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Sample records for rats behavioral effects

  1. Effects of heroin on rat prosocial behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomek, Seven E; Stegmann, Gabriela M; Olive, M Foster

    2018-05-04

    Opioid use disorders are characterized in part by impairments in social functioning. Previous research indicates that laboratory rats, which are frequently used as animal models of addiction-related behaviors, are capable of prosocial behavior. For example, under normal conditions, when a 'free' rat is placed in the vicinity of rat trapped in a plastic restrainer, the rat will release or 'rescue' the other rat from confinement. The present study was conducted to determine the effects of heroin on prosocial behavior in rats. For 2 weeks, rats were given the opportunity to rescue their cagemate from confinement, and the occurrence of and latency to free the confined rat was recorded. After baseline rescuing behavior was established, rats were randomly selected to self-administer heroin (0.06 mg/kg/infusion i.v.) or sucrose pellets (orally) for 14 days. Next, rats were retested for rescuing behavior once daily for 3 days, during which they were provided with a choice between freeing the trapped cagemate and continuing to self-administer their respective reinforcer. Our results indicate that rats self-administering sucrose continued to rescue their cagemate, whereas heroin rats chose to self-administer heroin and not rescue their cagemate. These findings suggest that rats with a history of heroin self-administration show deficits in prosocial behavior, consistent with specific diagnostic criteria for opioid use disorder. Behavioral paradigms providing a choice between engaging in prosocial behavior and continuing drug use may be useful in modeling and investigating the neural basis of social functioning deficits in opioid addiction. © 2018 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  2. Behavioral effects of etiracetam in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolthuis, O.L.

    1981-01-01

    The effects of etiracetam, a structural analogue or piracetam, were investigated in rats on Y-maze discrimination acquisition, on open field behavior, on one-trial passive avoidance learning and on shuttlebox acquisition and extinction. The results indicate that this drug significantly enhances

  3. The Behavioral Effects of Environmental Enrichment in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-03-30

    decrease food consumption (Rickards, Job, & Boakes, 1997; Marti, Marti, & Armario , 1994; Zylan & Brown, 1996); exposure to repeated cold stress...Behavior, 71(3-4), 329-333. 108 Marti, O., Marti, J., & Armario , A. (1994). Effects of chronic stress on food intake in rats: influence of

  4. Effects of zinc supplementation on sexual behavior of male rats

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    DMAB Dissanayake

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Effects of zinc on male sexual competence are poorly understood. Aim: To study the effects of different doses of zinc on the sexual competence of males using a rat model. Materials and Methods: Three subsets (eight in each subset of sexually experienced adult male rats were supplemented with three different oral doses of zinc sulphate (a daily dose of 1 mg, 5 mg and 10 mg respectively for two weeks. A subset of eight animals without zinc supplementation was used as the control group Sexual behavior was observed by placing them individually in cages with receptive females. Statistical Analysis : Data analysis was done using SPSS v10 for windows computer software. Results: Supplementation of 5 mg of zinc/day for two weeks led to a prolongation of ejaculatory latency; 711.6 sec. (SEM 85.47 vs. 489.50 sec. (SEM 67.66, P 0.05. However, partner preference index was positive and 5 mg zinc supplementation did not exert a significant adverse effect on the muscle strength and co-ordination. The subset of rats supplemented with 1 mg/day did not show a difference from the control group while supplementation with 10 mg/day led to a reduction of the libido index, number of mounts and intromissions. Conclusions : Zinc therapy improves sexual competence of male rats; the effect is dose dependent. Increase in the T levels is beneficial in this regard. However, increase in PRL is responsible for the reduced libido index. Further studies on pigs and monkeys are needed to evaluate the therapeutic use of zinc in sexual dysfunction.

  5. Effect of behavior training on learning and memory of young rats with fetal growth restriction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Xuelan; Gou Wenli; Huang Pu; Li Chunfang; Sun Yunping

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of behavior training on the learning and memory of young rats with fetal growth restriction (FGR). Methods: The model of FGR was established by passive smoking method to pregnant rats.The new-born rats were divided into FGR group and normal group, and then randomly subdivided into trained and untrained group respectively. Morris water maze behavior training was performed on postnatal months 2 and 4, then learning and memory abilities of young rats were measured by dark-avoidance testing and step-down testing. Results: In the dark-avoidance and step-down testing, the young rats' performance of FGR group was worse than that of control group, and the trained group was better than the untrained group significantly. Conclusion: FGR young rats have descended learning and memory abilities. Behavior training could improve the young rats' learning and memory abilities, especially for the FGR young rats.

  6. Behavioral effects of type II pyrethroid cyhalothrin in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Righi, D. Abbud; Palermo-Neto, J.

    2003-01-01

    Synthetic pyrethroids such as cyhalothrin are extensively used in agriculture for the control of a broad range of ectoparasites in farm animals. It has been suggested that type II pyrethroids might induce anxiogenic-like effects in laboratory animals. The present study was undertaken to investigate a possible anxiogenic-like outcome of cyhalothrin in rats. Adult male rats were orally dosed for 7 days with 1.0, 3.0, or 7.0 mg/kg/day of cyhalothrin, present in a commercial formulation (Grenade Coopers do Brazil S.A.). The neurobehavioral changes induced by cyhalothrin as well as those produced on corticosterone serum levels were measured 24 h after the last treatment. Picrotoxin (1.0 mg/kg) was also acutely used as a positive control for anxiety. Results showed that cyhalothrin: (1) induced some signs and symptoms of intoxication that included salivation, tremors, and liquid feces; (2) reduced total locomotor activity in the open-field; (3) reduced the percentage of time spent in open-field central zones; (4) increased immobility time in the open-field; (5) reduced the percentage of time spent in plus-maze open arms exploration; (6) reduced the time spent in social interactions, and (7) increased the levels of serum corticosterone. The behavioral changes reported for cyhalothrin (3.0 mg/kg/day) were similar of those induced by picrotoxin. The no effect level dose obtained for cyhalothrin in this study was 1.0 mg/kg/day. These results provide experimental evidence that cyhalothrin induces anxiety-like symptoms, with this effect being dose-related. Thus, anxiety must be included among the several signs and symptoms of pesticide intoxication

  7. Developmental and behavioral effects of postnatal amitraz exposure in rats

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    J. Palermo-Neto

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available The effects of postnatal amitraz exposure on physical and behavioral parameters were studied in Wistar rats, whose lactating dams received the pesticide (10 mg/kg orally on days 1, 4, 7, 10, 13, 16 and 19 of lactation; control dams received distilled water (1 ml/kg on the same days. A total of 18 different litters (9 of them control and 9 experimental born after a 21-day gestation were used. The results showed that the median effective time (ET50 for fur development, eye opening, testis descent and onset of the startle response were increased in rats postnatally exposed to amitraz (2.7, 15.1, 21.6 and 15.3 days, respectively compared to those of the control pups (1.8, 14.0, 19.9 and 12.9 days, respectively. The ages of incisor eruption, total unfolding of the external ears, vaginal and ear opening and the time taken to perform the grasping hindlimb reflex were not affected by amitraz exposure. Pups from dams treated with amitraz during lactation took more time (in seconds to perform the surface righting reflex on postnatal days (PND 3 (25.0 ± 2.0, 4 (12.3 ± 1.2 and 5 (8.7 ± 0.9 in relation to controls (10.6 ± 1.2; 4.5 ± 0.6 and 3.4 ± 0.4, respectively; the climbing response was not changed by amitraz. Postnatal amitraz exposure increased spontaneous motor activity of male and female pups in the open-field on PND 16 (140 ± 11 and 17 (124 ± 12, and 16 (104 ± 9, 17 (137 ± 9 and 18 (106 ± 8, respectively. Data on spontaneous motor activity of the control male and female pups were 59 ± 11 and 69 ± 10 for days 16 and 17 and 49 ± 9, 48 ± 7 and 56 ± 7 for days 16, 17 and 18, respectively. Some qualitative differences were also observed in spontaneous motor behavior; thus, raising the head, shoulder and pelvis matured one or two days later in the amitraz-treated offspring. Postnatal amitraz exposure did not change locomotion and rearing frequencies or immobility time in the open-field on PND 30, 60 and 90. The present findings indicate

  8. Effect of corticotropin-releasing factor receptor antagonist on psychologically suppressed masculine sexual behavior in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miwa, Yoshiji; Nagase, Keiko; Oyama, Nobuyuki; Akino, Hironobu; Yokoyama, Osamu

    2011-03-01

    Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) coordinates various responses of the body to stress, and CRF receptors are important targets of treatment for stress-related disorders. To investigate the effect of a nonselective CRF receptor antagonist, astressin, on suppression of masculine sexual behavior by psychological stress in rats. First, we investigated the influence of psychological stress, induced 2 hours per day for three consecutive days, on sexual behavior. Then, rats were divided into 4 groups: a control group, an astressin administration group (A), a psychological stress loading group (PS), and a psychological stress loading and astressin administration group (PS + A). The rats were exposed to sham or psychological stress for three consecutive days. After the last stress loading, the rats were injected with vehicle or astressin, and their sexual behavior was observed. We also measured serum levels of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). The effects of astressin on sexual behavior and serum levels of ACTH in rats affected by psychological stress were determined. Sexual behavior was reduced after psychological stress loading. The PS rats had significantly longer mount, intromission, and ejaculation latencies and lower ejaculation frequency than did the control, A, and PS + A rats. The intromission latency and ejaculation frequency in the PS + A rats did not achieve the level observed in the controls. There was no significant difference in these parameters between the control and A rats. Serum ACTH levels were significantly lower in PS + A rats than in PS rats. Psychologically suppressed masculine sexual behavior could be partially recovered with astressin administration in rats. These data provide a rationale for the further study of CRF receptor antagonists as novel agents for treating psychological sexual disorders. © 2010 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  9. Sprague-Dawley and Fischer Female Rats Differ in Acute Effects of Fluoxetine on Sexual Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miryala, C.S.J.; Hiegel, C.; Uphouse, L.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), fluoxetine, leads to sexual dysfunction in a substantial proportion of women. In studies with the Fischer inbred rat, the 5-HT1A receptor has been implicated in this sexual dysfunction. Whether this association with 5-HT1A receptors holds for other rat strains is not known. Aim The effects of acute fluoxetine on sexual behavior in two strains of rats that differ in their response to a 5-HT1A receptor agonist were examined. Whether the strain difference is comparable in naturally cycling and hormonally primed, ovariectomized rats was determined. Main Outcome Measures Lordosis to mount ratios, lordosis quality, and proceptive behaviors were quantified. Sprague-Dawley and Fischer females were compared on each of these measures. The IC50 for inhibition of lordosis behavior was determined. Methods Proestrous rats and ovariectomized rats, hormonally primed with estradiol benzoate and progesterone, were treated with varying doses of fluoxetine. Sexual behavior was examined before and after treatment with the SSRI. Results In both the intact and the hormonally-primed, ovariectomized model, Sprague-Dawley females were less sensitive to the effects of fluoxetine on sexual behavior. In both groups, fluoxetine showed dose-dependency in behavioral inhibition, but a higher dose was required for Sprague-Dawley than for Fischer females. Naturally cycling, proestrous rats required a higher dose of fluoxetine than hormonally-primed ovariectomized rats to produce significant inhibition of sexual behavior. Thus, the strain difference in the response to fluoxetine does not parallel strain differences in the response to a 5-HT1A receptor agonist. Conclusions Acute treatment with fluoxetine inhibits lordosis behavior in both Fischer and Sprague-Dawley females and the strain difference cannot be explained by reported strain differences in the response to a 5-HT1A receptor agonist. Fluoxetine’s inhibition of female rat

  10. Effects of prenatal exposure to xylene on postnatal development and behavior in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hass, Ulla; Lund, S. P.; Simonsen, L.

    1995-01-01

    The effects of prenatal exposure to the organic solvent xylene (dimethylbenzene, GAS-no 1330-20-7) on postnatal development and behavior in rats were studied. Pregnant rats (Mol:WIST) were exposed to 500 ppm technical xylene 6 h per day on gestation days 7-20. The dose level was selected so as no...

  11. Behavioral effects of antiepileptic drugs in rats: Are the effects on mood and behavior detectable in open-field test?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimcikova, Eva; Simko, Julius; Karesova, Iva; Kremlacek, Jan; Malakova, Jana

    2017-11-01

    Behavioral side effects of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) are common including both positive and negative effects on mood, anxiety, depression, and psychosis. We aimed to evaluate behavioral patterns in rats after administration of lamotrigine, levetiracetam, phenytoin, topiramate, carbamazepine, gabapentin, pregabalin, and zonisamide. The open-field test was performed and locomotion, rearing, grooming, central latency and defecation were recorded over a 5min interval for each rat (8 rats in each group receiving AED and 16 controls). Kruskal-Wallis nonparametric test or ANOVA were used to assess differences among the groups. The experimental groups did not differ in latency to enter the center compartment, neither in the decline of locomotor activity in the 1st and the 5th minute of the observation, nor in number of rears. Significant differences among groups were observed in the total number of lines crossed, grooming, as well in the number of fecal pellets. Locomotor activity was significantly increased in lamotrigine, if compared with gabapentin and pregabalin (ANOVA; p <0.05). Rats exposed to topiramate displayed a significantly increased number of grooming (when compared to pregabalin: p<0.01). Defecation (the number of fecal pellets) significantly increased in the gabapentin and carbamazepine group. There are significant differences between AEDs in terms of their behavioral profile. It is of great importance to evaluate these effects in clinical practice to bring more clear insight into these positive or negative side effects of AEDs. Copyright © 2017 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Behavioral and Biological Effects of Resonant Electromagnetic Absorption in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-11-01

    for 23-550 MHz, biological phantom materials to simulate tissue properties, monopole -above-ground radiation chamber, design of a waveguide slot array...Resonant Electromagnetic Power Absorption in Rats" L T OF FTCTIF S A,’L i .LIS SFigure Pa 1 A photograiph of the monopole -above-gruund radiation...and mice without ground effects (L/2b = 3.25 where 21Tb is the "average" circumference of the animals) ........ .................... ... 20 8

  13. Effects of Social Housing on Hippocampal Dendrites and Behavior in Ovariectomized Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Leedy, Gail M.; Burrows, Lorraine F.; Clark, Suzanne

    2012-01-01

    Social stress is both species and gender specific. For female rats, individual housing and social instability housing conditions are associated with behavioral indicators of stress and depression. The present study directly compared the effects of six weeks of individual housing, social instability and mixed sex, semi-crowded housing in a visible burrow system (VBS) on ovariectomized female rats. Paired, stable housing was used as the control. Behavioral tests were conducted two, four and six...

  14. The Effects of Methylphenidate on Goal-Directed Behavior in a Rat Model of ADHD

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    Joman Y. Natsheh

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Although attentional and motor alterations in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD have been well characterized, less is known about how this disorder impacts goal-directed behavior. To investigate whether there is a misbalance between goal-directed and habitual behaviors in an animal model of ADHD, we tested adult [P75-P105] Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats (SHR (ADHD rat model and Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY, the normotensive control strain, on an instrumental conditioning paradigm with two phases: a free-operant training phase in which rats separately acquired two distinct action-outcome contingencies, and a choice test conducted in extinction prior to which one of the food outcomes was devalued through specific satiety. To assess the effects of Methylphenidate, a commonly used ADHD medication, on goal-directed behavior, we injected rats with either Methylphenidate or saline prior to the choice test. Both rat strains acquired an instrumental response, with SHR responding at greater rates over the course of training. During the choice test WKY demonstrated goal-directed behavior, responding more frequently on the lever that delivered, during training, the still-valued outcome. In contrast, SHR showed no goal-directed behavior, responding equally on both levers. However, methylphenidate administration prior to the choice test restored goal-directed behavior in SHR, and disrupted this behavior in WKY rats. This study provides the first experimental evidence for selective impairment in goal-directed behavior in rat models of ADHD, and how methylphenidate acts differently on SHR and WKY animals to restore or impair this behavior, respectively.

  15. The bidirectional effects of hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism on anxiety- and depression-like behaviors in rats.

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    Yu, Dafu; Zhou, Heng; Yang, Yuan; Jiang, Yong; Wang, Tianchao; Lv, Liang; Zhou, Qixin; Yang, Yuexiong; Dong, Xuexian; He, Jianfeng; Huang, Xiaoyan; Chen, Jijun; Wu, Kunhua; Xu, Lin; Mao, Rongrong

    2015-03-01

    Thyroid hormone disorders have long been linked to depression, but the causal relationship between them remains controversial. To address this question, we established rat models of hypothyroidism using (131)iodine ((131)I) and hyperthyroidism using levothyroxine (LT4). Serum free thyroxine (FT4) and triiodothyronine (FT3) significantly decreased in the hypothyroid of rats with single injections of (131)I (5mCi/kg). These rats exhibited decreased depression-like behaviors in forced swimming test and sucrose preference tests, as well as decreased anxiety-like behaviors in an elevated plus maze. Diminished levels of brain serotonin (5-HT) and increased levels of hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) were found in the hypothyroid rats compared to the control saline-vehicle administered rats. LT4 treatment reversed the decrease in thyroid hormones and depression-like behaviors. In contrast, hyperthyroidism induced by weekly injections of LT4 (15μg/kg) caused a greater than 10-fold increase in serum FT4 and FT3 levels. The hyperthyroid rats exhibited higher anxiety- and depression-like behaviors, higher brain 5-HT level, and lower hippocampal BDNF levels than the controls. Treatment with the antidepressant imipramine (15mg/kg) diminished serum FT4 levels as well as anxiety- and depression-like behaviors in the hyperthyroid rats but led to a further increase in brain 5-HT levels, compared with the controls or the hypothyroid rats. Together, our results suggest that hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism have bidirectional effects on anxiety- and depression-like behaviors in rats, possibly by modulating hippocampal BDNF levels. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Effects of Gladiolus dalenii on the Stress-Induced Behavioral, Neurochemical, and Reproductive Changes in Rats

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    David Fotsing

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Gladiolus dalenii is a plant commonly used in many regions of Cameroon as a cure for various diseases like headaches, epilepsy, schizophrenia, and mood disorders. Recent studies have revealed that the aqueous extract of G. dalenii (AEGD exhibited antidepressant-like properties in rats. Therefore, we hypothesized that the AEGD could protect from the stress-induced behavioral, neurochemical, and reproductive changes in rats. The objective of the present study was to elucidate the effect of the AEGD on behavioral, neurochemical, and reproductive characteristics, using female rats subjected to chronic immobilization stress. The chronic immobilization stress (3 h per day for 28 days was applied to induce female reproductive and behavioral impairments in rats. The immobilization stress was provoked in rats by putting them separately inside cylindrical restrainers with ventilated doors at ambient temperature. The plant extract was given to rats orally everyday during 28 days, 5 min before induction of stress. On a daily basis, a vaginal smear was made to assess the duration of the different phases of the estrous cycle and at the end of the 28 days of chronic immobilization stress, the rat’s behavior was assessed in the elevated plus maze. They were sacrificed by cervical disruption. The organs were weighed, the ovary histology done, and the biochemical parameters assessed. The findings of this research revealed that G. dalenii increased the entries and the time of open arm exploration in the elevated plus maze. Evaluation of the biochemical parameters levels indicated that there was a significant reduction in the corticosterone, progesterone, and prolactin levels in the G. dalenii aqueous extract treated rats compared to stressed rats whereas the levels of serotonin, triglycerides, adrenaline, cholesterol, glucose estradiol, follicle stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone were significantly increased in the stressed rats treated with, G. dalenii

  17. Peony glycosides reverse the effects of corticosterone on behavior and brain BDNF expression in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Qing-Qiu; Huang, Zhen; Ip, Siu-Po; Xian, Yan-Fang; Che, Chun-Tao

    2012-02-01

    Repeated injections of corticosterone (CORT) induce the dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, resulting in depressive-like behavior. This study aimed to examine the antidepressant-like effect and the possible mechanisms of total glycosides of peony (TGP) in the CORT-induced depression model in rats. The results showed that the 3-week CORT injections induced the significant increase in serum CORT levels in rats. Repeated CORT injections also caused depression-like behavior in rats, as indicated by the significant decrease in sucrose consumption and increase in immobility time in the forced swim test. Moreover, it was found that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) protein levels in the hippocampus and frontal cortex were significantly decreased in CORT-treated rats. Treatment of the rats with TGP significantly suppressed the depression-like behavior and increased brain BDNF levels in CORT-treated rats. The results suggest that TGP produces an antidepressant-like effect in CORT-treated rats, which is possibly mediated by increasing BDNF expression in the hippocampus and frontal cortex. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of Environmental Variables on Eating Behavior in Rats: a Conceptual and Historical Review

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    Felipe de Jesús Díaz-Reséndiz

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this review was to show the effects of environmental variableson the eating behavior in rats. The eating behavior and its relatedvariables have been analyzed since a variety of perspectives. The presentreview included studies in which rats were used as subjects and the totalfood intake or any operant response related to obtaining food was registered.Two variables, inter access-to-food interval and access-to-food duration, aresuggested as possible integrating variables given that both are common tomany experimental procedures. These variables set the occasion for developingan animal experimental model that includes cases related to eatinghuman behavior such as anorexia or bulimia.

  19. Effects of female gonadal hormones and LPS on depressive-like behavior in rats

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    Mitić Miloš

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Considerable evidence shows an association of depression with the immune system and emphasizes the importance of gender in the etiology of the disease and the response to inflammatory stimuli. We examined the influence of immune-challenged systems on depressive-like behavior in female rats in the context of gonadal hormones. We used a neuroinflammatory model of depression elicited by lipopolysaccharide (LPS administration on naive and ovariectomized (OVX female rats, and examined the effects of estradiol (E2 and/or progesterone (P4 replacement therapy on animal behavior, as assessed by the forced swimming test (FST. We found that LPS and OVX increase immobility in the FST, while LPS also decreased body weight in naive female rats. Further, even though P4 application alone showed beneficial effects on the behavioral profile (it reduced immobility and increased climbing, supplementation of both hormones (E2 and P4 together to OVX rats failed to do so. When OVX rats were exposed to LPS-induced immune challenge, neither hormone individually nor their combination had any effect on immobility, however, their joint supplementation increased climbing behavior. In conclusion, our study confirmed that both LPS and OVX induced depressive-like behavior in female rats. Furthermore, our results potentiate P4 supplementation in relieving the depressive-like symptomatology in OVX rats, most likely through fine-tuning of different neurotransmitter systems. In the context of an activated immune system, the application of E2 and/or P4 does not provide any advantageous effects on depressive-like behavior.

