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  1. Effect of iron containing supplements on rats' dental caries progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshghi, Ar; Kowsari-Isfahan, R; Rezaiefar, M; Razavi, M; Zeighami, S

    2012-01-01

    Iron deficiency is the most common form of malnutrition in developing countries. Iron containing supplements have been used effectively to solve this problem. In children, because of teeth staining after taking iron drops, parents have the idea that iron drops are the cause of tooth decay; therefore, they limit this vital supplement in their children's diet. Hereby, we evaluate the histologic effect of iron containing supplements on tooth caries in rice rats with cariogenic or non-cariogenic diet. Twelve rats were selected and divided into four groups for this interventional experimental study. Four different types of dietary regimens were used for four months; group A, cariogenic diet with iron containing supplements; group B, cariogenic diet without iron containing supplements; group C, non-cariogenic diet with iron containing supplements; group D, non-cariogenic diet without iron containing supplements. After sacrificing the rats, 20-micron histological sections of their posterior teeth were prepared using the Ground Section method, then they were studied under polarized light microscopy. In order to compare the progression of caries in different samples, the depth of the lesions in the enamel was measured as three grades I, II and III. The mean grade value of A, B, C and D groups were 1.61, 2.61, 1.37 and 1.80, respectively. Statistical analysis revealed that significantly fewer caries were seen in the group which had received iron containing supplements and cariogenic diet compared with cariogenic diet without iron supplements (pcariogenic dietary regimen.

  2. Effect of Iron Containing Supplements on Rats' Dental Caries Progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AR. Eshghi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Iron deficiency is the most common form of malnutrition in developing countries. Iron containing supplements have been used effectively to solve this problem. In children, because of teeth staining after taking iron drops, parents have the idea that iron drops are the cause of tooth decay; therefore, they limit thisvital supplement in their children’s diet. Hereby, we evaluate the histologic effect of iron containing supplements on tooth caries in rice rats with cariogenic or noncariogenic diet.Materials and Methods: Twelve rats were selected and divided into four groups for this interventional experimental study. Four different types of dietary regimens were used for four months; group A, cariogenic diet with iron containing supplements; group B, cariogenic diet without iron containing supplements; groupC, non-cariogenic diet with iron containing supplements; group D, non-cariogenic diet without iron containing supplements. After sacrificing the rats, 20-micron histological sections of their posterior teeth were prepared using the Ground Sectionmethod, then they were studied under polarized light microscopy. In order to compare the progression of caries in different samples, the depth of the lesions in the enamel was measured as three grades I, II and III.Results: The mean grade value of A, B, C and D groups were 1.61, 2.61, 1.37 and 1.80, respectively. Statistical analysis revealed that significantly fewer caries were seen in the group which had received iron containing supplements and cariogenicdiet compared with cariogenic diet without iron supplements (p<0.05.Conclusion: Ferrous sulfate reduces the progression of dental caries in the cariogenic dietary regimen.

  3. Chemical structure and biochemical significance of lysolecithins from rat liver

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, H. van den; Deenen, L.L.M. van

    1965-01-01

    1. 1. Synthetic lecithins containing in 2-position a [14C]fatty acid constituent were found to be hydrolysed by rat-liver homogenates so as to form both 1-acyl-glycero-3-phosphorylcholine and 2-acyl-glycero-3-phosphorylcholine. 2. 2. A comparison of the fatty acid pattern of lysolecithin obtained

  4. Cytokine profile of rats fed a diet containing shrimp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Lage Borges

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Studies have shown that shrimps reduced the tensile strength of scars in rat skin. The aim of the present study was to assess the cytokine profile of rats fed shrimp. METHODS: Group 1 (control received a regular diet and Group 2 (experimental received a diet containing 33% shrimp for nine days. The two diets contained the same amounts of proteins, fats and carbohydrates. Serum cytokine levels were determined by ELISA and a segment of the jejunum was taken to investigate its histological morphology and eosinophil infiltrate. RESULTS: The experimental group had lower serum levels of interleukin-4 (IL-4 (14.4±1.9 versus 18.11±2.6pg/mL; p<0.05 and IL-10 (5.0±0.98 versus 7.5±1.2pg/mL; p<0.05 and higher levels of IL-6 (17.8±2.3 versus 3.2±0.4pg/mL, p<0.001 than controls. Morphologically, the shrimp-based diet caused an architectural disorganization of the intestinal mucosa and a greater amount of eosinophils in the jejunal villus. CONCLUSION: Our data suggests that shrimp consumption leads to a significant increase in the cytokine IL-6, a decrease in the immunomodulatory cytokine IL-10 in the serum of rats, and high eosinophil infiltration in the jejunum. The cytokine profile typical of inflammation and the histological aspect of the jejunum are compatible with food allergy.

  5. Effect of Iron Containing Supplements on Rats' Dental Caries Progression

    OpenAIRE

    AR. Eshghi; R. Kowsari-Isfahan; M. Rezaiefar; M. Razavi; S. Zeighami

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Iron deficiency is the most common form of malnutrition in developing countries. Iron containing supplements have been used effectively to solve this problem. In children, because of teeth staining after taking iron drops, parents have the idea that iron drops are the cause of tooth decay; therefore, they limit this vital supplement in their children’s diet. Hereby, we evaluate the histologic effect of iron containing supplements on tooth caries in rice rats with cariogenic or non-...

  6. Dietary taurine alters ascorbic acid metabolism in rats fed diets containing polychlorinated biphenyls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochizuki, H; Oda, H; Yokogoshi, H

    2000-04-01

    The effect of dietary taurine on ascorbic acid metabolism and hepatic drug-metabolizing enzymes was investigated in rats fed diets containing polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) to determine whether taurine has an adaptive and protective function in xenobiotic-treated animals. Young male Wistar rats (60 g) were fed diets containing 0 or 0.2 g/kg diet PCB with or without 30 g/kg diet of taurine for 14 d. The rats fed the PCB-containing diets had greater liver weight, higher ascorbic acid concentrations in the liver and spleen and greater hepatic cytochrome P-450 contents than control rats that were not treated with PCB (P ascorbic acid excretion was enhanced, and serum cholesterol concentration (especially HDL-cholesterol) was significantly elevated compared with those in control rats. Dietary taurine significantly potentiated the increases in the urinary excretion of ascorbic acid and the rise in the levels of cytochrome P-450 which were caused by PCB treatment. On the other hand, the supplementation of taurine to control diet did not alter these variables. Taurine may enhance the hepatic drug-metabolizing systems, leading to the stimulation of the ascorbic acid metabolism in rats fed diets containing PCB.

  7. Selective excretion of IgA in rat bronchial secretions: lack of significant contribution from plasma IgA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemaitre-Coelho, I.; Yamakido, M.; Montgomery, P.C.; Langendries, A.E.; Vaerman, J.P.

    1982-01-01

    Concentrated rat bronchial washings (BW) were analyzed by gel-filtration and immunochemical methods. BW contained mainly albumin, transferrin and IgG. Free secretory component and secretory IgA were identified in BW; the BW-IgA had the same three sedimentation coefficients, i.e. +/- 11 S, 13 S, 15 S by sucrose density gradient ultracentrifugation, as rat milk and rat bile IgA; the three peaks were secretory IgA. Compared to serum, and relatively to albumin, BW were significantly enriched in IgA, although much less than rat bile. Purified polyclonal rat polymeric 125 I-IgA was injected intravenously into normal rats, and into rats with bile duct ligation or partial hepatectomy, which decrease the liver plasma-to-bile transfer of IgA. BW were then collected, one or four hours later, to assess the recovery of the 125 I-IgA in BW and to estimate the contribution of serum IgA to BW-IgA. Very little 125 I-IgA (less than 0.2%) was recovered in all BW. The specific activity, measured only in the rat with the highest recovery in BW, was 20 times lower in BW than in serum. The data demonstrate that rat serum IgA does not contribute significantly to IgA in BW

  8. The expression and significance of tyrosine hydroxylase in the brain tissue of Parkinsons disease rats

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Yuan; Lian, Yajun; Ma, Yunqing; Wu, Chuanjie; Zheng, Yake; Xie, Nanchang

    2017-01-01

    The expression and significance of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) in brain tissue of rats with Parkinson's disease (PD) were explored and analyzed. A total of 120 clean-grade and healthy adult Wistar rats weighing 180–240 g were randomly divided equally into four groups according to the random number table method. Rats were sacrificed before and after the model establishment for 3, 6 or 8 weeks. The number of revolutions in rats was observed and the relative expression of TH mRNA in brain tissue w...

  9. MRI and morphological observation in C6 glioma model rats and significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Ying; Yuan Bo; Wang Hao; Lu Jin; Yuan Changji; Ma Yue; Tong Dan; Zhang Kun; Gao Feng; Wu Xiaogang

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To establish stable and reliable rat C6 glioma model, and to perform MRI dynamic observation and pathomorphological observation in model animal brain, and to provide experimental basis for pharmaceutical research on anti-glioma drugs. Methods: The C6 glioma cells were cultured and 20 μL cultural fluid containing 1×10 6 C6 cells was sterotactically implanted into the left caudate nuclei in 10 male Wistar rats, respectively. The changes in the behavior of the rats after implantation were observed and recorded. MRI dynamic scanning was performed in 10 rats 2, 3 and 4 weeks after implantation and the brain tissues were taken for general and pathological examination when the 10 rats were naturally dead. The survival period of tumor-bearing rats was calculated. Results: 2 weeks after implantation the rats showed decreased activities and food intake, fur lackluster, and conjunctival congestion and so on; 3 weeks later, some rats appeared nerve symptoms such as body twitch, body hemiplegy, body distortion, rotation and so on. All the 10 rats died in 8-30 d. The median survival period of the tumor-bearing rats was 18 d, the average survival period was (18.3±7.3) d. The pathological examination showed that the tumor cells were arranged irregularly closely and karyokinesis was easy to see; tumor vascular tissue proliferation and tumor invasive growth into surrounding normal tissues were found. The expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) was positive in the tumors. Conclusion: A stable animal model of intracranial glioma is successfully established by stereotactic implantation of C6 cells into the rat caudate nucleus. The results of MRI dynamic observation and pathohistological observation on the model animal brain tissue. Can provide experimental basis for selecting the appropriate time window to perform the pharmaceutical research on anti-glioma drugs. (authors)

  10. Forskolin- and dihydroalprenolol (DHA) binding sites and adenylate cyclase activity in heart of rats fed diets containing different oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alam, S.Q.; Ren, Y.F.; Alam, B.S.

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of the present investigation was to determine if dietary lipids can induce changes in the adenylate cyclase system in rat heart. Three groups of male young Sprague-Dawley rats were fed for 6 weeks diets containing 10% corn oil (I), 8% coconut oil + 2% corn oil (II) or 10% menhaden oil (III). Adenylate cyclase activity (basal, fluoride-, isoproterenol-, and forskolin-stimulated) was higher in heart homogenates of rats in group III than in the other two groups. Concentration of the [ 3 H]-forskolin binding sites in the cardiac membranes were significantly higher in rats fed menhaden oil. The values (pmol/mg protein) were 4.8 +/- 0.2 (I), 4.5 +/- 0.7 (II) and 8.4 +/- 0.5 (III). There was no significant difference in the affinity of the forskolin binding sites among the 3 dietary groups. When measured at different concentrations of forskolin, the adenylate cyclase activity in cardiac membranes of rats fed menhaden oil was higher than in the other 2 groups. Concentrations of the [ 3 H]DHA binding sites were slightly higher but their affinity was lower in cardiac membranes of rats fed menhaden oil. The results suggest that diets containing fish oil increase the concentration of the forskolin binding sites and may also affect the characteristics of the β-adrenergic receptor in rat heart

  11. Rat liver contains a limited number of binding sites for hepatic lipase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.C. Schoonderwoerd (Kees); A.J.M. Verhoeven (Adrie); H. Jansen (Hans)

    1994-01-01

    textabstractThe binding of hepatic lipase to rat liver was studied in an ex vivo perfusion model. The livers were perfused with media containing partially purified rat hepatic lipase or bovine milk lipoprotein lipase. The activity of the enzymes was determined in the

  12. Structured triacylglycerol containing behenic and oleic acids suppresses triacylglycerol absorption and prevents obesity in rats

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    Takamatsu Kiyoharu

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dietary 1(3-behenoyl-2,3(1-dioleoyl-rac-glycerol (BOO has been reported to inhibit pancreatic lipase activity in vitro and suppress postprandial hypertriacylglycerolemia in humans. In the present study, the anti-obesity activities of BOO and its inhibitory effects on lymphatic triacylglycerol (TAG absorption were investigated in rats. Methods In Experiment 1, rats were fed either BOO or soybean oil (SO diet for 6 weeks. In the BOO diet, 20% of SO was replaced with an experimental oil rich in BOO. In Experiments 2 and 3, rats cannulated in the thoracic duct were administered an emulsions containing trioleoylglycerol (OOO or an oil mixture (OOO:BOO, 9:1. Tri[1-14C]oleoylglycerol (14C-OOO was added to the emulsions administered in Experiment 3. Results No observable differences were detected in food intake or body weight gain between the BOO and SO groups in Experiment 1. Plasma and liver TAG concentrations and visceral fat weights were significantly lower in the BOO group than in the SO group. The apparent absorption rate of fat was significantly lower in the BOO group than in the SO group. In Experiment 2, the lymphatic recovery of oleic and behenic acids was significantly lower at 5 and 6 h after BOO administration than after OOO administration. In Experiment 3, the lymphatic recovery of 14C-OOO was significantly lower at 5 and 6 h after BOO administration than after OOO administration. Conclusions These results suggest that BOO prevents deposition of visceral fat and hepatic TAG by lowering and delaying intestinal absorption of TAG.

  13. Study on the effects of consumption of milk containing Lactobacillus acidophilus on serum lipid trends and weight gain of rats fed high lipid diet

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    H Mirzaei

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Despite the significant progresses made in the reduction of mortality due to cardiovascular diseases, they are still the primary cause of death in many countries and hyperlipidemia is an important causal agent of cardiovascular diseases. Probiotics are food supplements containing live microbes which balance the flora of the digestive system and produce positive effects in the host body. L.acidophilus is a beneficial bacterium used in the production of probiotic products .The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of consumption of milk containing L.acidophilus on serum lipid trends of rats fed high lipid diet. This is an experimental study in which 30 male albino Wistar rats with a body weight of 200±15 gr. were randomly allocated to two groups of treatment and control each containing 15 rats which were adapted to a high lipid diet (11.74% and water containing 25% milk within a week. Rats in both groups received high lipid diet and water containing 25% milk for 60 days with the exception that rats in the treatment group received water containing L. acidophilus at a level of 109 CFU/rat/day throughout the experiment. Independent t-test revealed that at a level of α= 0.05, mean levels of total cholesterol and LDL-C of rats in the treatment group was significantly lower than the control group (p

  14. Cyclosporin A significantly improves preeclampsia signs and suppresses inflammation in a rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Bihui; Yang, Jinying; Huang, Qian; Bao, Junjie; Brennecke, Shaun Patrick; Liu, Huishu

    2016-05-01

    Preeclampsia is associated with an increased inflammatory response. Immune suppression might be an effective treatment. The aim of this study was to examine whether Cyclosporin A (CsA), an immunosuppressant, improves clinical characteristics of preeclampsia and suppresses inflammation in a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced preeclampsia rat model. Pregnant rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: group 1 (PE) rats each received LPS via tail vein on gestational day (GD) 14; group 2 (PE+CsA5) rats were pretreated with LPS (1.0 μg/kg) on GD 14 and were then treated with CsA (5mg/kg, ip) on GDs 16, 17 and 18; group 3 (PE+CsA10) rats were pretreated with LPS (1.0 μg/kg) on GD 14 and were then treated with CsA (10mg/kg, ip) on GDs 16, 17 and 18; group 4 (pregnant control, PC) rats were treated with the vehicle (saline) used for groups 1, 2 and 3. Systolic blood pressure, urinary albumin, biometric parameters and the levels of serum cytokines were measured on day 20. CsA treatment significantly reduced LPS-induced systolic blood pressure and the mean 24-h urinary albumin excretion. Pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6, IL-17, IFN-γ and TNF-α were increased in the LPS treatment group but were reduced in (LPS+CsA) group (Ppreeclampsia signs and attenuated inflammatory responses in the LPS induced preeclampsia rat model which suggests that immunosuppressant might be an alternative management option for preeclampsia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of fumonisin-containing diet on the myenteric plexus of the jejunum in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Fernando Carlos; Schamber, Christiano Rodrigues; Amorin, Sandra Sheila Seron; Natali, Maria Raquel Marçal

    2014-10-01

    Fumonisins are mycotoxins that naturally occur as contaminants in grains that are destined for animal and human consumption. These mycotoxins cause hepatotoxic, nephrotoxic, carcinogenic, teratogenic, immunotoxic, and neurotoxic effects in different intensities based on dose, time of exposure, and animal species. In the present study, male Wistar rats were fed between postnatal days 21 and 63 with diets that contained fumonisins B1+B2 at concentrations of 1 and 3mg/kg. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of fumonisins on food intake, growth, weight gain, serum activity of the alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase enzymes, and quantitative and morphometric parameters of myenteric neurons in the jejunum that are immunoreactive to HuC/D protein and neuronal nitric oxide synthase enzyme (nNOS). Diets that contained fumonisins did not significantly alter food intake or body and blood parameters. We did not observe significant differences in the neuronal density and proportion of nitrergic neurons but found a significant reduction of cell body areas in both neuronal populations. This study is the first to report the effects of fumonisins in the enteric nervous system. The possible mechanisms by which fumonisins impair neuronal development and the use of the enteric nervous system as a tool for the study of the neurotoxic effects of fumonisins are discussed. In conclusion, fumonisin-containing food negatively affected the growth of myenteric neurons. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Significance of glucagon for insulin secretion and hepatic glycogenolysis during exercise in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richter, Erik; Galbo, H; Holst, J J

    1981-01-01

    The significance of glucagon and of the sympatho-adrenal system for insulin secretion and hepatic glycogen depletion during exercise was studied. Male rats were either adrenodemedullated and chemically sympathectomized with 6-hydroxydopamine (SX) or sham-treated (C). During light ether anesthesia......, cardiac blood for glucose analysis and a biopsy of the liver were obtained, and either antigen-stripped glucagon antibodies (A) or control gamma globulins (N) in saline were injected through the cardiac cannula. Subsequently, the rats swam in tepid water (33-34 degree C) for 100 minutes with a tail weight...... attached (2% of body weight). Then cardiac blood was drawn for analysis of glucose, insulin and glucagon, and a sample of the liver was collected. In both CA and CN rats, the blood glucose concentration tended to increase (p less than 0.1) during exercise, whereas hepatic glycogen depletion and the plasma...

  17. Analgesic Effect of Intra-Articular Injection of Temperature-Responsive Hydrogel Containing Bupivacaine on Osteoarthritic Pain in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Taemin; Seol, Dong Rim; Hahm, Suk-Chan; Ko, Cheolwoong; Kim, Eun-Hye; Chun, Keyoungjin; Kim, Junesun; Lim, Tae-Hong

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined the analgesic effects of slow-releasing bupivacaine from hydrogel on chronic arthritic pain in rats. Osteoarthritis (OA) was induced by monosodium iodoacetate (MIA) injection into the right knee joint. Hydrogel (HG: 20, 30, and 50 μL) and temperature-sensitive hydrogel containing bupivacaine (T-gel: 20, 30, and 50 μL) were injected intra-articularly 14 days after MIA injection. Behavioral tests were conducted. The rats showed a significant decrease in weight load and paw withdrawal threshold (PWT). Intra-articular 0.5% bupivacaine (10 and 20 μL) significantly reversed MIA-induced decreased PWT, with no effect on weight load. In normal rats, hydrogel did not produce significant changes in PWT but at 30 and 50 μL slightly decreased weight bearing; T-gel did not cause any changes in both the weight load and PWT. In OA rats, T-gel at 20 μL had a significant analgesic effect for 2 days, even though T-gel at 50 μL further reduced the weight load, demonstrating that intra-articular T-gel (20 μL) has long-lasting analgesic effects in OA rats. Thus, T-gel designed to deliver analgesics into the joint cavity could be an effective therapeutic tool in the clinical setting. PMID:26881207

  18. Significance of fluid-structure interaction phenomena for containment response to ex-vessel steam explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almstroem, H.; Sundel, T. [National Defence Research Establishment, Stockholm (Sweden); Frid, W.; Engelbrektson, A.

    1998-01-01

    When studying the structural response of a containment building to ex-vessel steam explosion loads, a two-step procedure is often used. In the first step of this procedure the structures are treated as rigid and the pressure-time history generated by the explosion at the rigid wall is calculated. In the second step the calculated pressure is applied to the structures. The obvious weakness of the two-step procedure is that it does not correspond to the real dynamic behaviour of the fluid-structure system. The purpose of this paper is to identify and evaluate the relevant fluid-structure interaction phenomena. This is achieved through direct treatment of the explosion process and the structural response. The predictions of a direct and two-step treatment are compared for a BWR Mark II containment design, consisting of two concentric walls interacting with water masses in the central and annular pools. It is shown that the two-step approach leads to unrealistic energy transfer in the containment system studied, and to significant overestimation of the deflection of the containment wall. As regards the pedestal wall, the direct method analysis shows that the flexibility of this wall affects the pressure-time history considerably. Three load types have been identified for this wall namely shock load, water blow as a result of water cavitation, and hydrodynamic load. Reloading impulse due to cavitation phenomena plays an important role as it amounts to about 40% of the total impulse load. Investigation of the generality of the cavitation phenomena in the context of ex-vessel steam explosion loads was outside the scope of this work. (author)

  19. Significance of fluid-structure interaction phenomena for containment response to ex-vessel steam explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almstroem, H.; Sundel, T. (Nat. Defence Res. Establ., Tumba (Sweden)); Frid, W. (Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, SE-10658, Stockholm (Sweden)); Engelbrektson, A. (VBB/SWECO, Box 34044, SE-10026, Stockholm (Sweden))

    1999-05-01

    When studying the structural response of a containment building to ex-vessel steam explosion loads, a two-step procedure is often used. In the first step of this procedure the structures are treated as rigid and the pressure-time history generated by the explosion, at the rigid wall, is calculated. In the second step the calculated pressure is applied to the structures. The obvious weakness of the two-step procedure is that it does not correspond to the real dynamic behaviour of the fluid-structure system. The purpose of this paper is to identify and evaluate the relevant fluid-structure interaction phenomena. This is achieved through direct treatment of the explosion process and the structural response. The predictions of a direct and two-step treatment are compared for a BWR Mark II containment design, consisting of two concentric walls interacting with water masses in the central and annular pools. It is shown that the two-step approach leads to unrealistic energy transfer in the containment system studied and to significant overestimation of the deflection of the containment wall. As regards the pedestal wall, the direct method analysis shows that the flexibility of this wall affects the pressure-time history considerably. Three load types have been identified for this wall namely shock load, water blow as a result of water cavitation, and hydrodynamic load. Reloading impulse due to cavitation phenomena plays an important role as it amounts to [approx]40% of the total impulse load. Investigation of the generality of the cavitation phenomena in the context of ex-vessel steam explosion loads was outside the scope of this work. (orig.) 5 refs.

  20. Significance of fluid-structure interaction phenomena for containment response to ex-vessel steam explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almstroem, H.; Sundel, T.; Frid, W.; Engelbrektson, A.

    1999-01-01

    When studying the structural response of a containment building to ex-vessel steam explosion loads, a two-step procedure is often used. In the first step of this procedure the structures are treated as rigid and the pressure-time history generated by the explosion, at the rigid wall, is calculated. In the second step the calculated pressure is applied to the structures. The obvious weakness of the two-step procedure is that it does not correspond to the real dynamic behaviour of the fluid-structure system. The purpose of this paper is to identify and evaluate the relevant fluid-structure interaction phenomena. This is achieved through direct treatment of the explosion process and the structural response. The predictions of a direct and two-step treatment are compared for a BWR Mark II containment design, consisting of two concentric walls interacting with water masses in the central and annular pools. It is shown that the two-step approach leads to unrealistic energy transfer in the containment system studied and to significant overestimation of the deflection of the containment wall. As regards the pedestal wall, the direct method analysis shows that the flexibility of this wall affects the pressure-time history considerably. Three load types have been identified for this wall namely shock load, water blow as a result of water cavitation, and hydrodynamic load. Reloading impulse due to cavitation phenomena plays an important role as it amounts to ∼40% of the total impulse load. Investigation of the generality of the cavitation phenomena in the context of ex-vessel steam explosion loads was outside the scope of this work. (orig.)

  1. Quantitative evaluation of CART-containing cells in urinary bladder of rats with renovascular hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Janiuk

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Recent biological advances make it possible to discover new peptides associated with hypertension. The cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART is a known factor in appetite and feeding behaviour. Various lines of evidence suggest that this peptide participates not only in control of feeding behaviour but also in the regulation of the cardiovascular and sympathetic systems and blood pressure. The role of CART in blood pressure regulation led us to undertake a study aimed at analysing quantitative changes in CART-containing cells in urinary bladders (UB of rats with renovascular hypertension. We used the Goldblatt model of arterial hypertension (two-kidney, one clip to evaluate quantitative changes. This model provides researchers with a commonly used tool to analyse the renin-angiotensin system of blood pressure control and, eventually, to develop drugs for the treatment of chronic hypertension. The study was performed on sections of urinary bladders of rats after 3-, 14-, 28-, 42 and 91 days from hypertension induction. Immunohistochemical identification of CART cells was performed on paraffin for the UBs of all the study animals. CART was detected in the endocrine cells, especially numerous in the submucosa and muscularis layers, with a few found in the transitional epithelium and only occasionally in serosa. Hypertension significantly increased the number of CART-positive cells in the rat UBs. After 3 and 42 days following the procedure, statistically significantly higher numbers of CART-positive cells were identified in comparison with the control animals. The differences between the hypertensive rats and the control animals concerned not only the number density of CART-immunoreactive cells but also their localization. After a 6-week period, each of the rats subjected to the renal artery clipping procedure developed stable hypertension. CART appeared in numerous transitional epithelium cells. As this study provides novel findings

  2. Characteristics and significance of D-tagatose-induced liver enlargement in rats: An interpretative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bär, A

    1999-04-01

    This review addresses the issue of asymptomatic liver enlargement in rats. It was necessitated by the observation of significantly increased liver weights in rats fed diets with 10 to 20% D-tagatose, a potential new bulk sweetener, for between 28 and 90 days. Increases of liver size without accompanying histopathological changes or impairment of organ function have been observed in rats in response to the ingestion of various xenobiotic compounds (including some food additives), changes of dietary composition (e.g. , high doses of fructose and sucrose), metabolic aberrations (e.g., diabetes), as well as normal pregnancy and lactation. The underlying mechanism(s) are not yet understood in detail but peroxisome proliferation, microsomal enzyme induction, increased storage of glycogen or lipids, and hyperfunction due to an excessive workload are well-established causes of hepatomegaly in rats. In D-tagatose- and fructose-fed rats, a treatment-related increase of hepatic glycogen storage was identified as a likely cause of the liver enlargement. Dietary levels of 5% and about 15-20% were determined as no-effect levels (NOEL) for D-tagatose- and fructose-induced liver enlargement, respectively. At doses above the NOEL, D-tagatose is about four times more efficient than fructose in inducing liver enlargement. On the other hand, the estimated intake of D-tagatose from its intended uses in food is about four times lower than the actual fructose intake. Consequently, a similar safety margin would apply for both sugars. Considering the similarity of the liver effects in rats of fructose, a safe food ingredient, and D-tagatose, the absence of histopathological changes in rats fed a diet with 20% D-tagatose for 90 days, and the absence of adverse long-term consequences of glycogen-induced liver enlargement in rats, it is concluded that the observed liver enlargement in D-tagatose-fed rats has no relevance for the assessment of human safety of this substance. Copyright 1999

  3. Sodium-Reduced Meat and Poultry Products Contain a Significant Amount of Potassium from Food Additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parpia, Arti Sharma; Goldstein, Marc B; Arcand, JoAnne; Cho, France; L'Abbé, Mary R; Darling, Pauline B

    2018-05-01

    Sodium-reduced packaged food products are increasingly available to consumers; however, it is not clear whether they are suitable for inclusion in a potassium-reduced diet. For individuals with impaired renal potassium excretion caused by chronic kidney disease and for those taking certain medications that interfere with the rennin-angiotensin aldosterone axis, the need to limit dietary potassium is important in view of the risk for development of hyperkalemia and fatal cardiac arrhythmias. The primary objective of this study was to determine the impact of the reduction of sodium in packaged meat and poultry products (MPPs) on the content of potassium and phosphorus from food additives. This was a cross-sectional study comparing chemically analyzed MPPs (n=38, n=19 original, n=19 sodium-reduced), selected from the top three grocery chains in Canada, based on market share sales. All MPPs with a package label containing a reduced sodium content claim together with their non-sodium-reduced packaged MPP counterparts were selected for analysis. The protein, sodium, phosphorus, and potassium contents of sodium-reduced MPPs and the non-sodium-reduced (original) MPP counterparts were chemically analyzed according to the Association of Analytical Communities official methods 992.15 and 984.27 and compared by using a paired t test. The frequency of phosphorus and potassium additives appearing on the product labels' ingredient lists were compared between groups by using McNemar's test. Sodium-reduced MPPs (n=19) contained 44% more potassium (mg/100 g) than their non-sodium-reduced counterparts (n=19) (mean difference [95% CI): 184 [90-279]; P=0.001). The potassium content of sodium-reduced MPPs varied widely and ranged from 210 to 1,500 mg/100 g. Potassium-containing additives were found on the ingredient list in 63% of the sodium-reduced products and 26% of the non-sodium-reduced products (P=0.02). Sodium-reduced MPPs contained 38% less sodium (mg/100 g) than their non

  4. In Vivo Metabolism in Rats of Cyanide -Containing Compounds ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Iayer chromatography indicated the presence of novel cyanide-containing compounds, which were shown chemically to be cyanohydrin (Rf, 0.25) ands nitrile (Rf, 0.645). Administration of the eluates of those chromatographically identified CN- ...

  5. St. John's wort significantly increased the systemic exposure and toxicity of methotrexate in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Shih-Ying; Juang, Shin-Hun; Tsai, Shang-Yuan; Chao, Pei-Dawn Lee; Hou, Yu-Chi

    2012-01-01

    St. John's wort (SJW, Hypericum perforatum) is one of the popular nutraceuticals for treating depression. Methotrexate (MTX) is an immunosuppressant with narrow therapeutic window. This study investigated the effect of SJW on MTX pharmacokinetics in rats. Rats were orally given MTX alone and coadministered with 300 and 150 mg/kg of SJW, and 25 mg/kg of diclofenac, respectively. Blood was withdrawn at specific time points and serum MTX concentrations were assayed by a specific monoclonal fluorescence polarization immunoassay method. The results showed that 300 mg/kg of SJW significantly increased the AUC 0−t and C max of MTX by 163% and 60%, respectively, and 150 mg/kg of SJW significantly increased the AUC 0−t of MTX by 55%. In addition, diclofenac enhanced the C max of MTX by 110%. The mortality of rats treated with SJW was higher than that of controls. In conclusion, coadministration of SJW significantly increased the systemic exposure and toxicity of MTX. The combined use of MTX with SJW would need to be with caution. -- Highlights: ► St. John's wort significantly increased the AUC 0−t and C max of methotrexate. ► Coadministration of St. John's wort increased the exposure and toxicity of methotrexate. ► The combined use of methotrexate with St. John's wort will need to be with caution.

  6. Expression and significance of HIF-1α and VEGF in rats with diabetic retinopathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong-Tao Yan; Guan-Fang Su

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the expression of hypoxia inducible factor-1α(HIF-1α) and vascular endothelial growth factor(VEGF) in diabetic retinopathy(DR) rats and its effect on theDR occurrence and development.Methods:A total of120SD rats were randomly divided into trial group and control group with60 in each.STZi.p. was used in the trial group to establish theDM model, citrate buffer salt of same amount was usedi.p. to the control group.1,3 and6 months after injection, respective20 rats were sacrificed in each group to observe expression ofHIF-1α andVEGF in the rat retina tissue at different time points.Results:Expression ofHIF-1α andVEGF were negative in the control group; expression ofHIF-1α andVEGF protein in retinal tissue were weak after1 month ofDR mold formation.It showed progressive enhancement along with the progression in different organizations, differences between groups were significant (P<0.05).Conclusions:Expressions ofHIF-1α andVEGF were correlated with disease progression in early diabetic retinopathy.Retinal oxygen can induce over-expression ofHIF-1α andVEGF.It shows thatHIF-1α andVEGF play an important role in the pathogenesis ofDR.

  7. Antidiabetic activity of traditional Indian gold containing preparation: Shadguna Balijarita Makaradhwaja on streptozotocin induced diabetic rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Khedekar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Makaradhwaja a gold containing mercurial preparation used for diabetes mellitus in indigenous system of medicine. It is a popular aphrodisiac and rejuvenator traditional medicine. It is prepared by using processed gold, mercury and sulfur in different ratios by applying intermittent heating pattern in Valuka Yantra. Objectives: The aim of study was to evaluate anti-diabetic effect of Shadguna Balijarita Makaradhwaja on Streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Methods: Diabetes was induced to normal rats by injecting Streptozotocin in dose 40 mg/kg. Powdered Shadguna Balijarita Makaradhwaja and dried extract of Tinospora cordifolia were mixed with honey and administered orally for 20 days at dose 2.63 mg/kg and 42.34 mg/kg body weight respectively. The effects of treatment on body weight changes and blood glucose levels were quantified on Day 1, 5, 10, 15 and 21 of the experiments. On 21st day animals were sacrificed and gross histopathological changes in liver, kidney and pancreas were illustrated. Blood sugar level, Glyacated hemoglobin, blood urea, serum cholesterol, serum creatinine, serum triglyceride, and serum protein were estimated with standard methods. Study was conducted in the year 2011. Results: Test drug observed significant decrease (P [J Complement Med Res 2016; 5(2.000: 162-167

  8. Physiological significance of Fuc and Sialic acid containing glycans in the body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ramzan Manwar Hussain

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Complex biomolecular machinery carrying diverse glycan chains are involved in a wide range of physiological activities including blood group determination, cancer recognition protein stabilization and sperm–egg interaction. Diversity of glycan chains, linked to lipids and proteins is due to isomeric and conformational modifications of various sugar residues, giving rise to unique carbohydrate structures with a wide range of anomeric linkages. This unique and significant structural diversity of naturally occurring oligosaccharide structures make them the best recognition markers for countless physiological activities. This is a challenging task to explore the relationship between biological processes and stereochemical behavior of sugar residues. Current review article is related with the physiological significance of glycans carrying fucose and/or sialic residues in complex biomolecular assemblies. Both the sugar units have a diverse range of anomery and linkages with the penultimate sugars. The existing literature and databases did not contain comprehensive information regarding structure–function relationship of glycans. Therefore, the current study is scheduled to debate on the structure–function relationship of glycans carrying Fuc and sialic acid in their backbone structures.

  9. Chlorination of cooling water: a source of chlorine-containing organic compounds with possible environmental significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jolley, R.L.; Gehrs, C.W.; Pitt, W.W. Jr.

    1976-01-01

    Chlorination of cooling waters may be a source of environmentally significant pollutants. Many water-soluble chlorine-containing organic compounds of low volatility were found in a sample of cooling water chlorinated to a 2-mg/l chlorine concentration in the laboratory. The compounds were separated and detected using a coupled 36 Cl-tracer--high-resolution liquid chromatographic technique developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory for determination of chlorinated organics in process effluents. For a chlorination contact time of 75 min at 25 0 C, the yield of chlorine in the form of chloro-organics amounted to 0.78% of the chlorine dosage. It is estimated that the yield is about 0.5% under typical reaction conditions in the electric power plant cooling system chosen for study. Because chlorine is commonly used to remove slime films from the cooling systems of electric power plants, as a means of maintaining high operational efficiency, it is estimated that several hundred tons of chlorinated organics are produced annually in the nation by this antifoulant process. The chromatographic elution positions of some of the separated constituents correspond to those of compounds separated and partially identified from chlorinated sewage treatment plant effluents. The results of this study indicate the formation of chloro-organics during the chlorination of cooling waters should be thoroughly examined, particularly with respect to their identification and determination of possible toxicological properties

  10. Muscle and liver protein synthesis in growing rats fed diets containing raw legumes as the main source of protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goena, M.; Santidrian, S.; Cuevillas, F.; Larralde, J.

    1986-01-01

    Although legumes are widely used as protein sources, their effects on protein metabolism remain quite unexplored. The authors have measured the rates of gastrocnemius muscle and liver protein synthesis in growing rats fed ad libitum over periods of 12 days on diets containing raw field bean (Vicia faba L.), raw kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), and raw bitter vetch (Vicia ervilia L.) as the major sources of protein. Diets were isocaloric and contained about 12% protein. Protein synthesis was evaluated by the constant-intravenous-infusion method, using L-/ 14 C/-tyrosine, as well as by the determination of the RNA-activity (g of newly synthesized protein/day/g RNA). Results showed that, as compared to well-fed control animals, those fed the raw legume diets exhibited a marked reduction in the rate of growth with no changes in the amount of food intake (per 100 g b.wt.). These changes were accompanied by a significant reduction in the rate of muscle protein synthesis in all legume-treated rats, being this reduction greater in the animals fed the Ph. vulgaris and V. ervilia diets. Liver protein synthesis was slightly higher in the rats fed the V. faba and V. ervilia diets, and smaller in the Ph. vulgaris-fed rats. It is suggested that both sulfur amino acid deficiency and the presence of different anti-nutritive factors in raw legumes may account for these effects

  11. SULPHUR-CONTAINING AMINO ACIDS METABOLISM IN EXPERIMENTAL HYPER- AND HYPOTHYROIDISM IN RATS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nechiporuk, V; Zaichko, N; Korda, М; Melnyk, A; Koloshko, O

    2017-10-01

    Hyper- and hypothyroidism are some of the most common endocrinopathies that cause many metabolic disorders including amino acids metabolism. However, a specific molecular mechanism of thyroid hormones influence on sulphur-containing amino acids metabolism has not been established. The aim of our research was to investigate experimentally the influence of thyroid gland functional state on the main enzymatic systems of sulphur-containing amino acids metabolism in liver and kidneys, the content of homocysteine, cysteine and H2S in blood. The rats were administered with L-thyroxine and mercazolil to simulate the states of hyper- and hypothyroidism, which were confirmed by the content of fT3, fT4 and TSH in the blood. In liver and kidneys of the animals with hypothyroidism we observed the decrease in the activity of enzymes of remethylation cycle of S-adenosylmethioninsyntase, S-adenosylhomocysteinhyhdrolase, betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase. Suppression of transsulfuration transformation of homocysteine to cysteine in hypothyroidism was mainly due to the inhibition of cystathionine synthase activity of cystathionine-β-synthase, wherein cystathionase activity of cystathionine-γ-lyase was not changed. In animals with hypothyroidism we also noticed the inhibition of cysteine desulfunation reactions: the activity of enzymes of cystathionine-β-synthase, cystathionine-γ-lyase and cysteine aminotransferase significantly decreased in liver and kidneys. Experimental hyperthyroidism was accompanied by increase in activity of remethylation cycle enzymes, increase in cystationine synthase activity of cystathionine-β-synthase in liver and activity of these enzymes in kidneys. The simulation of hyperthyroidism led to the decrease of homocysteine concentration, and of hypothyroidism - to the increase of homocysteine and cysteine concentrations and reduced H2S content in blood of the animals. Thus, the significant risk factors for the development of atherosclerosis

  12. Effect of Rat Medicated Serum Containing You Gui Wan on Mouse Oocyte In Vitro Maturation and Subsequent Fertilization Competence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Hui Jiang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available You Gui Wan (YGW is a classic herbal formula in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM used for the clinical treatment of infertility. This study was to explore whether YGW has an impact on mouse oocyte maturation in vitro and subsequent fertilization competence. Rat medicated serum containing YGW was prepared by orally administrating YGW. Mouse immature oocytes were cultured with YGW medicated serum and compared to those cultured with or without normal rat serum or follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH. YGW medicated serum significantly increased the percentages of matured oocytes when compared to the groups with or without normal rat serum (P < 0.01. Furthermore, YGW medicated serum increased the rate of in vitro fertilization (IVF when compared to the groups treated with FSH and with or without normal rat serum (P < 0.001. YGW medicated serum also had significant effects on the mRNA expressions of PKA, CREB, MAPK, PKC, PKG, and MPF and the concentrations of cAMP, cGMP, and NO in matured oocytes. These results indicate that YGW can promote mouse oocyte maturation and IVF in vitro. Signaling pathways, such as the cAMP/PKA/MAPK, the PKC-MAPK, and the NO-cGMP-PKG pathway, which are similar to those induced by FSH, may be responsible for this action.

  13. 21 CFR 201.303 - Labeling of drug preparations containing significant proportions of wintergreen oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... proportions of wintergreen oil. (a) Because methyl salicylate (wintergreen oil) manifests no toxicity in the... poisoning. (c) This statement of interpretation in no way exempts methyl salicylate (wintergreen oil) or its... provisions of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act any drug containing more than 5 percent methyl...

  14. Status Epilepticus due to Intraperitoneal Injection of Vehicle Containing Propylene Glycol in Sprague Dawley Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evon S. Ereifej

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Published reports of status epilepticus due to intraperitoneal injection containing propylene glycol in rats are sparse. In fact, there are no reports specifying a maximum safe dose of propylene glycol through intraperitoneal administration. We report here a case of unexpected seizures in Sprague Dawley rats after receiving an intraperitoneal injection containing propylene glycol. Nine-week-old, 225–250 gram male rats were reported to experience tremor progressing to seizures within minutes after given injections of resveratrol (30 mg/kg dissolved in a 40 : 60 propylene glycol/corn oil vehicle solution by direct intraperitoneal (IP slow bolus injection or via a preplaced intraperitoneal catheter. The World Health Organization suggests a maximum dose of 25 mg/kg/day of propylene glycol taken orally and no more than 25 mg/dL in blood serum, whereas the animals used in our study got a calculated maximum 0.52 g/kg (25 times lower dose. Blood tests from the seizing rat support a diagnosis of hemolysis and lactic acidosis which may have led to the seizures, all of which appeared to be a consequence of the propylene glycol administration. These findings are consistent with oral and intravenous administration of propylene glycol toxicity as previously reported in other species, including humans. To our knowledge, this report represents the first published case of status epilepticus due to an IP injection containing propylene glycol.

  15. Effect of zinc-containing β-tricalcium phosphate nano particles injection on jawbone mineral density and mechanical strength of osteoporosis model rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokudome, Yoshihiro; Otsuka, Makoto; Ito, Atsuo

    2011-01-01

    Zinc-containing β-tricalcium phosphate (ZnTCP) nano particles were injected into zinc-deficient rats to promote osteogenesis. Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats (4 weeks old, average weight of 70 g) were divided into four groups: Normal rats (not ovariectomized (OVX)), Control rats (OVX), and OVX rats injected with a suspension of ZnTCP nano particles or ZnSO 4 . The ZnTCP contained 6.17% zinc. The suspensions (0.6 mg as a zinc volume/0.2 ml) were injected around the jaw bone once a week for 12 weeks. Local effects on the bone mineral content (BMC) of jawbone, and systemic effects on body weight, the BMC of both femurs determined by X-ray computed tomography, and bone mechanical strength (BMS) measured by the three-point bending method, were examined. The BMC of jaw bone was significantly higher in the ZnTCP-treated group than un-treated or ZnSO 4 -treated group. Body weight, the BMC of femurs, and BMS were also significantly higher in the ZnTCP treated-group. The zinc-containing β-tricalcium phosphate nano particles were effective at preventing bone loss induced by ovariectomy in rats and have potential uses for treating periodontitis. (author)

  16. A diet containing the soy phytoestrogen genistein causes infertility in female rats partially deficient in UDP glucuronyltransferase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seppen, Jurgen

    2012-01-01

    Soy beans contain genistein, a natural compound that has estrogenic effects because it binds the estrogen receptor with relatively high affinity. Genistein is therefore the most important environmental estrogen in the human diet. Detoxification of genistein is mediated through conjugation by UDP-glucuronyltransferase 1 and 2 (UGT1 and UGT2) isoenzymes. Gunn rats have a genetic deficiency in UGT1 activity, UGT2 activities are not affected. Because our Gunn rats stopped breeding after the animal chow was changed to a type with much higher soy content, we examined the mechanism behind this soy diet induced infertility. Gunn and control rats were fed diets with and without genistein. In these rats, plasma levels of genistein and metabolites, fertility and reproductive parameters were determined. Enzyme assays showed reduced genistein UGT activity in Gunn rats, as compared to wild type rats. Female Gunn rats were completely infertile on a genistein diet, wild type rats were fertile. Genistein diet caused a persistent estrus, lowered serum progesterone and inhibited development of corpora lutea in Gunn rats. Concentrations of total genistein in Gunn and control rat plasma were identical and within the range observed in humans after soy consumption. However, Gunn rat plasma contained 25% unconjugated genistein, compared to 3.6% in control rats. This study shows that, under conditions of reduced glucuronidation, dietary genistein exhibits a strongly increased estrogenic effect. Because polymorphisms that reduce UGT1 expression are prevalent in the human population, these results suggest a cautionary attitude towards the consumption of large amounts of soy or soy supplements. -- Highlights: ► Gunn rats are partially deficient in detoxification by UDP glucuronyltransferases. ► Female Gunn rats are infertile on a soy containing diet. ► Soy contains genistein, a potent phytoestrogen. ► Inefficient glucuronidation of genistein causes female infertility.

  17. A diet containing the soy phytoestrogen genistein causes infertility in female rats partially deficient in UDP glucuronyltransferase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seppen, Jurgen, E-mail: j.seppen@amc.uva.nl

    2012-11-01

    Soy beans contain genistein, a natural compound that has estrogenic effects because it binds the estrogen receptor with relatively high affinity. Genistein is therefore the most important environmental estrogen in the human diet. Detoxification of genistein is mediated through conjugation by UDP-glucuronyltransferase 1 and 2 (UGT1 and UGT2) isoenzymes. Gunn rats have a genetic deficiency in UGT1 activity, UGT2 activities are not affected. Because our Gunn rats stopped breeding after the animal chow was changed to a type with much higher soy content, we examined the mechanism behind this soy diet induced infertility. Gunn and control rats were fed diets with and without genistein. In these rats, plasma levels of genistein and metabolites, fertility and reproductive parameters were determined. Enzyme assays showed reduced genistein UGT activity in Gunn rats, as compared to wild type rats. Female Gunn rats were completely infertile on a genistein diet, wild type rats were fertile. Genistein diet caused a persistent estrus, lowered serum progesterone and inhibited development of corpora lutea in Gunn rats. Concentrations of total genistein in Gunn and control rat plasma were identical and within the range observed in humans after soy consumption. However, Gunn rat plasma contained 25% unconjugated genistein, compared to 3.6% in control rats. This study shows that, under conditions of reduced glucuronidation, dietary genistein exhibits a strongly increased estrogenic effect. Because polymorphisms that reduce UGT1 expression are prevalent in the human population, these results suggest a cautionary attitude towards the consumption of large amounts of soy or soy supplements. -- Highlights: ► Gunn rats are partially deficient in detoxification by UDP glucuronyltransferases. ► Female Gunn rats are infertile on a soy containing diet. ► Soy contains genistein, a potent phytoestrogen. ► Inefficient glucuronidation of genistein causes female infertility.

  18. L-carnitine significantly decreased aging of rat adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobarak, Halimeh; Fathi, Ezzatollah; Farahzadi, Raheleh; Zarghami, Nosratollah; Javanmardi, Sara

    2017-03-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells are undifferentiated cells that have the ability to divide continuously and tissue regeneration potential during the transplantation. Aging and loss of cell survival, is one of the main problems in cell therapy. Since the production of free radicals in the aging process is effective, the use of antioxidant compounds can help in scavenging free radicals and prevent the aging of cells. The aim of this study is evaluate the effects of L-carnitine (LC) on proliferation and aging of rat adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (rADSC). rADSCs were isolated from inguinal region of 5 male Rattus rats. Oil red-O, alizarin red-S and toluidine blue staining were performed to evaluate the adipogenic, osteogenic and chondrogenic differentiation of rADSCs, respectively. Flow cytometric analysis was done for investigating the cell surface markers. The methyl thiazol tetrazolium (MTT) method was used to determine the cell proliferation of rADSCs following exposure to different concentrations of LC. rADSCs aging was evaluated by beta-galactosidase staining. The results showed significant proliferation of rADSCs 48 h after treatment with concentrations of 0.2 mM LC. In addition, in the presence of 0.2 mM LC, rADSCs appeared to be growing faster than control group and 0.2 mM LC supplementation could significantly decrease the population doubling time and aging of rADSCs. It seems that LC would be a good antioxidant to improve lifespan of rADSCs due to the decrease in aging.

  19. Beneficial effects of enteral nutrition containing with hydrolyzed whey peptide on warm ischemia/reperfusion injury in the rat liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanaoka, Jun; Shimada, Mitsuo; Utsunomiya, Toru; Morine, Yuji; Imura, Satoru; Ikemoto, Tetsuya; Mori, Hiroki; Sugimoto, Koji; Saito, Yu; Yamada, Shinichiro; Asanoma, Michihito

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the efficacy of enteral nutrition containing hydrolyzed whey peptide (HWP) on warm ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury in the rat liver. Male Wistar rats were subjected to 30 min of warm hepatic ischemia followed by immediate p.o. intake of enteral nutrition with WHP (HWP group) or 20% glucose solution (control group) (0.025 mL/g). The animals were killed at 6 or 12 h after reperfusion. The serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase alt (ALT) levels were measured. The necrotic areas were assessed histologically. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) staining and caspase-3 activation were assessed to evaluate apoptosis. The expressions of hepatic tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-6 and nuclear factor (NF)-κB in the liver tissue were assessed by real time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Significant reductions in the serum AST and ALT levels were seen in the HWP group compared with the control group at both 6 and 12 h after reperfusion. The necrotic areas and numbers of TUNEL positive cells were significantly decreased in the HWP group at 6 and 12 h after reperfusion. The caspase-3/7 activities were significantly decreased in HWP group at 6 and 12 h after reperfusion. The mRNA expressions of TNF-α and IL-6 were significantly reduced in the HWP group at 12 h after reperfusion. NF-κB mRNA expression was significantly increased in the HWP group at 6 and 12 h after reperfusion. Enteral nutrition containing HWP ameliorated the hepatic warm I/R injury possibly through the suppression of pro-inflammatory cytokine expressions and the induction of NF-κB in the rat liver. © 2013 The Japan Society of Hepatology.

  20. [The expression and significance of VIP and its receptor in the cochlea of different degrees of chronic alcoholism rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jing; Liu, Haibing

    2015-07-01

    To determine whether chronic alcoholism alters the expression levels of Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) and its receptor (VIPR1) in the cochlea of chronic alcoholism rats. We measured their expression levels in 30 SD rats, in which we created models of different degrees of chronic alcoholism. We investigated the presence of the mRNA of VIP in the cochlea of chronic alcoholism rats and controls by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) method. We investigated the presence of proteins of VIPR1 in poisoned rats and controls by western blot. We also evaluated the local distribution of VIP cells by immunohistochemistry. We found that the levels of VIP and VIPR1 were downregulated in the chronic alcoholism groups compared to the controls group. The differences in some expression levels were significant different between chronic alcoholism rats and control rats. Moreover, at different degrees of alcohol poisoning in rats, the contents of VIP and VIPR1 differed. Decreased levels of VIP and VIPR1 were detected in the deep chronic alcoholism group compared to the group with low-degree poisoning (P 0.05). These results suggest that VIP and VIPR1 play an important role in the auditory function in rats with chronic alcoholism. Chronic alcoholism may cause a peptide hormone secretion imbalance in the auditory system, eventually leading to hearing loss.

  1. A fraction enriched in rat hippocampal mossy fibre synaptosomes contains trophic activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taupin, P; Roisin, M P; Ben-Ari, Y; Barbin, G

    1994-06-27

    Subcellular fractions prepared from the rat hippocampus, were assessed for the presence of trophic activities. The cytosol of synaptosomal fractions induced mitotic reinitiation of confluent 3T3 fibroblasts. The synaptosomal fraction, enriched in mossy fibre terminals, contained the highest mitotic activity. The mitogenic activity was heat and trypsin sensitive, suggesting that polypeptides are involved. The cytosol of the mossy fibre synaptosomal fraction promoted neuritic outgrowth of PC 12 cells and embryonic hippocampal neurones in primary cultures. These results suggest that mossy fibres contain both mitogenic and neurotrophic activities. These factors could participate in mossy fibre sprouting that occur following brief seizures or experimental lesions.

  2. Apoptosis Induced in The Brain and Liver of Fetuses And Placenta of Irradiated Pregnant Rats Treated With Antacid Containing Aluminum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramadan, F.L.; Madkour, N.K.

    2012-01-01

    Aluminum (Al) is widely used in antacid medicine which frequently used by pregnant women. It is of great importance to increase the knowledge about its harmful effects on the fetuses. The present study clarified that administration of antacid containing Al and/or exposure to gamma radiation induced maternal and fetal detrimental impact. Pregnant albino rats were administered antacid containing Al on the gestational days 5th, 7th, 9th, 11th, 13th, 15th and 17th at a dose of 4.5 mg/g and exposed to whole body fractionated gamma radiation (2 Gy) at a dose of 0.5 Gy for 4 times on gestational days 6th, 8th, 10th and 12th of pregnancy. Morphological, biochemical and molecular changes were studied. The investigation was carried out one day prior to parturition (the 20th day of gestation). Antacid containing Al and/or radiation induced growth retardation, intrauterine death, malformations and embryonic resorption. The extent of lipid peroxidase formation as well as glutathione content in the brain and liver tissues of rat fetuses and placenta of pregnant rats were used as sensitive parameters to evaluate tissues damage. Antacid containing Al and/or radiation treatment resulted in decreased total protein content in the maternal placenta tissue. Moreover, the elevation in the lipid peroxidase (malondialdehyde; MDA) was accompanied with decline in the glutathione content (GSH) in the brain and liver tissues of rat fetuses. The activity of a key enzyme of apoptosis namely the caspase-3 was analyzed, which its activation represent a point of no return in apoptosis induction. Apoptosis was confirmed by another important hallmark of programmed cell death such as the DNA fragmentation. Treatment with antacid containing Al and/or gamma irradiation significantly increased caspase-3 activity and DNA fragmentation in maternal placental tissue and fetal brain and liver tissues as compared to control animals. In conclusion, the present investigation showed that the deleterious

  3. Diets containing sea cucumber (Isostichopus badionotus meals are hypocholesterolemic in young rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leticia Olivera-Castillo

    Full Text Available Sea cucumber is widely consumed as a putative functional food. It contains many biologically-active substances, but only limited research on its properties in vivo has been done. The effects of different meals containing Isostichopus badionotus, a sea cucumber from southeast Mexico, on growth performance and body lipid profile in young rats were analyzed. Sea cucumber body wall was either lyophilized, cooked (100 °C, 1 h in water and lyophilized, or oven-dried (70 °C for 12 h. It was then ground and incorporated into cholesterol-containing diets. I. badionotus meals supported growth and improved lipid profile in rats. In particular, serum cholesterol, low density lipoproteins, triglycerides concentration and atherogenic index values were greatly reduced by some I. badionotus containing diets. Liver total lipids, triglycerides and cholesterol were also reduced. Cooking or heat-treatment of the meals lowered but did not abolish their hypolipidemic potency. Gene expression analysis of several key genes involved in cholesterol and lipid metabolism in liver showed that diets containing I. badionotus repressed the induction of key genes associated with dyslipidemia exerted by cholesterol supplementation. Consumption of I. badionotus from the Yucatan Peninsula is beneficial for dyslipidemia, although biological effect is clearly dependent on preparation method.

  4. Cecal parameters of rats fed diets containing grapefruit polyphenols and inulin as single supplements or in a combination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zduńczyk, Zenon; Juśkiewicz, Jerzy; Estrella, Isabel

    2006-09-01

    We compared the effects of grapefruit flavonoids and inulin, as single dietary components or in a combination, on cecal fermentation in rats adapted to a semipurified diet. The experimental diets contained 0.3% flavonoid extract and 5% or 10% inulin and a combination of both supplements. The large bowel metabolism assessment was based on cecal parameters: bulk effect, pH, microbial enzymes activity, and short-chain fatty acid production. Both supplements induced significant enlargement of the cecal digesta weight. Acidification of cecal digesta was more pronounced, with a higher inulin addition to the diet. Cecal pH was the highest with the flavonoid-rich diets and lowest in the case of a simultaneous addition of flavonoids and a high content of inulin. The flavonoid extract applied as a single dietary supplement was observed to decrease the activity of bacterial beta-glucosidase and beta- and alpha-galactosidases in the cecal digesta. In contrast, addition of the grapefruit extract to inulin-containing diets increased the activity of alpha-glucosidase, alpha-galactosidase, and beta-galactosidase. Great accumulation of cecal digesta in rats consuming the flavonoid-diet caused a considerable increase in the short-chain fatty acid pool, mainly acetic acid. Inulin added to the diet decreased the excessive enlargement of digesta caused by dietary flavonoids. Dietary addition of inulin to the flavonoid-diet also normalized hydration of cecal digesta and significantly decreased the pH of digesta. The presence of polyphenols in the inulin-containing diets did not change total short-chain fatty acid production in the cecum of rats. Our results suggested that simultaneous intake of inulin and polyphenols can decrease the detrimental effects of the latter on cecal fermentation.

  5. Management of experimental benign prostatic hyperplasia in rats using a food-based therapy containing Telfairia occidentalis seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ejike, Chukwunonso E C C; Ezeanyika, Lawrence U S

    2011-01-01

    The usefulness of diet containing Telfairia occidentalis seeds, in managing benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) in rats was studied. Twenty male Wistar rats were divided into four equal groups. BPH was induced by sub-cutaneous injection of dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and estradiol valerate (ratio, 10:1) every other day for 28 days. Rats in the test group were placed on the test diet for 7 days following disease induction. One control group (DC) was fed on a normal diet for 7 days following disease induction. Two other control groups, HC and HDC, were given sub-cutaneous olive oil (vehicle) for the same duration, and placed on the test diet and normal diet, respectively. Markers of BPH, and hormone profile were determined using standard methods. The results show that relative prostate weight and protein content of the prostates were lower [albeit not significantly (p>0.05)] in the test group, relative to the DC group. Serum prostatic acid phosphatase concentrations (U/L) decreased significantly (p<0.05) from 2.9 ± 0.2 in the DC group to 2.1 ± 0.7 in the test group. Histological findings corroborate these data. The testosterone: estradiol ratio (× 10(3)) was increased from 4.0 ± 0.2 in the DC group to 4.6 ± 0.2 in the test group. The test diet reduced the mass and secretory activity of the enlarged prostate and may act by increasing the testosterone: estradiol ratio.

  6. High doses of garlic extract significantly attenuated the ratio of serum LDL to HDL level in rat-fed with hypercholesterolemia diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Tahereh; Behdad, Behnoosh; Abbasi, Maryam Agha; Rabati, Rahman Ghaffarzadegan; Fayyaz, Amir Farshid; Behnod, Vahid; Asgari, Ali

    2015-06-20

    Hypercholesterolemia is associated with an increased risk of heart disease. In this study, we investigated the antihyperlipidemic effects of garlic (Allium sativum L.) in rat models of hypercholesterolemic. Wistar male rats were randomly divided into 4 diet groups with garlic supplementation. Male Wistar rats were fed by standard pellet diet (group I), standard diet supplemented with 4% garlic (group II), lipogenic diet (containing sunflower oil, cholesterol and ethanol) equivalent to 200 mg raw garlic/kg body weight (raw) (group III) and lipogenic diet equivalent to 400 mg raw garlic/kg body weight (raw) (group IV). Rats fed 400 g/kg garlic extract(GE), had a significantly lower concentration of serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) cholesterol and elevated HDL -C cholesterol at day 28 (P garlic supplementation (P garlic in reducing lateral side effects of hyperlipidemia. Our data demonstrate that GE has protective effects on HDL in rats with high LDL intake. Therefore, it could be used to remedy hypercholesterolemia with help reduce risk of coronary heart disease The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1834155749171141.

  7. Comparison of Anti-Obesity Effect between Two Types of Syrup Containing Rare Sugars in Wistar Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochiai, Masaru; Misaki, Kohei; Yamada, Takako; Iida, Tetsuo; Okuma, Kazuhiro; Matsuo, Tatsuhiro

    2017-01-01

    D-Allulose-containing rare sugar sweeteners have been categorized into two types, rare sugar syrup (RSS), consisting of 4 rare monosaccharides, and modified glucose syrup (MGS), rich in D-allulose, which was previously referred to D-psicose. The anti-obesity effect of RSS and D-allulose has been already clarified, but that of rare monosaccharides other than D-allulose in RSS has not yet been well understood. Here, we investigated and compared the anti-obesity effect of RSS and MGS in rats. Male Wistar rats were divided into 4 dietary groups: a high-sucrose control diet group (S), a high-fructose corn syrup diet group (HFCS), an RSS diet group (RSS), and an MGS diet group (MGS). RSS significantly suppressed abdominal adipose tissue weight and total body fat accumulation in comparison to sucrose. On the other hand, MGS reduced body weight gain, but not abdominal fat accumulation, relative to sucrose. The weight of the liver and kidneys was significantly higher in the RSS and MGS groups than in the S and HFCS groups, but serum biochemical parameters and hepatic lipids contents were not significantly different among the groups. The present study shows that two types of D-allulose-containing rare sugar sweeteners can suppress body fat accumulation or weight gain in a different manner and that RSS could be used as more effective sweeteners in place of sucrose and HFCS to maintain healthy body weight.

  8. Identification of quinone imine containing glutathione conjugates of diclofenac in rat bile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldon, Daniel J; Teffera, Yohannes; Colletti, Adria E; Liu, Jingzhou; Zurcher, Danielle; Copeland, Katrina W; Zhao, Zhiyang

    2010-12-20

    High-resolution accurate MS with an LTQ-Orbitrap was used to identify quinone imine metabolites derived from the 5-hydroxy (5-OH) and 4 prime-hydroxy (4'-OH) glutathione conjugates of diclofenac in rat bile. The initial quinone imine metabolites formed by oxidation of diclofenac have been postulated to be reactive intermediates potentially involved in diclofenac-mediated hepatotoxicity; while these metabolites could be formed using in vitro systems, they have never been detected in vivo. This report describes the identification of secondary quinone imine metabolites derived from 5-OH and 4'-OH diclofenac glutathione conjugates in rat bile. To verify the proposed structures, the diclofenac quinone imine GSH conjugate standards were prepared synthetically and enzymatically. The novel metabolite peaks displayed the identical retention times, accurate mass MS/MS spectra, and the fragmentation patterns as the corresponding authentic standards. The formation of these secondary quinone metabolites occurs only under conditions where bile salt homeostasis was experimentally altered. Standard practice in biliary excretion experiments using bile duct-cannulated rats includes infusion of taurocholic acid and/or other bile acids to replace those lost due to continuous collection of bile; for this experiment, the rats received no replacement bile acid infusion. High-resolution accurate mass spectrometry data and comparison with chemically and enzymatically prepared quinone imines of diclofenac glutathione conjugates support the identification of these metabolites. A mechanism for the formation of these reactive quinone imine containing glutathione conjugates of diclofenac is proposed.

  9. Effect of baking and frying on the in vivo toxicity to rats of cornmeal containing fumonisins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, Kenneth A; Meredith, Filmore I; Bacon, Charles W

    2003-08-27

    Fumonisins are mycotoxins produced by Fusarium verticillioides (=F. moniliforme) and other Fusarium species. They are found in corn and corn-based foods. Cooking decreases fumonisin concentrations in food products under some conditions; however, little is known about how cooking effects biological activity. Baked cornbread, pan-fried corncakes, and deep-fried fritters were made from cornmeal that was spiked with 5% w/w F. verticillioides culture material (CM). The cooked materials and the uncooked CM-spiked cornmeal were fed to male rats (n = 5/group) for 2 weeks at high (20% w/w spiked cornmeal equivalents) or low (2% w/w spiked cornmeal equivalents) doses. A control group was fed a diet containing 20% w/w unspiked cornmeal. Toxic response to the uncooked CM-spiked cornmeal and the cooked products included decreased body weight gain (high-dose only), decreased kidney weight, and microscopic kidney and liver lesions of the type caused by fumonisins. Fumonisin concentration, as determined by HPLC analysis, in the 20% w/w pan-fried corncake diet [92.2 ppm of fumonisin B(1) (FB(1))] was slightly, but not statistically significantly, lower than those of the 20% w/w baked cornbread (132.2 ppm of FB(1)), deep-fried fritter (120.2 ppm of FB(1)) and CM-spiked cornmeal (130.5 of ppm FB(1)) diets. Therefore, baking and frying had no significant effect on the biological activity or concentration of fumonisins in these corn-based products, and the results provided no evidence for the formation of novel toxins or "hidden" fumonisins during cooking.

  10. Analysis of genomic responses in a rat lung model treated with a humidifier sterilizer containing polyhexamethyleneguanidine phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min-Seok; Jeong, Seok Won; Choi, Seong-Jin; Han, Jin-Young; Kim, Sung-Hwan; Yoon, Seokjoo; Oh, Jung-Hwa; Lee, Kyuhong

    2017-02-15

    The antimicrobial biocide polyhexamethyleneguanidine (PHMG) phosphate is the main ingredient in the commercially available humidifier disinfectant. PHMG phosphate-based humidifier disinfectants can cause pulmonary fibrosis and induce inflammatory and fibrotic responses both in vivo and in vitro. However, toxicological mechanisms including genomic alterations induced by inhalation exposure to PHMG phosphate have not been elucidated. Therefore, this study evaluated the toxicological effects of the PHMG phosphate-containing humidifier disinfectant. We used DNA microarray to identify global gene expression changes in rats treated with PHMG phosphate-containing humidifier disinfectant for 4 weeks and 10 weeks. Functional significance of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) was estimated by gene ontology (GO) analysis. Four weeks post-exposure, 320 and 392 DEGs were identified in female and male rats, respectively (>2-fold, pPHMG phosphate exposure. In addition, 21 genes were upregulated and 4 genes were downregulated in response to PHMG phosphate in a time-dependent manner. Thus, we predict that changes in genomic responses could be a significant molecular mechanism underlying PHMG phosphate toxicity. Further studies are required to determine the detailed mechanism of PHMG phosphate-induced pulmonary toxicity. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Involvement of spinal NR2B-containing NMDA receptors in oxaliplatin-induced mechanical allodynia in rats

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    Yano Takahisa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oxaliplatin is a platinum-based chemotherapy drug characterized by the development of acute and chronic peripheral neuropathies. The chronic neuropathy is a dose-limiting toxicity. We previously reported that repeated administration of oxaliplatin induced cold hyperalgesia in the early phase and mechanical allodynia in the late phase in rats. In the present study, we investigated the involvement of NR2B-containing N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA receptors in oxaliplatin-induced mechanical allodynia in rats. Results Repeated administration of oxaliplatin (4 mg/kg, i.p., twice a week caused mechanical allodynia in the fourth week, which was reversed by intrathecal injection of MK-801 (10 nmol and memantine (1 μmol, NMDA receptor antagonists. Similarly, selective NR2B antagonists Ro25-6981 (300 nmol, i.t. and ifenprodil (50 mg/kg, p.o. significantly attenuated the oxaliplatin-induced pain behavior. In addition, the expression of NR2B protein and mRNA in the rat spinal cord was increased by oxaliplatin on Day 25 (late phase but not on Day 5 (early phase. Moreover, we examined the involvement of nitric oxide synthase (NOS as a downstream target of NMDA receptor. L-NAME, a non-selective NOS inhibitor, and 7-nitroindazole, a neuronal NOS (nNOS inhibitor, significantly suppressed the oxaliplatin-induced pain behavior. The intensity of NADPH diaphorase staining, a histochemical marker for NOS, in the superficial layer of spinal dorsal horn was obviously increased by oxaliplatin, and this increased intensity was reversed by intrathecal injection of Ro25-6981. Conclusion These results indicated that spinal NR2B-containing NMDA receptors are involved in the oxaliplatin-induced mechanical allodynia.

  12. High Autophagy in the Naked Mole Rat may Play a Significant Role in Maintaining Good Health

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    Shanmin Zhao

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: The maximum lifespan of the naked mole rat is over 28.3 years, which exceeds that of any other rodent species, suggesting that age-related changes in its body composition and functionality are either attenuated or delayed in this extraordinarily long-lived species. However, the mechanisms underlying the aging process in this species are poorly understood. In this study, we investigated whether long-lived naked mole rats display more autophagic activity than short-lived mice. Methods: Hepatic stellate cells isolated from naked mole rats were treated with 50 nM rapamycin or 20 mM 3-methyladenine (3-MA for 12 or 24 h. Expression of the autophagy marker proteins LC3-II and beclin 1 was measured with western blotting and immunohistochemistry. The induction of apoptosis was analyzed by flow cytometry. Results: Our results demonstrate that one-day-old naked mole rats have higher levels of autophagy than one-day-old short-lived C57BL/6 mice, and that both adult naked mole rats (eight months old and adult C57BL/6 mice (eight weeks old have high basal levels of autophagy, which may be an important mechanism inhibiting aging and reducing the risk of age-related diseases. Conclusion: Here, we report that autophagy facilitated the survival of hepatic stellate cells from the naked mole rat, and that treatment with 3-MA or rapamycin increased the ratio of apoptotic cells to normal hepatic stellate cells.

  13. Lipid metabolism in rats fed diets containing different types of lipids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Águila Márcia Barbosa

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of different types of lipid diets on the lipid metabolism of aging rats. METHODS: Fifty male Wistar rats were studied from the time of weaning to 12 and 18 months of age. Their diets were supplemented as follows: with soybean oil (S, canola oil (CA, lard and egg yolk (LE, and canola oil + lard and egg yolk (CA + LE. Blood pressure (BP was measured every month, and the heart/body ratio (H/BR was determined. The rats were euthanized at the age of 12 and 18 months, and blood samples were collected for lipid analysis as follows: total cholesterol (TC, LDL-C, VLDL-C, HDL-C, triglycerides (TG, and glucose. RESULTS: The type of oil ingested by the animals significantly altered BP, H/BR, and serum lipid levels in rats at 12 and 18 months. No difference was observed in the survival curve of the animals in the different groups. The LE group had the highest BP, and the CA group was the only one in which BP did not change with aging. A reduction in the H/BR was observed in the LE and CA+LE animals. At the age of 12 months, differences in TC, HDL-C, LDL-C, VLDL-C, TG, and glucose were observed. At the age of 18 months, a significant difference in TC, HDL-C, and glucose was observed. The highest TC value was found in the CA group and the lowest in the S group. CONCLUSION: No increase in BP occurred, and an improvement was evident in the lipid profile of rats fed a diet supplemented with CA, in which an elevation in HDL-C levels was observed, as compared with levels with the other types of diet.

  14. Dietary inulin intake and age can significantly affect intestinal absorption of calcium and magnesium in rats: a stable isotope approach

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    Coudray, Charles; Rambeau, Mathieu; Feillet-Coudray, Christine; Tressol, Jean Claude; Demigne, Christian; Gueux, Elyett; Mazur, Andrzej; Rayssiguier, Yves

    2005-01-01

    Background previous studies have shown that non-digestible inulin-type fructan intake can increase intestinal mineral absorption in both humans and animals. However, this stimulatory effect on intestinal absorption may depend on experimental conditions such as duration of fermentable fiber intake, mineral diet levels and animals' physiological status, in particular their age. Objectives the aim of this study was to determine the effect of inulin intake on Ca and Mg absorption in rats at different age stages. Methods eighty male Wistar rats of four different ages (2, 5, 10 and 20 months) were randomized into either a control group or a group receiving 3.75% inulin in their diet for 4 days and then 7.5% inulin for three weeks. The animals were fed fresh food and water ad libitum for the duration of the experiment. Intestinal absorption of Ca and Mg was determined by fecal monitoring using stable isotopic tracers. Ca and Mg status was also assessed. Results absorption of Ca and Mg was significantly lower in the aged rats (10 and 20 mo) than in the young and adult rat groups. As expected, inulin intake increased Ca and Mg absorption in all four rat groups. However, inulin had a numerically greater effect on Ca absorption in aged rats than in younger rats whereas its effect on Mg absorption remained similar across all four rat age groups. Conclusion the extent of the stimulatory effect of inulin on absorption of Ca may differ according to animal ages. Further studies are required to explore this effect over longer inulin intake periods, and to confirm these results in humans. PMID:16253138

  15. Pharmacological kynurenine 3-monooxygenase enzyme inhibition significantly reduces neuropathic pain in a rat model.

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    Rojewska, Ewelina; Piotrowska, Anna; Makuch, Wioletta; Przewlocka, Barbara; Mika, Joanna

    2016-03-01

    Recent studies have highlighted the involvement of the kynurenine pathway in the pathology of neurodegenerative diseases, but the role of this system in neuropathic pain requires further extensive research. Therefore, the aim of our study was to examine the role of kynurenine 3-monooxygenase (Kmo), an enzyme that is important in this pathway, in a rat model of neuropathy after chronic constriction injury (CCI) to the sciatic nerve. For the first time, we demonstrated that the injury-induced increase in the Kmo mRNA levels in the spinal cord and the dorsal root ganglia (DRG) was reduced by chronic administration of the microglial inhibitor minocycline and that this effect paralleled a decrease in the intensity of neuropathy. Further, minocycline administration alleviated the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced upregulation of Kmo mRNA expression in microglial cell cultures. Moreover, we demonstrated that not only indirect inhibition of Kmo using minocycline but also direct inhibition using Kmo inhibitors (Ro61-6048 and JM6) decreased neuropathic pain intensity on the third and the seventh days after CCI. Chronic Ro61-6048 administration diminished the protein levels of IBA-1, IL-6, IL-1beta and NOS2 in the spinal cord and/or the DRG. Both Kmo inhibitors potentiated the analgesic properties of morphine. In summary, our data suggest that in neuropathic pain model, inhibiting Kmo function significantly reduces pain symptoms and enhances the effectiveness of morphine. The results of our studies show that the kynurenine pathway is an important mediator of neuropathic pain pathology and indicate that Kmo represents a novel pharmacological target for the treatment of neuropathy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Effects of Yogurt Containing Fermented Pepper Juice on the Body Fat and Cholesterol Level in High Fat and High Cholesterol Diet Fed Rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeon, Su-Jung; Hong, Go-Eun; Kim, Chang-Kyu; Park, Woo Joon; Kim, Soo-Ki; Lee, Chi-Ho

    2015-01-01

    This experiment investigated whether yogurt containing fermented pepper juice (FPJY) affects cholesterol level in high fat and high cholesterol diet (HFCD) fed rat. Twenty five Sprague-Dawley male rats of 7 wk were divided into 5 groups, and fed following diets for 9 wk; CON (control diet), HFCD (HFCD), PY (HFCD supplemented with 2% of plain yogurt), LFY (HFCD supplemented with 2% of FPJY), and HFY (HFCD supplemented with 5% of FPJY). In the LFY group, hepatic total lipid level decreased significantly compared to the HFCD group (p0.05). In HFY group, body weight and hepatic total lipid level significantly decreased over the HFCD group (p0.05). Liver weight decreased as FPJY content was increased. Results suggested FPJY would inhibit organ hypertrophy and accumulation of body fat, hepatic lipid, and cholesterol in HFCD fed rat.

