RAM) win-shift task as well as a delayed non-match to position procedure. Later experiments (i.e., beginning 140 days after the last OP exposure) revealed impairments in the acquisition of a water maze hidden platform task associated with both OPs. However, only rats previously exposed to DFP were impaired in a second phase of testing when the platform location was changed (indicative of deficits of cognitive flexibility). These results indicate, therefore, that repeated, subthreshold exposures to CPF and DFP may lead to chronic deficits in spatial learning and memory (i.e., long after cholinesterase inhibition has abated) and that insecticide and alkylphosphate-based OPs may have differential effects depending on the cognitive domain evaluated. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Proximal renal tubular injury in rats sub-chronically exposed to low fluoride concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cárdenas-González, Mariana C.; Del Razo, Luz M. [Departmento de Toxicología, Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politécnico Nacional (CINVESTAV-IPN), México, D. F., México (Mexico); Barrera-Chimal, Jonatan [Unidad de Fisiología Molecular, Instituto de Investigaciones Biomédicas, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México and Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán, México, D. F., México (Mexico); Jacobo-Estrada, Tania [Departmento de Toxicología, Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politécnico Nacional (CINVESTAV-IPN), México, D. F., México (Mexico); López-Bayghen, Esther [Departamento de Genética y Biología Molecular, Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politécnico Nacional (CINVESTAV-IPN), México, D. F., México (Mexico); and others

    2013-11-01

    Fluoride is usually found in groundwater at a very wide range of concentration between 0.5 and 25 ppm. At present, few studies have assessed the renal effects of fluoride at environmentally relevant concentrations. Furthermore, most of these studies have used insensitive and nonspecific biomarkers of kidney injury. The aim of this study was to use early and sensitive biomarkers to evaluate kidney injury after fluoride exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations. Recently weaned male Wistar rats were exposed to low (15 ppm) and high (50 ppm) fluoride concentrations in drinking water for a period of 40 days. At the end of the exposure period, kidney injury biomarkers were measured in urine and renal mRNA expression levels were assessed by real time RT-PCR. Our results showed that the urinary kidney injury molecule (Kim-1), clusterin (Clu), osteopontin (OPN) and heat shock protein 72 excretion rate significantly increased in the group exposed to the high fluoride concentration. Accordingly, fluoride exposure increased renal Kim-1, Clu and OPN mRNA expression levels. Moreover, there was a significant dose-dependent increase in urinary β-2-microglobulin and cystatin-C excretion rate. Additionally, a tendency towards a dose dependent increase of tubular damage in the histopathological light microscopy findings confirmed the preferential impact of fluoride on the tubular structure. All of these changes occurred at early stages in which, the renal function was not altered. In conclusion using early and sensitive biomarkers of kidney injury, we were able to found proximal tubular alterations in rats sub-chronically exposed to fluoride. - Highlights: • Exposure to low concentrations of fluoride induced proximal tubular injury • Increase in urinary Kim-1, Clu, OPN and Hsp72 in 50 ppm fluoride-exposed group • Increase in urinary B2M and CysC in 15 and 50 ppm fluoride-exposed groups • Fluoride exposure increased renal Kim, Clu and OPN mRNA expression levels.

  15. Taurine Ameliorates Renal Oxidative Damage and Thyroid Dysfunction in Rats Chronically Exposed to Fluoride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adedara, Isaac A; Ojuade, Temini Jesu D; Olabiyi, Bolanle F; Idris, Umar F; Onibiyo, Esther M; Ajeigbe, Olufunke F; Farombi, Ebenezer O

    2017-02-01

    Excessive exposure to fluoride poses several detrimental effects to human health particularly the kidney which is a major organ involved in its elimination from the body. The influence of taurine on fluoride-induced renal toxicity was investigated in a co-exposure paradigm for 45 days using five groups of eight rats each. Group I rats received normal drinking water alone, group II rats were exposed to sodium fluoride (NaF) in drinking water at 15 mg/L alone, group III received taurine alone at a dose of 200 mg/kg group IV rats were co-administered with NaF and taurine (100 mg/kg), while group V rats were co-administered with NaF and taurine (200 mg/kg). Administration of taurine significantly reversed the fluoride-mediated decrease in absolute weight and organo-somatic index of the kidney in the exposed rats. Taurine significantly prevented fluoride-induced elevation in plasma urea and creatinine levels in the exposed rats. Moreover, taurine restored fluoride-mediated decrease in the circulatory concentrations of triiodothyronine, thyroxine, and the ratio of triiodothyronine to thyroxine. Taurine ameliorated fluoride-mediated decrease in renal antioxidant status by significantly enhancing the antioxidant enzyme activities as well as glutathione level in the exposed rats. Additionally, taurine inhibited fluoride-induced renal oxidative damage by markedly decreasing the hydrogen peroxide and malondialdehyde levels as well as improved the kidney architecture in the treated rats. Collectively, taurine protected against fluoride-induced renal toxicity via enhancement of thyroid gland function, renal antioxidant status, and histology in rats.

  16. PATTERN OF CHOLINESTERASE INHIBITION IN ADULT, MALE RATS CHRONICALLY EXPOSED TO DIETARY CHLORPYRIFOS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Very little is known about the effects of chronic exposure to relatively low levels of anticholinesterase insecticides or how the effects of chronic exposure compare to higher, intermittent exposure of the same compound for the same duration. To that end, we exposed adult male ra...

  17. Reorganization of auditory map and pitch discrimination in adult rats chronically exposed to low-level ambient noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weimin eZheng

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Behavioral adaption to a changing environment is critical for an animal’s survival. How well the brain can modify its functional properties based on experience essentially defines the limits of behavioral adaptation. In adult animals the extent to which experience shapes brain function has not been fully explored. Moreover, the perceptual consequences of experience-induced changes in the brains of adults remain unknown. Here we show that the tonotopic map in the primary auditory cortex of adult rats living with low-level ambient noise underwent a dramatic reorganization. Behaviorally, chronic noise-exposure impaired fine, but not coarse pitch discrimination. When tested in a noisy environment, the noise-exposed rats performed as well as in a quiet environment whereas the control rats performed poorly. This suggests that noise-exposed animals had adapted to living in a noisy environment. Behavioral pattern analyses revealed that stress or distraction engendered by the noisy background could not account for the poor performance of the control rats in a noisy environment. A reorganized auditory map may therefore have served as the neural substrate for the consistent performance of the noise-exposed rats in a noisy environment.

  18. Deep-body temperature changes in rats exposed to chronic centrifugation.

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    Oyama, J.; Platt, W. T.; Holland, V. B.

    1971-01-01

    Deep-body temperature was monitored continuously by implant biotelemetry in unrestrained rats before, during, and after exposure to prolonged and almost continuous centrifugation. Rats subjected to centrifugation for the first time at various G loads ranging up to 2.5 G show a rapid and significant fall in temperature which is sustained below normal levels for periods as long as 3 days. The magnitude of the temperature fall and the recovery time were generally proportional to the G load imposed. The initial fall and recovery of body temperature closely parallels the decrease in food consumption and to a lesser degree the decrease in body mass experienced by centrifuged rats. After exposure to 2 weeks of centrifugation, rats show either no change or only a small transient increase in temperature when decelerated to a lower G level or when returned to normal gravity. Rats repeatedly exposed to centrifugation consistently showed a smaller temperature response compared to the initial exposure. Implant temperature biotelemetry has been found to be a sensitive, reliable, and extremely useful technique for assessing the initial stress of centrifugation and in monitoring the time course of recovery and acclimation of rats to increase as well as*decrease G.

  19. Conditioned flavor avoidance as a measure of withdrawal in rats chronically exposed to a caffeine solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreumont-Boudreau, Sarah E; Dingle, Rachel N; Alcolado, Gillian M; Lolordo, Vincent M

    2008-09-03

    Rats were given 21 days of chronic oral caffeine. A novel flavor (Maintenance CS) was then paired with the continuation of caffeine, and a second flavor (Withdrawal CS) was paired with caffeine removal. Rats avoided the Withdrawal CS, and drank more of the Maintenance CS in a two-bottle test, suggesting that removing caffeine had induced withdrawal. The value of the Maintenance CS was investigated by comparing it to a novel flavor paired with water (Neutral CS). In a series of two-bottle tests, the Maintenance and Neutral CSs were equivalent when pitted against each other, and both were preferred to the Withdrawal CS. These results demonstrate that conditioned flavor avoidance is a useful procedure in assessing caffeine withdrawal, and by inference dependence, produced by chronic oral consumption.

  20. Adaptogenic potential of royal jelly in liver of rats exposed to chronic stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Carvalho Caixeta

    Full Text Available Restraint and cold stress increase both corticosterone and glycemia, which lead to oxidative damages in hepatic tissue. This study assessed the effect of royal jelly (RJ supplementation on the corticosterone level, glycemia, plasma enzymes and hepatic antioxidant system in restraint and cold stressed rats. Wistar rats were allocated into no-stress, stress, no-stress supplemented with RJ and stress supplemented with RJ groups. Initially, RJ (200mg/Kg was administered for fourteen days and stressed groups were submitted to chronic stress from the seventh day. The results showed that RJ supplementation decreases corticosterone levels and improves glycemia control after stress induction. RJ supplementation also decreased the body weight, AST, ALP and GGT. Moreover, RJ improved total antioxidant capacity, SOD activity and reduced GSH, GR and lipoperoxidation in the liver. Thus, RJ supplementation reestablished the corticosterone levels and the hepatic antioxidant system in stressed rats, indicating an adaptogenic and hepatoprotective potential of RJ.

  1. Ventilatory and chemoreceptor responses to hypercapnia in neonatal rats chronically exposed to moderate hyperoxia.

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    Bavis, Ryan W; Li, Ke-Yong; DeAngelis, Kathryn J; March, Ryan J; Wallace, Josefine A; Logan, Sarah; Putnam, Robert W

    2017-03-01

    Rats reared in hyperoxia hypoventilate in normoxia and exhibit progressive blunting of the hypoxic ventilatory response, changes which are at least partially attributed to abnormal carotid body development. Since the carotid body also responds to changes in arterial CO 2 /pH, we tested the hypothesis that developmental hyperoxia would attenuate the hypercapnic ventilatory response (HCVR) of neonatal rats by blunting peripheral and/or central chemoreceptor responses to hypercapnic challenges. Rats were reared in 21% O 2 (Control) or 60% O 2 (Hyperoxia) until studied at 4, 6-7, or 13-14days of age. Hyperoxia rats had significantly reduced single-unit carotid chemoafferent responses to 15% CO 2 at all ages; CO 2 sensitivity recovered within 7days after return to room air. Hypercapnic responses of CO 2 -sensitive neurons of the caudal nucleus tractus solitarius (cNTS) were unaffected by chronic hyperoxia, but there was evidence for a small decrease in neuronal excitability. There was also evidence for augmented excitatory synaptic input to cNTS neurons within brainstem slices. Steady-state ventilatory responses to 4% and 8% CO 2 were unaffected by developmental hyperoxia in all three age groups, but ventilation increased more slowly during the normocapnia-to-hypercapnia transition in 4-day-old Hyperoxia rats. We conclude that developmental hyperoxia impairs carotid body chemosensitivity to hypercapnia, and this may compromise protective ventilatory reflexes during dynamic respiratory challenges in newborn rats. Impaired carotid body function has less of an impact on the HCVR in older rats, potentially reflecting compensatory plasticity within the CNS. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Microvascular pressure responses of second-generation rats chronically exposed to 2 g centrifugation

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    Richardson, D. R.; Knapp, C. F.

    1977-01-01

    Preliminary results are presented for a study aimed at a quantitative comparison of microvascular dynamics in second-generation rats reared in a 2-g force field produced by centrifugation with similar data from animals reared in a centrifuge that produced only a 1-g force. It is shown that the pressure distribution in the mesenteric microvasculature of the second generation of rats reared in a 2-g environment, as well as the animals' blood pressure response to epinephrine, are significantly different compared to their 1-g counterparts. In particular, 1-g and 2-g chronic centrifugation enhances the arterial blood pressure, and the 2-g force field attenuates the pressor effects of norepinephrine.

  3. Resveratrol exerts anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects to prevent memory deficits in rats exposed to chronic unpredictable mild stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazir, Yusufhan; Utkan, Tijen; Gacar, Nejat; Aricioglu, Feyza

    2015-01-01

    A number of studies have recently focused on the neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory effects of resveratrol. In prior studies, we described its beneficial effects on scopolamine-induced learning deficits in rats. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of resveratrol on emotional and spatial cognitive functions, neurotropic factor expression, and plasma levels of proinflammatory cytokines in rats exposed to chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS), which is known to induce cognitive deficits. Resveratrol (5 or 20mg/kg) was administered intraperitoneally for 35 days. Rats in the CUMS group and in the 5mg/kg resveratrol+CUMS group performed poorly in tasks designed to assess emotional and spatial learning and memory. The 20mg/kg resveratrol+CUMS group showed improved performance compared to the CUMS group. In addition, the CUMS procedure induced lower expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and c-Fos in hippocampal CA1 and CA3 and in the amygdala of stressed rats. These effects were reversed by chronic administration of resveratrol (20mg/kg). In addition, plasma levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-1 beta were increased by CUMS, but were restored to normal by resveratrol. These results indicate that resveratrol significantly attenuates the deficits in emotional learning and spatial memory seen in chronically stressed rats. These effects may be related to resveratrol-mediated changes in neurotrophin factor expression in hippocampus and in levels of proinflammatory cytokines in circulation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Alterations of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) in the brain of rats chronically exposed to lead acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Larrubia, Pilar; Cauli, Omar

    2011-03-15

    Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) allows the assessment of the water apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), a measure of tissue water diffusivity which is altered during different pathological conditions such as cerebral oedema. By means of DWI, we repeatedly measured in the same rats apparent diffusion coefficient ADC in different brain areas (motor cortex (MCx), somato-sensory cortex (SCx), caudate-putamen (CPu), hippocampus (Hip), mesencephalic reticular formation (RF), corpus callosum (CC) and cerebellum (Cb)) after 1 week, 4 and 12 weeks of lead acetate exposure via drinking water (50 or 500 ppm). After 12 weeks of lead exposure rats received albumin-Evans blue complex administration and were sacrificed 1h later. Blood-brain barrier permeability and water tissue content were determined in order to evaluate their relationship with ADC changes. Chronic exposure to lead acetate (500 ppm) for 4 weeks increased ADC values in Hip, RF and Cb but no in other brain areas. After 12 weeks of lead acetate exposure at 500 ppm ADC is significantly increased also in CPu and CC. Brain areas displaying high ADC values after lead exposure showed also an increased water content and increased BBB permeability to Evans blue-albumin complex. Exposure to 50 ppm for 12 weeks increased ADC values and BBB permeability in the RF and Cb. In summary, chronic lead exposure induces cerebral oedema in the adult brain depending on the brain area and the dose of exposure. RF and Cb appeared the most sensitive brain areas whereas cerebral cortex appears resistant to lead-induced cerebral oedema. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Neoplastic and life-span effects of chronic exposure to tritium. II. Rats exposed in utero

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cahill, D.F.; Wright, J.F.; Godbold, J.H.; Ward, J.M.; Laskey, J.W.; Tompkins, E.A.

    1975-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the effects on neoplasia incidence and life-span of exposure in utero to a major environmental radionuclide. Sprague-Dawley rats were continuously exposed to tritiated water (HTO) from conception through birth in doses of 0, 1, 10, 50, and 100 μCi HTO/ml body water. HTO administration was terminated at birth. Calculated cumulative doses during gestation were approximately 0, 6.6, 66, 330, and 660 rads of total body irradiation. Under these exposure conditions, the two highest doses resulted in sterile offspring. Animals surviving through 30 days postnatally were defined as the study population and observed until their deaths. Intrauterine exposures to doses up to 66 rads had no significant effects on either sex with respect to lifespan, overall neoplasia incidence, incidence rate, or onset of mammary fibroadenomas. Females exposed to 330 or 660 rads were sterile and had lower incidence rates of mammary fibroadenomas than did controls; at 660 rads females had a lower incidence of overall neoplasia and reduced mean lifespans. Sterile male offspring had reduced mean longevity after irradiation at 660 rads. Regardless of dose group, females had significantly higher incidences of neoplasia and longer life-spans than males

  6. Neoplastic and life-span effects of chronic exposure to tritium. I. Effects on adult rats exposed during pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cahill, D.F.; Wright, J.F.; Godbold, J.H.; Ward, J.M.; Laskey, J.W.; Tompkins, E.A.

    1975-01-01

    Female Sprague-Dawley rats were continuously exposed to equilibrium levels of tritiated water (HTO) during pregnancy. The tritium activities were 1, 10, 50, and 100 μCi HTO/ml body water which provided cumulative, whole-body radiation doses of approximately 6.6, 66, 330, and 660 rads. Administration of the radioisotope was terminated at parturition. Throughout their life-spans and at autopsy, the dams showed an increased incidence of mammary fibroadenomas at exposure to 330 and 660 rads. Although the data for the incidence of malignant mammary neoplasms were consistent with a linear dose response, the small numbers of tumors preclude specific definition of the dose-response curve. Postexposure life-spans for dams chronically exposed to 66, 330, and 660 rads during pregnancy were reduced by 14, 24, and 22 percent, respectively. Accelerated aging was also demonstrated in these rats: The mean age for mammary fibroadenoma onset decreased with an increasing dose of radiation. (U.S.)

  7. Lipid metabolism in rat tissues exposed to the chronic effects of γ-irradiation and ubiquinone Q9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novoselova, E.G.

    1992-01-01

    Chronic γ-irradiation of rats with the daily dose of 0.129 Gy activates the synthesis of various classes of lipids in the thymus, spleen and bone marrow cells and induces lipid accumulation in these tissues. Feeding of rats with the antioxidant, ubiquinone Q-9, under conditions of chronic irradiation causes a considerable normalization of lipogenesis and levels of the lipid concentration in the tissues of animals irradiated with the dose of 20 Gy

  8. The Impacts of Swimming Exercise on Hippocampal Expression of Neurotrophic Factors in Rats Exposed to Chronic Unpredictable Mild Stress

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    Pei Jiang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Depression is associated with stress-induced neural atrophy in limbic brain regions, whereas exercise has antidepressant effects as well as increasing hippocampal synaptic plasticity by strengthening neurogenesis, metabolism, and vascular function. A key mechanism mediating these broad benefits of exercise on the brain is induction of neurotrophic factors, which instruct downstream structural and functional changes. To systematically evaluate the potential neurotrophic factors that were involved in the antidepressive effects of exercise, in this study, we assessed the effects of swimming exercise on hippocampal mRNA expression of several classes of the growth factors (BDNF, GDNF, NGF, NT-3, FGF2, VEGF, and IGF-1 and peptides (VGF and NPY in rats exposed to chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS. Our study demonstrated that the swimming training paradigm significantly induced the expression of BDNF and BDNF-regulated peptides (VGF and NPY and restored their stress-induced downregulation. Additionally, the exercise protocol also increased the antiapoptotic Bcl-xl expression and normalized the CUMS mediated induction of proapoptotic Bax mRNA level. Overall, our data suggest that swimming exercise has antidepressant effects, increasing the resistance to the neural damage caused by CUMS, and both BDNF and its downstream neurotrophic peptides may exert a major function in the exercise related adaptive processes to CUMS.

  9. BENEFICIAL EFFECT OF CHRONIC NIMODIPINE TREATMENT ON BEHAVIORAL DYSFUNCTIONS OF AGED RATS EXPOSED TO PERINATAL ETHANOL TREATMENT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MARKEL, E; FELSZEGHY, K; LUITEN, PGM; NYAKAS, C

    1995-01-01

    The long-term effects of prenatal and early postnatal ethanol exposure were assessed in adult (5-month), aged (24-month), and senescent (30-month) rats on non-aggressive intermale social behavior, and on black-white discrimination and spatial learning behaviors. Furthermore, the effects of chronic

  10. Effect of epimedium pubescen flavonoid on bone mineral status and bone turnover in male rats chronically exposed to cigarette smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Shu-guang; Cheng, Ling; Li, Kang-hua; Liu, Wen-He; Xu, Mai; Jiang, Wei; Wei, Li-Cheng; Zhang, Fang-jie; Xiao, Wen-feng; Xiong, Yi-lin; Tian, Jian; Zeng, Chao; Sun, Jin-peng; Xie, Qiang; Lei, Guang-hua

    2012-06-19

    Epimedii herba is one of the most frequently used herbs in formulas that are prescribed for the treatment of osteoporosis in China and its main constituent is Epimedium pubescen flavonoid (EPF). However, it is unclear whether EPF during chronic exposure to cigarette smoke may have a protective influence on the skeleton. The present study investigated the effect of EPF on bone mineral status and bone turnover in a rat model of human relatively high exposure to cigarette smoke. Fifty male Wistar rats were randomized into five groups: controls, passive smoking groups and passive smoking rats administered EPF at three dosage levels (75, 150 or 300 mg/kg/day) in drinking water for 4 months. A rat model of passive smoking was prepared by breeding male rats in a cigarette-smoking box. Bone mineral content (BMC), bone mineral density (BMD), bone turnover markers, bone histomorphometric parameters and biomechanical properties were examined. Smoke exposure decreased BMC and BMD, increased bone turnover (inhibited bone formation and stimulated its resorption), affected bone histomorphometry (increased trabecular separation and osteoclast surface per bone surface; decreased trabecular bone volume, trabecular thickness, trabecular number, cortical thickness, bone formation rate and osteoblast surface per bone surface), and reduced mechanical properties. EPF supplementation during cigarette smoke exposure prevented smoke-induced changes in bone mineral status and bone turnover. The results suggest that EPF can prevent the adverse effects of smoke exposure on bone by stimulating bone formation and inhibiting bone turnover and bone resorption.

  11. Glucoregulatory consequences and cardiorespiratory parameters in rats exposed to chronic-intermittent hypoxia: Effects of the duration of exposure and losartan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor B Fenik

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA is associated with glucose intolerance. Both chronic sleep disruption and recurrent blood oxygen desaturations (chronic-intermittent hypoxia – CIH may cause, or exacerbate, metabolic derangements. Methods: To assess the impact of CIH alone, without accompanying upper airway obstructions, on the counter-regulatory response to glucose load and cardiorespiratory parameters, we exposed adult male Sprague-Dawley rats to CIH or sham room air exchanges for 10 h/day for 7, 21 or 35 days and then, one day after conclusion of CIH exposure, conducted intravenous glucose tolerance tests (ivgtt under urethane anesthesia. Additional rats underwent 35 days of CIH followed by 35 days of regular housing, or had 35 day-long CIH exposure combined with daily administration of the type 1 angiotensin II receptor antagonist, losartan (15 mg/kg, p.o., and then were also subjected to ivgtt. Results: Compared with the corresponding control groups, CIH rats had progressively reduced glucose-stimulated insulin release and impaired glucose clearance, only mildly elevated heart rate and/or arterial blood pressure and slightly reduced respiratory rate. The differences in insulin release between the CIH and sham-treated rats disappeared in the rats normally housed for 35 days after 35 days of CIH/sham exposure. The losartan-treated rats had improved insulin sensitivity, with no evidence of suppressed insulin release in the CIH group. Conclusions: In adult rats, the glucose-stimulated insulin release is gradually suppressed with the duration of exposure to CIH, but the effect is reversible. Elimination of the detrimental effect of CIH on insulin release by losartan suggests that CIH disrupts glucoregulation through angiotensin/catecholaminergic pathways. Accordingly, treatment with continuous positive airway pressure may ameliorate pre-diabetic conditions in OSA patients, in part, by reducing sympathoexcitatory effects of recurrent

  12. Effect of epimedium pubescen flavonoid on bone mineral status and bone turnover in male rats chronically exposed to cigarette smoke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Shu-guang

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epimedii herba is one of the most frequently used herbs in formulas that are prescribed for the treatment of osteoporosis in China and its main constituent is Epimedium pubescen flavonoid (EPF. However, it is unclear whether EPF during chronic exposure to cigarette smoke may have a protective influence on the skeleton. The present study investigated the effect of EPF on bone mineral status and bone turnover in a rat model of human relatively high exposure to cigarette smoke. Methods Fifty male Wistar rats were randomized into five groups: controls, passive smoking groups and passive smoking rats administered EPF at three dosage levels (75, 150 or 300 mg/kg/day in drinking water for 4 months. A rat model of passive smoking was prepared by breeding male rats in a cigarette-smoking box. Bone mineral content (BMC, bone mineral density (BMD, bone turnover markers, bone histomorphometric parameters and biomechanical properties were examined. Results Smoke exposure decreased BMC and BMD, increased bone turnover (inhibited bone formation and stimulated its resorption, affected bone histomorphometry (increased trabecular separation and osteoclast surface per bone surface; decreased trabecular bone volume, trabecular thickness, trabecular number, cortical thickness, bone formation rate and osteoblast surface per bone surface, and reduced mechanical properties. EPF supplementation during cigarette smoke exposure prevented smoke-induced changes in bone mineral status and bone turnover. Conclusion The results suggest that EPF can prevent the adverse effects of smoke exposure on bone by stimulating bone formation and inhibiting bone turnover and bone resorption.

  13. Evaluation of behavioural and antioxidant activity of Cytisus scoparius Link in rats exposed to chronic unpredictable mild stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harisudhan Thanukrishnan

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Various human diseases have oxidative stress as one of their component. Many herbs have been reported to exhibit properties that combat oxidative stress through their active constituents such as flavonoids, tannins, phenolic compounds etc. Cytisus scoparius (CS Link, (Family: Leguminosae, also called Sarothamnus scoparius, has been shown in invitro experiments to be endowed with anti-diabetic, hypnotic and sedative and antioxidant activity. Therefore this study was carried out to evaluate CS for its anxiolytic, antidepressant and anti-oxidant activity in stressed rats. Methods 60% methanolic extract of CS was quantified for phenolic content by Folin-Ciocalteau's method. Chronic unpredictable mild stress (CMS was employed to induce stress in rats. CS (125 and 250 mg/kg, p.o and diazepam (DZM (2 mg/kg, p.o was administered during the 21 day stress exposure period. Anxiolytic and antidepressant activities of CS were assessed in open field exploratory and behavioural despair paradigms, respectively. Plasma glucose and total lipids; endogenous antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT; non-enzymic-ascorbic acid and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS levels were measured in brain, kidneys and adrenals using standard protocols to assess the effect of CS. Results Total phenolic content of CS was found to be 8.54 ± 0.16% w/w. CMS produced anxiogenic and depressive behaviour in experimental rats with metabolic disturbance. Significant decrease in SOD, CAT levels and increase in lipid peroxidation level was observed in stressed rats. CS administration for 21 days during stress exposure significantly increased the ambulatory behaviour and decreased the freezing time in open field behaviour. In behavioural despair test no significant alteration in the immobility period was observed. CS also improved SOD, CAT, and ascorbic acid level and controlled the lipid peroxidation in different tissues

  14. Social stress exacerbates the aversion to painful experiences in rats exposed to chronic pain: the role of the locus coeruleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, Lidia; Alba-Delgado, Cristina; Torres-Sanchez, Sonia; Mico, Juan Antonio; Neto, Fani L; Berrocoso, Esther

    2013-10-01

    Stressful experiences seem to negatively influence pain perception through as yet unknown mechanisms. As the noradrenergic locus coeruleus (LC) nucleus coordinates many components of the stress response, as well as nociceptive transmission, we evaluated whether the sensory and affective dimension of chronic neuropathic pain worsens in situations of stress due to adaptive changes of LC neurons. Accordingly, male rats were socially isolated for 5 weeks, and in the last 2 weeks, neuropathic pain was induced by chronic constriction injury. In this situation of stress, chronic pain selectively heightened the animal's aversion to painful experiences (affective pain), as measured in the place escape/avoidance test, although no changes were observed in the sensory dimension of pain. In addition, electrophysiological recordings of LC neurons showed a low tonic but exacerbated nociceptive-evoked activity when the injured paw was stimulated. These changes were accompanied by an increase in tyrosine hydroxylase and gephyrin expression in the LC. Furthermore, intra-LC administration of bicuculline, a γ-aminobutyric acid-A receptor antagonist, attenuated the negative affective effects of pain. These data show that changes in the LC are greater than those expected from the simple summation of each independent factor (pain and stress), revealing mechanisms through which stressors may exacerbate pain perception without affecting the sensorial dimension. Copyright © 2013 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. [Effects of interleukin-18 and hypoxia-inducible factor-1α in serum and gingival tissues of rat model with periodontitis exposed to chronic intermittent hypoxia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bin; Wang, Xiaoqin

    2015-08-01

    This study evaluates the expression of interleukin-18 (IL-18) and hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-lα in rat periodontitis model exposed to normoxia and chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) environments. The possible correlation between periodontitis and obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) was also investigated. Methods: Thirty-two Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly assigned into four groups: normoxia control, normoxia periodontitis, hypoxia control, and hypoxia periodontitis groups. The periodontitis models were established by ligating the bilateral maxillary second molars and employing high-carbohydrate diets. Rats in hypoxia control and hypoxia periodontitis groups were exposed to CIH treatment mimicking a moderately severe OSAHS condition. All animals were sacrificed after eight weeks, and the clinical periodontal indexes were detected. The levels of IL-18 and HIF-1α in serum and gingival tissues were determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The correlation between attachment loss (AL) and the levels of IL-18 and HIF-lα in hypoxia periodontitis group was evaluated. The levels of IL-18 and HIF-lα in hypoxia periodontitis group were significantly higher than that in normoxia periodontitis and hypoxia control groups (Pperiodontal tissues, which is correlated with IL-18 and HIF-lα levels.

  16. Antidepressant-Like Effects of Shuyusan in Rats Exposed to Chronic Stress: Effects on Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liping Chen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was to investigate antidepressant activities of Shuyusan (a Chinese herb, using a rats model of depression induced by unpredictable chronic mild stress (UCMS. The administration groups were treated with Shuyusan decoction for 3 weeks and compared with fluoxetine treatment. In order to understand the potential antidepressant-like activities of Shuyusan, tail suspension test (TST and forced swimming test (FST were used as behavioral despair study. The level of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRH, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH, corticosterone (CORT and hippocampus glucocorticoid receptor expression were examined. After modeling, there was a significant prolongation of immobility time in administration groups with the TST and FST. High-dose Shuyusan could reduce the immobility time measured with the TST and FST. The immobility time in high-dose herbs group and fluoxetine group was increased significantly compared with the model group. After 3 weeks herbs fed, the serum contents level of CRH, ACTH, and CORT in high-dose herb group was significantly decreased compared to the model group. The result indicated that Shuyusan had antidepressant activity effects on UCMS model rats. The potential antidepressant effect may be related to decreasing glucocorticoid levels activity, regulating the function of HPA axis, and inhibiting glucocorticoid receptor expression in hippocampus.

  17. Changes in the structure and function of the kidney of rats chronically exposed to cadmium. II. histoenzymatic studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brzoska, M.M.; Moniuszko-Jakoniuk, J. [Dept. of Toxicology, Medical Univ. of Bialystok, Bialystok (Poland); Kaminski, M.; Dziki, M. [Dept. of Histology and Embryology, Silesian School of Medicine, Katowice-Ligota (Poland)

    2004-04-01

    Early effects of cadmium (Cd) on the structure and function of the kidney were studied in an experimental model using rats intoxicated with Cd at the levels of 5 and 50 mg Cd/1 drinking water. The effect of Cd was evaluated histopathologically and biochemically. Damage to the cellular structures was assessed on the basis of histoenzymatic analyses of the activity and localization of indicator enzymes (succinate dehydrogenase, lactate dehydrogenase, glucose-6-phosphatase, Mg{sup 2+}-dependent adenosine triphosphatase and acid phosphatase). The histochemical observations indicate that Cd causes damage to the organization and function of the nephron. Several structures, i.e. endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondrion, lysosome, cellular and intracellular membrane, as well as their biological functions, i.e. aerobic and anaerobic respiration, transport functions and biochemical processes taking place in the endoplasmic reticulum, were affected. The cytotoxic action of Cd occurs mainly in the tubules and partially also in the glomeruli. The results clearly indicate that Cd damages kidney structurally and functionally even at a relatively low level (5 mg/l) corresponding to human environmental exposure, and they confirm our previous hypothesis that the threshold for the kidney effects of Cd is less than 4.08 {+-} 0.33 {mu}g/g kidney wet weight and higher than 2.40 {+-} 0.15 {mu}g/g. The target for Cd action in the kidney is the tubules (proximal convoluted tubules and straight tubules), and disturbance in their function is the main toxic effect of Cd. Renal glomeruli are also injured, but only partially, whereas in other parts of the nephron the damage is slight. The results, together with observations reported in the first paper of the study, incline us to conclude that humans environmentally exposed to Cd are at risk of tubular damage. (orig.)

  18. Effect of Schizandra chinensis lignans on cell division in the corneal epithelium and tongue of albino rats exposed to chronic cold stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mel'nik, E.I.; Lupandin, A.V.; Timoshin, S.S.

    1985-01-01

    The authors study the possibility of correcting cellular manifestations of disadaptation following chronic exposure to cold stress by means of preparations of Sch. chinensis. The model of chronic stress was cooling male albino rats daily for 1.5 h to a temperature of 28-30 C for 28 days. Since differences between levels of proliferation in intact animals and in the rats receiving 1.9% ethanol solution were absent, values obtained in the group of intact animals are presented in a table as the control. The animals underwent euthanasia 48 hours after the final exposure to the cold. The rats received an injection of tritium-thymidine one hour before sacrifice. It is shown that the results confirm those in previous studies of stimulation of DNA synthesis and mitotic activity in the corneal and lingual epithelium of albino rats during chronic exposure to stress

  19. Uric acid levels in plasma and urine in rats chronically exposed to inorganic As (III) and As(V).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jauge, P; Del-Razo, L M

    1985-07-01

    The effect of inorganic arsenic (III) and arsenic (V) on renal excretion and plasma levels of uric acid was examined in rats. Oral administration of 1200 micrograms As/kg/day for 6 weeks diminished uric acid levels in plasma by 67.1% and 26.5% of control after the administration of As(III) and As(V), respectively. Renal excretion of uric acid was significantly reduced during the first 3 weeks following As (III) administration, with a subsequent increase to approach control values at the end of the treatment. When As(V) was administered, the diminution in renal excretion was significant at 6 weeks.

  20. Differences in behavior associated to anxiety in male and Female rats exposed to a chronic stress protocol: Early maternal separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duenas Gómez, Zulma Janeth

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available During the first stages of life, the environment and maternal interactions are essential for normal mammalian neuronal maturity and behavior. In fact, it has been demonstrated that disruption of mother-pup interaction during early life exert long-lasting effects on the development of central nervous, endocrine, and immune systems and behavioral responses. The principal aim of our work was to study the consequences of early maternal separation (EMS on adult male and female anxiety. The behaviors was evaluated using the Elavated Plus-Maze (EPM. Separation procedure was carried out in postnatal days 1 to 21 twice daily: three hours in the morning and three hours in the afternoon. As a control group we used animals that stayed with the mother but were manipulated daily for one minute in the morning and in the afternoon. In postnatal day 22, animals were distributed by sex and then kept in standard lab conditions. Behavioral testing in the EPM was performed at 90/95 days of age. All subjects were videotaped. Records included number of entries, time spent in each arm, and the frequency and time stretching, deeping, rearing, and grooming. Our results showed that separated females have more open arm entries and spent more time there, and exhibit more deeping and less grooming compared to females in the control group and males of the experimental and control group. Thus, based on the anxiolytic profile that female rat shows in the EPM, these data suggest that EMS affects differentially male and female adult rats

  1. Effects of acute caffeine on anxiety-related behavior in rats chronically exposed to the drug, with some evidence of possible withdrawal-reversal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Robert N; Hancock, Nicola J

    2017-03-15

    For 20days male and female PVG/c hooded rats were provided with caffeinated (approximately 50mg/kg/day) or unadulterated drinking water, and then their anxiety-related behavior was observed in an open field and elevated plus maze. Their choices of a brightness change were also observed in a Y maze to assess any caffeine effects on spatial memory. 24h later, all rats were tested again following an intraperitoneal injection of 50mg/kg acute caffeine, or vehicle. Earlier chronic caffeine decreased ambulation, walking, rearing, center occupancy and increased immobility in the open field thereby suggesting increased anxiety. However, occupancy of the plus-maze open arms and the Y-maze novel arm were increased by caffeine for male rats, but decreased for females probably because of sex differences in control levels of the response rather than to drug effects on anxiety and memory respectively. Following caffeine withdrawal, acute caffeine had the opposite effect to chronic treatment namely, increased open-field ambulation, walking, center occupancy and decreased immobility and defecation for caffeine-naïve rats that were suggestive of decreased anxiety. Similar but more consistent effects (plus decreased emergence latencies from a darkened start box into the open field) also typified the caffeine-experienced rats which in this case may have been accentuated by caffeine withdrawal-reversal. There was no evidence of either chronic or acute caffeine affecting spatial memory measured in the Y maze. There were also examples of lower overall activity and higher anxiety in male rats, than in females, and some sex-dependent caffeine effects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Dehydroepiandrosterone increases the number and dendrite maturation of doublecortin cells in the dentate gyrus of middle age male Wistar rats exposed to chronic mild stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera-Pérez, J J; Martínez-Mota, L; Jiménez-Rubio, G; Ortiz-López, L; Cabrera-Muñoz, E A; Galindo-Sevilla, N; Zambrano, E; Hernández-Luis, F; Ramírez-Rodríguez, G B; Flores-Ramos, M

    2017-03-15

    Aging increases the vulnerability to stress and risk of developing depression. These changes have been related to a reduction of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) levels, an adrenal steroid with anti-stress effects. Also, adult hippocampal neurogenesis decreases during aging and its alteration or impaired is related to the development of depression. Besides, it has been hypothesized that DHEA increases the formation of new neurons. However, it is unknown whether treatment with DHEA in aging may stimulate the dendrite maturation of newborn neurons and reversing depressive-like signs evoked by chronic stress exposure. Here aged male rats (14 months old) were subjected to a scheme of chronic mild stress (CMS) during six weeks, received a treatment with DHEA from the third week of CMS. Changes in body weight and sucrose preference (SP) were measured once a week. DHEA levels were measured in serum, identification of doublecortin-(DCX)-, BrdU- and BrdU/NeuN-labeled cells was done in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. CMS produced a gradual reduction in the body weight, but no changes in the SP were observed. Treatment enhanced levels of DHEA, but lack of recovery on body weight of stressed rats. Aging reduced the number of DCX-, BrdU- and BrdU/NeuN- cells but DHEA just significantly increased the number of DCX-cells in rats under CMS and controls, reaching levels of young non-stressed rats (used here as a reference of an optimal status of health). In rats under CMS, DHEA facilitated dendritic maturation of immature new neurons. Our results reveal that DHEA improves neural plasticity even in conditions of CMS in middle age rats. Thus, this hormone reverted the decrement of DCX-cells caused during normal aging. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Fluoxetine increases the activity of the ERK-CREB signal system and alleviates the depressive-like behavior in rats exposed to chronic forced swim stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Xiaoli; Lin, Wenjuan; Li, Junfa; Li, Huanhuan; Wang, Weiwen; Wang, Donglin; Sun, Meng

    2008-08-01

    Our previous research indicates that the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)-cyclic AMP-responsive-element-binding protein (CREB) signal system may be involved in the molecular mechanism of depression. The present study further investigated the effect of antidepressant fluoxetine on the ERK-CREB signal system and the depressive-like behaviors in rats. Fluoxetine was administrated to either naive rats or stressed rats for 21 days. The results showed that chronic forced swim stress induced depressive-like behaviors and decreased the levels of P-ERK2, P-CREB, ERK1/2 and CREB in hippocampus and prefrontal cortex. Fluoxetine alleviated the depressive-like behaviors and reversed the disruptions of the P-ERK2 and P-CREB in stressed rats. Fluoxetine also exerted mood-elevating effect and increased the levels of the P-ERK2 and P-CREB in naive rats. These results suggest that the ERK-CREB signal system may be the targets of the antidepressant action of fluoxetine and participate in the neuronal mechanism of depression.

  4. Biochemical Changes in the Serum and Liver of albino rats exposed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biochemical changes in the serum and liver of albino rats chronically exposed to rats administered 5gk-1 , 7.5gk-1 and 15gk-1 of gasoline , kerosine and crude petroleum(bonny light) respectively were studied. The petroleum samples were administered intraperitoneally and the biochemical changes in the rat serum and the ...

  5. Neuroplastic Correlates in the mPFC Underlying the Impairment of Stress-Coping Ability and Cognitive Flexibility in Adult Rats Exposed to Chronic Mild Stress during Adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Using a valid chronic mild stress (CMS model of depression, we found that adolescent (postnatal days [PND] 28–41 CMS induced transient alterations in anhedonia that did not persist into adulthood after a 3-week recovery period. Previously stressed adult rats exhibited more immobility/despair behaviors in the forced swimming test and a greater number of trials to reach criterion in the set-shifting task, suggesting the impaired ability to cope with stressors and the cognitive flexibility that allows adaptation to dynamic environments during adulthood. In addition, adult rat exposure to adolescent CMS had a relatively inhibited activation in ERK signaling and downstream protein expression of phosphorylated cAMP-response element-binding protein (CREB and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF in the medial prefrontal cortex. Further correlation analysis demonstrated that immobility and set-shifting performance were positively correlated with the inhibition of ERK signaling. These results indicated adolescent CMS can be used as an effective stressor to model an increased predisposition to adult depression.

  6. Hippocampus and serum metabolomic studies to explore the regulation of Chaihu-Shu-Gan-San on metabolic network disturbances of rats exposed to chronic variable stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Zhi-heng; Jia, Hong-mei; Zhang, Hong-wu; Feng, Yu-Fei; An, Lei; Zou, Zhong-mei

    2014-03-04

    Chaihu-Shu-Gan-San (CSGS), a traditional Chinese medicine formula, has been effectively used for the treatment of depression. However, studies of its anti-depressive mechanism are challenging, due to the complex pathophysiology of depression, and complexity of CSGS with multiple constituents acting on different receptors. In the present work, metabolomic studies of biochemical changes in the hippocampus and serum of chronic variable stress (CVS)-induced depression rats after treatment with CSGS were performed using ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-QTOF-MS). Partial least squares-discriminate analysis indicated that the metabolic perturbation induced by CVS was reduced by treatment with CSGS. A total of twenty-six metabolites (16 from the hippocampus and 10 from serum) were considered as potential biomarkers involved in the development of depression. Among them, 11 were first reported to have potential relevance in the pathogenesis of depression, and 25 may correlate to the regulation of CSGS treatment on depression. The results combined with a previous study indicated that CSGS mediated synergistically abnormalities of the metabolic network, composed of energy metabolism, synthesis of neurotransmitters, tryptophan, phospholipids, fatty acid and bile acid metabolism, bone loss and liver detoxification, which may be helpful for understanding its mechanism of action. Furthermore, the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signal pathway, involved in the neuronal protective mechanism of depression related to energy metabolism, was investigated by western blot analysis. The results showed that CSGS reversed disruptions of BDNF, ERK1/2 and pERK1/2 in CVS rats, which provides the first evidence that the ERK signal system may be one of the targets related to the antidepressant action of CSGS.

  7. Effects of 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 on the Prevention of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) in Rats Exposed to Air Pollutant Particles Less than 2.5 Micrometers in Diameter (PM2.5).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lerong; Yuan, Xiaolan; Zou, Luru; Peng, Jianping; Hu, Xinchun

    2018-01-18

    BACKGROUND This study aimed to investigate the effects of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) on airway changes in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) rats exposed to air pollutant particles less than 2.5 micrometers in diameter (PM2.5), and to evaluate the mechanisms. MATERIAL AND METHODS Three groups were included in this study: a normal group, a COPD model group, and a COPD with 1,25(OH)2D3 treatment group. In each group, the rats were divided into four subgroups: control and different doses of PM2.5 (1.6, 8 and 40 mg/kg body weight). Apoptosis in lung tissue was detected by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL). The expression of c-Jun N-terminal kinase 1 (JNK1) and mucin 5AC (MUC5AC) were detected by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), Western blotting and immunofluorescence staining. RESULTS Compared with corresponding subgroups in normal group, the apoptotic rates in COPD group were significantly increased. By contrast, 1,25(OH)2D3 treatment group significantly reduced COPD-induced apoptosis in lung tissue. Upon the dose increase of PM2.5, the apoptotic rate was also elevated in each group. Compared with the corresponding control in each group, PM2.5 increased apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. Importantly, 1,25(OH)2D3 also prevented apoptosis in COPD rats exposed to PM2.5. Mechanically, the expression of MUC5AC and JNK1 in COPD group was significantly upregulated, compared with corresponding subgroups in the normal group. Treatment with 1,25(OH)2D3 reduced expression of MUC5AC and JNK1 in COPD rats. It was found that the expression of MUC5AC and JNK1 was elevated with the dose increase of PM2.5 in each group. Consistently, 1,25(OH)2D3 also reduced the expression of MUC5AC and JNK1 in COPD rats exposed to PM2.5. CONCLUSIONS 1,25(OH)2D3 prevented lung injury in COPD rats with or without PM2.5 exposure. Our results suggest that 1,25(OH)2D3 is useful to mitigate the injury caused by COPD.

  8. Diffusion MRI and MR spectroscopy reveal microstructural and metabolic brain alterations in chronic mild stress exposed rats: A CMS recovery study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Ahmad Raza; Hansen, Brian; Wiborg, Ove; Kroenke, Christopher D; Jespersen, Sune Nørhøj

    2018-02-15

    Chronic mild stress (CMS) induced depression elicits several debilitating symptoms and causes a significant economic burden on society. High variability in the symptomatology of depression poses substantial impediment to accurate diagnosis and therapy outcome. CMS exposure induces significant metabolic and microstructural alterations in the hippocampus (HP), prefrontal cortex (PFC), caudate-putamen (CP) and amygdala (AM), however, recovery from these maladaptive changes are limited and this may provide negative effects on the therapeutic treatment and management of depression. The present study utilized anhedonic rats from the unpredictable CMS model of depression to study metabolic recovery in the ventral hippocampus (vHP) and microstructural recovery in the HP, AM, CP, and PFC. The study employed 1 H MR spectroscopy ( 1 H MRS) and in-vivo diffusion MRI (d-MRI) at the age of week 18 (week 1 post CMS exposure) week 20 (week 3 post CMS) and week 25 (week 8 post CMS exposure) in the anhedonic group, and at the age of week 18 and week 22 in the control group. The d-MRI data have provided an array of diffusion tensor metrics (FA, MD, AD, and RD), and fast kurtosis metrics (MKT, W L and W T ). CMS exposure induced a significant metabolic alteration in vHP, and significant microstructural alterations were observed in the HP, AM, and PFC in comparison to the age match control and within the anhedonic group. A significantly high level of N-acetylaspartate (NAA) was observed in vHP at the age of week 18 in comparison to age match control and week 20 and week 25 of the anhedonic group. HP and AM showed significant microstructural alterations up to the age of week 22 in the anhedonic group. PFC showed significant microstructural alterations only at the age of week 18, however, most of the metrics showed significantly higher value at the age of week 20 in the anhedonic group. The significantly increased NAA concentration may indicate impaired catabolism due to astrogliosis or

  9. Exposure to a predator scent induces chronic behavioral changes in rats previously exposed to low-level blast: Implications for the relationship of blast-related TBI to PTSD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgina Perez-Garcia

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Blast-related mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI has been unfortunately common in veterans who served in the recent conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan. The postconcussion syndrome associated with these mTBIs has frequently appeared in combination with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD. The presence of PTSD has complicated diagnosis since clinically PTSD and the postconcussion syndrome of mTBI have many overlapping symptoms. In particular establishing how much of the symptom complex can be attributed to the psychological trauma associated with PTSD in contrast to the physical injury of TBI has proven difficult. Indeed some have suggested that much of what is now being called blast-related postconcussion syndrome is better explained by PTSD. The relationship between the postconcussion syndrome of mTBI and PTSD is complex. Association of the two disorders might be viewed as additive effects of independent psychological and physical traumas suffered in a war zone. However we previously found that rats exposed to repetitive low-level blast exposure in the absence of a psychological stressor developed a variety of anxiety and PTSD-related behavioral traits that were present months following the last blast exposure. Here we show that a single predator scent challenge delivered 8 months after the last blast exposure induces chronic anxiety related changes in blast-exposed rats that are still present 45 days later. These observations suggest that in addition to independently inducing PTSD-related traits, blast exposure sensitizes the brain to react abnormally to a subsequent psychological stressor. These studies have implications for conceptualizing the relationship between blast-related mTBI and PTSD and suggest that blast-related mTBI in humans may predispose to the later development of PTSD in reaction to subsequent psychological stressors.

  10. Serum-thyroxine levels in microwave-exposed rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, S.T.; Lebda, N.; Michaelson, S.M.; Pettit, S.

    1985-01-01

    The nature of the response of the thyroid gland in animals exposed to microwave irradiation is controversial. Animal experimentation has contributed to the controversy because both increased and decreased thyroid functions have been reported. The thyroxine concentration in rats as representative of thyroid function in animals exposed to 2.45-GHz, 120-Hz amplitude-modulated microwaves has been studied. These studies covered a long time span; rats from two commercial sources (BS and CR) were used and subjected to different numbers of exposures, and therefore these data were evaluated for their stability. Two factors could influence in the result significantly, i.e., source of animal and number of sham exposures. Rats used in the 2-hr exposures were from two different commercial sources; rats from CR had a higher (but normal) thyroxine concentration than did rats from BS. Therefore the data of these animals were separated by commercial source for reevaluation. Instead of increased thyroxine concentration in rats exposed at 25, 30, and 40 mW/cm 2 , changes were not noted in any microwave-exposed rats. The influence of sham exposure revealed that appropriate concurrent control and specification of animal source are needed in longitudinal studies. Furthermore, statistical procedures used can greatly influence the conclusions. Thus the specificity of changes in thyroxine concentration in rats exposed to microwaves because of its sporadic occurrence and because of inconsistencies among experiments was doubted

  11. Increased gluconeogenesis in rats exposed to hyper-G stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daligcon, B.C.; Oyama, J.; Hannak, K.

    1985-01-01

    The role of gluconeogenesis on the increase in plasma glucose and liver glycogen of rats exposed to hyper-G (radial acceleration) stress was determined. Overnight-fasted, male Sprague-Dawley rats (250-300 g) were injected i.p. with uniformly labeled 14 C lactate, alanine, or glycerol (5 μCi/rat) and immediately exposed to 3.1 G for 0.25, 0.50, and 1.0 hr. 14 C incorporation of the labeled substrates into plasma glucose and liver glycogen was measured and compared to noncentrifuged control rats injected in a similar manner. Significant increases in 14 C incorporation of all three labeled substrates into plasma glucose were observed in centrifuged rats at all exposure periods; 14 C incorporation into liver glycogen was significantly increased only at 0.50 and 1.0 hr. The i.p. administration (5 mg/100-g body wt) of 5-methoxyindole-2-carboxylic acid, a potent gluconeogenesis inhibitor, prior to centrifugation blocked the increase in plasma glucose and liver glycogen during the first hour of centrifugation. The increase in plasma glucose and liver glycogen was also abolished in adrenodemedullated rats exposed to centrifugation for 1.0 hr. Propranolol, a beta-adrenergic blocker, suppressed the increase in plasma glucose of rats exposed to centrifugation for 0.25 hr. From the results of this study, it is concluded that the initial, rapid rise in plasma glucose as well as the increase in liver glycogen of rats exposed to hyper-G stress can be attributed to an increased rate of gluconeogenesis, and that epinephrine plays a dominant role during the early stages of exposure to centrifugation. 11 references, 3 tables

  12. Differential cardiac effects in rats exposed to atmospheric ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The results of this study demonstrate that atmospheric smog generated from both isoprene and toluene cause cardiac effects in rats. In addition, it appears that smog from toluene is more toxic in terms of cardiac arrhythmogenicity. Smog, which is a complex mixture of particulate matter and gaseous irritants (ozone, sulfur dioxide, reactive aldehydes), as well as components which react with sunlight to form secondary pollutants, has recently been linked to increased risk of adverse cardiac responses. The components, and therefore health effects, of atmospheric smog are determined by the fuel used to generate them. In this study we examined the difference between isoprene- and toluene-generated smog in causing cardiac effects in rats and hypothesized that both atmospheres would cause cardiac electrical and functional changes in rats. Male Wistar-Kyoto rats were exposed to either atmospheric smog generated by the USEPA’s mobile reaction chamber using either isoprene or toluene, or filtered air for four hours. One day later, rats were anesthetized and left ventricular functional responses to dobutamine were measured using a Millar probe and arrhythmia sensitivity to aconitine. Baseline left ventricular pressure (LVP) was lower in toluene-exposed animals but not isoprene when compared to air. Increases in LVP with increasing doses of dobutamine were impaired only in toluene-exposed rats. Both isoprene and toluene impaired the rate of ventri

  13. Brain biochemistry of infant mice and rats exposed to lead

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berber, G.B.; Maes, J.; Gilliavod, N.; Casale, G.

    1978-05-01

    Brains of rats and mice exposed to lead from birth receive biochemical examinations. Mice are given drinking water with lead and are studied until they are 17 days old. Rats ae given lead in the diet and followed for more than a year. In mice a retardation in body growth and development in brain DNA is found. In rats, cathepsin is enhanced at almost all times. An important role of proteolytic processes and biogenic animes is suggested in lead encephalopathy. (33 references, 7 tables)

  14. Effects of Circadian Disruption on Methamphetamine Consumption in Methamphetamine-Exposed Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Susan E.; Feng, Hanting; Garber, Garrett; Menaker, Michael; Lynch, Wendy J.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale A substantial number of clinical studies indicate associations between sleep abnormalities and drug abuse; however, the role played by the circadian system in the development of addiction is largely unknown. Objective The aim of this study was to examine the effects of experimentally induced chronic jet lag on methamphetamine consumption in a rat model of methamphetamine drinking. Methods Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n=32) were housed in running wheel cages in a 12:12 light:dark cycle. One group of rats (n=16) was given two weeks of forced methamphetamine consumption (0.01% in drinking water; meth pre-exposed) while a second group (n=16, not pre-exposed) received water only. This was followed by a two week abstinence period during which half of the animals from each group were exposed to 4 consecutive 6-hr advancing phase shifts of the light:dark cycle, while the other half remained on the original light:dark cycle. Methamphetamine consumption was assessed in all rats following the deprivation period using a two-bottle choice paradigm. Results Methamphetamine consumption was initially lower in methamphetamine pre-exposed vs. not pre-exposed rats. However, during the second week following abstinence, consumption was significantly higher in phase shifted rats of the methamphetamine pre-exposed group compared to all other groups. Conclusions These data reveal an effect of circadian rhythm disturbance on methamphetamine consumption, and suggest that dysregulation of the circadian system be considered in the etiology of relapse and addiction. PMID:25543849

  15. 'Unicorn' among rats exposed to mycotoxins from Fusarium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoental, R

    1983-05-01

    A horn-like nodule developed in the middle of the forehead of a white rat, exposed perinatally to T-2 toxin and to zearalenone, the secondary metabolites of Fusarium. The hard nodule consisted mainly of keratine, derived from a squamous carcinoma spreading through the nasal turbinals and invading the brain.

  16. Toxicity of lunar dust assessed in inhalation-exposed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Chiu-wing; Scully, Robert R; Zhang, Ye; Renne, Roger A; Hunter, Robert L; McCluskey, Richard A; Chen, Bean T; Castranova, Vincent; Driscoll, Kevin E; Gardner, Donald E; McClellan, Roger O; Cooper, Bonnie L; McKay, David S; Marshall, Linda; James, John T

    2013-10-01

    Humans will again set foot on the moon. The moon is covered by a layer of fine dust, which can pose a respiratory hazard. We investigated the pulmonary toxicity of lunar dust in rats exposed to 0, 2.1, 6.8, 20.8 and 60.6 mg/m(3) of respirable-size lunar dust for 4 weeks (6 h/day, 5 days/week); the aerosols in the nose-only exposure chambers were generated from a jet-mill ground preparation of a lunar soil collected during the Apollo 14 mission. After 4 weeks of exposure to air or lunar dust, groups of five rats were euthanized 1 day, 1 week, 4 weeks or 13 weeks after the last exposure for assessment of pulmonary toxicity. Biomarkers of toxicity assessed in bronchoalveolar fluids showed concentration-dependent changes; biomarkers that showed treatment effects were total cell and neutrophil counts, total protein concentrations and cellular enzymes (lactate dehydrogenase, glutamyl transferase and aspartate transaminase). No statistically significant differences in these biomarkers were detected between rats exposed to air and those exposed to the two low concentrations of lunar dust. Dose-dependent histopathology, including inflammation, septal thickening, fibrosis and granulomas, in the lung was observed at the two higher exposure concentrations. No lesions were detected in rats exposed to ≤6.8 mg/m(3). This 4-week exposure study in rats showed that 6.8 mg/m(3) was the highest no-observable-adverse-effect level (NOAEL). These results will be useful for assessing the health risk to humans of exposure to lunar dust, establishing human exposure limits and guiding the design of dust mitigation systems in lunar landers or habitats.

  17. Micronuclei frequency in albino rats exposed to high natural radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aneesh, D.; Godwin Wesley, S.

    2013-01-01

    Genotoxicity and DNA damage endpoints are used to evaluate results in the context of cell survival. Genotoxicity in mammalian cells is monitored mostly by using cytokinesis-block micronucleus (CBMN) assay. The score of micronuclei (MN) in peripheral blood lymphocytes can be used as a biomarker and also as a bio-dosimeter of radiation exposure. In the present study the effect of natural radiation on albino rats has been investigated, to find out if there is any increase in MN frequency in peripheral blood lymphocytes. Animals at the age of 2-3 weeks were exposed to natural radiation, at the dose of 10.38 μGyh -1 for a period of 6 months. A parallel control set was also maintained (0.12 μGy h -1 '). Blood samples were collected from both test (exposed to natural radiation) and control rats. Lymphocyte culture was done following 'microculture techniques' for 72 h. Cytochalasin B, at a concentration of 6.0 μg/ml, was added to the lymphocyte cultures at 44 h to block cytokinesis. The frequency of MN was evaluated by scoring a total of 1000 binucleated (BN) cells from one slide. The frequency of MN among the rats exposed to natural radiation was found to be 1.83±0.05 per 1000 BN cells and in the control it was 1.82±0.07 per 1000 BN cells. No statistically significant difference in the MN frequencies of exposed and control groups (p>0.05) was seen. The lower MN frequency in natural radiation exposed rats could be an indication of adaptive response. (author)

  18. [Comparative studies on the toxicity of various dielectrics--petroleum derivatives used in the electroerosion technic. V. Functional, morphological and cytoenzymatic changes in the kidneys of rats chronically exposed to petroleum hydrocarbons].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starek, A; Kamiński, M

    1982-01-01

    The rats exposed for 14 weeks to odourless kerosene mists (concentration of 75 and 300 mg/m3) had their urinary chemical and morphotic composition determined. In addition, morphological and cytoenzymatic examinations of kidneys were carried out. The findings were: increased pH and protein concentration and single erythrocytes in urine and also: passive congestion of renal cortex and medulla, infiltrates composed of granulocytes and eosinophils and albuminous casts in renal tubules. Decreased activity of succinate dehydrogenase, glucoso-6-phosphatase, Mg++ stimulated adenosinotriphosphatase and increased activity of acid phosphatase were found. Those changes were localized in cortical part of the kidney especially in the main tubules epithelial cells. The observed functional, morphological and cytoenzymatic changes depended on the magnitude of exposure. The obtained results confirm that kerosene hydrocarbons may exhibit toxic effects on the kidney function and structure.

  19. [Comparative studies on toxicity of various dielectrics, petroleum derivatives, used in electroerosion technology. IV. Morphological and cytoenzymatic changes in the lungs and acid-base imbalance in rats chronically exposed to petroleum hydrocarbons].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starek, A; Kamiński, M

    1981-01-01

    In rats exposed to odourless kerosene of 75 and 300 mg/m3 concentration, for 14 weeks, morphologic and cytoenzymatic examinations of lungs have been carried out and acid-base equilibrium indices in blood have been determined. Passive congestion of lung parenchyma, subpleural blood extravasation, atelectasis foci, thickened interalveolar septa with infiltrates from neutrophils, lymphocytes, eosinophils and macrophages have been found. In addition a decrease in succinic dehydrogenase activity, NADPH -- tetrazolium reductase, and Mg++-ATP-ase and increase in acid phosphatase activity have been revealed. Those have been focal changes, involving, apart from bronchial tree (low exposure -- 75 mg/m3), the remaining lung parenchyma segments (high exposure -- 300 mg/m3). In addition, disturbances in acid-base equilibrium in form of compensated metabolic alkalosis (75 mg/m3) and compensated metabolic acidosis (300 mg/m3) have occurred. The obtained results demonstrate toxic effects of kerosene hydrocarbons on the function and structure of lungs.

  20. Comparative studies on the toxicity of various dielectrics--petroleum derivatives used in the electroerosion technic. V. Functional, morphological and cytoenzymatic changes in the kidneys of rats chronically exposed to petroleum hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Starek, A.; Kaminski, M.

    1982-01-01

    The rats exposed for 14 weeks to odourless kerosene mists (concentration of 75 and 300 mg/m3) had their urinary chemical and morphotic composition determined. In addition, morphological and cytoenzymatic examinations of kidneys were carried out. The findings were: increased pH and protein concentration and single erythrocytes in urine and also: passive congestion of renal cortex and medulla, infiltrates composed of granulocytes and eosinophils and albuminous casts in renal tubules. Decreased activity of succinate dehydrogenase, glucoso-6-phosphatase, Mg++ stimulated adenosinotriphosphatase and increased activity of acid phosphatase were found. Those changes were localized in cortical part of the kidney especially in the main tubules epithelial cells. The observed functional, morphological and cytoenzymatic changes depended on the magnitude of exposure. The obtained results confirm that kerosene hydrocarbons may exhibit toxic effects on the kidney function and structure.

  1. Analysis of reproductive function in persons exposed to chronic radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kossenko, M.M.; Ostroumova, E.V.; Vyushkova, O.V.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to analyze the reproductive function in individuals exposed to radiation in the riverside villages on the Techa in the Southern Urals. The exposure of the population, numbering 28000, occurred in 1950-1956 as a result of discharges into the river of radioactive wastes from the Mayak facility for processing weapon plutonium. The residents were exposed to chronic radiation, both external and internal. The range of exposure doses to gonads was sufficiently wide: 20-1270 mSv. However, the distribution of doses among the exposed individuals was ununiform, and the proportion of people whose dose was below 120 mGy accounted for 74%. The following characteristics of exposed women were analyzed: menstrual function, outcomes of pregnancy, birth rates, health status for newborns. The analysis of the menstrual function in exposed women showed that in persons exposed in childhood, menarche was registered at the age of 14.3 years, on the average (based on literature sources, menarche is attained at the age of 13 for unexposed population). The mean age at menopause was 47.9 years for exposed women (the respective mean value for Russia is 50.8 years). Pregnancy outcomes were analyzed in 9000 exposed women. The rate of medical and criminal abortions was estimated as 79 per 100 labors. The rate of spontaneous abortions for exposed women was slightly higher, 3.11%, than for controls, 2.30%; these difference, however, were statistically insignificant. The total loss of fetus or neonate (unfavorable outcomes of pregnancy: spontaneous abortions, stillbirths, early neonatal death) was estimated to be 4.58% at zero dose. Exposure to gonads at the dose 1 Sv, estimated using the above-indicated method, yielded 3% of additional unfavorable outcomes of pregnancy. It was shown, based on the analysis of birth rates for the Techa Cohort that they had not undergone any essential changes over the first 25 years of exposure compared to the respective coefficients for

  2. Analysis of reproductive function in persons exposed to chronic radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kossenko, M.M.; Ostroumova, E.V.; Vyushkova, O.V. [Urals Research Center for Radiation Medicine, Chelyabinsk (Russian Federation)

    2000-05-01

    The purpose of the study was to analyze the reproductive function in individuals exposed to radiation in the riverside villages on the Techa in the Southern Urals. The exposure of the population, numbering 28000, occurred in 1950-1956 as a result of discharges into the river of radioactive wastes from the Mayak facility for processing weapon plutonium. The residents were exposed to chronic radiation, both external and internal. The range of exposure doses to gonads was sufficiently wide: 20-1270 mSv. However, the distribution of doses among the exposed individuals was ununiform, and the proportion of people whose dose was below 120 mGy accounted for 74%. The following characteristics of exposed women were analyzed: menstrual function, outcomes of pregnancy, birth rates, health status for newborns. The analysis of the menstrual function in exposed women showed that in persons exposed in childhood, menarche was registered at the age of 14.3 years, on the average (based on literature sources, menarche is attained at the age of 13 for unexposed population). The mean age at menopause was 47.9 years for exposed women (the respective mean value for Russia is 50.8 years). Pregnancy outcomes were analyzed in 9000 exposed women. The rate of medical and criminal abortions was estimated as 79 per 100 labors. The rate of spontaneous abortions for exposed women was slightly higher, 3.11%, than for controls, 2.30%; these difference, however, were statistically insignificant. The total loss of fetus or neonate (unfavorable outcomes of pregnancy: spontaneous abortions, stillbirths, early neonatal death) was estimated to be 4.58% at zero dose. Exposure to gonads at the dose 1 Sv, estimated using the above-indicated method, yielded 3% of additional unfavorable outcomes of pregnancy. It was shown, based on the analysis of birth rates for the Techa Cohort that they had not undergone any essential changes over the first 25 years of exposure compared to the respective coefficients for

  3. Influence of Chronic Stress and Oclusal Interference on Masseter Muscle Pain in Rat

    OpenAIRE

    Simonić-Kocijan, Sunčana; Uhač, Ivone; Braut, Vedrana; Kovač, Zoran; Kovačević Pavičić, Daniela; Fugošić, Vesna; Muhvić Urek, Miranda

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the individual effects of chronic stress and occlusal interference, as well as their combined influence on masseter muscle pain. Experiments were performed on 28 male Wistar rats. Animals were submitted to chronic stress procedure, exposed to occlusal interference, or exposed to both mantioned procedures. At the end of the procedure animals were submitted to orofacial formalin test, and nociceptive behavioral response was evaluated. Statisticaly significant dif...

  4. Brain dysfunctions in Wistar rats exposed to municipal landfill leachates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chibuisi G. Alimba

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Brain damage induced by Olusosun and Aba-Eku municipal landfill leachates was investigated in Wistar rats. Male rats were orally exposed to 1–25% concentrations of the leachates for 30 days. Catalase (CAT and superoxide dismutase (SOD activities, and malondialdehyde (MDA concentrations in the brain and serum of rats were evaluated; body and brain weight gain and histopathology were examined. There was significant (p < 0.05 decrease in body weight gain and SOD activity but increase in absolute and relative brain weight gain, MDA concentration and CAT activity in both brain and serum of treated rats. The biochemical parameters, which were more altered in the brain than serum, corroborated the neurologic lesions; neurodegeneration of purkinje cells with loss of dendrites, perineural vacuolations of the neuronal cytoplasm (spongiosis and neuronal necrosis in the brain. The concentrations of Cr, Cu, Pb, As, Cd, Mn, Ni, sulphates, ammonia, chloride and phosphate in the leachate samples were above standard permissible limits. The interactions of the neurotoxic constituents of the leachates induced the observed brain damage in the rats via oxidative damage. This suggests health risk in wildlife and human populations.

  5. Heart rate variability in workers chronically exposed to lead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajek, Jacek; Zyśko, Dorota; Chlebda, Ewa

    2004-07-01

    Lead is a strong neurotoxin. The effects of lead on the activity of the autonomic nervous system, assessed by the use of heart rate variability (HRV) analysis, have not yet been established. To assess the effects of occupational chronic lead exposure on the autonomic nervous system activity. The study group consisted of 22 copper foundry workers (mean age 41.8+/-8.7 years) who had elevated parameters of lead overload and were admitted to the hospital for chelate therapy. The control group consisted of 13 age-matched healthy males. Lead concentration was measured with the use of atomic absorption spectrophotometry, and concentration of free protoporphyrins in erythrocytes (FEP) using a fluorometric method. Each patient underwent 24-hour ambulatory ECG monitoring, and standard short-term as well as long-term HRV parameters were obtained. There were no significant differences between patients and controls in HRV parameters. In the control group, HRV parameters correlated with age. In patients, a significant negative correlation between lead concentration and some short-term HRV parameters calculated during the night was found: SDNN (r=-0.48, p<0.05), TP (r=-0.48, p<0.01) and LF (r=-0.48, p<0.01). In patients, a negative correlation between lead concentration and HFnight/HFday index was found (r=-0.47 p<0.01), whereas in controls this correlation was positive (r=0.66 p<0.05). Overall HRV indices are similar in subjects exposed to lead and in healthy controls. A decrease in the physiological elevation of HF values during the night, together with an increase in lead blood concentration and lack of relationship between age and HRV parameters in workers chronically exposed to lead may suggest disturbances of the autonomic system. In subjects not exposed to lead a decrease in heart rate with an increase in FEP concentration was observed.

  6. [Comparative studies on the toxicity of various dieelectrics, kerosene derivatives, used in the electroerosion technic. I. Morphological, cytoenzymatic and biochemical changes in the liver of rats chronically exposed to kerosene hydrocarbons].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starek, A; Kamiński, M

    1982-01-01

    Rats exposed to cosmetic kerosene mists (odourless kerosene), concentration of 75 and 300 mg/m3 for 14 days, underwent morphological and cytoenzymatic liver tests and biochemical tests of lipids composition in this organ. In addition, lipids concentration and activity of test--enzymes in blood serum were determined. The findings were: passive congestion, fine--droplet fatty degeneration in I zones of clusters and increased number of Browicz--Kupffer's phagocytes near liver triads. Those changes were accompanied by: decreased activity of succinic dehydrogenese (SDH), tetrazolic NADPH--reductase (NADPH-r.t.) and glucose-6-phosphatase (G-6-P-ase) and increased activity of adenosine triphosphatase (Mg++-ATP-ase) and acid phosphatase (AcP). In blood serum medium increase of base phosphatase (AP), 5-nucleotidase (5-Nt) and leucyloaminepeptidase (LAP) and decreased activity of prothrombin (Pt) were found. In addition, it was demonstrated that liver steatosis was characterized by cumulation of free fatty acids, phospholipids and cholesterol esters with simultaneous decrease in triglycerides content in this organ. The obtained results indicate that changes induced by kerosene hydrocarbons in liver are focal and cumulate in I zones of liver clusters. The degree of lesion varies with the extent of exposure, and results from toxic effects of this preparation on hepatic cells lypoproteid membranes.

  7. Incorporation and distribution of tritium in rats after chronic exposure to various tritiated compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, H.