  20. Antidepressant behavioral effects of duloxetine and fluoxetine in the rat forced swimming test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciulla, Leandro; Menezes, Honório Sampaio; Bueno, Bárbara Beatriz Moreira; Schuh, Alexandre; Alves, Rafael José Vargas; Abegg, Milena Pacheco

    2007-01-01

    To compare the effects of the antidepressant drugs duloxetine and fluoxetine on depressive behaviors in rodents. Eighteen male Wistar rats were given systemic injections of duloxetine, fluoxetine, or saline prior to a Forced Swimming Test (FST). Immobility and number of stops were measured. Rats given injections of fluoxetine displayed significantly less immobility (p = 0.02) and fewer stops than the control group (p = 0.003). Duloxetine significantly reduced the number of stops (p = 0.003), but did not effect immobility (p = 0.48). Duloxetine and fluoxetine reduced depressive behaviors in the Forced FST. However, our findings suggest that fluoxetine is more effective than duloxetine.

  1. Effects of nanoparticle zinc oxide on emotional behavior and trace elements homeostasis in rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amara, Salem; Slama, Imen Ben; Omri, Karim; El Ghoul, Jaber; El Mir, Lassaad; Rhouma, Khemais Ben; Abdelmelek, Hafedh; Sakly, Mohsen

    2015-12-01

    Over recent years, nanotoxicology and the potential effects on human body have grown in significance, the potential influences of nanosized materials on the central nervous system have received more attention. The aim of this study was to determine whether zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles (NPs) exposure cause alterations in emotional behavior and trace elements homeostasis in rat brain. Rats were treated by intraperitoneal injection of ZnO NPs (20-30 nm) at a dose of 25 mg/kg body weight. Sub -: acute ZnO NPs treatment induced no significant increase in the zinc content in the homogenate brain. Statistically significant decreases in iron and calcium concentrations were found in rat brain tissue compared to control. However, sodium and potassium contents remained unchanged. Also, there were no significant changes in the body weight and the coefficient of brain. In the present study, the anxiety-related behavior was evaluated using the plus-maze test. ZnO NPs treatment modulates slightly the exploratory behaviors of rats. However, no significant differences were observed in the anxious index between ZnO NP-treated rats and the control group (p > 0.05). Interestingly, our results demonstrated minimal effects of ZnO NPs on emotional behavior of animals, but there was a possible alteration in trace elements homeostasis in rat brain. © The Author(s) 2012.

  2. Antidepressant behavioral effects of duloxetine and fluoxetine in the rat forced swimming test

    OpenAIRE

    Ciulla,Leandro; Menezes,Honório Sampaio; Bueno,Bárbara Beatriz Moreira; Schuh,Alexandre; Alves,Rafael José Vargas; Abegg,Milena Pacheco

    2007-01-01

    PURPOSE: To compare the effects of the antidepressant drugs duloxetine and fluoxetine on depressive behaviors in rodents. METHODS: Eighteen male Wistar rats were given systemic injections of duloxetine, fluoxetine, or saline prior to a Forced Swimming Test (FST). Immobility and number of stops were measured. RESULTS: Rats given injections of fluoxetine displayed significantly less immobility (p = 0.02) and fewer stops than the control group (p = 0.003). Duloxetine significanlty reduced the nu...

  3. Effects of Metabolic Cage Housing on Rat Behavior and Performance in the Social Interaction Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittaker, Alexandra L; Lymn, Kerry A; Howarth, Gordon S

    2016-01-01

    Although the metabolic cage is commonly used for housing nonhuman animals in the laboratory, it has been recognized as constituting a unique stressor. Such an environment would be expected to affect behavioral change in animals housed therein. However, few studies have specifically addressed the nature or magnitude of this change. The current study sought to characterize the behavioral time budget of rats in metabolic cage housing in comparison to that of individually housed animals in standard open-top cages. Rats in metabolic cages spent less time moving, manipulating enrichment, and carrying out rearing behaviors, and there was a corresponding shift toward inactivity. In an applied Social Interaction Test, behavioral scoring implied that metabolic cage housing had an anxiogenic effect. In conclusion, metabolic cage housing produces measurable effects on spontaneous and evoked behavior in rats in the laboratory. These behavioral changes may lead to a negative emotional state in these animals, which could have negative welfare consequences. Further research is needed to quantify the existence and magnitude of such an effect on rat well being.

  4. WHY DO THE ACUTE BEHAVIORAL EFFECTS OT TOLUENE IN RATS DEPEND ON THE ROUTE OF EXPOSURE?

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    Despite evidence suggesting that the acute effects of organic solvents are related to their concentration in the brain, we have observed route-dependent differences in the acute behavioral effects of toluene. Whereas inhaled toluene disrupts the performance of rats on a visual si...

  5. Fluoxetine Exerts Age-Dependent Effects on Behavior and Amygdala Neuroplasticity in the Rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homberg, Judith R.; Olivier, Jocelien D. A.; Blom, Tom; Arentsen, Tim; van Brunschot, Chantal; Schipper, Pieter; Korte-Bouws, Gerdien; van Luijtelaar, Gilles; Reneman, Liesbeth

    2011-01-01

    The selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) Prozac® (fluoxetine) is the only registered antidepressant to treat depression in children and adolescents. Yet, while the safety of SSRIs has been well established in adults, serotonin exerts neurotrophic actions in the developing brain and thereby may have harmful effects in adolescents. Here we treated adolescent and adult rats chronically with fluoxetine (12 mg/kg) at postnatal day (PND) 25 to 46 and from PND 67 to 88, respectively, and tested the animals 7–14 days after the last injection when (nor)fluoxetine in blood plasma had been washed out, as determined by HPLC. Plasma (nor)fluoxetine levels were also measured 5 hrs after the last fluoxetine injection, and matched clinical levels. Adolescent rats displayed increased behavioral despair in the forced swim test, which was not seen in adult fluoxetine treated rats. In addition, beneficial effects of fluoxetine on wakefulness as measured by electroencephalography in adults was not seen in adolescent rats, and age-dependent effects on the acoustic startle response and prepulse inhibition were observed. On the other hand, adolescent rats showed resilience to the anorexic effects of fluoxetine. Exploratory behavior in the open field test was not affected by fluoxetine treatment, but anxiety levels in the elevated plus maze test were increased in both adolescent and adult fluoxetine treated rats. Finally, in the amygdala, but not the dorsal raphe nucleus and medial prefrontal cortex, the number of PSA-NCAM (marker for synaptic remodeling) immunoreactive neurons was increased in adolescent rats, and decreased in adult rats, as a consequence of chronic fluoxetine treatment. No fluoxetine-induced changes in 5-HT1A receptor immunoreactivity were observed. In conclusion, we show that fluoxetine exerts both harmful and beneficial age-dependent effects on depressive behavior, body weight and wakefulness, which may relate, in part, to differential fluoxetine

  6. Fluoxetine exerts age-dependent effects on behavior and amygdala neuroplasticity in the rat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith R Homberg

    Full Text Available The selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI Prozac® (fluoxetine is the only registered antidepressant to treat depression in children and adolescents. Yet, while the safety of SSRIs has been well established in adults, serotonin exerts neurotrophic actions in the developing brain and thereby may have harmful effects in adolescents. Here we treated adolescent and adult rats chronically with fluoxetine (12 mg/kg at postnatal day (PND 25 to 46 and from PND 67 to 88, respectively, and tested the animals 7-14 days after the last injection when (norfluoxetine in blood plasma had been washed out, as determined by HPLC. Plasma (norfluoxetine levels were also measured 5 hrs after the last fluoxetine injection, and matched clinical levels. Adolescent rats displayed increased behavioral despair in the forced swim test, which was not seen in adult fluoxetine treated rats. In addition, beneficial effects of fluoxetine on wakefulness as measured by electroencephalography in adults was not seen in adolescent rats, and age-dependent effects on the acoustic startle response and prepulse inhibition were observed. On the other hand, adolescent rats showed resilience to the anorexic effects of fluoxetine. Exploratory behavior in the open field test was not affected by fluoxetine treatment, but anxiety levels in the elevated plus maze test were increased in both adolescent and adult fluoxetine treated rats. Finally, in the amygdala, but not the dorsal raphe nucleus and medial prefrontal cortex, the number of PSA-NCAM (marker for synaptic remodeling immunoreactive neurons was increased in adolescent rats, and decreased in adult rats, as a consequence of chronic fluoxetine treatment. No fluoxetine-induced changes in 5-HT(1A receptor immunoreactivity were observed. In conclusion, we show that fluoxetine exerts both harmful and beneficial age-dependent effects on depressive behavior, body weight and wakefulness, which may relate, in part, to differential

  7. Effect of tribulus terrestris saponins on behavior and neuroendocrine in chronic mild stress depression rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhe; Zhang, Dongdong; Hui, Shan; Zhang, Yingjin; Hu, Suiyu

    2013-04-01

    To observe the effect of tribulus terrestris saponins (TTS) on behavior and neuroendocrine of chronic mild stress (CMS) depression rats. Thirty male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly allocated to six groups: vehicle group, CMS group, CMS + fluoxetine group and CMS + TTS of low-dosage (0.375 g/kg), medium-dosage (0.75 g/kg) and high-dosage (2.25 g/kg) groups. All rats except the vehicle group singly housed and exposed an unpredicted sequence of mild stressors. The behavior of rats was detected by open-field test (OFT) and sucrose preference test (SPT). The concentration of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) in serum of the rats were detected by radioimmunoassay. The concentration of cortisol (CORT) in serum was detected by enzyme immunoassay. CMS procedure not only significantly decreased the scores of crossing, rears and grooming in OFT and the sucrose preference in SPT (all P < 0.01), but also markedly increased serum CRH and CORT levels (both P < 0.05). Treatment with TTS (0.75 and 2.25 g/kg) could significantly prevent all of these abnormalities induced by CMS (P < 0.05, P < 0.01). CMS can affect rat behavior and neuroendocrine and cause depression. TTS has the antagonism on CMS and produce antidepressive effects.

  8. A comparative study of the anorectic and behavioral effects of fenproporex on male and female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattei, R; Carlini, E A

    1996-08-01

    The anorectic and behavioral effects of fenproporex (Fenp, 10 mg/kg, ip) and methamphetamine (Met, 2.5 mg/kg, ip), a prototypical example of an amphetamine-like drug, were studied in male and female Wistar rats (5 and 3 months of age, respectively, at the beginning of the experiments) after acute (immediately after a single dose) or chronic treatment (after 60 days of administration). For the evaluation of the experimental parameters six groups of eight rats each were utilized for food intake and stereotyped behavior and six groups of nine rats each for body weight and motor activity. Similar anorectic effects (decreased food intake in grams: saline (Sal): 12.8 +/- 2.5, Met: 4.7 +/- 4.0, and Fenp: 4.4 +/- 20; decreased weight gain: Sal: 38 +/- 10, Met: 25 +/- 1.0, and Fenp: 27 +/- 3.0) were induced by both drugs in male rats. Female rats, however, required larger doses (20 mg/kg Fenp and 5.0 mg/kg Met) for a complete blockade of food intake. The behavioral tests were carried out 30, 60, 120, 180 and 300 min after drug administration and on day 1 and day 60 immediately after the treatment, for stereotypy and motor activity, respectively (male rats: Met: 3.8 +/- 0.3, Fenp: 6.0 +/- 0.9, and female rats: Met: 15.4 +/- 1.9, Fenp: 9.7 +/- 1.3). Though stereotyped behavior such as sniffing, continuous licking, and false bites was observed in all animals, this was more evident and prolonged in female rats. Both drugs also increased motor activity (male rats, acute treatment: Met: 608 +/- 419, Fenp: 677 +/- 354; chronic treatment: Met: 701 +/- 423, Fenp: 908 +/- 479; female rats, acute treatment: Met: 817 +/- 350, Fenp: 1177 +/- 282; chronic treatment: Met: 623 +/- 274, Fenp: 1511 +/- 573) with female rats once again showing greater sensitivity both after acute and chronic treatment. Our data indicate that fenproporex, like methamphetamine, has a stimulating effect on the central nervous system, indicating an action on the dopaminergic systems. These data further suggest

  9. Effects of heavy-ion exposure to rat's hypothalamus on the copulatory behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Masayoshi; Kawata, Tetsuya; Liu, C.; Kan'o, Momoe; Ito, Hisao; Takai, Nobuhiko; Ando, Koichi

    2005-01-01

    The effect of heavy-ion irradiation to brain on sexual behavior is not yet known. The present study was designed to determine whether irradiation (carbon particles 290 MeV/nucleon, Mono peak 15∼120 Gy, irradiation field 5-millimeter cube in hypothalamus) to rat's hypothalamus modifies the copulatory behavior of male rats. For the first year, we planned to estimate the short-term effects of carbon-irradiation on the copulatory behavior using a relatively high doses, and observation of sexual behavior was conducted for 30 min after 1, 2 or 3 months following irradiation. Results obtained in the first year are as follows. At dosages of 15 Gy, 30 Gy, 45 Gy and 60 Gy these were no changes in copulatory behavior after one month following irradiation; however, the intromission and ejaculation was found to decrease after 3-month follow-up in rats exposed to 60 Gy. At higher doses such as 90 Gy, 120 Gy, the number of mounting, intromission (120 Gy alone) and ejaculation (90 Gy, 120 Gy) were decreased. It may be possible to describe that carbon irradiation to hypothalamus does not inhibit the activity of copulatory behavior after short-term. Further experiments after long-term follow-up after irradiation are necessary to determine the chronic effects of heavy ions on the copulatory behavior. (author)

  10. Effects of Sex and Stress on Trigeminal Neuropathic Pain-Like Behavior in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korczeniewska, Olga Anna; Khan, Junad; Tao, Yuanxiang; Eliav, Eli; Benoliel, Rafael

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the effects and interactions of sex and stress (provoked by chronic restraint [RS]) on pain-like behavior in a rat model of trigeminal neuropathic pain. The effects of sex and RS (carried out for 14 days as a model for stress) on somatosensory measures (reaction to pinprick, von Frey threshold) in a rat model of trigeminal neuropathic pain were examined. The study design was 2 × 4, with surgery (pain) and sham surgery (no pain) interacting with male restrained (RS) and unrestrained (nRS) rats and female RS and nRS rats. A total of 64 Sprague Dawley rats (32 males and 32 females) were used. Half of the animals in each sex group underwent RS, and the remaining half were left unstressed. Following the RS period, trigeminal neuropathic pain was induced by unilateral infraorbital nerve chronic constriction injury (IOCCI). Half of the animals in the RS group and half in the nRS group (both males and females) were exposed to IOCCI, and the remaining halves to sham surgery. Elevated plus maze (EPM) assessment and plasma interferon gamma (IFN-γ) levels were used to measure the effects of RS. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to assess the effects of stress, sex, and their interactions on plasma IFN-γ levels, changes in body weight, EPM parameters, tactile allodynia, and mechanohyperalgesia. Pairwise comparisons were performed by using Tukey post hoc test corrected for multiple comparisons. Both male and female RS rats showed significantly altered exploratory behavior (as measured by EPM) and had significantly lower plasma IFN-γ levels than nRS rats. Rats exposed to RS gained weight significantly slower than the nRS rats, irrespective of sex. Following RS but before surgery, RS rats showed significant bilateral reductions in von Frey thresholds and significantly increased pinprick response difference scores compared to nRS rats, irrespective of sex. From 17 days postsurgery, RSIOCCI rats showed significantly reduced von Frey thresholds and

  11. Effects of chronic lead intoxication on rat serotoninergic system and anxiety behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansar, Wafa; Bouyatas, My Mustapha; Ahboucha, Samir; Gamrani, Halima

    2012-01-01

    Chronic lead exposure has been shown to produce behavioral disturbances in human and animal models. These disturbances are associated with alterations in monoaminergic neurotransmission in the central nervous system (CNS), some of which have been attributed to serotonin (5-HT). This study was undertaken to investigate the chronic effects of lead exposure on the serotoninergic system in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) and the consequences of its toxicity on rat behavior. Adult male Wistar rats were chronically exposed for 3 months to 0.5% lead acetate in drinking water. The serotoninergic system was evaluated using immunohistochemistry and the anxiety behavior was assessed by the light/dark box test. The results show that chronic lead exposure induces a significant increase of blood and brain lead levels in treated rats compared with controls. The density of the immunoreactive serotoninergic cell bodies was significantly higher in treated rats in all parts of the DRN. Assessment of animal behavior using the light/dark box test showed that lead-treated rats spent significantly more time in the light chamber compared with controls (P=0.001). These findings suggest that lead exposure may possibly induce increased anxiety as a consequence of changes in neuronal 5-HT content in the DRN. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. The effect of ACTH analogues on motor behavior and visual evoked responses in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolthuis, O.L.; Wied, D. de

    1976-01-01

    Averaged visual evoked responses (VER) in cortical area 17 were recorded one hour after the administration of 7-l-phe ACTH(4-10) or 7-d-phe ACTH(4-10) to artificially ventilated rats, paralysed with gallamine. In addition, the effects of these peptides on spontaneous motor behavior were analyzed.

  13. Protective effect of curcumin (Curcuma longa), against aluminium toxicity: Possible behavioral and biochemical alterations in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Anil; Dogra, Samrita; Prakash, Atish

    2009-12-28

    Aluminium is a potent neurotoxin and has been associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD) causality for decades. Prolonged aluminium exposure induces oxidative stress and increases amyloid beta levels in vivo. Current treatment modalities for AD provide only symptomatic relief thus necessitating the development of new drugs with fewer side effects. The aim of the study was to demonstrate the protective effect of chronic curcumin administration against aluminium-induced cognitive dysfunction and oxidative damage in rats. Aluminium chloride (100 mg/kg, p.o.) was administered to rats daily for 6 weeks. Rats were concomitantly treated with curcumin (per se; 30 and 60 mg/kg, p.o.) daily for a period of 6 weeks. On the 21st and 42nd day of the study behavioral studies to evaluate memory (Morris water maze and elevated plus maze task paradigms) and locomotion (photoactometer) were done. The rats were sacrificed on 43rd day following the last behavioral test and various biochemical tests were performed to assess the extent of oxidative damage. Chronic aluminium chloride administration resulted in poor retention of memory in Morris water maze, elevated plus maze task paradigms and caused marked oxidative damage. It also caused a significant increase in the acetylcholinesterase activity and aluminium concentration in aluminium treated rats. Chronic administration of curcumin significantly improved memory retention in both tasks, attenuated oxidative damage, acetylcholinesterase activity and aluminium concentration in aluminium treated rats (Paluminium-induced cognitive dysfunction and oxidative damage.

  14. The effect of prenatal exposure to diazepam on aspects of postnatal development and behavior in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gai, N; Grimm, V E

    1982-01-01

    In the present study the effects of chronic treatment of pregnant rats with diazepam on the physical and behavioral development of their offspring were investigated. Rats that were diazepam-exposed prenatally were compared to age-matched controls in terms of the following: number of littermates; birth weight and weight gain until weaning: motor development and coordination; simple motor learning; open field activity; performance on learning tasks of varying complexity; retention of these tasks. Nulliparous Wistar rats were injected s.c. for 16 days of their pregnancy was either 2.5, 5, of 10 mg/kg diazepam or an equal volume of vehicle. Prenatal diazepam treatment did not alter litter size, birth weight, or the righting reflex, but seemed to retard early motor development transiently. Diazepam pups showed longer latencies and less rearing in the open field. There were no differences between animals exposed to drug and vehicle in simple motor learning or in acquiring a simple successive discrimination task. However, there were significant dose-dependent differences on a complex six-choice simultaneous discrimination learning task, the diazepam-exposed rats making more errors and taking more time to reach the goal. A significant difference was seen again between diazepam- and vehicle-exposed rats on the retention test 10 days later. The results indicate that diazepam administered to pregnant rats has long-range effects on the behavior of the offspring, some becoming manifest even in maturity.

  15. A COMBINED EFFECT OF DEXTROMETHORPHAN AND MELATONIN ON NEUROPATHIC PAIN BEHAVIOR IN RATS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuxing; Zhang, Lin; Lim, Grewo; Sung, Backil; Tian, Yinghong; Chou, Chiu-Wen; Hernstadt, Hayley; Rusanescu, Gabriel; Ma, Yuxin; Mao, Jianren

    2009-01-01

    Previous study has shown that administration of melatonin into the anterior cingulate cortex contralateral to peripheral nerve injury prevented exacerbation of mechanical allodynia with a concurrent improvement of depression-like behavior in Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats, a genetic variation of Wistar rats. In the present study, we examined the effect of the individual versus combined treatment of melatonin and/or dextromethorphan (DM), a clinically available N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist, on pain behaviors in WKY rats with chronic constriction sciatic nerve injury (CCI). Pain behaviors (thermal hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia) were established at one week after CCI. WKY rats were then treated intraperitoneally with various doses of melatonin, DM or their combination once daily for the following week. At the end of this one-week treatment, behavioral tests were repeated in these same rats. While DM alone was effective in reducing thermal hyperalgesia at three tested doses (15, 30 or 60 mg/kg), it reduced mechanical allodynia only at high doses (30 or 60 mg/kg). By comparison, administration of melatonin alone was effective in reducing thermal hyperalgesia only at the highest dose (120 mg/kg, but not 30 or 60 mg/kg) tested in this experiment. Melatonin alone failed to reverse allodynia at all three tested doses (30, 60 and 120 mg/kg). However, the combined intraperitoneal administration of melatonin (30 mg/kg) and DM (15 mg/kg) effectively reversed both thermal hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia although each individual dose alone did not reduce pain behaviors. These results suggest that a combination of melatonin with a clinically available NMDA receptor antagonist might be more effective than either drug alone for the treatment of neuropathic pain. PMID:19595681

  16. Effect of music therapy on pain behaviors in rats with bone cancer pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Ji; Chen, Shaoqin; Lin, Suyong; Han, Hongjing

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the effects of music therapy on the pain behaviors and survival of rats with bone cancer pain and analyze the mediating mechanism of mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) signal transduction pathway. Male Wistar rats aged 5-8 weeks and weighing 160-200 g were collected. The rat models of colorectal cancer bone cancer pain was successfully established. Animals were divided into experimental and control group, each with 10 rats. The animals in the observation group were given Mozart K448 sonata, sound intensity of 60 db, played the sonata once every 1 hr in the daytime, stopped playing during the night, and this cycle was kept for 2 weeks. On the other hand, rats in the control group were kept under the same environment without music. Animals in the experimental group consumed more feed and gained significant weight in comparison to the control group. The tumor volume of the experimental group was significantly smaller than that of the control group (pMusic therapy may improve the pain behaviors in rats with bone cancer pain, which might be related with low expression of p38á and p38β in the MAPK signal transduction pathway.