  17. ATP-containing vesicles in stria vascular marginal cell cytoplasms in neonatal rat cochlea are lysosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun; Liu, Wenjing; Yang, Jun

    2016-02-11

    We confirmed that ATP is released from cochlear marginal cells in the stria vascular but the cell organelle in which ATP stores was not identified until now. Thus, we studied the ATP-containing cell organelles and suggest that these are lysosomes. Primary cultures of marginal cells of Sprague-Dawley rats aged 1-3 days was established. Vesicles within marginal cells stained with markers were identified under confocal laser scanning microscope and transmission electron microscope (TEM). Then ATP release from marginal cells was measured after glycyl-L-phenylalanine-ß- naphthylamide (GPN) treatment using a bioluminescent assay. Quinacrine-stained granules within marginal cells were labeled with LysoTracker, a lysosome tracer, and lysosomal-associated membrane protein 1(LAMP1), but not labeled with the mitochondrial tracer MitoTracker. Furthermore, LysoTracker-labelled puncta showed accumulation of Mant-ATP, an ATP analog. Treatment with 200 μM GPN quenched fluorescently labeled puncta after incubation with LysoTracker or quinacrine, but not MitoTracker. Quinacrine-labeled organelles observed by TEM were lysosomes, and an average 27.7 percent increase in ATP luminescence was observed in marginal cells extracellular fluid after GPN treatment. ATP-containing vesicles in cochlear marginal cells of the stria vascular from neonatal rats are likely lysosomes. ATP release from marginal cells may be via Ca(2+)-dependent lysosomal exocytosis.

  18. Systemic immune cell response in rats after pulmonary exposure to manganese-containing particles collected from welding aerosols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonini, James M; Zeidler-Erdely, Patti C; Young, Shih-Houng; Roberts, Jenny R; Erdely, Aaron

    2012-01-01

    Welding fume inhalation affects the immune system of exposed workers. Manganese (Mn) in welding fume may induce immunosuppressive effects. The goal was to determine if Mn in welding fume alters immunity by reducing the number of circulating total leukocytes and specific leukocyte sub-populations. Sprague-Dawley rats were treated by intratracheal instillation (ITI) with either a single dose (2.00 mg/rat) or repeated doses (0.125 or 2.00 mg/rat for 7 weeks) with welding fumes that contained different levels of Mn. Additional rats were treated by ITI once a week for 7 weeks with the two doses of manganese chloride (MnCl₂). Bronchoalveolar lavage was performed to assess lung inflammation. Also, whole blood was recovered, and the number of circulating total leukocytes, as well as specific lymphocyte subsets, was determined by flow cytometry. The welding fume highest in Mn content significantly increased lung inflammation, injury, and production of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines compared to all other treatment groups. In addition, the same group expressed significant decreases in the number of circulating CD4⁺ and CD8⁺ T-lymphocytes after a single exposure, and significant reductions in the number of circulating total lymphocytes, primarily CD4⁺ and CD8⁺ T-lymphocytes, after repeated exposures (compared to control values). Repeated MnCl₂ exposure led to a trend of a reduction (but not statistically significant) in circulating total lymphocytes, attributable to the changes in the CD4⁺ T-lymphocyte population levels. The welding fume with the lower concentration of Mn had no significant effect on the numbers of blood lymphocytes and lymphocyte subsets compared to control values. Evidence from this study indicates that pulmonary exposure to certain welding fumes cause decrements in systemic immune cell populations, specifically circulating T-lymphocytes, and these alterations in immune cell number are not dependent exclusively on Mn, but likely a

  19. Acute and Subacute Toxicity In Vivo of Thermal-Sprayed Silver Containing Hydroxyapatite Coating in Rat Tibia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukamoto, Masatsugu; Miyamoto, Hiroshi; Ando, Yoshiki; Eto, Shuichi; Akiyama, Takayuki; Yonekura, Yutaka; Mawatari, Masaaki

    2014-01-01

    To reduce the incidence of implant-associated infection, we previously developed a novel coating technology using hydroxyapatite (HA) containing silver (Ag). This study examined in vivo acute and subacute toxicity associated with the Ag-HA coating in rat tibiae. Ten-week-old rats received implantation of HA-, 2% Ag-HA-, or 50% Ag-HA-coated titanium rods. Concentrations of silver in serum, brain, liver, kidneys, and spleen were measured in the acute phase (2–4 days after treatment) and subacute phase (4–12 weeks after treatment). Biochemical and histological examinations of those organs were also performed. Mean serum silver concentration peaked in the acute phase and then gradually decreased. Mean silver concentrations in all examined organs from the 2% Ag-HA coating groups showed no significant differences compared with the HA coating group. No significant differences in mean levels of glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase, glutamic-pyruvic transaminase, lactate dehydrogenase, creatinine, or blood urea nitrogen were seen between the three groups and controls. Histological examinations of all organs revealed no abnormal pathologic findings. No acute or subacute toxicity was seen in vivo for 2% Ag-HA coating or HA coating. Ag-HA coatings on implants may represent biologically safe antibacterial biomaterials and may be of value for reducing surgical-site infections related to implantation. PMID:24779019

  20. Developmental Toxicity Studies with Pregabalin in Rats: Significance of Alterations in Skull Bone Morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Dennis C; Henck, Judith W; Bailey, Steven A

    2016-04-01

    Pregabalin was administered to pregnant Wistar rats during organogenesis to evaluate potential developmental toxicity. In an embryo-fetal development study, compared with controls, fetuses from pregabalin-treated rats exhibited increased incidence of jugal fused to maxilla (pregabalin 1250 and 2500 mg/kg) and fusion of the nasal sutures (pregabalin 2500 mg/kg). The alterations in skull development occurred in the presence of maternal toxicity (reduced body weight gain) and developmental toxicity (reduced fetal body weight and increased skeletal variations), and were initially classified as malformations. Subsequent investigative studies in pregnant rats treated with pregabalin during organogenesis confirmed the advanced jugal fused to maxilla, and fusion of the nasal sutures at cesarean section (gestation day/postmating day [PMD] 21) in pregabalin-treated groups. In a study designed to evaluate progression of skull development, advanced jugal fused to maxilla and fusion of the nasal sutures was observed on PMD 20-25 and PMD 21-23, respectively (birth occurs approximately on PMD 22). On postnatal day (PND) 21, complete jugal fused to maxilla was observed in the majority of control and 2500 mg/kg offspring. No treatment-related differences in the incidence of skull bone fusions occurred on PND 21, indicating no permanent adverse outcome. Based on the results of the investigative studies, and a review of historical data and scientific literature, the advanced skull bone fusions were reclassified as anatomic variations. Pregabalin was not teratogenic in rats under the conditions of these studies. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    The primary mission of the Containment Group is to ensure that underground nuclear tests are satisfactorily contained. The main goal is the development of sound technical bases for containment-related methodology. Major areas of activity include siting, geologic description, emplacement hole stemming, and phenomenological predictions. Performance results of sanded gypsum concrete plugs on the Jefferson, Panamint, Cornucopia, Labquark, and Bodie events are given. Activities are also described in the following areas: computational capabilities site description, predictive modeling, and cavity-pressure measurement. Containment publications are listed. 8 references

  2. Celecoxib does not significantly delay bone healing in a rat femoral osteotomy model: a bone histomorphometry study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwamoto J

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Jun Iwamoto1, Azusa Seki2, Yoshihiro Sato3, Hideo Matsumoto11Institute for Integrated Sports Medicine, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan; 2Hamri Co, Ltd, Tokyo, Japan; 3Department of Neurology, Mitate Hospital, Fukuoka, JapanBackground and objective: The objective of the present study was to determine whether celecoxib, a cyclo-oxygenase-2 inhibitor, would delay bone healing in a rat femoral osteotomy model by examining bone histomorphometry parameters.Methods: Twenty-one 6-week-old female Sprague-Dawley rats underwent a unilateral osteotomy of the femoral diaphysis followed by intramedullary wire fixation; the rats were then divided into three groups: the vehicle administration group (control, n = 8, the vitamin K2 administration (menatetrenone 30 mg/kg orally, five times a week group (positive control, n = 5, and the celecoxib administration (4 mg/kg orally, five times a week group (n = 8. After 6 weeks of treatment, the wires were removed, and a bone histomorphometric analysis was performed on the bone tissue inside the callus. The lamellar area relative to the bone area was significantly higher and the total area and woven area relative to the bone area were significantly lower in the vitamin K2 group than in the vehicle group. However, none of the structural parameters, such as the callus and bone area relative to the total area, lamellar and woven areas relative to the bone area, or the formative and resorptive parameters such as osteoclast surface, number of osteoclasts, osteoblast surface, osteoid surface, eroded surface, and bone formation rate per bone surface differed significantly between the vehicle and celecoxib groups.Conclusion: The present study implies that celecoxib may not significantly delay bone healing in a rat femoral osteotomy model based on the results of a bone histomorphometric analysis.Keywords: femoral osteotomy, bone healing, callus, rat, celecoxib

  3. A 90-day safety study in Sprague-Dawley rats fed milk powder containing recombinant human lactoferrin (rhLF) derived from transgenic cloned cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Cui; Wang, Jian Wu; Huang, Kun Lun; He, XiaoYun; Chen, Xiu Ping; Sun, Hong; Yu, Tian; Che, Hui Lian

    2011-10-01

    Transgenic cloned animals expressing beneficial human nutritional traits offer a new strategy for large-scale production of some kinds of functional substances. In some cases, the required safety testing for genetically modified (GM) foods do not seem appropriate for human food safety, though regulations do not seem to provide alternatives. A 90-day rat feeding study is the core study for the safety assessment of GM foods. The test material in this 90-day study was prepared nonfat milk powder containing recombinant human lactoferrin (rhLF), which was expressed in transgenic cloned cattle. Groups of 10 male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were given a nutritionally balanced purified diet containing 7.5, 15, or 30% transgenic or conventional milk powder for 90 days. A commercial AIN93G diet was used as an additional control group. Clinical, biological, and pathological parameters were compared between groups. The only significant effect of treatment was higher mean ferritin and Fe(+) concentrations for both male and female rats fed the transgenic milk powder diets, as compared to rats fed nontransgenic milk diets or the commercial diet. The results of the present study are consistent with previous research, which indicates that milk powder containing rhLF derived from healthy transgenic cloned cattle is as safe as conventional milk powder.

  4. A diet containing grape powder ameliorates the cognitive decline in aged rats with a long-term high-fructose-high-fat dietary pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Liang-Mao; Lin, Ching-I; Chen, Yue-Hwa; Liao, Hsiang; Lin, Shyh-Hsiang

    2016-08-01

    Research has suggested that the consumption of foods rich in polyphenols is beneficial to the cognitive functions of the elderly. We investigated the effects of grape consumption on spatial learning, memory performance and neurodegeneration-related protein expression in aged rats fed a high-fructose-high-fat (HFHF) diet. Six-week-old Wistar rats were fed an HFHF diet to 66 weeks of age to establish a model of an HFHF dietary pattern, before receiving intervention diets containing different amounts of grape powder for another 12 weeks in the second part of the experiment. Spatial learning, memory performance and cortical and hippocampal protein expression levels were assessed. After consuming the HFHF diet for a year, results showed that the rats fed a high grape powder-containing diet had significantly better spatial learning and memory performance, lower expression of β-amyloid and β-secretase and higher expression of α-secretase than the rats fed a low grape powder-containing diet. Therefore, long-term consumption of an HFHF diet caused a decline in cognitive functions and increased the risk factors for neurodegeneration, which could subsequently be ameliorated by the consumption of a polyphenol-rich diet. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Iron from nanocompounds containing iron and zinc is highly bioavailable in rats without tissue accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilty, Florentine M; Arnold, Myrtha; Hilbe, Monika; Teleki, Alexandra; Knijnenburg, Jesper T N; Ehrensperger, Felix; Hurrell, Richard F; Pratsinis, Sotiris E; Langhans, Wolfgang; Zimmermann, Michael B

    2010-05-01

    Effective iron fortification of foods is difficult, because water-soluble compounds that are well absorbed, such as ferrous sulphate (FeSO(4)), often cause unacceptable changes in the colour or taste of foods. Poorly water-soluble compounds, on the other hand, cause fewer sensory changes, but are not well absorbed. Here, we show that poorly water-soluble nanosized Fe and Fe/Zn compounds (specific surface area approximately 190 m(2) g(-1)) made by scalable flame aerosol technology have in vivo iron bioavailability in rats comparable to FeSO(4) and cause less colour change in reactive food matrices than conventional iron fortificants. The addition of Zn to FePO(4) and Mg to Fe/Zn oxide increases Fe absorption from the compounds, and doping with Mg also improves their colour. After feeding rats with nanostructured iron-containing compounds, no stainable Fe was detected in their gut wall, gut-associated lymphatics or other tissues, suggesting no adverse effects. Nanosizing of poorly water-soluble Fe compounds sharply increases their absorption and nutritional value.

  6. Significant prolongation of hamster liver transplant survival in Lewis rats by total-lymphoid irradiation, cyclosporine, and splenectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Y.; Halperin, E.C.; Harland, R.C.; Wyble, C.; Bollinger, R.R.

    1990-01-01

    The effects of total lymphoid irradiation, cyclosporine and splenectomy alone and in combination have been studied in liver transplants from the LVG hamster to the LEW rat. Neither CsA alone, splenectomy alone, nor TLI alone prolonged graft survival. CsA/splenectomy and TLI/CsA produced significant prolongation of graft survival. TLI/CsA/splenectomy prolonged graft survival by over sixfold compared with controls. While CsA alone was ineffective in reducing lymphocytotoxic antidonor antibody, splenectomy alone or CsA/splenectomy did significantly suppress production of antibody. Only very low levels of antibody could be detected in animals treated with TLI/CsA/splenectomy. TLI/CsA/splenectomy has an immunosuppressive effect sufficient to significantly prolong liver graft survival in the LVG hamster to LEW rat combination and may represent a promising treatment protocol in experimental cross-species transplantation

  7. The Edinger-Westphal nucleus of the juvenile rat contains transient- and repetitive-firing neurons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, M; Rekling, J C

    2006-01-01

    Classically, the Edinger-Westphal nucleus is described as containing neurons controlling accommodation and pupillary constriction via projections to the ciliary ganglion. However, in several species including rat, some Edinger-Westphal neurons have ascending or descending CNS projections suggesting...... an immunohistochemical procedure directed at the peptide Urocortin, which is expressed in Edinger-Westphal neurons. Passive and active membrane responses were investigated and two different neuron types were identified. One type had a transient firing response to 400 ms depolarizing current pulses and one type had...... threshold Ca(2+) spikes were seen and these were blocked by nickel(II) chloride hexahydrate, suggesting that they are mediated via low voltage-activated Ca(2+) channels. Some biocytin-labeled neurons had axons or axonal collaterals projecting laterally or dorsally, suggesting possible non-ocular targets...

  8. Rat hair follicle dermal papillae have an extracellular matrix containing basement membrane components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Couchman, J R

    1986-01-01

    , to be replaced by synthesis of other components including type I and III collagens. It seems likely therefore that the dermal papilla cells in vivo synthesize a basement membrane type of extracellular matrix, although a contribution from epithelial, and in some cases capillary endothelial, cells cannot be ruled......Dermal papillae are small mesenchymally derived zones at the bases of hair follicles which have an important role in hair morphogenesis in the embryo and control of the hair growth cycle in postnatal mammals. The cells of the papilla are enmeshed in a dense extracellular matrix which undergoes...... extensive changes in concert with the hair cycle. Here it is shown that this matrix in anagen pelage follicles of postnatal rats contains an abundance of basement membrane components rather than dermal components such as interstitial collagens. In particular, type IV collagen, laminin, and basement membrane...

  9. Dynamics of cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript containing cell changes in the adrenal glands of two kidney, one clip rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasacka, Irena; Piotrowska, Zaneta; Janiuk, Izabela; Zbucki, Robert

    2014-10-01

    Taking into consideration the homeostatic disorders resulting from renal hypertension and the essential role of cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) in maintaining homeostasis by regulating many functions of the body, the question arises as to what extent the renovascular hypertension affects the morphology and dynamics of changes of CART-containing cells in the adrenal glands. The aim of the present study was to examine the distribution, morphology, and dynamics of changes of CART-containing cells in the adrenal glands of "two kidney, one clip" (2K1C) renovascular hypertension model in rats. The studies were carried out on the adrenal glands of rats after 3, 14, 28, 42, and 91 days from the renal artery clipping procedure. To identify neuroendocrine cells, immunohistochemical reaction was performed with the use of a specific antibody against CART. It was revealed that renovascular hypertension causes changes in the endocrine cells containing CART in the adrenal glands of rats. The changes observed in the endocrine cells depend on the time when the rats with experimentally induced hypertension were examined. In the first period of hypertension, the number and immunoreactivity of CART-containing cells were decreased, while from the 28-day test, it significantly increased, as compared to the control rats. CART is relevant to the regulation of homeostasis in the cardiovascular system and seems to be involved in renovascular hypertension. The results of the present work open the possibility of new therapeutic perspectives for the treatment of arterial hypertension, since CART function is involved in their pathophysiology. © 2014 by the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine.

  10. Neonatal infection produces significant changes in immune function with no associated learning deficits in juvenile rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, Brittany F; Caulfield, Jasmine I; Solomotis, Samantha A; Schwarz, Jaclyn M

    2017-10-01

    The current experiments examined the impact of early-life immune activation and a subsequent mild immune challenge with lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 25µg/kg) on hippocampal-dependent learning, proinflammatory cytokine expression in the brain, and peripheral immune function in juvenile male and female rats at P24, an age when hippocampal-dependent learning and memory first emerges. Our results indicate that neonatal infection did not produce learning deficits in the hippocampal-dependent context pre-exposure facilitation effect paradigm in juvenile males and females, contrary to what has been observed in adults. Neonatal infection produced an increase in baseline IL-1β expression in the hippocampus (HP) and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) of juvenile rats. Furthermore, neonatally infected rats showed exaggerated IL-1β expression in the HP following LPS treatment as juveniles; and juvenile females, but not males, showed exaggerated IL-1β expression in the mPFC following LPS treatment. Neonatal infection attenuated the production of IL-6 expression following LPS treatment in both the brain and the spleen, and neonatal infection decreased the numbers of circulating white blood cells in juvenile males and females, an effect that was further exacerbated by subsequent LPS treatment. Together, our data indicate that the consequences of neonatal infection are detectable even early in juvenile development, though we found no concomitant hippocampal-dependent learning deficits at this young age. These findings underscore the need to consider age and associated on-going neurodevelopmental processes as important factors contributing to the emergence of cognitive and behavioral disorders linked to early-life immune activation. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol 77: 1221-1236, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Extensive Gustatory Cortex Lesions Significantly Impair Taste Sensitivity to KCl and Quinine but Not to Sucrose in Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle B Bales

    Full Text Available Recently, we reported that large bilateral gustatory cortex (GC lesions significantly impair taste sensitivity to salts in rats. Here we extended the tastants examined to include sucrose and quinine in rats with ibotenic acid-induced lesions in GC (GCX and in sham-operated controls (SHAM. Presurgically, immediately after drinking NaCl, rats received a LiCl or saline injection (i.p., but postsurgical tests indicated a weak conditioned taste aversion (CTA even in controls. The rats were then trained and tested in gustometers to discriminate a tastant from water in a two-response operant taste detection task. Psychometric functions were derived for sucrose, KCl, and quinine. Our mapping system was used to determine placement, size, and symmetry of the lesions (~91% GC damage on average. For KCl, there was a significant rightward shift (ΔEC50 = 0.57 log10 units; p<0.001 in the GCX psychometric function relative to SHAM, replicating our prior work. There was also a significant lesion-induced impairment (ΔEC50 = 0.41 log10 units; p = 0.006 in quinine sensitivity. Surprisingly, taste sensitivity to sucrose was unaffected by the extensive lesions and was comparable between GCX and SHAM rats. The fact that such large bilateral GC lesions did not shift sucrose psychometric functions relative to SHAM, but did significantly compromise quinine and KCl sensitivity suggests that the neural circuits responsible for the detection of specific taste stimuli are partially dissociable. Lesion-induced impairments were observed in expression of a postsurgical CTA to a maltodextrin solution as assessed in a taste-oriented brief-access test, but were not reflected in a longer term 46-h two-bottle test. Thus, deficits observed in rats after extensive damage to the GC are also dependent on the test used to assess taste function. In conclusion, the degree to which the GC is necessary for the maintenance of normal taste detectability apparently depends on the chemical and

  12. Reverse Transcriptase-Containing Particles Induced in Rous Sarcoma Virus-Transformed Rat Cells by Arginine Deprivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotler, Moshe; Weinberg, Eynat; Haspel, Osnat; Becker, Yechiel

    1972-01-01

    Incubation of rat cells transformed by Rous sarcoma virus (RSV) in an arginine-deficient medium resulted in accumulation of particles in the culture medium. Such particles did not appear when the transformed rat cells were incubated in a complete medium nor in the medium of primary rat cells which were incubated either in arginine-deficient or complete media. The particles which were released from the arginine-deprived transformed rat cells resemble C-type particles in their properties. These particles band in sucrose gradients at a density of 1.16 g/ml and contain 35S ribonucleic acid (RNA) molecules and a reverse transcriptase activity. Analysis of the cytoplasm of transformed and primary rat cells, deprived and undeprived of arginine, revealed the presence of reverse transcriptase-containing particles which banded in sucrose gradients at a density of 1.14 g/ml. These particles differed from the particles released into the medium by the arginine-deprived RSV-transformed rat cells. The deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) molecules synthesized in vitro by the reverse transcriptase present in the particles isolated from the medium of arginine-deprived cells hybridized to RSV RNA, whereas the DNA synthesized by the cell-bound enzyme had no homology to RSV RNA. PMID:4116137

  13. Study of antidiarrheal and hematology profile of laboratory rat fed with yogurt containing local probiotic and purple sweet potato extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tari, A. I. N.; Handayani, C. B.; Hartati, S.

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of local probiotic in yogurt with purple sweet potato extract supplementation on the hematological parameters of albino rats (Spraque dawley). The study was conducted using a Completely Randomized Design with 30 rats divided into 6 groups. In group K-, rats were fed with distilled water from day 1 to 21. In group YTP, Rats were fed with yogurt without probiotics from day 1 to 21. YDP group was rats were fed with probiotic yogurt from day 1 to 21. In group YTP+E, rats were fed with yogurt without probiotic from day 1 to 7, interspersed with exposure to enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) on day 8 to 14. In group YDP+E, rats were fed with probiotic yogurt from day 1 to 7, interspersed by EPEC on day 8 to 24. In group K +, rats were fed with water from day 1 to 7, then fed with EPEC on day 8 to 14, after which water was given back on day 15 to 21. The result showed that probiotic yogurt treatment with supplement of purple sweet potato extract had a significant effect (P<0,05) on feces water content, number of erythrocyte, leucocyte, and hemoglobin. The treatment of YDP had water content in feces 48.422% and the number of erythrocyte, leucocytes, and hemoglobin were 8.578 106/μl, 14.152 106/μl and 13.98 g/dL respectively.

  14. St. John's wort significantly increased the systemic exposure and toxicity of methotrexate in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Shih-Ying [Graduate Institute of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Juang, Shin-Hun [Graduate Institute of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Department of Medical Research, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Tsai, Shang-Yuan; Chao, Pei-Dawn Lee [School of Pharmacy, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Hou, Yu-Chi, E-mail: hou5133@gmail.com [School of Pharmacy, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Department of Medical Research, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China)

    2012-08-15

    St. John's wort (SJW, Hypericum perforatum) is one of the popular nutraceuticals for treating depression. Methotrexate (MTX) is an immunosuppressant with narrow therapeutic window. This study investigated the effect of SJW on MTX pharmacokinetics in rats. Rats were orally given MTX alone and coadministered with 300 and 150 mg/kg of SJW, and 25 mg/kg of diclofenac, respectively. Blood was withdrawn at specific time points and serum MTX concentrations were assayed by a specific monoclonal fluorescence polarization immunoassay method. The results showed that 300 mg/kg of SJW significantly increased the AUC{sub 0−t} and C{sub max} of MTX by 163% and 60%, respectively, and 150 mg/kg of SJW significantly increased the AUC{sub 0−t} of MTX by 55%. In addition, diclofenac enhanced the C{sub max} of MTX by 110%. The mortality of rats treated with SJW was higher than that of controls. In conclusion, coadministration of SJW significantly increased the systemic exposure and toxicity of MTX. The combined use of MTX with SJW would need to be with caution. -- Highlights: ► St. John's wort significantly increased the AUC{sub 0−t} and C{sub max} of methotrexate. ► Coadministration of St. John's wort increased the exposure and toxicity of methotrexate. ► The combined use of methotrexate with St. John's wort will need to be with caution.

  15. Nutritional evaluation of structured lipid containing omega 6 fatty acid synthesized from coconut oil in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Reena; Lokesh, Belur R

    2003-06-01

    Coconut oil is rich in medium chain fatty acids, but deficient in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). Structured lipids (SL) enriched with omega 6 PUFA were synthesized from coconut oil triglycerides by employing enzymatic acidolysis with free fatty acids obtained from safflower oil. Rats were fed a diet containing coconut oil, coconut oil-safflower oil blend (1:0.7 w/ w) or structured lipid at 10% levels for a period of 60 days. The SL lowered serum cholesterol levels by 10.3 and 10.5% respectively in comparison with those fed coconut oil and blended oil. Similarly the liver cholesterol levels were also decreased by 35.9 and 26.6% respectively in animals fed structured lipids when compared to those fed on coconut oil or the blended oil. Most of the decrease observed in serum cholesterol levels of animals fed structured lipids was found in LDL fraction. The triglyceride levels in serum showed a decrease by 17.5 and 17.4% while in the liver it was reduced by 45.8 and 23.5% in the structured lipids fed animals as compared to those fed coconut oil or blended oil respectively. Differential scanning calorimetric studies indicated that structured lipids had lower melting points and solid fat content when compared to coconut oil or blended oils. These studies indicated that enrichment of coconut oil triglycerides with omega 6 fatty acids lowers its solid fat content. The omega 6 PUFA enriched structured lipids also exhibited hypolipidemic activity.

  16. Primary Culture of Choroid Plexuses from Neonate Rats Containing Progenitor Cells Capable of Differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng-Li Huang

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The choroid plexuses, which could secrete a number of neurotrophins, have recently been used in transplantation in central nervous system diseases. Aims: To study the mechanism of nerve regeneration in the central nervous system by grafting choroid plexus tissues. Study Design: Animal experimentation. Methods: The choroid plexuses from the lateral ventricles of neonatal rats were cultured in adherent culture, and immunocytochemical methods were used to analyse the progenitor cells on days 2, 6, and 10 after seeding. Results: Expression of both nestin and glial fibrillary acidic protein was observed in small cell aggregates on day 2 in primary culture. Most of the nestin-positive cells on day 6 were immunoreactive to glial fibrillary acidic protein antibody. No cells expressing nestin or glial fibrillary acidic protein were seen on day 10. Conclusion: These experimental results indicate that the choroid plexus contains a specific cell population – progenitor cells. Under in vitro experimental conditions, the progenitor cells differentiated into choroid plexus epithelial cells but did not form neurons or astrocytes.

  17. The membrane fraction of homogenized rat kidney contains an enzyme that releases epidermal growth factor from the kidney membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nexø, Ebba; Poulsen, Steen Seier

    1991-01-01

    shows that the membrane fraction of homogenized rat kidney contains an enzyme that releases immuno and receptor reactive EGF from the kidney membranes when incubated at 37 degrees C. Gel filtration shows that the EGF reactivity released from the membranes is similar to the EGF reactivity in rat urine......High levels of epidermal growth factor (EGF) are excreted in the urine and high levels of mRNA for the EGF-precursor have been demonstrated in the kidney. The EGF-precursor is a membrane bound peptide in the kidney, but little is known about the renal processing of the precursor. The present study...

  18. Dermal application of nitric oxide releasing acidified nitrite-containing liniments significantly reduces blood pressure in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opländer, Christian; Volkmar, Christine M; Paunel-Görgülü, Adnana; Fritsch, Thomas; van Faassen, Ernst E; Mürtz, Manfred; Grieb, Gerrit; Bozkurt, Ahmet; Hemmrich, Karsten; Windolf, Joachim; Suschek, Christoph V

    2012-02-15

    Vascular ischemic diseases, hypertension, and other systemic hemodynamic and vascular disorders may be the result of impaired bioavailability of nitric oxide (NO). NO but also its active derivates like nitrite or nitroso compounds are important effector and signal molecules with vasodilating properties. Our previous findings point to a therapeutical potential of cutaneous administration of NO in the treatment of systemic hemodynamic disorders. Unfortunately, no reliable data are available on the mechanisms, kinetics and biological responses of dermal application of nitric oxide in humans in vivo. The aim of the study was to close this gap and to explore the therapeutical potential of dermal nitric oxide application. We characterized with human skin in vitro and in vivo the capacity of NO, applied in a NO-releasing acidified form of nitrite-containing liniments, to penetrate the epidermis and to influence local as well as systemic hemodynamic parameters. We found that dermal application of NO led to a very rapid and significant transepidermal translocation of NO into the underlying tissue. Depending on the size of treated skin area, this translocation manifests itself through a significant systemic increase of the NO derivates nitrite and nitroso compounds, respectively. In parallel, this translocation was accompanied by an increased systemic vasodilatation and blood flow as well as reduced blood pressure. We here give evidence that in humans dermal application of NO has a therapeutic potential for systemic hemodynamic disorders that might arise from local or systemic insufficient availability of NO or its bio-active NO derivates, respectively. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Repair of facial nerve defects with decellularized artery allografts containing autologous adipose-derived stem cells in a rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Fei; Zhou, Ke; Mi, Wen-Juan; Qiu, Jian-Hua

    2011-07-20

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a decellularized artery allograft containing autologous adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) on an 8-mm facial nerve branch lesion in a rat model. At 8 weeks postoperatively, functional evaluation of unilateral vibrissae movements, morphological analysis of regenerated nerve segments and retrograde labeling of facial motoneurons were all analyzed. Better regenerative outcomes associated with functional improvement, great axonal growth, and improved target reinnervation were achieved in the artery-ADSCs group (2), whereas the cut nerves sutured with artery conduits alone (group 1) achieved inferior restoration. Furthermore, transected nerves repaired with nerve autografts (group 3) resulted in significant recovery of whisking, maturation of myelinated fibers and increased number of labeled facial neurons, and the latter two parameters were significantly different from those of group 2. Collectively, though our combined use of a decellularized artery allograft with autologous ADSCs achieved regenerative outcomes inferior to a nerve autograft, it certainly showed a beneficial effect on promoting nerve regeneration and thus represents an alternative approach for the reconstruction of peripheral facial nerve defects. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Metabolism of strawberry mono- and dimeric ellagitannins in rats fed a diet containing fructo-oligosaccharides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurgoński, Adam; Juśkiewicz, Jerzy; Fotschki, Bartosz; Kołodziejczyk, Krzysztof; Milala, Joanna; Kosmala, Monika; Grzelak-Błaszczyk, Katarzyna; Markiewicz, Lidia

    2017-03-01

    We investigated the effects of dietary supplementation with strawberry extracts rich in ETs and fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) on the intestinal microbiota and the formation of bacterial metabolites in the distal intestine, as well as the absorption of ET metabolites and antioxidant status in rats. Rats were allocated into six groups of eight animals each and fed for 4 weeks with a control diet (group C), a control diet supplemented with FOS (group C + FOS) or modifications of these diets, in which a monomeric or dimeric ET-rich extract was added (groups ME and ME + FOS or DE and DE + FOS, respectively). The extract addition, the FOS addition and their interaction significantly affected the total and selected bacterial counts in the caecal digesta (all P bacterial count was the highest in group C + FOS, lower in group DE and the lowest in group ME + FOS (10.6, 10.3 and 8.52 log cells/g, respectively; P ≤ 0.05). The total caecal content of ET metabolites was higher in the ME and ME + FOS group than in the DE and DE + FOS group, respectively (67.8 and 89.5 vs. 13.0 and 18.0 µg/g, respectively; P < 0.001). The total plasma concentration of ET metabolites was higher in the ME + FOS and DE + FOS group than in the ME group (248 and 281 vs. 8.13 ng/mL, respectively; P < 0.001). ETs of the monomeric ET-rich extract are more prone to intestinal breakdown than those of the dimeric ET-rich extract, and absorption of their metabolites can be increased by dietary FOS; however, together, they evoke strong antibacterial activity.

  1. Cardiovascular effects of a herbicide containing glufosinate and a surfactant: in vitro and in vivo analyses in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, K; Koyama, K; Goto, K

    1997-08-01

    A herbicide, Basta (BASTA), containing glufosinate ammonium (GLA) as the main component and an anionic surfactant, sodium polyoxyethylene alkylether sulfate (AES), causes hemodynamic changes characterized by a decrease in total vascular resistance with an increase or a decrease in cardiac output in human acute oral poisoning. With a motivation based on these clinical observations, we tried to elucidate the exact component and its mode of action that is mostly responsible for the direct cardiovascular effects of this herbicide formulation, investigating the effects of BASTA, GLA, and AES independently on the cardiovascular system in rats in vitro and in vivo. In isolated right atria beating spontaneously in Krebs-Ringer's solution, BASTA and AES produced negative chronotropic responses in a concentration-dependent manner. In electrically driven isolated left atria, BASTA and AES produced positive inotropic responses concentration dependently but negative inotropic responses at extremely high concentrations. In aortic ring segments, BASTA and AES produced no vasoconstrictive effects but exerted significant vasodilative effects when the aortic ring was precontracted with phenylephrine. These in vitro responses caused by BASTA and AES occurred to a similar degree. On the other hand, the main component, GLA, produced no effects in isolated atria and aortas. In anesthetized rats, relatively low doses of BASTA and AES produced a decrease in blood pressure followed by a slight increase in heart rate, which was presumably due to baroreflex caused by the decrease in blood pressure. At an extremely high dose, BASTA and AES produced a decrease in blood pressure with a marked decrease in heart rate. These in vivo responses to BASTA and AES also occurred to a similar degree. In contrast, the main component, GLA, did not produce any effects on heart rate and blood pressure in anesthetized rats. From these results, we concluded that the effects of BASTA in our in vivo experiments

  2. Mercury 203 distribution in pregnant and nonpregnant rats following systemic infusions with thiol-containing amino acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aschner, M.; Clarkson, T.W.

    1987-01-01

    Near-term pregnant (gestational day 17) and nonpregnant Long-Evans female rats were continuously infused into the external jugular vein with 0.1 mmole/hour L-cysteine, 0.1 mmole/hour L-leucine, or saline. At 24, 48, and 72 hours, 50 mumole/hour [ 203 Hg]-MeHgCl was administered over 1 hour. Total 203 Hg body burden, brain, kidney, liver, and blood 203 Hg concentrations were determined at 96 hours by gamma scintillation spectrometry. Despite significantly greater 203 Hg whole body retention in the pregnant animals 203 Hg concentrations in blood, brain, kidney, and liver were higher in nonpregnant rats. In addition, brain 203 Hg concentrations in both pregnant and virgin rats were significantly higher in L-cysteine-treated rats compared with controls. These results suggest that the fetus may act as a sink for MeHg, thus decreasing 203 Hg concentrations in maternal blood, brain, kidney, and liver. Furthermore, the data indicate that brain uptake of methylmercury in both pregnant and nonpregnant rats is enhanced by chronic L-cysteine infusion, lending support to the hypothesis that methylmercury in the rat may be translocated across the blood-brain barrier by the neutral amino acid carrier transport system

  3. Hypoglycemic effect of formulation containing hydroethanolic extract of Calophyllum brasiliense in diabetic rats induced by streptozotocin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helison de Oliveira Carvalho

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Diabetes mellitus is a chronic and severe metabolic dysfunction, it's slow and progressive evolution interferes directly in the metabolism of carbohydrates, fats and proteins, causing hyperglycemia, glycosuria, polydipsia, hyperlipidaemia, among others. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antidiabetic effect of hydroethanolic extract and granulated of Calophyllum brasiliense Cambess., Clusiaceae, species in diabetic rats as well as it's biochemical parameters. The results demonstrated that both the pharmaceutical forms, hydroethanolic extract and granulated, were able to reduce significantly (p < 0.001 hyperglycemia and glycosuria, in addition to improve polydipsia, polyuria, and weight loss. Treatments using hydroethanolic extract and granulated were also able to reduce significantly levels of triacylglycerides, cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein, as well as the transaminases, urea and creatinine levels. Therefore, it is concluded that these pharmaceutical forms have anti-diabetic effect and act improving the biochemical parameters, this effect is probably due to the high content of polyphenolic compounds found in the formulations.

  4. Lipid Replacement Therapy Drink Containing a Glycophospholipid Formulation Rapidly and Significantly Reduces Fatigue While Improving Energy and Mental Clarity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Settineri

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fatigue is the most common complaint of patients seeking general medical care and is often treated with stimulants. It is also important in various physical activities of relatively healthy men and women, such as sports performance. Recent clinical trials using patients with chronic fatigue have shown the benefit of Lipid Replacement Therapy in restoring mitochondrial electron transport function and reducing moderate to severe chronic fatigue. Methods: Lipid Replacement Therapy was administered for the first time as an all-natural functional food drink (60 ml containing polyunsaturated glycophospholipids but devoid of stimulants or herbs to reduce fatigue. This preliminary study used the Piper Fatigue Survey instrument as well as a supplemental questionnaire to assess the effects of the glycophospholipid drink on fatigue and the acceptability of the test drink in adult men and women. A volunteer group of 29 subjects of mean age 56.2±4.5 years with various fatigue levels were randomly recruited in a clinical health fair setting to participate in an afternoon open label trial on the effects of the test drink. Results: Using the Piper Fatigue instrument overall fatigue among participants was reduced within the 3-hour seminar by a mean of 39.6% (p<0.0001. All of the subcategories of fatigue showed significant reductions. Some subjects responded within 15 minutes, and the majority responded within one hour with increased energy and activity and perceived improvements in cognitive function, mental clarity and focus. The test drink was determined to be quite acceptable in terms of taste and appearance. There were no adverse events from the energy drink during the study.Functional Foods in Health and Disease 2011; 8:245-254Conclusions: The Lipid Replacement Therapy functional food drink appeared to be a safe, acceptable and potentially useful new method to reduce fatigue, sustain energy and improve perceptions of mental function.

  5. Direct examination of cadmium bonding in rat tissues dosed with mine wastes and cadmium-containing solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diacomanolis, V.; Ng, J. C.; Sadler, R.; Harris, H. H.; Nomura, M.; Noller, B. N.

    2010-01-01

    Direct examination by XANES and EXAFS of metal bonding in tissue can be demonstrated by examining cadmium uptake and bonding in animal tissue maintained at cryogenic temperatures. XANES at the K-edge of cadmium were collected at the Photon Factory Advanced Ring (PF-AR), NW10A beam line at KEK-Tsukuba-Japan. Rats fed with 1g mine waste containing 8-400 mg/kg cadmium per 200g body weight (b.w.) or dosed by oral gavage with either cadmium chloride solution alone (at 6 mg/kg b.w.) or in combination with other salts (As, Cu or Zn), 5 days/week for 6 weeks, had 0.1-7.5 and 8-86 mg/kg cadmium in the liver or kidney, respectively. Rats given intraperitoneally (ip) or intravenously (iv) 1-4 times with 1 mg/kg b.w. cadmium solution had 30-120 mg/kg cadmium in the liver or kidney. Tissues from rats were kept and transferred at cryogenic temperature and XANES were recorded at 20 K. The spectra for rat liver samples suggested conjugation of cadmium with glutathione or association with the sulfide bond (Cd-S) of proteins and peptides. EXAFS of rat liver fed by Cd and Zn solutions showed that Cd was clearly bound to S ligands with an inter-atomic distance of 2.54 A ring for Cd-S that was similar to cadmium sulfide with an inter-atomic distance of 2.52 A ring for Cd-S. Liver or kidney of rats fed with mine wastes did not give an edge in the XANES spectra indicating little uptake of cadmium by the animals. Longer and higher dosing regimen may be required in order to observe the same Cd-S bond in the rat tissue from mine wastes, including confirmation by EXAFS.

  6. T-2 mycotoxin treatment of newborn rat pups does not significantly affect nervous system functions in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varró, Petra; Béldi, Melinda; Kovács, Melinda; Világi, Ildikó

    2018-03-01

    T-2 toxin is primarily produced by Fusarium sp. abundant under temperate climatic conditions. Its main harmful effect is the inhibition of protein synthesis. Causing oxidative stress, it also promotes lipid peroxidation and changes plasma membrane phospholipid composition; this may lead to nervous system alterations. The aim of the present study was to examine whether a single dose of T-2 toxin administered at newborn age has any long-lasting effects on nervous system functions. Rat pups were treated on the first postnatal day with a single intraperitoneal dose of T-2 toxin (0.2 mg/bwkg). Body weight of treated pups was lower during the second and third week of life, compared to littermates; later, weight gain was recovered. At young adulthood, behavior was tested in the open field, and no difference was observed between treated and control rats. Field potential recordings from somatosensory cortex and hippocampus slices did not reveal any significant difference in neuronal network functions. In case of neocortical field EPSP, the shape was slightly different in treated pups. Long-term synaptic plasticity was also comparable in both groups. Seizure susceptibility of the slices was not different, either. In conclusion, T-2 toxin did not significantly affect basic nervous system functions at this dose.

  7. The effects of prebiotic, probiotic and synbiotic diets containing Bacillus coagulans and inulin on serum lipid profile in the rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khadijeh Abhari

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available An in vivo trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of Bacillus coagulans, and inulin, either separately or in combination, on lipid profile using a rat model. Thirty-two male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups (n=8 and fed as follows: standard diet (control, standard diet with 5% w/w long chain inulin (prebiotic, standard diet with 109 spores/day spores of B. coagulans by orogastric gavage (probiotic, and standard diet with 5% w/w long chain inulin and 109 spores/day of B. coagulans (synbiotic. Rats were fed for 30 days. Serum samples were collected 10, 20 and 30 days following onset of treatment. Total, HDL and LDL cholesterol and triglycerides concentrations were analyzed. Results of this study showed that inulin potentially affected the lipid profile. An obvious decrease in serum total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol of rats fed with inulin in symbiotic and prebiotic groups was seen in all sampling days. Inulin fed rats also demonstrated higher levels of HDL-cholesterol concentration; however this value in probiotic and control fed rats remains without significant change. According to the results of this study, B. coagulans did not contribute to any lipid profile changes after 30 days. Thus, further in vitro investigations on the characteristic of these bacteria could be useful to gain insights into understanding the treatment of probiotics in order to achieve the maximum beneficial effect.

  8. Enhanced healing of mitomycin C-treated healing-impaired wounds in rats with PRP-containing fragmin/protamine microparticles (PRP&F/P MPs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takikawa, Megumi; Ishihara, Masayuki; Takabayashi, Yuki; Sumi, Yuki; Takikawa, Makoto; Yoshida, Ryuichi; Nakamura, Shingo; Hattori, Hidemi; Yanagibayashi, Satoshi; Yamamoto, Naoto; Kiyosawa, Tomoharu

    2015-04-13

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the accelerating effects of platelet-rich plasma-containing (PRP&) fragmin/protamine microparticles (F/P MPs) for repairing mitomycin C-treated healing-impaired wounds. Staining with terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labelling (TUNEL-staining) showed that apoptosis of dermal fibroblast cells (DFCs) and epidermal keratinocyte cells (EKCs) were significantly induced in the skin of the mitomycin C-treated rats. Full-thickness skin defects were made on the back of rats and mitomycin C was applied on the wounds to prepare a healing-impaired wound. After washing out the mitomycin C, saline (control), F/P MPs alone, PRP alone, and PRP&F/P MPs were injected around the wounds. The rats were later euthanised and histological sections of the wounds were then prepared at indicated time periods after the treatment. These results indicated the numbers of large, medium, and small capillary lumens 7 days after injection of PRP&F/P MPs were significantly higher than those after injection of PRP or F/P MPs alone. Furthermore, epithelium and granulation tissue formations were significantly stimulated in the healing-impaired wounds treated with PRP&F/P MPs 3, 7 and 14 days after injection of PRP&F/P MPs.

  9. Influence of two cultivars of persimmon on atherosclerosis indices in rats fed cholesterol-containing diets: Investigation in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorinstein, Shela; Leontowicz, Hanna; Leontowicz, Maria; Jesion, Iwona; Namiesnik, Jacek; Drzewiecki, Jerzy; Park, Yong-Seo; Ham, Kyung-Sik; Giordani, Edgardo; Trakhtenberg, Simon

    2011-01-01

    To assess the influence of two persimmon cultivars on some atherosclerosis indices in rats fed cholesterol (Chol)-containing diets. Persimmon cultivars "Fuyu" and "Jiro" as supplementation to rats' diets were investigated in vitro to compare the contents of their bioactive compounds (polyphenols, flavonoids, flavanols, tannins, carotenoids, and ascorbic acid) and antioxidant potentials. In the in vivo investigation, 36 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into six diet groups, each with six rats: control, control/Fuyu, control/Jiro, Chol, Chol/Fuyu, and Chol/Jiro. During a period of 47 d (42 d of feeding and 5-d adaptation before the experiment) of the trial, rats in the control group were fed a basal diet and two additional control groups (control/Fuyu and control/Jiro) a basal diet plus 5% of lyophilized Fuyu and Jiro, respectively. The Chol, Chol/Fuyu, and Chol/Jiro rat groups were fed a basal diet supplemented with 1% Chol (Chol group) and 1% Chol plus 5% lyophilized Fuyu (Chol/Fuyu group) and plus 5% lyophilized Jiro (Chol/Jiro group), respectively. After completion of the experiment, the rats were anesthetized using Narcotan (halothane) and sacrificed and the atherosclerotic lesions in the aorta were assessed. The obtained results of the investigation of all six groups were compared. Testing of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triacylglycerols, total cholesterol in the liver, electrophoretic patterns of liver tissue, and three-dimensional fluorescence of serum protein fractions was performed. The polyphenols and tannins were significantly higher in the Fuyu cultivar (Pacid) (ABTS) assay (Pcholesterol 19.4% and 9.5%, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol 25.6% and 13.1%, respectively, P<0.05) and hindered the decrease in plasma antioxidant activity versus the Chol group by 40.0% and 16.8% and by 39.6% and 11.3% for the ABTS and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl assays, respectively. The atherosclerotic

  10. Chronic Carcinogenicity Study of Gasoline Vapor Condensate (GVC) and GVC Containing Methyl Tertiary-Butyl Ether in F344 Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Benson, Janet M.; Gigliotti, Andrew P.; March, Thomas H.; Barr, Edward B.; Tibbetts, Brad M.; Skipper, Betty J.; Clark, Charles R.; Twerdok, Lorraine

    2011-01-01

    Chronic inhalation studies were conducted to compare the toxicity and potential carcinogenicity of evaporative emissions from unleaded gasoline (GVC) and gasoline containing the oxygenate methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE; GMVC). The test materials were manufactured to mimic vapors people would be exposed to during refueling at gas stations. Fifty F344 rats per gender per exposure level per test article were exposed 6 h/d, 5 d/wk for 104 wk in whole body chambers. Target total vapor concentra...

  11. EFFECTIVENESS OF NITROGEN-CONTAINING BISPHOSPHONATES IN THE REGULATION OF MINERAL METABOLISM DISTURBANCES ASSOCIATED WITH ALIMENTARY OSTEOPOROSIS IN RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komisarenko S. V.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate the effectiveness of nitrogen-containing bisphosphonates synthesized as promising substances for correction of mineral metabolism in osteoporosis. The study was carried out on a model of alimentary osteoporosis that was characterized by hypocalcaemia, hypophosphatemia, decreased 25-Hydroxyvitamin D3 content in blood serum and severe bone tissue demineralization (reduced ash content and mineral components. It was found that synthesized novel nitrogen bisphosphonates (pyrazole-containing analogues, like reference drugs — metylene bisphosphonate (disodium salt of metylene bisphosphonic acid and alendronate (4-amino-1-hidroxybutyliden bisphosphonate, inhibit with the different efficiency demineralization of the bone tissue and increase the mineral metabolism in rats with alimentary (nutritional osteoporosis that was assessed by the marker parameters of bone formation. In particular, drug administration (bisphosphonates І-12, І-40, І-42 resulted in elevation of calcium and phosphate levels and decreased the total activity of alkaline phosphatase and its isoenzymes in blood serum. The ash content and the levels of calcium and phosphorus in the ash of tibia and femur bones were shown to be markedly elevated. Bisphosphonate І-12 has shown more profound antiresorbtive activity and ability to correct mineral metabolism in alimentary osteoporosis, including such of reference drugs. It was found a significant decrease of 25-Hydroxyvitamin D3 content in the serum that is considered as a profound vitamin D3 deficiency associated with nutritional osteoporosis. As it was not compensated by bisphosphonates, we suggest that further investigations should be directed to the combined use of both: bisphosphonates as inhibitors of osteoclast activity that diminish bone resorption and vitamin D3 as a key regulator of bone remodeling process and osteosynthesis activator.

  12. Fecal microbiota changes with the consumption of follow-up formulas containing Bifidobacterium spp. and/or galactooligosaccharides by rats and a follow-up infant formula containing Bifidobacterium spp. by human infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perez-Conesa, D.; Lopez, G.; Ros, G.H.; Abellan, P.; Hartemink, R.

    2006-01-01

    Seven groups of rats were fed during 1 mo using 1 infant formula containing Bifidobacterium bifidum and Bifidobacterium longum, 3 infant formulas containing 4-galactosyllactose at 1.2%, 5.0%, and 10.0%, and 3 infant formulas containing both ingredients. During 3 periods, corresponding to day 8 to

  13. Chemopreventive effects of PBI-Se, a selenium-containing analog of PBIT, on AOM-induced aberrant crypt foci in F344 rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janakiram, Naveena B; Mohammed, Altaf; Ravillah, Durgadevi; Choi, Chang In; Zhang, Yuting; Desai, Dhimant; Amin, Shantu; Rao, Chinthalapally V

    2013-08-01

    Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) is a potential target for the treatment of inflammation and cancer. Previously, we showed that the selective iNOS inhibitor S,S'-1,4-phenylenebis(1,2-ethanediyl)bis-isothiourea (PBIT) caused significant inhibition of colon carcinogenesis induced by azoxymethane (AOM), although it did not completely abrogate NO production due to the exogenous bioavailability of NO and NO generation by eNOS in tumor tissues. To create an iNOS-targeting molecule that may have additional benefits, a novel isosteric analog of PBIT, PBI-Se, was developed, in which sulfur was replaced with selenium. Chemopreventive efficacy of PBI-Se was evaluated in an AOM-induced rat colon carcinogenesis model using aberrant crypt foci (ACF) as the endpoint. At 7 weeks of age, rats (12/group) were fed the control diet (AIN 76A) and then colonic ACF were induced with two AOM treatments. Three days later, rats were fed diets containing PBI-Se (0-20 ppm) for 8 weeks, and then ACF were evaluated histopathologically. Dietary administration of 10 or 20 ppm of PBI-Se significantly suppressed AOM-induced total colonic ACF formation (32 or 41%, pPBI-Se was dose-dependent and was half the dose of PBIT for inhibiting total ACF in rats. Both PBIT and PBI-Se induced dose-dependent apoptosis in CaCo2 cells and caused a significant decrease in the cell cycle proteins cyclin D1 (70%, pPBI-Se (2 and 4  µM) significantly decreased the LPS-induced cytokine interleukin-6 level. Incorporation of selenium into the structure of PBIT provided the agent with additional novel cytotoxic and immunologic properties. Results from the in vitro and in vivo bioassays suggest that PBI-Se could be developed further for the prevention and treatment of colon cancer.

  14. Maternal undernutrition significantly impacts ovarian follicle number and increases ovarian oxidative stress in adult rat offspring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelica B Bernal

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We have shown recently that maternal undernutrition (UN advanced female pubertal onset in a manner that is dependent upon the timing of UN. The long-term consequence of this accelerated puberty on ovarian function is unknown. Recent findings suggest that oxidative stress may be one mechanism whereby early life events impact on later physiological functioning. Therefore, using an established rodent model of maternal UN at critical windows of development, we examined maternal UN-induced changes in offspring ovarian function and determined whether these changes were underpinned by ovarian oxidative stress. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Our study is the first to show that maternal UN significantly reduced primordial and secondary follicle number in offspring in a manner that was dependent upon the timing of maternal UN. Specifically, a reduction in these early stage follicles was observed in offspring born to mothers undernourished throughout both pregnancy and lactation. Additionally, antral follicle number was reduced in offspring born to all mothers that were UN regardless of whether the period of UN was restricted to pregnancy or lactation or both. These reductions were associated with decreased mRNA levels of genes critical for follicle maturation and ovulation. Increased ovarian protein carbonyls were observed in offspring born to mothers UN during pregnancy and/or lactation and this was associated with peroxiredoxin 3 hyperoxidation and reduced mRNA levels; suggesting compromised antioxidant defence. This was not observed in offspring of mothers UN during lactation alone. CONCLUSIONS: We propose that maternal UN, particularly at a time-point that includes pregnancy, results in reduced offspring ovarian follicle numbers and mRNA levels of regulatory genes and may be mediated by increased ovarian oxidative stress coupled with a decreased ability to repair the resultant oxidative damage. Together these data are suggestive of

  15. Effect of Grape Seeds Oil Extracted from Radiation Processed Seeds on Lipid Metabolism and on Antioxidant Activity in Rats Fed Diets Containing Cholesterol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Neily, H.F.G.; El-Shennawy, H.M.

    2011-01-01

    Grape seeds were separated from fresh grape pomace and dried at room temperature then packed in polyethylene bags and subjected to gamma rays at dose level of 10 kGy. The grape seeds oil was extracted from non and irradiated seeds. The oil quality, fatty acid composition and total phenolic compounds of oil extracted from non or irradiated seeds have been studied. The results indicated that there were significant increases in the acid value, saponification value and peroxide value of oil extracted from irradiated seeds at 10 kGy by 46.2%, 2.5% and 95.2%, respectively, and the total phenolic compounds and total radical trapping antioxidant potential (TRAP) were reduced by 22.13% and 10%, respectively, as compared to those of oil extracted from non-irradiated seeds. No degradation of the fatty acids; palmitic, linoleic, linolenic and arachidic acids, were observed for oil extracted from irradiated seeds at 10 kGy. However, significant decrease in oleic acid by 11.35% and increase in stearic acid by 26.22% were recorded corresponding to those for oil extracted from non-irradiated seeds. The effect of grape seeds oils extracted from non or irradiated seeds on lipid metabolism and antioxidant activity was investigated using 60 male Albino rats divided into six groups: (1) Control group: animals fed casein diet. (2) Ch group: animals received casein diet contains 10 g cholesterol per kg diet. (3) RGSO group: animals received diet contains grape seeds oil extracted from non-irradiated seeds (100 g oil per kg diet). (4) RGSO + Ch group: rats received diet contains grape seeds oil extracted from non-irradiated seeds (100 g oil per kg diet) + 100 g cholesterol per kg diet. (5) IGSO group: rats received diet contains grape seeds oil extracted from irradiated seeds at 10 kGy (100 g oil per kg diet). (6) IGSO + Ch group: rats received diet contains grape seeds oil extracted from irradiated seeds at 10 kGy (100 g oil per kg diet) + 10 g cholesterol per kg diet. Animals received

  16. Effects of endogenous nitric oxide on adrenergic nerve-mediated vasoconstriction and calcitonin gene-related peptide-containing nerve-mediated vasodilation in pithed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamawaki, Kousuke; Zamami, Yoshito; Kawasaki, Hiromu; Takatori, Shingo

    2017-05-05

    Vascular adrenergic nerves mainly regulate the tone of blood vessels. Calcitonin gene-related peptide-containing (CGRPergic) vasodilator nerves also participate in the regulation of vascular tone. Furthermore, there are nitric oxide (NO)-containing (nitrergic) nerves, which include NO in blood vessels as vasodilator nerves, but it remains unclear whether nitrergic nerves participate in vascular regulation. The present study investigated the role of nitrergic nerves in vascular responses to spinal cord stimulation (SCS) and vasoactive agents in pithed rats. Wistar rats were anesthetized and pithed, and vasopressor responses to SCS and injections of norepinephrine were observed. To evaluate vasorelaxant responses, the BP was increased by a continuous infusion of methoxamine with hexamethonium to block autonomic outflow. After the elevated BP stabilized, SCS and injections of acetylcholine (ACh), sodium nitroprusside (SNP), and CGRP were intravenously administered. We then evaluated the effects of the NO synthase (NOS) inhibitor, N-ω-nitro-L-arginine methylester hydrochloride (L-NAME), on these vascular responses. Pressor responses to SCS and norepinephrine in pithed rats were enhanced by L-NAME, while the combined infusion of L-NAME and L-arginine had no effect on these responses. L-NAME infusion significantly increased the release of norepinephrine evoked by SCS. In pithed rats with artificially increased BP and L-NAME infusion, depressor response to ACh (except for 0.05nmol/kg) was suppressed and SNP (only 2nmol/kg) was enhanced. However, depressor responses to SCS and CGRP were similar to control responses. The present results suggest endogenous NO regulates vascular tone through endothelium function and inhibition of adrenergic neurotransmission, but not through CGRPergic nerves. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of a normolipidic diet containing trans fatty acids during perinatal period on the growth, hippocampus fatty acid profile, and memory of young rats according to sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Amanda Santos; Rocha, Mônica Santos; Tavares do Carmo, Maria das Graças

    2012-04-01

    To investigate whether dietary trans fatty acids (TFAs) are incorporated in the hippocampus and its effects on the growth and aversive and spatial memories of young rats. Wistar rat offspring whose mothers were fed with normolipidic diets containing soybean oil (soy group) or hydrogenated vegetable oil (trans group) during gestation and lactation were used. Male and female pups received the same diets as their mothers until the end of behavioral testing. The composition of fatty acids in the total lipids of the diets and hippocampus was quantified by gas chromatography. The results were evaluated by Student's t test or analysis of variance followed by the Bonferroni correction. The trans male and female body weights were higher during lactation and after weaning, with trans males having the lower body weight of the two. There was incorporation of 0.11% and 0.17% of TFAs in the hippocampi of male and female rats, respectively. During passive avoidance test, there was no significant difference. In the water maze test, there was no significant difference between male groups in the training and retention phases, except on day 4, when there was a significant decrease in latency in trans males. Trans females were worse on day 2 only and showed an improvement in spatial memory during the probe trial. The TFAs were incorporated in small amounts in the hippocampus and did not affect aversive memory. However, spatial memory was modified in young rats fed with a diet rich in TFAs. These findings suggested that, in addition to the TFA content of the diet provided, it is important to consider the provision of essential fatty acids and the ω-6/ω-3 ratio. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Topical application of ointment containing 0.5% green tea catechins suppresses tongue oxidative stress in 5-fluorouracil administered rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyai, Hisataka; Maruyama, Takayuki; Tomofuji, Takaaki; Yoneda, Toshiki; Azuma, Tetsuji; Mizuno, Hirofumi; Sugiura, Yoshio; Kobayashi, Terumasa; Ekuni, Daisuke; Morita, Manabu

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the preventive effects of topical application of green tea catechins on tongue oxidative stress induced by 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) administration in rats. Male Wistar rats (n=28, 8 weeks old) were divided into four groups of seven rats each: a negative control group (saline administration and application of ointment without green tea catechins), a positive control group (5-FU administration and application of ointment without green tea catechins), and two experimental groups (5-FU administration and application of ointment containing 0.1% or 0.5% green tea catechins). Topical application of each ointment to the ventral surface of the tongue was performed once a day for 5days. The level of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) was determined to evaluate oxidative stress. Fluorescence staining was also performed to confirm nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) translocation to the nucleus. After the experimental period, the ratios of 8-OHdG-positive cells in the ventral tongue tissue were higher in the positive control group than in the negative control group (Ptea catechin group, but not in the 0.1% green tea catechin group, were lower than the positive control group (Ptea catechin group than in the positive control group (Ptea catechins could prevent tongue oxidative stress in 5-FU administered rats, via up-regulation of the Nrf2 signaling pathway. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The effects of probiotic, prebiotic and synbiotic diets containing Bacillus coagulans and inulin on rat intestinal microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abhari, Kh; Shekarforoush, S S; Sajedianfard, J; Hosseinzadeh, S; Nazifi, S

    2015-01-01

    An in vivo experiment was conducted to study the effects of probiotic Bacillus coagulans spores, with and without prebiotic, inulin, on gastrointestinal (GI) microbiota of healthy rats and its potentiality to survive in the GI tract. Forty-eight male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups (n=12) and fed as follows: standard diet (control), standard diet supplied with 5% w/w long chain inulin (prebiotic), standard diet with 10(9)/day spores of B. coagulans by orogastric gavage (probiotic), and standard diet with 5% w/w long chain inulin and 10(9) spores/day of B. coagulans by orogastric gavage (synbiotic). Rats were fed the diets for 30 days. At day 10, 20 and 30 of experiment, 24 h post administration, four rats from each group were randomly selected and after faecal collection were sacrificed. Small intestine, cecum, and colon were excised from each rat and used for microbial analysis. Administration of synbiotic and probiotic diets led to a significant (Pcoagulans was efficient in beneficially modulating GI microbiota and considering transitional characteristics of B. coagulans, daily consumption of probiotic products is necessary for any long-term effect.

  20. Intestinal mucosal mast cells from rats infected with Nippostrongylus brasiliensis contain protease-resistant chondroitin sulfate di-B proteoglycans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, R.L.; Lee, T.D.G.; Seldin, D.C.; Austen, K.F.; Befus, A.D.; Bienenstock, J.

    1986-01-01

    Rats infected with the helminth Nippostrongylus brasiliensis were injected i.p. with 2 mCi of [ 35 S] sulfate on days 13, 15, 17, and 19 after infection. The intestines were removed from animals on day 20 or 21 after infection, the intestinal cells were obtained by collagenase treatment and mechanical dispersion of the tissue, and the 35 S-labeled mucosal mast cells (MMC) were enriched to 60 to 65% purity by Percoll centrifugation. The isolated proteoglycans were of approx. 150,000 m.w., were resistant to pronase degradation, and contained highly sulfated chondroitin sulfate side chains. The presence in normal mammalian cells of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans that contain a high percentage of the unusual disulfated di-B disaccharide has not been previously reported. The rat intestinal MMC proteoglycans are the first chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans that have been isolated from an enriched populations of normal mast cells. They are homologous to the chondroitin sulfate-rich proteoglycans of the transformed rat basophilic leumekia-1 cell and the cultured interleukin 3-dependent mouse bone marrow-derived mast cell, in that these chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans are all highly sulfated, protease-resistant proteoglycans

  1. The effect of increasing levels of fish oil-containing structured triglycerides on protein metabolism in parenterally fed rats stressed by burn plus endotoxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gollaher, C J; Fechner, K; Karlstad, M; Babayan, V K; Bistrian, B R

    1993-01-01

    This report investigates the effect of various levels of medium-chain/fish oil structured triglycerides on protein and energy metabolism in hypermetabolic rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (192 to 226 g) were continuously infused with isovolemic diets that provided 200 kcal/kg per day and 2 g of amino acid nitrogen per kilogram per day. The percentage of nonnitrogen calories as structured triglyceride was varied: no fat, 5%, 15%, or 30%. A 30% long-chain triglyceride diet was also provided as a control to compare the protein-sparing abilities of these two types of fat. Nitrogen excretion, plasma albumin, plasma triglycerides, and whole-body and liver and muscle protein kinetics were determined after 3 days of feeding. Whole-body protein breakdown, flux, and oxidation were similar in all groups. The 15% structured triglyceride diet maximized whole-body protein synthesis (p structured triglyceride (p triglycerides were markedly elevated in the 30% structured triglyceride-fed rats. The 30% structured triglyceride diet maintained plasma albumin levels better than those diets containing no fat, 5% medium-chain triglyceride/fish oil structured triglyceride, or 30% long-chain triglycerides. Nitrogen excretion was lower in animals receiving 30% of nonnitrogen calories as a structured triglyceride than in those receiving 30% as long-chain triglycerides, but this difference did not reach statistical significance (p = .1). These data suggest that protein metabolism is optimized when structured triglyceride is provided at relatively low dietary fat intakes.

  2. The 5-HT1A serotonin receptor is located on calbindin- and parvalbumin-containing neurons in the rat brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aznar, Susana; Qian, Zhaoxia; Shah, Reshma

    2003-01-01

    distributed in the rat brain, with a particularly high density in the limbic system. The receptor's localization in the different neuronal subtypes, which may be of importance for understanding its role in neuronal circuitries, is, however, unknown. In this study we show by immunocytochemical double......-labeling techniques, that the 5-HT(1A) receptor is present on both pyramidal and principal cells, and calbindin- and parvalbumin-containing neurons, which generally define two different subtypes of interneurons. Moreover, semiquantitative analysis showed that the receptor's distribution in the different neuronal...... types varies between brain areas. In cortex, hippocampus, hypothalamus, and amygdala the receptor was located on both principal cells and calbindin- and parvalbumin-containing neurons. In septum and thalamus, the receptor was mostly present on calbindin- and parvalbumin-containing cells. Especially...

  3. Significance of ACTH4-10 in the control of hippocampal corticosterone receptor capacity of hypophysectomized rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldhuis, H D; De Kloet, E R

    1982-01-01

    The effect of hypophysectomy on the number of corticosterone receptor sites was investigated in three rat brain regions and was compared with the effect of long-term adrenalectomy. Subsequently, the effect on receptor capacity was measured after the hypophysectomized rats had received as

  4. Effect of dog food containing 460 ppm fluoride on rat reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, T A; Schellenberg, D; Metzler, C M; Oostveen, J; Morey, M J

    1984-01-01

    A one-generation, two-litter rat reproduction study was done in a kennel in Allegan County, Michigan, as part of an investigation of reproductive problems in Shetland sheepdogs (shelties). Since 1970, at least 115 sheltie litters at this kennel have been grossly deformed and/or have died, generally within 3 d of birth. The causative factor(s) appears to be associated with the environment, as the shelties have had successful pregnancies elsewhere. There was some concern that a potential threat to human reproduction also might exist in this area. After it was discovered that fluoride in the dog food had apparently caused mottled teeth and bony exostoses in dogs at this and at least two other kennels, dog-food fluoride content and local well water were investigated as possible causes of the reproductive problems. A two-way factorial statistical design allowed assessment of dietary fluoride content and water source and interaction between the two. UPj:TUC(SD)spf rats, 9 males and 18 females in each group, were assigned to treatment with high-fluoride dog food (460 ppm) and well water; high-fluoride dog food and distilled water; low-fluoride dog food (56 ppm) and well water; and low-fluoride dog food and distilled water. After 60 d in the kennel, the rats were mated. Even after two litters, the only adverse effect was dental fluorosis in the high-fluoride groups. The results indicated that rats cannot be used in the search for the cause(s) of reproductive problems in dogs in this kennel.

  5. Studies on the toxic effects of periodontal sustained release drug containing ornidazole and pefloxacin mesylate on early embryonic development of SD rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng-mou DONG

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective To evaluate the toxic effects of periodontal sustained release drug containing ornidazole and pefloxacin mesylate on early embryonic development of SD rats.Methods A total of 100female SD rats were randomly divided into negative control,low-,medium-,high-dose group and intervention group(20each.Rats in low-,medium-and high-dose group were fed daily with the sustained release drug at 1,4,and 8g/kg respectively;those in negative control group were fed daily with distilled water from the 14th day before mating to the 7th day of pregnancy continuously,and those in intervention group received cyclophosphamide(40mg/kgby intraperitoneal injection for 5successive days.During this period,the general status,mating,pregnancy,coefficient of ovary and uterus,the numbers of corpus luteum,nidation,live births,stillbirths,absorbed embryo,prenidatory and postnidatory mortality,serum testosterone(Tand estradiol(E2were determined respectively.Histopathologic examination of the ovary and uterus,immunohistochemical observation of ovaries for proliferating cell nuclear antigen(PCNAand Bcl-2associated X protein(Baxwere also performed respectively.Results The general status of those rats was good except one in the low-dose group and one in the intervention group died on the 14th day of administration,and one in negative control and one in high dose group died on the 5th day of pregnancy,respectively.The body weight of animals decreased significantly(P 0.05.The serum T level in medium-and high-dose group and the E2level in high-dose group declined compared to that in negative control group(P < 0.05.Conclusions Although the periodontal sustained release drug containing ornidazole and pefloxacin mesylate shows no toxicity to the early embryonic development of SD rats,the high dose drug has certain toxicity to ovary.Declined serum concentrations of T and E2,reduced expression of PCNA,and increased Bax may be the causes of the toxicity.

  6. Significant air embolism: A possibility even with collapsible intravenous fluid containers when used with rapid infuser system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pant, Deepanjali; Narani, Krishan Kumar; Sood, Jayashree

    2010-01-01

    Significant venous air embolism may develop acutely during the perioperative period due to a number of causes such as during head and neck surgery, spinal surgery, improper central venous and haemodialysis catheter handling, etc. The current trend of using self collapsible intravenous (IV) infusion bags instead of the conventional glass or plastic bottles has several advantages, one of thaem being protection against air embolism. We present a 56-year-old man undergoing kidney transplantation, who developed a near fatal venous air embolism during volume resuscitation with normal saline in collapsible IV bags used with rapid infuser system. To our knowledge, this problem with collapsible infusion bags has not been reported earlier. PMID:20532073

  7. Significant air embolism: A possibility even with collapsible intravenous fluid containers when used with rapid infuser system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepanjali Pant

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Significant venous air embolism may develop acutely during the perioperative period due to a number of causes such as during head and neck surgery, spinal surgery, improper central venous and haemodialysis catheter handling, etc. The current trend of using self collapsible intravenous (IV infusion bags instead of the conventional glass or plastic bottles has several advantages, one of thaem being protection against air embolism. We present a 56-year-old man undergoing kidney transplantation, who developed a near fatal venous air embolism during volume resuscitation with normal saline in collapsible IV bags used with rapid infuser system. To our knowledge, this problem with collapsible infusion bags has not been reported earlier.

  8. Endothelial dysfunction in high fructose containing diet fed rats: Increased nitric oxide and decreased endothelin-1 levels in liver tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeki Arı

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Dietary high fructose consumption which is closely associated with endothelial dysfunction via insulin re-sistance has recently increased in developed countries. Insulin resistance has a promoter effect on many metabolic disorders such as syndrome X, polycystic ovary syndrome, Type 2 diabetes mellitus etc. Our aim in this study is to understand the impact of increased fructose intake on metabolisms of glucose, insulin and endothelial dysfunction by measuring nitric oxide (NO and endothelin-1 (ET-1 levels in hepatic tissue which is crucial in fructose metabolism.Materials and Methods: We designed an animal study to understand increased fructose intake on hepatic endothe-lium. Twenty adult male albino rats were divided into two groups; the study group (group 1, n=10 received isocaloric fructose enriched diet (fructose-fed rats, containing 18.3% protein, 60.3% fructose and 5.2% fat while the control group received purified regular chow (group 2, n=10 for 2 weeks. After feeding period, blood and hepatic tissue samples were collected and glucose, insulin, NO and ET-1 levels were analysed.Results: We found increased fasting glucose and insulin levels and impaired glucose tolerance in fructose fed rats. Higher NO and lower ET–1 levels were also detected in hepatic tissue samples of the group 1.Conclusion: Increased fructose consumption has deleterious effects on glucose tolerance, insulin resistance and may cause to endothelial dysfunction.