    1991-01-01

    Rats were chronically exposed to tritiated water ( 3 HHO) and several tritiated organic compounds ([ 3 H]leucine, [ 3 H]lysine, [ 3 H]glucose, [ 3 H]glucosamine, [ 3 H]thymidine and [ 3 H]uridine) dissolved in their drinking water. An analysis of tritium in wet and dry tissues of rats at the end of 22 days' chronic exposure showed that the chemical form of the ingested tritium was more important for tritium uptake in dry tissues than in wet tissues. The highest concentrations of OBT (organically bound tritium) were found in rats exposed to tritiated amino acids ([sup (3)/H]lysine and [ 3 H]leucine), 4-9 times higher than those in rats exposed to 3 HHO. The next highest concentrations were found in rats exposed to [ 3 H]uridine., The result of radiation dose estimations at the end of chronic exposure showed the contribution of OBT to total dose rate was higher in the tissues of rats exposed to tritiated organic compounds than that after exposure to 3 HHO. The differences between total dose rates from 3 HHO and those from tritiated organic compounds were within a factor of 2. (author)

  8. Induced Chronic Prostatitis in Rats

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Similarly, compared with reference group (176.1 ± 12.1 pg/ml), IL-1β level of prostate tissues of high-dose PCS ..... Fig 1: Effect of PCS extract on the histomorphology of prostate tissues in rats. ... involved with cellular recruitment, fever, acute.

  9. Adiponectin alleviates genioglossal mitochondrial dysfunction in rats exposed to intermittent hypoxia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanpeng Huang

    Full Text Available Genioglossal dysfunction is involved in the pathophysiology of obstructive sleep apnea hypoxia syndrome (OSAHS characterized by nocturnal chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH. The pathophysiology of genioglossal dysfunction and possible targeted pharmacotherapy for alleviation of genioglossal injury in CIH require further investigation.Rats in the control group were exposed to normal air, while rats in the CIH group and CIH+adiponectin (AD group were exposed to the same CIH condition (CIH 8 hr/day for 5 successive weeks. Furthermore, rats in CIH+AD group were administrated intravenous AD supplementation at the dosage of 10 µg, twice a week for 5 consecutive weeks. We found that CIH-induced genioglossus (GG injury was correlated with mitochondrial dysfunction, reduction in the numbers of mitochondrias, impaired mitochondrial ultrastructure, and a reduction in type I fibers. Compared with the CIH group, impaired mitochondrial structure and function was significantly improved and a percentage of type I fiber was elevated in the CIH+AD group. Moreover, compared with the control group, the rats' GG in the CIH group showed a significant decrease in phosphorylation of LKB1, AMPK, and PGC1-α, whereas there was significant rescue of such reduction in phosphorylation within the CIH+AD group.CIH exposure reduces mitochondrial biogenesis and impairs mitochondrial function in GG, while AD supplementation increases mitochondrial contents and alleviates CIH-induced mitochondrial dysfunction possibly through the AMPK pathway.

  10. Multiple endocrine disrupting effects in rats perinatally exposed to butylparaben

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boberg, Julie; Petersen, Marta Axelstad; Svingen, Terje

    2016-01-01

    ) expression was reduced in prepubertal, but not adult animals exposed to butylparaben. In adult testes, Nr5a1 expression was reduced at all doses, indicating persistent disruption of steroidogenesis. Prostate histology was altered at prepuberty and adult prostate weights were reduced in the high dose group......Parabens comprise a group of preservatives commonly added to cosmetics, lotions and other consumer products. Butylparaben has estrogenic and anti-androgenic properties and is known to reduce sperm counts in rats following perinatal exposure. Whether butylparaben exposure can affect other endocrine...

  11. Immunotoxic effects of iodine-131 in prenatally exposed rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cole, D.A.; Stevens, R.H.; Lindholm, P.A.; Cheng, H.F.

    1985-01-01

    Present results suggest that offspring exposed in utero to radioactive iodine-131 develop a measureable cell-mediated immune (CMI) response. Regnant Fischer F344 inbred rats were exposed to 370 kBg to 3.7 MBg (10 to 100 μCi) Na 131I on 16 to 18 days of gestation and evaluated for CMI responsiveness 2 to 3 months post exposure using an 125I radiolabeled membrane release assay. Current data suggest that not only the F1, but also the F2 pups develop a measureable CMI response. In order to determine whether other immune functions are altered studies have been initiated to evaluate the immunotoxic effect of prenatal exposure to 131I. These studies include the evaluation of the delayed hypersensitivity response and the blastogenic responses to phytoheemagglutinin, concanavalin A, and lipopolysaccharide

  12. Pulmonary function testing of animals chronically exposed to diluted diesel exhaust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gross, K B

    1981-04-01

    The purpose of this work was to assess the potential effect that chronic inhalation of diesel exhaust may have on lung mechanics and lung volume. Noninvasive pulmonary function tests that produced data on lung air flows and volumes have been conducted repeatedly on 25 male Fischer-344 rats exposed to diesel exhaust at a particulate concentration of 1500 micrograms m-3, 20 h per day, 5 1/2 days per week, for 612 days. The same tests were conducted on 25 clean air control animals. When the data were normalized, the majority of tests did not reveal any significant deviation from the norm for the first year of exposure. In the second year, the functional residual capacity and its component volumes - expiratory reserve and residual volume, maximum expiratory flow at 40% of vital capacity, maximum expiratory flow at 20% of vital capacity and the forced expiratory volume in 0.1 s - were significantly greater in the diesel exposed animals. The data are inconsistent with known clinically significant adverse health effects. Although the lung volume changes in the diesel exposed animals could be indicative of emphysema or other forms of chronic obstructive lung disease, this interpretation is contradicted by the air flow data which suggest simultaneous lowering of the resistance of the smaller airways. The observations are not consistent with documented clinical lung disease in man.

  13. Thioredoxin and impaired spatial learning and memory in the rats exposed to intermittent hypoxia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Xiu-hong; LIU Hui-guo; LIU Xue; CHEN Jun-nan

    2012-01-01

    Background Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) can cause cognitive dysfunction and may be a reversible cause of cognitive loss in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD).Chronic exposure to intermittent hypoxia (IH),such as encountered in OSA,is marked by neurodegenerative changes in rat brain.We investigated the change of thioredoxin (Trx),spatial learning and memory in rats exposed to chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH).Methods Forty healthy male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into four groups of ten each:a CIH+normal saline (CIH+NS group),a N-acetylcystein-treated CIH (CIH+NAC) group,a sham CIH group (sham CIH+NS),and a sham NAC-treated sham CIH (CIH+NAC) group.Spatial learning and memory in each group was assessed with the Morris water maze.Real-time PCR and Western blotting were used to examine mRNA and protein expression of Trx in the hippocampus tissue.The terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-nick end-labeling (TUNEL) method was used to detect the apoptotic cells of the hippocampus CA1 region.Results ClH-rats showed impaired spatial learning and memory in the Morris water maze,including longer mean latencies for the target platform,reduced numbers of passes over the previous target platform and a smaller percentage of time spent in the target quadrant.Trx mRNA and protein levels were significantly decreased in the CIH-hippocampus,meanwhile,an elevated apoptotic index revealed apoptosis of hippocampal neurons of rats exposed to CIH.The rats,which acted better in the Morris water maze,showed higher levels of the Trx mRNA and protein in the hippocampus;apoptotic index of the neurons in the hippocampus of each group was negatively correlated with the Trx mRNA and protein levels.Conclusion The Trx deficit likely plays an important role in the impaired spatial learning and memory in the rats exposed to CIH and may work through the apoptosis of neurons in the hippocampus.

  14. Enriched but not depleted uranium affects central nervous system in long-term exposed rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houpert, Pascale; Lestaevel, Philippe; Bussy, Cyrill; Paquet, François; Gourmelon, Patrick

    2005-12-01

    Uranium is well known to induce chemical toxicity in kidneys, but several other target organs, such as central nervous system, could be also affected. Thus in the present study, the effects on sleep-wake cycle and behavior were studied after chronic oral exposure to enriched or depleted uranium. Rats exposed to 4% enriched uranium for 1.5 months through drinking water, accumulated twice as much uranium in some key areas such as the hippocampus, hypothalamus and adrenals than did control rats. This accumulation was correlated with an increase of about 38% of the amount of paradoxical sleep, a reduction of their spatial working memory capacities and an increase in their anxiety. Exposure to depleted uranium for 1.5 months did not induce these effects, suggesting that the radiological activity induces the primary events of these effects of uranium.

  15. Effect of Amphetamine on Adult Male and Female Rats Prenatally Exposed to Methamphetamine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romana Šlamberová

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to examine the cross-sensitization induced by prenatal methamphetamine (MA exposure to adult amphetamine (AMP treatment in male and female rats. Rat mothers received a daily injection of MA (5 mg/kg or saline throughout the gestation period. Adult male and female offspring (prenatally MA- or saline-exposed were administered with AMP (5 mg/kg or saline (1 ml/kg in adulthood. Behaviour in unknown environment was examined in open field test (Laboras, active drug-seeking behaviour in conditioned place preference test (CPP, spatial memory in the Morris water maze (MWM, and levels of corticosterone (CORT were analyzed by enzyme immunoassay (EIA. Our data demonstrate that in Laboras test, AMP treatment in adulthood increased general locomotion (time and distance travelled regardless of the prenatal exposure and sex, while AMP increased exploratory activity (rearing only in prenatally MA-exposed animals. AMP induced sensitization only in male rats, but not in females when tested drug-seeking behaviour in the CPP test. In the spatial memory MWM test, AMP worsened the performance only in females, but not in males. On the other hand, males swam faster after chronic AMP treatment regardless of the prenatal drug exposure. EIA analysis of CORT levels demonstrated higher level in females in all measurement settings. In males, prenatal MA exposure and chronic adult AMP treatment decreased CORT levels. Thus, our data demonstrated that adult AMP treatment affects behaviour of adult rats, their spatial memory and stress response in sex-specific manner. The effect is also influenced by prenatal drug exposure.

  16. Respiratory tract toxicity in rats exposed to Mexico City air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, O R; Gross, E A; James, R A; Janszen, D B; Ross, P W; Roberts, K C; Howard, A M; Harkema, J R; Calderón-Garcidueñas, L; Morgan, K T

    2001-03-01

    The rat has been used extensively as a health sentinel, indicator, or monitor of environmental health hazards, but this model has not been directly validated against human exposures. Humans in Mexico City show upper respiratory tract lesions and evidence of pulmonary damage related to their environmental inhalation exposure. In this study, male and female F344 rats were exposed (23 hr/day) in Mexico City to local Mexico City air (MCA)* for up to seven weeks. Controls were maintained at the same location under filtered air. Prior to these exposures, several steps were taken. First, the nasal passages of normal male rats shipped from the United States and housed in Mexico City were examined for mycoplasma infection; no evidence of infection was found. In addition, a mobile exposure and monitoring system was assembled and, with an ozone (O3) exposure atmosphere, was tested along with supporting histopathology techniques and analysis of rat nasal and lung tissues. Last, the entire exposure model (equipment and animals) was transported to Mexico City and validated for a three-week period. During the seven-week study there were 18 one-hour intervals during which the average O3 concentration of MCA in the exposure chamber exceeded the US National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) of 0.120 ppm 03 (hourly average, not to be exceeded more than once per year). This prolonged exposure of healthy F344 rats to MCA containing episodically low to moderate concentrations of 03 (as well as other urban air pollutants) did not induce inflammatory or epithelial lesions in the nasal airways or lung as measured by qualitative histologic techniques or quantitative morphometric techniques. These findings agree with those of previous controlled O3 inhalation studies, but they are in contrast to reports indicating that O3-polluted MCA causes significant nasal mucosal injury in adults and children living in southwestern Mexico City. Taken together, these findings may suggest that human

  17. Inhibition of Mammary Cancer Progression in Fetal Alcohol Exposed Rats by β-Endorphin Neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Changqing; Franklin, Tina; Sarkar, Dipak K

    2016-01-01

    both normal and fetal alcohol exposed rats. Our results suggest that increase of β-EP production in the hypothalamus may serve as a potential therapeutic strategy for treating the cancer growth in patients with chronic stress and compromised immune function, such as the patients with FAE. Copyright © 2016 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  18. Influence of chronic stress and oclusal interference on masseter muscle pain in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonić-Kocijan, Suncana; Uhac, Ivone; Braut, Vedrana; Kovac, Zoran; Pavicić, Daniela Kovacević; Fugosić, Vesna; Urek, Miranda Muhvić

    2009-09-01

    This study aimed to investigate the individual effects of chronic stress and occlusal interference, as well as their combined influence on masseter muscle pain. Experiments were performed on 28 male Wistar rats. Animals were submitted to chronic stress procedure, exposed to occlusal interference, or exposed to both mantioned procedures. At the end of the procedure animals were submitted to orofacial formalin test, and nociceptive behavioral response was evaluated. Statisticaly significant difference of nociceptive behavioral response in chronicaly stressed rats and in the animals with occlusal interference in comparation to the control group were not obtained (p > 0.05). In contrast, nociceptive behavioral response was significantly increased in rats submitted to both of experimental procedures (p occlusal interference and chronic stress influence masseter muscle pain.

  19. Brain plasticity of rats exposed to prenatal immobilization stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badalyan B. Yu.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim. This histochemical and immunohistochemical study was aimed at examining the brain cellular structures of newborn rats exposed to prenatal immobilization (IMO stress. Methods. Histochemical method on detection of Ca2+-dependent acid phosphatase activity and ABC immunohistochemical technique. Results. Cell structures with radial astrocytes marker GFAP, neuroepithelial stem cell marker gene nestin, stem-cells marker and the hypothalamic neuroprotective proline-rich polypeptide PRP-1 (Galarmin, a natural cytokine of a common precursor to neurophysin vasopressin associated glycoprotein have been revealed in several brain regions. Conclusions. Our findings indicate the process of generation of new neurons in response to IMO and PRP-1 involvement in this recovery mechanism, as PRP-1-Ir was detected in the above mentioned cell structures, as well as in the neurons and nerve fibers.

  20. Effects of Chronic Central Arginine Vasopressin (AVP) on Maternal Behavior in Chronically Stressed Rat Dams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coverdill, Alexander J.; McCarthy, Megan; Bridges, Robert S.; Nephew, Benjamin C.

    2012-01-01

    Exposure of mothers to chronic stressors during pregnancy or the postpartum period often leads to the development of depression, anxiety, or other related mood disorders. The adverse effects of mood disorders are often mediated through maternal behavior and recent work has identified arginine vasopressin (AVP) as a key neuropeptide hormone in the expression of maternal behavior in both rats and humans. Using an established rodent model that elicits behavioral and physiological responses similar to human mood disorders, this study tested the effectiveness of chronic AVP infusion as a novel treatment for the adverse effects of exposure to chronic social stress during lactation in rats. During early (day 3) and mid (day 10) lactation, AVP treatment significantly decreased the latency to initiate nursing and time spent retrieving pups, and increased pup grooming and total maternal care (sum of pup grooming and nursing). AVP treatment was also effective in decreasing maternal aggression and the average duration of aggressive bouts on day 3 of lactation. Central AVP may be an effective target for the development of treatments for enhancing maternal behavior in individuals exposed to chronic social stress. PMID:24349762

  1. Low maternal care exacerbates adult stress susceptibility in the chronic mild stress rat model of depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsen, Kim; Johannesen, Mads Dyrvig; Bouzinova, Elena

    2012-01-01

    In the present study we report the finding that the quality of maternal care, in early life, increased the susceptibility to stress exposure in adulthood, when rats were exposed to the chronic mild stress paradigm. Our results indicate that high, as opposed to low maternal care, predisposed rats...... to a differential stress-coping ability. Thus rats fostered by low maternal care dams became more prone to adopt a stress-susceptible phenotype developing an anhedonic-like condition. Moreover, low maternal care offspring had lower weight gain and lower locomotion, with no additive effect of stress. Subchronic...... exposure to chronic mild stress induced an increase in faecal corticosterone metabolites, which was only significant in rats from low maternal care dams. Examination of glucocorticoid receptor exon 17 promoter methylation in unchallenged adult, maternally characterized rats, showed an insignificant...

  2. Damage of hippocampal neurons in rats with chronic alcoholism

    OpenAIRE

    Du, Ailin; Jiang, Hongbo; Xu, Lei; An, Na; Liu, Hui; Li, Yinsheng; Zhang, Ruiling

    2014-01-01

    Chronic alcoholism can damage the cytoskeleton and aggravate neurological deficits. However, the effect of chronic alcoholism on hippocampal neurons remains unclear. In this study, a model of chronic alcoholism was established in rats that were fed with 6% alcohol for 42 days. Endogenous hydrogen sulfide content and cystathionine-beta-synthase activity in the hippocampus of rats with chronic alcoholism were significantly increased, while F-actin expression was decreased. Hippocampal neurons i...

  3. Reproductive toxicity in rats after chronic oral exposure to low dose of depleted uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Rong; Ai Guoping; Xu Hui; Su Yongping; Cheng Tianmin; Leng Yanbing

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To study the reproductive toxicity in rats induced by low dose of depleted uranium (DU). Methods: Male and female rats(F 0 generation) were exposed to DU in food at doses of 0, 0.4, 4 and 40 mg·kg -1 ·d -1 for 160 days, respectively. Then the activities of enzymes in testis and sexual hormone contents in serum were detected. Mature male rats were mated with female rats exposed to the same doses for 14 days. Pregnant rate and normal labor rate in F 0 rats were detected, as well as the survival rate and weight of F 1 rats within 21 d after birth. Results: No adverse effects of DU on fertility were evident at any dose in F 0 rats. Compared with control group, the rate of pregnancy, normal labor, survival of offspring birth and offspring nurture in F 1 generation of high-dose group reduced to 40.0%, 33.3%, 33.3%, and 33.3%, respectively. The sexual hormone contents in F 0 generation exposed increased, but those in Fl rats decreased significantly. The activities of lactate dehydrogenase-X (LDH-X) decreased in F 1 rats exposed to high-dose of DU, and those of sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH), LDH and Na + -K + -ATPase decreased in F 1 rats exposed to DU. Conclusions: Reproduction function, growth and development of F 0 rats are not obviously affected after chronic oral exposure to DU, while the toxicity effects in F 1 generation was observed at any dose. (authors)

  4. Effects of Vitamin C on Kidney and Bone of Rats Exposed to Low ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT: In this study, the effect of vitamin C on cadmium-induced toxicity was investigated. Wister rats were exposed to ... and muscles of cadmium exposed rats (1.0- ..... Fauci, A.S., Braunwald, K., Isselbacher, K.J., Wilson,. J.D., Martin ...

  5. Chronic Fluoxetine Treatment Upregulates the Activity of the ERK1/2-NF-κB Signaling Pathway in the Hippocampus and Prefrontal Cortex of Rats Exposed to Forced-Swimming Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Jingqiu; Yang, Kun; Yu, Xue; Wang, Jing-Lan; Li, Jie; Zhang, Yong; Li, Hengfen

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore whether or not the antidepressant actions of fluoxetine (FLX) are correlated with extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) and nuclear factor κ-light chain enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) in the hippocampus (HC) and prefrontal cortex (PFC) of rats. A total of 108 male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 6 groups of 18 rats each. Group 1 was the control group, while group 2 comprised the depressed model in which rats were subjected to 28 days of forced-swimming stress (FST); groups 3-6 were also subjected to 28 days of FST and treated with FLX once a day for 1 day (group 3; F1d), 1 week (group 4; F1w), 2 weeks (group 5; F2w), or 4 weeks (group 6; F4w). The control group was not subjected to FST or treated with FLX. Behavior tests that included the Morris water maze (MWM) and saccharin preference were performed, and ERK1/2 and NF-κB proteins were assayed using Western blot. The rats in the control group and in groups 5 and 6 (F2w and F4w, respectively) had a significantly shorter average escape latency, needed more attempts in order to successfully cross the platform, and had a greater saccharin preference than those in the depressed group (p < 0.05). In the depressed group, the phosphorylated ERK1/2 (p-ERK1/2) and phosphorylated NF-κB (p-NF-κB) expression in the HC and PFC were lower than in the control group (p < 0.05). Treatment with FLX reversed the changes in the expression of p-ERK1/2 and p-NF-κB in rats in the F2w and F4w groups. In this study, FLX treatment for 2 weeks or longer reversed the impaired spatial learning, memory, and anhedonia observed in the depressed model rats and upregulated the activities of the ERK1/2-NF-κB signaling pathway. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Incidence of brain tumours in rats exposed to an aerosol of 239PuO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanders, C.L.; Dagle, G.E.; Mahaffey, J.A.

    1992-01-01

    Incidence of brain tumours was investigated in 3390 female and male Wistar rats exposed to an aerosol of 239 PuO 2 , or as sham-exposed controls. Lung doses ranged from 0.05 to 22 Gy. In females, six brain tumours were found in 1058 control rats (incidence, 0.6%) and 24 brain tumours in 2134 rats exposed to Pu (incidence, 1.1%); the survival-adjusted level of significance was p = 0.29 for comparing control with exposed females. In males, two brain tumours were found in 60 control rats (incidence, 3.3%) and seven brain tumours in 138 rats exposed to Pu (incidence, 5.1%); the survival-adjusted level of significance was p = 0.33. Brain tumour incidence was about five times greater in male than in female rats (p = 0.0001), a highly significant sex difference in brain tumour incidence. Tumour types were distributed similarly among control and Pu-exposed groups of both sexes; most were astrocytomas. Mean lifespans for rats with brain tumours were not significantly different between control and Pu-exposed rats. (author)

  7. Intrauterine programming mechanism for hypercholesterolemia in prenatal caffeine-exposed female adult rat offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Dan; Luo, Hanwen W; Hu, Wen; Hu, Shuwei W; Yuan, Chao; Wang, Guihua H; Zhang, Li; Yu, Hong; Magdalou, Jacques; Chen, Liaobin B; Wang, Hui

    2018-05-02

    Clinical and animal studies have indicated that hypercholesterolemia and its associated diseases have intrauterine developmental origins. Our previous studies showed that prenatal caffeine exposure (PCE) led to fetal overexposure to maternal glucocorticoids (GCs) and increased serum total cholesterol levels in adult rat offspring. This study further confirms the intrauterine programming of PCE-induced hypercholesterolemia in female adult rat offspring. Pregnant Wistar rats were intragastrically administered caffeine (30, 60, and 120 mg/kg/d) from gestational day (GD)9 to 20. Female rat offspring were euthanized at GD20 and postnatal wk 12; several adult rat offspring were additionally subjected to ice-water swimming stimulation to induce chronic stress prior to death. The effects of GCs on cholesterol metabolism and epigenetic regulation were verified using the L02 cell line. The results showed that PCE induced hypercholesterolemia in adult offspring, which manifested as significantly higher levels of serum total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) as well as higher ratios of LDL-C/HDL cholesterol. We further found that the cholesterol levels were increased in fetal livers but were decreased in fetal blood, accompanied by increased maternal blood cholesterol levels and reduced placental cholesterol transport. Furthermore, analysis of PCE offspring in the uterus and in a postnatal basal/chronic stress state and the results of in vitro experiments showed that hepatic cholesterol metabolism underwent GC-dependent changes and was associated with cholesterol synthase via abnormalities in 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGCR) histone acetylation. We concluded that, to compensate for intrauterine placentally derived decreases in fetal blood cholesterol levels, high intrauterine GC levels activated fetal hepatic CCAAT enhancer binding protein α signaling and down-regulated Sirtuin1 expression, which mediated the high levels of histone acetylation ( via H3K9

  8. Cognitive deficits in the rat chronic mild stress model for depression: relation to anhedonic-like responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsen, Kim; Andreasen T., Jesper; Bouzinova, Elena V.

    2009-01-01

    in the spontaneous alternation test, possibly reflecting a deficit in working memory. This effect was independent of whether the stressed rats were anhedonic-like or stress-resilient as measured by their sucrose intake. CMS did not influence performance in passive avoidance and auditory cued fear conditioning......The chronic mild stress (CMS) protocol is widely used to evoke depressive-like behaviours in laboratory rats. The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of chronic stress on cognitive performance. About 70% of rats exposed to 7 weeks of chronic mild stress showed a gradual reduction...... in consumption of a sucrose solution, indicating an anhedonic-like state. The remaining rats did not reduce their sucrose intake, but appeared resilient to the stress-induced effects on sucrose intake. Cognitive profiling of the CMS rats revealed that chronic stress had a negative effect on performance...

  9. Damage of hippocampal neurons in rats with chronic alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Ailin; Jiang, Hongbo; Xu, Lei; An, Na; Liu, Hui; Li, Yinsheng; Zhang, Ruiling

    2014-09-01

    Chronic alcoholism can damage the cytoskeleton and aggravate neurological deficits. However, the effect of chronic alcoholism on hippocampal neurons remains unclear. In this study, a model of chronic alcoholism was established in rats that were fed with 6% alcohol for 42 days. Endogenous hydrogen sulfide content and cystathionine-beta-synthase activity in the hippocampus of rats with chronic alcoholism were significantly increased, while F-actin expression was decreased. Hippocampal neurons in rats with chronic alcoholism appeared to have a fuzzy nuclear membrane, mitochondrial edema, and ruptured mitochondrial crista. These findings suggest that chronic alcoholism can cause learning and memory decline in rats, which may be associated with the hydrogen sulfide/cystathionine-beta-synthase system, mitochondrial damage and reduced expression of F-actin.

  10. Enhanced Gamma Oscillatory Activity in Rats with Chronic Inflammatory Pain

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Jing; Wang, Jing; Xing, Guo-Gang; Li, Xiaoli; Wan, You

    2016-01-01

    It has been reported that oscillatory gamma activity participates in brief acute pain and tonic ongoing pain. It is of great interest to determine whether the gamma activity is involved in chronic pain since chronic pain is a more severe pathological condition characterized by pain persistency. To investigate the oscillatory gamma activity in chronic pain, in the present study, we recorded spontaneous electrocorticogram (ECoG) signals during chronic pain development in rats with chronic infla...

  11. Hippocampal phosphoproteomics of F344 rats exposed to 1-bromopropane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Zhenlie; Ichihara, Sahoko; Oikawa, Shinji; Chang, Jie; Zhang, Lingyi; Hu, Shijie; Huang, Hanlin; Ichihara, Gaku

    2015-01-01

    1-Bromopropane (1-BP) is neurotoxic in both experimental animals and human. To identify phosphorylated modification on the unrecognized post-translational modifications of proteins and investigate their role in 1-BP-induced neurotoxicity, changes in hippocampal phosphoprotein expression levels were analyzed quantitatively in male F344 rats exposed to 1-BP inhalation at 0, 400, or 1000 ppm for 8 h/day for 1 or 4 weeks. Hippocampal protein extracts were analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively by Pro-Q Diamond gel staining and SYPRO Ruby staining coupled with two-dimensional difference in gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE), respectively, as well as by matrix-assisted laser-desorption ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry (MS) to identify phosphoproteins. Changes in selected proteins were further confirmed by Manganese II (Mn 2+ )-Phos-tag SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Bax and cytochrome c protein levels were determined by western blotting. Pro-Q Diamond gel staining combined with 2D-DIGE identified 26 phosphoprotein spots (p < 0.05), and MALDI-TOF/MS identified 18 up-regulated proteins and 8 down-regulated proteins. These proteins are involved in the biological process of response to stimuli, metabolic processes, and apoptosis signaling. Changes in the expression of phosphorylated 14-3-3 θ were further confirmed by Mn 2+ -Phos-tag SDS-PAGE. Western blotting showed overexpression of Bax protein in the mitochondria with down-regulation in the cytoplasm, whereas cytochrome c expression was high in the cytoplasm but low in the mitochondria after 1-BP exposure. Our results suggest that the pathogenesis of 1-BP-induced hippocampal damage involves inhibition of antiapoptosis process. Phosphoproteins identified in this study can potentially serve as biomarkers for 1-BP-induced neurotoxicity. - Highlights: • 1-BP modified hippocampal phosphoproteome in rat and 23 altered proteins were identified. • 1-BP changed phosphorylation of GRP78

  12. Hippocampal phosphoproteomics of F344 rats exposed to 1-bromopropane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Zhenlie [Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Occupational Disease Prevention and Treatment, Guangdong Province Hospital for Occupational Disease Prevention and Treatment, Guangzhou 510-300 (China); Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya 466-8550 (Japan); Ichihara, Sahoko [Graduate School of Regional Innovation Studies, Mie University, Tsu 514-8507 (Japan); Oikawa, Shinji [Department of Environmental and Molecular Medicine, Mie University Graduate School of Medicine, Mie 514-8507 (Japan); Chang, Jie [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya 466-8550 (Japan); Graduate School of Regional Innovation Studies, Mie University, Tsu 514-8507 (Japan); Zhang, Lingyi [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya 466-8550 (Japan); Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tokyo University of Science, Noda 278-8510 (Japan); Hu, Shijie [Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Occupational Disease Prevention and Treatment, Guangdong Province Hospital for Occupational Disease Prevention and Treatment, Guangzhou 510-300 (China); Huang, Hanlin, E-mail: huanghl@gdoh.org [Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Occupational Disease Prevention and Treatment, Guangdong Province Hospital for Occupational Disease Prevention and Treatment, Guangzhou 510-300 (China); Ichihara, Gaku, E-mail: gak@rs.tus.ac.jp [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya 466-8550 (Japan); Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tokyo University of Science, Noda 278-8510 (Japan)

    2015-01-15

    1-Bromopropane (1-BP) is neurotoxic in both experimental animals and human. To identify phosphorylated modification on the unrecognized post-translational modifications of proteins and investigate their role in 1-BP-induced neurotoxicity, changes in hippocampal phosphoprotein expression levels were analyzed quantitatively in male F344 rats exposed to 1-BP inhalation at 0, 400, or 1000 ppm for 8 h/day for 1 or 4 weeks. Hippocampal protein extracts were analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively by Pro-Q Diamond gel staining and SYPRO Ruby staining coupled with two-dimensional difference in gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE), respectively, as well as by matrix-assisted laser-desorption ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry (MS) to identify phosphoproteins. Changes in selected proteins were further confirmed by Manganese II (Mn{sup 2+})-Phos-tag SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Bax and cytochrome c protein levels were determined by western blotting. Pro-Q Diamond gel staining combined with 2D-DIGE identified 26 phosphoprotein spots (p < 0.05), and MALDI-TOF/MS identified 18 up-regulated proteins and 8 down-regulated proteins. These proteins are involved in the biological process of response to stimuli, metabolic processes, and apoptosis signaling. Changes in the expression of phosphorylated 14-3-3 θ were further confirmed by Mn{sup 2+}-Phos-tag SDS-PAGE. Western blotting showed overexpression of Bax protein in the mitochondria with down-regulation in the cytoplasm, whereas cytochrome c expression was high in the cytoplasm but low in the mitochondria after 1-BP exposure. Our results suggest that the pathogenesis of 1-BP-induced hippocampal damage involves inhibition of antiapoptosis process. Phosphoproteins identified in this study can potentially serve as biomarkers for 1-BP-induced neurotoxicity. - Highlights: • 1-BP modified hippocampal phosphoproteome in rat and 23 altered proteins were identified. • 1-BP changed phosphorylation

  13. Sex-Specific Skeletal Muscle Fatigability and Decreased Mitochondrial Oxidative Capacity in Adult Rats Exposed to Postnatal Hyperoxia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura H. Tetri

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Premature birth affects more than 10% of live births, and is characterized by relative hyperoxia exposure in an immature host. Long-term consequences of preterm birth include decreased aerobic capacity, decreased muscular strength and endurance, and increased prevalence of metabolic diseases such as type 2 diabetes mellitus. Postnatal hyperoxia exposure in rodents is a well-established model of chronic lung disease of prematurity, and also recapitulates the pulmonary vascular, cardiovascular, and renal phenotype of premature birth. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether postnatal hyperoxia exposure in rats could recapitulate the skeletal and metabolic phenotype of premature birth, and to characterize the subcellular metabolic changes associated with postnatal hyperoxia exposure, with a secondary aim to evaluate sex differences in this model. Compared to control rats, male rats exposed to 14 days of postnatal hyperoxia then aged to 1 year demonstrated higher skeletal muscle fatigability, lower muscle mitochondrial oxidative capacity, more mitochondrial damage, and higher glycolytic enzyme expression. These differences were not present in female rats with the same postnatal hyperoxia exposure. This study demonstrates detrimental mitochondrial and muscular outcomes in the adult male rat exposed to postnatal hyperoxia. Given that young adults born premature also demonstrate skeletal muscle dysfunction, future studies are merited to determine whether this dysfunction as well as reduced aerobic capacity is due to reduced mitochondrial oxidative capacity and metabolic dysfunction.

  14. Preference for safflower oil in rats exposed to a cold environment under free-feeding conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saitoh, Masaji; Ishii, Toshiaki; Takewaki, Tadashi; Nishimura, Masakazu

    2005-07-01

    There are several benefits to a high-fat diet for animals exposed to cold, including improved tolerance to severe cold conditions and increased survival rates in cold environments. It is therefore of interest to examine whether animals exposed to cold will selectively consume lipids. We examined the intake of safflower oil (SO) by rats exposed to cold (4 +/- 2 degrees C) under a feeding condition in which the rats were given free access to SO. Rats exposed to cold consumed more SO than those housed at 25 +/- 2 degrees C. This finding suggests that rats prefer SO in a cold environment. There was no significant difference in the ratio of calories of SO ingested to that of matter (standard laboratory chow plus SO) ingested between rats exposed to cold and those at 25 +/- 2 degrees C. The high SO intake also affected cold tolerance and metabolite kinetics in the rats. Factors that affected the SO intake of rats exposed to cold are also discussed.

  15. Analysis of emotionality and locomotion in radio-frequency electromagnetic radiation exposed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Sareesh Naduvil; Kumar, Raju Suresh; Paval, Jaijesh; Kedage, Vivekananda; Bhat, M Shankaranarayana; Nayak, Satheesha; Bhat, P Gopalakrishna

    2013-07-01

    In the current study the modulatory role of mobile phone radio-frequency electromagnetic radiation (RF-EMR) on emotionality and locomotion was evaluated in adolescent rats. Male albino Wistar rats (6-8 weeks old) were randomly assigned into the following groups having 12 animals in each group. Group I (Control): they remained in the home cage throughout the experimental period. Group II (Sham exposed): they were exposed to mobile phone in switch-off mode for 28 days, and Group III (RF-EMR exposed): they were exposed to RF-EMR (900 MHz) from an active GSM (Global system for mobile communications) mobile phone with a peak power density of 146.60 μW/cm(2) for 28 days. On 29th day, the animals were tested for emotionality and locomotion. Elevated plus maze (EPM) test revealed that, percentage of entries into the open arm, percentage of time spent on the open arm and distance travelled on the open arm were significantly reduced in the RF-EMR exposed rats. Rearing frequency and grooming frequency were also decreased in the RF-EMR exposed rats. Defecation boli count during the EPM test was more with the RF-EMR group. No statistically significant difference was found in total distance travelled, total arm entries, percentage of closed arm entries and parallelism index in the RF-EMR exposed rats compared to controls. Results indicate that mobile phone radiation could affect the emotionality of rats without affecting the general locomotion.

  16. Assessment of bioaccumulation and neurotoxicity in rats with portacaval anastomosis and exposed to manganese phosphate: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, F; Carrier, G; Normandin, L; Kennedy, G; Butterworth, R F; Hazell, A; Therrien, G; Mergler, D; Philippe, S; Zayed, J

    2001-12-01

    The use of the additive methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl in unleaded gasoline has resulted in increased attention to the potential toxic effects of manganese (Mn). Hypothetically, people with chronic liver disease may be more sensitive to the adverse neurotoxic effects of Mn. In this work, bioaccumulation of Mn, as well as histopathology and neurobehavioral damage, in end-to-side portacaval anastomosis (PCA) rats exposed to Mn phosphate via inhalation was investigated. During the week before the PCA operation, 4 wk after the PCA operation, and at the end of exposure, the rats were subjected to a locomotor evaluation (day-night activities) using a computerized autotrack system. Then a group of 6 PCA rats (EXP) was exposed to 3050 microg m(-3) (Mn phosphate) for 8 h/day, 5 days/wk for 4 consecutive weeks and compared to a control group (CON), 7 PCA rats exposed to 0.03 microg m(-3). After exposure, the rats were euthanized and Mn content in tissues and organs was determined by neutron activation analysis. The manganese concentrations in blood (0.05 microg/g vs. 0.02 microg/g), lung (1.32 microg/g vs. 0.24 microg/g), cerebellum (0.85 microg/g vs. 0.64 microg/g), frontal cortex (0.87 microg/g vs. 0.61 microg/g), and globus pallidus (3.56 microg/g vs. 1.33 microg/g) were significantly higher in the exposed group compared to the control group (p locomotor activities did not reveal any significant difference. This study constitutes a first step toward our understanding of the potential adverse effects of Mn in sensitive populations.

  17. Chronic intermittent hyperoxia alters the development of the hypoxic ventilatory response in neonatal rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Sarah; Tobin, Kristina E; Fallon, Sarah C; Deng, Kevin S; McDonough, Amy B; Bavis, Ryan W

    2016-01-01

    Chronic exposure to sustained hyperoxia alters the development of the respiratory control system, but the respiratory effects of chronic intermittent hyperoxia have rarely been investigated. We exposed newborn rats to short, repeated bouts of 30% O2 or 60% O2 (5 bouts h(-1)) for 4-15 days and then assessed their hypoxic ventilatory response (HVR; 10 min at 12% O2) by plethysmography. The HVR tended to be enhanced by intermittent hyperoxia at P4 (early phase of the HVR), but it was significantly reduced at P14-15 (primarily late phase of the HVR) compared to age-matched controls; the HVR recovered when individuals were returned to room air and re-studied as adults. To investigate the role of carotid body function in this plasticity, single-unit carotid chemoafferent activity was recorded in vitro. Intermittent hyperoxia tended to decrease spontaneous action potential frequency under normoxic conditions but, contrary to expectations, hypoxic responses were only reduced at P4 (not at P14) and only in rats exposed to higher O2 levels (i.e., intermittent 60% O2). Rats exposed to intermittent hyperoxia had smaller carotid bodies, and this morphological change may contribute to the blunted HVR. In contrast to rats exposed to intermittent hyperoxia beginning at birth, two weeks of intermittent 60% O2 had no effect on the HVR or carotid body size of rats exposed beginning at P28; therefore, intermittent hyperoxia-induced respiratory plasticity appears to be unique to development. Although both intermittent and sustained hyperoxia alter carotid body development and the HVR of rats, the specific effects and time course of this plasticity differs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. 90 days bioassay in sprague-dawley rats exposed to 20KHz magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sung-Ho [College of Veterinary Medicine, Chonnam National Univ. Kwangju (Korea, Republic of); Song, Ji-Eun; Lee, Yun-Sil [Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Pack, Jeong-Ki [ETRI, Daejon (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, Done-SIk [College of Engineering, Daejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-07-01

    Sprague Dawley rats (20 rats/group [10 males, 10 females] in sham and magnetic field exposed groups) were exposed in carrousel irradiator to an 20 KHz magnetic field for 8 hrs/day, 5 days/week, for 90 days. Urine analysis (pH, SG, protein, ketone body, RBC, WBC, glucose, bilirubin, and urobilinogen), blood analysis (WBC, RBC, HGB; henoglubin concentration, HCT; hematocrit, MCV; mean corpuscular volume, MCH; mean corpuscular hemoglobin, MCHC; mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, and PLT; platelet or thrombocyte count), blood biochemistry (total protein, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, glucose, total bilirubin, total cholesterol, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, and lactate dehydrogenase), histopathological analysis for organs such as liver, kidney, testis, ovary, spleen, brain, heart, and lung were performed. When compared to the sham control rats, there were no significant differences in above analysis of magnetic field exposed rats. From the results, there were no significant differences between control and exposed fetus.

  19. Clinical Signs and Organ Pathology in Rats Exposed To Graded ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Olaleye

    pyrethroids-containing insecticides on farm and market produce and in human ... Key words: Pyrethroids, insecticides, rats, tissue pathology, public health hazard ... ingredients, differing in chemical structure or in ... meat shops, in poultry pens and on dogs and cats ... A total of 54 (27 male and 27 female) albino rats.

  20. Rat Strain Differences in Susceptibility to Alcohol-Induced Chronic Liver Injury and Hepatic Insulin Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah M. DeNucci

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The finding of more severe steatohepatitis in alcohol fed Long Evans (LE compared with Sprague Dawley (SD and Fisher 344 (FS rats prompted us to determine whether host factors related to alcohol metabolism, inflammation, and insulin/IGF signaling predict proneness to alcohol-mediated liver injury. Adult FS, SD, and LE rats were fed liquid diets containing 0% or 37% (calories ethanol for 8 weeks. Among controls, LE rats had significantly higher ALT and reduced GAPDH relative to SD and FS rats. Among ethanol-fed rats, despite similar blood alcohol levels, LE rats had more pronounced steatohepatitis and fibrosis, higher levels of ALT, DNA damage, pro-inflammatory cytokines, ADH, ALDH, catalase, GFAP, desmin, and collagen expression, and reduced insulin receptor binding relative to FS rats. Ethanol-exposed SD rats had intermediate degrees of steatohepatitis, increased ALT, ADH and profibrogenesis gene expression, and suppressed insulin receptor binding and GAPDH expression, while pro-inflammatory cytokines were similarly increased as in LE rats. Ethanol feeding in FS rats only reduced IL-6, ALDH1–3, CYP2E1, and GAPDH expression in liver. In conclusion, susceptibility to chronic steatohepatitis may be driven by factors related to efficiency of ethanol metabolism and degree to which ethanol exposure causes hepatic insulin resistance and cytokine activation.

  1. Performance and exposure indices of rats exposed to low concentrations of lead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cory-Slechta, D A; Weiss, B; Cox, C

    1985-04-01

    To further characterize the lower end of the function relating lead exposure and biological exposure indices to behavior, male weanling rats were exposed chronically to drinking solutions containing 25 ppm sodium acetate (controls) or 25 ppm lead acetate. Behavioral training began when the animals reached 50 days of age, and performance on a fixed-interval 1-min schedule of food reinforcement was then assessed over 90 experimental sessions (136 days). This exposure produced overall response rate increases over the first 40 sessions that were similar to those observed previously with higher concentrations of lead. Response rates of the two groups tended to merge subsequently. The increased overall response rates in the treated group derived primarily from an increased frequency of shorter interresponse times (IRTs) and increased running rates (calculated without the postreinforcement interval). Blood lead (PbB) and zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) values were determined following sessions 30, 60, and 90. PbB values of the lead-exposed group averaged 15 to 20 micrograms/dl throughout the study; ZPP did not differ. The mean brain lead value of the treated group was 0.07 micrograms Pb/g. Blood-brain ratios (1.38 to 4.06) were substantially greater than those previously observed at higher exposures. These data extend to even lower exposures, and lower blood lead concentrations, the effective concentration for behavioral effects, and further emphasize the importance of the sensitivity of the endpoint in assessing behavioral toxicity.

  2. Haemogram of adult Clarias gariepinus exposed to chronic levels of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Clarias gariepinus (mean weight, 850 ± 60 g) mean length, 38.75 ± 6.7 cm) were exposed individually to four concentrations of Roundup, containing 360g/l glyphosate in the form of 480g/l isopropylamine salt (1.5, 3.0, 4.5 and 6.0 mg/l) and a control (0 mg/l), five replicates per concentration for 70 days in static renewal ...

  3. The number of granule cells in rat hippocampus is reduced after chronic mild stress and re-established after chronic escitalopram treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jayatissa, Magdalena N; Bisgaard, Christina; West, Mark J

    2008-01-01

    mild stress and chronic escitalopram treatment. Furthermore, we investigated which classes of immature granule cells are affected by stress and targeted by escitalopram. Rats were initially exposed to 2weeks of CMS and 4weeks of escitalopram treatment with concurrent exposure to stress. The behavioral...... changes, indicating a decrease in sensitivity to a reward, were assessed in terms of sucrose consumption. We found a significant 22.4% decrease in the total number of granule cells in the stressed rats. This decrease was reversed in the stressed escitalopram treated rats that responded to the treatment......, but not in the rats that did not respond to escitalopram treatment. These changes were not followed by alterations in the volume of the granule cell layer. We also showed a differential regulation of dentate neurons, in different stages of development, by chronic stress and chronic escitalopram treatment. Our study...

  4. Technical Nuances of Exposing Rat Common Carotid Arteries for Practicing Microsurgical Anastomosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayebi Meybodi, Ali; Aklinski, Joseph; Gandhi, Sirin; Lawton, Michael T; Preul, Mark C

    2018-04-17

    Animal models are commonly used in training protocols for microsurgical vascular anastomosis. Rat common carotid arteries (CCAs) are frequently used for this purpose. Much attention has been paid to the technical details of various anastomosis configurations using these arteries. However, technical nuances of exposing rat CCAs have been understudied. The purpose of this study is to describe nuances of technique for safely and efficiently exposing rat CCAs in preparation for a vascular anastomosis. Bilateral CCAs were exposed and prepared for anastomosis in 10 anesthetized Sprague-Dawley rats through a midline cervical incision. The exposed length of the CCA was measured. Additionally, technical nuances of exposure and surgically relevant anatomic details were recorded. The CCAs were exposed from the sternoclavicular joint to their bifurcation (average length, 19.1 ± 2.8 mm). Tenets important for a safe and efficient exposure of the CCAs included 1) generous subcutaneous dissection to expose the external jugular veins (EJVs), 2) avoiding injury to or compression of the EJVs, 3) superior mobilization of the salivary glands, 4) division of internal jugular veins, 5) opening the carotid sheath at its midlevel and from medial to lateral, and 6) avoiding injury to the vagus nerve or sympathetic trunk. Using the principles introduced in this study, trainees may safely and efficiently expose rat CCAs in preparation for a bypass. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Effects of chronic lead intoxication on rat serotoninergic system and anxiety behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansar, Wafa; Bouyatas, My Mustapha; Ahboucha, Samir; Gamrani, Halima

    2012-01-01

    Chronic lead exposure has been shown to produce behavioral disturbances in human and animal models. These disturbances are associated with alterations in monoaminergic neurotransmission in the central nervous system (CNS), some of which have been attributed to serotonin (5-HT). This study was undertaken to investigate the chronic effects of lead exposure on the serotoninergic system in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) and the consequences of its toxicity on rat behavior. Adult male Wistar rats were chronically exposed for 3 months to 0.5% lead acetate in drinking water. The serotoninergic system was evaluated using immunohistochemistry and the anxiety behavior was assessed by the light/dark box test. The results show that chronic lead exposure induces a significant increase of blood and brain lead levels in treated rats compared with controls. The density of the immunoreactive serotoninergic cell bodies was significantly higher in treated rats in all parts of the DRN. Assessment of animal behavior using the light/dark box test showed that lead-treated rats spent significantly more time in the light chamber compared with controls (P=0.001). These findings suggest that lead exposure may possibly induce increased anxiety as a consequence of changes in neuronal 5-HT content in the DRN. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. Treadmill exercise does not change gene expression of adrenal catecholamine biosynthetic enzymes in chronically stressed rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LJUBICA GAVRILOVIC

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Chronic isolation of adult animals represents a form of psychological stress that produces sympatho-adrenomedullar activation. Exercise training acts as an important modulator of sympatho-adrenomedullary system. This study aimed to investigate physical exercise-related changes in gene expression of catecholamine biosynthetic enzymes (tyrosine hydroxylase, dopamine-ß-hydroxylase and phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase and cyclic adenosine monophosphate response element-binding (CREB in the adrenal medulla, concentrations of catecholamines and corticosterone (CORT in the plasma and the weight of adrenal glands of chronically psychosocially stressed adult rats exposed daily to 20 min treadmill running for 12 weeks. Also, we examined how additional acute immobilization stress changes the mentioned parameters. Treadmill running did not result in modulation of gene expression of catecholamine synthesizing enzymes and it decreased the level of CREB mRNA in the adrenal medulla of chronically psychosocially stressed adult rats. The potentially negative physiological adaptations after treadmill running were recorded as increased concentrations of catecholamines and decreased morning CORT concentration in the plasma, as well as the adrenal gland hypertrophy of chronically psychosocially stressed rats. The additional acute immobilization stress increases gene expression of catecholamine biosynthetic enzymes in the adrenal medulla, as well as catecholamines and CORT levels in the plasma. Treadmill exercise does not change the activity of sympatho-adrenomedullary system of chronically psychosocially stressed rats.

  7. Chronic Tea Consumption Lowers Blood Pressure in Rats: Some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chronic Tea Consumption Lowers Blood Pressure in Rats: Some Associated Mechanisms. ... Nigerian Journal of Health and Biomedical Sciences ... In experiment 5, group 9 (kept on NF and indomethacin solution) also had similar BP as group 10 (kept on ... KEY WORDS: Blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR), rats, tea.

  8. Disturbances of perinatal carbohydrate metabolism in rats exposed to methylmercury in utero

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snell, K; Ashby, S L; Barton, S J

    1977-12-01

    Pregnant rats were given a single subcutaneous injection of methylmercuric chloride (at 4 or 8 mg/kg) on the ninth day of gestation. Fetal (2 days prenatal), newborn and postnatal (6 days post partum) animals from the methylmercury-treated mothers were investigated with respect to parameters of carbohydrate metabolism. In the absence of any physical abnormalities, fetal rats exposed to methylmercury in utero showed diminished concentrations of plasma glucose and liver glycogen concentrations and a lower hepatic glucose-6-phosphatase activity compared to control animals. Newborn rats from the methylmercury-treated mothers showed an impairment in glycogen mobilization in the first hours of extra-uterine life which was accompanied by a severe and protracted hypoglycemic response. Postnatal rats exposed to methylmercury in utero exhibited higher liver glycogen concentration and decreased body weights compared to control rats. The results point to a derangement of perinatal carbohydrate metabolism in the offspring of pregnant rats exposed briefly to low doses of methylmercury during gestation (''metabolic teratogenesis''). The postnatal hypoglycemic episode in exposed rats may contribute to the pathogenesis of the neurological disturbances revealed by these animals in later life.

  9. Effect of ascorbic acid on fatigue of skeletal muscle fibres in long term cold exposed sprague dawley rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rashid, A.; Ayub, M.

    2011-01-01

    On exposure to prolonged cold temperature, the body responds for effective heat production both by shivering and non-shivering thermo genesis. Cold exposure increases the production of reactive oxygen species which influence the sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca/sup ++/ release from the skeletal muscles and affect their contractile properties. The role of ascorbic acid supplementation on force of contraction during fatigue of cold exposed skeletal muscles was evaluated in this study. Method: Ninety healthy, male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups of control, cold exposed, and cold exposed with ascorbic acid 500 mg/L supplementation mixed in drinking water. Group II and III were given cold exposure by keeping their cages in ice-filled tubs for 1 hr/day for one month. After one month, the extensor digitorum longus muscle was dissected out and force of contraction during fatigue in the skeletal muscle fibres was analysed on a computerised data acquisition system. Results: The cold exposed group showed a significant delay in the force of contraction during fatigue of skeletal muscle fibres compared to control group. Group III showed easy fatigability and a better force of contraction than the cold exposed group. Conclusions: Ascorbic acid increases the force of contraction and decreases resistance to fatigue in the muscles exposed to chronic cold. (author)

  10. Long-Term Effects of Chronic Oral Ritalin Administration on Cognitive and Neural Development in Adolescent Wistar Kyoto Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L. Cornish

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The diagnosis of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD often results in chronic treatment with psychostimulants such as methylphenidate (MPH, Ritalin®. With increases in misdiagnosis of ADHD, children may be inappropriately exposed to chronic psychostimulant treatment during development. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of chronic Ritalin treatment on cognitive and neural development in misdiagnosed “normal” (Wistar Kyoto, WKY rats and in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats (SHR, a model of ADHD. Adolescent male animals were treated for four weeks with oral Ritalin® (2 × 2 mg/kg/day or distilled water (dH2O. The effect of chronic treatment on delayed reinforcement tasks (DRT and tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactivity (TH-ir in the prefrontal cortex was assessed. Two weeks following chronic treatment, WKY rats previously exposed to MPH chose the delayed reinforcer significantly less than the dH2O treated controls in both the DRT and extinction task. MPH treatment did not significantly alter cognitive performance in the SHR. TH-ir in the infralimbic cortex was significantly altered by age and behavioural experience in WKY and SHR, however this effect was not evident in WKY rats treated with MPH. These results suggest that chronic treatment with MPH throughout adolescence in “normal” WKY rats increased impulsive choice and altered catecholamine development when compared to vehicle controls.

  11. Effect of head-only sub-chronic GSM exposure on spatial memory of rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ammari, Mohamed; Brillaud, Elsa; Lecomte, Anthony; Sakly, Mohsen; Abdelmelek, Hafedh; Seze, Rene de; Faculte des Sciences de Bizerte, Jarzouna

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Introduction: Low power electromagnetic fields (EMF) are suspected to produce deficit memory in rats. The study of Dubreuil et al (2003) showed that a short-term (10-15 days) exposure 'head-only' to GSM 900 MHz radio frequencies does not produce a deficit memory in adult rats. The aim of our experiment was to determine if head-only sub-chronic exposure (2 months) of rats to GSM signal for 45 min at a SAR = 1.5 W/Kg and for 15 min at 6 W/Kg induce deficit in spatial memory of rats in radial maze test. Materials and methods: Exposure system: Animals were placed in Plexiglas rockets with an individual loop antenna placed above the rat's head. Four animals were exposed at the time. Loop antennas were connected to a generator and emitted a GSM signal (900 MHz, pulsed at 217 Hz, 1/8 duty factor) 5 days / week for 8 weeks. Experimental group: 30 Sprague-Dawley male rats were randomly assigned to 5 different groups: a) 6 rats exposed 15 min at SAR = 6 W/Kg; b) 6 rats exposed 45 min at SAR = 1.5 W/g; c) 6 rats sham controls (3 for 5 min and 3 for 45 min, SAR = 0 W/Kg); d) 6 rats without any treatment and manipulation (cage control); e) 6 rats were injected (i.p) S.B.H 0.1 mg/Kg (Sigma Aldrich) as positive control group. Behavioural procedure: The radial maze protocol consists of two consecutive phases: the training task (10 days) and the test task (8 days). In the first phase, rats were trained to visit the 8 arms of the maze without returning to an arm already visited. In the second phase (8 days), a 45-min intra-trial delay was introduced after four visited arms. After the intra-delay, the rat was placed in the maze to finish the test task, which is visiting four other arms he had not visited. During the training task, exposure took place before the behavioural task. During the test task, exposure or sham-exposure took place during the intra-delay. Results and discussion: In all experiments, performance of exposed rats (1.5 and 6 W/Kg) was compared with that of

  12. Resident intruder paradigm-induced aggression relieves depressive-like behaviors in male rats subjected to chronic mild stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Sheng; Ji, Xiao-wei; Wu, Chun-ling; Li, Zi-fa; Sun, Peng; Wang, Jie-qiong; Zhao, Qi-tao; Gao, Jie; Guo, Ying-hui; Sun, Shi-guang; Qiao, Ming-qi

    2014-01-01

    Background Accumulating epidemiological evidence shows that life event stressors are major vulnerability factors for psychiatric diseases such as major depression. It is also well known that the resident intruder paradigm (RIP) results in aggressive behavior in male rats. However, it is not known how resident intruder paradigm-induced aggression affects depressive-like behavior in isolated male rats subjected to chronic mild stress (CMS), which is an animal model of depression. Material/Methods Male Wistar rats were divided into 3 groups: non-stressed controls, isolated rats subjected to the CMS protocol, and resident intruder paradigm-exposed rats subjected to the CMS protocol. Results In the sucrose intake test, ingestion of a 1% sucrose solution by rats in the CMS group was significantly lower than in control and CMS+RIP rats after 3 weeks of stress. In the open-field test, CMS rats had significantly lower open-field scores compared to control rats. Furthermore, the total scores given the CMS group were significantly lower than in the CMS+RIP rats. In the forced swimming test (FST), the immobility times of CMS rats were significantly longer than those of the control or CMS+RIP rats. However, no differences were observed between controls and CMS+RIP rats. Conclusions Our data show that aggressive behavior evoked by the resident intruder paradigm could relieve broad-spectrum depressive-like behaviors in isolated adult male rats subjected to CMS. PMID:24911067

  13. Enhanced fear recall and emotional arousal in rats recovering from chronic variable stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Jennifer; Herman, James P; Horn, Paul S; Sallee, Floyd R; Sah, Renu

    2010-11-02

    Emergence of posttraumatic-like behaviors following chronic trauma is of interest given the rising prevalence of combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Stress associated with combat usually involves chronic traumatization, composed of multiple, single episode events occurring in an unpredictable fashion. In this study, we investigated whether rats recovering from repeated trauma in the form of chronic variable stress (CVS) express posttraumatic stress-like behaviors and dysregulated neuroendocrine responses. Cohorts of Long-Evans rats underwent a 7 day CVS paradigm followed by behavioral and neuroendocrine testing during early (16 h post CVS) and delayed (7 day) recovery time points. A fear conditioning-extinction-reminder shock paradigm revealed that CVS induces exaggerated fear recall to reminder shock, suggestive of potentiated fear memory. Rats with CVS experience also expressed a delayed expression of fearful arousal under aversive context, however, social anxiety was not affected during post-CVS recovery. Persistent sensitization of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocorticotropic response to a novel acute stressor was observed in CVS exposed rats. Collectively, our data are consistent with the constellation of symptoms associated with posttraumatic stress syndrome, such as re-experiencing, and arousal to fearful contexts. The CVS-recovery paradigm may be useful to simulate trauma outcomes following chronic traumatization that is often associated with repeated combat stress. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Dose-rate effects for mammary tumor development in female Sprague-Dawley rats exposed to X and γ radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, J.R.; Gragtmans, N.J.; Myers, D.K.; Jones, A.R.

    1989-01-01

    Mammary tumour development was followed in two experiments involving a total of 2229 female Sprague-Dawley rats exposed to various doses of X or γ rays at different dose rates. The data for another 462 rats exposed to tritiated water in one of these experiments were also analyzed. The incidence of adenocarcinomas and fibroadenomas at a given time after exposure increased linearly in proportion to total radiation dose for most groups. However, no significant increase in adenocarcinomas was observed with chronic γ exposures up to 1.1 Gy, and the increase in fibroadenomas observed with chronic gamma exposures at a dose rate of 0.0076 Gy h -1 up to an accumulated dose of 3.3 Gy was small compared to that observed after acute exposures. The incidence of all mammary tumors increased almost linearly with the log of dose rate in the range 0.0076 to 26.3 Gy h -1 for 3 Gy total dose of gamma rays. The effects of X rays appeared to be less influenced by dose rate than were the effects of γ rays. (author)

  15. Chronic Carcinogenicity Study of Gasoline Vapor Condensate (GVC) and GVC Containing Methyl Tertiary-Butyl Ether in F344 Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Benson, Janet M.; Gigliotti, Andrew P.; March, Thomas H.; Barr, Edward B.; Tibbetts, Brad M.; Skipper, Betty J.; Clark, Charles R.; Twerdok, Lorraine

    2011-01-01

    Chronic inhalation studies were conducted to compare the toxicity and potential carcinogenicity of evaporative emissions from unleaded gasoline (GVC) and gasoline containing the oxygenate methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE; GMVC). The test materials were manufactured to mimic vapors people would be exposed to during refueling at gas stations. Fifty F344 rats per gender per exposure level per test article were exposed 6 h/d, 5 d/wk for 104 wk in whole body chambers. Target total vapor concentra...

  16. The decreasing of NFκB level in gingival junctional epithelium of rat exposed to Porphyromonas gingivalis with application of 1% curcumin on gingival sulcus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agung Krismariono

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Periodontal disease is a chronic, multi-factorial disease. Chronic periodontitis is one of the main causes of tooth loss. Chronic periodontitis is usually caused by Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis. P. gingivalis can induce NFκB activation resulting in the increasing of periodontal extracellular matrix degradation. Curcumin can inhibit NFκB activation and reduce the severity of periodontal degradation. Purpose: This research was aimed to observe level of NFκB in gingival junctional epithelium of rat exposed to Porphyromonas gingivalis with local administration of curcumin. Methods: Sixteen Wistar rat were divided into two groups. Group 1 (treatment consisted of eight rat given 2 x 106CFU/ml P. gingivalis and 1% curcumin. Meanwhile, group 2 (control consisted of eight rat given 2 x 106 CFU/ml P. gingivalis only. GCF samples were collected from gingival sulcus. The samples were biochemically analyzed with ELISA method. Data were then analyzed statistically by using independent t-test (α=0.05. Results: The examination of NFκB level showed that there was significant difference between treatment group and control group (p<0.05. The level of NFκB in the treatment group was significantly lower than the control group. Conclusion: It can be concluded that 1% curcumin application can reduce NFκB level in gingival junctional epithelium of rat exposed to P. gingivalis.

  17. Pro-oxidant effects in the brain of rats concurrently exposed to uranium and stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linares, Victoria; Sanchez, Domenec J.; Belles, Montserrat; Albina, Luisa; Gomez, Mercedes; Domingo, Jose L.

    2007-01-01

    Metal toxicity may be associated with increased rates of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation within the central nervous system (CNS). Although the kidney is the main target organ for uranium (U) toxicity, this metal can also accumulate in brain. In this study, we investigated the modifications on endogenous antioxidant capacity and oxidative damage in several areas of the brain of U-exposed rats. Eight groups of adult male rats received uranyl acetate dihydrate (UAD) in the drinking water at 0, 10, 20, and 40 mg/kg/day for 3 months. Animals in four groups were concurrently subjected to restraint stress during 2 h/day throughout the study. At the end of the experimental period, cortex, hippocampus and cerebellum were removed and processed to examine the following stress markers: reduced glutathione (GSH), oxidized glutathione (GSSG), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), as well as U concentrations. The results show that U significantly accumulated in hippocampus, cerebellum and cortex after 3 months of exposure. Moreover, UAD exposure promoted oxidative stress in these cerebral tissues. In cortex and cerebellum, TBARS levels were positively correlated with the U content, while in cerebellum GSSG and GSH levels were positively and negatively correlated, respectively, with U concentrations. In hippocampus, CAT and SOD activities were positively correlated with U concentration. The present results suggest that chronic oral exposure to UAD can cause progressive perturbations on physiological brain levels of oxidative stress markers. Although at the current UAD doses restraint scarcely showed additional adverse effects, its potential influence should not be underrated

  18. Chronic administration of sildenafil improves erectile function in a rat model of chronic renal failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurbuz, Nilgun; Kol, Arif; Ipekci, Tumay; Ates, Erhan; Baykal, Asli; Usta, Mustafa F

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between erectile dysfunction (ED) and chronic renal failure (CRF) has been reported in several studies. This study aimed to investigate whether the chronic use of sildenafil could enhance the erectile capacity in CRF-induced rats. In addition, we assessed the effect of that treatment on certain molecules, which have been suggested to play crucial roles in erectile physiology and CRF-related ED as well. Three groups of animals were utilized: (1) age-matched control rats, (2) CRF-induced rats, (3) CRF-induced rats treated with chronic administration of sildenafil (5 mg kg−1 p.o. for 6 weeks [treatment started after 6 weeks of CRF induction]). At 3 months, all animals underwent cavernosal nerve stimulation (CNS) to assess erectile function. Penile tissue advanced glycation end products (AGE's)/5-hydroxymethyl-2-furaldehyde, malondialdehyde (MDA), cGMP (ELISA), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and neuronal NOS (nNOS) (Western blot) analyses were performed in all rat groups. CRF-induced rats had a significant decrease in erectile function when compared to control rats (P chronic sildenafil administration on erectile function in CRF-induced rats. PMID:25652632

  19. {beta}-adrenergic receptor density and adenylate cyclase activity in lead-exposed rat brain after cessation of lead exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Huoy-Rou [I-Shou University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Dashu Shiang, Kaohsiung County (Taiwan); Tsao, Der-An [Fooyin University of Technology, Department of Medical Technology (Taiwan); Yu, Hsin-Su [Taiwan University, Department of Dermatology, College of Medicine (Taiwan); Ho, Chi-Kung [Kaohsiung Medical University, Occupational Medicine (Taiwan); Kaohsiung Medical University, Graduate Institute of Medicine, Research Center for Occupational Disease (Taiwan)

    2005-01-01

    To understanding the reversible or irreversible harm to the {beta}-adrenergic system in the brain of lead-exposed rats, this study sets up an animal model to estimate the change in the sympathetic nervous system of brain after lead exposure was withdrawn. We address the following topics in this study: (a) the relationship between withdrawal time of lead exposure and brain {beta}-adrenergic receptor, blood lead level, and brain lead level in lead-exposed rats after lead exposure was stopped; and (b) the relationship between lead level and {beta}-adrenergic receptor and cyclic AMP (c-AMP) in brain. Wistar rats were chronically fed with 2% lead acetate and water for 2 months. Radioligand binding was assayed by a method that fulfilled strict criteria of {beta}-adrenergic receptor using the ligand [{sup 125}I]iodocyanopindolol. The levels of lead were determined by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. The c-AMP level was determined by radioimmunoassay. The results showed a close relationship between decreasing lead levels and increasing numbers of brain {beta}-adrenergic receptors and brain adenylate cyclase activity after lead exposure was withdrawn. The effect of lead exposure on the {beta}-adrenergic system of the brain is a partly reversible condition. (orig.)

  20. Chronic intermittent hypoxia induces cardiac inflammation and dysfunction in a rat obstructive sleep apnea model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Qin; Bian, Yeping; Yu, Fuchao; Zhang, Qiang; Zhang, Guanghao; Li, Yang; Song, Songsong; Ren, Xiaomei; Tong, Jiayi

    2016-11-01

    Chronic intermittent hypoxia is considered to play an important role in cardiovascular pathogenesis during the development of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). We used a well-described OSA rat model induced with simultaneous intermittent hypoxia. Male Sprague Dawley rats were individually placed into plexiglass chambers with air pressure and components were electronically controlled. The rats were exposed to intermittent hypoxia 8 hours daily for 5 weeks. The changes of cardiac structure and function were examined by ultrasound. The cardiac pathology, apoptosis, and fibrosis were analyzed by H&E staining, TUNNEL assay, and picosirius staining, respectively. The expression of inflammation and fibrosis marker genes was analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR and Western blot. Chronic intermittent hypoxia/low pressure resulted in significant increase of left ventricular internal diameters (LVIDs), end-systolic volume (ESV), end-diastolic volume (EDV), and blood lactate level and marked reduction in ejection fraction and fractional shortening. Chronic intermittent hypoxia increased TUNNEL-positive myocytes, disrupted normal arrangement of cardiac fibers, and increased Sirius stained collagen fibers. The expression levels of hypoxia induced factor (HIF)-1α, NF-kB, IL-6, and matrix metallopeptidase 2 (MMP-2) were significantly increased in the heart of rats exposed to chronic intermittent hypoxia. In conclusion, the left ventricular function was adversely affected by chronic intermittent hypoxia, which is associated with increased expression of HIF-1α and NF-kB signaling molecules and development of cardiac inflammation, apoptosis and fibrosis. © 2016 by the Journal of Biomedical Research. All rights reserved.

  1. Impairment of male reproduction in adult rats exposed to hydroxyprogesterone caproate in utero

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pushpalatha, T.; Ramachandra Reddy, P.; Sreenivasula Reddy, P.

    Hydroxyprogesterone caproate is one of the most effective and widely used drugs for the treatment of uterine bleeding and threatened miscarriage in women. Hydroxyprogesterone caproate was administered to pregnant rats in order to assess the effect of intraperitoneal exposure to supranormal levels of hydroxyprogesterone caproate on the male reproductive potential in the first generation. The cauda epididymal sperm count and motility decreased significantly in rats exposed to hydroxyprogesterone caproate during embryonic development, when compared with control rats. The levels of serum testosterone decreased with an increase in follicle stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone in adult rats exposed to hydroxyprogesterone caproate during the embryonic stage. It was suggested that the impairment of male reproductive performance could be mediated through the inhibition of testosterone production.

  2. Gene Expression Profiling in Lung Tissues from Rat Exposed to Lunar Dust Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ye; Lam, Chiu-Wing; Zalesak, Selina M.; Kidane, Yared H.; Feiveson, Alan H.; Ploutz-Snyder, Robert; Scully, Robert R.; Williams, Kyle; Wu, Honglu; James, John T.

    2014-01-01

    The Moon's surface is covered by a layer of fine, reactive dust. Lunar dust contain about 1-2% of very fine dust (gene expression changes in lung tissues from rats exposed to lunar dust particles. F344 rats were exposed for 4 weeks (6h/d; 5d/wk) in nose-only inhalation chambers to concentrations of 0 (control air), 2.1, 6.8, 21, and 61 mg/m(exp 3) of lunar dust. Five rats per group were euthanized 1 day, and 3 months after the last inhalation exposure. The total RNAs were isolated from lung tissues after being lavaged. The Agilent Rat GE v3 microarray was used to profile global gene expression (44K). The genes with significant expression changes are identified and the gene expression data were further analyzed using various statistical tools.

  3. Metabolic profile and genotoxicity in obese rats exposed to cigarette smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damasceno, Debora C; Sinzato, Yuri K; Bueno, Aline; Dallaqua, Bruna; Lima, Paula H; Calderon, Iracema M P; Rudge, Marilza V C; Campos, Kleber E

    2013-08-01

    Experimental studies have shown that exposure to cigarette smoke has negative effects on lipid metabolism and oxidative stress status. Cigarette smoke exposure in nonpregnant and pregnant rats causes significant genotoxicity (DNA damage). However, no previous studies have directly evaluated the effects of obesity or the association between obesity and cigarette smoke exposure on genotoxicity. Therefore, the aim of the present investigation was to evaluate DNA damage levels, oxidative stress status and lipid profiles in obese Wistar rats exposed to cigarette smoke. Female rats subcutaneously (s.c.) received a monosodium glutamate solution or vehicle (control) during the neonatal period to induce obesity. The rats were randomly distributed into three experimental groups: control, obese exposed to filtered air, and obese exposed to tobacco cigarette smoke. After a 2-month exposure period, the rats were anesthetized and killed to obtain blood samples for genotoxicity, lipid profile, and oxidative stress status analyses. The obese rats exposed to tobacco cigarette smoke presented higher DNA damage, triglycerides, total cholesterol, free fatty acids, VLDL-c, HDL-c, and LDL-c levels compared to control and obese rats exposed to filtered air. Both obese groups showed reduced SOD activity. These results showed that cigarette smoke enhanced the effects of obesity. In conclusion, the association between obesity and cigarette smoke exposure exacerbated the genotoxicity, negatively impacted the biochemical profile and antioxidant defenses and caused early glucose intolerance. Thus, the changes caused by cigarette smoke exposure can trigger the earlier onset of metabolic disorders associated with obesity, such as diabetes and metabolic syndrome. Copyright © 2012 The Obesity Society.

  4. Inhibition of HMGB1 Translocation by Green Tea Extract in Rats Exposed to Environmental Tobacco Smoke

    OpenAIRE

    Sirintip Chaichalotornkul; Wisuda Suvitayavat; Vanida Sangalangkarn; Yuko Nawa; Kiyoshi Kikuchi; Koichi Kawahara; Tawee Saiwichai; Somphong Narkpinit; Pratap Singhasivanon; Ikuro Maruyama; Salunya Tancharoen

    2012-01-01

    Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure is linked to carcinogenic, oxidative and inflammatory cellular reactions. Green tea polyphenol reportedly plays a role in the prevention of inflammation-related diseases. To evaluate the effects of green tea extract (GTE) on cellular location of High Mobility Group Box-1 (HMGB1) protein, we studied the lung tissue in rats exposed to cigarette smoke (CS). Rats were divided into three groups; CS, CSG, and C, which were groups of CS-treated only, CS-tre...