  17. Potential behavioral and pro-oxidant effects of Petiveria alliacea L. extract in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Andrade, Thaís Montenegro; de Melo, Ademar Soares; Dias, Rui Guilherme Cardoso; Varela, Everton Luís Pompeu; de Oliveira, Fábio Rodrigues; Vieira, José Luís Fernandes; de Andrade, Marcieni Ataíde; Baetas, Ana Cristina; Monteiro, Marta Chagas; Maia, Cristiane do Socorro Ferraz

    2012-09-28

    Petiveria alliacea (Phytolaccaceae) is a perennial shrub indigenous to the Amazon Rainforest and tropical areas of Central and South America, the Caribbean, and sub-Saharan Africa. In folk medicine, Petiveria alliacea has a broad range of therapeutic properties; however, it is also associated with toxic effects. The present study evaluated the putative effects of Petiveria alliacea on the central nervous system, including locomotor activity, anxiety, depression-like behavior, and memory, and oxidative stress. Two-month-old male and female Wistar rats (n=7-10 rats/group) were administered with 900 mg/kg of hydroalcoholic extracts of Petiveria alliacea L. The behavioral assays included open-field, forced swimming, and elevated T-maze tests. The oxidative stress levels were measured in rat blood samples after behavioral assays and methemoglobin levels were measured in vitro. Consistent with previous reports, Petiveria alliacea increased locomotor activity. It also exerted previously unreported anxiolytic and antidepressant effects in behavioral tests. In the oxidative stress assays, the Petiveria alliacea extract decreased Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity levels and increased methemoglobin levels, which was related to the toxic effects. The Petiveria alliacea extract exerted motor stimulatory and anxiolytic effects in the OF test, antidepressant effects in the FS test, and elicited memory improvement in ETM. Furthermore, the Petiveria alliacea extract also exerted pro-oxidant effects in vitro and in vivo, inhibiting the antioxidant status and increasing MetHb levels in human plasma, respectively. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Behavioral effects of endogenous or exogenous estradiol and progesterone on cocaine sensitization in female rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, M.F. [Universidade Federal de Ciências da Saúde de Porto Alegre, Laboratório de Neurociência Comportamental, Porto Alegre, RS, Brasil, Laboratório de Neurociência Comportamental, Universidade Federal de Ciências da Saúde de Porto Alegre, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Couto-Pereira, N.S. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Instituto de Ciências Básicas da Saúde, Departamento de Bioquímica, Porto Alegre, RS, Brasil, Departamento de Bioquímica, Instituto de Ciências Básicas da Saúde, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Freese, L.; Costa, P.A.; Caletti, G.; Bisognin, K.M. [Universidade Federal de Ciências da Saúde de Porto Alegre, Laboratório de Neurociência Comportamental, Porto Alegre, RS, Brasil, Laboratório de Neurociência Comportamental, Universidade Federal de Ciências da Saúde de Porto Alegre, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Nin, M.S. [Universidade Federal de Ciências da Saúde de Porto Alegre, Laboratório de Neurociência Comportamental, Porto Alegre, RS, Brasil, Laboratório de Neurociência Comportamental, Universidade Federal de Ciências da Saúde de Porto Alegre, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Instituto Porto Alegre, Centro Metodista do Sul, Curso de Farmácia, Porto Alegre, RS, Brasil, Curso de Farmácia, Centro Metodista do Sul, Instituto Porto Alegre, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Gomez, R. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Instituto de Ciências Básicas da Saúde, Departamento de Farmacologia, Porto Alegre, RS, Brasil, Departamento de Farmacologia, Instituto de Ciências Básicas da Saúde, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Barros, H.M.T. [Universidade Federal de Ciências da Saúde de Porto Alegre, Laboratório de Neurociência Comportamental, Porto Alegre, RS, Brasil, Laboratório de Neurociência Comportamental, Universidade Federal de Ciências da Saúde de Porto Alegre, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2014-05-09

    Cocaine sensitization is a marker for some facets of addiction, is greater in female rats, and may be influenced by their sex hormones. We compared the modulatory effects of endogenous or exogenous estradiol and progesterone on cocaine-induced behavioral sensitization in 106 female rats. Ovariectomized female rats received progesterone (0.5 mg/mL), estradiol (0.05 mg/mL), progesterone plus estradiol, or the oil vehicle. Sham-operated control females received oil. Control and acute subgroups received injections of saline, while the repeated group received cocaine (15 mg/kg, ip) for 8 days. After 10 days, the acute and repeated groups received a challenge dose of cocaine, after which locomotion and stereotypy were monitored. The estrous cycle phase was evaluated and blood was collected to verify hormone levels. Repeated cocaine treatment induced overall behavioral sensitization in female rats, with increased locomotion and stereotypies. In detailed analysis, ovariectomized rats showed no locomotor sensitization; however, the sensitization of stereotypies was maintained. Only females with endogenous estradiol and progesterone demonstrated increased locomotor activity after cocaine challenge. Estradiol replacement enhanced stereotyped behaviors after repeated cocaine administration. Cocaine sensitization of stereotyped behaviors in female rats was reduced after progesterone replacement, either alone or concomitant with estradiol. The behavioral responses (locomotion and stereotypy) to cocaine were affected differently, depending on whether the female hormones were of an endogenous or exogenous origin. Therefore, hormonal cycling appears to be an important factor in the sensitization of females. Although estradiol increases the risk of cocaine sensitization, progesterone warrants further study as a pharmacological treatment in the prevention of psychostimulant abuse.

  19. Behavioral effects of endogenous or exogenous estradiol and progesterone on cocaine sensitization in female rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, M.F.; Couto-Pereira, N.S.; Freese, L.; Costa, P.A.; Caletti, G.; Bisognin, K.M.; Nin, M.S.; Gomez, R.; Barros, H.M.T.

    2014-01-01

    Cocaine sensitization is a marker for some facets of addiction, is greater in female rats, and may be influenced by their sex hormones. We compared the modulatory effects of endogenous or exogenous estradiol and progesterone on cocaine-induced behavioral sensitization in 106 female rats. Ovariectomized female rats received progesterone (0.5 mg/mL), estradiol (0.05 mg/mL), progesterone plus estradiol, or the oil vehicle. Sham-operated control females received oil. Control and acute subgroups received injections of saline, while the repeated group received cocaine (15 mg/kg, ip) for 8 days. After 10 days, the acute and repeated groups received a challenge dose of cocaine, after which locomotion and stereotypy were monitored. The estrous cycle phase was evaluated and blood was collected to verify hormone levels. Repeated cocaine treatment induced overall behavioral sensitization in female rats, with increased locomotion and stereotypies. In detailed analysis, ovariectomized rats showed no locomotor sensitization; however, the sensitization of stereotypies was maintained. Only females with endogenous estradiol and progesterone demonstrated increased locomotor activity after cocaine challenge. Estradiol replacement enhanced stereotyped behaviors after repeated cocaine administration. Cocaine sensitization of stereotyped behaviors in female rats was reduced after progesterone replacement, either alone or concomitant with estradiol. The behavioral responses (locomotion and stereotypy) to cocaine were affected differently, depending on whether the female hormones were of an endogenous or exogenous origin. Therefore, hormonal cycling appears to be an important factor in the sensitization of females. Although estradiol increases the risk of cocaine sensitization, progesterone warrants further study as a pharmacological treatment in the prevention of psychostimulant abuse

  20. Behavioral effects of endogenous or exogenous estradiol and progesterone on cocaine sensitization in female rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.F. Souza

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Cocaine sensitization is a marker for some facets of addiction, is greater in female rats, and may be influenced by their sex hormones. We compared the modulatory effects of endogenous or exogenous estradiol and progesterone on cocaine-induced behavioral sensitization in 106 female rats. Ovariectomized female rats received progesterone (0.5 mg/mL, estradiol (0.05 mg/mL, progesterone plus estradiol, or the oil vehicle. Sham-operated control females received oil. Control and acute subgroups received injections of saline, while the repeated group received cocaine (15 mg/kg, ip for 8 days. After 10 days, the acute and repeated groups received a challenge dose of cocaine, after which locomotion and stereotypy were monitored. The estrous cycle phase was evaluated and blood was collected to verify hormone levels. Repeated cocaine treatment induced overall behavioral sensitization in female rats, with increased locomotion and stereotypies. In detailed analysis, ovariectomized rats showed no locomotor sensitization; however, the sensitization of stereotypies was maintained. Only females with endogenous estradiol and progesterone demonstrated increased locomotor activity after cocaine challenge. Estradiol replacement enhanced stereotyped behaviors after repeated cocaine administration. Cocaine sensitization of stereotyped behaviors in female rats was reduced after progesterone replacement, either alone or concomitant with estradiol. The behavioral responses (locomotion and stereotypy to cocaine were affected differently, depending on whether the female hormones were of an endogenous or exogenous origin. Therefore, hormonal cycling appears to be an important factor in the sensitization of females. Although estradiol increases the risk of cocaine sensitization, progesterone warrants further study as a pharmacological treatment in the prevention of psychostimulant abuse.

  1. Effects of voluntary alcohol intake on risk preference and behavioral flexibility during rat adolescence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew S McMurray

    Full Text Available Alcohol use is common in adolescence, with a large portion of intake occurring during episodes of binging. This pattern of alcohol consumption coincides with a critical period for neurocognitive development and may impact decision-making and reward processing. Prior studies have demonstrated alterations in adult decision-making following adolescent usage, but it remains to be seen if these alterations exist in adolescence, or are latent until adulthood. Here, using a translational model of voluntary binge alcohol consumption in adolescents, we assess the impact of alcohol intake on risk preference and behavioral flexibility during adolescence. During adolescence (postnatal day 30-50, rats were given 1-hour access to either a 10% alcohol gelatin mixture (EtOH or a calorie equivalent gelatin (Control at the onset of the dark cycle. EtOH consuming rats were classified as either High or Low consumers based on intake levels. Adolescent rats underwent behavioral testing once a day, with one group performing a risk preference task, and a second group performing a reversal-learning task during the 20-day period of gelatin access. EtOH-High rats showed increases in risk preference compared to Control rats, but not EtOH-Low animals. However, adolescent rats did a poor job of matching their behavior to optimize outcomes, suggesting that adolescents may adopt a response bias. In addition, adolescent ethanol exposure did not affect the animals' ability to flexibly adapt behavior to changing reward contingencies during reversal learning. These data support the view that adolescent alcohol consumption can have short-term detrimental effects on risk-taking when examined during adolescence, which does not seem to be attributable to an inability to flexibly encode reward contingencies on behavioral responses.

  2. Opiate-like electroencephalographic and behavioral effects of electroconvulsive shock in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tortella, F C; Cowan, A; Belenky, G L; Holaday, J W

    1981-12-03

    Rats were studied (a) after a single transauricular electroshock (acute ECS) and (b) following 10 consecutive once-daily shocks (chronic ECS). ECS produced a generalized convulsion marked by a polyspike EEG seizure. The seizure was followed by a period of postictal depression (PID) characterized by EEG high-voltage synchrony, EMG quietening, and an associated stuporous behavior in the rat. Acute ECS produced a maximal of 33 +/- 8 (S.E.) percent above control in the EEG voltage output during postictus, with the PID lasting 2680 +/- 658 sec. Chronic ECS resulted in a significant enhancement of these acute responses. Pretreating rats with naloxone (0.3-10 mg/kg s.c.) antagonized the postictal effects of acute ECS, but not of chronic ECS. These naloxone-sensitive postictal EEG and behavioral changes appear to reflect a release of endogenous opioid peptides during ictus, a finding consistent with the hypothesis that electroshock activates opioid systems.

  3. Postnatal cocaine exposure: effects on behavior of rats in forced swim test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães, Ana; Tavares, Maria Amélia; de Sousa, Liliana

    2002-06-01

    Exposure to cocaine in early periods of postnatal life has adverse effects on behavior, namely, it induces the display of anxiety and fear-like behaviors that are associated with stress and depression. This study examined the effects of early developmental cocaine exposure in several categories of behavior observed in forced swim test. Male and female Wistar rats were given 15 mg/kg of cocaine hydrochloride/body weight/day, subcutaneously, in two daily doses, from postnatal day (PND) 1 to PND27. Controls were saline injected in the same protocol. In PND26-PND27, rats were placed in a swimming pool during 5 min in two sessions. The categories of behavior studied in this work included horizontal and vertical rotation, vibrissae clean, head clean, fast and slow swim, struggling, floating, sliding, diving, head-diving, and wagging head. Results showed differences in the frequencies of several behavioral categories that allowed the discrimination of the behaviors that may constitute "behavioral despair" indicators, as well as which behaviors are most affected by cocaine exposure. Cocaine groups were less active and more immobile than controls. These results suggest that postnatal exposure to cocaine can produce depression-like effects and affect the ability of these animals to cope with stress situations.

  4. Effects of Maternal Behavior Induction and Pup Exposure on Neurogenesis in Adult, Virgin Female Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuta, Miyako; Bridges, Robert S.

    2009-01-01

    The states of pregnancy and lactation bring about a range of physiological and behavioral changes in the adult mammal that prepare the mother to care for her young. Cell proliferation increases in the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the female rodent brain during both pregnancy and lactation when compared to that in cycling, diestrous females. In the present study, the effects of maternal behavior induction and pup exposure on neurogenesis in nulliparous rats were examined in order to determine whether maternal behavior itself, independent of pregnancy and lactation, might affect neurogenesis. Adult, nulliparous, Sprague-Dawley, female rats were exposed daily to foster young in order to induce maternal behavior. Following the induction of maternal behavior each maternal subject plus females that were exposed to pups for a comparable number of test days, but did not display maternal behavior, and subjects that had received no pup exposure were injected with bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU, 90 mg/kg, i.v.). Brain sections were double-labeled for BrdU and the neural marker, NeuN, to examine the proliferating cell population. Increases in the number of double-labeled cells were found in the maternal virgin brain when compared with the number of double-labeled cells present in non-maternal, pup-exposed nulliparous rats and in females not exposed to young. No changes were evident in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus as a function of maternal behavior. These data indicate that in nulliparous female rats maternal behavior itself is associated with the stimulation of neurogenesis in the SVZ. PMID:19712726

  5. Effects of diphenyl and p-chloro-diphenyl diselenides on feeding behavior of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortolatto, Cristiani F; Heck, Suélen O; Gai, Bibiana M; Zborowski, Vanessa A; Neto, José S S; Nogueira, Cristina W

    2015-07-01

    The searching for safe and effective antiobesity drugs has been the subject of intense research. Previous studies have shown several pharmacological applications of organoselenium compounds; however, their possible anorectic-like actions have not been investigated. This study aims to investigate the effects of (PhSe)2 and (p-ClPhSe)2 on feeding behavior of rats and their potential as weight-reducing agents. The effects of intraperitoneal administration of diselenides were investigated through the microstructural pattern of feeding behavior, behavioral satiety sequence (BSS), hypothalamic serotonin (5-HT) uptake, body weight, and epididymal fat content of male rats. Our findings demonstrated that food intake of fasted rats was reduced by both diselenides (1 and 10 mg/kg). Diphenyl diselenide [(PhSe)2] (1 mg/kg) and p-chloro-diphenyl diselenide [(p-ClPhSe)2] (10 mg/kg) decreased the frequency, mean duration, and mean size of meals compared with the control treatment. The BSS structure was preserved when organoselenium compounds (1 mg/kg) were administered, and it was associated to a displacement to the left when the resting period started indicating a satiating action. Inhibition of 5-HT uptake in the hypothalamus (∼20 %) was also found in rats treated with low doses of (PhSe)2 and (p-ClPhSe)2 (1 mg/kg). Treatments with a high dose of both diselenides (10 mg/kg) carried out for 7 days induced weight loss and epididymal fat reduction in sated rats. This study suggests that diselenides caused a satiating action in rats that could be partially explained by the inhibition of hypothalamic 5-HT uptake. These organoselenium compounds were potential weight-reducing agents when repeatedly administered.

  6. Behavioral and Physiological Effects of Hindlimb Unloading in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Robert A.

    1998-01-01

    The overarching objective of this project was to identify changes in neural and biochemical systems of the central and peripheral nervous systems (the CNS and PNS) that are related to disruptions of functional motor responses, or motor control. The identification of neural and biochemical changes that are related to sensory-motor adaptation elicited as animals react to changes in the gravitational field was of particular interest. Thus, the major objective of this work was to study disruptions of motor responses that arise after (sic. due to) chronic exposure to altered gravity (G). To do this, parallel studies investigating changes in neural, sensory, and neuromuscular systems were conducted after animals (rats) experienced chronic exposure to conditions of altered-G. Conditions of altered-G included hyper-G produced by centrifugation, micro-G produced by orbital flight, and simulated micro-G produced by hind limb suspension. A second major interest was to examine the contribution of putative changes in sensory systems to disruptions of motor responses. To do this, motor responses and reflexes of rats were studied following chronic treatment with streptomycin sulfate (STP, an ototoxic chemical) to damage the vestibular hair cells.

  7. Changes in operant behavior of rats exposed to lead at the accepted no-effect level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross-Selbeck, E; Gross-Selbeck, M

    1981-11-01

    After weaning, male and female Wistar rats were fed a daily diet containing 1 g lead acetate/kg food until a level of about 20 micrograms/100 mL blood was obtained. The male rats were subjected to the different behavioral tests, whereas the females were mated to untreated males and further exposed until weaning of the offspring. Behavioral testing of the male offspring was performed between 3 and 4 months of age. General behavior of both groups was tested in the open-field task including locomotion, local movements, and emotionality. The conditioned instrumental behavior was tested in the Skinner box from simple to more complex programs. The blood-lead level was measured by flameless atomic absorption spectrometry. No behavioral changes became apparent in the open-field task and in the preliminary operant training. In the more complex programs (DRH = Differential Reinforcement of High Rates), the rats exposed to lead after weaning showed slight changes of DRH performance. By contrast, in pre- and neonatally exposed animals, DRH performance was significantly increased, although blood-lead levels had returned to normal at the time of testing. A comparison of lead effects in animals to possible effects in man is discussed in this paper, and it is concluded that lead exposure to man at doses which presently are suggested to be innocuous may result in subclinical functional changes of the central nervous system.

  8. Effects of the estrous cycle and ovarian hormones on behavioral indices of anxiety in female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, S; Dussaubat, N; Díaz-Véliz, G

    1996-10-01

    The influence of the estrous cycle and the effects of exogenous administration of estradiol and progesterone on level of anxiety were studied in intact and ovariectomized rats. Intact Sprague-Dawley female rats were classified according to the stages of estrous cycle. Another group of rats was ovariectomized bilaterally and, 14 days after surgery, they received estradiol benzoate (10 micrograms/kg, s.c.) and/or progesterone (25 mg/kg, s.c.) or corn oil (1 ml/kg). The behavioral tests began 3 h after estradiol or 6 h after progesterone and consisted of: (1) exploration of an elevated plus-maze; and (2) retention of a passive avoidance response. Open-arm exploration of the plus-maze varied according to light intensity and the stages of the estrous cycle. There was a slight increase in open-arm exploration by rats in metestrus, under high light intensity. Low light intensity increased the exploration of the open arms by rats in proestrus and estrus, compared to the other phases of the cycle. Retention of the passive avoidance response was inhibited during proestrus and estrus. Progesterone increased open-arm exploration of the plus-maze under high light conditions, whereas estradiol antagonized this effect. Retention of passive avoidance was inhibited after estradiol or progesterone injection. These results suggest that the behavioral indices of anxiety can vary across the estrous cycle, that low light intensities have anxiolytic-like effects, and that the sensitivity to this effect is higher during proestrus and estrus. This could be explained through modulatory effects of ovarian hormones upon behavioral indices of anxiety.

  9. Hypercaloric diet modulates effects of chronic stress: a behavioral and biometric study on rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Carla de; Oliveira, Cleverson Moraes de; de Macedo, Isabel Cristina; Quevedo, Alexandre S; Filho, Paulo Ricardo Marques; Silva, Fernanda Ribeiro da; Vercelino, Rafael; de Souza, Izabel C Custodio; Caumo, Wolnei; Torres, Iraci L S

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is a chronic disease that has been associated with chronic stress and hypercaloric diet (HD) consumption. Increased ingestion of food containing sugar and fat ingredients (comfort food) is proposed to "compensate" chronic stress effects. However, this eating habit may increase body fat depositions leading to obesity. This study evaluated behavioral/physiological parameters seeking to establish whether there is an association between the effects of HD intake and stress, and to test the hypothesis that the development of anxious behavior and obesity during chronic stress periods depends on the type of diet. Sixty-day-old male Wistar rats (n = 100) were divided into four groups: standard chow, hypercaloric diet, chronic stress/standard chow and chronic stress/hypercaloric diet. Chronic stress was induced by restraint stress exposure for 1 h/day, for 80 d. At the end of this period, rat behavior was evaluated using open-field and plus-maze tests. The results showed that HD alone increased weight gain and adipose deposition in subcutaneous and mesenteric areas. However, stress reduced weight gain and adipose tissue in these areas. HD also increased naso-anal length and concurrent stress prevented this. Behavioral data indicated that stress increased anxiety-like behaviors and comfort food reduced these anxiogenic effects; locomotor activity increased in rats fed with HD. Furthermore, HD decreased corticosterone levels and stress increased adrenal weight. The data indicate that when rats are given HD and experience chronic stress this association reduces the pro-obesogenic effects of HD, and decreases adrenocortical activity.