  9. Expansions of the neurovascular scleral canal and contained optic nerve occur early in the hypertonic saline rat experimental glaucoma model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazos, Marta; Yang, Hongli; Gardiner, Stuart K; Cepurna, William O; Johnson, Elaine C; Morrison, John C; Burgoyne, Claude F

    2016-04-01

    To characterize early optic nerve head (ONH) structural change in rat experimental glaucoma (EG). Unilateral intraocular pressure (IOP) elevation was induced in Brown Norway rats by hypertonic saline injection into the episcleral veins and animals were sacrificed 4 weeks later by perfusion fixation. Optic nerve cross-sections were graded from 1 (normal) to 5 (extensive injury) by 5 masked observers. ONHs with peripapillary retina and sclera were embedded, serial sectioned, 3-D reconstructed, delineated, and quantified. Overall and animal-specific EG versus Control eye ONH parameter differences were assessed globally and regionally by linear mixed effect models with significance criteria adjusted for multiple comparisons. Expansions of the optic nerve and surrounding anterior scleral canal opening achieved statistical significance overall (p < 0.0022), and in 7 of 8 EG eyes (p < 0.005). In at least 5 EG eyes, significant expansions (p < 0.005) in Bruch's membrane opening (BMO) (range 3-10%), the anterior and posterior scleral canal openings (8-21% and 5-21%, respectively), and the optic nerve at the anterior and posterior scleral canal openings (11-30% and 8-41%, respectively) were detected. Optic nerve expansion was greatest within the superior and inferior quadrants. Optic nerve expansion at the posterior scleral canal opening was significantly correlated to optic nerve damage (R = 0.768, p = 0.042). In the rat ONH, the optic nerve and surrounding BMO and neurovascular scleral canal expand early in their response to chronic experimental IOP elevation. These findings provide phenotypic landmarks and imaging targets for detecting the development of experimental glaucomatous optic neuropathy in the rat eye. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Chronic Carcinogenicity Study of Gasoline Vapor Condensate (GVC) and GVC Containing Methyl Tertiary-Butyl Ether in F344 Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Janet M.; Gigliotti, Andrew P.; March, Thomas H.; Barr, Edward B.; Tibbetts, Brad M.; Skipper, Betty J.; Clark, Charles R.; Twerdok, Lorraine

    2011-01-01

    Chronic inhalation studies were conducted to compare the toxicity and potential carcinogenicity of evaporative emissions from unleaded gasoline (GVC) and gasoline containing the oxygenate methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE; GMVC). The test materials were manufactured to mimic vapors people would be exposed to during refueling at gas stations. Fifty F344 rats per gender per exposure level per test article were exposed 6 h/d, 5 d/wk for 104 wk in whole body chambers. Target total vapor concentrations were 0, 2, 10, or 20 g/m3 for the control, low-, mid-, and high-level exposures, respectively. Endpoints included survival, body weights, clinical observations, organs weights, and histopathology. GVC and GMVC exerted no marked effects on survival or clinical observations and few effects on organ weights. Terminal body weights were reduced in all mid- and high-level GVC groups and high-level GMVC groups. The major proliferative lesions attributable to gasoline exposure with or without MTBE were renal tubule adenomas and carcinomas in male rats. GMV exposure led to elevated testicular mesothelioma incidence and an increased trend for thyroid carcinomas in males. GVMC inhalation caused an increased trend for testicular tumors with exposure concentration. Mid- and high-level exposures of GVC and GMVC led to elevated incidences of nasal respiratory epithelial degeneration. Overall, in these chronic studies conducted under identical conditions, the health effects in F344 rats following 2 yr of GVC or GMVC exposure were comparable in the production of renal adenomas and carcinomas in male rats and similar in other endpoints. PMID:21432714

  11. A diet containing whey protein, glutamine, and TGFbeta modulates gut protein metabolism during chemotherapy-induced mucositis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boukhettala, Nabile; Ibrahim, Ayman; Claeyssens, Sophie; Faure, Magali; Le Pessot, Florence; Vuichoud, Jacques; Lavoinne, Alain; Breuillé, Denis; Déchelotte, Pierre; Coëffier, Moïse

    2010-08-01

    Mucositis, a common side effect of chemotherapy, is characterized by compromised digestive function, barrier integrity and immune competence. Our aim was to evaluate the impact of a specifically designed diet Clinutren Protect (CP), which contains whey proteins, TGFbeta-rich casein, and free glutamine, on mucositis in rats. Mucositis was induced by three consecutive injections (day 0, day 1, day 2) of methotrexate (2.5 mg/kg). Rats had free access to CP or placebo diets from days -7 to 9. In the placebo diet, whey proteins and TGFbeta-rich casein were replaced by TGFbeta-free casein and glutamine by alanine. Intestinal parameters were assessed at day 3 and 9. Values, expressed as mean +/- SEM, were compared using two-way ANOVA. At day 3, villus height was markedly decreased in the placebo (296 +/- 11 microm) and CP groups (360 +/- 10 microm) compared with controls (464 +/- 27 microm), but more markedly in the placebo as compared to CP group. The intestinal damage score was also reduced in the CP compared with the placebo group. Glutathione content increased in the CP compared with the placebo group (2.2 +/- 0.2 vs. 1.7 +/- 0.2 micromol/g tissue). Gut protein metabolism was more affected in the placebo than in the CP group. The fractional synthesis rate was decreased in the placebo group (93.8 +/- 4.9%/day) compared with controls (121.5 +/- 12.1, P < 0.05), but not in the CP group (106.0 +/- 13.1). In addition, at day 9, rats exhibited improved body weight and food intake recovery in the CP compared to the placebo group. Clinutren Protect feeding reduces intestinal injury in the acute phase of methotrexate-induced mucositis in rats and improves recovery.

  12. Chronic carcinogenicity study of gasoline vapor condensate (GVC) and GVC containing methyl tertiary-butyl ether in F344 rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Janet M; Gigliotti, Andrew P; March, Thomas H; Barr, Edward B; Tibbetts, Brad M; Skipper, Betty J; Clark, Charles R; Twerdok, Lorraine

    2011-01-01

    Chronic inhalation studies were conducted to compare the toxicity and potential carcinogenicity of evaporative emissions from unleaded gasoline (GVC) and gasoline containing the oxygenate methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE; GMVC). The test materials were manufactured to mimic vapors people would be exposed to during refueling at gas stations. Fifty F344 rats per gender per exposure level per test article were exposed 6 h/d, 5 d/wk for 104 wk in whole body chambers. Target total vapor concentrations were 0, 2, 10, or 20 g/m³ for the control, low-, mid-, and high-level exposures, respectively. Endpoints included survival, body weights, clinical observations, organs weights, and histopathology. GVC and GMVC exerted no marked effects on survival or clinical observations and few effects on organ weights. Terminal body weights were reduced in all mid- and high-level GVC groups and high-level GMVC groups. The major proliferative lesions attributable to gasoline exposure with or without MTBE were renal tubule adenomas and carcinomas in male rats. GMV exposure led to elevated testicular mesothelioma incidence and an increased trend for thyroid carcinomas in males. GVMC inhalation caused an increased trend for testicular tumors with exposure concentration. Mid- and high-level exposures of GVC and GMVC led to elevated incidences of nasal respiratory epithelial degeneration. Overall, in these chronic studies conducted under identical conditions, the health effects in F344 rats following 2 yr of GVC or GMVC exposure were comparable in the production of renal adenomas and carcinomas in male rats and similar in other endpoints.

  13. Histological evaluation of direct pulp capping of rat pulp with experimentally developed low-viscosity adhesives containing reparative dentin-promoting agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Masaya; Taira, Yoshihisa; Kato, Chikage; Shinkai, Koichi; Katoh, Yoshiroh

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the wound healing process in exposed rat pulp when capped with experimental adhesive resin systems. Experimental adhesive resin system for direct pulp capping was composed of primer-I (PI), -II (PII), and -III (PIII) and an experimental bonding agent (EBA). PI was Clearfil(®) SE Bond(®)/Primer (CSP) containing 5.0 wt% CaCl2, PII was PI containing 10 wt% nanofiller (Aerosil(®) 380), and PIII was CSP containing 5.0 wt% of compounds of equal moles of synthetic peptides (pA and pB) derived from dentin matrix protein 1. EBA was Clearfil(®) SE Bond(®)/Bond (CSB) containing 10 wt% hydroxyapatite powders. Three experimental groups were designed. PI was assigned to experimental Groups 1 and 3. PII was assigned to experimental Groups 2 and 3. PIII and EBA were assigned to all experimental adhesive groups. Control teeth were capped with calcium hydroxide preparation (Dycal(®)), and CSP and CSB were applied to the cavity. The rats were sacrificed after each observation period (14, 28, 56, and 112 days). The following parameters were evaluated: pulp tissue disorganization, inflammatory cell infiltration, reparative dentin formation (RDF), and bacterial penetration. There were no significant differences among all the groups for all parameters and all observation periods (p>0.05, Kruskal-Wallis test). All groups showed initial RDF at 14 days postoperatively and extensive RDF until 112 days postoperatively. Groups 2 and 3 demonstrated higher quantity of mineralized dentin bridge formation compared with Group 1. Addition of nanofillers to the primer was effective in promoting high-density RDF. Experimentally developed adhesive resin systems induce the exposed pulp to produce almost the same quantity of reparative dentin as calcium hydroxide. However, we need further studies to elucidate whether the same results could be obtained in humans. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Growth of rat dorsal root ganglion neurons on a novel self-assembling scaffold containing IKVAV sequence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zou Zhenwei; Zheng Qixin [Department of Orthopaedics, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical college of Huazhong University of science and technology, Wuhan, 430022 (China); Wu Yongchao, E-mail: wuyongchao@hotmail.com [Department of Orthopaedics, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical college of Huazhong University of science and technology, Wuhan, 430022 (China); Song Yulin; Wu Bin [Department of Orthopaedics, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical college of Huazhong University of science and technology, Wuhan, 430022 (China)

    2009-08-31

    The potential benefits of self-assembly in synthesizing materials for the treatment of both peripheral and central nervous system disorders are tremendous. In this study, we synthesized peptide-amphiphile (PA) molecules containing IKVAV sequence and induced self-assembly of the PA solutions in vitro to form nanofiber gels. Then, we tested the characterization of gels by transmission electron microscopy and demonstrated the biocompatibility of this gel towards rat dorsal root ganglion neurons. The nanofiber gel was formed by self-assembly of IKVAV PA molecules, which was triggered by metal ions. The fibers were 7-8 nm in diameter and with lengths of hundreds of nanometers. Gels were shown to be non-toxic to neurons and able to promote neurons adhesion and neurite sprouting. The results indicated that the self-assembling scaffold containing IKVAV sequence had excellent biocompatibility with adult sensory neurons and could be useful in nerve tissue engineering.

  15. Bioavailability of vitamin B-6 from rat diets containing wheat bran or cellulose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudson, C.A.; Betschart, A.A.; Oace, S.M.

    1988-01-01

    Bioavailability of vitamin B-6 (B-6) in the total diet was studied in male, weanling Sprague-Dawley rats fed fiber-free (FF) diets with 0.2 or 6.9 mg pyridoxine/kg diet (0-, 2- or 6.9-PYR), 20% wheat bran (WB) diets with 3.9- or 5.5-PYR or 7% cellulose (C) diets with 0- or 2-PYR for 28 d. Body weight gain (mean +/- SEM) with 0-PYR was 70 +/- 9.0 and 81.2 +/- 4.2 g for FF and C, respectively. All other groups gained 170-180 g. Urinary excretion of 4-pyridoxic acid (4-PA), a major B-6 metabolite, for FF groups was 1.31 +/- 0.22, 2.26 +/- 0.28 and 6.39 +/- 1.73 micrograms/24 h, at 0-, 2- and 6.9-PYR, respectively. Rats fed WB diets excreted 4.99 +/- 0.58 and 9.81 +/- 0.76 micrograms/24 h (3.9- and 5.5-PYR, respectively) and those fed C diets excreted 1.46 +/- 0.34 and 2.69 +/- 0.72 micrograms/24 h (0- and 2-PYR). There was increasing turnover and shorter biological half-life of [ 14 C]pyridoxine (1 mu Ci injected on d 1) with increasing dietary B-6. Growth, 4-PA and 14 C turnover data indicated that WB contributed to B-6 intake of these rats. Cellulose acted as a simple dietary diluent and had no effect on indices of B-6 status. These data suggest that dietary fiber, as cellulose or the indigestible component of wheat bran, does not adversely affect the bioavailability of vitamin B-6

  16. Increased expression of heat shock protein 105 in rat uterus of early pregnancy and its significance in embryo implantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Zhao-Yuan

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Heat shock proteins (Hsps are a set of highly conserved proteins, Hsp105, has been suggested to play a role in reproduction. Methods Spatio-temporal expression of Hsp105 in rat uterus during peri-implantation period was examined by immunohistochemistry and Western blot, pseudopregnant uterus was used as control. Injection of antisense oligodeoxynucleotides to Hsp105 into pregnant rat uteri was carried out to look at effect of Hsp105 on embryo implantation. Results Expression of Hsp105 was mainly in the luminal epithelium on day 1 of pregnancy, and reached a peak level on day 5, whereas in stroma cells, adjacent to the implanting embryo, the strongest expression of Hsp105 was observed on day 6. The immunostaining profile in the uterus was consistent with that obtained by Western blot in the early pregnancy. In contrast, no obvious peak level of Hsp105 was observed in the uterus of pseudopregnant rat on day 5 or day 6. Furthermore, injection of antisense oligodeoxynucleotides to Hsp105 into the rat uterine horn on day 3 of pregnancy obviously suppressed the protein expression as expected and reduced number of the implanted embryos as compared with the control. Conclusion Temporal and spatial changes in Hsp105 expression in pregnant rat uterus may play a physiological role in regulating embryo implantation.

  17. Chronic Underactivity of Medial Frontal Cortical β2-Containing Nicotinic Receptors Increases Clozapine-Induced Working Memory Impairment in Female Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Edward D.; Perkins, Abigail; Brotherton, Terrell; Qazi, Melissa; Berez, Chantal; Montalvo-Ortiz, Janitza; Davis, Kasey; Williams, Paul; Christopher, N. Channelle

    2009-01-01

    Nicotinic receptor decreases in the frontal cortex and hippocampus are important mediators of cognitive impairment in both schizophrenia and Alzheimer's disease. Drug treatments for these diseases should take into account the impacts of compromised brain function on drug response. This study investigated the impact of compromised nicotinic receptor activity in the frontal cortex in rats on memory function. Since both Alzheimer's disease and schizophrenia can involve psychosis, antipsychotic drugs are often given. The impacts of antipsychotic drugs on cognitive function have been found to be quite variable. It is the hypothesis of this and previous studies that the cognitive effects of antispychotic drugs on cognitive function depend on the integrity of brain systems involved in cognition. Previously in studies of the hippocampus, we found that chronic inhibition of β2-containing nicotinic receptors with dihydro-β-erythrodine (DHβE) impaired working memory and that this effect was attenuated by the antipsychotic drug clozapine. In contrast, chronic hippocampal α7 nicotinic receptor blockade with methyllycaconitine (MLA) potentiated the clozapine-induced memory impairment which is seen in rats without compromised nicotinic receptor activity. The current study determined medial frontal cortical α7 and β2-containing nicotinic receptor involvement in memory and the interactions with antipsychotic drug therapy with clozapine. Chronic DHβE and MLA infusion effects and interactions with systemic clozapine were assessed in female rats tested for memory on the radial-arm maze. Antipsychotic drug interactions with chronic systemic nicotine were investigated because nicotinic procognitive treatment has been proposed. The same local infusion DHβE dose that impaired memory with hippocampal infusion did not impair memory when infused in the medial frontal cortex. Frontal DHβE infusion potentiated clozapine-induced memory impairment, whereas previously the memory

  18. Chronic underactivity of medial frontal cortical beta2-containing nicotinic receptors increases clozapine-induced working memory impairment in female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Edward D; Perkins, Abigail; Brotherton, Terrell; Qazi, Melissa; Berez, Chantal; Montalvo-Ortiz, Janitza; Davis, Kasey; Williams, Paul; Christopher, N Channelle

    2009-03-17

    Nicotinic receptor decreases in the frontal cortex and hippocampus are important mediators of cognitive impairment in both schizophrenia and Alzheimer's disease. Drug treatments for these diseases should take into account the impacts of compromised brain function on drug response. This study investigated the impact of compromised nicotinic receptor activity in the frontal cortex in rats on memory function. Since both Alzheimer's disease and schizophrenia can involve psychosis, antipsychotic drugs are often given. The impacts of antipsychotic drugs on cognitive function have been found to be quite variable. It is the hypothesis of this and previous studies that the cognitive effects of antispychotic drugs on cognitive function depend on the integrity of brain systems involved in cognition. Previously in studies of the hippocampus, we found that chronic inhibition of beta2-containing nicotinic receptors with dihydro-beta-erythrodine (DHbetaE) impaired working memory and that this effect was attenuated by the antipsychotic drug clozapine. In contrast, chronic hippocampal alpha7 nicotinic receptor blockade with methyllycaconitine (MLA) potentiated the clozapine-induced memory impairment which is seen in rats without compromised nicotinic receptor activity. The current study determined medial frontal cortical alpha7 and beta2-containing nicotinic receptor involvement in memory and the interactions with antipsychotic drug therapy with clozapine. Chronic DHbetaE and MLA infusion effects and interactions with systemic clozapine were assessed in female rats tested for memory on the radial-arm maze. Antipsychotic drug interactions with chronic systemic nicotine were investigated because nicotinic procognitive treatment has been proposed. The same local infusion DHbetaE dose that impaired memory with hippocampal infusion did not impair memory when infused in the medial frontal cortex. Frontal DHbetaE infusion potentiated clozapine-induced memory impairment, whereas previously

  19. Glycine-U-14C metabolism in young rats fed the 10% casein diets containing excess glycine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeuchi, Hisanao; Wakatsuki, Tetsuo; Muramatsu, Keiichiro

    1975-01-01

    Nine hours after rats fed ad libitum for 14 days a 10% casein diet (10C), a 10% casein diet containing 7% glycine (10C7G) and a 10% casein diet containing 7% glycine with 1.4% L-arginine.HCl and 0.9% L-methionine (10C7GArgMet) were force-fed 10 ml of each diet suspension containing 5μCi of glycine-U- 14 C per 100 g of body weight, the radioactivity recoveries of 14 C in expired CO 2 , tissue components and urine were determined. The radioactivity recovery of 14 C in the expired CO 2 of the 10C7G group was generally higher than that of the 10C7GArgMet group. The recovery of 14 C in the trichloroacetic acid (TCA) soluble fraction of muscle of the 10C7G and the 10C7GArgMet groups were greater than that of the 10C group. The recoveries of 14 C in the TCA soluble fraction and protein of plasma and liver, and the muscle protein were negligible in all the groups. The amount of glycine- 14 C incorporated into the carcass lipids of the 10C7GArgMet group was larger than that of other groups. The recoveries of 14 C in the liver and muscle glycogen, and liver lipids were remarkably small in all the groups. From the above results, it was suggested that the degradation of glycine- 14 C to expiratory CO 2 was not accelerated, but the rate of incorporation of the isotope into carcass lipids was increased by the supplementation of L-arginine and L-methionine to the 10C7G diet as compared with that of rats fed the 10C7G diet. (JPN)

  20. The costo-uterine muscle of the rat contains a homogeneous population of beta-adrenoceptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, M. L.; Pennefather, J. N.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of two selective beta-adrenoceptor antagonists on the inhibitory responses to some sympathomimetic amines of electrically-stimulated preparations of costo-uterine muscle, taken from virgin rats, have been examined quantitatively. pA2 values for the antagonist, atenolol (beta 1-selective) and ICI 118,551 (beta 2-selective) were obtained using as agonists, fenoterol (beta 2-selective agonist) and noradrenaline (alpha- and beta-adrenoceptor agonist, beta 1-selective); and in addition, with ICI 118,551 only, isoprenaline (beta-agonist, non-selective) and adrenaline (alpha- and beta-adrenoceptor agonist, beta 2-selective). Catecholamine uptake mechanisms and alpha-adrenoceptors were not blocked in any of these experiments. Atenolol competitively antagonized the effects of fenoterol and noradrenaline to a similar extent, the pA2 values being 5.4 and 5.7, respectively. ICI 118,551 competitively antagonized the effects of fenoterol, isoprenaline, adrenaline and noradrenaline to a similar extent; pA2 values ranged from 8.7 with noradrenaline to 9.1 with isoprenaline. These results extend our previous observations which indicated that the adrenoceptors mediating inhibition of electrically-evoked contractions of costo-uterine muscle of the virgin rat are homogeneous and of the beta 2-subtype. The potency of the beta 1-selective agonist RO 363 in producing inhibition of electrically-evoked contractions of this tissue was also examined. RO 363 was 200 times less potent than isoprenaline but was a full agonist. This indicates that there is efficient coupling between beta 2-adrenoceptor activation and tissue response in this non-innervated preparation. PMID:2858239

  1. Significant long-term, but not short-term, hippocampal-dependent memory impairment in adult rats exposed to alcohol in early postnatal life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodfellow, Molly J; Lindquist, Derick H

    2014-09-01

    In rodents, ethanol exposure in early postnatal life is known to induce structural and functional impairments throughout the brain, including the hippocampus. Herein, rat pups were administered one of three ethanol doses over postnatal days (PD) 4-9, a period of brain development comparable to the third trimester of human pregnancy. As adults, control and ethanol rats were trained and tested in a variant of hippocampal-dependent one-trial context fear conditioning. In Experiment 1, subjects were placed into a novel context and presented with an immediate footshock (i.e., within ∼8 sec). When re-exposed to the same context 24 hr later low levels of conditioned freezing were observed. Context pre-exposure 24 hr prior to the immediate shock reversed the deficit in sham-intubated and unintubated control rats, enhancing freezing behavior during the context retention test. Even with context pre-exposure, however, significant dose-dependent reductions in contextual freezing were seen in ethanol rats. In Experiment 2, the interval between context pre-exposure and the immediate shock was shortened to 2 hr, in addition to the standard 24 hr. Ethanol rats trained with the 2 hr, but not 24 hr, interval displayed retention test freezing levels roughly equal to controls. Results suggest the ethanol rats can encode a short-term context memory and associate it with the aversive footshock 2 hr later. In the 24 hr ethanol rats the short-term context memory is poorly transferred or consolidated into long-term memory, we propose, impeding the memory's subsequent retrieval and association with shock. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Diets containing salmon fillet delay development of high blood pressure and hyperfusion damage in kidneys in obese Zucker fa/fa rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vikøren, Linn A; Drotningsvik, Aslaug; Mwakimonga, Angela; Leh, Sabine; Mellgren, Gunnar; Gudbrandsen, Oddrun A

    2018-04-01

    Hypertension is the leading risk factor for cardiovascular and chronic renal diseases, affecting more than 1 billion people. Fish intake is inversely correlated with the prevalence of hypertension in several, but not all, studies, and intake of fish oil and fish proteins has shown promising potential to delay development of high blood pressure in rats. The effects of baked and raw salmon fillet intake on blood pressure and renal function were investigated in obese Zucker fa/fa rats, which spontaneously develop hypertension with proteinuria and renal failure. Rats were fed diets containing baked or raw salmon fillet in an amount corresponding to 25% of total protein from salmon and 75% of protein from casein, or casein as the sole protein source (control group) for 4 weeks. Results show lower blood pressure and lower urine concentrations of albumin and cystatin C (relative to creatinine) in salmon diet groups when compared to control group. Morphological examinations revealed less prominent hyperfusion damage in podocytes from rats fed diets containing baked or raw salmon when compared to control rats. In conclusion, diets containing baked or raw salmon fillet delayed the development of hypertension and protected against podocyte damage in obese Zucker fa/fa rats. Copyright © 2018 American Heart Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Prenatal prochloraz treatment significantly increases pregnancy length and reduces offspring weight but does not affect social-olfactory memory in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dmytriyeva, Oksana; Klementiev, Boris; Berezin, Vladimir

    2013-01-01

    Metabolites of the commonly used imidazole fungicide prochloraz are androgen receptor antagonists. They have been shown to block androgen-driven development and compromise reproductive function. We tested the effect of prochloraz on cognitive behavior following exposure to this fungicide during...... the perinatal period. Pregnant Wistar rats were administered a 200mg/kg dose of prochloraz on gestational day (GD) 7, GD11, and GD15. The social recognition test (SRT) was performed on 7-week-old male rat offspring. We found an increase in pregnancy length and a significantly reduced pup weight on PND15 and PND...

  4. The Effectiveness Test of Oil Phase Ointment Containing Snakehead Fish (Channa striata Extract on Open Stage II Acute Wounded Wistar Strain Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fransisca Daisa

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The snakehead (Channa striata contained fatty acids omega-3 and omega-6 are useful as nutrients in accelerating the wound healing process. This study aims to determine the effectiveness of the oil phase extract ointment snakehead in the healing of acute wounds open stage II. Testing the effectiveness of wound healing using 6 groups: normal, gel bioplacenton (positive control, ointment base (negative control, ointments snakehead extract oil phase concentration of 10; 20 and 40% of the 4 rats with acute wounds open stage II and observation until day 16 injury. The area of the wound was measured with the image J program Macbiophotonic, calculated% healing power, and AUC values. A statistical test to the total AUC values per rat with SPSS for Windows 22.0 program using One Way ANOVA and Post-hoc LSD test. The results showed a significant difference in the negative group with ointment concentration of 20% (p <0.05. The treatment group phase ointment fish oil extract is effective for wound healing is best to have a concentration of 20% for percentage of wound healing power of 97.157% and the average AUC value of 865.683% of the day.

  5. Effects of pectin-containing diets on the hepatic macromolecular covalent binding of 2,6-dinitro-[3H]toluene in Fischer-344 rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    deBethizy, J.D.; Sherrill, J.M.; Rickert, D.E.; Hamm, T.E. Jr.

    1983-01-01

    The influence of diets varying in pectin content on intestinal microfloral metabolic capacity of rats has been investigated as a possible mechanism for the alteration of toxicity of 2,6-dinitrotoluene (2,6-DNT) produced by these diets. Male F-344 rats were fed a purified diet (AIN-76A), AIN-76A plus 5% or 10% citrus pectin, or either of two cereal-based diets that vary in pectin content, NIH-07 or Purina Chow 5002. After 28 days, rats were given tritium-labeled 2,6-DNT (10 or 75 mg/kg po) and killed 12 hr later. Total hepatic macromolecular covalent binding (CVB) was determined by exhaustive extraction. The CVB of 2,6-DNT was found to be independent of diet at 10 mg/kg. However, at 75 mg/kg CVB was increased 40% by feeding 5% pectin in the purified diet and 90% by feeding 10% pectin in the purified diet. Animals fed Purina 5002 and NIH-07 had 135 and 150% higher CVB, respectively, than animals fed the purified diet alone and significantly greater CVB than animals fed the pectin supplemented diets. Elevated (two- to threefold) beta-glucuronidase and nitroreductase activities, microfloral enzymes proposed to be involved in the activation of 2,6-DNT to a toxicant, were found in the cecal contents of animals fed the pectin-containing diets which correlated with a two- to threefold increase in total number of cecal anaerobes. These results suggest that pectin-induced changes in microflora may enhance hepatoxicity after high doses of 2,6-DNT

  6. Molecular Containers Bind Drugs of Abuse in Vitro and Reverse the Hyperlocomotive Effect of Methamphetamine in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganapati, Shweta; Grabitz, Stephanie D; Murkli, Steven; Scheffenbichler, Flora; Rudolph, Maíra I; Zavalij, Peter Y; Eikermann, Matthias; Isaacs, Lyle

    2017-08-17

    We measured the affinity of five molecular container compounds (calabadions 1 and 2, CB[7], sulfocalix[4]arene, and HP-β-CD) toward seven drugs of abuse in homogenous aqueous solution at physiological pH by various methods ( 1 H NMR, UV/Vis, isothermal titration calorimetry [ITC]) and found binding constants (K a values) spanning from 10 8  m -1 . We also report X-ray crystal structures of CB[7]⋅methamphetamine and 1⋅methamphetamine. We found that 2, but not CB[7], was able to ameliorate the hyperlocomotive activity of rats treated with methamphetamine. The bioavailability of the calabadions and their convergent building block synthesis suggest potential for further structural optimization as reversal agents for intoxication with nonopioid drugs of abuse for which no treatments are currently available. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Effects of high-protein diet containing isolated whey protein in rats submitted to resistance training of aquatic jumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila, Eudes Thiago Pereira; da Rosa Lima, Thiago; Tibana, Ramires Alsamir; de Almeida, Paula Caroline; Fraga, Géssica Alves; de Souza Sena, Mariana; Corona, Luiz Felipe Petusk; Navalta, James Wilfred; Rezaei, Sajjad; Ghayomzadeh, Morteza; Damazo, Amílcar Sabino; Prestes, Jonato; Voltarelli, Fabrício Azevedo

    2018-02-13

    Isolated whey protein (IWP) can decrease body fat compared with other protein sources. The present study verified the effects of high protein diet (HD) containing IWP on several parameters of rats subjected to resistance training (RT). Thirty-two male Wistar rats (60 days of age) were separated into four groups (n = 8/group): sedentary normoproteic (IWP 14%; SN); sedentary hyperproteic (IWP 35%; SH); trained normoproteic (IWP 14%; TN), and trained hyperproteic (WPI 35%; TH). Relative tissue/organ weight (g): perirenal and retroperitoneal adipose tissues were lower in SH and TH compared with SN (no difference to TN); omental and subcutaneous adipose tissues were higher in SN compared with SH. Epididymal adipose tissue was higher in SN compared with other groups. Heart weight was higher in TH compared with TN and SN, but not SH; kidney and liver higher in TH and SH compared with SN and TN; gastrocnemius lower in SN compared with other groups; soleus higher in SH in relation to other groups. The triglycerides levels (mg/dL) was reduced in the TH groups compared with SH, TN, and SN. There were no changes both in the concentrations of adiponectin and leptin and in the protein expression of GLUT-4 and p70 s6k . HD containing WPI improved body composition, increased the weight of the heart, kidneys, liver and gastrocnemius and soleus muscles; however, this diet maintained the normal histomorphology of muscle and liver and, when associated with RT, reduced the serum levels of triglycerides. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Neural circuits containing olfactory neurons are involved in prepulse inhibition of the startle reflex in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haichen eNiu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Many neuropsychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia, have been associated with abnormalities in the function of the olfactory system and prepulse inhibition (PPI of the startle reflex. However, whether these two abnormalities are related is unclear. The present study was designed to determine whether inhibiting olfactory sensory input via the infusion of zinc sulfate (ZnE, 0.17 M, 0.5 ml into the olfactory naris disrupts PPI. Furthermore, lidocaine/MK801 was bilaterally microinjected into the olfactory bulb (OB to examine whether the blockade of olfactory sensory input impairs PPI. To identify the neural projections that connect the olfaction- and PPI-related areas of the CNS, trans-synaptic retrograde tracing using a recombinant pseudorabies virus (PRV was performed. Our results demonstrated that blocking olfactory sensory input altered olfaction-related behavior. At the functional level, we demonstrated that the inhibition of olfactory sensory input impaired PPI of the startle response subsequent to a decrease in c-fos expression in relevant brain regions. Furthermore, the results of a similar and more robust experiment indicated that blocking olfactory sensory input via the microinjection of lidocaine/MK801 into the OB impaired PPI. At the circuit level, based on trans-synaptic retrograde tracing using PRV, we demonstrated that a large portion of the labeled neurons in several regions of the olfactory cortices connected to the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus (PPTg. Thus, these data suggest that the olfactory system participates in the regulation of PPI and plays a role in the effect of PPI on the startle response in rats.

  9. Antioxidant status, lipoprotein profile and liver lipids in rats fed on high-cholesterol diet containing currant oil rich in n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecera, R; Skottová, N; Vána, P; Kazdová, L; Chmela, Z; Svagera, Z; Walterá, D; Ulrichová, J; Simánek, V

    2003-01-01

    Plant-based n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) possess a prospective antiatherogenic potential. Currant oil from Ribes nigrum L. is one of the few plant oils containing PUFAn-3 (15.3 mol%) in addition to PUFAn-6 (60.5 mol%). This study was aimed at comparing the effects of currant oil with those of lard fat, rich in saturated (43.8 mol%) and monounsaturated (47.0 mol%) fatty acids, on antioxidant parameters, the lipoprotein profile and liver lipids in rats fed on 1 % (w/w) cholesterol diets containing either 10 % of currant oil (COD) or lard fat (LFD). After 3 weeks of feeding, the COD induced a significant decrease in blood glutathione (GSH) and an increase in Cu(2+) induced oxidizability of serum lipids, but did not affect liver GSH and t-butyl hydroperoxide-induced lipoperoxidation of liver microsomes. Although the COD did not cause accumulation of liver triacylglycerols as LFD, the lipoprotein profile (VLDL, LDL, HDL) was not significantly improved after COD. The consumption of PUFAn-3 was reflected in LDL as an increase in eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid. These results suggest that currant oil affects positively the lipid metabolism in the liver, above all it does not cause the development of a fatty liver. However, adverse effects of currant oil on the antioxidant status in the blood still remain of concern.

  10. Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey Kondrashov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to perform a chemical analysis of both Alibernet red wine and an alcohol-free Alibernet red wine extract (AWE and to investigate the effects of AWE on nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species production as well as blood pressure development in normotensive Wistar Kyoto (WKY and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs. Total antioxidant capacity together with total phenolic and selected mineral content was measured in wine and AWE. Young 6-week-old male WKY and SHR were treated with AWE (24,2 mg/kg/day for 3 weeks. Total NOS and SOD activities, eNOS and SOD1 protein expressions, and superoxide production were determined in the tissues. Both antioxidant capacity and phenolic content were significantly higher in AWE compared to wine. The AWE increased NOS activity in the left ventricle, aorta, and kidney of SHR, while it did not change NOS activity in WKY rats. Similarly, increased SOD activity in the plasma and left ventricle was observed in SHR only. There were no changes in eNOS and SOD1 expressions. In conclusion, phenolics and minerals included in AWE may contribute directly to increased NOS and SOD activities of SHR. Nevertheless, 3 weeks of AWE treatment failed to affect blood pressure of SHR.

  11. Transient gestational exposure to drinking water containing excess hexavalent chromium modifies insulin signaling in liver and skeletal muscle of rat progeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shobana, Navaneethabalakrishnan; Aruldhas, Mariajoseph Michael; Tochhawng, Lalmuankimi; Loganathan, Ayyalu; Balaji, Sadhasivam; Kumar, Mani Kathiresh; Banu, Liaquat Alikhan Sheerin; Navin, Ajit Kumar; Mayilvanan, Chinnaiyan; Ilangovan, Ramachandran; Balasubramanian, Karundevi

    2017-11-01

    Chromium (Cr), an essential micronutrient potentiates insulin action, whereas excess hexavalent Cr (CrVI) acts as an endocrine disruptor. Pregnant mothers living in areas abutting industries using the metal and chromite ore dumps are exposed to ground water contaminated with Cr. Nevertheless, the impact of prenatal exposure to excess CrVI on insulin signaling in the progeny remains obscure. We tested the hypothesis "transient gestational exposure to drinking water containing excess CrVI may modify insulin signaling during postnatal life". Pregnant Wistar rats were given drinking water containing 50, 100 and 200 ppm CrVI (K 2 Cr 2 O 7 ) from gestational day 9-14 encompassing the period of organogenesis; the male progenies were tested at postnatal day 60. Neither fasting blood glucose nor oral glucose tolerance was altered in CrVI treated progeny. Nevertheless, western blot detection pointed out attenuated expression level of insulin receptor (IR), its downstream signaling molecules (IRS-1, pIRS-1 Tyr632 , Akt and pAkt Ser473 ) and organ specific glucose transporters (GLUT2 in liver and GLUT4 in gastrocnemius muscle), along with a significant increase in serum insulin level in male progenies exposed to CrVI. While 14 C-2-deoxy glucose uptake increased in the liver, the same decreased in the skeletal muscle whereas, 14 C-glucose oxidation recorded a consistent decrease in both tissues of CrVI exposed rats. These findings support our hypothesis and suggest that transient gestational exposure to excess CrVI may affect insulin signaling and glucose oxidation in the progeny, predictably rendering them vulnerable to insulin resistance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Castor oil polyurethane containing silica nanoparticles as filling material of bone defect in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nacer, Renato Silva; Poppi, Rodrigo Ré; Carvalho, Paulo de Tarso Camilo de; Silva, Baldomero Antonio Kato da; Odashiro, Alexandre Nakao; Silva, Iandara Schettert; Delben, José Renato Jurkevicz; Delben, Angela Antonia Sanches Tardivo

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the biologic behavior of the castor polymer containing silica nanoparticles as a bone substitute in diafisary defect. Twenty seven male Rattus norvegicus albinus Wistar lineage were submitted to bone defect filled with castor oil polymer. Three experimental groups had been formed with nine animals each: (1) castor oil polymer containing only calcium carbonate; (2) castor oil polymer with calcium carbonate and doped with 5% of silica nanoparticles; (3) castor polymer with calcium carbonate doped with 10% of silica nanoparticles; 3 animals of each group were submitted to euthanasia 15, 30 and 60 days after experimental procedure, and their femurs were removed to histological evaluation. there was bone growth in all the studied groups, with a greater tendency of growth in the group 1. After 30 days all the groups presented similar results. After 60 days a greater amount of fibroblasts, osteoblasts, osteocytes and osteoclasts in group 3 was observed, with integrated activity of 3 kinds of cells involved in the bone activation-reabsorption-formation. The castor polymer associated to the silica nanoparticles is biocompatible and allows osteoconduction. The presence of osteoprogenitors cells suggests silica osteoinduction capacity.

  13. Acute hypothalamic suppression significantly affects trabecular bone but not cortical bone following recovery and ovariectomy surgery in a rat model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa R. Yingling

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Osteoporosis is “a pediatric disease with geriatric consequences.” Bone morphology and tissue quality co-adapt during ontogeny for sufficient bone stiffness. Altered bone morphology from hypothalamic amenorrhea, a risk factor for low bone mass in women, may affect bone strength later in life. Our purpose was to determine if altered morphology following hypothalamic suppression during development affects cortical bone strength and trabecular bone volume (BV/TV at maturity.Methods. Female rats (25 days old were assigned to a control (C group (n = 45 that received saline injections (.2 cc or an experimental group (GnRH-a (n = 45 that received gonadotropin releasing hormone antagonist injections (.24 mg per dose for 25 days. Fifteen animals from each group were sacrificed immediately after the injection protocol at Day 50 (C, GnRH-a. The remaining animals recovered for 135 days and a subset of each group was sacrificed at Day 185 ((C-R (n = 15 and (G-R (n = 15. The remaining animals had an ovariectomy surgery (OVX at 185 days of age and were sacrificed 40 days later (C-OVX (n = 15 and (G-OVX (n = 15. After sacrifice femurs were mechanically tested and scanned using micro CT. Serum C-terminal telopeptides (CTX and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1 were measured. Two-way ANOVA (2 groups (GnRH-a and Control X 3 time points (Injection Protocol, Recovery, post-OVX was computed.Results. GnRH-a injections suppressed uterine weights (72% and increased CTX levels by 59%. Bone stiffness was greater in the GnRH-a groups compared to C. Ash content and cortical bone area were similar between groups at all time points. Polar moment of inertia, a measure of bone architecture, was 15% larger in the GnRH-a group and remained larger than C (19% following recovery. Both the polar moment of inertia and cortical area increased linearly with the increases in body weight. Following the injection protocol, trabecular BV/TV was 31% lower in the Gn

  14. Sendai virosomal infusion of an adeno-associated virus-derived construct containing neuropeptide Y into primary rat brain cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, P; de Fiebre, C M; Millard, W J; Elmstrom, K; Gao, Y; Meyer, E M

    1995-05-05

    A novel neuronal gene-delivery system was investigated in primary neuron-enriched cultures with respect to driving the expression of neuropeptide Y (NPY). This delivery system consists of an adeno-associated virus-derived (AAV) plasmid, pJDT95npy, encapsulated in reconstituted Sendai virosomes. pJDT95npy contains full length rat NPY cDNA inserted downstream from the P40 promoter in a cap-gene deleted AAV-derived construct. The rep-sequences under control of the P5 and P19 promoters are intact. Virosomally encapsulated pJDT95npy drove the expression of NPY mRNAs, predominantly by P40. Total cellular NPY immunoreactivity and release in the presence of depolarization increased following pJDT95npy-transfection. Neither empty virosomes nor virosomes containing pJDT95 affected NPY mRNA expression or immunoreactivity. This study demonstrates that an AAV-derived plasmid can drive exogenous gene expression in intact neurons after infusion by Sendai virosomes.

  15. Influence of caffeine consumption on 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene-induced mammary gland tumorigenesis in female rats fed a chemically defined diet containing standard and high levels of unsaturated fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsch, C W; DeHoog, J V

    1988-04-15

    The effect of caffeine (430-500 mg/liter of drinking water) on the initiation and promotion phases of 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA)-induced mammary gland tumorigenesis in female Sprague-Dawley rats fed a chemically defined diet containing standard (5%) or high (20%) levels of fat (corn oil) was examined. In the initiation studies, caffeine and the standard or high fat diet treatments were provided for 34 days, from 24-29 days of age to 58-63 days of age. Three days prior to termination of caffeine-fat diet treatments, each rat received a single dose of DMBA. In the promotion studies, caffeine and the standard or high fat diets were provided commencing 3 days after a single dose of DMBA (at 56-61 days of age) and until termination of the study. Caffeine consumption, during the initiation phase significantly (P less than 0.05) reduced mammary carcinoma multiplicity (number of tumors/rat), in rats fed either a standard or high fat diet. In the promotion studies, prolonged consumption of caffeine in rats fed either a standard or high fat diet did not significantly effect mammary carcinoma multiplicity. In the early stages of promotion, an apparent increase in mammary carcinoma multiplicity was observed; this increase in mammary carcinoma multiplicity did not, however, reach the 5% level of statistical probability. When caffeine was administered during both the initiation and promotion phases, no significant effect on mammary carcinoma multiplicity was observed. Treatment of rats during the initiation or promotion phases with caffeinated coffee (via drinking water) mimicked the mammary tumor modulating activities of caffeine. Decaffeinated coffee consumption did not effect either the initiation or promotion phases of this tumorigenic process. In both the initiation and promotion studies, caffeine and/or coffee consumption did not significantly affect the incidence of mammary carcinomas (percentage of rats bearing mammary carcinomas) or the mean latency period of

  16. Immunohistochemical detection of ganglia in the rat stomach serosa, containing neurons immunoreactive for gastrin-releasing peptide and vasoactive intestinal peptide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Steen Seier; Holst, J J

    1987-01-01

    Ganglia, not previously described, were identified in the rat stomach serosa along the minor curvature. The ganglia consisted of varying number of cell bodies lying in clusters along or within nerve bundles. The ganglia were shown to contain GRP and VIP immunoreactive nerve fibers and cell bodies...

  17. Biochemical evidence for. gamma. -aminobutyrate containing fibres from the nucleus accumbens to the substantia nigra and ventral tegmental area in the rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walaas, I; Fonnum, F

    1980-01-01

    Glutamate decarboxylase activity, a specific marker for ..gamma..-aminobutyrate-containing neurons, has been analysed in microdissected samples from rat mesencephalon following unilateral electrocoagulations of the nucleus accumbens. This lesion resulted in a consistent decrease of 50% in the enzyme activity in the rostromedial substantia nigra, and a slight, but insignificant decrease (- 15%) in the medial parts of the caudal pars compacta of the substantia nigra. No change was found in the lateral pars compacta or the central pars reticulata. In the ventral tegmental area, the highest activity was found in the rostromedial part, adjacent to the mammillary body. At this level, a significant decrease of 20% was found in the ventral tegmental area on the lesioned side. In contrast, the activities in the medial accessory optic nucleus and the caudal ventral tegmental area adjacent to the interpenduncular nucleus were unchanged. The results indicate that the nucleus accumbens sends ..gamma..-aminobutyrate-containing fibres to the rostromedial substantia nigra and to the rostral ventral tegmental area. The caudal ventral tegmental area, the lateral pars compacta and the central pars reticulata do not receive measurable amounts of such fibres.

  18. Penetration of gas into concrete during a leakage rate test of reactor containments and its significance for the drop in pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilsson L.-O.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the project described in the paper was to develop a simulation model that describes transient air pressure distribution in concrete in order to see if the leakage rates obtained from the Containment Integrated Leakage Rate Tests can be explained by the transient air pressurization of concrete pores inside the steel liner. A partial differential equation was derived which describes transient air pressure distribution in concrete pores. The model was validated against experimental results. The simulation model shows that there are significant air fluxes into the concrete structures that can explain the pressure drop during a leakage test.

  19. Integrating the Public in Mosquito Management: Active Education by Community Peers Can Lead to Significant Reduction in Peridomestic Container Mosquito Habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, Kristen; Hamilton, George; Crepeau, Taryn; Healy, Sean; Unlu, Isik; Farajollahi, Ary; Fonseca, Dina M.

    2014-01-01

    Mosquito species that utilize peridomestic containers for immature development are commonly aggressive human biters, and because they often reach high abundance, create significant nuisance. One of these species, the Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus, is an important vector of emerging infectious diseases, such as dengue, chikungunya, and Zika fevers. Integrated mosquito management (IMM) of Ae. albopictus is particularly difficult because it requires access to private yards in urban and suburban residences. It has become apparent that in the event of a public health concern due to this species, homeowners will have to be active participants in the control process by reducing mosquito habitats in their properties, an activity known as source reduction. However, limited attempts at quantifying the effect of source reduction by homeowners have had mixed results. Of note, many mosquito control programs in the US have some form of education outreach, however the primary approach is often passive focusing on the distribution of education materials as flyers. In 2010, we evaluated the use of active community peer education in a source reduction program, using AmeriCorps volunteers. The volunteers were mobilized over a 4-week period, in two areas with approximately 1,000 residences each in urban Mercer and suburban Monmouth counties in New Jersey, USA. The volunteers were first provided training on peridomestic mosquitoes and on basic approaches to reducing the number of container habitats for mosquito larvae in backyards. Within the two treatment areas the volunteers successfully engaged 758 separate homes. Repeated measures analysis of variance showed a significant reduction in container habitats in the sites where the volunteers actively engaged the community compared to untreated control areas in both counties. Our results suggest that active education using community peer educators can be an effective means of source reduction, and a critical tool in the arsenal

  20. Structural and metabolic studies of O-linked fucose-containing proteins of normal and virally-transformed rat fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morton, P.A.

    1985-01-01

    Previous studies in this laboratory have demonstrated that cultured human and rodent cells contain a series of low molecular weight glycosylated amino acids of unusual structure, designated amino acid fucosides. The incorporation of radiolabelled-fucose into one of these components, designated FL4a (glucosylfucosylthreonine), is markedly-reduced in transformed epithelial and fibroblastic cells. The authors have examined fucose-labelled normal and virally-transformed rat fibroblast cell lines for glycoproteins which might be precursors to amino acid fucosides. Using milk alkaline/borohydride treatment (the beta-elimination reaction) to release O-linked oligosaccharides from proteins, they have isolated and partially characterized two low M/sub r/ reaction products (designated DS-ol and TS-ol) released from macromolecular cell material. The identity of one of these components (DS-ol, glucosylfucitol) suggested the existence in these cells of a direct protein precursor to FL4a. They examined fucose-labelled macromolecular cell material for proteins which release DS-ol (DS-proteins.). Using gel filtration chromatography and sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) with subsequent autoradiography, they have observed DS-proteins which appear to exhibit a broad molecular weight size range, and are also present in culture medium from normal and transformed cells. The findings suggest that mammalian cells contain DS-proteins and TS-proteins with a novel carbohydrate-peptide linkage wherein L-fucose is O-linked to a polypeptide backbone. Metabolic studies were undertaken to examine both the relationship between DS-protein and FL4a and the biochemical basis for the decreased level of FL4a and the biochemical basis for the decreased level of FL4a observed in transformed cells

  1. Anatomical and electrophysiological characterization of presumed dopamine-containing neurons within the supramammillary region of the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepard, P D; Mihailoff, G A; German, D C

    1988-03-01

    A combination of immunocytochemical, electrophysiological and pharmacological techniques were employed to study the properties of neurons within the supramammillary (SUM) complex of the rat. The SUM region contains a small, but dense, population of tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactive neurons. Following injection of the orthograde neuroanatomical tracer, Phaseolus Vulgaris leucoagglutinin, into the SUM region, heavy terminal labeling was observed in the lateral septal nucleus, diagonal band of Broca and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis. The electrophysiological and pharmacological properties of antidromically-activated SUM neurons revealed evidence of two neuronal populations. Both groups of neurons exhibited long duration action potentials (greater than 2 msec) and slow conduction velocities (less than 0.5 m/sec). However, cells in one group were characterized by slow and erratic firing rates and insensitivity to dopamine (DA) autoreceptor agonists. Cells in the other group typically exhibited no spontaneous activity but could be induced to discharge by iontophoretic application of glutamate. These latter cells were sensitive to DA autoreceptor stimulation. Of the two populations of mammilloseptal SUM neurons, the silent population exhibited several properties similar to those of midbrain DA neurons.

  2. Simultaneous localization of an hepatic binding protein specific for galactose and of galactose-containing receptors on rat hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horisberger, M; VonLanthen, M

    1978-11-01

    The hepatic binding protein, specific for galactose-terminated glycoproteins (asialoglycoproteins) and the receptors for the Ricinus communis lectin, specific for galactose residues (RCA1), were simultaneously localized on isolated rat hepatocytes by the gold method. The marker for the binding protein was prepared from gold granules (5 nm in diam.) labeled with ceruloplasmin and desialylated. The marker specific for galactose-containing receptors consisted of granules (17 nm in diameter) labeled with RCA1. It was established that both markers did not interact. Hepatocytes (fresh or briefly fixed with glutaraldehyde) were successively incubated with the asialoceruloplasmin and the RCA1 marker. Examination of thin sections by electron microscopy indicated that the binding protein and the RCA1 receptors were often in the proximity of each other on the plasmamembrane. Using the same technique, wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) receptors were generally found on area of the plasmamembrane poorly marked by the RCA1 gold marker. The binding of asialoceruloplasmin gold markers was studied as a function of the size of the granules. It became insignificant when the size was above 17 nm. Previous results have shown that the binding of RCA1 is low when the marker reaches 50 nm in size while WGA markers up to 75 nm are well bound by hepatocytes. It is therefore hypothesized that the binding protein and RCA1 receptors are located between glycoprotein brushes of increasing spacing while part or all of the WGA receptors are located at the periphery of the brushes.

  3. Selective Activation of AMPK β1-Containing Isoforms Improves Kidney Function in a Rat Model of Diabetic Nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salatto, Christopher T; Miller, Russell A; Cameron, Kimberly O; Cokorinos, Emily; Reyes, Allan; Ward, Jessica; Calabrese, Matthew F; Kurumbail, Ravi G; Rajamohan, Francis; Kalgutkar, Amit S; Tess, David A; Shavnya, Andre; Genung, Nathan E; Edmonds, David J; Jatkar, Aditi; Maciejewski, Benjamin S; Amaro, Marina; Gandhok, Harmeet; Monetti, Mara; Cialdea, Katherine; Bollinger, Eliza; Kreeger, John M; Coskran, Timothy M; Opsahl, Alan C; Boucher, Germaine G; Birnbaum, Morris J; DaSilva-Jardine, Paul; Rolph, Tim

    2017-05-01

    Diabetic nephropathy remains an area of high unmet medical need, with current therapies that slow down, but do not prevent, the progression of disease. A reduced phosphorylation state of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) has been correlated with diminished kidney function in both humans and animal models of renal disease. Here, we describe the identification of novel, potent, small molecule activators of AMPK that selectively activate AMPK heterotrimers containing the β 1 subunit. After confirming that human and rodent kidney predominately express AMPK β 1, we explore the effects of pharmacological activation of AMPK in the ZSF1 rat model of diabetic nephropathy. Chronic administration of these direct activators elevates the phosphorylation of AMPK in the kidney, without impacting blood glucose levels, and reduces the progression of proteinuria to a greater degree than the current standard of care, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor ramipril. Further analyses of urine biomarkers and kidney tissue gene expression reveal AMPK activation leads to the modulation of multiple pathways implicated in kidney injury, including cellular hypertrophy, fibrosis, and oxidative stress. These results support the need for further investigation into the potential beneficial effects of AMPK activation in kidney disease. Copyright © 2017 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  4. Prenatal prochloraz treatment significantly increases pregnancy length and reduces offspring weight but does not affect social-olfactory memory in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmytriyeva, Oksana; Klementiev, Boris; Berezin, Vladimir; Bock, Elisabeth

    2013-07-01

    Metabolites of the commonly used imidazole fungicide prochloraz are androgen receptor antagonists. They have been shown to block androgen-driven development and compromise reproductive function. We tested the effect of prochloraz on cognitive behavior following exposure to this fungicide during the perinatal period. Pregnant Wistar rats were administered a 200 mg/kg dose of prochloraz on gestational day (GD) 7, GD11, and GD15. The social recognition test (SRT) was performed on 7-week-old male rat offspring. We found an increase in pregnancy length and a significantly reduced pup weight on PND15 and PND40 but no effect of prenatal prochloraz exposure on social investigation or acquisition of social-olfactory memory. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. 4-Methoxymethyl-2,3,5,6-tetrafluorobenzyl alcohol as a urinary biomarker for monitoring of metofluthrin, a fluorine-containing pyrethroid, in exposed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Toshiaki

    2015-02-01

    A fluorine-containing pyrethroid metofluthrin is widely used recently in mosquito repellents. The urinary excretion kinetics of its metabolites was evaluated in rats to establish an optimal biomarker for monitoring metofluthrin exposure of the general population. After metofluthrin had been administered intraperitoneally to rats, the urinary excretion kinetics of the major metofluthrin metabolites was evaluated by moment analysis. The urinary excretion amounts of 4-methoxymethyl-2,3,5,6-tetrafluorobenzyl alcohol were estimated to be proportional to the absorption amounts over a wide exposure range. Urinary 4-methoxymethyl-2,3,5,6-tetrafluorobenzyl alcohol was considered to be an optimal biomarker for metofluthrin exposure.

  6. The Vasodilator Effect of a Cream Containing 10% Menthol and 15% Methyl Salicylate on Random-Pattern Skin Flaps in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dölen, Utku Can; Sungur, Nezih; Koca, Gökhan; Ertunç, Onur; Bağcı Bosi, Ayşe Tülay; Koçer, Uğur; Korkmaz, Meliha

    2015-11-01

    It is still difficult to prevent partial or full-thickness flap necrosis. In this study, the effects of a cream containing menthol and methyl salicylate on the viability of randompattern skin flaps were studied. Forty female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into two equal groups. Caudally based dorsal random-pattern skin flaps were elevated, including the panniculus carnosus. In the study group, 1.5 mL of a cream containing menthol and methyl salicylate was applied to the skin of the flap, and saline solution (0.9%) was used in the control group. Upon completion of the experiment, flap necrosis was analyzed with imaging software and radionuclide scintigraphy. Histopathological measurements were made of the percentage of viable flaps, the number of vessels, and the width of the panniculus carnosus muscle. According to the photographic analysis, the mean viable flap surface area in the study group was larger than that in the control group (P=0.004). According to the scintigrams, no change in radioactivity uptake was seen in the study group (P>0.05). However, a significant decrease was observed in the control group (P=0.006). No statistically significant differences were observed between the groups in terms of the percentage of viable flaps, the number of vessels, or the width of the panniculus carnosus muscle (P>0.05). Based on these results, it is certain that the cream did not reduce the viability of the flaps. Due to its vasodilatory effect, it can be used as a component of the dressing in reconstructive operations where skin perfusion is compromised.

  7. The Vasodilator Effect of a Cream Containing 10% Menthol and 15% Methyl Salicylate on Random-Pattern Skin Flaps in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Utku Can Dölen

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundIt is still difficult to prevent partial or full-thickness flap necrosis. In this study, the effects of a cream containing menthol and methyl salicylate on the viability of randompattern skin flaps were studied.MethodsForty female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into two equal groups. Caudally based dorsal random-pattern skin flaps were elevated, including the panniculus carnosus. In the study group, 1.5 mL of a cream containing menthol and methyl salicylate was applied to the skin of the flap, and saline solution (0.9% was used in the control group. Upon completion of the experiment, flap necrosis was analyzed with imaging software and radionuclide scintigraphy. Histopathological measurements were made of the percentage of viable flaps, the number of vessels, and the width of the panniculus carnosus muscle.ResultsAccording to the photographic analysis, the mean viable flap surface area in the study group was larger than that in the control group (P=0.004. According to the scintigrams, no change in radioactivity uptake was seen in the study group (P>0.05. However, a significant decrease was observed in the control group (P=0.006. No statistically significant differences were observed between the groups in terms of the percentage of viable flaps, the number of vessels, or the width of the panniculus carnosus muscle (P>0.05.ConclusionsBased on these results, it is certain that the cream did not reduce the viability of the flaps. Due to its vasodilatory effect, it can be used as a component of the dressing in reconstructive operations where skin perfusion is compromised.

  8. Comparison of growth, nitrogen metabolism and organ weights in piglets and rats fed on diets containing Phaseolus vulgaris beans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, J.; Poel, A.F.B. van der; Leeuwen, P. van; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    1990-01-01

    The effects of lectins in the diet have been mainly studied in rats. An important question is whether results obtained in rats can be extrapolated to larger animals like the pig. Phaseolus vulgaris beans are rich in toxic lectins. Therefore a study was carried out to compare the effects of diets

  9. Diacylglycerol-enriched structured lipids containing CLA and capric acid alter body fat mass and lipid metabolism in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hye-Jin; Lee, Ki-Teak; Lee, Mi-Kyung; Jeon, Seon-Min; Choi, Myung-Sook

    2006-01-01

    The present study compared the effect of corn oil, diacylglycerol (DG) oil, and DG-enriched structured lipids (SL-DG) produced from corn oil, capric and conjugated linoleic acid on adiposity in rats fed an AIN-76 diet (5% fat) for 6 weeks. The plasma and hepatic lipids, adipose tissue weight, and enzyme activities related to fatty acid metabolism were determined. The weights of the epididymal white adipose tissue (WAT), perirenal WAT, and interscapular WAT were significantly lower in the SL-DG group than in the DG group. Reduction of fat mass in the SL-DG group was related to suppressing fatty acid synthase activities and enhancing beta-oxidation activity in perirenal WAT. The plasma leptin was lower in the SL-DG group than in the DG group, plus a lower plasma TG level was accompanied by an increase in adipocyte LPL activity. Meanwhile the SL-DG supplement lowered the plasma and hepatic cholesterol level. In addition, the hepatic HMG-CoA reductase and ACAT activities were significantly lower in the SL-DG group than in the other groups. The DG-enriched SL used in this study was effective in enhancing triglyceride metabolism in adipose tissue, especially as regards reducing the abdominal fat mass and cholesterol metabolism in the liver. Copyright 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Significance of the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) in brain tissue of rat models of experimental intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Jiami; Liu Shengda

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To study the relationship between the brain tissue expression of MMP-9 and brain water content in rat models of experimental ICH. Methods: Rat models of ICH were prepared with intracerebral (caudate nuclei) injection of autologous noncoagulated blood (50 μl). Animals were sacrificed at 6h, 12h, 24h, 48h, 72h, 120h, lw, 2w and the MMP-9 expressions at the periphery of intracerebral hematoma were examined with immunohisto chemistry. The brain water content was also determined at the same time. Control models were prepared with intracerebral sham injection of normal saline. Results: (1) In the ICH models, the number of MMP-9 positive capillaries at the periphery of hematoma began to rise at 6h (vs that of sham group, P < 0.01 ) with peak at 48h, then gradually dropped. At lwk, the number was still significantly higher than that in the sham group (P <0.01 ). However, there were no expression at 2wk. (2) The brain water content in the ICH group was significantly increased at 12h (vs sham group, P < 0.05) with peak at 72h. At lwk, the brain water content was still significantly higher in the ICH group (P <0.01 ) but at 2wk, the brain water content was about the same in both groups. (3) Animals injected with different amounts of blood (30 μl, 50 μl, 100 μl) showed increased expression of MMP-9 along with the increase of dose (P<0.01). (4) The MMP-9 expression was positively correlated with the brain water content (r=0.8291, P<0.05). Conclusion: In the rat models, MMP-9 expression was activated after ICH. The increase paralleled that of the amount of haemorrhage and brain water content. It was postulated that MMP-9 enhanced development of brain edema through degrading of the blood brain barrier component substances. (authors)

  11. A human intervention study with foods containing natural Ah-receptor agonists does not significantly show AhR-mediated effects as measured in blood cells and urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Waard, Pim W J; Peijnenburg, Ad A C M; Baykus, Hakan; Aarts, Jac M M J G; Hoogenboom, Ron L A P; van Schooten, Frederik J; de Kok, Theo M C M

    2008-10-22

    Binding and activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is thought to be an essential step in the toxicity of the environmental pollutants dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs. However, also a number of natural compounds, referred to as NAhRAs (natural Ah-receptor agonists), which are present in, for example, fruits and vegetables, can bind and activate this receptor. To study their potential effects in humans, we first investigated the effect of the prototypical AhR agonist 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) on gene expression in ex vivo exposed freshly isolated human lymphocytes, and compared the resulting gene expression profile with those caused by the well-known NAhRA indolo[3,2-b]carbazole (ICZ), originating from cruciferous vegetables, and by a hexane extract of NAhRA-containing grapefruit juice (GJE). Only ICZ induced a gene expression profile similar to TCDD in the lymphocytes, and both significantly up-regulated CYP1B1 and TIPARP (TCDD-inducible poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase) mRNA. Next, we performed a human intervention study with NAhRA-containing cruciferous vegetables and grapefruit juice. The expression of the prototypical AhR-responsive genes CYP1A1, CYP1B1 and NQO1 in whole blood cells and in freshly isolated lymphocytes was not significantly affected. Also enzyme activities of CYP1A2, CYP2A6, N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2) and xanthine oxidase (XO), as judged by caffeine metabolites in urine, were unaffected, except for a small down-regulation of NAT2 activity by grapefruit juice. Examination of blood plasma with DR CALUX showed a 12% increased AhR agonist activity 3 and 24 h after consumption of cruciferous vegetables, but did not show a significant effect of grapefruit juice consumption. We conclude that intake of NAhRAs from food may result in minor AhR-related effects measurable in human blood and urine.

  12. Ovarian follicular dynamics and plasma steroid concentrations are not significantly different in ewes given intravaginal sponges containing either 20 or 40 mg of fluorogestone acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letelier, C A; Contreras-Solis, I; García-Fernández, R A; Ariznavarreta, C; Tresguerres, J A F; Flores, J M; Gonzalez-Bulnes, A

    2009-03-01

    Although various progestagens are often used to induce and synchronize estrus and ovulation in ruminants, concerns regarding residues are the impetus to develop alternative approaches, including reduced doses of progestagens. Therefore, the objective was to determine whether ovarian function was affected by halving the dose of fluorogestone acetate in intravaginal sponges for synchronizing ovulation in sheep during the physiologic breeding season. Twenty Manchega ewes, 4-6-year-old, were randomly allocated to receive an intravaginal sponge containing either 20mg (P20, n=10) or 40 mg of fluorogestone acetate (P40, n=10). Cloprostenol (125 microg) was given at sponge insertion, and all sponges were removed after 6d. Ovarian follicular dynamics (monitored by daily ultrasonography) and other aspects of ovarian function did not differ significantly between the two groups. Ovulatory follicles (OF) grew at a similar growth rate (r=0.62; Pprogesterone concentrations (3.8+/-0.35 ng/mL for P20 and 3.9+/-0.38 ng/mL for P40) were similar. In conclusion, reducing the dose of fluorogestone acetate from 40 to 20mg did not affect significantly ovarian follicular dynamics or other aspects of ovarian function.

  13. Anti-inflammatory and healing action of oral gel containing borneol monoterpene in chemotherapy-induced mucositis in rats ( Rattus norvegicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Braz José do Nascimento-Júnior

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of gels containing the monoterpene borneol in induced oral mucositis using an animal model. Gels were prepared with borneol at 1.2% and 2.4% (w/w. Oral mucositis was induced by administration of three doses of 5-fluorouracil (30 mg/kg, i.p. and injury with acetic acid (50%, v/v soaked in filter paper applied to right cheek mucosa for 60s. Four subgroups comprising 12 animals each were formed. Six animals from each group were sacrificed at days seven and fourteen after oral mucositis induction. Mucous samples were processed and stained with hematoxylin-eosin and Masson’s Trichrome. The semiquantitative evaluation involved observation of inflammatory parameters. ImageJ® software was used in the quantitative evaluation. For statistical analyses, Two-way ANOVA, followed by Tukey’s post-test (p <0.05, were employed. Borneol 2.4% gel proved effective in the treatment of oral mucositis with statistically significant differences between groups for angiogenesis control, inflammatory cell count reduction and percentage neoformed collagen increase. The confirmation of anti-inflammatory and healing action of borneol in oral mucositis in rats renders it a good marker for predicting this activity for plant extracts rich in this substance.

  14. Development of solid lipid nanoparticles containing total flavonoid extract from Dracocephalum moldavica L. and their therapeutic effect against myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Mei-E; He, Cheng-Hui; Jiang, Wen; Zeng, Cheng; Yu, Ning; Huang, Wei; Gao, Zhong-Gao; Xing, Jian-Guo

    2017-01-01

    Total flavonoid extract from Dracocephalum moldavica L. (TFDM) contains effective components of D. moldavica L. that have myocardial protective function. However, the cardioprotection function of TFDM is undesirable due to its poor solubility. In order to improve the solubility and efficacy of TFDM, we developed TFDM-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles (TFDM-SLNs) and optimized the formulation of TFDM-SLNs using central composite design and response surface methodology. The physicochemical properties of TFDM-SLNs were characterized, and the pharmacodynamics was investigated using the myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury model in rats. The nanoparticles of optimal formulation for TFDM-SLNs were spherical in shape with the average particle size of 104.83 nm and had a uniform size distribution with the polydispersity index value of 0.201. TFDM-SLNs also had a negative zeta potential of -28.7 mV to ensure the stability of the TFDM-SLNs emulsion system. The results of pharmacodynamics demonstrated that both TFDM and TFDM-SLN groups afforded myocardial protection, and the protective effect of TFDM-SLNs was significantly superior to that of TFDM alone, based on the infarct area, histopathological examination, cardiac enzyme levels and inflammatory factors in serum. Due to the optimal quality and the better myocardial protective effect, TFDM-SLNs are expected to become a safe and effective nanocarrier for the oral delivery of TFDM.

  15. Effects of a herbal gel containing carvacrol and chalcones on alveolar bone resorption in rats on experimental periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botelho, Marco Antonio; Rao, Vietla Satyanarayana; Montenegro, Danusa; Bandeira, Mary Anne Menezes; Fonseca, Said Gonçalves Cruz; Nogueira, Nadia Accioly Pinto; Ribeiro, Ronaldo Albuquerque; Brito, Gerly Anne Castro

    2008-04-01

    Carvacrol and dimeric chalcones are the respective bioactive components of Lippia sidoides and Myracrodruon urundeuva, popular medicinal plants of Northeastern Brazil with proven antimicrobial and antiinflammatory properties. Periodontal disease is associated with inflammation and microbiological proliferation, thus the study aimed to investigate the effect of a topical gel based on carvacrol and chalcones in the experimental periodontal disease (EPD) in rats. Animals were treated with carvacrol and/or chalcones gel, immediately after EPD induction, three times a day for 11 days. Appropriate controls were included in the study. Animals were weighed daily. They were killed on day 11, the mandibles dissected and alveolar bone loss was measured. The periodontium were examined at histopathology and the neutrophil influx into the gingiva was assayed using myeloperoxidase activity. The bacterial flora were assessed through culture of the gingival tissue. Alveolar bone loss was significantly (p < 0.05) inhibited by combined carvacrol and chalcones gel, compared with the vehicle and non-treated groups. The treatment with the combined gel reduced tissue lesion at histopathology, decreased myeloperoxidase activity in gingival tissue and inhibited the growth of oral microorganisms as well as the weight loss. Carvacrol and chalcones combination gel has a beneficial effect upon EPD in this model. (c) 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Silver oxide-containing hydroxyapatite coating supports osteoblast function and enhances implant anchorage strength in rat femur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eto, Shuichi; Miyamoto, Hiroshi; Shobuike, Takeo; Noda, Iwao; Akiyama, Takayuki; Tsukamoto, Masatsugu; Ueno, Masaya; Someya, Shinsuke; Kawano, Shunsuke; Sonohata, Motoki; Mawatari, Masaaki

    2015-09-01

    Antibacterial silver with hydroxyapatite (Ag-HA) is a promising coating material for imparting antibacterial properties to implants. We previously reported that 3% (w/w) silver with HA (3% Ag-HA) has both antibacterial activity and osteoconductivity. In this study, we investigated the effects of Ag-HA on the in vitro osteoblast function and the in vivo anchorage strength and osteoconductivity of implants. Production of the osteoblast marker alkaline phosphatase, but not cytotoxicity, was observed in cells of the osteoblast cell line MC3T3-E1 cultured on the 3% Ag-HA-coated surface. These results were similar to those observed with silver-free HA coating. In contrast, a significant high level of cytotoxicity was observed when the cells were cultured on a 50% Ag-HA-coated surface. The anchorage strength of implants inserted into the femur of Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats was enhanced by coating the implants with 3% Ag-HA. On the 3% Ag-HA-coated surface, both metaphyseal and diaphyseal areas were largely covered with new bone and had adequate osteoconductivity. These results suggest that 3% Ag-HA, like conventional HA, promotes osteogenesis by supporting osteoblast viability and function and thereby contributes to sufficient anchorage strength of implants. Application of 3% Ag-HA, which combines the osteoconductivity of HA and the antibacterial activity of silver, to prosthetic joints will help prevent postoperative infections. © 2015 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Poly(lactic-co-glycolide) polymer constructs cross-linked with human BMP-6 and VEGF protein significantly enhance rat mandible defect repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Anusuya; Fishero, Brian A; Christophel, J Jared; Li, Ching-Ju; Kohli, Nikita; Lin, Yong; Dighe, Abhijit S; Cui, Quanjun

    2016-04-01

    We have previously shown that the combined delivery of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and bone morphogenetic protein 6 (BMP-6) induces significantly more bone formation than that induced by the delivery of any single factor or a combination of any two factors. We now determine whether the exogenous addition of VEGF and BMP-6 is sufficient for bone healing when MSCs are not provided. Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLAGA) microsphere-based three-dimensional scaffolds (P) were fabricated by thermal sintering of PLAGA microspheres. The scaffolds were chemically cross-linked with 200 ng recombinant human VEGF (P(VEGF)) or BMP-6 (P(BMP-6)) or both (P(VEGF+BMP-6)) by the EDC-NHS-MES method. Release of the proteins from the scaffolds was detected for 21 days in vitro which confirmed their comparable potential to supply the proteins in vivo. The scaffolds were delivered to a critical-sized mandibular defect created in 32 Sprague Dawley rats. Significant bone regeneration was observed only in rats with P(VEGF+BMP-6) scaffolds at weeks 2, 8 and 12 as revealed by micro-computer tomography. Vascular ingrowth was higher in the P(VEGF+BMP-6) group as seen by microfil imaging than in other groups. Trichrome staining revealed that a soft callus formed in P(VEGF), P(BMP-6) and P(VEGF+BMP-6) but not in P. MSCs isolated from rat femurs displayed expression of the bone-specific marker osteocalcin when cultured with P(VEGF), P(BMP-6), or P(VEGF+BMP-6) but not with P. Robust mineralization and increased alkaline phosphatase gene expression were seen in rat MSCs when cultured on P(VEGF+BMP-6) but not on P, P(VEGF), or P(BMP-6). Thus, unlike the delivery of VEGF or BMP-6 alone, the combined delivery of VEGF and BMP-6 to the bone defect significantly enhanced bone repair through the enhancement of angiogenesis and the differentiation of endogenously recruited MSCs into the bone repair site.

  18. Plant-based foods containing cell wall polysaccharides rich in specific active monosaccharides protect against myocardial injury in rat myocardial infarction models

    OpenAIRE

    Sun Ha Lim; Yaesil Kim; Ki Na Yun; Jin Young Kim; Jung-Hee Jang; Mee-Jung Han; Jongwon Lee

    2016-01-01

    Many cohort studies have shown that consumption of diets containing a higher composition of foods derived from plants reduces mortality from coronary heart disease (CHD). Here, we examined the active components of a plant-based diet and the underlying mechanisms that reduce the risk of CHD using three rat models and a quantitative proteomics approach. In a short-term myocardial infarction (MI) model, intake of wheat extract (WE), the representative cardioprotectant identified by screening app...

  19. β-lipotropin is the major opioid-like peptide of human pituitary and rat pars distalis: lack of significant β-endorphin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liotta, A.S.; Suda, T.; Krieger, D.T.