  5. Psychophysical Evaluation of Achromatic and Chromatic Vision of Workers Chronically Exposed to Organic Solvents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacerda, E.M.D.B.; Lima, M.G.; Silveira, L.C.D.S.; Rodrigues, A.R.; Teixeira, C.E.C.; De Lima, L.J.B.; Silveira, L.C.D.S.; Ventura, D.F.; Ventura, D.F.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to evaluate achromatic and chromatic vision of workers chronically exposed to organic solvents through psychophysical methods. Thirty-one gas station workers (31.5 ± 8.4 years old) were evaluated. Psychophysical tests were achromatic tests (Snellen chart, spatial and temporal contrast sensitivity, and visual perimetry) and chromatic tests (Ishihara's test, color discrimination ellipses, and Farnsworth-Munsell 100 hue test FM100). Spatial contrast sensitivities of exposed workers were lower than the control at spatial frequencies of 20 and 30 cpd whilst the temporal contrast sensitivity was preserved. Visual field losses were found in 10-30 degrees of eccentricity in the solvent exposed workers. The exposed workers group had higher error values of FM100 and wider color discrimination ellipses area compared to the controls. Workers occupationally exposed to organic solvents had abnormal visual functions, mainly color vision losses and visual field constriction

  6. Strain differences in the neural, behavioral, and molecular correlates of sweet and salty taste in naive, ethanol- and sucrose-exposed P and NP rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Jamison; Williams, Ashley; Phan, Tam-Hao T; Mummalaneni, Shobha; Melone, Pamela; Ren, Zuojun; Zhou, Huiping; Mahavadi, Sunila; Murthy, Karnam S; Katsumata, Tadayoshi; DeSimone, John A; Lyall, Vijay

    2011-11-01

    Strain differences between naive, sucrose- and ethanol-exposed alcohol-preferring (P) and alcohol-nonpreferring (NP) rats were investigated in their consumption of ethanol, sucrose, and NaCl; chorda tympani (CT) nerve responses to sweet and salty stimuli; and gene expression in the anterior tongue of T1R3 and TRPV1/TRPV1t. Preference for 5% ethanol and 10% sucrose, CT responses to sweet stimuli, and T1R3 expression were greater in naive P rats than NP rats. The enhancement of the CT response to 0.5 M sucrose in the presence of varying ethanol concentrations (0.5-40%) in naive P rats was higher and shifted to lower ethanol concentrations than NP rats. Chronic ingestion of 5% sucrose or 5% ethanol decreased T1R3 mRNA in NP and P rats. Naive P rats also demonstrated bigger CT responses to NaCl+benzamil and greater TRPV1/TRPV1t expression. TRPV1t agonists produced biphasic effects on NaCl+benzamil CT responses, enhancing the response at low concentrations and inhibiting it at high concentrations. The concentration of a TRPV1/TRPV1t agonist (Maillard reacted peptides conjugated with galacturonic acid) that produced a maximum enhancement in the NaCl+benzamil CT response induced a decrease in NaCl intake and preference in P rats. In naive P rats and NP rats exposed to 5% ethanol in a no-choice paradigm, the biphasic TRPV1t agonist vs. NaCl+benzamil CT response profiles were higher and shifted to lower agonist concentrations than in naive NP rats. TRPV1/TRPV1t mRNA expression increased in NP rats but not in P rats exposed to 5% ethanol in a no-choice paradigm. We conclude that P and NP rats differ in T1R3 and TRPV1/TRPV1t expression and neural and behavioral responses to sweet and salty stimuli and to chronic sucrose and ethanol exposure.

  7. Endocrine disrupting effects in rats perinatally exposed to a dietary relevant mixture of phytoestrogens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boberg, Julie; Mandrup, Karen; Jacobsen, Pernille Rosenskjold

    2013-01-01

    Dietary phytoestrogens may prevent certain human diseases, but endocrine activity has been reported in animal studies. Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed perinatally to a 1-, 10- or 100-fold “high human dietary intake” mixture of 12 phytoestrogens consisting of mainly the lignan secoisolarici resinol...... genes in testis and prostate were unaffected. Decreased serum estradiol was seen in genistein-exposed dams. This study indicated adverse effects at high intake levels in rats, but does not provide evidence for risk of phytoestrogen-mediated endocrine disruption at normal human dietary consumption levels...

  8. [The activity of blood cholinesterase in rats exposed to dimehypo].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Weiguo; Xu, Mailing; Zou, Hejian; Lu, Ailing; Shen, Xinyu; Chen, Yuming

    2002-12-01

    To determine whether and to what degree the activity of cholinesterase(ChE) is inhibited by dimehypo at different doses of dimehypo [scientific name: 2-dimethylamine-1,3-bi(sodium hyposulfit)]. Rats were dosed with dimehypo or methamidophos orally, and were randomly divided into four subgroups according to the pesticide doses, which were 1/16, 1/8, 1/4 and 1/2 of LD50 respectively(the LD50 of dimethypo and methamidophos is 342 mg/kg and 20 mg/kg respectively). The activity of ChE in blood was determined before and 30 min, 1, 2, 4 and 24 h after exposure. The modified Ellman Method was employed to measure the activity of ChE. 1/16 LD50 dose of dimehypo did not affect the activity of ChE. When the dose increased, the activity of ChE decreased accordingly. 1/2 LD50 dose of dimehypo inhibited the activity of ChE by 35.9% compared with that of control group(P dimehypo at various doses was significantly lower than that in the rats dosed with corresponding doses of methamidophos(P dimehypo may inhibit the activity of ChE. However, as compared with methamidophos, dimehypo is a weaker inhibitor of ChE.

  9. Histomorphometric Evaluation of the Small Coronary Arteries in Rats Exposed to Industrial Noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lousinha

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Morphological changes induced by industrial noise (IN have been experimentally observed in several organs. Histological observations of the coronary arteries showed prominent perivascular tissue and fibrosis among IN-exposed rats. The effects on the small arteries are unknown. Objective: To evaluate the histomorphometric changes induced by IN on rat heart small arteries. Methods: Twenty Wistar rats exposed to IN during a maximum period of seven months and 20 age-matched controls were studied. Hearts were transversely sectioned from ventricular apex to atria and a mid-ventricular fragment was selected for analysis. The histological images were obtained with an optical microscope using 400× magnifications. A total of 634 arterial vessels (298 IN-exposed and 336 controls were selected. The mean lumen-to-vessel wall (L/W and mean vessel wall-to-perivascular tissue (W/P ratios were calculated using image J software. Results: There were no differences between exposed and control animals in their L/W ratios (p = 0.687 and time variations in this ratio were non-significant (p = 0.110. In contrast, exposed animals showed lower W/P ratios than control animals (p < 0.001, with significant time variations (p = 0.004. Conclusions: Industrial noise induced an increase in the perivascular tissue of rat small coronary arteries, with significant development of periarterial fibrosis.

  10. Tritium in organic compounds of brain of rats exposed to tritiated water or tritiated food during three successive generations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Major, Z.

    1987-01-01

    The study was performed on Wistar rats which were chronically exposed to tritiated water (HTO, 37.0 kBq/ml) or to tritiated food (48.1 kBq/g). The tritium exposure of the rats was started before mating and was continued up to delivery of the F 3 generation. The incorporation of organically bound tritium (OBT) was determined in whole brain and in some organic components of rats at various ages. The specific activity of OBT in whole brain and in its organic components with the exception of proteins significantly increased in the F 1 +F 2 generations of rats in comparison with F 0 females. The contribution of OBT to the total dose rate was about 6 per cent in HTO group and 9 per cent in T-food group. The contribution of lipids and proteins to the dose rate from OBT was similar in both treatment groups, being 60 and 20 per cent, respectively. 20 refs. (author)

  11. DETERMINATION OF URINARY TRIVALENT ARSENICALS (MMASIII AND DMASIII) IN INDIVIDUALS CHRONICALLY EXPOSED TO ARSENIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    DETERMINATION OF URINARY TRIVALENT ARSENICALS (MMAsIII and DMAsIII) IN INDIVIDUALS CHRONICALLY EXPOSED TO ARSENIC. L. M. Del Razo1, M. Styblo2, W. R. Cullen3, and D.J. Thomas4. 1Toxicology Section, Cinvestav-IPN, Mexico, D.F., 2Univ. North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC; 3Uni...

  12. Chronic prostatic infection and inflammation by Propionibacterium acnes in a rat prostate infection model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, Jan; Drott, Johanna Bergh; Laurantzon, Lovisa; Laurantzon, Oscar; Bergh, Anders; Elgh, Fredrik

    2012-01-01

    Chronic inflammation in the prostate, seen as infiltration of inflammatory cells into the prostate gland in histological samples, affects approximately half the male population without indication of prostate disease, and is almost ubiquitous in patients diagnosed with benign prostate hyperplasia and cancer. Several studies have demonstrated the gram-positive bacterium Propionibacterium acnes to be frequently present in prostate tissue from men suffering from prostate disease. P. acnes has been shown to be associated with histological inflammation in human prostatectomy specimens, and also to induce strong inflammatory response in prostate-derived tissue culture models. The present paper describes a rat model for assessment of the pathogenic potential of P. acnes in prostate. Prostate glands of Sprague Dawley rats (n = 98) were exposed via an abdominal incision and live P. acnes or, in control rats, saline were injected into the ventral and dorso-lateral lobes. Rats were sacrificed 5 days, 3 weeks, 3 months and 6 months post infection, and prostate tissue was analyzed for bacterial content and histological inflammation. Rat sera were assessed for levels of CRP and anti-P. acnes IgG. Live P. acnes could be recovered from the dorso-lateral lobes up to 3 months post infection, while the ventral lobes were cleared from bacteria at that time. In samples up to 3 months post infection, the dorso-lateral lobes exhibited intense focal inflammation. CRP and IgG levels were elevated throughout the span of the experiment, and reached maximum levels 3 weeks and 3 months post infection, respectively. We show that P. acnes have the potential to cause chronic infection in previously healthy prostate, and that the infection has potential to cause chronic histological inflammation in the infected tissue. The high prevalence of P. acnes in human prostate tissue calls for resolution of pathogenic details. The present rat model suggests that complications such as chronic

  13. Proteinase activity in cell nuclei of rats exposed to γ-radiation and methyl nitrosourea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malakhova, L.V.; Surkenova, G.N.; Gaziev, A.I.

    1990-01-01

    Activity of nuclear proteinases in blood and liver cells of rats exposed to whole-body γ-irradiation (10 Gy) has been comparatively studied by the capacity of splitting the caseic substrate. Proteinase activity in nuclei of irradiated rat leukocytes was shown to increase by 2.5 times and to gradually decrease after 48 h reaching 150-160% as compared to the control. Two hours following a single injection of methyl nitrosourea the alteration in the activity of proteinases in nuclei of rat hepatocytes and leukocytes was different from the alteration of this index after γ-irradiation

  14. Protective effects of chronic mild stress during adolescence in the low-novelty responder rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Samir; Nam, Hyungwoo; Glover, Matthew E; Akil, Huda; Watson, Stanley J; Clinton, Sarah M; Kerman, Ilan A

    2016-01-01

    Stress-elicited behavioral and physiologic responses vary widely across individuals and depend on a combination of environmental and genetic factors. Adolescence is an important developmental period when neural circuits that guide emotional behavior and stress reactivity are still maturing. A critical question is whether stress exposure elicits contrasting effects when it occurs during adolescence versus adulthood. We previously found that Sprague-Dawley rats selectively bred for low-behavioral response to novelty (bred Low Responders; bLRs) are particularly sensitive to chronic unpredictable mild stress (CMS) exposure in adulthood, which exacerbates their typically high levels of spontaneous depressive- and anxiety-like behavior. Given developmental processes known to occur during adolescence, we sought to determine whether the impact of CMS on bLR rats is equivalent when they are exposed to it during adolescence as compared with adulthood. Young bLR rats were either exposed to CMS or control condition from postnatal days 35-60. As adults, we found that CMS-exposed bLRs maintained high levels of sucrose preference and exhibited increased social exploration along with decreased immobility on the forced swim test compared with bLR controls. These data indicate a protective effect of CMS exposure during adolescence in bLR rats.

  15. Increased bone calcium dissociation in lead-exposed rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eko Suhartono

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background Lead is still a major environmental and occupational health hazard, since it is extensively used in the production of paints, gasoline and cosmetics. This causes the metal to be ubiquitous in the environment, being found in the air, soil, and water, from which it can enter the human body by inhalation or ingestion. Absorbed lead is capable of altering the calcium levels in bone. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the effect of lead on bone calcium levels by measuring the reaction constant, Gibbs free energy, and enthalpy. Methods This study was of pure experimental design using 100 male albino rats (Rattus norvegicus. The experimental animals were assigned by simple randomization to two groups, one group receiving lead acetate orally at a dosage of 100 mg/kgBW, while the other group did not receive lead acetate. The intervention was given for 4 weeks and the rats were observed weekly for measurement of bone calcium levels by the permanganometric method. Results This study found that k1 (hydroxyapatite dissociation rate constant was 0.90 x 10-3 dt-1, and that k2 (hydroxyapatite association rate constant was 6.16 x 10-3 dt-1 for the control group, whereas for the intervention group k1 = 26.20 x 10-3 dt-1 and k2 = 16.75 x 10-3 dt-1. Thermodynamically, the overall reaction was endergonic and endothermic (DG > 0 and DH > 0. ConclusionS Lead exposure results in increased dissociation rate of bone in comparison with its association rate. Overall, the reaction was endergonic and endothermic (DG > 0 and DH > 0.

  16. Increased bone calcium dissociation in lead-exposed rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eko Suhartono

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Lead is still a major environmental and occupational health hazard, since it is extensively used in the production of paints, gasoline and cosmetics. This causes the metal to be ubiquitous in the environment, being found in the air, soil, and water, from which it can enter the human body by inhalation or ingestion. Absorbed lead is capable of altering the calcium levels in bone. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the effect of lead on bone calcium levels by measuring the reaction constant, Gibbs free energy, and enthalpy. METHODS This study was of pure experimental design using 100 male albino rats (Rattus norvegicus. The experimental animals were assigned by simple randomization to two groups, one group receiving lead acetate orally at a dosage of 100 mg/ kgBW, while the other group did not receive lead acetate. The intervention was given for 4 weeks and the rats were observed weekly for measurement of bone calcium levels by the permanganometric method. RESULTS This study found that k1 (hydroxyapatite dissociation rate constant was 0.90 x 10-3 dt-1, and that k2 (hydroxyapatite association rate constant was 6.16 x 10-3 dt-1 for the control group, whereas for the intervention group k1 = 26.20 x 10-3 dt-1 and k2 = 16.75 x 10-3 dt-1. Thermodynamically, the overall reaction was endergonic and endothermic (ΔG > 0 and ΔH > 0. CONCLUSIONS Lead exposure results in increased dissociation rate of bone in comparison with its association rate. Overall, the reaction was endergonic and endothermic (ΔG > 0 and ΔH > 0.

  17. Liver polyribosome distribution in intact and adrenalectomized rats exposed to. gamma. radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yatvin, M B; Abdel-Halim, M N [Wisconsin Univ., Madison (USA). Dept. of Radiology; Wisconsin Univ., Madison (USA). Dept. of Human Oncology)

    1978-06-01

    The mechanism(s) by which gamma radiation influences liver polyribosome distribution was studied in groups of intact and adrenalectomized male rats. A shift from light to heavy aggregates occurred in the polyribosomes of both intact and adrenalectomized rats after they were exposed to gamma rays. In irradiated adrenalectomized rats, however, the shift to heavier aggregates was not as great as that which occurred in irradiated adrenal-intact animals. Subcutaneous injection of cortisone acetate (10 mg/100 g body weight) also altered the liver polyribosome patterns of both intact and adrenalectomized rats within 8 hours of its administration. The shift which occurred following cortisone administration, however, was less striking than that seen after irradiation only. Thus, although adrenal glucocorticoids contribute to the radiation-indu ied shift in liver polyribosomes in adrenal-intact rats, other factors appear to be involved, since the shift is also obtained in adrenalectomized animals.

  18. Substitution effects of a carbonated hydroxyapatite biomaterial against intoxication chloride nickel-exposed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulila, Salha; Elfeki, Abdelfattah; Oudadesse, Hassane; Elfeki, Hafed

    2015-03-01

    This study aimed to investigate the potential effects of a synthetic apatite (carbonated hydroxyapatite) on the detoxification of a group of male "Wistar" rats exposed to nickel chloride. Toxicity was evaluated by rats' bioassay of nickel chloride. Wistar rats received this metal daily by gavage for seven days (4 mg/ml nickel chloride/200 g body weight, BW). To detoxify this organism, a subcutaneous implantation of the apatite is made. The results revealed that exposure to nickel induced oxidative stress, disorders in the balances of ferric phosphocalcic, renal failures, liver toxicity and significant increase in nickel rates in the bones of intoxicated rats. The application of the carbonated hydroxyapatite presented in this study restored those disorders back to normal. The synthetic apatite protected the rats against the toxic effects of nickel by lowering the levels of lipid peroxidation markers and improving the activities of defense enzymes. It also amended ferric and phosphocalcic equilibriums, protected liver and kidney functions and reduced the nickel rate in the bones of the rats. Overall, the results provided strong support for the protective role of carbonated hydroxyapatite in the detoxification of rats exposed to nickel. Those beneficial effects were further confirmed by physico-chemical characterization (X-ray diffraction and infrared spectroscopy), which revealed its property of anionic and cationic substitution, thus supporting its promising candidacy for future biomedical application. The hydroxyapatite is an effective biomaterial to solve health problems, particularly detoxification against metals (nickel).

  19. Chronic contamination with 137Cesium affects Vitamin D3 metabolism in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tissandie, E.; Gueguen, Y.; Lobaccaro, J.M.A.; Aigueperse, J.; Gourmelon, P.; Paquet, F.; Souidi, M.

    2006-01-01

    Twenty years after Chernobyl disaster, many people are still chronically exposed to low dose of 137 Cs, mainly through the food consumption. A large variety of diseases have been described in highly exposed people with 137 Cs, which include bone disorders. The aim of this work was to investigate the biological effects of a chronic exposure to 137 Cs on Vitamin D 3 metabolism, a hormone essential in bone homeostasis. Rats were exposed to 137 Cs in their drinking water for 3 months at a dose of 6500 Bq/l (approximately 150 Bq/rat/day), a similar concentration ingested by the population living in contaminated territories in the former USSR countries. Cytochromes P450 enzymes involved in Vitamin D 3 metabolism, related nuclear receptors and Vitamin D 3 target genes were assessed by real time PCR in liver, kidney and brain. Vitamin D, PTH, calcium and phosphate levels were measured in plasma. An increase in the expression level of cyp2r1 (40%, p 137 Cs-exposed rats. However a significant decrease of Vitamin D (1,25(OH)D 3 ) plasma level (53%, p = 0.02) was observed. In brain, cyp2r1 mRNA level was decreased by 20% (p 137 Cs contamination. In conclusion, this study showed for the first time that chronic exposure with post-accidental doses of 137 Cs affects Vitamin D 3 active form level and induces molecular modifications of CYPs enzymes involved its metabolism in liver and brain, without leading to mineral homeostasis disorders

  20. Effects of hyperbaric oxygen on crystalline lens and retina in nicotine-exposed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ari, Seyhmus; Nergiz, Yusuf; Cingü, Abdullah Kürşat; Atay, Ahmet Engin; Sahin, Alparslan; Cinar, Yasin; Caca, Ihsan

    2013-03-01

    To determine histopathological changes on crystalline lens and retina of rats after subcutaneous injection of nicotine and to examine the effects of hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) on these changes related to nicotine exposure. Twenty-eight female Sprague-Dawley rats were enrolled in the study and the rats were divided into four equal sized groups randomly (Group N: the rats exposed only to nicotine, group HB: the rats received only HBO, group N+HB: the rats that underwent to nicotine injection and subsequently received HBO, group C: the control group that neither exposed to nicotine nor received HBO). The rats were sacrificed by decapitation method and all were enucleated immediately after scarification. Tissue samples from crystalline lens, lens capsule, and the retina from the right eyes of the rats were examined by light microscopy. While the histological appearances of the retina and the lens was similar in group HB, group N+HB, and the control group; group N showed some pathological changes like decrement in the retinal ganglion cell density, atrophy of the retinal nerve fiber layer, congestion of the vessels in the optic nerve head, thinning of the internal plexiform layer, thinning of the lens capsule, and transformation of the anterior subcapsular epithelium into squamous epithelia. Subcutaneous injection of nicotine was found to be related with some pathological changes in the retina and lens of the Sprague-Dawley rats. However HBO caused no significant negative effect. Furthermore, the histopathological changes related to nicotine exposure in the lens and retina of the rats recovered by the application of HBO.

  1. Effect of diosmin on chronic nonbacterial prostatitis caused by pelvic congestion in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gong-ting CUI

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective To explore the effect of diosmin on chronic nonbacterial prostatitis (CNP in rats and its possible mechanisms. Methods Thirty-two healthy adult male SD rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: Sham-operated group (SO group, chronic prostatitis model group (CPM group, chronic prostatitis model + prostat treatment group (CPM-P group, and chronic prostatitis model + diosmin treatment group (CPM-D group. Rats in SO group underwent laparotomy only to expose the prostate, and those in other groups received prostatic vein ligation to reproduce pelvic congestion. HE staining was used for the examination of the prostate 35 days after the operation. 80mg/(kg.d of diosmin was given to the rats in CPM-D group, and 60mg/(kg.d of diosmin to the rats in CPM-P group twice a day by gavage for 7 days. Same volume of 5% acacia gum was given to rats in SO and CPM groups. All of the rats were sacrificed 1h after the last administration, and the serum levels of interleukin-10 (IL-10, IL-8, IL-1β, malondialdehyde (MDA, nitric oxide (NO were determined by ELISA, and the pathological changes in the prostate tissue were observed after HE staining and compared between the groups. Results The serum levels of IL-1β, IL-8 and NO were significantly lower in CPM-D group and CPM-P group than in CPM group (P<0.05, the serum level of IL-10 was significantly higher in CPM-D group and CPM-P group than in CPM group (P<0.05, and the serum MDA level was similar between the 3 groups. HE staining showed that chronic inflammatory changes in rats' prostate were reduced more significantly in CPM-P group and CPM-D group than in CPM group. Conclusion The therapeutic effect of diosmin on pelvic-congestion-induced chronic prostatitis is similar to that of prostat tablets, and its mechanism may be related to the alleviation of local inflammatory response by reducing the IL-1β, IL-8 and NO levels and increasing the IL-10 content in serum. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2014.06.04

  2. Effects of glutamine pretreatment on learning and memory in heat-exposed rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shenghao Zhao; Lei Wang; Qin Wang; Siyi Wang; Chundi Deng; Xianfei Xie; Youe Yan; Hui Wang

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Glutamine (Gln) pretreatment can protect neural cells from injuries due to heat, ischemia, hypoxia, endotoxemia, and inflammatory factors.OBJECTIVE: To observe the effects of Gln pretreatment on learning and memory, survival time, and rectal temperature in heat-exposed rats.DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: The present randomized grouping, neurobehavioral experiment was performed at the Laboratory of Department of Pharmacology, Basic School of Medicine, Wuhan University between March and September 2007.MATERIALS: Twenty-four healthy, Wistar rats were included in this study. SPX-160B biochemistry incubator (Shanghai Experimental Equipment Co., Ltd., China), probe electronic thermometer (11000 type, Maikepai Science and Technology Co., Ltd., China), Y-type maze box used in conjunction with MG-2 maze stimulator (Zhangjiagang Biomedical Instrument Factory, China), L-Gin (Batch No. 061218, 5 g/bottle, prepared into 10% aqueous solution, Amresco Company, USA) were used.METHODS: Twenty-four rats were randomly and evenly divided into 3 groups: heat-exposed, Gln low-lose, and Gln high-dose. Following learning and memory testing with the Y-maze, rats in the heat-exposed group were subjected to heat injury (40.5-41.5℃) in a biochemistry incubator. Rectal temperature was measured every 5 minutes. Thirty-five minutes after heat exposure, rats were removed and placed in the Y-type maze to test learning and memory again. Subsequently, the rats were returned to the same environment of thermal stimulation until they died. Rat survival time was recorded. Subsequent to learning and memory testing, rats in the Gln low-dose and high-dose groups received an i.p. injection of Gln (0.4 g/kg and 0.8 g/kg, respectively), and were exposed to heat injury. The remaining experimental procedures remained the same as for the heat-exposed group.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Rat learning and memory, rectal temperature, and survival time in heat exposure environment.RESULTS: (1) In the Y

  3. Comparison of three methods of exposing rats to cigarette smoke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mauderly, J L; Bechtold, W E; Bond, J A; Brooks, A L; Chen, B T; Cuddihy, R G; Harkema, J R; Henderson, R F; Johnson, N F; Ritchideh, K; Thomassen, D G

    1988-12-01

    We compared smoke composition and biological effects resulting from exposures of rats for 5 wk to cigarette smoke by nose-only intermittent (NOI), nose-only continuous (NOC) and whole-body continuous (WBC) exposure methods. Exposure concentrations and times were adjusted to achieve the same daily concentration x time product for particulate matter. There were few differences in smoke composition or biological effects among exposure modes. WBC smoke was lower in particle-borne nicotine and higher in some organic vapors and carbon monoxide than smoke in nose-only modes. Body weight was depressed less by WBC than by NOI or NOC exposures. Plasma and urine nicotine levels were higher for WBC than for NOI or NOC, suggesting greater absorption from body surfaces or by grooming. Smoke exposures increased nasal epithelial proliferation, tracheal epithelial cell transformation, chromosomal aberrations in alveolar macrophages, and lung DNA adduct levels, and caused inflammatory changes in airway fluid and slight alterations of respiratory function, but there were no significant differences among exposure modes. The results indicate that WBC exposures should produce long-term effects similar to those of nose-only exposures, but might allow increased delivery of smoke to lungs while reducing stress, acute toxicity and the manpower requirements associated with performing these experiments. (author)

  4. Comparison of three methods of exposing rats to cigarette smoke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mauderly, J.L.; Bechtold, W.E.; Bond, J.A.; Brooks, A.L.; Chen, B.T.; Cuddihy, R.G.; Harkema, J.R.; Henderson, R.F.; Johnson, N.F.; Ritchideh, K.; Thomassen, D.G.

    1988-01-01

    We compared smoke composition and biological effects resulting from exposures of rats for 5 wk to cigarette smoke by nose-only intermittent (NOI), nose-only continuous (NOC) and whole-body continuous (WBC) exposure methods. Exposure concentrations and times were adjusted to achieve the same daily concentration x time product for particulate matter. There were few differences in smoke composition or biological effects among exposure modes. WBC smoke was lower in particle-borne nicotine and higher in some organic vapors and carbon monoxide than smoke in nose-only modes. Body weight was depressed less by WBC than by NOI or NOC exposures. Plasma and urine nicotine levels were higher for WBC than for NOI or NOC, suggesting greater absorption from body surfaces or by grooming. Smoke exposures increased nasal epithelial proliferation, tracheal epithelial cell transformation, chromosomal aberrations in alveolar macrophages, and lung DNA adduct levels, and caused inflammatory changes in airway fluid and slight alterations of respiratory function, but there were no significant differences among exposure modes. The results indicate that WBC exposures should produce long-term effects similar to those of nose-only exposures, but might allow increased delivery of smoke to lungs while reducing stress, acute toxicity and the manpower requirements associated with performing these experiments. (author)

  5. Long-term consequences of chronic fluoxetine exposure on the expression of myelination-related genes in the rat hippocampus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroeze, Y; Peeters, D; Boulle, F; van den Hove, D L A; van Bokhoven, H; Zhou, H; Homberg, J R

    2015-01-01

    The selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) fluoxetine is widely prescribed for the treatment of symptoms related to a variety of psychiatric disorders. After chronic SSRI treatment, some symptoms remediate on the long term, but the underlying mechanisms are not yet well understood. Here we studied the long-term consequences (40 days after treatment) of chronic fluoxetine exposure on genome-wide gene expression. During the treatment period, we measured body weight; and 1 week after treatment, cessation behavior in an SSRI-sensitive anxiety test was assessed. Gene expression was assessed in hippocampal tissue of adult rats using transcriptome analysis and several differentially expressed genes were validated in independent samples. Gene ontology analysis showed that upregulated genes induced by chronic fluoxetine exposure were significantly enriched for genes involved in myelination. We also investigated the expression of myelination-related genes in adult rats exposed to fluoxetine at early life and found two myelination-related genes (Transferrin (Tf) and Ciliary neurotrophic factor (Cntf)) that were downregulated by chronic fluoxetine exposure. Cntf, a neurotrophic factor involved in myelination, showed regulation in opposite direction in the adult versus neonatally fluoxetine-exposed groups. Expression of myelination-related genes correlated negatively with anxiety-like behavior in both adult and neonatally fluoxetine-exposed rats. In conclusion, our data reveal that chronic fluoxetine exposure causes on the long-term changes in expression of genes involved in myelination, a process that shapes brain connectivity and contributes to symptoms of psychiatric disorders. PMID:26393488

  6. Effects of Vitamin C on Kidney and Bone of Rats Exposed to Low ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . Wister rats were exposed to cadmium (as CdSO4.8H2O), by sub-cutaneous injection, at doses of 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0 ìg/kg body weight, with or without vitamin C supplementation, for four weeks. Serum alkaline phosphatase activity of the group of ...

  7. GENE ARRAY ANALYSIS OF THE VENTRAL PROSTATE IN RATS EXPOSED TO EITHER VINCLOZOLIN OR PROCYMIDONE

    Science.gov (United States)

    GENE ARRAY ANALYSIS OF THE VENTRAL PROSTATE IN RATS EXPOSED TO EITHER VINCLOZOLIN OR PROCYMIDONE. MB Rosen, VS Wilson, JE Schmid, and LE Gray Jr. US EPA, ORD, NHEERL, RTP, NC.Vinclozolin (Vi) and procymidone (Pr) are antiandrogenic fungicides. While changes in gene expr...

  8. Fetal contamination with cadmium following chronic exposure of rat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fetal contamination with cadmium following chronic exposure of rat dams during gestation. ... African Journal of Applied Zoology and Environmental Biology ... It was concluded that cadmium, contrary to previous reports, can pass through the placenta in appreciable quantity to contaminate the fetus to possibly cause fetal ...

  9. Chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infection in normal and athymic rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, H K; Espersen, F; Pedersen, S S

    1993-01-01

    We have compared a chronic lung infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa embedded in alginate beads in normal and athymic rats with an acute infection with free live P. aeruginosa bacteria. The following parameters were observed and described: mortality, macroscopic and microscopic pathologic changes...

  10. Monitoring of gluconeogenesis in rats following chronic irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paulikova, E.; Sedlakova, A.; Praslicka, M.

    1984-01-01

    A dose dependent cumulation of liver glycogen with the maximum on the day 120 was observed as was an increased incorporation of 14 C-alanine in liver glycogen (statistically nonsignificant changes). The contribution of 14 C-acetate to gluconeogenesis was negligible. The results showed increased gluconeogenesis in rats following chronic gamma irradiation with small daily dose rates (0.0957 Gy)

  11. Effect of chronic (-)-nicotine treatment on rat cerebral benzodiazepine receptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magata, Yasuhiro; Kitano, Haruhiro; Shiozaki, Toshiki; Iida, Yasuhiko; Nishizawa, Sadahiko; Saji, Hideo; Konishi, Junji

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to clarify the effect of (-)-nicotine on cerebral benzodiazepine receptors (BzR) with radiotracer methods. The effect of (-)-nicotine on BzR was examined in in vitro studies using chronic (-)-nicotine-treated rats using 3 H-diazepam. The in vitro radioreceptor assay showed a 14% increase in the maximum number of binding sites of BzR in chronic (-)-nicotine-treated rats in comparison with the control rats. Moreover, a convenient in vivo uptake index of 125 I-iomazenil was calculated and a higher uptake of the radioactivity was observed in the chronic (-)-nicotine-treated group than in the control group. Although further studies of the mechanism of (-)-nicotine on such BzR changes are required, an increase in the amount of BzR in the cerebral cortex was found in rats that underwent chronic (-)-nicotine treatment, and this result contributed to the understanding of the effects of (-)-nicotine and smoking on neural functions

  12. Chronic cigarette smoke exposure adversely alters 14C-arachidonic acid metabolism in rat lungs, aortas and platelets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lubawy, W.C.; Valentovic, M.A.; Atkinson, J.E.; Gairola, G.C.

    1983-01-01

    Male rats were exposed to freshly generated cigarette smoke once daily, 5 times a week for 10 weeks. Inhalation of smoke was verified by elevated carboxyhemoglobin in blood sampled immediately after smoke exposure and by increased lung aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase activity 24 hours after the last smoke exposure. Aortic rings isolated from smoke-exposed rats synthesized less prostacyclin (PGI2) from 14 C-arachidonic acid than rings from sham rats. Platelets from smoke-exposed rats synthesized more thromboxane (TXA2) from 14 C-arachidonic acid than platelets from room controls but not those from sham rats. Lung microsomes from smoke-exposed rats synthesized more TXA2 and had a lower PGI2/TXA2 ratio than lung microsomes from room controls and shams. It is concluded that chronic cigarette smoke exposure alters arachidonic acid metabolism in aortas, platelets and lungs in a manner resulting in decreased PGI2 and increased TXA2, thereby creating a condition favoring platelet aggregation and a variety of cardiovascular diseases

  13. Chronic ethanol tolerance as a result of free-choice drinking in alcohol-preferring rats of the WHP line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyr, Wanda; Taracha, Ewa

    2012-01-01

    The development of tolerance to alcohol with chronic consumption is an important criterion for an animal model of alcoholism and may be an important component of the genetic predisposition to alcoholism. The aim of this study was to determine whether the selectively bred Warsaw High Preferring (WHP) line of alcohol-preferring rats would develop behavioral and metabolic tolerance during the free-choice drinking of ethanol. Chronic tolerance to ethanol-induced sedation was tested. The loss of righting reflex (LRR) paradigm was used to record sleep duration in WHP rats. Ethanol (EtOH)-naive WHP rats received a single intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of 5.0 g ethanol/kg body weight (b.w.), and sleep duration was measured. Subsequently, rats had access to a 10% ethanol solution under a free-choice condition with water and food for 12 weeks. After 12 weeks of the free-choice intake of ethanol, the rats received another single i.p. injection of 5.0 g ethanol/kg b.w., and sleep duration was reassessed. The blood alcohol content (BAC) for each rat was determined after an i.p. injection of 5 g/kg of ethanol in naive rats and again after chronic alcohol drinking at the time of recovery of the righting reflex (RR). The results showed that the mean ethanol intake was 9.14 g/kg/24 h, and both sleep duration and BAC were decreased after chronic ethanol intake. In conclusion, WHP rats exposed to alcohol by free-choice drinking across 12 weeks exhibited increased alcohol elimination rates. Studies have demonstrated that WHP rats after chronic free-choice drinking (12 weeks) of alcohol develop metabolic tolerance. Behavioral tolerance to ethanol was demonstrated by reduced sleep duration, but this decrease in sleep duration was not significant.

  14. Chronic stress does not impair liver regeneration in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Kasper J; Knudsen, Anders Riegels; Wiborg, Ove

    2015-01-01

    a 70 % partial hepatectomy (PHx). The animals were evaluated on postoperative day 2 or 4. Blood samples were collected to examine circulating markers of inflammation and liver cell damage. Additionally, liver tissues were sampled to evaluate liver weight and regeneration rate. RESULTS: None......BACKGROUND: Although wound healing is a simple regenerative process that is critical after surgery, it has been shown to be impaired under psychological stress. The liver has a unique capacity to regenerate through highly complex mechanisms. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects...... of chronic stress, which may induce a depression-like state, on the complex process of liver regeneration in rats. METHODS: Twenty rats were included in this study. The animals received either a standard housing protocol or were subjected to a Chronic Mild Stress (CMS) stress paradigm. All rats underwent...

  15. Effect of tribulus terrestris saponins on behavior and neuroendocrine in chronic mild stress depression rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhe; Zhang, Dongdong; Hui, Shan; Zhang, Yingjin; Hu, Suiyu

    2013-04-01

    To observe the effect of tribulus terrestris saponins (TTS) on behavior and neuroendocrine of chronic mild stress (CMS) depression rats. Thirty male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly allocated to six groups: vehicle group, CMS group, CMS + fluoxetine group and CMS + TTS of low-dosage (0.375 g/kg), medium-dosage (0.75 g/kg) and high-dosage (2.25 g/kg) groups. All rats except the vehicle group singly housed and exposed an unpredicted sequence of mild stressors. The behavior of rats was detected by open-field test (OFT) and sucrose preference test (SPT). The concentration of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) in serum of the rats were detected by radioimmunoassay. The concentration of cortisol (CORT) in serum was detected by enzyme immunoassay. CMS procedure not only significantly decreased the scores of crossing, rears and grooming in OFT and the sucrose preference in SPT (all P < 0.01), but also markedly increased serum CRH and CORT levels (both P < 0.05). Treatment with TTS (0.75 and 2.25 g/kg) could significantly prevent all of these abnormalities induced by CMS (P < 0.05, P < 0.01). CMS can affect rat behavior and neuroendocrine and cause depression. TTS has the antagonism on CMS and produce antidepressive effects.

  16. Chronic Voluntary Ethanol Consumption Induces Favorable Ceramide Profiles in Selectively Bred Alcohol-Preferring (P Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Godfrey

    Full Text Available Heavy alcohol consumption has detrimental neurologic effects, inducing widespread neuronal loss in both fetuses and adults. One proposed mechanism of ethanol-induced cell loss with sufficient exposure is an elevation in concentrations of bioactive lipids that mediate apoptosis, including the membrane sphingolipid metabolites ceramide and sphingosine. While these naturally-occurring lipids serve as important modulators of normal neuronal development, elevated levels resulting from various extracellular insults have been implicated in pathological apoptosis of neurons and oligodendrocytes in several neuroinflammatory and neurodegenerative disorders. Prior work has shown that acute administration of ethanol to developing mice increases levels of ceramide in multiple brain regions, hypothesized to be a mediator of fetal alcohol-induced neuronal loss. Elevated ceramide levels have also been implicated in ethanol-mediated neurodegeneration in adult animals and humans. Here, we determined the effect of chronic voluntary ethanol consumption on lipid profiles in brain and peripheral tissues from adult alcohol-preferring (P rats to further examine alterations in lipid composition as a potential contributor to ethanol-induced cellular damage. P rats were exposed for 13 weeks to a 20% ethanol intermittent-access drinking paradigm (45 ethanol sessions total or were given access only to water (control. Following the final session, tissues were collected for subsequent chromatographic analysis of lipid content and enzymatic gene expression. Contrary to expectations, ethanol-exposed rats displayed substantial reductions in concentrations of ceramides in forebrain and heart relative to non-exposed controls, and modest but significant decreases in liver cholesterol. qRT-PCR analysis showed a reduction in the expression of sphingolipid delta(4-desaturase (Degs2, an enzyme involved in de novo ceramide synthesis. These findings indicate that ethanol intake levels

  17. Turmeric extract inhibits apoptosis of hippocampal neurons of trimethyltin-exposed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuliani, S; Widyarini, S; Mustofa; Partadiredja, G

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to reveal the possible antiapoptotic effect of turmeric (Curcuma longa Linn.) on the hippocampal neurons of rats exposed to trimethyltin (TMT). Oxidative damage in the hippocampus can induce the apoptosis of neurons associated with the pathogenesis of dementiaMETHODS. The ethanolic turmeric extract and a citicoline (as positive control) solution were administered to the TMT-exposed rats for 28 days. The body weights of rats were recorded once a week. The hippocampal weights and imumunohistochemical expression of caspase 3 proteins in the CA1 and CA2-CA3 regions of the hippocampi were examined at the end of the experiment. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that the injection of TMT increased the expression of caspase 3 in the CA1 and CA2-CA3 regions of hippocampus. TMT also decreased the body and hippocampal weights. Furthermore, the administration of 200 mg/kg bw dose of turmeric extract decreased the caspase 3 expression in the CA2-CA3 pyramidal neurons but not in the CA1 neurons. It also prevented the decrease of the body and hippocampal weights. We suggest that the 200 mg/kg bw dose of turmeric extract may exert antiapoptotic effect on the hippocampal neurons of the TMT-exposed rats (Tab. 1, Fig. 3, Ref. 49).

  18. Does melatonin influence the apoptosis in rat uterus of animals exposed to continuous light?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Cecília S; Carvalho, Kátia C; Maganhin, Carla C; Paiotti, Ana P R; Oshima, Celina T F; Simões, Manuel J; Baracat, Edmund C; Soares, José M

    2016-02-01

    Melatonin has been described as a protective agent against cell death and oxidative stress in different tissues, including in the reproductive system. However, the information on the action of this hormone in rat uterine apoptosis is low. Our objective was to evaluate the effects of melatonin on mechanisms of cell death in uterus of rats exposed to continuous light stress. Twenty adult Wistar rats were divided into two groups: GContr (vehicle control) and GExp which were treated with melatonin (0.4 mg/mL), both were exposed to continuous light for 90 days. The uterus was removed and processed for quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR), using PCR-array plates of the apoptosis pathway; for immunohistochemistry and TUNEL. The results of qRT-PCR of GEXP group showed up-regulation of 13 and 7, pro-apoptotic and anti-apoptotic genes, respectively, compared to GContr group. No difference in pro-apoptotic proteins (Bax, Fas and Faslg) expression was observed by immunohistochemistry, although the number of TUNEL-positive cells was lower in the group treated with melatonin compared to the group not treated with this hormone. Our data suggest that melatonin influences the mechanism and decreases the apoptosis in uterus of rats exposed to continuous light.

  19. In vivo genotoxicity assessment in rats exposed to Prestige-like oil by inhalation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdiglesias, Vanessa; Kiliç, Gözde; Costa, Carla; Amor-Carro, Óscar; Mariñas-Pardo, Luis; Ramos-Barbón, David; Méndez, Josefina; Pásaro, Eduardo; Laffon, Blanca

    2012-01-01

    One of the largest oil spill disasters in recent times was the accident of the oil tanker Prestige in front of the Galician coast in 2002. Thousands of people participated in the cleanup of the contaminated areas, being exposed to a complex mixture of toxic substances. Acute and prolonged respiratory symptoms and genotoxic effects were reported, although environmental exposure measurements were restricted to current determinations, such that attribution of effects observed to oil exposure is difficult to establish. The aim of this study was to analyze peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL) harvested from a rat model of subchronic exposure to a fuel oil with similar characteristics to that spilled by the Prestige tanker, in order to determine potential genotoxic effects under strictly controlled, in vivo exposure. Wistar Han and Brown Norway rats were exposed to the oil for 3 wk, and micronucleus test (MN) and comet assay, standard and modified with 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase (OGG1) enzyme, were employed to assess genotoxicity 72 h and 15 d after the last exposure. In addition, the potential effects of oil exposure on DNA repair capacity were determined by means of mutagen sensitivity assay. Results obtained from this study showed that inhalation oil exposure induced DNA damage in both Brown Norway and Wistar Han rats, especially in those animals evaluated 15 d after exposure. Although alterations in the DNA repair responses were noted, the sensitivity to oil substances varied depending on rat strain. Data support previous positive genotoxicity results reported in humans exposed to Prestige oil during cleanup tasks.

  20. Catecholamine levels in the brain of rats exposed by inhalation to benzalkonium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swiercz, Radosław; Grzelińska, Zofia; Gralewicz, Sławomir; Wasowicz, Wojciech

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the study was to obtain quantitative data on the effect of inhalation exposure to benzalkonium chloride (BAC) on the concentration of catecholamines and their metabolites in selected brain structures. Additionally, concentration of corticosterone (CORT) in plasma was estimated. Wistar rats were subjected to a single (6-hour) or repeated (3 days, 6 h/day) exposure to BAC aerosol at ca. 30 mg/m3. The Waters integrated analytical system of HPLC was used to determine the plasma corticosterone. Qualitative and quantitative determinations of catecholamines and their metabolites: 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic (DOPAC) and homovanillic (HVA) acids were performed with the use of the Waters integrity HPLC. The determinations have shown that in the BAC-exposed rats the plasma CORT concentration was several times higher than in the control rats. A significant increase of the concentration of dopamine (DA) (striatum and diencephalon) and noradrenaline (NA) (hippocampus and cerebellum) and a significant reduction of adrenaline (A) level (cortex, hippocampus, striatum and mesencephaloon) was found to occur in the brain of rats exposed to BAC compared to control. In the animals exposed to BAC, the concentration of DOPAC, a DA metabolite, was significantly reduced, but the change occurred mainly in the striatum. This resulted in a significant decrease of the DOPAC/DA and HVA/DA metabolic ratio in this structure. It is assumed that the alterations in the concentration of catecholamines and their metabolites in the BAC-exposed rats were related to the unexpectedly strong and persistent activation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis evidenced by the high plasma CORT concentration.

  1. Expression of phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase in rat kidneys exposed to high +Gz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun-Soo Kim

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to high gravitational acceleration forces acting along the body axis from the head to the feet (+Gz severely reduces blood flow to the visceral organs, including the kidneys. Extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK figures predominantly in mediating kidney cell responses to a wide variety of stress-related stimuli. Though previous studies have shown the activation of ERK in some experimental models, the regulation of ERK associated with +Gz exposure has not yet been investigated. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of high +Gz exposure on ERK activation in the kidneys. Using a small animal centrifuge, eight male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to +10Gz or +13Gz three times for 3 minutes each. The bilateral kidneys were obtained from each rat, and the expression levels of phosphorylated ERK (p-ERK were evaluated using immunohistochemistry. In the control group, the collecting duct epithelium displayed faint cytoplasmic staining with no nuclear staining of p-ERK. By contrast, rats exposed to +10Gz showed strong nuclear staining intensity for p-ERK. In the renal papilla, the epithelial cells of collecting ducts and thin segments of the loop of Henle exhibited strong nuclear immunoreactivity for p-ERK. Rats exposed to +13Gz also showed the same staining intensity and distribution of p-ERK expression as that of rats exposed to +10Gz. This study is the first to describe +Gz exposure-induced alteration in the expression of p-ERK in the kidneys. Our finding suggests that high +Gz exposure leads to the activation of ERK in the renal papilla.

  2. Physiological and Histopathological Investigations on the Effects of -Lipoic Acid in Rats Exposed to Malathion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atef M. Al-Attar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to evaluate the influence of -lipoic acid treatment in rats exposed to malathion. Forty adult male rats were used in this study and distributed into four groups. Animals of group 1 were untreated and served as control. Rats of group 2 were orally given malathion at a dose level of 100 mg/kg body weight (BW for a period of one month. Experimental animals of group 3 were orally given -lipoic acid at a dose level of 20 mg/kg BW and after 3 hours exposed to malathion at the same dose given to group 2. Rats of group 4 were supplemented with -lipoic acid at the same dose given to group 3. The activities of serum glutamic oxaloacetic acid transaminase (GOT, glutamic pyruvic acid transaminase (GPT, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, and acid phosphatase (ACP, and the values of creatinine, urea, and uric acid were statistically increased, while the values of total protein and total albumin were significantly decreased in rats exposed to malathion. Moreover, administration of malathion for one month resulted in damage of liver and kidney structures. Administration of -lipoic acid before malathion exposure to rat can prevent severe alterations of hematobiochemical parameters and disruptions of liver and kidney structures. In conclusion, this study obviously demonstrated that pretreatment with -lipoic acid significantly attenuated the physiological and histopathological alterations induced by malathion. Also, the present study identifies new areas of research for development of better therapeutic agents for liver, kidney, and other organs' dysfunctions and diseases.

  3. Impact of chronic exposure to the pesticide chlorpyrifos on respiratory parameters and sleep apnea in juvenile and adult rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walaa Darwiche

    Full Text Available The widely used organophosphorus pesticide chlorpyrifos (CPF is often detected in food. CPF inhibits acetylcholinesterase and can modify muscle contractility and respiratory patterns. We studied the effects of chronic exposure to CPF on respiratory parameters and diaphragm contractility in 21- and 60-days old rats. Pregnant rats were exposed to oral CPF (1 or 5 mg/ kg /day: CPF-1 or CPF-5 groups vs vehicle: controls from gestation onset up to weaning of the pups that were individually gavaged (CPF or vehicle thereafter. Two developmental time points were studied: weaning (day 21 and adulthood (day 60. Whole-body plethysmography was used to score breathing patterns and apnea index during sleep. Then, diaphragm strips were dissected for the assessment of contractility and acetylcholinesterase activity. Results showed that the sleep apnea index was higher in CPF-exposed rats than in controls. In adult rats, the expiratory time and tidal volume were higher in CPF-exposed animals than in controls. At both ages, the diaphragm's amplitude of contraction and fatigability index were higher in the CPF-5 group, due to lower acetylcholinesterase activity. We conclude that chronic exposure to CPF is associated with higher sleep apnea index and diaphragm contractility, and modifies respiratory patterns in sleeping juvenile and adult rats.

  4. Impaired hypoxic ventilatory response following neonatal sustained and subsequent chronic intermittent hypoxia in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, C A; Ao, J; Di Fiore, J M; Martin, R J; MacFarlane, P M

    2013-06-15

    Neonatal chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) enhances the ventilatory sensitivity to acute hypoxia (acute hypoxic ventilatory response, HVR), whereas sustained hypoxia (SH) can have the opposite effect. Therefore, we investigated whether neonatal rats pre-treated with SH prior to CIH exhibit a modified HVR. Rat pups were exposed to CIH (5% O2/5min, 8h/day) between 6 and 15 days of postnatal age (P6-15) after pre-treatment with either normoxia or SH (11% O2; P1-5). Using whole-body plethysmography, the acute (5min, 10% O2) HVR at P16 (1 day post-CIH) was unchanged following CIH (67.9±6.7% above baseline) and also SH (58.8±10.5%) compared to age-matched normoxic rats (54.7±6.3%). In contrast, the HVR was attenuated (16.5±6.0%) in CIH exposed rats pre-treated with SH. These data suggest that while neonatal SH and CIH alone have little effect on the magnitude of the acute HVR, their combined effects impose a synergistic disturbance to postnatal development of the HVR. These data could provide important insight into the consequences of not maintaining adequate levels of oxygen saturation during the early neonatal period, especially in vulnerable preterm infants susceptible to frequent bouts of hypoxemic events (CIH) that are commonly associated with apnea of prematurity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Acetaminophen induces xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes in rat: Impact of a uranium chronic exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouas, Caroline; Souidi, Maâmar; Grandcolas, Line; Grison, Stephane; Baudelin, Cedric; Gourmelon, Patrick; Pallardy, Marc; Gueguen, Yann

    2009-11-01

    The extensive use of uranium in civilian and military applications increases the risk of human chronic exposure. Uranium is a slightly radioactive heavy metal with a predominantly chemical toxicity, especially in kidney but also in liver. Few studies have previously shown some effects of uranium on xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes (XME) that might disturb drug pharmacokinetic. The aim of this study was to determine whether a chronic (9 months) non-nephrotoxic low dose exposure to depleted uranium (DU, 1mg/rat/day) could modify the liver XME, using a single non-hepatotoxic acetaminophen (APAP) treatment (50mg/kg). Most of XME analysed were induced by APAP treatment at the gene expression level but at the protein level only CYP3A2 was significantly increased 3h after APAP treatment in DU-exposed rats whereas it remained at a basal level in unexposed rats. In conclusion, these results showed that a chronic non-nephrotoxic DU exposure specially modify CYP3A2 after a single therapeutic APAP treatment. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of Chronic Exposure to Sodium Arsenate on Kidney of Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namdar Yousofvand

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: In the present study, histopathological effects of chronic exposure to sodium arsenate in drinkable water were studied on a quantity of organs of rat. Methods: Rats were divided into two groups, group I; served as control group, were main-tained on deionized drinkable water for 2 months, and group II; the study group were given 60 g/ml of sodium arsenate in deionized drinkable water for 2 months. Blood and urine samples from two groups of animals were collected under anesthesia and the animals were sacrificed under deep anesthesia (a-chloralose, 100 mg/kg, I.P. Their kidney, liver, aorta, and heart were dissected out and cleaned of surrounding connective tissue. The organs were kept in formaldehyde (10% for histopathologic examination. Serum and urine samples from two groups were collected and analyzed for arsenic level. Total quantity of arsenic in serum and urine of animal was measured through graphic furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GF-AAS. Results:Examination with light microscopy did not show any visible structural changes in the aorta, myocardium, and liver of chronic arsenic treated animals.However, a significant effect was observed in the kidneys of chronic arsenic treated rats showing distinct changes in proxi-mal tubular cells. There was high concentration of arsenic in serum and urine of arsenic ex-posed animals (group II significantly (P<0.001. Conclusion:Swollen tubular cells in histopathologic study of kidney may suggest toxic effects of arsenic in the body.

  7. Variety of immune responses to chronic stress in rats male

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Іlona S Polovynko

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Previously we have been carry out integrated quantitative estimation of neuroendocrine and immune responses to chronic restraint stress in male rats. Revealed that the value of canonical discriminant roots rats subjected to chronic stress different not only on the values of intact animals (by definition, but also among themselves. So we set a goal retrospectively divided stressed rats into three homogeneous groups. Material and methods. The experiment is at 50 white male rats. Of these 10 animals not subjected to any influences and 40 within 7 days subjected to moderate stress by daily 30-minute immobilization. The day after the completion of stressing in portion of the blood immunological parameters were determined by tests I and II levels of WHO. The spleen and thymus did smears for counting spleno- and thymocytograms. Results. The method of cluster analysis (k-means clustering formed three groups-clusters. For further analysis selected 18 parameters that members of each cluster differing minimum and maximum are different from members of other clusters (η2=0,73÷0,15; F=49,0÷3,26; p=10-6÷0,05. We stated that in 16 rats from cluster III the deviation 16 parameters in either side of the average norm almost identical and are in an acceptable range of ±0,5σ. Thus, the immune status of 40% of the rats subjected to moderate chronic stress was resistant to its factors. For the immune status of the 15 (37,5% rats cluster II typical moderate inhibition microphage, killer and T-cellular links in combination with a strong activation macrophage link. Poststressory changes in immunity in 9 rats (22,5% from cluster I differ from those in cluster II both qualitatively and quantitatively. In particular, the rats in this cluster were found no deviations from the norm or reaction blast transformation T-cells nor NK-lymphocytes levels. However, other parameters of T-link and microhage link suppressed more and settings macrophage link appeared

  8. Health status of grandchildren of subjects occupationally exposed to chronic radiation. Communication 4. Congenital developmental defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrushkina, N.P.; Musatkova, O.B.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the incidence and structure of cogenital developmental defects in the grandchildren of subjects occupationally exposed to chronic external gamma-irradiation. For 830 children only grandfather was exposed, for 259 only grandmother, and for 468 grandfather and grandmother. The mean equivalent doses for gonads by the moment of conception of future parents of the cohort examined ranged from 17.3 to 145.3 sSv. The incidence and structure of congenital developmental defects in 1557 grandchildren of occupationally exposed subjects differed from that in controls. Multifactorial analysis failed to establish the effect of grandparents' and parents' exposure on the development of diseases in the progeny. Factors other than radiation proved to be significant. 13 refs.; 1 tab

  9. Brain perfusion in acute and chronic hyperglycemia in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikano, G.E.; LaManna, J.C.; Harik, S.I.

    1989-01-01

    Recent studies show that acute and chronic hyperglycemia cause a diffuse decrease in regional cerebral blood flow and that chronic hyperglycemia decreases the brain L-glucose space. Since these changes can be caused by a decreased density of perfused brain capillaries, we used 30 adult male Wistar rats to study the effect of acute and chronic hyperglycemia on (1) the brain intravascular space using radioiodinated albumin, (2) the anatomic density of brain capillaries using alkaline phosphatase histochemistry, and (3) the fraction of brain capillaries that are perfused using the fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran method. Our results indicate that acute and chronic hyperglycemia do not affect the brain intravascular space nor the anatomic density of brain capillaries. Also, there were no differences in capillary recruitment among normoglycemic, acutely hyperglycemic, and chronically hyperglycemic rats. These results suggest that the shrinkage of the brain L-glucose space in chronic hyperglycemia is more likely due to changes in the blood-brain barrier permeability to L-glucose

  10. Protective action of tetramethylpyrazine on the medulla oblongata in rats with chronic hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yan; Hou, Xuefei; Chen, Li; Li, Hui; Tang, Yuhong; Zhou, Hua; Zhao, Shu; Zheng, Yu

    2013-01-01

    Tetramethylpyrazine (TMP), one of the active ingredients of the Chinese herb Lingusticum Wallichii Frantchat (Chuan Xiong), plays an important role in neuroprotection. However, the protective effect of TMP on the medulla oblongata, the most important region of the brain for cardiovascular and respiratory control, during chronic hypoxia remains unclear. In this study, we examined the neuroprotective effect of TMP on the medulla oblongata after chronic hypoxic injury in rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups: control group, TMP group, chronic hypoxia group, and chronic hypoxia+TMP group. Rats were exposed to hypoxia (10% (v/v) O₂) or normoxia for 6 h daily for 14 days. TMP (80 mg/kg) or vehicle (saline) was injected intraperitoneally 30 min before experimentation. Loss of neurons in the pre-Bötzinger complex, the nucleus ambiguus, the nucleus tractus solitarius, the hypoglossal nucleus and the facial nucleus were evaluated by Nissl staining. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and malondialdehyde (MDA) content were measured, and apoptosis was monitored using the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) method. The level of Bcl-2 mRNA and Bax mRNA was quantitatively measured by RT-PCR analysis. TMP protected Nissl bodies of neurons from injury in all nuclei observed, and reduced the loss of neurons in the nucleus ambiguus, the nucleus tractus solitarius, and the hypoglossal nucleus in rats subjected to chronic hypoxia. TMP upregulated SOD activity and inhibited the increase in MDA content in the medulla oblongata of hypoxic rats. In addition, TMP decreased the rate of apoptosis index (the percentage of apoptotic cells against the total number of cells) in all medullary structures examined, excepting the nucleus ambiguus and inhibited the decrease in Bcl-2 mRNA levels in the medulla oblongata following hypoxia. Our findings indicate that TMP may protect the medullary structures that are involved in

  11. Dynamic Metabolic Disruption in Rats Perinatally Exposed to Low Doses of Bisphenol-A.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Tremblay-Franco

    Full Text Available Along with the well-established effects on fertility and fecundity, perinatal exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals, and notably to xeno-estrogens, is strongly suspected of modulating general metabolism. The metabolism of a perinatally exposed individual may be durably altered leading to a higher susceptibility of developing metabolic disorders such as obesity and diabetes; however, experimental designs involving the long term study of these dynamic changes in the metabolome raise novel challenges. 1H-NMR-based metabolomics was applied to study the effects of bisphenol-A (BPA, 0; 0.25; 2.5, 25 and 250 μg/kg BW/day in rats exposed perinatally. Serum and liver samples of exposed animals were analyzed on days 21, 50, 90, 140 and 200 in order to explore whether maternal exposure to BPA alters metabolism. Partial Least Squares-Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA was independently applied to each time point, demonstrating a significant pair-wise discrimination for liver as well as serum samples at all time-points, and highlighting unequivocal metabolic shifts in rats perinatally exposed to BPA, including those exposed to lower doses. In BPA exposed animals, metabolism of glucose, lactate and fatty acids was modified over time. To further explore dynamic variation, ANOVA-Simultaneous Component Analysis (A-SCA was used to separate data into blocks corresponding to the different sources of variation (Time, Dose and Time*Dose interaction. A-SCA enabled the demonstration of a dynamic, time/age dependent shift of serum metabolome throughout the rats' lifetimes. Variables responsible for the discrimination between groups clearly indicate that BPA modulates energy metabolism, and suggest alterations of neurotransmitter signaling, the latter finding being compatible with the neurodevelopmental effect of this xenoestrogen. In conclusion, long lasting metabolic effects of BPA could be characterized over 200 days, despite physiological (and thus metabolic changes

  12. Fibrogenic response of hepatic stellate cells in ovariectomised rats exposed to ketogenic diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobowiec, R; Wojcik, M; Jaworska-Adamu, J; Tusinska, E

    2013-02-01

    The discrepancy about the role of estrogens in hepatic fibrogenesis and lack of studies addressed of ketogenic diet (KD) on hepatic stellate cells (HSC), prompted us to investigate the activity of HSC in control, KD- and thioacetamide (TAA)-administrated rats with different plasma concentration of estradiol (E2). HSC were isolated by the collagenase perfusion methods and separated by the Percoll gradient centrifugation. After the 4(th) and 8(th) day of incubation, lysates of HSC and the media were collected for further analysis. The HSC derived from KD-rats released remarkably more transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 than cells obtained from animals fed with a standard diet. The ovariectomy of KD-rats markedly intensified the secretion of this fibrogenic cytokine on the 8(th) day of incubation (201.33 ±1 7.15 pg/ml). In HSC of rats exposed to E2, the TGF-β1 concentration did not exceed 157 ± 34.39 pg/ml. In respect to the collagen type I, the HSC obtained from ovariectomised KD-rats released an augmented amount of this ECM protein after the 8(th) day of culture (1.83 ± 0.14 U/ml). In the same time, higher quantities of ASMA appeared in the KD rats (1.41 ± 0.3 pg/mg protein). Exposition of rats to E2 did not markedly decrease the amount of ASMA. In summary, KD was able to induce morphological and functional changes in HSC, especially derived from rats deprived of ovarian estrogens. However, the preservation of E2 in ovariectomised rats didn't substantially alter the activation of HSC.

  13. Slimmer or fertile? Pharmacological mechanisms involved in reduced sperm quality and fertility in rats exposed to the anorexigen sibutramine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cibele S Borges

    Full Text Available Sperm acquire motility and fertility capacity during epididymal transit, under the control of androgens and sympathetic innervations. It is already known that the acceleration of epididymal sperm transit time can lead to lower sperm quality. In a previous work we showed that rats exposed to the anorexigen sibutramine, a non-selective serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, presented faster sperm transit time, lower epididymal sperm reserves and potentiation of the tension of epididymal duct to norepinephrine exposed acutely in vitro to sibutramine. In the present work we aimed to further investigate pharmacological mechanisms involved in these alterations and the impact on rat sperm quality. For this, adult male Wistar rats were treated with sibutramine (10 mg/kg/day or vehicle for 30 days. Sibutramine decreased final body, seminal vesicle, ventral prostate and epididymal weights, as well as sperm transit time in the epididymal cauda. On the contrary of the in vitro pharmacological assays, in which sibutramine was added directly to the bath containing strips of distal epididymal cauda, the ductal tension was not altered after in vivo sub-chronic exposure to sibutramine. However, there is pharmacological evidence that the endogenous epididymal norepinephrine reserves were reduced in these animals. It was also shown that the decrease in prostate weight can be related to increased tension developed of the gland, due to sibutramine sympathomimetic effects. In addition, our results showed reduced sperm quality after in utero artificial insemination, a more sensitive procedure to assess fertility in rodents. The epididymal norepinephrine depletion exerted by sibutramine, associated with decreases in sperm transit time, quantity and quality, leading to reduced fertility in this experimental model, reinforces the concerns about the possible impact on fertility of man taking sibutramine as well as other non-selective serotonin

  14. Slimmer or fertile? Pharmacological mechanisms involved in reduced sperm quality and fertility in rats exposed to the anorexigen sibutramine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Cibele S; Missassi, Gabriela; Pacini, Enio S A; Kiguti, Luiz Ricardo A; Sanabria, Marciana; Silva, Raquel F; Banzato, Thais P; Perobelli, Juliana E; Pupo, André S; Kempinas, Wilma G

    2013-01-01

    Sperm acquire motility and fertility capacity during epididymal transit, under the control of androgens and sympathetic innervations. It is already known that the acceleration of epididymal sperm transit time can lead to lower sperm quality. In a previous work we showed that rats exposed to the anorexigen sibutramine, a non-selective serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, presented faster sperm transit time, lower epididymal sperm reserves and potentiation of the tension of epididymal duct to norepinephrine exposed acutely in vitro to sibutramine. In the present work we aimed to further investigate pharmacological mechanisms involved in these alterations and the impact on rat sperm quality. For this, adult male Wistar rats were treated with sibutramine (10 mg/kg/day) or vehicle for 30 days. Sibutramine decreased final body, seminal vesicle, ventral prostate and epididymal weights, as well as sperm transit time in the epididymal cauda. On the contrary of the in vitro pharmacological assays, in which sibutramine was added directly to the bath containing strips of distal epididymal cauda, the ductal tension was not altered after in vivo sub-chronic exposure to sibutramine. However, there is pharmacological evidence that the endogenous epididymal norepinephrine reserves were reduced in these animals. It was also shown that the decrease in prostate weight can be related to increased tension developed of the gland, due to sibutramine sympathomimetic effects. In addition, our results showed reduced sperm quality after in utero artificial insemination, a more sensitive procedure to assess fertility in rodents. The epididymal norepinephrine depletion exerted by sibutramine, associated with decreases in sperm transit time, quantity and quality, leading to reduced fertility in this experimental model, reinforces the concerns about the possible impact on fertility of man taking sibutramine as well as other non-selective serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors

  15. Changes in some Hematological Parameters and Thyroid Hormones in Rats Exposed to Pulsed Electromagnetic Field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EL-Abiad, N.M.; Marzook, E.A.; EI-Aragi, G.M.

    2007-01-01

    In the present study pulsed electromagnetic spectrum was used to evaluate the effect of exposure on some biochemical and hematological parameters in male albino rats. Three groups of rats (10 each) were exposed to 10, 15, 20 pulses of electromagnetic spectrum 3 times per week for 3 weeks, the unexposed group was considered as the control group. At the end of experiment, serum levels of thyroid hormones triiodothryronine and thyroxine (T 3 ,T 4 ) and some hematological parameters were estimated. The hematological studies revealed that exposure to electromagnetic spectrum induced significant reduction in red blood cell count(RBC),and also in hemoglobin concentration(Hb), while reticulocytic count(Ret.) was elevated in the three exposed groups, platelets count was increased only on the second exposed group, while leukocytic count (WBC's), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MGH), mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) were not affected, lymphocytic count was decreased only on the second exposed group, the impairment of thyroid functions was noticed by elevation of T 3 and T 4 in the three exposed groups

  16. Chronic intrathecal cannulation enhances nociceptive responses in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almeida F.R.C.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of a chronically implanted spinal cannula on the nociceptive response induced by mechanical, chemical or thermal stimuli was evaluated. The hyperalgesia in response to mechanical stimulation induced by carrageenin or prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 was significantly increased in cannulated (Cn rats, compared with naive (Nv or sham-operated (Sh rats. Only Cn animals presented an enhanced nociceptive response in the first phase of the formalin test when low doses were used (0.3 and 1%. The withdrawal latency to thermal stimulation of a paw inflamed by carrageenin was significantly reduced in Cn rats but not in Nv or Sh rats. In contrast to Nv and Sh rats, injection in Cn animals of a standard non-steroid anti-inflammatory drug, indomethacin, either intraperitoneally or into the spinal cord via an implanted cannula or by direct puncture of the intrathecal space significantly blocked the intensity of the hyperalgesia induced by PGE2. Cannulated animals treated with indomethacin also showed a significant inhibition of second phase formalin-induced paw flinches. Histopathological analysis of the spinal cord showed an increased frequency of mononuclear inflammatory cells in the Cn groups. Thus, the presence of a chronically implanted cannula seems to cause nociceptive spinal sensitization to mechanical, chemical and thermal stimulation, which can be blocked by indomethacin, thus suggesting that it may result from the spinal release of prostaglandins due to an ongoing mild inflammation.

  17. Water metabolism in rats subjected to chronic alcohol administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parlesak, Alexandr; Pohl, C.; Bode, J.C.

    2004-01-01

    AIM: While the diuretic action of acute ingestion of alcohol has been studied extensively, the effect of chronic alcohol consumption has received less attention. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of chronic alcohol consumption on the balance of water intake and excretion ...... the body as hidden water loss increases after alcohol consumption by up to 25-26% over control values.......AIM: While the diuretic action of acute ingestion of alcohol has been studied extensively, the effect of chronic alcohol consumption has received less attention. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of chronic alcohol consumption on the balance of water intake and excretion...... and certain renal functions in rats during a period of 12 months. ANIMALS AND STUDY DESIGN: Male Wistar rats received either alcohol (15% v/v; group A, n = 65) or tap water (group C, n = 35) as drinking fluid. Urine and faeces were collected from 6 rats of each group during 7 days, at monthly intervals...

  18. Effect of honey on the reproductive system of male rat offspring exposed to prenatal restraint stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haron, M N; Mohamed, M

    2016-06-01

    Exposure to prenatal stress is associated with impaired reproductive function in male rat offspring. Honey is traditionally used by the Malays for enhancement of fertility. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of honey on reproductive system of male rat offspring exposed to prenatal restraint stress. Dams were divided into four groups (n = 10/group): control, honey, stress and honey + stress groups. Dams from honey and honey + stress groups received oral honey (1.2 g kg(-1) body weight) daily from day 1 of pregnancy, meanwhile dams from stress and honey + stress groups were subjected to restraint stress (three times per day) from day 11 of pregnancy until delivery. At 10 weeks old, each male rat offspring was mated with a regular oestrus cycle female. Male sexual behaviour and reproductive performance were evaluated. Then, male rats were euthanised for assessment on reproductive parameters. Honey supplementation during prenatal restraint stress significantly increased testis and epididymis weights as well as improved the percentages of abnormal spermatozoa and sperm motility in male rat offspring. In conclusion, this study might suggest that supplementation of honey during pregnancy seems to reduce the adverse effects of restraint stress on reproductive organs weight and sperm parameters in male rat offspring. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  19. PHYTOTHERAPEUTIC EFFECT OF AVOCADOS AND SOYA AS DRUG ON HEART OF RATS EXPOSED TO GAMMA RADIATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    OMRAN, M.F.; IBRAHIM, N.K.; ABU-ZIED, N.M.

    2008-01-01

    This study was planed to determine the role of single oral dose of avocados and soya in irradiated rats exposed to gamma radiation. the experimental animals were randomly divided into four groups; 12 rats for each. Group 1: kept as control. Group 2: rats received piascledine for 14 consecutive days. Group 3: rats submitted to whole body gamma rays (4 Gy). Group 4: rats received the same piascledine 14 days post-exposure to 4 Gy gamma radiation. The animals were weighed then dissected after one and fourteen days post-administration and the cardiac tissue and plasma were stored at 12 oC till used for biochemical analysis and kept in ice. The following parameters were determined: plasma total cholesterol, triacylglycerol, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol, low density lipoprotein-cholesterol, LDH, phospholipids, ALT, CPK and TBARS. In cardiac tissue, determinations of total cholesterol, triacylglycerol, phospholipids and TBARS were conducted.It can be concluded that administration of avocados and soy as natural drug (piascledine) post-irradiation in rats is a favorable modificator against the impaired physiological processes in animal body due to gamma irradiation

  20. The effect of melatonin on eye lens of rats exposed to ultraviolet radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwar, M M; Moustafa, M A

    2001-05-01

    We investigated the influence of exogenously administered melatonin on adult rats eye lenses exposed to ultraviolet radiation (UV) A and B ranging from 356-254 nm irradiation at 8 microW/cm(2). Rats exposed to this range of UV for 15 min for one week showed a significant (PUV-radiation significantly (PUV irradiation, may be the main cause of lens opacification. Melatonin injection with radiation significantly reduced (Pradiation, SOD and GSH-Px enzyme activities increased significantly (PUV radiation was as effective as melatonin treatment concurrent with UV irradiation. We conclude that melatonin may protect the eye lens from the damaging effects of UV exposure, and its actions protect lens from oxidative stress, elevating Ca(2+) levels, which are considered as an important causes of cataractogenesis.