  10. Effects of pre- and postnatal litter size reduction on development and behavior of rat offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milković, K; Paunović, J; Joffe, J M

    1976-07-01

    Litter size was reduced to 2-5 rat pups either prenatally by unilateral maternal oviduct ligation (Group PRN) or postnatally by removing pups (Group PST). Normal size litters (8-10 pups) of sham ligated (SHM) and intact (CON) mothers served as controls. Weights at 30 days were increased by prenatal or postnatal reduction and reduced by prenatal stress (SHM); the sex difference in weight was most pronounced in PRN rats. At 75 days PRN rats were heaviest, with no differences between the other groups. Relative ovarian weights were reduced in PRN females and absolute testes weights increased in PST males. The PRN and SHM females had smaller relative adrenal weights than CON and PST females. Open-field activity was generally increased by prior avoidance conditioning and effects of treatments were found only in groups tested after avoidance-conditioning: PRN and SHM rats were more active than PST and CON rats, particularly on Days 1 (SHM) and 4 (SHM and PRN) of testing. Passive-avoidance behavior of PRN rats was also more susceptible to previous test experience: they emerged more slowly if they had prior open-field experience. The PST animals, in contrast, emerged more rapidly after prior test experience. Plasma corticosterone levels and shuttlebox conditioning and extinction were unaffected by treatments.

  11. Effect of DA-8031, a novel oral compound for premature ejaculation, on male rat sexual behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Kyung Koo; Sung, Ji Hyun; Kim, Soon Hoe; Lee, Sukhyang

    2014-03-01

    DA-8031 is a potent and selective serotonin transporter inhibitor developed for the treatment of premature ejaculation. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of DA-8031 on male sexual behavior in a rat model. Sexual behavior was examined after an acute oral administration of 10, 30 or 100 mg/kg of DA-8031 in copulation studies with female rats. Pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated after oral administration of DA-8031 at a dose level of 30 mg/kg. DA-8031 treatment produced a dose-dependent increase in ejaculation latency time and showed statistical significance at 30 and 100 mg/kg dosage levels compared with the vehicle (P DA-8031 treatment reduced the mean number of ejaculations in a dose-dependent manner. No changes in post-ejaculatory interval, numbers of mounts, intromissions or ejaculations were observed at any dose. In pharmacokinetic study, the blood concentration of DA-8031 peaked at 0.38 ± 0.14 h after oral administration, and then rapidly declined with a half-life of 1.79 ± 0.32 h. Treatment with DA-8031 delays the ejaculation latency time without affecting the initiation of mounting behavior or post-ejaculatory interval in rats. Furthermore, DA-8031 is rapidly absorbed and eliminated after oral administration in rats. These preclinical findings provide a clue for the clinical testing of DA-8031 as an "on-demand" agent for premature ejaculation. © 2013 The Japanese Urological Association.

  12. Effect of Inhaling Bergamot Oil on Depression-Related Behaviors in Chronic Stressed Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiyudthong, Somrudee; Mekseepralard, Chantana

    2015-10-01

    Bergamot essential oil (BEO) possesses sedation and anxiolytic properties similar to diazepam. After long period of exposure to stressors, including restrained stress, depressive-like behavior can be produced. BEO has been suggested to reduce depression. However, there is no scientific evidence supporting this property. To investigate the effect of BEO in chronic stressed rats on: 1) behavior related depressive disorder, 2) hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis response, and iii) brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) protein levels in hippocampus. Male Wistar rats, weighing 200 to 250 g, were induced chronic restrained stress 15 minutes dailyfor two weeks. For the next two weeks, these rats were divided intofour groups, control-i.p., fluoxetine-i.p., control-inhale, and BEO-inhale. Fluoxetine (10 mg/kg i.p.) or saline was intraperitoneally administered daily while 2.5% BEO or saline was inhaled daily. At the end of the treatment, rats were assessed for depressive-like behavior using the forced swimming test (FST). After the behavioral test, the animals were immediately decapitated and trunk blood samples were collected for the measurement ofcorticosterone and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) levels and hippocampus was dissected and stored in afreezer at -80 °C until assay for BDNF protein. BEO andfluoxetine significantly decreased the immobility time in the FST (p BDNF protein determination, neither BEO norfluoxetine had any effect on BDNF protein levels in hippocampus compared to their controls. The inhalation ofBEO decrease behavior related depressive disorder similar tofluoxetine but has no effect on HPA axis response and BDNF protein levels in chronic restrained stress.

  13. Differential effects of magnetic field exposure from domestic power supply on loco motor and exploratory behavior of an adult rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anandavadivel, A.; Caleo, M.

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, we have examined the low intense magnetic field exposed on adult rats to understand effect of several behavioral parameters. The rats are tested in the open field and spontaneous alternation task after either a single or chronic exposure to the magnetic field. We found that magnetic field exposure had no effect on locomotor behavior in the adult. However, the exploratory behavior of adult rats in the open field was significantly affected. Indeed, we found a consistent increase in behavior performance viz. exploration time and number of exploration events in rats exposed to magnetic field. Our results demonstrate behavioral changes after magnetic field exposure in adult subjects. This also suggests possible deleterious effects of magnetic field exposure in the brain. (author)

  14. Effects of serotonin (5-HT)1B receptor ligands on amphetamine-seeking behavior in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miszkiel, Joanna; Przegaliński, Edmund

    2013-01-01

    Numerous studies have indicated that serotonin (5-HT)1B receptor ligands affect the behavioral effects of psychostimulants (cocaine, amphetamine), including the reinforcing activities of these drugs. To substantiate a role for those receptors in incentive motivation for amphetamine, we used the extinction/reinstatement model to examine the effects of the 5-HT1B receptor ligands on the reinstatement of extinguished amphetamine-seeking behavior. Rats trained to self-administer amphetamine (0.06 mg/kg/infusion) subsequently underwent the extinction procedure. These rats were then tested for the amphetamine-primed or amphetamine-associated cue-induced reinstatement of extinguished amphetamine-seeking behavior. The 5-HT1B receptor antagonist SB 216641 (5-7.5 mg/kg) attenuated the amphetamine (1.5 mg/kg)- and the amphetamine-associated cue combined with the threshold dose of amphetamine (0.5 mg/kg)-induced reinstatement of amphetamine-seeking behavior. The 5-HT1B receptor agonist CP 94253 (1.25-5 mg/kg) also inhibited the amphetamine-seeking behavior induced by amphetamine (1.5 mg/kg) but not by the cue combined with the threshold dose of amphetamine. The inhibitory effect of CP94253 on amphetamine-seeking behavior remained unaffected by the 5-HT1B receptor antagonist. Our results indicate that tonic activation of 5-HT1B receptors is involved in amphetamine- and cue-induced reinstatement of amphetamine-seeking behavior and that the inhibitory effects of 5-HT1B receptor antagonists on these phenomena are directly related to the motivational aspects of amphetamine abuse. The inhibitory effect of CP 94253 on amphetamine-seeking behavior seems to be unrelated to 5-HT1B receptor activation and may result from a general reduction of motivation.

  15. Effects of chronic administration of caffeine and stress on feeding behavior of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettenuzzo, Leticia Ferreira; Noschang, Cristie; von Pozzer Toigo, Eduardo; Fachin, Andrelisa; Vendite, Deusa; Dalmaz, Carla

    2008-10-20

    Anorectic effects of caffeine are controversial in the literature, while stress and obesity are growing problems in our society. Since many stressed people are coffee drinkers, the objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of stress and chronic administration of caffeine on feeding behavior and body weight in male and female rats. Wistar rats (both males and females) were divided into 3 groups: control (receiving water), caffeine 0.3 g/L and caffeine 1.0 g/L (in the drinking water). These groups were subdivided into non-stressed and stressed (repeated-restraint stress for 40 days). During the entire treatment, chow consumption was monitored and rats were weighed monthly. Afterwards, feeding behavior was evaluated during 3-min trials in food-deprived and ad libitum fed animals and also in repeated exposures, using palatable food (Froot Loops and Cheetos). Chronic administration of caffeine did not affect rat chow consumption or body weight gain, but diminished the consumption of both salty (Cheetos) and sweet (Froot Loops) palatable food. In the repeated trial tests, stress diminished savory snack consumption in the later exposures [I.S. Racotta, J. Leblanc, D. Richard The effect of caffeine on food intake in rats: involvement of corticotropin-releasing factor and the sympatho-adrenal system. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1994, 48:887-892; S.D. Comer, M. Haney, R.W. Foltin, M.W. Fischman Effects of caffeine withdrawal on humans living in a residential laboratory. Exp Clin Psychopharmacol. 1997, 5:399-403; A. Jessen, B. Buemann, S. Toubro, I.M. Skovgaard, A. Astrup The appetite-suppressant effect of nicotine is enhanced by caffeine. Diab Ob Metab. 2005, 7:327-333; J.M. Carney Effects of caffeine, theophylline and theobromine on scheduled controlled responding in rats. Br J Pharmacol. 1982, 75:451-454] and caffeine diminished consumption of both palatable foods (savory and sweet) during the early and later exposures. Most responses to caffeine were stronger

  16. Effects of Chronic Central Arginine Vasopressin (AVP) on Maternal Behavior in Chronically Stressed Rat Dams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coverdill, Alexander J.; McCarthy, Megan; Bridges, Robert S.; Nephew, Benjamin C.

    2012-01-01

    Exposure of mothers to chronic stressors during pregnancy or the postpartum period often leads to the development of depression, anxiety, or other related mood disorders. The adverse effects of mood disorders are often mediated through maternal behavior and recent work has identified arginine vasopressin (AVP) as a key neuropeptide hormone in the expression of maternal behavior in both rats and humans. Using an established rodent model that elicits behavioral and physiological responses similar to human mood disorders, this study tested the effectiveness of chronic AVP infusion as a novel treatment for the adverse effects of exposure to chronic social stress during lactation in rats. During early (day 3) and mid (day 10) lactation, AVP treatment significantly decreased the latency to initiate nursing and time spent retrieving pups, and increased pup grooming and total maternal care (sum of pup grooming and nursing). AVP treatment was also effective in decreasing maternal aggression and the average duration of aggressive bouts on day 3 of lactation. Central AVP may be an effective target for the development of treatments for enhancing maternal behavior in individuals exposed to chronic social stress. PMID:24349762

  17. Pharmacological effects of ethanol on ingestive behavior of the preweanling rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlov, Andrey P; Nizhnikov, Michael E; Varlinskaya, Elena I; Spear, Norman E

    2009-12-14

    The present study was designed to test the hypothesis that sensitivity of ingestive behavior of infant rat to the pharmacological effects of ethanol changes between postnatal (P) days 9 and 12. The intake of 0.1% saccharin and water, general motor activity, and myoclonic twitching activity were assessed following administration of three doses of ethanol (0, 0.25, and 0.5 g/kg) while fluids were free available to the animals. The 0.5 g/kg dose of ethanol attenuated saccharin intake in P9 pups and enhanced saccharin intake in P12 rats. On P12 some sex-related differences emerged at 0.5 g/kg of ethanol, with saccharin intake being higher in females than in their male counterparts. Taste reactivity probe revealed that 0.5 g/kg of ethanol increased taste responsiveness to saccharin on P12 but only to infusions presented at a high rate. The results of the present study indicate that ontogenetic changes in sensitivity to the effects of ethanol on ingestive behavior occur during the second postnatal week, with P9 animals being more sensitive to the inhibitory (sedative) effects on saccharin intake and P12 rats being more sensitive to the stimulatory effects of ethanol. We suggest that acute ethanol enhanced saccharin intake via sensitization of oral response to appetitive taste stimulation.

  18. Behavioral Characterization of the Effects of Cannabis Smoke and Anandamide in Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriaan W Bruijnzeel

    Full Text Available Cannabis is the most widely used illicit drug in the world. Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC is the main psychoactive component of cannabis and its effects have been well-studied. However, cannabis contains many other cannabinoids that affect brain function. Therefore, these studies investigated the effect of cannabis smoke exposure on locomotor activity, rearing, anxiety-like behavior, and the development of dependence in rats. It was also investigated if cannabis smoke exposure leads to tolerance to the locomotor-suppressant effects of the endogenous cannabinoid anandamide. Cannabis smoke was generated by burning 5.7% Δ9-THC cannabis cigarettes in a smoking machine. The effect of cannabis smoke on the behavior of rats in a small and large open field and an elevated plus maze was evaluated. Cannabis smoke exposure induced a brief increase in locomotor activity followed by a prolonged decrease in locomotor activity and rearing in the 30-min small open field test. The cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1 receptor antagonist rimonabant increased locomotor activity and prevented the smoke-induced decrease in rearing. Smoke exposure also increased locomotor activity in the 5-min large open field test and the elevated plus maze test. The smoke exposed rats spent more time in the center zone of the large open field, which is indicative of a decrease in anxiety-like behavior. A high dose of anandamide decreased locomotor activity and rearing in the small open field and this was not prevented by rimonabant or pre-exposure to cannabis smoke. Serum Δ9-THC levels were 225 ng/ml after smoke exposure, which is similar to levels in humans after smoking cannabis. Exposure to cannabis smoke led to dependence as indicated by more rimonabant-precipitated somatic withdrawal signs in the cannabis smoke exposed rats than in the air-control rats. In conclusion, chronic cannabis smoke exposure in rats leads to clinically relevant Δ9-THC levels, dependence, and has

  19. Inhibition of hormonal and behavioral effects of stress by tryptophan in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gul, Sumera; Saleem, Darakhshan; Haleem, Muhammad A; Haleem, Darakhshan Jabeen

    2017-11-03

    Stress in known to alter hormonal systems. Pharmacological doses of tryptophan, the essential amino acid precursor of serotonin, increase circulating leptin and decrease ghrelin in normal healthy adults. Because systemically injected leptin inhibits stress-induced behavioral deficits and systemically injected serotonin modulates leptin release from the adipocytes, we used tryptophan as a pharmacological tool to modulate hormonal and behavioral responses in unstressed and stressed rats. Leptin, ghrelin, serotonin, tryptophan, and behavior were studied in unstressed and stressed rats following oral administration of 0, 100, 200, and 300 mg/kg of tryptophan. Following oral administration of tryptophan at a dose of 300 mg/kg, circulating levels of serotonin and leptin increased and those of ghrelin decreased in unstressed animals. No effect occurred on 24-hours cumulative food intake and elevated plus maze performance. Exposure to 2 hours immobilization stress decreased 24 hours cumulative food intake and impaired performance in elevated plus maze monitored next day. Serum serotonin decreased, leptin increased, and no effect occurred on ghrelin. Stress effects on serotonin, leptin, food intake, and elevated plus maze performance did not occur in tryptophan-pretreated animals. Tryptophan-induced decreases of ghrelin also did not occur in stressed animals. The findings show an important role of serum serotonin, leptin, and ghrelin in responses to stress and suggest that the essential amino acid tryptophan can improve therapeutics in stress-induced hormonal and behavioral disorders.

  20. Effects of harmane and other β-carbolines on apomorphine-induced licking behavior in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farzin, Davood; Haghparast, Abbas; Motaman, Shirine; Baryar, Faegheh; Mansouri, Nazanin

    2011-04-01

    Harmane, harmine and norharmane are β-carboline compounds which have been referred to as inverse agonists of benzodiazepine receptors. The effect of these compounds on apomorphine-induced licking behavior was studied in rats. Subcutaneous (s.c.) injection of apomorphine (0.5 mg/kg) induced licking. The licking behavior was counted with a hand counter and recorded for a period of 75 min by direct observation. Intraperitoneal (i.p.) injections of harmane (1.25-5 mg/kg), harmine (2.5-10 mg/kg) and norharmane (1.25-5 mg/kg) significantly reduced the licking behavior. In rats pretreated with reserpine (5 mg/kg, i.p., 18 h before the test), the effects of harmane (4 mg/kg, i.p.), harmine (7.8 mg/kg, i.p.) and norharmane (2.5 mg/kg, i.p.) were unchanged. When flumazenil (2 mg/kg, i.p.) was administered 20 min before apomorphine, it was able to antagonize the effects of harmane, harmine and norharmane. It was concluded that the β-carbolines harmane, harmine and norharmane reduce the licking behavior via an inverse agonistic mechanism located in the benzodiazepine receptors. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Behavioral and neural effects of intra-striatal infusion of anti-streptococcal antibodies in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotan, Dafna; Benhar, Itai; Alvarez, Kathy; Mascaro-Blanco, Adita; Brimberg, Lior; Frenkel, Dan; Cunningham, Madeleine W.; Joel, Daphna

    2014-01-01

    Group A β-hemolytic streptococcal (GAS) infection is associated with a spectrum of neuropsychiatric disorders. The leading hypothesis regarding this association proposes that a GAS infection induces the production of auto-antibodies, which cross-react with neuronal determinants in the brain through the process of molecular mimicry. We have recently shown that exposure of rats to GAS antigen leads to the production of anti-neuronal antibodies concomitant with the development of behavioral alterations. The present study tested the causal role of the antibodies by assessing the behavior of naïve rats following passive transfer of purified antibodies from GAS-exposed rats. Immunoglobulin G (IgG) purified from the sera of GAS-exposed rats was infused directly into the striatum of naïve rats over a 21-day period. Their behavior in the induced-grooming, marble burying, food manipulation and beam walking assays was compared to that of naïve rats infused with IgG purified from adjuvant-exposed rats as well as of naïve rats. The pattern of in vivo antibody deposition in rat brain was evaluated using immunofluorescence and colocalization. Infusion of IgG from GAS-exposed rats to naïve rats led to behavioral and motor alterations partially mimicking those seen in GAS-exposed rats. IgG from GAS-exposed rats reacted with D1 and D2 dopamine receptors and 5HT-2A and 5HT-2C serotonin receptors in vitro. In vivo, IgG deposits in the striatum of infused rats colocalized with specific brain proteins such as dopamine receptors, the serotonin transporter and other neuronal proteins. Our results demonstrate the potential pathogenic role of autoantibodies produced following exposure to GAS in the induction of behavioral and motor alterations, and support a causal role for autoantibodies in GAS-related neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:24561489

  2. Differential effects of chronic fluoxetine on the behavior of dominant and subordinate naked mole-rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mongillo, Daniel L; Kosyachkova, Ekaterina A; Nguyen, Tam M; Holmes, Melissa M

    2014-01-01

    Naked mole-rats are eusocial rodents that live in large subterranean colonies with a strict reproductive and social hierarchy. The breeding female (referred to as the queen) and 1 to 3 breeding males are the only reproductive members of the colony. Breeders are socially dominant and all other colony members are non-reproductive subordinates. The effects of manipulating the serotonergic neurotransmitter system on aggression and dominance behaviors are well studied in many species, but not in eusocial rodents like the naked mole-rat. The current study investigated how the serotonergic system influences aggressive/dominant behaviors in this species. To do this, two separate but related experiments were conducted: the effects of fluoxetine hydrochloride (FLX) on status-specific behaviors of subordinates (Experiment 1) and dominant queens (Experiment 2) were evaluated both in-colony and in a social-pairing paradigm. In accordance with our main hypothesis, chronic treatment of FLX attenuated the frequency and duration of aggression in queens, but not subordinates, when paired with an unfamiliar conspecific. Further exploration of pharmacological manipulation on status-specific behaviors of this eusocial species may elucidate the neurobiological mechanisms underlying their unique and rigid social hierarchy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Modulatory effects of caffeine on oxidative stress and anxiety-like behavior in ovariectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caravan, Ionut; Sevastre Berghian, Alexandra; Moldovan, Remus; Decea, Nicoleta; Orasan, Remus; Filip, Gabriela Adriana

    2016-09-01

    Menopause is accompanied by enhanced oxidative stress and behavioral changes, effects attenuated by antioxidants. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of caffeine on behavior and oxidative stress in an experimental model of menopause. Female rats were divided into the following groups: sham-operated (CON), sham-operated and caffeine-treated (CAF), ovariectomized (OVX), ovariectomized and caffeine-treated (OVX+CAF). Caffeine (6 mg/kg) and vehicle were administered for 21 days (subchronic) and 42 days (chronic), using 2 experimental subsets. Behavioral tests and oxidative stress parameters in the blood, whole brain, and hippocampus were assessed. The subchronic administration of caffeine decreased the lipid peroxidation and improved the antioxidant defense in the blood and brain. The GSH/GGSG ratio in the brain was improved by chronic administration, with reduced activities of antioxidant enzymes and enhanced nitric oxide and malondialdehyde levels. In particular, the lipid peroxidation in the hippocampus decreased in both experiments. The rats became hyperactive after 21 days of treatment, but no effect was observed after chronic administration. In both experimental subsets, caffeine had anxiolytic effects as tested in elevated plus maze. The administration of low doses of caffeine, for a short period of time, may be a new therapeutic approach to modulating the oxidative stress and anxiety in menopause.