    1978-01-01

    β-Lipotropin is the predominant opioid peptide of the human pituitary and rat pars distalis and is present in concentrations essentially equimolar with corticotropin. When freshly obtained nonfrozen rat anterior pituitaries were homogenized with 0.2 M HCl, approximately 98% of the immunoreactivity detected utilizing an antiserum that crossreacts equally with β-lipotropin and β-endorphin coeluted with 125 I-labeled human β-lipotropin upon molecular sieve chromatography. The remainder of the activity eluted with synthetic human β-endorphin. Similar results were obtained for human pituitary. HCl homogenization of thawed tissue or homogenization of fresh tissue with acetic acid yielded substantially greater concentrations of β-endorphin and decreased concentrations of β-lipotropin. In human subjects, acute anterior pituitary stimulation using either insulin-induced hypoglycemia or vasopressin administration was associated with increased plasma β-lipotropin and corticotropin levels. At the time of peak concentrations, no significant levels of β-endorphin were detectable. These data indicate the lack of significant amounts of β-endorphin in human pituitary. Additionally, there appears to be no specific intrapituitary conversion of β-lipotropin to β-endorphin

  20. Clinical significance of changes of serum IL-6 and TNF-α levels in rat models of hypoxic-ischemia brain injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niu Tingxian; Shi Zhiyong; Luo Jianjun

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To explore the clinical significance of changes of serum interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) levels in rat models of hypoxic-ischemia (HI) brain injury. Methods: Seventy five rat HI brain injury nodels were prepared with bilateral occlusion of common carotid artery for 24rs followed 2hrs later by hypoxia (breathing 8% oxygen) for 2hrs. One fifth of the animals were sacrificed at 4h, 8h, 12h, 24h and 48h later respectively, the serum and brain homogenate concentrations of IL-6 and TNF-α were determined with RIA and brain tissues were pathologically examined. Results: The concentrations of IL-6 and TNF-α were dynamically changed within 48h in serum and brain homogenate. Peak values occurred at 24h with serum and at 12h with brain homogenate. Meanwhile, levels of both cytokines were significantly higher in the models than those in controls (P<0.01 or P<0.05). Conclusion: The concentrations of IL-6 and TNF-α were dynamically(sham operation only, 15 animals) changed and might be regarded as the clinical markers of degree of HI brain injury. (authors)

  1. Chronic administration of ethanol leaf extract of Moringa oleifera Lam. (Moringaceae) may compromise glycaemic efficacy of Sitagliptin with no significant effect in retinopathy in a diabetic rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olurishe, Comfort; Kwanashie, Helen; Zezi, Abdulkadiri; Danjuma, Nuhu; Mohammed, Bisalla

    2016-12-24

    Moringa oleifera Lam. (Moringaceae) has gained awareness for its antidiabetic effect, and is used as alternative therapy or concurrently with orthodox medicines such as sitagliptin in diabetes mellitus. This is without ascertaining the possibility of drug-herb interactions, which could either lead to enhanced antidiabetic efficacy, increased toxicity, or compromised glycaemic control with negative consequence in diabetic retinopathy. To investigate the effect, of sitagliptin (50mg/kg), Moringa oleifera (300mg/kg) leaf extract, and a combination of both on glycaemic control parameters, lenticular opacity and changes in retinal microvasculature in alloxan (150mg/kg i.p) induced diabetic rat model. Seven groups of eight rats per group were used, with groups I, II and VII as normal (NC), diabetic (DC) and post-prandial controls (PPC). Groups III to VI were diabetic rats on sitagliptin (III), M. oleifera (IV), sitagliptin and M. oleifera (SM) (V), for 42 days with 2 weeks delayed treatment in a post-prandial hyperglycaemic group (PPSM) (VI). Glycaemic control parameters, insulin levels, body weights, and effects of retinal microvasculature on lenticular opacity/morphology were investigated. A significant decrease in fasting blood glucose (FBG) levels was displayed in SM group from day 14(60%) (p<0.01) to day 28 (38%) (p<0.01) of treatment, compared to day 1. Thereafter, a steady increase of up to 57% on day 42 compared to day 28 was observed. A significant decrease in random blood glucose (RBG) levels, were demonstrated on day 42 (24%) (p<0.001), compared to day 1. No significant difference was seen in mean serum levels of insulin across groups. No significant changes in body weights. Evidence of mild lenticular opacity was observed, with no significant effect in pathologic lesions in the retina. The chronic co-administration of sitagliptin and M. oleifera showed a progressive decrease in anti-hyperglycaemic effect of sitagliptin, and although it delayed the onset of

  2. Effect of Rat Medicated Serum Containing Zuo Gui Wan and/or You Gui Wan on the Differentiation of Stem Cells Derived from Human First Trimester Umbilical Cord into Oocyte-Like Cells In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Hu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Zuo Gui Wan (ZGW and You Gui Wan (YGW are two classic formulas used in clinical treatment of infertility in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM. However, the actions of the formulas remain to be proven at the cellular and molecular levels. In this study, we investigate whether the two formulas have any effect on germ cell formation and differentiation by culturing rat medicated serums containing YGW or ZGW with stem cells derived from human first trimester umbilical cord. Our results showed that while the normal rat serums had no significant effects, the rat medicated serums had significant effects on the differentiation of the stem cells into oocyte-like cells (OLCs based on (1 cell morphological changes that resembled purative cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs; (2 expressions of specific markers that were indicative of germ cell formation and oocyte development; and (3 estradiol production by the COC-like cells. Furthermore, ZGW medicated serums exhibited more obvious effects on specific gene expressions of germ cells, whereas YGW medicated serums showed stronger effects on estradiol production. Accordingly, our study provides evidence demonstrating for the first time that one of molecular and cellular actions of YGW or ZGW in treating human reproductive dysfunctions may be through an enhancement of neooogenesis.

  3. Insulin-induced activation of glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase by a chiro-inositol-containing insulin mediator is defective in adipocytes of insulin-resistant, type II diabetic, Goto-Kakizaki rats.

    OpenAIRE

    Farese, R V; Standaert, M L; Yamada, K; Huang, L C; Zhang, C; Cooper, D R; Wang, Z; Yang, Y; Suzuki, S; Toyota, T

    1994-01-01

    Type II diabetic Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats were insulin-resistant in euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp studies. We therefore examined insulin signaling systems in control Wistar and diabetic GK rats. Glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (G3PAT), which is activated by headgroup mediators released from glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol (GPI), was activated by insulin in intact and cell-free adipocyte preparations of control, but not diabetic, rats. A specific chiro-inositol-containing inositol phosph...

  4. Effects of potato fiber and potato-resistant starch on biomarkers of colonic health in rats fed diets containing red meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paturi, Gunaranjan; Nyanhanda, Tafadzwa; Butts, Christine A; Herath, Thanuja D; Monro, John A; Ansell, Juliet

    2012-10-01

    The effects of red meat consumption with and without fermentable carbohydrates on indices of large bowel health in rats were examined. Sprague-Dawley rats were fed cellulose, potato fiber, or potato-resistant starch diets containing 12% casein for 2 wk, then similar diets containing 25% cooked beef for 6 wk. After week 8, cecal and colonic microbiota composition, fermentation end-products, colon structure, and colonocyte DNA damage were analyzed. Rats fed potato fiber had lower Bacteroides-Prevotella-Porphyromonas group compared to other diet groups. Colonic Bifidobacterium spp. and/or Lactobacillus spp. were higher in potato fiber and potato-resistant starch diets than in the cellulose diet. Beneficial changes were observed in short-chain fatty acid concentrations (acetic, butyric, and propionic acids) in rats fed potato fiber compared with rats fed cellulose. Phenol and p-cresol concentrations were lower in the cecum and colon of rats fed potato fiber. An increase in goblet cells per crypt and longer crypts were found in the colon of rats fed potato fiber and potato-resistant starch diets. Fermentable carbohydrates had no effect on colonic DNA damage. Dietary combinations of red meat with potato fiber or potato-resistant starch have distinctive effects in the large bowel. Future studies are essential to examine the efficacy of different types of nondigestible carbohydrates in maintaining colonic health during long-term consumption of high-protein diets. Improved understanding of interactions between the food consumed and gut microbiota provides knowledge needed to make healthier food choices for large bowel health. The impact of red meat on large bowel health may be ameliorated by consuming with fermentable dietary fiber, a colonic energy source that produces less harmful by-products than the microbial breakdown of colonic protein for energy. Developing functional red meat products with fermentable dietary fiber could be one way to promote a healthy and balanced

  5. Enriched housing enhances recovery of limb placement ability and reduces aggrecan-containing perineuronal nets in the rat somatosensory cortex after experimental stroke.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Madinier

    Full Text Available Stroke causes life long disabilities where few therapeutic options are available. Using electrical and magnetic stimulation of the brain and physical rehabilitation, recovery of brain function can be enhanced even late after stroke. Animal models support this notion, and housing rodents in an enriched environment (EE several days after experimental stroke stimulates lost brain function by multisensory mechanisms. We studied the dynamics of functional recovery of rats with a lesion to the fore and hind limb motor areas induced by photothrombosis (PT, and with subsequent housing in either standard (STD or EE. In this model, skilled motor function is not significantly enhanced by enriched housing, while the speed of recovery of sensori-motor function substantially improves over the 9-week study period. In particular, this stroke lesion completely obliterates the fore and hind limb placing ability when visual and whisker guidance is prevented, a deficit that persists for up to 9 weeks of recovery, but that is markedly restored within 2 weeks by enriched housing. Enriched housing after stroke also leads to a significant loss of perineuronal net (PNN immunoreactivity; detection of aggrecan protein backbone with AB1031 antibody was decreased by 13-22%, and labelling of a glycan moiety of aggrecan with Cat-315 antibody was reduced by 25-30% in the peri-infarct area and in the somatosensory cortex, respectively. The majority of these cells are parvalbumin/GABA inhibitory interneurons that are important in sensori-information processing. We conclude that damage to the fore and hind limb motor areas provides a model of loss of limb placing response without visual guidance, a deficit also seen in more than 50% of stroke patients. This loss is amenable to recovery induced by multiple sensory stimulation and correlates with a decrease in aggrecan-containing PNNs around inhibitory interneurons. Modulating the PNN structure after ischemic damage may provide new

  6. Increased PRPP synthetase activity in cultured rat hepatoma cells containing mutations in the hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, L H; McRoberts, J A; Harrison, T M; Martin, D W

    1976-07-01

    Nine independently derived clones of mutagenized rat hepatoma cells selected for resistance to 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP) or 6-thioguanine (6-ThioG) have been isolated. Each has severely reduced catalytic activity of hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT) and seven of them possess significantly increased activities of phosphoribosylpyrophosphate (PRPP) synthetase. The degrees of elevations of PRPP synthetase activities do not correlate with the degrees of deficiencies of HPRT activities. The cells from one of these clones, 1020/12, posses 40% of the normal HPRT catalytic activity and overproduce purines. We have extensively examined the cells from this clone. Immunotration studies of 1020/12 cells indicate that there is a mutation in the structural gene for HPRT. Although they possess increased specific catalytic activities of the enzyme. PRPP synthetase, the catalytic parameters, heat stability, and isoelectric pH of PRPP synthetase from 1020/12 cells are indistinguishable from those of the enzyme from wild-type cells. The cause of purine overproduction by 1020/12 cells appears to be the elevated PRPP synthetase activity, rather than a PRPP "sparing" effect stemming from reduced HPRT activity. Support for this idea is provided by the observation that the complete loss of HPRT activity in a clone derived from 1020/12 cells does not further enhance the levels of PRPP synthetase or purine overproduction. We propose that the elevated levels of PRPP synthetase activity in these HPRT deficient cells result from a mutational event in the structural gene for HPRT, and that this causes the disruption of a previously undescribed regulatory function of this gene on the expression of the PRPP synthetase gene.

  7. The reversible P2Y12 antagonist ACT-246475 causes significantly less blood loss than ticagrelor at equivalent antithrombotic efficacy in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, Markus; Kramberg, Markus; Hess, Patrick; Morrison, Keith; Ernst, Roland; Haag, Franck; Weber, Edgar; Clozel, Martine; Baumann, Martine; Caroff, Eva; Hubler, Francis; Riederer, Markus A; Steiner, Beat

    2017-10-01

    The P2Y 12 receptor is a validated target for prevention of major adverse cardiovascular events in patients with acute coronary syndrome. The aim of this study was to compare two direct-acting, reversible P2Y 12 antagonists, ACT-246475 and ticagrelor, in a rat thrombosis model by simultaneous quantification of their antithrombotic efficacy and surgery-induced blood loss. Blood flow velocity was assessed in the carotid artery after FeCl 3 -induced thrombus formation using a Doppler flow probe. At the same time, blood loss after surgical wounding of the spleen was quantified. Continuous infusions of ACT-246475 and ticagrelor prevented the injury-induced reduction of blood flow in a dose-dependent manner. High doses of both antagonists normalized blood flow and completely abolished thrombus formation as confirmed by histology. Intermediate doses restored baseline blood flow to ≥65%. However, ACT-246475 caused significantly less increase of blood loss than ticagrelor; the difference in blood loss was 2.6-fold (P ACT-246475 and ticagrelor on vascular tone. At concentrations needed to achieve maximal antithrombotic efficacy, ticagrelor compared with ACT-246475 significantly increased carotid blood flow velocity in vivo (P = 0.003), induced vasorelaxation of precontracted rat femoral arteries, and inhibited contraction of femoral artery induced by electrical field stimulation or by phenylephrine. Overall, ACT-246475 showed a significantly wider therapeutic window than ticagrelor. The absence of vasodilatory effects due to high selectivity of ACT-246475 for P2Y 12 provides potential arguments for the observed safety advantage of ACT-246475 over ticagrelor. © 2017 The Authors. Pharmacology Research & Perspectives published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd, British Pharmacological Society and American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  8. Bromodomain-containing Protein 4 Activates Voltage-gated Sodium Channel 1.7 Transcription in Dorsal Root Ganglia Neurons to Mediate Thermal Hyperalgesia in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Ming-Chun; Ho, Yu-Cheng; Lai, Cheng-Yuan; Wang, Hsueh-Hsiao; Lee, An-Sheng; Cheng, Jen-Kun; Chau, Yat-Pang; Peng, Hsien-Yu

    2017-11-01

    Bromodomain-containing protein 4 binds acetylated promoter histones and promotes transcription; however, the role of bromodomain-containing protein 4 in inflammatory hyperalgesia remains unclear. Male Sprague-Dawley rats received hind paw injections of complete Freund's adjuvant to induce hyperalgesia. The dorsal root ganglia were examined to detect changes in bromodomain-containing protein 4 expression and the activation of genes involved in the expression of voltage-gated sodium channel 1.7, which is a key pain-related ion channel. The intraplantar complete Freund's adjuvant injections resulted in thermal hyperalgesia (4.0 ± 1.5 s; n = 7). The immunohistochemistry and immunoblotting results demonstrated an increase in the bromodomain-containing protein 4-expressing dorsal root ganglia neurons (3.78 ± 0.38 fold; n = 7) and bromodomain-containing protein 4 protein levels (2.62 ± 0.39 fold; n = 6). After the complete Freund's adjuvant injection, histone H3 protein acetylation was enhanced in the voltage-gated sodium channel 1.7 promoter, and cyclin-dependent kinase 9 and phosphorylation of RNA polymerase II were recruited to this area. Furthermore, the voltage-gated sodium channel 1.7-mediated currents were enhanced in neurons of the complete Freund's adjuvant rats (55 ± 11 vs. 19 ± 9 pA/pF; n = 4 to 6 neurons). Using bromodomain-containing protein 4-targeted antisense small interfering RNA to the complete Freund's adjuvant-treated rats, the authors demonstrated a reduction in the expression of bromodomain-containing protein 4 (0.68 ± 0.16 fold; n = 7), a reduction in thermal hyperalgesia (7.5 ± 1.5 s; n = 7), and a reduction in the increased voltage-gated sodium channel 1.7 currents (21 ± 4 pA/pF; n = 4 to 6 neurons). Complete Freund's adjuvant triggers enhanced bromodomain-containing protein 4 expression, ultimately leading to the enhanced excitability of nociceptive neurons and thermal hyperalgesia. This effect is

  9. Effect of flavonoid-containing extracts on the growth of transplanted sarcoma 45, peripheral blood and bone marrow condition after oral and intramuscular administration in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikita A. Navolokin

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective — Discovery of the apoptosis-inducing effects of flavonoid vagonin allowed to make an assumption of existence of similar effect in others flavonoids. This study of the effects of extracts from Gratīola officinālis, Helichrýsum arenárium and diploid forms of Zea mays on bone marrow and blood leucocytes at intramuscular and oral administration was carried out on rats bearing sarcoma 45. Earlier, the apoptosis-inducing effects were detected for these extracts but the toxic effects of extracts on blood and bone marrow have not been studied. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of these extracts on white blood cell count and bone marrow morphology. Material and Methods — The experiments were carried out on 48 male Wistar albino rats according to University's Animal Ethics Committee (Protocol № 13, 2011, Saratov, Russia and the relevant national agency regulating experiments on animals. We evaluated white blood cell count and bone marrow morphology in animals after oral and intramuscular administration of extracts. A growth rate of tumor was also ranked. Results — Oral and intramuscular administration of extracts from flavonoid-containing plants Zea mays and Gratīola officinālis causes normalization of myelocytic germ parameters in bone marrow of tumor-bearing rats and increase of lymphocyte percent in white blood cell count of blood and myelogram. Conclusion — Absence of toxic effects and normalization of myelocytic germ parameters in bone marrow of tumor-bearing rats after oral and intramuscular administration of extracts from flavonoid-containing plants Zea mays and Gratīola officinālis allows to recommend further study of the antitumor effect of these extracts.

  10. Effect on the content of n-acetylaspartate, total creatine, choline containing compounds, and lactate in the hippocampus of rats exposed to aromatic white spirit for three weeks measured by NMR spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steensgaard, A; Ostergaard, G; Jensen, C V

    1996-01-01

    parameters in vivo, and to examine the same subjects repeatedly over time. NMR spectroscopy was used to study the effects of organic solvents in rats. Rats were exposed to 0, 400 ppm, or 800 ppm of aromatic white spirit 6 hr/day, 7 days/week for 3 weeks. During the first week, the rats showed signs...... of irritation of mucous membranes, and appeared to be sedated. Both types of effect gradually diminished during the second week. The rats were examined by single volume of interest (VOI) NMR spectroscopy. N-acetylaspartate, creatinine and phosphocreatinine, and choline containing compounds were measured...

  11. Effects of long-term consumption of high fructose corn syrup containing peach nectar on body weight gain in sprague dawley rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulsah OZCAN SINIR

    Full Text Available Abstract High fructose corn syrup (HFCS is one of the most used sweeteners in the food industry. Health concerns regarding the consumption of HFCS-containing foods have developed in parallel with the increasing amount of people who become overweight. This study was conducted to investigate whether HFCS-containing peach nectar (pn-HFCS consumption has more detrimental effects on anthropometrical and biochemical parameters compared with sucrose-containing peach nectar (pn-sucrose. Fifty-day-old Sprague Dawley rats were divided into three groups and were fed (A pn-HFCS + ad libitum chow, (B pn-sucrose + ad libitum chow and (C only ad libitum chow for 7 months. The percentage change in body weight (PCBW, body mass index (BMI, and Lee index were calculated, and serum triglyceride, glucose, insulin and leptin concentrations were measured. The PCBW, BMI, Lee index, serum triglyceride, glucose, insulin and leptin concentrations were insignificant among the three groups. We can suggest that peach nectar consumption resulted in more energy intake than the control and since pn-HFCS group consumed more chow than the pn-sucrose group. The results show that long term daily HFCS or sucrose consumption in peach nectar is not associated with weight gain and does not stimulate metabolic changes in Sprague Dawley rats.

  12. Hypoxis hemerocallidea Significantly Reduced Hyperglycaemia and Hyperglycaemic-Induced Oxidative Stress in the Liver and Kidney Tissues of Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Male Wistar Rats

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    Oluwafemi O. Oguntibeju

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Hypoxis hemerocallidea is a native plant that grows in the Southern African regions and is well known for its beneficial medicinal effects in the treatment of diabetes, cancer, and high blood pressure. Aim. This study evaluated the effects of Hypoxis hemerocallidea on oxidative stress biomarkers, hepatic injury, and other selected biomarkers in the liver and kidneys of healthy nondiabetic and streptozotocin- (STZ- induced diabetic male Wistar rats. Materials and Methods. Rats were injected intraperitoneally with 50 mg/kg of STZ to induce diabetes. The plant extract-Hypoxis hemerocallidea (200 mg/kg or 800 mg/kg aqueous solution was administered (daily orally for 6 weeks. Antioxidant activities were analysed using a Multiskan Spectrum plate reader while other serum biomarkers were measured using the RANDOX chemistry analyser. Results. Both dosages (200 mg/kg and 800 mg/kg of Hypoxis hemerocallidea significantly reduced the blood glucose levels in STZ-induced diabetic groups. Activities of liver enzymes were increased in the diabetic control and in the diabetic group treated with 800 mg/kg, whereas the 200 mg/kg dosage ameliorated hepatic injury. In the hepatic tissue, the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP, catalase, and total glutathione were reduced in the diabetic control group. However treatment with both doses improved the antioxidant status. The FRAP and the catalase activities in the kidney were elevated in the STZ-induced diabetic group treated with 800 mg/kg of the extract possibly due to compensatory responses. Conclusion. Hypoxis hemerocallidea demonstrated antihyperglycemic and antioxidant effects especially in the liver tissue.

  13. Insulin-induced activation of glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase by a chiro-inositol-containing insulin mediator is defective in adipocytes of insulin-resistant, type II diabetic, Goto-Kakizaki rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farese, R V; Standaert, M L; Yamada, K; Huang, L C; Zhang, C; Cooper, D R; Wang, Z; Yang, Y; Suzuki, S; Toyota, T

    1994-11-08

    Type II diabetic Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats were insulin-resistant in euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp studies. We therefore examined insulin signaling systems in control Wistar and diabetic GK rats. Glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (G3PAT), which is activated by headgroup mediators released from glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol (GPI), was activated by insulin in intact and cell-free adipocyte preparations of control, but not diabetic, rats. A specific chiro-inositol-containing inositol phosphoglycan (IPG) mediator, prepared from beef liver, bypassed this defect and comparably activated G3PAT in cell-free adipocyte preparations of both diabetic GK and control rats. A myo-inositol-containing IPG mediator did not activate G3PAT. Relative to control adipocytes, labeling of GPI by [3H]glucosamine was diminished by 50% and insulin failed to stimulate GPI hydrolysis in GK adipocytes. In contrast to GPI-dependent G3PAT activation, insulin-stimulated hexose transport was intact in adipocytes and soleus and gastrocnemius muscles of the GK rat, as was insulin-induced activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase and protein kinase C. We conclude that (i) chiro-inositol-containing IPG mediator activates G3PAT during insulin action, (ii) diabetic GK rats have a defect in synthesizing or releasing functional chiro-inositol-containing IPG, and (iii) defective IPG-regulated intracellular glucose metabolism contributes importantly to insulin resistance in diabetic GK rats.

  14. GluN2B-containing NMDA receptors and AMPA receptors in medial prefrontal cortex are necessary for odor span in rats

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    Don A Davies

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Working memory is a type of short-term memory involved in the maintenance and manipulation of information essential for complex cognition. While memory span capacity has been extensively studied in humans as a measure of working memory, it has received considerably less attention in rodents. Our aim was to examine the role of the NMDA and AMPA glutamate receptors in odor span capacity using systemic injections or infusions of receptor antagonists into the medial prefrontal cortex. Long Evans rats were trained on a well-characterized odor span task. Initially, rats were trained to dig for a food reward in sand followed by training on a non-match to sample discrimination using sand scented with household spices. The rats were then required to perform a serial delayed non-match to sample procedure which was their odor span. Systemic injection of the broad spectrum NMDA receptor antagonist CPP (10 mg/kg or the GluN2B-selective antagonist Ro25-6981 (10 mg/kg but not 6 mg/kg significantly reduced odor span capacity. Infusions of the GluN2B- selective antagonist Ro25-6981 (2.5 µg/hemisphere into medial prefrontal cortex reduced span capacity, an effect that was nearly significant (p = 0.069. Infusions of the AMPA receptor antagonist CNQX (1.25 µg/hemisphere into medial prefrontal cortex reduced span capacity and latency for the rats to make a choice in the task. These results demonstrate span capacity in rats depends on ionotropic glutamate receptor activation in the medial prefrontal cortex. Further understanding of the circuitry underlying span capacity may aid in the novel therapeutic drug development for persons with working memory impairments as a result of disorders such as schizophrenia and Alzheimer’s disease.

  15. Dietary structured triacylglycerols containing docosahexaenoic acid given from birth affect visual and auditory performance and tissue fatty acid profiles of rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, M. M.; Lund, S. P.; Simonsen, L.

    1998-01-01

    To examine whether it is possible to enhance the level of 22:6(n-3) in the central nervous system, newborn rats were fed dietary supplements containing oils with either specific or random triacylglycerol structure, but similar concentrations of polyunsaturated fatty acids. In the specific structu...... in differences in learning ability, but caused changes in visual function, evidenced by higher latency of the b-wave and lower oscillatory potential, and in auditory brainstem response, evidenced by generally greater amplitude of wave la in the group fed specific structured oil....

  16. Newly formulated, protein quality-enhanced, extruded sorghum-, cowpea-, corn-, soya-, sugar- and oil-containing fortified-blended foods lead to adequate vitamin A and iron outcomes and improved growth compared with non-extruded CSB+ in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delimont, Nicole M; Fiorentino, Nicole M; Opoku-Acheampong, Alexander B; Joseph, Michael V; Guo, Qingbin; Alavi, Sajid; Lindshield, Brian L

    2017-01-01

    Corn and soyabean micronutrient-fortified-blended foods (FBF) are commonly used for food aid. Sorghum and cowpeas have been suggested as alternative commodities because they are drought tolerant, can be grown in many localities, and are not genetically modified. Change in formulation of blends may improve protein quality, vitamin A and Fe availability of FBF. The primary objective of this study was to compare protein efficiency, Fe and vitamin A availability of newly formulated extruded sorghum-, cowpea-, soya- and corn-based FBF, along with a current, non-extruded United States Agency for International Development (USAID) corn and soya blend FBF (CSB+). A second objective was to compare protein efficiency of whey protein concentrate (WPC) and soya protein isolate (SPI) containing FBF to determine whether WPC inclusion improved outcomes. Eight groups of growing rats ( n 10) consumed two white and one red sorghum-cowpea (WSC1 + WPC, WSC2 + WPC, RSC + WPC), white sorghum-soya (WSS + WPC) and corn-soya (CSB14 + WPC) extruded WPC-containing FBF, an extruded white sorghum-cowpea with SPI (WSC1 + SPI), non-extruded CSB+, and American Institute of Nutrition (AIN)-93G, a weanling rat diet, for 4 weeks. There were no significant differences in protein efficiency, Fe or vitamin A outcomes between WPC FBF groups. The CSB+ group consumed significantly less food, gained significantly less weight, and had significantly lower energy efficiency, protein efficiency and length, compared with all other groups. Compared with WSC1 + WPC, the WSC1 + SPI FBF group had significantly lower energy efficiency, protein efficiency and weight gain. These results suggest that a variety of commodities can be used in the formulation of FBF, and that newly formulated extruded FBF are of better nutritional quality than non-extruded CSB+.

  17. GluN2B-containing NMDA receptors blockade rescues bidirectional synaptic plasticity in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis of cocaine self-administering rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    deBacker, Julian; Hawken, Emily R; Normandeau, Catherine P; Jones, Andrea A; Di Prospero, Cynthia; Mechefske, Elysia; Gardner Gregory, James; Hayton, Scott J; Dumont, Éric C

    2015-01-01

    Drugs of abuse have detrimental effects on homeostatic synaptic plasticity in the motivational brain network. Bidirectional plasticity at excitatory synapses helps keep neural circuits within a functional range to allow for behavioral flexibility. Therefore, impaired bidirectional plasticity of excitatory synapses may contribute to the behavioral hallmarks of addiction, yet this relationship remains unclear. Here we tracked excitatory synaptic strength in the oval bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (ovBNST) using whole-cell voltage-clamp recordings in brain slices from rats self-administering sucrose or cocaine. In the cocaine group, we measured both a persistent increase in AMPA to NMDA ratio (A:N) and slow decay time of NMDA currents throughout the self-administration period and after withdrawal from cocaine. In contrast, the sucrose group exhibited an early increase in A:N ratios (acquisition) that returned toward baseline values with continued self-administration (maintenance) and after withdrawal. The sucrose rats also displayed a decrease in NMDA current decay time with continued self-administration (maintenance), which normalized after withdrawal. Cocaine self-administering rats exhibited impairment in NMDA-dependent long-term depression (LTD) that could be rescued by GluN2B-containing NMDA receptor blockade. Sucrose self-administering rats demonstrated no impairment in NMDA-dependent LTD. During the maintenance period of self-administration, in vivo (daily intraperitoneally for 5 days) pharmacologic blockade of GluN2B-containing NMDA receptors did not reduce lever pressing for cocaine. However, in vivo GluN2B blockade did normalize A:N ratios in cocaine self-administrating rats, and dissociated the magnitude of ovBNST A:N ratios from drug-seeking behavior after protracted withdrawal. Altogether, our data demonstrate when and how bidirectional plasticity at ovBNST excitatory synapses becomes dysfunctional with cocaine self-administration and that NMDA

  18. Toxicity and repellency to rats of actidione

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traub, R.; DeWitt, J.B.; Welch, J.F.; Newman, D.

    1950-01-01

    The antibiotic actidione was found to be highly repellent to laboratory rats and to significantly reduce gnawing attacks upon treated paperboards. Rats refused to accept food or water containing this material even under conditions of acute starvation and died of starvation and thirst,rather than accept water containing l.0 mg. of actidione per liter. The compound is highly toxic to .rats with the minimum .lethal dose by oral administration being approximately l.0 mg./Kg body weight. Paperboard treated with the compound resisted gnawing attacks by specially trained and motivated rats for periods of two hundred hours, although similar .untreated boards were pierced within thirty-to sixty minutes.

  19. Repetitive long-term hyperbaric oxygen treatment (HBOT administered after experimental traumatic brain injury in rats induces significant remyelination and a recovery of sensorimotor function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus Kraitsy

    Full Text Available Cells in the central nervous system rely almost exclusively on aerobic metabolism. Oxygen deprivation, such as injury-associated ischemia, results in detrimental apoptotic and necrotic cell loss. There is evidence that repetitive hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT improves outcomes in traumatic brain-injured patients. However, there are no experimental studies investigating the mechanism of repetitive long-term HBOT treatment-associated protective effects. We have therefore analysed the effect of long-term repetitive HBOT treatment on brain trauma-associated cerebral modulations using the lateral fluid percussion model for rats. Trauma-associated neurological impairment regressed significantly in the group of HBO-treated animals within three weeks post trauma. Evaluation of somatosensory-evoked potentials indicated a possible remyelination of neurons in the injured hemisphere following HBOT. This presumption was confirmed by a pronounced increase in myelin basic protein isoforms, PLP expression as well as an increase in myelin following three weeks of repetitive HBO treatment. Our results indicate that protective long-term HBOT effects following brain injury is mediated by a pronounced remyelination in the ipsilateral injured cortex as substantiated by the associated recovery of sensorimotor function.

  20. A chimeric peptide of intestinal trefoil factor containing cholesteryl ester transfer protein B cell epitope significantly inhibits atherosclerosis in rabbits after oral administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Gaofu; Li, Jingjing; Wang, Shengying; Xin, Shanshan; Du, Peng; Zhang, Qingye; Zhao, Xiuyun

    2011-04-01

    Vaccination against cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) is proven to be effective for inhibiting atherosclerosis in animal models. In this study, the proteases-resistant intestinal trefoil factor (TFF3) was used as a molecular vehicle to construct chimeric TFF3 (cTFF3) containing CETP B cell epitope and tetanus toxin helper T cell epitope. It was found that cTFF3 still preserved a trefoil structure, and can resist proteases digestion in vitro. After oral immunization with cTFF3, the CETP-specific IgA and IgG could be found in intestine lavage fluid and serum, and the anti-CETP antibodies could inhibit partial CETP activity to increase high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, decrease low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and inhibit atherosclerosis in animals. Therefore, TFF3 is a potential molecular vehicle for developing oral peptide vaccines. Our research highlights a novel strategy for developing oral peptide vaccines in the future. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Comparative Immunohistochemical Analysis of Ochratoxin A Tumourigenesis in Rats and Urinary Tract Carcinoma in Humans; Mechanistic Significance of p-S6 Ribosomal Protein Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Pinder

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Ochratoxin A (OTA is considered to be a possible human urinary tract carcinogen, based largely on a rat model, but no molecular genetic changes in the rat carcinomas have yet been defined. The phosphorylated-S6 ribosomal protein is a marker indicating activity of the mammalian target of rapamycin, which is a serine/threonine kinase with a key role in protein biosynthesis, cell proliferation, transcription, cellular metabolism and apoptosis, while being functionally deregulated in cancer. To assess p-S6 expression we performed immunohistochemistry on formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tumours and normal tissues. Marked intensity of p-S6 expression was observed in highly proliferative regions of rat renal carcinomas and a rare angiosarcoma, all of which were attributed to prolonged exposure to dietary OTA. Only very small OTA-generated renal adenomas were negative for p-S6. Examples of rat subcutaneous fibrosarcoma and testicular seminoma, as well as of normal renal tissue, showed no or very weak positive staining. In contrast to the animal model, human renal cell carcinoma, upper urinary tract transitional cell carcinoma from cases of Balkan endemic nephropathy, and a human angiosarcoma were negative for p-S6. The combined findings are reminiscent of constitutive changes in the rat tuberous sclerosis gene complex in the Eker strain correlated with renal neoplasms, Therefore rat renal carcinogenesis caused by OTA does not obviously mimic human urinary tract tumourigenesis.

  2. Ceria-containing uncoated and coated hydroxyapatite-based galantamine nanocomposites for formidable treatment of Alzheimer's disease in ovariectomized albino-rat model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wahba, Sanaa M.R. [Zoology Department, Women College, Ain Shams University, 11566 Cairo (Egypt); Darwish, Atef S., E-mail: atef_mouharam@sci.asu.edu.eg [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Ain Shams University, Cairo (Egypt); Kamal, Sara M. [Zoology Department, Women College, Ain Shams University, 11566 Cairo (Egypt)

    2016-08-01

    This paper upraises delivery and therapeutic actions of galantamine drug (GAL) against Alzheimer's disease (AD) in rat brain through attaching GAL to ceria-containing hydroxyapatite (GAL@Ce-HAp) as well ceria-containing carboxymethyl chitosan-coated hydroxyapatite (GAL@Ce-HAp/CMC) nanocomposites. Physicochemical features of such nanocomposites were analyzed by XRD, FT-IR, Raman spectroscopy, UV–vis spectrophotometer, N{sub 2}-BET, DLS, zeta-potential measurements, SEM, and HR-TEM. Limited interactions were observed in GAL@Ce-HAp with prevailed existence of dispersed negatively charged rod-like particles conjugated with ceria nanodots. On contrary, GAL@Ce-HAp/CMC was well-structured developing aggregates of uncharged tetragonal-shaped particles laden with accession of ceria quantum dots. Such nanocomposites were i.p. injected into ovariectomized AD albino-rats at galantamine dose of 2.5 mg/kg/day for one month, then brain tissues were collected for biochemical and histological tests. GAL@Ce-HAp adopted as a promising candidate for AD curativeness, whereas oxidative stress markers were successfully upregulated, degenerated neurons in hippocampal and cerebral tissues were wholly recovered and Aβ-plaques were vanished. Also, optimizable in-vitro release for GAL and nanoceria were displayed from GAL@Ce-HAp, while delayed in-vitro release for those species were developed from GAL@Ce-HAp/CMC. This proof of concept work allow futuristic omnipotency of rod-like hydroxyapatite particles for selective delivery of GAL and nanoceria to AD affected brain areas. - Highlights: • Ceria affords existence of negatively charged rod-like architecture hydroxyapatite. • Carboxymethyl chitosan-coated apatite adopts neutral tetragonal-shaped species. • Ceria-containing apatite-based galantamine composite is potent anti-Alzheimer drug. • Typical neurons act via Alzheimer curing by ceria-loading apatite-based galantamine.

  3. Ceria-containing uncoated and coated hydroxyapatite-based galantamine nanocomposites for formidable treatment of Alzheimer's disease in ovariectomized albino-rat model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahba, Sanaa M.R.; Darwish, Atef S.; Kamal, Sara M.

    2016-01-01

    This paper upraises delivery and therapeutic actions of galantamine drug (GAL) against Alzheimer's disease (AD) in rat brain through attaching GAL to ceria-containing hydroxyapatite (GAL@Ce-HAp) as well ceria-containing carboxymethyl chitosan-coated hydroxyapatite (GAL@Ce-HAp/CMC) nanocomposites. Physicochemical features of such nanocomposites were analyzed by XRD, FT-IR, Raman spectroscopy, UV–vis spectrophotometer, N_2-BET, DLS, zeta-potential measurements, SEM, and HR-TEM. Limited interactions were observed in GAL@Ce-HAp with prevailed existence of dispersed negatively charged rod-like particles conjugated with ceria nanodots. On contrary, GAL@Ce-HAp/CMC was well-structured developing aggregates of uncharged tetragonal-shaped particles laden with accession of ceria quantum dots. Such nanocomposites were i.p. injected into ovariectomized AD albino-rats at galantamine dose of 2.5 mg/kg/day for one month, then brain tissues were collected for biochemical and histological tests. GAL@Ce-HAp adopted as a promising candidate for AD curativeness, whereas oxidative stress markers were successfully upregulated, degenerated neurons in hippocampal and cerebral tissues were wholly recovered and Aβ-plaques were vanished. Also, optimizable in-vitro release for GAL and nanoceria were displayed from GAL@Ce-HAp, while delayed in-vitro release for those species were developed from GAL@Ce-HAp/CMC. This proof of concept work allow futuristic omnipotency of rod-like hydroxyapatite particles for selective delivery of GAL and nanoceria to AD affected brain areas. - Highlights: • Ceria affords existence of negatively charged rod-like architecture hydroxyapatite. • Carboxymethyl chitosan-coated apatite adopts neutral tetragonal-shaped species. • Ceria-containing apatite-based galantamine composite is potent anti-Alzheimer drug. • Typical neurons act via Alzheimer curing by ceria-loading apatite-based galantamine.

  4. Development of solid lipid nanoparticles containing total flavonoid extract from Dracocephalum moldavica L. and their therapeutic effect against myocardial ischemia–reperfusion injury in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan ME

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Mei-e Tan,1–3,* Cheng-hui He,3,* Wen Jiang,4 Cheng Zeng,2–4 Ning Yu,3 Wei Huang,2 Zhong-gao Gao,2 Jian-guo Xing3 1Key Laboratory of Xinjiang Endemic Phytomedicine Resources of Ministry of Education, School of Pharmacy, Shihezi University, Shihezi, 2State Key Laboratory of Bioactive Substance and Function of Natural Medicines, Department of Pharmaceutics, Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, 3Xinjiang Key Laboratory of Uighur Medicines, Xinjiang Institute of Materia Medica, 4Xinjiang Medical University, Urumqi, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Total flavonoid extract from Dracocephalum moldavica L. (TFDM contains effective components of D. moldavica L. that have myocardial protective function. However, the cardioprotection function of TFDM is undesirable due to its poor solubility. In order to improve the solubility and efficacy of TFDM, we developed TFDM-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles (TFDM-SLNs and optimized the formulation of TFDM-SLNs using central composite design and response surface methodology. The physicochemical properties of TFDM-SLNs were characterized, and the pharmacodynamics was investigated using the myocardial ischemia–reperfusion injury model in rats. The nanoparticles of optimal formulation for TFDM-SLNs were spherical in shape with the average particle size of 104.83 nm and had a uniform size distribution with the polydispersity index value of 0.201. TFDM-SLNs also had a negative zeta potential of -28.7 mV to ensure the stability of the TFDM-SLNs emulsion system. The results of pharmacodynamics demonstrated that both TFDM and TFDM-SLN groups afforded myocardial protection, and the protective effect of TFDM-SLNs was significantly superior to that of TFDM alone, based on the infarct area, histopathological examination, cardiac enzyme levels and inflammatory factors in serum. Due to the optimal

  5. Effects of herbal ointment containing the leaf extracts of Madeira vine (Anredera cordifolia (Ten.) Steenis) for burn wound healing process on albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuniarti, Wiwik Misaco; Lukiswanto, Bambang Sektiari

    2017-07-01

    Skin burn is a health problem that requires fast and accurate treatment. If not well-treated, the burn will cause various damaging conditions for the patient. The leaf extract of Madeira vine ( Anredera cordifolia (Ten.) Steenis), or popularly known as Binahong in Indonesia, has been used to treat various diseases. The purpose of this research is to determine the effects of leaf extracts of Madeira vine ( A. cordifolia (Ten.) Steenis) on skin burn healing process in rats as an animal model. In this research, there were four treatment groups: G0, G1, G2, and G3, each consisting of five rats. All these rats were given skin burns, using hot metal plates. Then, sulfadiazine was given to G0, 2.5% leaf extract of Madeira vine was given to G1, 5% extract was given to G2, and 10% extract was given to G3, for straight 14 days topically, 3 times a day. At the end of the treatment period, skin excisions were conducted, and histopathological examination was carried out. Microscopic observation on the wound healing process on the collagen deposition, polymorphonuclear infiltration, angiogenesis, and fibrosis showed that G2 had a significant difference with G0, G1, and G3 (pMadeira vine, which have the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antibacterial effects. The ointment from the 5% leaf extract of Madeira vine ( A. cordifolia (Ten.) Steenis) has been proven to be effective to be used for topical burn therapy.

  6. In vivo study with quartz-containing ceramic dusts: Inflammatory effects of two factory samples in lungs after intratracheal instillation in a 28-day study with rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Creutzenberg, O; Ziemann, C; Hansen, T; Ernst, H [Fraunhofer Institute of Toxicology and Experimental Medicine, Hannover (Germany); Jackson, P; Cartlidge, D [CERAM Research Ltd., Stoke-on-Trent (United Kingdom); Brown, R, E-mail: otto.creutzenberg@item.fraunhofer.d [TOXSERVICES, Stretton (United Kingdom)

    2009-02-01

    As various quartz polymorphs react differently in lungs, a differentiation of effects is needed while setting occupational exposure levels. The objective of this European Collective Research Project SILICERAM was to characterize differences in biological activity of four quartz species, i.) 2 quartz-containing materials collected at typical ceramic manufacturing sites (Tableware granulate, TG and Tableware cast, TC) versus ii.) a designed ceramic dust sample (Contrived Sample, CS) and iii.) ground quartz DQ12 (well-characterised standard quartz (Positive Control, PC) and TiO{sub 2} (negative control). TG and TC had been selected as the most promising two candidates based on a preceding in vitro screening of 5 factory samples. Total doses of 5 mg per rat of the TG and TC, 1.1 mg of the CS and 0.33 mg of the PC corresponding to 0.29, 0.16, 0.29 and 0.29 mg quartz per rat, respectively, were administered to rats by intratracheal instillation. After 3 days, bronchoalveolar lavagate (BAL) analysis resulted in polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN) levels of 15%, 25%, 0.6% and 25% in the TG, TC, CS and PC groups, respectively. At 28 days, the values were 29%, 20%, 7% and 45%. Histopathologically, the TG and TC groups showed very slight to slight effects, the PC group, however, stronger effects after the same period. In conclusion, the following ranking was found: PC > TG > TC > CS > TiO{sub 2} > Vehicle Control. Thus, a clear differentiation of effects for TG and TC, CS and PC was found. From a regulatory point of view, the substance-specific toxic potentials of TG and TC may need to be considered when devising occupational exposure limits.

  7. Biochemical indicators of nephrotoxicity in blood serum of rats treated with novel 4-thiazolidinone derivatives or their complexes with polyethylene glycol-containing nanoscale polymeric carrier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. I. Kоbylinska

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the effect of new synthetic 4-thiazolidinone derivatives (potential anticancer compounds denoted as 3882, 3288 and 3833 and doxorubicin (positive control in free form and in their complexes with synthetic polyethylene glycol-containing nanoscale polymeric carrier on the biochemical indicators of nephrotoxicity in blood serum of rats. The concentration of total protein, urea, creatinine, glucose, ions of sodium, potassium, calcium, iron and chloride was measured. It was found that after injection of the investigated compounds, the concentration of sodium cations and chloride anions in blood serum was increased compared with control (untreated animals. Doxorubicin’s injection was accompanied by a decrease in the concentration of iron cations. The concentration of total protein, urea and creatinine decreased under the influence of the studied compounds. Complexation of these аntineoplastic substances with a synthetic polymeric nanocarrier lowered the concentration of the investigated metabolites substantially compared to the effect of these compounds in free form. The normalization of concentration of total protein, urea and creatinine in blood serum of rats treated with complexes of the studied compounds with the polymeric carrier comparing with increased concentration of these indicators at the introduction of such compounds in free form was found.

  8. Immune response to a mammary adenocarcinoma. V. Sera from tumor-bearing rats contain multiple factors blocking cell-mediated cytotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, S A; Lucas, Z J

    1978-12-01

    Sera from Fischer rats 3 to 13 days after i.p. injection of syngeneic 13762A mammary adenocarcinoma contain three factors specifically blocking cell-mediated cytotoxicity (CMC). The major blocking factor is a 160,000-dalton IgG that combines specifically to cytolytic lymphocytes but not to tumor cells or tumor antigen, and that is not dissociated after treatment with 8 M urea. The other factors have been putatively identified as tumor antigen (less than 70,000 daltons) and as soluble antigen-antibody complexes (greater than 200,000 daltons). Injecting the tumor antigen into tumor-free rats induced spleen cells specifically cytotoxic to the 13762A tumor and provided partial protection to challenge with live tumor cells. Treating soluble antigen-antibody complexes with 8 M urea decreased the size of the blocking activity from greater than 200,000 to less than 70,000 daltons. Although the IgG fraction dissociated from the complex did not block CMC, it did recombine with the tumor antigen fraction to transfer activity to the greater than 200,000-dalton fraction. In contrast, mixing tumor antigen with the IgG fraction that did block CMC did not alter the size of the blocking activities.

  9. A diet containing the soy phytoestrogen genistein causes infertility in female rats partially deficient in UDP glucuronyltransferase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seppen, Jurgen

    2012-01-01

    Soy beans contain genistein, a natural compound that has estrogenic effects because it binds the estrogen receptor with relatively high affinity. Genistein is therefore the most important environmental estrogen in the human diet. Detoxification of genistein is mediated through conjugation by

  10. Prolonged ketamine exposure induces increased activity of the GluN2B-containing N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor in the anterior cingulate cortex of neonatal rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokane, Saurabh S; Gong, Kerui; Jin, Jianhui; Lin, Qing

    2017-09-01

    Ketamine is a commonly used anesthetic among pediatric patients due to its high efficacy. However, it has been demonstrated by several preclinical studies that, widespread accelerated programmed death of neurons (neuroapoptosis) occurs due to prolonged or repeated exposure to ketamine specifically in the neonatal brain. Therefore, an emphasis on understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying this selective vulnerability of the neonatal brain to ketamine-induced neuroapoptosis becomes important in order to identify potential therapeutic targets, which would help prevent or at least ameliorate this neuroapoptosis. In this study, we demonstrated that repeated ketamine administration (6 injections of 20mg/kg dose given over 12h time period) in neonatal (postnatal day 7; PND 7) Sprague-Dawley rats induced a progressive increase in N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR)-mediated excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) in the neurons of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) for up to 6h after the last ketamine dose. Specifically, we observed that the increased EPSCs were largely mediated by GluN2B-containing NMDARs in the neurons of the ACC. Along with increased synaptic transmission, there was also a significant increase in the expression of the GluN2B-containing NMDARs as well. Taken together, these results showed that after repeated exposure to ketamine, the synaptic transmission mediated by GluN2B-containing NMDARs was significantly increased in the neonatal brain. This was significant as it showed for the first time that ketamine had subunit-specific effects on GluN2B-containing NMDARs, potentially implicating the involvement of these subunits in the increased vulnerability of immature neurons of the neonatal brain to ketamine-induced neuroapoptosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Evaluation of the topical spray containing Centella asiatica extract and its efficacy on excision wounds in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sawatdee Somchai

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Centella asiatica was extracted by methanol. The assay content of triterpenes in the extract was 0.12 % asiatic acid, 0.54 % madecassic acid, 0.25 % asiaticoside and 1.02 % madecassoside. The extract was complexed with hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD and formulated with Eudragit E100, glycerol, PEG 400, copovidone, ethanol and purified water. A clear yellowish solution (F1-F8 was obtained. The formulations had a pH of 5.5–6.0 with viscosity in the range of 20–60 mPa s, surface tension 20.3–24.6 mN m–1 and contact angle less than 20°. The amount of PEG 400 and copovidone affected the film and spreadability. The content of triterpenes in the spray formulation was close to 100 % compared to triterpenes in the extract. The skin irritation study indicated that the formulation was non-irritating in a rat model. An in vivo excision wound healing model showed that wound excision was completely healed after 14 days.

  12. Glucagon-like peptide-1 acutely affects renal blood flow and urinary flow rate in spontaneously hypertensive rats despite significantly reduced renal expression of GLP-1 receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ronn, Jonas; Jensen, Elisa P; Wewer Albrechtsen, Nicolai J

    2017-01-01

    to increased mean arterial pressure (MAP) and increased renal blood flow (RBF). In hypertensive animal models, GLP-1 has been reported both to increase and decrease MAP. The aim of this study was to examine expression of renal GLP-1 receptors in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and to assess the effect......Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is an incretin hormone increasing postprandial insulin release. GLP-1 also induces diuresis and natriuresis in humans and rodents. The GLP-1 receptor is extensively expressed in the renal vascular tree in normotensive rats where acute GLP-1 treatment leads...... in the kidney from SHR. However, acute intrarenal infusion of GLP-1 increased MAP, RBF, dieresis, and natriuresis without affecting heart rate in both rat strains. These results suggest that the acute renal effects of GLP-1 in SHR are caused either by extrarenal GLP-1 receptors activating other mechanisms (e...

  13. Ceria-containing uncoated and coated hydroxyapatite-based galantamine nanocomposites for formidable treatment of Alzheimer's disease in ovariectomized albino-rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahba, Sanaa M R; Darwish, Atef S; Kamal, Sara M

    2016-08-01

    This paper upraises delivery and therapeutic actions of galantamine drug (GAL) against Alzheimer's disease (AD) in rat brain through attaching GAL to ceria-containing hydroxyapatite (GAL@Ce-HAp) as well ceria-containing carboxymethyl chitosan-coated hydroxyapatite (GAL@Ce-HAp/CMC) nanocomposites. Physicochemical features of such nanocomposites were analyzed by XRD, FT-IR, Raman spectroscopy, UV-vis spectrophotometer, N2-BET, DLS, zeta-potential measurements, SEM, and HR-TEM. Limited interactions were observed in GAL@Ce-HAp with prevailed existence of dispersed negatively charged rod-like particles conjugated with ceria nanodots. On contrary, GAL@Ce-HAp/CMC was well-structured developing aggregates of uncharged tetragonal-shaped particles laden with accession of ceria quantum dots. Such nanocomposites were i.p. injected into ovariectomized AD albino-rats at galantamine dose of 2.5mg/kg/day for one month, then brain tissues were collected for biochemical and histological tests. GAL@Ce-HAp adopted as a promising candidate for AD curativeness, whereas oxidative stress markers were successfully upregulated, degenerated neurons in hippocampal and cerebral tissues were wholly recovered and Aβ-plaques were vanished. Also, optimizable in-vitro release for GAL and nanoceria were displayed from GAL@Ce-HAp, while delayed in-vitro release for those species were developed from GAL@Ce-HAp/CMC. This proof of concept work allow futuristic omnipotency of rod-like hydroxyapatite particles for selective delivery of GAL and nanoceria to AD affected brain areas. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. EFFECTIVENESS OF NITROGEN-CONTAINING BISPHOSPHONATES IN THE REGULATION OF MINERAL METABOLISM DISTURBANCES ASSOCIATED WITH ALIMENTARY OSTEOPOROSIS IN RATS

    OpenAIRE

    Komisarenko S. V.; Volochnyuk D. M.; Shymanskyy I. O.; Ivonin S. P.; Veliky M. M.1

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effectiveness of nitrogen-containing bisphosphonates synthesized as promising substances for correction of mineral metabolism in osteoporosis. The study was carried out on a model of alimentary osteoporosis that was characterized by hypocalcaemia, hypophosphatemia, decreased 25-Hydroxyvitamin D3 content in blood serum and severe bone tissue demineralization (reduced ash content and mineral components). It was found that synthesized novel nitrogen bi...

  15. The effectiveness of the anti-CD11d treatment is reduced in rat models of spinal cord injury that produce significant levels of intraspinal hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geremia, N M; Hryciw, T; Bao, F; Streijger, F; Okon, E; Lee, J H T; Weaver, L C; Dekaban, G A; Kwon, B K; Brown, A

    2017-09-01

    We have previously reported that administration of a CD11d monoclonal antibody (mAb) improves recovery in a clip-compression model of SCI. In this model the CD11d mAb reduces the infiltration of activated leukocytes into the injured spinal cord (as indicated by reduced intraspinal MPO). However not all anti-inflammatory strategies have reported beneficial results, suggesting that success of the CD11d mAb treatment may depend on the type or severity of the injury. We therefore tested the CD11d mAb treatment in a rat hemi-contusion model of cervical SCI. In contrast to its effects in the clip-compression model, the CD11d mAb treatment did not improve forelimb function nor did it significantly reduce MPO levels in the hemi-contused cord. To determine if the disparate results using the CD11d mAb were due to the biomechanical nature of the cord injury (compression SCI versus contusion SCI) or to the spinal level of the injury (12th thoracic level versus cervical) we further evaluated the CD11d mAb treatment after a T12 contusion SCI. In contrast to the T12 clip compression SCI, the CD11d mAb treatment did not improve locomotor recovery or significantly reduce MPO levels after T12 contusion SCI. Lesion analyses revealed increased levels of hemorrhage after contusion SCI compared to clip-compression SCI. SCI that is accompanied by increased intraspinal hemorrhage would be predicted to be refractory to the CD11d mAb therapy as this approach targets leukocyte diapedesis through the intact vasculature. These results suggest that the disparate results of the anti-CD11d treatment in contusion and clip-compression models of SCI are due to the different pathophysiological mechanisms that dominate these two types of spinal cord injuries. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Glucagon-like peptide-1 acutely affects renal blood flow and urinary flow rate in spontaneously hypertensive rats despite significantly reduced renal expression of GLP-1 receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronn, Jonas; Jensen, Elisa P; Wewer Albrechtsen, Nicolai J; Holst, Jens Juul; Sorensen, Charlotte M

    2017-12-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is an incretin hormone increasing postprandial insulin release. GLP-1 also induces diuresis and natriuresis in humans and rodents. The GLP-1 receptor is extensively expressed in the renal vascular tree in normotensive rats where acute GLP-1 treatment leads to increased mean arterial pressure (MAP) and increased renal blood flow (RBF). In hypertensive animal models, GLP-1 has been reported both to increase and decrease MAP. The aim of this study was to examine expression of renal GLP-1 receptors in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and to assess the effect of acute intrarenal infusion of GLP-1. We hypothesized that GLP-1 would increase diuresis and natriuresis and reduce MAP in SHR. Immunohistochemical staining and in situ hybridization for the GLP-1 receptor were used to localize GLP-1 receptors in the kidney. Sevoflurane-anesthetized normotensive Sprague-Dawley rats and SHR received a 20 min intrarenal infusion of GLP-1 and changes in MAP, RBF, heart rate, dieresis, and natriuresis were measured. The vasodilatory effect of GLP-1 was assessed in isolated interlobar arteries from normo- and hypertensive rats. We found no expression of GLP-1 receptors in the kidney from SHR. However, acute intrarenal infusion of GLP-1 increased MAP, RBF, dieresis, and natriuresis without affecting heart rate in both rat strains. These results suggest that the acute renal effects of GLP-1 in SHR are caused either by extrarenal GLP-1 receptors activating other mechanisms (e.g., insulin) to induce the renal changes observed or possibly by an alternative renal GLP-1 receptor. © 2017 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society.

  17. Changes in the substance P-containing innervation of the lumbosacral spinal cord in male Wistar rats as a consequence of ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranson, Richard N; Priestley, David J; Santer, Robert M; Watson, Alan H D

    2005-03-02

    Quantitative image analysis was used to determine age-related changes in the substance P-containing innervation of autonomic and somatic nuclei in the lumbosacral spinal cord, which are associated with the control of micturition and sexual reflexes. In the upper lumbar segments (L1-L2), significant declines in the distribution density of substance P-containing processes were observed in the dorsal grey commissure, the intermediolateral cell column and the ventral horn. More caudally, at levels corresponding to L5 through S1, significant reductions were seen in the dorsal grey commissure and within the sacral parasympathetic nucleus. In contrast to these observations, the substance P-immunoreactive innervation of the dorsolateral nucleus remained robust in aged animals and was not significantly different from young adults. It is possible that these distinct age-related patterns of change in substance P-containing innervation, are reflected in the urinary/sexual dysfunction's in aged animals.

  18. Yi Qi Qing Re Gao-containing serum inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced rat mesangial cell proliferation by suppressing the Wnt pathway and TGF-β1 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Liping; Sun, Xueyan; Zhan, Yongli; Liu, Huijie; Wen, Yumin; Mao, Huimin; Dong, X I; Li, Ping

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of Yi Qi Qing Re Gao-containing serum (YQ-S) on rat mesangial cell (MC) proliferation and to investigate the underlying mechanism. MCs were divided into the control, lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated, YQ-S and fosinopril-containing serum (For-S) groups, and cultured for 48 h. An MTT assay was used to evaluate the proliferation of MCs. In addition, reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis were conducted to detect the expression levels of Wnt4, β-catenin and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 in MCs. The results indicated that YQ-S inhibited LPS-induced MC proliferation. The Wnt4 and TGF-β1 mRNA expression levels were reduced in the YQ-S group (P<0.01 or P<0.05). Furthermore, the Wnt4, β-catenin and TGF-β1 protein expression levels were suppressed in the YQ-S group (P<0.01 or P<0.05). Therefore, YQ-S appears to inhibit MC proliferation, and its mechanism may involve the inhibition of the Wnt signaling pathway and downregulation of TGF-β1 expression.

  19. Plant-based foods containing cell wall polysaccharides rich in specific active monosaccharides protect against myocardial injury in rat myocardial infarction models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Sun Ha; Kim, Yaesil; Yun, Ki Na; Kim, Jin Young; Jang, Jung-Hee; Han, Mee-Jung; Lee, Jongwon

    2016-12-08

    Many cohort studies have shown that consumption of diets containing a higher composition of foods derived from plants reduces mortality from coronary heart disease (CHD). Here, we examined the active components of a plant-based diet and the underlying mechanisms that reduce the risk of CHD using three rat models and a quantitative proteomics approach. In a short-term myocardial infarction (MI) model, intake of wheat extract (WE), the representative cardioprotectant identified by screening approximately 4,000 samples, reduced myocardial injury by inhibiting apoptosis, enhancing ATP production, and maintaining protein homeostasis. In long-term post-MI models, this myocardial protection resulted in ameliorating adverse left-ventricular remodelling, which is a predictor of heart failure. Among the wheat components, arabinose and xylose were identified as active components responsible for the observed efficacy of WE, which was administered via ingestion and tail-vein injections. Finally, the food components of plant-based diets that contained cell wall polysaccharides rich in arabinose, xylose, and possibly fucose were found to confer protection against myocardial injury. These results show for the first time that specific monosaccharides found in the cell wall polysaccharides in plant-based diets can act as active ingredients that reduce CHD by inhibiting postocclusion steps, including MI and heart failure.

  20. Formulation, stability study, and pre-clinical evaluation of a vaginal cream containing curcumin in a rat model of vulvovaginal candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza Fernandes, Lígia; Amorim, Yuri Martins; Silva, Elton Libério da; Silva, Samuel Calixto; Santos, Alécia Junia Aparecida; Peixoto, Franciele Natália; Pires, Luara Moniele Neves; Sakamoto, Raquel Yumi; Pinto, Flávia do Carmo Horta; Scarpa, Maria Virgínia Costa; Gonzaga de Freitas Araújo, Marcelo

    2018-03-08

    Owing to the growing resistance among isolates of Candida species to usual antifungal agents and the well-known therapeutic potential of curcumin, the purpose of this study was to develop and validate a vaginal formulation containing this substance and to evaluating its effectiveness in the treatment of experimental vulvovaginal candidiasis METHODS: Curcumin was incorporated in a vaginal cream in three concentrations (0.01, 0.1 and 1.0%). The different concentrations of the cream and its controls were intravaginally administered in an immunosuppressed rat model to evaluate the efficacy in the treatment of experimental vulvovaginal candidiasis. Samples of the cream were also subjected to centrifugation and physical stability tests and an analytical method for quantification of curcumin was validated based on HPLC RESULTS: The formulation was stable and the HPLC method could be considered suitable for the quantitative determination of curcumin in the cream. After six days of pre-clinical study, the number of infected animals was 1/6 in all groups treated with curcumin vaginal cream and the fungal burden showed a progressive reduction. Reduction of the inflammatory infiltrate was observed in the group treated with 1.0% cream CONCLUSION: Vaginal cream containing curcumin could be considered a promising effective antifungal medicine in the treatment of vulvovaginal candidiasis. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  1. Identification, characterization, and purification of a 65,000 dalton protein in rat brain is photolabeled by nitro-containing benzodiazepines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowling, A.C.

    1988-01-01

    Benzodiazepines bind to two well-characterized classes of nanomolar-affinity binding sites, the central and the peripheral types. Although these sites appear to mediate many of the effects of these compounds, they cannot account for all of the biochemical and physiologic effects of the benzodiazepines. In this investigation, a protein that is photolabeled by NO{sub 2}-containing benzodiazepines was identified and characterized in rat brain by performing photaffinity labeling experiments with ({sup 3}H)-clonazepam and ({sup 3}H)-flunitrazepam. These experiments demonstrate that this photolabeled protein has a molecular weight of 65,000 daltons. Photolabeling of the protein was saturable, inhibited in a stereoselective manner by benzodiazepine enantiomers, inhibited by therapeutically-relevant concentrations of many different NO{sub 2}-containing benzodiazepines, and was not inhibited by more than 70 non-benzodiazepine compounds. The photolabeled protein is distinct from the central and peripheral sites on the basis of molecular weight, benzodiazepine inhibitory potencies, subcellular localization, and tissue distribution.

  2. Differential anatomical expression of ganglioside GM1 species containing d18:1 or d20:1 sphingosine detected by MALDI Imaging Mass Spectrometry in mature rat brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina eWeishaupt

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available GM1 ganglioside plays a role in essential neuronal processes, including differentiation, survival and signaling. Yet, little is known about GM1 species with different sphingosine bases, such as the most abundant species containing 18 carbon atoms in the sphingosine chain (GM1d18:1, and the less abundant containing 20 carbon atoms (GM1d20:1. While absent in the early fetal brain, GM1d20:1 continues to increase throughout pre- and postnatal development and into old age, raising questions about the functional relevance of the GM1d18:1 to GM1d20:1 ratio. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI Imaging Mass Spectrometry is a novel technology that allows differentiation between these two GM1 species and quantification of their expression within an anatomical context. Using this technology, we find GM1d18:1/d20:1 expression ratios are highly specific to defined anatomical brain regions in adult rats. Thus, the ratio was significantly different among different thalamic nuclei and between the corpus callosum and internal capsule. Differential GM1d18:1/GM1d20:1 ratios measured in hippocampal subregions in rat brain complement previous studies conducted in mice. Across layers of the sensory cortex, opposing expression gradients were found for GM1d18:1 and GM1d20:1. Superficial layers demonstrated lower GM1d18:1 and higher GM1d20:1 signal than other layers, while in deep layers GM1d18:1 expression was relatively high and GM1d20:1 expression low. By far the highest GM1d18:1/d20:1 ratio was found in the amygdala. Differential expression of GM1 with d18:1- or d20:1-sphingosine bases in the adult rat brain suggests tight regulation of expression and points toward a distinct functional relevance for each of these GM1 species in neuronal processes.

  3. Frequency of polyploid cells in the bone marrow of rats fed irradiated wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, K.P.; Chaubey, R.C.; Sundaram, K.; Gopal-Ayengar, A.R.

    1976-01-01

    Diets containing different proportions of non-irradiated or irradiated wheat were fed to Wistar rats for 1 or 6 wk. Cytological analysis of the bone marrow showed no significant difference in the frequency of polyploid cells in the rats fed non-irradiated or irradiated wheat diets, even when the treated wheat was fed to the rats within 24 hr of irradiation. (author)

  4. Dietary fish protein hydrolysates containing bioactive motifs affect serum and adipose tissue fatty acid compositions, serum lipids, postprandial glucose regulation and growth in obese Zucker fa/fa rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drotningsvik, Aslaug; Mjøs, Svein A; Pampanin, Daniela M; Slizyte, Rasa; Carvajal, Ana; Remman, Tore; Høgøy, Ingmar; Gudbrandsen, Oddrun A

    2016-10-01

    The world's fisheries and aquaculture industries produce vast amounts of protein-containing by-products that can be enzymatically hydrolysed to smaller peptides and possibly be used as additives to functional foods and nutraceuticals targeted for patients with obesity-related metabolic disorders. To investigate the effects of fish protein hydrolysates on markers of metabolic disorders, obese Zucker fa/fa rats consumed diets with 75 % of protein from casein/whey (CAS) and 25 % from herring (HER) or salmon (SAL) protein hydrolysate from rest raw material, or 100 % protein from CAS for 4 weeks. The fatty acid compositions were similar in the experimental diets, and none of them contained any long-chain n-3 PUFA. Ratios of lysine:arginine and methionine:glycine were lower in HER and SAL diets when compared with CAS, and taurine was detected only in fish protein hydrolysate diets. Motifs with reported hypocholesterolemic or antidiabetic activities were identified in both fish protein hydrolysates. Rats fed HER diet had lower serum HDL-cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol, and higher serum TAG, MUFA and n-3:n-6 PUFA ratio compared with CAS-fed rats. SAL rats gained more weight and had better postprandial glucose regulation compared with CAS rats. Serum lipids and fatty acids were only marginally affected by SAL, but adipose tissue contained less total SFA and more total n-3 PUFA when compared with CAS. To conclude, diets containing hydrolysed rest raw material from herring or salmon proteins may affect growth, lipid metabolism, postprandial glucose regulation and fatty acid composition in serum and adipose tissue in obese Zucker rats.

  5. UP3005, a Botanical Composition Containing Two Standardized Extracts of Uncaria gambir and Morus alba, Improves Pain Sensitivity and Cartilage Degradations in Monosodium Iodoacetate-Induced Rat OA Disease Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mesfin Yimam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteoarthritis (OA is a multifactorial disease primarily noted by cartilage degradation in association with inflammation that causes significant morbidity, joint pain, stiffness, and limited mobility. Present-day management of OA is inadequate due to the lack of principal therapies proven to be effective in hindering disease progression where symptomatic therapy focused approach masks the actual etiology leading to irreversible damage. Here, we describe the effect of UP3005, a composition containing a proprietary blend of two standardized extracts from the leaf of Uncaria gambir and the root bark of Morus alba, in maintaining joint structural integrity and alleviating OA associated symptoms in monosodium-iodoacetate- (MIA- induced rat OA disease model. Pain sensitivity, micro-CT, histopathology, and glycosaminoglycans (GAGs level analysis were conducted. Diclofenac at 10 mg/kg was used as a reference compound. UP3005 resulted in almost a complete inhibition in proteoglycans degradation, reductions of 16.6% (week 4, 40.5% (week 5, and 22.0% (week 6 in pain sensitivity, statistically significant improvements in articular cartilage matrix integrity, minimal visual subchondral bone damage, and statistically significant increase in bone mineral density when compared to the vehicle control with MIA. Therefore, UP3005 could potentially be considered as an alternative therapy from natural sources for the treatment of OA and/or its associated symptoms.

  6. Red Star Ruby (Sunrise) and blond qualities of Jaffa grapefruits and their influence on plasma lipid levels and plasma antioxidant activity in rats fed with cholesterol-containing and cholesterol-free diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorinstein, Shela; Leontowicz, Hanna; Leontowicz, Maria; Drzewiecki, Jerzy; Jastrzebski, Zenon; Tapia, María S; Katrich, Elena; Trakhtenberg, Simon

    2005-09-23

    Bioactive compounds of peels and peeled red Star Ruby (Sunrise) and blond qualities of Jaffa grapefruits were analyzed and their antioxidant potential was assessed. The dietary fibers were determined according to Prosky et al., the total polyphenol content by Folin-Ciocalteu method and measured at 765 nm, minerals and trace elements by atomic absorption spectrometer, phenolic and ascorbic acids by HPLC and the antioxidant potential by two different antioxidant assays (DPPH and beta-carotene linoleate model system). It was found that the contents of most studied bioactive compounds in both qualities are comparable. Only the contents of total polyphenols and flavonoids were higher in red grapefruits, but not significant. The antioxidant potentials of red peeled grapefruits and their peels were significantly higher than of blond peeled grapefruits and their peels (Pcholesterol added diet. In conclusion, both qualities of Jaffa grapefruits contain high quantities of bioactive compounds, but the antioxidant potential of red grapefruits is significantly higher. Diets supplemented with both qualities of Jaffa grapefruits improve the plasma lipid levels and increase the plasma antioxidant activity, especially in rats fed with cholesterol added diets. Jaffa grapefruits, especially their red Star Ruby quality, could be a valuable supplementation for diseases-preventing diets.

  7. Absorption difference between diacylglycerol oil and butter blend containing diacylglycerol oil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Janni Brogaard; Jørgensen, Henry; Mu, Huiling

    2012-01-01

    butter blend (BDAG), triacylglycerol (TAG) butter blend (BTAG), DAG oil (ODAG) or TAG oil (OTAG) were prepared, and each was fed to a group of 8 male Wistar rats. The design of the experiment was a combined balance and feeding experiment. The rats fed the BTAG and ODAG‐diets had a significantly higher......This study aims at investigating whether the intake of butter blends containing diacylglycerol (DAG) oil may result in reduced fat accumulation, in similarity to DAG oil, and the potential metabolic differences between butter blends and DAG oil. Four experimental diets containing either 10 wt% DAG...... protein content than rats fed the BDAG and OTAG‐diets, and the fat content was significantly lower in rats fed the ODAG‐diet as compared to rats fed the OTAG and BDAG‐diets. A significantly higher content of ash was observed in rats fed the two TAG diets. The ratio of abdominal fat weight/body weight...

  8. Influence of Dietary Avocado on Gut Health in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paturi, Gunaranjan; Butts, Christine A; Bentley-Hewitt, Kerry L

    2017-09-01

    This study investigated the impact of diets containing various levels of avocado (5, 10 and 15%) on gut health in rats fed for six weeks. Avocado-fed rats had significantly higher food intakes while their body weights remained similar to the control diet-fed rats. No significant changes in intestinal bacterial populations (ileum, cecum and colon) were found in rats fed avocado diets compared to the control diet. Ileum and colon tissues of rats fed avocado diets showed significantly higher expression of genes (β-defensin 1, mucin 3 or mucin 4) and a greater number of mucin-producing goblet cells in the colon. The percentage of avocado in the diet had varying effects in altering the biomarkers, whereby diet containing 15% avocado was the more effective diet. This study delivers new knowledge on the role of avocado on gut health in rats.

  9. Rare Sugar Syrup Containing d-Allulose but Not High-Fructose Corn Syrup Maintains Glucose Tolerance and Insulin Sensitivity Partly via Hepatic Glucokinase Translocation in Wistar Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shintani, Tomoya; Yamada, Takako; Hayashi, Noriko; Iida, Tetsuo; Nagata, Yasuo; Ozaki, Nobuaki; Toyoda, Yukiyasu

    2017-04-05

    Ingestion of high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) is associated with the risk of both diabetes and obesity. Rare sugar syrup (RSS) has been developed by alkaline isomerization of HFCS and has anti-obesity and anti-diabetic effects. However, the influence of RSS on glucose metabolism has not been explored. We investigated whether long-term administration of RSS maintains glucose tolerance and whether the underlying mechanism involves hepatic glucokinase translocation. Wistar rats were administered water, RSS, or HFCS in drinking water for 10 weeks and then evaluated for glucose tolerance, insulin tolerance, liver glycogen content, and subcellular distribution of liver glucokinase. RSS significantly suppressed body weight gain and abdominal fat mass (p glucose tolerance test revealed significantly higher blood glucose levels in the HFCS group compared to the water group, whereas the RSS group had significantly lower blood glucose levels from 90 to 180 min (p water group (p glucose loading, the nuclear export of glucokinase was significantly increased in the RSS group compared to the water group. These results imply that RSS maintains glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity, at least partly, by enhancing nuclear export of hepatic glucokinase.