  1. Chronic Co-species Housing Mice and Rats Increased the Competitiveness of Male Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying-Juan; Li, Lai-Fu; Zhang, Yao-Hua; Guo, Hui-Fen; Xia, Min; Zhang, Meng-Wei; Jing, Xiao-Yuan; Zhang, Jing-Hua; Zhang, Jian-Xu

    2017-03-01

    Rats are predators of mice in nature. Nevertheless, it is a common practice to house mice and rats in a same room in some laboratories. In this study, we investigated the behavioral and physiological responsively of mice in long-term co-species housing conditions. Twenty-four male mice were randomly assigned to their original raising room (control) or a rat room (co-species-housed) for more than 6 weeks. In the open-field and light-dark box tests, the behaviors of the co-species-housed mice and controls were not different. In a 2-choice test of paired urine odors [rabbit urine (as a novel odor) vs. rat urine, cat urine (as a natural predator-scent) vs. rabbit urine, and cat urine vs. rat urine], the co-species-housed mice were more ready to investigate the rat urine odor compared with the controls and may have adapted to it. In an encounter test, the rat-room-exposed mice exhibited increased aggression levels, and their urines were more attractive to females. Correspondingly, the levels of major urinary proteins were increased in the co-species-housed mouse urine, along with some volatile pheromones. The serum testosterone levels were also enhanced in the co-species-housed mice, whereas the corticosterone levels were not different. The norepinephrine, dopamine, and 5-HT levels in the right hippocampus and striatum were not different between the 2. Our findings indicate that chronic co-species housing results in adaptation in male mice; furthermore, it appears that long-term rat-odor stimuli enhance the competitiveness of mice, which suggests that appropriate predator-odor stimuli may be important to the fitness of prey animals. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Cyclooxygenase-2-dependent bronchoconstriction in perfused rat lungs exposed to endotoxin.

    OpenAIRE

    Uhlig, S.; Nüsing, R.; von Bethmann, A.; Featherstone, R. L.; Klein, T.; Brasch, F.; Müller, K. M.; Ullrich, V.; Wendel, A.

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Lipopolysaccharides (LPS), widely used to study the mechanisms of gram-negative sepsis, increase airway resistance by constriction of terminal bronchioles. The role of the cyclooxygenase (COX) isoenzymes and their prostanoid metabolites in this process was studied. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Pulmonary resistance, the release of thromboxane (TX) and the expression of COX-2 mRNA were measured in isolated blood-free perfused rat lungs exposed to LPS. RESULTS: LPS induced the release of T...

  3. The Long Term Effects of Chronic Spinal Cord Injury on Sperm Parameters in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MA Khalili

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Spinal cord injury (SCI is a serious public health problem which seriously affects the victim, family, and even the society. Research studies have shown that 80% of SCI victims are men. In recent years, there have been extensive research works on the effect of SCI (acute and/or chronic on fertility potential of sperm and spermatogenesis in laboratory animals. SCI may disturb the spermatogenic cell lines in laboratory animals. The objective of this experimental study was to investigate the effect of chronic spinal cord injury (CSCI on sperm parameters in adult rats. Materials & Methods: Adult Wistar rats weighing between 225-275g were divided into 3groups of control (n=5, sham (n=10, and experimental CSCI (n=10. No surgery was done on control animals. Only laminectomy was done in the sham animals at T10. CSCI was developed in experimental rats using 10g weight dropped 5cm above the exposed T10 level. All animals were sacrificed 50 days post experiment to extract epididymal samples. Sperm parameters of count, motility, morphology, as well as number of round cells were evaluated with the aid of Makler chamber and Geimsa staining. Results: Progressive motility was significantly reduced in CSCI group (P<0.05. The percentage of normal morphology of spermatozoa was 99.0±1.0 in control rats which was significantly reduced to 74.90±37.64 in CSCI animals In addition, sperm counts in control and CSCI rats were 69.20±12.43 and 25.0±13.68, respectively (P<0.01. Round cell concentration was increased in CSCI group as compared to controls. Conclusion: The results suggest that reduction in parameters of progressive motility, morphology, as well as sperm count following CSCI in rats may disturb the fertility potential of spermatozoa.

  4. Chronic stress effects and their reversibility on the Fallopian tubes and uterus in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divyashree, S; Yajurvedi, H N

    2018-01-01

    The durational effects of chronic stress on the Fallopian tubes and uterus were studied by exposing rats to stressors in the form of restraint (1h) and forced swimming (15min) daily for 4, 8 or 12 weeks. One group of stressed rats from each time period was then maintained without exposure to stressors for a further 4 weeks to assess their ability to recover from stress. All time periods of stress exposure resulted in decreased weight of the body and Fallopian tubes; however, the relative weight of the uterus and serum concentrations of oestradiol and insulin increased significantly. The antioxidant potential was decreased with increased malondialdehyde concentrations in the Fallopian tubes following all durations of exposure and after 4 and 8 weeks of stress exposure in the uterus. Interestingly, rats stressed for 12 weeks showed an increase in serum testosterone concentration and antioxidant enzyme activities with a decrease in malondialdehyde concentration in the uterus. The antioxidant enzyme activities and malondialdehyde concentration in the Fallopian tubes of all recovery group rats were similar to stressed rats. However, in the uterus these parameters were similar to controls in recovery group rats after 4 weeks or 8 weeks of exposure, but after 12 weeks of stress exposure these parameters did not return to control levels following the recovery period. These results reveal, for the first time, that chronic stress elicits an irreversible decrease in antioxidant defence in the Fallopian tubes irrespective of exposure duration, whereas the uterus develops reversible oxidative stress under short-term exposure but increased antioxidant potential with endometrial proliferation following long-term exposure.

  5. Placental and Fetal Disposition of Mercuric Ions in Rats Exposed to Methylmercury: Role of Mrp2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridges, Christy C.; Joshee, Lucy; Zalups, Rudolfs K.

    2012-01-01

    Methylmercury is a prevalent environmental toxicant that can have deleterious effects on a developing fetus. Previous studies indicate that the multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (Mrp2) is involved in renal and hepatic export of mercuric ions. Therefore, we hypothesize that Mrp2 is also involved in export of mercuric ions from placental trophoblasts and fetal tissues. To test this hypothesis, we assessed the disposition of mercuric ions in pregnant Wistar and TR– (Mrp2-deficient) rats exposed to a single dose of methylmercury. The amount of mercury in renal tissues (cortex and outer stripe of outer medulla), liver, blood, amniotic fluid, uterus, placentas and fetuses was significantly greater in TR– rats than in Wistar rats. Urinary and fecal elimination of mercury was greater in Wistar dams than in TR– dams. Thus, our findings suggest that Mrp2 may be involved in the export of mercuric ions from maternal and fetal organs following exposure to methylmercury. PMID:23059061

  6. Arrest in ciliated cell expansion on the bronchial lining of adult rats caused by chronic exposure to industrial noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Maria Joao R.; Pereira, Antonio S.; Ferreira, Paula G.; Guimara-tilde es, Laura; Freitas, Diamantino; Carvalho, Antonio P.O.; Grande, Nuno R.; Aguas, Artur P.

    2005-01-01

    Workers chronically exposed to high-intensity/low-frequency noise at textile plants show increased frequency of respiratory infections. This phenomenon prompted the herein investigation on the cytology of the bronchial epithelium of Wistar rats submitted to textile noise. Workplace noise from a cotton-mill room of a textile factory was recorded and reproduced in a sound-insulated animal room. The Wistar rats were submitted to a weekly schedule of noise treatment that was similar to that of the textile workers (8h/day, 5 days/week). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to compare the fine morphology of the inner surface of the bronchi in noise-exposed and control rats. SEM quantitative cytology revealed that exposure to noise for 5-7 months caused inhibition in the natural expansion of the area occupied by ciliated cells on the bronchial epithelium as adult rats grow older. This difference between noise-exposed and age-matched control rats was statistically significant (P0.05) and documents that the cytology of the rat bronchial epithelium is mildly altered by noise exposure. The decrease in the area of bronchial cilia may impair the mucociliar clearance of the respiratory airways and, thus, increase vulnerability to respiratory infection

  7. Assessment of bioaccumulation, neuropathology, and neurobehavior following subchronic (90 days) inhalation in Sprague-Dawley rats exposed to manganese phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Normandin, Louise; Carrier, Gaétan; Gardiner, Phillip F; Kennedy, Greg; Hazell, Alan S; Mergler, Donna; Butterworth, Roger F; Philippe, Suzanne; Zayed, Joseph

    2002-09-01

    Methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl (MMT) is an organic manganese (Mn) compound added to unleaded gasoline. It has been suggested that the combustion products of MMT containing Mn, such as manganese phosphate, could cause neurological symptoms similar to Parkinson's disease in humans. The aim of this work was to investigate the exposure-response relationship of bioaccumulation, neuropathology, and neurobehavior following a subchronic inhalation exposure to manganese phosphate in Sprague-Dawley male rats. Rats were exposed 6 h/day, 5 days/week for 13 consecutive weeks at 30, 300, or 3000 microg/m(3) Mn phosphate and compared to controls. Some rats were implanted with chronic EMG electrodes in the gastrocnemius muscle of the hind limb to assess tremor at the end of Mn exposure. Spontaneous motor activity was measured for 36 h using a computerized autotrack system. Rats were then sacrificed by exsanguination and Mn level in different brain tissues and other organs was determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis. Neuronal cell counts were obtained by assessing the sum of five grid areas for the caudate/putamen and the sum of two adjacent areas for the globus pallidus. Increased manganese concentrations were observed in all tissues of the brain and was dose-dependent in olfactory bulb and caudate/putamen. In fact, beginning with the highest level of exposure (3000 microg/m(3)) and ending with the control group, Mn concentrations in the olfactory bulb were 2.47 vs 1.28 vs 0.77 vs 0.64 ppm (P Locomotor activity assessment and tremor assessment did not reveal in neurobehavioral changes between the groups. Our results reinforce the hypothesis that the olfactory bulb and caudate/putamen are the main brain tissues for Mn accumulation after subchronic inhalation exposure.

  8. Changes in operant behavior of rats exposed to lead at the accepted no-effect level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross-Selbeck, E; Gross-Selbeck, M

    1981-11-01

    After weaning, male and female Wistar rats were fed a daily diet containing 1 g lead acetate/kg food until a level of about 20 micrograms/100 mL blood was obtained. The male rats were subjected to the different behavioral tests, whereas the females were mated to untreated males and further exposed until weaning of the offspring. Behavioral testing of the male offspring was performed between 3 and 4 months of age. General behavior of both groups was tested in the open-field task including locomotion, local movements, and emotionality. The conditioned instrumental behavior was tested in the Skinner box from simple to more complex programs. The blood-lead level was measured by flameless atomic absorption spectrometry. No behavioral changes became apparent in the open-field task and in the preliminary operant training. In the more complex programs (DRH = Differential Reinforcement of High Rates), the rats exposed to lead after weaning showed slight changes of DRH performance. By contrast, in pre- and neonatally exposed animals, DRH performance was significantly increased, although blood-lead levels had returned to normal at the time of testing. A comparison of lead effects in animals to possible effects in man is discussed in this paper, and it is concluded that lead exposure to man at doses which presently are suggested to be innocuous may result in subclinical functional changes of the central nervous system.

  9. Modulating efficacy of foeniculum vulgare mill. essential oil in rats exposed to oxidative stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nada, A.S.; Amin, N.E.; Ahmed, O.M.; Abdel-Reheim, E.S.; Ali, M.M.

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the modulating efficacy of prolonged oral administration of Foeniculum vulgare Mill. essential oil (FEO) against gamma irradiation-induced oxidative stress in male rats. To achieve the ultimate goal of this study, 32 male Swiss Albino rats were divided into 4 groups, each consists of 8 rats: Group 1 was normal control group, group 2 irradiated with a single dose (6.5 Gy), and sacrificed 7 days irradiation, group 3 received FEO (250 mg/kg body wt) for 28 successive days by intra-gastric gavages and group 4 received treatment of FEO for 21 days, then was exposed to gamma-radiation (6.5 Gy), followed by treatment with FEO 7 days later to be 28 days as group 3. Sacrifice of all animals was performed after 28 days from the beginning of the experiment. Liver and kidney glutathione (GSH) contents; lipid peroxidation (TBARS) and metallothioneins (MTs) levels were determined. In addition, levels of some trace elements (Fe, Cu, Zn and Se) in liver and kidney tissues were also estimated. Rats exposed to gamma radiation exhibited a profound elevation in TBARS and MTs level of liver and kidney tissues. Noticeable drop in liver and kidney glutathione contents were also observed. Tissue organs displayed some changes in trace element concentrations. Rats treated with fennel oil before and after whole body gamma irradiation showed significant modulation in the activity of antioxidants (GSH, MTs). FEO was also effective in minimizing the radiation-induced increase in TBARS as well as trace elements alteration in some tissue organs comparing with irradiated control rats. It could be concluded that FEO exerts a beneficial protective potential against radiation-induced biochemical perturbations and oxidative stress

  10. Effects of combined exposure of F344 rats to radiation and chronically inhaled cigarette smoke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finch, G.L.; Nikula, K.J.; Barr, E.B. [and others

    1995-12-01

    Nuclear workers may be exposed to radiation in various forms, such as low-LET {gamma}-irradiation or {alpha}-irradiation from inhaled {sup 239}PuO{sub 2} particles. These workers may then have increased risk for lung cancer compared to the general population. Of additional concern is the possibility that interactions between radiation and other carcinogens may increase the risk of cancer induction, compared to the risks from either type of agent alone. An important and common lung carcinogen is cigarette smoke. The purpose of this project is to better determine the combined effects of chronically inhaled cigarette smoke and either inhaled {sup 239}PuO{sub 2} or external, thoracic X-irradiation on the induction of lung cancer in rats. Histologic and dosimetric evaluations of rats in the CS + {sup 239}PuO{sub 2} study continue, and the study of CS + X rays is beginning.

  11. Effects of combined exposure of F344 rats to radiation and chronically inhaled cigarette smoke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finch, G.L.; Nikula, K.J.; Barr, E.B.

    1995-01-01

    Nuclear workers may be exposed to radiation in various forms, such as low-LET γ-irradiation or α-irradiation from inhaled 239 PuO 2 particles. These workers may then have increased risk for lung cancer compared to the general population. Of additional concern is the possibility that interactions between radiation and other carcinogens may increase the risk of cancer induction, compared to the risks from either type of agent alone. An important and common lung carcinogen is cigarette smoke. The purpose of this project is to better determine the combined effects of chronically inhaled cigarette smoke and either inhaled 239 PuO 2 or external, thoracic X-irradiation on the induction of lung cancer in rats. Histologic and dosimetric evaluations of rats in the CS + 239 PuO 2 study continue, and the study of CS + X rays is beginning

  12. Chronic low-level tritium contamination effects on humoral immune response in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petcu, I.; Bejan, A.; Stinga, A.

    1993-01-01

    Using an adaptation of the radioimmunoassay technique, the present study reports on immunochemical parameters of the antibodies synthesized in vivo against bovine serum albumin by rats previously exposed to long-term internal contamination with tritiated water. The corresponding dose range of the irradiation was between 0.6 and 6.2 mGy. A slight increase of a affinity constant of the antibodies produced by the irradiated organisms was found. This experimental fact might sustain the hypothesis of a humoral immune response associated to adaptation increase in cell renewal mechanisms, rather than to selective cell deletion. We also observed a total dissimilarity between the modifications induced by chronic low-dose irradiation and those induced by physiological aging. For old rats the concentration of antibodies is higher by almost an order of magnitude, but they are much less efficient as the decreased value of the affinity constant indicates. (Author)

  13. Chronic subordinate colony housing (CSC as a model of chronic psychosocial stress in male rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kewir D Nyuyki

    Full Text Available Chronic subordinate colony housing (CSC is an adequate and reliable mouse model of chronic psychosocial stress, resulting in reduced body weight gain, reduced thymus and increased adrenal weight, long-lasting anxiety-like behaviour, and spontaneous colitis. Furthermore, CSC mice show increased corticotrophin (ACTH responsiveness to acute heterotypic stressors, suggesting a general mechanism which allows a chronically-stressed organism to adequately respond to a novel threat. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to extend the CSC model to another rodent species, namely male Wistar rats, and to characterize relevant physiological, immunological, and behavioural consequences; placing particular emphasis on changes in hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis responsiveness to an acute heterotypic stressor. In line with previous mouse data, exposure of Wistar rats to 19 days of CSC resulted in a decrease in body weight gain and absolute thymus mass, mild colonic barrier defects and intestinal immune activation. Moreover, no changes in stress-coping behaviour or social preference were seen; again in agreement with the mouse paradigm. Most importantly, CSC rats showed an increased plasma corticosterone response to an acute heterotypic stressor (open arm, 5 min despite displaying similar basal levels and similar basal and stressor-induced plasma ACTH levels. In contrast to CSC mice, anxiety-related behaviour and absolute, as well as relative adrenal weights remained unchanged in CSC rats. In summary, the CSC paradigm could be established as an adequate model of chronic psychosocial stress in male rats. Our data further support the initial hypothesis that adrenal hyper-responsiveness to ACTH during acute heterotypic stressors represents a general adaptation, which enables a chronically-stressed organism to adequately respond to novel challenges.

  14. Study of the biochemical indicators of chronic irradiation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabo, L D; Benko, A B; Gyenge, L; Predmerszky, T

    1976-01-01

    Daily urinary excretion of pseudouridine, creatinine and creatine of chronically irradiated Wistar rats was estimated. The irradiation conditions were: 60Co gamma source, dose-rate 10 rad/day, total dose 200, 400 and 600 rad. Control groups were kept under similar conditions. Urine samples were taken three times after the end of the irradiation period. It was found that: (1) pseudouridine excretion seems more suitable for indicating radiation injury than the creatine/creatinine ratio in chronic irradiation in rats; (ii) there are significant changes in dose dependence of pseudouridine excretion in the post-irradiation period; (iii) a new method for pseudouridine estimation gives closely similar data to those of earlier investigations.

  15. Monitoring of gluconeogenesis in rats following chronic irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paulikova, E.; Sedlakova, A.; Praslicka, M. (Univerzita P.J. Safarika, Kosice (Czechoslovakia). Katedra Vseobecnej Biologie)

    1984-01-01

    A dose dependent cumulation of liver glycogen with the maximum on the day 120 was observed as was an increased incorporation of /sup 14/C-alanine in liver glycogen (statistically nonsignificant changes). The contribution of /sup 14/C-acetate to gluconeogenesis was negligible. The results showed increased gluconeogenesis in rats following chronic gamma irradiation with small daily dose rates (0.0957 Gy).

  16. Effects of chronic treatment with 7-nitroindazole in hyperthyroid rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangensteen, Rosemary; Rodríguez-Gómez, Isabel; Moreno, Juan Manuel; Alvarez-Guerra, Miriam; Osuna, Antonio; Vargas, Félix

    2006-11-01

    This study analyzed the contribution of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) to the hemodynamic manifestations of hyperthyroidism. The effects on hyperthyroid rats of the chronic administration of 7-nitroindazole (7-NI), an inhibitor of nNOS, were studied. Six groups of male Wistar rats were used: control, 7-NI (30 mg.kg-1.day-1 by gavage), T(4)50, T(4)75 (50 or 75 microg thyroxine.rat-1.day-1, respectively), T(4)50+7-NI, and T(4)75+7-NI. All treatments were maintained for 4 wk. Body weight, tail systolic blood pressure (SBP), and heart rate (HR) were recorded weekly. Finally, SBP, pulse pressure (PP), and HR were measured in conscious rats, and morphological, metabolic, plasma, and renal variables were determined. Expression of nNOS in the hypothalamus of T(4)75 and control rats was analyzed by Western blot analysis. The response of mean arterial pressure (MAP) to pentolinium (10 mg/kg iv) was used to evaluate the sympathetic contribution to BP in T(4)75 and T(4)75+7-NI rats. T(4) produced an increased hypothalamic nNOS expression and dose-related increases in blood pressure (BP), HR, and PP vs. control rats. 7-NI did not modify BP or any other hemodynamic variable in normal rats. However, 7-NI produced a marked reduction in BP, HR, PP, and food and water intake in both hyperthyroid groups and improved creatinine clearance in the T(4)75 group. Pentolinium produced a greater MAP decrease in the T(4)75+7-NI than in the T(4)75 group. In conclusion, administration of 7-NI attenuates the hemodynamic and metabolic manifestations of hyperthyroidism, suggesting that nNOS contributes to the hyperdynamic circulation of this endocrine disease by modulating sympathetic activity.

  17. Chronic exposure of adult, postnatal and in utero rat models to low-dose 137Cesium: impact on circulating biomarkers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manens, Line; Grison, Stéphane; Bertho, Jean-Marc; Lestaevel, Philippe; Guéguen, Yann; Benderitter, Marc; Aigueperse, Jocelyne; Souidi, Maâmar

    2016-01-01

    The presence of 137 Cesium ( 137 Cs) in the environment after nuclear accidents at Chernobyl and more recently Fukushima Daiichi raises many health issues for the surrounding populations chronically exposed through the food chain. To mimic different exposure situations, we set up a male rat model of exposure by chronic ingestion of a 137 Cs concentration likely to be ingested daily by residents of contaminated areas (6500 Bq.l −1 ) and tested contaminations lasting 9 months for adult, neonatal and fetal rats. We tested plasma and serum biochemistry to identify disturbances in general indicators (lipids, proteins, carbohydrates and electrolytes) and in biomarkers of thyroid, heart, brain, bone, kidney, liver and testis functions. Analysis of the general indicators showed increased levels of cholesterol (+26%), HDL cholesterol (+31%), phospholipids B (+15%) and phosphorus (+100%) in the postnatal group only. Thyroid, heart, brain, bone and kidney functions showed no blood changes in any model. The liver function evaluation showed changes in total bilirubin (+67%) and alkaline phosphatase (–11%) levels, but only for the rats exposed to 137 Cs intake in adulthood. Large changes in 17β-estradiol (–69%) and corticosterone (+36%) levels affected steroidogenesis, but only in the adult model. This study showed that response profiles differed according to age at exposure: lipid metabolism was most radiosensitive in the postnatal model, and steroid hormone metabolism was most radiosensitive in rats exposed in adulthood. There was no evidence of deleterious effects suggesting a potential impact on fertility or procreation.

  18. IMMUNITY STATE IN THE OFFSPRING OF RATS EXPOSED ANTIGENS TOXOPLASMA GONDII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. F. Sokolova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Today the questions about possibility of development disturbances in the immune system of the fetus and the newborn in chronic toxoplasmosis are poorly understood. Aim of research: to detect immunological disturbances in the offspring of rats which have been administered antigens T. gondii.Two series of experiments was performed. In these experiments white female Wistar rats in the III trimester of pregnancy have been administered corpuscular antigen T. gondii. The 60 days-old offspring of these rats have been included in study group of 137 animals. CD3+ cells count was performed in peripherical blood and standard suspension of splenocytesrats offspring. Peripherical blood cells count was performed in the blood of the rats offspring. In the second experiment rats offspring have been administered sheep erythrocytes in 5 days, before euthanasia. In spleen of this rats antigen-produced cells was counted.In control group was included 118 animals, which was born from white female Wistar rats have been administered 0,9% NaCl solution. CD3+ cells was detected in Cytomics FC500 flow cytometry analyzer (Beckman Coulter,USA by use rats origne-specifed monoclonal antibodies Anti-Rat CD3-FITC (Beckman Coulter,USA. Hematological parameters was assessed by use hematological analyzer Excell-22 (USA.We observed, that CD3+ lymphocytes and antigen-produced cells was decreased in test group (degress of decrease CD3+ cells was 17,2%; р = 0,003 in spleen vs. control group, degress of decrease antigen-produced cells was 27,3%; р = 0,03 vs. control group. Number of leukocytes was increased in in test group (34,5%; р = 0,009 vs. control group. Power and strength correlation pleiades between studied blood and spenal markers were higher in in test group vs. control group (∑Gi = 16; ∑Di = 4,38 vs. ∑Gi = 13; ∑Di = 2,28. This phenomenon is probably due to the development adaptive reactions disruption in the immune system and development

  19. Chronic alcoholism-mediated metabolic disorders in albino rat testes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shayakhmetova, Ganna M; Bondarenko, Larysa B; Matvienko, Anatoliy V; Kovalenko, Valentina M

    2014-09-01

    There is good evidence for impairment of spermatogenesis and reductions in sperm counts and testosterone levels in chronic alcoholics. The mechanisms for these effects have not yet been studied in detail. The consequences of chronic alcohol consumption on the structure and/or metabolism of testis cell macromolecules require to be intensively investigated. The present work reports the effects of chronic alcoholism on contents of free amino acids, levels of cytochrome P450 3A2 (CYP3A2) mRNA expression and DNA fragmentation, as well as on contents of different cholesterol fractions and protein thiol groups in rat testes. Wistar albino male rats were divided into two groups: I - control (intact animals), II - chronic alcoholism (15% ethanol self-administration during 150 days). Following 150 days of alcohol consumption, testicular free amino acid content was found to be significantly changed as compared with control. The most profound changes were registered for contents of lysine (-53%) and methionine (+133%). The intensity of DNA fragmentation in alcohol-treated rat testes was considerably increased, on the contrary CYP3A2 mRNA expression in testis cells was inhibited, testicular contents of total and etherified cholesterol increased by 25% and 45% respectively, and protein SH-groups decreased by 13%. Multidirectional changes of the activities of testicular dehydrogenases were detected. We thus obtained complex assessment of chronic alcoholism effects in male gonads, affecting especially amino acid, protein, ATP and NADPH metabolism. Our results demonstrated profound changes in testes on the level of proteome and genome. We suggest that the revealed metabolic disorders can have negative implication on cellular regulation of spermatogenesis under long-term ethanol exposure.

  20. Effects of prenatal exposure to chronic mild stress and toluene in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Karin; Andersen, Maibritt B; Hansen, Ase M

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to elucidate whether prenatal chronic stress, in combination with exposure to a developmental neurotoxicant, would increase effects in the offspring compared with the effects of either exposure alone. Development and neurobehavioral effects were investigated...... in female offspring of pregnant rats (Mol:WIST) exposed to chronic mild stress (CMS) during gestational days (GD) 9-20, or 1500 ppm toluene, 6 h/day during gestational days 7-20, or a combination of the two. Prenatal CMS was associated with decreased thymic weight and increased auditory startle response....... The corticosterone response to restraint seemed modified by prenatal exposure to toluene. Lactational body weight was decreased in offsprings subjected to CMS, primarily due to effects in the combined exposure group. Cognitive function was investigated in the Morris water maze, and some indications of improved...

  1. Effects of fluoxetine on changes of pain sensitivity in chronic stress model rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Yan-Na; Chang, Jin-Long; Lu, Qi; Wang, Yi; Zhang, Ying; Zhang, Feng-Min

    2017-06-09

    Exposure to stress could facilitate or inhibit pain responses (stress-induced hyperalgesia or hypoalgesia, respectively). Fluoxetine is a selective serotonin (5-HT) reuptake inhibitor antidepressant. There have been contradictory reports on whether fluoxetine produces antinociceptive effects. The purpose of this study was to elucidate changes in pain sensitivity after chronic stress exposure, and the effects of fluoxetine on these changes. We measured thermal, mechanical, and formalin-induced acute and inflammatory pain by using the tail-flick, von Frey, and formalin tests respectively. The results showed that rats exposed to chronic stress exhibited thermal and formalin-induced acute and inflammatory hypoalgesia and transient mechanical hyperalgesia. Furthermore, fluoxetine promoted hypoalgesia in thermal and inflammatory pain and induced mechanical hyperalgesia. Our results indicate that the 5-HT system could be involved in hypoalgesia of thermal and inflammatory pain and induce transient mechanical hyperalgesia after stress exposure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Adolescent environmental enrichment prevents behavioral and physiological sequelae of adolescent chronic stress in female (but not male) rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Brittany L; Morano, Rachel L; Ulrich-Lai, Yvonne M; Myers, Brent; Solomon, Matia B; Herman, James P

    2017-11-22

    The late adolescent period is characterized by marked neurodevelopmental and endocrine fluctuations in the transition to early adulthood. Adolescents are highly responsive to the external environment, which enhances their ability to adapt and recover from challenges when given nurturing influences, but also makes them vulnerable to aberrant development when exposed to prolonged adverse situations. Female rats are particularly sensitive to the effects of chronic stress in adolescence, which manifests as passive coping strategies and blunted hypothalamo-pituitary adrenocortical (HPA) stress responses in adulthood. We sought to intervene by exposing adolescent rats to environmental enrichment (EE) immediately prior to and during chronic stress, hypothesizing that EE would minimize or prevent the long-term effects of stress that emerge in adult females. To test this, we exposed male and female rats to EE on postnatal days (PND) 33-60 and implemented chronic variable stress (CVS) on PND 40-60. CVS consisted of twice-daily unpredictable stressors. Experimental groups included: CVS/unenriched, unstressed/EE, CVS/EE and unstressed/unenriched (n = 10 of each sex/group). In adulthood, we measured behavior in the open field test and forced swim test (FST) and collected blood samples following the FST. We found that environmental enrichment given during the adolescent period prevented the chronic stress-induced transition to passive coping in the FST and reversed decreases in peak adrenocortical responsiveness observed in adult females. Adolescent enrichment had little to no effect on males or unstressed females tested in adulthood, indicating that beneficial effects are specific to females that were exposed to chronic stress.

  3. The health status of grandchildren of subjects occupationally exposed to chronic radiation. Communication 2. Morphofunctional parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrushkina, N.P.; Musatkova, O.B.

    1996-01-01

    The study was aimed at investigation of the parameters of physical development and specific features in the development of psychomotor habits and peripheral blood parameters in children aged 0 to 7 grandchildren of exposed individuals. A dynamic follow-up of physical and psychomotor development, as well as regular check-ups of peripheral blood were carried out in 877 grandchildren of test subjects occupationally exposed to chronic radiation before conception. Multifactorial analysis did not show a correlation between the deviations in the physical development of children in the studied cohort and exposure of their grandparents and/or parents. Factors other than radiation (poor health status of mother, gestosis) did influence the studied parameters. The mean levels of hemoglobin, red cells, platelets, and leukocytes in the test group were virtually the same as in controls and coincided with published data [ru

  4. Chronic alcohol exposure disrupts CB1 regulation of GABAergic transmission in the rat basolateral amygdala

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varodayan, Florence P.; Bajo, Michal; Soni, Neeraj

    2017-01-01

    in BLA pyramidal neurons of rats exposed to 2–3 weeks intermittent ethanol. In the naïve rat BLA, the CB1 agonist WIN 55,212-2 (WIN) decreased GABA release, and this effect was prevented by the CB1 antagonist AM251. AM251 alone increased GABA release via a mechanism requiring postsynaptic calcium-dependent......1 influence on BLA GABAergic transmission that is dysregulated by chronic ethanol exposure and, thus, may contribute to the alcohol-dependent state....

  5. Protective Effects of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Nasturtium officinale on Rat Blood Cells Exposed to Arsenic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felor Zargari

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Arsenic is one of the most toxic metalloids. Anemia and leukopenia are common results of poisoning with arsenic, which may happen due to a direct hemolytic or cytotoxic effect on blood cells. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of hydroalcoholic extract of Nasturtium officinale on blood cells and antioxidant enzymes in rats exposed to sodium (metaarsenite. Methods: 32 Male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups; Group I (normal healthy rats, Group II (treated with 5.5mg/kg of body weight of NaAsO2, Group III (treated with 500mg/kg of body weight of hydro-alcoholic extract of N. officinale, and Group IV (treated with group II and III supplementations. Blood samples were collected and red blood cell, white blood cell, hematocrit, hemoglobin, platelet, total protein and albumin levels and total antioxidant capacity were measured. Data was analyzed with Mann-Whitney U test. Results: WBC, RBC and Hct were decreased in the rats exposed to NaAsO2 (p<0.05. A significant increase was seen in RBC and Hct after treatment with the plant extract (p<0.05. There was no significant decrease in serum albumin and total protein in the groups exposed to NaAsO2 compared to the group I, but NaAsO2 decreased the total antioxidant capacity, significantly. Conclusion: The Nasturtium officinale extract have protective effect on arsenic-induced damage of blood cells.

  6. Ototoxicity in rats exposed to ethylbenzene and to two technical xylene vapours for 13 weeks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gagnaire, Francois; Langlais, Cristina; Grossmann, Stephane; Wild, Pascal [Institut National de Recherche et de Securite, Departement Polluants et Sante, Vandoeuvre Cedex (France)

    2007-02-15

    Male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to ethylbenzene (200, 400, 600 and 800 ppm) and to two mixed xylenes (250, 500, 1,000 and 2,000 ppm total compounds) by inhalation, 6 h/day, 6 days/week for 13 weeks and sacrificed for morphological investigation 8 weeks after the end of exposure. Brainstem auditory-evoked responses were used to determine auditory thresholds at different frequencies. Ethylbenzene produced moderate to severe ototoxicity in rats exposed to the four concentrations studied. Increased thresholds were observed at 2, 4, 8 and 16 kHz in rats exposed to 400, 600 and 800 ppm ethylbenzene. Moderate to severe losses of outer hair cells of the organ of Corti occurred in animals exposed to the four concentrations studied. Exposure to both mixed xylenes produced ototoxicity characterized by increased auditory thresholds and losses of outer hair cells. Ototoxicity potentiation caused by ethylbenzene was observed. Depending on the mixed xylene studied and the area of the concentration-response curves taken into account, the concentrations of ethylbenzene in mixed xylenes necessary to cause a given ototoxicity were 1.7-2.8 times less than those of pure ethylbenzene. Given the high ototoxicity of ethylbenzene, the safety margin of less or equal to two (LOAEL/TWA) might be too small to protect workers from the potential risk of ototoxicity. Moreover, the enhanced ototoxicity of ethylbenzene and para-xylene observed in mixed xylenes should encourage the production of mixed xylenes with the lowest possible concentrations of ethylbenzene and para-xylene. (orig.)

  7. Ototoxicity in rats exposed to ethylbenzene and to two technical xylene vapours for 13 weeks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnaire, François; Langlais, Cristina; Grossmann, Stéphane; Wild, Pascal

    2007-02-01

    Male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to ethylbenzene (200, 400, 600 and 800 ppm) and to two mixed xylenes (250, 500, 1,000 and 2,000 ppm total compounds) by inhalation, 6 h/day, 6 days/week for 13 weeks and sacrificed for morphological investigation 8 weeks after the end of exposure. Brainstem auditory-evoked responses were used to determine auditory thresholds at different frequencies. Ethylbenzene produced moderate to severe ototoxicity in rats exposed to the four concentrations studied. Increased thresholds were observed at 2, 4, 8 and 16 kHz in rats exposed to 400, 600 and 800 ppm ethylbenzene. Moderate to severe losses of outer hair cells of the organ of Corti occurred in animals exposed to the four concentrations studied. Exposure to both mixed xylenes produced ototoxicity characterized by increased auditory thresholds and losses of outer hair cells. Ototoxicity potentiation caused by ethylbenzene was observed. Depending on the mixed xylene studied and the area of the concentration-response curves taken into account, the concentrations of ethylbenzene in mixed xylenes necessary to cause a given ototoxicity were 1.7-2.8 times less than those of pure ethylbenzene. Given the high ototoxicity of ethylbenzene, the safety margin of less or equal to two (LOAEL/TWA) might be too small to protect workers from the potential risk of ototoxicity. Moreover, the enhanced ototoxicity of ethylbenzene and para-xylene observed in mixed xylenes should encourage the production of mixed xylenes with the lowest possible concentrations of ethylbenzene and para-xylene.

  8. Energy expenditures & physical activity in rats with chronic suboptimal nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rising, Russell; Lifshitz, Fima

    2006-01-31

    Sub-optimally nourished rats show reduced growth, biochemical and physiological changes. However, no one has assessed metabolic rate adaptations in rats subjected to chronic suboptimal nutrition (CSN). In this study energy expenditure (EE; kcal/100 g body weight) and physical activity (PA; oscillations in weight/min/kg body weight) were assessed in rats subjected to three levels of CSN. Body weight gain was diminished (76.7 +/- 12.0 and 61.6 +/- 11.0 g) in rats fed 70 and 60% of the ad-libitum fed controls which gained more weight (148.5 +/- 32.3 g). The rats fed 80% gained weight similarly to controls (136.3 +/- 10.5 g). Percent Fat-free body mass was reduced (143.8 +/- 8.7 and 142.0 +/- 7.6 g) in rats fed 70 and 60% of ad-libitum, but not in those fed 80% (200.8 +/- 17.5 g) as compared with controls (201.6 +/- 33.4 g). Body fat (g) decreased in rats fed 80% (19.7 +/- 5.3), 70% (15.3 +/- 3.5) and 60% (9.6 +/- 2.7) of ad-libitum in comparison to controls (26.0 +/- 6.7). EE and PA were also altered by CSN. The control rats increased their EE and PA during the dark periods by 1.4 +/- 0.8 and 1.7 +/- 1.1 respectively, as compared with light the period; whereas CSN rats fed 80 and 70% of ad-libitum energy intake had reduced EE and PA during the dark periods as compared with the light period EE(7.5 +/- 1.4 and 7.8 +/- 0.6 vs. 9.0 +/- 1.2 and 9.7 +/- 0.8; p vs. 4.1 +/- 0.9 and 2.4 +/- 0.4; p vs. 0.95 +/- 0.03 and 0.91 +/- 0.05 p light (7.1 +/- 1.4) and dark period (6.2 +/- 1.0) EE and PA (3.4 +/- 0.9 and 2.5 +/- 0.5 respectively) were reduced in rats fed 60% of ad-libitum energy intake. CSN rats adapt to mild energy restriction by reducing body fat, EE and PA mainly during the dark period while growth proceeds and lean body mass is preserved. At higher levels of energy restrictions there is decreased growth, body fat and lean mass. Moreover EE and PA are also reduced during both light and dark periods.

  9. Effect of chronic alcohol ingestion on the progression of periodontitis induced in Fisher-344 rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Éder Ricardo Biasoli

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Understand the effect of chronic alcohol on the progression of periodontitis induced in Fischer-344 rats.Methods: For the study, 22 Fischer-344 rats, two months old were used, divided into groups: alcohol (n=8, ligature (n=7 and control (n=7. On the first day, the animals in the alcohol group were exposed to ingestion of a water solution containing 20% alcohol (size/size, up to day 90. After thirty days from the beginning of the experiment, the animals in the alcohol group and the ligature group were submitted to the placement of a silk thread around the right maxillary second molar. Nothing was performed on the left side, serving as control. All the groups were submitted to euthanasia 60 days after ligature placement. To assess the destruction of periodontitis, a radiographic exam was used to measure the destruction of bone height. Results: The results of the study showed that on the side in which periodontitis was induced, the group that ingested alcohol suffered an increase in destruction, with statistical differences when compared with the ligature and control groups and increased bone destruction in the ligature group when compared to control. Conclusion: Within the limitations of the study, it was concluded that chronic alcohol consumption by Fischer-344 rats led to greater progression of induced periodontitis.

  10. Chronic antidepressant administration alleviates frontal and hippocampal BDNF deficits in CUMS rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yang; Gu, Fenghua; Chen, Jia; Dong, Wenxin

    2010-12-17

    Stress activates the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, regulates the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the brain, and mediates mood. Antidepressants alleviate stress and up-regulate BDNF gene expression. In this study, we investigated the effect of chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) and the different kinds of antidepressant treatments on the HPA axis and the BDNF expression in the rat brain. Adult Wistar male rats were exposed to a six-week CUMS procedure and received different antidepressant treatments including venlafaxine, mirtazapine, and fluoxetine. Immunohistochemistry and real-time PCR were used to measure BDNF expression levels in the rat brain, and ELISAs were used to investigate the plasma corticosterone (CORT) and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) levels. CUMS significantly decreased the BDNF protein level in the DG, CA1, and CA3 of the hippocampus and increased plasma CORT level. Chronic antidepressant treatments all significantly increased BDNF protein levels in the hippocampus and the pre-frontal cortex. In addition, venlafaxine and mirtazapine inhibited the increase of plasma CORT level. These results suggested that an increase in the BDNF level in the brain could be a pivotal mechanism of various antidepressants to exert their therapeutic effects. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Memantine prevents cardiomyocytes nuclear size reduction in the left ventricle of rats exposed to cold stress

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    Adriano Meneghini

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Memantine is an N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA glutamate receptor antagonist used to treat Alzheimer's disease. Previous studies have suggested that receptor blockers act as neuroprotective agents; however, no study has specifically investigated the impact that these drugs have on the heart. We sought to evaluate the effects of memantine on nuclear size reduction in cardiac cells exposed to cold stress. METHOD: We used male EPM-Wistar rats (n=40 divided into 4 groups: 1 Matched control (CON; 2 Memantine-treated rats (MEM; 3 Rats undergoing induced hypothermia (IH and 4 Rats undergoing induced hypothermia that were also treated with memantine (IHM. Animals in the MEM and IHM groups were treated by oral gavage administration of 20 mg/kg/day memantine over an eight-day period. Animals in the IH and IHM groups were submitted to 4 hours of hypothermia in a controlled environment with a temperature of - 8ºC on the last day of the study. RESULTS: The MEM group had the largest cardiomyocyte nuclear size (151 ± 3.5 μm³ vs. CON: 142 ± 2.3 μm³; p<0.05, while the IH group had the smallest mean value of nuclear size. The nuclear size of the IHM group was preserved (125 ± 2.9 μm³ compared to the IH group (108 ± 1.7 μm³; p<0.05. CONCLUSION: Memantine prevented the nuclear size reduction of cardiomyocytes in rats exposed to cold stress.

  12. Spirulina platensis attenuates the associated neurobehavioral and inflammatory response impairments in rats exposed to lead acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Samah R; Khalifa, Hesham A; Abdel-Motal, Sabry M; Mohammed, Hesham H; Elewa, Yaser H A; Mahmoud, Hend Atta

    2018-08-15

    Heavy metals are well known as environmental pollutants with hazardous impacts on human and animal health because of their wide industrial usage. In the present study, the role of Spirulina platensis in reversing the oxidative stress-mediated brain injury elicited by lead acetate exposure was evaluated. In order to accomplish this aim, rats were orally administered with 300 mg/kg bw Spirulina for 15 d, before and simultaneously with an intraperitoneal injection of 50 mg/kg bw lead acetate [6 injections through the two weeks]. As a result, the co-administration of Spirulina with lead acetate reversed the most impaired open field behavioral indices; however, this did not happen for swimming performance, inclined plane, and grip strength tests. In addition, it was observed that Spirulina diminished the lead content that accumulated in both the blood and the brain tissue of the exposed rats, and reduced the elevated levels of oxidative damage indices, and brain proinflammatory markers. Also, because of the Spirulina administration, the levels of the depleted biomarkers of antioxidant status and interleukin-10 in the lead-exposed rats were improved. Moreover, Spirulina protected the brain tissue (cerebrum and cerebellum) against the changes elicited by lead exposure, and also decreased the reactivity of HSP70 and Caspase-3 in both cerebrum and cerebellum tissues. Collectively, our findings demonstrate that Spirulina has a potential use as a food supplement in the regions highly polluted with heavy metals. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Inhibition of HMGB1 Translocation by Green Tea Extract in Rats Exposed to Environmental Tobacco Smoke

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    Sirintip Chaichalotornkul

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS exposure is linked to carcinogenic, oxidative and inflammatory cellular reactions. Green tea polyphenol reportedly plays a role in the prevention of inflammation-related diseases. To evaluate the effects of green tea extract (GTE on cellular location of High Mobility Group Box-1 (HMGB1 protein, we studied the lung tissue in rats exposed to cigarette smoke (CS. Rats were divided into three groups; CS, CSG, and C, which were groups of CS-treated only, CS-treated with GTE dietary supplement, and the control, respectively. Our findings by immunocytochemistry showed that abundant HMGB1 translocated from the nucleus to the cytoplasm in the lung tissues of rats that were exposed to CS, whereas HMGB1 was localized to the nuclei of CSG and C group. For in vitro studies, cotinine stimulated the secretion of HMGB1 in a dose and time dependent manner and the HMGB1 level was suppressed by GTE in murine macrophage cell lines. Our results could suggest that GTE supplementation which could suppress HMGB1 may offer a beneficial effect against diseases.

  14. Antioxidant activity of eggplant (Solanum melongena) in male albino rats exposed to gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Magied, N.; Ahmed, A.G.; Abo zid, N.M.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the potential benefits of dietary supplementation of eggplant (Solanum melongena) as antioxidant against γ- rays-induced biochemical changes in male albino rats by estimating some of the components of antioxidant defense in the; liver glutathione content (GSH), superoxide dismutase activity (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA), serum aspartate amino transferase,(AST), alanine amino transferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), gamma glutamyl transaminase (GGT), cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and high density lipoprotein cholesterol(HDL-C). Male albino rats (120-150 g) were divided into four groups as Control group, group 2 received diet supplemented with 10% of eggplant (Solanum melongnea) fruit for 21 successive days , group 3: irradiated with a single dose (6.5 Gy), group 4 received eggplant for 21 successive days then exposed to 6.5 Gy. All animals were sacrificed after 1, 3 and 8 days post irradiation. Rats exposed to γ-rays exhibited a profound elevation of AST, ALT, ALP and GGT activities, and lipid abnormalities .Noticeable drop in liver GSH content and SOD activity associated with increase of MDA was recorded. Treatment with dietary eggplant for 21 days before irradiation significantly abolished radiation induced elevations in MDA and significantly elevates hepatic GSH content and SOD activity. The levels of cholesterol, TG, HDL-C, LDL-C as well as the activities of AST, ALT, and GGT in serum were significantly ameliorated and noticeable improvement in the lipid profile levels

  15. Consideration of epigenetic responses at organisms chronically exposed to low levels of radioactive substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gombeau, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    This work integrates within the general framework of the European program COMET (7. Framework Programme EURATOM) and aims to assess the epigenetic responses, and particularly DNA methylation, during chronic exposure to low levels of radioactive materials within two particularly representative contexts of radioecological issues (i.e. uranium mining area and Fukushima post-accidental context). During a first experiment, zebra fish (Danio rerio) were exposed in laboratory controlled conditions to environmentally relevant concentrations of depleted uranium: 2 and 20 μg L"-"1. This experiment allowed an impact on the genomic DNA methylation to be demonstrated, mainly in exposed males, which increased with the duration and level of exposure. In a second experiment, we observed an impact on DNA methylation patterns in the progeny of exposed parents, as well as a perturbation of transcriptomics (i.e. epigenetic processes, DNA damage signaling and repair pathways, embryogenesis) and histological damage in larvae skeletal muscle from exposed parents. The methods developed were applied to the second context focusing on the study of biological effects induced by radionuclides emitted following the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident. The analyses performed on the Japanese tree frog (Hyla japonica) revealed a positive correlation between the total dose of radiation absorbed by these frogs (correlated to "1"3"7Cs accumulation), hyper-methylation of genomic DNA as well as increasing damage to mitochondrial DNA. This work highlighted the sensitivity of epigenetic responses in different biological models exposed to low levels of radionuclides. Additionally, these epigenetic modifications are stable over the time and involved in the transfer of the parental toxicity of depleted uranium. As such, the epigenetic marks could be used to further characterize adaptation mechanisms and potential trans-generational effects induced by radionuclides. (author)

  16. Effect of chronic ingestion of tritiated water and tritium organically bound in food on growth and reproductive functions of rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pietrzak-Flis, Z.; Radwan, I.

    1982-01-01

    An effect of chronic ingestion of tritiated water and tritiated food on growth and reproduction of Wistar rats was evaluated. The animals were exposed during one or three successive generations. Ingestion of tritiated water at activity of 185.0 and 370.0 kBq/ml or tritiated food at activity of 144.3 kBq/g affected growth of the first generation (F 1 ) rats. In groups exposed to tritiated water the effect was transient. Exposure to tritiated food at 48.1 kBq/g or to tritiated water at the 37.0 kBq/ml affected the growth of F 2 generation rats only. A significant reduction in a relative testis tests weight was observed in a group exposed to tritiated water at activity of 370.0 kBq/ml, while sperm production was affected in all exposed groups. Ingestion of tritiated food caused higher reduction in sperm count than tritiated water. The effect of tritium on growth of rats and ability for sperm production depended on the absorbed dose and the form of ingested tritium. (author)

  17. Energy expenditures & physical activity in rats with chronic suboptimal nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lifshitz Fima

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sub-optimally nourished rats show reduced growth, biochemical and physiological changes. However, no one has assessed metabolic rate adaptations in rats subjected to chronic suboptimal nutrition (CSN. In this study energy expenditure (EE; kcal/100 g body weight and physical activity (PA; oscillations in weight/min/kg body weight were assessed in rats subjected to three levels of CSN. Results Body weight gain was diminished (76.7 ± 12.0 and 61.6 ± 11.0 g in rats fed 70 and 60% of the ad-libitum fed controls which gained more weight (148.5 ± 32.3 g. The rats fed 80% gained weight similarly to controls (136.3 ± 10.5 g. Percent Fat-free body mass was reduced (143.8 ± 8.7 and 142.0 ± 7.6 g in rats fed 70 and 60% of ad-libitum, but not in those fed 80% (200.8 ± 17.5 g as compared with controls (201.6 ± 33.4 g. Body fat (g decreased in rats fed 80% (19.7 ± 5.3, 70% (15.3 ± 3.5 and 60% (9.6 ± 2.7 of ad-libitum in comparison to controls (26.0 ± 6.7. EE and PA were also altered by CSN. The control rats increased their EE and PA during the dark periods by 1.4 ± 0.8 and 1.7 ± 1.1 respectively, as compared with light the period; whereas CSN rats fed 80 and 70% of ad-libitum energy intake had reduced EE and PA during the dark periods as compared with the light period EE(7.5 ± 1.4 and 7.8 ± 0.6 vs. 9.0 ± 1.2 and 9.7 ± 0.8; p Conclusion CSN rats adapt to mild energy restriction by reducing body fat, EE and PA mainly during the dark period while growth proceeds and lean body mass is preserved. At higher levels of energy restrictions there is decreased growth, body fat and lean mass. Moreover EE and PA are also reduced during both light and dark periods.

  18. Concentration and distribution of 210Po in rats exposed to radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Peng; Yang Zhanshan; Wang Tianchang; Tong Jian; Zhou Jianwei

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To study the concentration and distribution of 210 Po in rats exposed to radon and its daughters. Methods: Fifteen male wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups, including one control group and two radon exposed groups with the cumulative doses of 100 WLM (low dose) and 200 WLM (high dose), respectively. Tissue samples containing 210 Po were spontaneously deposited onto silvery discs with the diameter of 20 mm by means of wet ashing and electrodeposition. The concentration of 210 Po in tissues were measured by α spectroscopy, and tissue burden were calculated. Results: The concentrations of 210 Po were significantly different among the three dose groups in femur, liver, sex gland and hair (P 210 Po were different between the exposed groups and the control group in lung and soleus muscle (P 210 Po in lung, spleen and hair were higher than that in liver, bone and sex gland, the lowest was in intestine. The tissue burdens of liver, bone and sex gland were significantly different from those in other organs or tissues. Conclusions: 210 Po was mainly distributed in lung, liver, spleen, femur and sex gland. The concentrations of 210 Po in organs or tissues and the tissue burdens were correspondingly increased with the exposure dose of radon and its daughters. The results of this experiment provide a dosimetric basis for further studies on the carcinogenic effect of radon and its daughters. (authors)

  19. Systemic Th17/IL-17A response appears prior to hippocampal neurodegeneration in rats exposed to low doses of ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solleiro-Villavicencio, H; Rivas-Arancibia, S

    2017-06-03

    Exposure to low doses of O 3 leads to a state of oxidative stress. Some studies show that oxidative stress can modulate both the CNS and systemic inflammation, which are important factors in the development of Alzheimer disease (AD). This study aims to evaluate changes in the frequency of Th17-like cells (CD3 + CD4 + IL-17A + ), the concentration of IL-17A in peripheral blood, and hippocampal immunoreactivity to IL-17A in rats exposed to low doses of O 3 . One hundred eight male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to 6 groups (n=18) receiving the following treatments: control (O 3 free) or O 3 exposure (0.25ppm, 4hours daily) over 7, 15, 30, 60, and 90 days. Twelve animals from each group were decapitated and a peripheral blood sample was taken to isolate plasma and mononuclear cells. Plasma IL-17A was quantified using LUMINEX, while Th17-like cells were counted using flow cytometry. The remaining 6 rats were deeply anaesthetised and underwent transcardial perfusion for immunohistological study of the hippocampus. Results show that exposure to O 3 over 7 days resulted in a significant increase in the frequency of Th17-like cells and levels of IL-17A in peripheral blood. However, levels of Th17/IL-17A in peripheral blood were lower at day 15 of exposure. We also observed increased IL-17A in the hippocampus beginning at 30 days of exposure. These results indicate that O 3 induces a short-term, systemic Th17-like/IL-17A effect and an increase of IL-17A in the hippocampal tissue during the chronic neurodegenerative process. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Gross hepatic changes in developing albino rats exposed to valproic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M.; Khattak, S.T.; Elahi, M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Valproid Acid (VPA) is a broad spectrum antiepileptic drug. Its use during pregnancy has been associated with congenital anomalies and hepatotoxicity. This study was designed to assess the effects of VPA on the gross structure of liver in developing albino rats exposed to the drug during various trimesters of pregnancy. Methods: In this experimental study 40 pregnant rats were divided into 4 equal groups A, B, C and D. Group A received VPA in a dose of 500 mg/Kg/day intraperitonealy (I/P) on days 3, 4 and 5 of gestation. Group B received the drug in a dose of 500 mg/Kg/day I/P on days 8, 9 and 10 of gestation. Group C received VPA in a dose of 500 mg/Kg/day I/P on days 16, 17 and 18 of gestation. Group D received no treatment and was kept as a control group. On day 21, the rats were euthanised by cervical dislocation. The liver of the foetuses were dissected out for the assessment of their gross structure. Results: Foetal liver of the experimental groups showed significant decrease in weight as well as relative tissue weight index (RTWI) as compared to the control group, although the gross appearance of the foetal liver was normal in all the groups. Conclusion: The use of VPA during various trimesters of pregnancy produces hepatotoxicity in the developing rats. So, the use of this drug during pregnancy should be carefully decided. (author)

  1. Altered activity of heme biosynthesis pathway enzymes in individuals chronically exposed to arsenic in Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez-Zavala, A.; Del Razo, L.M.; Garcia-Vargas, G.G.; Aguilar, C.; Borja, V.H.; Albores, A.; Cebrian, M.E. [CINVESTAV-IPN, Mexico (Mexico). Dept. de Farmacologia y Toxicologica

    1999-03-01

    Our objective was to evaluate the activities of some enzymes of the heme biosynthesis pathway and their relationship with the profile of urinary porphyrin excretion in individuals exposed chronically to arsenic (As) via drinking water in Region Lagunera, Mexico. We selected 17 individuals from each village studied: Benito Juarez, which has current exposure to 0.3 mg As/l; Santa Ana, where individuals have been exposed for more than 35 years to 0.4 mg As/l, but due to changes in the water supply (in 1992) exposure was reduced to its current level (0.1 mg As/l), and Nazareno, with 0.014 mg As/l. Average arsenic concentrations in urine were 2058, 398, and 88 {mu}g As/g creatinine, respectively. The more evident alterations in heme metabolism observed in the highly exposed individuals were: (1) small but significant increases in porphobilinogen deaminase (PBG-D) and uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase (URO-D) activities in peripheral blood erythrocytes; (2) increases in the urinary excretion of total porphyrins, mainly due to coproporphyrin III (COPROIII) and uroporphyrin III (UROIII); and (3) increases in the COPRO/URO and COPROIII/COPROI ratios. No significant changes were observed in uroporphyrinogen III synthetase (UROIII-S) activity. The direct relationships between enzyme activities and urinary porphyrins, suggest that the increased porphyrin excretion was related to PBG-D, whereas the increased URO-D activity would enhance coproporphyrin synthesis and excretion at the expense of uroporphyrin. None of the human studies available have reported the marked porphyric response and enzyme inhibition observed in rodents. In conclusion, chronic As exposure alters human heme metabolism; however the severity of the effects appears to depend on characteristics of exposure not yet fully characterized. (orig.) With 1 fig., 3 tabs., 20 refs.

  2. Disruption of erythrocyte antioxidant defense system, hematological parameters, induction of pro-inflammatory cytokines and DNA damage in liver of co-exposed rats to aluminium and acrylamide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorbel, Imen; Maktouf, Sameh; Kallel, Choumous; Ellouze Chaabouni, Semia; Boudawara, Tahia; Zeghal, Najiba

    2015-07-05

    The individual toxic effects of aluminium and acrylamide are well known but there are no data on their combined effects. The present study was undertaken to determine (i) hematological parameters during individual and combined chronic exposure to aluminium and acrylamide (ii) correlation of oxidative stress in erythrocytes with pro-inflammatory cytokines expression, DNA damage and histopathological changes in the liver. Rats were exposed to aluminium (50 mg/kg body weight) in drinking water and acrylamide (20 mg/kg body weight) by gavage, either individually or in combination for 3 weeks. Exposure rats to AlCl3 or/and ACR provoked an increase in MDA, AOPP, H2O2 and a decrease in GSH and NPSH levels in erythrocytes. Activities of catalase, glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase were decreased in all treated rats. Our results showed that all treatments induced an increase in WBC, erythrocyte osmotic fragility and a decrease in RBC, Hb and Ht. While MCV, MCH, MCHC remained unchanged. Hepatic pro-inflammatory cytokines expression including tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, interleukin-1β was increased suggesting leucocytes infiltration in the liver. A random DNA degradation was observed on agarose gel only in the liver of co-exposed rats to AlCl3 and ACR treatment. Interestingly, co-exposure to these toxicants exhibited synergism based on physical and biochemical variables in erythrocytes, pro-inflammatory cytokines and DNA damage in liver. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Comparison of rats and dogs exposed to 239PuO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahaffey, J.A.; Sanders, C.L.; Park, J.F.; Dagle, G.E.

    1979-01-01

    Rats and dogs inhaled aerosols of 239 PuO 2 at comparable ages relative to their lifespan. Both received a single exposure. The estimated lung doses at death in dogs were between 1100 and 11,000 rad. From two inhalation experiments, rats receiving doses in this range were chosen from the high-level exposed animals for comparison. Based on this data base, several comparisons were investigated. Metabolism of the material was compared for all animals and for animals which developed lung tumors. The differences in histopathology and tumor incidence in the lung were also reviewed. Although there were several differences between species, there were also many similarities. On-going research in dogs should produce data which will allow clarification of these relationships

  4. Impact of Iodinated Contrast on Renal Function and Hemodynamics in Rats with Chronic Hyperglycemia and Chronic Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Sheila Marques; Martins, Daniel Malisani; da Fonseca, Cassiane Dezoti; Watanabe, Mirian; Vattimo, Maria de Fátima Fernandes

    2016-01-01

    Iodinated contrast (IC) is clinically used in diagnostic and interventional procedures, but its use can result in contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI). Chronic kidney disease (CKD) and chronic hyperglycemia (CH) are important predisposing factors to CI-AKI. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of iodinated contrast on the renal function and hemodynamics in rats with chronic hyperglycemia and chronic kidney disease. A total of 30 rats were divided into six groups; Sham: control of chronic renal disease; Citrate: control of chronic hyperglycemia (CH); Nx5/6: rats with 5/6 nephrectomy; Chronic Hyperglycemia: rats receiving Streptozotocin 65 mg/kg; Nx5/6 + IC: rats Nx5/6 received 6 mL/kg of IC; CH + IC: Chronic hyperglycemia rats receiving 6 mL/kg of IC. Renal function (inulin clearance; urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin, NGAL) and hemodynamics (arterial blood pressure; renal blood flow; renal vascular resistance) were evaluated. Iodinated contrast significantly increased urinary NGAL and reduced inulin clearance, while the hemodynamics parameters showed changes in arterial blood pressure, renal blood flow, and renal vascular resistance in both CKD and CH groups. The results suggest that the iodinated contrast in risk factors models has important impact on renal function and hemodynamics. NGAL was confirmed to play a role of highlight in diagnosis of CI-AKI. PMID:27034930

  5. Impact of Iodinated Contrast on Renal Function and Hemodynamics in Rats with Chronic Hyperglycemia and Chronic Kidney Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila Marques Fernandes

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Iodinated contrast (IC is clinically used in diagnostic and interventional procedures, but its use can result in contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI. Chronic kidney disease (CKD and chronic hyperglycemia (CH are important predisposing factors to CI-AKI. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of iodinated contrast on the renal function and hemodynamics in rats with chronic hyperglycemia and chronic kidney disease. A total of 30 rats were divided into six groups; Sham: control of chronic renal disease; Citrate: control of chronic hyperglycemia (CH; Nx5/6: rats with 5/6 nephrectomy; Chronic Hyperglycemia: rats receiving Streptozotocin 65 mg/kg; Nx5/6 + IC: rats Nx5/6 received 6 mL/kg of IC; CH + IC: Chronic hyperglycemia rats receiving 6 mL/kg of IC. Renal function (inulin clearance; urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin, NGAL and hemodynamics (arterial blood pressure; renal blood flow; renal vascular resistance were evaluated. Iodinated contrast significantly increased urinary NGAL and reduced inulin clearance, while the hemodynamics parameters showed changes in arterial blood pressure, renal blood flow, and renal vascular resistance in both CKD and CH groups. The results suggest that the iodinated contrast in risk factors models has important impact on renal function and hemodynamics. NGAL was confirmed to play a role of highlight in diagnosis of CI-AKI.

  6. Changes in markers of oxidative stress and membrane properties in synaptosomes from rats exposed prenatally to toluene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edelfors, Sven; Hass, Ulla; Hougaard, Karin S.

    2002-01-01

    for the experiments, Synaptosomes from rats exposed prenatally to toluene exhibited an increased level of oxidative stress when incubated with toluene in vitro compared to synaptosomes from unexposed offspring. Also the cell membrane was affected, as the calcium leakage was more increased from exposed synaptosomes...

  7. Global Gene Expression Profiling in Lung Tissues of Rat Exposed to Lunar Dust Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeshitla, Samrawit A.; Lam, Chiu-Wing; Kidane, Yared H.; Feiveson, Alan H.; Ploutz-Snyder, Robert; Wu, Honglu; James, John T.; Meyers, Valerie E.; Zhang, Ye

    2014-01-01

    The Moon's surface is covered by a layer of fine, potential reactive dust. Lunar dust contain about 1-2% respirable very fine dust (less than 3 micrometers). The habitable area of any lunar landing vehicle and outpost would inevitably be contaminated with lunar dust that could pose a health risk. The purpose of the study is to analyze the dynamics of global gene expression changes in lung tissues of rats exposed to lunar dust particles. F344 rats were exposed for 4 weeks (6h/d; 5d/wk) in nose-only inhalation chambers to concentrations of 0 (control air), 2.1, 6.8, 21, and 61 mg/m3 of lunar dust. Animals were euthanized at 1 day and 13 weeks after the last inhalation exposure. After being lavaged, lung tissue from each animal was collected and total RNA was isolated. Four samples of each dose group were analyzed using Agilent Rat GE v3 microarray to profile global gene expression of 44K transcripts. After background subtraction, normalization, and log transformation, t tests were used to compare the mean expression levels of each exposed group to the control group. Correction for multiple testing was made using the method of Benjamini, Krieger, and Yekuteli (1) to control the false discovery rate. Genes with significant changes of at least 1.75 fold were identified as genes of interest. Both low and high doses of lunar dust caused dramatic, dose-dependent global gene expression changes in the lung tissues. However, the responses of lung tissue to low dose lunar dust are distinguished from those of high doses, especially those associated with 61mg/m3 dust exposure. The data were further integrated into the Ingenuity system to analyze the gene ontology (GO), pathway distribution and putative upstream regulators and gene targets. Multiple pathways, functions, and upstream regulators have been identified in response to lunar dust induced damage in the lung tissue.

  8. Attenuation of the cortisol response to stress in female rainbow trout chronically exposed to dietary selenomethionine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiseman, Steve, E-mail: steve.wiseman@usask.ca [Toxicology Centre, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 5B3 (Canada); Thomas, Jith K.; McPhee, Landon; Hursky, Olesya; Raine, Jason C. [Toxicology Centre, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 5B3 (Canada); Pietrock, Michael [Toxicology Centre, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 5B3 (Canada); Department of Veterinary Biomedical Sciences, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 5B3 (Canada); Giesy, John P. [Toxicology Centre, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 5B3 (Canada); Department of Veterinary Biomedical Sciences, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 5B3 (Canada); Department of Zoology, College of Science, King Saud University, P.O. Box 2455, Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia); Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong (Hong Kong); School of Biological Sciences, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Department of Zoology, Center for Integrative Toxicology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse and School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing (China); Hecker, Markus [Toxicology Centre, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 5B3 (Canada); School of Environment and Sustainability, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 5CB (Canada); Janz, David M. [Toxicology Centre, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 5B3 (Canada); Department of Veterinary Biomedical Sciences, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 5B3 (Canada)

    2011-10-15

    , abundances of transcripts of cytochrome P450 side-chain cleavage (p450scc) and cytochrome P450 11B1 (cyp11b1) were not significantly different between controls and Se-Met exposed trout. Exposure to Se-Met affected accumulation and tissue partitioning of glycogen and triglycerides in liver and muscle as concentrations of these energy reserves were greater in muscle, but not liver. Concentrations of glycogen and triglycerides in muscle, but not in liver, were lesser following the handling stressor suggesting that the muscle energy reserves are an important source of energy required for recovery from the handling stressor. The results of the study demonstrate that chronic exposure to dietary Se-Met elicits a stress response, but prevents a cortisol response to a secondary handling stressor, most likely due to cortisol inactivation. Moreover, exposure to Se-Met has effects on concentrations of energy reserves that are important for providing the energy necessary to cope with a secondary stressor.

  9. Attenuation of the cortisol response to stress in female rainbow trout chronically exposed to dietary selenomethionine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiseman, Steve; Thomas, Jith K.; McPhee, Landon; Hursky, Olesya; Raine, Jason C.; Pietrock, Michael; Giesy, John P.; Hecker, Markus; Janz, David M.

    2011-01-01

    , abundances of transcripts of cytochrome P450 side-chain cleavage (p450scc) and cytochrome P450 11B1 (cyp11b1) were not significantly different between controls and Se-Met exposed trout. Exposure to Se-Met affected accumulation and tissue partitioning of glycogen and triglycerides in liver and muscle as concentrations of these energy reserves were greater in muscle, but not liver. Concentrations of glycogen and triglycerides in muscle, but not in liver, were lesser following the handling stressor suggesting that the muscle energy reserves are an important source of energy required for recovery from the handling stressor. The results of the study demonstrate that chronic exposure to dietary Se-Met elicits a stress response, but prevents a cortisol response to a secondary handling stressor, most likely due to cortisol inactivation. Moreover, exposure to Se-Met has effects on concentrations of energy reserves that are important for providing the energy necessary to cope with a secondary stressor.

  10. Impaired Latent Inhibition in GDNF-Deficient Mice Exposed to Chronic Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Buhusi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Increased reactivity to stress is maladaptive and linked to abnormal behaviors and psychopathology. Chronic unpredictable stress (CUS alters catecholaminergic neurotransmission and remodels neuronal circuits involved in learning, attention and decision making. Glial-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF is essential for the physiology and survival of dopaminergic neurons in substantia nigra and of noradrenergic neurons in the locus coeruleus. Up-regulation of GDNF expression during stress is linked to resilience; on the other hand, the inability to up-regulate GDNF in response to stress, as a result of either genetic or epigenetic modifications, induces behavioral alterations. For example, GDNF-deficient mice exposed to chronic stress exhibit alterations of executive function, such as increased temporal discounting. Here we investigated the effects of CUS on latent inhibition (LI, a measure of selective attention and learning, in GDNF-heterozygous (HET mice and their wild-type (WT littermate controls. No differences in LI were found between GDNF HET and WT mice under baseline experimental conditions. However, following CUS, GDNF-deficient mice failed to express LI. Moreover, stressed GDNF-HET mice, but not their WT controls, showed decreased neuronal activation (number of c-Fos positive neurons in the nucleus accumbens shell and increased activation in the nucleus accumbens core, both key regions in the expression of LI. Our results add LI to the list of behaviors affected by chronic stress and support a role for GDNF deficits in stress-induced pathological behaviors relevant to schizophrenia and other psychiatric disorders.

  11. Dose and temporal effects on gene expression profiles of urothelial cells from rats exposed to diuron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ihlaseh-Catalano, Shadia M.; Bailey, Kathryn A.; Cardoso, Ana Paula F.; Ren, Hongzu; Fry, Rebecca C.; Camargo, João Lauro V.de; Wolf, Douglas C.