  4. BENEFICIAL EFFECT OF CHRONIC NIMODIPINE TREATMENT ON BEHAVIORAL DYSFUNCTIONS OF AGED RATS EXPOSED TO PERINATAL ETHANOL TREATMENT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MARKEL, E; FELSZEGHY, K; LUITEN, PGM; NYAKAS, C

    1995-01-01

    The long-term effects of prenatal and early postnatal ethanol exposure were assessed in adult (5-month), aged (24-month), and senescent (30-month) rats on non-aggressive intermale social behavior, and on black-white discrimination and spatial learning behaviors. Furthermore, the effects of chronic

  5. The Effects of Early-Life Predator Stress on Anxiety- and Depression-Like Behaviors of Adult Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu-jing Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Childhood emotional trauma contributes significantly to certain psychopathologies, such as post-traumatic stress disorder. In experimental animals, however, whether or not early-life stress results in behavioral abnormalities in adult animals still remains controversial. Here, we investigated both short-term and long-term changes of anxiety- and depression-like behaviors of Wistar rats after being exposed to chronic feral cat stress in juvenile ages. The 2-week predator stress decreased spontaneous activities immediately following stress but did not increase depression- or anxiety-like behaviors 4 weeks after the stimulation in adulthood. Instead, juvenile predator stress had some protective effects, though not very obvious, in adulthood. We also exposed genetic depression model rats, Wistar Kyoto (WKY rats, to the same predator stress. In WKY rats, the same early-life predator stress did not enhance anxiety- or depression-like behaviors in both the short-term and long-term. However, the stressed WKY rats showed slightly reduced depression-like behaviors in adulthood. These results indicate that in both normal Wistar rats and WKY rats, early-life predator stress led to protective, rather than negative, effects in adulthood.

  6. The Effects of Early-Life Predator Stress on Anxiety- and Depression-Like Behaviors of Adult Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lu-jing; Shen, Bing-qing; Liu, Dan-dan; Li, Sheng-tian

    2014-01-01

    Childhood emotional trauma contributes significantly to certain psychopathologies, such as post-traumatic stress disorder. In experimental animals, however, whether or not early-life stress results in behavioral abnormalities in adult animals still remains controversial. Here, we investigated both short-term and long-term changes of anxiety- and depression-like behaviors of Wistar rats after being exposed to chronic feral cat stress in juvenile ages. The 2-week predator stress decreased spontaneous activities immediately following stress but did not increase depression- or anxiety-like behaviors 4 weeks after the stimulation in adulthood. Instead, juvenile predator stress had some protective effects, though not very obvious, in adulthood. We also exposed genetic depression model rats, Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats, to the same predator stress. In WKY rats, the same early-life predator stress did not enhance anxiety- or depression-like behaviors in both the short-term and long-term. However, the stressed WKY rats showed slightly reduced depression-like behaviors in adulthood. These results indicate that in both normal Wistar rats and WKY rats, early-life predator stress led to protective, rather than negative, effects in adulthood. PMID:24839560

  7. Precipitated withdrawal counters the adverse effects of subchronic cannabinoid administration on male rat sexual behavior.

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    Riebe, Caitlin J; Lee, Tiffany T; Hill, Matthew N; Gorzalka, Boris B

    2010-03-26

    In the present study, sexual behavior of male rats was assessed following prolonged treatment with the CB(1) receptor agonist, HU-210 (0.1mg/mg/day for 10 days) under conditions of drug maintenance, spontaneous withdrawal and precipitated withdrawal (induced via administration of the CB(1) receptor antagonist AM251; 1mg/kg). Following subchronic cannabinoid treatment, sexual activity in male rats was impaired under both the drug maintenance and spontaneous withdrawal conditions, as revealed by a reduction in frequency of both intromissions and ejaculations. Notably, the induction of precipitated drug withdrawal reversed the negative effects of subchronic HU-210 treatment on sexual activity as seen by a reversal of the suppression of ejaculations. These data illustrate that, contrary to expectations, the impairments in male sexual activity following protracted cannabinoid administration are not due to drug withdrawal, per se, but are likely mediated by neuroadaptive changes provoked by repeated drug exposure. 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid on rat maternal behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuertz, Nelson; Deis, Ricardo P.; Jahn, Graciela A.; Duffard, Ricardo; Evangelista de Duffard, Ana Maria.

    2008-01-01

    Exposure to 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) has several deleterious effects on the nervous system such as alterations in the concentrations of neurotransmitters in the brain and/or behavioral changes, myelination rate, ganglioside pattern [Bortolozzi, A., Duffard, R., Antonelli, M., Evangelista de Duffard, A.M., 2002. Increased sensitivity in dopamine D(2)-like brain receptors from 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D)-exposed and amphetamine-challenged rats. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 965, 314-323; Duffard, R., Garcia, G., Rosso, S., Bortolozzi, A., Madariaga, M., DiPaolo, O., Evangelista de Duffard, A.M., 1996. Central nervous system myelin deficit in rats exposed to 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid throughout lactation. Neurotoxicol. Teratol. 18, 691-696; Evangelista de Duffard, A.M., Orta, C., Duffard, R., 1990. Behavioral changes in rats fed a diet containing 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic butyl ester. Neurotoxicology 11, 563-572; Evangelista de Duffard, A.M., Bortolozzi, A., Duffard, R.O., 1995. Altered behavioral responses in 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid treated and amphetamine challenged rats. Neurotoxicology 16, 479-488; Munro, I.C., Carlo, G.L., Orr, J.C., Sund, K., Wilson, R.M. Kennepohl, E. Lynch, B., Jablinske, M., Lee, N., 1992. A comprehensive, integrated review and evaluation of the scientific evidence relating to the safety of the herbicide 2,4-D. J. Am. Coll. Toxicol. 11, 559-664; Rosso et al., 2000], and its administration to pregnant and lactating rats adversely affects litter growth and milk quality. Since normal growth of the offspring depends on adequate maternal nursing and care, we evaluated the effect of 2,4-D on rat maternal behavior as well as the dam's monoamine levels in arcuate nucleus (AcN) and serum prolactin (PRL) levels. Wistar dams were exposed to the herbicide through the food from post partum day (PPD) 1 to PPD 7. Dams were fed either with a 2,4-D treated diet (15, 25 or 50 mg 2,4-D/kg/day bw) or with a control diet. We observed

  9. Comparison of carbon dioxide and argon euthanasia: effects on behavior, heart rate, and respiratory lesions in rats.

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    Burkholder, Tanya H; Niel, Lee; Weed, James L; Brinster, Lauren R; Bacher, John D; Foltz, Charmaine J

    2010-07-01

    In this study we compared rat (n = 16) responses to euthanasia with either gradual-fill CO(2) or rapid induction argon gas by evaluating the animals' heart rate via radiotelemetry, behavior, and vocalizations. We also evaluated the histologic effects of the gases. Rats were placed in an open test chamber 24 h before the start of the experiment. During baseline tests, rats were exposed to oxygen to evaluate the effects of the noise and movement of gas entering the chamber; 1 wk later, rats were euthanized by gas displacement with either 10%/min CO(2) or 50%/min argon gas. Rats tended to have higher heart rats and were more active during the baseline test, but these parameters were normal before the euthanasia experiment, suggesting that the rats had acclimated to the equipment. Heart rate, behavior, and ultrasonic vocalizations were recorded for 2 min after gas introduction in both groups. All rats appeared conscious throughout the test interval. The heart rates of rats exposed to argon did not change, whereas those of rats exposed to CO(2) declined significantly. Unlike those exposed to CO(2), rats euthanized with argon gas gasped and demonstrated seizure-like activity. There were no differences in the pulmonary lesions resulting from death by either gas. Our results suggest that argon as a sole euthanasia agent is aversive to rats. CO(2) using a 10%/min displacement may be less aversive than more rapid displacements. Future research investigating methods of euthanasia should allow sufficient time for the rats to acclimate to the test apparatus.

  10. Combined Norepinephrine / Serotonergic Reuptake Inhibition: Effects on Maternal Behavior, Aggression and Oxytocin in the Rat

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    Elizabeth Thomas Cox

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Few systematic studies exist on the effects of chronic reuptake of monoamine neurotransmitter systems during pregnancy on the regulation of maternal behavior, although many drugs act primarily through one or more of these systems. Previous studies examining fluoxetine and amfonelic acid treatment during gestation on subsequent maternal behavior in rodents indicated significant alterations in postpartum maternal care, aggression and oxytocin levels. In this study, we extended our studies to include chronic gestational treatment with desipramine or amitriptyline to examine differential effects of reuptake inhibition of norepinephrine and combined noradrenergic and serotonergic systems on maternal behavior, aggression, and oxytocin system changes. METHODS: Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were treated throughout gestation with saline or one of three doses of either desipramine, which has a high affinity for the norepinephrine monoamine transporter, or amitriptyline, an agent with high affinity for both the norepinephrine and serotonin monoamine transporters. Maternal behavior and postpartum aggression were assessed on postpartum days one and six respectively. Oxytocin levels were measured in relevant brain regions on postpartum day seven. Predictions were that amitriptyline would decrease maternal behavior and increase aggression relative to desipramine, particularly at higher doses. Amygdaloidal oxytocin was expected to decrease with increased aggression. RESULTS: Amitriptyline and desiprimine differentially reduced maternal behavior, and at higher doses reduced aggressive behavior. Hippocampal oxytocin levels were lower after treatment with either drug but were not correlated with specific behavioral effects. These results, in combination with previous findings following gestational treatment with other selective neurotransmitter reuptake inhibitors, highlight the diverse effects of multiple monoamine systems thought to be involved in

  11. Effects of heavy-ion exposure to rat's hypothalamus on the copulatory behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Masayoshi; Uno, Takashi; Kawata, Tetsuya; Liu, C.; Kan'o, Momoe; Okamura, Junko; Ito, Hisao; Takai, Nobuhiko; Ando, Koichi

    2006-01-01

    The present study was designed to determine whether irradiation (carbon particles 290 MeV/nucleon, Mono Peak 30-60 Gy, irradiation field 5 mm cube in hypothalamus) to hypothalamus modifies the copulatory behavior of male rats. By the second year, we studied the chronic effects for heavy ions on the copulatory behavior. In addition, the influence of heavy ions to cortex (irradiation field width and depth 5 mm, respectively) was studied. The copulatory items were recorded: frequency number of mounting, intromission and ejaculation during 30 min after 1, 3 and 6-7 months following irradiation. Results are as follows. At 60 Gy to hypothalamus, the frequency number of intromission and ejaculation was decreased from one month to 7 months following irradiation. Particularly, suppression for the copulatory behavior was recognized in 3 and 4 months after irradiation. At 3 and 4 months after 60 Gy irradiation, the frequency number of ejaculation was decreased in comparison with non-irradiated (control) male rats. At 45 Gy to hypothalamus or cortex, the frequency number of ejaculation was decreased after one month (Both sides of hypothalamus and cortex) and 3 months (Only as for hypothalamus) following irradiation. At 30 Gy to cortex, the frequency number of ejaculation was similar but irradiation to hypothalamus decreased it 3 months following irradiation. (author)

  12. Effect of forced swim stress on wistar albino rats in various behavioral parameters

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    Ambareesha Kondam, Nilesh N Kate, Gaja Lakshmi, Suresh M, Chandrashekar M.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Stress is an important factor of depression that causes the changes in various body systems. The forced swim test is a commonly used stressor test where rats are forced to swim in specially constructed tanks for a particular period where there is behavioral activation characterized by vigorous swimming and diving to search for alternate routes of escape. Animal health including human has been shown to be affected by the stressful events of life inducing situation which alters cognition, learning memory and emotional responses, causing mental disorders like depression and anxiety and stress in rats. Methods: The experiment was carried out with 12 healthy albino Wistar female rats weighing about 150-180gms. The animals were randomly divided into two groups of six animals each. Group – I (control, Group – II (Stressed Group. Group –II rats are placed in plastic tanks for 45minutes for15 days. Temperature of water was maintained at 20˚C. During stress phase, the animals will be trained for forced swim test, behavioral changes observed by open field apparatus for emotions, and eight arm maze for memory & leaning, elevated plus maze for anxiety. Results: Forced swim stress causes to a significant change (p<0.05 on cognitive functions: motivation, learning and memory. Forced swim stress is the factor damaging the hippocampus causes repeated immobilization and produce atrophy of dendrites of pyramidal neurons and neuroendocrinological disturbances, controlled by the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA. Repeated stress in the form of forced swimming activates the free radical processes leading to an increase in lipid peroxidation in many tissues. Conclusion: This study reveals the effect of repeated forced swim stress causes wide range of adaptive changes in the central nervous system including the elevation of serotonin (5-HT metabolism and an increased susceptibility to affective disorders. The earlier findings have reported

  13. Mephedrone (4-Methylmethcathinone: Acute Behavioral Effects, Hyperthermic, and Pharmacokinetic Profile in Rats

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    Klára Šíchová

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Mephedrone (MEPH is a synthetic cathinone derivative with effects that mimic MDMA and/or cocaine. Our study in male Wistar rats provides detailed investigations of MEPH’s and its primary metabolite nor-mephedrone’s (nor-MEPH pharmacokinetics and bio-distribution to four different substrates (serum, brain, lungs, and liver, as well as comparative analysis of their effects on locomotion [open field test (OFT] and sensorimotor gating [prepulse inhibition of acoustic startle reaction (PPI ASR]. Furthermore, in order to mimic the crowded condition where MEPH is typically taken (e.g., clubs, the acute effect of MEPH on thermoregulation in singly- and group-housed rats was evaluated. Pharmacokinetics of MEPH and nor-MEPH after MEPH (5 mg/kg, sc. were analyzed over 8 h using liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry. MEPH (2.5, 5, or 20 mg/kg, sc. and nor-MEPH (5 mg/kg, sc. were administered 5 or 40 min before the behavioral testing in the OFT and PPI ASR; locomotion and its spatial distribution, ASR, habituation and PPI itself were quantified. The effect of MEPH on rectal temperature was measured after 5 and 20 mg/kg, sc. Both MEPH and nor-MEPH were detected in all substrates, with the highest levels detected in lungs. Mean brain: serum ratios were 1:1.19 (MEPH and 1:1.91 (nor-MEPH, maximum concentrations were observed at 30 min; at 2 and 4 h after administration, nor-MEPH concentrations were higher compared to the parent drug. While neither of the drugs disrupted PPI, both increased locomotion and affected its spatial distribution. The effects of MEPH were dose dependent, rapid, and short-lasting, and the intensity of locomotor stimulant effects was comparable between MEPH and nor-MEPH. Despite the disappearance of behavioral effects within 40 min after administration, MEPH induced rectal temperature elevations that persisted for 3 h even in singly housed rats. To conclude, we observed a robust, short-lasting, and most

  14. Effects of acupuncture on behavioral, cardiovascular and hormonal responses in restraint-stressed Wistar rats

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    Guimarães C.M.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Stress is a well-known entity and may be defined as a threat to the homeostasis of a being. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of acupuncture on the physiological responses induced by restraint stress. Acupuncture is an ancient therapeutic technique which is used in the treatment and prevention of diseases. Its proposed mechanisms of action are based on the principle of homeostasis. Adult male Wistar EPM-1 rats were divided into four groups: group I (N = 12, unrestrained rats with cannulas previously implanted into their femoral arteries for blood pressure and heart rate measurements; group II (N = 12, rats that were also cannulated and were submitted to 60-min immobilization; group III (N = 12, same as group II but with acupuncture needles implanted at points SP6, S36, REN17, P6 and DU20 during the immobilization period; group IV (N = 14, same as group III but with needles implanted at points not related to acupuncture (non-acupoints. During the 60-min immobilization period animals were assessed for stress-related behaviors, heart rate, blood pressure and plasma corticosterone, noradrenaline and adrenaline levels. Group III animals showed a significant reduction (60% on average, P<0.02 in restraint-induced behaviors when compared to groups II and IV. Data from cardiovascular and hormonal assessments indicated no differences between group III and group II and IV animals, but tended to be lower (50% reduction on average in group I animals. We hypothesize that acupuncture at points SP6, S36, REN17, P6 and DU20 has an anxiolytic effect on restraint-induced stress that is not due to a sedative action

  15. The beneficial effect of the flavonoid quercetin on behavioral changes in hemi-Parkinsonian rats

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    Mehdi Mehdizadeh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available   Abstract   Introduction: A large body of experimental evidence supports a role for oxidative stress as a mediator of nerve cell death in Parkinson's disease (PD. Flavonoids like quercetin have been reported to prevent neuronal degeneration caused by increased oxidative burden, therefore, this study examined whether quercetin administration at a high dose would attenuate behavioral abnormalities in experimental model of PD in rat.   Methods: For this purpose, unilateral intrastriatal 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA-lesioned rats were pretreated with quercetin (20 mg/kg; i.p. 1 hour before surgery and treated once a day for one month. After one month, apomorphine-induced rotational behavior was measured postlesion.   Results: Apomorphine-induced rotations were counted after 4 weeks. Quercetin administration could attenuate the rotational behavior in treated lesioned rats as compared to untreated ones.   Discussion: Flavonoid quercetin administration for one month could attenuate behavioral abnormalities in 6-OHDA model of PD.

  16. The beneficial effect of the flavonoid quercetin on behavioral changes in hemi-Parkinsonian rats

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    Mehdi Mehdizadeh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: A large body of experimental evidence supports a role for oxidative stress as a mediator of nerve cell death in Parkinson's disease (PD. Flavonoids like quercetin have been reported to prevent neuronal degeneration caused by increased oxidative burden, therefore, this study examined whether quercetin administration at a high dose would attenuate behavioral abnormalities in experimental model of PD in rat. Methods: For this purpose, unilateral intrastriatal 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA-lesioned rats were pretreated with quercetin (20 mg/kg i.p. 1 hour before surgery and treated once a day for one month. After one month, apomorphine-induced rotational behavior was measured postlesion. Results: Apomorphine-induced rotations were counted after 4 weeks. Quercetin administration could attenuate the rotational behavior in treated lesioned rats as compared to untreated ones. Discussion: Flavonoid quercetin administration for one month could attenuate behavioral abnormalities in 6-OHDA model of PD.

  17. Behavioral effects of microwave reinforcement schedules and variations in microwave intensity on albino rats

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    Vitulli, W.F.; Lambert, J.K.; Brown, S.W.; Quinn, J.M.

    1987-12-01

    The objective of this exploratory investigation was to determine the interactive effects of fixed-ratio scheduling of microwave reinforcement in tandem with changes in microwave intensity. Nine albino rats were conditioned to regulate their thermal environment with microwave radiation while living in a Skinner (operant conditioning) Box in which the ambient temperature was about 27.13 degrees F at the beginning of the session. Each rat obtained a 6-sec. exposure of microwave radiation on a fixed-ratio schedule of MW reinforcement, the values of which varied from FR-1 to FR-30. Intensities of MW radiation were 62.5 W, 125 W, 250 W, and 437.5 W. Sessions lasted for 8 to 9 hr. over an approximate 13-mo. period. The effects of the intensity of microwave reinforcement varied as a function of the ratio value of the schedule used. Continuous reinforcement (FR-1) produced the lowest over-all rates, whereas FR-15, and FR-25 produced the highest over-all rates. Relatively higher thermal-behavior rates occurred under 62.5 W than under any of the other MW intensities for FR-1, FR-15, and FR-25, whereas FR-10 and FR-30 ratios produced intermediate rates of thermal responding which were constant for all values of MW intensity. These data are explained in terms of interactive effects between the local satiation or deprivation properties of the MW intensity and the ratio requirements of the schedule of MW reinforcement.

  18. Buprenorphine, methadone, and morphine treatment during pregnancy: behavioral effects on the offspring in rats

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    Chen HH

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Hwei-Hsien Chen,1,2,* Yao-Chang Chiang,3,4,* Zung Fan Yuan,5,6 Chung-Chih Kuo,5,6 Mei-Dan Lai,2 Tsai-Wei Hung,1 Ing-kang Ho,1,3,4 Shao-Tsu Chen2,7 1Center for Neuropsychiatric Research, National Health Research Institutes, Miaoli County, Taiwan; 2Master and PhD Program in Pharmacology and Toxicology, Tzu Chi University, Hualien, Taiwan; 3Center for Drug Abuse and Addiction, China Medical University Hospital, 4Graduate Institute of Clinical Medical Science, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan; 5Master Program in Physiological and Anatomical Medicine, 6Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Tzu Chi University, 7Department of Psychiatry, Buddhist Tzu Chi General Hospital, Hualien, Taiwan *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Methadone and buprenorphine are widely used for treating people with opioid dependence, including pregnant women. Prenatal exposure to opioids has devastating effects on the development of human fetuses and may induce long-term physical and neurobehavioral changes during postnatal maturation. This study aimed at comparing the behavioral outcomes of young rats prenatally exposed to buprenorphine, methadone, and morphine. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were administered saline, morphine, methadone, and buprenorphine during embryonic days 3–20. The cognitive function, social interaction, anxiety-like behaviors, and locomotor activity of offsprings were examined by novel object recognition test, social interaction test, light–dark transition test, elevated plus-maze, and open-field test between 6 weeks and 10 weeks of age. Prenatal exposure to methadone and buprenorphine did not affect locomotor activity, but significantly impaired novel object recognition and social interaction in both male and female offsprings in the same manner as morphine. Although prenatal exposure to methadone or buprenorphine increased anxiety-like behaviors in the light–dark transition in both male and female

  19. Biochemical and behavioral effects of phospholipase A2 and morphine microinjections in the periaqueductal gray of the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reichman, M.; Abood, L.G.; Costanzo, M.