  10. Lipoproteins comprise at least 10 different classes in rats, each of which contains a unique set of proteins as the primary component.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konishi, Tomokazu; Takahashi, Yoko

    2018-01-01

    Although lipoproteins are conventionally separated into a few classes using density gradient centrifugation, there may be a much higher number of physical classes that differ in origin or phase. Comprehensive knowledge of the classes of lipoproteins is rather limited, which hinders both the study of their functions and the identification of the primary causes of related diseases. This study aims to determine the number of classes of lipoproteins that can be practically distinguishable and identify the differences between them. We separated rat serum samples by gel filtration. The elution was continuously monitored for triglyceride (TG), cholesterol, and protein, and fractionated for further SDS-PAGE and immunological detection of apoprotein A-I (ApoA1) and apoprotein B (ApoB). The elution patterns were analyzed using a parsimonious method, i.e., the estimation of the least number of classes. Ten classes were recognized that contained different amounts of TG and cholesterol, as well as a unique protein content. Each of the classes contained much more protein than that observed previously, especially in low-density lipoproteins (LDL) classes. In particular, two major antiproteases formed complexes with specific classes of LDL; because these classes exclusively carry cholesterol and antiproteases, they may lead to the progression of atheroma by supplying materials that enlarge fatty streaks and protecting thrombi from enzymatic digestion. The separated classes may have specific biological functions. The attribution of protein species to certain classes will help understand the functions. A distinction among lipoprotein classes may provide important information in the field of vascular pathology.

  11. Significant changes in the amounts of neurotransmitter and related substances in rat brain induced by subacute exposure to low levels of toluene and xylene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honma, T.; Sudo, A.; Miyagawa, M.; Sato, M.; Hasegawa, H.

    1983-01-01

    Rats were exposed to toluene and xylene at 200-800 ppm for 30 days. After exposure, changes in the dopamine, norepinephrine, serotonin, acetylcholine (ACh), cyclic AMP, cyclic GMP, GABA, glutamic acid, glutamine, aspartic acid, taurine, glycine and alanine content of different areas of the brain were investigated. ACh in the striatum and whole brain were reduced dose-dependently by toluene and xylene. The reduction at 800 ppm of the solvents was in the range of 10 to 20% of the ACh content of the control rats. Toluene and xylene caused different changes in monoamine content other than ACh, but the changes were not dose-dependent. Among the seven free amino acids that are the main amino acid components of the brain, the glutamine content was increased by toluene and xylene at 800 ppm. Decrease in ACh and increase in glutamine in the brain appear to be phenomena common to many kinds of organic solvents including toluene and xylene after acute and subacute exposure.

  12. Effect of NADPH oxidase inhibitor-apocynin on the expression of Src homology-2 domain-containing phosphatase-1 (SHP-1 exposed renal ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiming Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to evaluate whether NADPH oxidase inhibitor (apocynin preconditioning induces expression of Src homology-2 domain-containing phosphatase-1 (SHP-1 to protect against renal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R injury (RI/RI in rats. Rats were pretreated with 50 mg/kg apocynin, then subjected to 45 min ischemia and 24 h reperfusion. The results indicated that apocynin preconditioning improved the recovery of renal function and nitroso-redox balance, reduced oxidative stress injury and inflammation damage, and upregulated expression of SHP-1 as compared to RI/RI group. Therefore our study demonstrated that apocynin preconditioning provided a protection to the kidney against I/R injury in rats partially through inducing expression of SHP-1.

  13. Cytokine profile of rats fed a diet containing shrimp Perfil das citocinas de ratos alimentados com dieta de camarão

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Lage Borges

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Studies have shown that shrimps reduced the tensile strength of scars in rat skin. The aim of the present study was to assess the cytokine profile of rats fed shrimp. METHODS: Group 1 (control received a regular diet and Group 2 (experimental received a diet containing 33% shrimp for nine days. The two diets contained the same amounts of proteins, fats and carbohydrates. Serum cytokine levels were determined by ELISA and a segment of the jejunum was taken to investigate its histological morphology and eosinophil infiltrate. RESULTS: The experimental group had lower serum levels of interleukin-4 (IL-4 (14.4±1.9 versus 18.11±2.6pg/mL; pOBJETIVO: Estudos mostraram que a dieta suplementada com camarão reduziu a resistência cicatricial na pele de ratos. Nesse contexto, o objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar o perfil das citocinas de ratos que receberam dieta adicionada com camarão. MÉTODOS: Foram comparados um grupo controle e um grupo experimental, que receberam uma dieta enriquecida com camarão (33% durante nove dias. As duas dietas continham quantidades semelhantes de proteínas, lipídeos, e carboidratos. Os níveis séricos de citocinas foram avaliados por ELISA, assim como um segmento de jejuno foi obtido para exame histológico da morfologia e infiltrado de eosinófilos. RESULTADOS: A dieta adicionada com camarão diminuiu os níveis séricos de IL-4 (14,4±1,9 versus 18,11±2,6pg/mL, p<0,05 e IL-10 (5,0±0,98 versus 7,5±1,2pg/mL, p<0,05 e aumentou os níveis séricos de IL-6 (3,2±0,4 versus 17,8±2,3pg/mL, p<0,001 quando comparada com os animais controle. Morfologicamente, a dieta adicionada com camarão causou uma desorganização da arquitetura da mucosa intestinal, juntamente com uma abundância de eosinófilos nas vilosidades jejunais. CONCLUSÃO: Os dados sugerem que a ingestão de dieta adicionada com camarão leva a um aumento significativo da citocina IL-6, juntamente com uma diminuição da citocina

  14. Acid-base and electrolyte status during normovolemic hemodilution with succinylated gelatin or HES-containing volume replacement solutions in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna K Teloh

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In the past, several studies have compared different colloidal replacement solutions, whereby the focus was usually on the respective colloid. We therefore systematically studied the influence of the carrier solution's composition of five approved colloidal volume replacement solutions (Gelafundin, Gelafusal, Geloplasma, Voluven and Volulyte on acid-base as well as electrolyte status during and following acute severe normovolemic hemodilution. The solutions differed in the colloid used (succinylated gelatin vs. HES and in the presence and concentration of metabolizable anions as well as in their electrolyte composition. METHODS: Anesthetized Wistar rats were subjected to a stepwise normovolemic hemodilution with one of the solutions until a final hematocrit of 10%. Subsequent to dilution (162 min, animals were observed for an additional period (150 min. During dilution and observation time blood gas analyses were performed eight times in total. Additionally, in the Voluven and Volulyte groups as well as in 6 Gelafundin animals, electrolyte concentrations, glucose, pH and succinylated gelatin were measured in urine and histopathological evaluation of the kidney was performed. RESULTS: All animals survived without any indications of injury. Although the employed solutions differed in their respective composition, comparable results in all plasma acid-base and electrolyte parameters studied were obtained. Plasma pH increased from approximately 7.28 to 7.39, the plasma K(+ concentration decreased from circa 5.20 mM to 4.80-3.90 mM and the plasma Cl(- concentration rose from approximately 105 mM to 111-120 mM. Urinary analysis revealed increased excretion of K(+, H(+ and Cl(-. CONCLUSIONS: The present data suggest that the carrier solution's composition with regard to metabolizable anions as well as K(+, Ca(2+ only has a minor impact on acid-base and electrolyte status after application of succinylated gelatin or HES-containing colloidal

  15. Relative accretion of /sup 99m/Tc-polyphosphate by forming and resorbing bone systems in rats: its significance in the pathologic basis of bone scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, D.A.; Tow, D.E.; Kapur, K.K.; Wells, H.

    1976-01-01

    The relative roles of osteogenesis and osteolysis in the production of positive radionuclide images of skeletal lesions were investigated. The uptake of /sup 99m/Tc-polyphosphate (Tc-PP) by each process was measured in an animal model that permitted bone formation and resorption to be studied independently. Ten rats received intramuscular implants of bone-forming demineralized matrix (DM) and resorbing devitalized bone (DV). Radiographs and Tc-PP scintiscans were made each week thereafter. At 6 to 10 weeks, the implants and normal bone samples were removed, counted for /sup 99m/Tc, and examined histologically. The uptake of Tc-PP by DM implants was first detected on images made 3 weeks after implantation, and by DV implants, 1 to 2 weeks later. Serial radiography showed progressive calcification of DM and resorption of DV implants. Microscopic examinations of undecalcified sections, stained with a modified Goldner preparation, revealed vital-bone formation in the DM implants and osteoclastic resorption in the DV. Activity counts per gram of DM and DV implants were, respectively, 200 percent and 90 percent that of normal bone. Since only the bone-forming system (DM) accumulated Tc-PP at greater than normal concentrations, this study indicates that positive bone images of osteolytic lesions solely reflect compensatory osteogenic responses

  16. Effects of consuming diets containing Agave tequilana dietary fibre and jamaica calyces on body weight gain and redox status in hypercholesterolemic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sáyago-Ayerdi, Sonia G; Mateos, Raquel; Ortiz-Basurto, Rosa I; Largo, Carlota; Serrano, José; Granado-Serrano, Ana Belén; Sarriá, Beatriz; Bravo, Laura; Tabernero, María

    2014-04-01

    Dietary fibre (DF) obtained from Agave tequilana, which is rich in fructans and insoluble DF, and jamaica calyces (Hibiscus sabdariffa), which is rich in DF and phenolic compounds, were assessed as new potential functional ingredients using the hypercholesterolemic animal model. Wistar rats (200-250 g) were divided into 3 groups (n=8) and fed with cholesterol-rich diets supplemented with cellulose (CC, control), agave DF (ADF) or ADF with jamaica calyces (ADF-JC). After consuming the test diets for 5 weeks, weight gain in the ADF-JC group was significantly lower than in the other groups. The ADF and ADF-JC groups had a reduced concentration of cholesterol transporters in the caecum tissue, although no changes were observed in the plasma lipid profile. Both treatments improved the redox status by reducing the malondialdehyde serum levels and protein oxidative damage, compared to the CC group. DF from A. tequilana alone, or in combination with jamaica calyces, shows promising potential as a bioactive ingredient. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Treatment of chemotherapy-induced neutropenia in a rat model by using multiple daily doses of oral administration of G-CSF-containing nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Fang-Yi; Chuang, Er-Yuan; Lin, Po-Yen; Chou, Yi-Chun; Chen, Chiung-Tong; Mi, Fwu-Long; Wey, Shiaw-Pyng; Yen, Tzu-Chen; Lin, Kun-Ju; Sung, Hsing-Wen

    2014-04-01

    Chemotherapy-induced neutropenia often increases the likelihood of life-threatening infections. In this study, a nanoparticle (NP) system composed of chitosan and poly(γ-glutamic acid) conjugated with diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (γPGA-DTPA) was prepared for oral delivery of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), a hematopoietic growth factor. The therapeutic potential of this NP system for daily administration of G-CSF to treat neutropenia associated with chemotherapy was evaluated in a rat model. In vitro results indicate that the procedures of NP loading and release preserved the structural integrity and bioactivity of the G-CSF molecules adequately. Those results further demonstrated the enzymatic inhibition activity of γPGA-DTPA towards G-CSF against intestinal proteases. Additionally, the in vivo biodistribution study clearly identified accumulations of G-CSF in the heart, liver, bone marrow, and urinary bladder, an indication of systemic absorption of G-CSF; its relative bioavailability was approximately 13.6%. Moreover, significant glucose uptake was observed in bone marrow during G-CSF treatment, suggesting increased bone marrow metabolism and neutrophil production. Consequently, neutrophil count in the blood increased in a sustained manner; this fact may help a patient's immune system recover from the side effects of chemotherapy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Distribution of radiolabeled L-glutamate and D-aspartate from blood into peripheral tissues in naive rats: Significance for brain neuroprotection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klin, Yael; Zlotnik, Alexander; Boyko, Matthew; Ohayon, Sharon; Shapira, Yoram; Teichberg, Vivian I.

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → Blood glutamate has a half-life time of 2-3 min. → Blood glutamate is submitted to rapid decarboxylation. → Blood glutamate and its metabolites are mainly absorbed in skeletal muscle and liver. → The skeletal muscle and liver are now targets for potential drugs affording brain neuroprotection. -- Abstract: Excess L-glutamate (glutamate) levels in brain interstitial and cerebrospinal fluids (ISF and CSF, respectively) are the hallmark of several neurodegenerative conditions such as stroke, traumatic brain injury or amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Its removal could prevent the glutamate excitotoxicity that causes long-lasting neurological deficits. As in previous studies, we have established the role of blood glutamate levels in brain neuroprotection, we have now investigated the contribution of the peripheral organs to the homeostasis of glutamate in blood. We have administered naive rats with intravenous injections of either L-[1- 14 C] Glutamic acid (L-[1- 14 C] Glu), L-[G- 3 H] Glutamic acid (L-[G- 3 H] Glu) or D-[2,3- 3 H] Aspartic acid (D-[2,3- 3 H] Asp), a non-metabolized analog of glutamate, and have followed their distribution into peripheral organs. We have observed that the decay of the radioactivity associated with L-[1- 14 C] Glu and L-[G- 3 H] Glu was faster than that associated with glutamate non-metabolized analog, D-[2,3- 3 H] Asp. L-[1- 14 C] Glu was subjected in blood to a rapid decarboxylation with the loss of 14 CO 2 . The three major sequestrating organs, serving as depots for the eliminated glutamate and/or its metabolites were skeletal muscle, liver and gut, contributing together 92% or 87% of total L-[U- 14 C] Glu or D-[2,3- 3 H] Asp radioactivity capture. L-[U- 14 C] Glu and D-[2,3- 3 H] Asp showed a different organ sequestration pattern. We conclude that glutamate is rapidly eliminated from the blood into peripheral tissues, mainly in non-metabolized form. The liver plays a central role in glutamate metabolism

  19. Distribution of radiolabeled L-glutamate and D-aspartate from blood into peripheral tissues in naive rats: Significance for brain neuroprotection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klin, Yael [Department of Neurobiology, The Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100 (Israel); Zlotnik, Alexander; Boyko, Matthew; Ohayon, Sharon; Shapira, Yoram [The Division of Anesthesiology, Soroka Medical Center and Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva (Israel); Teichberg, Vivian I., E-mail: Vivian.teichberg@weizmann.ac.il [Department of Neurobiology, The Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100 (Israel)

    2010-09-03

    Research highlights: {yields} Blood glutamate has a half-life time of 2-3 min. {yields} Blood glutamate is submitted to rapid decarboxylation. {yields} Blood glutamate and its metabolites are mainly absorbed in skeletal muscle and liver. {yields} The skeletal muscle and liver are now targets for potential drugs affording brain neuroprotection. -- Abstract: Excess L-glutamate (glutamate) levels in brain interstitial and cerebrospinal fluids (ISF and CSF, respectively) are the hallmark of several neurodegenerative conditions such as stroke, traumatic brain injury or amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Its removal could prevent the glutamate excitotoxicity that causes long-lasting neurological deficits. As in previous studies, we have established the role of blood glutamate levels in brain neuroprotection, we have now investigated the contribution of the peripheral organs to the homeostasis of glutamate in blood. We have administered naive rats with intravenous injections of either L-[1-{sup 14}C] Glutamic acid (L-[1-{sup 14}C] Glu), L-[G-{sup 3}H] Glutamic acid (L-[G-{sup 3}H] Glu) or D-[2,3-{sup 3}H] Aspartic acid (D-[2,3-{sup 3}H] Asp), a non-metabolized analog of glutamate, and have followed their distribution into peripheral organs. We have observed that the decay of the radioactivity associated with L-[1-{sup 14}C] Glu and L-[G-{sup 3}H] Glu was faster than that associated with glutamate non-metabolized analog, D-[2,3-{sup 3}H] Asp. L-[1-{sup 14}C] Glu was subjected in blood to a rapid decarboxylation with the loss of {sup 14}CO{sub 2}. The three major sequestrating organs, serving as depots for the eliminated glutamate and/or its metabolites were skeletal muscle, liver and gut, contributing together 92% or 87% of total L-[U-{sup 14}C] Glu or D-[2,3-{sup 3}H] Asp radioactivity capture. L-[U-{sup 14}C] Glu and D-[2,3-{sup 3}H] Asp showed a different organ sequestration pattern. We conclude that glutamate is rapidly eliminated from the blood into peripheral tissues

  20. Improved oral bioavailability of cyclosporin A in male Wistar rats. Comparison of a Solutol HS 15 containing self-dispersing formulation and a microsuspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo González, Roberto Carlos; Huwyler, Jörg; Walter, Isabelle; Mountfield, Richard; Bittner, Beate

    2002-10-01

    Oral bioavailability of the highly lipophilic and poorly water-soluble immunosuppressive agent cyclosporin A (CyA) in two different formulations was investigated in male Wistar rats. An aqueous microsuspension and a self-dispersing formulation composed of the surface-active ingredients Solutol HS 15:Labrafil M2125CS:oleic acid=7:2:1 (v/v/v) were administered to the animals at a dose level of 20 mg/kg. In order to calculate the absolute oral bioavailability, CyA was additionally administered intravenously at 10 mg/kg as microsuspension. It was found that the oral bioavailability of CyA in the Solutol HS 15-based formulation was twofold higher as compared to the microsuspension (69.9+/-2.8 vs. 35.7+/-3.3%, P=0.001). By contrast, the time to reach maximum plasma concentration (t(max)) and the terminal half-life (t(1/2)) did not differ significantly with the different formulations (t(max): 7.0+/-1.0 vs. 6.3+/-1.7 h; t(1/2): 20.5+/-2.9 vs. 16.7+/-4.7 h). In vitro solubility experiments demonstrated a marked increase in the aqueous solubility of CyA in the presence of the self-dispersing formulation as compared to the micronized powder alone (solubility after 120 min at 37 degrees C: 136 vs. 23.2 microg/ml in human gastric juice; 133 vs. 10.8 microg/ml in simulated intestinal juice). Most likely, the enhanced systemic exposure of CyA in the self-dispersing formulation was caused by improved solubility of CyA in the gastrointestinal fluids in the presence of the surface-active ingredients. Additional factors that may have contributed to increased oral bioavailability are inhibition of metabolism and/or transport processes as well as permeability enhancement by the co-administered excipients.

  1. Dietary gamma oryzanol plays a significant role in the anti-inflammatory activity of rice bran oil by decreasing pro-inflammatory mediators secreted by peritoneal macrophages of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Y Poorna Chandra; Sugasini, D; Lokesh, B R

    2016-10-28

    Ricebran oil (RBO) is promoted as heart friendly oil because of its ability to maintain serum lipids at desirable levels. Inflammation also plays an important role on cardiovascular health. The role of minor constituents present in unsaponifiable fraction (UF) of RBO on inflammatory markers is not well understood. To evaluate this, we have taken RBO with UF (RBO-N), RBO stripped of UF (RBO-MCR) and RBO-MCR supplemented with UF from RBO (UFRBO) or Gamma-Oryzanol (γ-ORY) were added in AIN-93 diets which was then fed to Wistar rats for a period of 60 days. Groundnut oil with UF (GNO-N), UF removed GNO (GNO-MCR) and GNO-MCR supplemented with UF from RBO or γ-ORY was also used for comparison. The peritoneal macrophages from the rats were activated and pro-inflammatory mediators such as Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS), eicosanoids, cytokines, hydrolytic enzymes of lysosomal origin were monitored. The results indicated that UF of RBO and γ-ORY supplemented in the dietary oils play a significant role in reducing the secretion of pro-inflammatory mediators by macrophages. Hence γ-ORY in RBO significantly contributed to the anti-inflammatory properties of RBO. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Anticataractogenesis and Antiretinopathy Effects of the Novel Protective Agent Containing the Combined Extract of Mango and Vietnamese Coriander in STZ-Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jintanaporn Wattanathorn

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The novel protectant against diabetic cataract and diabetic retinopathy is currently required due to the increased prevalence and therapeutic limitation. Based on the advantage of polyphenol on diabetic eye complications, we hypothesized that the combined extract of mango seed Vietnamese coriander (MPO, a polyphenol-rich substance, should possess anticataractogenesis and antiretinopathy in streptozotocin- (STZ- diabetic rats. MPO at doses of 2, 10, and 50 mg/kg·BW were orally given to STZ-diabetic rats for 10 weeks. Lens opacity was evaluated every week throughout a study period whereas the evaluation of cataract severity and histological changes of both rat lens epithelium and retina together with the biochemical assays of oxidative stress status, aldose reductase, p38MAPK, ERK1/2, and VEGF were performed at the end of experiment. Our data showed that MPO improved cataract and retinopathy in STZ-diabetic rats. The improved oxidative stress status and the decreased p38MAPK, ERK1/2, and VEGF were also observed. Therefore, anticataractogenesis and antiretinopathy of MPO might occur partly via the decreased oxidative stress status and the suppression of aldose reductase, p38MAPK, ERK1/2, and VEGF. This study points out that MPO is the potential candidate protectant against diabetic cataract and diabetic retinopathy. However, the exploration for possible active ingredient (S still requires further researches.

  3. Increased induction of aberrant crypt foci by 1,2-dimethylhydrazine in rats fed diets containing purified genistein of genistein-rich soya protein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gee, J.M.; Noteborn, H.P.J.M.; Polley, A.C.J.; Johnson, I.T.

    2000-01-01

    The isoflavonoid genistein inhibits mitosis and increases apoptosis in a variety of tumour cell lines in vitro, and may exert anticarcinogenic effects in vivo. To assess its effects on the colon, rats were fed a semi-synthetic control diet, or similar diets enriched with genistein (0.25 g/kg),

  4. Effect of variable protein contents in diets containing Phaseolus vulgaris beans on performance, organ weights and blood variables in piglets, rats and chickens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, J.; Poel, A.F.B. van der; Mouwen, J.M.V.M.; Weerden, E.J. van

    1990-01-01

    A comparison was made of the effects of antinutritional factors present in Phaseolus vulgaris on piglets, rats and chickens. Also the hypothesis of whether the negative effect on weight gain due to the inclusion of raw Phaseolus vulgaris in the diet can be attributed to an insufficient supply of

  5. Deficits in response inhibition in male rats prenatally exposed to vapor condensates made from gasoline containing ethanol at 0% and 15%, but not 85%

    Science.gov (United States)

    The impact of developmental exposure to inhaled ethanol-gasoline fuel blends is a potential public health concern. We previously reported that rats whose mothers inhaled ethanol (21,000 ppm) during pregnancy had increased levels of anticipatory responding on a choice reaction tim...

  6. Sulfur amino acids metabolism in magnesium deficient rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tojo, H.; Kosokawa, Y.; Yamaguchi, K.

    1984-01-01

    Effect of magnesium (Mg) deficiency on sulfur amino acid metabolism was investigated in rats. Young male rats were fed on the diet containing either 2.26 (deficient rats) or 63.18 mg Mg/100g diet (control and low protein rats) for 2 weeks. A remarkable decrease of body weight gain, serum Mg contents and a slight decreases in the hematological parameters such as Hb, Ht and RBC was observed, while the hepatic Mg and Ca was not significantly changed. Erythema and cramps were observed 5 days after feeding on the Mg-depleted diet. The hepatic glutathione and cysteine contents increased in Mg-deficient rats. However, no significant change of cysteine dioxygenase (CDO) activity and taurine content in Mg-deficient rat liver was observed. These results suggest that Mg deficiency affects the utilization and biosynthesis of hepatic glutathione but not the cysteine catabolism.

  7. Significance of CaV3.2 T-type Ca2+ channels for pressure- and flow-dependent vasomotor responses in rat and mouse mesenteric small arteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars Jørn; Björling, K.; Hansen, Pernille B. Lærkegaard

    RNA was similar in WT vs. CaV3.2-/- mice. CONCLUSION: FMVD responses appear to rely on an endothelium-dependent hyperpolarization in rat small mesenteric arteries. CaV3.2 channels are negative feedback modulators of myogenic tone in small mesenteric artery in young mice. The age-dependent decline in CaV3...... in young CaV3.2-/- mice (8-15 weeks) vs. age-matched WT mice (Pyoung WT mice, the CaV3.2 blocker NiCl2 (30 µM) significantly enhanced myogenic tone (P... was not seen (N=4). In young and old CaV3.2-/- mice no effects of NiCl2 were observed. The FMVD response in rat mesenteric arteries was not blocked by L-NAME, but was almost abolished by the SKCa/IKCa channel blockers apamin/TRAM-34 (50 nM/1 µM) (P

  8. In vivo polymerization of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) in the living rat hippocampus does not cause a significant loss of performance in a delayed alternation task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Liangqi; Shaw, Crystal L.; Kuo, Chin-chen; Griffin, Amy L.; Martin, David C.

    2014-04-01

    -polymerization time intervals, the polymerization did not cause significant deficits in performance of the DA task, suggesting that hippocampal function was not impaired by PEDOT deposition. However, GFAP+ and ED-1+ cells were also found at the deposition two weeks after the polymerization, suggesting potential secondary scarring. Therefore, less extensive deposition or milder deposition conditions may be desirable to minimize this scarring while maintaining decreased system impedance.

  9. CONTAIN calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scholtyssek, W.

    1995-01-01

    In the first phase of a benchmark comparison, the CONTAIN code was used to calculate an assumed EPR accident 'medium-sized leak in the cold leg', especially for the first two days after initiation of the accident. The results for global characteristics compare well with those of FIPLOC, MELCOR and WAVCO calculations, if the same materials data are used as input. However, significant differences show up for local quantities such as flows through leakages. (orig.)

  10. Regulation of brain aromatase activity in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roselli, C.E.; Ellinwood, W.E.; Resko, J.A.

    1984-01-01

    The distribution and regulation of aromatase activity in the adult rat brain with a sensitive in vitro assay that measures the amount of 3 H 2 O formed during the conversion of [1 beta- 3 H]androstenedione to estrone. The rate of aromatase activity in the hypothalamus-preoptic area (HPOA) was linear with time up to 1 h, and with tissue concentrations up to 5 mgeq/200 microliters incubation mixture. The enzyme demonstrated a pH optimum of 7.4 and an apparent Michaelis-Menten constant (Km) of 0.04 microns. The greatest amount of aromatase activity was found in amygdala and HPOA from intact male rats. The hippocampus, midbrain tegmentum, cerebral cortex, cerebellum, and anterior pituitary all contained negligible enzymatic activity. Castration produced a significant decrease in aromatase activity in the HPOA, but not in the amygdala or cerebral cortex. The HPOAs of male rats contained significantly greater aromatase activity than the HPOAs of female rats. In females, this enzyme activity did not change during the estrous cycle or after ovariectomy. Administration of testosterone to gonadectomized male and female rats significantly enhanced HPOA aromatase activities to levels approximating those found in HPOA from intact males. Therefore, the results suggest that testosterone, or one of its metabolites, is a major steroidal regulator of HPOA aromatase activity in rats

  11. Vesicular glutamate transporter 2 (VGLUT2) is co-stored with PACAP in projections from the rat melanopsin-containing retinal ganglion cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelund, Anna Iversen; Fahrenkrug, Jan; Harrison, Adrian Paul

    2010-01-01

    The retinal ganglion cell layer of the eye comprises a subtype of cells characterized by their intrinsic photosensitivity and expression of melanopsin (ipRGCs). These cells regulate a variety of non-image-forming (NIF) functions such as light entrainment of circadian rhythms, acute suppression......-localized in their projections in the suprachiasmatic nucleus, the intergeniculate leaflet, and the olivary pretectal nucleus. We conclude that there is evidence to support the use of glutamate and PACAP as neurotransmitters in NIF photoperception by rat ipRGCs, and that these neurotransmitters are co-stored and probably...

  12. CONTAIN calculations; CONTAIN-Rechnungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scholtyssek, W.

    1995-08-01

    In the first phase of a benchmark comparison, the CONTAIN code was used to calculate an assumed EPR accident `medium-sized leak in the cold leg`, especially for the first two days after initiation of the accident. The results for global characteristics compare well with those of FIPLOC, MELCOR and WAVCO calculations, if the same materials data are used as input. However, significant differences show up for local quantities such as flows through leakages. (orig.)

  13. Gender differences in biochemical markers and oxidative stress of rats after 28 days oral exposure to a mixture used for weight loss containing p-synephrine, ephedrine, salicin, and caffeine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Cristina Schmitt

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The association of p-synephrine, ephedrine, salicin, and caffeine in dietary supplements and weight loss products is very common worldwide, even though ephedrine has been prohibited in many countries. The aim of this study was to evaluate a 28-day oral exposure toxicity profile of p-synephrine, ephedrine, salicin, and caffeine mixture (10:4:6:80 w/w respectively in male and female Wistar rats. Body weight and signs of toxicity, morbidity, and mortality were observed daily. After 28 days, animals were euthanized and blood collected for hematological, biochemical, and oxidative stress evaluation. No clinical signs of toxicity, significant weight loss or deaths occurred, nor were there any significant alterations in hematological parameters. Biochemical and oxidative stress biomarkers showed lipid peroxidation, and hepatic and renal damage (p < 0.05; ANOVA/Bonferroni in male rats (100 and 150 mg/kg and a reduction (p < 0.05; ANOVA/Bonferroni in glutathione (GSH levels in all male groups. Female groups displayed no indications of oxidative stress or biochemical alterations. The different toxicity profile displayed by male and female rats suggests a hormonal influence on mixture effects. Results demonstrated that the tested mixture can alter oxidative status and promote renal and hepatic damages.

  14. Ingestion of guar gum hydrolysate, a soluble fiber, increases calcium absorption in totally gastrectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, H; Suzuki, T; Kasai, T; Aoyama, Y; Ohta, A

    1999-01-01

    Gastrectomy induces osteopenia. We examined the effects of feeding a diet containing soluble dietary fiber, guar gum hydrolysate (GGH, 50 g/kg diet), on intestinal calcium absorption and bone mineralization in totally gastrectomized (Roux-en-Y esophagojejunostomy) rats by comparing them with those in two control groups (laparotomized and bypassed rats). In the bypassed rats, chyme bypassed the duodenum and upper jejunum without gastrectomy. In a second separate experiment, we compared calcium absorption and bone mineralization in the gastrectomized rats fed diets containing soluble and insoluble calcium salts and in bypassed rats fed insoluble calcium. In Experiment 1, apparent absorption of calcium supplied as a water-insoluble salt was more than 50% lower in gastrectomized rats than in the intact (laparotomized) or bypassed rats 3 wk after the start of feeding the test diets (P Calcium absorption was higher (P Experiment 2, absorption of soluble calcium in the gastrectomized rats did not differ from the absorption of calcium from calcium carbonate by bypassed rats. The soluble calcium pool in the cecal contents was significantly lower in gastrectomized rats (Experiment 1) than in intact or bypassed control rats, and was higher (P calcium absorption correlated most closely (r = 0.787, P calcium content was significantly lower in gastrectomized rats fed insoluble calcium than in bypassed rats fed the same diet, but was partially restored in the rats fed soluble calcium (Experiment 2). Bone calcium was not increased by feeding GGH in gastrectomized rats (Experiment 1). We conclude that the severely diminished calcium absorption following total gastrectomy is totally due to a decrease in calcium solubilization, and feeding GGH partially restores calcium absorption. The decrease in bone calcium that occurs as a result of gastrectomy is mainly due to diminished intestinal calcium absorption.

  15. Influence of age and magnesium on calcium metabolism in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McElroy, S.T.; Link, J.E.; Dowdy, R.P.; Zinn, K.R.; Ellersieck, M.R.

    1991-01-01

    This study evaluates the effect of dietary magnesium concentration on calcium metabolism in rats of differing ages. Young (3 wk) and old (18 mo) Fischer 344 rats were fed the AIN-76A diet modified to contain either low (218 mg/kg) or adequate (419 mg/kg) Mg for 4 wk. Some rats subsequently underwent a metabolic balance study (12 d duration). Other rats were gavaged with approximately 220 KBq (6 microCi) of 47 Ca; daily fecal and urine collections were made and periodic whole body radioactivity determined. Femurs were removed and analyzed. Calcium retention and balance were not affected by Mg in young rats. In old rats low Mg intake increased apparent Ca balance. Young rats retained about 3.25 times more of the original dose of 47 Ca than did old rats. Young rats retained more 47 Ca in the femur than did old rats; Mg intake had little effect. Aging accelerated Ca turnover rate, and whole body retention data suggest that adequate Mg does not significantly reduce Ca turnover

  16. No adverse lung effects of 7- and 28-day inhalation exposure of rats to emissions from petrodiesel fuel containing 20% rapeseed methyl esters (B20) with and without particulate filter - the FuelHealth project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnusson, Pål; Oczkowski, Michał; Øvrevik, Johan; Gajewska, Malgorzata; Wilczak, Jacek; Biedrzycki, Jacek; Dziendzikowska, Katarzyna; Kamola, Dariusz; Królikowski, Tomasz; Kruszewski, Marcin; Lankoff, Anna; Mruk, Remigiusz; Brunborg, Gunnar; Instanes, Christine; Gromadzka-Ostrowska, Joanna; Myhre, Oddvar

    2017-04-01

    Increased use of biofuels raises concerns about health effects of new emissions. We analyzed relative lung health effects, on Fisher 344 rats, of diesel engine exhausts emissions (DEE) from a Euro 5-classified diesel engine running on petrodiesel fuel containing 20% rapeseed methyl esters (B20) with and without diesel particulate filter (DPF). One group of animals was exposed to DEE for 7 days (6 h/day), and another group for 28 days (6 h/day, 5 days/week), both with and without DPF. The animals (n = 7/treatment) were exposed in whole body exposure chambers. Animals breathing clean air were used as controls. Genotoxic effects of the lungs by the Comet assay, histological examination of lung tissue, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) markers of pulmonary injury, and mRNA markers of inflammation and oxidative stress were analyzed. Our results showed that a minor number of genes related to inflammation were slightly differently expressed in the exposed animals compared to control. Histological analysis also revealed only minor effects on inflammatory tissue markers in the lungs, and this was supported by flow cytometry and ELISA analysis of cytokines in BALF. No exposure-related indications of genotoxicity were observed. Overall, exposure to DEE with or without DPF technology produced no adverse effects in the endpoints analyzed in the rat lung tissue or the BALF. Overall, exposure to DEE from a modern Euro 5 light vehicle engine run on B20 fuel with or without DPF technology produced no adverse effects in the endpoints analyzed in the rat lung tissue or the BALF.

  17. Nota científica: perfil bioquímico de ratos alimentados com iogurte contendo extrato de erva-mate (Ilex paraguariensis St. Hil Scientific Note: biochemical profile of rats fed yogurt containing yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis St. Hil extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franciele Taís Ril

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito do iogurte contendo extrato de erva-mate (Ilex paraguariensis e com/sem culturas probióticas sobre o perfil lipídico, glicêmico, hepático e renal de ratos alimentados com esses tipos de iogurtes. Ratos da linhagem Wistar (42 foram divididos em três grupos (n=14, e receberam iogurte sem extrato de erva-mate, iogurte com extrato de erva-mate 0,1% e iogurte com extrato de erva-mate 0,1% e culturas probióticas, durante 30 dias. Não foi observado no presente estudo efeito significativo do extrato de erva-mate sobre os níveis de colesterol total, colesterol HDL, triglicerídeos, uréia, ácido úrico, creatinina, glicose e na atividade das enzimas fosfatase alcalina, aspartato aminotransferase e alanina aminotransferase. O extrato de erva-mate, 0,1% no iogurte, não interfere no metabolismo de ratos alimentados por 30 dias.The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of yoghurt containing yerba-mate extract (Ilex paraguariensis, with and without probiotic cultures, on the lipidic, glycemic, hepatic and kidney profiles of rats fed these types of yoghurt. Wistar rats (42 were divided into three groups (n=14 and for 30 days were fed yoghurt without yerba-mate extract, yoghurt with 0.1% yerba-mate extract and yoghurt with 0.1% yerba-mate extract and probiotic cultures. No significant effect of the yerba mate extract on the levels of total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, urea, uric acid, creatinine, glucose and the activity of the enzymes alkaline phosphatase, aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase was observed in the present study. The addition of 0.1% yerba mate extract to the yoghurt did not interfere with the metabolism of the rats during 30 days.

  18. Renal cortical calcification in syngeneic intact rats and those receiving an infrarenal thoracic aortic graft: possible etiological roles of endothelin, nitrate and minerals, and different preventive effects of long-term oral treatment with magnesium, citrate and alkali-containing preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmiedl, A; Schmiedl, P O; Bonucci, E; Seitz, T; Schwille, R M; Manoharan, M

    2001-08-01

    Renal cortical nephrocalcinosis (C-NC) is a rare disorder of uncertain etiology. Using highly inbred (syngeneic) male Lewis rats, we describe the spontaneous occurrence of histologically detectable C-NC in sham operated control rats (Sham; n=12), its aggravation following grafting of the ascending thoracic aorta from a donor rat to the infrarenal aorta of a recipient (ATx; n=12), and differences in C-NC inhibition after 12 weeks of oral administration of magnesium (Mg), citrate and alkali. C-NC is characterized by Kossa-positive areas located in cells of the proximal tubule close to blood vessels and also, to a lesser extent, within glomeruli. After ATx there was vascular overproduction of endothelin (ET-1) but decreased production of nitrate; in renal cortical tissue there was an excess of calcium over Mg and phosphorus and oxalate over citrate. In plasma there was an increase in calcium and creatinine within the normal range. Calcification of tubular cells was eliminated by a preparation containing potassium, sodium and bases (from citrate degradation and bicarbonate) in addition to Mg. Less effective than the latter was Mg-potassium citrate and least effective, Mg citrate. The former treatment also normalized calcemia and urinary nitrate, but only incompletely suppressed ET-1 and had no significant effect on glomerular calcification or tissue and urinary oxalate. Urinary ET-1 excess appeared directly related to the cortical tissue calcium/Mg ratio, and urinary excretion of Mg, citrate and total protein appeared to be inversely related to the severity of C-NC. It was concluded that (1) the highly inbred rat is prone to precipitation of calcium phosphate in the renal cortex; (2) this type of C-NC occurs in close proximity to and within renal vascular tissue and is associated with an imbalance of vasoconstrictors and vasodilators of endothelial origin; (3) effective inhibition of C-NC can be achieved by an alkalinizing combination of Mg, potassium, sodium and

  19. Threonine phosphorylation of rat liver glycogen synthase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arino, J.; Arro, M.; Guinovart, J.J.

    1985-01-01

    32 P-labeled glycogen synthase specifically immunoprecipitated from 32 P-phosphate incubated rat hepatocytes contains, in addition to [ 32 P] phosphoserine, significant levels of [ 32 P] phosphothreonine. When the 32 P-immunoprecipitate was cleaved with CNBr, the [ 32 P] phosphothreonine was recovered in the large CNBr fragment (CB-2, Mapp 28 Kd). Homogeneous rat liver glycogen synthase was phosphorylated by all the protein kinases able to phosphorylate CB-2 in vitro. After analysis of the immunoprecipitated enzyme for phosphoaminoacids, it was observed that only casein kinase II was able to phosphorylate on threonine and 32 P-phosphate was only found in CB-2. These results demonstrate that rat liver glycogen synthase is phosphorylated at threonine site(s) contained in CB-2 and strongly indicate that casein kinase II may play a role in the ''in vivo'' phosphorylation of liver glycogen synthase. This is the first protein kinase reported to phosphorylate threonine residues in liver glycogen synthase

  20. Connections between EM2-containing terminals and GABA/μ-opioid receptor co-expressing neurons in the rat spinal trigeminal caudal nucleus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Meng-Ying; Wu, Zhen-Yu; Lu, Ya-Cheng; Yin, Jun-Bin; Wang, Jian; Zhang, Ting; Dong, Yu-Lin; Wang, Feng

    2014-01-01

    Endomorphin-2 (EM2) demonstrates a potent antinociceptive effect via the μ-opioid receptor (MOR). To provide morphological evidence for the pain control effect of EM2, the synaptic connections between EM2-immunoreactive (IR) axonal terminals and γ-amino butyric acid (GABA)/MOR co-expressing neurons in lamina II of the spinal trigeminal caudal nucleus (Vc) were investigated in the rat. Dense EM2-, MOR- and GABA-IR fibers and terminals were mainly observed in lamina II of the Vc. Within lamina II, GABA- and MOR-neuronal cell bodies were also encountered. The results of immunofluorescent histochemical triple-staining showed that approximately 14.2 or 18.9% of GABA-IR or MOR-IR neurons also showed MOR- or GABA-immunopositive staining in lamina II; approximately 45.2 and 36.1% of the GABA-IR and MOR-IR neurons, respectively, expressed FOS protein in their nuclei induced by injecting formalin into the left lower lip of the mouth. Most of the GABA/MOR, GABA/FOS, and MOR/FOS double-labeled neurons made close contacts with EM2-IR fibers and terminals. Immuno-electron microscopy confirmed that the EM2-IR terminals formed synapses with GABA-IR or MOR-IR dendritic processes and neuronal cell bodies in lamina II of the Vc. These results suggest that EM2 might participate in pain transmission and modulation by binding to MOR-IR and GABAergic inhibitory interneuron in lamina II of the Vc to exert inhibitory effect on the excitatory interneuron in lamina II and projection neurons in laminae I and III. PMID:25386121

  1. Phylum Level Change in the Cecal and Fecal Gut Communities of Rats Fed Diets Containing Different Fermentable Substrates Supports a Role for Nitrogen as a Factor Contributing to Community Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Kalmokoff

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Fermentation differs between the proximal and distal gut but little is known regarding how the bacterial communities differ or how they are influenced by diet. In order to investigate this, we compared community diversity in the cecum and feces of rats by 16S rRNA gene content and DNA shot gun metagenomics after feeding purified diets containing different fermentable substrates. Gut community composition was dependent on the source of fermentable substrate included in the diet. Cecal communities were dominated by Firmicutes, and contained a higher abundance of Lachnospiraceae compared to feces. In feces, community structure was shifted by varying degrees depending on diet towards the Bacteroidetes, although this change was not always evident from 16S rRNA gene data. Multi-dimensional scaling analysis (PCoA comparing cecal and fecal metagenomes grouped by location within the gut rather than by diet, suggesting that factors in addition to substrate were important for community change in the distal gut. Differentially abundant genes in each environment supported this shift away from the Firmicutes in the cecum (e.g., motility towards the Bacteroidetes in feces (e.g., Bacteroidales transposons. We suggest that this phylum level change reflects a shift to ammonia as the primary source of nitrogen used to support continued microbial growth in the distal gut.

  2. Phylum level change in the cecal and fecal gut communities of rats fed diets containing different fermentable substrates supports a role for nitrogen as a factor contributing to community structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalmokoff, Martin; Franklin, Jeff; Petronella, Nicholas; Green, Judy; Brooks, Stephen P J

    2015-05-06

    Fermentation differs between the proximal and distal gut but little is known regarding how the bacterial communities differ or how they are influenced by diet. In order to investigate this, we compared community diversity in the cecum and feces of rats by 16S rRNA gene content and DNA shot gun metagenomics after feeding purified diets containing different fermentable substrates. Gut community composition was dependent on the source of fermentable substrate included in the diet. Cecal communities were dominated by Firmicutes, and contained a higher abundance of Lachnospiraceae compared to feces. In feces, community structure was shifted by varying degrees depending on diet towards the Bacteroidetes, although this change was not always evident from 16S rRNA gene data. Multi-dimensional scaling analysis (PCoA) comparing cecal and fecal metagenomes grouped by location within the gut rather than by diet, suggesting that factors in addition to substrate were important for community change in the distal gut. Differentially abundant genes in each environment supported this shift away from the Firmicutes in the cecum (e.g., motility) towards the Bacteroidetes in feces (e.g., Bacteroidales transposons). We suggest that this phylum level change reflects a shift to ammonia as the primary source of nitrogen used to support continued microbial growth in the distal gut.

  3. Shielding container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darling, K.A.M.

    1981-01-01

    A shielding container incorporates a dense shield, for example of depleted uranium, cast around a tubular member of curvilinear configuration for accommodating a radiation source capsule. A lining for the tubular member, in the form of a close-coiled flexible guide, provides easy replaceability to counter wear while the container is in service. Container life is extended, and maintenance costs are reduced. (author)

  4. Enhancement of intestinal growth in neonatal rats by epidermal growth factor in milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berseth, C.L.

    1987-01-01

    Breast milk has been shown to enhance neonatal intestinal growth. Because epidermal growth factor (EGF) is present in the milk of various mammalian species, the hypothesis was tested that EGF in rodent milk mediates, in part, the breast milk-enhanced intestinal growth in neonatal rat. Fifty-eight rat pups fed artificial formal that contained 1.2, 3.0, and 6.0 μg/ml EGF for 39 h had greater incorporation of [ 3 H]thymidine into DNA and DNA content of intestine than 29 pups fed unsupplemented formula. Pups fed EGF for 5 days had significantly greater body weight, intestinal weight, length, and DNA content than control pups. Conversely, pups fed pooled rat milk containing rabbit-derived antibody to EGF for 39 h had intestines of lower weight that contained less DNA than animals fed rat milk containing normal rabbit serum. EGF appears to mediate, in part, breast milk-enhanced neonatal intestinal growth

  5. Fenbendazole treatment and litter size in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Nancy A; Bieszczak, Jeremiah R; Verhulst, Steven; Disney, Kimberly E; Montgomery, Kyle E; Toth, Linda A

    2006-11-01

    Fenbendazole is commonly used in laboratory animal medicine as an anthelmintic for elimination of pinworms. It is generally regarded as a safe drug with minimal side effects. In our facility, 2 breeding colonies of rats were treated with fenbendazole to eliminate pinworms. Analysis of the breeding records revealed that feeding Sprague-Dawley rats a diet containing fenbendazole on a continuous basis for 7 consecutive weeks was associated with a significant reduction in litter size. Although the mechanism underlying this effect is unknown, the finding prompts caution when using fenbendazole to treat valuable breeding colonies or strains that are poor breeders.

  6. Containment performance improvement program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beckner, W.; Mitchell, J.; Soffer, L.; Chow, E.; Lane, J.; Ridgely, J.

    1990-01-01

    The Containment Performance Improvement (CPI) program has been one of the main elements in the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC's) integrated approach to closure of severe accident issues for US nuclear power plants. During the course of the program, results from various probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) studies and from severe accident research programs for the five US containment types have been examined to identify significant containment challenges and to evaluate potential improvements. The five containment types considered are: the boiling water reactor (BMR) Mark I containment, the BWR Mark II containment, the BWR Mark III containment, the pressurized water reactor (PWR) ice condenser containment, and the PWR dry containments (including both subatmospheric and large subtypes). The focus of the CPI program has been containment performance and accident mitigation, however, insights are also being obtained in the areas of accident prevention and accident management

  7. Reactor container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichiki, Tadaharu; Saba, Kazuhisa.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To improve the earthquake resistance as well as reduce the size of a container for a nuclear reactor with no adverse effects on the decrease of impact shock to the container and shortening of construction step. Constitution: Reinforcing profile steel materials are welded longitudinally and transversely to the inner surface of a container, and inner steel plates are secured to the above profile steel materials while keeping a gap between the materials and the container. Reactor shielding wall planted to the base concrete of the container is mounted to the pressure vessel, and main steam pipeways secured by the transverse beams and led to the outside of container is connected. This can improve the rigidity earthquake strength and the safetiness against the increase in the inside pressure upon failures of the container. (Yoshino, Y.)

  8. In vitro uptake of 75Se-selenite by lens of young and adult rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sladkova, J.; Ostadalova, I.; Babicky, A.; Obenberger, J.

    1988-01-01

    The uptake was observed of 75 Se-selenite by the lens in Wistar strain rats in adult animals, in 17-day old rats kept with their mothers and in prematurely weaned rats. Also measured was the excretion of 75 Se by the lens of young and adult rats following incubation in the medium with radioselenium. The metabolites were analysed which were discharged by the lens containing 75 Se. In Brattleboro rats the uptake of 75 Se-selenite was also measured by the lens in young and adult rats. The uptake of 75 Se-selenite by the lens in young Wistar rats was found to be 1.6 times higher than by the lens of adult rats and the time course of the radioselenium uptake was slightly different. In the lens of prematurely weaned rats no significant difference was found in the uptake of radioselenium after 4 hours as compared with rats of the same age kept with their mothers. In homozygous Brattleboro rats, a higher uptake of 75 Se-selenite was found as compared with both young and adult heterozygous rats. The time course and the quantity of 75 Se efflux from the lens of young and adult Wistar rats differed significantly after 0.5 hour of pre-incubation. From metabolites containing 75 Se excreted by the lens following preincubation, glutathione selenotrisulfide and a not yet accurately determined fraction with a large share of radioactivity were isolated. The stated results provide yet more proof that selenium cataract is a manifestation of the ontogenic dependence of selenium metabolism in the lens and in the entire organism. (author). 4 tabs., 30 refs

  9. Enhanced expression of WD repeat-containing protein 35 (WDR35 stimulated by domoic acid in rat hippocampus: involvement of reactive oxygen species generation and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsunekawa Koji

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Domoic acid (DA is an excitatory amino acid analogue of kainic acid (KA that acts via activation of glutamate receptors to elicit a rapid and potent excitotoxic response, resulting in neuronal cell death. Recently, DA was shown to elicit reactive oxygen species (ROS production and induce apoptosis accompanied by activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK in vitro. We have reported that WDR35, a WD-repeat protein, may mediate apoptosis in several animal models. In the present study, we administered DA to rats intraperitoneally, then used liquid chromatography/ion trap tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS to identify and quantify DA in the brains of the rats and performed histological examinations of the hippocampus. We further investigated the potential involvement of glutamate receptors, ROS, p38 MAPK, and WDR35 in DA-induced toxicity in vivo. Results Our results showed that intraperitoneally administered DA was present in the brain and induced neurodegenerative changes including apoptosis in the CA1 region of the hippocampus. DA also increased the expression of WDR35 mRNA and protein in a dose- and time-dependent manner in the hippocampus. In experiments using glutamate receptor antagonists, the AMPA/KA receptor antagonist NBQX significantly attenuated the DA-induced increase in WDR35 protein expression, but the NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801 did not. In addition, the radical scavenger edaravone significantly attenuated the DA-induced increase in WDR35 protein expression. Furthermore, NBQX and edaravone significantly attenuated the DA-induced increase in p38 MAPK phosphorylation. Conclusion In summary, our results indicated that DA activated AMPA/KA receptors and induced ROS production and p38 MAPK phosphorylation, resulting in an increase in the expression of WDR35 in vivo.

  10. Effect of Folic Acid Supplementation on Renal Phenotype and Epigenotype in Early Weanling Intrauterine Growth Retarded Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaori He

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: The objective of this study was to examine the responses of p53 promoter methylation involved in kidney structure and function of early weaning intrauterine growth retarded (IUGR rats to dietary folic acid supplementation. Method: Sprague-Dawley rats were fed isocaloric diets containing either 21% protein diet (normal feed or 10% protein diet throughout pregnancy and normal feed during lactation. After weaning, Offspring were then fed onto normal feed and normal feed supplemented with 5 mg folic acid/kg feed for a month, this produced 4 dietary groups (maternal diet/ weanling diet: Con, Folic, IUGR and IUGR+Folic. Renal function, renal structure, p53 promoter methylation and protein expression of offspring rats were measured at postnatal 2 months and 3 months. Results: Glomerular volume, blood urea nitrogen, 24 hours urine protein were significantly elevated in IUGR rats compared with Con rats but were decreased by dietary folic acid supplementation. p53 protein expression in IUGR rats were significantly higher than that in Con rats, and p53 promoter methylation status in IUGR rats was reduced significantly compared with Con rats. However, the changes in p53 gene expression and DNA methylation status of IUGR rats were reversed by dietary folic acid supplementation. Conclusions: Our study showed for the first time that folic acid supplementation during early period of life could reverse the abnormality in renal p53 methylation status and protein expression, glomerular volume and renal function of IUGR rats offspring.

  11. Reactor container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naruse, Yoshihiro.

    1990-01-01

    The thickness of steel shell plates in a reactor container embedded in sand cussions is monitored to recognize the corrosion of the steel shell plates. That is, the reactor pressure vessel is contained in a reactor container shell and the sand cussions are disposed on the lower outside of the reactor container shell to elastically support the shell. A pit is disposed at a position opposing to the sand cussions for measuring the thickness of the reactor container shell plates. The pit is usually closed by a closing member. In the reactor container thus constituted, the closing member can be removed upon periodical inspection to measure the thickness of the shell plates. Accordingly, the corrosion of the steel shell plates can be recognized by the change of the plate thickness. (I.S.)

  12. A container

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    A container assembly for the containment of fluids or solids under a pressure different from the ambient pressure comprising a container (2) comprising an opening and an annular sealing, a lid (3) comprising a central portion (5) and engagement means (7) for engaging the annular flange, and sealing...... means (10) wherein the engagement means (7) is adapted, via the sealing means, to seal the opening when the pressure of the container assembly differs from the ambient pressure in such a way that the central portion (5) flexes in the axial direction which leads to a radial tightening of the engagement...... means (7) to the container, wherein the container further comprises locking means (12) that can be positioned so that the central portion is hindered from flexing in at least one direction....

  13. Shielded container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fries, B.A.

    1978-01-01

    A shielded container for transportation of radioactive materials is disclosed in which leakage from the container is minimized due to constructional features including, inter alia, forming the container of a series of telescoping members having sliding fits between adjacent side walls and having at least two of the members including machine sealed lids and at least two of the elements including hand-tightenable caps

  14. Lipid Peroxidation in Rat Liver using Different Vegetable Oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eqbal Dauqan; Aminah Abdullah; Halimah Abdullah Sani

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the effect of different vegetable oils (Red Palm Olien (RPO), Palm Olein (PO), Corn Oil (CO) and Coconut Oil on lipid peroxidation of rat liver. One hundred and thirty two Sprague Dawley male rats were randomly divided into two groups. The first group contains seventy two rats were divided into twelve groups of 6 rats per group and were treated with different concentrations of RPO (5 %, 10 % and 15 %) for 2, 4 and 8 weeks. The second group contains sixty male rats were randomly divided into ten groups of 6 rats per group and were treated with 15 % of RPO, PO, CO and COC for 4 and 8 weeks. The results shows that after 8 weeks of treatment the malonaldehyde (MDA) value in RPO group was significantly lower (P≤0.05) than control or vegetable oils studied. These experiments suggested that red palm olein antioxidants present in rat diets may better attenuate peroxyl radical than other vegetable oil studied. (author)

  15. Reactor container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukazawa, Masanori.

    1991-01-01

    A system for controlling combustible gases, it has been constituted at present such that the combustible gases are controlled by exhausting them to the wet well of a reactor container. In this system, however, there has been a problem, in a reactor container having plenums in addition to the wet well and the dry well, that the combustible gases in such plenums can not be controlled. In view of the above, in the present invention, suction ports or exhaust ports of the combustible gas control system are disposed to the wet well, the dry well and the plenums to control the combustible gases in the reactor container. Since this can control the combustible gases in the entire reactor container, the integrity of the reactor container can be ensured. (T.M.)

  16. Combination therapy of surgical tumor resection with implantation of a hydrogel containing camptothecin-loaded poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) microspheres in a C6 rat glioma model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozeki, Tetsuya; Kaneko, Daiki; Hashizawa, Kosuke; Imai, Yoshihiro; Tagami, Tatsuaki; Okada, Hiroaki

    2012-01-01

    We have developed a drug-loaded poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microsphere-containing thermoreversible gelation polymer (TGP) (drug/PLGA/TGP) formulation as a novel device for implantation after surgical glioma resection. TGP is a thermosensitive polymer that is a gel at body temperature and a sol at room temperature. When a drug/PLGA/TGP formulation is injected into a target site, PLGA microspheres in TGP gel localize at the injection site and do not diffuse across the entire brain tissue, and thus, sustained drug release from the PLGA microspheres at the target site is expected. Using in vivo imaging, we confirmed that the implantation of indocyanine green (ICG)/PLGA/TGP formulation exhibited a stronger localization of ICG at the injection site 28 d after injection compared with that of ICG/PLGA formulation. The therapeutic effect (mean survival) was evaluated in a C6 rat glioma model. Surgical tumor resection alone showed almost no effect on survival (controls, 18 d; surgical resection; 18.5 d). Survival was prolonged after the treatment with a camptothecin (CPT; 10 µg)/PLGA/TGP formulation (24 d). The combination treatment of surgical tumor resection and CPT/PLGA/TGP showed almost the same therapeutic effect (24 d) compared with CPT/PLGA/TGP alone, while the combination treatment produced long term survivors (>60 d). Therefore, the CPT/PLGA/TGP formulation can be an effective candidate for localized and sustained long-term glioma therapy.

  17. Synthetic Oligodeoxynucleotides Containing Multiple Telemeric TTAGGG Motifs Suppress Inflammasome Activity in Macrophages Subjected to Oxygen and Glucose Deprivation and Reduce Ischemic Brain Injury in Stroke-Prone Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Zhao

    Full Text Available The immune system plays a fundamental role in both the development and pathobiology of stroke. Inflammasomes are multiprotein complexes that have come to be recognized as critical players in the inflammation that ultimately contributes to stroke severity. Inflammasomes recognize microbial and host-derived danger signals and activate caspase-1, which in turn controls the production of the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1β. We have shown that A151, a synthetic oligodeoxynucleotide containing multiple telemeric TTAGGG motifs, reduces IL-1β production by activated bone marrow derived macrophages that have been subjected to oxygen-glucose deprivation and LPS stimulation. Further, we demonstrate that A151 reduces the maturation of caspase-1 and IL-1β, the levels of both the iNOS and NLRP3 proteins, and the depolarization of mitochondrial membrane potential within such cells. In addition, we have demonstrated that A151 reduces ischemic brain damage and NLRP3 mRNA levels in SHR-SP rats that have undergone permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion. These findings clearly suggest that the modulation of inflammasome activity via A151 may contribute to a reduction in pro-inflammatory cytokine production by macrophages subjected to conditions that model brain ischemia and modulate ischemic brain damage in an animal model of stroke. Therefore, modulation of ischemic pathobiology by A151 may have a role in the development of novel stroke prevention and therapeutic strategies.

  18. Reactor containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawabe, Ryuhei; Yamaki, Rika.

    1990-01-01

    A water vessel is disposed and the gas phase portion of the water vessel is connected to a reactor container by a pipeline having a valve disposed at the midway thereof. A pipe in communication with external air is extended upwardly from the liquid phase portion to a considerable height so as to resist against the back pressure by a waterhead in the pipeline. Accordingly, when the pressure in the container is reduced to a negative level, air passes through the pipeline and uprises through the liquid phase portion in the water vessel in the form of bubbles and then flows into the reactor container. When the pressure inside of the reactor goes higher, since the liquid surface in the water vessel is forced down, water is pushed up into the pipeline. Since the waterhead pressure of a column of water in the pipeline and the pressure of the reactor container are well-balanced, gases in the reactor container are not leaked to the outside. Further, in a case if a great positive pressure is formed in the reactor container, the inner pressure overcomes the waterhead of the column of water, so that the gases containing radioactive aerosol uprise in the pipeline. Since water and the gases flow being in contact with each other, this can provide the effect of removing aerosol. (T.M.)

  19. Sharps container

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Angelene M. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    This invention relates to a system for use in disposing of potentially hazardous items and more particularly a Sharps receptacle for used hypodermic needles and the like. A Sharps container is constructed from lightweight alodined nonmagnetic metal material with a cup member having an elongated tapered shape and length greater than its transverse dimensions. A magnet in the cup member provides for metal retention in the container. A nonmagnetic lid member has an opening and spring biased closure flap member. The flap member is constructed from stainless steel. A Velcro patch on the container permits selective attachment at desired locations.

  20. Reactor container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kojima, Yoshihiro; Hosomi, Kenji; Otonari, Jun-ichiro.

    1997-01-01

    In the present invention, a catalyst for oxidizing hydrogen to be disposed in a reactor container upon rupture of pipelines of a reactor primary coolant system is prevented from deposition of water droplets formed from a reactor container spray to suppress elevation of hydrogen concentration in the reactor container. Namely, a catalytic combustion gas concentration control system comprises a catalyst for oxidizing hydrogen and a support thereof. In addition, there is also disposed a water droplet deposition-preventing means for preventing deposition of water droplets in a reactor pressure vessel on the catalyst. Then, the effect of the catalyst upon catalytic oxidation reaction of hydrogen can be kept high. The local elevation of hydrogen concentration can be prevented even upon occurrence of such a phenomenon that various kinds of mobile forces in the container such as dry well cooling system are lost. (I.S.)

  1. Use of unripe plantain (Musa paradisiaca) in the management of diabetes and hepatic dysfunction in streptozotocin induced diabetes in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eleazu, Chinedum O; Okafor, Polycarp

    2015-03-01

    This study aims to investigate the effect of unripe plantain (Musa paradisiaca) on markers of hepatic dysfunction in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Blood glucose; relative liver weight (RLW); relative kidney weight (RKW); relative heart weight (RHW); relative pancreatic weight (RPW); serum and hepatic serum aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP); serum amylase, lipase, total, and conjugated bilirubin; and chemical analysis of the test feed were determined using standard techniques. The diabetic rats had significant alteration (P 0.05) in the RHW of the rats in the three groups, as well as significant decreases (P 0.05) in the amylase levels of the rats fed unripe plantain compared with the nondiabetic rats. The test and standard rat feeds contained considerable amount of proteins, carbohydrates, fats, phenols, and crude fiber. Amelioration of acute pancreatitis by unripe plantain could play a key role in its management of diabetes and related complications.

  2. Rat Strain Differences in Susceptibility to Alcohol-Induced Chronic Liver Injury and Hepatic Insulin Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah M. DeNucci

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The finding of more severe steatohepatitis in alcohol fed Long Evans (LE compared with Sprague Dawley (SD and Fisher 344 (FS rats prompted us to determine whether host factors related to alcohol metabolism, inflammation, and insulin/IGF signaling predict proneness to alcohol-mediated liver injury. Adult FS, SD, and LE rats were fed liquid diets containing 0% or 37% (calories ethanol for 8 weeks. Among controls, LE rats had significantly higher ALT and reduced GAPDH relative to SD and FS rats. Among ethanol-fed rats, despite similar blood alcohol levels, LE rats had more pronounced steatohepatitis and fibrosis, higher levels of ALT, DNA damage, pro-inflammatory cytokines, ADH, ALDH, catalase, GFAP, desmin, and collagen expression, and reduced insulin receptor binding relative to FS rats. Ethanol-exposed SD rats had intermediate degrees of steatohepatitis, increased ALT, ADH and profibrogenesis gene expression, and suppressed insulin receptor binding and GAPDH expression, while pro-inflammatory cytokines were similarly increased as in LE rats. Ethanol feeding in FS rats only reduced IL-6, ALDH1–3, CYP2E1, and GAPDH expression in liver. In conclusion, susceptibility to chronic steatohepatitis may be driven by factors related to efficiency of ethanol metabolism and degree to which ethanol exposure causes hepatic insulin resistance and cytokine activation.

  3. Carbohydrate metabolism in erythrocytes of copper deficient rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, S P J; Cockell, K A; Dawson, B A; Ratnayake, W M N; Lampi, B J; Belonje, B; Black, D B; Plouffe, L J

    2003-11-01

    Dietary copper deficiency is known to adversely affect the circulatory system of fructose-fed rats. Part of the problem may lie in the effect of copper deficiency on intermediary metabolism. To test this, weanling male Long-Evans rats were fed for 4 or 8 weeks on sucrose-based diets containing low or adequate copper content. Copper deficient rats had significantly lower plasma and tissue copper as well as lower plasma copper, zinc-superoxide dismutase activity. Copper deficient rats also had a significantly higher heart:body weight ratio when compared to pair-fed controls. Direct measurement of glycolysis and pentose phosphate pathway flux in erythrocytes using (13)C NMR showed no differences in carbon flux from glucose or fructose to pyruvate but a significantly higher flux through the lactate dehydrogenase locus in copper deficient rats (approximately 1.3 times, average of glucose and glucose + fructose measurements). Copper-deficient animals had significantly higher erythrocyte concentrations of glucose, fructose, glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate and NAD(+). Liver metabolite levels were also affected by copper deficiency being elevated in glycogen and fructose 1-phosphate content. The results show small changes in carbohydrate metabolism of copper deficient rats.

  4. Reproductive Toxicity of Triptolide in Male House Rat, Rattus rattus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neena Singla

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of study was to investigate the toxic effect of triptolide fed in bait on reproduction of male house rat, Rattus rattus. Feeding of cereal based bait containing 0.2% triptolide to male R. rattus for 5 days in no-choice feeding test, leading to mean daily ingestion of 20.45 mg/kg bw of triptolide, was found effective in significantly (P≤0.05 reducing sperm motility and viability in cauda epididymal fluid by 80.65 and 75.14%, respectively, from that of untreated rats. Pregnancy rates were decreased by 100% in untreated cyclic female rats paired with male rats treated with 0.2% triptolide. Present studies suggest the potential of 0.2% triptolide bait in regulating reproductive output of R. rattus.

  5. Lean rats gained more body weight than obese ones from a high-fibre diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shaoting; Zhang, Cheng; Gu, Yingyi; Chen, Long; Ou, Shiyi; Wang, Yong; Peng, Xichun

    2015-10-28

    There is controversy over previous findings that a high ratio of Firmicutes to Bacteriodetes helps obese animals harvest energy from the diet. To further investigate the relationship between microbial composition and energy harvest, microbial adaptation to diet and time should be considered. In this study, lean and obese rats were successfully induced with low-fat and high-fat diets. An 8-week high soyabean fibre (HSF)-containing diet was then fed to investigate the interaction between the diet and the rats' gut microbiota, as well as their influence on rats' growth. Rats' body weight (BW) was recorded weekly; their plasma lipids and their gut microbiota at week 11, 15 and 19 were analysed. After the consumption of the HSF diet, BW of lean rats increased significantly (Pcontent of plasma cholesterol was lowered and that of TAG was upgraded in both the groups when fed the HSF diet. There was no significant difference observed at each period between lean and obese rats. In the group of lean rats, the diversity of gut microbiota was elevated strongly (Pbacterial diversity and composition in obese rats were less altered after the HSF diet control. In conclusion, the increased Firmicutes and Bacteriodetes might relate to lean rats' higher BW gain; 'obese microbiota' could not help the hosts harvest more energy from the HSF diet.

  6. Nutritional Evaluation of Whole Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L. Seed Meal in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olubayo Michael Odetola

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The study reported herein evaluates with rats the nutritional quality of raw and roasted kenaf seed as sources of nitrogen. Some safety aspects regarding possible feed use were also investigated. Wistar rats were fed four purified diets viz: a basal diet (nitrogen-free, a reference diet that contains casein and two diets made of kenaf seeds. Dietary treatments significantly influenced performance, biological indices and blood parameters (P<0.05. The performance of rats on kenaf based diets was inferior to that of rats on casein diets. The levels of serum glucose were significantly elevated for rats on kenaf based diets compared to rats on casein diet. However, the levels of serum total protein, globulin and albumin/globulin ratio were significantly elevated for rats on the casein diet compared to rats on kenaf based diets. Among the kenaf test proteins, Protein Efficiency Ratio (PER values of 1.87 and 1.65; Net Protein Ratio (NPR values of 0.56 and 0.50; Biological Value (BV of 65.04 and 63.05 and Net Protein Utilization (NPU values of 44.23 and 42.56 were obtained respectively for a raw kenaf seed meal RKM and roasted kenaf seed meal (HKM. There was no significant difference in results obtained for both RKM and HKM.

  7. Investigations into the analysis of the rate of decay of the compound action potentials recorded from the rat sciatic nerve after death: significance for the prediction of the post-mortem period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nokes, L D; Daniel, D; Flint, T; Barasi, S

    1991-01-01

    There have been a number of papers that have reported the investigations of electrical stimulation of muscle groups in order to determine the post-mortem period. To the authors knowledge, no techniques have been described that analyse the compound action potentials (CAP) of various nerve fibre groups after death. This paper reports the monitoring of both the amplitude and latency changes of the CAP recorded from a stimulated rat sciatic nerve after death. Initial results suggest that the method my be useful in determining the early post-mortem period within 1 or 2 h after death. It may also be of use in measuring nerve conduction delay in various pathological conditions that can affect the neural network; for example diabetes.

  8. Antioxidant Effects of Biochanin A in Streptozotocin Induced Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamideh Sadri

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Bioflavonoid-containing diets have been reported to be beneficial in diabetes. In the current study, the effect of Biochanin A (BCA on blood glucose, antioxidant enzyme activities and oxidative stress markers in diabetic rats were investigated. 30 male Wistar rats were divided into five groups. Two of them were selected as control; group1: control (receiving 0.5%DMSO, and group2: Control+BCA (receiving 10 mg/kg.bw BCA. Diabetes was induced in other rats with injection of (55 mg/kg.bw streptozotocin; group3: diabetic control (receiving 0.5%DMSO, groups 4 and 5 were treated with 10 and 15 mg/kg.bw BCA respectively. After 6 weeks the following results were obtained. Fasting blood glucose (FBG, Triglyceride (TG, total cholesterol (TC, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C and malondialdehyde (MDA levels significantly increased and body weight, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase (CAT activity and total antioxidant status (TAS significantly decreased in diabetic rats as compared to control rats. Oral administration of BCA in 10 and 15 mg/kg.bw, FBG, TG, TC, LDL-C, VLDL-C were decreased significantly in all treated rats. MDA was decreased in all treated rats but it was significant just in 15 mg/kg.bw BCA. HDL, CAT, SOD, and TAS were significantly increased in treated group with 15 mg/kg.bw. The obtained results indicated hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effect of BCA. Also BCA reduced oxidative stress in diabetic rats.

  9. Reactor container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furukawa, Hideyasu; Oyamada, Osamu; Uozumi, Hiroto.

    1976-01-01

    Purpose: To provide a container for a reactor provided with a pressure suppressing chamber pool which can prevent bubble vibrating load, particularly negative pressure generated at the time of starting to release exhaust from a main steam escape-safety valve from being transmitted to a lower liner plate of the container. Constitution: This arrangement is characterized in that a safety valve exhaust pool for main steam escape, in which a pressure suppressing chamber pool is separated and intercepted from pool water in the pressure suppressing chamber pool, a safety valve exhaust pipe is open into said safety valve exhaust pool, and an isolator member, which isolates the bottom liner plate in the pressure suppressing chamber pool from the pool water, is disposed on the bottom of the safety valve exhaust pool. (Nakamura, S.)

  10. Reactor container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Masami; Nishio, Masahide.

    1987-01-01

    Purpose: To prevent the rupture of the dry well even when the melted reactor core drops into a reactor pedestal cavity. Constitution: In a reactor container in which a dry well disposed above the reactor pedestal cavity for containing the reactor pressure vessel and a torus type suppression chamber for containing pressure suppression water are connected with each other, the pedestal cavity and the suppression chamber are disposed such that the flow level of the pedestal cavity is lower than the level of the pressure suppression water. Further, a pressure suppression water introduction pipeway for introducing the pressure suppression water into the reactor pedestal cavity is disposed by way of an ON-OFF valve. In case if the melted reactor core should fall into the pedestal cavity, the ON-OFF valve for the pressure suppression water introduction pipeway is opened to introduce the pressure suppression water in the suppression chamber into the pedestal cavity to cool the melted reactor core. (Ikeda, J.)

  11. Plasma container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebisawa, Katsuyuki.

    1985-01-01

    Purpose: To enable to easily detect that the thickness of material to be abraded is reduced to an allowable limit from the outerside of the plasma container even during usual operation in a plasma vessel for a thermonuclear device. Constitution: A labelled material is disposed to the inside or rear face of constituent members of a plasma container undergoing the irradiation of plasma particles. A limiter plate to be abraded in the plasma container is composed of an armour member and heat removing plate, in which the armour member is made of graphite and heat-removing plate is made of copper. If the armour member is continuously abraded under the effect of sputtering due to plasma particles, silicon nitride embedded so far in the graphite at last appears on the surface of the limiter plate to undergo the impact shocks of the plasma particles. Accordingly, abrasion of the limiter material can be detected by a detector comprising gas chromatography and it can easily be detected from the outside of the plasma content even during normal operation. (Horiuchi, T.)

  12. Reactor container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibata, Satoru; Kawashima, Hiroaki

    1984-01-01

    Purpose: To optimize the temperature distribution of the reactor container so as to moderate the thermal stress distribution on the reactor wall of LMFBR type reactor. Constitution: A good heat conductor (made of Al or Cu) is appended on the outer side of the reactor container wall from below the liquid level to the lower face of a deck plate. Further, heat insulators are disposed to the outside of the good heat conductor. Furthermore, a gas-cooling duct is circumferentially disposed at the contact portion between the good heat conductor and the deck plate around the reactor container. This enables to flow the cold heat from the liquid metal rapidly through the good heat conductor to the cooling duct and allows to maintain the temperature distribution on the reactor wall substantially linear even with the abrupt temperature change in the liquid metal. Further, by appending the good heat conductor covered with inactive metals not only on the outer side but also on the inside of the reactor wall to introduce the heat near the liquid level to the upper portion and escape the same to the cooling layer below the roof slab, the effect can be improved further. (Ikeda, J.)