    2014-01-01

    Diuron (3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea) is a substituted urea herbicide that at high dietary levels (2500 ppm) induces rat urinary bladder hyperplasia after 20 weeks of exposure and neoplasia after 2 years. The effects on the urothelium after short-term exposure have not been described. The present 7-day study evaluated the dose-dependency of urothelial alterations in the urinary bladder using light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and genome-wide transcriptional profiling. Male Wistar rats were fed 0, 125, 500, 2500 ppm diuron for 7 days. The urinary bladder and isolated urothelial cells of these animals were processed for microscopic examination and gene expression profiling, respectively. No significant treatment-related morphologic effects were observed. The number of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in the exposed groups increased with diuron levels. Diuron-altered genes involved in cell-to-cell interactions and tissue organization were identified in all treatment groups. After 7 days of diuron exposure, transcriptional responses were observed in the urothelium in the absence of clear morphologic changes. These morphological findings are different from those observed in a previous study in which 20 weeks of diuron exposure was associated with simple hyperplasia secondary to the persistent cytotoxicity and necrosis associated with continuous cellular regeneration. Comparison of the gene expression profiles of rats exposed to the 2500 ppm carcinogenic diuron dose for 7 days versus 20 weeks revealed few similarities between these two time points at the gene or pathway level. Taken together, these data provide insight into the dose- and temporal-dependent morphological and transcriptional changes associated with diuron exposure that may lead to the development of tumors in the rat urinary bladder

  12. Dose and temporal effects on gene expression profiles of urothelial cells from rats exposed to diuron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihlaseh-Catalano, Shadia M; Bailey, Kathryn A; Cardoso, Ana Paula F; Ren, Hongzu; Fry, Rebecca C; de Camargo, João Lauro V; Wolf, Douglas C

    2014-11-05

    Diuron (3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea) is a substituted urea herbicide that at high dietary levels (2500 ppm) induces rat urinary bladder hyperplasia after 20 weeks of exposure and neoplasia after 2 years. The effects on the urothelium after short-term exposure have not been described. The present 7-day study evaluated the dose-dependency of urothelial alterations in the urinary bladder using light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and genome-wide transcriptional profiling. Male Wistar rats were fed 0, 125, 500, 2500 ppm diuron for 7 days. The urinary bladder and isolated urothelial cells of these animals were processed for microscopic examination and gene expression profiling, respectively. No significant treatment-related morphologic effects were observed. The number of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in the exposed groups increased with diuron levels. Diuron-altered genes involved in cell-to-cell interactions and tissue organization were identified in all treatment groups. After 7 days of diuron exposure, transcriptional responses were observed in the urothelium in the absence of clear morphologic changes. These morphological findings are different from those observed in a previous study in which 20 weeks of diuron exposure was associated with simple hyperplasia secondary to the persistent cytotoxicity and necrosis associated with continuous cellular regeneration. Comparison of the gene expression profiles of rats exposed to the 2500 ppm carcinogenic diuron dose for 7 days versus 20 weeks revealed few similarities between these two time points at the gene or pathway level. Taken together, these data provide insight into the dose- and temporal-dependent morphological and transcriptional changes associated with diuron exposure that may lead to the development of tumors in the rat urinary bladder. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Prenatal zinc reduces stress response in adult rat offspring exposed to lipopolysaccharide during gestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvão, Marcella C; Chaves-Kirsten, Gabriela P; Queiroz-Hazarbassanov, Nicolle; Carvalho, Virgínia M; Bernardi, Maria M; Kirsten, Thiago B

    2015-01-01

    Previous investigations by our group have shown that prenatal treatment with lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 100 μg/kg, intraperitoneally) on gestation day (GD) 9.5 in rats, which mimics infections by Gram-negative bacteria, induces short- and long-term behavioral and neuroimmune changes in the offspring. Because LPS induces hypozincemia, dams were treated with zinc after LPS in an attempt to prevent or ameliorate the impairments induced by prenatal LPS exposure. LPS can also interfere with hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis development; thus, behavioral and neuroendocrine parameters linked to HPA axis were evaluated in adult offspring after a restraint stress session. We prenatally exposed Wistar rats to LPS (100 μg/kg, intraperitoneally, on GD 9.5). One hour later they received zinc (ZnSO4, 2 mg/kg, subcutaneously). Adult female offspring that were in metestrus/diestrus were submitted to a 2 h restraint stress session. Immediately after the stressor, 22 kHz ultrasonic vocalizations, open field behavior, serum corticosterone and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels, and striatal and hypothalamic neurotransmitter and metabolite levels were assessed. Offspring that received prenatal zinc after LPS presented longer periods in silence, increased locomotion, and reduced serum corticosterone and striatal norepinephrine turnover compared with rats treated with LPS and saline. Prenatal zinc reduced acute restraint stress response in adult rats prenatally exposed to LPS. Our findings suggest a potential beneficial effect of prenatal zinc, in which the stress response was reduced in offspring that were stricken with infectious/inflammatory processes during gestation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Ameliorative Effect of Honey and Propolis Mixture on Rats Exposed to Gamma Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hemieda, S.F.; Abd-El Nour, K.N.; Hassan, A.I.; Abdou, M.I.; Khalil, W.A.

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the ameliorative effect of honey and propolis mixture treatment on some biochemical and biophysical parameters in rats exposed to oxidative stress of gamma irradiation. Male rats were exposed to a fractionated dose gamma irradiation of total 5 Gy in five successive days. A mixture of dose 250 mg/kg/day honey and 90 mg/kg/day propolis was administrated to rats, ten days before irradiation, five days during irradiation and 14 days post irradiation. Blood samples were collected at 1 st , 7 th and 14 th day post the 5 th day of irradiation. Biochemical parameters such as serum liver enzymes (ALT and AST), serum renal function as (BUN and Creatinine) and serum total antioxidants were estimated. Also biophysical studies including hemoglobin investigations (Hb absorption spectra and dielectric measurements) were investigated.The results demonstrated that the levels of AST, ALT, BUN and creatinine were significantly elevated, while levels of total antioxidants were significantly reduced post irradiation. Moreover the absolute values of permittivity ε', dielectric loss ε'' and ac - conductivity σ ac increased in addition to a pronounced decrease in the absorbance at Sort band after irradiation compared to control group.Treatment of the irradiated group with honey and propolis mixture showed significant amelioration in the levels of the biochemical parameters. Also, the values of ε', ε'' and σ ac were nearly close to those of control group. Finally, the average value of peak height of Sort band was significantly increased compared to irradiated rat.

  15. Isolation and identification of previtamin D3 from the skin of rats exposed to ultraviolet irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holick, M.F.; Richtand, N.M.; McNeill, S.C.; Holick, S.A.; Frommer, J.E.; Henley, J.W.; Potts, J.T. Jr.

    1979-01-01

    The process of the photolytic activation of vitamin D precursor(s) in the skin has been elucidated by a detailed analysis of the products formed after ultraviolet light exposure. The photolytic product isolated from the skin of rats exposed to ultraviolet irradiation was identified as previtamin D 3 by several criteria including its characteristic ultraviolet absorption spectrum, mass spectrum, and thermal isomerization to vitamin D 3 , which itself was identified also by mass spectroscopy. Vitamin D 3 per se was not formed by ultraviolet irradiation-vitamin D 3 arises exclusively from the thermal conversion of previtamin D 3 . Detectable amounts of lumisterol 3 or tachysterol 3 were not seen

  16. Gene Expression Profiling of Lung Tissue of Rats Exposed to Lunar Dust Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ye; Feiveson, Alan H.; Lam, Chiu-Wing; Kidane, Yared H.; Ploutz-Snyder Robert; Yeshitla, Samrawit; Zalesak, Selina M.; Scully, Robert R.; Wu, Honglu; James, John T.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to analyze the dynamics of global gene expression changes in the lung tissue of rats exposed to lunar dust particles. Multiple pathways and transcription factors were identified using the Ingenuity Pathway Analysis tool, showing the potential networks of these signaling regulations involved in lunar dust-induced prolonged proflammatory response and toxicity. The data presented in this study, for the first time, explores the molecular mechanisms of lunar dust induced toxicity. This work contributes not only to the risk assessment for future space exploration, but also to the understanding of the dust-induced toxicity to humans on earth.

  17. Mucous flow and ciliary activity in the trachea of rats exposed to pulmonary irritant gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalhamm, T; Rhodin, J

    1956-01-01

    Tracheal mucous secretion was increased in rats exposed to 10 ppM SO/sub 2/, 6 hr/day for 10 weeks. Mucous transport was decreased from 13.5 to 5 mm/min although ciliary beat remained a constant 1320 beats/min. The mucous layer was 5 times as thick as the normal ..mu..m. Histologically, cilia were generally unaffected whereas tracheal epithelium was irregular with deep crypts, and the lamina propria showed severe edema, fragmentation of collagen fibrils, and profuse vascularization with blood escaping perivascularly.

  18. Behavior and memory evaluation of Wistar rats exposed to 1·8 GHz radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Júnior, Luiz Carlos de Caires; Guimarães, Ernesto da Silveira Goulart; Musso, Camila Manso; Stabler, Collin Turner; Garcia, Raúl Marcel González; Mourão-Júnior, Carlos Alberto; Andreazzi, Ana Eliza

    2014-09-01

    The development of communication systems has brought great social and economic benefits to society. As mobile phone use has become widespread, concerns have emerged regarding the potential adverse effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation (RF-EMR) used by these devices. To verify potential effects of mobile phone radiation on the central nervous system (CNS) in an animal model. Male Wistar rats (60 days old) were exposed to RF-EMR from a Global System for Mobile (GSM) cell phone (1·8 GHz) for 3 days. At the end of the exposure, the following behavioral tests were performed: open field and object recognition. Our results showed that exposed animals did not present anxiety patterns or working memory impairment, but stress behavior actions were observed. Given the results of the present study, we speculate that RF-EMR does not promote CNS impairment, but suggest that it may lead to stressful behavioral patterns.

  19. [Quantitative analysis of urinary ethylene glycol in rats exposed to ethylene oxide].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koga, M; Hori, H; Tanaka, I; Akiyama, T; Inoue, N

    1985-03-01

    A gas chromatographic method was used for determining ethylene glycol in urine. The analytical procedure is based on an azeotropic distillation and on esterification with n-butyl boronic acid. The linear calibration curve was obtained up to 500 micrograms/ml of ethylene glycol. The detection limit was estimated to be 10 micrograms/ml and relative standard deviation was 3.5% for 100 micrograms/ml of ethylene glycol. This method was applied to determine the urinary excretion of ethylene glycol in rats exposed to ethylene oxide at various concentrations (from 50 to 500 ppm). The excretion amounts of ethylene glycol were observed to be dependent on the concentration of ethylene oxide exposed.

  20. Effects of acute and chronic administration of methylprednisolone on oxidative stress in rat lungs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronaldo Lopes Torres

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the effects of acute and chronic administration of methylprednisolone on oxidative stress, as quantified by measuring lipid peroxidation (LPO and total reactive antioxidant potential (TRAP, in rat lungs. Methods: Forty Wistar rats were divided into four groups: acute treatment, comprising rats receiving a single injection of methylprednisolone (50 mg/kg i.p.; acute control, comprising rats i.p. injected with saline; chronic treatment, comprising rats receiving methylprednisolone in drinking water (6 mg/kg per day for 30 days; and chronic control, comprising rats receiving normal drinking water. Results: The levels of TRAP were significantly higher in the acute treatment group rats than in the acute control rats, suggesting an improvement in the pulmonary defenses of the former. The levels of lung LPO were significantly higher in the chronic treatment group rats than in the chronic control rats, indicating oxidative damage in the lung tissue of the former. Conclusions: Our results suggest that the acute use of corticosteroids is beneficial to lung tissue, whereas their chronic use is not. The chronic use of methylprednisolone appears to increase lung LPO levels.

  1. Behavioral and anatomical correlates of chronic episodic hypoxia during sleep in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gozal, D; Daniel, J M; Dohanich, G P

    2001-04-01

    The role played by chronic episodic hypoxia (EHYP) in the neurocognitive morbidity of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is unknown. Sleep recordings, Morris water maze experiments, and immunohistochemistry for NMDA NR1 glutamate receptor, c-fos protein, and apoptosis [nuclear immunoreactivity for single-stranded DNA and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated biotinylated UTP nick end labeling assay] were conducted in EHYP-exposed Sprague Dawley male rats. Exposures consisted of up to14 d in an environmental chamber in which O(2) concentrations were cycled between 10 and 21% every 90 sec or 30 min during 12 hr of daylight. For the remaining 12 hr, EHYP rats breathed room air, while controls spent 14 d in room air. Although EHYP induced significant disruption of sleep architecture during the initial day of exposure, sleep patterns normalized thereafter. Marked increases in apoptosis occurred in the CA1 hippocampal region (sevenfold) and cortex (Cx; eightfold) after 1-2 d of EHYP but not in CA3 and were followed by decreases toward normoxic levels by 14 d. Double labeling for NMDA NR1 and c-fos revealed marked architectural disorganization in CA1 and Cx with increases in c-fos over time. Rats exposed to EHYP displayed significantly longer escape latencies and swim path lengths to escape a hidden platform during 12 training trials given over 2 d. Differences in the performances of EHYP and control rats, although reduced, persisted after 14 d of recovery. We conclude that EHYP is associated with marked cellular changes over time within neural regions associated with cognitive functions. Furthermore, EHYP impaired performance during acquisition of a cognitive spatial task without affecting sensorimotor function. Such changes may underlie components of the learning and memory impairments found in OSA.

  2. Lung inflammation biomarkers and lung function in children chronically exposed to arsenic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olivas-Calderón, Edgar, E-mail: edgar_olivascalderon@hotmail.com [Department of Environmental Health, Biomedical Research Center, School of Medicine, University of Coahuila, Torreon, Coahuila (Mexico); School of Medicine, University Juarez of Durango, Gomez Palacio, Durango (Mexico); Recio-Vega, Rogelio, E-mail: rrecio@yahoo.com [Department of Environmental Health, Biomedical Research Center, School of Medicine, University of Coahuila, Torreon, Coahuila (Mexico); Gandolfi, A. Jay, E-mail: gandolfi@pharmacy.arizona.edu [Southwest Environmental Health Science Center, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); Lantz, R. Clark, E-mail: lantz@email.arizona.edu [Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); González-Cortes, Tania, E-mail: taniagc2201@hotmail.com [Department of Environmental Health, Biomedical Research Center, School of Medicine, University of Coahuila, Torreon, Coahuila (Mexico); Gonzalez-De Alba, Cesar, E-mail: cesargonzalezalba@hotmail.com [Department of Environmental Health, Biomedical Research Center, School of Medicine, University of Coahuila, Torreon, Coahuila (Mexico); Froines, John R., E-mail: jfroines@ucla.edu [Center for Environmental and Occupational Health, School of Public Health, University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Espinosa-Fematt, Jorge A., E-mail: dr.jorge.espinosa@gmail.com [School of Medicine, University Juarez of Durango, Gomez Palacio, Durango (Mexico)

    2015-09-01

    Evidence suggests that exposure to arsenic in drinking water during early childhood or in utero has been associated with an increase in respiratory symptoms or diseases in the adulthood, however only a few studies have been carried out during those sensitive windows of exposure. Recently our group demonstrated that the exposure to arsenic during early childhood or in utero in children was associated with impairment in the lung function and suggested that this adverse effect could be due to a chronic inflammation response to the metalloid. Therefore, we designed this cross-sectional study in a cohort of children associating lung inflammatory biomarkers and lung function with urinary As levels. A total of 275 healthy children were partitioned into four study groups according with their arsenic urinary levels. Inflammation biomarkers were measured in sputum by ELISA and the lung function was evaluated by spirometry. Fifty eight percent of the studied children were found to have a restrictive spirometric pattern. In the two highest exposed groups, the soluble receptor for advanced glycation end products' (sRAGE) sputum level was significantly lower and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) concentration was higher. When the biomarkers were correlated to the urinary arsenic species, negative associations were found between dimethylarsinic (DMA), monomethylarsonic percentage (%MMA) and dimethylarsinic percentage (%DMA) with sRAGE and positive associations between %DMA with MMP-9 and with the MMP-9/tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP-1) ratio. In conclusion, chronic arsenic exposure of children negatively correlates with sRAGE, and positively correlated with MMP-9 and MMP-9/TIMP-1 levels, and increases the frequency of an abnormal spirometric pattern. Arsenic-induced alterations in inflammatory biomarkers may contribute to the development of restrictive lung diseases. - Highlights: • First study in children evaluating lung inflammatory biomarkers and As levels

  3. Evaluation of reproductive function of female rats exposed to radiofrequency fields (27. 12 MHz) near a shortwave diathermy device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown-Woodman, P.D.; Hadley, J.A.; Richardson, L.; Bright, D.; Porter, D.

    1989-04-01

    In recent years, there has been increased concern regarding effects of operator exposure to the electromagnetic (EM) field associated with shortwave diathermy devices. The present study was designed to investigate the effects, on rats, of repeated exposure to such an EM field. Following repeated exposure for 5 wk, a reduction in fertility occurred as indicated by a reduced number of matings in exposed rats compared to sham-irradiated rats and a reduction in the number of rats that conceived after mating. The data suggest that female operators could experience reduced fertility, if they remained close to the console for prolonged periods. This has particular significant for the physiotherapy profession.

  4. Uranium XAFS analysis of kidney from rats exposed to uranium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitahara, Keisuke; Numako, Chiya; Terada, Yasuko; Nitta, Kiyohumi; Shimada, Yoshiya; Homma-Takeda, Shino

    2017-03-01

    The kidney is the critical target of uranium exposure because uranium accumulates in the proximal tubules and causes tubular damage, but the chemical nature of uranium in kidney, such as its chemical status in the toxic target site, is poorly understood. Micro-X-ray absorption fine-structure (µXAFS) analysis was used to examine renal thin sections of rats exposed to uranyl acetate. The U L III -edge X-ray absorption near-edge structure spectra of bulk renal specimens obtained at various toxicological phases were similar to that of uranyl acetate: their edge position did not shift compared with that of uranyl acetate (17.175 keV) although the peak widths for some kidney specimens were slightly narrowed. µXAFS measurements of spots of concentrated uranium in the micro-regions of the proximal tubules showed that the edge jump slightly shifted to lower energy. The results suggest that most uranium accumulated in kidney was uranium (VI) but a portion might have been biotransformed in rats exposed to uranyl acetate.

  5. Cytomorphometric changes in hippocampal CA1 neurons exposed to simulated microgravity using rats as model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit eRanjan

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Microgravity and sleep loss lead to cognitive and learning deficits. These behavioral alterations are likely to be associated with cytomorphological changes and loss of neurons. To understand the phenomenon, we exposed rats (225-275g to 14 days simulated microgravity (SMg and compared its effects on CA1 hippocampal neuronal plasticity, with that of normal cage control rats. We observed that the mean area, perimeter, synaptic cleft and length of active zone of CA1 hippocampal neurons significantly decreased while dendritic arborization and number of spines significantly increased in SMg group as compared with controls. The mean thickness of the post synaptic density and total dendritic length remained unaltered. The changes may be a compensatory effect induced by exposure to microgravity; however, the effects may be transient or permanent, which need further study. These findings may be useful for designing effective prevention for those, including the astronauts, exposed to microgravity. Further, subject to confirmation we propose that SMg exposure might be useful for recovery of stroke patients.

  6. Endothelial dysfunction in rectal cancer patients chronically exposed to ionizing radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rakhypbekov, Tolebay; Pak, Laura; Chaizhunusova, Nailya; Manambayeva, Zukhra; Tokanova, Sholpan; Madiyeva, Madina [Semey State Medical University, Semey (Kazakhstan); Inoue, Ken [Kochi University, Health Service Center, Kochi (Japan); Kawano, Noriyuki; Hoshi, Masaharu [Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan); Takeichi, Nobuo [Takeichi Clinic, Hiroshima (Japan); Noso, Yoshihiro [Shimane University, Department of General Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Shimane (Japan); Khozhayev, Arman; Molgazhdarov, Maulen [The Kazakh National Medical University of S.D.Asfendiyarov, Department of Oncology, Almaty (Kazakhstan); Olzhaev, Sayakhat [Almaty Regional Oncologic Hospital, Department of Oncology, Almaty (Kazakhstan)

    2017-08-15

    We sought to identify the features of endothelial function in rectal cancer patients who were exposed to chronic ionizing radiation from a nuclear test site in Kazakhstan. We examined 146 individuals, 76 of whom were rectal cancer patients. The existence of a complex of disturbances of the endothelium and hemostasis systems in patients vs non-patients was revealed. Endothelial dysfunction was expressed as an increase of nitric oxide (NO) production along with decreases in vasodilatation function, and increased levels of von Willebrand factor in blood, along with an increase in the number of circulating endotheliocytes. Significant correlations between indicators of endothelial function and vascular-platelet hemostasis were observed. These changes and their interrelations were expressed more strongly in the patients who lived in the contaminated area around the nuclear test site. Such patients could have an increased risk of thrombosis and other complications after the treatment of a malignant neoplasm. (orig.)

  7. Participation of catalase in voluntary ethanol consumption in perinatally low-level lead-exposed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattalloni, Mara S; De Giovanni, Laura N; Molina, Juan C; Cancela, Liliana M; Virgolini, Miriam B

    2013-10-01

    Environmental lead (Pb) exposure and alcohol abuse pose significant public health problems for our society. One of the proposed mechanisms of action of the developmental neurotoxicant Pb is related to its ability to affect antioxidant enzymes, including catalase (CAT). Ethanol's (EtOH) motivational effects are postulated to be mediated by the CAT-dependent acetaldehyde generated in the brain. The current study sought to investigate the role of this enzyme in the elevated EtOH intake previously reported in perinatally Pb-exposed rats. Thirty-five-day-old male Wistar rats exposed to 220 ppm Pb during gestation and lactation were offered escalating EtOH solutions (2 to 10%) or water, 2 h/d for 28 days. Once baseline 10% EtOH intake was achieved, they were injected with (i) saline (SAL), (ii) 3-amino 1,2,4 triazole (aminotriazole [AT], a CAT inhibitor, 250 mg/kg intraperitoneally [i.p.], 5 hours before the last 8 EtOH intake sessions), or (iii) 3-nitropropionic acid (3NPA; a CAT activator, 20 mg/kg subcutaneously [s.c.], 45 minutes before the last 4 EtOH intake sessions). Rats were then sacrificed, blood collected, and brain regions harvested for CAT activity determination. Additional studies evaluated EtOH intake and CAT activity in response to 10 and 30 mg/kg 3NPA. Both 3NPA and AT were evaluated for striatal cytotoxicity. We observed that AT pretreatment blunted the increased EtOH intake, as well as the elevated CAT activity in blood, cerebellum, and hippocampus evidenced in the developmentally Pb-exposed rats that have consumed EtOH. Conversely, 20 mg/kg 3NPA further increased voluntary EtOH intake in these animals as compared with controls, concomitantly with a slight elevation in CAT activity both in blood and in the striatum, associated with no changes in striatal cytotoxicity. These results suggest a participation of CAT, and possibly acetaldehyde, in Pb-induced high EtOH intake, and open up new avenues to elucidate the mechanism that underlies the Pb and Et

  8. Histological investigations on thymus of male rats prenatally exposed to bisphenol A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydemir, Işıl; Kum, Şadiye; Tuğlu, Mehmet İbrahim

    2018-04-27

    Bisphenol A is called as a endocrine-distrupting chemical because of the its steroid-like activity and it used in the construction of plastic containing materials. It is indicated that bisphenol A can pass the human serum, urine, follicular fluid, placenta and umblical cord as a result of the use of substances containing this agent. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of bisphenol A on the development of the thymus, a primary lymphoid organ which plays an important role in the specific immunity. The adult pregnant female rats were administered orally with bisphenol A (for 21 days) and postnatal thymus samples were obtained on day 21, 45 and 90 and were performed for histochemical and immunohistochemical staining for CD3, CD4, CD8 and CD79a and TUNEL assay for the apoptotic cells. Evaluation of all groups, CD3, CD4, CD8 and CD79a stainings were decreased in the experimental groups compared with control group. The apoptotic cells were determined in the all groups on day 90 as a result of the thymus involution. It is noted that there was not any histological and morphological damages in the rats prenatally exposed the bisphenol A. The effect of the bisphenol A is unknown in the future, but there is no problem in the adult rats. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Steroidogenesis-related gene expression in the rat ovary exposed to melatonin supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisele Negro Lima

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze steroidogenesis-related gene expression in the rat ovary exposed to melatonin supplementation. METHODS: Thirty-two virgin adult female rats were randomized to two groups as follows: the control group GI received vehicle and the experimental group GII received melatonin supplementation (10 µg/night per animal for 60 consecutive days. After the treatment, animals were anesthetized and the collected ovaries were immediately placed in liquid nitrogen for complementary deoxyribonucleic acid microarray analyses. A GeneChip¯ Kit Rat Genome 230 2.0 Affymetrix Array was used for gene analysis and the experiment was repeated three times for each group. The results were normalized with the GeneChip¯ Operating Software program and confirmed through analysis with the secondary deoxyribonucleic acid-Chip Analyzer (dChip software. The data were confirmed by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis. Genes related to ovarian function were further confirmed by immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: We found the upregulation of the type 9 adenylate cyclase and inhibin beta B genes and the downregulation of the cyclic adenosine monophosphate response element modulator and cytochrome P450 family 17a1 genes in the ovarian tissue of GII compared to those of the control group. CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that melatonin supplementation decreases gene expression of cyclic adenosine monophosphate, which changes ovarian steroidogenesis.

  10. Protein expression in the nucleus accumbens of rats exposed to developmental vitamin D deficiency.

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    John McGrath

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Developmental vitamin D (DVD deficiency is a candidate risk factor for schizophrenia. Animal models have confirmed that DVD deficiency is associated with a range of altered genomic, proteomic, structural and behavioural outcomes in the rat. Because the nucleus accumbens has been implicated in neuropsychiatric disorders, in the current study we examined protein expression in this region in adult rats exposed to DVD deficiency METHODS: Female Sprague Dawley rats were maintained on a vitamin D deficient diet for 6 weeks, mated and allowed to give birth, after which a diet containing vitamin D was reintroduced. Male adult offspring (n = 8 were compared to control male (n = 8. 2-D gel electrophoresis-based proteomics and mass spectroscopy were used to investigate differential protein expression. RESULTS: There were 35 spots, mapped to 33 unique proteins, which were significantly different between the two groups. Of these, 22 were down-regulated and 13 up-regulated. The fold changes were uniformly small, with the largest FC being -1.67. Within the significantly different spots, three calcium binding proteins (calbindin1, calbindin2 and hippocalcin were altered. Other proteins associated with DVD deficiency related to mitochondrial function, and the dynamin-like proteins. CONCLUSIONS: Developmental vitamin D deficiency was associated with subtle changes in protein expression in the nucleus accumbens. Disruptions in pathways related to calcium-binding proteins and mitochondrial function may underlie some of the behavioural features associated with animal models of developmental vitamin D deficiency.

  11. Morphometric study on age-dependent pulmonary lesions in rats exposed to nitrogen dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kyono, H.; Kawai, K.

    1982-01-01

    Electronmicroscopic morphometry was performed on lung of 1, 3, 12 and 21 months-old rats exposed to 0.1, 0.5, 3 and 10 ppm nitrogen dioxide (NO/sub 2/) continuously for one month. The rats used in this experiment were all supplied at one time from one colony and kept under a barrier system until exposure. Effects of aging on the responses of lungs to NO/sub 2/ were studied by comparing the dose-effect reaction patterns among the age groups. A trend of dose-dependent increase of arithmetic mean thickness of air-blood barrier was found in all age groups examined. The response of lung to NO/sub 2/ exposure showed age-related differences. Based on the morphometric index, the response declines from 1 to 12 months, but increases again in 21-months-old rats. The compartmental components of alveolar wall tissue such as type I epithelial cells, type II epithelial cells, interstitial cells, interstitial matrix and capillary endothelium appeared to have various degrees of response due to both age at onset of exposure and NO/sub 2/ concentration, resulting in the appearance of varying stages in impairment or repair. Accordingly, the response of each compartmental component of lung to the concentrations of NO/sub 2/ did not always exhibit a simple dose-dependent increase or decrease but sometimes indicated a multiphasic reaction pattern.

  12. Neurobehavioral, reflexological and physical development of Wistar rat offspring exposed to ayahuasca during pregnancy and lactation

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    Carolina Dizioli Rodrigues de Oliveira

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Ayahuasca is a hallucinogenic beverage prepared by the decoction of plants native to the Amazon Basin region. The beverage has been used throughout the world by members of some syncretic religious movements. Despite the recent legalization of ayahuasca in Brazil for religious purposes, there is little pre-clinical and clinical information attesting to its safety, particularly in relation to the use during pregnancy. The aim of the current work was to determine the effects of perinatal exposure to ayahuasca (from the 6th day of pregnancy to the 10th day of lactation on physical, reflexology and neurobehavioral parameters of the Wistar rat offspring. The offspring showed no statistically significant changes in the physical and reflexology parameters evaluated. However, in adult rats, perinatally exposed to ayahuasca, an increase in frequency of entries in open arms in elevated plus-maze test, a decrease in total time of interaction in social interaction test, a decrease in time of latency for the animal to start swimming and a decrease of the minimum convulsant dose induced by pentylenetetrazol were observed. In conclusion, our results showed that the use of ayahuasca by mothers during pregnancy and lactation reduced the general anxiety and social motivation of the rat offspring. Besides, it promoted a higher sensitivity for initiation and spread of seizure activity.

  13. Neurobehavioral, reflexological and physical development of Wistar rat offspring exposed to ayahuasca during pregnancy and lactation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Dizioli Rodrigues de Oliveira

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Ayahuasca is a hallucinogenic beverage prepared by the decoction of plants native to the Amazon Basin region. The beverage has been used throughout the world by members of some syncretic religious movements. Despite the recent legalization of ayahuasca in Brazil for religious purposes, there is little pre-clinical and clinical information attesting to its safety, particularly in relation to the use during pregnancy. The aim of the current work was to determine the effects of perinatal exposure to ayahuasca (from the 6th day of pregnancy to the 10th day of lactation on physical, reflexology and neurobehavioral parameters of the Wistar rat offspring. The offspring showed no statistically significant changes in the physical and reflexology parameters evaluated. However, in adult rats, perinatally exposed to ayahuasca, an increase in frequency of entries in open arms in elevated plus-maze test, a decrease in total time of interaction in social interaction test, a decrease in time of latency for the animal to start swimming and a decrease of the minimum convulsant dose induced by pentylenetetrazol were observed. In conclusion, our results showed that the use of ayahuasca by mothers during pregnancy and lactation reduced the general anxiety and social motivation of the rat offspring. Besides, it promoted a higher sensitivity for initiation and spread of seizure activity.

  14. Effects of thyroxine on the migration of hippocampal neurons in newborn rat exposed to HTO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai Erpeng; Qiu Jun; Wang Yongsheng; Wu Cuiping; Yao Xiaobo; Wang Mingming

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To explore the effect of thyroxine (TH) on the migration of hippocampal neurons in newborn rat exposed to tritiated water (HTO). Methods: The hippocampal neurons from neonatal rats were primarily cultured, 7 days later, randomly divided into control group, HTO group, TH group and HTO + TH group (3.7 × 10 5 Bq/ml HTO and 0.3 μg/ml TH were simultaneously added). After 24 h, the distance of neuronal migration was measured with Leica AF 6000, the expressions of BDNF and Reelin mRNA in neurons were analyzed with reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), the expression of β-tubulin protein in neurons was assayed with Western blot and immunocytochemical staining. Results: Compared with control group, the expression of Reelin mRNA, BDNF mRNA and β-tubulin in HTO group were significantly reduced (t=5.80, 5.48, 5.47, P<0.01), but those in HTO + TH group and TH group were obviously increased (t=7.75, 12.06, 13.65, P<0.01; t=4.34, 5.47, 5.65, P<0.01) and higher than that in HTO group (t=2.92, 10.32, 8.76, P<0.01; t=18.07, 20.55, 40.13, P<0.01). Accordingly, the neuronal migration distance in HTO group was much shorter than that in control (t=8.62, P<0.01), and in HTO + TH group and TH group was far longer than that in control (t=7.64, 4.93, P<0.01). Moreover, the neuronal migration distance in HTO + TH group was notably elongated in comparison with that in HTO group (t=11.32, 12.31, P<0.01). Conclusions: Thyroxine may promote the migration of hippocampal neurons in newborn rat exposed to HTO. (authors)

  15. Responsiveness of cerebral and hepatic cytochrome P450s in rat offspring prenatally exposed to lindane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johri, Ashu; Yadav, Sanjay; Dhawan, Alok; Parmar, Devendra

    2008-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Prenatal exposure to low doses of lindane has been shown to affect the ontogeny of xenobiotic metabolizing cytochrome P450s (CYPs), involved in the metabolism and neurobehavioral toxicity of lindane. Attempts were made in the present study to investigate the responsiveness of CYPs in offspring prenatally exposed to lindane (0.25 mg/kg b. wt.; 1/350th of LD 50 ; p. o. to mother) when challenged with 3-methylcholanthrene (MC) or phenobarbital (PB), inducers of CYP1A and 2B families or a sub-convulsant dose of lindane (30 mg/kg b. wt., p. o.) later in life. Prenatal exposure to lindane was found to produce an increase in the mRNA and protein expression of CYP1A1, 1A2, 2B1, 2B2 isoforms in brain and liver of the offspring at postnatal day 50. The increased expression of the CYPs in the offspring suggests the sensitivity of the CYPs during postnatal development, possibly, to low levels of lindane, which may partition into mother's milk. A higher increase in expression of CYP1A and 2B isoenzymes and their catalytic activity was observed in animals pretreated prenatally with lindane and challenged with MC (30 mg/kg, i. p. x 5 days) or PB (80 mg/kg, i. p. x 5 days) when young at age (approx. 7 weeks) compared to animals exposed to MC or PB alone. Further, challenge of the control and prenatally exposed offspring with a single sub-convulsant dose of lindane resulted in an earlier onset and increased incidence of convulsions in the offspring prenatally exposed to lindane have demonstrated sensitivity of the CYPs in the prenatally exposed offspring. Our data assume significance as the subtle changes in the expression profiles of hepatic and cerebral CYPs in rat offspring during postnatal development could modify the adult response to a later exposure to xenobiotics

  16. The Effect of Chronic Methamphetamine Exposure on the Hippocampal and Olfactory Bulb Neuroproteomes of Rats.

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    Rui Zhu

    Full Text Available Nowadays, drug abuse and addiction are serious public health problems in the USA. Methamphetamine (METH is one of the most abused drugs and is known to cause brain damage after repeated exposure. In this paper, we conducted a neuroproteomic study to evaluate METH-induced brain protein dynamics, following a two-week chronic regimen of an escalating dose of METH exposure. Proteins were extracted from rat brain hippocampal and olfactory bulb tissues and subjected to liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS analysis. Both shotgun and targeted proteomic analysis were performed. Protein quantification was initially based on comparing the spectral counts between METH exposed animals and their control counterparts. Quantitative differences were further confirmed through multiple reaction monitoring (MRM LC-MS/MS experiments. According to the quantitative results, the expression of 18 proteins (11 in the hippocampus and 7 in the olfactory bulb underwent a significant alteration as a result of exposing rats to METH. 13 of these proteins were up-regulated after METH exposure while 5 were down-regulated. The altered proteins belonging to different structural and functional families were involved in processes such as cell death, inflammation, oxidation, and apoptosis.

  17. Losartan attenuates chronic cigarette smoke exposure-induced pulmonary arterial hypertension in rats: Possible involvement of angiotensin-converting enzyme-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Suxia; He Guangming; Wang Tao; Chen Lei; Ning Yunye; Luo Feng; An Jin; Yang Ting; Dong Jiajia; Liao Zenglin; Xu Dan; Wen Fuqiang

    2010-01-01

    Chronic cigarette smoking induces pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) by largely unknown mechanisms. Renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is known to function in the development of PAH. Losartan, a specific angiotensin II receptor antagonist, is a well-known antihypertensive drug with a potential role in regulating angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (ACE2), a recently found regulator of RAS. To determine the effect of losartan on smoke-induced PAH and its possible mechanism, rats were daily exposed to cigarette smoke for 6 months in the absence and in the presence of losartan. Elevated right ventricular systolic pressure (RVSP), thickened wall of pulmonary arteries with apparent medial hypertrophy along with increased angiotensin II (Ang II) and decreased ACE2 levels were observed in smoke-exposed-only rats. Losartan administration ameliorated pulmonary vascular remodeling, inhibited the smoke-induced RVSP and Ang II elevation and partially reversed the ACE2 decrease in rat lungs. In cultured primary pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) from 3- and 6-month smoke-exposed rats, ACE2 levels were significantly lower than in those from the control rats. Moreover, PASMCs from 6-month exposed rats proliferated more rapidly than those from 3-month exposed or control rats, and cells grew even more rapidly in the presence of DX600, an ACE2 inhibitor. Consistent with the in vivo study, in vitro losartan pretreatment also inhibited cigarette smoke extract (CSE)-induced cell proliferation and ACE2 reduction in rat PASMCs. The results suggest that losartan may be therapeutically useful in the chronic smoking-induced pulmonary vascular remodeling and PAH and ACE2 may be involved as part of its mechanism. Our study might provide insight into the development of new therapeutic interventions for PAH smokers.

  18. Peribronchiolar fibrosis in lungs of cats chronically exposed to diesel exhaust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyde, D.M.; Plopper, C.G.; Weir, A.J.; Murnane, R.D.; Warren, D.L.; Last, J.A.; Pepelko, W.E.

    1985-01-01

    This study reports the quantitative changes in the pulmonary proximal acinar region following chronic exposure to diesel exhaust and following an additional 6 months in clean air. Cats (13 months of age) from a minimum disease colony were exposed to clean air (eight cats for 27 months and nine cats for 33 months), diesel exhaust for 8 hours/day, 7 days/week (nine cats for 27 months), or diesel exhaust for 27 months followed by 6 months in clean air (10 cats). Morphologic and morphometric evaluation using light microscopy and scanning and transmission electron microscopy revealed two major exposure-related lesions in proximal acinar regions of lungs of cats: peribronchiolar fibrosis associated with significant increases in lymphocytes, fibroblasts, and interstitial macrophages containing diesel particulate-like inclusions and bronchiolar epithelial metaplasia associated with the presence of ciliated and basal cells and alveolar macrophages containing diesel particulate-like inclusions. Peribronchiolar fibrosis was greater at the end of the 6 months in clean air following exposure, whereas the bronchiolar epithelial metaplasia was most severe at the end of exposure. Following an additional 6 months in clean air the epithelium more closely resembled the control epithelial cell population. The labeling index of terminal bronchiolar epithelium was significantly increased at the end of exposure but was not significantly different from controls or exposed cats following an additional 6 months in clean air. The ultrastructural appearance of epithelial cells remained relatively unchanged following diesel exhaust exposure with the exception of diesel particulate-like inclusions

  19. Lung radiology and pulmonary function of children chronically exposed to air pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón-Garcidueñas, Lilian; Mora-Tiscareño, Antonieta; Fordham, Lynn A; Chung, Charles J; Valencia-Salazar, Gildardo; Flores-Gómez, Silvia; Solt, Anna C; Gomez-del Campo, Alberto; Jardón-Torres, Ricardo; Henríquez-Roldán, Carlos; Hazucha, Milan J; Reed, William

    2006-09-01

    We analyzed the chest radiographs (CXRs) of 249 clinically healthy children, 230 from southwest Mexico City and 19 from Tlaxcala. In contrast to children from Tlaxcala, children from southwest Mexico City were chronically exposed to ozone levels exceeding the U.S. National Ambient Air Quality Standards for an average of 4.7 hr/day and to concentrations of particulate matter (PM) with aerodynamic diameters chronic pulmonary disease later in life.

  20. Yohimbine reinstates extinguished 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA; ecstasy) seeking in rats with prior exposure to chronic yohimbine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Kevin T; Jarsocrak, Hanna; Hyacinthe, Johanna; Lambert, Justina; Lockowitz, James; Schrock, Jordan

    2015-11-01

    Although exposure to acute stress has been shown to reinstate extinguished responding for a wide variety of drugs, no studies have investigated stress-induced reinstatement in animals with a history of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA; ecstasy) self-administration. Thus, rats were trained to press a lever for MDMA (0.50 mg/kg/infusion) in daily sessions, and lever pressing was subsequently extinguished in the absence of MDMA and conditioned cues (light and tone). We then tested the ability of acute yohimbine (2.0 mg/kg), a pharmacological stressor, to reinstate lever-pressing under extinction conditions. Additionally, to model chronic stress, some rats were injected daily with yohimbine (5.0 mg/kg × 10 days) prior to reinstatement tests. To assess dopaminergic involvement, chronic yohimbine injections were combined with injections of SCH-23390 (0.0 or 10.0 μg/kg), a dopamine D1-like receptor antagonist. In a separate experiment, rats with a history of food self-administration were treated and tested in the same way. Results showed that acute yohimbine injections reinstated extinguished MDMA and food seeking, but only in rats with a history of chronic yohimbine exposure. Co-administration of SCH-23390 with chronic yohimbine injections prevented the potentiation of subsequent food seeking, but not MDMA seeking. These results suggest that abstinent MDMA users who also are exposed to chronic stress may be at increased risk for future relapse, and also that the effects of chronic stress on relapse may be mediated by different mechanisms depending on one's drug use history. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Changes in serum thioredoxin among individuals chronically exposed to arsenic in drinking water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yuanyuan; Gao, Yanhui; Zhao, Lijun; Wei, Yudan; Feng, Hongqi; Wang, Cheng; Wei, Wei; Ding, Yunpeng; Sun, Dianjun

    2012-01-01

    It is well known that oxidative damage plays a key role in the development of chronic arsenicosis. There is a complex set of mechanisms of redox cycling in vivo to protect cells from the damage. In this study, we examined the differences in the levels of serum thioredoxin1 (TRX1) among individuals exposed to different levels of arsenic in drinking water and detected early biomarkers of arsenic poisoning before the appearance of skin lesions. A total of 157 subjects from endemic regions of China were selected and divided into arsenicosis group with skin lesions (total intake of arsenic: 8.68–45.71 mg-year) and non-arsenicosis group without skin lesions, which further divided into low (0.00–1.06 mg-year), medium (1.37–3.55 mg-year), and high (4.26–48.13 mg-year) arsenic exposure groups. Concentrations of serum TRX1 were analyzed by an ELISA method. Levels of water arsenic and urinary speciated arsenics, including inorganic arsenic (iAs), monomethylated arsenic (MMA), and dimethylated arsenic (DMA), were determined by hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry. Our results showed that the levels of serum TRX1 in arsenicosis patients were significantly higher than that of the subjects who were chronically exposed to arsenic, but without skin lesions. A positive correlation was seen between the levels of serum TRX1 and the total water arsenic intake or the levels of urinary arsenic species. The results of this study indicate that arsenic exposure could significantly change the levels of human serum TRX1, which can be detected before arsenic-specific dermatological symptoms occur. This study provides further evidence on revealing the mechanism of arsenic toxicity. -- Highlights: ► Three regions are selected as the areas affected by endemic arsenicosis of China. ► We first examine changes in serum TRX1 among individuals exposed to arsenic. ► A positive correlation was seen between serum TRX1 and total water arsenic intake. ► The same relationship

  2. Changes in serum thioredoxin among individuals chronically exposed to arsenic in drinking water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yuanyuan; Gao, Yanhui; Zhao, Lijun [Center for Endemic Disease Control, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Harbin Medical University, Key Lab of Etiology and Epidemiology, Education Bureau of Hei Long Jiang Province and Ministry of Health (23618104), Harbin 150081 (China); Wei, Yudan [Department of Community Medicine, Mercer University School of Medicine, Macon 31207, GA (United States); Feng, Hongqi; Wang, Cheng; Wei, Wei; Ding, Yunpeng [Center for Endemic Disease Control, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Harbin Medical University, Key Lab of Etiology and Epidemiology, Education Bureau of Hei Long Jiang Province and Ministry of Health (23618104), Harbin 150081 (China); Sun, Dianjun, E-mail: hrbmusdj@163.com [Center for Endemic Disease Control, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Harbin Medical University, Key Lab of Etiology and Epidemiology, Education Bureau of Hei Long Jiang Province and Ministry of Health (23618104), Harbin 150081 (China)

    2012-02-15

    It is well known that oxidative damage plays a key role in the development of chronic arsenicosis. There is a complex set of mechanisms of redox cycling in vivo to protect cells from the damage. In this study, we examined the differences in the levels of serum thioredoxin1 (TRX1) among individuals exposed to different levels of arsenic in drinking water and detected early biomarkers of arsenic poisoning before the appearance of skin lesions. A total of 157 subjects from endemic regions of China were selected and divided into arsenicosis group with skin lesions (total intake of arsenic: 8.68–45.71 mg-year) and non-arsenicosis group without skin lesions, which further divided into low (0.00–1.06 mg-year), medium (1.37–3.55 mg-year), and high (4.26–48.13 mg-year) arsenic exposure groups. Concentrations of serum TRX1 were analyzed by an ELISA method. Levels of water arsenic and urinary speciated arsenics, including inorganic arsenic (iAs), monomethylated arsenic (MMA), and dimethylated arsenic (DMA), were determined by hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry. Our results showed that the levels of serum TRX1 in arsenicosis patients were significantly higher than that of the subjects who were chronically exposed to arsenic, but without skin lesions. A positive correlation was seen between the levels of serum TRX1 and the total water arsenic intake or the levels of urinary arsenic species. The results of this study indicate that arsenic exposure could significantly change the levels of human serum TRX1, which can be detected before arsenic-specific dermatological symptoms occur. This study provides further evidence on revealing the mechanism of arsenic toxicity. -- Highlights: ► Three regions are selected as the areas affected by endemic arsenicosis of China. ► We first examine changes in serum TRX1 among individuals exposed to arsenic. ► A positive correlation was seen between serum TRX1 and total water arsenic intake. ► The same relationship

  3. How does early maternal separation and chronic stress in adult rats affect the immunoreactivity of serotonergic neurons within the dorsal raphe nucleus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollano, Antonella; Trujillo, Verónica; Suárez, Marta M

    2018-01-01

    Vulnerability to emotional disorders like depression derives from interactions between early and late environments, including stressful conditions. The serotonin (5HT) system is strongly affected by stress and chronic unpredictable stress can alter the 5HT system. We evaluated the distribution of active serotonergic neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DR) through immunohistochemistry in maternally separated and chronically stressed rats treated with an antidepressant, tianeptine, whose mechanism of action is still under review. Male Wistar rats were subjected to daily maternal separation (MS) for 4.5 h between postnatal days (PND) 1-21, or to animal facility rearing (AFR). Between (PND) days 50-74, rats were exposed to chronic unpredictable stress and were treated daily with tianeptine (10 mg/kg) or vehicle. We found an interaction between the effects of MS and chronic unpredictable stress on Fos-5HT immunoreactive cells at mid-caudal level of the DR. MS-chronically stressed rats showed an increase of Fos-5HT immunoreactive cells compared with AFR-chronically stressed rats. The ventrolateral (DRL/VLPAG) and dorsal (DRD) subdivisions of the DR were significantly more active than the ventral part (DRV). At the rostral level of the DR, tianeptine decreased the number of Fos-5HT cells in DR in the AFR groups, both unstressed and stressed. Overall, our results support the idea of a match in phenotype exhibited when the early and the adult environment correspond.

  4. Interactive effects of chronic stress and a high-sucrose diet on nonalcoholic fatty liver in young adult male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corona-Pérez, Adriana; Díaz-Muñoz, Mauricio; Cuevas-Romero, Estela; Luna-Moreno, Dalia; Valente-Godínez, Héctor; Vázquez-Martínez, Olivia; Martínez-Gómez, Margarita; Rodríguez-Antolín, Jorge; Nicolás-Toledo, Leticia

    2017-11-01

    Glucocorticoids have been implicated in nonalcoholic fatty liver diseases (NAFLD). The influence of a palatable diet on the response to stress is controversial. This study explored whether a high-sucrose diet could protect from hepatic steatosis induced by chronic restraint stress in young adult rats. Male Wistar rats aged 21 days were allocated into four groups (n = 6-8 per group): control, chronic restraint stress, 30% sucrose diet, and 30% sucrose diet plus chronic restraint stress. After being exposed to either tap water or sucrose solution during eight weeks, half of the rats belonging to each group were subject or not to repeated restraint stress (1 h per day, 5 days per week) during four weeks. Triacylglycerol (TAG), oxidative stress, activity of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD-1), infiltration of immune cells, and glycogen amount in the liver were quantified. Serum concentrations of corticosterone and testosterone were also measured. The stressed group showed normal serum concentrations of corticosterone and did not have hepatic steatosis. However, this group showed increased glycogen, inflammation, mild fibrosis, oxidative stress, and a high activity of 11β-HSD-1 in the liver. The group exposed to the high-sucrose diet had lower concentrations of corticosterone, hepatic steatosis and moderate fibrosis. The group subject to high-sucrose diet plus chronic restraint stress showed low concentrations of corticosterone, hepatic steatosis, oxidative stress, and high concentrations of testosterone. Thus, restraint stress and a high-sucrose diet each generate different components of nonalcoholic fatty liver in young adult rats. The combination of both the factors could promote a faster development of NAFLD.

  5. Concentration of hepatic vitamins A and E in rats exposed to chlorpyrifos and/or enrofloxacin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spodniewska, A; Barski, D

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the level of antioxidant vitamins A and E in the liver of rats exposed to chlorpyrifos and/or enrofloxacin. Chlorpyrifos (Group I) was administered at a dose of 0.04 LD50 (6 mg/kg b.w.) for 28 days, and enrofloxacin (Group II) at a dose of 5 mg/kg b.w. for 5 consecutive days. The animals of group III were given both of the mentioned above compounds at the same manner as groups I and II, but enrofloxacin was applied to rats for the last 5 days of chlorpyrifos exposure (i.e. on day 24, 25, 26, 27 and 28). Chlorpyrifos and enrofloxacin were administered to rats intragastrically via a gastric tube. The quantitative determination of vitamins was made by the HPLC method. The results of this study indicated a reduction in the hepatic concentrations of vitamins A and E, compared to the control, which sustained for the entire period of the experiment. The four-week administration of chlorpyrifos to rats resulted in a significant decrease of vitamins in the initial period of the experiment, i.e. up to 24 hours after exposure. For vitamin A the maximum drop was observed after 24 hours (19.24%) and for vitamin E after 6 hours (23.19%). Enrofloxacin caused a slight (3-9%) reduction in the level of the analysed vitamins. In the chlorpyrifos-enrofloxacin co-exposure group reduced vitamins A and E levels were also noted, but changes in this group were less pronounced in comparison to the animals intoxicated with chlorpyrifos only. The decrease in the antioxidant vitamin levels, particularly noticeable in the chlorpyrifos- and the chlorpyrifos combined with enrofloxacin-treated groups, may result not only from the increase in the concentration of free radicals, but also from the intensification of the secondary stages of lipid peroxidation.

  6. Alterations of metallothionein isomers in Hg{sup 0}-exposed rat brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasutake, A. [Biochemistry Section, National Institute for Minamata Disease, Minamata, Kumamoto 867-0008 (Japan); Nagano, M. [Morikawa Kenkodo Co., Ltd., 2170 Taguchi, Kosa, Kamimashiki, Kumamoto 861-4616 (Japan); Hirayama, K. [Kumamoto University College of Medical Science, Kuhonji, Kumamoto 862-0976 (Japan)

    2003-01-01

    Previously we found that exposure to mercury vapor effectively induced brain metallothionein (MT) in rats. Here, using FPLC-gel chromatography, we examined time-dependent alterations in the MT isomers, MT-I/II and MT-III, following 3 weeks of exposure. Rats were exposed to mercury vapor at 8.3 mg/m{sup 3} for 15 h in total over 5 consecutive days. Total MT levels in rat cerebrum and cerebellum increased by 65% and 155%, respectively, 24 h after the final exposure. The increased levels in both tissues remained unchanged for at least 2 weeks after termination of exposure. Interestingly, most MT in control rat cerebrum and cerebellum was accounted for by MT-III, with MT-I/II being less than 10%. Through mercury vapor exposure, MT-I/II was quickly induced to a significant extent in both tissues, reaching a level comparable to that of MT-III. The induction rate of MT-I/II in the cerebellum was somewhat higher than in the cerebrum. Chromatograms showed that the MT-I/II thus induced began to decline at an early stage in both tissues. In the cerebrum, the amount of MT-I/II on day 22 was about 30% of the maximum level on day 1. On the other hand, the induction of MT-III was not that dramatic, but it did become evident, at least in the latter stage, when MT-I/II had begun to decrease. Thus, though the induction rate of MT-III was not as high as MT-I/II, it was sustained throughout the experimental period. (orig.)

  7. Developmental disruption of amygdala transcriptome and socioemotional behavior in rats exposed to valproic acid prenatally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Catherine E; Hennessey, Thomas M; Gordon, Katelyn M; Ryan, Steve J; McNair, Morgan L; Ressler, Kerry J; Rainnie, Donald G

    2017-01-01

    The amygdala controls socioemotional behavior and has consistently been implicated in the etiology of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Precocious amygdala development is commonly reported in ASD youth with the degree of overgrowth positively correlated to the severity of ASD symptoms. Prenatal exposure to VPA leads to an ASD phenotype in both humans and rats and has become a commonly used tool to model the complexity of ASD symptoms in the laboratory. Here, we examined abnormalities in gene expression in the amygdala and socioemotional behavior across development in the valproic acid (VPA) rat model of ASD. Rat dams received oral gavage of VPA (500 mg/kg) or saline daily between E11 and 13. Socioemotional behavior was tracked across development in both sexes. RNA sequencing and proteomics were performed on amygdala samples from male rats across development. Effects of VPA on time spent in social proximity and anxiety-like behavior were sex dependent, with social abnormalities presenting in males and heightened anxiety in females. Across time VPA stunted developmental and immune, but enhanced cellular death and disorder, pathways in the amygdala relative to saline controls. At postnatal day 10, gene pathways involved in nervous system and cellular development displayed predicted activations in prenatally exposed VPA amygdala samples. By juvenile age, however, transcriptomic and proteomic pathways displayed reductions in cellular growth and neural development. Alterations in immune pathways, calcium signaling, Rho GTPases, and protein kinase A signaling were also observed. As behavioral, developmental, and genomic alterations are similar to those reported in ASD, these results lend support to prenatal exposure to VPA as a useful tool for understanding how developmental insults to molecular pathways in the amygdala give rise to ASD-related syndromes.

  8. Antioxidant Role of Pomegranates on Liver and Brain Tissues of Rats Exposed to an Organophosphorus Insecticide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd Elmonem, H.A.

    2014-01-01

    Toxicities of organophosphorus insecticides cause oxidative damage on many organs such as the liver and brain due to generation of reactive oxygen species. Pomegranate is among the richest fruit in poly - phenols. The aim of this study was to compare between the antioxidant strength of pomegranate juice (PJ) and pomegranate molasses (PM) and their effects on alanine transferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and total protein (TP) in liver and levels of malondialdehyde (MAD), reduced glutathione (GSH) and nitric oxide (NO) in rat liver and brain tissues exposed to 1/10 LD 50 diazinon (DI). Six groups each of 6 male albino rats were used comprising control, DI, PJ, PM, PJ + DI and PM + DI for 15 days. The activities of ALT, AST, and TP concentration in liver have been increased due to treatment of rats with DI. These increases restored to normalcy when rats were supplemented with PJ or PM with DI. The results demonstrate that treatment with DI induced significant increase in MDA and NO concentrations and significant decrease in GSH levels of liver and brain tissues. The administration of PJ or PM along with DI significant decrease in MDA and NO levels and significant increase in GSH level compared to DI-group. The present study suggest that PJ or PM has a potential protective effect as it can elevate antioxidant defense system, lessens induced oxidative dam - ages and protect the brain and liver tissue against DI-induced toxicity. In addition, comaring PJ with PM it was noticed that PJ had higher antioxidant activity as evidenced by increased GSH content and decreased NO level in the liver by greater extend than PM.

  9. Ex vivo exposure of bone marrow from chronic kidney disease donor rats to pravastatin limits renal damage in recipient rats with chronic kidney disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koppen, A. van; Papazova, D.A.; Oosterhuis, N.R.; Gremmels, H.; Giles, R.H.; Fledderus, J.O.; Joles, J.A.; Verhaar, M.C.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Healthy bone marrow cell (BMC) infusion improves renal function and limits renal injury in a model of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in rats. However, BMCs derived from rats with CKD fail to retain beneficial effects, demonstrating limited therapeutic efficacy. Statins have been reported

  10. Ex vivo exposure of bone marrow from chronic kidney disease donor rats to pravastatin limits renal damage in recipient rats with chronic kidney disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Koppen, Arianne; Papazova, Diana A.; Oosterhuis, Nynke R.; Gremmels, Hendrik; Giles, Rachel H.; Fledderus, Joost O.; Joles, Jaap A.; Verhaar, Marianne C.

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Healthy bone marrow cell (BMC) infusion improves renal function and limits renal injury in a model of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in rats. However, BMCs derived from rats with CKD fail to retain beneficial effects, demonstrating limited therapeutic efficacy. Statins have been reported

  11. Femur-bending properties as influenced by gravity. V - Strength vs. calcium and gravity in rats exposed for 2 weeks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wunder, Charles C.; Cook, Kenneth M.; Watkins, Stanley R.; Moressi, William J.

    1987-01-01

    The dependence of gravitationally related changes in femur bone strength on the comparable changes in calcium content was investigated in rats exposed to chronic simulations of altered gravity from the 28th to 42nd day of age. Zero G was simulated by harness suspension and 3 G by centrifugation. Bone strength (S) was determined by bending (using modified quasi-static cantilever bending methods and equipment described by Wunder et al., 1977 and 1979) and Ca content (C, by mass pct) determined by atomic absorption spectrometry; results were compared with data obtained on both normal and harnessed control animals at 1 G. Multiple regression showed significant dependence of S upon earth's gravity, independent from C, for which there was no significant coefficient of partial regression. It is suggested that the lack of S/C correlation might have been due to the fact that considerable fraction of the calcium in these young, developing bones has not yet crystallized into the hydroxyapatite which provides strength.

  12. Chronic marijuana smoke exposure in the rhesus monkey. IV: Neurochemical effects and comparison to acute and chronic exposure to delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, S F; Newport, G D; Scallet, A C; Paule, M G; Bailey, J R; Slikker, W

    1991-11-01

    THC is the major psychoactive constituent of marijuana and is known to produce psychopharmacological effects in humans. These studies were designed to determine whether acute or chronic exposure to marijuana smoke or THC produces in vitro or in vivo neurochemical alterations in rat or monkey brain. For the in vitro study, THC was added (1-100 nM) to membranes prepared from different regions of the rat brain and muscarinic cholinergic (MCh) receptor binding was measured. For the acute in vivo study, rats were injected IP with vehicle, 1, 3, 10, or 30 mg THC/kg and sacrificed 2 h later. For the chronic study, rats were gavaged with vehicle or 10 or 20 mg THC/kg daily, 5 days/week for 90 days and sacrificed either 24 h or 2 months later. Rhesus monkeys were exposed to the smoke of a single 2.6% THC cigarette once a day, 2 or 7 days a week for 1 year. Approximately 7 months after the last exposure, animals were sacrificed by overdose with pentobarbital for neurochemical analyses. In vitro exposure to THC produced a dose-dependent inhibition of MCh receptor binding in several brain areas. This inhibition of MCh receptor binding, however, was also observed with two other nonpsychoactive derivatives of marijuana, cannabidiol and cannabinol. In the rat in vivo study, we found no significant changes in MCh or other neurotransmitter receptor binding in hippocampus, frontal cortex or caudate nucleus after acute or chronic exposure to THC. In the monkey brain, we found no alterations in the concentration of neurotransmitters in caudate nucleus, frontal cortex, hypothalamus or brain stem.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  13. Effects of fluoxetine on CRF and CRF1 expression in rats exposed to the learned helplessness paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández Macedo, Georgina Valeria; Cladouchos, María Laura; Sifonios, Laura; Cassanelli, Pablo Martín; Wikinski, Silvia

    2013-02-01

    Stress is a common antecedent reported by people suffering major depression. In these patients, extrahypothalamic brain areas, like the hippocampus and basolateral amygdala (BLA), have been found to be affected. The BLA synthesizes CRF, a mediator of the stress response, and projects to hippocampus. The main hippocampal target for this peptide is the CRF subtype 1 receptor (CRF1). Evidence points to a relationship between dysregulation of CRF/CRF1 extrahypothalamic signaling and depression. Because selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are the first-line pharmacological treatment for depression, we investigated the effect of chronic treatment with the SSRI fluoxetine on long-term changes in CRF/CRF1 signaling in animals showing a depressive-like behavior. Male Wistar rats were exposed to the learned helplessness paradigm (LH). After evaluation of behavioral impairment, the animals were treated with fluoxetine (10 mg/kg i.p.) or saline for 21 days. We measured BLA CRF expression with RT-PCR and CRF1 expression in CA3 and the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus with in situ hybridization. We also studied the activation of one of CRF1's major intracellular signaling targets, the extracellular signal-related kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) in CA3. In saline-treated LH animals, CRF expression in the BLA increased, while hippocampal CRF1 expression and ERK1/2 activation decreased. Treatment with fluoxetine reversed the changes in CRF and CRF1 expressions, but not in ERK1/2 activation. In animals exposed to the learned helplessness paradigm, there are long-term changes in CRF and CRF1 expression that are restored with a behaviorally effective antidepressant treatment.

  14. Biochemical parameters of pregnant rats and their offspring exposed to different doses of inorganic mercury in drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Cláudia S; Oliveira, Vitor A; Ineu, Rafael P; Moraes-Silva, Lucélia; Pereira, Maria E

    2012-07-01

    This work investigated the effects of low and high doses of inorganic mercury in drinking water on biochemical parameters of pregnant rats and their offspring. Female Wistar rats were treated during pregnancy with 0, 0.2, 0.5, 10 or 50 μg Hg(2+)/mL as HgCl(2). Rats were euthanized on day 20 of pregnancy. Pregnant rats presented a decrease in total water intake in all doses of mercury tested. At high doses, a decrease in the total food intake and in body weight gain was observed. Pregnant rats exposed to 50 μg Hg(2+)/mL presented an increase in kidney relative weight. Mercury exposure did not change serum urea and creatinine levels in any of the doses tested. Moreover, mercury exposure did not change porphobilinogen synthase activity of kidney, liver and placenta from pregnant rats in any of the doses tested, whereas fetuses of pregnant rats exposed to 50 μg Hg(2+)/mL presented an increase in the hepatic porphobilinogen synthase activity. In general, pregnant rats presented alterations due to HgCl(2) exposure in drinking water. However, only the dose 50 μg Hg(2+)/mL appeared to be enough to cross the blood-placenta barrier, since at this dose the fetuses presented change in the porphobilinogen synthase activity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Chronic inflammation modulates ghrelin levels in humans and rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otero, M; Nogueiras, R; Lago, F; Dieguez, C; Gomez-Reino, J J; Gualillo, O

    2004-03-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate whether changes in plasma ghrelin, the recently discovered 28-amino acid gastric hormone that regulates growth hormone (GH) secretion and energy homeostasis, occur during inflammation in adjuvant-induced arthritis (AA) in rats. For completeness, ghrelin plasma levels were measured in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. AA was induced in male Lewis rats using Freund's complete adjuvant. Animals were monitored for weight and food intake, every 2 or 3 days, along all time-course experiments. Plasma ghrelin concentrations in 31 RA patients and 18 healthy controls, as well as in rats, were determined by a specific double-antibody radioimmunoassay. Gastric ghrelin mRNA expression was evaluated by northern blot analysis. Human GH and insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 were determined by quantitative chemiluminescence assay. Compared with controls, arthritic rats gained significantly (P Ghrelin plasma levels were significantly lower at day 7 after arthritis induction than in controls (AA 7 = 91.2 +/- 5.6 pg/ml vs controls = 124.75 +/- 5.9 pg/ml), but they recovered to control levels by day 15. RA patients had ghrelin plasma levels significantly lower than healthy controls (RA = 24.54 +/- 2.57 pg/ml vs 39.01 +/- 4.47 pg/ml of healthy controls; P = 0.0041). In AA, there is a compensatory variation of ghrelin levels that relates to body weight adjustments. Recovery of ghrelin levels in the latter stage suggests an adaptive response and may represent a compensatory mechanism under catabolic conditions. In RA patients, chronic imbalance in ghrelin levels suggests that this gastric hormone may participate, together with other factors, in alterations of metabolic status during inflammatory stress.

  16. History of chronic stress modifies acute stress-evoked fear memory and acoustic startle in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmeltzer, Sarah N; Vollmer, Lauren L; Rush, Jennifer E; Weinert, Mychal; Dolgas, Charles M; Sah, Renu

    2015-01-01

    Chronicity of trauma exposure plays an important role in the pathophysiology of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Thus, exposure to multiple traumas on a chronic scale leads to worse outcomes than acute events. The rationale for the current study was to investigate the effects of a single adverse event versus the same event on a background of chronic stress. We hypothesized that a history of chronic stress would lead to worse behavioral outcomes than a single event alone. Male rats (n = 14/group) were exposed to either a single traumatic event in the form of electric foot shocks (acute shock, AS), or to footshocks on a background of chronic stress (chronic variable stress-shock, CVS-S). PTSD-relevant behaviors (fear memory and acoustic startle responses) were measured following 7 d recovery. In line with our hypothesis, CVS-S elicited significant increases in fear acquisition and conditioning versus the AS group. Unexpectedly, CVS-S elicited reduced startle reactivity to an acoustic stimulus in comparison with the AS group. Significant increase in FosB/ΔFosB-like immunostaining was observed in the dentate gyrus, basolateral amygdala and medial prefrontal cortex of CVS-S rats. Assessments of neuropeptide Y (NPY), a stress-regulatory transmitter associated with chronic PTSD, revealed selective reduction in the hippocampus of CVS-S rats. Collectively, our data show that cumulative stress potentiates delayed fear memory and impacts defensive responding. Altered neuronal activation in forebrain limbic regions and reduced NPY may contribute to these phenomena. Our preclinical studies support clinical findings reporting worse PTSD outcomes stemming from cumulative traumatization in contrast to acute trauma.

  17. Effect of administration of vitamins C and E on fertilization capacity of rats exposed to noise stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghasem Saki

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to evaluate the effects of administration of Vitamins C and E on fertilization capacity in rats exposed to noise stress. 40 adult male rats were randomly divided into 5 equal groups. Group 1 as controls who were not exposed to noise and groups 2-5 exposed to noise with 90-120 dB intensity and 300-350 Hz frequency from 7 pm to 7 am everyday for 50 days. Group 2 exposed to noise and did not receive Vitamins. Group 3 received vitamin C, Group 4 received Vitamin E. Group 5 received Vitamins C and E concomitantly. After 50 days, serum Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH, Luteinizing hormone (LH and testosterone were calculated. Then each rat was left with three female rats for mating. Pregnant females were sacrificed on the 19 th day of pregnancy and evaluated for the presence and number of viable, dead and absorbed fetuses. The level of FSH, LH and testosterone significantly decreased in rats exposed to noise (P < 0.05. By administration of Vitamins in groups 3-5 we observed that the level of hormones significantly increased in compared to group 2 (P < 0.05. The fertilization capacity of male rats in groups 3-5 significantly increased in compared to group 2 (P < 0.05. There was significant difference between groups 1 and 2 in case of fertilization capacity (P = 0.001. The data in this study strongly suggests a negative role for noise stress on level of FSH, LH and testosterone level and also fertilization capacity of male rats. To complement the information it is suggested that this research be done on human samples.

  18. Short- and long-term antidepressant effects of ketamine in a rat chronic unpredictable stress model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yinghong; Wang, Yiqiang; Sun, Xiaoran; Lian, Bo; Sun, Hongwei; Wang, Gang; Du, Zhongde; Li, Qi; Sun, Lin

    2017-08-01

    This research was aimed to evaluate the behaviors of short- or long-term antidepressant effects of ketamine in rats exposed to chronic unpredictable stress (CUS). Ketamine, a glutamate noncompetitive NMDA receptor antagonist, regulates excitatory amino acid functions, such as anxiety disorders and major depression, and plays an important role in synaptic plasticity and learning and memory. After 42 days of CUS model, male rats received either a single injection of ketamine (10 mg/kg; day 43) or 15 daily injections (days 43-75). The influence of ketamine on behavioral reactivity was assessed 24 hr (short-term) or 7 weeks after ketamine treatment (long-term). Behavioral tests used to assess the effects of these treatments included the sucrose preference (SP), open field (OF), elevated plus maze (EPM), forced swimming (FS), and water maze (WM) to detect anxiety-like behavior (OF and EPM), forced swimming (FS), and water maze (WM). Results: Short-term ketamine administration resulted in increases of body weight gain, higher sensitivity to sucrose, augmented locomotor activity in the OF, more entries into the open arms of the EPM, along increased activity in the FS test; all responses indicative of reductions in depression/despair in anxiety-eliciting situations. No significant differences in these behaviors were obtained under conditions of long-term ketamine administration ( p  > .05). The CUS + Ketamine group showed significantly increased activity as compared with the CUS + Vehicle group for analysis of the long-term effects of ketamine (* p   .05). Taken together these findings demonstrate that a short-term administration of ketamine induced rapid antidepressant-like effects in adult male rats exposed to CUS conditions, effects that were not observed in response to the long-term treatment regime.

  19. Curative effect of sesame oil in a rat model of chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chuan-Teng; Chien, Se-Ping; Hsu, Dur-Zong; Periasamy, Srinivasan; Liu, Ming-Yie

    2015-12-01

    Chronic kidney disease causes a progressive and irreversible loss of renal function. We investigated the curative effect of sesame oil, a natural, nutrient-rich, potent antioxidant, in a rat model of chronic kidney disease. Chronic kidney disease was induced by subcutaneously injecting uni-nephrectomized rats with deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA) and 1% NaCl [DOCA/salt] in drinking water. Four weeks later, the rats were gavaged with sesame oil (0.5 or 1 mL/kg per day) for 7 days. Renal injury, histopathological changes, hydroxyl radical, peroxynitrite, lipid peroxidation, Nrf2, osteopontin expression, and collagen were assessed 24 h after the last dose of sesame oil. Blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, urine volume, and albuminuria were significantly higher in the DOCA/salt treated rats than in control rats. Sesame oil significantly decreased these four tested parameters in DOCA/salt treated rats. In addition, creatinine clearance rate and nuclear Nrf2 expression were significantly decreased in the DOCA/salt treated rats compared to control rats. Sesame oil significantly decreased hydroxyl radical, peroxynitrite level, lipid peroxidation, osteopontin, and renal collagen deposition, but increased creatinine clearance rate and nuclear Nrf2 expression in DOCA/salt treated rats. We conclude that supplementation of sesame oil mitigates DOCA/salt induced chronic kidney disease in rats by activating Nrf2 and attenuating osteopontin expression and inhibiting renal fibrosis in rats. © 2015 Asian Pacific Society of Nephrology.

  20. Chronic exposure to zinc oxide nanoparticles increases ischemic-reperfusion injuries in isolated rat hearts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milivojević, Tamara; Drobne, Damjana; Romih, Tea; Mali, Lilijana Bizjak [University of Ljubljana, Department of Biology, Biotechnical Faculty (Slovenia); Marin, Irena; Lunder, Mojca; Drevenšek, Gorazd, E-mail: gorazd.drevensek@mf.uni-lj.si [University of Ljubljana, Institute of Pharmacology and Experimental Toxicology, Faculty of Medicine (Slovenia)

    2016-10-15

    The use of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) in numerous products is increasing, although possible negative implications of their long-term consumption are not known yet. Our aim was to evaluate the chronic, 6-week oral exposure to two different concentrations of ZnO NPs on isolated rat hearts exposed to ischemic-reperfusion injury and on small intestine morphology. Wistar rats of both sexes (n = 18) were randomly divided into three groups: (1) 4 mg/kg ZnO NPs, (2) 40 mg/kg ZnO NPs, and (3) control. After 6 weeks of treatment, the hearts were isolated, the left ventricular pressure (LVP), the coronary flow (CF), the duration of arrhythmias and the lactate dehydrogenase release rate (LDH) were measured. A histological investigation of the small intestine was performed. Chronic exposure to ZnO NPs acted cardiotoxic dose-dependently. ZnO NPs in dosage 40 mg/kg maximally decreased LVP (3.3-fold) and CF (2.5-fold) and increased the duration of ventricular tachycardia (all P < 0.01) compared to control, whereas ZnO NPs in dosage 4 mg/kg acted less cardiotoxic. Goblet cells in the small intestine epithelium of rats, treated with 40 mg ZnO NPs/kg, were enlarged, swollen and numerous, the intestinal epithelium width was increased. Unexpectedly, ZnO NPs in both dosages significantly decreased LDH. A 6-week oral exposure to ZnO NPs dose-dependently increased heart injuries and caused irritation of the intestinal mucosa. A prolonged exposure to ZnO NPs might cause functional damage to the heart even with exposures to the recommended daily doses, which should be tested in future studies.

  1. Dose-response study in F344 rats exposed to (U,Pu)O2 or PuO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mewhinney, J.A.; Eidson, A.F.; Hahn, F.F.; Scott, B.R.; Seiler, F.A.; Boecker, B.B.