    1985-01-01

    In order to characterize the in vivo action of phospholipase A 2 (PLA 2 ) on opiate receptors and opiate-induced behaviors, the effects of injections of PLA 2 into the periaqueductal gray region (PAG) of the rat were assessed on free fatty acid (FFA) release, opiate-binding levels, and morphine-induced behaviors. Rats received bilateral PAG injections of 2 μg of PLA 2 while anesthetized. One hour later, regions around the cannulae tracts in PLA 2 -treated rats contained over 2.5 times more FFA than saline-injected controls, and 3 H-dihydromorphine binding was reduced on average more than 70%. In another series of experiments, conscious rats were given 2 μg of PLA 2 prior to 10 μg of morphine through cannulae chronically implanted into the PAG. PLA 2 did not significantly attenuate morphine-induced analgesia as measured by the tail-flick test to radiant heat, but did prevent the explosive motor behavior observed following morphine injections alone. PLA 2 by itself did not induce analgesia, but did cause explosive motor behavior 2 hr after the injections. Neither lysophosphatidylcholine nor trypsin resulted in motor seizures following PAG injections. It was concluded that the behavioral effects of PLA 2 result from the unique properties of the enzyme, rather than generalized membrane damage, and that the opioid sites and mechanisms that mediate analgesia are different from those associated with explosive motor behavior. 36 references, 2 figures, 2 tables

  20. Effects of electroconvulsive seizures on depression-related behavior, memory and neurochemical changes in Wistar and Wistar-Kyoto rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyeremanteng, C; MacKay, J C; James, J S; Kent, P; Cayer, C; Anisman, H; Merali, Z

    2014-10-03

    Investigations in healthy outbred rat strains have shown a potential role for brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in the antidepressant and memory side effects of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT, or ECS in animals). The Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rat strain is used as a genetic model of depression yet no studies to date have directly compared the impact of ECS on the WKY strain to its healthy outbred control (Wistar). The objective of this study is to examine behavioral (antidepressant and retrograde memory) and neurochemical (BDNF and HPA axis) changes immediately (1day) and at a longer delay (7days) after repeated ECS (5 daily administrations) in WKY and Wistar rats. Male Wistar and WKY rats received 5days of repeated ECS or sham treatment and were assessed 1 and 7days later for 1) depression-like behavior and mobility; 2) retrograde memory; and 3) brain BDNF protein, brain corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and plasma corticosterone levels. Both strains showed the expected antidepressant response and retrograde memory impairments at 1day following ECS, which were sustained at 7days. In addition, at 1day after ECS, Wistar and WKY rats showed similar elevations in brain BDNF and extra-hypothalamic CRF and no change in plasma corticosterone. At 7days after ECS, Wistar rats showed sustained elevations of brain BDNF and CRF, whereas WKY rats showed a normalization of brain BDNF, despite sustained elevations of brain CRF. The model of 5 daily ECS was effective at eliciting behavioral and neurochemical changes in both strains. A temporal association was observed between brain CRF levels, but not BDNF, and measures of antidepressant effectiveness of ECS and retrograde memory impairments suggesting that extra-hypothalamic CRF may be a potential important contributor to these behavioral effects after repeated ECS/ECT. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of interleukin-1beta on the behavior of rats during mild stress in the open-field test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pertsov, S S; Koplik, E V; Simbirtsev, A S; Kalinichenko, L S

    2009-11-01

    We studied the effect of interleukin-1beta on the behavior of rats with different individual typological characteristics during mild stress in the open-field test. Intraperitoneal injection of interleukin-1beta (5 microg/kg, 108 U/mg) was followed by a decrease in orientation and exploratory activity of passive and, particularly, of active animals in the open field. As differentiated from rats receiving physiological saline, the initial differences in behavioral characteristics of active and passive animals were not revealed in the repeated test after injection of interleukin-1beta. We conclude that interleukin-1beta abolishes the behavioral differences between active and passive specimens in the open field. These data suggest that administration of interleukin-1beta to rats leads to reorganization of the mechanisms for emotional evaluation of adverse emotiogenic factors under conditions of mild stress in the open-field test.

  2. The effects of long-term dopaminergic treatment on locomotor behavior in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira de Almeida, Welinton Alessandro; Maculano Esteves, Andrea; Leite de Almeida-Júnior, Canuto; Lee, Kil Sun; Kannebley Frank, Miriam; Oliveira Mariano, Melise; Frussa-Filho, Roberto; Tufik, Sergio; Tulio de Mello, Marco

    2014-12-01

    Long-term treatments with dopaminergic agents are associated with adverse effects, including augmentation. Augmentation consists of an exacerbation of restless legs syndrome (a sleep-related movement disorder) symptoms during treatment compared to those experienced during the period before therapy was initiated. The objective of this study was to examine locomotor activity in rats after long-term dopaminergic treatment and its relationship with expression of the D2 receptor, in addition to demonstrating possible evidence of augmentation. The rats were divided into control (CTRL) and drug (Pramipexole-PPX) groups that received daily saline vehicle and PPX treatments, respectively, for 71 days. The locomotor behavior of the animals was evaluated weekly in the Open Field test for 71 days. The expression of the dopamine D2 receptor was evaluated by Western Blot analysis. The animals that received the PPX demonstrated a significant reduction in locomotor activity from day 1 to day 57 and a significant increase in immobility time from day 1 to day 64 relative to baseline values, but these values had returned to baseline levels at 71 days. No changes in the expression of the D2 receptor were demonstrated after treatment with a dopaminergic agonist. This study suggests changes in locomotor activity in rats after long-term PPX treatment that include an immediate reduction of locomotion and an increase in immobilization, and after 64 days, these values returned to baseline levels without evidence of augmentation. In addition, it was not possible to demonstrate a relationship between locomotor activity and the expression of D2 receptors under these conditions.

  3. The effects of long-term dopaminergic treatment on locomotor behavior in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira de Almeida, Welinton Alessandro; Maculano Esteves, Andrea; Leite de Almeida-Júnior, Canuto; Lee, Kil Sun; Kannebley Frank, Miriam; Oliveira Mariano, Melise; Frussa-Filho, Roberto; Tufik, Sergio; Tulio de Mello, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Long-term treatments with dopaminergic agents are associated with adverse effects, including augmentation. Augmentation consists of an exacerbation of restless legs syndrome (a sleep-related movement disorder) symptoms during treatment compared to those experienced during the period before therapy was initiated. The objective of this study was to examine locomotor activity in rats after long-term dopaminergic treatment and its relationship with expression of the D2 receptor, in addition to demonstrating possible evidence of augmentation. The rats were divided into control (CTRL) and drug (Pramipexole—PPX) groups that received daily saline vehicle and PPX treatments, respectively, for 71 days. The locomotor behavior of the animals was evaluated weekly in the Open Field test for 71 days. The expression of the dopamine D2 receptor was evaluated by Western Blot analysis. The animals that received the PPX demonstrated a significant reduction in locomotor activity from day 1 to day 57 and a significant increase in immobility time from day 1 to day 64 relative to baseline values, but these values had returned to baseline levels at 71 days. No changes in the expression of the D2 receptor were demonstrated after treatment with a dopaminergic agonist. This study suggests changes in locomotor activity in rats after long-term PPX treatment that include an immediate reduction of locomotion and an increase in immobilization, and after 64 days, these values returned to baseline levels without evidence of augmentation. In addition, it was not possible to demonstrate a relationship between locomotor activity and the expression of D2 receptors under these conditions. PMID:26483930

  4. The effects of long-term dopaminergic treatment on locomotor behavior in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Welinton Alessandro Oliveira de Almeida

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Long-term treatments with dopaminergic agents are associated with adverse effects, including augmentation. Augmentation consists of an exacerbation of restless legs syndrome (a sleep-related movement disorder symptoms during treatment compared to those experienced during the period before therapy was initiated. The objective of this study was to examine locomotor activity in rats after long-term dopaminergic treatment and its relationship with expression of the D2 receptor, in addition to demonstrating possible evidence of augmentation. The rats were divided into control (CTRL and drug (Pramipexole—PPX groups that received daily saline vehicle and PPX treatments, respectively, for 71 days. The locomotor behavior of the animals was evaluated weekly in the Open Field test for 71 days. The expression of the dopamine D2 receptor was evaluated by Western Blot analysis. The animals that received the PPX demonstrated a significant reduction in locomotor activity from day 1 to day 57 and a significant increase in immobility time from day 1 to day 64 relative to baseline values, but these values had returned to baseline levels at 71 days. No changes in the expression of the D2 receptor were demonstrated after treatment with a dopaminergic agonist. This study suggests changes in locomotor activity in rats after long-term PPX treatment that include an immediate reduction of locomotion and an increase in immobilization, and after 64 days, these values returned to baseline levels without evidence of augmentation. In addition, it was not possible to demonstrate a relationship between locomotor activity and the expression of D2 receptors under these conditions.

  5. Greater physiological and behavioral effects of interrupted stress pattern compared to daily restraint stress in rats.

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    Wei Zhang

    Full Text Available Repeated stress can trigger a range of psychiatric disorders, including anxiety. The propensity to develop abnormal behaviors after repeated stress is related to the severity, frequency and number of stressors. However, the pattern of stress exposure may contribute to the impact of stress. In addition, the anxiogenic nature of repeated stress exposure can be moderated by the degree of coping that occurs, and can be reflected in homotypic habituation to the repeated stress. However, expectations are not clear when a pattern of stress presentation is utilized that diminishes habituation. The purpose of these experiments is to test whether interrupted stress exposure decreases homotypic habituation and leads to greater effects on anxiety-like behavior in adult male rats. We found that repeated interrupted restraint stress resulted in less overall homotypic habituation compared to repeated daily restraint stress. This was demonstrated by greater production of fecal boli and greater corticosterone response to restraint. Furthermore, interrupted restraint stress resulted in a lower body weight and greater adrenal gland weight than daily restraint stress, and greater anxiety-like behavior in the elevated plus maze. Control experiments demonstrated that these effects of the interrupted pattern could not be explained by differences in the total number of stress exposures, differences in the total number of days that the stress periods encompased, nor could it be explained as a result of only the stress exposures after an interruption from stress. These experiments demonstrate that the pattern of stress exposure is a significant determinant of the effects of repeated stress, and that interrupted stress exposure that decreases habituation can have larger effects than a greater number of daily stress exposures. Differences in the pattern of stress exposure are therefore an important factor to consider when predicting the severity of the effects of repeated

  6. Influence of enrichment on behavioral and neurogenic effects of antidepressants in Wistar rats submitted to repeated forced swim test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Possamai, Fernanda; dos Santos, Juliano; Walber, Thais; Marcon, Juliana C; dos Santos, Tiago Souza; Lino de Oliveira, Cilene

    2015-04-03

    Repeated forced swimming test (rFST) may detect gradual effects of antidepressants in adult rats. Antidepressants, as enrichment, affected behavior and neurogenesis in rats. However, the influence of enrichment on behavioral and neurogenic effects of antidepressants is unknown. Here, effects of antidepressants on rFST and hippocampal neurogenesis were investigated in rats under enriched conditions. Behaviors of male Wistar rats, housed from weaning in standard (SE) or enriched environment (EE), were registered during rFST. The rFST consisted of 15min of swimming (pretest) followed by 5min of swimming in the first (test), seventh (retest 1) and fourteenth (retest 2) days after pretest. One hour before the test, rats received an intraperitoneal injection of saline (1ml/kg), fluoxetine (2.5mg/kg) or imipramine (2.5 or 5mg/kg). These treatments were performed daily until the day of the retest 2. After retest 2, rats were euthanized for the identification of markers for neurogenesis in the hippocampus. Fluoxetine or imipramine decreased immobility in retests 1 and 2, as compared to saline. EE abolished these differences. In EE, fluoxetine or imipramine (5mg/kg) reduced immobility time in retest 2, as compared to the test. Independent of the housing conditions, fluoxetine and imipramine (5mg/kg) increased the ratio of immature neurons per progenitor cell in the hippocampus. In summary, antidepressants or enrichment counteracted the high immobility in rFST. Enrichment changed the effects of antidepressants in rFST depending on the type, and the dose of a substance but failed to change neurogenesis in control or antidepressant treated-rats. Effects of antidepressants and enrichment on rFST seemed neurogenesis-independent. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The effect of food restriction on learning and memory of male Wistar rats: A behavioral analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Vaez Mahdavi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Social inequality may have a significant negative effect on health. There are some evidences that social inequality and stressful conditions could lead to development and progression of various disorders. On the other hand, the results of some research studies have shown that reducing the consumed calorie could prolong the lifetime. In addition, limiting the consumed calorie could produce beneficial changes in the level of some hormones including blood insulin and may reduce body temperature. Meanwhile, food restriction could reduce genetic damage and may have protective effect against external toxins. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of food restriction on learning and memory of male rats using passive avoidance and Y-maze tests. Methods: For this purpose, male Wistar rats (n = 48 were divided into control, 3 experimental, and two negative and positive control groups. Control group received normal rat regimen for 6 weeks. The group with full restriction and non-isolated received 1/3 of the food regimen. The group with full restriction and isolation received 1/3 of the food regimen. The experimental group with two-weeks food restriction and non-isolated received 1/3 of the food regimen only for two weeks. Streptozotocin-diabetic rats with blood glucose higher than 250 mg/dl was considered as negative and positive control received vitamin E (10 mg/kg/day i.p. as an antioxidant. For evaluation of learning and memory, initial and step-through latencies and alternation behavior were analyzed using passive avoidance and Y-maze tests. Results: Regarding initial latency, there was a reduction in diabetic, vitamin-E treated, and group with 2-weeks food restriction and there was an increase in groups with full restriction and isolated and with full restriction as compared to control. Meanwhile, there were no significant differences among the groups, indicating that there were no changes in behavior

  8. Effects of chronic social isolation on Wistar rat behavior and brain plasticity markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djordjevic, Jelena; Djordjevic, Ana; Adzic, Miroslav; Radojcic, Marija B

    2012-01-01

    Chronic stress is a contributing risk factor in the development of psychiatric illnesses, including depressive disorders. The mechanisms of their psychopathology are multifaceted and include, besides others, alterations in the brain plasticity. Previously, we investigated the effects of chronic social stress in the limbic brain structures of Wistar rats (hippocampus, HIPPO, and prefrontal cortex, PFC) and found multiple characteristics that resembled alterations described in some clinical studies of depression. We extended our investigations and followed the behavior of stressed animals by the open field test (OFT) and forced swimming test (FST), and the expression and polysialylation of synaptic plasticity markers, neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) and L1, in the HIPPO and PFC. We also determined the adrenal gland mass and plasma corticosterone (CORT) as a terminal part of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity. Our data indicated that stressed animals avoided the central zone in the OFT and displayed decreased swimming, but prolonged immobility in the FST. The animals exhibited marked hypertrophy of the adrenal gland cortex, in spite of decreased serum CORT. Simultaneously, the stressed animals exhibited an increase in NCAM mRNA expression in the HIPPO, but not in the PFC. The synaptosomal NCAM of the HIPPO was markedly polysialylated, while cortical PSA-NCAM was significantly decreased. The results showed that chronic social isolation of Wistar rats causes both anxiety-like and depression-like behavior. These alterations are parallel with molecular changes in the limbic brain, including diminished NCAM sialylation in the PFC. Together with our previous results, the current observations suggest that a chronic social isolation model may potentially be used to study molecular mechanisms that underlie depressive symptomatology. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Protective effects of ginger root extract on Alzheimer disease-induced behavioral dysfunction in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Gao-Feng; Zhang, Zhi-Yong; Lu, Li; Xiao, De-Qiang; Zong, Shao-Hui; He, Jian-Ming

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the ability of a traditional Chinese medicinal ginger root extract (GRE) to prevent behavioral dysfunction in the Alzheimer disease (AD) rat model. Rat AD models were established by an operation (OP) in which rats were treated with a one-time intra-cerebroventricuIar injection of amyloid β-protein (Aβ) and continuous gavage of aluminum chloride every day for 4 weeks. GRE was administered intra-gastrically to rats. After 35 days, learning and memory were assessed in all of the rats. Brain sections were processed for immunohistochemistry and Hematoxylin & Eosin (H&E) and Nissl staining. The latency to show significant memory deficits was shorter in the group that received OP with a high dose of GRE (HG)(OP+HG) than in the groups that received OP with a low or moderate dose of GRE (LG, MG)(OP+LG, OP+MG) (p<0.05). The expression of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) in the OP+MG and OP+LG groups was up-regulated compared to the OP+HG groups (p<0.05). The rats in the OP+HG groups had lower levels of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and malondialdehyde (MDA) expression than the rats in the OP+MG and OP+LG groups (p<0.05). This experiment demonstrates that the administration of GRE reverses behavioral dysfunction and prevents AD-like symptoms in our rat model.

  10. Infusion of low dose glyceryl trinitrate has no consistent effect on burrowing behavior, running wheel activity and light sensitivity in female rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Sarah Louise T; Petersen, Steffen; Sørensen, Dorte Bratbo

    2016-01-01

    . In the current paper we have studied the effect of glyceryl trinitrate infusion on three different rat behaviors. Methods: The stability of burrowing behavior, running wheel activity and light sensitivity towards repeated testing was evaluated also with respect to estrous cycle. Finally, the effect of glyceryl...... trinitrate on these behaviors in female rats was observed. Results: Burrowing behavior and running wheel activity were stable in the individual rat between experiments. The burrowing behavior was significantly affected by the stage of estrous cycle. The other assays were stable throughout the cycle. None...

  11. Salty solutions: their effects on thermal set points in behavioral repertoires of albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitulli, W F; Aker, R; Howard, S W; Jones, W M; Kimball, M W; Quinn, J M

    1994-08-01

    Salt (sodium chloride) has been linked to increased blood pressure and a rise in core body temperature. The objective of this study was to investigate the role played by salt in altering behavioral thermoregulation in albino rats. Different doses of sodium chloride were administered (ip) prior to fixed-interval 2-min. schedules of microwave reinforcement in rats tested in a cold Skinner Box. Three Sprague-Dawley rats were conditioned to regulate their thermal environment with 5-sec. exposures of MW reinforcement in a repeated-measures reversal design. Friedman's non-parametric test showed significant differences among sodium chloride doses and physiologically normal saline. Post hoc sign tests showed that all doses of NaCl suppressed operant behavior for heat except 60 mg/kg. The hypothesis that sodium chloride lowers hypothalamic set point for heat was partially supported.

  12. The effects of ketamine on sexual behavior, anxiety, and locomotion in female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarraci, Fay A; Gonzalez, Chantal M F; Lucero, Devon; Womble, Paige D; Abdel-Rahim, Heba; DeVore, Jennie; Kunkel, Marcela Nicole; Quadlander, Emma; Stinnett, Morgan; Boyette-Davis, Jessica

    2018-02-01

    The present study characterized the effects of ketamine on sexual behavior and anxiety in female rats. In Experiment 1, female subjects received an injection of ketamine (10.0mg/kg) or saline 30min prior to a sexual partner-preference test during which each female subject was given the opportunity to interact with a female stimulus or a sexually vigorous male stimulus. Immediately afterwards, female subjects were tested for locomotion in an open field test. Ketamine-treated subjects spent significantly more time with the male stimulus than saline-treated subjects. No other measures of mating behavior (i.e., paced mating behavior, lordosis) were affected by ketamine. Ketamine also had no effect on locomotion. In Experiment 2, female subjects received an injection of ketamine (10.0mg/kg), or saline daily for 10days to investigate the possibility that sexual dysfunction emerges only after repeated exposure. Similar to the results of Experiment 1, ketamine-treated subjects spent significantly more time with the male stimulus than saline-treated subjects. Chronic ketamine treatment also decreased the likelihood of leaving the male after mounts, without affecting any other measures of sexual behavior. Chronic ketamine had no effect on locomotion. In Experiment 3, female subjects received an injection of ketamine (10.0mg/kg) or saline and were tested for anxiety in an elevated plus maze test and for locomotion in an open field test. Acute ketamine had no effect on anxiety or locomotion. In Experiment 4, female subjects received an injection of ketamine (10.0mg/kg) or saline daily for 10days to investigate the possibility that anxiety emerges only after repeated exposure. Chronic ketamine exposure had no effect on any measure of anxiety. However, chronic ketamine exposure increased locomotion. The results from these experiments indicate that unlike other medications prescribed for depression, neither acute nor chronic ketamine treatment causes anxiety or disruption of

  13. The effects of N-acetylcysteine on cocaine reward and seeking behaviors in a rat model of depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankowska, Małgorzata; Jastrzębska, Joanna; Nowak, Ewa; Białko, Magdalena; Przegaliński, Edmund; Filip, Małgorzata

    2014-06-01

    Depression and substance-abuse (e.g., cocaine) disorders are common concurrent diagnoses. In the present study, we combined bilateral olfactory bulbectomy (OBX) with a variety of procedures of intravenous cocaine self-administration and extinction/reinstatement in rats. We also investigated the effects of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) on rewarding and seeking behaviors for cocaine in OBX rats and compared the drug's effects in sham-operated control animals (SHAM). The occurrence of depressive symptoms before introduction to cocaine self-administration enhanced subsequent cocaine-seeking behaviors but did not significantly influence cocaine's rewarding properties or extinction training. NAC (25-100mg/kg) given acutely or repeatedly did not alter the co-occurrence of cocaine reward and depression but effectively reduced the cocaine-seeking behavior observed in both phenotypes. Our results indicate that depression behavior is linked to more pronounced drug craving and a higher propensity to relapse in rats. We also show the lack of efficacy of repeated NAC treatment on SHAM or OBX animals in terms of cocaine self-administration, while the drug was an effective blocker of cocaine-seeking behavior in both studied phenotypes, with a more pronounced drug effect observed in OBX animals. The last finding demonstrates the potential clinical utility of NAC to reduce cocaine seeking enhanced by co-existing depression. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Age-dependent effect of high cholesterol diets on anxiety-like behavior in elevated plus maze test in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xu; Wang, Tao; Luo, Jia; Liang, Shan; Li, Wei; Wu, Xiaoli; Jin, Feng; Wang, Li

    2014-09-01

    Cholesterol is an essential component of brain and nerve cells and is essential for maintaining the function of the nervous system. Epidemiological studies showed that patients suffering from anxiety disorders have higher serum cholesterol levels. In this study, we investigated the influence of high cholesterol diet on anxiety-like behavior in elevated plus maze in animal model and explored the relationship between cholesterol and anxiety-like behavior from the aspect of central neurochemical changes. Young (3 weeks old) and adult (20 weeks old) rats were given a high cholesterol diet for 8 weeks. The anxiety-like behavior in elevated plus maze test and changes of central neurochemical implicated in anxiety were measured. In young rats, high cholesterol diet induced anxiolytic-like behavior, decreased serum corticosterone (CORT), increased hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), increased hippocampal mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) and decreased glucocorticoid receptor (GR). In adult rats, high cholesterol diet induced anxiety-like behavior and increase of serum CORT and decrease of hippocampal BDNF comparing with their respective control group that fed the regular diet. High cholesterol diet induced age-dependent effects on anxiety-like behavior and central neurochemical changes. High cholesterol diet might affect the central nervous system (CNS) function differently, and resulting in different behavior performance of anxiety in different age period.