  13. Different populations of parvalbumin- and calbindin-D28k-immunoreactive neurons contain GABA and accumulate 3H-D-aspartate in the dorsal horn of the rat spinal cord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antal, M; Polgár, E; Chalmers, J; Minson, J B; Llewellyn-Smith, I; Heizmann, C W; Somogyi, P

    1991-12-01

    The colocalization of parvalbumin (PV), calbindin-D28k (CaBP), GABA immunoreactivities, and the ability to accumulate 3H-D-aspartate selectively were investigated in neurons of laminae I-IV of the dorsal horn of the rat spinal cord. Following injection of 3H-D-aspartate into the basal dorsal horn (laminae IV-VI), perikarya selectively accumulating 3H-D-aspartate were detected in araldite embedded semithin sections by autoradiography, and consecutive semithin sections were treated to reveal PV, CaBP and GABA by postembedding immunocytochemistry. Perikarya accumulating 3H-D-aspartate were found exclusively in laminae I-III, and no labelled somata were found in deeper layers or in the intermediolateral column although the labelled amino acid clearly spread to these regions. More than half of the labelled cells were localized in lamina II. In this layer, 16.4% of 3H-D-aspartate-labelled perikarya were also stained for CaBP. In contrast to CaBP, PV or GABA was never detected in neurons accumulating 3H-D-aspartate. A high proportion of PV-immunoreactive perikarya were also stained for GABA in laminae II and III (70.0% and 61.2% respectively). However, the majority of CaBP-immunoreactive perikarya were GABA-negative. GABA-immunoreactivity was found in less than 2% of the total population of cells stained for CaBP in laminae I-IV. A significant proportion of the GABA-negative but PV-immunoreactive neurons also showed CaBP-immunoreactivity in laminae II and IV. These results show that out of the two calcium-binding proteins, CaBP is a characteristic protein of a small subpopulation of neurons using excitatory amino acids and PV is a characteristic protein of a subpopulation of neurons utilizing GABA as a transmitter. However, both proteins are present in additional subgroups of neurons, and neuronal populations using inhibitory or excitatory amino acid transmitters are heterogeneous with regard to their content of calcium-binding proteins in the dorsal horn of the rat

  14. Toxic effects of chlorinated cake flour in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, H M; Lawrence, G A; Tryphonas, L

    1977-05-01

    Four experiments were conducted using weanling Wistar rats to determine whether chlorinated cake flour or its constituents were toxic. Levels of 0.2 and 1.0% chlorine added to unbleached cake flour significantly (p less than 0.01) reduced growth rate by 20.7 and 85.2% and increased liver weight relative to body weight by 16.7 and 25.3%, respectively. Lipids extracted from flour chlorinated at the same levels had similar effects. Rat chow diets containing 0.2 and 0.6% chlorine in the form of chlorinated wheat gluten reduced growth rate and increased liver weight as a percentage of body weight. A rat chow diet containing 0.2% chlorine as chlorinated flour lipids increased absolute liver weight by 40%, kidney by 20%, and heart by 10% compared to pair-fed controls.

  15. Inhalative cadmium effects in pregnant and fetal rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prigge, E.

    1978-01-01

    Pregnant and non-pregnant rats were continuously exposed for 21 days to an aerosol containing 0.2, 0.4, and 0.6 mg cadmium/m/sup 3/ air. Pregnant and non-pregnant rats exposed to clean air served as controls. The aerosol was generated by an ultrasonic nebulizer and was carried into inhalation chambers. The median aerodynamic diameters were on the order of 0.6 ..mu..m. After inhalation of cadmium aerosols, serum iron levels were not lowered significantly in adult rats. A polycythaemic response of non-pregnant rats was observed due to a direct stimulatory effect of cadmium on erythropoiesis. Polycythaemia was less marked in pregnancy, presumably due to iron loss to placenta and fetus. Disturbances of pulmonary gas exchange or decreased plasma volumes were excluded as causative mechanisms of polycythaemia. In pregnant rats there was a marked dose dependent decrease of the activity of the alkaline phosphatase after cadmium inhalation, while there was no effect in exposed non-pregnant rats. This decreased enzyme activity, together with slowed growth rates and hemolytic effect indicate a higher sensitivity to cadmium in pregnancy. Proteinuria was not found in neither pregnant nor non-pregnant rats. Therefore, it is concluded that in this respect cadmium intoxication by inhalation does not resemble human toxemia of pregnancy, as discussed in the literature.

  16. Definition of containment failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cybulskis, P.

    1982-01-01

    Core meltdown accidents of the types considered in probabilistic risk assessments (PRA's) have been predicted to lead to pressures that will challenge the integrity of containment structures. Review of a number of PRA's indicates considerable variation in the predicted probability of containment failure as a function of pressure. Since the results of PRA's are sensitive to the prediction of the occurrence and the timing of containment failure, better understanding of realistic containment capabilities and a more consistent approach to the definition of containment failure pressures are required. Additionally, since the size and location of the failure can also significantly influence the prediction of reactor accident risk, further understanding of likely failure modes is required. The thresholds and modes of containment failure may not be independent

  17. Reactor container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hidaka, Masataka; Hatamiya, Shigeo; Kawasaki, Terufumi; Fukui, Toru; Suzuki, Hiroaki; Kataoka, Yoshiyuki; Kawabe, Ryuhei; Murase, Michio; Naito, Masanori.

    1990-01-01

    In order to suppress the pressure elevation in a reactor container due to high temperature and high pressure steams jetted out upon pipeway rupture accidents in the reactor container, the steams are introduced to a pressure suppression chamber for condensating them in stored coolants. However, the ability for suppressing the pressure elevation and steam coagulation are deteriorated due to the presence of inactive incondensible gases. Then, there are disposed a vent channel for introducing the steams in a dry well to a pressure suppression chamber in the reactor pressure vessel, a closed space disposed at the position lower than a usual liquid level, a first channel having an inlet in the pressure suppression chamber and an exit in the closed space and a second means connected by way of a backflow checking means for preventing the flow directing to the closed space. The first paths are present by plurality, a portion of which constitutes a syphon. The incondensible gases and the steams are discharged to the dry well at high pressure by using the difference of the water head for a long cooling time after the pipeway rupture accident. Then, safety can be improved without using dynamic equipments as driving source. (N.H.)

  18. The effect of red grape juice on Alzheimer's disease in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siahmard, Zahra; Alaei, Hojjatollah; Reisi, Parham; Pilehvarian, Ali Asghar

    2012-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease is a neurodegenerative disease appearing as a result of free radicals and oxidative stress. Antioxidants agents boost memory and control Alzheimer's disease. Since red grape juice contains antioxidant agents, its effects on speed of learning and improvement of memory was studied in Alzheimer's rats. Alzheimer's model was induced by bilateral infusion of streptozocine into lateral ventricles of brain of male rats. Rats drank 10% red grape juice for 21 days. Passive avoidance learning test was used for measuring memory and learning in rats. Our results showed that learning and memory in STZ-group decreased significantly compared to Sham group. However, intake of red grape juice increased speed of learning and improvement of memory in Alzheimer's rats. Our results suggest that there are active ingredients in red grape juice, which probably have therapeutic and preventive effects on cognitive impairments in Alzheimer's disease.

  19. Harmful effect of protein difficiency on lipids, glucose, insulin and estradiol levels in female albino rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Mahdy, A.A.; El-Sherbiny, E.M.; Bayomi, M.M.

    2005-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate the harmful effect of protein deficient diet on some biochemical activities in serum of female rats. Protein malnutrition is a well known socioeconomic problem in different parts of the world. Many studies were investigated on the biological parameters following protein malnutrition in human and experimental animals. Forty albino female rats were divided into 3 groups. The first group (10 rats) fed 18% protein diet and served as normal control and the other two groups, each contains 15 rats, fed 5% protein for 21 and 45 days, respectively, and served as malnourished groups. The results showed significant decrease in total body weight, serum glucose, insulin and estradiol levels in the third group as well as decrease in the total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and VLDL-cholesterol and triglycerides concentrations that compared to normal control rats

  20. Uranium chemistry: significant advances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazzanti, M.

    2011-01-01

    The author reviews recent progress in uranium chemistry achieved in CEA laboratories. Like its neighbors in the Mendeleev chart uranium undergoes hydrolysis, oxidation and disproportionation reactions which make the chemistry of these species in water highly complex. The study of the chemistry of uranium in an anhydrous medium has led to correlate the structural and electronic differences observed in the interaction of uranium(III) and the lanthanides(III) with nitrogen or sulfur molecules and the effectiveness of these molecules in An(III)/Ln(III) separation via liquid-liquid extraction. Recent work on the redox reactivity of trivalent uranium U(III) in an organic medium with molecules such as water or an azide ion (N 3 - ) in stoichiometric quantities, led to extremely interesting uranium aggregates particular those involved in actinide migration in the environment or in aggregation problems in the fuel processing cycle. Another significant advance was the discovery of a compound containing the uranyl ion with a degree of oxidation (V) UO 2 + , obtained by oxidation of uranium(III). Recently chemists have succeeded in blocking the disproportionation reaction of uranyl(V) and in stabilizing polymetallic complexes of uranyl(V), opening the way to to a systematic study of the reactivity and the electronic and magnetic properties of uranyl(V) compounds. (A.C.)

  1. Reactor container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oyamada, Osamu; Furukawa, Hideyasu; Uozumi, Hiroto.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To lower the position of an intermediate slab within a reactor container and fitting a heat insulating material to the inner wall of said intermediate slab, whereby a space for a control rod exchanging device and thermal stresses of the inner peripheral wall are lowered. Constitution: In the pedestal at the lower part of a reactor pressure vessel there is formed an intermediate slab at a position lower than diaphragm floor slab of the outer periphery of the pedestal thereby to secure a space for providing automatic exchanging device of a control rod driving device. Futhermore, a heat insulating material is fitted to the inner peripheral wall at the upper side of the intermediate slab part, and the temperature gradient in the wall thickness direction at the time of a piping rupture trouble is made gentle, and thermal stresses at the inner peripheral wall are lowered. (Sekiya, K.)

  2. Containment vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zbirohowski-Koscia, K.F.; Roberts, A.C.

    1980-01-01

    A concrete containment vessel for nuclear reactors is disclosed that is spherical and that has prestressing tendons disposed in first, second and third sets, the tendons of each set being all substantially concentric and centred around a respective one of the three orthogonal axes of the sphere; the tendons of the first set being anchored at each end at a first anchor rib running around a circumference of the vessel, the tendons of the second set being anchored at each end at a second anchor rib running around a circumference of the sphere and disposed at 90 0 to the first rib, and the tendons of the third set being anchored some to the first rib and the remainder to the second rib. (author)

  3. Effect of docosahexaenoic acid and ascorbate on peroxidation of retinal membranes of ODS rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jin-Ye; Sekine, Seiji; Saito, Morio

    2003-04-01

    Mutant male osteogenic disorder Shionogi (ODS) rats, unable to synthesize ascorbic acid, were fed diets containing a high content of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and different amounts of ascorbic acid, to study the effect of DHA on peroxidative susceptibility of the retina and possible antioxidant action of ascorbic acid. ODS rats were fed from 7 weeks of age with diets containing high DHA (6.4% of total energy). A control group received a diet high in linoleic acid. The diets also contained varying amounts of ascorbic acid. Fatty acid compositions and phospholipid hydroperoxides in rod outer segment (ROS) membranes, and retinal ascorbic acid were analyzed. DHA in ROS membranes was significantly increased in rats fed high DHA, compared with the linoleic acid diet. Levels of phospholipid hydroperoxides in the DHA-fed rats were significantly higher than the linoleic acid-fed rats. Ascorbic acid supplementation did not suppress the phospholipid hydroperoxide levels after a high DHA diet, even when the supplement increased the content of retinal ascorbic acid. In conclusion, high DHA feeding induced a marked increase of phospholipid hydroperoxides in ROS membranes of ODS rats. Supplementation of ascorbic acid did not reverse this increase.

  4. Significant Radionuclides Determination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo A. Ziegler

    2001-07-31

    The purpose of this calculation is to identify radionuclides that are significant to offsite doses from potential preclosure events for spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level radioactive waste expected to be received at the potential Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). In this calculation, high-level radioactive waste is included in references to DOE SNF. A previous document, ''DOE SNF DBE Offsite Dose Calculations'' (CRWMS M&O 1999b), calculated the source terms and offsite doses for Department of Energy (DOE) and Naval SNF for use in design basis event analyses. This calculation reproduces only DOE SNF work (i.e., no naval SNF work is included in this calculation) created in ''DOE SNF DBE Offsite Dose Calculations'' and expands the calculation to include DOE SNF expected to produce a high dose consequence (even though the quantity of the SNF is expected to be small) and SNF owned by commercial nuclear power producers. The calculation does not address any specific off-normal/DBE event scenarios for receiving, handling, or packaging of SNF. The results of this calculation are developed for comparative analysis to establish the important radionuclides and do not represent the final source terms to be used for license application. This calculation will be used as input to preclosure safety analyses and is performed in accordance with procedure AP-3.12Q, ''Calculations'', and is subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (DOE 2000) as determined by the activity evaluation contained in ''Technical Work Plan for: Preclosure Safety Analysis, TWP-MGR-SE-000010'' (CRWMS M&O 2000b) in accordance with procedure AP-2.21Q, ''Quality Determinations and Planning for Scientific, Engineering, and Regulatory Compliance Activities''.

  5. CONTAINER TERMINALS IN EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bart W. WIEGMANS

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to address the linkage between logistics (in particular, the management of marketing channel flows and transport markets, while also the interaction between these two markets and intermodal container terminals is analysed. The marketing channel theory is used to describe all relevant actors and flows that run through marketing channels, starting with customer needs and ending with customer satisfaction. Porter's theory of competitive advantages is used to review competitive forces in both markets. Finally, a competitor analysis is performed for the logistics and transport market. These theories are applied so as to be able to determine the competitive position of intermodal container terminals with a view to the management of marketing channel flows and the physical transport of freight flows. Hence, the central question of this paper is: Which markets are served by intermodal container terminals and with whom are they competing? At present, neither the maritime container terminals nor the continental container terminals appear to have a significant influence in the logistics service market; they concentrate mainly on the physical movement of containers (transshipment. Furthermore, maritime container terminals and continental container terminals are not dominant players in the transport service market. Our conclusion is that continental terminals are predominantly competing with unimodal road transport, with neighbouring continental terminals and with barge transport companies.

  6. Potential chemoprevention of diethylnitrosamine-induced hepatocarcinogenesis in rats: myrrh (Commiphora molmol) vs. turmeric (Curcuma longa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Shahat, Mohamed; El-Abd, Sabah; Alkafafy, Mohamed; El-Khatib, Gamal

    2012-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the potential chemopreventive effects of myrrh (Commiphora molmol) vs. turmeric (Curcuma longa) in hepatocarcinogenic rats induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of diethylnitrosamine (DENA) (200 mg/kg body weight). Ninety male Wistar rats used in this study were randomly divided into six equal groups (n=15). Group 1 rats served as negative controls; group 2 received a single i.p. injection of DENA and served as positive controls. Rats in both groups were fed on basal diet. Group 3 rats were fed a diet containing 5% turmeric, whereas group 4 rats were fed a diet containing 2% myrrh. Rats in groups 5 and 6 received a single i.p. injection of DENA and were fed diets containing 5% turmeric and 2% myrrh, respectively. The study demonstrated that DENA caused a significant increase in serum indices of liver enzymes and also severe histological and immunohistochemical changes in hepatic tissues. These included disorganized hepatic parenchyma, appearance of pseudoacinar and trabecular arrays of hepatocytes and alterations in CD10-immunoreactivity. Dietary supplementation of turmeric relatively improved the biochemical parameters to values approximating those of the negative controls and delayed the initiation of carcinogenesis. In contrast, myrrh did not improve the biochemical parameters or delay the hepatocarcinogenesis. Both turmeric and myrrh induced significant biochemical and histological changes in non-treated rats. In conclusion, DENA significantly changes the biological enzymatic activities in serum and the integrity of hepatic tissues. Phytochemicals with potential hepatoprotective effects must be applied cautiously owing to their potential hepatotoxicity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. The hepatic Igf2/H19 locus is not altered in 1-day old pups born to obese-prone Sprague-Dawley rats fed a low protein diet containing adequate folic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong et al. (Epigenetics, 2010) found, using diets low in folic acid, that compared to an 18% protein diet a 9% protein diet fed to pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats resulted in increased Igf2 and H19 gene expression in the liver of day 0 male offspring. In addition DNA methylation in the Imprinting Cont...

  8. Effects and significance of electrical stimulation Of the vagus nerve on plasma levels of nitric oxide and endothelin in severe acute pancreatitis in rats%电刺激迷走神经对大鼠重症急性胰腺炎血浆内皮素和一氧化氮水平的影响及意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金鑫; 冯利; 胡永毅; 陶坤; 赵国海

    2013-01-01

    the left cervical vagus nerve trunk proximal part for 20 min after VNC induction. Groups of rats were sacrificed atlh,3h,6h. Endothelin and nitric oxide leavels were measured in blood of each group rats and histological changes of the pancreas were observed. Results Compared with rats in Sham group, ET and NO levels,the value of ET/NO and pancreatic histopathological score were significantly higher in rats of the SAP group and VNC group ( P < 0. 05 ). In VNC group, NO level was not increased obviously, the value of ET/NO and pancreatic histopathological score upgraded dramatically compared to SAP group (P <0. 05). In VNS group, the value of ET/NO and pancreatic histopathological score were obviously depressed, and NO level was significantly arised compared to SAP group and VNC group (P <0. 05). Conclusion Electrical stimulation of vagus nerves can relief injury degree of severe acute pancreatitis in rats by increaseing NO produce and release and lessening the disequilibrium of N0/ET ratio to improve microcirculation disorder.

  9. Tumorigenicity of sodium ascorbate in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, S M; Anderson, T A; de Oliveira, L M; Arnold, L L

    1998-06-15

    Sodium ascorbate, like other sodium salts such as saccharin, glutamate, and bicarbonate, produces urinary alterations when fed at high doses to rats, which results in mild superficial urothelial cytotoxicity and regeneration but not tumors in a standard 2-year bioassay. Sodium saccharin was shown to produce a low incidence of bladder tumors in rats if administered in a two-generation bioassay. In the present study, we evaluated sodium ascorbate in a two-generation bioassay that involved feeding to the male and female parental F344 rats for 4 weeks before mating, feeding the dams during gestation and lactation, and then feeding the weaned (at 28 days of age) male F1 generation rats for the remainder of their lifetime (up to 128 weeks of the experiment). Dietary levels of 1.0, 5.0, and 7.0% sodium ascorbate were tested. At 5.0 and 7.0% sodium ascorbate, there was an increase in urinary bladder urothelial papillary and nodular hyperplasia and the induction of a few papillomas and carcinomas. There was a dose-responsive increase in renal pelvic calcification and hyperplasia and inhibition of the aging nephropathy of rats even at the level of 1% sodium ascorbate. Because the short-term urothelial effects of sodium ascorbate in rats are inhibited by treatments producing urinary acidification to pH sodium ascorbate to evaluate the long-term effects. The combination of 7.0% sodium ascorbate plus 2.78% NH4Cl in the diet was toxic, and the group was terminated early during the course of the experiment. The group fed 5.0% sodium ascorbate plus 2.04% NH4Cl showed complete inhibition of the urothelial effects of sodium ascorbate and significant inhibition of its renal effects. We also demonstrated the presence of a calcium phosphate-containing urinary precipitate in rats fed sodium ascorbate at all doses, in a dose-responsive manner. The formation of the precipitate was inhibited by coadministration with NH4Cl. The proliferative effects of sodium ascorbate on the male rat

  10. Cordyceps militaris improves the survival of Dahl salt-sensitive hypertensive rats possibly via influences of mitochondria and autophagy functions

    OpenAIRE

    Takakura, Kentaro; Ito, Shogo; Sonoda, Junya; Tabata, Koji; Shiozaki, Motoko; Nagai, Kaoru; Shibata, Masahiro; Koike, Masato; Uchiyama, Yasuo; Gotow, Takahiro

    2017-01-01

    The genus Cordyceps and its specific ingredient, cordycepin, have attracted much attention for multiple health benefits and expectations for lifespan extension. We analyzed whether Cordyceps militaris (CM), which contains large amounts of cordycepin, can extend the survival of Dahl salt-sensitive rats, whose survival was reduced to â¼3 months via a high-salt diet. The survival of these life-shortened rats was extended significantly when supplemented with CM, possibly due to a minimization of ...

  11. Secondary Containers and Service Containers for Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secondary containers and service containers are used by pesticide applicators in the process of applying a pesticide. EPA does not require secondary containers or service containers to be labeled or to meet particular construction standards. Learn more.

  12. Effects of milk from goat fed Crotalaria spectabilis seeds on growing rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosane Maria Trindade de Medeiros

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Seeds of Crotalaria spectabilis, containing the pyrrolizidine alkaloid (PA monocrotaline (MCT, were fed to a lactating dairy goat. Milk from this goat was fed to rats for 8 weeks to determine whether MCT or its toxic metabolites are transferred into the goat’s milk. Rats from the experimental group showed significantly higher (p<0.05 serum levels of ALT, AST, GGT and LDH and less weight gains (p<0.05 than control rats. The most significant lesions in rats consuming the experimental ration were mild to moderate interstitial pneumonia and a vacuolar degeneration and occasionally necrosis of periportal hepatocytes. The results of this study indicate that the PA and/or its metabolites are eliminated in milk.

  13. Enteral Formula Containing Egg Yolk Lecithin Improves Diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akashi, Tetsuro; Muto, Ayano; Takahashi, Yayoi; Nishiyama, Hiroshi

    2017-09-01

    Diarrhea often occurs during enteral nutrition. Recently, several reports showed that diarrhea improves by adding egg yolk lecithin, an emulsifier, in an enteral formula. Therefore, we evaluated if this combination could improve diarrhea outcomes. We retrospectively investigated the inhibitory effects on watery stools by replacing a polymeric fomula with that containing egg yolk lecithin. Then, we investigated the emulsion stability in vitro. Next, we examined the lipid absorption using different emulsifiers among bile duct-ligated rats and assessed whether egg yolk lecithin, medium-chain triglyceride, and dietary fiber can improve diarrhea outcomes in a rat model of short bowel syndrome. Stool consistency or frequency improved on the day after using the aforementioned combination in 13/14 patients. Average particle size of the egg yolk lecithin emulsifier did not change by adding artificial gastric juice, whereas that of soy lecithin and synthetic emulsifiers increased. Serum triglyceride concentrations were significantly higher in the egg yolk lecithin group compared with the soybean lecithin and synthetic emulsifier groups in bile duct-ligated rats. In rats with short bowels, the fecal consistency was a significant looser the dietary fiber (+) group than the egg yolk lecithin (+) groups from day 6 of test meal feedings. The fecal consistency was also a significant looser the egg yolk lecithin (-) group than the egg yolk lecithin (+) groups from day 4 of test meal feeding. The fecal consistency was no significant difference between the medium-chain triglycerides (-) and egg yolk lecithin (+) groups. Enteral formula emulsified with egg yolk lecithin promotes lipid absorption by preventing the destruction of emulsified substances by gastric acid. This enteral formula improved diarrhea and should reduce the burden on patients and healthcare workers.

  14. Individually reared rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraeuchi, K.; Gentsch, C.; Feer, H.

    1981-01-01

    The influence of social isolation in rats on postsynaptic alpha 1 - and beta-adrenergic receptors, on the cAMP generating system and on the presynaptic uptake mechanism in the central noradrenergic system was examined in different brain regions. Rearing rats in isolation from the 19th day of life for 12 weeks leads in all regions to a general tendency for a reduction in 3 H-DHA binding, to an enhanced 3 H-WB4101 binding and to a decreased responsiveness of the noradrenaline sensitive cAMP generating system. These changes reach significance only in the pons-medulla-thallamusregion. Isolated rats showed an increased synaptosomal uptake of noradrenaline, most pronounced and significant in the hypothalamus. Our data provide further support for a disturbance in central noradrenergic function in isolated rats. (author)

  15. Radish juice and corn oil as adjuvants that decrease the destructive alterations in hypoglycemia rats subjected to gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanafy, N.

    2007-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate the decrease in different biochemical and histopathological alterations that may occur following the oral administration of aqueous extract of radish at the dose level (50 mg/100 g body weight) and the addition of 10% corn oil to the diet of hypoglycemia rats and /or exposed to 6 Gy of gamma radiation. The experiment included normal male albino rats and hypoglycemia ones.The hypoglycemia rats divided into tow groups; the first group was treated with radish juice or radish juice with diet containing corn oil and the other group was hypoglycemia rats exposed to 6 Gy of gamma radiation then treated also with radish juice or radish juice with diet containing 10% corn oil. Biochemical analysis included levels of blood sugar, total lipids, cholesterol, total protein and albumin, in addition to the activity of AST and ALT were evaluated. The level of TBARs and the histopathological changes in liver and kidney were also investigated. Treatment of irradiated hypoglycemia rats with radish juice either alone or combined with a diet containing 10% corn oil reverse the serum fasting glucose level nearly to the control level. Amelioration in lipid profile was recorded after the treatment of the hypoglycemia rats or those hypoglycemia irradiated then treated with radish juice and fed on a diet containing 10% corn oil. Also, significant amelioration was occurred in liver transaminases, total proteins, albumin and creatinine levels as compared to those of hypoglycemia group. TBARs levels showed remarkable decrease in liver and kidney tissues in comparison with control and hypoglycemia rats and/or gamma irradiated levels when it is treated with radish juice and diet containing corn oil. Also, the histopathological changes of the same tissues revealed the same trend. From the different observations , it is possible to conclude that treatment of rats with radish juice in addition to feeding on diet containing 10% corn oil could reduce the

  16. Containment structure optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Putman, S.; Walser, A.

    1979-01-01

    The major design features investigated are: dome shape, the prestress level provided to counteract accident pressure, the effect of diameter variation, and the design pressure used to size the containment. The optimum dome shape and optimum prestress level are used to investigate the effect of variations in diameter and design pressure on containment cost. The containment internal diameter is fixed at 150 feet for investigation of dome shape, prestress level and design prestress. A hemispherical dome containment with a prestress level of 1.25 P/sub a/ is recommended regardless of design pressure selected. A design pressure of 60 psi is recommended. No significant cost penalty is associated with diameter variation in the range of 145 to 155 feet

  17. Effect of dietary zinc deficiency on the endogenous phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of rat erythrocyte membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paterson, P.G.; Allen, O.B.; Bettger, W.J.

    1987-01-01

    The effect of dietary zinc deficiency on patterns of phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of rat erythrocyte membrane proteins and erythrocyte filterability was examined. Weanling male Wistar rats were fed an egg white-based diet containing less than 1.1 mg zinc/kg diet ad libitum for 3 wk. Control rats were either pair-fed or ad libitum-fed the basal diet supplemented with 100 mg zinc/kg diet. Net phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of erythrocyte membrane proteins were carried out by an in vitro assay utilizing [gamma- 32 P]ATP. The membrane proteins were subsequently separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and the 32 P content of gel slices was counted by Cerenkov counting. Erythrocyte filterability was measured as the filtration time of suspensions of erythrocytes, both untreated and preincubated with diamide, under constant pressure. Erythrocyte ghosts from zinc-deficient rats demonstrated greater dephosphorylation of protein bands R1 plus R2 and R7 than pair-fed rats and greater net phosphorylation of band R2.2 than pair-fed or ad libitum-fed control rats (P less than 0.05). Erythrocytes from ad libitum-fed control rats showed significantly longer filtration times than those from zinc-deficient or pair-fed control rats. In conclusion, dietary zinc deficiency alters in vitro patterns of erythrocyte membrane protein phosphorylation and dephosphorylation, whereas the depression in food intake associated with the zinc deficiency increases erythrocyte filterability. 71 references

  18. Simvastatin Exposure and Rotator Cuff Repair in a Rat Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deren, Matthew E; Ehteshami, John R; Dines, Joshua S; Drakos, Mark C; Behrens, Steve B; Doty, Stephen; Coleman, Struan H

    2017-03-01

    Simvastatin is a common medication prescribed for hypercholesterolemia that accelerates local bone formation. It is unclear whether simvastatin can accelerate healing at the tendon-bone interface after rotator cuff repair. This study was conducted to investigate whether local and systemic administration of simvastatin increased tendon-bone healing of the rotator cuff as detected by maximum load to failure in a controlled animal-based model. Supraspinatus tendon repair was performed on 120 Sprague-Dawley rats. Sixty rats had a polylactic acid membrane overlying the repair site. Of these, 30 contained simvastatin and 30 did not contain medication. Sixty rats underwent repair without a polylactic acid membrane. Of these, 30 received oral simvastatin (25 mg/kg/d) and 30 received a regular diet. At 4 weeks, 5 rats from each group were killed for histologic analysis. At 8 weeks, 5 rats from each group were killed for histologic analysis and the remaining 20 rats were killed for biomechanical analysis. One rat that received oral simvastatin died of muscle necrosis. Average maximum load to failure was 35.2±6.2 N for those receiving oral simvastatin, 36.8±9.0 N for oral control subjects, 39.5±12.8 N for those receiving local simvastatin, and 39.1±9.3 N for control subjects with a polylactic acid membrane. No statistically significant differences were found between any of the 4 groups (P>.05). Qualitative histologic findings showed that all groups showed increased collagen formation and organization at 8 weeks compared with 4 weeks, with no differences between the 4 groups at each time point. The use of systemic and local simvastatin offered no benefit over control groups. [Orthopedics. 2017; 40(2):e288-e292.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  19. Increased glucose dependence in resting, iron-deficient rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooks, G.A.; Henderson, S.A.; Dallman, P.R.

    1987-01-01

    Rates of blood glucose and lactate turnover were assessed in resting iron-deficient and iron-sufficient (control) rats to test the hypothesis that dependence on glucose metabolism is increased in iron deficiency. Male Sprague-Dawley rats, 21 days old, were fed a diet containing either 6 mg iron/kg feed (iron-deficient group) or 50 mg iron/kg feed (iron-sufficient group) for 3-4 wk. The iron-deficient group became anemic, with hemoglobin levels of 6.4 ± 0.2 compared with 13.8 ± 0.3 g/dl for controls. Rats received a 90-min primed continuous infusion of D-[6- 3 H]glucose and sodium L-[U- 14 C]lactate via a jugular catheter. Serial samples were taken from a carotid catheter for concentration and specific activity determinations. Iron-deficient rats had significantly higher blood glucose and lactate concentrations than controls. The iron-deficient group had a significantly higher glucose turnover rate than the control group. Significantly more metabolite recycling in iron-deficient rats was indicated by greater incorporation of 14 C into blood glucose. Assuming a carbon crossover correction factor of 2, half of blood glucose arose from lactate in deficient animals. By comparison, only 25% of glucose arose from lactate in controls. Lack of a difference in lactate turnover rates between deficient rats and controls was attributed to 14 C recycling. The results indicate a greater dependence on glucose metabolism in iron-deficient rats

  20. Comparative alteration in atherogenic indices and hypocholesteremic effect of palm oil and palm oil mill effluent in normal albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajiboye, John A; Erukainure, Ochuko L; Lawal, Babatunde A; Nwachukwu, Viola A; Tugbobo-Amisu, Adesewa O; Okafor, Ebelechukwu N

    2015-09-01

    The comparative hypocholesteremic effect of feeding palm oil and palm oil mill effluent (POME) was investigated in male albino rats. Diets were prepared and designed to contain 50% of energy as carbohydrate, 35% as fat, and 15% as protein. Groups of six rats were each fed one of these diets, while a group was fed pelletized mouse chow which served as the control. Feeding on palm oil and POME led to a significant increase (p palm oil fed rats compared to POME. These results indicate the protective potentials of palm oil against cardiovascular disease, as well as hyperlipidemia that characterize obesity and hypertension; as compared to its effluent.

  1. Zinc content of selected tissues and taste perception in rats fed zinc deficient and zinc adequate rations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boeckner, L.S.; Kies, C.

    1986-01-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the effects of feeding zinc sufficient and zinc deficient rations on taste sensitivity and zinc contents of selected organs in rats. The 36 Sprague-Dawley male weanling rats were divided into 2 groups and fed zinc deficient or zinc adequate rations. The animals were subjected to 4 trial periods in which a choice of deionized distilled water or a solution of quinine sulfate at 1.28 x 10 -6 was given. A randomized schedule for rat sacrifice was used. No differences were found between zinc deficient and zinc adequate rats in taste preference aversion scores for quinine sulfate in the first three trial periods; however, in the last trial period rats in the zinc sufficient group drank somewhat less water containing quinine sulfate as a percentage of total water consumption than did rats fed the zinc deficient ration. Significantly higher zinc contents of kidney, brain and parotid salivary glands were seen in zinc adequate rats compared to zinc deficient rats at the end of the study. However, liver and tongue zinc levels were lower for both groups at the close of the study than were those of rats sacrificed at the beginning of the study

  2. Visual Categorization of Natural Movies by Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinken, Kasper; Vermaercke, Ben

    2014-01-01

    Visual categorization of complex, natural stimuli has been studied for some time in human and nonhuman primates. Recent interest in the rodent as a model for visual perception, including higher-level functional specialization, leads to the question of how rodents would perform on a categorization task using natural stimuli. To answer this question, rats were trained in a two-alternative forced choice task to discriminate movies containing rats from movies containing other objects and from scrambled movies (ordinate-level categorization). Subsequently, transfer to novel, previously unseen stimuli was tested, followed by a series of control probes. The results show that the animals are capable of acquiring a decision rule by abstracting common features from natural movies to generalize categorization to new stimuli. Control probes demonstrate that they did not use single low-level features, such as motion energy or (local) luminance. Significant generalization was even present with stationary snapshots from untrained movies. The variability within and between training and test stimuli, the complexity of natural movies, and the control experiments and analyses all suggest that a more high-level rule based on more complex stimulus features than local luminance-based cues was used to classify the novel stimuli. In conclusion, natural stimuli can be used to probe ordinate-level categorization in rats. PMID:25100598

  3. Visual categorization of natural movies by rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinken, Kasper; Vermaercke, Ben; Op de Beeck, Hans P

    2014-08-06

    Visual categorization of complex, natural stimuli has been studied for some time in human and nonhuman primates. Recent interest in the rodent as a model for visual perception, including higher-level functional specialization, leads to the question of how rodents would perform on a categorization task using natural stimuli. To answer this question, rats were trained in a two-alternative forced choice task to discriminate movies containing rats from movies containing other objects and from scrambled movies (ordinate-level categorization). Subsequently, transfer to novel, previously unseen stimuli was tested, followed by a series of control probes. The results show that the animals are capable of acquiring a decision rule by abstracting common features from natural movies to generalize categorization to new stimuli. Control probes demonstrate that they did not use single low-level features, such as motion energy or (local) luminance. Significant generalization was even present with stationary snapshots from untrained movies. The variability within and between training and test stimuli, the complexity of natural movies, and the control experiments and analyses all suggest that a more high-level rule based on more complex stimulus features than local luminance-based cues was used to classify the novel stimuli. In conclusion, natural stimuli can be used to probe ordinate-level categorization in rats. Copyright © 2014 the authors 0270-6474/14/3410645-14$15.00/0.

  4. Effect of pregnancy on cadmium-treated rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takizama, Y. (Akita Univ. School of Medicine, Japan); Nakamura, I.; Kurayama, R.; Hirasawa, F.; Kawai, K.

    1982-01-01

    It is well known that itai-itai disease with the osteopathy is broken out among multiparas, 40 years of age and up Japanese residents. In this paper we described an experimental study of effect of pregnancy on cadmium treated rats. Female mature rats were administered drinking water containing 50 and 200 ppm cadmium as CdCl/sub 2/. During 180 days of the experiment, three times of pregnancy were succesful, though slight depression of body weight gain was noticed in the 200 ppm group. The cadmium was accumulated in the kidneys, liver and bone proportionally to the amount of cadmium administered. No significant change was recognized in serum calcium, phosphorus and alkaline phosphatase levels after 180 days. Though cadmium 200 ppm treated rats showed slight histological lesions in the proximal convoluted tubules of the kidney, there appeared to be no osteomalacia including excess formation of osteoid tissue.

  5. Cubic liquid crystalline nanoparticles containing a polysaccharide from Ulva fasciata with potent antihyperlipidaemic activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azza A. Matloub

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study involves the preparation of cubic liquid crystalline nanoparticles (cubsomes for liver targeting to assess the potential of a formulated bioactive polysaccharide isolated from the hot aqueous extract of Ulva fasciata as an alternative natural agent with anti-hyperlipidaemic activity. Cubosomal nanoparticles were prepared by disrupting the cubic gel phase of the polysaccharide and water in the presence of a surfactant. Different lipid matrices and stabilizers were tested. All the formulations were in the nanosize range and showed sufficient negative charge to inhibit the aggregation of the cubosomes. Drug entrapment efficiencies (EEs% were determined and in vitro release studies were performed. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM and differential scanning calorimetry were used to analyze the loaded cubosomal nanoparticles containing glyceryl monostearate (GMO 2.25 g, poloxamer 407 (0.25 g and 50 mg of the polysaccharide. A preclinical study comparing the cubic liquid crystalline nanoparticles containing polysaccharide to fluvastatin as a reference drug in hyperlipidaemic rats was conducted. The rats treated with the polysaccharide- loaded cubosomes showed significant decreases in total cholesterol (TC, triglycerides (TG and total lipid (TL compared to the untreated HL rats. In addition, oxidative stress and antioxidant biomarkers were measured in the HL rats. Compared to the untreated HL rats, the cubosome treated rats showed a significant reduction in malondialdehyde (MDA, whereas insignificant changes were detected in nitric oxide (NO, glutathione (GSH levels and total antioxidant capacity (TAC. Further, vascular and intercellular adhesion molecules (VCAM, ICAM, and myeloperoxidase were demonstrated. A histopathological examination was conducted to study the alterations in histopathological lesions and to document the biochemical results. In conclusion, this study demonstrates the superiority of using a natural lipid

  6. Locally Applied Valproate Enhances Survival in Rats after Neocortical Treatment with Tetanus Toxin and Cobalt Chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk-Matthias Altenmüller

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. In neocortical epilepsies not satisfactorily responsive to systemic antiepileptic drug therapy, local application of antiepileptic agents onto the epileptic focus may enhance treatment efficacy and tolerability. We describe the effects of focally applied valproate (VPA in a newly emerging rat model of neocortical epilepsy induced by tetanus toxin (TeT plus cobalt chloride (CoCl2. Methods. In rats, VPA ( or sodium chloride (NaCl ( containing polycaprolactone (PCL implants were applied onto the right motor cortex treated before with a triple injection of 75 ng TeT plus 15 mg CoCl2. Video-EEG monitoring was performed with intracortical depth electrodes. Results. All rats randomized to the NaCl group died within one week after surgery. In contrast, the rats treated with local VPA survived significantly longer (. In both groups, witnessed deaths occurred in the context of seizures. At least of the rats surviving the first postoperative day developed neocortical epilepsy with recurrent spontaneous seizures. Conclusions. The novel TeT/CoCl2 approach targets at a new model of neocortical epilepsy in rats and allows the investigation of local epilepsy therapy strategies. In this vehicle-controlled study, local application of VPA significantly enhanced survival in rats, possibly by focal antiepileptic or antiepileptogenic mechanisms.

  7. Effect of soy protein on obesity-linked renal and pancreatic disorders in female rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osman, H.F.; El-Sherbiny, E.M.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the effect of soy protein based diet on renal and pancreatic disorders in female obese rats. Animals assigned into group I in which 30 rats fed on a balanced diet. Group II contained 30 rats fed on a diet containing 30% fats for 4 weeks. At the end of the 4 th week, one-half of each group was treated as group III which contain 15 rats (half of group I) fed on diet containing 25% soy protein for 3 weeks and represents soy protein group, and the other half served as control. Group IV contained 15 rats (half of group II) fed on a diet containing 25% soy protein for 3 weeks and served as obese + soy protein group, and the other half fed on a normal balanced diet for 3 weeks and represents the obese group. Body weights of rats were recorded every week during the experimental period. Renal and pancreatic functions were measured as urea, creatinine, glomerular filtration rate (creatinine clearance), ammonia, sodium and potassium ions, total protein, albumin, globulin, glucose, insulin and alpha-amylase activity. Feeding with soy protein led to a very high significant increase in urea while creatinine was significantly decreased and creatinine clearance was significantly increased in the groups fed on soy protein. Ammonia concentration was increased in all groups and there was non-significant alteration in sodium and potassium ion concentrations. In soy protein groups (groups III and IV), total protein, albumin and globulin levels were increased. Glucose level was increased in obese rats and significantly decreased in groups III and IV. In group IV, insulin level was decreased which implicated to insulin excess in obesity. Soy protein decreased alpha-amylase activity in groups III and IV as compared to control rats. From these results, soy protein have a direct and protective effect on glomerular disorders and pancreatic secretions. This may be due to isoflavone contents in soy which can modulate the disturbance in metabolism

  8. Hematological Parameters and the State of Liver Cells of Rats After Oral Administration of Aflatoxin B1 Alone and Together with Nanodiamonds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baron AV

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Hematological parameters and the state of liver cells of rats were examined in vivo after the animals received aflatoxin B1 (AfB1 alone and together with modified nanodiamonds (MND synthesized by detonation. The rats that had received the MND hydrosol had elevated leukocyte levels, mainly due to higher granulocyte counts and somewhat increased monocyte counts compared to control rats. Hematological parameters of the rats that had received AfB1 alone differed from those of the control rats in another way: total white blood cell counts were significantly lower due to the decreased lymphocyte counts. In rats that had consumed AfB1 with the MND hydrosol, changes in hematological parameters were less pronounced than in rats that had consumed either AfB1 or MND. Electron microscopy showed that hepatocytes of the rats that had received the MND hydrosol or AfB1 with the MND hydrosol contained elevated levels of lipid inclusions and lysosomes. Hyperplasia of the smooth endoplasmic reticulum (EPR was revealed in liver specimens of the rats that had received AfB1. Results of the study suggest the conclusion about mutual mitigation of the effects of nanoparticles and the mycotoxin on rats blood and liver cells after AfB1 has adsorbed on MND.

  9. The hypolipidaemic effect of gum tragacanth in diet induced hyperlipidaemia in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amer, S; Kamil, R; Siddiqui, P Q

    1999-07-01

    Previous research indicated that fiber in the diet of men lowers plasma lipid and LDL cholesterol concentration. To further study the lipid lowering effect of fibre, we conducted an animal study using rats with diet induced hyperlipidaemia. Rats were randomly assigned to one of the three experimental diets. Two of the diets contained cholesterol and choice acid to induce hyperlipidaemia, the fiber source in the hyperlipidaemic diet was gum tragacanth (5%). The rats consumed one of the three diets ad libitum for 4 weeks before they were killed. Plasma LDL cholesterol and total cholesterol concentrations were significantly higher in the hyperlipidaemic group than in the non hyperlipidaemic control group. A marked improvement in the plasma LDL cholesterol and total cholesterol concentration was observed in the rats that were fed hyperlipidaemic diet containing grum tragacanth. No significant difference in the plasma triglyceride concentration was detected in the three groups. Plasma HDL concentration was significantly higher in the non-hyperlipidaemic group than in the hyperlipidaemic group than. Addition of gum tragacanth to the hyperlipidaemic diet significantly improved the plasma HDL concentration in the hyperlipidaemic rats. These results suggest that fiber from gum tragacanth lowers plasma cholesterol and LDL in hyperlipidaemia. Gum tragacanth could be useful adjunct to the dietary management of hyperlipidaemia.

  10. Detecting Novelty and Significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Vera; Bradley, Margaret M.; Codispoti, Maurizio; Lang, Peter J.

    2013-01-01

    Studies of cognition often use an “oddball” paradigm to study effects of stimulus novelty and significance on information processing. However, an oddball tends to be perceptually more novel than the standard, repeated stimulus as well as more relevant to the ongoing task, making it difficult to disentangle effects due to perceptual novelty and stimulus significance. In the current study, effects of perceptual novelty and significance on ERPs were assessed in a passive viewing context by presenting repeated and novel pictures (natural scenes) that either signaled significant information regarding the current context or not. A fronto-central N2 component was primarily affected by perceptual novelty, whereas a centro-parietal P3 component was modulated by both stimulus significance and novelty. The data support an interpretation that the N2 reflects perceptual fluency and is attenuated when a current stimulus matches an active memory representation and that the amplitude of the P3 reflects stimulus meaning and significance. PMID:19400680

  11. Significant NRC Enforcement Actions

    Data.gov (United States)

    Nuclear Regulatory Commission — This dataset provides a list of Nuclear Regulartory Commission (NRC) issued significant enforcement actions. These actions, referred to as "escalated", are issued by...

  12. [The influence of N-, S-containing chinasolone derivatives (NC-224) on the biochemical and physicochemical parameters of membrane endoplasmatic reticulum and nuclear chromatine fractions of rats liver cells in conditions of its injury by tetrachloromethane].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubs'kyî, Iu I; Goriushko, G G; Belenichev, I F; Kovalenko, S I; Litvinova, N V; Marchenko, O M; Kurapova, T M; Babenko, L P; Velychko, O M

    2010-01-01

    Using biochemical and physicochemical methods of investigation in vivo, the effect of the substance NC-224, N-, S-chinasolone-derivative, on the lipoperoxidation activity in rat liver endoplasmatic reticulum membranes and nuclear chromatin fractions under tetrachloromethane intoxication have been studied. It was shown that NC-224 has pronounced antioxidant activity which is the biochemical basis of the substance membrane- and genome-protective effects and its ability to restore physicochemical properties of the surface and hydrophobic zones of hepatocyte membranes and structural parameter nuclear chromatin fractions in the conditions of chemical liver injury.

  13. Negative Effect of Zinc on Testes, Testosterone and Gonadotrophins Levels in Adult Male Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Sohrabi

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and ObjectivesThe toxic effects of zinc leading to sebaceous gland closure, skin eczema and blister have been previously demonstrated in other studies. The aim of this study is to determine the chronic effects of zinc chloride (ZnCl2 on testicular tissues, testosterone and gonadotrophins in adult male Wistar rats.Methods Twenty four Adult male Wistar rats were divided in to two groups of study and control with each group consisting of 12 rats. Study group rats received 10 mg/kg interaperitoneal Zinc chloride in normal saline (N.S every other day for 30 days. Control group rats received N.S during this time. Blood sample for hormonal evaluation were collected from hearts of these rats. The rats were destroyed and their testes were removed and fixed in a 10% formaldehyde and glutaraldehyde solution.ResultsThe results of this study showed a significant decrease in the level of LH and testosterone hormone among the rats in the study group compared to the control group with p< 0.001 and p< 0.01 respectively. Study of fine structure of testicular cells and tissues in the study group rats revealed swelling of mitochondria, increase in smooth endoplasmic reticulum vacuolization and lysosomic granules (Autophagic vacuoles in cytosol of their germinal cells.ConclusionBased on the results of this study consumption of large amount of compounds which contain zinc should be controlled and limited among men. There is a need for further studies to evaluate and determine the reversibility of most hormonal and physiological changes due to usage of zinc containing compounds.Keywords: Zinc Chloride; Testis; Testosterone; Gonadotrophins

  14. Negative Effect of Zinc on Testes, Testosterone and Gonadotrophins Levels in Adult Male Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Sohrabi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available

    Background and Objectives

    The toxic effects of zinc leading to sebaceous gland closure, skin eczema and blister have been previously demonstrated in other studies. The aim of this study is to determine the chronic effects of zinc chloride (ZnCl2   on testicular tissues, testosterone and gonadotrophins in adult male Wistar rats.

     

    Methods

    Twenty four Adult male Wistar rats were divided in to two groups of study and control with each group consisting of 12 rats. Study group rats received 10 mg/kg interaperitoneal Zinc chloride in normal saline (N.S every other day for 30 days. Control group rats received N.S during this time. Blood sample for hormonal evaluation were collected from hearts of these rats. The rats were destroyed and their testes were removed and fixed in a 10% formaldehyde and glutaraldehyde solution.

     

    Results

    The results of this study showed a significant decrease in the level of LH and testosterone hormone among the rats in the study group compared to the control group with p< 0.001  and

    p< 0.01 respectively. Study of fine structure of testicular cells and tissues in the study group rats  revealed swelling of mitochondria, increase in smooth endoplasmic reticulum vacuolization and lysosomic granules (Autophagic vacuoles in cytosol of their germinal cells.

     

    Conclusion

    Based on the results of this study consumption of large amount of compounds which contain zinc should be controlled and limited among men. There is a need for further studies to evaluate and determine the reversibility of most hormonal and physiological changes due to usage of zinc containing compounds.

  15. Effects of Methionine Containing Paracetamol Formulation on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of Methionine Containing Paracetamol Formulation on Serum Vitamins and Trace Elements in Male Rats. AA Iyanda, JI Anetor, DP Oparinde, FAA Adeniyi. Abstract. Methionine is an effective antidote in the treatment of paracetamol-induced toxicity but at large doses it has been reported to induce or aggravate a ...

  16. Gene Expression Profiling in Lung Tissues from Rat Exposed to Lunar Dust Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ye; Lam, Chiu-Wing; Zalesak, Selina M.; Kidane, Yared H.; Feiveson, Alan H.; Ploutz-Snyder, Robert; Scully, Robert R.; Williams, Kyle; Wu, Honglu; James, John T.

    2014-01-01

    The Moon's surface is covered by a layer of fine, reactive dust. Lunar dust contain about 1-2% of very fine dust (gene expression changes in lung tissues from rats exposed to lunar dust particles. F344 rats were exposed for 4 weeks (6h/d; 5d/wk) in nose-only inhalation chambers to concentrations of 0 (control air), 2.1, 6.8, 21, and 61 mg/m(exp 3) of lunar dust. Five rats per group were euthanized 1 day, and 3 months after the last inhalation exposure. The total RNAs were isolated from lung tissues after being lavaged. The Agilent Rat GE v3 microarray was used to profile global gene expression (44K). The genes with significant expression changes are identified and the gene expression data were further analyzed using various statistical tools.

  17. No significant fuel failures (NSFF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domaratzki, Z.

    1979-01-01

    It has long been recognized that no emergency core cooling system (ECCS) could be absolutely guaranteed to prevent fuel failures. In 1976 the Atomic Energy Control Board decided that the objective for an ECCS should be to prevent fuel failures, but if the objective could not be met it should be shown that the consequences are acceptable for dual failures comprising any LOCA combined with an assumed impairment of containment. Out of the review of the Bruce A plant came the definition of 'no significant fuel failures': for any postulated LOCA combined with any one mode of containment impairment the resultant dose to a person at the edge of the exclusion zone is less than the reference dose limits for dual failures

  18. Effects of organic and conventional rice on protein efficiency ratio and pesticide residue in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanpen Mesomya

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The comparative effects of organic rice and conventional rice on the protein efficiency ratio (PER in rats were investigated by feeding 40 male Sprague-Dawley rats for four weeks with three experimental diets containing polished conventional rice (PCR, unpolished conventional rice (UCR, unpolished organic rice (UOR and a control protein diet (casein under standardised conditions. All diets were prepared according to AOAC guidelines. The results showed no statistically significant difference (P > 0.05 among the values of PER (2.75 ± 0.14 - 2.80 ± 0.09 in rats fed with diets containing PCR, UCR or UOR. Similar growth was also observed among the three groups fed with different experimental diets. Additionally, residues of pesticides, viz. carbofuran, methyl parathion, p-nitrophenol and -cyfluthrin, in rat blood and rice samples were determined using liquid chromatography–electrospray ionisation tandem mass spectrometry. Pesticide residues were not detected in all serum samples of experimental rats and only p-nitrophenol was found (8.23 ± 0.65 - 12.84 ± 2.58 mg/kg in all samples of the cooked rice diets, indicating that organic rice produced similar effect as conventional rice on PER and growth in rats.

  19. Materials designed for containments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piehl, K.H.

    1976-01-01

    The present article points out that high-tensile fine-grained steels have been used successfully in the construction of reactor containments, spherical gasometers, and pressure vessels. It has been confirmed that their use requires safety measures concerning lay out and production. Viscosity properties of high-tensile, fine-grained steels can be improved significantly by means of electroslag remelting. The extent to which this improvement influences the heat-affected zone is being examined. (orig./RW) [de

  20. Biochemical studies on gamma irradiated male rats fed on whey protein concentrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, N.E; Anwar, M.M.; El-bostany, N.A.

    2010-01-01

    This study carried out to investigate the possible role of whey protein protein concentrate in ameliorating some biochemical disorders induced in gamma irradiated male rats. Forty eight male albino rats were divided into four equal groups: Group 1 fed on normal diet during experimental period. Group 2 where the diet contain 15 % whey protein concentrate instead of soybean protein . Group 3 rats were exposed to whole body gamma radiation with single dose of 5 Gy and fed on the normal diet. Group 4 rate exposed to 5 Gy then fed on diet contain 15 % whey protein concentrate, the rats were decapitated after two and four weeks post irradiation. Exposure to whole body irradiation caused significant elevation of serum ALT, AST, glucose, urea, creatinine and total triiodothyronine with significant decrease in total protein, albumin and thyroxin. Irradiated rats fed on whey protein concentrate revealed significant improvement of some biochemical parameters. It could be conclude that whey protein concentrate may be considered as a useful protein source for reducing radiation injury via metabolic pathway.

  1. Teratogenic effects of caffeine and clomipramine on rat fetus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takzare N

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obsessive-compulsive disorders and depression have a high prevalence during pregnancy therefore, pregnant women may take clomipramine and also take other drugs or consume foods that contain caffeine. As investigations about the teratogenic effects of clomipramine and its concurrent administration with caffeine during organogenesis period are scarce, we aimed to study the teratogenicity of simultaneous administration of clomipramine and caffeine in rat fetus.Methods: After dividing 42 pregnant rats to several case and control groups, we injected different doses of caffeine and clomipramine to the animals. All the injections were performed on the eighth until the 15th day of pregnancy. We removed the fetuses on the 17th day of pregnancy and studied the morphological features and apparent anomalies of the fetuses macroscopically. Results: We found a significant rate of mortality, apparent anomalies, abnormal torsion, shrinkage of skin and subcutaneous bleeding in fetuses of rats receiving high doses of caffeine or a combination of caffeine and clomipramine. Statistical analysis of the data revealed a significant increase (P?0.001 in teratogenicity of high doses of caffeine and its combination with clomipramine. Conclusion: This study implies simultaneous intake of high amounts of caffeine and clomipramine lead to teratogenicity. We recommend pregnant women to avoid uncontrolled consumption of foods that contain caffeine or drugs that contain high amounts of this substance. They should not also take clomipramine with caffeine in the first trimester of pregnancy.

  2. Vinpocetine and Vitamin E Modulates Some Biochemical Alterations Induced by Exposure to Ionizing Radiation and Chloropyrifos in Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamal El-Dein, E.M.; Abd El-Azime, A.SH.

    2013-01-01

    Acapi-Cav is a well balanced and well tolerated formula containing vinpocetine and vitamin E. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of vinpocetine and vitamin E on the oxidative stress, electrolytes and monoamines level in rats exposed to ionizing radiation (gamma rays), chloropyrifos (CPF) as well as rats exposed to a combination of gamma rays and CPF. Irradiation was performed by whole body exposure of rats to 8 Gy delivered at 1 Gy every 4 days. CPF was administered to rats by oral gavages at a dose of 3.6 mg/kg body weight ( 1/10 LD50 ) daily for 30 days. Vinpocetine and vitamin E were administered to rats by oral gavages at a dose of 20 mg/kg body weight daily during 7 days before starting the experiment and continued during the period of exposure to gamma rays and/or CPF. The results revealed significant increase of malondialdehyde (MDA) level associated with a significant decrease of glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) in the blood of rats exposed to gamma rays and/or CPF indicating oxidative stress. The levels of serum electrolytes (sodium Na + , potassium K + , calcium Ca ++ and magnesium Mg) showed significant decrease. Serum dopamine (DA) level was decreased and norepinephrine (NE) was increased while epinephrine (EPI) showed non-significant change. The level of serum monoamine oxidase (MAO) showed significant increase. The administration of vinpocetine and vitamin E to rats exposed to gamma rays and/or CPF significantly reduced the amount of MDA which associated with an increase in the level of antioxidants and significant improvement was recorded for electrolytes level. The results demonstrated that vinpocetine and vitamin E significantly attenuated the increase of MAO and induced significant amelioration in the level of monoamines. It could be concluded that vinpocetine and vitamin E might protect the body from oxidative damage and electrolytes and monoamines alterations in rats exposed to gamma rays

  3. The effect of zinc on healing of renal damage in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehipour, Mehdi; Monabbati, Ahmad; Ensafdaran, Mohammad Reza; Adib, Ali; Babaei, Amir Hossein

    2017-07-01

    Several studies have previously been performed to promote kidney healing after injuries. Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of zinc on renal healing after traumatic injury in rats. Forty healthy female rats were selected and one of their kidneys was incised. Half of the incisions were limited only to the cortex (renal injury type I) and the other ones reached the pelvocalyceal system of the kidney (renal injury type II). All the rats in the zinc treated group (case group) received 36.3 mg zinc sulfate (contained 8.25 mg zinc) orally. After 28 days, the damaged kidneys were removed for histopathological studies. In the rats with type I injury, kidney inflammation of the case group was significantly lower than that of the control group. However, the result was not significant in rats with type II injury. Tissue loss and granulation tissue formation were significantly lower in the case group than the control group in both type I and II kidney injuries. Overall, Zinc can contribute to better healing of the rat's kidneys after a traumatic injury.

  4. Norepinephrine accumulation by the rat caudal artery in the presence of hypertensive plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freas, W.; Thompson, D.A.; Hart, J.L.; Muldoon, S.M.

    1986-01-01

    We have partially isolated endogenous factors from canine plasma which inhibit 3 H-norepinephrine (NE) accumulation by the canine saphenous vein. The purpose of this study is to determine if these circulating factors may account for the observed differences in 3 H-NE uptake by hypertensive and normotensive blood vessels. Three models of hypertension were examined in this study. Blood vessels were compared from SHR and WKY rats, deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA) and control rats, and reduced renal mass (RRM) and control rats. There was no significant difference in 3 H-NE accumulation between blood vessels obtained from RRM and paired control rats. However, both the SHR and DOCA hypertensive caudal arteries and aorta accumulated significantly more 3 H-NE than their corresponding control tissues. There was not a significant change in 3 H-NE accumulation between hypertensive and control vena cava and mesenteric arteries. Normotensive and hypertensive plasma inhibited 3 H-NE accumulation by the rat caudal artery. However, there was not a correlation between blood pressure of plasma donor rats and accumulation of 3 H-NE. Therefore, although there are differences in 3 H-NE accumulation between hypertensive and normotensive blood vessels, plasma does not contain a factor responsible for this observed difference

  5. Antinociceptive activity of Sempervivum tectorum L. extract in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kekesi, Gabriella; Dobos, Ildiko; Benedek, György; Horvath, Gyöngyi

    2003-11-01

    The extract of Sempervivum tectorum L. (Crassulaceae) containing several flavonoids is widely used as an antiinflammatory agent in folk medicine. Previous studies have demonstrated that various flavonoids or flavonoid-containing plant extracts produce significant antinociception, but no data are available concerning their antinociceptive effect especially at the spinal level. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the antinociceptive activity of Sempervivum tectorum L. extract on acute and inflammatory pain sensitivity in awake rats. The pain sensitivity was assessed by the acute tail- flick test in intact rats and by the paw withdrawal test after carrageenan-induced inflammation using heat stimulus. The plant extract was administered intraperitoneally and intrathecally in rats. The intraperitoneal injection of a high dose of the extract (1000 mg/kg) significantly (p < 0.05) increased the paw withdrawal latency of the inflamed paw. The intrathecal administration (30-300 micro g) caused a small, but significant increase (10%-15%) in tail- flick latency. In the carrageenan-induced inflammatory model, the intrathecally applied extract (30-1000 micro g) significantly decreased, but did not relieve the thermal hyperalgesia. The results suggest that the spinal cord does not seem to play an important role in the antinociceptive effects of this plant extract. Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Modulation of Immune Function in Rats Using Oligosaccharides Extracted from Palm Kernel Cake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faseleh Jahromi, Mohammd; Shokryazdan, Parisa; Idrus, Zulkifli; Ebrahimi, Rohollah; Bashokouh, Fatemeh; Liang, Juan Boo

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the prebiotic and immunomodulatory effects of PKC extract (OligoPKC) a total of 24 male rats were randomly assigned to three treatment groups receiving basal diet (control), basal diet containing 0.5% OligoPKC, or basal diet containing 1% OligoPKC for four weeks. We found that OligoPKC had no significant effect on the tested growth parameters. However, it increased the size of the total and beneficial bacterial populations while reducing pathogen populations. OligoPKC increased the concentration of immunoglobulins in the serum and cecal contents of rats. It also enhanced the antioxidant capacity of the liver while reducing lipid peroxidation in liver tissue. OligoPKC affected the expression of genes involved in immune system function in the intestine. Therefore, OligoPKC could be considered a potential mannan-based prebiotic for humans and animals due to its beneficial effects on the health and well-being of the model rats.

  7. The spleen can influence the metastasis of AH130 hepatoma cells in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyonaga, M; Hiraoka, T; Tanaka, H; Miyauchi, Y

    1993-06-01

    The effect of pathophysiological conditions due to disturbance of the spleen is still unclear. We studied the effects of splenectomy in normal and methylcellulose-induced hypersplenic rats on the development of pulmonary metastases created by intravenous injection of ascites containing AH130 hepatoma cells from male Hos-Donryu rats. Growth of metastatic lesions in the lung was not affected by splenectomy in normal rats, but was increased by splenectomy in hypersplenic rats. Overall, there were fewer pulmonary metastases in rats with hypersplenism, but after splenectomy rats with hypersplenism had a significantly greater number of metastases than did normal rats. The metastases rate correlated somewhat with changes in the blood coagulation and T lymphocyte profile. There is a relationship between the spleen and formation of metastases in cancer. Formation of metastases in the lung was affected most by splenectomy in hypersplenism. To elucidate the mechanism by which metastases are formed in the lung under these pathologic conditions, further studies on the exact role of the spleen are required.

  8. Plasma disappearance, urine excretion, and tissue distribution of ribavirin in rats and rhesus monkeys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrara, E.A.; Oishi, J.S.; Wannemacher, R.W. Jr.; Stephen, E.L.

    1981-01-01

    Ribavirin has been shown to have broad-spectrum antiviral. To study its tissue distribution and disappearance rate, a single dose of 10 mg/kg which contained 10 microCi of [14C]ribavirin was injected intravenously into rhesus monkeys and intramuscularly into monkeys and rats. Except for peak plasma concentrations and the initial phases of the plasma disappearance and urine excretion curves, no significant difference was observed between plasma, tissue, or urine values for intramuscularly or intravenously injected monkeys. Plasma disappearance curves were triphasic; plasma concentrations of ribavirin were similar for both monkeys and rats. Rats excreted ribavirin in the urine more rapidly and to a greater extent (82% excreted in 24 h) than did monkeys (60% excreted in 72 h). In the rat, only 3% of the injected [14C]ribavirin was detected in expired CO2. Therefore, for both species, urine was the major route for the elimination of labeled ribavirin and its metabolites from the body. In monkeys, the amount of parent drug in blood cells increased through 48 h and remained stable for 72 h, whereas in rats, ribavirin decreased at a rate similar to the plasma disappearance curve. Concentrations of ribavirin at 8 h were consistently higher in monkeys than in rats for all tissues except the brain. Thus, these differences in blood cellular components and organ content and in urine excretion suggested that there was greater tissue retention of ribavirin in monkeys than in rats

  9. Storage Space Allocation of Inbound Container in Railway Container Terminal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Efficient storage strategy of railway container terminals is important in balancing resource utilization, reducing waiting time, and improving handling efficiency. In this paper, we consider the formulation and solution algorithm for storage space allocation problem of inbound containers in railway container terminal. The problem is formulated as two-stage optimization models, whose objectives are balancing the workload of inbound containers and reducing the overlapping amounts. An algorithm implement process based on rolling horizon approach is designed to solve the proposed models. Computational experiments on an actual railway container terminal show that the proposed approach is effective to solve space allocation problem of inbound container and is significant for the operation and organization of railway container terminals.

  10. Orally administered nicotine induces urothelial hyperplasia in rats and mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodmane, Puttappa R.; Arnold, Lora L.; Pennington, Karen L.; Cohen, Samuel M.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Rats and mice orally administered with nicotine tartrate for total of 4 weeks. • No treatment-related death or whole body toxicity observed in any of the groups. • Urothelium showed simple hyperplasia in treated rats and mice. • No significant change in BrdU labeling index or SEM classification of urothelium. - Abstract: Tobacco smoking is a major risk factor for multiple human cancers including urinary bladder carcinoma. Tobacco smoke is a complex mixture containing chemicals that are known carcinogens in humans and/or animals. Aromatic amines a major class of DNA-reactive carcinogens in cigarette smoke, are not present at sufficiently high levels to fully explain the incidence of bladder cancer in cigarette smokers. Other agents in tobacco smoke could be excreted in urine and enhance the carcinogenic process by increasing urothelial cell proliferation. Nicotine is one such major component, as it has been shown to induce cell proliferation in multiple cell types in vitro. However, in vivo evidence specifically for the urothelium is lacking. We previously showed that cigarette smoke induces increased urothelial cell proliferation in mice. In the present study, urothelial proliferative and cytotoxic effects were examined after nicotine treatment in mice and rats. Nicotine hydrogen tartrate was administered in drinking water to rats (52 ppm nicotine) and mice (514 ppm nicotine) for 4 weeks and urothelial changes were evaluated. Histopathologically, 7/10 rats and 4/10 mice showed simple hyperplasia following nicotine treatment compared to none in the controls. Rats had an increased mean BrdU labeling index compared to controls, although it was not statistically significantly elevated in either species. Scanning electron microscopic visualization of the urothelium did not reveal significant cytotoxicity. These findings suggest that oral nicotine administration induced urothelial hyperplasia (increased cell proliferation), possibly due to a

  11. Liver conversion of docosahexaenoic and arachidonic acids from their 18-carbon precursors in rats on a DHA-free but α-LNA-containing n-3 PUFA adequate diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Fei; Kim, Hyung-Wook; Igarashi, Miki; Kiesewetter, Dale; Chang, Lisa; Ma, Kaizong; Rapoport, Stanley I

    2011-01-01

    The long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3), and arachidonic acid (AA, 20:4n-6), are critical for health. These PUFAs can be synthesized in liver from their plant-derived precursors, α-linolenic acid (α-LNA, 18:3n-3) and linoleic acid (LA, 18:2n-6). Vegetarians and vegans may have suboptimal long-chain n-3 PUFA status, and the extent of the conversion of α-LNA to EPA and DHA by the liver is debatable. We quantified liver conversion of DHA and other n-3 PUFAs from α-LNA in rats fed a DHA-free but α-LNA (n-3 PUFA) adequate diet, and compared results to conversion of LA to AA. [U-(13)C]LA or [U-(13)C]α-LNA was infused intravenously for 2h at a constant rate into unanesthetized rats fed a DHA-free α-LNA adequate diet, and published equations were used to calculate kinetic parameters. The conversion coefficient k(⁎) of DHA from α-LNA was much higher than for AA from LA (97.2×10(-3) vs. 10.6×10(-3)min(-1)), suggesting that liver elongation-desaturation is more selective for n-3 PUFA biosynthesis on a per molecule basis. The net daily secretion rate of DHA, 20.3μmol/day, exceeded the reported brain DHA consumption rate by 50-fold, suggesting that the liver can maintain brain DHA metabolism with an adequate dietary supply solely of α-LNA. This infusion method could be used in vegetarians or vegans to determine minimal daily requirements of EPA and DHA in humans. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Effects of tamoxifen on vaginal blood flow and epithelial morphology in the rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goldstein Irwin

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tamoxifen, a selective estrogen receptor modulator with both estrogenic and anti-estrogenic activity, is widely used as adjuvant therapy in breast cancer patients. Treatment with tamoxifen is associated with sexual side effects, such as increased vaginal dryness and pain/discomfort during sexual activity. There have been limited investigations of the effect of tamoxifen on estrogen-dependent peripheral genital arousal responses. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of tamoxifen on vaginal physiology in the rat. Methods Female Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to sham surgery or bilateral ovariectomy. After 2 weeks, sham-operated rats were implanted with subcutaneous osmotic infusion pumps containing vehicle (control or tamoxifen (150 μg/day. Ovariectomized rats were similarly infused with vehicle. After an additional 2 weeks, vaginal blood flow responses to pelvic nerve stimulation were measured by laser Doppler flowmetry and vaginal tissue was collected for histological and biochemical assay. Results Tamoxifen treatment did not change plasma estradiol concentrations relative to control animals, while ovariectomized rats exhibited a 60% decrease in plasma estradiol. Tamoxifen treatment caused a significant decrease in mean uterine weight, but did not alter mean vaginal weight. Vaginal blood flow was significantly decreased in tamoxifen-infused rats compared to controls. Similar to ovariectomized animals, estrogen receptor binding was increased and arginase enzyme activity was decreased in tamoxifen-infused rats. However, different from control and ovariectomized animals, the vaginal epithelium in tamoxifen-infused rats appeared highly mucified. Periodic acid-Schiff staining confirmed a greater production of carbohydrate-rich compounds (e.g. mucin, glycogen by the vaginal epithelium of tamoxifen-infused rats. Conclusion The observations suggest that tamoxifen exerts both anti-estrogenic and pro

  13. B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) serum levels in rats after forced repeated swimming stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadzovic-Dzuvo, Almira; Valjevac, Amina; Avdagić, Nesina; Lepara, Orhan; Zaćiragić, Asija; Jadrić, Radivoj; Alajbegović, Jasmin; Prnjavorac, Besim

    2011-02-01

    To estimate the effects of forced repeated swimming stress on BNP serum levels in rats. Adult male Wistar rats weighting between 280-330 g were divided into two groups: control group (n = 8) and stress group (n = 8). Rats in the stress group were exposed to forced swimming stress daily, for 7 days. The rats were forced to swim in plastic tanks (90 cm wide, 120 cm deep) containing tap water (temperature ca. 25 degrees C). The depth of water was 40 cm. Duration of each swimming session progressively increased from 10 minutes on the first day to 40 minutes on days 6 and 7. Rats were sacrificed and blood was drawn from abdominal aorta for BNP analysis immediately after the last swimming session. B-type natriuretic serum level was determined by ELISA method using RAT BNP-32 kit (Phoenix Pharmaceutical Inc.). There was no statistically significant difference between mean BNP serum level in the stress group after the swimming period (0.81 +/- 0.14 ng/ml) as compared to the unstressed group of rats (0.8 +/- 0.08 ng/ml). After the swimming period mean body weight slightly decreased in the stress group in comparison with values before stress period (296.3 g vs. 272.8 g), but this difference was not statistically significant. The stress period had no influence on food intake in the stress rat group. The workload consisting of 40-minutes long swimming session is not sufficient to provoke BNP release from myocardium in rats.

  14. Effect of thiabendazole on some rat hepatic xenobiotic metabolising enzymes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Price, R.J.; Scott, M.P.; Walters, D.G.; Stierum, R.H.; Groten, J.P.; Meredith, C.; Lake, B.G.

    2004-01-01

    The effect of thiabendazole (TB) on some rat hepatic xenobiotic metabolising enzymes has been investigated. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed control diet or diets containing 102-5188 ppm TB for 28 days. As a positive control for induction of hepatic xenobiotic metabolism, rats were also fed diets

  15. Substance P Differentially Modulates Firing Rate of Solitary Complex (SC) Neurons from Control and Chronic Hypoxia-Adapted Adult Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Nicole L.; Powell, Frank L.; Dean, Jay B.; Putnam, Robert W.

    2014-01-01

    NK1 receptors, which bind substance P, are present in the majority of brainstem regions that contain CO2/H+-sensitive neurons that play a role in central chemosensitivity. However, the effect of substance P on the chemosensitive response of neurons from these regions has not been studied. Hypoxia increases substance P release from peripheral afferents that terminate in the caudal nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS). Here we studied the effect of substance P on the chemosensitive responses of solitary complex (SC: NTS and dorsal motor nucleus) neurons from control and chronic hypoxia-adapted (CHx) adult rats. We simultaneously measured intracellular pH and electrical responses to hypercapnic acidosis in SC neurons from control and CHx adult rats using the blind whole cell patch clamp technique and fluorescence imaging microscopy. Substance P significantly increased the basal firing rate in SC neurons from control and CHx rats, although the increase was smaller in CHx rats. However, substance P did not affect the chemosensitive response of SC neurons from either group of rats. In conclusion, we found that substance P plays a role in modulating the basal firing rate of SC neurons but the magnitude of the effect is smaller for SC neurons from CHx adult rats, implying that NK1 receptors may be down regulated in CHx adult rats. Substance P does not appear to play a role in modulating the firing rate response to hypercapnic acidosis of SC neurons from either control or CHx adult rats. PMID:24516602

  16. Substance P differentially modulates firing rate of solitary complex (SC neurons from control and chronic hypoxia-adapted adult rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole L Nichols

    Full Text Available NK1 receptors, which bind substance P, are present in the majority of brainstem regions that contain CO2/H(+-sensitive neurons that play a role in central chemosensitivity. However, the effect of substance P on the chemosensitive response of neurons from these regions has not been studied. Hypoxia increases substance P release from peripheral afferents that terminate in the caudal nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS. Here we studied the effect of substance P on the chemosensitive responses of solitary complex (SC: NTS and dorsal motor nucleus neurons from control and chronic hypoxia-adapted (CHx adult rats. We simultaneously measured intracellular pH and electrical responses to hypercapnic acidosis in SC neurons from control and CHx adult rats using the blind whole cell patch clamp technique and fluorescence imaging microscopy. Substance P significantly increased the basal firing rate in SC neurons from control and CHx rats, although the increase was smaller in CHx rats. However, substance P did not affect the chemosensitive response of SC neurons from either group of rats. In conclusion, we found that substance P plays a role in modulating the basal firing rate of SC neurons but the magnitude of the effect is smaller for SC neurons from CHx adult rats, implying that NK1 receptors may be down regulated in CHx adult rats. Substance P does not appear to play a role in modulating the firing rate response to hypercapnic acidosis of SC neurons from either control or CHx adult rats.