    1987-01-01

    The relationship of radiation dose to lung and the biological effect observed was investigated following inhalation of two types of plutonium-containing particulate materials in rats. Bulk powder samples of the two materials were obtained from within gloveboxes used in the routine manufacture of mixed plutonium and uranium oxide nuclear fuel. The materials were a solid solution of uranium and plutonium treated at 1750 0 C and a PuO 2 feedstock. Groups of rats received a single inhalation exposure to a material to achieve one of three levels of initial pulmonary burden. Rats were maintained for their lifespan to observe the biological effects produced. These effects were observed in the lungs of rats exposed to either type of particle. The same types of lung cancer were produced by both particulate materials. The incidences of cancers were also similar at comparable levels of initial pulmonary burden for the two materials. The crude incidence of lung cancers for rats exposed to these materials was not different than those reported for similar studies that used laboratory-produced aerosols of PuO 2 . Using a linear dose-effect model, the relative risk of lung cancer for rats exposed to these industrial materials was 2.3 +- 1.0 (SE) at a lung dose of 100 rad. The doubling dose for lung cancers was 78 +- 63 rad to lung to median life span. 21 refs., 9 figs., 10 tabs

  2. Ultrastructural nasal pathology in children chronically and sequentially exposed to air pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón-Garcidueñas, L; Valencia-Salazar, G; Rodríguez-Alcaraz, A; Gambling, T M; García, R; Osnaya, N; Villarreal-Calderón, A; Devlin, R B; Carson, J L

    2001-02-01

    Southwest Metropolitan Mexico City (SWMMC) children are repeatedly exposed to a complex mixture of air pollutants, including ozone, particulate matter, and aldehydes. Nasal biopsies taken from these children exhibit a wide range of histopathologic alterations: marked changes in ciliated and goblet cell populations, basal cell hyperplasia, squamous metaplasia, and mild dysplasias. We studied the ultrastructural features of 15 nasal biopsies obtained from clinically healthy children 4 to 15 yr of age, growing up in SWMMC. The results were compared with nasal biopsies from 11 children growing up in Veracruz and exposed to low pollutant levels. Ultrathin sections of nasal biopsies revealed an unremarkable mucociliary epithelium in control children, whereas SWMMC children showed an epithelium comprised of variable numbers of basal, ciliated, goblet, and squamous metaplastic as well as intermediate cells. Nascent ciliated cells, as evidenced by the presence of migratory kinetosomes, were common, as were ciliary abnormalities, including absent central microtubules, supernumerary central and peripheral tubules, ciliary microtubular discontinuities, and compound cilia. Dyskinesia associated with these abnormal cilia was suggested by the altered orientation of the central microtubules in closely adjacent cilia. A transudate was evident between epithelial cells, suggesting potential deficiencies in epithelial junction integrity. Particulate matter was present in heterolysosomal bodies in epithelial cells and it was also deposited in intercellular spaces. The severe structural alteration of the nasal epithelium together with the prominent acquired ciliary defects are likely the result of chronic airway injury in which ozone, particulate matter, and aldehydes are thought to play a crucial role. The nasal epithelium in SWMMC children is fundamentally disordered, and their mucociliary defense mechanisms are no longer intact. A compromised nasal epithelium has less ability to

  3. Failure to produce taste-aversion learning in rats exposed to static electric fields and air ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Creim, J.A.; Lovely, R.H.; Weigel, R.J.; Forsythe, W.C.; Anderson, L.E. [Pacific Northwest Labs., Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-12-01

    Taste-aversion (TA) learning was measured to determine whether exposure to high-voltage direct current (HVdc) static electric fields can produce TA learning in male Long Evans rats. Fifty-six rats were randomly distributed into four groups of 14 rats each. All rats were placed on a 20 min/day drinking schedule for 12 consecutive days prior to receiving five conditioning trials. During the conditioning trials, access to 0.1% sodium saccharin-flavored water was given for 20 min, followed 30 min later by one of four treatments. Two groups of 14 rats each were individually exposed to static electric fields and air ions, one group to +75 kV/m (+2 {times} 10{sup 5} air ions/cm{sup 3}) and the other group to {minus}75 kV/m ({minus}2 {times} 10{sup 5} air ions/cm{sup 3}). Two other groups of 14 rats each served as sham-exposed controls, with the following variation in one of the sham-exposed groups: this group was subdivided into two subsets of seven rats each, so that a positive control group could be included to validate the experimental design. The positive control group (n = 7) was injected with cyclophosphamide 25 mg/kg, i.p., 30 min after access to saccharin-flavored water on conditioning days, whereas the other subset of seven rats was similarly injected with an equivalent volume of saline. Access to saccharin-flavored water on conditioning days was followed by the treatments described above and was alternated daily with water recovery sessions in which the rats received access to water for 20 min in the home cage without further treatment. Following the last water-recovery session, a 20 min, two-bottle preference test (between water and saccharin-flavored water) was administered to each group. The positive control group did show TA learning, thus validating the experimental protocol.

  4. Intersex occurrence in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss male fry chronically exposed to ethynylestradiol.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Depiereux

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the male-to-female morphological and physiological transdifferentiation process in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss exposed to exogenous estrogens. The first objective was to elucidate whether trout develop intersex gonads under exposure to low levels of estrogen. To this end, the gonads of an all-male population of fry exposed chronically (from 60 to 136 days post fertilization--dpf to several doses (from environmentally relevant 0.01 µg/L to supra-environmental levels: 0.1, 1 and 10 µg/L of the potent synthetic estrogen ethynylestradiol (EE2 were examined histologically. The morphological evaluations were underpinned by the analysis of gonad steroid (testosterone, estradiol and 11-ketotestosterone levels and of brain and gonad gene expression, including estrogen-responsive genes and genes involved in sex differentiation in (gonads: cyp19a1a, ER isoforms, vtg, dmrt1, sox9a2; sdY; cyp11b; brain: cyp19a1b, ER isoforms. Intersex gonads were observed from the first concentration used (0.01 µg EE2/L and sexual inversion could be detected from 0.1 µg EE2/L. This was accompanied by a linear decrease in 11-KT levels, whereas no effect on E2 and T levels was observed. Q-PCR results from the gonads showed downregulation of testicular markers (dmrt1, sox9a2; sdY; cyp11b with increasing EE2 exposure concentrations, and upregulation of the female vtg gene. No evidence was found for a direct involvement of aromatase in the sex conversion process. The results from this study provide evidence that gonads of male trout respond to estrogen exposure by intersex formation and, with increasing concentration, by morphological and physiological conversion to phenotypic ovaries. However, supra-environmental estrogen concentrations are needed to induce these changes.

  5. Hepatic Proteome Sensitivity in Rainbow Trout after Chronically Exposed to a Human Pharmaceutical Verapamil*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhi-Hua; Li, Ping; Sulc, Miroslav; Hulak, Martin; Randak, Tomas

    2012-01-01

    Verapamil (VRP), a cardiovascular pharmaceutical widely distributed and persistent in the aquatic environment, has potential toxicity to fish and other aquatic organisms. However, the molecular mechanisms that lead to these toxic effects are not well known. In the present study, proteomic analysis has been performed to investigate the protein patterns that are differentially expressed in liver of rainbow trout exposed to sublethal concentrations of VRP (0.5, 27.0, and 270 μg/liter) for 42 days. Two-dimensional electrophoresis coupled with MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry was employed to detect and identify the protein profiles. The analysis revealed that the expression of six hepatic acidic proteins were markedly altered in the treatment groups compared with the control group; three proteins especially were significantly down-regulated in fish exposed to VRP at environmental related concentration (0.5 μg/liter). These results suggested that the VRP induce mechanisms against oxidative stress (glucose-regulated protein 78 and 94 and protein disulfide-isomerase A3) and adaptive changes in ion transference regulation (calreticulin, hyperosmotic glycine-rich protein). Furthermore, for the first time, protein Canopy-1 was found to be significantly down-regulated in fish by chronic exposure to VRP at environmental related levels. Overall, our work supports that fish hepatic proteomics analysis serves as an in vivo model for monitoring the residual pharmaceuticals in aquatic environment and can provide valuable insight into the molecular events in VRP-induced toxicity in fish and other organisms. PMID:21997734

  6. Alteration of cytokine profiles in mice exposed to chronic low-dose ionizing radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Suk Chul [Radiation Health Research Institute, Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Ltd., 388-1, Ssangmun-dong, Dobong-gu, Seoul 132-703 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kyung-Mi [Global Research Lab, BAERI Institute, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul 136-705 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Yu Mi [Radiation Health Research Institute, Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Ltd., 388-1, Ssangmun-dong, Dobong-gu, Seoul 132-703 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kwanghee [Global Research Lab, BAERI Institute, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul 136-705 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Cha Soon; Yang, Kwang Hee; Jin, Young-Woo [Radiation Health Research Institute, Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Ltd., 388-1, Ssangmun-dong, Dobong-gu, Seoul 132-703 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Chong Soon [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Haeundae Paik Hospital, Inje University, Busan 612-030 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hee Sun, E-mail: hskimdvm@khnp.co.kr [Radiation Health Research Institute, Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Ltd., 388-1, Ssangmun-dong, Dobong-gu, Seoul 132-703 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-07-09

    While a high-dose of ionizing radiation is generally harmful and causes damage to living organisms, a low-dose of radiation has been shown to be beneficial in a variety of animal models. To understand the basis for the effect of low-dose radiation in vivo, we examined the cellular and immunological changes evoked in mice exposed to low-dose radiation at very low (0.7 mGy/h) and low (3.95 mGy/h) dose rate for the total dose of 0.2 and 2 Gy, respectively. Mice exposed to low-dose radiation, either at very low- or low-dose rate, demonstrated normal range of body weight and complete blood counts. Likewise, the number and percentage of peripheral lymphocyte populations, CD4{sup +} T, CD8{sup +} T, B, or NK cells, stayed unchanged following irradiation. Nonetheless, the sera from these mice exhibited elevated levels of IL-3, IL-4, leptin, MCP-1, MCP-5, MIP-1{alpha}, thrombopoietin, and VEGF along with slight reduction of IL-12p70, IL-13, IL-17, and IFN-{gamma}. This pattern of cytokine release suggests the stimulation of innate immunity facilitating myeloid differentiation and activation while suppressing pro-inflammatory responses and promoting differentiation of naive T cells into T-helper 2, not T-helper 1, types. Collectively, our data highlight the subtle changes of cytokine milieu by chronic low-dose {gamma}-radiation, which may be associated with the functional benefits observed in various experimental models.

  7. Intersex Occurrence in Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) Male Fry Chronically Exposed to Ethynylestradiol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depiereux, Sophie; Liagre, Mélanie; Danis, Lorraine; De Meulder, Bertrand; Depiereux, Eric; Segner, Helmut; Kestemont, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the male-to-female morphological and physiological transdifferentiation process in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) exposed to exogenous estrogens. The first objective was to elucidate whether trout develop intersex gonads under exposure to low levels of estrogen. To this end, the gonads of an all-male population of fry exposed chronically (from 60 to 136 days post fertilization – dpf) to several doses (from environmentally relevant 0.01 µg/L to supra-environmental levels: 0.1, 1 and 10 µg/L) of the potent synthetic estrogen ethynylestradiol (EE2) were examined histologically. The morphological evaluations were underpinned by the analysis of gonad steroid (testosterone, estradiol and 11-ketotestosterone) levels and of brain and gonad gene expression, including estrogen-responsive genes and genes involved in sex differentiation in (gonads: cyp19a1a, ER isoforms, vtg, dmrt1, sox9a2; sdY; cyp11b; brain: cyp19a1b, ER isoforms). Intersex gonads were observed from the first concentration used (0.01 µg EE2/L) and sexual inversion could be detected from 0.1 µg EE2/L. This was accompanied by a linear decrease in 11-KT levels, whereas no effect on E2 and T levels was observed. Q-PCR results from the gonads showed downregulation of testicular markers (dmrt1, sox9a2; sdY; cyp11b) with increasing EE2 exposure concentrations, and upregulation of the female vtg gene. No evidence was found for a direct involvement of aromatase in the sex conversion process. The results from this study provide evidence that gonads of male trout respond to estrogen exposure by intersex formation and, with increasing concentration, by morphological and physiological conversion to phenotypic ovaries. However, supra-environmental estrogen concentrations are needed to induce these changes. PMID:25033040

  8. The effects of acute and chronic estrogen deficiency on glucose and lipid profile in ovariectomized rats

    OpenAIRE

    Rabie P; Namjoo AR

    2017-01-01

    Background and aims: Ovariectomy is a standard experimental model of menopause in rodent to investigate postmenopausal women. The aim of this study was to evaluate effects acute and chronic estrogen deficiency on lipid profile and glucose serum in ovariectomized (OVX) rats. Methods: In this experimental study, Twenty-four adult female Wistar rats were divided into three groups of eight rats. The first group: sham-control, Second group: ovariectomized rats (for five weeks), Third group: Ova...

  9. Mechanisms mediating vibration-induced chronic musculoskeletal pain analyzed in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dina, Olayinka A; Joseph, Elizabeth K; Levine, Jon D; Green, Paul G

    2010-04-01

    While occupational exposure to vibration is a common cause of acute and chronic musculoskeletal pain, eliminating exposure produces limited symptomatic improvement, and reexposure precipitates rapid recurrence or exacerbation. To evaluate mechanisms underlying these pain syndromes, we have developed a model in the rat, in which exposure to vibration (60-80Hz) induces, in skeletal muscle, both acute mechanical hyperalgesia as well as long-term changes characterized by enhanced hyperalgesia to a proinflammatory cytokine or reexposure to vibration. Exposure of a hind limb to vibration-produced mechanical hyperalgesia measured in the gastrocnemius muscle of the exposed hind limb, which persisted for approximately 2 weeks. When nociceptive thresholds had returned to baseline, exposure to a proinflammatory cytokine or reexposure to vibration produced markedly prolonged hyperalgesia. The chronic prolongation of vibration- and cytokine-hyperalgesia was prevented by spinal intrathecal injection of oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) antisense to protein kinase Cepsilon, a second messenger in nociceptors implicated in the induction and maintenance of chronic pain. Vibration-induced hyperalgesia was inhibited by spinal intrathecal administration of ODN antisense to receptors for the type-1 tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha) receptor. Finally, in TNFalpha-pretreated muscle, subsequent vibration-induced hyperalgesia was markedly prolonged. These studies establish a model of vibration-induced acute and chronic musculoskeletal pain, and identify the proinflammatory cytokine TNFalpha and the second messenger protein kinase Cepsilon as targets against which therapies might be directed to prevent and/or treat this common and very debilitating chronic pain syndrome. Copyright 2010 American Pain Society. All rights reserved.

  10. Chronic lithium treatment increased intracellular S100ß levels in rat primary neuronal culture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoumeh Emamghoreishi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available S100ß a neurotrophic factor mainly released by astrocytes, has been implicated in the pathogenesis of bipolar disorder. Thus, lithium may exert its neuroprotective effects to some extent through S100ß. Furthermore, the possible effects of lithium on astrocytes as well as on interactions between neurons and astrocytes as a part of its mechanisms of actions are unknown. This study was undertaken to determine the effect of lithium on S100β in neurons, astrocytes and a mixture of neurons and astrocytes. Rat primary astrocyte, neuronal and mixed neuro-astroglia cultures were prepared from cortices of 18-day's embryos. Cell cultures were exposed to lithium (1mM or vehicle for 1day (acute or 7 days (chronic. RT-PCR and ELISA determined S100β mRNA and intra- and extracellular protein levels. Chronic lithium treatment significantly increased intracellular S100β in neuronal and neuro-astroglia cultures in comparison to control cultures (P<0.05. Acute and chronic lithium treatments exerted no significant effects on intracellular S100β protein levels in astrocytes, and extracellular S100β protein levels in three studied cultures as compared to control cultures. Acute and chronic lithium treatments did not significantly alter S100β mRNA levels in three studied cultures, compared to control cultures. Chronic lithium treatment increased intracellular S100ß protein levels in a cell-type specific manner which may favor its neuroprotective action. The findings of this study suggest that lithium may exert its neuroprotective action, at least partly, by increasing neuronal S100ß level, with no effect on astrocytes or interaction between neurons and astrocytes.

  11. [Morphological structure of rat epiphysis exposed to electromagnetic radiation from communication devices].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yashchenko, S G; Rybalko, S Yu

    Pineal gland is one of the most important components of homeostasis - the supporting system of the body. It participates in the launch of stress responses, restriction of their development, prevention of adverse effects on the body. There was proved an impact of electromagnetic radiation on the epiphysis. However, morphological changes in the epiphysis under exposure to electromagnetic radiation of modern communication devices are studied not sufficiently. For the time present the population is daily exposed to electromagnetic radiation, including local irradiation on the brain. These date determined the task of this research - the study of the structure of rat pineal gland under the exposure to electromagnetic radiation from personal computers and mobile phones. These date determined the task of this research - the study of the structure of rat pineal gland under the exposure to electromagnetic radiation from personal computers and mobile phones. Performed transmission electron microscopy revealed signs of degeneration of dark and light pinealocytes. These signs were manifested in the development of a complex of general and specific morphological changes. There was revealed the appearance of signs of aging and depletion transmission electron microscopy both in light and dark pinealocytes. These signs were manifested in the accumulation of lipofuscin granules and electron-dense "brain sand", the disappearance of nucleoli, cytoplasm vacuolization and mitochondrial cristae enlightenment.

  12. Chlorpyrifos induces anxiety-like behavior in offspring rats exposed during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Jonas G; Boareto, Ana C; Schreiber, Anne K; Redivo, Daiany D B; Gambeta, Eder; Vergara, Fernanda; Morais, Helen; Zanoveli, Janaína M; Dalsenter, Paulo R

    2017-02-22

    Chlorpyrifos is a pesticide, member of the organophosphate class, widely used in several countries to manage insect pests on many agricultural crops. Currently, chlorpyrifos health risks are being reevaluated due to possible adverse effects, especially on the central nervous system. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible action of this pesticide on the behaviors related to anxiety and depression of offspring rats exposed during pregnancy. Wistar rats were treated orally with chlorpyrifos (0.01, 0.1, 1 and 10mg/kg/day) on gestational days 14-20. Male offspring behavior was evaluated on post-natal days 21 and 70 by the elevated plus-maze test, open field test and forced swimming test. The results demonstrated that exposure to 0.1, 1 or 10mg/kg/day of chlorpyrifos could induce anxiogenic-like, but not depressive-like behavior at post-natal day 21, without causing fetal toxicity. This effect was reversed on post-natal day 70. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Cyclooxygenase-2-dependent bronchoconstriction in perfused rat lungs exposed to endotoxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhlig, S; Nüsing, R; von Bethmann, A; Featherstone, R L; Klein, T; Brasch, F; Müller, K M; Ullrich, V; Wendel, A

    1996-05-01

    Lipopolysaccharides (LPS), widely used to study the mechanisms of gram-negative sepsis, increase airway resistance by constriction of terminal bronchioles. The role of the cyclooxygenase (COX) isoenzymes and their prostanoid metabolites in this process was studied. Pulmonary resistance, the release of thromboxane (TX) and the expression of COX-2 mRNA were measured in isolated blood-free perfused rat lungs exposed to LPS. LPS induced the release of TX and caused increased airway resistance after about 30 min. Both TX formation and LPS-induced bronchoconstriction were prevented by treatment with the unspecific COX inhibitor acetyl salicylic acid, the specific COX-2 inhibitor CGP-28238, dexamethasone, actinomycin D, or cycloheximide. LPS-induced bronchoconstriction was also inhibited by the TX receptor antagonist BM-13177. The TX-mimetic compound, U-46619, increased airway resistance predominantly by constricting terminal bronchioles. COX-2-specific mRNA in lung tissue was elevated after LPS exposure, and this increase was attenuated by addition of dexamethasone or of actinomycin D. In contrast to LPS, platelet-activating factor (PAF) induced immediate TX release and bronchoconstriction that was prevented by acetyl salicylic acid, but not by CGP-28238. LPS elicits the following biochemical and functional changes in rat lungs: (i) induction of COX-2; (ii) formation of prostaglandins and TX; (iii) activation of the TX receptor on airway smooth muscle cells; (iv) constriction of terminal bronchioles; and (v) increased airway resistance. In contrast to LPS, the PAF-induced TX release is likely to depend on COX-1.

  14. Long Lasting Microvascular Tone Alteration in Rat Offspring Exposed In Utero to Maternal Hyperglycaemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilie Vessières

    Full Text Available Epidemiologic studies have demonstrated that cardiovascular risk is not only determined by conventional risk factors in adulthood, but also by early life events which may reprogram vascular function. To evaluate the effect of maternal diabetes on fetal programming of vascular tone in offspring and its evolution during adulthood, we investigated vascular reactivity of third order mesenteric arteries from diabetic mother offspring (DMO and control mother offspring (CMO aged 3 and 18 months. In arteries isolated from DMO the relaxation induced by prostacyclin analogues was reduced in both 3- and 18-month old animals although endothelium (acetylcholine-mediated relaxation was reduced in 18-month old DMO only. Endothelium-independent (sodium nitroprusside relaxation was not affected. Pressure-induced myogenic tone, which controls local blood flow, was reduced in 18-month old CMO compared to 3-month old CMO. Interestingly, myogenic tone was maintained at a high level in 18-month old DMO even though agonist-induced vasoconstriction was not altered. These perturbations, in 18-months old DMO rats, were associated with an increased pMLC/MLC, pPKA/PKA ratio and an activated RhoA protein. Thus, we highlighted perturbations in the reactivity of resistance mesenteric arteries in DMO, at as early as 3 months of age, followed by the maintenance of high myogenic tone in older rats. These modifications are in favour of excessive vasoconstrictor tone. These results evidenced a fetal programming of vascular functions of resistance arteries in adult rats exposed in utero to maternal diabetes, which could explain a re-setting of vascular functions and, at least in part, the occurrence of hypertension later in life.

  15. Neurobehavioral assessment of rats exposed to pristine polystyrene nanoplastics upon oral exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafiee, Mohammad; Dargahi, Leila; Eslami, Akbar; Beirami, Elmira; Jahangiri-Rad, Mahsa; Sabour, Siamak; Amereh, Fatemeh

    2018-02-01

    The increasing use of plastics has raised concerns about pollution of freshwater by these polymeric materials. Knowledge about their potential effects on environmental and public health is limited. Recent publications have suggested that the degradation of plastics will result in the release of nano-sized plastic particles to the environment. Therefore, it is of utmost importance to gain knowledge about whether and how nanoplastics affect living organisms. The present study aimed to analyse potential neurobehavioral effects of polystyrene nanoparticles (PS-NPs) after long-term exposure on rat. Potential effects of PS-NPs were investigated using four test dosages (1, 3, 6, and 10 mg PS-NPs/kg of body weight/day) administrated orally with adult Wistar male rats for five weeks. Neurobehavioral tests were chosen to assess a variety of behavioral domains. Particle diameters in test suspensions were determined through dynamic light scattering and showed an average hydrodynamic diameter of approximately 38.92 nm. No statistically significant behavioral effects were observed in all tests performed (p > 0.05). In the elevated plus maze, PS-NPs-exposed rats showed greater number of entries into open arms compared to controls. Also, PS-NPs had no significant influence on body weight of animals. Taking into account the subtle and transient nature of neurobehavioral consequences, however, these results underline the possibility of even pristine plastic nanoparticles to induce behavioral alteration in the rest of the food web, including for marine biota and humans. Indeed even though studied neurobehavioral effects in our study was not statistically significant, the observed subtle effects may be clinically considerable. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Study on the influence of Sempervivum tectorum and Melatonin on Glutathion protective effects in rats blood exposed to Aluminum sulphate

    OpenAIRE

    Corina Gravila; Florin Muselin; Camelia Tulcan; Mirela Ahmadi – Khoie; Ariana- Bianca Velciov; Georgeta- Sofia Pintilie

    2014-01-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate the influence of Sempervivum tectorum aqueous extract and melatonin on reduced glutathione (GSH) protective effect in Wistar albino rat blood exposed to aluminium sulphate- Al2(SO4)3. The rats were divided in one control group (C) and 7 experimental groups (E). The control group received tap water. The experimental rats were feed the following way: E1 group – aluminum sulphate, daily, for 3 months; : E2 group – Sempervivum tectorum, daily, for ...

  17. Masked rat: an x-ray-induced mutant with chronic blepharitis, alopecia, and pasteurellosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kent, R.L.; Lutzner, M.A.; Hansen, C.T.

    1976-01-01

    An autosomal recessive mutation had been previously x-ray-induced in the rat and named the masked rat (genotype mk/mk). This study describes the mutant's appearance, histology, and microflora. The rat's eyelids were swollen, often to the point of closure, and its face was partially covered by a brownish crust, giving the mutant a mask-like appearance. The chronic blepharitis was also accompanied by alopecia that appeared as bare patches across the mutant's back. Pasteurella pneumotropica was found in eyelids and on skin from all masked rats. The normal rat demonstrated a resistance to Pasteurella pneumotropica infection, or, conversely, the masked rat appeared to be genetically predisposed to pasteurellosis

  18. Antidepressant-like effects and possible mechanisms of amantadine on cognitive and synaptic deficits in a rat model of chronic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Mei; Zhang, Yuan; Chen, Xiaoyu; Zhang, Tao

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine whether amantadine (AMA), as a low-affinity noncompetitive N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist, is able to improve cognitive deficits caused by chronic stress in rats. Male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: control, control + AMA, stress and stress + AMA groups. The chronic stress model combined chronic unpredictable stress (CUS) with isolated feeding. Animals were exposed to CUS continued for 21 days. AMA (25 mg/kg) was administrated p.o. for 20 days from the 4th day of CUS to the 23rd. Weight and sucrose consumption were measured during model establishing period. Spatial memory was evaluated using the Morris water maze (MWM) test. Following MWM testing, both long-term potentiation (LTP) and depotentiation were recorded in the hippocampal CA1 region. NR2B and postsynaptic density protein 95 (PSD-95) proteins were measured by Western-blot analysis. AMA increased weight and sucrose consumption of stressed rats. Spatial memory and reversal learning in stressed rats were impaired relative to controls, whereas AMA significantly attenuated cognitive impairment. AMA also mitigated the chronic stress-induced impairment of hippocampal synaptic plasticity, in which both the LTP and depotentiation were significantly inhibited in stressed rats. Moreover, AMA enhanced the expression of hippocampal NR2B and PSD-95 in stressed rats. The data suggest that AMA may be an effective therapeutic agent for depression-like symptoms and associated cognitive disturbances.

  19. Sexual function of male rats exposed to the factors of the Chernobyl exclusion zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karpenko, N.A.

    2000-01-01

    Using sexually active rats for experiments the influence of chronic combined internal and external irradiation at low doses on sexual behavior and fertility of sexual active animals keeping within the 30-km Chernobyl external zone studied. After the 1.5 month consumption of drinking water containing radionuclides of natural Chernobyl spectrum the decrease in proportion of sexually active animals and suppression sexual motivation and erection were observed. This deviations resulted in the reducing of the inseminated females number. Dependence between the magnitude of total absorbed dose and the function of the sexual behavior regulatory mechanisms was obtained. In addition, the reduction of rat fertility took place because of the increase of preimplantation, but not post-implantation death in clean females coupled with irradiated males. Irradiation of males at total absorbed dose to gonads 0.23 c Gy decreased the fertility because of sexual behavior disturbance, and this effect was intensified by negative influence of ionizing radiation in the range of 0.7-7.0 c Gy on male gametes [ru

  20. Early metabolic defects in dexamethasone-exposed and undernourished intrauterine growth restricted rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Somm

    Full Text Available Poor fetal growth, also known as intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR, is a worldwide health concern. IUGR is commonly associated with both an increased risk in perinatal mortality and a higher prevalence of developing chronic metabolic diseases later in life. Obesity, type 2 diabetes or metabolic syndrome could result from noxious "metabolic programming." In order to better understand early alterations involved in metabolic programming, we modeled IUGR rat pups through either prenatal exposure to synthetic glucocorticoid (dams infused with dexamethasone 100 µg/kg/day, DEX or prenatal undernutrition (dams feeding restricted to 30% of ad libitum intake, UN. Physiological (glucose and insulin tolerance, morphometric (automated tissue image analysis and transcriptomic (quantitative PCR approaches were combined during early life of these IUGR pups with a special focus on their endocrine pancreas and adipose tissue development. In the absence of catch-up growth before weaning, DEX and UN IUGR pups both presented basal hyperglycaemia, decreased glucose tolerance, and pancreatic islet atrophy. Other early metabolic defects were model-specific: DEX pups presented decreased insulin sensitivity whereas UN pups exhibited lowered glucose-induced insulin secretion and more marked alterations in gene expression of pancreatic islet and adipose tissue development regulators. In conclusion, these results show that before any catch-up growth, IUGR rats present early physiologic, morphologic and transcriptomic defects, which can be considered as initial mechanistic basis of metabolic programming.

  1. Chronic irradiation of gonad tissue of the male rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemaire, G.; Maas, J.

    1982-01-01

    The effects of chronically irradiating rats' testes with daily gamma radiation doses of (1.4 - 8.6) x 10 -2 Gy for 71-140 days were studied. After about 30 days irradiation, the testes weights decrease and level off at about 75 days. Irradiation also caused the germ cells in the seminiferous tubules to disappear progressively, completely when the dose exceeded 6 x 10 -2 Gy/day and partially with the lower doses. At doses below 6 x 10 -2 Gy/day, there was also a delay in the spermatogenesis cycle with the spermatogonia and spermatocytes appearing to reach a new equilibrium, the level of which depended on the dose. (U.K.)

  2. Severe diffuse axon injury in chronic alcoholic rat medulla oblongata following a concussion blow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jianming; Chen, Guang; Wei, Lai; Qian, Hong; Lai, Xiaoping; Wang, Dian; Lv, Junyao; Yu, Xiaojun

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the axonal morphological changes and expression of both tau protein and β-APP following concussion to the medulla oblongata, in a rat model of chronic alcoholism. Fifty-nine male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into EtOH, EtOH-TBI and control groups (water group, water-TBI group). To establish chronic alcoholic rats, rats were intragastrically given edible spirituous liquor twice daily. Rats also received a blow on the occipital tuberosity with an iron pendulum. Morphological changes and expression of tau and β-APP proteins in the medulla oblongata were examined. (a) Nerve fibre thickening and twisting were observed in alcoholic rats, with nerve fibre changes becoming more significant following a concussion blow, which leads to some nerve fibres fracturing. (b) Transmission electron microscopy revealed that the nerve fibre myelin became loosened and displayed lamellar separation, which became more significant following concussion. (c) The integral optical density (IOD) sum value of β-APP of the EtOH-TBI group was lower than that in the EtOH group (P Chronic alcoholism caused nerve fibre and neuronal morphology damage in the rat medulla oblongata, with structural damage becoming more significant following concussion. (b) Concussion changed the expression of β-APP and tau protein in chronic alcoholic rat medulla oblongata, suggesting that chronic alcoholism can lead to severe axonal injury following a concussion blow. (c) The effect of chronic alcoholism may be synergistic the concussion blow to promote animal injury and death.

  3. Effects of environmental enrichment on the activity of the amygdala in micrencephalic rats exposed to a novel open field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Wakoto; Ehara, Ayuka; Nakadate, Kazuhiko; Yoshimoto, Kanji; Ueda, Shuichi

    2018-01-01

    Environmental enrichment (EE) mediates recovery from sensory, motor, and cognitive deficits and emotional abnormalities. In the present study, we examined the effects of EE on locomotor activity and neuronal activity in the amygdala in control and methylazoxymethanol acetate (MAM)-induced micrencephalic rats after challenge in a novel open field. Control rats housed in EE (CR) showed reduced locomotor activity compared to rats housed in a conventional cage (CC), whereas hyperactivity was seen in MAM rats housed in a conventional cage (MC) and in MAM rats housed in EE (MR). Novel open field exposure in both CC and MC resulted in a marked increase in Fos expression in the anterior and posterior parts of the basolateral amygdaloid nucleus, basomedial nucleus, and medial nucleus, whereas these increases in expression were not observed in CR. The effect of EE on Fos expression in the amygdala was different in MR exposed to a novel open field compared to CR. Furthermore, we observed a quite different pattern of Fos expression in the central nucleus of the amygdala between control and MAM rats. The present results suggest that neuronal activity in the amygdala that responds to anxiety is altered in MAM rats, especially when the rats are reared in EE. These alterations may cause behavioral differences between control and MAM rats. © 2017 Japanese Teratology Society.

  4. Changes in Serum Adiponectin in Mice Chronically Exposed to Inorganic Arsenic in Drinking Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xuanbo; Li, Ying; Liu, Junqiu; Ji, Xiaohong; Zhao, Lijun; Wei, Yudan

    2017-09-01

    Cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus are prominent features of glucose and lipid metabolism disorders. Adiponectin is a key adipokine that is largely involved in glucose and lipid metabolism processes. A growing body of evidence suggests that chronic exposure to inorganic arsenic is associated with cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus. We hypothesized that arsenic exposure may increase the risk of cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus by affecting the level of adiponectin. In this study, we examined serum adiponectin levels, as well as serum levels of metabolic measures (including fasting blood glucose, insulin, total cholesterol, triglyceride, and high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol) in C57BL/6 mice exposed to inorganic arsenic in drinking water (5 and 50 ppm NaAsO 2 ) for 18 weeks. Body mass and adiposity were monitored throughout the study. We found no significant changes in serum insulin and glucose levels in mice treated with arsenic for 18 weeks. However, arsenic exposure decreased serum levels of adiponectin, triglyceride, and HDL-cholesterol. Further, an inverse relationship was observed between urinary concentrations of total arsenic and serum levels of adiponectin. This study suggests that arsenic exposure could disturb the metabolism of lipids and increase the risk of cardiovascular disease by reducing the level of adiponectin.

  5. Morbidity rate of nervous system among medical personnel occupationally exposed to chronic low dose irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonkova, A.

    1987-01-01

    The morbidity rate of the nervous system among 1190 subjects, medical personnel, working with sources and environment of ionizing radiation was studied by the personal analysis of the diseases, written down in the personal out-patient department cards as well as of a control group of 870 medical workers of various other specialities. The morbidity rate of the nervous system among the medical personnel, exposed to chronic occupational radiation effect, was established not to be higher than that of the other medical workers - 38.0 and 40.3% respectively. Neuroses and peripheral nervous diseases have the greatest relative share in the structure of morbidity rate of the nervous system in both groups examined, with no statistical significance in the differences of the indices. The significantly higher incidence of autonome dystonias, established among the personnel from the X-ray departments and consulting rooms could be discussed in connection with the great relative share of the subjects from that group with a length of service over 15 years and had received the possible maximum cumulative equivalent doses. 3 tabs., 21 refs

  6. Reduced Bone and Body Mass in Young Male Rats Exposed to Lead

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fellipe Augusto Tocchini de Figueiredo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to see whether there would be differences in whole blood versus tibia lead concentrations over time in growing rats prenatally. Lead was given in the drinking water at 30 mg/L from the time the dams were pregnant until offspring was 28- or 60-day-old. Concentrations of lead were measured in whole blood and in tibia after 28 (28D and 60 days (60D in control (C and in lead-exposed animals (Pb. Lead measurements were made by GF-AAS. There was no significant difference (P>0.05 in the concentration of whole blood lead between Pb-28D (8.0±1.1 μg/dL and Pb-60D (7.2±0.89 μg/dL, while both significantly varied (P<0.01 from controls (0.2 μg/dL. Bone lead concentrations significantly varied between the Pb-28D (8.02±1.12 μg/g and the Pb-60D (43.3±13.26 μg/g lead-exposed groups (P<0.01, while those exposed groups were also significantly higher (P<0.0001 than the 28D and 60D control groups (Pb < 1 μg/g. The Pb-60D group showed a 25% decrease in tibia mass as compared to the respective control. The five times higher amount of lead found in the bone of older animals (Pb-60D versus Pb-28D, which reinforces the importance of using bone lead as an exposure biomarker.

  7. Study of the intervention effect of Laminaria japonica polysaccharides on testis tissue in male rats exposed by repeated low-dose ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jun; Luo Qiong; Cui Xiaoyan; Yang Mingliang; Yan Jun

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of the Laminaria japonica polysaccharides (LJP) intervention on the male rats' testicular tissue oxidative damage which was caused by repeated low-dose local ionizing radiation. Methods: Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into control group, model group and LJP intervention group. The rats in the LJP intervention group was given with LJP. The rats in each group were exposed to 60 Co γ-ray local irradiation 7 d after adaptability breeding, once per day for 20 times in 4 weeks. Each rat was irradiated with the total dose of 2.3 Gy. The rats were killed at 1, 7 and 14 d post-irradiation, respectively. The testis and the epididymis were taken out. The contents of MDA and GSH, and the activities of SOD, LDH and GSH-Px were measured using spectrophotometer. The amorphous of testicular tissue was observed and the sperm count and viability were analyzed. Results: As compared with those in the model group, the content of MDA decreased in testicular tissue in the LJP group (t=3.66-5.03, P<0.01), while the GSH content increased. The activities of SOD, LDH and GSH-Px (t=2.77-25.52, P<0.05) and the sperm count and viability increased (t=3.11-23.08, P<0.01). Each index was more close to that in the control group 14 d post-irradiation. Conclusions: LJP can promote the recovery of testicular tissue oxidative damage caused by chronic local ionizing radiation. It has a role in promoting the spermatogenic function of male rate. (authors)

  8. Triglycerides, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol and low density lipoprotein cholesterol in rats exposed to premium motor spirit fumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aberare, Ogbevire L; Okuonghae, Patrick; Mukoro, Nathaniel; Dirisu, John O; Osazuwa, Favour; Odigie, Elvis; Omoregie, Richard

    2011-06-01

    Deliberate and regular exposure to premium motor spirit fumes is common and could be a risk factor for liver disease in those who are occupationally exposed. A possible association between premium motor spirit fumes and plasma levels of triglyceride, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol and low density lipoprotein cholesterol using a rodent model could provide new insights in the pathology of diseases where cellular dysfunction is an established risk factor. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible effect of premium motor spirit fumes on lipids and lipoproteins in workers occupationally exposed to premium motor spirit fumes using rodent model. Twenty-five Wister albino rats (of both sexes) were used for this study between the 4(th) of August and 7(th) of September, 2010. The rats were divided into five groups of five rats each. Group 1 rats were not exposed to premium motor spirit fumes (control group), group 2 rats were exposed for 1 hour daily, group 3 for 3 hours daily, group 4 for 5 hours daily and group 5 for 7 hours daily. The experiment lasted for a period of 4 weeks. Blood samples obtained from all the groups after 4 weeks of exposure were used for the estimation of plasma levels of triglyceride, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein- cholesterol and low density lipoprotein- cholesterol. Results showed significant increase in means of plasma total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein levels (P<0.05). The mean triglyceride and total body weight were significantly lower (P<0.05) in the exposed group when compared with the unexposed. The plasma level of high density lipoprotein, the ratio of low density lipoprotein to high density lipoprotein and the ratio of total cholesterol to high density lipoprotein did not differ significantly in exposed subjects when compared with the control group. These results showed that frequent exposure to petrol fumes may be highly deleterious to the liver cells.

  9. The Effects of Chronic Ingestion of Mercuric Chloride on Fertility and Testosterone Levels in Male Sprague Dawley Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John C. Heath

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Although male infertility is well researched, the effects of inorganic mercury on male reproduction and fertility are less well known. Studies pertaining to mercury and male fertility identified reduced concentration of testosterone in the serum of male workers, a toxic influence on fertility of organic mercury compounds within concentrations at the workplace, and increased days to pregnancy. We evaluated the effect of chronic mercuric chloride (HgCl2 exposure in male rats on reproductive endpoints. Thirty-day old male Sprague Dawley rats (n=31 were exposed to 0.0, 1.0, or 2.0 mg/kg/day of HgCl2 via gavage. After 60 days exposure, they were housed with nonexposed females for 21 days. A survivor analysis revealed the exposed animals took longer to impregnate the females and had a lower rate of impregnation. Further statistical analysis revealed a lower correlation between testicular testosterone levels and days to impregnate, and also lower sperm counts in the epididymis head and body of the exposed males. The results indicate that HgCl2 exposure had significant adverse effects on male rat reproduction endpoints including fertility at a dose that was not clinically toxic.

  10. Effect of pregabalin on apoptotic regulatory genes in hippocampus of rats with chronic temporal lobe epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Yi-dan

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective To observe the effect of pregabalin on the expression of Bcl-2 and Bax in hippocampus of chronic epileptic rats induced by pilocarpine, to explore the anti-epileptic pharmacology mechanism of pregabalin, and its anti-apoptotic effect on hippocampal neurons of rats. Methods The model of chronic temporal lobe epileptic rats induced by lithium-pilocarpine was established, then the rats in pregabalin treatment group received intraperitoneal injection of pregabalin (40 mg/kg once daily for three weeks. The expression of Bcl-2 and Bax in hippocampus of all rats was detected by immunohistochemical technique and Western blotting. Results Compared with normal saline group rats, the expression of Bcl-2 and Bax in hippocampus of rats with chronic temporal lobe epilepsy was significantly increased (P = 0.000, for all. Pregabalin can down-regulate the expression of Bax and up-regulate the expression of Bcl-2 in hippocampus of rats compared to model group rats (P = 0.000, for all. Conclusion Pregabalin may have the effects of inhibiting cell apoptosis and protecting neurons through lowing Bax level and increasing Bcl-2 level in hippocampus of chronic temporal lobe epileptic rats.

  11. Combined effects of chronic hyperglycaemia and oral aluminium intoxication on testicular tissue and some male reproductive parameters in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinola, O B; Biliaminu, S A; Adedeji, O G; Oluwaseun, B S; Olawoyin, O M; Adelabu, T A

    2016-09-01

    Exposure to either environmental toxicants or chronic hyperglycaemia could impair male reproductive function. However, the extent to which exposure to such toxicants, in the presence of pre-existing metabolic dysfunction, could affect male reproduction is unclear. Streptozotocin-induced diabetic Wistar rats (12 weeks old) were exposed to oral aluminium chloride at 250 ppm for 30 days; followed by evaluation of caudal epididymal sperm count and motility, assay for serum follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), testosterone (T) and oestradiol; and assessment of testicular histology. Moreover, blood glucose was evaluated by the glucose oxidase method. In rats treated with streptozotocin (STZ) or aluminium (Al) alone, erosion of testicular parenchyma and stroma was observed. This effect was most severe in diabetic rats simultaneously exposed to Al; coupled with reduced caudal epididymal sperm count that was least in this (STZ+Al) group (18.75 × 10(6)  ml(-1) ) compared with controls (61.25 × 10(6)  ml(-1) ; P < 0.05), STZ group or Al group. Moreover, these reproductive perturbations (in the STZ+Al group) were associated with reduced sperm motility and significantly reduced serum FSH (P < 0.05); but elevated serum T and oestradiol (P < 0.05), compared with control. These suggest that diabetes-induced testicular lesion is exacerbated by simultaneous oral Al toxicity in Wistar rats. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  12. Telomere elongation protects heart and lung tissue cells from fatal damage in rats exposed to severe hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yaping; Zhao, Zhen; Zhu, Zhiyong; Li, Pingying; Li, Xiaolin; Xue, Xiaohong; Duo, Jie; Ma, Yingcai

    2018-02-17

    The effects of acute hypoxia at high altitude on the telomere length of the cells in the heart and lung tissues remain unclear. This study aimed to investigate the change in telomere length of rat heart and lung tissue cells in response to acute exposure to severe hypoxia and its role in hypoxia-induced damage to heart and lung tissues. Forty male Wistar rats (6-week old) were randomized into control group (n = 10) and hypoxia group (n = 30). Rats in control group were kept at an altitude of 1500 m, while rats in hypoxia group were exposed to simulated hypoxia with an altitude of 5000 m in a low-pressure oxygen chamber for 1, 3, and 7 days (n = 10). The left ventricular and right middle lobe tissues of each rat were collected for measurement of telomere length and reactive oxygen species (ROS) content, and the mRNA and protein levels of telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT), hypoxia-inducible factor1α (HIF-1α), and hypoxia-inducible factor1α (HIF-2α). Increased exposure to hypoxia damaged rat heart and lung tissue cells and increased ROS production and telomere length. The mRNA and protein levels of TERT and HIF-1α were significantly higher in rats exposed to hypoxia and increased with prolonged exposure; mRNA and protein levels of HIF-2α increased only in rats exposed to hypoxia for 7 days. TERT was positively correlated with telomere length and the levels of HIF-1α but not HIF-2α. Acute exposure to severe hypoxia causes damage to heart and lung tissues due to the production of ROS but promotes telomere length and adaptive response by upregulating TERT and HIF-1α, which protect heart and lung tissue cells from fatal damage.

  13. Impaired response inhibition in the rat 5 choice continuous performance task during protracted abstinence from chronic alcohol consumption.

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    Cristina Irimia

    Full Text Available Impaired cognitive processing is a hallmark of addiction. In particular, deficits in inhibitory control can propel continued drug use despite adverse consequences. Clinical evidence shows that detoxified alcoholics exhibit poor inhibitory control in the Continuous Performance Task (CPT and related tests of motor impulsivity. Animal models may provide important insight into the neural mechanisms underlying this consequence of chronic alcohol exposure though pre-clinical investigations of behavioral inhibition during alcohol abstinence are sparse. The present study employed the rat 5 Choice-Continuous Performance Task (5C-CPT, a novel pre-clinical variant of the CPT, to evaluate attentional capacity and impulse control over the course of protracted abstinence from chronic intermittent alcohol consumption. In tests conducted with familiar 5C-CPT conditions EtOH-exposed rats exhibited impaired attentional capacity during the first hours of abstinence and impaired behavioral restraint (increased false alarms during the first 5d of abstinence that dissipated thereafter. Subsequent tests employing visual distractors that increase the cognitive load of the task revealed significant increases in impulsive action (premature responses at 3 and 5 weeks of abstinence, and the emergence of impaired behavioral restraint (increased false alarms at 7 weeks of abstinence. Collectively, these findings demonstrate the emergence of increased impulsive action in alcohol-dependent rats during protracted alcohol abstinence and suggest the 5C-CPT with visual distractors may provide a viable behavioral platform for characterizing the neurobiological substrates underlying impaired behavioral inhibition resulting from chronic intermittent alcohol exposure.

  14. IL-4 and IL-5 Secretions Predominate in the Airways of Wistar Rats Exposed to Toluene Diisocyanate Vapor

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    Kouame Kouadio

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available ObjectivesWe established a Wistar rat model of asthma caused by toluene diisocyanate (TDI exposure, and investigated the relationship between TDI exposure concentrations and respiratory hypersensitivity, airway inflammation, and cytokine secretions in animals, to better understand the mechanism of TDI induced occupational asthma.MethodsWistar rats were exposed to two different concentrations of TDI vapor four hours a day for five consecutive days. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL was performed, and differential leucocytes from the BAL fluid were analyzed. Lung histopathological examination was carried out to investigate the inflammatory status in the airways. Production of cytokines interleukin (IL-4 and IL-5 productions in the BAL fluid in vivo was determined with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits.ResultsThe TDI-exposed rats exhibited greater airway hypersensitivity symptoms than the control rats. The BAL differential cell count and lung histopathological examination demonstrated that inflammation reactions were present in both the central and peripheral airways, characterized with marked infiltration of eosinophils in the TDI-exposed rats. The cytokine assay showed that IL-4 and IL-5 were predominantly produced in the BAL fluid in vivo.ConclusionsThese findings imply that TDI exposure concentrations may greatly affect the occurrence and extent of inflammatory events and that Th2 type cytokines may play an important role in the immunopathogenesis of TDI-induced occupational respiratory hypersensitivity.

  15. The Efficacy of Syzygium aromaticum Essential Oil in Cognitive Disorders against Manganese Chronic Exposure in Rats during Development

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    Djallal Eddine Houari ADLI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The essential oil of Syzygium aromaticum has been widely used in traditional medicine to treat a variety of diseases, including some neurological disorders. This study aims at testing, in vivo, the possible anxiolytic and antidepressant effects, of the Syzygium aromaticum essential oil against chronic manganese chloride (4.79 mg/l intoxication during the gestation and lactation period, in Wistar rat pups. Wistar rat pups were exposed to manganese via their dams’ drinking water from postnatal day (PND 1 to (PND 21. After their weaning, the rats exposed to manganese received injections of essential oil of Syzygium aromaticum (0.1 ml/kg for 18 days. The level of anxiety, depression and locomotor activity were studied. Locomotor activity (open field test, anxiety (elevated plus maze tests, and depression (forced swimming test were evaluated. The results of the present study indicate that Manganese exposure induces, on the one hand, impairments of body (p<0.001 and of brain weight (p<0.05. On the other hand, it increases level of anxiety (p<0.05, depression (p<0.001 and locomotor hyporactivity (p<0.001, when compared to control rats. Administration of essential oil of Syzygium aromaticum leads to a reduction in the level of anxiety (p<0.05, of depression (p<0.001 and corrects locomotor hyporactivity (p<0.05 in rats exposed to manganese beforehand. These results suggest that essential oil of Syzygium aromaticum can employ as a natural, protective agent against neuro-toxicity induced by manganese chloride during the gestation and lactation periods.

  16. Chronic social isolation suppresses proplastic response and promotes proapoptotic signalling in prefrontal cortex of Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djordjevic, Ana; Adzic, Miroslav; Djordjevic, Jelena; Radojcic, Marija B

    2010-08-15

    Successful adaptation to stress involves synergized actions of glucocorticoids and catecholamines at several levels of the CNS, including the prefrontal cortex (PFC). Inside the PFC, hormonal signals trigger concerted actions of transcriptional factors, such as glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and nuclear factor kappa B (NFkappaB), culminating in a balanced, proadaptive expression of their common genes, such as proplastic NCAM and/or apoptotic Bax and Bcl-2. In the present study, we hypothesized that chronic stress may compromise the balance between GR and NFkappaB signals and lead to an altered/maladaptive expression of their cognate genes in the PFC. Our results obtained with Wistar rats exposed to chronic social isolation indicated alterations of the GR relative to the NFkappaB, in favor of the GR, in both the cytoplasmic and the nuclear compartments of the PFC. Although these alterations did not affect the induction of proplastic NCAM gene, they decreased the NCAM sialylation necessary for plastic response and caused marked relocation of the mitochondrial membrane antiapoptotic Bcl-2 protein to its cytoplasmic form. Moreover, the compromised PSA-NCAM plastic response found under chronic stress was sustained after exposure of animals to the subsequent acute stress, whereas the proapoptotic signals were further emphasized. It is concluded that chronic social isolation of Wistar animals leads to a maladaptive response of the PFC, considering the diminishment of its plastic potential and potentiating of apoptosis. Such conditions in the PFC are likely to compromise its ability to interact with other CNS structures, such as the hippocampus, which is necessary for successful adaptation to stress. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. Formation of Hydroxymethyl DNA Adducts in Rats Orally Exposed to Stable Isotope Labeled Methanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Kun; Gul, Husamettin; Upton, Patricia B.; Moeller, Benjamin C.; Swenberg, James A.

    2012-01-01

    Methanol is a large volume industrial chemical and widely used solvent and fuel additive. Methanol’s well known toxicity and use in a wide spectrum of applications has raised long-standing environmental issues over its safety, including its carcinogenicity. Methanol has not been listed as a carcinogen by any regulatory agency; however, there are debates about its carcinogenic potential. Formaldehyde, a metabolite of methanol, has been proposed to be responsible for the carcinogenesis of methanol. Formaldehyde is a known carcinogen and actively targets DNA and protein, causing diverse DNA and protein damage. However, formaldehyde-induced DNA adducts arising from the metabolism of methanol have not been reported previously, largely due to the absence of suitable DNA biomarkers and the inability to differentiate what was due to methanol compared with the substantial background of endogenous formaldehyde. Recently, we developed a unique approach combining highly sensitive liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry methods and exposure to stable isotope labeled chemicals to simultaneously quantify formaldehyde-specific endogenous and exogenous DNA adducts. In this study, rats were exposed daily to 500 or 2000 mg/kg [13CD4]-methanol by gavage for 5 days. Our data demonstrate that labeled formaldehyde arising from [13CD4]-methanol induced hydroxymethyl DNA adducts in multiple tissues in a dose-dependent manner. The results also demonstrated that the number of exogenous DNA adducts was lower than the number of endogenous hydroxymethyl DNA adducts in all tissues of rats administered 500 mg/kg per day for 5 days, a lethal dose to humans, even after incorporating an average factor of 4 for reduced metabolism due to isotope effects of deuterium-labeled methanol into account. PMID:22157354

  18. EDC IMPACT: Reduced sperm counts in rats exposed to human relevant mixtures of endocrine disrupters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Axelstad

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Human semen quality is declining in many parts of the world, but the causes are ill defined. In rodents, impaired sperm production can be seen with early life exposure to certain endocrine-disrupting chemicals, but the effects of combined exposures are not properly investigated. In this study, we examined the effects of early exposure to the painkiller paracetamol and mixtures of human relevant endocrine-disrupting chemicals in rats. One mixture contained four estrogenic compounds; another contained eight anti-androgenic environmental chemicals and a third mixture contained estrogens, anti-androgens and paracetamol. All exposures were administered by oral gavage to time-mated Wistar dams rats (n = 16–20 throughout gestation and lactation. In the postnatal period, testicular histology was affected by the total mixture, and at the end of weaning, male testis weights were significantly increased by paracetamol and the high doses of the total and the anti-androgenic mixture, compared to controls. In all dose groups, epididymal sperm counts were reduced several months after end of exposure, i.e. at 10  months of age. Interestingly, the same pattern of effects was seen for paracetamol as for mixtures with diverse modes of action. Reduced sperm count was seen at a dose level reflecting human therapeutic exposure to paracetamol. Environmental chemical mixtures affected sperm count at the lowest mixture dose indicating an insufficient margin of safety for the most exposed humans. This causes concern for exposure of pregnant women to paracetamol as well as environmental endocrine disrupters.

  19. Early ovarian follicular development in prepubertal Wistar rats acutely exposed to androgens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paixão, L; Velez, L M; Santos, B R; Tusset, C; Lecke, S B; Motta, A B; Spritzer, P M

    2016-08-01

    Androgens may directly modulate early ovarian follicular development in preantral stages and androgen excess before puberty may disrupt this physiological process. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the dynamics of follicular morphology and circulating androgen and estradiol levels in prepubertal Wistar rats acutely exposed to androgens. Prepubertal female Wistar rats were distributed into three groups: control, equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) intervention and eCG plus dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) intervention (eCG+DHEA). Serum DHEA, testosterone and estradiol levels were determined, and ovarian morphology and morphometry were assessed. The eCG+DHEA group presented increased serum estradiol and testosterone levels as compared with the control group (P<0.01), and higher serum DHEA concentration v. the eCG-only and control groups (P<0.01). In addition, the eCG+DHEA group had a higher number of, and larger-sized, primary and secondary follicles as compared with the control group (P<0.05). The eCG group presented intermediate values for number and size of primary and secondary follicles, without significant differences as compared with the other two groups. The number of antral follicles was higher in the eCG+DHEA and eCG groups v. controls (P<0.05). The number of primordial, atretic and cystic follicles were similar in all groups. In conclusion, the present experimental model using an acute eCG+DHEA intervention was useful to investigate events involved in initial follicular development under hyperandrogenic conditions, and could provide a reliable tool to study defective follicular development with possible deleterious reproductive consequences later in life.

  20. Bioavailability and chronic toxicity of bismuth citrate to earthworm Eisenia andrei exposed to natural sandy soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omouri, Zohra; Hawari, Jalal; Fournier, Michel; Robidoux, Pierre Yves

    2018-01-01

    The present study describes bioavailability and chronic effects of bismuth to earthworms Eisenia andrei using OECD reproduction test. Adult earthworms were exposed to natural sandy soil contaminated artificially by bismuth citrate. Average total concentrations of bismuth in soil recovered by HNO 3 digestion ranged from 75 to 289mg/kg. Results indicate that bismuth decreased significantly all reproduction parameters of Eisenia andrei at concentrations ≥ 116mg/kg. However, number of hatched cocoons and number of juveniles seem to be more sensitive than total number of cocoons, as determined by IC 50 ; i.e., 182, 123 and > 289mg/kg, respectively. Bismuth did not affect Eisenia andrei growth and survival, and had little effect on phagocytic efficiency of coelomocytes. The low immunotoxicity effect might be explained by the involvement of other mechanisms i.e. bismuth sequestered by metal-binding compounds. After 28 days of exposure bismuth concentrations in earthworms tissue increased with increasing bismuth concentrations in soil reaching a stationary state of 21.37mg/kg dry tissue for 243mg Bi/kg dry soil total content. Data indicate also that after 56 days of incubation the average fractions of bismuth available extracted by KNO 3 aqueous solution in soil without earthworms varied from 0.0051 to 0.0229mg/kg, while in soil with earthworms bismuth concentration ranged between 0.310-1.347mg/kg dry soil. We presume that mucus and chelating agents produced by earthworms and by soil or/and earthworm gut microorganisms could explain this enhancement, as well as the role of dermal and ingestion routes of earthworms uptake to soil contaminant. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Toxicological assessments of rats exposed prenatally to inhaled vapors of gasoline and gasoline-ethanol blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushnell, Philip J; Beasley, Tracey E; Evansky, Paul A; Martin, Sheppard A; McDaniel, Katherine L; Moser, Virginia C; Luebke, Robert W; Norwood, Joel; Copeland, Carey B; Kleindienst, Tadeusz E; Lonneman, William A; Rogers, John M

    2015-01-01

    The primary alternative to petroleum-based fuels is ethanol, which may be blended with gasoline in the United States at concentrations up to 15% for most automobiles. Efforts to increase the amount of ethanol in gasoline have prompted concerns about the potential toxicity of inhaled ethanol vapors from these fuels. The well-known sensitivity of the developing nervous and immune systems to ingested ethanol and the lack of information about the neurodevelopmental toxicity of ethanol-blended fuels prompted the present work. Pregnant Long-Evans rats were exposed for 6.5h/day on days 9-20 of gestation to clean air or vapors of gasoline containing no ethanol (E0) or gasoline blended with 15% ethanol (E15) or 85% ethanol (E85) at nominal concentrations of 3000, 6000, or 9000 ppm. Estimated maternal peak blood ethanol concentrations were less than 5mg/dL for all exposures. No overt toxicity in the dams was observed, although pregnant dams exposed to 9000 ppm of E0 or E85 gained more weight per gram of food consumed during the 12 days of exposure than did controls. Fuel vapors did not affect litter size or weight, or postnatal weight gain in the offspring. Tests of motor activity and a functional observational battery (FOB) administered to the offspring between post-natal day (PND) 27-29 and PND 56-63 revealed an increase in vertical activity counts in the 3000- and 9000-ppm groups in the E85 experiment on PND 63 and a few small changes in sensorimotor responses in the FOB that were not monotonically related to exposure concentration in any experiment. Neither cell-mediated nor humoral immunity were affected in a concentration-related manner by exposure to any of the vapors in 6-week-old male or female offspring. Systematic concentration-related differences in systolic blood pressure were not observed in rats tested at 3 and 6 months of age in any experiment. No systematic differences were observed in serum glucose or glycated hemoglobin A1c (a marker of long-term glucose

  2. Decreased Hippocampal 5-HT and DA Levels Following Sub-Chronic Exposure to Noise Stress: Impairment in both Spatial and Recognition Memory in Male Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haider, Saida; Naqvi, Fizza; Batool, Zehra; Tabassum, Saiqa; Perveen, Tahira; Saleem, Sadia; Haleem, Darakhshan Jabeen

    2012-01-01

    Mankind is exposed to a number of stressors, and among them noise is one which can cause intense stress. High levels of background noise can severely impair one's ability to concentrate. The present study was aimed to investigate the effect of sub-chronic noise stress on cognitive behavior and hippocampal monoamine levels in male rats. The study was performed on 12 male Wistar rats, divided into two groups; the control and noise-exposed. The rats in the test group were subjected to noise stress, 4h daily for 15 days. Cognitive testing was performed by the Elevated Plus Maze test (EPM) and Novel Object Recognition test (NOR). HPLC-EC was used to determine hippocampal monoamine levels and their metabolites. The data obtained revealed a significant decrease in hippocampal serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) and dopamine (DA) levels, whereas turnover ratios of 5-HT and DA were significantly increased compared to the controls. Rats exposed to noise exhibited a significant decrement in spatial memory. A significantly decreased recognition index of rats exposed to noise as compared to the control was also observed in the NOR test. Results of the present findings suggest the role of decreased hippocampal 5-HT and DA in the impairment of cognitive function following noise exposure.

  3. Pulmonary sensitivity to ozone exposure in sedentary versus chronically trained, female rats

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Pulmonary effects to ozone with rats that have chronically exercised or have been continuously sedentary. Also includes body composition of both groups throughout...

  4. Effects of pudendal neuromodulation on bladder function in chronic spinal cord-injured rats

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    Yin-Tsong Lin

    2016-09-01

    Conclusion: This study demonstrates the feasibility of using pudendal neuromodulation in chronic SCI rats. These results could aid in developing an advanced neural prosthesis to restore bladder function in clinical settings.

  5. Effects of the administration of a catalase inhibitor into the fourth cerebral ventricle on cardiovascular responses in spontaneously hypertensive rats exposed to sidestream cigarette smoke

    OpenAIRE

    Valenti, Vitor E.; Abreu, Luiz Carlos de; Fonseca, Fernando L. A.; Adami, Fernando; Sato, Monica A.; Vanderlei, Luiz Carlos M.; Ferreira, Lucas Lima; Rodrigues, Luciano M.; Ferreira, Celso

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Previous studies have demonstrated a relationship between brain oxidative stress and cardiovascular regulation. We evaluated the effects of central catalase inhibition on cardiovascular responses in spontaneously hypertensive rats exposed to sidestream cigarette smoke. METHODS: Male Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SH) (16 weeks old) were implanted with a stainless steel guide cannula leading into the fourth cerebral ventricle (4...

  6. Chronic postnatal stress induces voluntary alcohol intake and modifies glutamate transporters in adolescent rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odeon, María Mercedes; Andreu, Marcela; Yamauchi, Laura; Grosman, Mauricio; Acosta, Gabriela Beatriz

    2015-01-01

    Postnatal stress alters stress responses for life, with serious consequences on the central nervous system (CNS), involving glutamatergic neurotransmission and development of voluntary alcohol intake. Several drugs of abuse, including alcohol and cocaine, alter glutamate transport (GluT). Here, we evaluated effects of chronic postnatal stress (CPS) on alcohol intake and brain glutamate uptake and transporters in male adolescent Wistar rats. For CPS from postnatal day (PD) 7, pups were separated from their mothers and exposed to cold stress (4 °C) for 1 h daily for 20 days; controls remained with their mothers. Then they were exposed to either voluntary ethanol (6%) or dextrose (1%) intake for 7 days (5-7 rats per group), then killed. CPS: (1) increased voluntary ethanol intake, (2) did not affect body weight gain or produce signs of toxicity with alcohol exposure, (3) increased glutamate uptake by hippocampal synaptosomes in vitro and (4) reduced protein levels (Western measurements) in hippocampus and frontal cortex of glial glutamate transporter-1 (GLT-1) and excitatory amino-acid transporter-3 (EAAT-3) but increased glutamate aspartate transporter (GLAST) levels. We propose that CPS-induced decrements in GLT-1 and EAAT-3 expression levels are opposed by activation of a compensatory mechanism to prevent excitotoxicity. A greater role for GLAST in total glutamate uptake to prevent enlarged extracellular glutamate levels is inferred. Although CPS strongly increased intake of ethanol, this had little impact on effects of CPS on brain glutamate uptake or transporters. However, the impact of early life adverse events on glutamatergic neurotransmission may underlie increased alcohol consumption in adulthood.

  7. Reduced number of alpha- and beta-adrenergic receptors in the myocardium of rats exposed to tobacco smoke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larue, D.; Kato, G.

    1981-04-09

    The concentration of alpha- and beta-adrenergic receptors--as measured by specific (/sup 3/H)WB-4101 and (-)-(/sup 3/H)dihydroalprenolol binding--was diminished by 60% below control values in the hearts of rats exposed to tobacco smoke. These changes in receptor numbers took place almost immediately after tobacco smoke exposure and were rapidly reversible after termination of the exposure. The dissociation constant, KD, for (/sup 3/H)WB-4101 was identical in exposed (KD . 0.34 +/- 0.09 nM) and control (KD . 0.35 +/- 0.07 nM) hearts but was significantly different in the case of (-)-(3H)dihydroalprenolol binding (exposed, KD . 2.83 +/- 0.30 mM vs. control KD . 5.22 +/- 0.61 nM). For beta-receptor binding there was no significant difference between exposed and control animals in the Ki values for (-)-epinephrine, (-)-norepinephrine, (-)-alprenolol, (+/-)-propranolol or timolol. (-)-Isoproterenol, however, was found to bind with lower affinity in exposed compared with control hearts. For alpha-receptor binding there was no significant difference between control and 'smoked' animals in the Ki values for (-)-epinephrine, (-0)-norepinephrine or phentolamine. The decrease in alpha- and beta-adrenergic receptor concentration may be related to the phenomenon of receptor desensitization resulting from a release of catecholamines in rats exposed to tobacco smoke.

  8. Exploring acute-to-chronic neuropathic pain in rats after contusion spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudet, Andrew D; Ayala, Monica T; Schleicher, Wolfgang E; Smith, Elana J; Bateman, Emily M; Maier, Steven F; Watkins, Linda R

    2017-09-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) causes chronic pain in 65% of individuals. Unfortunately, current pain management is inadequate for many SCI patients. Rodent models could help identify how SCI pain develops, explore new treatment strategies, and reveal whether acute post-SCI morphine worsens chronic pain. However, few studies explore or compare SCI-elicited neuropathic pain in rats. Here, we sought to determine how different clinically relevant contusion SCIs in male and female rats affect neuropathic pain, and whether acute morphine worsens later chronic SCI pain. First, female rats received sham surgery, or 150kDyn or 200kDyn midline T9 contusion SCI. These rats displayed modest mechanical allodynia and long-lasting thermal hyperalgesia. Next, a 150kDyn (1s dwell) midline contusion SCI was performed in male and female rats. Interestingly, males, but not females showed SCI-elicited mechanical allodynia; rats of both sexes had thermal hyperalgesia. In this model, acute morphine treatment had no significant effect on chronic neuropathic pain symptoms. Unilateral SCIs can also elicit neuropathic pain that could be exacerbated by morphine, so male rats received unilateral T13 contusion SCI (100kDyn). These rats exhibited significant, transient mechanical allodynia, but not thermal hyperalgesia. Acute morphine did not exacerbate chronic pain. Our data show that specific rat contusion SCI models cause neuropathic pain. Further, chronic neuropathic pain elicited by these contusion SCIs was not amplified by our course of early post-trauma morphine. Using clinically relevant rat models of SCI could help identify novel pain management strategies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Effects of chronic morphine and morphine withdrawal on gene expression in rat peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Desjardins , Stephane; Belkai , Emilie; Crete , Dominique; Cordonnier , Laurie; Scherrmann , Jean-Michel; Noble , Florence; Marie-Claire , Cynthia

    2008-01-01

    International audience; Chronic morphine treatment alters gene expression in brain structures. There are increasing evidences showing a correlation, in gene expression modulation, between blood cells and brain in psychological troubles. To test whether gene expression regulation in blood cells could be found in drug addiction, we investigated gene expression profiles in peripheral blood mononuclear (PBMC) cells of saline and morphine-treated rats. In rats chronically treated with morphine, th...

  10. Dysfunction of cortical synapse-specific mitochondria in developing rats exposed to lead and its amelioration by ascorbate supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad F

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Faraz Ahmad,1,2 Mohammad Salahuddin,3 Widyan Alamoudi,2 Sadananda Acharya1 1Department of Public Health, College of Public Health, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, Dammam, Saudi Arabia; 2Neuroscience Department, Institute for Research and Medical Consultations, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, Dammam, Saudi Arabia; 3Animal House Department, Institute for Research and Medical Consultations, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, Dammam, Saudi Arabia Background: Lead (Pb is a widespread environmental neurotoxin and its exposure even in minute quantities can lead to compromised neuronal functions. A developing brain is particularly vulnerable to Pb mediated toxicity and early-life exposure leads to permanent alterations in brain development and neuronal signaling and plasticity, culminating into cognitive and behavioral dysfunctions and elevated risk of neuropsychiatric disorders later in life. Nevertheless, the underlying biochemical mechanisms have not been completely discerned. Methods: Because of their ability to fulfill high energy needs and to act as calcium buffers in events of high intensity neuronal activity as well as their adaptive regulatory capability to match the requirements of the dynamicity of synaptic signaling, synapse-specific or synaptic mitochondria (SM are critical for synaptic development, function and plasticity. Our aim for the present study hence was to characterize the effects of early-life Pb exposure on the functions of SM of prepubertal rats. For this purpose, employing a chronic model of Pb neurotoxicity, we exposed rat pups perinatally and postnatally to Pb and used a plethora of colorimetric and fluorometric assays for assessing redox and bioenergetic properties of SM. In addition, taking advantage of its ability as an antioxidant and as a metal chelator, we employed ascorbic acid (vitamin C supplementation as an ameliorative therapeutic strategy against Pb-induced neurotoxicity and dysfunction of SM

  11. Sub-chronic dietary toxicity of potassium perfluorooctanesulfonate in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seacat, Andrew M.; Thomford, Peter J.; Hansen, Kris J.; Clemen, Lisa A.; Eldridge, Sandra R.; Elcombe, Cliff R.; Butenhoff, John L.

    2003-01-01

    Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) is a widely disseminated persistent compound found at low (part-per-billion) concentrations in serum and liver samples from humans and fish-eating wildlife. This study investigated the hypotheses that early hepatocellular peroxisomal proliferation and hepatic cellular proliferation are factors in chronic liver response to dietary dosing, that lowering of serum total cholesterol is an early clinical measure of response to treatment, and that liver and serum PFOS concentrations are proportional to dose and cumulative dose after sub-chronic treatment. PFOS was administered in diet as the potassium salt at 0, 0.5, 2.0, 5.0, and 20 parts per million (ppm) to Sprague Dawley rats for 4 or 14 weeks. At 4 weeks, effects included decreased serum glucose and an equivocal (< twofold) increase in hepatic palmitoyl CoA oxidase (PCoAO) activity in 20 ppm dose-group males and elevation of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in 20 ppm dose-group females. At 14 weeks, the 20 ppm males had increased liver weight, decreased serum cholesterol, increased non-segmented neutrophils, and increased ALT. Relative liver weights and urea nitrogen were increased in both sexes at 14 weeks. Hepatocytic hypertrophy and cytoplasmic vacuolation were observed in the 5 or 20 ppm male and the 20 ppm female dose groups. An increase in hepatic PCoAO activity was not observed at 14 weeks, and the average hepatocyte proliferation index was not increased, although, individual animals had mild increases. Serum and liver PFOS concentrations were proportional to dose and cumulative dose. Serum concentrations were generally higher in females than in males. The liver-to-serum PFOS ratios ranged from approximately 3:1 to 12:1. After 14 weeks, the no-observed-adverse effect level (NOAEL) in males and females was 5 ppm. The NOAEL corresponded to mean serum PFOS concentrations of 44 ppm (μg/ml) in males and 64 ppm in females and mean liver PFOS concentrations of 358 ppm in males and 370

  12. Altered feeding patterns in rats exposed to a palatable cafeteria diet: increased snacking and its implications for development of obesity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah I Martire

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Rats prefer energy-rich foods over chow and eat them to excess. The pattern of eating elicited by this diet is unknown. We used the behavioral satiety sequence to classify an eating bout as a meal or snack and compared the eating patterns of rats fed an energy rich cafeteria diet or chow. METHODS: Eight week old male Sprague Dawley rats were exposed to lab chow or an energy-rich cafeteria diet (plus chow for 16 weeks. After 5, 10 and 15 weeks, home-cage overnight feeding behavior was recorded. Eating followed by grooming then resting or sleeping was classified as a meal; whereas eating not followed by the full sequence was classified as a snack. Numbers of meals and snacks, their duration, and waiting times between feeding bouts were compared between the two conditions. RESULTS: Cafeteria-fed rats ate more protein, fat and carbohydrate, consistently ingesting double the energy of chow-fed rats, and were significantly heavier by week 4. Cafeteria-fed rats tended to take multiple snacks between meals and ate fewer meals than chow-fed rats. They also ate more snacks at 5 weeks, were less effective at compensating for snacking by reducing meals, and the number of snacks in the majority of the cafeteria-fed rats was positively related to terminal body weights. CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to a palatable diet had long-term effects on feeding patterns. Rats became overweight because they initially ate more frequently and ultimately ate more of foods with higher energy density. The early increased snacking in young cafeteria-fed rats may represent the establishment of eating habits that promote weight gain.