  15. Age-dependent effect of high cholesterol diets on anxiety-like behavior in elevated plus maze test in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Cholesterol is an essential component of brain and nerve cells and is essential for maintaining the function of the nervous system. Epidemiological studies showed that patients suffering from anxiety disorders have higher serum cholesterol levels. In this study, we investigated the influence of high cholesterol diet on anxiety-like behavior in elevated plus maze in animal model and explored the relationship between cholesterol and anxiety-like behavior from the aspect of central neurochemical changes. Methods Young (3 weeks old) and adult (20 weeks old) rats were given a high cholesterol diet for 8 weeks. The anxiety-like behavior in elevated plus maze test and changes of central neurochemical implicated in anxiety were measured. Results In young rats, high cholesterol diet induced anxiolytic-like behavior, decreased serum corticosterone (CORT), increased hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), increased hippocampal mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) and decreased glucocorticoid receptor (GR). In adult rats, high cholesterol diet induced anxiety-like behavior and increase of serum CORT and decrease of hippocampal BDNF comparing with their respective control group that fed the regular diet. Discussion High cholesterol diet induced age-dependent effects on anxiety-like behavior and central neurochemical changes. High cholesterol diet might affect the central nervous system (CNS) function differently, and resulting in different behavior performance of anxiety in different age period. PMID:25179125

  16. Agomelatine, venlafaxine, and running exercise effectively prevent anxiety- and depression-like behaviors and memory impairment in restraint stressed rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarawut Lapmanee

    Full Text Available Several severe stressful situations, e.g., natural disaster, infectious disease out break, and mass casualty, are known to cause anxiety, depression and cognitive impairment, and preventive intervention for these stress complications is worth exploring. We have previously reported that the serotonin-norepinephrine-dopamine reuptake inhibitor, venlafaxine, as well as voluntary wheel running are effective in the treatment of anxiety- and depression-like behaviors in stressed rats. But whether they are able to prevent deleterious consequences of restraint stress in rats, such as anxiety/depression-like behaviors and memory impairment that occur afterward, was not known. Herein, male Wistar rats were pre-treated for 4 weeks with anti-anxiety/anti-depressive drugs, agomelatine and venlafaxine, or voluntary wheel running, followed by 4 weeks of restraint-induced stress. During the stress period, rats received neither drug nor exercise intervention. Our results showed that restraint stress induced mixed anxiety- and depression-like behaviors, and memory impairment as determined by elevated plus-maze, elevated T-maze, open field test (OFT, forced swimming test (FST, and Morris water maze (MWM. Both pharmacological pre-treatments and running successfully prevented the anxiety-like behavior, especially learned fear, in stressed rats. MWM test suggested that agomelatine, venlafaxine, and running could prevent stress-induced memory impairment, but only pharmacological treatments led to better novel object recognition behavior and positive outcome in FST. Moreover, western blot analysis demonstrated that venlafaxine and running exercise upregulated brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF expression in the hippocampus. In conclusion, agomelatine, venlafaxine as well as voluntary wheel running had beneficial effects, i.e., preventing the restraint stress-induced anxiety/depression-like behaviors and memory impairment.

  17. Effect of aqueous extract of Arctium lappa L. (burdock) roots on the sexual behavior of male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    JianFeng, Cao; PengYing, Zhang; ChengWei, Xu; TaoTao, Huang; YunGui, Bai; KaoShan, Chen

    2012-02-01

    Arctium lappa L. root has traditionally been recommended as an aphrodisiac agent. It is used to treat impotence and sterility in China, and Native Americans included the root in herbal preparations for women in labor. However, its use has not been scientifically validated. The present study therefore investigated the effects of aqueous extract of Arctium lappa L. roots on sexual behavior in normal male rats. Seventy-five albino male rats were randomly divided into five groups of 15 rats each. Rats in group 1 (control) were administered 10 mL/kg body weight distilled water (vehicle), group 2 received 60 mg/kg body weight sildenafil citrate (Viagra), while those in groups 3, 4, and 5 were given 300, 600, and 1,200 mg/kg body weight, respectively, of aqueous extract of Arctium lappa L. roots in the same volume. Female albino rats were made receptive by hormonal treatment. Sexual behavior parameters in male rats were monitored on days 3, 7 and 15 by pairing with receptive females (1:3). Male serum testosterone concentrations and potency were also determined. Oral administration of Arctium lappa L. roots extract at 600 and 1,200 mg/kg body weight significantly increased the frequencies of mount, intromission, and ejaculation frequency (p Arctium lappa L. roots enhances sexual behavior in male rats. The aphrodisiac effects of the plant extract may be related to the presence of flavonoids, saponins, lignans and alkaloids, acting via a multitude of central and peripheral mechanisms. These results thus support the traditional use of Arctium lappa L. root extract for treating impotence and sterility.

  18. Effect of aqueous extract of Arctium lappa L. (burdock roots on the sexual behavior of male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JianFeng Cao

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Arctium lappa L. root has traditionally been recommended as an aphrodisiac agent. It is used to treat impotence and sterility in China, and Native Americans included the root in herbal preparations for women in labor. However, its use has not been scientifically validated. The present study therefore investigated the effects of aqueous extract of Arctium lappa L. roots on sexual behavior in normal male rats. Methods Seventy-five albino male rats were randomly divided into five groups of 15 rats each. Rats in group 1 (control were administered 10 mL⁄kg body weight distilled water (vehicle, group 2 received 60 mg/kg body weight sildenafil citrate (Viagra, while those in groups 3, 4, and 5 were given 300, 600, and 1,200 mg/kg body weight, respectively, of aqueous extract of Arctium lappa L. roots in the same volume. Female albino rats were made receptive by hormonal treatment. Sexual behavior parameters in male rats were monitored on days 3, 7 and 15 by pairing with receptive females (1:3. Male serum testosterone concentrations and potency were also determined. Results Oral administration of Arctium lappa L. roots extract at 600 and 1,200 mg/kg body weight significantly increased the frequencies of mount, intromission, and ejaculation frequency (p Conclusions The results of this study demonstrate that aqueous extract of Arctium lappa L. roots enhances sexual behavior in male rats. The aphrodisiac effects of the plant extract may be related to the presence of flavonoids, saponins, lignans and alkaloids, acting via a multitude of central and peripheral mechanisms. These results thus support the traditional use of Arctium lappa L. root extract for treating impotence and sterility.

  19. Preventive effects of blueberry extract on behavioral and biochemical dysfunctions in rats submitted to a model of manic behavior induced by ketamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debom, Gabriela; Gazal, Marta; Soares, Mayara Sandrielly Pereira; do Couto, Carlus Augustu Tavares; Mattos, Bruna; Lencina, Claiton; Kaster, Manuella Pinto; Ghisleni, Gabriele Codenonzi; Tavares, Rejane; Braganhol, Elizandra; Chaves, Vitor Clasen; Reginatto, Flávio Henrique; Stefanello, Francieli; Spanevello, Roselia Maria

    2016-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the protective effects of blueberry extract on oxidative stress and inflammatory parameters in a model of mania induced by ketamine administration in rats. Male rats were pretreated with blueberry extract (200mg/kg, once a day for 14days), lithium chloride (45mg/kg, mood stabilizer used as a positive control, twice a day for 14days), or vehicle. Between the 8th and 14th days, rats also received an injection of ketamine (25mg/kg) or vehicle. In the 15th day, thirty minutes after ketamine administration the hyperlocomotion of the animals was assessed in the open - field apparatus. Immediately after the behavioral analysis brain and blood were collected for biochemical determinations. ketamine treatment induced hyperlocomotion and oxidative damage in cerebral cortex, hippocampus and striatum such as an increase in lipid peroxidation and a decrease in the antioxidant enzymes activities (superoxide dismutase, catalase e glutatione peroxidase). Ketamine administration also increased the IL-6 levels in serum in rats. Pretreatment of rats with blueberry extract or lithium prevented the hyperlocomotion, pro - oxidant effects and inflammation induced by ketamine. Our findings suggest that blueberry consumption has a neuroprotective potential against behavioral and biochemical dysfunctions induced in a preclinical model that mimic some aspects of the manic behavior. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Announced reward counteracts the effects of chronic social stress on anticipatory behavior and hippocampal synaptic plasticity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamal, Amer; Van der Harst, Johanneke E; Kapteijn, Chantal M; Baars, Annemarie J M; Spruijt, Berry M; Ramakers, Geert M J

    2010-04-01

    Chronic stress causes insensitivity to rewards (anhedonia) in rats, reflected by the absence of anticipatory behavior for a sucrose-reward, which can be reversed by antidepressant treatment or repeated announced transfer to an enriched cage. It was, however, not clear whether the highly rewarding properties of the enriched cage alone caused this reversal or whether the anticipation of this reward as such had an additional effect. Therefore, the present study compared the consequences of the announcement of a reward to the mere effect of a reward alone with respect to their efficacy to counteract the consequences of chronic stress. Two forms of synaptic plasticity, long-term potentiation and long-term depression were investigated in area CA1 of the hippocampus. This was done in socially stressed rats (induced by defeat and subsequent long-term individual housing), socially stressed rats that received a reward (short-term enriched housing) and socially stressed rats to which this reward was announced by means of a stimulus that was repeatedly paired to the reward. The results were compared to corresponding control rats. We show that announcement of enriched housing appeared to have had an additional effect compared to the enriched housing per se as indicated by a significant higher amount of LTP. In conclusion, announced short-term enriched housing has a high and long-lasting counteracting efficacy on stress-induced alterations of hippocampal synaptic plasticity. This information is important for counteracting the consequences of chronic stress in both human and captive rats.

  1. High fat diet and food restriction differentially modify the behavioral effects of quinpirole and raclopride in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baladi, Michelle G; France, Charles P

    2009-05-21

    Nutritional status can impact dopamine systems in a manner that might be important to understanding possible common neurobiological mechanisms that mediate abnormal compulsive food (e.g., obesity) and drug taking. Limiting food intake, for example, can increase sensitivity to the behavioral effects of indirect-acting dopamine receptor agonists. Much less is known regarding possible diet-induced changes in sensitivity to direct-acting dopamine receptor drugs. The present study investigated the effects of a high fat diet and of food restriction on sensitivity of rats to the behavioral effects of a direct-acting dopamine receptor agonist and a dopamine receptor antagonist. Free access to high fat chow increased sensitivity to quinpirole-induced yawning without changing sensitivity to raclopride-induced catalepsy or quinpirole-induced hypothermia. Food restriction (10 g/day) decreased sensitivity to quinpirole-induced yawning and raclopride-induced catalepsy without affecting sensitivity to quinpirole-induced hypothermia. Free access to a standard chow restored sensitivity to the behavioral effects of both drugs in rats that were previously food-restricted but not in rats that previously ate a high fat diet. These data confirm that food restriction can decrease sensitivity to behavioral effects of direct-acting dopamine receptor drugs, they provide evidence (i.e., no change in hypothermic effects) indicating that these changes are not due to pharmacokinetic mechanisms, and they provide initial evidence showing enhanced sensitivity to behavioral effects of dopamine receptor drugs in rats eating a high fat diet. These changes in sensitivity of dopamine systems could be relevant to understanding the impact of nutrition on therapeutic and recreational drug use.

  2. Metabolic and behavioral effects of ractopamine at continuous low levels in rats under stress

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    Edna Lopes

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at evaluating the effect of ractopamine (RAC on metabolism, zootechnical performance, body composition, and behavior in Wistar rats submitted to acute and chronic restrain stress. The oral dose of 5 mg/kg of RAC was administered in periods of 0, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days. The elevated plus-maze test (EPMT was used for behavioral assessment. Blood, carcass and viscera characteristics were evaluated. Insulin-dependent glucose transporters (GLUT-4 were semi-quantified by Western Blot in epididymal adipocytes. RAC periods associated with chronic stress increased the GLUT-4 protein expression in adipose tissue in a time-dependent manner (P=0.01, i.e., the longer the RAC addition period, the higher the GLUT-4 concentration in chronically stressed animals (0=1.42; 7=1.19; 14=2.03; 21=1.59; 28=2.35. The stress periods combined with RAC increased the time spent in the opened arms of the maze (Chronic stress: 0=10.6; 7=8.7; 14=5.9; 21=12.3; 28=4.0; Acute stress 0=3.1; 7= 4.7; 14=7.5; 21=0.0; 28=2.8 (P=0.04. Chronic (entries on the closed arms [ECA]=3.60 and acute (ECA=3.80 stress reduced locomotive activity in the maze (P=0.03. The results suggested that stress could negatively affect the possible benefits offered by the RAC, mainly impairing the adipose tissue metabolism and behavior in the animals.

  3. Effects of Bilateral Electrolytic Lesions of the Dorsomedial Striatum on Motor Behavior and Instrumental Learning in Rats

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    Pamphyle Abedi Mukutenga

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The dorsal striatum plays an important role in the control of motor activity and learning processes within the basal ganglia circuitry. Furthermore, recent works have suggested functional differentiation between subregions of the dorsal striatum Methods: The present study examined the effects of bilateral electrolytic lesions of the dorsomedial striatum on motor behavior and learning ability in rats using a series of behavioral tests. 20 male wistar rats were used in the experiment and behavioral assessment were conducted using open field test, rotarod test and 8-arm radial maze. Results: In the open field test, rats with bilateral electrolytic lesions of the dorsomedial striatum showed a normal motor function in the horizontal locomotor activity, while in rearing activity they displayed a statistically significant motor impairment when compared to sham operated group. In the rotarod test, a deficit in motor coordination and acquisition of skilled behavior was observed in rats with bilateral electrolytic lesions of the dorsomedial striatum compared to sham. However, radial maze performance revealed similar capacity in the acquisition of learning task between experimental groups. Discussion: Our results support the premise of the existence of functional dissociation between the dorsomedial and the dorsolateral regions of the dorsal striatum. In addition, our data suggest that the associative dorsomedial striatum may be as critical in striatum-based motor control.

  4. Comparison of the long-term behavioral effects of neonatal exposure to retigabine or phenobarbital in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankel, Sari; Medvedeva, Natalia; Gutherz, Samuel; Kulick, Catherine; Kondratyev, Alexei; Forcelli, Patrick A

    2016-04-01

    Anticonvulsant drugs, when given during vulnerable periods of brain development, can have long-lasting consequences on nervous system function. In rats, the second postnatal week approximately corresponds to the late third trimester of gestation/early infancy in humans. Exposure to phenobarbital during this period has been associated with deficits in learning and memory, anxiety-like behavior, and social behavior, among other domains. Phenobarbital is the most common anticonvulsant drug used in neonatology. Several other drugs, such as lamotrigine, phenytoin, and clonazepam, have also been reported to trigger behavioral changes. A new generation anticonvulsant drug, retigabine, has not previously been evaluated for long-term effects on behavior. Retigabine acts as an activator of KCNQ channels, a mechanism that is unique among anticonvulsants. Here, we examined the effects retigabine exposure from postnatal day (P)7 to P14 on behavior in adult rats. We compared these effects with those produced by phenobarbital (as a positive control) and saline (as a negative control). Motor behavior was assessed by using the open field and rotarod, anxiety-like behavior by the open field, elevated plus maze, and light-dark transition task, and learning/memory by the passive avoidance task; social interactions were assessed in same-treatment pairs, and nociceptive sensitivity was assessed via the tail-flick assay. Motor behavior was unaltered by exposure to either drug. We found that retigabine exposure and phenobarbital exposure both induced increased anxiety-like behavior in adult animals. Phenobarbital, but not retigabine, exposure impaired learning and memory. These drugs also differed in their effects on social behavior, with retigabine-exposed animals displaying greater social interaction than phenobarbital-exposed animals. These results indicate that neonatal retigabine induces a subset of behavioral alterations previously described for other anticonvulsant drugs and extend

  5. The effects of a single memantine treatment on behavioral alterations associated with binge alcohol exposure in neonatal rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idrus, Nirelia M; McGough, Nancy N H; Spinetta, Michael J; Thomas, Jennifer D; Riley, Edward P

    2011-01-01

    The third trimester in human fetal development represents a critical time of brain maturation referred to as the "brain growth spurt". This period occurs in rats postnatally, and exposure to ethanol during this time can increase the risk of impairments on a variety of cognitive and motor tasks. It has been proposed that one potential mechanism for the teratogenic effects of ethanol is NMDA receptor-mediated excitotoxicity during periods of ethanol withdrawal. In neonatal rats, antagonism of NMDA receptors during ethanol withdrawal, with drugs such as MK-801 and eliprodil, has been shown to mitigate some of the behavioral deficits induced by developmental ethanol exposure. The current study examined whether memantine, an NMDA receptor antagonist and a drug used clinically in Alzheimer's patients, would attenuate impairments associated with binge ethanol exposure in neonatal rats. On postnatal day 6, rats were exposed to 6 g/kg ethanol via intubation with controls receiving an isocaloric maltose dextrin solution. Twenty-one hours following the ethanol binge, rats received intraperitoneal injections of memantine at 0, 10, 15, or 20 mg/kg. Ethanol's teratogenic effects were assessed using multiple behavioral tasks: open field activity, parallel bars and spatial discrimination reversal learning. Ethanol-treated rats were overactive in the open field and were impaired on both reversal learning and motor performance. Administration of 15 or 20 mg/kg memantine during withdrawal significantly attenuated ethanol's adverse effects on motor coordination, but did not significantly alter activity levels or improve the spatial learning deficits associated with neonatal alcohol exposure. These results indicate that a single memantine administration during ethanol withdrawal can mitigate motor impairments but not spatial learning impairments or overactivity observed following a binge ethanol exposure during development in the rat. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of prenatal stress on anxiety- and depressive-like behaviors are sex-specific in prepubertal rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iturra-Mena, Ann Mary; Arriagada-Solimano, Marcia; Luttecke-Anders, Ariane; Dagnino-Subiabre, Alexies

    2018-05-17

    The fetal brain is highly susceptible to stress in late pregnancy, with lifelong effects of stress on physiology and behavior. The aim of this study was to determine the physiological and behavioral effects of prenatal stress during the prepubertal period of female and male rats. We subjected pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats to a restraint stress protocol from gestational day 14 until 21, a critical period for fetal brain susceptibility to stress effects. Male and female offspring were subsequently assessed at postnatal day 24 for anxiety- and depressive-like behaviors, and spontaneous social interaction. We also assessed maternal behaviors and two stress markers: basal vs. acute-evoked stress levels of serum corticosterone and body weight gain. Prenatal stress did not affect the maternal behavior, while both female and male offspring had higher body weight gain. On the other hand, lower levels of corticosterone after acute stress stimulation as well as anxiety- and depressive-like behaviors were only evident in stressed males compared to control males. These results suggest that prenatal stress induced sex-specific effects on the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity and on behavior during prepuberty. The HPA axis of prenatally stressed male rats was less active compared to control males, as well as they were more anxious and experienced depressive-like behaviors. Our results can be useful to study the neurobiological basis of childhood depression at a pre-clinical level. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  7. The effect of pyrithioxine and pyridoxine on individual behavior, social interactions, and learning in rats malnourished in early postnatal life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikal, K; Benesová, O; Franková, S

    1976-04-15

    Low protein (LP) or low calorie (LC) dietary regimens were applied in early postnatal life(1st-40th day of life) in male rats. After nutritional rehabilitation, open-field behavior in larger more illuminated boxes (HI, high intensity stimulus), and smaller, less illuminated boxes (HI, high intensity stimulus), and smaller, less illuminated boxes (HI, high intensity stimulus), and smaller, less illuminated boxes (HI, high intensity stimulus), dyadic interactions, and learning ability were investigated in these animals as adults (between the 200th to 300th day of life). LP malnutrition induced an increase of open-field activity with features of sterotypy both in LI and HI situations, an increase number of intersignal reactions during learning procedures without changes in other registered criteria of learning ability (latency, number of correct responses), and an increase of aggressive behavior in pair interaction. LC rats revealed only significant inhibition in LI--open-field activity and a slightly increased number in intersignal reactions during avoidance learning. With the aim of preventing previously described long-term deviations in early malnourished rats, some groups of animals with the above-mentioned early calorie or protein deficits were treated with pyrithioxine (Encephabol Merck) or pyridoxine in 10 doses of 40 mg/kg i.p. administered in the period when nutritional rehabilitation was carried out (between the 40th--50th day of life). The treatment with pyrithioxine reduced significantly behavioral disturbances in adult LP rats except the increase of intersignal reactions which was even potentiated. Pyridoxine was less effective but normalized the increase number of intersignal reactions both in LP and LC rats. The effect of pyridoxine of adult LC rats was interesting. There was significant improvement in all registered parameters of avoidance learning and a significant increase of sexual acts was recorded.

  8. The beneficial effect of the flavonoid quercetin on behavioral changes in hemi-Parkinsonian rats

    OpenAIRE

    Mehdi Mehdizadeh; Mohammad Taghi Joghataei; Maliheh Nobakht; Roya Aryanpour

    2010-01-01

      Abstract   Introduction: A large body of experimental evidence supports a role for oxidative stress as a mediator of nerve cell death in Parkinson's disease (PD). Flavonoids like quercetin have been reported to prevent neuronal degeneration caused by increased oxidative burden, therefore, this study examined whether quercetin administration at a high dose would attenuate behavioral abnormalities in experimental model of PD in rat.   Methods: For this purpose, unilateral intrastriatal 6-hydr...