  17. Ascorbic acid deficiency stimulates hepatic expression of inflammatory chemokine, cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant-1, in scurvy-prone ODS rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horio, Fumihiko; Kiyama, Keiichiro; Kobayashi, Misato; Kawai, Kaori; Tsuda, Takanori

    2006-02-01

    ODS rat has a hereditary defect in ascorbic acid biosynthesis and is a useful animal model for elucidating the physiological role of ascorbic acid. We previously demonstrated by using ODS rats that ascorbic acid deficiency changes the hepatic gene expression of acute phase proteins, as seen in acute inflammation. In this study, we investigated the effects of ascorbic acid deficiency on the production of inflammatory chemokine, cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant-1 (CINC-1), in ODS rats. Male ODS rats (6 wk of age) were fed a basal diet containing ascorbic acid (300 mg/kg diet) or a diet without ascorbic acid for 14 d. Obvious symptoms of scurvy were not observed in the ascorbic acid-deficient rats. Ascorbic acid deficiency significantly elevated the serum concentration of CINC-1 on d 14. The liver and spleen CINC-1 concentrations in the ascorbic acid-deficient rats were significantly elevated to 600% and 180% of the respective values in the control rats. However, the lung concentration of CINC-1 was not affected by ascorbic acid deficiency. Ascorbic acid deficiency significantly elevated the hepatic mRNA level of CINC-1 (to 480% of the value in the control rats), but not the lung mRNA level. These results demonstrate that ascorbic acid deficiency elevates the serum, liver and spleen concentrations of CINC-1 as seen in acute inflammation, and suggest that ascorbic acid deficiency stimulate the hepatic CINC-1 gene expression.

  18. Waste container and method for containing waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, Akira; Matsushita, Mitsuhiro; Doi, Makoto; Nakatani, Seiichi.

    1990-01-01

    In a waste container, water-proof membranes and rare earth element layers are formed on the inner surface of a steel plate concrete container in which steel plates are embedded. Further, rear earth element detectors are disposed each from the inner side of the steel plate concrete container by way of a pressure pipe to the outer side of the container. As a method for actually containing wastes, when a plurality of vessels in which wastes are fixed are collectively enhoused to the waste container, cussioning materials are attached to the inner surface of the container and wastes fixing containers are stacked successively in a plurality of rows in a bag made of elastic materials. Subsequently, fixing materials are filled and tightly sealed in the waste container. When the waste container thus constituted is buried underground, even if it should be deformed to cause intrusion of rain water to the inside of the container, the rare earth elements in the container dissolved in the rain water can be detected by the detectors, the containers are exchanged before the rain water intruding to the inner side is leached to the surrounding ground, to previously prevent the leakage of radioactive nuclides. (K.M.)

  19. Significant Tsunami Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, P. K.; Furtney, M.; McLean, S. J.; Sweeney, A. D.

    2014-12-01

    Tsunamis have inflicted death and destruction on the coastlines of the world throughout history. The occurrence of tsunamis and the resulting effects have been collected and studied as far back as the second millennium B.C. The knowledge gained from cataloging and examining these events has led to significant changes in our understanding of tsunamis, tsunami sources, and methods to mitigate the effects of tsunamis. The most significant, not surprisingly, are often the most devastating, such as the 2011 Tohoku, Japan earthquake and tsunami. The goal of this poster is to give a brief overview of the occurrence of tsunamis and then focus specifically on several significant tsunamis. There are various criteria to determine the most significant tsunamis: the number of deaths, amount of damage, maximum runup height, had a major impact on tsunami science or policy, etc. As a result, descriptions will include some of the most costly (2011 Tohoku, Japan), the most deadly (2004 Sumatra, 1883 Krakatau), and the highest runup ever observed (1958 Lituya Bay, Alaska). The discovery of the Cascadia subduction zone as the source of the 1700 Japanese "Orphan" tsunami and a future tsunami threat to the U.S. northwest coast, contributed to the decision to form the U.S. National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program. The great Lisbon earthquake of 1755 marked the beginning of the modern era of seismology. Knowledge gained from the 1964 Alaska earthquake and tsunami helped confirm the theory of plate tectonics. The 1946 Alaska, 1952 Kuril Islands, 1960 Chile, 1964 Alaska, and the 2004 Banda Aceh, tsunamis all resulted in warning centers or systems being established.The data descriptions on this poster were extracted from NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) global historical tsunami database. Additional information about these tsunamis, as well as water level data can be found by accessing the NGDC website www.ngdc.noaa.gov/hazard/

  20. Social exclusion intensifies anxiety-like behavior in adolescent rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyunchan; Noh, Jihyun

    2015-05-01

    Social connection reduces the physiological reactivity to stressors, while social exclusion causes emotional distress. Stressful experiences in rats result in the facilitation of aversive memory and induction of anxiety. To determine the effect of social interaction, such as social connection, social exclusion and equality or inequality, on emotional change in adolescent distressed rats, the emotional alteration induced by restraint stress in individual rats following exposure to various social interaction circumstances was examined. Rats were assigned to one of the following groups: all freely moving rats, all rats restrained, rats restrained in the presence of freely moving rats and freely moving rats with a restrained rat. No significant difference in fear-memory and sucrose consumption between all groups was found. Change in body weight significantly increased in freely moving rats with a restrained rat, suggesting that those rats seems to share the stressful experience of the restrained rat. Interestingly, examination of the anxiety-like behavior revealed only rats restrained in the presence of freely moving rats to have a significant increase, suggesting that emotional distress intensifies in positions of social exclusion. These results demonstrate that unequally excluded social interaction circumstances could cause the amplification of distressed status and anxiety-related emotional alteration. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Container crane for sea freight containers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luttekes, E.; Rijsenbrij, J.C.

    2001-01-01

    The invention relates to a container crane for loading and unloading seaborne containers. The container crane comprises a bridge girder (7), a jib (8), at least two crabs (11, 12) which can travel along the said bridge girder and/or jib and are provided with hoist means for lifting and lowering the

  2. Effect of Unripe Plantain (Musa paradisiaca) and Ginger (Zingiber officinale) on Blood Glucose, Body Weight and Feed Intake of Streptozotocin-induced Diabetic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    M, Iroaganachi; C O, Eleazu; P N, Okafor; N, Nwaohu

    2014-01-01

    To determine the effect of unripe plantain (Musa paradisiaca) and ginger (Zingiber officinale) on blood glucose (BG), feed intake (FI) and weight of streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats. Twenty four male albino rats were used and were divided into 4 groups of 6 rats each. Group 1 (non-diabetic) and Group 2 (diabetic) received standard rat feed; Group 3 received unripe plantain incorporated feed (810 /kg body weight) and Group 4 received unripe plantain+ginger incorporated feed (710:100 g/kg body weight). The weights and FI of the rats were measured daily throughout the experimentation. Groups 3 and 4 rats had 159.52% and 71.83% decreases in BG but 24.91% and 35.32% decreases in weights compared with groups 1 and 2 rats that had 2.09% and 22.94% increases in BG with 13.42% increase and 45.36% decrease in weights respectively. The FI of the experimental rats did not differ significantly from each other (P>0.05) at the end of experimentation. The standard rat feed contained higher amounts of Ca but lower amounts of Mg and Fe compared with the unripe plantain and unripe plantain+ginger incorporated feeds. Combination of unripe plantain and ginger at the dose used in the management of diabetes was not very effective compared with unripe plantain alone.

  3. Taurine Supplementation Improves Erectile Function in Rats with Streptozotocin-induced Type 1 Diabetes via Amelioration of Penile Fibrosis and Endothelial Dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Yajun; Li, Mingchao; Wang, Tao; Yang, Jun; Rao, Ke; Wang, Shaogang; Yang, Weiming; Liu, Jihong; Ye, Zhangqun

    2016-05-01

    For patients with diabetes, erectile dysfunction (ED) is common and greatly affects quality of life. However, these patients often exhibit a poor response to first-line oral phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors. To investigate whether taurine, a sulfur-containing amino acid, affects diabetic ED (DED). Type 1 diabetes mellitus was induced in male rats by using streptozotocin. After 12 weeks, an apomorphine test was conducted to confirm DED. Only rats with DED were administered taurine or vehicle for 4 weeks. Age-matched nondiabetic rats were administered saline intraperitoneally for 4 weeks. Erectile function was evaluated by electrical stimulation of the cavernous nerve. Histologic and molecular alterations of the corpus cavernosum also were analyzed. Erectile function was significantly reduced in the diabetic rats compared with in the nondiabetic rats, and was improved in the diabetic rats treated with taurine. The corpus cavernosum of the rats with DED exhibited severe fibrosis and decreased smooth muscle content. Deposition of extracellular matrix proteins was increased in the diabetic rats, while expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase/cyclic guanosine monophosphate/nitric oxide pathway-related proteins was reduced. Taurine supplementation ameliorated erectile response as well as histologic and molecular alterations. Taurine supplementation improves erectile function in rats with DED probably by potential antifibrotic activity. This finding provides evidence for a potential new therapy for DED. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Sexual Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. High-NaCl Diet Aggravates Cardiac Injury in Rats with Adenine-Induced Chronic Renal Failure and Increases Serum Troponin T Levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kashioulis, Pavlos; Hammarsten, Ola; Marcussen, Niels

    2016-01-01

    AIMS: To examine the effects of 2 weeks of high-NaCl diet on left ventricular (LV) morphology and serum levels of cardiac troponin T (cTnT) in rats with adenine-induced chronic renal failure (ACRF). METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats either received chow containing adenine or were pair......-fed an identical diet without adenine [controls (C)]. Approximately 10 weeks after the beginning of the study, the rats were randomized to either remain on a normal NaCl diet (NNa; 0.6%) or to be switched to high-NaCl chow (HNa; 4%) for 2 weeks, after which acute experiments were performed. RESULTS: Rats with ACRF...... showed statistically significant increases (p rats (p

  5. Bioavailability of zinc to rats from defatted soy flour, acid-precipitated soy concentrate and neutralized soy concentrate as determined by intrinsic and extrinsic labeling techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ketelsen, S.M.; Stuart, M.A.; Weaver, C.M.; Forbes, R.M.; Erdman, J.W. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    The bioavailability of 65Zn from intrinsically and extrinsically labeled soy flour, acid-precipitated soy concentrate and neutralized soy concentrate was evaluated in rats. Weanling rats were fed marginally zinc-deficient diets, providing 8 ppm zinc from one of these three soy products, for 7 days. The rats then received a radioactively labeled test meal, identical in composition to the previous diet except that the soy product was either intrinsically or extrinsically labeled with 65Zn. After the test meal the rats were again fed diets the same as those consumed prior to the test meal. Whole-body retention of 65Zn at 24 hours and 12 days as well as 65Zn retained in tibias of rats given meals containing neutralized concentrate-based meals was significantly lower than for rats given meals containing the soy flour or acid-precipitated concentrate. In addition, retention of 65Zn from the extrinsically labeled acid-precipitated concentrate-based meal was significantly higher than from the same product intrinsically labeled. These findings confirm the results of previous feeding studies from which it was suggested that neutralization of soy protein concentrates reduces zinc bioavailability to the rat. In addition, the results are taken to suggest that experimental conditions may influence the validity of the extrinsic labeling technique for zinc

  6. Continuous containment monitoring with containment pressure fluctuation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dick, J.E.

    1996-01-01

    The monitoring of the integrity of containments particularly but not exclusively for nuclear plants is dealt with in this invention. While this application is primarily concerned with containment monitoring in the context of the single unit design, it is expected that the concepts presented will be universally applicable to any containment design, including containments for non-nuclear applications such as biological laboratories. The nuclear industry has long been interested in a means of monitoring containment integrity on a continuous basis, that is, while the reactor is operating normally. 12 refs., 2 figs

  7. Testing Significance Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joachim I. Krueger

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The practice of Significance Testing (ST remains widespread in psychological science despite continual criticism of its flaws and abuses. Using simulation experiments, we address four concerns about ST and for two of these we compare ST’s performance with prominent alternatives. We find the following: First, the 'p' values delivered by ST predict the posterior probability of the tested hypothesis well under many research conditions. Second, low 'p' values support inductive inferences because they are most likely to occur when the tested hypothesis is false. Third, 'p' values track likelihood ratios without raising the uncertainties of relative inference. Fourth, 'p' values predict the replicability of research findings better than confidence intervals do. Given these results, we conclude that 'p' values may be used judiciously as a heuristic tool for inductive inference. Yet, 'p' values cannot bear the full burden of inference. We encourage researchers to be flexible in their selection and use of statistical methods.

  8. Safety significance evaluation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lew, B.S.; Yee, D.; Brewer, W.K.; Quattro, P.J.; Kirby, K.D.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that the Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PG and E), in cooperation with ABZ, Incorporated and Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC), investigated the use of artificial intelligence-based programming techniques to assist utility personnel in regulatory compliance problems. The result of this investigation is that artificial intelligence-based programming techniques can successfully be applied to this problem. To demonstrate this, a general methodology was developed and several prototype systems based on this methodology were developed. The prototypes address U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) event reportability requirements, technical specification compliance based on plant equipment status, and quality assurance assistance. This collection of prototype modules is named the safety significance evaluation system

  9. Predicting significant torso trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nirula, Ram; Talmor, Daniel; Brasel, Karen

    2005-07-01

    Identification of motor vehicle crash (MVC) characteristics associated with thoracoabdominal injury would advance the development of automatic crash notification systems (ACNS) by improving triage and response times. Our objective was to determine the relationships between MVC characteristics and thoracoabdominal trauma to develop a torso injury probability model. Drivers involved in crashes from 1993 to 2001 within the National Automotive Sampling System were reviewed. Relationships between torso injury and MVC characteristics were assessed using multivariate logistic regression. Receiver operating characteristic curves were used to compare the model to current ACNS models. There were a total of 56,466 drivers. Age, ejection, braking, avoidance, velocity, restraints, passenger-side impact, rollover, and vehicle weight and type were associated with injury (p < 0.05). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (83.9) was significantly greater than current ACNS models. We have developed a thoracoabdominal injury probability model that may improve patient triage when used with ACNS.

  10. Gas revenue increasingly significant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Megill, R.E.

    1991-01-01

    This paper briefly describes the wellhead prices of natural gas compared to crude oil over the past 70 years. Although natural gas prices have never reached price parity with crude oil, the relative value of a gas BTU has been increasing. It is one of the reasons that the total amount of money coming from natural gas wells is becoming more significant. From 1920 to 1955 the revenue at the wellhead for natural gas was only about 10% of the money received by producers. Most of the money needed for exploration, development, and production came from crude oil. At present, however, over 40% of the money from the upstream portion of the petroleum industry is from natural gas. As a result, in a few short years natural gas may become 50% of the money revenues generated from wellhead production facilities

  11. Containment severe accident thermohydraulic phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frid, W.

    1991-08-01

    This report describes and discusses the containment accident progression and the important severe accident containment thermohydraulic phenomena. The overall objective of the report is to provide a rather detailed presentation of the present status of phenomenological knowledge, including an account of relevant experimental investigations and to discuss, to some extent, the modelling approach used in the MAAP 3.0 computer code. The MAAP code has been used in Sweden as the main tool in the analysis of severe accidents. The dependence of the containment accident progression and containment phenomena on the initial conditions, which in turn are heavily dependent on the in-vessel accident progression and phenomena as well as associated uncertainties, is emphasized. The report is in three parts dealing with: * Swedish reactor containments, the severe accident mitigation programme in Sweden and containment accident progression in Swedish PWRs and BWRs as predicted by the MAAP 3.0 code. * Key non-energetic ex-vessel phenomena (melt fragmentation in water, melt quenching and coolability, core-concrete interaction and high temperature in containment). * Early containment threats due to energetic events (hydrogen combustion, high pressure melt ejection and direct containment heating, and ex-vessel steam explosions). The report concludes that our understanding of the containment severe accident progression and phenomena has improved very significantly over the parts ten years and, thereby, our ability to assess containment threats, to quantify uncertainties, and to interpret the results of experiments and computer code calculations have also increased. (au)

  12. Residual Stresses In 3013 Containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mickalonis, J.; Dunn, K.

    2009-01-01

    The DOE Complex is packaging plutonium-bearing materials for storage and eventual disposition or disposal. The materials are handled according to the DOE-STD-3013 which outlines general requirements for stabilization, packaging and long-term storage. The storage vessels for the plutonium-bearing materials are termed 3013 containers. Stress corrosion cracking has been identified as a potential container degradation mode and this work determined that the residual stresses in the containers are sufficient to support such cracking. Sections of the 3013 outer, inner, and convenience containers, in both the as-fabricated condition and the closure welded condition, were evaluated per ASTM standard G-36. The standard requires exposure to a boiling magnesium chloride solution, which is an aggressive testing solution. Tests in a less aggressive 40% calcium chloride solution were also conducted. These tests were used to reveal the relative stress corrosion cracking susceptibility of the as fabricated 3013 containers. Significant cracking was observed in all containers in areas near welds and transitions in the container diameter. Stress corrosion cracks developed in both the lid and the body of gas tungsten arc welded and laser closure welded containers. The development of stress corrosion cracks in the as-fabricated and in the closure welded container samples demonstrates that the residual stresses in the 3013 containers are sufficient to support stress corrosion cracking if the environmental conditions inside the containers do not preclude the cracking process.

  13. Modulatory effects of dietary supplementation by Vernonia amygdalina on high-fat-diet-induced obesity in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekeleme-Egedigwe, Chima A; Ijeh, Ifeoma I; Okafor, Polycarp N

    2017-01-01

    Obesity is a growing public health problem arising from energy imbalance. The effect of 10% dietary incorporation of Vernonia amygdalina (VA) leaves into high-fat diets on some biological markers of adiposity and dyslipidaemia was investigated. Experimental diets consisted of the following – CD (control diet); HFD (high-fat diet); and HFD- VA (HFD containing 10% Vernonia amygdalina leaves) supplementation. Fifteen male Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups of five animals each. After twelve weeks of feeding, serum lipid profile, blood glucose concentrations, body weight, adiposity index, feed intake, fecal loss and relative organ weight were investigated. Vernonia amygdalina (VA) inhibited HFD-induced weight gain and adiposity in rats. HFD-induced obese rats showed a significant increase in the levels of serum TG and TC compared to rats on a normal diet. However, the levels of serum TG, TC, LDL-C in HFDVA rats reduced significantly relative to the levels in HFD rats. Our results indicate that HFDVA reversed fatty infiltration leading to decreased body weight and fat tissue mass in the rats. These results suggested that incorporation of Vernonia amygdalina into high-fat diets may have therapeutic potentials for obesity and related metabolic disorders. Further studies to explore its possibility as an alternative pharmacologic agent to treat obesity are warranted.

  14. The interaction between dietary Fe, Cu and stress in Cu-67 retention and serum ceruloplasmin (Cp) activity in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pellett, L.; Kattelmann, K.; Zinn, K.; Trokey, D.; Forrester, I.; Gordon, D.T.

    1991-01-01

    The objectives of the study were to determine the effects of dietary Fe and stress on Cu-67 retention and serum Cp activity in the rat. A 2 x 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments was utilized. Male Sprague Dawley weanling rats were fed AIN-76 diets ad lib containing 0.8 ppm Cu (CuD) or 5.7 ppm Cu (CuA) with 22.5 ppm Fe (FeA) or 280 ppm Fe (FeE). After 19 days, one-half of the animals of each treatment were stressed by an intramuscular injection of 0.1 ml turpentine/100 gm body weight. Forty-eight hours later, animals were gavaged with Cu-67 and counted over a 7 day period in a whole body high resolution gamma counter. Cu-67 retention was 20% higher in CuD rats compared to CuA rats. There were no significant effects caused by Fe or stress or the interaction between these variables on Cu-67 retention. In rats fed FeE-CuA diets, serum Cp activity was significantly depressed compared to rats fed FeA-CuA diets. These reductions in the acute phase protein Cp, were 85% and 70% in nonstressed and stressed rats, respectively. The results of this study suggest that the negative interaction effects of excess Fe on Cu utilization does not occur at the site of Cu absorption, but within the body and specifically in the liver

  15. Tumor significant dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Supe, S.J.; Nagalaxmi, K.V.; Meenakshi, L.

    1983-01-01

    In the practice of radiotherapy, various concepts like NSD, CRE, TDF, and BIR are being used to evaluate the biological effectiveness of the treatment schedules on the normal tissues. This has been accepted as the tolerance of the normal tissue is the limiting factor in the treatment of cancers. At present when various schedules are tried, attention is therefore paid to the biological damage of the normal tissues only and it is expected that the damage to the cancerous tissues would be extensive enough to control the cancer. Attempt is made in the present work to evaluate the concent of tumor significant dose (TSD) which will represent the damage to the cancerous tissue. Strandquist in the analysis of a large number of cases of squamous cell carcinoma found that for the 5 fraction/week treatment, the total dose required to bring about the same damage for the cancerous tissue is proportional to T/sup -0.22/, where T is the overall time over which the dose is delivered. Using this finding the TSD was defined as DxN/sup -p/xT/sup -q/, where D is the total dose, N the number of fractions, T the overall time p and q are the exponents to be suitably chosen. The values of p and q are adjusted such that p+q< or =0.24, and p varies from 0.0 to 0.24 and q varies from 0.0 to 0.22. Cases of cancer of cervix uteri treated between 1978 and 1980 in the V. N. Cancer Centre, Kuppuswamy Naidu Memorial Hospital, Coimbatore, India were analyzed on the basis of these formulations. These data, coupled with the clinical experience, were used for choice of a formula for the TSD. Further, the dose schedules used in the British Institute of Radiology fraction- ation studies were also used to propose that the tumor significant dose is represented by DxN/sup -0.18/xT/sup -0.06/

  16. Meaning and significance of

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ph D Student Roman Mihaela

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The concept of "public accountability" is a challenge for political science as a new concept in this area in full debate and developement ,both in theory and practice. This paper is a theoretical approach of displaying some definitions, relevant meanings and significance odf the concept in political science. The importance of this concept is that although originally it was used as a tool to improve effectiveness and eficiency of public governance, it has gradually become a purpose it itself. "Accountability" has become an image of good governance first in the United States of America then in the European Union.Nevertheless,the concept is vaguely defined and provides ambiguous images of good governance.This paper begins with the presentation of some general meanings of the concept as they emerge from specialized dictionaries and ancyclopaedies and continues with the meanings developed in political science. The concept of "public accontability" is rooted in economics and management literature,becoming increasingly relevant in today's political science both in theory and discourse as well as in practice in formulating and evaluating public policies. A first conclusin that emerges from, the analysis of the evolution of this term is that it requires a conceptual clarification in political science. A clear definition will then enable an appropriate model of proving the system of public accountability in formulating and assessing public policies, in order to implement a system of assessment and monitoring thereof.

  17. Investigation of mercury-containing proteins by enriched stable isotopic tracer and size-exclusion chromatography hyphenated to inductively coupled plasma-isotope dilution mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Junwen; Feng Weiyue; Wang Meng; Zhang Fang; Li Bai; Wang Bing; Zhu Motao; Chai Zhifang

    2007-01-01

    In order to investigate trace mercury-containing proteins in maternal rat and their offspring, a method of enriched stable isotopic tracer ( 196 Hg and 198 Hg) combined with size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) coupled to inductively coupled plasma-isotope dilution mass spectrometry (ICP-IDMS) was developed. Prior to the analysis, 196 Hg- and 198 Hg-enriched methylmercury was administrated to the pregnant rats. Then the mercury-containing proteins in serum and brain cytosol of the dam and pup rats were separated by size-exclusion columns and the mercury was detected by ICP-MS. The ICP-MS spectrogram of the tracing samples showed significantly elevated 196 Hg and 198 Hg isotopic signals compared with the natural ones, indicating that the detection sensitivity could be increased by the tracer method. The contents of mercury in chromatographic fractions of the dam and pup rat brain cytosol were quantitatively estimated by post-column reverse ID-ICP-MS. The quantitative speciation differences of mercury in brain cytosol between the dam and pup rats were observed, indicating that such studies could be useful for toxicological estimation. Additionally, the isotopic ratio measurement of 198 Hg/ 202 Hg in the tracing samples could be used to identify the artifact mercury species caused in the analytical procedure. The study demonstrates that the tracer method combined with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-ICP-IDMS could provide reliably qualitative and quantitative information on mercury-containing proteins in organisms

  18. Effects of cyanide on selenium metabolism in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beilstein, M.A.; Whanger, P.D.

    1984-01-01

    Adult male rats were given drinking water containing either 0 or 150 ppm cyanide for 2 weeks. They were then injected with 5 microCi 75 Se-selenite, and excretion of radioactivity in urine and feces was determined. No difference in excretion of 75 Se occurred during the rapid phase, but the cyanide-treated rats (T1/2 28 days) excreted significantly more 75 Se in urine than control (T1/2 38 days) rats. Cyanide had no effect on excretion of 75 Se in feces or on the distribution of 75 Se in cytosolic proteins in liver, kidney, muscle or testes. In a second experiment weanling male rats were given water with either 0 or 150 ppm cyanide and were killed for glutathione peroxidase assay and selenium analysis in blood, kidney, liver, muscle and testes after 3, 6 or 9 weeks of treatment. Glutathione peroxidase activity and selenium concentrations were significantly reduced by cyanide in all tissues except testes

  19. Antioxidant Properties and Cardioprotective Mechanism of Malaysian Propolis in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Romana; Hossen, Md. Sakib; Ahmmed, Istiyak; Rumpa, Nur-E-Noushin; Sulaiman, Siti Amrah

    2017-01-01

    Propolis contains high concentrations of polyphenols, flavonoids, tannins, ascorbic acid, and reducing sugars and proteins. Malaysian Propolis (MP) has been reported to exhibit high 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging activity and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) values. Herein, we report the antioxidant properties and cardioprotective properties of MP in isoproterenol- (ISO-) induced myocardial infarction in rats. Male Wistar rats (n = 32) were pretreated orally with an ethanol extract of MP (100 mg/kg/day) for 30 consecutive days. Subcutaneous injection of ISO (85 mg/kg in saline) for two consecutive days caused a significant increase in serum cardiac marker enzymes and cardiac troponin I levels and altered serum lipid profiles. In addition significantly increased lipid peroxides and decreased activities of cellular antioxidant defense enzymes were observed in the myocardium. However, pretreatment of ischemic rats with MP ameliorated the biochemical parameters, indicating the protective effect of MP against ISO-induced ischemia in rats. Histopathological findings obtained for the myocardium further confirmed the biochemical findings. It is concluded that MP exhibits cardioprotective activity against ISO-induced oxidative stress through its direct cytotoxic radical-scavenging activities. It is also plausible that MP contributed to endogenous antioxidant enzyme activity via inhibition of lipid peroxidation. PMID:28261310

  20. Antioxidant Properties and Cardioprotective Mechanism of Malaysian Propolis in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romana Ahmed

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Propolis contains high concentrations of polyphenols, flavonoids, tannins, ascorbic acid, and reducing sugars and proteins. Malaysian Propolis (MP has been reported to exhibit high 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical-scavenging activity and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP values. Herein, we report the antioxidant properties and cardioprotective properties of MP in isoproterenol- (ISO- induced myocardial infarction in rats. Male Wistar rats (n=32 were pretreated orally with an ethanol extract of MP (100 mg/kg/day for 30 consecutive days. Subcutaneous injection of ISO (85 mg/kg in saline for two consecutive days caused a significant increase in serum cardiac marker enzymes and cardiac troponin I levels and altered serum lipid profiles. In addition significantly increased lipid peroxides and decreased activities of cellular antioxidant defense enzymes were observed in the myocardium. However, pretreatment of ischemic rats with MP ameliorated the biochemical parameters, indicating the protective effect of MP against ISO-induced ischemia in rats. Histopathological findings obtained for the myocardium further confirmed the biochemical findings. It is concluded that MP exhibits cardioprotective activity against ISO-induced oxidative stress through its direct cytotoxic radical-scavenging activities. It is also plausible that MP contributed to endogenous antioxidant enzyme activity via inhibition of lipid peroxidation.

  1. Ameliorative Effects of Allium sativum Extract on iNOS Gene Expression and NO Production in Liver of Streptozotocin + Nicotinamide-Induced Diabetic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziamajidi, Nasrin; Behrouj, Hamid; Abbasalipourkabir, Roghayeh; Lotfi, Fatemeh

    2018-04-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is one of the most prevalent diseases in the world, which is strongly associated with liver dysfunction. Hyperglycemia, through an oxidative stress pathway, damages various tissues. Herbal medicine is a good candidate to ameliorate hyperglycemia and oxidative stress. In this study, the effects of aqueous Allium sativum (garlic) extract (AGE) on gene expression of inducible nitric oxide synthases (iNOS) and production of nitric oxide (NO) were evaluated in the liver tissue of diabetic rats. Four groups of rats contained normal control rats, garlic control rats (AGE), Streptozotocin (STZ) + nicotinamide-induced diabetic rats (DM), and diabetic rats treated with garlic (DM + AGE). Glucose levels and liver enzymes activities were determined by colorimetric assay in the serum. Gene expression of iNOS by real-time PCR, NO levels by Griess method, oxidative stress parameters by spectrophotometric method and histopathological examination by hematoxylin and eosin staining method were evaluated in the liver tissues. Glucose levels, activities of liver enzymes, oxidative stress markers, iNOS gene expression, and NO production increased significantly in diabetic rats in comparison with control rats, whereas after oral administration of garlic, these parameters decreased significantly, close to the normal levels. Hence, the beneficial effects of garlic on the liver injury of diabetes could be included in the hypoglycaemic and antioxidant properties of garlic via a decrease in gene expression of iNOS and subsequent NO production.

  2. Triglyceride kinetics in fasted and fed E.coli septic rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lanza-Jacoby, S.; Tabares, A.

    1990-01-01

    The mechanism for the development of hypertriglyceridemia during gram-negative sepsis was studies by examining the liver production and clearance of very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) triglyceride (TG). To assess the liver output and peripheral clearance the kinetics of VLDL-TG were determined by a constant intravenous infusion of [2- 3 H] glycerol-labeled VLDL in fasted control, fasted E. coli-treated, fed control, and fed E.coli-treated rats. Lewis inbred rats, 275-300 g, were made septic with 8 x 10 7 live E.coli colonies per 100 g body weight. Twenty-four hours following E.coli injection serum TG of fasted E.coli-treated rats was elevated by 170% which was attributed to a 67% decrease in the clearance rate of VLDL-TG in fasted E.coli-treated rats compared with their fasted controls. The secretion of VLDL-TG declined by 31% in the livers of the fasted E.coli-treated rats which was accompanied by a 2-fold increase in the composition of liver TG. In a second series of experiments control and E.coli-treated rats were fed intragastrically (IG) a balanced solution containing glucose plus fat as the sources of nonprotein calories. Serum TG were 26% lower in the fed E.coli-treated rats because the clearance rate increased by 86%. The secretion of TG in the fed septic rats increased by 40% but this difference was not significant. In the septic rat the ability to clear triglycerides from the plasma depends upon the nutritional state

  3. APR1400 Containment Simulation with CONTAIN code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Moon Kyu; Chung, Bub Dong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-05-15

    The more realistic containment pressure variation predicted by the CONTAIN code through the coupled analysis during a large break loss of coolant accident in the nuclear power plant is expected to provide more accurate prediction for the plant behavior than a standalone MARS-KS calculation. The input deck has been generated based on the already available ARP- 1400 input for CONTEMPT code. Similarly to the CONTEMPT input deck, a simple two-cell model was adopted to model the containment behavior, one cell for the containment inner volume and another cell for the environment condition. The developed input for the CONTAIN code is to be eventually applied for the coupled code calculation of MARS-KS/CONTAIN

  4. APR1400 Containment Simulation with CONTAIN code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Moon Kyu; Chung, Bub Dong

    2010-01-01

    The more realistic containment pressure variation predicted by the CONTAIN code through the coupled analysis during a large break loss of coolant accident in the nuclear power plant is expected to provide more accurate prediction for the plant behavior than a standalone MARS-KS calculation. The input deck has been generated based on the already available ARP- 1400 input for CONTEMPT code. Similarly to the CONTEMPT input deck, a simple two-cell model was adopted to model the containment behavior, one cell for the containment inner volume and another cell for the environment condition. The developed input for the CONTAIN code is to be eventually applied for the coupled code calculation of MARS-KS/CONTAIN

  5. Effectiveness of containment sprays in containment management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nourbakhsh, H.P.; Perez, S.E.; Lehner, J.R.

    1993-05-01

    A limited study has been performed assessing the effectiveness of containment sprays-to mitigate particular challenges which may occur during a severe accident. Certain aspects of three specific topics related to using sprays under severe accident conditions were investigated. The first was the effectiveness of sprays connected to an alternate water supple and pumping source because the actual containment spray pumps are inoperable. This situation could occur during a station blackout. The second topic concerned the adverse as well as beneficial effects of using containment sprays during severe accident scenario where the containment atmosphere contains substantial quantities of hydrogen along with steam. The third topic was the feasibility of using containment sprays to moderate the consequences of DCH

  6. Treatment of diabetic rats with encapsulated islets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweet, Ian R; Yanay, Ofer; Waldron, Lanaya; Gilbert, Merle; Fuller, Jessica M; Tupling, Terry; Lernmark, Ake; Osborne, William R A

    2008-12-01

    Immunoprotection of islets using bioisolator systems permits introduction of allogeneic cells to diabetic patients without the need for immunosuppression. Using TheraCyte immunoisolation devices, we investigated two rat models of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), BB rats and rats made diabetic by streptozotocin (STZ) treatment. We chose to implant islets after the onset of diabetes to mimic the probable treatment of children with T1DM as they are usually diagnosed after disease onset. We encapsulated 1000 rat islets and implanted them subcutaneously (SQ) into diabetic biobreeding (BB) rats and STZ-induced diabetic rats, defined as two or more consecutive days of blood glucose>350 mg/dl. Rats were monitored for weight and blood glucose. Untreated BB rats rapidly lost weight and were euthanized at >20% weight loss that occurred between 4 and 10 days from implantation. For period of 30-40 days following islet implantation weights of treated rats remained steady or increased. Rapid weight loss occurred after surgical removal of devices that contained insulin positive islets. STZ-treated rats that received encapsulated islets showed steady weight gain for up to 130 days, whereas untreated control rats showed steady weight loss that achieved >20% at around 55 days. Although islet implants did not normalize blood glucose, treated rats were apparently healthy and groomed normally. Autologous or allogeneic islets were equally effective in providing treatment. TheraCyte devices can sustain islets, protect allogeneic cells from immune attack and provide treatment for diabetic-mediated weight loss in both BB rats and STZ-induced diabetic rats.

  7. High-NaCl diet impairs dynamic renal blood flow autoregulation in rats with adenine-induced chronic renal failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saeed, Aso; DiBona, Gerald F; Grimberg, Elisabeth

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the effects of 2 wk of high-NaCl diet on kidney function and dynamic renal blood flow autoregulation (RBFA) in rats with adenine-induced chronic renal failure (ACRF). Male Sprague-Dawley rats received either chow containing adenine or were pair-fed an identical diet without...... arterial pressure variability (SAPV), and heart rate variability were assessed by spectral analytical techniques. Rats with ACRF showed marked reductions in glomerular filtration rate and renal blood flow (RBF), whereas mean arterial pressure and SAPV were significantly elevated. In addition, spontaneous...... adenine (controls). After 10 wk, rats were randomized to either remain on the same diet (0.6% NaCl) or to be switched to high 4% NaCl chow. Two weeks after randomization, renal clearance experiments were performed under isoflurane anesthesia and dynamic RBFA, baroreflex sensitivity (BRS), systolic...

  8. Biochemical and histological changes in liver and kidney in male Wistar albino rats following exposure to Solignum®: a permethrincontaining wood preservative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kingsley C. Patrick-Iwuanyanwu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation was aimed to determine the effect of sub-chronic exposure to Solignum®, a permethrin-containing wood preservative on biochemical and histological changes in liver and kidneys of male Wistar albino rats. Thirty-two male rats were randomly divided into four groups: control and three treatment concentrations containing 8 rats each. The treatment groups were exposed to Solignum® at dose rates of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight (BW respectively per day orally for four weeks. Data obtained from the study showed a progressive increase in the body weight of rats in control whereas, rats treated with different concentrations (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg BW of Solignum® decreased significantly (≤0.05 especially at the end of the second and fourth week when compared with control. On the other hand, there was a significant decrease in the relative liver weights of rats treated with 100 and 200 mg/kg BW Solignum® while rats treated with 400 mg/kg BW showed a significant increase when compared with control. The relative weight of kidneys in experimental groups increased significantly when compared with control. Biochemical analysis results illustrated that there was a significant increase in marker enzymes namely alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase activity at the end of the fourth week. Similarly, total bilirubin, serum urea, creatinine and electrolytes (Na+, K+ and Cl- levels increased in a dose dependent manner in treated rats when compared with untreated control group. Serum total protein decreased significantly in experimental rats when compared with control. However, cholesterol and triglycerides showed no significant difference when compared with control. Histopathological examination of hepatocytes in treated rats was characterized by mild periportal inflammatory cells and cytoplasmic degeneration. Furthermore, histopathological examination of rat kidneys revealed inflammatory

  9. Alveolar bone repair with strontium- containing nanostructured carbonated hydroxyapatite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Boziki Xavier do Carmo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: This study aimed to evaluate bone repair in rat dental sockets after implanting nanostructured carbonated hydroxyapatite/sodium alginate (CHA and nanostructured carbonated hydroxyapatite/sodium alginate containing 5% strontium microspheres (SrCHA as bone substitute materials. Methods: Twenty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into two experimental groups: CHA and SrCHA (n=5/period/group. After one and 6 weeks of extraction of the right maxillary central incisor and biomaterial implantation, 5 μm bone blocks were obtained for histomorphometric evaluation. The parameters evaluated were remaining biomaterial, loose connective tissue and newly formed bone in a standard area. Statistical analysis was performed by Mann-Withney and and Wilcoxon tests at 95% level of significance. Results: The histomorphometric results showed that the microspheres showed similar fragmentation and bio-absorbation (p>0.05. We observed the formation of new bones in both groups during the same experimental periods; however, the new bone formation differed significantly between the weeks 1 and 6 (p=0.0039 in both groups. Conclusion: The CHA and SrCHA biomaterials were biocompatible, osteoconductive and bioabsorbable, indicating their great potential for clinical use as bone substitutes.

  10. Empty Container Logistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakov Karmelić

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Within the whole world container traffic, the largest share of containers is in the status of repositioning. Container repositioning results from the need for harmonization between the point of empty container accumulation and the point of demand, and waiting time for the availability of the first next transport of cargo. This status of containers on the container market is the consequence of imbalances in the worldwide trade distribution on most important shipping routes. The need for fast and effective reallocation of empty containers causes high costs and often represents an obstacle affecting the efficiency of port container terminals and inland carriers.In accordance with the above issue, this paper is mainly focused on the analysis of the data concerning global container capacities and the roots of container equipment imbalances, with the aim of determining the importance of empty container management and the need for empty container micro-logistic planning at the spread port area.

  11. Effects of tin-protoporphyrin administration on hepatic xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes in the juvenile rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stout, D.L.; Becker, F.F.

    1988-01-01

    The heme analogue tin-protoporphyrin IX (SnP) is a potent inhibitor of microsomal heme oxygenase. Administration of SnP to neonatal rats can prevent hyperbilirubinemia by blocking the postnatal increase of heme oxygenase activity. Apparently innocuous at therapeutic doses, it is of potential clinical value for chemoprevention of neonatal jaundice. We found that when 50-g male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated daily with 50 mumol of SnP/kg sc for 6 days, hepatic microsomal cytochromes b5 and P-450 were significantly diminished. Cytochrome P-450 reductase, two P-450-dependent monooxygenases, aminopyrine demethylase and benzo(a)pyrene hydroxylase, and catalase, a peroxisomal hemoprotein, were also significantly diminished. These results suggested that SnP might significantly affect the metabolism of other xenobiotics. This possibility was confirmed by the finding that hexobarbital-induced sleep lasted 4 times longer in SnP-treated rats than in controls. Inhibition of protein synthesis by SnP was ruled out as the cause of hemoprotein loss when administration of [ 3 H]leucine to SnP-treated and control rats demonstrated that proteins of the microsomal, cytosolic, and plasma membrane fractions of the livers from both groups incorporated similar levels of leucine. When 55 FeCl 3 and [2- 14 C]glycine were administered to measure heme synthesis, heme extract from the livers of SnP-treated rats contained 4 times more label from iron and glycine than did heme from control livers. Despite the apparent increased rate of heme synthesis in SnP-treated rats, each of the three cell fractions demonstrated a significant loss of heme but contained sizable amounts of SnP. These findings suggest that SnP causes a decrease of functional hemoprotein and partial loss of enzymic activity by displacing intracellular heme

  12. Empty Container Logistics

    OpenAIRE

    Jakov Karmelić; Čedomir Dundović; Ines Kolanović

    2012-01-01

    Within the whole world container traffic, the largest share of containers is in the status of repositioning. Container repositioning results from the need for harmonization between the point of empty container accumulation and the point of demand, and waiting time for the availability of the first next transport of cargo. This status of containers on the container market is the consequence of imbalances in the worldwide trade distribution on most important shipping routes. The need for fast a...

  13. 4-containing GABA receptors at the hippocampal CA1 spines is a biomarker for resilience to food restriction-evoked excessive exercise and weight loss of adolescent female rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Chiye; Wable, Gauri; Chowdhury, Tara G.; Sabaliauskas, Nicole A.; Laurino, Kevin; Barbarich-Marsteller, Nicole C.

    2014-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a psychiatric illness characterized by restricted eating and an intense fear of gaining weight. Most individuals with AN are females, diagnosed first during adolescence, 40% to 80% of whom exhibit excessive exercise, and an equally high number with a history of anxiety disorder. We sought to determine the cellular basis for individual differences in AN vulnerability by using an animal model, activity-based anorexia (ABA), that is induced by combining food restriction (FR) with access to a running wheel that allows voluntary exercise. Previously, we showed that by the 4th day of FR, the ABA group of adolescent female rats exhibit > 500% greater levels of non-synaptic α4βδ−GABAARs at the plasma membrane of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cell spines, relative to the levels found in age-matched controls that are not FR and without wheel access. Here, we show that the ABA group exhibits individual differences in body weight loss, with some losing nearly 30%, while others lose only 15%. The individual differences in weight loss are ascribable to individual differences in wheel activity that both precedes and concurs with days of FR. Moreover, the increase in activity during FR correlates strongly and negatively with α4βδ−GABAAR levels (R= - 0.9, p<0.01). This negative correlation is evident within 2 days of FR, before body weight loss approaches life-threatening levels for any individual. These findings suggest that increased shunting inhibition by α4βδ−GABAARs in spines of CA1 pyramidal neurons may participate in the protection against the ABA-inducing environmental factors of severe weight loss by suppressing excitability of the CA1 pyramidal neurons which, in turn, is related indirectly to suppression of excessive exercise. The data also indicate that, although exercise has many health benefits, it can be maladaptive to individuals with low levels of α4βδ−GABAARs in the CA1, particularly when combined with FR. PMID:24444828

  14. FAUST/CONTAIN; FAUST/CONTAIN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cherdron, W.; Minges, J.; Sauter, H.; Schuetz, W.

    1995-08-01

    The FAUNA facility has been restructured after completion of the sodium fire experiments. It is now serving LWR research, cf. report II on program no. 32.21.02 concerning steam explosions. The CONTAIN code system for computing the thermodynamic, aerosol and radiological phenomena in a containment under severe accident conditions is being developed with a new to fission product release and transport. (orig.)

  15. A gut reaction: the combined influence of exercise and diet on gastrointestinal microbiota in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batacan, R B; Fenning, A S; Dalbo, V J; Scanlan, A T; Duncan, M J; Moore, R J; Stanley, D

    2017-06-01

    Intestinal microbiota modulates the development of clinical conditions, including metabolic syndrome and obesity. Many of these conditions are influenced by nutritional and exercise behaviours. This study aimed to investigate the ability of exercise to re-shape the intestinal microbiota and the influence of the diet on the process. A rat model was used to examine the intestinal microbiota responses to four activity conditions, including: high-intensity interval training (HIIT), light-intensity training (LIT), sedentary and normal control, each containing two nutritional conditions: high-fat high-fructose diet (HF) and standard chow (SC) diet. No significant differences in microbiota were apparent between activity conditions in rats fed a HF diet but changes in the presence/absence of phylotypes were observed in the LIT and HIIT groups. In rats fed SC, significant differences in intestinal microbiota were evident between exercised and nonexercised rats. Both LIT and HIIT induced significant differences in intestinal microbiota in SC-fed rats compared to their respective SC-fed controls. Characterization of the exercise-induced bacterial phylotypes indicated an increase in bacteria likely capable of degrading resistant polysaccharides and an increase in short chain fatty acid producers. While a significant effect of exercise on microbiota composition occurred in SC-fed rats, the HF-fed rats microbiota showed little response. These data suggest that a HF diet prevented microbiota differentiation in response to exercise. The importance of diet-exercise interaction is extended to the level of intestinal bacteria and gut health. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  16. Decoding bipedal locomotion from the rat sensorimotor cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigosa, J.; Panarese, A.; Dominici, N.; Friedli, L.; van den Brand, R.; Carpaneto, J.; DiGiovanna, J.; Courtine, G.; Micera, S.

    2015-10-01

    Objective. Decoding forelimb movements from the firing activity of cortical neurons has been interfaced with robotic and prosthetic systems to replace lost upper limb functions in humans. Despite the potential of this approach to improve locomotion and facilitate gait rehabilitation, decoding lower limb movement from the motor cortex has received comparatively little attention. Here, we performed experiments to identify the type and amount of information that can be decoded from neuronal ensemble activity in the hindlimb area of the rat motor cortex during bipedal locomotor tasks. Approach. Rats were trained to stand, step on a treadmill, walk overground and climb staircases in a bipedal posture. To impose this gait, the rats were secured in a robotic interface that provided support against the direction of gravity and in the mediolateral direction, but behaved transparently in the forward direction. After completion of training, rats were chronically implanted with a micro-wire array spanning the left hindlimb motor cortex to record single and multi-unit activity, and bipolar electrodes into 10 muscles of the right hindlimb to monitor electromyographic signals. Whole-body kinematics, muscle activity, and neural signals were simultaneously recorded during execution of the trained tasks over multiple days of testing. Hindlimb kinematics, muscle activity, gait phases, and locomotor tasks were decoded using offline classification algorithms. Main results. We found that the stance and swing phases of gait and the locomotor tasks were detected with accuracies as robust as 90% in all rats. Decoded hindlimb kinematics and muscle activity exhibited a larger variability across rats and tasks. Significance. Our study shows that the rodent motor cortex contains useful information for lower limb neuroprosthetic development. However, brain-machine interfaces estimating gait phases or locomotor behaviors, instead of continuous variables such as limb joint positions or speeds

  17. Intestinal absorption and excretion of zinc in streptozotocin-diabetic rats as affected by dietary zinc and protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, W.T.; Canfield, W.K.

    1985-01-01

    65 Zn was used to examine the effects of dietary zinc and protein on true zinc absorption and intestinal excretion of endogenous zinc by an isotope dilution technique in streptozotocin-diabetic and control rats. Four groups each of diabetic and control rats were fed diets containing 20 ppm Zn, 20% egg white protein (HMHP); 20 ppm Zn, 10% egg white protein (HMLP); 10 ppm Zn, 20% egg white protein (LMHP); and 10 ppm Zn, 10% egg white protein (LMLP). Measurement of zinc balance was begun 9 d after an i.m. injection of 65 Zn. True zinc absorption and the contribution of endogenous zinc to fecal zinc excretion were calculated from the isotopically labeled and unlabeled zinc in the feces, duodenum and kidney. Results from the isotope dilution study indicated that diabetic rats, but not control rats, absorbed more zinc from 20 ppm zinc diets than from 10ppm zinc diets and that all rats absorbed more zinc from 20% protein diets than from 10% protein diets. Furthermore, all rats excreted more endogenous zinc from their intestines when dietary zinc and protein levels resulted in greater zinc absorption. In diabetic and control rats, consuming equivalent amounts of zinc, the amount of zinc absorbed was not significantly different, but the amount of zinc excreted by the intestine was less in the diabetic rats. Decreased intestinal excretion of endogenous zinc may be a homeostatic response to the increased urinary excretion of endogenous zinc in the diabetic rats and may also lead to the elevated zinc concentrations observed in some organs of the diabetic rats

  18. Nuclear reactor container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishiyama, Takenori.

    1989-01-01

    This invention concerns a nuclear reactor container in which heat is removed from a container by external water injection. Heat is removed from the container by immersing the lower portion of the container into water and scattering spary water from above. Thus, the container can be cooled by the spray water falling down along the outer wall of the container to condensate and cool vapors filled in the container upon occurrence of accidents. Further, since the inside of the container can be cooled also during usual operation, it can also serve as a dry well cooler. Accordingly, heat is removed from the reactor container upon occurrence of accidents by the automatic operation of a spray device corresponding to the change of the internal temperature and the pressure in the reactor container. Further, since all of these devices are disposed out of container, maintenance is also facilitated. (I.S.)

  19. Containment Code Validation Matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chin, Yu-Shan; Mathew, P.M.; Glowa, Glenn; Dickson, Ray; Liang, Zhe; Leitch, Brian; Barber, Duncan; Vasic, Aleks; Bentaib, Ahmed; Journeau, Christophe; Malet, Jeanne; Studer, Etienne; Meynet, Nicolas; Piluso, Pascal; Gelain, Thomas; Michielsen, Nathalie; Peillon, Samuel; Porcheron, Emmanuel; Albiol, Thierry; Clement, Bernard; Sonnenkalb, Martin; Klein-Hessling, Walter; Arndt, Siegfried; Weber, Gunter; Yanez, Jorge; Kotchourko, Alexei; Kuznetsov, Mike; Sangiorgi, Marco; Fontanet, Joan; Herranz, Luis; Garcia De La Rua, Carmen; Santiago, Aleza Enciso; Andreani, Michele; Paladino, Domenico; Dreier, Joerg; Lee, Richard; Amri, Abdallah

    2014-01-01

    The Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations (CSNI) formed the CCVM (Containment Code Validation Matrix) task group in 2002. The objective of this group was to define a basic set of available experiments for code validation, covering the range of containment (ex-vessel) phenomena expected in the course of light and heavy water reactor design basis accidents and beyond design basis accidents/severe accidents. It was to consider phenomena relevant to pressurised heavy water reactor (PHWR), pressurised water reactor (PWR) and boiling water reactor (BWR) designs of Western origin as well as of Eastern European VVER types. This work would complement the two existing CSNI validation matrices for thermal hydraulic code validation (NEA/CSNI/R(1993)14) and In-vessel core degradation (NEA/CSNI/R(2001)21). The report initially provides a brief overview of the main features of a PWR, BWR, CANDU and VVER reactors. It also provides an overview of the ex-vessel corium retention (core catcher). It then provides a general overview of the accident progression for light water and heavy water reactors. The main focus is to capture most of the phenomena and safety systems employed in these reactor types and to highlight the differences. This CCVM contains a description of 127 phenomena, broken down into 6 categories: - Containment Thermal-hydraulics Phenomena; - Hydrogen Behaviour (Combustion, Mitigation and Generation) Phenomena; - Aerosol and Fission Product Behaviour Phenomena; - Iodine Chemistry Phenomena; - Core Melt Distribution and Behaviour in Containment Phenomena; - Systems Phenomena. A synopsis is provided for each phenomenon, including a description, references for further information, significance for DBA and SA/BDBA and a list of experiments that may be used for code validation. The report identified 213 experiments, broken down into the same six categories (as done for the phenomena). An experiment synopsis is provided for each test. Along with a test description

  20. Isotope dilution measurement of copper absorption and excretion in rats fed different carbohydrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, P.E.; Bowman, T.D.

    1986-01-01

    An isotope dilution method using 67 Cu was developed to measure true absorption (A) and endogenous excretion (EE) of Cu in rats. Specific activity (SA) of injected 67 Cu was least variable in 7 tissues on days 6-8 after injection. SA of feces compared to tissues was used to calculate EE and A. This method was used to study Cu metabolism in rats fed 5 ppm or 0.4 ppm Cu and diets containing fructose (FR), glucose (GL), sucrose (SU), or cornstarch (CS). In rats fed 5 ppm Cu, the A, EE, and balance (B) were greatest for CS animals. There were no differences in A, B, or EE between FR and SU rats (p > .05). Rats fed GL had B and A lower than other groups (p .05). Liver Cu did not differ among groups fed 0.4 ppm Cu. Kidney Cu was higher ( p .05) compared to rats fed GL and 5 ppm Cu. EE was significantly lower in all groups on 0.4 ppm Cu than 5 ppm Cu. EE was 1 μg Cu/d on the 0.4 ppm Cu diet

  1. Hepatoprotective Effects of Chinese Medicine Herbs Decoction on Liver Cirrhosis in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nor Aziyah Mat-Rahim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatoprotective and curative activities of aqueous extract of decoction containing 10 Chinese medicinal herbs (HPE-XA-08 were evaluated in Sprague–Dawley albino rats with liver damage induced by thioacetamide (TAA. These activities were assessed by investigating the liver enzymes level and also histopathology investigation. Increases in alkaline phosphatase (ALP and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT levels were observed in rats with cirrhotic liver. No significant alterations of the liver enzymes were observed following treatment with HPE-XA-08. Histopathology examination of rats treated with HPE-XA-08 at 250 mg/kg body weight, however, exhibited moderate liver protective effects. Reduced extracellular matrix (ECM proteins within the hepatocytes were noted in comparison to the cirrhotic liver. The curative effects of HPE-XA-08 were observed with marked decrease in the level of ALP (more than 3x and level of GGT (more than 2x in cirrhotic rat treated with 600 mg/kg body weight HPE-XA-08 in comparison to cirrhotic rat treated with just water diluent. Reversion of cirrhotic liver to normal liver condition in rats treated with HPE-XA-08 was observed. Results from the present study suggest that HPE-XA-08 treatment assisted in the protection from liver cirrhosis and improved the recovery of cirrhotic liver.

  2. Possible protective role of elderberry fruit lyophilizate against selected effects of cadmium and lead intoxication in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopeć, Aneta; Sikora, Elżbieta; Piątkowska, Ewa; Borczak, Barbara; Czech, Tomasz

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this study was the investigation whether the administration of the elderberry fruit lyophilizate under exposure to cadmium(Cd) and (Pb) lead may protect against some effects of their toxic action in Wistar rats. Rats were fed with diets containing Cd (Cd 0.025 mg/kg b.m.) or Pb (Pb 0.025 mg /kg b.m.) with the addition of the freeze-dried elderberry fruits (BEF) in the amount of 5 %. BEF added to the diet with Cd significantly decreased the activity of AST and ALT compared to the rats fed with the control diet with Cd (C + Cd). Activity of glutathione peroxidase was significantly higher in the blood of rats fed with BEF diet compared with animals fed with BEF + Cd, BEF + Pb, and C + Pb diets. Addition of BEF to the diets with Cd or Pb significantly decreased the uric acid concentration compared to the level of this parameter in the serum of animals fed with control diets containing Cd or Pb. The level of the Cd significantly decreased in the livers of rodents fed with BEF + Cd diet as compared to the concentration of this metal in the livers of rats fed with C + Cd diet. Elderberry fruit lyophilizate did not protect against the increased concentration of Cd or Pb in kidneys and bones of experimental rats; however, it improved the function of livers and kidneys, especially of rats intoxicated with Cd.

  3. Impaired mitochondrial metabolism and protein synthesis in streptozotocin diabetic rat hepatocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Memon, R.A.; Bessman, S.P.; Mohan, C.

    1990-01-01

    Isolated hepatocytes prepared from control, streptozotocin diabetic rats were incubated at 30 degrees C in Krebs-Henseleit bicarbonate buffer, pH 7.4, containing 0.5 mM concentration of each of the 20 natural amino acids. Effect of insulin on the oxidation of 2,3- 14 C and 1,4- 14 C succinate (suc) carbons and their incorporation into hepatocyte protein, lipid and various metabolic intermediates was studied. Mitochondrial oxidation of suc carbons and their incorporation into protein and lipid was significantly lower in diabetic and insulin treated diabetic rats. Diabetic rats failed to exhibit any significant insulin effect on the oxidation of either 2,3 or 1,4- 14 C suc carbons. Amphibolic channeling of 2,3- 14 C suc carbons into amino acids was significantly reduced in hepatocytes of diabetic rats, however, more of these carbons were diverted into the gluconeogenesis pathway. Diabetes caused a far greater decrease in the oxidation of 2,3- 14 C suc carbons as compared to 1,4- 14 C suc. Based on an earlier report that insulin stimulates only the intramitochondrial Krebs cycle reactions, the authors conclude that the diminished level of anabolic activities in the diabetic rat hepatocytes is due to the subsequent reduction in amphibolic channeling of metabolic intermediates

  4. Effects of Urtica dioica on oxidative stress, proliferation and apoptosis after partial hepatectomy in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguz, Serhat; Kanter, Mehmet; Erboga, Mustafa; Toydemir, Toygar; Sayhan, Mustafa Burak; Onur, Hatice

    2015-05-01

    The present study was performed to investigate the effect of Urtica dioica (UD) on liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy (PH) in rats. A total of 24 male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into three groups: sham-operated, PH and PH + UD; each group contains eight animals. The rats in UD-treated groups were given UD oils (2 ml/kg/day) once a day orally for 7 days starting 3 days prior to hepatectomy operation. At day 7 after resection, liver samples were collected. The levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione (GSH) were estimated in liver homogenates. Moreover, histopathological examination, mitotic index (MI), proliferating cell nuclear antigen labeling, proliferation index (PI), transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate nick end-labeling assay, apoptotic index (AI) were evaluated at day 7 after hepatectomy. As a result, UD significantly increased MI and PI, significantly decreased AI and also attenuated hepatic vacuolar degeneration and sinusoidal congestion in PH rats. UD treatment significantly decreased the elevated tissue MDA level and increased the reduced SOD activity and GSH level in the tissues. These results suggest that UD pretreatment was beneficial for rat liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy. © The Author(s) 2013.

  5. The combined fixed-dose antituberculous drugs alter some reproductive functions with oxidative stress involvement in wistar rats

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    O. Awodele, B.Pharm M.Sc MPH PhD D.Sc FPCPharm FASI

    Full Text Available The reproductive toxicity of combined fixed-dose first-line antituberculosis (CFDAT regimen was assessed in rats. Thirty-two (32 Wistar rats weighing 168.1 ± 8.0 g were divided into four groups of eight rats per group. Two groups of male and female rats were administered oral distilled water (1.6 ml and CFDAT drugs containing rifampicin, isoniazid, pyrazinamide and ethambutol (RIPE, 92.5 mg/m2 per body surface area respectively for forty-five days. Serum follicle stimulating hormone, luteinizing and testosterone were reduced significantly (p  0.05 levels in the treated females. In addition, RIPE reduced (p < 0.05 total proteins levels and increased (p < 0.05, 53% catalase levels in male but not female animals. Superoxide dismutase, glutathione-S-transferase, glutathione peroxidase, reduced glutathione levels as well as lipid peroxidation were unaltered in all rats respectively. Histopathological studies revealed congested peritesticular vessels and no changes in the ovary when compared with control. Overall, our results demonstrate reproductive toxicity potentials of RIPE in the rat, thus, suggesting that these reproductive parameters be monitored during antituberculous chemotherapy. Keywords: Fixed dose combined antituberculous drugs, Sub-chronic study, Reproductive toxicity, Rats

  6. Effect of dietary protein quality and feeding level on milk secretion and mammary protein synthesis in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sampson, D.A.; Jansen, G.R.

    1985-01-01

    Protein synthesis was studied in mammary tissue of rats fed diets deficient in protein quality and/or restricted in food intake throughout gestation and lactation. Diets containing 25% wheat gluten (WG), wheat gluten plus lysine and threonine (WGLT), or casein (C) were pair-fed from conception until day 15 of lactation at 100% or 85% of WG ad libitum consumption (PF100 and PF85, respectively). A seventh group was fed C ad libitum. Rates of protein synthesis were measured in vivo at day 15 of lactation from incorporation of [3- 3 H]phenylalanine. At both PF100 and PF85, fractional and absolute rates of mammary gland protein synthesis were two- to three-fold higher in rats fed C than in those fed WG. Pup weights showed similar treatment effects. Both mammary protein synthesis rates and pup weights were significantly higher in rats fed C at PF85 than rats fed WG ad libitum. Food restriction from PF100 to PF85 depressed pup weights and mammary protein synthesis rates in rats fed WGLT, but had no effect in rats fed WG. These results demonstrate that when food intake is restricted, improvement of protein quality of the maternal diet increases milk output in the rat in association with increased rates of mammary protein synthesis

  7. Ameliorating effects of goby fish protein hydrolysates on high-fat-high-fructose diet-induced hyperglycemia, oxidative stress and deterioration of kidney function in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasri, Rim; Abdelhedi, Ola; Jemil, Ines; Daoued, Ines; Hamden, Khaled; Kallel, Choumous; Elfeki, Abdelfattah; Lamri-Senhadji, Myriem; Boualga, Ahmed; Nasri, Moncef; Karra-Châabouni, Maha

    2015-12-05

    This study investigated the therapeutic potential of undigested goby fish (Zosterisessor ophiocephalus) muscle proteins (UGP) and their hydrolysates on high-fat-high-fructose diet (HFFD)-fed rats. HFFD induced hyperglycemia, manifested by a significant increase in the levels of glucose and glycogen as well as α-amylase activity when compared to normal rats. The administration of GPHs to HFFD-fed rats significantly decreased α-amylase activity and the contents of blood glucose and hepatic glycogen. By contrast, the UGP increased the glucose metabolic disorders in HFFD-fed rats. Furthermore, HFFD-fed rats showed oxidative stress, as evidenced by decreased antioxidant enzyme activities and glutathione (GSH) levels and increased concentration of the lipid peroxidation product malondialdehyde in liver and kidney. Interestingly, the daily gavage of UGP and GPHs improved the redox status in liver and kidney of HFFD-rats by ameliorating or reversing the above-mentioned changes. Moreover, GPHs exhibited a renal protective role by reversing the HFFD-induced decease of uric acid and increase of creatinine levels in serum and preventing some HFFD-induced changes in kidney architecture. The results demonstrate that GPHs contain bioactive peptides that possess significant hypoglycemic and antioxidant properties, and ameliorate renal damage in rats fed hypercaloric diet. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Does a kampo medicine containing schisandra fruit affect pharmacokinetics of nifedipine like grapefruit juice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makino, Toshiaki; Mizuno, Fumika; Mizukami, Hajime

    2006-10-01

    Herb-drug interaction has attracted attention as medicinal topics recently. However, the drug information is sometimes confusing. Previous in vitro studies revealed that schisandra fruit had strong inhibitory effect on CYP3A4 and claimed the possibilities of its herb-drug interaction. In the present study, we evaluated the inhibitory effects of schisandra fruit and shoseiryuto, an herbal formula in Japanese traditional kampo medicine containing eight herbal medicines including schisandra fruit, on rat CYP3A activity in vitro, and the effect of shoseiryuto on pharmacokinetics of nifedipine in rats, in comparison with those of grapefruit juice, a well-characterized natural CYP3A inhibitor. Shoseiryuto and its herbal constituents, schisandra fruit, ephedra herb and cinnamon bark exhibited in vitro inhibitory effect of CYP3A. Although shoseiryuto inhibited rat CYP3A activity in vitro with a degree comparable to grapefruit juice, shoseiryuto did not significantly affect a plasma concentration profile of nifedipine in rats as grapefruit juice did. These results indicate that in vivo experiments using the extract of herbal medicine prepared with the same dosage form as patients take are necessary to provide proper information about herb-drug interaction.

  9. The effect of broad-spectrum antibiotics on warfarin excretion and metabolism in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remmel, R.P.; Elmer, G.W.

    1981-01-01

    The excretion and metabolism of 14 C-warfarin in rats was examined in a crossover experiment, the first phase consisting of treatment with normal saline, the second phase using the same animals given neomycin, bacitracin, and tetracycline orally. Urine and feces were collected every 24 hours for 72 hours and examined for warfarin and its metabolites, both unconjugated and conjugated. Significantly more radioactivity was eliminated in th feces of antibiotic-treated rats. The feces of antibiotic-treated rats contained only trace amounts of beta-glucuronidase activity. Urine contained a similar ratio of unconjugated to conjugated radioactivity in both treatment groups, but the antibiotic-treated animals had significantly larger amount of conjugates in their feces. Examination of metabolic profiles of conjugated and unconjugated fractions revealed significantly fewer hydroxylated metabolites in antibiotic-treated rats, especially in the feces. The lower amount of hydroxylative metabolism in attributed to a reduction in gut flora-medicated interohepatic recycling caused by the antibiotics

  10. [Pinealectomy and early castration in the female Wistar rat].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slama-Scemama, A

    1976-05-17

    Pinealectomy does not significantly modify the level of pituitary and plasma gonadotropins in intact and in castrated female Rats from brith to 75 days of age. Only the weight of the thyroid gland is higher in pinealectomized rats.

  11. In vivo studies of biotin absorption in distal rat intestine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowman, B.B.; Rosenberg, I.H.

    1986-01-01

    The authors have extended their previous studies of biotin absorption in rat proximal jejunum (PJ) to examine biotin absorptive capacity of rat ileum (I) and proximal colon (PC) using in vivo intestinal loop technique. Intestinal loops (2.5 cm) were filled with 0.3 ml of solution containing ( 3 H)-biotin and ( 14 C)-inulin in phosphate buffer, pH 6.5. Biotin absorption was determined on the basis of luminal biotin disappearance after correction for inulin recovery and averaged (pmol/loop-10 min; X +/- SEM). In related experiments, 5-cm loops of PJ, distal I (DI), or PC were filled with 0.5 ml of solution of similar composition (1.0 μM biotin). The abdominal cavity was closed and the rats were allowed to recover from anesthesia, then sacrificed 3 hr after injection. Biotin absorption averaged 96.2% (PJ), 93.2% (DI), and 25.8% (PC) of the dose administered. These differences were reflected in the radioactive biotin content of plasma and intestinal loop, kidney, and liver. These data demonstrate significant biotin absorption in rat DI and PC, as required if the intestinal microflora are to be considered as a source of biotin for the host

  12. Topical erythropoietin promotes wound repair in diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamed, Saher; Ullmann, Yehuda; Masoud, Muhannad; Hellou, Elias; Khamaysi, Ziad; Teot, Luc

    2010-01-01

    Wound healing in diabetic patients is slower than in healthy individuals. Erythropoietin (EPO) has non-hemopoietic targets in the skin, and systemically administered EPO promotes wound healing in experimental animals. This study investigated the effect of topical EPO treatment on defective wound repair in the skin of diabetic rats. Full-thickness excisional skin wounds were made in 38 rats, of which 30 had diabetes. The wounds were then treated topically with a cream that contained either vehicle, 600 IU ml(-1) EPO (low dose), or 3,000 IU ml(-1) (high dose) EPO. We assessed the rate of wound closure during the 12-day treatment period, and microvascular density (MVD), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and hydroxyproline (HP) contents, and the extent of apoptosis in wound tissues at the end of the 12-day treatment period. Topical EPO treatment significantly reduced the time to final wound closure. This increased rate of closure of the two EPO-treated wounds in diabetic rats was associated with increased MVD, VEGF, and HP contents, and a reduced extent of apoptosis. In light of our finding that topical EPO treatment promotes skin wound repair in diabetic rats, we propose that topical EPO treatment is a therapeutically beneficial method of treating chronic diabetic wounds.

  13. Influence of Dietary Irradiated Curcuma ionga (Turmeric) on Physiological and Biochemical Parameters of Growing Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Niely, H.F.G.; El-Shennaway, H.M.; Hamaza, R.G.

    2010-01-01

    Turmeric, (Curcuma ionga), is a dietary antioxidant and has been known since ancient times to possess therapeutic properties. The present investigation examined the correlation between raw and irradiated turmeric powder (at dose levels of 10, 15 and 20 kGy) intake and the physiological effects on organs weight, haematological parameters, indices of liver function and lipid profile in growing Albino male rats. Also, this study was performed to examine the efficacy of radiation processed turmeric powder to modulate the induced hyperlipidaemia in growing Albino male rats. Thirty six male rats were equally and randomly categorized into six groups. Control group fed a reference diet (casein diet), high fat diet was daily received to rats for 6 weeks. Other animals fed daily on high fat diets containing either raw or irradiated turmeric powder (2 g per 100 g diet) at doses 10, 15 or 20 kGy for 6 weeks. The results showed that the relative spleen, kidneys, heart, lungs, and testes weight, and the levels of Hb, PCV and MCHC were not changed in animals fed the experimental diets for 6 weeks. Animals kept on HFD suffered from liver enlargement. Dietary interventions through administrating 2% (w/w) raw or irradiated turmeric powder at 20 kGy normalized the liver size as compared with those received reference diet. Meanwhile, the results revealed that rats fed on high fat diet significantly increased plasma AST, ALT, TC and TG and significant decrease was observed in HDL. Meanwhile, feeding rats on diet containing of either raw or irradiated turmeric powder at 10, 15 and 20 kGy induced a significant improvement in the above mentioned parameters. These results imply that irradiated turmeric powder at 20 kGy can offer protection against the biochemical changes as a consequence of hyperlipidaemic food and contribute to the regulation of lipid metabolism safely

  14. Rat brain digital stereotaxic white matter atlas with fine tract delineation in Paxinos space and its automated applications in DTI data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Shengxiang; Wu, Shang; Huang, Qi; Duan, Shaofeng; Liu, Hua; Li, Yuxiao; Zhao, Shujun; Nie, Binbin; Shan, Baoci

    2017-11-01

    To automatically analyze diffusion tensor images of the rat brain via both voxel-based and ROI-based approaches, we constructed a new white matter atlas of the rat brain with fine tracts delineation in the Paxinos and Watson space. Unlike in previous studies, we constructed a digital atlas image from the latest edition of the Paxinos and Watson. This atlas contains 111 carefully delineated white matter fibers. A white matter network of rat brain based on anatomy was constructed by locating the intersection of all these tracts and recording the nuclei on the pathway of each white matter tract. Moreover, a compatible rat brain template from DTI images was created and standardized into the atlas space. To evaluate the automated application of the atlas in DTI data analysis, a group of rats with right-side middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) and those without were enrolled in this study. The voxel-based analysis result shows that the brain region showing significant declines in signal in the MCAO rats was consistent with the occlusion position. We constructed a stereotaxic white matter atlas of the rat brain with fine tract delineation and a compatible template for the data analysis of DTI images of the rat brain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. DMAV in Drinking Water Activated NF-κB Signal Pathway and Increased TGF-β and IL-1β Expressions in Bladder Epithelial Cells of Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siqi Cao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dimethylarsinic acid (DMAV is the main product of arsenic methylation metabolism in vivo and is rat bladder carcinogen and tumor promoting agent. In this study, we measured the expressions of mRNA and proteins of NF-κB pathway members, IKKα, IKKβ, p65, and p50 in rat bladder epithelium by qRT-PCR and immunohistochemical analysis after rats received drinking water containing 100 and 200 ppm DMAV for 10 weeks. Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β immunoexpression in rat bladder epithelium and urine level of IL-1β also were determined. We found that DMAV dramatically increased the mRNA levels of NF-κB p50 and IKKα in the bladder epithelium of rats compared to the control group. Immunohistochemical examinations showed that DMAV increased immunoreactivities of IKKα, IKKβ, and phospho-NF-κB p50 in the cytoplasm and phospho-NF-κB p50 and p65 in nucleus of rat urothelial cells. In addition, DMAV treated rats exhibited significantly increased inflammatory factor TGF-β immunoreactivity in bladder epithelium and IL-1β secretion in urine. These data suggest that DMAV could activate NF-κB signal pathway and increase TGF-β and IL-1β expressions in bladder epithelial cells of rats.

  16. Therapeutic Effect of CD4+CD25+ Regulatory T Cells Amplified In Vitro on Experimental Autoimmune Neuritis in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng-Jie Wang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: This study aimed to explore whether the adoptive transfusion of autologous CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells (CD4+CD25+ Tregs has a therapeutic effect on Experimental autoimmune neuritis (EAN model rats, and it provides new experimental and theoretical bases for the immunotherapy of Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS. Methods: CD4+CD25+ Tregs were sorted from the spleens of rats using immunomagnetic bead separation techniques combined with flow cytometry. Their in vitro inhibitory function was determined using a lymphocyte proliferation inhibition test, and their purity was confirmed by flow cytometry. Cells were stimulated using CD3/CD28 monoclonal antibodies and were cultured in culture medium containing interleukin 2 (IL-2, transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β and rapamycin. After 15 days of amplification, CD4+CD25+ Tregs were collected and transfused into EAN model rats. Changes in the pathology and electron microscopical morphology of rat sciatic nerves in the normal group, untreated group, low-dose group (2 × 107 and high-dose group (4 × 107 were observed, and the expression of CD4+CD25+FOXP3 in peripheral blood in the four groups of rats was detected by flow cytometry. Results: Compared with rats in the untreated group, rats in the treatment groups had significantly reduced infiltration of inflammatory cells in the sciatic nerve, as well as myelin and axonal damage. Additionally, the CD4+CD25+ Tregs levels in peripheral blood were significantly higher than those in the untreated group (P< 0. 05. Moreover, the therapeutic effect became more significant with an increase in the dose of adoptive transfusion. Conclusion: Adoptive transfusion of CD4+CD25+ Tregs into EAN model rats has significant therapeutic effects.