  13. Hemodynamic characterization of chronic bile duct-ligated rats: effect of pentobarbital sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.S.; Girod, C.; Braillon, A.; Hadengue, A.; Lebrec, D.

    1986-01-01

    Systemic and splanchnic hemodynamics of the chronic bile duct-ligated rat were characterized by radioactive microspheres. Conscious and pentobarbital sodium-anesthetized, bile duct-ligated and sham-operated rats had cardiac output and regional organ blood flows determined. The conscious bile duct-ligated rat compared with the sham-operated showed a hyperdynamic circulation with an increased cardiac output and portal tributary blood flow. Pentobarbital sodium anesthesia induced marked hemodynamic changes in both sham-operated and bile duct-ligated rats. The latter group was especially sensitive to its effects; thus, comparison of cardiac output and portal tributary blood flow between anesthetized bile duct-ligated and sham-operated rats showed no significant differences. The authors conclude that the rat with cirrhosis due to chronic bile duct ligation is an excellent model for hemodynamic investigations but should be studied in the conscious state, since pentobarbital sodium anesthesia eliminated the hyperdynamic circulation

  14. Effects of sub-chronic exposure to SO{sub 2} on lipid and carbohydrate metabolism in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lovati, M.R. [Institute of Pharmacological Sciences, Milan (Italy); Manzoni, C. [Institute of Pharmacological Sciences, Milan (Italy); Daldossi, M. [Institute of Pharmacological Sciences, Milan (Italy); Spolti, S. [Institute of Pharmacological Sciences, Milan (Italy); Sirtori, C.R. [Institute of Pharmacological Sciences, Milan (Italy)

    1996-01-01

    Sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) is a ubiquitous air pollutant, present in low concentrations in the urban air, and in higher concentrations in the working environment. While toxicological reports on SO{sub 2} have extensively dealt with the pulmonary system, essentially no data are available on the effects of chronic exposure to this pollutant on intermediary metabolism, although some biochemical changes in lipid metabolism have been detected. The present investigation was aimed at evaluating the effects of sub-chronic exposure to SO{sub 2} on concentrations of serum lipids/lipoproteins and on glucose metabolism, in animal models of hypercholesterolemia and diabetes. A specially designed controlinert atmosphere chamber was used, where male Sprague-Dawley rats fed on either standard or cholesterol enriched (HC) diets, as well as streptozotocin diabetics, were exposed to SO{sub 2} at 5 and 10 ppm, 24 h per day for 14 days. In rats, both on a standard diet and on a HC regimen, SO{sub 2} exposure determined a significant dose-dependent increase in plasma triglycerides, up to +363% in the 10 ppm HC exposed animals. This same gas concentration significantly reduced HDL cholesterol levels. In contrast, exposure of diabetic animals to 10 ppm SO{sub 2} resulted in a fall (-41%) of plasma and liver triglycerides and in a concomitant increase (+62%) of plasma HDL cholesterol. This discrepancy could apparently be related to diverging effects of SO{sub 2} exposure on plasma insulin levels in the different animal groups. Kinetic analyses of triglyceride synthesis carried out in rats on a standard diet revealed, in exposed animals, a significant reduction in the secretory rate, in spite of the concomitant hypertriglyceridemia. These findings suggest that SO{sub 2} exposure can markedly modify major lipid and glycemic indices, also indicating a differential response in normo/hyperlipidemic versus diabetic animals. (orig.)

  15. Comparison of Pu metabolism and pulmonary tumors in dogs and rats exposed to 239PuO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahaffey, J.A.; Sanders, C.L.; Dagle, G.E.; Park, J.F.

    The dose-effect relationships of dogs and rats exposed by inhalation to 239 PuO 2 were compared to evaluate parameters that may provide a better understanding for extrapolating these laboratory animal results to humans. Comparisons were made on animals with lifetime lung doses between 1400 and 11,000 rad. Parameters compared included survival; Pu clearance and translocation; and time of occurrence, incidence and histopathology of pulmonary tumors. The group means for lifetime dose to lung were not significantly different between dogs and rats, but when survival time was expressed as the percentage of maximum life expectancy (MLE), the mean survival time of dogs was 40% of MLE and of rats was 56% of MLE. Lung tumors were the causes of death in 84% of the dogs and 54% of the rats; the mean survival time to lung tumor was 44% of MLE for dogs, compared to 57% of MLE for rats. Whole-body clearance of plutonium was slower in dogs. More Pu translocated to the thoracic lymph nodes, liver, and skeleton in the dogs than in rats. Estimates of species differences in lung clearance were dependent on the methods of estimating initial lung burden. There were parameters with qualitative and quantitative similarities in dogs and rats. Quantitative differences between species, generally within a factor of two, suggested that more reliable dosimetry estimates are needed to make quantitative extrapolation between species

  16. Recognition memory is selectively impaired in adult rats exposed to binge-like doses of ethanol during early postnatal life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacIlvane, Nicole M; Pochiro, Joseph M; Hurwitz, Nicole R; Goodfellow, Molly J; Lindquist, Derick H

    2016-12-01

    Exposure to alcohol in utero can induce a variety of physical and mental impairments, collectively known as fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). This study explores the persistent cognitive consequences of ethanol administration in rat pups over postnatal days (PD) 4-9, modeling human third trimester consumption. Between PD65-70, ethanol-exposed (5E) and control rats were evaluated in two variants of recognition memory, the spontaneous novel object recognition (NOR) task, using 20 and 240 min sample-to-test delays, and the associative object-in-context (OIC) task, using a 20 min delay. No treatment group differences were observed in object exploration during the sample session for any task. In the 20 min NOR test session the 5E rats explored the novel object significantly less than controls, relative to the total time exploring both objects. Postnatal ethanol exposure is hypothesized to impede object memory consolidation in the perirhinal cortex of 5E rats, hindering their ability to discriminate between familiar and novel objects at short delays. The 5E rats performed as well or better than control rats in the 240 min NOR and the 20 min OIC tasks, indicating developmental ethanol exposure selectively impairs the retention and expression of recognition memories in young adult rats. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Cerebellar level of neurotransmitters in rats exposed to paracetamol during development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blecharz-Klin, Kamilla; Joniec-Maciejak, Ilona; Jawna-Zboińska, Katarzyna; Pyrzanowska, Justyna; Piechal, Agnieszka; Wawer, Adriana; Widy-Tyszkiewicz, Ewa

    2016-12-01

    The present study was designed to clarify the effect of prenatal and postnatal paracetamol administration on the neurotransmitter level and balance of amino acids in the cerebellum. Biochemical analysis to determine the concentration of neurotransmitters in this brain structure was performed on two-month-old Wistar male rats previously exposed to paracetamol in doses of 5 (P5, n=10) or 15mg/kg (P15, n=10) throughout the entire prenatal period, lactation and until the completion of the second month of life, when the experiment was terminated. Control animals were given tapped water (Con, n=10). The cerebellar concentration of monoamines, their metabolites and amino acids were assayed using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). The present experiment demonstrates that prenatal and postnatal paracetamol exposure results in modulation of cerebellar neurotransmission with changes concerning mainly 5-HIAA and MHPG levels. The effect of paracetamol on monoaminergic neurotransmission in the cerebellum is reflected by changes in the level of catabolic end-products of serotonin (5-HIAA) and noradrenaline (MHPG) degradation. Further work is required to define the mechanism of action and impact of prenatal and postnatal exposure to paracetamol in the cerebellum and other structures of the central nervous system (CNS). Copyright © 2016 Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  18. Transfer of tritium to prenatal and neonatal rats from their mothers exposed to tritiated compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeda, H.; Nishimura, Y.; Inaba, J. (National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan))

    1994-01-01

    The transfer of tritium through the placenta or milk was investigated to estimate the radiation dose to the fetus and newborn. Female rats at gestational stages or after delivery were exposed to tritium in the form of water, thymidine and lysine by a single oral administration and radioactivity in tissues including conceptuses (placenta, fetal membrane and fetus) and in the newborn was determined at various times after administration. In all cases of the investigated triated compounds, there was no significant difference between the tritium concentration in the fetus and that in the maternal tissues, suggesting that the placenta has no effect in preventing or accelerating the placental transfer of tritium. The time course of tritium concentration and tritium content in the fetus and newborn were, however, dependent on the chemical form of tritium and on the prenatal or neonatal stages at the time of ingestion. In general, the tritium concentration and tritium content after the ingestion of [sup 3]H-lysine were higher than that after the ingestion of tritiated water or [sup 3]H-thymidine. The result of dose estimation showed that [sup 3]H-lysine gave higher prenatal and neonatal doses than tritiated water or [sup 3]H-thymidine by a factor of 1.5 to 6.0. (author).

  19. Retention studies in rats exposed to monodisperse aerosols of /sup 198/Au labeled carnauba wax particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarroni, G.; Bassi, P.; Belvisi, M.B.; Bianco, A.

    1981-01-01

    Rats were exposed to monodisperse carnauba wax aerosols labeled with colloidal /sup 198/Au and the retained activity was followed both in vivo and in the lungs of serially sacrified animals. In vitro and in vivo tests have shown low leaching rates of the label. The deposited activity could then be followed without correction for particle solubility. The activity in vivo shows a three-exponential decay, characterized by half-times of a few hours, one day, and one month corresponding to the clearance of the material deposited respectively in the extrathoracic airways, in the tracheo-bronchial, and in the alveolar regions. A correlation was found between long term cleared activity and particle size but no correlation was found between particle size and clearance half times in the size range investigated. Statistical evaluation of the activity vs time in vivo and in excised lungs has shown that the long term retained activity pertains to the alveolar region and, if a large number of animals is not used, more accurate data of pulmonary clearance can be obtained by in vivo measurements than by serial sacrifices.

  20. Reversal of haloperidol induced motor deficits in rats exposed to repeated immobilization stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shireen, Erum; Pervez, Sidra; Masroor, Maria; Ali, Wafa Binte; Rais, Qudsia; Khalil, Samira; Tariq, Anum; Haleem, Darakshan Jabeen

    2014-09-01

    Stress is defined as a non specific response of body to any physiological and psychological demand. Preclinical studies have shown that an uncontrollable stress condition produces neurochemical and behavioral deficits. The present study was conducted to test the hypothesis that a decrease in the responsiveness of somatodendritic 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)-1A receptors following adaptation to stress could attenuate haloperidol induced acute parkinsonian like effect. Results showed that single exposure (2h) to immobilization stress markedly decreased food intake, growth rate and locomotor activity but these stress-induced behavioral deficits were not observed following repeated (2h/day for 5 days) exposure of immobilization stress suggesting behavioral tolerance occurs to similar stress. An important finding of present study is a reversal of haloperidol-induced motor deficits in animals exposed to repeated immobilization stress than respective control animals. It is suggested that stress induced possible desensitization of somatodendritic 5-HT-1A as well as 5-HT-2C receptors could release dopamine system from the inhibitory influence of serotonin. On the other hand, an increase in the effectiveness of postsynaptic 5-HT-1A receptors elicits a direct stimulatory influence on the activity of dopaminergic neuron and is possibly involved in the reversal of haloperidol-induced parkinsonian like symptoms in repeatedly immobilized rats.

  1. Microbubbles induce renal hemorrhage when exposed to diagnostic ultrasound in anesthetized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wible, James H; Galen, Karen P; Wojdyla, Jolette K; Hughes, Michael S; Klibanov, Alexander L; Brandenburger, Gary H

    2002-01-01

    The generation of ultrasound (US) bioeffects using a clinical imaging system is controversial. We tested the hypothesis that the presence of microbubbles in the US field of a medical imager induces biologic effects. Both kidneys of anesthetized rats were insonified for 5 min using a medical imaging system after the administration of microbubbles. One kidney was insonified using a continuous mode (30 Hz) and the opposite kidney was insonified using an intermittent (1 Hz) technique. The microbubbles were exposed to three different transducer frequencies and four transducer output powers. After insonification, the animals were euthanized, the kidneys were removed and their gross appearance scored under "blinded" conditions using a defined scale. After the administration of microbubbles, US imaging of the kidney caused hemorrhage in the renal tissue. The severity and area of hemorrhage increased with an increase in the transducer power and a decrease in the transducer frequency. Intermittent insonification in the presence of microbubbles produced a greater degree of renal hemorrhage than continuous imaging techniques.

  2. Effect of kombucha on some trace element levels in different organs of electromagnetic field exposed rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ola A. Gharib

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mobile phones have increased exponentially all over the world. The present study was performed to evaluate the effect of kombucha (KT on some trace element levels of brain, spleen and intestine in male albino rats exposed to a 950 MHz electromagnetic field (EMF. Four experimental groups labelled as controls, EMF group, KT group and KT + EMF group were formed with six randomly chosen animals in each group. After EMF exposure for eight weeks and the animals were sacrificed by decapitation. Brain, spleen and intestine samples were collected for trace element analysis. The group of animals subjected to electromagnetic waves caused significant increases in iron copper levels and copper/zinc ratio accompanied with a decrease of zinc level in all studied organs. Combined treatment of kombucha with EMF resulted in a successful attenuation of these adverse effects of EMF. From present findings we can state that kombucha as a supplement has an ameliorative signs against the effects of electromagnetic radiation.

  3. Antiapoptotic Actions of Methyl Gallate on Neonatal Rat Cardiac Myocytes Exposed to H2O2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandhya Khurana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Reactive oxygen species trigger cardiomyocyte cell death via increased oxidative stress and have been implicated in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases. The prevention of cardiomyocyte apoptosis is a putative therapeutic target in cardioprotection. Polyphenol intake has been associated with reduced incidences of cardiovascular disease and better overall health. Polyphenols like epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG can reduce apoptosis of cardiomyocytes, resulting in better health outcomes in animal models of cardiac disorders. Here, we analyzed whether the antioxidant N-acetyl cysteine (NAC or polyphenols EGCG, gallic acid (GA or methyl gallate (MG can protect cardiomyocytes from cobalt or H2O2-induced stress. We demonstrate that MG can uphold viability of neonatal rat cardiomyocytes exposed to H2O2 by diminishing intracellular ROS, maintaining mitochondrial membrane potential, augmenting endogenous glutathione, and reducing apoptosis as evidenced by impaired Annexin V/PI staining, prevention of DNA fragmentation, and cleaved caspase-9 accumulation. These findings suggest a therapeutic value for MG in cardioprotection.

  4. Radiosensitivity of pulmonary alveolar macrophages in rats exposed to local X-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong Yifen; Fei Lihua; Wu Dechang

    1987-01-01

    The radiosensitivity of pulmonary alveolar macrophages (PAMs) in rats exposed to local thoracic X-irradiatoin was studied. The percentages of mitotic and labeling cells were used as biological endpoints. The parameters of radiosensitivity of PAMs obtained on the second day after local exposure are as follows: D 0 = 0.68 Gy, Dq = 0.06 Gy, n = 1.1 for mitotic cells and D 0 = 1.04 Gy, Dq = 0.12 Gy, n = 1.12 for labeling cells. The parameters of radiosensitivity of PAMs in bronchical lavage obtained immediately after X-irradiation are: D 0 = 3.56 Gy, Dq = 0.77 Gy, n = 1.24 for labeling cells and D 0 = 3.69 Gy, Dq = 0.35 Gy, n = 1.1 for mitotic cells. The comparison of thses results indicates that the radiation effect on PAMs obtained immediately after X-irradiation is less severe than that of PAMs obtained 2 days later. It might be caused by the delay of cell cycle within 2 days after X-irradiation

  5. Enhancing effects of chronic lithium on memory in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsaltas, Eleftheria; Kontis, Dimitrios; Boulougouris, Vasileios; Papakosta, Vasiliki-Maria; Giannou, Haralambos; Poulopoulou, Cornelia; Soldatos, Constantine

    2007-02-12

    In spite of recent enrichment of neurochemical and behavioural data establishing a neuroprotective role for lithium, its primary effects on cognitive functioning remain ambiguous. This study examines chronic lithium effects on spatial working memory and long-term retention. In three discrete experiments, rats subjected to 30 daily intraperitoneal injections (2mmol/kg) of lithium (lithium groups: serum lithium=0.5+/-0.4mEq/l, 12h post-injection) or saline (controls) were trained in 0-s delay T-maze alternation and then tested in 30-, 45- and 60-s delay alternation (Experiments 1, 2, 3, respectively). Animals from Experiment 1 were further tested in one-trial step-through passive avoidance under mild shock parameters (0.5mA, 1s). Retention was assessed 6h later. Daily lithium or saline injections continued throughout behavioural testing. Lithium animals were indistinguishable from controls during 0-delay alternation baseline (Experiments 1-3, accuracy>88%) but showed significantly higher accuracy than controls at 30- and 45-s delays (93% versus 85% and 92% versus 82%, Experiments 1 and 2, respectively). At 60-s delay (Experiment 3) this beneficial effect of lithium was no longer apparent (lithium and control accuracy=78%). In Experiment 4, the shock used did not support 6-h passive avoidance retention in controls, whereas lithium animals showed significant step-through latency increases. Chronic lithium enhanced spatial working memory and promoted long-term retention of a weak aversive contingency. The results suggest that lithium may have potential as a cognitive enhancer.

  6. Chronic Carcinogenicity Study of Gasoline Vapor Condensate (GVC) and GVC Containing Methyl Tertiary-Butyl Ether in F344 Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Janet M.; Gigliotti, Andrew P.; March, Thomas H.; Barr, Edward B.; Tibbetts, Brad M.; Skipper, Betty J.; Clark, Charles R.; Twerdok, Lorraine

    2011-01-01

    Chronic inhalation studies were conducted to compare the toxicity and potential carcinogenicity of evaporative emissions from unleaded gasoline (GVC) and gasoline containing the oxygenate methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE; GMVC). The test materials were manufactured to mimic vapors people would be exposed to during refueling at gas stations. Fifty F344 rats per gender per exposure level per test article were exposed 6 h/d, 5 d/wk for 104 wk in whole body chambers. Target total vapor concentrations were 0, 2, 10, or 20 g/m3 for the control, low-, mid-, and high-level exposures, respectively. Endpoints included survival, body weights, clinical observations, organs weights, and histopathology. GVC and GMVC exerted no marked effects on survival or clinical observations and few effects on organ weights. Terminal body weights were reduced in all mid- and high-level GVC groups and high-level GMVC groups. The major proliferative lesions attributable to gasoline exposure with or without MTBE were renal tubule adenomas and carcinomas in male rats. GMV exposure led to elevated testicular mesothelioma incidence and an increased trend for thyroid carcinomas in males. GVMC inhalation caused an increased trend for testicular tumors with exposure concentration. Mid- and high-level exposures of GVC and GMVC led to elevated incidences of nasal respiratory epithelial degeneration. Overall, in these chronic studies conducted under identical conditions, the health effects in F344 rats following 2 yr of GVC or GMVC exposure were comparable in the production of renal adenomas and carcinomas in male rats and similar in other endpoints. PMID:21432714

  7. Sex-dependent modification by chronic caffeine of acute methamphetamine effects on anxiety-related behavior in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Robert N; Hamilton, Jennifer J

    2018-06-01

    For fourteen days, male and female PVG/c hooded rats were provided continuously with either pure drinking water, or water containing caffeine in a quantity approximating a daily dose of 31.1 mg/kg. Then at intervals of 3 days, they were administered 1, 2 mg/kg methamphetamine (MA) or saline before being tested for anxiety-related behavior in a zero maze or a light/dark box, or their short-term spatial memory was assessed in a Y maze following introduction of a novel brightness change in one of the arms. Each rat experienced each type of apparatus with the same acute MA or saline treatment while still exposed to chronic caffeine or pure drinking water. While chronic caffeine on its own did not affect any behavioral measure, acute MA was anxiolytic for male rats suggested by increased entries and occupancy of zero-maze enclosed areas, and decreased emergence latencies and increased entries into the light/dark-box light compartment. Females were less affected than males by MA in both types of apparatus unless they also consumed caffeine. For male rats, choices of the Y-maze novel arm were affected by neither caffeine nor MA, but for females provided with unadulterated water, such choices were reduced by 1 mg/kg MA but increased for those exposed to caffeine, thereby suggesting either impaired or improved memory respectively. However, changes in anxiety could also explain these results. Overall, results generated in the three types of apparatus supported potentiation by caffeine of any effects of MA on anxiety for females only. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Chronic carcinogenicity study of gasoline vapor condensate (GVC) and GVC containing methyl tertiary-butyl ether in F344 rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Janet M; Gigliotti, Andrew P; March, Thomas H; Barr, Edward B; Tibbetts, Brad M; Skipper, Betty J; Clark, Charles R; Twerdok, Lorraine

    2011-01-01

    Chronic inhalation studies were conducted to compare the toxicity and potential carcinogenicity of evaporative emissions from unleaded gasoline (GVC) and gasoline containing the oxygenate methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE; GMVC). The test materials were manufactured to mimic vapors people would be exposed to during refueling at gas stations. Fifty F344 rats per gender per exposure level per test article were exposed 6 h/d, 5 d/wk for 104 wk in whole body chambers. Target total vapor concentrations were 0, 2, 10, or 20 g/m³ for the control, low-, mid-, and high-level exposures, respectively. Endpoints included survival, body weights, clinical observations, organs weights, and histopathology. GVC and GMVC exerted no marked effects on survival or clinical observations and few effects on organ weights. Terminal body weights were reduced in all mid- and high-level GVC groups and high-level GMVC groups. The major proliferative lesions attributable to gasoline exposure with or without MTBE were renal tubule adenomas and carcinomas in male rats. GMV exposure led to elevated testicular mesothelioma incidence and an increased trend for thyroid carcinomas in males. GVMC inhalation caused an increased trend for testicular tumors with exposure concentration. Mid- and high-level exposures of GVC and GMVC led to elevated incidences of nasal respiratory epithelial degeneration. Overall, in these chronic studies conducted under identical conditions, the health effects in F344 rats following 2 yr of GVC or GMVC exposure were comparable in the production of renal adenomas and carcinomas in male rats and similar in other endpoints.

  9. Chronic cigarette smoke exposure increases the pulmonary retention and radiation dose of 239Pu inhaled as 239PuO2 by F344 rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finch, G.L.; Lundgren, D.L.; Barr, E.B.; Chen, B.T.; Griffith, W.C.; Hobbs, C.H.; Hoover, M.D.; Nikula, K.J.; Mauderly, J.L.

    1998-01-01

    As a portion of a study to examine how chronic cigarette smoke exposure might alter the risk of lung tumors from inhaled 239 PuO 2 in rats, the effects of smoke exposure on alpha-particle lung dosimetry over the life-span of exposed rats were determined. Male and female rats were exposed to inhaled 239 PuO 2 alone or in combination with cigarette smoke. Animals exposed to filtered air along served as controls for the smoke exposure. Whole-body exposure to mainstream smoke diluted to concentrations of either 100 or 250 mg total particulate matter m -3 began at 6 wk of age and continued for 6 h d -1 , 5 d wk -1 , for 30 mo. A single, pernasal, acute exposure to 239 PuO 2 was given to all rats at 12 wk of age. Exposure to cigarette smoke caused decreased body weight gains in a concentration dependent manner. Lung-to-body weight ratios were increased in smoke-exposed rats. Rats exposed to cigarette smoke before the 239 PuO 2 exposure deposited less 239 Pu in the lung than did controls. Except for male rats exposed to LCS, exposure to smoke retarded the clearance of 239 Pu from the lung compared to control rats through study termination at 870 d after 239 PuO 2 exposure. Radiation doses to lungs were calculated by sex and by exposure group for rats on study for at least 360 d using modeled body weight changes, lung-to-body weight ratios, and standard dosimetric calculations. For both sexes, estimated lifetime radiation doses from the time of 239 PuO 2 exposure to death were 3.8 Gy, 4.4 Gy, or 6.7 Gy for the control, LCS, or HCS exposure groups, respectively. Assuming an approximately linear dose-response relationship between radiation dose and lung neoplasm incidence, approximate increases of 20% or 80% in tumor incidence over controls would be expected in rats exposed to 239 PuO 2 and LCS or 239 PuO 2 and HCS, respectively

  10. Effect of atracylodes rhizome polysaccharide in rats with adenine-induced chronic renal failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, C; Liu, C; Zhou, Q; Xie, Y C; Qiu, X M; Feng, X

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to elucidate the therapeutic effects of Atracylodes rhizome polysaccharide on adenine-induced chronic renal failure in rats. Fifty male Sprague Dawley rats were selected and randomly divided in to 5 groups (n=10 rats per group): The normal control group, the chronic renal failure pathological control group, the dexamethasone treatment group and two Atracylodes rhizome polysaccharide treatment groups, treated with two different concentrations of the polysaccharide, the Atracylodes rhizome polysaccharide high group and the Atracylodes rhizome polysaccharide low group. All the rats, except those in the normal control group were fed adenine-enriched diets, containing 10 g adenine per kg food for 3 weeks. After being fed with adenine, the dexamethasone treatment group, Atracylodes rhizome polysaccharide high group and Atracylodes rhizome polysaccharide low group rats were administered the drug orally for 2 weeks. On day 35, the kidney coefficient of the rats and the serum levels of creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, total protein and hemalbumin were determined. Subsequent to experimentation on a model of chronic renal failure in rats, the preparation was proven to be able to reduce serum levels of creatinine, blood urea nitrogen and hemalbumin levels (Prenal function. Atracylodes rhizome polysaccharide had reversed the majority of the indices of chronic renal failure in rats.

  11. Effects of Rambutan Peel Extract to The Number of Erythrocytes and Haemoglobin in Rats Exposed to Cigarette Smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisdiana; Dewi, F. K.

    2017-04-01

    Cigarette smoke is one of the exogenous free radicals sources. When it is inhaled, its activity may damage the structure of erythrocyte membrane function. The impacts of free radicals can be reduced through the provision of antioxidants. Rambutan fruit peel contains the phenolic compound in the form of polyphenols that are antioxidants. The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of rambutan fruit peel extracts to the number of erythrocytes and haemoglobin in rats exposed to cigarette smoke. This design used Post Test Control Group Design. A sample of 25 rats was divided into five groups, each group consisting of 5 rats. The positive control group (K+) were given a standard food and drinking water. The negative control group (K) by three cigarettes, the treatment group (KP1, KP2, KP3) by three cigarettes and skin extract of rambutan each treatment group with a dose 15 mg/kg, 30 mg/kg and 45 mg/kg for 30 days. Data on the number of erythrocytes and haemoglobin in rat blood was analysed with LSD and to determine the optimum dosage was analysed by using regression test. Research results shown that the content of rambutan fruit peel extract may increase the number of erythrocytes and haemoglobin of blood. Conclusions from this research are the rambutan fruit peel extract at a dose of 45 mg/kg body weight can increase and maintain the number of erythrocytes and haemoglobin in the blood of rat exposed to cigarette smoke.

  12. Zonal corticosteroid hormone biosynthesis in the adrenal cortex in rats exposed to emotional stress combined with salt loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shul'ga, V.A.

    1987-01-01

    The authors study the pattern of biosynthesis of corticosteroid hormones in the zona glomerulosa and the combined zona fasciculata + zona reticularis of the adrenals, which are responsible for the mineralocorticoid and glucocorticoid function of the glands, during simultaneous exposure of animals to salt loading and emotional stress. Experiments were carried out on rats. The adrenals were divided into parts and samples were incubated in vitro with the addition of 3 H-progesterone to each sample. The specific activity of the 3 H-labeled corticosteroids decreased significantly in rats with a normal salt intake exposed to emotional stress

  13. Chronic phase shifts of the photoperiod throughout pregnancy programs glucose intolerance and insulin resistance in the rat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara J Varcoe

    Full Text Available Shift work during pregnancy is associated with an increased risk for preterm birth and low birth weight. However, the impact upon the long term health of the children is currently unknown. In this study, we used an animal model to determine the consequences of maternal shift work exposure on the health of the adult offspring. Pregnant rats were exposed to chronic phase shifts (CPS in their photoperiod every 3-4 days throughout gestation and the first week after birth. Adult offspring were assessed for a range of metabolic, endocrine, circadian and neurobehavioural parameters. At 3 months of age, male pups exposed to the CPS schedule in utero had increased adiposity (+29% and hyperleptinaemia (+99% at 0700h. By 12 months of age, both male and female rats displayed hyperleptinaemia (+26% and +41% respectively and hyperinsulinaemia (+110% and +83% respectively. 12 month old female CPS rats displayed poor glucose tolerance (+18% and increased insulin secretion (+29% in response to an intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test. In CPS males the glucose response was unaltered, but the insulin response was reduced by 35%. The glucose response to an insulin tolerance test was decreased by 21% in CPS females but unaltered in males. Disruption of circadian rhythmicity during gestation resulted in gender dependent metabolic consequences for the adult offspring. These results highlight the need for a thorough analysis of shift work exposure in utero on the health of the adult offspring in humans.

  14. Changes in brain development of rat fetus exposed to 137Cs γ rays in different pregnant periods of the female rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Yuefeng; Wang Mingming

    2004-01-01

    Pregnant rats in 11d and 16d of their pregnancy were given one-off whole body exposure by 137 Cs γ rays to 0.2, 0.4, 0.9 and 2.0 Gy, respectively. Changes were observed in conditioned drinking response and cerebrum hippocampi cone cell number of the baby rats exposed to the γ rays in different periods of their embryo development. As a result, that pregnant rats exposed to 137 Cs γ rays in different pregnant periods may induce significant decrease in cerebrum hippocampi cone cell number and achieving rate of conditioned drinking response of the babies. The dose-response relationship can be described by Y=a-b log 10 D. The achieving rate of conditioned drinking response were significantly correlated to cerebrum hippocampi cone cell number in the babies, and the achieving rate of conditioned drinking response of the babies exposed at pregnant 11d was lower than others exposed at pregnant 16d

  15. Lung function status of some Nigerian men and women chronically exposed to fish drying using burning firewood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, E J; Esin, R A; Immananagha, K K; Siziya, S; Osim, E E

    1999-05-01

    To determine the lung function status of some Nigerian men and women chronically exposed to fish drying using burning firewood. Case control study. Ibaka, Utaewa and Ikanga fishing settlements. 183 males and 192 females engaged in fishing, aged 20 to 45 years who have been exposed for a minimum of five years as cases. The control group comprised sex matched male (142) and female (152) Nigerians from the same area who were not exposed to any known air pollutant. Lung function indices: FVC, FEV1, FEV1% and PEFR. Lung function indices were significantly lower in men engaged in fishing than in their controls: FVC [mean (SD): 2.98 (0.20) vs 3.52 (0.29), p firewood can impair lung function and cause respiratory and other symptoms.

  16. Effects of an acute and a sub-chronic 900 MHz GSM exposure on brain activity and behaviors of rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elsa Brillaud; Aleksandra Piotrowski; Anthony Lecomte; Franck Robidel; Rene de Seze

    2006-01-01

    Radio frequencies are suspected to produce health effects. Concerning the mobile phone technology, according to position during use (close to the head), possible effects of radio frequencies on the central nervous system have to be evaluated. Previous works showed contradictory results, possibly due to experimental design diversity. In the framework of R.A.M.P. 2001 project, we evaluated possible effect of a 900 MHz GSM exposure on the central nervous system of rat at a structural, a functional and a behavioral level after acute or sub-chronic exposures. Rats were exposed using a loop antenna system to different S.A.R. levels and durations, according to results of the French C.O.M.O.B.I.O. 2001 project. A functional effect was found (modification of the cerebral activity and increase of the glia surface) after an acute exposure, even at a low level of brain averaged S.A.R. (1.5 W/kg). No cumulative effect was observed after a sub-chronic exposure (same amplitude of the effect). No structural or behavioral consequence was noted. We do not conclude on the neurotoxicity of the 900 MHz GSM exposure on the rat brain. Our results do not indicate any health risk. (authors)

  17. Effects of an acute and a sub-chronic 900 MHz GSM exposure on brain activity and behaviors of rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elsa Brillaud; Aleksandra Piotrowski; Anthony Lecomte; Franck Robidel; Rene de Seze [Toxicology Unit, INERIS, Verneuil en Halatte (France)

    2006-07-01

    Radio frequencies are suspected to produce health effects. Concerning the mobile phone technology, according to position during use (close to the head), possible effects of radio frequencies on the central nervous system have to be evaluated. Previous works showed contradictory results, possibly due to experimental design diversity. In the framework of R.A.M.P. 2001 project, we evaluated possible effect of a 900 MHz GSM exposure on the central nervous system of rat at a structural, a functional and a behavioral level after acute or sub-chronic exposures. Rats were exposed using a loop antenna system to different S.A.R. levels and durations, according to results of the French C.O.M.O.B.I.O. 2001 project. A functional effect was found (modification of the cerebral activity and increase of the glia surface) after an acute exposure, even at a low level of brain averaged S.A.R. (1.5 W/kg). No cumulative effect was observed after a sub-chronic exposure (same amplitude of the effect). No structural or behavioral consequence was noted. We do not conclude on the neurotoxicity of the 900 MHz GSM exposure on the rat brain. Our results do not indicate any health risk. (authors)

  18. BDNF/TrkB Pathway Mediates the Antidepressant-Like Role of H2S in CUMS-Exposed Rats by Inhibition of Hippocampal ER Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Le; Kan, Li-Yuan; Zeng, Hai-Ying; Tang, Yi-Yun; Huang, Hong-Lin; Xie, Ming; Zou, Wei; Wang, Chun-Yan; Zhang, Ping; Tang, Xiao-Qing

    2018-06-01

    Our previous works have shown that hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) significantly attenuates chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS)-induced depressive-like behaviors and hippocampal endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) generates an antidepressant-like effect by its receptor tyrosine protein kinase B (TrkB). We have previously found that H 2 S upregulates the expressions of BDNF and p-TrkB in the hippocampus of CUMS-exposed rats. Therefore, the present work was to explore whether BDNF/TrkB pathway mediates the antidepressant-like role of H 2 S by blocking hippocampal ER stress. We found that treatment with K252a (an inhibitor of BDNF/TrkB pathway) significantly increased the immobility time in the forced swim test and tail suspension test and increased the latency to feed in the novelty-suppressed feeding test in the rats cotreated with sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS, a donor of H 2 S) and CUMS. Similarly, K252a reversed the protective effect of NaHS against CUMS-induced hippocampal ER stress, as evidenced by increases in the levels of ER stress-related proteins, glucose-regulated protein 78, CCAAT/enhancer binding protein homologous protein and cleaved caspase-12. Taken together, our results suggest that BDNF/TrkB pathway plays an important mediatory role in the antidepressant-like action of H 2 S in CUMS-exposed rats, which is by suppression of hippocampal ER stress. These data provide a novel mechanism underlying the protection of H 2 S against CUMS-induced depressive-like behaviors.

  19. Carcinogenicity study on butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) in Wistar rats exposed in utero

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, P.; Meyer, Otto A.; Bille, N.

    1986-01-01

    Groups of 60, 40, 40 and 60 F0 Wistar rats of each sex were fed a semi-synthetic diet containing butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) in concentrations to provide intakes of 0, 25, 100 or 500 mg/kg body weight/day, respectively. The F0 rats were mated and groups of 100, 80, 80 or 100 F1 rats of each sex...

  20. A STUDY OF FISCHER 344 RATS EXPOSED TO SILICA DUST FOR SIX MONTHS AT CONCENTRATIONS OF 0, 2, 10 OR 20 MG / M3.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KUTZMAN,R.S.

    1984-02-01

    The major objective of this study was to relate the results of a series of functional tests to the compositional and structural alterations in the rat lung induced by subchronic exposure to silica dust. Fischer-344 rats were exposed for 6 hours/day, 5 days/week for 6 months to either 0, 2, 10, or 20 mg SiO{sub 2}/m{sup 3}. The general appearance of the exposed rats was not different from that of the controls. Interestingly, female rats exposed to silica dust, at all tested concentrations, gained more weight than the controls. The lung weight and the lung-to-body weight ratio was greater in the male rats exposed to the highest concentration of silica dust.

  1. NFAT regulation of cystathionine γ-lyase expression in endothelial cells is impaired in rats exposed to intermittent hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez Bosc, Laura V; Osmond, Jessica M; Giermakowska, Wieslawa K; Pace, Carolyn E; Riggs, Jennifer L; Jackson-Weaver, Olan; Kanagy, Nancy L

    2017-04-01

    Sleep apnea is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, and intermittent hypoxia (IH, 20 episodes/h of 5% O 2 -5% CO 2 for 7 h/day) to mimic sleep apnea increases blood pressure and impairs hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S)-induced vasodilation in rats. The enzyme that produces H 2 S, cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE), is decreased in rat mesenteric artery endothelial cells (EC) following in vivo IH exposure. In silico analysis identified putative nuclear factor of activated T cell (NFAT) binding sites in the CSE promoter. Therefore, we hypothesized that IH exposure reduces Ca 2+ concentration ([Ca 2+ ]) activation of calcineurin/NFAT to lower CSE expression and impair vasodilation. In cultured rat aortic EC, inhibiting calcineurin with cyclosporine A reduced CSE mRNA, CSE protein, and luciferase activity driven by a full-length but not a truncated CSE promoter. In male rats exposed to sham or IH conditions for 2 wk, [Ca 2+ ] in EC in small mesenteric arteries from IH rats was lower than in EC from sham rat arteries (Δfura 2 ratio of fluorescence at 340 to 380 nm from Ca 2+ free: IH = 0.05 ± 0.02, sham = 0.17 ± 0.03, P intermittent hypoxia to mimic sleep apnea, nuclear factor of activated T cells c3 nuclear translocation and CSE expression are decreased, concomitant with decreased CSE-dependent vasodilation. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  2. Impaired cardiac ischemic tolerance in spontaneously hypertensive rats is attenuated by adaptation to chronic and acute stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravingerová, T; Bernátová, I; Matejíková, J; Ledvényiová, V; Nemčeková, M; Pecháňová, O; Tribulová, N; Slezák, J

    2011-01-01

    Chronic hypertension may have a negative impact on the myocardial response to ischemia. On the other hand, intrinsic ischemic tolerance may persist even in the pathologically altered hearts of hypertensive animals, and may be modified by short- or long-term adaptation to different stressful conditions. The effects of long-term limitation of living space (ie, crowding stress [CS]) and brief ischemia-induced stress on cardiac response to ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury are not yet fully characterized in hypertensive subjects. The present study was designed to test the influence of chronic and acute stress on the myocardial response to I/R in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) compared with their effects in normotensive counterparts. In both groups, chronic, eight-week CS was induced by caging five rats per cage in cages designed for two rats (200 cm(2)/rat), while controls (C) were housed four to a cage in cages designed for six animals (480 cm(2)/rat). Acute stress was evoked by one cycle of I/R (5 min each, ischemic preconditioning) before sustained I/R in isolated Langendorff-perfused hearts of normotensive and SHR rats. At baseline conditions, the effects of CS were manifested only as a further increase in blood pressure in SHR, and by marked limitation of coronary perfusion in normotensive animals, while no changes in heart mechanical function were observed in any of the groups. Postischemic recovery of contractile function, severity of ventricular arrhythmias and lethal injury (infarction size) were worsened in the hypertrophied hearts of C-SHR compared with normotensive C. However, myo-cardial stunning and reperfusion-induced ventricular arrhythmias were attenuated by CS in SHR, which was different from deterioration of I/R injury in the hearts of normotensive animals. In contrast, ischemic preconditioning conferred an effective protection against I/R in both groups, although the extent of anti-infarct and anti-arrhythmic effects was lower in SHR. Both

  3. Rutin protects against cognitive deficits and brain damage in rats with chronic cerebral hypoperfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Jie; Zhou, Qiong; Du, Ying; Zhang, Wei; Bai, Miao; Zhang, Zhuo; Xi, Ye; Li, Zhuyi; Miao, Jianting

    2014-08-01

    Chronic cerebral hypoperfusion is a critical causative factor for the development of cognitive decline and dementia in the elderly, which involves many pathophysiological processes. Consequently, inhibition of several pathophysiological pathways is an attractive therapeutic strategy for this disorder. Rutin, a biologically active flavonoid, protects the brain against several insults through its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, but its effect on cognitive deficits and brain damage caused by chronic cerebral hypoperfusion remains unknown. Here, we investigated the neuroprotective effect of rutin on cognitive impairments and the potential mechanisms underlying its action in rats with chronic cerebral hypoperfusion. We used Sprague-Dawley rats with permanent bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (BCCAO), a well-established model of chronic cerebral hypoperfusion. After rutin treatment for 12 weeks, the neuroprotective effect of rutin in rats was evaluated by behavioural tests, biochemical and histopathological analyses. BCCAO rats showed marked cognitive deficits, which were improved by rutin treatment. Moreover, BCCAO rats exhibited central cholinergic dysfunction, oxidative damage, inflammatory responses and neuronal damage in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus, compared with sham-operated rats. All these effects were significantly alleviated by treatment with rutin. Our results provide new insights into the pharmacological actions of rutin and suggest that rutin has multi-targeted therapeutical potential on cognitive deficits associated with conditions with chronic cerebral hypoperfusion such as vascular dementia and Alzheimer's disease. © 2014 The British Pharmacological Society.

  4. Health implications of chronic hepatosplenomegaly in Kenyan school-aged children chronically exposed to malarial infections and Schistosoma mansoni

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilson, Shona; Vennervald, Birgitte J; Kadzo, Hilda

    2010-01-01

    Hepatosplenomegaly among school-aged children in sub-Saharan Africa is highly prevalent. Two of the more common aetiological agents of hepatosplenomegaly, namely chronic exposure to malaria and Schistosoma mansoni infection, can result in similar clinical presentation, with the liver and spleen...... being chronically enlarged and of a firm consistency. Where co-endemic, the two parasites are thought to synergistically exacerbate hepatosplenomegaly. Here, two potential health consequences, i.e. dilation of the portal vein (indicative of increased portal pressure) and stunting of growth, were...... with hepatosplenomegaly. Children who presented with hepatosplenomegaly had the lowest height-for-age Z-scores. This study shows that hepatosplenomegaly associated with chronic exposure to malaria and schistosomiasis is not a benign symptom amongst school-aged children but has potential long-term health consequences....

  5. Genotoxicity and fetal abnormality in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats exposed to cigarette smoke prior to and during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damasceno, D C; Volpato, G T; Sinzato, Y K; Lima, P H O; Souza, M S S; Iessi, I L; Kiss, A C I; Takaku, M; Rudge, M V C; Calderon, I M P

    2011-10-01

    Maternal hyperglycemia during early pregnancy is associated with increased risk of abnormalities in the offspring. Malformation rates among the offspring of diabetic mothers are 2-5-fold higher than that of the normal population, and congenital malformations are the major cause of mortality and morbidity in the offspring of diabetic mothers. Metabolic changes, such as hyperglycemia and the metabolites obtained from cigarettes both increase the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the embryo or fetus, causing DNA damage. To evaluate the maternal and fetal genotoxicity, and to assess the incidence of fetal anomaly in diabetic female rats exposed to cigarette smoke at different stages of pregnancy in rats. Diabetes was induced by streptozotocin administration and cigarette smoke exposure was produced by a mechanical smoking device that generated mainstream smoke that was delivered into a chamber. Female Wistar rats were randomly assigned to: non-diabetic (ND) and diabetic (D) groups exposed to filtered air; a diabetic group exposed to cigarette smoke prior to and during pregnancy (DS) and a diabetic group only exposed to cigarette smoke prior to pregnancy (DSPP). On pregnancy day 21, blood samples were obtained for DNA damage analysis and fetuses were collected for congenital anomaly assessment. Statistical significance was set at p<0.05 for all analysis. Exposure of diabetic rats to tobacco smoke prior to pregnancy increased fetal DNA damage, but failed to induce teratogenicity. Thus, these results reinforce the importance for women to avoid exposure to cigarette smoke long before they become pregnant. © J. A. Barth Verlag in Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  6. Study on serum metabonomics of rats exposed to low-dose ionizing radiation, carbon monoxide, benzene and noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing-rong WANG

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the combined effects of low-dose ionizing radiation, carbon monoxide, benzene and noise on serum metabolites and the mechanism of injury induced by these complex environmental factors in rats. Methods  Sixteen adult SD rats were randomly divided into control group and exposed group (8 each. The exposed group received the combined effect every day for 7 days. At the end of experiment, sera were collected from the abdominal aorta of rats. The metabolic fingerprint of serum was obtained by 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR spectroscopy and determined with pattern recognition techniques of principal component analysis (PCA and orthogonal signal correction-partial least squares (OSC-PLS. The similarities and differences in metabolic profiles between two groups were visualized by SIMCA-P software. Results The rat serum 1H NMR spectra revealed different metabolic spectra between the control group and exposed group. The OSC-PLS plots of the serum samples presented respectively marked clustering between the two groups. Compared with the control group, the contents of lipid, high density lipoprotein, glycine/glucose, N-acetyl glycoprotein 1, N-acetyl glycoprotein 2, phosphatidyl choline and unsaturated fatty acid increased, while those of lactic acid, threonine/lipid, alanine, creatine, glycerylphosphorylcholine/ trimethylamine oxide, low density lipoprotein/high density lipoprotein, low density lipoprotein, very low density lipoprotein/ low density lipoprotein, very low density lipoprotein and saturated fatty acid decreased. Conclusions Combination of low-dose ionizing radiation, carbon monoxide, benzene and noise could induce changes of serum metabolites in rats, involving in immune function, renal function and energy metabolism. The NMR-based-metabonomics method has potential of application in research on combined biological effects of the complex environmental factors. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2015.07.09

  7. Haematological, Biochemical and Antioxidant Changes in Wistar Rats Exposed to Dichlorvos Based Insecticide Formulation Used in Southeast Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kingsley C. Kanu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The indiscriminate use of pesticide is a treat to non-target organisms. This study evaluates the haematological and biochemical changes induced by inhalation of local Nigerian dichlorvos insecticide on rats. The rats were randomly assigned to a control group which received only food and water and a test group which, in addition to food and water, was exposed to the pesticide for a period of 4 h daily for 28 days, after which exposure was discontinued for seven days. Five animals were sacrificed from each group on days 1, 7, 14, 21, 28 and 35, and blood was collected by cardiac puncture for haematological, biochemical and antioxidant analysis. Results obtained showed lowered values of red blood cell count (RBC, packed cell volume (PCV, haemoglobin, mean cell haemoglobin (MCH and mean cell haemoglobin concentration (MCHC (p < 0.05 with increased white blood cell count (WBC and platelet counts after day 14 when compared to the control group. Liver enzymes aspartate amino transaminase (AST and alanine amino transaminase (ALT were higher in the exposed rats compared to the control group (p < 0.05. Urea and creatinine concentrations increased significantly after day 1 and at day 28, while superoxide dismutase (SOD, gluthathione (GSH and catalase (CAT activity increased significantly compared to the control after day 1, day 14 and day 21, respectively. The RBC, PCV and haemoglobin values of all exposed rats were restored to normal following withdrawal of the pesticide, though AST, ALT, urea, creatinine and, glutathione values remained significantly high compared to the control. Inhalation of the local insecticide is toxic to the blood, liver and kidney of laboratory rats and may be deleterious to human health following long-term exposure.

  8. The effects of honey and vitamin E administration on apoptosis in testes of rat exposed to noise stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Hemadi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: A variety of stress factors are known to inhibit male reproductive functions. So this study was conducted in order to investigate the effects of honey and vitamin E on the germinative and somatic cells of testes of rats exposed to noise stress. Materials and Methods: Mature male wistar rats (n0 = 24 were randomly grouped as follows: Group 1 (honey + noise stress, 2 (vitamin E + noise stress, 3 (noise stress, and 4 as the control group. In groups 1, 2, and 3, rats were exposed to noise stress. In groups 1 and 2, rats also were given honey and vitamin E, respectively, orally for 50 days. After that, the germinative and somatic cells of testes parenchyma were isolated by digesting the whole testes by a standard method. Next, viability, apoptosis, and necrosis of the cells were evaluated by TUNEL kit and flow cytometry. Results: The rates of apoptosis and necrosis of the testicular cells were increased (P = 0.003 and P = 0.001, respectively, but viability of these cells decreased in testes of rats exposed to noise stress (P = 0.003. However, administration of honey and vitamin E were significantly helpful in keeping the cells of testis parenchyma alive, which suffers from noise pollution (P < 0.05 and P < 0.05, respectively. Conclusions: Noise stress has negative influences on the cells of testicular tissue by increasing apoptotic and necrotic cells. However, the associated enhancement in healthy cells suggests that honey and vitamin E have positive influences on the testis parenchyma.

  9. Changes in erectile organ structure and function in a rat model of chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X-J; Xia, L-L; Xu, T-Y; Zhang, X-H; Zhu, Z-W; Zhang, M-G; Liu, Y; Xu, C; Zhong, S; Shen, Z-J

    2016-04-01

    There is a growing recognition of the association between chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS) and erectile dysfunction (ED); however, most of the reports are based on questionnaires which cannot distinguish between organic and functional ED. The purpose of this study was to determine the exact relationship between CP/CPPS and ED, and to investigate the changes in erectile organ structure and function in a rat model of CP/CPPS. We established a rat model of experimental autoimmune prostatitis (EAP), which is a valid model for CP/CPPS. Erectile function in EAP and normal rats was comparable after cavernous nerve electrostimulation. The serum testosterone and oestradiol levels, ultrastructure of the corpus cavernosum and expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase and neuronal nitric oxide synthase in the two groups were similar; however, there was a decrease in smooth muscle-to-collagen ratio and alpha-smooth muscle actin expression and an increase in transforming growth factor-beta 1 expression was observed in EAP rats. Thus, organic ED may not exist in EAP rats. We speculate that ED complained by patients with CP/CPPS may be psychological, which could be caused by impairment in the quality of life; however, further studies are needed to fully understand the potential mechanisms underlying the penile fibrosis in EAP rats. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  10. Gastrointestinal drug absorption in rats exposed to 60Co γ-radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brady, M.E.

    1976-01-01

    Following exposure of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract to ionizing radiation, its structure and function are altered for several days. Such alterations may affect the bioavailability of orally administered drugs. The potential mechanisms by which radiation may affect drug absorption were explored by studying the absorption of four test drugs, sulfanilamide, bretylium, sulfisoxazole acetyl, and riboflavin, in rats that were exposed to 850 R cobalt-60 gamma-radiation or sham irradiated. In one series of experiments, the drugs were administered orally and the amount of drug excreted in urine was used as a measure of the extent of their absorption. Cumulative urinary excretion of the drugs was shown to be a valid measure of absorption since it was not affected by radiation after intravenous administration of the drugs. At one day post-irradiation, the extent of absorption of sulfanilamide and bretylium was not affected by radiation but the absorption of sulfisoxazole acetyl and riboflavin was increased. At five days post-irradiation, there was no detectable difference between irradiated and control animals in the extent of absorption of the drugs. The fraction of sulfanilamide excreted in the urine as 4 N-conjugate was increased at one day post-irradiation. The increased excretion of metabolite appeared to result from metabolism of the drug by gut flora prior to absorption. This study shows that radiation-induced alterations in the absorption of orally administered drugs are due primarily to slowed gastric emptying. In general, slowed gastric emptying causes the rate of drug absorption to decline. The extent of absorption of drugs that are normally well absorbed is not affected by radiation while the extent of absorption of drugs that normally are absorbed poorly may be increased after irradiation of the GI tract

  11. Analyzing large data sets acquired through telemetry from rats exposed to organophosphorous compounds: an EEG study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Araujo Furtado, Marcio; Zheng, Andy; Sedigh-Sarvestani, Madineh; Lumley, Lucille; Lichtenstein, Spencer; Yourick, Debra

    2009-10-30

    The organophosphorous compound soman is an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor that causes damage to the brain. Exposure to soman causes neuropathology as a result of prolonged and recurrent seizures. In the present study, long-term recordings of cortical EEG were used to develop an unbiased means to quantify measures of seizure activity in a large data set while excluding other signal types. Rats were implanted with telemetry transmitters and exposed to soman followed by treatment with therapeutics similar to those administered in the field after nerve agent exposure. EEG, activity and temperature were recorded continuously for a minimum of 2 days pre-exposure and 15 days post-exposure. A set of automatic MATLAB algorithms have been developed to remove artifacts and measure the characteristics of long-term EEG recordings. The algorithms use short-time Fourier transforms to compute the power spectrum of the signal for 2-s intervals. The spectrum is then divided into the delta, theta, alpha, and beta frequency bands. A linear fit to the power spectrum is used to distinguish normal EEG activity from artifacts and high amplitude spike wave activity. Changes in time spent in seizure over a prolonged period are a powerful indicator of the effects of novel therapeutics against seizures. A graphical user interface has been created that simultaneously plots the raw EEG in the time domain, the power spectrum, and the wavelet transform. Motor activity and temperature are associated with EEG changes. The accuracy of this algorithm is also verified against visual inspection of video recordings up to 3 days after exposure.

  12. L-citrulline supplementation reverses the impaired airway relaxation in neonatal rats exposed to hyperoxia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sopi Ramadan B

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hyperoxia is shown to impair airway relaxation via limiting L-arginine bioavailability to nitric oxide synthase (NOS and reducing NO production as a consequence. L-arginine can also be synthesized by L-citrulline recycling. The role of L-citrulline supplementation was investigated in the reversing of hyperoxia-induced impaired relaxation of rat tracheal smooth muscle (TSM. Methods Electrical field stimulation (EFS, 2–20 V-induced relaxation was measured under in vitro conditions in preconstricted tracheal preparations obtained from 12 day old rat pups exposed to room air or hyperoxia (>95% oxygen for 7 days supplemented with L-citrulline or saline (in vitro or in vivo. The role of the L-citrulline/L-arginine cycle under basal conditions was studied by incubation of preparations in the presence of argininosuccinate synthase (ASS inhibitor [α-methyl-D, L-aspartate, 1 mM] or argininosuccinate lyase inhibitor (ASL succinate (1 mM and/or NOS inhibitor [Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester; 100 μM] with respect to the presence or absence of L-citrulline (2 mM. Results Hyperoxia impaired the EFS-induced relaxation of TSM as compared to room air control (p ; 0.5 ± 0.1% at 2 V to 50.6 ± 5.7% at 20 V in hyperoxic group: 0.7 ± 0.2 at 2 V to 80.0 ± 5.6% at 20 V in room air group. Inhibition of ASS or ASL, and L-citrulline supplementation did not affect relaxation responses under basal conditions. However, inhibition of NOS significantly reduced relaxation responses (p in vivo and in vitro also reversed the hyperoxia-impaired relaxation. The differences were significant (p ; 0.8 ± 0.3% at 2 V to 47.1 ± 4.1% at 20 V without L-citrulline; 0.9 ± 0.3% at 2 V to 68.2 ± 4.8% at 20 V with L-citrulline. Inhibition of ASS or ASL prevented this effect of L-citrulline. Conclusion The results indicate the presence of an L-citrulline/L-arginine cycle in the airways of rat pups

  13. Altered cardiovascular reactivity and osmoregulation during hyperosmotic stress in adult rats developmentally exposed to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, Ashini; Coburn, Cary G.; Watson-Siriboe, Abena; Whitley, Rebecca; Shahidzadeh, Anoush; Gillard, Elizabeth R.; Nichol, Robert; Leon-Olea, Martha; Gaertner, Mark; Kodavanti, Prasada Rao S.; Curras-Collazo, Margarita C.

    2011-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and the structurally similar chemicals polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) disrupt the function of multiple endocrine systems. PCBs and PBDEs disrupt the secretion of vasopressin (VP) from the hypothalamus during osmotic activation. Since the peripheral and central vasopressinergic axes are critical for osmotic and cardiovascular regulation, we examined whether perinatal PBDE exposure could impact these functions during physiological activation. Rats were perinatally dosed with a commercial PBDE mixture, DE-71. Dams were given 0 (corn oil control), 1.7 (low dose) or 30.6 mg/kg/day (high dose) in corn oil from gestational day (GD) 6 through postnatal day (PND) 21 by oral gavage. In the male offspring exposed to high dose PBDE plasma thyroxine and triiodothyronine levels were reduced at PND 21 and recovered to control levels by PND 60 when thyroid stimulating hormone levels were elevated. At 14-18 months of age, cardiovascular responses were measured in four groups of rats: Normal (Oil, normosmotic condition), Hyper (Oil, hyperosmotic stress), Hyper PBDE low (1.7 mg/kg/day DE-71 perinatally, hyperosmotic stress), and Hyper PBDE high (30.6 mg/kg/day DE-71 perinatally, hyperosmotic stress). Systolic blood pressure (BP), diastolic BP, and heart rate (HR) were determined using tail cuff sphygmomanometry and normalized to pretreatment values (baseline) measured under basal conditions. Hyperosmotic treatment yielded significant changes in systolic BP in PBDE exposed rats only. Hyper PBDE low and high dose rats showed 36.1 and 64.7% greater systolic BP responses at 3 h post hyperosmotic injection relative to pretreatment baseline, respectively. No treatment effects were measured for diastolic BP and HR. Hyper and Hyper PBDE rats showed increased mean plasma osmolality values by 45 min after injection relative to normosmotic controls. In contrast to Hyper rats, Hyper PBDE (high) rats showed a further increase in mean plasma osmolality at 3

  14. Histopathological, immunohistochemical, and stereological analysis of the effect of Ginkgo biloba (Egb761) on the hippocampus of rats exposed to long-term cellphone radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gevrek, Fikret

    2018-05-01

    Cellular phones are major sources of electromagnetic radiation (EMR) that can penetrate the human body and pose serious health hazards. The increasingly widespread use of mobile communication systems has raised concerns about the effects of cellphone radiofrequency (RF) on the hippocampus because of its close proximity to radiation during cellphone use. The effects of cellphone EMR exposure on the hippocampus of rats and the possible counteractive effects of Ginkgo biloba (Egb761) were aimed to investigate. Rats were divided into three groups: Control, EMR, and EMR+Egb761. The EMR and EMR+Egb761 groups were exposed to cellphone EMR for one month. Egb761 was also administered to the EMR+Egb761 group. Specifically, we evaluated the effect of RF exposure on rat hippocampi at harmful EMR levels (0.96 W/kg specific absorption rate [SAR]) for one month and also investigated the possible impact of Ginkgo biloba (Egb761) using stereological, TUNEL-staining, and immunohistochemical methods. An increase in apoptotic proteins (Bax, Acas-3) and a decrease in anti-apoptotic protein (Bcl-2) immunoreactivity along with a decrease in the total granule and pyramidal cell count were noted in the EMR group. A decrease in Bax and Acas-3 and an increase in Bcl-2 immunoreactivity were observed in rats treated with Egb761 in addition to a decrease in TUNEL-stained apoptotic cells and a higher total viable cell number. In conclusion, chronic cellphone EMR exposure may affect hippocampal cell viability, and Egb761 may be used to mitigate some of the deleterious effects.

  15. Hypertension and Cardiovascular Remodelling in Rats Exposed to Continuous Light: Protection by ACE-Inhibition and Melatonin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fedor Simko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Exposure of rats to continuous light attenuates melatonin production and results in hypertension development. This study investigated whether hypertension induced by continuous light (24 hours/day exposure induces heart and aorta remodelling and if these alterations are prevented by melatonin or angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor captopril. Four groups of 3-month-old male Wistar rats (10 per group were treated as follows for six weeks: untreated controls, exposed to continuous light, light-exposed, and treated with either captopril (100 mg/kg/day or melatonin (10 mg/kg/day. Exposure to continuous light led to hypertension, left ventricular (LV hypertrophy and fibrosis, and enhancement of the oxidative load in the LV and aorta. Increase in systolic blood pressure by continuous light exposure was prevented completely by captopril and partially by melatonin. Both captopril and melatonin reduced the wall thickness and cross-sectional area of the aorta and reduced the level of oxidative stress. However, only captopril reduced LV hypertrophy development and only melatonin reduced LV hydroxyproline concentration in insoluble and total collagen in rats exposed to continuous light. In conclusion, captopril prevented LV hypertrophy development in the continuous light-induced hypertension model, while only melatonin significantly reduced fibrosis. This antifibrotic action of melatonin may be protective in hypertensive heart disease.

  16. Evaluation of passive avoidance learning and spatial memory in rats exposed to low levels of lead during specific periods of early brain development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao Barkur, Rajashekar; Bairy, Laxminarayana K

    2015-01-01

    Widespread use of heavy metal lead (Pb) for various commercial purposes has resulted in the environmental contamination caused by this metal. The studies have shown a definite relationship between low level lead exposure during early brain development and deficit in children's cognitive functions. This study investigated the passive avoidance learning and spatial learning in male rat pups exposed to lead through their mothers during specific periods of early brain development. Experimental male rats were divided into 5 groups: i) the normal control group (NC) (N = 12) consisted of rat offspring born to mothers who were given normal drinking water throughout gestation and lactation, ii) the pre-gestation lead exposed group (PG) (N = 12) consisted of rat offspring, mothers of these rats had been exposed to 0.2% lead acetate in the drinking water for 1 month before conception, iii) the gestation lead exposed group (G) (N = 12) contained rat offspring born to mothers who had been exposed to 0.2% lead acetate in the drinking water throughout gestation, iv) the lactation lead exposed group (L) (N = 12) had rat offspring, mothers of these rats exposed to 0.2% lead acetate in the drinking water throughout lactation and v) the gestation and lactation lead exposed group (GL) (N = 12) contained rat offspring, mothers of these rats were exposed to 0.2% lead acetate throughout gestation and lactation. The study found deficit in passive avoidance learning in the G, L and GL groups of rats. Impairment in spatial learning was found in the PG, G, L and GL groups of rats. Interestingly, the study found that gestation period only and lactation period only lead exposure was sufficient to cause deficit in learning and memory in rats. The extent of memory impairment in the L group of rats was comparable with the GL group of rats. So it can be said that postnatal period of brain development is more sensitive to neurotoxicity compared to prenatal exposure. This work is available in Open

  17. Physiological study on the influence of some plant oils in rats exposed to a sublethal concentration of diazinon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atef M. Al-Attar

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study was aimed to evaluate the influence of olive, sesame and black seed oils on levels of some physiological parameters in male rats exposed to diazinon (DZN. Body weight changes, and levels of serum total protein, albumin, glucose, triglycerides, cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C, atherogenic index (AI, atherogenic coefficient (AC, cardiac risk ratio (CRR, glutathione (GSH, superoxide dismutase (SOD and malondialdehyde (MAD were selected as physiological parameters. The experimental animals were distributed into nine groups. Rats group exposed to DZN and fed with normal diet resulted in pronounced severe changes including reduced body weight gain rate, significantly increase in levels of serum albumin, glucose, cholesterol, LDL-C, AI, AC, CRR and MDA while levels of HDL-C, GSH and SOD were decreased. In rats treated with DZN, the supplementation of the olive, sesame and black seed oils showed remarkable lowering influences of physiological alterations. Moreover, the present results confirmed that these oils possess antioxidative effects against DZN toxicity. Finally, the present findings suggest that these oils are safe and promising agents for the treatment of physiological disturbances induced by DZN and may be also by other pollutants, and toxic and pathogenic factors. Keywords: Diazinon, Olive oil, Sesame oil, Black seed oil, Blood, Rats

  18. CNS development under altered gravity: cerebellar glial and neuronal protein expression in rat neonates exposed to hypergravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguon, K.; Li, G.-H.; Sajdel-Sulkowska, E. M.

    2004-01-01

    The future of space exploration depends on a solid understanding of the developmental process under microgravity, specifically in relation to the central nervous system (CNS). We have previously employed a hypergravity paradigm to assess the impact of altered gravity on the developing rat cerebellum [Exp. Biol. Med. 226 (2000) 790]. The present study addresses the molecular mechanisms involved in the cerebellar response to hypergravity. Specifically, the study focuses on the expression of selected glial and neuronal cerebellar proteins in rat neonates exposed to hypergravity (1.5 G) from embryonic day (E)11 to postnatal day (P)6 or P9 (the time of maximal cerebellar changes) comparing them against their expression in rat neonates developing under normal gravity. Proteins were analyzed by quantitative Western blots of cerebellar homogenates; RNA analysis was performed in the same samples using quantitative PCR. Densitometric analysis of Western blots suggested a reduction in glial (glial acidic protein, GFAP) and neuronal (neuronal cell adhesion moiecule, NCAM-L1, synaptophysin) proteins, but the changes in individual cerebellar proteins in hypergravity-exposed neonates appeared both age- and gender-specific. RNA analysis suggested a reduction in GFAP and synaptophysin mRNAs on P6. These data suggest that exposure to hypergravity may interfere with the expression of selected cerebellar proteins. These changes in protein expression may be involved in mediating the effect of hypergravity on the developing rat cerebellum.

  19. Chronic nitric oxide synthase inhibition exacerbates renal dysfunction in cirrhotic rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graebe, M.; Brond, L.; Christensen, S.

    2004-01-01

    The present study investigated sodium balance and renal tubular function in cirrhotic rats with chronic blockade of the nitric oxide (NO) system. Rats were treated with the nonselective NO synthase inhibitor NG-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME) starting on the day of common bile duct ligation...... (CBL). Three weeks of daily sodium balance studies showed that CBL rats developed sodium retention compared with sham-operated rats and that l-NAME treatment dose dependently deteriorated cumulative sodium balance by reducing urinary sodium excretion. Five weeks after CBL, renal clearance studies were...

  20. Chronic ethanol intake leads to structural and molecular alterations in the rat endometrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Marcelo; Milton, Flora A; Pinheiro, Patricia Fernanda F; Almeida-Francia, Camila C D; Cagnon-Quitete, Valeria H A; Tirapelli, Luiz F; Padovani, Carlos Roberto; Chuffa, Luiz Gustavo A; Martinez, Francisco Eduardo

    2016-05-01

    We described the effects of low- and high-dose ethanol intake on the structure and apoptosis signaling of the uterine endometrium of UChA and UChB rats (animals with voluntary ethanol consumption). Thirty adult female rats, 90 days old, were divided into three groups (n = 10/group): UChA rats fed with 10% (v/v) ethanol ad libitum (free choice for water or ethanol) drinking Chronic ethanol intake leads to structural and molecular alterations in the uterine endometrium of UCh rats, regardless of low- or high-dose consumption, promoting reproductive disorders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Oxidative stress is reduced in Wistar rats exposed to smoke from tobacco and treated with specific broad-band pulse electromagnetic fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bajić V.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available There have been a number of attempts to reduce the oxidative radical burden of tobacco. A recently patented technology, pulse electromagnetic technology, has been shown to induce differential action of treated tobacco products versus untreated products on the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS in vivo. In a 90-day respiratory toxicity study, Wistar rats were exposed to cigarette smoke from processed and unprocessed tobacco and biomarkers of oxidative stress were compared with pathohistological analysis of rat lungs. Superoxide dismutase (SOD activity was decreased in a dose-dependent manner to 81% in rats exposed to smoke from normal cigarettes compared to rats exposed to treated smoke or the control group. These results correspond to pathohistological analysis of rat lungs, in which those rats exposed to untreated smoke developed initial signs of emphysema, while rats exposed to treated smoke showed no pathology, as in the control group. The promise of inducing an improved health status in humans exposed to smoke from treated cigarettes merits further investigation.

  2. NEUROCHEMICAL EFFECTS OF CHRONIC DIETARY AND REPEATED HIGH-LEVEL ACUTE EXPOSURE TO CHLORPYRIFOS IN RATS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lots of information is available surrounding the acute toxicity of anticholinesterase pesticides, but these have been very few detailed studies on the chronic effects of these pesticides. Humans are exposed on a chronic basis and some humans believe that have been affected advers...

  3. Pharmacological TLR4 Inhibition Protects against Acute and Chronic Fat-Induced Insulin Resistance in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ning; Liang, Hanyu; Farese, Robert V; Li, Ji; Musi, Nicolas; Hussey, Sophie E

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate whether pharmacological TLR4 inhibition protects against acute and chronic fat-induced insulin resistance in rats. For the acute experiment, rats received a TLR4 inhibitor [TAK-242 or E5564 (2x5 mg/kg i.v. bolus)] or vehicle, and an 8-h Intralipid (20%, 8.5 mg/kg/min) or saline infusion, followed by a two-step hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp. For the chronic experiment, rats were subcutaneously implanted with a slow-release pellet of TAK-242 (1.5 mg/d) or placebo. Rats then received a high fat diet (HFD) or a low fat control diet (LFD) for 10 weeks, followed by a two-step insulin clamp. Acute experiment; the lipid-induced reduction (18%) in insulin-stimulated glucose disposal (Rd) was attenuated by TAK-242 and E5564 (the effect of E5564 was more robust), suggesting improved peripheral insulin action. Insulin was able to suppress hepatic glucose production (HGP) in saline- but not lipid-treated rats. TAK-242, but not E5564, partially restored this effect, suggesting improved HGP. Chronic experiment; insulin-stimulated Rd was reduced ~30% by the HFD, but completely restored by TAK-242. Insulin could not suppress HGP in rats fed a HFD and TAK-242 had no effect on HGP. Pharmacological TLR4 inhibition provides partial protection against acute and chronic fat-induced insulin resistance in vivo.

  4. Effects of acute and chronic uremia on active cation transport in rat myocardium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Druml, W.; Kelly, R.A.; England, B.K.; O' Hara, D.S.; Mitch, W.E. (Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, MA (USA))

    1990-12-01

    As abnormalities of active cation transport could contribute to the genesis of uremic cardiomyopathy, we investigated myocardial sodium pump function in rats with acute renal failure (ARF) and with a model of experimental chronic renal failure (CRF) that has metabolic similarities to advanced chronic uremia in humans. CRF rats were hypertensive and had left ventricular hypertrophy (33% higher heart:body weight ratio; P less than 0.01) at four weeks compared to pair-fed sham-operated rats. Importantly, both ouabain- and furosemide-sensitive 86Rb uptake rates were unchanged in left ventricular myocardial slices from CRF, and the intracellular sodium concentration was not different from that of control rats even though skeletal muscle sodium was increased, as we found previously. Insulin-stimulated, ouabain-sensitive 86Rb influx was also preserved. There also were no abnormalities in myocardium cation transport in rats with ARF. However, (3H)ouabain binding was decreased 45% in CRF rats (P less than 0.01); it was unchanged in acute uremia. Decreased ouabain binding in chronic uremia was due entirely to fewer low affinity (3H)ouabain binding sites (the binding affinity for ouabain was unaffected). We conclude that in chronic, (but not acute) renal failure, sodium pump number is reduced in myocardium but intracellular sodium is unchanged and active cation flux rates are maintained. These results emphasize that in rats with chronic uremia, intracellular sodium homeostasis is preserved in myocardium, despite the presence of marked abnormalities of active cation transport in skeletal muscle that are characteristic of chronic uremia.