  17. Red wine contains a potent inhibitor of phenolsulphotransferase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littlewood, J T; Glover, V; Sandler, M

    1985-01-01

    Many ethanolic drinks, especially red wine, contain potent inhibitors of phenolsulphotransferase. At a dilution of 1/75 from the original beverage, extracts from six types of red wine inhibited human platelet phenolsulphotransferase P by a mean of 99% and human platelet phenolsulphotransferase M by 12%. Such extracts had no significant effect on rat liver monoamine oxidase A or human platelet monoamine oxidase B. The inhibitors, which have not yet been identified, can be extracted into ethyl acetate at acid or neutral pH. Thus, they are not monoamines. Flavonoid phenols are plausible candidates. As phenolsulphotransferase M and P are involved in the metabolism of many phenols, including drugs, the inhibition of these enzymes could result in the enhancement of pharmacological potency and have important clinical consequences. PMID:3857069

  18. Sleep deprivation impairs recall of social transmission of food preference in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wooden JI

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Jessica I Wooden,1,2 Jennifer Pido,1 Hunter Mathews,1 Ryan Kieltyka,1 Bertha Montemayor,1 Christopher P Ward1,3 1Department of Psychology, University of Houston-Clear Lake, 2Department of Psychology, University of Houston, 3Menninger Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, USAAbstract: Evidence indicates that sleep plays an important role in learning and memory, and disruption of sleep especially seems to interfere with hippocampal memory processes. Social transmission of food preference (STFP, a natural test of paired associative learning, has been shown to be dependent on the hippocampus. While social transmission of food preference is not a novel task, it has not been used to examine the role of sleep in memory consolidation. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups: cage control; sleep-deprived; and device control. Demonstrator rats were given powdered food mixed with a target spice. Test rats then interacted with demonstrator rats before being given a two choice test of powered food with the target spice or a novel spice. Sleep-deprived rats were then placed in an automated device that prevented sleep for 24 hours. After sleep deprivation, animals were given a preference test again to determine memory for the target spice at both 24 hours and 72 hours. Polysomnography was used to validate the method of sleep deprivation. During immediate preference testing, rats demonstrated a clear preference for the food containing the target spice. Rats that experienced 24 hours of sleep deprivation following the initial testing indicated a significant reduction in the recall of the target spice at 24 and 72 hours. The cage control and device animals maintained their preference for food containing the target spice. Therefore, the loss of sleep interfered with memory consolidation for food preference learned via social transmission.Keywords: hippocampus, learning, consolidation

  19. Healing potential of Iranian traditional medicinal plants on burn wounds in alloxan-induced diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Ghasemi Pirbalouti

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Malva sylvestris, Punica granatum, Amygdalus communis, Arnebia euchroma and Scrophularia deserti are important medicinal plants in Iranian traditional medicine (Unani whose have been used as remedy against edema, burn, and wound and for their carminative, antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activities. The ethanol extracts of M. sylvestris and P. granatum flowers, A. communis leaves, A. euchroma roots and S. deserti stems were used to evaluate the burn healing activity in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Burns were induced in Wistar rats divided into nine groups as following; Group-I: normal rats were treated with simple ointment base (control, Group-II: diabetic rats were treated with simple ointment base (control, Groups-III and -VII: diabetic rats were treated with simple ointment base containing of extracts (diabetic animals, Groups VIII: diabetic rats were treated with simple ointment base containing of mixed extracts, Group-IX: diabetic rats received the standard drug (Silver Sulfadiazine. The efficacy of treatments was evaluated based on wound area, epithelialization time and histopathological characteristics. Wound contraction showed that there is high significant difference between the different groups (p<0.001. At the 18th day, A. euchroma, S. deserti, A. communis and mixed extract ointment treated groups healed 80-90%. At the 9th and 18th days the experiment, the best results were obtained with A. communis and standard drug, when compared to the other groups as well as to the controls. It may be concluded that almond leaves (sweet and bitter formulated in the simple ointment base is effective in the treatment of burns and thus supports its traditional use.

  20. Curcumin protects against tartrazine-mediated oxidative stress and hepatotoxicity in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Desoky, G E; Abdel-Ghaffar, A; Al-Othman, Z A; Habila, M A; Al-Sheikh, Y A; Ghneim, H K; Giesy, J P; Aboul-Soud, M A M

    2017-02-01

    Synthetic dyes have been reported to exert detrimental effects on the health of humans. This study evaluated the effects of a diet containing tartrazine (Tz) on rats which included: i) biochemical parameters including hepatic enzymes, kidney functions and profiles of lipids; ii) markers of oxidative stress in cells by measuring concentrations of malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione (GSH); iii) activities of selected, key hepatic antioxidant enzymes including catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx); iv) pathologies of liver. Also, protective effects of three doses of curcumin (CUR), a natural food coloring agent, on these parameters in rats that had been co-exposed to Tz. Fifty Wistar male albino rats were randomly divided into five groups: Group I, control, where rats were fed a normal diet; Group II, rats were fed normal diets containing 7.5 mg Tz/kg diet, dry mass (dm); In Groups III, IV and V, rats were fed diets containing Tz plus 1.0, 2.0 or 4.0 g CUR/kg diet, dm, respectively. Whole blood was collected after 90 d of exposure, homogenates of liver were prepared and the above analyses were conducted. Exposure to Tz in the diet caused statistically significant (peffects on functions of liver and kidney and the profile of relative concentrations of lipids. CUR significantly (peffects on enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant and indicators of oxidative stress about rats fed Tz (Group II) to values in control rats. However, co-administration of 1.0 g CUR with Tz (Group III) exhibited a negligible effect on those parameters. The results of this study suggest benefits of the use of CUR, as a promising natural food additive to counteract oxidative stress caused by dietary exposure to the synthetic dye Tz due to potent protective antioxidant activity. Blending some natural food additives, such as CUR with diets containing synthetic dyes, could moderate potential effects of these artificial dyes. Decreasing or removing toxins in

  1. Physiological effects following administration of Citrus aurantium for 28 days in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Deborah K., E-mail: deborah.hansen@fda.hhs.gov [Division of Personalized Nutrition and Medicine, U.S. FDA/NCTR, 3900 NCTR Rd., Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States); George, Nysia I. [Division of Personalized Nutrition and Medicine, U.S. FDA/NCTR, 3900 NCTR Rd., Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States); White, Gene E. [Toxicological Pathology Associates, 3900 NCTR Rd., Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States); Pellicore, Linda S. [Office of New Drugs, U.S. FDA/Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, 10903 New Hampshire Ave., Silver Spring, MD 20903 (United States); Abdel-Rahman, Ali; Fabricant, Daniel [Office of Nutrition, Labeling and Dietary Supplements, U.S. FDA/Center for Food Safety and Nutrition, HFS-810, College Park, MD 20740 (United States)

    2012-06-15

    Background: Since ephedra-containing dietary supplements were banned from the US market, manufacturers changed their formulations by eliminating ephedra and replacing with other botanicals, including Citrus aurantium, or bitter orange. Bitter orange contains, among other compounds, synephrine, a chemical that is chemically similar to ephedrine. Since ephedrine may have cardiovascular effects, the goal of this study was to investigate the cardiovascular effects of various doses of bitter orange extract and pure synephrine in rats. Method: Female Sprague–Dawley rats were dosed daily by gavage for 28 days with synephrine from two different extracts. One extract contained 6% synephrine, and the other extract contained 95% synephrine. Doses were 10 or 50 mg synephrine/kg body weight from each extract. Additionally, caffeine was added to these doses, since many dietary supplements also contain caffeine. Telemetry was utilized to monitor heart rate, blood pressure, body temperature and QT interval in all rats. Results and conclusion: Synephrine, either as the bitter orange extract or as pure synephrine, increased heart rate and blood pressure. Animals treated with 95% synephrine showed minimal effects on heart rate and blood pressure; more significant effects were observed with the bitter orange extract suggesting that other components in the botanical can alter these physiological parameters. The increases in heart rate and blood pressure were more pronounced when caffeine was added. None of the treatments affected uncorrected QT interval in the absence of caffeine.

  2. Environmentally persistent free radicals induce airway hyperresponsiveness in neonatal rat lungs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lominiki Slawo

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increased asthma risk/exacerbation in children and infants is associated with exposure to elevated levels of ultrafine particulate matter (PM. The presence of a newly realized class of pollutants, environmentally persistent free radicals (EPFRs, in PM from combustion sources suggests a potentially unrecognized risk factor for the development and/or exacerbation of asthma. Methods Neonatal rats (7-days of age were exposed to EPFR-containing combustion generated ultrafine particles (CGUFP, non-EPFR containing CGUFP, or air for 20 minutes per day for one week. Pulmonary function was assessed in exposed rats and age matched controls. Lavage fluid was isolated and assayed for cellularity and cytokines and in vivo indicators of oxidative stress. Pulmonary histopathology and characterization of differential protein expression in lung homogenates was also performed. Results Neonates exposed to EPFR-containing CGUFP developed significant pulmonary inflammation, and airway hyperreactivity. This correlated with increased levels of oxidative stress in the lungs. Using differential two-dimensional electrophoresis, we identified 16 differentially expressed proteins between control and CGUFP exposed groups. In the rats exposed to EPFR-containing CGUFP; peroxiredoxin-6, cofilin1, and annexin A8 were upregulated. Conclusions Exposure of neonates to EPFR-containing CGUFP induced pulmonary oxidative stress and lung dysfunction. This correlated with alterations in the expression of various proteins associated with the response to oxidative stress and the regulation of glucocorticoid receptor translocation in T lymphocytes.

  3. Physiological effects following administration of Citrus aurantium for 28 days in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, Deborah K.; George, Nysia I.; White, Gene E.; Pellicore, Linda S.; Abdel-Rahman, Ali; Fabricant, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Background: Since ephedra-containing dietary supplements were banned from the US market, manufacturers changed their formulations by eliminating ephedra and replacing with other botanicals, including Citrus aurantium, or bitter orange. Bitter orange contains, among other compounds, synephrine, a chemical that is chemically similar to ephedrine. Since ephedrine may have cardiovascular effects, the goal of this study was to investigate the cardiovascular effects of various doses of bitter orange extract and pure synephrine in rats. Method: Female Sprague–Dawley rats were dosed daily by gavage for 28 days with synephrine from two different extracts. One extract contained 6% synephrine, and the other extract contained 95% synephrine. Doses were 10 or 50 mg synephrine/kg body weight from each extract. Additionally, caffeine was added to these doses, since many dietary supplements also contain caffeine. Telemetry was utilized to monitor heart rate, blood pressure, body temperature and QT interval in all rats. Results and conclusion: Synephrine, either as the bitter orange extract or as pure synephrine, increased heart rate and blood pressure. Animals treated with 95% synephrine showed minimal effects on heart rate and blood pressure; more significant effects were observed with the bitter orange extract suggesting that other components in the botanical can alter these physiological parameters. The increases in heart rate and blood pressure were more pronounced when caffeine was added. None of the treatments affected uncorrected QT interval in the absence of caffeine.

  4. The Healing Effect of Sesame Oil, Camphor and Honey on Second Degree Burn Wounds in Rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaghardoost, Reza; Mousavi Majd, Seyed GholamReza; Tebyanian, Hamid; Babavalian, Hamid; Malaei, Leila; Niazi, Mitra; Javdani, Ali

    2018-01-01

    Many studies were carried out to improve sophisticated dressings to accelerate healing processes and reduce the microbial burden in burn wounds. This study evaluated the healing effect of herbal ointment containing extract of sesame oil, camphor and honey on second degree burn wounds in rats in comparison with daily dressing oil vaseline. Forty rats were randomly assigned to two equal groups. A deep second degree burn was formed on the back of each rat with using a standard burning technique. The burns were dressed daily with herbal ointment containing extract of sesame oil, camphor and honey in group 1, dressing oil vaseline in group 2. The response to treatment was evaluated by digital photography during the treatment on 0, 7, 14, 21, 28 days. Histological scoring was undertaken for scar tissue samples on 0, 7, 14, 21, 28 days. Considerable epithelization in the herbal ointment group vs. the control group over the study period was noted. Neovascularization was significantly higher in herbal ointment treated rats as well. In terms of difference of wound surface area, maximal healing was noticed in herbal ointment extract of sesame oil, camphor and honey group and the minimal repair in the control group. The greatest rate of healing was in the herbal ointment group containing sesame oil, camphor and honey, so the herbal ointment as a suitable substitute for dressing and healing of burn wound injuries is recommended.

  5. Release from proactive interference in rat spatial working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, William A; MacDonald, Hayden; Brown, Lyn; Macpherson, Krista

    2017-09-01

    A three-phase procedure was used to produce proactive interference (PI) in one trial on an eight-arm radial maze. Rats were forced to enter four arms for reward on an initial interference phase, to then enter the four remaining arms on a target phase, and to then choose among all eight arms on a retention test, with only the arms not visited in the target phase containing reward. Control trials involved only the target phase and the retention test. Lower accuracy was found on PI trials than on control trials, but performance on PI trials significantly exceeded chance, showing some retention of target memories. Changes in temporal and reward variables between the interference, target, and retention test phases showed release from PI, but changes in context and pattern of arm entry did not. It is suggested that the release from PI paradigm can be used to understand spatial memory encoding in rats and other species.

  6. Short exposure to a diet rich in both fat and sugar or sugar alone impairs place, but not object recognition memory in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beilharz, Jessica E; Maniam, Jayanthi; Morris, Margaret J

    2014-03-01

    High energy diets have been shown to impair cognition however, the rapidity of these effects, and the dietary component/s responsible are currently unclear. We conducted two experiments in rats to examine the effects of short-term exposure to a diet rich in sugar and fat or rich in sugar on object (perirhinal-dependent) and place (hippocampal-dependent) recognition memory, and the role of inflammatory mediators in these responses. In Experiment 1, rats fed a cafeteria style diet containing chow supplemented with lard, cakes, biscuits, and a 10% sucrose solution performed worse on the place, but not the object recognition task, than chow fed control rats when tested after 5, 11, and 20 days. In Experiment 2, rats fed the cafeteria style diet either with or without sucrose and rats fed chow supplemented with sucrose also performed worse on the place, but not the object recognition task when tested after 5, 11, and 20 days. Rats fed the cafeteria diets consumed five times more energy than control rats and exhibited increased plasma leptin, insulin and triglyceride concentrations; these were not affected in the sucrose only rats. Rats exposed to sucrose exhibited both increased hippocampal inflammation (TNF-α and IL-1β mRNA) and oxidative stress, as indicated by an upregulation of NRF1 mRNA compared to control rats. In contrast, these markers were not significantly elevated in rats that received the cafeteria diet without added sucrose. Hippocampal BDNF and neuritin mRNA were similar across all groups. These results show that relatively short exposures to diets rich in both fat and sugar or rich in sugar, impair hippocampal-dependent place recognition memory prior to the emergence of weight differences, and suggest a role for oxidative stress and neuroinflammation in this impairment. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Caffeine and Aspirin Protecting Albino Rats A gainst Biochemical and Histological Disorders Induced by Whole Body Gamma Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd El-Rahman, N.A.; Sherif, N.H.

    2015-01-01

    Caffeine is an alkaloid (purine derivative) that contains flavonoids, where as aspirin, natural component of mammalian tissue ( acetylsalicylic acid) is one of the most commonly used non steroidal anti - inflammatory , and it is a necessary factor in the utilization of long - chain fatty acids to produce energy. Furthermore, it has been shown to protect cells from per oxidative stress. Th e objective of the present study is to evaluate the efficacy of caffeine (1,3,7 - trimethyl xanthine) 80 mg/kg b.wt. a nd aspirin ( acetylsalicylic acid) in the amelioration of the physiological and histological changes in stomach and intestine of rats exposed to gamma irradiation . Male albino rats were divided into 8 groups. 1 - Control group: rats not subject to any treatment, 2 - Caffeine group: rats received caffeine ( 80 ml/Kg body weight )via intraperitoneal injection for 21 days, 3 - Aspirin group: rats received aspirin (150 mg / kg body) via intraperitoneal injection for 21 days , 4 - Caffeine + Aspirin group: rats received caffeine a nd aspirin treatment, 5 - Radiation groups: rats were whole body gamma irradiated at 8 Gy , 6 - Caffeine + Radiation group: rats received caffeine for 21 days before whole body gamma irradiation at 8 Gy, 7 - Aspirin + Radiation group: rats received aspirin during 21 days before w hole body gamma irradiation , 8 - Caffeine + Aspirin + Radiation group: rats received caffeine parallel to aspirin for 21 days before whole body gamma irradiation. Animals were sacrificed 24 hrs post irradiation. The results demonstrated that rats exposed to whole body gamma irradiation showed a significant increase in alanine amino transferase (AL ) , aspartate amino transferase ( AST), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities, and a significant decrease in total protein indicating liver injury. A significant increase in urea, creatinine, Na + ,and K + were recorded indicating kidney damage. Alteration of liver and kidney functions was accompanied by a significant

  8. Antioxidant modulation of nevirapine induced hepatotoxicity in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awodele Olufunsho

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available HIV/AIDS related mortality has been dramatically reduced by the advent of antiretroviral therapy (ART. However, ART presents with associated adverse effects. One of such adverse effects is hepatotoxicity observed with nevirapine (NVP containing ART. Since previous studies showed that NVP hepatotoxicity may be due to oxidative stress via generation of oxidative radicals, this study sought to evaluate the protective effects of antioxidants in alleviating NVP induced hepatotoxicity. Rats were divided into 6 groups with 8 animals per group and received doses of the antioxidants jobelyn (10.7 mg/kg/day, vitamin C (8 mg/kg/day, vitamin E (5 mg/kg/day and/or NVP (6 mg/kg/day for 60 days. The animals were sacrificed on day 61 by cervical dislocation, blood samples were collected for biochemical and hematological examination. The liver of the sacrificed animals was weighed and subjected to histopathological examination. There was a statistically significant (p<0.05 elevation in MDA level observed in the NVP group as compared with control. The results further showed non-significant decreases in the levels of MDA in the NVP plus antioxidant groups, except vitamin C, when compared with the NVP alone group. Vitamin E and Vitamin E plus C treated groups showed significantly (p<0.05 higher levels of SOD, CAT and GSH. The results also showed statistically significantly (p<0.05 lower levels of ALT and AST in the antioxidant treated groups There was an observed significantly (p<0.05 higher level of TP and urea in the antioxidant treated rats. A significantly (p<0.05 higher white blood cell count was observed in the antioxidant groups. Histopathological assessment of the liver extracted from the rats showed no visible pathology across the groups. Observations from this study suggest a potentially positive modulatory effect of antioxidants and may be indicative for the inclusion of antioxidants in nevirapine containing ART.

  9. Significant biases affecting abundance determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesson, Roger

    2015-08-01

    I have developed two highly efficient codes to automate analyses of emission line nebulae. The tools place particular emphasis on the propagation of uncertainties. The first tool, ALFA, uses a genetic algorithm to rapidly optimise the parameters of gaussian fits to line profiles. It can fit emission line spectra of arbitrary resolution, wavelength range and depth, with no user input at all. It is well suited to highly multiplexed spectroscopy such as that now being carried out with instruments such as MUSE at the VLT. The second tool, NEAT, carries out a full analysis of emission line fluxes, robustly propagating uncertainties using a Monte Carlo technique.Using these tools, I have found that considerable biases can be introduced into abundance determinations if the uncertainty distribution of emission lines is not well characterised. For weak lines, normally distributed uncertainties are generally assumed, though it is incorrect to do so, and significant biases can result. I discuss observational evidence of these biases. The two new codes contain routines to correctly characterise the probability distributions, giving more reliable results in analyses of emission line nebulae.

  10. Astrobiological significance of chemolithoautotrophic acidophiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pikuta, Elena V.; Hoover, Richard B.

    2004-02-01

    For more than a century (since Winogradsky discovered lithautotrophic bacteria) there has been a dilemma in microbiology about life that first inhabited the Earth. Which types of life forms first appeared in the primordial oceans during the earliest geological period on Earth as the primary ancestors of modern biological diversity? How did a metabolism of ancestors evolve: from lithoautotrophic to lithoheterotrophic and organoheterotrophic or from organoheterotrophic to organautotrophic and lithomixotrophic types? At the present time, it is known that chemolithoheterotrophic and chemolithoautotrophic metabolizing bacteria are wide spread in different ecosystems. On Earth the acidic ecosystems are associated with geysers, volcanic fumaroles, hot springs, deep sea hydrothermal vents, caves, acid mine drainage and other technogenic ecosystems. Bioleaching played a significant roel on a global geological scale during the Earth's formation. This important feature of bacteria has been successfully applied in industry. The lithoautotrophs include Bacteria and Archaea belonging to diverse genera containing thermophilic and mesophilic species. In this paper we discuss the lithotrophic microbial acidophiles and present some data with a description of new acidophilic iron- and sulfur-oxidizing bacterium isolated from the Chena Hot Springs in Alaska. We also consider the possible relevance of microbial acidophiles to Venus, Io, and acidic inclusions in glaciers and icy moons.

  11. 54Mn absorption and excretion in rats fed soy protein and casein diets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, D.Y.; Johnson, P.E.

    1989-01-01

    Rats were fed diets containing either soy protein or casein and different levels of manganese, methionine, phytic acid, or arginine for 7 days and then fed test meals labeled with 2 microCi of 54Mn after an overnight fast. Retention of 54Mn in each rat was measured every other day for 21 days using a whole-body counter. Liver manganese was higher (P less than 0.0001) in soy protein-fed rats (8.8 micrograms/g) than in casein-fed rats (5.2 micrograms/g); manganese superoxide dismutase activity also was higher in soy protein-fed rats than in casein-fed rats (P less than 0.01). There was a significant interaction between manganese and protein which affected manganese absorption and biologic half-life of 54Mn. In a second experiment, rats fed soy protein-test meals retained more 54Mn (P less than 0.001) than casein-fed rats. Liver manganese (8.3 micrograms/g) in the soy protein group was also higher than that (5.7 micrograms/g) in the casein group (P less than 0.0001), but manganese superoxide dismutase activity was unaffected by protein. Supplementation with methionine increased 54Mn retention from both soy and casein diets (P less than 0.06); activity of manganese superoxide dismutase increased (P less than 0.05) but liver manganese did not change. The addition of arginine to casein diets had little effect on manganese bioavailability. Phytic acid affected neither manganese absorption nor biologic half-life in two experiments, but it depressed liver manganese in one experiment. These results suggest that neither arginine nor phytic acid was the component in soy protein which made manganese more available from soy protein diets than casein diets

  12. Prophage lambda induction (Inductest) of blood of rats fed irradiated spices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farkas, J.; Andrassy, E.

    1981-01-01

    Lysogenic Escherichia coli K12 strains Nos. GY 5023: envA uvr + (lambda) and GY 5027: envA uvrB (lambda) were used as test organisms and E.coli strain No. GY 4015 as the indicator to investigate prophage induction (Inductest) of blood samples of CFY rats fed with black pepper and spice mixture treated with gamma radiation. The dose levels applied for the irradiation of spices were 0.5 and 15 kGy. In the rat feed, the applied concentration of ground black pepper was 3.5%, and that of the spice mixture (: mild paprika, black pepper, allspice, coriander, marjoram, cumin and nutmeg) was 25%. Blood samples were taken for prophage induction after six days' feeding with the tested diet. Tests with pepper were performed both within two weaks after irradiation and again after 90 days of storage following irradiation, while with the spice mixture, Inductest was performed with the blood of rats fed with a spice mixture irradiated 90 days before the start of the feeding test. Neither the blood of rats fed with irradiated pepper nor that of rats fed with irradiated spice mixture did increase, to a statistically significant degree, the occurrence of prophage induction as compared with blood samples of rats fed with a diet containing untreated spices or with commercial rat feed. In agreement with earlier microbial mutagenicity tests performed with extracts of irradiated spices and urine of rats fed with irradiated spices, neither did the present results indicate that spices irradiated with 5 and 15 kGy or their metabolites would be of DNA-modofying potential. (author)

  13. Prophage lambda induction (Inductest) of blood of rats fed irradiated spices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farkas, J; Andrassy, E [Koezponti Elelmiszeripari Kutato Intezet, Budapest (Hungary)

    1981-01-01

    Lysogenic Escherichia coli K12 strains Nos. GY 5023: envA uvr/sup +/ (lambda) and GY 5027: envA uvrB (lambda) were used as test organisms and E.coli strain No. GY 4015 as the indicator to investigate prophage induction (Inductest) of blood samples of CFY rats fed with black pepper and spice mixture treated with gamma radiation. The dose levels applied for the irradiation of spices were 0.5 and 15 kGy. In the rat feed, the applied concentration of ground black pepper was 3.5%, and that of the spice mixture (: mild paprika, black pepper, allspice, coriander, marjoram, cumin and nutmeg) was 25%. Blood samples were taken for prophage induction after six days' feeding with the tested diet. Tests with pepper were performed both within two weaks after irradiation and again after 90 days of storage following irradiation, while with the spice mixture, Inductest was performed with the blood of rats fed with a spice mixture irradiated 90 days before the start of the feeding test. Neither the blood of rats fed with irradiated pepper nor that of rats fed with irradiated spice mixture did increase, to a statistically significant degree, the occurrence of prophage induction as compared with blood samples of rats fed with a diet containing untreated spices or with commercial rat feed. In agreement with earlier microbial mutagenicity tests performed with extracts of irradiated spices and urine of rats fed with irradiated spices, neither did the present results indicate that spices irradiated with 5 and 15 kGy or their metabolites would be of DNA-modofying potential.

  14. Study on 41Ca-AMS for diagnosis and assessment of cancer bone metastasis in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Hongtao; Pang, Fangfang; Jiang, Shan; He, Ming; Dong, Kejun; Dou, Liang; Pang, Yijun; Yang, Xianlin; Ruan, Xiangdong; Liu, Manjun; Xia, Chunbo

    2015-01-01

    The annual incidence of new cancer patients in China is about 2 million, 30–40% of which will end up with bone metastasis. Profound study on the preclinical model and early diagnosis of cancer bone metastasis in rats are very significant for the drug development, better understanding and treatment of bone metastases. In order to monitor the process of bone metabolism and early detection of bone metastasis of cancer cells, a technique of 41 Ca isotope tracer combined with AMS has been developed and applied in the study on the bone metastasis of cancer cells by rat model. In this work, 3-month-old female Sprague–Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into different groups, and tumor cells injected respectively into the tail vein, femoral artery, femoral cavity and the thigh muscle to establish the rat models for bone metastases. The most appropriate model, i.e., the thigh muscle group, was finally adopted in our real metastases experiment. Each rat in this group was intramuscularly (i.m.) injected with 250 μl CaCl 2 solution (containing 1.4 mg Ca and 5nCi 41 Ca). About 40 days later, the rat mammary gland carcinoma cells (Walker 256) were injected into these rats following the established protocol. After bone metastasis, medicine interventions were performed. The sequential urine and blood samples were collected and analyzed for 41 Ca (by AMS) and N-terminal telopeptide (Ntx), respectively. Bone Mineral Density (BMD) values in the femur and the tibia were measured by CT scan. The results of 41 Ca/Ca in longitudinal urinary samples can sensitively reveal the skeletal perturbations caused by bone metastasis of rats, suggests that 41 Ca might be similarly developed for human use and improve clinical management through the assessment of the curative effect and non-invasive detection of the earliest stages of cancer growth in bone.

  15. Effects of Methionine Containing Paracetamol Formulation on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chigo Okwuosa

    minerals especially at sub-toxic and toxic levels of exposure in our earlier study of ... significantly decreased at the end of 48 hours of exposure but copper, niacin and ... homeostatic mechanisms in male Wistar rats can ... received only physiologic saline), 100 mg\\kg BW, ..... dependent enzymes and antioxidant status in.

  16. Thymus transplantation and disease prevention in the diabetes-prone Bio-Breeding rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgiou, H.M.; Bellgrau, D.

    1989-01-01

    Bio-Breeding rat T lymphocytes proliferate poorly in response to alloantigen. Transplantation of Bio-Breeding rats with fetal thymus tissue from diabetes resistant rats leads to an improvement in the T cell proliferative response, but only if the thymus contains bone marrow-derived, radiation-resistant thymic antigen presenting cells of the diabetes-resistant phenotype. The current study provides evidence that thymus transplantation leading to the restoration of Bio-Breeding T cell proliferative function can also significantly reduce the incidence of insulitis and prevent the development of diabetes. It appears that a defect in the bone marrow-derived thymic APC population contributes to an abnormal maturation of Bio-Breeding T lymphocytes which in turn predisposes animals to insulitis and diabetic disease

  17. Omega-3 Fatty Acid Enriched Chevon (Goat Meat Lowers Plasma Cholesterol Levels and Alters Gene Expressions in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Ebrahimi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, control chevon (goat meat and omega-3 fatty acid enriched chevon were obtained from goats fed a 50% oil palm frond diet and commercial goat concentrate for 100 days, respectively. Goats fed the 50% oil palm frond diet contained high amounts of α-linolenic acid (ALA in their meat compared to goats fed the control diet. The chevon was then used to prepare two types of pellets (control or enriched chevon that were then fed to twenty-male-four-month-old Sprague-Dawley rats (n=10 in each group for 12 weeks to evaluate their effects on plasma cholesterol levels, tissue fatty acids, and gene expression. There was a significant increase in ALA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA in the muscle tissues and liver of the rats fed the enriched chevon compared with the control group. Plasma cholesterol also decreased (P<0.05 in rats fed the enriched chevon compared to the control group. The rat pellets containing enriched chevon significantly upregulated the key transcription factor PPAR-γ and downregulated SREBP-1c expression relative to the control group. The results showed that the omega-3 fatty acid enriched chevon increased the omega-3 fatty acids in the rat tissues and altered PPAR-γ and SREBP-1c genes expression.

  18. Omega-3 fatty acid enriched chevon (goat meat) lowers plasma cholesterol levels and alters gene expressions in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Mahdi; Rajion, Mohamed Ali; Meng, Goh Yong; Soleimani Farjam, Abdoreza

    2014-01-01

    In this study, control chevon (goat meat) and omega-3 fatty acid enriched chevon were obtained from goats fed a 50% oil palm frond diet and commercial goat concentrate for 100 days, respectively. Goats fed the 50% oil palm frond diet contained high amounts of α-linolenic acid (ALA) in their meat compared to goats fed the control diet. The chevon was then used to prepare two types of pellets (control or enriched chevon) that were then fed to twenty-male-four-month-old Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 10 in each group) for 12 weeks to evaluate their effects on plasma cholesterol levels, tissue fatty acids, and gene expression. There was a significant increase in ALA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in the muscle tissues and liver of the rats fed the enriched chevon compared with the control group. Plasma cholesterol also decreased (P < 0.05) in rats fed the enriched chevon compared to the control group. The rat pellets containing enriched chevon significantly upregulated the key transcription factor PPAR-γ and downregulated SREBP-1c expression relative to the control group. The results showed that the omega-3 fatty acid enriched chevon increased the omega-3 fatty acids in the rat tissues and altered PPAR-γ and SREBP-1c genes expression.

  19. Pubertal neurocranium growth in thymectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rino, W; Teixeira, D

    1979-01-01

    Differences in neurocranium growth at puberty were studied in rats of both sexes thymectomized and sham-thymectomized at 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12 and 14 days of age and in controls of matched age and sex; skull length, width and height, and skull base length and face length were measured. The neurocranium of the thymectomized rats was significantly smaller than that of the sham-thymectomized and control rats of both sexes and in all age-groups.

  20. Association of testicular undescent induced by prenatal flutamide treatment with thickening of the cremaster muscle in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuno, Yoshiharu; Komiyama, Masatoshi; Tobe, Toyofusa; Toyota, Naoji; Adachi, Tetsuya

    2003-01-01

    Background and Aims:  Previously, in cryptorchid rats, which were induced by prenatal exposure to flutamide, we found a thickening of the cremaster muscle. This study was undertaken to quantify the increase of the cremaster muscle thickness in the cryptorchid rats, and to examine its possible relationship with the proliferation of muscle cells. Methods:  To obtain cryptorchid rats, pregnant Wistar rats were subcutaneously injected with flutamide (100 mg/kg per day) during gestational days 16–17. Serial sections of the scrotum, containing the testis and cremaster muscle, were prepared from the control and cryptorchid rats that were 2–6 weeks of age, and stained with hematoxylin–eosin for morphometry, or stained with antibody against the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) to analyze the cell proliferation ability. Results:  The thickened cremaster muscle was always associated with cryptorchid testis and, in the case of unilateral cryptorchidism, the cremaster muscle of the contralateral (descended testis) side exhibited normal thickness. The average thickness of the affected cremaster muscle was 0.80 and 1.89 mm at 4 and 6 weeks of age, respectively, although that of the normal muscle was 0.28 and 0.33 mm at the same time period, respectively. Conclusion:  Our results showed that the cremaster muscle of the cryptorchid rats was significantly thicker than that of the control rats. The immunohistochemical analysis revealed that a thickened cremaster muscle contained many PCNA‐positive nuclei even at 4 weeks of age, in contrast to the control, which had only a few positive nuclei. Our present study indicates that continuous proliferation of the muscle cells associated with cryptorchid testis increases the thickness of cremaster cells in rats exposed to flutamide prenatally. (Reprod Med Biol 2003; 2: 109–113) PMID:29699173

  1. Effect of Dietary Vitamin C on Orthodontic Tooth Movement in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amirfarhang Miresmaeili

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Bone remodeling occurs during orthodontic treatment; this process enables tooth movement. Many factors can affect bone remodeling at the cellular level, such as nutritional supplements that can affect tooth movement. The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of dietary vitamin C on orthodontic tooth movement in rats. Materials and Methods: This study was carried out on 36 six-week male Wistar rats with a mean weight of 225+32 g, which were randomly allocated to two equal groups. Rats in the case group received 1wt% vitamin C in their daily water. Opening springs were placed on the incisor teeth of both case and control groups. After 17 days, rats were sacrificed; the distance between the mesio-incisal angles of these teeth was measured with a digital caliper. Histological sections were made containing incisor teeth and alveolar bone and stained by hematoxylin-eosin. The number of resorption lacunae was evaluated using light microscopy.Results: Our findings showed that the amount of tooth movement in the vitamin C group was significantly higher than that in the control group (P<0.001. The osteoclast counts were significantly higher in vitamin C group (P=0.036.Conclusion: Oral vitamin C can increase orthodontic tooth movement in rats with more osteoclast lacunae around root in the pressure area. 

  2. The role of oxytocin and vasopressin in conditioned mate guarding behavior in the female rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holley, Amanda; Bellevue, Shannon; Vosberg, Daniel; Wenzel, Kerstin; Roorda, Sieger; Pfaus, James G

    2015-05-15

    We have shown previously that female rats given their first copulatory experiences with the same male rat display mate guarding behavior in the presence of that male provided a female competitor is also present. Females given access to the familiar male show more Fos induction within regions of the brain that contain oxytocin (OT) and vasopressin (AVP) cell bodies, notably the supraoptic (SON) and paraventricular nuclei (PVN) relative to females given sexual experience with different males. The present experiments examined whether the Fos induction we previously observed within the SON and PVN occurred within OT and/or AVP neurons, and whether exogenous administration of OT or AVP prior to female rats first sexual experience could potentiate the acquisition of mate guarding behavior. Female rats that display conditioned mate guarding had significantly more double-labeled Fos/OT neurons in both SON and PVN, and significantly more Fos/AVP neurons in the PVN. Peripheral administration of OT or AVP prior to their first sexual experience with the familiar male facilitated different aspects of mate guarding: OT augmented affiliative behaviors and presenting responses whereas AVP augmented interference behavior. These results indicate that female rats' first experiences with sexual reward when paired with the same male induce changes to bonding networks in the brain. Moreover peripheral administration of OT or AVP during their first sexual experience can augment different aspects of mate guarding behavior. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. treated rats

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    aghomotsegin

    2014-01-08

    Jan 8, 2014 ... nucleus, bizarre segmentation; (I) shows hypersegmentation, bizarre segmentation of neutrophils in the shape of ring nucleus with polychromatophilic RBCs. 1998; Muller and Tobin, 1980). The current study shows that rats administered C. edulis hydro-ethanol extract, orally for 28 days, developed anemia, ...

  4. Intrahippocampal administration of an androgen receptor antagonist, flutamide, can increase anxiety-like behavior in intact and DHT-replaced male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edinger, Kassandra L; Frye, Cheryl A

    2006-08-01

    Testosterone (T) and its 5alpha-reduced metabolite, dihydrotestosterone (DHT), can decrease anxiety-like behavior; however, the mechanisms underlying these effects have not been established. First, we hypothesized that if T reduces anxiety-like behavior through actions of its 5alpha-reduced metabolite, DHT, then gonadectomy (GDX) would increase anxiety-like behavior, an effect which would be reversed by systemic administration of DHT. Second, we hypothesized that if T and DHT reduce anxiety-like behavior in part through actions at intracellular androgen receptors in the hippocampus, then administration of an androgen receptor antagonist, flutamide, directly to the hippocampus should increase anxiety-like behavior of intact and DHT-replaced, but not GDX, male rats. Inserts that were empty or contained flutamide were applied directly to the dorsal hippocampus of intact, GDX, or GDX and DHT-replaced rats 2 h prior to testing in the open field, elevated plus maze, or defensive freezing tasks. GDX rats exhibited significantly more anxiety-like behaviors than intact or DHT-replaced rats. Intact and DHT-replaced rats administered flutamide to the hippocampus showed significantly more anxiety-like behavior than did intact and DHT-replaced controls. However, flutamide alone did not increase anxiety-like behavior of GDX rats. Together, these findings suggest that androgens can decrease anxiety-like behavior of male rats in part through DHT's actions at androgen receptors in the hippocampus.

  5. Skeletal effect of casein and whey protein intake during catch-up growth in young male Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masarwi, Majdi; Gabet, Yankel; Dolkart, Oleg; Brosh, Tamar; Shamir, Raanan; Phillip, Moshe; Gat-Yablonski, Galia

    2016-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine whether the type of protein ingested influences the efficiency of catch-up (CU) growth and bone quality in fast-growing male rats. Young male Sprague-Dawley rats were either fed ad libitum (controls) or subjected to 36 d of 40 % food restriction followed by 24 or 40 d of re-feeding with either standard rat chow or iso-energetic, iso-protein diets containing milk proteins - casein or whey. In terms of body weight, CU growth was incomplete in all study groups. Despite their similar food consumption, casein-re-fed rats had a significantly higher body weight and longer humerus than whey-re-fed rats in the long term. The height of the epiphyseal growth plate (EGP) in both casein and whey groups was greater than that of rats re-fed normal chow. Microcomputed tomography yielded significant differences in bone microstructure between the casein and whey groups, with the casein-re-fed animals having greater cortical thickness in both the short and long term in addition to a higher trabecular bone fraction in the short term, although this difference disappeared in the long term. Mechanical testing confirmed the greater bone strength in rats re-fed casein. Bone quality during CU growth significantly depends on the type of protein ingested. The higher EGP in the casein- and whey-re-fed rats suggests a better growth potential with milk-based diets. These results suggest that whey may lead to slower bone growth with reduced weight gain and, as such, may serve to circumvent long-term complications of CU growth.

  6. Accident resistant transport container

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, J.A.; Cole, K.K.

    The invention relates to a container for the safe air transport of plutonium having several intermediate wood layers and a load spreader intermediate an inner container and an outer shell for mitigation of shock during a hypothetical accident.

  7. Nuclear reactor containment device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichiki, Tadaharu.

    1980-01-01

    Purpose: To reduce the volume of a containment shell and decrease the size of a containment equipment for BWR type reactors by connecting the containment shell and a suppression pool with slanted vent tubes to thereby shorten the vent tubes. Constitution: A pressure vessel containing a reactor core is installed at the center of a building and a containment vessel for the nuclear reactor that contains the pressure vessel forms a cabin. To a building situated below the containment shell, is provided a suppression chamber in which cooling water is charged to form a suppression pool. The suppression pool is communicated with vent tubes that pass through the partition wall of the containment vessel. The vent tubes are slanted and their lower openings are immersed in coolants. Therefore, if accident is resulted and fluid at high temperature and high pressure is jetted from the pressure vessel, the jetting fluid is injected and condensated in the cooling water. (Moriyama, K.)

  8. Accident resistant transport container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, J.A.; Cole, J.K.

    1980-01-01

    The invention relates to a container for the safe air transport of plutonium having several intermediate wood layers and a load spreader intermediate an inner container and an outer shell for mitigation of shock during a hypothetical accident

  9. Renal function in streptozotocin-diabetic rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, P K; Christiansen, J S; Steven, K

    1981-01-01

    to the rise in kidney glomerular filtration rate (diabetic rats: 37.0 nl/min; control rats: 27.9 nl/min). Likewise renal plasma flow was significantly higher in the diabetic rats (4.1 ml/min) than in the control group (3.0 ml/min). Glomerular capillary pressure was identical in both groups (56.0 and 56.0 mm......-1mmHg-1). Kidney weight was significantly higher in the diabetic rats (1.15 g; control rats: 0.96 g) while body weight was similar in both groups (diabetic rats: 232 g; control rats: 238 g). Calculations indicate that the increases in transglomerular hydraulic pressure, renal plasma flow......Renal function was examined with micropuncture methods in the insulin-treated streptozotocin-diabetic rat. Kidney glomerular filtration rate was significantly higher in the diabetic rats (1.21 ml/min) than in the control group (0.84 ml/min) Nephron glomerular filtration rate increased in proportion...

  10. Analysis of adrenocortical secretory responses during acute an prolonged immune stimulation in inflammation-susceptible and -resistant rat strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, I M; Lorentzen, J C; Ericsson-Dahlstrand, A

    2000-11-01

    Endogenous corticosterone secreted during immune challenge restricts the inflammatory process and genetic variations in this neuroendocrine-immune dialogue have been suggested to influence an individuals sensitivity to develop chronic inflammatory disorders. We have tested inflammation-susceptible Dark Agouti (DA) rats and resistant, MHC-identical, PVG.1AV1 rats for their abilities to secrete corticosterone in response to acute challenge with bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or a prolonged activation of the nonspecific immune system with arthritogenic yeast beta-glucan. Intravenous injection of LPS triggered equipotent secretion of corticosterone in both rat strains. Interestingly, peak concentrations of corticosterone did not differ significantly between the strains. Intradermal injection of beta-glucan caused severe, monophasic, polyarthritis in DA rats while PVG.1AV1 responded with significantly milder joint inflammation. Importantly, serial sampling of plasma from glucan-injected DA and PVG.1AV1 rats did not reveal elevated concentrations of plasma corticosterone at any time from days 1-30 postinjection compared to preinjection values, in spite of the ongoing inflammatory process. Interestingly, adrenalectomized, beta-glucan-challenged DA rats responded with an aggravated arthritic process, indicating an anti-inflammatory role for the basal levels of corticosterone that were detected in intact DA rats challenged with beta-glucan. Moreover, substitution with subcutaneous corticosterone-secreting pellets, yielding moderate stress-levels, significantly attenuated the arthritic response. In contrast, adrenalectomized and glucan-challenged PVG.1AV1 rats did not respond with an elevated arthritic response, suggesting that these rats contain the arthritic process via corticosterone-independent mechanisms. In conclusion, the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in both rat strains exhibited strong activation after challenge with LPS. This contrasted to the basal

  11. Antihyperlipidemic Effect of a Polyherbal Mixture in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Ghorbani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of a polyherbal mixture containing Allium sativum, Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Citrullus colocynthis, Juglans regia, Nigella sativa, Olea europaea, Punica granatum, Salvia officinalis, Teucrium polium, Trigonella foenum, Urtica dioica, and Vaccinium arctostaphylos were tested on biochemical parameters in diabetic rats. The animals were randomized into three groups: (1 normal control, (2 diabetic control, and (3 diabetic rats which received diet containing 15% (w/w of this mixture for 4 weeks. Diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (55 mg/kg. At the end of experiment, the mixture had no significant effect on serum hepatic enzymes, aspartate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransferase activities. However, the level of fasting blood glucose, water intake, and urine output in treated group was lower than that in diabetic control rats (P<0.01. Also, the levels of triglyceride and total cholesterol in polyherbal mixture treated rats were significantly lower than those in diabetic control group (P<0.05. Our results demonstrated that this polyherbal mixture has beneficial effects on blood glucose and lipid profile and it has the potential to be used as a dietary supplement for the management of diabetes.

  12. [Preventive effects of pueraria on presbycusis in rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wangyan; Yao, Qi; Liu, Weihong; Zhang, Bibo; Wang, Ying; Liu, Bo

    2009-08-01

    To investigate the preventive effects of Pueraria on presbycusis in rats. Thirty-two 24-26 month old Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups, and were treated with different dosages of Pueraria (1, 2, 4, 0 g x kg(-1) x d(-1)) separately for 4 weeks. Auditory brainstem response (ABR) was used to detect the change of hearing threshold of rats. Hemorheological items of rats were checked in each group. Compared with control group, the hearing threshold and hemorheological items of rats was significantly improved after treated with Pueraria (Ppresbycusis of rats.

  13. Partiality and Container Monads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uustalu, Tarmo; Veltri, Niccolò

    2017-01-01

    the relationship between containers and lifting monads. We show that the lifting monads usually employed in type theory can be specified in terms of containers. Moreover, we give a precise characterization of containers whose interpretations carry a lifting monad structure. We show that these conditions...

  14. Stowing the Right Containers on Container Vessels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Rune Møller

    2014-01-01

    ’s largest container vessels using standard mathematical programming techniques and off-the-shelf solvers. The presentation will provide basic insight into the domain, with pointers to further information that enable you to join in this promising new path of operations research and business....

  15. Neomercazole protection against radiation-induced changes in bioamines and testicular metabolism of rats during starvation stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasan, S.S.; Kushwaha, A.K.S.

    1987-01-01

    Effect of X rays was studied on normally fed and starved rats vis-a-vis neomercazole, a sulfur containing carbimazone as a chemical radioprotector. Levels of 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid and vinylmandelic acid which were found rising following exposure to X-rays, were significantly curtailed by the treatment with radioprotector in the protected-cum-irradiated rats. Administration of neomercazole offered protection to the testes against radiation injury by increasing alkaline phophatase and cholesterol contents in the testes of drug-treated-cum-irradiated animals. Pretreatment of neomercazole reduced the rate of mortality in the starvation-cum-irradiated animals as compared to the nontreated starvation-cum-irradiated animals. (author)

  16. ITER containment structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadakov, S.; Fauser, F.; Nelson, B.

    1991-01-01

    This document describes the results and recommendations of the Containment Structures Design Unit (CSDU) on the containment structures for ITER, made in the context of the Conceptual Design Phase. The document describes the following subsystems: (1) the primary vacuum vessel (VV), (2) the attaching locks (AL) of the invessel components, (3) the plasma passive and active stabilizers, (4) the cryostat vessel, and (5) the machine gravity supports. Although for most components reference designs were selected, for some of these alternative design options were described, because unresolved problems necessitate further research and development. Conclusions and future needs are summarized for each of the above subsystems: (1) a reference VV design was selected, while most critical VV future needs are the feasibility studies of manufacturing, assembly, and the repair/disassembly/reassembly by remote handling. Alternative, thin-wall options appear attractive and should be studied further during the Engineering Design Activities; (2) no reference design solution was selected for the AL system, as AL design requirements are extremely difficult and internally contradictory, while there is no existing tokamak precedent, but instead, five different approaches will be further researched early in the Engineering Design Phase; (3) significant progress is reported on passive loops, for which the ''twin-loops'' concept is ready to be advanced into the Engineering Design Phase, and on active coils, where a new coil positioning prevents interference with the blanket removal paths, and the current joints are located in a secondary vacuum or in the atmosphere of the reactor hall, repairable by remote handling; (4) a full metallic welded cryostat design with increased toroidal resistance was chosen, but with a design based on concrete with a thin inner metallic liner as a back-up in case detailed nuclear shielding requirements would force the cryostat to act as biological shield; (5) out

  17. In vitro and in vivo percutaneous absorption of retinol from cosmetic formulations: Significance of the skin reservoir and prediction of systemic absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yourick, Jeffrey J.; Jung, Connie T.; Bronaugh, Robert L.

    2008-01-01

    The percutaneous absorption of retinol (Vitamin A) from cosmetic formulations was studied to predict systemic absorption and to understand the significance of the skin reservoir in in vitro absorption studies. Viable skin from fuzzy rat or human subjects was assembled in flow-through diffusion cells for in vitro absorption studies. In vivo absorption studies using fuzzy rats were performed in glass metabolism cages for collection of urine, feces, and body content. Retinol (0.3%) formulations (hydroalcoholic gel and oil-in-water emulsion) containing 3 H-retinol were applied and absorption was measured at 24 or 72 h. All percentages reported are % of applied dose. In vitro studies using human skin and the gel and emulsion vehicles found 0.3 and 1.3% retinol, respectively, in receptor fluid at 24 h. Levels of absorption in the receptor fluid increased over 72 h with the gel and emulsion vehicles. Using the gel vehicle, in vitro rat skin studies found 23% in skin and 6% in receptor fluid at 24 h, while 72-h studies found 18% in skin and 13% in receptor fluid. Thus, significant amounts of retinol remained in rat skin at 24 h and decreased over 72 h, with proportional increases in receptor fluid. In vivo rat studies with the gel found 4% systemic absorption of retinol after 24 h and systemic absorption did not increase at 72 h. Retinol remaining in rat skin after in vivo application was 18% and 13% of the applied dermal dose after 24 and 72 h, respectively. Similar observations were made with the oil-in water emulsion vehicle in the rat. Retinol formed a reservoir in rat skin both in vivo and in vitro. Little additional retinol was bioavailable after 24 h. Comparison of these in vitro and in vivo results for absorption through rat skin indicates that the 24-h in vitro receptor fluid value accurately estimated 24-h in vivo systemic absorption. Therefore, the best single estimate of retinol systemic absorption from in vitro human skin studies is the 24-h receptor fluid

  18. MiR-200a is involved in rat epididymal development by targeting β-catenin mRNA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaojiang Wu; Botao Zhao; Wei Li; Yue Chen; Ruqiang Liang; Lin Li; Youxin Jin; Kangcheng Ruan

    2012-01-01

    The expression of 350 microRNAs (miRNAs) in epididymis of rat from postnatal development to adult (from postnatal days 7-70) was profiled with home-made miRNA microarray.Among them,48 miRNAs changed significantly, in which the expression of miR-200a increased obviously with time,in a good agreement with that obtained from northern blot analysis.The real-time quantitative-polymerase chain reaction result indicated that temporal expression of rat β-catenin was exactly inversed to that of miR-200a during rat epididymal development,implying that miR-200a might also target β-catenin mRNA in rat epididymis as reported by Saydam et al.in humans.The bioinformatic analysis indicated that 3' untranslated region of rat β-catenin mRNA did contain a putative binding site for miR-200a.Meanwhile,it was found that the sequence of this binding site was different from that of human β-catenin mRNA with a deletion of two adjacent nucleotides (U and C).But the results of luciferase targeting assay in HEK 293T cells and the overexpression of miR-200a in rat NRK cells demonstrated that miR-200a did target rat β-catenin mRNA and cause the suppression of its expression.All these results show that miR-200a should be involved in rat epididymal development by targeting β-catenin mRNA of rat and suppressing its expression.

  19. Antihyperlipidemic activities of Pleurotus ferulae on biochemical and histological function in hypercholesterolemic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuhu Alam

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pleurotus ferulae is an edible mushroom has been widely used for nutritional and medicinal purposes. Irrespective of the medicinal importance or therapeutic potentials of P. ferulae, there have not been studies on anti-hyperlipidemic properties. Therefore, the present study investigates the effects of dietary P. ferulae fruiting bodies on plasma and feces biochemical and on the liver histological status in hypercholesterolemic rats. Methods: Six weeks old female Sprague-Dawley albino rats were divided into three groups of 10 rats each. Then biochemical and histological examinations were performed. Results: Feeding of a diet containing 5% P. ferulae fruiting bodies to hypercholesterolemic rat reduced plasma total cholesterol, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein (LDL, total lipid, phospholipids, and LDL/high-density lipoprotein ratio by 30.02, 49.31, 71.15, 30.23, 21.93, and 65.31%, respectively. Mushroom also significantly reduced body weight in hypercholesterolemic rats. However, it had no adverse effects on plasma albumin, total bilirubin, direct bilirubin, creatinin, blood urea nitrogen, uric acid, glucose, total protein, calcium, sodium, potassium, chloride, inorganic phosphate, magnesium, and enzyme profiles. Feeding mushroom increased total lipid and cholesterol excretion in feces. The plasma lipoprotein fraction, separated by agarose gel electrophoresis, indicated that P. ferulae significantly reduced plasma β and pre-β-lipoprotein, while increased the α-lipoprotein. A histological study of hepatic cells by conventional hematoxylin-eosin and oil red O staining showed normal findings for mushroom-fed hypercholesterolemic rats. Conclusions: The present study suggests that 5% P. ferulae diet supplement provides health benefits, at least partially, by acting on the atherogenic lipid profile in hypercholesterolemic rats.

  20. Passive containment system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleimola, F.W.

    1977-01-01

    Disclosed is a containment system that provides complete protection entirely by passive means for the loss of coolant accident in a nuclear power plant and wherein all stored energy released in the coolant blowdown is contained and absorbed while the nuclear fuel is prevented from over-heating by a high containment back-pressure and a reactor vessel refill system. The primary containment vessel is restored to a high sub-atmospheric pressure within a few minutes after accident initiation and the decay heat is safely transferred to the environment while radiolytic hydrogen is contained by passive means. 20 claims, 14 figures

  1. Conversion of L-thyroxine to L-triiodothyronine in the rat liver under in vitro conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nauman, A.; Kaminski, T.; Pastuszko, D.

    1979-01-01

    Conversion of thyroxine (T 4 ) to triiodothyronine (T 3 ) has been studied in liver homogenates obtained from normal and hypothyroid rats. Liver homogenates were incubated for 0-60 minutes at 37 0 C in Tris buffer containing sucrose and T 4 , pH 7.4. T 3 generated during incubation was measured by a specific radioimmunoassay of an ethanol extract of the incubates. Conversion rate of T 4 to T 3 by liver homogenates from intact rats was found to be time, protein concentration and substrate concentration (T 4 ) dependent. Heating of homogenate above 60 0 C abolished while cooling significantly decreased the monodeiodination. In homogenates from hypothyroid rats the conversion and its rate were significantly decreased. The results of present study confirmed enzymatic character of monodeiodination reaction. Decreased conversion of T 4 to T 3 in hypothyroidism suggests that biosynthesis of converting enzyme may be regulated by thyroid hormones. (author)

  2. Group 4. Containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCauley, V.S.; Keiser, J.R.

    1992-01-01

    This paper summarizes the findings of the Containment Working Group which met at the Workshop on Radioactive, Hazardous, and/or Mixed Waste Sludge Management. The Containment Working Group (CWG) examined the problems associated with providing adequate containment of waste forms from both short- and long-term storage. By its nature, containment encompasses a wide variety of waste forms, storage conditions, container types, containment schemes, and handling activities. A containment system can be anything from a 55-gal drum to a 100-ft-long underground vault. Because of the diverse nature of containment systems, the CWG chose to focus its limited time on broad issues that are applicable to the design of any containment system, rather than attempting to address problems specific to a particular containment system or waste-form type. Four major issues were identified by the CWG. They relate to: (1) service conditions and required system performance; (2) ultimate disposition; (3) cost and schedule; and (4) acceptance criteria, including quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) concerns. All of the issues raised by the group are similar in that they all help to define containment system requirements

  3. Fibre-concrete container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    In this leaflet the fibre-concrete container for radioactive wastes is described. The fibre container is made of fibre-concrete that contains cement, aggregate, sand, filter, flame-silica, super-plastificator, water and scattered metal fibres. The fibre-concrete container has a dice shape with outer dimension 1.7 x 1.7 x 1.7 m. It is mounted of a container body, a container cover and two caps. Total weight of container is 4,240 kg, maximum weight of loaded container do not must exceed 15,000 kg. The physical and mechanical properties of the fibre-concrete container are described in detail. The fibre-concrete container manufactured for storing of low and intermediate radioactive wastes. A fibre-concrete container utilization to store of radioactive wastes solves these problems: increase of stability of stored packages of radioactive waste; watertightness within 300 years at least; static stability of bearing space; better utilization of bearing spaces; insulation of radioactive waste in a case of seismic and geological event; increase of fire resistance; and transport of radioactive waste

  4. Benzyl alcohol increases voluntary ethanol drinking in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etelälahti, T J; Eriksson, C J P

    2014-09-01

    The anabolic steroid nandrolone decanoate has been reported to increase voluntary ethanol intake in Wistar rats. In recent experiments we received opposite results, with decreased voluntary ethanol intake in both high drinking AA and low drinking Wistar rats after nandrolone treatment. The difference between the two studies was that we used pure nandrolone decanoate in oil, whereas in the previous study the nandrolone product Deca-Durabolin containing benzyl alcohol (BA) was used. The aims of the present study were to clarify whether the BA treatment could promote ethanol drinking and to assess the role of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-gonadal axes (HPAGA) in the potential BA effect. Male AA and Wistar rats received subcutaneously BA or vehicle oil for 14 days. Hereafter followed a 1-week washout and consecutively a 3-week voluntary alcohol consumption period. The median (± median absolute deviation) voluntary ethanol consumption during the drinking period was higher in BA-treated than in control rats (4.94 ± 1.31 g/kg/day vs. 4.17 ± 0.31 g/kg/day, p = 0.07 and 1.01 ± 0.26 g/kg/day vs. 0.38 ± 0.27 g/kg/day, p = 0.05, for AA and Wistar rats, respectively; combined effect p < 0.01). The present results can explain the previous discrepancy between the two nandrolone studies. No significant BA effects on basal and ethanol-mediated serum testosterone and corticosterone levels were observed in blood samples taken at days 1, 8 and 22. However, 2h after ethanol administration significantly (p = 0.02) higher frequency of testosterone elevations was detected in high drinking AA rats compared to low drinking Wistars, which supports our previous hypotheses of a role of testosterone elevation in promoting ethanol drinking. Skin irritation and dermatitis were shown exclusively in the BA-treated animals. Altogether, the present results indicate that earlier findings obtained with Deca-Durabolin containing BA need to be re-evaluated. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All

  5. The Historical Significance of the Universal Declaration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eide, Asbjorn

    1998-01-01

    Explains the historical significance of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Focuses on the initiative for the Declaration and its elaboration, the precursors to modern human rights, the foundation of the Declaration, the rights contained in the Universal Declaration, three modes of human rights analysis, and global governance and human…

  6. Hypolipidemic and Hypocholesterolemic Effect of Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) Seeds Oil in Experimental Male Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Rehab F M; El-Anany, Ayman M

    2017-01-01

    The current investigation aimed to evaluate the influence of roselle seeds oil (RSO), coconut oil (CNO) and binary mixture of them on serum lipids of experimental rats. Fatty acid composition of native and blended oils was determined. Thirty five male Albino rats (145- 160 g) were used throughout this study. The rats were fed AIN-93G diet containing 10% fat from CNO, RSO, B1 (25%RSO+ 75 %CNO), B2 (50 %RSO+ 50 %CNO or B3 (75 %RSO+ 25 % CNO) for eight weeks. Blood samples were collected at the beginning, every two weeks during the experiment, and at the end of the experiment. At the time of sacrifice, organs weights in relation to their body weights were immediately recorded. Substitution of 25, 50 and 75 % of CNO with equal amounts of RSO reduced saturated fatty acids by 16.04, 32.58 and 48.77 %, respectively in blended oils. The content of linoleic (C18:2) increased from not detected level in CNO to 9.81, 19.67 and 29.48 % in CNO blended with 25, 50 and 75 % of RSO, respectively. The relative liver weights of rats fed CNO was significantly higher than that of those fed RSO and blended oils. Mixing CNO with various levels of RSO attenuates the adverse effect in the relative liver weights which caused by CNO administration. At the end of the experiment, blinding coconut oil with 25, 50 and 75 % of roselle oil inhibited the elevation in total cholesterol by 9.69, 28.16 and 36.16 %, respectively compared to CNO rats. Rats fed diet containing CNO for 8 weeks had significantly the highest content (126.49 mg/dl) of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, while those fed 100 % RSO (as a source of lipids) had the lowest concentration of LDL-C (64.32 mg/dL). Atherogenic index (AI) values of rats submitted B1, B2 and B3 were about 1.12, 1.23 and 1.28 times as low as those of rats fed CNO diet, respectively. The results of this study indicate that roselle seeds oil (RSO) reduces hyperlipidemia and hypercholesterolemia in rats fed diet rich in saturated fatty acids.

  7. Effect of Royal Jelly on Improving Passive Avoidance Learning and Spatial Learning and Memory in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Alaei

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Studies have proposed that royal jelly(RJ has various biological activities in different cells and tissues. Since it has been demonstrated that RJ contains compounds having desirable effects on central neurons system and neural functions, the present study aimed to investigate the effect of royal jelly on learning and memory in rats. Methods: Male wistar rats were divided into two groups, the royal jelly and the control. In the RJ group, the rats received a food that contained 3% RJ instead of regular food for 10 days. Then learning and memory were investigated in these animals through both passive avoidance learning test(1 day and 1 week after receiving electrical shock and Morris water maze test(1 day and 1 week after a 4-day learning period. Results: The study results indicated that the food containing RJ in the RJ group significantly increased the time of the first entrance to the dark room one week after the electrical shock in passive avoidance learning test. In other words, the findings suggest an improvement of learning and memory in RJ group. In the acquisition phase of Morris water maze test, rats receiving RJ found the underwater escape plate during less time and distance comparing with the control group. Furthermore, one week after the acquisition phase, in the retention phase, rats spent more time in the quadrant in which the escape plate was previously located. Conclusion: The present study findings propose that Royal Jelly can improve cognitive processes through positive effects on neural functions and probably has a significant influence on prevention and therapy of some neuronal disorders.

  8. Use of Porcine Acellular Dermal Matrix as a Dermal Substitute in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Anil; DeSagun, Evangeline Z.; Jennings, Lawrence J.; Sethi, Stephen; Phuangsab, Anan; Hanumadass, Marella; Reyes, Hernan M.; Walter, Robert J.

    2001-01-01

    Objective To examine porcine acellular dermal matrix (ADM) as a xenogenic dermal substitute in a rat model. Summary Background Data Acellular dermal matrix has been used in the treatment of full-thickness skin injuries as an allogenic dermal substitute providing a stable wound base in human and animal studies. Methods Xenogenic and allogenic ADMs were produced by treating porcine or rat skin with Dispase and Triton X-100. Full-thickness skin defects (225 mm2) were created on the dorsum of rats (n = 29), porcine or rat ADMs were implanted in them, and these were overlain with ultrathin split-thickness skin grafts (STSGs). In two adjacent wounds, 0.005- or 0.017-inch-thick autografts were implanted. In other experiments, the antimicrobial agent used during ADM processing (azide or a mixture of antibiotics) and the orientation of the implanted ADM (papillary or reticular side of ADM facing the STSG) were studied. Grafts were evaluated grossly and histologically for 30 days after surgery. Results Significant wound contraction was seen at 14, 20, and 30 days after surgery in wounds receiving xenogenic ADM, allogenic ADM, and thin STSGs. Contraction of wounds containing xenogenic ADM was significantly greater than that of wounds containing allogenic ADM at 30 days after surgery. Graft take was poor in wounds containing xenogenic ADM and moderately good in those containing allogenic ADM. Wound healing was not significantly affected by the antimicrobial agent used during ADM preparation or by the ADM orientation. Conclusion Dispase–Triton-treated allogenic ADM was useful as a dermal substitute in full-thickness skin defects, but healing with xenogenic ADM was poor. PMID:11224629

  9. Protective Effect Of Avocado Oil Against Biochemical And Histological Changes In Whole Body Gamma Irradiation In Albino Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd El-Rahman, N.A.; Abd El Azime, A.SH.; Sherif, N.H.

    2013-01-01

    Avocado oil, extracted from the pulp of the fruit, is rich in poly-unsaturated fatty acids, linoleic, linolenic, oleic acids and the monounsaturated fatty acid. It also contains B-sitosterol, B-carotene, lecithin, minerals and vitamins A, C, D and E. Avocado oil lowers the blood levels of serum lipids and has antioxidant properties as a free radical scavenger. Male albino rats were divided into 5 groups. 1- Control group: rats not subjected to any treatment, 2- Avocado treated group: rats received avocado oil (0.1 ml/kg/day) via intraperitoneal injection during 21 days, 3- Irradiated group: rats were whole body gamma irradiated with 7 Gy, 4- Avocado + irradiated group: rats received avocado oil for 21 days then exposed to whole body gamma irradiation with 7 Gy and 5- Radiation + avocado group: rats were exposed to 7 Gy whole body gamma irradiation then received avocado oil for 21 days. Avocado oil (0.1 ml/kg/day) was given to rats, receiving a standard diet, for 21 days before exposure to 7 Gy whole body gamma irradiation then the treatment was continued for 10 days after irradiation. Several investigations were carried out such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA), reduced glutathione (GSH), catalase (CAT), lipid profile and blood sugar. High significant increase in MDA was observed and treatment with avocado before irradiation caused significant increase in GSH, CAT and SOD and significant decrease in MDA as compared to the irradiated groups. The results also showed that treatment with avocado oil significantly diminished the radiation-induced alterations observed in the levels of lipid profile and glucose. The results demonstrated that whole body gamma irradiated rats showed significant increase in alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate amino-transferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and glucose. By studying the lipid profile, significant increases in cholesterol, triglycerides and LDL-C levels were recorded while significant decrease was

  10. Evaluation of the Effects of Curcumin on Palm Inflammation and Level of Acute Phase Proteins in Arthritic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Aghaei Borashan

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and ObjectivesRheumatoid arthritis (RA is a chronic inflammatory disease which is characterized by joint swelling, and synovial inflammation. C reactive protein (CRP and ceruloplasmin (CP are identified as important biomarkers of RA and various inflammatory diseases. Curcumin, a widely used yellow color spice is the most active component of Curcuma longa L (Turmeric. Curcumin contains potent anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. The goal of this study is evaluation of the anti-inflammatory effect of curcumin on arthritic palm of rats and levels of the CRP and CP in the blood samples of arthritis induced male albino Wistar rats.Methods Arthritis was induced by subcutaneous injection of Freund’s Complete Adjuvant (FCA into the palm of right rear foot of 8 different male albino Wistar rats. The rats were randomly divided into five groups after the injection. These groups were as follow: Group Ι, control normal rats Group II, carrier arthritic rats Group III, arthritic rats which were given 30mg/ kg of curcumin orally seven days prior to FCA injectionGroup IV, arthritic rats treated with 30mg/kg of curcumin Group V, arthritic rats treated with 3 mg/kg of indomethacin.All the groups except group III received oral treatment with curcumin seven days after FCA injection and the treatment was continued fourteen days thereafter. The rear foot thicknesses of all the rats were measured on days 1, 5, 10, 15, 20 after FCA injection. The rats were destroyed after 20th day and their blood samples were collected.ResultsThe results of this study indicate that curcumin significantly decreases swelling of the rats rear foot (p<0.05, and levels of the CRP and CP as compared to carrier arthritic rats (p<0.05. One-way variance analysis by ANOVA program and post test analysis by Tukey were used for analysis of the collected data. ConclusionEvaluation of the results of this experiment supports the anti-inflammatory, and possibly anti

  11. Evaluation of the Effects of Curcumin on Palm Inflammation and Level of Acute Phase Proteins in Arthritic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Aghaei Borashan

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available

    Background and Objectives

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA is a chronic inflammatory disease which is characterized by joint swelling, and synovial inflammation. C reactive protein (CRP and ceruloplasmin (CP are identified as important biomarkers of RA and various inflammatory diseases. Curcumin, a widely used yellow color spice is the most active component of Curcuma longa L (Turmeric. Curcumin contains potent anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. The goal of this study is evaluation of the anti-inflammatory effect of curcumin on arthritic palm of rats and levels of the CRP and CP in the blood samples of arthritis induced male albino Wistar rats.

     

    Methods

    Arthritis was induced by subcutaneous injection of Freund’s Complete Adjuvant (FCA into the palm of right rear foot of 8 different male albino Wistar rats. The rats were randomly divided into five groups after the injection. These groups were as follow:

    Group Ι, control normal rats

    Group II, carrier arthritic rats

    Group III, arthritic rats which were given 30mg/ kg of curcumin orally seven days prior to FCA injection

    Group IV, arthritic rats treated with 30mg/kg of curcumin

    Group V, arthritic rats treated with 3 mg/kg of indomethacin.

    All the groups except group III received oral treatment with curcumin seven days after FCA injection and the treatment was continued fourteen days thereafter. The rear foot thicknesses of all the rats were measured on days 1, 5, 10, 15, 20 after FCA injection. The rats were destroyed after 20th day and their blood samples were collected.

     

    Results

    The results of this study indicate that curcumin significantly decreases swelling of the rats rear foot (p<0.05, and levels of the CRP and CP as compared to carrier arthritic rats (p<0.05.

    One-way variance analysis

  12. Freezing of Rat Tibiae at -20°C Does Not Affect the Mechanical Properties of Intramedullary Bone/Implant-Interface: Brief Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diefenbeck, Michael; Mückley, Thomas; Zankovych, Sergiy; Bossert, Jörg; Jandt, Klaus D; Schrader, Christian; Schmidt, Jürgen; Finger, Ulrich; Faucon, Mathilde

    2011-01-01

    Background: The effects of freezing-thawing cycles on intramedullary bone-implant interfaces have been studied in a rat model in mechanical pull-out tests. Implants: Twenty TiAl6V4 rods (Ø 0.8 mm, length 10 mm) implanted in rat tibiae Methods: 10 rats underwent bilateral tibial implantation of titanium rods. At eight weeks, the animals were sacrificed and tibiae harvested for biomechanical testing. Eight tibiae were frozen and stored at -20°C for 14 days, the remaining eight were evaluated immediately post-harvest. Pull-out tests were used to determine maximum force and interfacial shear strength. Results: There were no significant differences between fresh and those of the frozen-thawed group in maximum force or in interfacial shear strength. Conclusion: Frozen Storage of rat tibiae containing implants at -20° C has no effects on the biomechanical properties of Bone/ Implant interface. PMID:21760868

  13. Cyclic fatty acid monomers from dietary heated fats affect rat liver enzyme activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamboni, C; Sébédio, J L; Perkins, E G

    1998-07-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary cyclic fatty acid monomers (CFAM), contained in heated fat from a commercial deep-fat frying operation, on rat liver enzyme activity. A partially hydrogenated soybean oil (PHSBO) used 7 d (7-DH) for frying foodstuffs, or 0.15% methylated CFAM diets was fed to male weanling rats in comparison to a control group fed a nonheated PHSBO (NH) diet in a 10-wk experiment. All diets were isocaloric with 15% fat. Animals fed either CFAM or 7-DH diets showed increased hepatic content of cytochrome (cyt.) b5 and P450 and increased activity of (E.C. 1.6.2.4) NADPH-cyt. P450 reductase in comparison to the control rats. In addition, the activities of (E.C. 2.3.1.21) carnitine palmitoyltransferase-I and (E.C. 1.1.1.42) isocitrate dehydrogenase were significantly decreased when compared to that of rats fed the NH diet. A significantly depressed activity of (E.C. 1.1.1.49) glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase was also observed for these animals compared to the control rats fed NH diet. Moreover, liver and microsomal proteins were significantly increased when CFAM or 7-DH diets were fed to animals in comparison to controls while liver glycogen was decreased significantly in experimental groups of rats. The results obtained in this study indicate that the CFAM in the diet from either synthetic sources or used fats increase the activity of liver enzyme systems that detoxify them.

  14. Effects of Culling on Leptospira interrogans Carriage by Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byers, Kaylee A.; Donovan, Christina M.; Bidulka, Julie J.; Stephen, Craig; Patrick, David M.; Himsworth, Chelsea G.

    2018-01-01

    We found that lethal, urban rat control is associated with a significant increase in the odds that surviving rats carry Leptospira interrogans. Our results suggest that human interventions have the potential to affect and even increase the prevalence of zoonotic pathogens within rat populations. PMID:29350160

  15. Beta-endorphin in genetically hypoprolactinemic rat: IPL nude rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, H.; Sabbagh, I.; Abou-Samra, A.B.; Bertrand, J.

    1986-01-01

    Beta-endorphin has been reported to regulate not only stress- and suckling-induced but also basal prolactin secretion. In the aim to better evaluate the endogenous beta-endorphin-prolactin interrelation, the authors measured beta-endorphin levels in a new rat strain, genetically hypoprolactinemic and characterized by a total lack of lactation: IPL nude rat. Beta-endorphin was measured using a specific anti-h-β endorphin in plasma and extracts of anterior and neurointermediate lobes of the pituitary, hypothalamus and brain. Pituitary extracts were also chromatographed on Sephadex G50 column. Results obtained showed that in IPL nude females on diestrus and males, the beta-endorphin contents of the neurointermediate lobe was significantly lower than in normal rats, while the values found in the other organs and plasma were similar. However, elut