  5. Effects of chronic ethanol administration on hepatic glycoprotein secretion in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorrell, M.F.; Nauss, J.M.; Donohue, T.M. Jr.; Tuma, D.J.

    1983-01-01

    The effects of chronic ethanol feeding on protein and glycoprotein synthesis and secretion were studied in rat liver slices. Liver slices from rats fed ethanol for 4-5 wk showed a decreased ability to incorporate [ 14 C]glucosamine into medium trichloracetic acid-precipitable proteins when compared to the pair-fed controls; however, the labeling of hepatocellular glycoproteins was unaffected by chronic ethanol treatment. Immunoprecipitation of radiolabeled secretory (serum) glycoproteins with antiserum against rat serum proteins showed a similar marked inhibition in the appearance of glucosamine-labeled proteins in the medium of slices from ethanol-fed rats. Minimal effects, however, were noted in the labeling of intracellular secretory glycoproteins. Protein synthesis, as determined by measuring [ 14 C]leucine incorporation into medium and liver proteins, was decreased in liver slices from ethanol-fed rats as compared to the pair-fed controls. This was the case for both total proteins as well as immunoprecipitable secretory proteins, although the labeling of secretory proteins retained in the liver slices was reduced to a lesser extent than total radiolabeled hepatic proteins. When the terminal sugar, [ 14 C]fucose, was employed as a precursor in order to more closely focus on the final steps of hepatic glycoprotein secretion, liver slices obtained from chronic ethanol-fed rats exhibited impaired secretion of fucose-labeled proteins into the medium. When ethanol (5 or 10 mM) was added to the incubation medium containing liver slices from the ethanol-fed rats, the alterations in protein and glycoprotein synthesis and secretion caused by the chronic ethanol treatment were further potentiated. The results of this study indicate that liver slices prepared from chronic ethanol-fed rats exhibit both impaired synthesis and secretion of proteins and glycoproteins, and these defects are further potentiated by acute ethanol administration

  6. Blood Pressure of Jordanian Workers Chronically Exposed to Noise in Industrial Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saed Nserat

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Occupational studies investigating the association between blood pressure and noise exposure are almost lacking in the Eastern Mediterranean Region countries. Objective: To determine the association between occupational exposure to high level of noise and blood pressure among a group of workers in Jordan. Methods: All workers who had been exposing to noise for at least 3 years in 3 plants in Madaba governorate in Jordan were included in this cross-sectional study. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data. The occupational noise level was measured with a portable calibrated sound meter. Results: We studied 191 male workers, of whom 145 (75.9% were exposed to a noise level higher than the permissible limit of 85 dBA. The mean systolic blood pressure (SBP and diastolic blood pressure (DBP and the prevalence of hypertension were significantly higher among those exposed to higher noise level. In multivariate analysis, workers exposed to high level of noise had a significantly higher odds of hypertension compared to those exposed to noise level lower than the permissible limit (OR 4.7, 95% CI 1.6 to 13.8. The odds of hypertension increased by 17% (95% CI 10% to 30% for each dB increase in noise intensity. Conclusion: Exposure to high level of noise is associated with elevated blood pressure.

  7. Chronic exposure to low-levels of lead in the rat: biochemical and behavioural changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossouw, J.

    1987-01-01

    The prevalence of lead in the environment is a cause of continuing toxicology concern and there have been numerous human and animal studies to examine more thoroughly the possible consequences of exposure to this ecotoxicant. Because lead is highly toxic to the developing central nervous system, increasing concern over the rise in the lead content in the environment has been expressed. These concerns seem appropriate since more recent clinical studies have shown that prolonged exposure of children to so called 'subclinical' concentrations of lead may be associated with behavioural disorders, learning disabilities and mental retardation. Moreover, animal studies have shown that chronic perinatal low-level lead exposure elicits alterations in both learned and spontaneous behavioural patterns in the absence of typical outward signs of lead-induced neurological toxicity. No study however could relate behavioural changes to specific alterations in neurochemisty. The aim of this study was therefore to expose rats, in different stages of their development, to low-levels of lead in order to induce behavioural disorders and correlate latter with possible neurochemical changes. In accordance with the general aims of the study, the structuring of the thesis is as follows: (a) a discussion of the neurotransmitters in the brain in order to describe the different systems which have been investigated; (b) a review of appropriate literature regarding the kinetics, toxodynamics and neurotoxicity of lead and (c) a summary of the methods employed in the study. The following results are presented: (d) the effects of lead treatment on physical development of the rats; (e) the induction of behavioural supersensitivity and (f) the effects lead has on central receptors

  8. Hippocampal-dependent Pavlovian conditioning in adult rats exposed to binge-like doses of ethanol as neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindquist, Derick H

    2013-04-01

    Binge-like postnatal ethanol exposure produces significant damage throughout the brain in rats, including the cerebellum and hippocampus. In the current study, cue- and context-mediated Pavlovian conditioning were assessed in adult rats exposed to moderately low (3E; 3g/kg/day) or high (5E; 5g/kg/day) doses of ethanol across postnatal days 4-9. Ethanol-exposed and control groups were presented with 8 sessions of trace eyeblink conditioning followed by another 8 sessions of delay eyeblink conditioning, with an altered context presented over the last two sessions. Both forms of conditioning rely on the brainstem and cerebellum, while the more difficult trace conditioning also requires the hippocampus. The hippocampus is also needed to gate or modulate expression of the eyeblink conditioned response (CR) based on contextual cues. Results indicate that the ethanol-exposed rats were not significantly impaired in trace EBC relative to control subjects. In terms of CR topography, peak amplitude was significantly reduced by both doses of alcohol, whereas onset latency but not peak latency was significantly lengthened in the 5E rats across the latter half of delay EBC in the original training context. Neither dosage resulted in significant impairment in the contextual gating of the behavioral response, as revealed by similar decreases in CR production across all four treatment groups following introduction of the novel context. Results suggest ethanol-induced brainstem-cerebellar damage can account for the present results, independent of the putative disruption in hippocampal development and function proposed to occur following postnatal ethanol exposure. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Vaccination promotes TH1-like inflammation and survival in chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, H K; Hougen, H P; Cryz, S J

    1995-01-01

    In a rat model of chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infection mimicking cystic fibrosis (CF) we studied whether the inflammatory response could be altered by vaccination. Rats were immunized with either a depolymerized alginate toxin A conjugate (D-ALG toxin A), purified alginate, an O-polysacc......In a rat model of chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infection mimicking cystic fibrosis (CF) we studied whether the inflammatory response could be altered by vaccination. Rats were immunized with either a depolymerized alginate toxin A conjugate (D-ALG toxin A), purified alginate, an O......-polysaccharide toxin A conjugate, or sterile saline. After challenge none of the rats immunized with D-ALG toxin A died, in contrast to the other two vaccine groups combined (p = 0.03). A significant reduction in the severity of the macroscopic lung inflammation was seen in rats immunized with D-ALG toxin A, compared...... predominantly PMNs (TH2-like) to a chronic-type inflammation dominated by mononuclear leukocytes (TH1-like). In accordance, the antibody titers induced by the D-ALG toxin A vaccine were not different from those of the control rats after challenge. This study identifies a possible new way of modifying...

  10. Effects of chronic multiple stress on learning and memory and the expression of Fyn, BDNF, TrkB in the hippocampus of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao-Heng; Liu, Neng-Bao; Zhang, Min-Hai; Zhou, Yan-Ling; Liao, Jia-Wan; Liu, Xiang-Qian; Chen, Hong-Wei

    2007-04-20

    The effect of chronic stress on cognitive functions has been one of the hot topics in neuroscience. But there has been much controversy over its mechanism. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of chronic multiple stress on spatial learning and memory as well as the expression of Fyn, BDNF and TrkB in the hippocampus of rats. Adult rats were randomly divided into control and chronic multiple stressed groups. Rats in the multiple stressed group were irregularly and alternatively exposed to situations of vertical revolution, sleep expropriation and restraint lasting for 6 weeks, 6 hours per day with night illumination for 6 weeks. Before and after the period of chronic multiple stresses, the performance of spatial learning and memory of all rats was measured using the Morris Water Maze (MWM). The expression of Fyn, BDNF and TrkB proteins in the hippocampus was assayed by Western blotting and immunohistochemical methods. The levels of Fyn and TrkB mRNAs in the hippocampus of rats were detected by RT-PCR technique. The escape latency in the control group and the stressed group were 15.63 and 8.27 seconds respectively. The performance of spatial learning and memory of rats was increased in chronic multiple stressed group (P < 0.05). The levels of Fyn, BDNF and TrkB proteins in the stressed group were higher than those of the control group (P < 0.05). The results of immunoreactivity showed that Fyn was present in the CA3 region of the hippocampus and BDNF positive particles were distributed in the nuclei of CA1 and CA3 pyramidal cells as well as DG granular cells. Quantitative analysis indicated that level of Fyn mRNA was also upregulated in the hippocampus of the stressed group (P < 0.05). Chronic multiple stress can enhance spatial learning and memory function of rats. The expression of Fyn, BDNF and TrkB proteins and the level of Fyn mRNA are increased in the stessed rat hippocampus. These suggest that Fyn and BDNF/TrkB signal transduction pathways may

  11. Effect of high-fructose and high-fat diets on pulmonary sensitivity, motor activity, and body composition of brown Norway rats exposed to ozone

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — pulmonary parameters, BALF biomarkers, body composition, motor activity data collected from rats exposed to ozone after high fructose or high fat diets. This dataset...

  12. The effects of in vitro exposure to white spirit on [Ca2+] in synaptosomes from rats exposed prenatally to white spirit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edelfors, S.; Hass, Ulla; Ravn-Jonsen, A.

    1999-01-01

    Female rats were exposed to white spirit (400 and 800 ppm for 6 hr/day) at day 7-20 during pregnancy. Thirty-five days after birth all female offspring were sacrificed, the brains removed, and the synaptosomal fractions prepared for in vitro studies. The cytosolic calcium concentration was measured...... using the FURA-2 technique. The results show that cytosolic calcium was increased in synaptosomes from rats exposed to white spirit prenatally compared to synaptosomes from unexposed rats. When synaptosomes were exposed to white spirit in vitro, the cytosolic calcium concentration changes were identical...... in all groups of rats. The membrane leakage measured as FURA-2 leakage from the synaptosomes identical in all three groups of animals. The results suggest that prenatal exposure to white spirit induces long-lasting and possibly irreversible changes in calcium homeostasis in the rat nervous system....

  13. Triclosan exposure reduces thyroxine levels in pregnant and lactating rat dams and in directly exposed offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Marta Axelstad; Boberg, Julie; Vinggaard, Anne Marie

    2013-01-01

    Thyroid disrupting chemicals can potentially disrupt brain development. Two studies investigating the effect of the antibacterial compound triclosan on thyroxine (T4) levels in rats are reported. In the first, Wistar rat dams were gavaged with 75, 150 or 300 mg triclosan/kg bw/day throughout gest...

  14. EPIDIDYMIS-SPECIFIC PATHOLOGIC DISORDERS IN RATS EXPOSED TO GOSSYPOL FROM WEANING THROUGH PUBERTY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous work in our laboratory revealed that the pubertal period of reproductive development in the male rat was particularly vulnerable to gossypol exposure, with a higher frequency of round structures in the lumen of the cauda epididymidis in the treated rats. Herein, we utili...

  15. Histological changes in the cerebelli of adult wistar rats exposed to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The different constituents of tobacco smoke have been linked to different diseased conditions. In this work, the histological effects of cigarette smoke on the cerebellum of adult male Wistar rats were studied. Sixteen Wistar rats with mean weight of 153.24 ± 4.12 g were grouped equally into four. The Control Group A was ...

  16. [The expression and significance of VIP and its receptor in the cochlea of different degrees of chronic alcoholism rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jing; Liu, Haibing

    2015-07-01

    To determine whether chronic alcoholism alters the expression levels of Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) and its receptor (VIPR1) in the cochlea of chronic alcoholism rats. We measured their expression levels in 30 SD rats, in which we created models of different degrees of chronic alcoholism. We investigated the presence of the mRNA of VIP in the cochlea of chronic alcoholism rats and controls by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) method. We investigated the presence of proteins of VIPR1 in poisoned rats and controls by western blot. We also evaluated the local distribution of VIP cells by immunohistochemistry. We found that the levels of VIP and VIPR1 were downregulated in the chronic alcoholism groups compared to the controls group. The differences in some expression levels were significant different between chronic alcoholism rats and control rats. Moreover, at different degrees of alcohol poisoning in rats, the contents of VIP and VIPR1 differed. Decreased levels of VIP and VIPR1 were detected in the deep chronic alcoholism group compared to the group with low-degree poisoning (P 0.05). These results suggest that VIP and VIPR1 play an important role in the auditory function in rats with chronic alcoholism. Chronic alcoholism may cause a peptide hormone secretion imbalance in the auditory system, eventually leading to hearing loss.

  17. Chronic ethanol exposure increases voluntary home cage intake in adult male, but not female, Long-Evans rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Melissa; McGinnis, Molly M; McCool, Brian A

    2015-12-01

    The current experiment examined the effects of 10 days of chronic intermittent ethanol (CIE) exposure on anxiety-like behavior and home cage ethanol intake using a 20% intermittent access (M, W, F) paradigm in male and female Long-Evans rats. Withdrawal from alcohol dependence contributes to relapse in humans and increases in anxiety-like behavior and voluntary ethanol consumption in preclinical models. Our laboratory has shown that 10 days of CIE exposure produces both behavioral and neurophysiological alterations associated with withdrawal in male rats; however, we have yet to examine the effects of this exposure regime on ethanol intake in females. During baseline, females consumed more ethanol than males but, unlike males, did not show escalations in intake. Rats were then exposed to CIE and were again given intermittent access to 20% ethanol. CIE males increased their intake compared to baseline, whereas air-exposed males did not. Ethanol intake in females was unaffected by CIE exposure. Notably, both sexes expressed significantly elevated withdrawal-associated anxiety-like behavior in the plus maze. Finally, rats were injected with the cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonist, SR141716A (0, 1, 3, 10mg/kg, i.p.) which reduced ethanol intake in both sexes. However, females appear to be more sensitive to lower doses of this CB1 receptor antagonist. Our results show that females consume more ethanol than males; however, they did not escalate their intake using the intermittent access paradigm. Unlike males, CIE exposure had no effect on drinking in females. It is possible that females may be less sensitive than males to ethanol-induced increases in drinking after a short CIE exposure. Lastly, our results demonstrate that males and females may have different pharmacological sensitivities to CB1 receptor blockade on ethanol intake, at least under the current conditions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Timing matters: the interval between acute stressors within chronic mild stress modifies behavioral and physiologic stress responses in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavigelli, Sonia A; Bao, Alexander D; Bourne, Rebecca A; Caruso, Michael J; Caulfield, Jasmine I; Chen, Mary; Smyth, Joshua M

    2018-04-12

    Chronic mild stress can lead to negative health outcomes. Frequency, duration, and intensity of acute stressors can affect health-related processes. We tested whether the temporal pattern of daily acute stressors (clustered or dispersed across the day) affects depression-related physiology. We used a rodent model to keep stressor frequency, duration, and intensity constant, and experimentally manipulated the temporal pattern of acute stressors delivered during the active phase of the day. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to one of three chronic mild stress groups: Clustered: stressors that occurred within 1 hour of each other (n = 21), Dispersed: stressors that were spread out across the active phase (n = 21), and Control: no stressors presented (n = 21). Acute mild stressors included noise, strobe lights, novel cage, cage tilt, wet bedding, and water immersion. Depression-related outcomes included: sucrose preference, body weight, circulating glucocorticoid (corticosterone) concentration after a novel acute stressor and during basal morning and evening times, and endotoxin-induced circulating interleukin-6 concentrations. Compared to control rats, those in the Clustered group gained less weight, consumed less sucrose, had a blunted acute corticosterone response, and an accentuated acute interleukin-6 response. Rats in the Dispersed group had an attenuated corticosterone decline during the active period and after an acute stressor compared to the Control group. During a chronic mild stress experience, the temporal distribution of daily acute stressors affected health-related physiologic processes. Regular exposure to daily stressors in rapid succession may predict more depression-related symptoms, whereas exposure to stressors dispersed throughout the day may predict diminished glucocorticoid negative feedback.

  19. Chronic THC during adolescence increases the vulnerability to stress-induced relapse to heroin seeking in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stopponi, Serena; Soverchia, Laura; Ubaldi, Massimo; Cippitelli, Andrea; Serpelloni, Giovanni; Ciccocioppo, Roberto

    2014-07-01

    Cannabis derivatives are among the most widely used illicit substances among young people. The addictive potential of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the major active ingredient of cannabis is well documented in scientific literature. However, the consequence of THC exposure during adolescence on occurrence of addiction for other drugs of abuse later in life is still controversial. To explore this aspect of THC pharmacology, in the present study, we treated adolescent rats from postnatal day (PND) 35 to PND-46 with increasing daily doses of THC (2.5-10mg/kg). One week after intoxication, the rats were tested for anxiety-like behavior in the elevated plus maze (EPM) test. One month later (starting from PND 75), rats were trained to operantly self-administer heroin intravenously. Finally, following extinction phase, reinstatement of lever pressing elicited by the pharmacological stressor, yohimbine (1.25mg/kg) was evaluated. Data revealed that in comparison to controls, animals treated with chronic THC during adolescence showed a higher level of anxiety-like behavior. When tested for heroin (20μg per infusion) self-administration, no significant differences were observed in both the acquisition of operant responding and heroin intake at baseline. Noteworthy, following the extinction phase, administration of yohimbine elicited a significantly higher level of heroin seeking in rats previously exposed to THC. Altogether these findings demonstrate that chronic exposure to THC during adolescence is responsible for heightened anxiety and increased vulnerability to drug relapse in adulthood. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  20. A Survey of the Relationship Between Noised Pollution, Honey and Vitamin E and Plasma Level of Blood Sexual Hormones in Noise-Exposed Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenani

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background This study was conducted to examine the efficacy of honey and vitamin E on fertilization capacity of noise-exposed rats by assessing whether the plasma sexual hormones levels i.e. follicle stimulating hormone (FSH, luteinizing hormone (LH and testosterone are altered in relation with noise stress. Objectives Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the effects of honey and vitamin E on the levels of sex hormones and male fertilization capacity of noise-exposed rats. Materials and Methods This study targeted 24 male rats that were randomly divided into four equal groups including the control group that were not exposed to noise and experimental groups 1, 2 and 3 that were the untreated, honey treated and vitamin E treated groups, respectively; all of which were exposed to noise for 50 days. Next, in order to measure serum sexual hormones, blood samples of experimental and control groups were taken and analyzed. Also in order to investigate the fertility capacity of rats, the male rats of all groups were coupled with female rats. Results The results showed that in the male rats exposed to the noise stress, the levels of FSH and LH rose and the testosterone secretion fell sharply compared to not exposed rats. Additionally, the continuing effects of noise stress injury could reduce the weight of the fetus and the number of live fetuses and survival rate of the fetus. However, honey and vitamin E improved serum testosterone concentration, while declined plasma FSH and LH secretion in noise-exposed rats and enhanced fertility rate by increasing the rate of healthy alive fetuses. Conclusions It seems that noise pollution has harmful effects on the fertility of males. Also these findings may suggest the use of a natural curative approach rather than pharmaceutical drugs to optimize both neuroendocrine gonadal axis and testicular integrity induced by pathogenesis stress, and enhance fertility capacity in men.

  1. Housing in Pyramid Counteracts Neuroendocrine and Oxidative Stress Caused by Chronic Restraint in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Surekha Bhat

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The space within the great pyramid and its smaller replicas is believed to have an antistress effect. Research has shown that the energy field within the pyramid can protect the hippocampal neurons of mice from stress-induced atrophy and also reduce neuroendocrine stress, oxidative stress and increase antioxidant defence in rats. In this study, we have, for the first time, attempted to study the antistress effects of pyramid exposure on the status of cortisol level, oxidative damage and antioxidant status in rats during chronic restraint stress. Adult female Wistar rats were divided into four groups as follows: normal controls (NC housed in home cage and left in the laboratory; restrained rats (with three subgroups subject to chronic restraint stress by placing in a wire mesh restrainer for 6 h per day for 14 days, the restrained controls (RC having their restrainers kept in the laboratory; restrained pyramid rats (RP being kept in the pyramid; and restrained square box rats (RS in the square box during the period of restraint stress everyday. Erythrocyte malondialdehyde (MDA and plasma cortisol levels were significantly increased and erythrocyte-reduced glutathione (GSH levels, erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px and superoxide dismutase (SOD activities were significantly decreased in RC and RS rats as compared to NC. However, these parameters were maintained to near normal levels in RP rats which showed significantly decreased erythrocyte MDA and plasma cortisol and significantly increased erythrocyte GSH levels, erythrocyte GSH-Px and SOD activities when compared with RS rats. The results showed that housing in pyramid counteracts neuroendocrine and oxidative stress caused by chronic restraint in rats.

  2. Nicotinic receptor blockade decreases fos immunoreactivity within orexin/hypocretin-expressing neurons of nicotine-exposed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Steven J; Gentile, Taylor A; Mo, Lili; Tran, Fionya H; Ma, Sisi; Muschamp, John W

    2016-11-01

    Tobacco smoking is the leading cause of preventable death in the United States. Nicotine is the principal psychoactive ingredient in tobacco that causes addiction. The structures governing nicotine addiction, including those underlying withdrawal, are still being explored. Nicotine withdrawal is characterized by negative affective and cognitive symptoms that enhance relapse susceptibility, and suppressed dopaminergic transmission from ventral tegmental area (VTA) to target structures underlies behavioral symptoms of nicotine withdrawal. Agonist and partial agonist therapies help 1 in 4 treatment-seeking smokers at one-year post-cessation, and new targets are needed to more effectively aid smokers attempting to quit. Hypothalamic orexin/hypocretin neurons send excitatory projections to dopamine (DA)-producing neurons of VTA and modulate mesoaccumbal DA release. The effects of nicotinic receptor blockade, which is commonly used to precipitate withdrawal, on orexin neurons remain poorly investigated and present an attractive target for intervention. The present study sought to investigate the effects of nicotinic receptor blockade on hypothalamic orexin neurons using mecamylamine to precipitate withdrawal in rats. Separate groups of rats were treated with either chronic nicotine or saline for 7-days at which point effects of mecamylamine or saline on somatic signs and anxiety-like behavior were assessed. Finally, tissue from rats was harvested for immunofluorescent analysis of Fos within orexin neurons. Results demonstrate that nicotinic receptor blockade leads to reduced orexin cell activity, as indicated by lowered Fos-immunoreactivity, and suggest that this underlying cellular activity may be associated with symptoms of nicotine withdrawal as effects were most prominently observed in rats given chronic nicotine. We conclude from this study that orexin transmission becomes suppressed in rats upon nicotinic receptor blockade, and that behavioral symptoms associated

  3. A study of immunological reactions in dogs exposed to prolonged chronic radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantinova, I. V.; Grigoryev, Y. G.; Markelov, B. A.; Skryabin, A. S.; Zemskov, V. M.; Vasilyev, I. S.; Veysfeyler, Y. K.; Iokai, I.

    1974-01-01

    Immunomorphological studies on dog tissues exposed to long term gamma irradiation show that the number of cells containing antibodies increased and that the blast transformation reaction was activated. Prolonged radiation did not cause a reliable change in the synthesis of nucleic acids in spleen cells.

  4. Evaluation of chromosomal aberrations in radiologists and medical radiographers chronically exposed to ionising radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasuba, V.; Rozgaj, R.; Jazbec, A.

    2005-01-01

    Chromosomal aberrations are fairly reliable indicators of damage induced by ionising radiation. This study included 180 radiologists and medical radiographers (technicians) and 90 controls who were not occupationally exposed to ionising radiation. All exposed subjects were routinely monitored with film badge, and none was exposed to a radiation dose exceeding the limit for occupational exposure recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). Two hundred metaphases for each person were scored. The frequencies of acentric fragments, dicentrics, ring chromosomes and chromosomal exchanges were determined and compared to those obtained in the control group. Chromosome aberrations were analysed using Poisson regression for profession, age, sex, smoking and years of exposure. Age, smoking, diagnostic exposure to X-rays and occupation were found to correlate with the occurrence of acentric fragments. The influence of exposure duration on the frequency of acentric fragments was greater in medical radiographers than in radiologists. Smoking and sex were found to correlate with the occurrence of dicentric chromosomes, which were more common in men than in women. As chromosome aberrations exceeded the expected level with respect to the absorbed dose, our findings confirm the importance of chromosome analysis as a part of regular medical check-up of subjects occupationally exposed to ionising radiation.(author)

  5. [Elevated expression of endothelin 2 in lung tissues of asthmatic rats after exposed to cigarette smoke and its mechanism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Fangfang; Zhu, Shuyang; Chen, Bi; Li, Jingjing

    2017-08-01

    Objective To study the effect of cigarette smoke exposure on the expression of endothelin 2 (ET-2) in bronchial epithelium of asthmatic rats. Methods Asthma models were established through intraperitoneal injection of 1 mL chicken ovalbumin (OVA)/Al(OH) 3 mixture (asthma model group, n=6); based on the asthma models, exposure to smoking gas lasted four weeks with 10 cigarettes per day (smoke-exposed asthma group, n=6); based on the smoke-exposed asthma models, the rats were treated with intraperitoneal injection of dexamethasone 2 mg/(kg.d), intragastric administration of ET receptor inhibitor bosentan 100 mg/(kg.d) and combined use, respectively named dexamethasone treated group, bosentan treated group, and dexamethasone-bosentan treated group, 6 rats in every group. What's more, other 6 rats were only subjected to intraperitoneal injection of 1 mL normal saline as normal controls; in addition to the injection of saline, cigarette smoke control group (n=6) was set up by the exposure to smoking gas for four weeks with 10 cigarettes per day. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was collected from the upper lobe of the left lung for cell counting and classification. Pathological changes of the right upper lung lobe tissues were observed by HE staining. In other lung tissues, the expression of JNK1/2 was detected by Western blotting; ET-2 was tested by Western blotting and immunohistochemistry; thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) assay and trace enzyme standard method were used to measure malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione (GSH), respectively. Results Compared with normal control group, the number of airway inflammation cells increased in the BALF, and the expressions of ET-2, JNK1/2, MDA and GSH increased in the lung tissues of cigarette smoke control group, asthma model group and cigarette smoke-exposed asthma group. Compared with cigarette smoke-exposed asthma group, the number of airway inflammation cells decreased in the BALF, and the expressions of

  6. Association of oxidative stress with arsenic methylation in chronic arsenic-exposed children and adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Yuanyuan; Wang Yi; Zheng Quanmei; Li Xin; Li Bing; Jin Yaping; Sun Xiance; Sun Guifan

    2008-01-01

    Though oxidative stress is recognized as an important pathogenic mechanism of arsenic, and arsenic methylation capacity is suggested to be highly involved in arsenic-related diseases, the association of arsenic methylation capacity with arsenic-induced oxidative stress remains unclear. To explore oxidative stress and its association with arsenic methylation, cross-sectional studies were conducted among 208 high and 59 low arsenic-exposed subjects. Levels of urinary arsenic species [inorganic arsenic (iAs), monomethylated arsenic (MMA) and dimethylated arsenic (DMA)] were determined by hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry. Proportions of urinary arsenic species, the first methylation ratio (FMR) and the secondary methylation ratio (SMR) were used as indicators for arsenic methylation capacity. Urinary 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) concentrations were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits. Reduced glutathione (GSH) levels and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in whole blood were determined to reflect anti-oxidative status. The high arsenic-exposed children and adults were significantly increased in urinary 8-OHdG concentrations but decreased in blood GSH levels compared with the low exposed children and adults. In multiple linear regression models, blood GSH levels and urinary 8-OHdG concentrations of arsenic-exposed children and adults showed strong associations with the levels of urinary arsenic species. Arsenic-exposed subjects in the lower and the upper quartiles of proportions of urinary arsenic species, FMR or SMR were significantly different in urinary 8-OHdG, blood GSH and SOD. The associations of arsenic methylation capacity with 8-OHdG, GSH and SOD were also observed in multivariate regression analyses. These results may provide linkage between arsenic methylation capacity and oxidative stress in humans and suggest that adverse health effects induced by arsenic are related to arsenic methylation through oxidative stress

  7. Possible role of Arthrospira platensis in reversing oxidative stress-mediated liver damage in rats exposed to lead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Samah R; Elhady, Walaa M; Elewa, Yaser H A; Abd El-Hameed, Noura E; Ali, Sozan A

    2018-01-01

    Environmental pollutants, particularly metallic elements, mobilized and released into the environment, eventually accumulate in the food chain and thus pose a serious threat to human and animal health. In the present study, the role of Arthrospira (Spirulina platensis; SP) as a protector against oxidative stress-mediated liver damage induced by an exposure to lead acetate (LA; as a metallic pollutant) was assessed. To achieve this aim, rats were orally administered with 300 mg/kg bw SP for 15 days, before and concurrently with an intraperitoneal injection of 50 mg/kg bw LA (6 injections throughout 15 days). As a result, co-administration of SP with LA reduced the amount of lead that accumulated in both blood and liver tissue of the exposed rats and minimized the increased levels of lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation, DNA oxidative damage, and liver enzyme endpoints. In addition, because of SP administration, the levels of depleted biomarkers of antioxidant status and total antioxidant capacity in LA-exposed rats improved. Moreover, SP protected the liver tissue against the changes caused by LA exposure and also decreased the reactivity of HSP70 in the cytoplasm of hepatocytes. Collectively, our data suggest that SP has a potential use as a food supplement in the regions highly polluted with heavy metals such as lead. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. The analyze of lung’s GSH number in rats exposed by cigarette smoke and inducted by rambutan peel extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisdiana

    2018-03-01

    The cigarette smoke is one of the pollutants in human and environment. It contains free radical compounds which cause oxidative stress. In the oxidative stress condition, the free radical causing peroxidation of cell membrane lipid as well as damages the cell membrane. One of the biomarkers of oxidative stress happens the number of GSH. The purpose of this study was to analyze the amount of rat's GSH which exposed by cigarette smoke as well as inducted by rambutan pell extract. This study applied to 25 male rats of Wistar which divided into five groups; K1 (control), K2 (negative), K3, K4, and K5 were the treatment groups of rambutan peel extract with various dosage; 3, 6, 12 mg/200 gramBB and cigarette smoke exposure along 30 days. The number of GSH measured by the DTNB of lung tissue. To know the difference of GSH number of each group did the data analysis with one way ANOVA test and LSD advance test. The result of statistic analysis showed that there was a significant difference between the control group and treatment group. The conclusion of this study was the rambutan peel extract with 3 mg/200 gramBB dosage could increase the number of lung's GSH of rats exposed to cigarette smoke.

  9. Reduced Synapse and Axon Numbers in the Prefrontal Cortex of Rats Subjected to a Chronic Stress Model for Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csabai, Dávid; Wiborg, Ove; Czéh, Boldizsár

    2018-01-01

    Stressful experiences can induce structural changes in neurons of the limbic system. These cellular changes contribute to the development of stress-induced psychopathologies like depressive disorders. In the prefrontal cortex of chronically stressed animals, reduced dendritic length and spine loss have been reported. This loss of dendritic material should consequently result in synapse loss as well, because of the reduced dendritic surface. But so far, no one studied synapse numbers in the prefrontal cortex of chronically stressed animals. Here, we examined synaptic contacts in rats subjected to an animal model for depression, where animals are exposed to a chronic stress protocol. Our hypothesis was that long term stress should reduce the number of axo-spinous synapses in the medial prefrontal cortex. Adult male rats were exposed to daily stress for 9 weeks and afterward we did a post mortem quantitative electron microscopic analysis to quantify the number and morphology of synapses in the infralimbic cortex. We analyzed asymmetric (Type I) and symmetric (Type II) synapses in all cortical layers in control and stressed rats. We also quantified axon numbers and measured the volume of the infralimbic cortex. In our systematic unbiased analysis, we examined 21,000 axon terminals in total. We found the following numbers in the infralimbic cortex of control rats: 1.15 × 109 asymmetric synapses, 1.06 × 108 symmetric synapses and 1.00 × 108 myelinated axons. The density of asymmetric synapses was 5.5/μm3 and the density of symmetric synapses was 0.5/μm3. Average synapse membrane length was 207 nm and the average axon terminal membrane length was 489 nm. Stress reduced the number of synapses and myelinated axons in the deeper cortical layers, while synapse membrane lengths were increased. These stress-induced ultrastructural changes indicate that neurons of the infralimbic cortex have reduced cortical network connectivity. Such reduced network connectivity is likely

  10. Reduced Synapse and Axon Numbers in the Prefrontal Cortex of Rats Subjected to a Chronic Stress Model for Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dávid Csabai

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Stressful experiences can induce structural changes in neurons of the limbic system. These cellular changes contribute to the development of stress-induced psychopathologies like depressive disorders. In the prefrontal cortex of chronically stressed animals, reduced dendritic length and spine loss have been reported. This loss of dendritic material should consequently result in synapse loss as well, because of the reduced dendritic surface. But so far, no one studied synapse numbers in the prefrontal cortex of chronically stressed animals. Here, we examined synaptic contacts in rats subjected to an animal model for depression, where animals are exposed to a chronic stress protocol. Our hypothesis was that long term stress should reduce the number of axo-spinous synapses in the medial prefrontal cortex. Adult male rats were exposed to daily stress for 9 weeks and afterward we did a post mortem quantitative electron microscopic analysis to quantify the number and morphology of synapses in the infralimbic cortex. We analyzed asymmetric (Type I and symmetric (Type II synapses in all cortical layers in control and stressed rats. We also quantified axon numbers and measured the volume of the infralimbic cortex. In our systematic unbiased analysis, we examined 21,000 axon terminals in total. We found the following numbers in the infralimbic cortex of control rats: 1.15 × 109 asymmetric synapses, 1.06 × 108 symmetric synapses and 1.00 × 108 myelinated axons. The density of asymmetric synapses was 5.5/μm3 and the density of symmetric synapses was 0.5/μm3. Average synapse membrane length was 207 nm and the average axon terminal membrane length was 489 nm. Stress reduced the number of synapses and myelinated axons in the deeper cortical layers, while synapse membrane lengths were increased. These stress-induced ultrastructural changes indicate that neurons of the infralimbic cortex have reduced cortical network connectivity. Such reduced network

  11. Early Intervention for Families Exposed to Chronic Stress and Trauma: The Attachment Vitamins Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulette, Annmarie C.; Dunham, Mackenzie; Davis, Mindy; Gortney, Jason; Lieberman, Alicia F.

    2016-01-01

    This article describes the Attachment Vitamins program, a trauma-informed parent group intervention for families with young children. Attachment Vitamins is a relational psychoeducational intervention based on the principles of Child-Parent Psychotherapy (CPP). Its goal is to repair the impact of chronic stress and trauma through strengthening the…

  12. Chronic and acute risk assessment of human exposed to novaluron-bifenthrin mixture in cabbage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Kaiwei; Li, Li; Li, Wei; Yuan, Longfei; Liu, Fengmao

    2016-09-01

    Based on the dissipation and residual level in cabbage determined by gas chromatography coupled with an electron capture detector (GC-ECD), chronic and acute risk assessments of the novaluron and bifenthrin were investigated. At different spiked levels, mean recoveries were between 81 and 108 % with relative standard deviations (RSDs) from 1.1 to 6.8 %. The limit of quantification (LOQ) was 0.01 mg kg(-1), and good linearity with correlation coefficient (>0.9997) were obtained. The half-lives of novaluron and bifenthrin in cabbage were in the range of 3.2~10 days. Based on the consumption data in China, the risk quotients (RQs) of novaluron and bifenthrin were all below 100 %. The chronic and acute risk of novaluron in cabbage was relatively low, while bifenthrin exerts higher acute risk to humans than chronic risk. The obtained results indicated that the use of novaluron-bifenthrin mixture does not seem to pose any chronic or acute risk to humans even if cabbages are consumed at high application dosages and short preharvest interval (PHI).

  13. Decline of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in northern hardwood forests exposed to chronic nitrogen additions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linda T.A. van Diepen; Erik A. Lilleskov; Kurt S. Pregitzer; R. Michael Miller

    2007-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi are important below-ground carbon (C) sinks that can be sensitive to increased nitrogen (N) availability. The abundance of AM fungi (AMF) was estimated in maple (Acer spp.) fine roots following more than a decade of experimental additions of N designed to simulate chronic atmospheric N deposition.

  14. Evaluation of the effect of chronic exposure to 137Cesium on sleep-wake cycle in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lestaevel, Philippe; Dhieux, Bernadette; Tourlonias, Elie; Houpert, Pascale; Paquet, Francois; Voisin, Philippe; Aigueperse, Jocelyne; Gourmelon, Patrick

    2006-01-01

    Since the Chernobyl accident, the most significant problem for the population living in the contaminated areas is chronic exposure by ingestion of radionuclides, notably 137 Cs, a radioactive isotope of cesium. It can be found in the whole body, including the central nervous system. The present study aimed to assess the effect of 137 Cs on the central nervous system and notably on open-field activity and the electroencephalographic pattern. Rats were exposed up to 90 days to drinking water contaminated with 137 Cs at a dosage of 400 Bq kg -1 , which is similar to that ingested by the population living in contaminated territories. At this level of exposure, no significant effect was observed on open-field activity. On the other hand, at 30 days exposure, 137 Cs decreased the number of episodes of wakefulness and slow wave sleep and increased the mean duration of these stages. At 90 days exposure, the power of 0.5-4 Hz band of 137 Cs-exposed rats was increased in comparison with controls. These electrophysiological changes may be due to a regional 137 Cs accumulation in the brain stem. In conclusion, the neurocognitive effects of 137 Cs need further evaluation and central disorders of population living in contaminated territories must be considered

  15. Effect of Xiaoyaosan Decoction on Learning and Memory Deficit in Rats Induced by Chronic Immobilization Stress

    OpenAIRE

    Meng, Zhen-Zhi; Chen, Jia-Xu; Jiang, You-Ming; Zhang, Han-Ting

    2013-01-01

    Xiaoyaosan (XYS) decoction is a famous prescription which can protect nervous system from stress and treat liver stagnation and spleen deficiency syndrome (LSSDS). In this experiment, we observed the effect of XYS decoction on chronic immobilization stress (CIS) induced learning and memory deficit in rats from behaviors and changes of proteins in hippocampus. We used XYS decoction to treat CIS induced learning and memory deficit in rats with rolipram as positive control, used change of body w...

  16. CHRONIC ALCOHOLISM ON THE SEMINAL VESICLE AND TESTIS WEIGHT OF ADULT RATS (Rattus norvegicus)

    OpenAIRE

    Martinez, F. E.; Martinez, M.; Cagnon, V. H. A.; Mello Junior, W.; Padovani, C. R.; Garcia, P. J.

    1997-01-01

    Effects of experimental chronic alcoholism on the accessory sexual glands weight and testes weight were studied. Male adult albino rats received only sugar cane brandy at 30 Gay Lussac (v/v), while the controls received tap water. After periods of 60, 120, 180 and 240 days, rats from each group were anesthetized, weighed and sacrificed. Alterations in mean daily solid food intake and liquid, mean daily weight gain, mean prostate weight, mean seminal vesicle and coagulating gland weights and t...

  17. Impaired immune function in seals and laboratory rats exposed to dioxin-like compounds from Baltic herring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, P.S. [Seal Rehabilitation and Research Centre, Pieterburen (Netherlands)]|[National Inst. of Public Health and Environmental Protection, Bilthoven (Netherlands); Swart, R.L. de [Seal Rehabilitation and Research Centre, Pieterburen (Netherlands)]|[Erasmus Univ., Rotterdam (Netherlands); Timmerman, H.H.; Loveren, H. van [National Inst. of Public Health and Environmental Protection, Bilthoven (Netherlands); Osterhaus, A.D.M.E. [Seal Rehabilitation and Research Centre, Pieterburen (Netherlands)]|[National Inst. of Public Health and Environmental Protection, Bilthoven (Netherlands)]|[Erasmus Univ., Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    1995-12-31

    Complex mixtures of lipophilic contaminants have been shown to affect certain top predators in the aquatic food chain, including seals. A recent demonstration that harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) fed Baltic Sea herring displayed impaired natural killer cell activity and T-lymphocyte function represented the first demonstration of immunotoxicity induced by ambient levels of contaminants in the environment. While these animals had a lower ability to respond to immunizations with inactivated vaccines, specific antibody responses, and in vitro antigen-specific lymphoproliferative responses, obvious constraints limited the ability to extend these results with host resistance tests or an evaluation of thymus and other lymphoid organs. The authors therefore set up a parallel study by exposing pregnant laboratory rats to the same Baltic herring contaminant mixture as received the seals. They then examined immune function parameters and host resistance to virus infection. As in the seals, rat pups of the Baltic group had impaired T-lymphocyte function. In addition, thymus cells and/or their precursors appeared to be targeted, as their numbers and function were reduced in the rats. Following challenge with rat cytomegalovirus in a host resistance study, rat pups in the Baltic group had impaired natural killer cell responses to the virus infection, and lower specific CD8 + (cytotoxic T-lymphocyte) responses following in vitro stimulation. By extrapolation, these results suggest that the impaired immune responses observed in the Baltic group of seals may lead to a less effective defense against virus infections in marine mammals inhabiting polluted coastal waters. Toxicological profiles and results of both the captive seal and laboratory rat experiments tend to implicate the 2,3,7,8-TCDD-like PCB, dioxin and furan congeners in the immunosuppression, and point to a major role for the PCBs.

  18. Effect of chronic ethanol consumption in female rats subjected to experimental sepsis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, C.L. [Programa de Pós-Graduação em Patologia, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niterói, RJ (Brazil); Aguiar-Nemer, A.S. [Departamento de Nutrição, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, Juiz de Fora, MG (Brazil); Castro-Faria-Neto, H.C. [Laboratório de Imunofarmacologia, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, FIOCRUZ, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Barros, F.R. [Programa de Pós-Graduação em Patologia, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niterói, RJ (Brazil); Rocha, E.M.S. [Departamento de Microbiologia e Parasitologia, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niterói, RJ (Brazil); Silva-Fonseca, V.A. [Departamento de Fisiologia e Farmacologia, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niterói, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-12-10

    The objective of this research was to evaluate the interference of ethanol consumption by female rats with cytokines involved in the sepsis process and its correlation with mortality, the main outcome of sepsis. Female Wistar rats in estrus phase were evaluated in three experiments. Experiment 1 (n=40) was performed to determine survival rates. Experiment 2 (n=69) was designed for biochemical analysis, measurement of cytokine and estrogen levels before and after sepsis, and experiment 3 (n=10) was performed to evaluate bacterial growth by colony counts of peritoneal fluid. In all experiments, treated animals were exposed to a 10% ethanol/water solution (v/v) as the single drinking source, while untreated animals were given tap water. After 4 weeks, sepsis was induced in the rats by ip injection of feces. In experiment 1, mortality in ethanol-exposed animals was delayed compared with those that drank water (48 h; P=0.0001). Experiment 2 showed increased tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and decreased interleukin-6 (IL-6) and macrophage migration inhibitory factor in septic animals exposed to ethanol compared to septic animals not exposed. Sepsis also increased TNF-α and IL-6 levels in both ethanol- and water-exposed groups. Biochemical analysis showed higher creatinine, alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase and decreased glucose levels in septic animals that were exposed to ethanol. In experiment 3, septic animals exposed to ethanol showed decreased numbers of colony-forming units than septic animals exposed to water. These results suggest that ethanol consumption delays the mortality of female rats in estrus phase after sepsis induction. Female characteristics, most probably sex hormones, may be involved in cytokine expression.

  19. Effect of chronic ethanol consumption in female rats subjected to experimental sepsis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, C.L.; Aguiar-Nemer, A.S.; Castro-Faria-Neto, H.C.; Barros, F.R.; Rocha, E.M.S.; Silva-Fonseca, V.A.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this research was to evaluate the interference of ethanol consumption by female rats with cytokines involved in the sepsis process and its correlation with mortality, the main outcome of sepsis. Female Wistar rats in estrus phase were evaluated in three experiments. Experiment 1 (n=40) was performed to determine survival rates. Experiment 2 (n=69) was designed for biochemical analysis, measurement of cytokine and estrogen levels before and after sepsis, and experiment 3 (n=10) was performed to evaluate bacterial growth by colony counts of peritoneal fluid. In all experiments, treated animals were exposed to a 10% ethanol/water solution (v/v) as the single drinking source, while untreated animals were given tap water. After 4 weeks, sepsis was induced in the rats by ip injection of feces. In experiment 1, mortality in ethanol-exposed animals was delayed compared with those that drank water (48 h; P=0.0001). Experiment 2 showed increased tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and decreased interleukin-6 (IL-6) and macrophage migration inhibitory factor in septic animals exposed to ethanol compared to septic animals not exposed. Sepsis also increased TNF-α and IL-6 levels in both ethanol- and water-exposed groups. Biochemical analysis showed higher creatinine, alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase and decreased glucose levels in septic animals that were exposed to ethanol. In experiment 3, septic animals exposed to ethanol showed decreased numbers of colony-forming units than septic animals exposed to water. These results suggest that ethanol consumption delays the mortality of female rats in estrus phase after sepsis induction. Female characteristics, most probably sex hormones, may be involved in cytokine expression

  20. Salt-induced changes in cardiac phosphoproteome in a rat model of chronic renal failure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengxiu Su

    Full Text Available Heart damage is widely present in patients with chronic kidney disease. Salt diet is the most important environmental factor affecting development of chronic renal failure and cardiovascular diseases. The proteins involved in chronic kidney disease -induced heart damage, especially their posttranslational modifications, remain largely unknown to date. Sprague-Dawley rats underwent 5/6 nephrectomy (chronic renal failure model or sham operation were treated for 2 weeks with a normal-(0.4% NaCl, or high-salt (4% NaCl diet. We employed TiO2 enrichment, iTRAQ labeling and liquid-chromatography tandem mass spectrometry strategy for phosphoproteomic profiling of left ventricular free walls in these animals. A total of 1724 unique phosphopeptides representing 2551 non-redundant phosphorylation sites corresponding to 763 phosphoproteins were identified. During normal salt feeding, 89 (54% phosphopeptides upregulated and 76 (46% phosphopeptides downregulated in chronic renal failure rats relative to sham rats. In chronic renal failure rats, high salt intake induced upregulation of 84 (49% phosphopeptides and downregulation of 88 (51% phosphopeptides. Database searches revealed that most of the identified phospholproteins were important signaling molecules such as protein kinases, receptors and phosphatases. These phospholproteins were involved in energy metabolism, cell communication, cell differentiation, cell death and other biological processes. The Search Tool for the Retrieval of Interacting Genes analysis revealed functional links among 15 significantly regulated phosphoproteins in chronic renal failure rats compared to sham group, and 23 altered phosphoproteins induced by high salt intake. The altered phosphorylation levels of two proteins involved in heart damage, lamin A and phospholamban were validated. Expression of the downstream genes of these two proteins, desmin and SERCA2a, were also analyzed.

  1. Acute and chronic ethanol intake: effects on spatial and non-spatial memory in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Moreno, Luis M; Cimadevilla, Jose M

    2012-12-01

    Abusive alcohol consumption produces neuronal damage and biochemical alterations in the mammal brain followed by cognitive disturbances. In this work rats receiving chronic and acute alcohol intake were evaluated in a spontaneous delayed non-matching to sample/position test. Chronic alcohol-treated rats had free access to an aqueous ethanol solution as the only available liquid source from the postnatal day 21 to the end of experiment (postnatal day 90). Acute alcoholic animals received an injection of 2 g/kg ethanol solution once per week. Subjects were evaluated in two tests (object recognition and spatial recognition) based on the spontaneous delayed non-matching to sample or to position paradigm using delays of 1 min, 15 min and 60 min. Results showed that chronic and acute alcohol intake impairs the rats' performance in both tests. Moreover, chronic alcohol-treated rats were more altered than acute treated animals in both tasks. Our results support the idea that chronic and acute alcohol administration during postnatal development caused widespread brain damage resulting in behavioral disturbances and learning disabilities. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Cytogenetic investigations of persons exposed to professional chronic low-dose irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rangelov, V.; Mitev, L.; Petrunov, P.; Vesselinova, L.

    2005-01-01

    The problem of long term influence of low-doses occupational irradiation is connected with the real assessment of their consequences. The current cytogenetic investigations were done on persons working under occupational chronic external partial irradiation. Accumulated doses of external irradiation are surveyed. Data give ground for suggestion about the relationship between accumulated dose and chromosomal aberrations. The additional damage factors (diagnostic investigations, chemical substances, tobacco addict) have done the more significant influence upon aberrations appearance increasing

  3. Chronic treatment with fluoxetine and sertraline prevents forced swimming test-induced hypercontractility of rat detrusor muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilge, Sirri; Bozkurt, Ayhan; Bas, Duygu B; Aksoz, Elif; Savli, Evren; Ilkaya, Fatih; Kesim, Yuksel

    2008-01-01

    Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) reuptake inhibitors represent important targets for the development of new treatments for detrusor overactivity and urinary incontinence. The present study was undertaken to investigate the effects of the forced swimming test (FST) on the contractile response of isolated rat detrusor muscle and to examine the effects of in vivo treatments of fluoxetine and sertraline on altered detrusor muscle contractility. Fluoxetine (20 mg/kg ip) and sertraline (10 mg/kg ip) were administered once a day for 14 days. Rats were exposed to the FST on the 15th day. After the test, detrusor muscles were removed and placed in organ baths, and the contraction responses induced by carbachol, potassium chloride (KCl) and electrical field stimulation (EFS) were recorded. The contractile responses of detrusor muscle strips to carbachol and electrical field stimulation were found to be increased at all carbachol doses and frequencies, respectively. FST also increased the contractile responses to KCl, which is used to test the differences in postreceptor-mediated contractions. The hypercontractile responses of detrusor strips to carbachol, EFS and KCl were abolished by treatment with both fluoxetine and sertraline. These treatments also decreased the immobility duration in the FST consistent with an antidepressant-like effect in this test. The results of this study provide the first evidence that FST increases contractility of the rat detrusor muscle, and this hypercontractility was abolished by chronic treatments of fluoxetine and sertraline at antidepressant doses by decreasing the postreceptor-mediated events.

  4. Recruitment of hypothalamic orexin neurons after formalin injections in adult male rats exposed to a neonatal immune challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin Jane Campbell

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to early life physiological stressors, such as infection, is thought to contribute to the onset of psychopathology in adulthood. In animal models, injections of the bacterial immune challenge, lipopolysaccharide (LPS, during the neonatal period has been shown to alter both neuroendocrine function and behavioural pain responses in adulthood. Interestingly, recent evidence suggests a role for the lateral hypothalamic peptide orexin in stress and nociceptive processing. However, whether neonatal LPS exposure affects the reactivity of the orexin system to formalin-induced inflammatory pain in later life remains to be determined. Male Wistar rats (n=13 were exposed to either LPS or saline (0.05mg/kg, i.p on postnatal days (PND 3 and 5. On PND 80-97, all rats were exposed to a subcutaneous hindpaw injection of 2.25% formalin. Following behavioural testing, animals were perfused and brains processed for Fos-protein and orexin immunohistochemistry. Rats treated with LPS during the neonatal period exhibited decreased licking behaviours during the interphase of the formalin test, the period typically associated with the active inhibition of pain, and increased grooming responses to formalin in adulthood. Interestingly, these behavioural changes were accompanied by an increase in the percentage of Fos-positive orexin cells in the dorsomedial and perifornical hypothalamus in LPS-exposed animals. Similar increases in Fos-protein were also observed in stress and pain sensitive brain regions that receive orexinergic inputs. These findings highlight a potential role for orexin in the behavioural responses to pain and provide further evidence that early life stress can prime the circuitry responsible for these responses in adulthood.

  5. The Antidepressant Effect of Angelica sinensis Extracts on Chronic Unpredictable Mild Stress-Induced Depression Is Mediated via the Upregulation of the BDNF Signaling Pathway in Rats

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    Jun Shen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Angelica sinensis (AS, a traditional Chinese herbal medicine, has pharmaceutical effects on menstrual illness, cerebrovascular diseases, cardiovascular diseases, and cognitive impairments. However, until recently, few studies had explored its antidepressant effect. The current study attempts to investigate the effect of AS extracts on chronic unpredictable mild stress- (CUMS- induced depression in rats. Male SD rats were exposed to a CUMS-inducing procedure for 5 weeks, resulting in rodent depressive behaviors that included reduced sucrose consumption and lessened sucrose preference ratios in sucrose preference test, prolonged immobility times and decreased struggling time in force swim test, and decreased locomotor activity in open field test. Moreover, the expression of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF and the phosphorylation of cAMP-response element binding protein (CREB and extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK 1/2 were markedly decreased in the hippocampus in depressed rats. However, chronically treating the depressed rats with AS (1 g/kg normalized their depression-related behaviors and molecular profiles. In conclusion, in the present study, we show that AS extracts exerted antidepressant effects that were mediated by the BDNF signaling pathway: in AS-treated depressed rats, the expression of the BDNF protein and the phosphorylation of its downstream targets (ERK 1/2, CREB were upregulated in the hippocampus.

  6. Spatial learning, monoamines and oxidative stress in rats exposed to 900 MHz electromagnetic field in combination with iron overload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maaroufi, Karima; Had-Aissouni, Laurence; Melon, Christophe; Sakly, Mohsen; Abdelmelek, Hafedh; Poucet, Bruno; Save, Etienne

    2014-01-01

    The increasing use of mobile phone technology over the last decade raises concerns about the impact of high frequency electromagnetic fields (EMF) on health. More recently, a link between EMF, iron overload in the brain and neurodegenerative disorders including Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases has been suggested. Co-exposure to EMF and brain iron overload may have a greater impact on brain tissues and cognitive processes than each treatment by itself. To examine this hypothesis, Long-Evans rats submitted to 900 MHz exposure or combined 900 MHz EMF and iron overload treatments were tested in various spatial learning tasks (navigation task in the Morris water maze, working memory task in the radial-arm maze, and object exploration task involving spatial and non spatial processing). Biogenic monoamines and metabolites (dopamine, serotonin) and oxidative stress were measured. Rats exposed to EMF were impaired in the object exploration task but not in the navigation and working memory tasks. They also showed alterations of monoamine content in several brain areas but mainly in the hippocampus. Rats that received combined treatment did not show greater behavioral and neurochemical deficits than EMF-exposed rats. None of the two treatments produced global oxidative stress. These results show that there is an impact of EMF on the brain and cognitive processes but this impact is revealed only in a task exploiting spontaneous exploratory activity. In contrast, there are no synergistic effects between EMF and a high content of iron in the brain. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Chronic Stress Induces Structural Alterations in Splenic Lymphoid Tissue That Are Associated with Changes in Corticosterone Levels in Wistar-Kyoto Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Eugenia Hernandez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Major depressive disorder patients present chronic stress and decreased immunity. The Wistar-Kyoto rat (WKY is a strain in which the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis is overactivated. To determine whether chronic stress induces changes in corticosterone levels and splenic lymphoid tissue, 9-week-old male rats were subject to restraint stress (3 h daily, chemical stress (hydrocortisone treatment, 50 mg/Kg weight, mixed stress (restraint plus hydrocortisone, or control treatment (without stress for 1, 4, and 7 weeks. The serum corticosterone levels by RIA and spleens morphology were analyzed. Corticosterone levels as did the structure, size of the follicles and morphology of the parenchyma (increase in red pulp in the spleen, varied depending on time and type of stressor. These changes indicate that chronic stress alters the immune response in the spleen in WKY rats by inducing morphological changes, explaining in part the impaired immunity that develops in organisms that are exposed to chronic stress.

  8. Hypercaloric diet modulates effects of chronic stress: a behavioral and biometric study on rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Carla de; Oliveira, Cleverson Moraes de; de Macedo, Isabel Cristina; Quevedo, Alexandre S; Filho, Paulo Ricardo Marques; Silva, Fernanda Ribeiro da; Vercelino, Rafael; de Souza, Izabel C Custodio; Caumo, Wolnei; Torres, Iraci L S

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is a chronic disease that has been associated with chronic stress and hypercaloric diet (HD) consumption. Increased ingestion of food containing sugar and fat ingredients (comfort food) is proposed to "compensate" chronic stress effects. However, this eating habit may increase body fat depositions leading to obesity. This study evaluated behavioral/physiological parameters seeking to establish whether there is an association between the effects of HD intake and stress, and to test the hypothesis that the development of anxious behavior and obesity during chronic stress periods depends on the type of diet. Sixty-day-old male Wistar rats (n = 100) were divided into four groups: standard chow, hypercaloric diet, chronic stress/standard chow and chronic stress/hypercaloric diet. Chronic stress was induced by restraint stress exposure for 1 h/day, for 80 d. At the end of this period, rat behavior was evaluated using open-field and plus-maze tests. The results showed that HD alone increased weight gain and adipose deposition in subcutaneous and mesenteric areas. However, stress reduced weight gain and adipose tissue in these areas. HD also increased naso-anal length and concurrent stress prevented this. Behavioral data indicated that stress increased anxiety-like behaviors and comfort food reduced these anxiogenic effects; locomotor activity increased in rats fed with HD. Furthermore, HD decreased corticosterone levels and stress increased adrenal weight. The data indicate that when rats are given HD and experience chronic stress this association reduces the pro-obesogenic effects of HD, and decreases adrenocortical activity.

  9. Functional activity of symphathetic-adrenal system under chronic and fractionated irradiation of rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musagalieva, G.M.

    1975-01-01

    Chronic irradiation of rats at 5 R twice a week (total dose 400 R) significantly increased adrenaline concentration in the brain, liver and kidney and dophamine and DOPA concentration in liver tissue, adrenal glands and thymus. Fractionated irradiation (chronic irradiation at 400 R plus acute single irradiation at 400 R) increased the adrenaline level in the brain and heart muscle and led to a higher concentration of dophamine and DOPA in the liver, thymus and heart muscle [ru

  10. Pair-housing of male and female rats during chronic stress exposure results in gender-specific behavioral responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westenbroek, C.; Snijders, T.A.B.; Den Boer, J.A.; Gerrits, Marjolein; Fokkema, D.S.; ter Horst, G.J

    Social support has a positive influence on the course of a depression and social housing of rats could provide an animal model for studying the neurobiological mechanisms of social support. Male and female rats were subjected to chronic footshock stress for 3 weeks and pair-housing of rats was used

  11. Interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) treatment decreases the inflammatory response in chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, H K; Hougen, H P; Rygaard, J

    1996-01-01

    In a rat model of chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infection mimicking cystic fibrosis (CF), we studied whether the inflammatory response could be altered by intraperitoneal treatment with recombinant rat interferon-gamma (rrIFN-gamma). Rats were treated either before or after intratracheal ch...

  12. Dental and oropharyngeal lesions in rats with chronic acid reflux esophagitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimazu, Rintaro; Yamamoto, Mihoko; Minesaki, Akimichi; Kuratomi, Yuichiro

    2018-06-01

    In this study, we evaluated pathological changes in the tooth and pharynx of GERD rats to elucidate the association between gastric acid reflux and oral and pharyngeal diseases. An experimental rat model of chronic acid reflux esophagitis was surgically created. The oral cavities were observed histologically every 2 weeks until 20 weeks after surgery. At 10 weeks after surgery, molar crown heights in GERD rats were shorter than that in control rats, and inflammatory cell infiltration by gastric acid reflux was found in the periodontal mucosa of GERD rats. Furthermore, dental erosion progressed in GERD rats at 20 weeks after surgery, and enamel erosion and dentin exposure were observed. During the same period, inflammatory cell infiltration was observed in the mucosa of the posterior part of the tongue. These findings suggest that gastric acid reflux may be one of the exacerbating factors of dental erosion, periodontitis and glossitis. We investigated oral changes in an experimental rat model of GERD and observed development of dental erosion, periodontitis and glossitis. Our findings suggested chronic gastric acid reflux may be involved in the pathogenesis of oral disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Effects of electroacupuncture on corticotropin-releasing hormone in rats with chronic visceral hypersensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hui-Rong; Fang, Xiao-Yi; Wu, Huan-Gan; Wu, Lu-Yi; Li, Jing; Weng, Zhi-Jun; Guo, Xin-Xin; Li, Yu-Guang

    2015-06-21

    To investigate the effect of electroacupuncture on corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) in the colon, spinal cord, and hypothalamus of rats with chronic visceral hypersensitivity. A rat model of chronic visceral hypersensitivity was generated according to the internationally accepted method of colorectal balloon dilatation. In the 7(th) week after the procedure, rats were randomly divided into a model group (MG), electroacupuncture group (EA), and sham electroacupuncture group (S-EA). After treatment, the abdominal withdrawal reflex (AWR) score was used to assess the behavioral response of visceral hyperalgesia. Immunohistochemistry (EnVision method), ELISA, and fluorescence quantitative PCR methods were applied to detect the expression of CRH protein and mRNA in the colon, spinal cord, and hypothalamus. The sensitivity of the rats to the colorectal distension stimulus applied at different strengths (20-80 mmHg) increased with increasing stimulus strength, resulting in increasing AWR scores in each group. Compared with NG, the AWR score of MG was significantly increased (P 0.05) compared with normal rats (NG). However, the decrease in EA compared with MG rats was statistically significant (P 0.05). Electroacupuncture at the Shangjuxu acupoint was able to significantly reduce the visceral hypersensitivity in rats, and regulated the expression of CRH protein and mRNA in the colon, spinal cord and hypothalamus at different levels, playing a therapeutic role in this model of irritable bowel syndrome.

  14. HISTOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF CHRONIC CONSUMPTION OF NUTMEG ON THE LATERAL GENICULATE BODY OF ADULT WISTAR RATS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.O. Adjene

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of chronic consumption of nutmeg commonly used as a spice in various dishes, as components of teas and soft drinks or mixed in milk and alcohol on the lateral geniculate body of adult wistar rats was studied.The rats of both sexes, with average weight of 200g were randomly assigned into treatment and control groups. The rats in the treatment group (n=8 received 2g of nutmeg thoroughly mixed with the feeds on a daily basis for thirty-two days. The control group (n=8 received equal amount of feeds daily without nutmeg added for thirty-two days. The growers mash feeds was obtained from Edo Feeds and Flour Mill Limited, Ewu, Edo State, Nigeria and the rats were given water liberally. The rats were sacrificed on the thirty-three day of the experiment. The lateral geniculate body was carefully dissected out and quickly fixed in 10% formal saline for histological study.The findings indicate that rats in the treated group showed some cellular degenerative changes like sparse cellular population, pyknotic nuclei with some microcystic changes, edema and vacuolations in the stroma of the treated lateral geniculate body as compared to that of the control group.Chronic consumption of nutmeg may therefore have an adverse effect on the visual sensibilities by affecting the microanatomy of the lateral geniculate body of adult wistar rats. It is recommended for further studies aimed at corroborating these observations.

  15. Effects of caloric restriction on learning and recovery of a spatial task in rats exposed to acute stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamprea Rodríguez, Marisol

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to describe the effects of caloric restriction on spatial learning and recovery in the Barnes maze in animals experimentally stressed before recovery of the spatial task. Male Wistar rats were exposed for two months to one of two conditions: ad libitum (AL or intermittent fasting (IF. Both groups were exposed then to an experimental form of acute stress, induced by movement restriction for 4 hours. IF subjects had better performance in learning tasks during the acquisition trials but required more time to complete the task after the stressor was applied. These results are discussed in light of previous data reported in the literature emphasizing differences in the instruments used to evaluate spatial learning and its interaction with experimentally induced stress.

  16. Respiratory tract pathology and cytokine imbalance in clinically healthy children chronically and sequentially exposed to air pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón-Garcidueñas, L; Devlin, R B; Miller, F J

    2000-11-01

    Chronic exposure of children to a complex mixture of air pollutants leads to recurrent episodes of upper and lower respiratory tract injury. An altered nasal mucociliary apparatus leaves the distal acinar airways more vulnerable to reactive gases and particulate matter (PM). The heterogeneity of structure in the human lung can impart significant variability in the distribution of ozone dose and particle deposition; this, in turn, influences the extent of epithelial injury and repair in chronically exposed children. Cytokines are low-molecular-weight proteins that act as intercellular mediators of inflammatory reactions, including lung injury of various etiologies. Cytokines are involved in generating inflammatory responses that contribute to injury at the lung epithelial and endothelial barriers. Mexico City is a 20-million-person megacity with severe air pollution problems. Southwest Metropolitan Mexico City (SWMMC) atmosphere is characterized by a complex mixture of air pollutants, including ozone, PM, and aldehydes. There is radiological evidence that significant lower respiratory tract damage is taking place in clinically healthy children chronically and sequentially exposed to air pollutants while growing up in SWMMC. We hypothesize that there is an imbalanced and dysregulated cytokine network in SWMMC children with overproduction of proinflammatory cytokines and cytokines involved in lung tissue repair and fibrosis. The nature of the sustained imbalance among the different cytokines ultimately determines the final lung histopathology, which would include subchronic inflammation, emphysema, and fibrosis. Cytokines likely would reach the systemic circulation and produce systemic effects. Individuals with an underlying respiratory or cardiovascular disease are less able to maintain equilibrium of the precarious cytokine networks.

  17. Growth and development of children prenatally exposed to telbivudine administered for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B in their mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Huihui; Cai, Haodong; Wang, Ying; Shen, Ying

    2015-04-01

    We studied the growth and development of children prenatally exposed to telbivudine used to treat chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in their mothers. Maternal abnormalities during pregnancy and delivery and infant congenital anomalies, physical development status, developmental quotient (DQ), HBV vertical transmission status, and HBV vaccination outcomes of 54 infants were evaluated (2010-2013). No fetal abnormalities were observed during pregnancy or delivery. Postpartum, three infants (5.56%) had abnormalities: ankyloglossia, cutaneous hemangioma, and vaginal canal leak. Height and weight were within the normal range at birth and at 6 weeks, but were higher than the reference at 12 months (pchildren (68.52%), abnormal or suspicious for a developmental delay (15.19%, 41/270) in 17 children (31.48%), and indicated a developmental delay (4.07%, 11/270) in seven children (12.96%). There were no significant differences in developmental delay between children prenatally exposed to telbivudine and controls (p>0.05). HBV vertical transmission was successfully blocked in all infants. The effective HBV vaccination rate was 98.15% (53/54). The growth and development of children prenatally exposed to telbivudine was normal, indicating that telbivudine treatment during pregnancy is safe and effective. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Abilities in tactile discrimination of textures in adult rats exposed to enriched or impoverished environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgeon, Stéphanie; Xerri, Christian; Coq, Jacques-Olivier

    2004-08-12

    In previous studies, we have shown that housing in enriched environment for about 3 months after weaning improved the topographic organization and decreased the size of the receptive fields (RFs) located on the glabrous skin surfaces in the forepaw maps of the primary somatosensory cortex (SI) in rats [Exp. Brain Res. 121 (1998) 191]. In contrast, housing in impoverished environment induced a degradation of the SI forepaw representation, characterized by topographic disruptions, a reduction of the cutaneous forepaw area and an enlargement of the glabrous RFs [Exp. Brain Res. 129 (1999) 518]. Based on these two studies, we postulated that these representational alterations could underlie changes in haptic perception. Therefore, the present study was aimed at determining the influence of housing conditions on the rat's abilities in tactile texture discrimination. After a 2-month exposure to enriched or impoverished environments, rats were trained to perform a discrimination task during locomotion on floorboards of different roughness. At the end of every daily behavioral session, rats were replaced in their respective housing environment. Rats had to discriminate homogeneous (low roughness) from heterogeneous floorboards (combination of two different roughness levels). To determine the maximum performance in texture discrimination, the roughness contrast of the heterogeneous texture was gradually reduced, so that homogeneous and heterogeneous floorboards became harder to differentiate. We found that the enriched rats learned the first steps of the behavioral task faster than the impoverished rats, whereas both groups exhibited similar performances in texture discrimination. An individual "predilection" for either homogeneous or heterogeneous floorboards, presumably reflecting a behavioral strategy, seemed to account for the absence of differences in haptic discrimination between groups. The sensory experience depending on the rewarded texture discrimination task

  19. Chronic variable stress improves glucose tolerance in rats with sucrose-induced prediabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packard, Amy E. B.; Ghosal, Sriparna; Herman, James P.; Woods, Stephen C.; Ulrich-Lai, Yvonne M.

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of type-2 diabetes (T2D) and the burden it places on individuals, as well as society as a whole, compels research into the causes, factors and progression of this disease. Epidemiological studies suggest that chronic stress exposure may contribute to the development and progression of T2D in human patients. To address the interaction between chronic stress and the progression of T2D, we developed a dietary model of the prediabetic state in rats utilizing unlimited access to 30% sucrose solution (in addition to unlimited access to normal chow and water), which led to impaired glucose tolerance despite elevated insulin levels. We then investigated the effects of a chronic variable stress paradigm (CVS; twice daily exposure to an unpredictable stressor for 2 weeks) on metabolic outcomes in this prediabetic model. Chronic stress improved glucose tolerance in prediabetic rats following a glucose challenge. Importantly, pair-fed control groups revealed that the beneficial effect of chronic stress did not result from the decreased food intake or body weight gain that occurred during chronic stress. The present work suggests that chronic stress in rodents can ameliorate the progression of diet-induced prediabetic disease independent of chronic stress-induced decreases in food intake and body weight. PMID:25001967

  20. Changes of inflammatory cells in rat lungs exposed to diesel emissions; Diesel haiki bakuro ni yoru rat hai no ensho saibo no henka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, A. [Japan Automobile Research Institute Inc., Tsukuba (Japan); Kagawa, J. [Tokyo Women`s Medical College, Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-05-01

    Study was made on the effect of exposure to diesel emissions on inflammatory cells in a rat lungs. Four kinds of exposure gases with different contents of NO2 and particulate were prepared by diluting diesel emissions. Rats were exposed to diluted diesel emissions for 24 months, and inflammatory cells were detected morphologically in light microscopic and TEM specimens. As a result, particle-laden- alveolar macrophages increased dose- and time-dependently into the submucosa of intrapulmonary bronchioles, alveolar spaces and interstitume of alveolar walls, and bronchoassociated lymphatic tissues. Mast cells infiltrated into the interspaces of epithelial cells in airways. In the submucosa of the terminal bronchioles and the interstitume of alveolar walls, some sorts of inflammatory cells such as mast cells, plasma cells, neutrophils and lymphocytes infiltrated, and some cells showed cell-to-cell contacts. However, the airways were rarely injured by infiltration of inflammatory cells except for a fibrotic change. 2 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.