  9. Long-term effects of a single exposure to stress in adult rats on behavior and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal responsiveness: comparison of two outbred rat strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belda, Xavier; Márquez, Cristina; Armario, Antonio

    2004-10-05

    We have previously observed that a single exposure to immobilization (IMO), a severe stressor, caused long-term (days to weeks) desensitization of the response of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis to the homotypic stressor, with no changes in behavioral reactivity to novel environments. In contrast, other laboratories have reported that a single exposure to footshock induced a long-term sensitization of both HPA and behavioral responses to novel environments. To test whether these apparent discrepancies can be explained by the use of different stressors or different strains of rats, we studied in the present work the long-term effects of a single exposure to two different stressors (footshock or IMO) in two different strains of rats (Sprague-Dawley from Iffa-Credo and Wistar rats from Harlan). We found that both strains showed desensitization of the HPA response to the same (homotypic) stressor after a previous exposure to either shock or IMO. The long-term effects were higher after IMO than shock. No major changes in behavior in two novel environments (circular corridor, CC and elevated plus-maze, EPM) were observed after a single exposure to shock or IMO in neither strain, despite the fact that shocked rats showed a conditioned freezing response to the shock boxes. The present results demonstrate that long-term stress-induced desensitization of the HPA axis is a reliable phenomenon that can be observed with different stressors and strains. However, only behavioral changes related to shock-induced conditioned fear were found, which suggests that so far poorly characterized factors are determining the long-term behavioral consequences of a single exposure to stress.

  10. Behavioral effects of pre- and postnatal exposure to a mixture of low chlorinated PCBs in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilienthal, H; Neuf, M; Munoz, C; Winneke, G

    1990-10-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-treated Wistar rats were tested on three different behavioral paradigms. Animals were pre- and postnatally exposed to a technical mixture of PCBs with a chlorine content of 42%. Exposure levels were 0, 5, or 30 mg/kg diet. These conditions did not affect the health of the dams, the litter size or weight, or the physical development of the offspring. Relative liver weights in the offspring, however, were elevated in a dose-dependent manner. Open-field ambulation, active avoidance learning, and operant conditioning on a fixed interval 30-sec schedule (FI-30-sec) were used to evaluate PCB-induced behavioral alterations. Ambulation was increased in 30-mg-treated rats at Day 22, but not at Day 120. There were more avoidance responses and intertrial responses in the 30-mg group than in both other groups. On the FI-30-sec schedule slightly more reactions were emitted by the 30-mg group during the first 10 sec of the interval than by the other animals. More pronounced, however, were the differences between groups in the temporal pattern of responses within the 30-sec interval. It is concluded that in rats PCB exposure causes consistent alterations in all of the tested activity-dependent behaviors.

  11. Effect of high-fat diet during gestation, lactation, or postweaning on physiological and behavioral indexes in borderline hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Anaya; Alvers, Kristin M; Crump, Erica M; Rowland, Neil E

    2009-01-01

    Maternal obesity is becoming more prevalent. We used borderline hypertensive rats (BHR) to investigate whether a high-fat diet at different stages of development has adverse programming consequences on metabolic parameters and blood pressure. Wistar dams were fed a high- or low-fat diet for 6 wk before mating with spontaneously hypertensive males and during the ensuing pregnancy. At birth, litters were fostered to a dam from the same diet group as during gestation or to the alternate diet condition. Female offspring were weaned on either control or "junk food" diets until about 6 mo of age. Rats fed the high-fat junk food diet were hyperphagic relative to their chow-fed controls. The junk food-fed rats were significantly heavier and had greater fat pad mass than those rats maintained on chow alone. Importantly, those rats suckled by high-fat dams had heavier fat pads than those suckled by control diet dams. Fasting serum leptin and insulin levels differed as a function of the gestational, lactational, and postweaning diet histories. Rats gestated in, or suckled by high-fat dams, or maintained on the junk food diet were hyperleptinemic compared with their respective controls. Indirect blood pressure did not differ as a function of postweaning diet, but rats gestated in the high-fat dams had lower mean arterial blood pressures than those gestated in the control diet dams. The postweaning dietary history affected food-motivated behavior; junk food-fed rats earned less food pellets on fixed (FR) and progressive (PR) ratio cost schedules than chow-fed controls. In conclusion, the effects of maternal high-fat diet during gestation or lactation were mostly small and transient. The postweaning effects of junk food diet were evident on the majority of the parameters measured, including body weight, fat pad mass, serum leptin and insulin levels, and operant performance.

  12. Behavioral Effects of Enrichment and Nicotine in Male Sprague Dawley Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-01

    activity, increased habituation to a novel environment, decreased voluntary exercise. Rats in the physically-enriched group had increased voluntary ... voluntary exercise. Environmental enrichment prolonged nicotine’s effects through nicotine cessation. Enrichment’s effects on body weight could not...68 Euthanasia ................................................................................................... 68 DATA ANALYTIC STRATEGY FOR

  13. Exposure of pregnant rats to uranium and restraint stress: Effects on postnatal development and behavior of the offspring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, Domenec J.; Belles, Montserrat; Albina, Maria L.; Gomez, Mercedes; Linares, Victoria; Domingo, Jose L.

    2006-01-01

    The effects on postnatal development and behavior were assessed in the offspring of female rats concurrently exposed to uranium (U) and restraint stress. Adult female rats were administered uranyl acetate dihydrate (UAD) in the drinking water at doses of 0, 40 and 80 mg/(kg day) for 4 weeks before mating with untreated males, as well as during pregnancy and lactation. One-half of female rats in each group were concurrently subjected to restraint (2 h/day). On gestation day 14, one-half of restrained and unrestrained rats were sacrificed in order to evaluate maternal toxicity and gestational parameters. Pups were evaluated for physical development, neuromotor maturation, and behavior. Uranium concentrations were also determined in various tissues of dams and fetuses. In all uranium-treated groups, the highest concentrations of this element were found in kidney and bone, being considerably higher than those in brain. Uranium levels in tissues of dam or fetuses were not significantly affected by restraint. No significant interactions between uranium and restraint could be observed in maternal toxicity. Moreover, no relevant effects of uranium, maternal restraint, or their combination were noted on developmental landmarks in the offspring. In the passive avoidance test, at 40 and 80 mg UAD/(kg day) restraint significantly modified passive avoidance acquisition (T1) and retention time (T2) 24 h later. However, no significant differences were observed on the Morris water maze test. The results of the present study indicate that, in general terms, exposure of female rats to UAD before mating with untreated males, as well as during gestation and lactation, did not cause relevant dose-related adverse effects on postnatal development and behavior of the offspring. The influence of stress was very limited

  14. Behavioral effects of Citrus limon and Punica granatum combinations in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riaz, Azra; Khan, Rafeeq Alam

    2017-02-01

    Dietary supplements are becoming more influential as viable treatment for common chronic diseases and to promote normal development and functions of all system including brain. Disorders like anxiety and depression may be managed through healthier variations is dietary pattern, since there are indications that diet rich in antioxidants and vitamins diminish anxiety and depression. Hence this investigation was planned to assess the behavioral effects of Citrus limon and Punica granatum in two combination doses i.e. 0.4 + 5 ml/kg and 0.2 + 8 ml/kg C. limon and P. granatum respectively in rats. Antidepressant and anxiolytic effects were explicitly judged twice during 15 days using forced swimming and open field tests and elevated plus maze. In open field test C. limon and P. granatum showed increase in distance travelled, number of central entries and number of rearing's at 0.4 + 5 ml/kg combination, in the elevated plus maze, number of open arm entries were found to be augmented and in forced swimming test, there was decline in duration of immobility and rise in duration of climbing at both combinations i.e. 0.4 + 5 ml/kg and 0.2 + 8 ml/kg C. limon and P. granatum. These results suggest that C. limon and P. granatum at 0.4 + 5 ml/kg combination have anxiolytic and antidepressant effect.

  15. Sex differences in the effects of pre- and postnatal caffeine exposure on behavior and synaptic proteins in pubescent rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallaberry, Cássia; Ardais, Ana Paula; Rocha, Andréia; Borges, Maurício Felisberto; Fioreze, Gabriela T; Mioranzza, Sabrina; Nunes, Fernanda; Pagnussat, Natália; Botton, Paulo Henrique S; Porciúncula, Lisiane O

    2018-02-02

    Few studies have addressed the effects of caffeine in the puberty and/or adolescence in a sex dependent manner. Considering that caffeine intake has increased in this population, we investigated the behavioral and synaptic proteins changes in pubescent male and female rats after maternal consumption of caffeine. Adult female Wistar rats started to receive water or caffeine (0.1 and 0.3g/L in drinking water; low and moderate dose, respectively) during the active cycle at weekdays, two weeks before mating. The treatment lasted up to weaning and the offspring received caffeine until the onset of puberty (30-34days old). Behavioral tasks were performed to evaluate locomotor activity (open field task), anxious-like behavior (elevated plus maze task) and recognition memory (object recognition task) and synaptic proteins levels (proBDNF, BDNF, GFAP and SNAP-25) were verified in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex. While hyperlocomotion was observed in both sexes after caffeine treatment, anxiety-related behavior was attenuated by caffeine (0.3g/L) only in females. While moderate caffeine worsened recognition memory in females, an improvement in the long-term memory was observed in male rats for both doses. Coincident with memory improvement in males, caffeine increased pro- and BDNF in the hippocampus and cortex. Females presented increased proBDNF levels in both brain regions, with no effects of caffeine. While GFAP was not altered, moderate caffeine intake increased SNAP-25 in the cortex of female rats. Our findings revealed that caffeine promoted cognitive benefits in males associated with increased BDNF levels, while females showed less anxiety. Our findings revealed that caffeine promotes distinct behavioral outcomes and alterations in synaptic proteins during brain development in a sex dependent manner. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Effects of an acute and a sub-chronic 900 MHz GSM exposure on brain activity and behaviors of rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elsa Brillaud; Aleksandra Piotrowski; Anthony Lecomte; Franck Robidel; Rene de Seze

    2006-01-01

    Radio frequencies are suspected to produce health effects. Concerning the mobile phone technology, according to position during use (close to the head), possible effects of radio frequencies on the central nervous system have to be evaluated. Previous works showed contradictory results, possibly due to experimental design diversity. In the framework of R.A.M.P. 2001 project, we evaluated possible effect of a 900 MHz GSM exposure on the central nervous system of rat at a structural, a functional and a behavioral level after acute or sub-chronic exposures. Rats were exposed using a loop antenna system to different S.A.R. levels and durations, according to results of the French C.O.M.O.B.I.O. 2001 project. A functional effect was found (modification of the cerebral activity and increase of the glia surface) after an acute exposure, even at a low level of brain averaged S.A.R. (1.5 W/kg). No cumulative effect was observed after a sub-chronic exposure (same amplitude of the effect). No structural or behavioral consequence was noted. We do not conclude on the neurotoxicity of the 900 MHz GSM exposure on the rat brain. Our results do not indicate any health risk. (authors)

  17. Effects of an acute and a sub-chronic 900 MHz GSM exposure on brain activity and behaviors of rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elsa Brillaud; Aleksandra Piotrowski; Anthony Lecomte; Franck Robidel; Rene de Seze [Toxicology Unit, INERIS, Verneuil en Halatte (France)

    2006-07-01

    Radio frequencies are suspected to produce health effects. Concerning the mobile phone technology, according to position during use (close to the head), possible effects of radio frequencies on the central nervous system have to be evaluated. Previous works showed contradictory results, possibly due to experimental design diversity. In the framework of R.A.M.P. 2001 project, we evaluated possible effect of a 900 MHz GSM exposure on the central nervous system of rat at a structural, a functional and a behavioral level after acute or sub-chronic exposures. Rats were exposed using a loop antenna system to different S.A.R. levels and durations, according to results of the French C.O.M.O.B.I.O. 2001 project. A functional effect was found (modification of the cerebral activity and increase of the glia surface) after an acute exposure, even at a low level of brain averaged S.A.R. (1.5 W/kg). No cumulative effect was observed after a sub-chronic exposure (same amplitude of the effect). No structural or behavioral consequence was noted. We do not conclude on the neurotoxicity of the 900 MHz GSM exposure on the rat brain. Our results do not indicate any health risk. (authors)

  18. Effects of sex and housing on social, spatial, and motor behavior in adult rats exposed to moderate levels of alcohol during prenatal development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Carlos I; Magcalas, Christy M; Barto, Daniel; Fink, Brandi C; Rice, James P; Bird, Clark W; Davies, Suzy; Pentkowski, Nathan S; Savage, Daniel D; Hamilton, Derek A

    2016-10-15

    Persistent deficits in social behavior, motor behavior, and behavioral flexibility are among the major negative consequences associated with exposure to ethanol during prenatal development. Prior work from our laboratory has linked moderate prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) in the rat to deficits in these behavioral domains, which depend upon the ventrolateral frontal cortex (Hamilton et al., 2014) [20]. Manipulations of the social environment cause modifications of dendritic morphology and experience-dependent immediate early gene expression in ventrolateral frontal cortex (Hamilton et al., 2010) [19], and may yield positive behavioral outcomes following PAE. In the present study we evaluated the effects of housing PAE rats with non-exposed control rats on adult behavior. Rats of both sexes were either paired with a partner from the same prenatal treatment condition (ethanol or saccharin) or from the opposite condition (mixed housing condition). At four months of age (∼3 months after the housing manipulation commenced), social behavior, tongue protrusion, and behavioral flexibility in the Morris water task were measured as in (Hamilton et al., 2014) [20]. The behavioral effects of moderate PAE were primarily limited to males and were not ameliorated by housing with a non-ethanol exposed partner. Unexpectedly, social behavior, motor behavior, and spatial flexibility were adversely affected in control rats housed with a PAE rat (i.e., in mixed housing), indicating that housing with a PAE rat has broad behavioral consequences beyond the social domain. These observations provide further evidence that moderate PAE negatively affects social behavior, and underscore the importance of considering potential negative effects of housing with PAE animals on the behavior of critical comparison groups. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of prenatal exposure to toluene on postnatal development and behavior in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, K. S.; Hass, Ulla; Lund, S. P.

    1999-01-01

    Development and neurobehavioral effects of prenatal exposure to toluene (CAS 108-88-3) were studied after exposing pregnant rats (Mol:WIST) to 1800 ppm of the solvent for 6 h daily on days 7-20 of gestation. Body weights of exposed offspring were lower until day 10 after parturition. Neurobehavio...

  20. Effects of comfort food on food intake, anxiety-like behavior and the stress response in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortolani, D; Oyama, L M; Ferrari, E M; Melo, L L; Spadari-Bratfisch, R C

    2011-07-06

    It has been suggested that access to high caloric food attenuates stress response. The present paper investigates whether access to commercial chow enriched with glucose and fat, here referred to as comfort food alters behavioral, metabolic, and hormonal parameters of rats submitted to three daily sessions of foot-shock stress. Food intake, anxiety-like behaviors, and serum levels of insulin, leptin, corticosterone, glucose and triglycerides were determined. The rats submitted to stress decreased the intake of commercial chow, but kept unaltered the intake of comfort food. During the elevated plus maze (EPM) test, stressed rats increased the number of head dipping, entries into the open arms, as well as the time spent there, and decreased the number of stretched-attend posture and risk assessment. These effects of stress were independent of the type of food consumed. Non-stressed rats ingesting comfort food decreased risk assessment as well. Stress and comfort food increased time spent in the center of the open field and delayed the first crossing to a new quadrant. Stress increased the plasma level of glucose and insulin, and reduced triglycerides, although consumption of comfort food increases glucose, triglyceride and leptin levels; no effect on leptin level was associated to stress. The stress induced increase in serum corticosterone was attenuated when rats had access to comfort food. It was concluded that foot-shock stress has an anorexigenic effect that is independent of leptin and prevented upon access to comfort food. Foot-shock stress also has an anxiolytic effect that is potentiated by the ingestion of comfort food and that is evidenced by both EPM and open field tests. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of metformin on learning and memory behaviors and brain mitochondrial functions in high fat diet induced insulin resistant rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pintana, Hiranya; Apaijai, Nattayaporn; Pratchayasakul, Wasana; Chattipakorn, Nipon; Chattipakorn, Siriporn C

    2012-10-05

    Metformin is a first line drug for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Our previous study reported that high-fat diet (HFD) consumption caused not only peripheral and neuronal insulin resistance, but also induced brain mitochondrial dysfunction as well as learning impairment. However, the effects of metformin on learning behavior and brain mitochondrial functions in HFD-induced insulin resistant rats have never been investigated. Thirty-two male Wistar rats were divided into two groups to receive either a normal diet (ND) or a high-fat diet (HFD) for 12weeks. Then, rats in each group were divided into two treatment groups to receive either vehicle or metformin (15mg/kg BW twice daily) for 21days. All rats were tested for cognitive behaviors using the Morris water maze (MWM) test, and blood samples were collected for the determination of glucose, insulin, and malondialdehyde. At the end of the study, animals were euthanized and the brain was removed for studying brain mitochondrial function and brain oxidative stress. We found that in the HFD group, metformin significantly attenuated the insulin resistant condition by improving metabolic parameters, decreasing peripheral and brain oxidative stress levels, and improving learning behavior, compared to the vehicle-treated group. Furthermore, metformin completely prevented brain mitochondrial dysfunction caused by long-term HFD consumption. Our findings suggest that metformin effectively improves peripheral insulin sensitivity, prevents brain mitochondrial dysfunction, and completely restores learning behavior, which were all impaired by long-term HFD consumption. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of chronic psychogenic stress on some behavioral and neurochemical characteristics of rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danchev, N.D.; Rozhanets, V.V.; Val'dman, A.V.

    1986-01-01

    This paper studies the behavioral, somatic, and certain neurochemical parameters in rats under conditions of unavoidable chronic stress, according to Hecht et al. in a situation of possible avoidance, with the same total number of aversive stimuli. Specific binding of tritium-flunitrazepam and tritium-dihydroalprenolol was studied. The dissociatin constant and the maximal concentration of ligand-receptor complexes were determined in Scatchard plots by means of an HP-33E computer. The protein concentration in the samples was determined by Peterson's method

  3. Effects of fenfluramine and para-chloroamphetamine on sexual behavior of male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foreman, M M; Hall, J L; Love, R L

    1992-01-01

    The present studies have evaluated the effects of pharmacologically induced release serotonin on sexual responses of male rats during exposure to a sexually receptive female rat. Following acute administration of fenfluramine or para-chloroamphetamine (PCA), significant dose-related decreases in copulatory rate and copulatory efficiency, and increases in ejaculatory latency were observed. These effects were not observed when the animals were pretreated with LY53857, a 5-HT1c/2 antagonist. These studies indicate that acute release of serotonin evoked by these releasing agents has inhibitory effects on sexual sexual drive, capacity to achieve erection and threshold for ejaculation, and these effects are mediated by either the 5-HT1c or 5-HT2 receptor.

  4. Behavioral and genetic effects promoted by sleep deprivation in rats submitted to pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matos, Gabriela; Ribeiro, Daniel A; Alvarenga, Tathiana A; Hirotsu, Camila; Scorza, Fulvio A; Le Sueur-Maluf, Luciana; Noguti, Juliana; Cavalheiro, Esper A; Tufik, Sergio; Andersen, Monica L

    2012-05-02

    The interaction between sleep deprivation and epilepsy has been well described in electrophysiological studies, but the mechanisms underlying this association remain unclear. The present study evaluated the effects of sleep deprivation on locomotor activity and genetic damage in the brains of rats treated with saline or pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE). After 50 days of pilocarpine or saline treatment, both groups were assigned randomly to total sleep deprivation (TSD) for 6 h, paradoxical sleep deprivation (PSD) for 24 h, or be kept in their home cages. Locomotor activity was assessed with the open field test followed by resection of brain for quantification of genetic damage by the single cell gel electrophoresis (comet) assay. Status epilepticus induced significant hyperactivity in the open field test and caused genetic damage in the brain. Sleep deprivation procedures (TSD and PSD) did not affect locomotor activity in epileptic or healthy rats, but resulted in significant DNA damage in brain cells. Although PSD had this effect in both vehicle and epileptic groups, TSD caused DNA damage only in epileptic rats. In conclusion, our results revealed that, despite a lack of behavioral effects of sleep deprivation, TSD and PSD induced genetic damage in rats submitted to pilocarpine-induced SE. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Effects of chronic restraint stress on social behaviors and the number of hypothalamic oxytocin neurons in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jin; Li, Han-Xia; Shou, Xiao-Jing; Xu, Xin-Jie; Song, Tian-Jia; Han, Song-Ping; Zhang, Rong; Han, Ji-Sheng

    2016-12-01

    Oxytocin (OXT) and vasopressin (AVP) are considered to be related to mammalian social behavior and the regulation of stress responses. The present study investigated the effects of chronic homotypic restraint stress (CHRS) on social behaviors and anxiety, as well as its repercussions on OXT- and AVP-positive neurons in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and supraoptic nucleus (SON) nuclei in rat. Male Sprague-Dawley rats receiving CHRS were exposed to repeated restraint stress of 30min per day for 10days. Changes in social approach behaviors were evaluated with the three-chambered social approach task. Changes in anxiety-like behaviors were evaluated in the light-dark box test. The number of neurons expressing oxytocin and/or vasopressin in PVN and SON were examined by immunohistochemistry techniques. The results demonstrated that social approach was increased and anxiety was decreased following 10-day exposure to CHRS. Furthermore, the number of OXT-immunoreactive cells in PVN was increased significantly, whereas no change in SON was seen. The number of AVP immunoreactive cells either in PVN or SON was unaffected. The results of this study suggest that certain types of stress could be effective in the treatment of social dysfunction in persons with mental disorders such as autism, social anxiety disorder. The therapeutic effects may be mediated by changes in the function of OXT neurons in PVN. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of Mucuna pruriens (Linn.) on sexual behavior and sperm parameters in streptozotocin-induced diabetic male rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh, Sekar; Prakash, Seppan

    2012-12-01

    Sexual dysfunction is one of the major secondary complications in the diabetic. Mucuna pruriens, a leguminous plant identified for its antidiabetic, aphrodisiac, and improving fertility properties, has been the choice of Indian traditional medicine. Objective of the present study was to analyze the efficacy of M. pruriens on male sexual behavior and sperm parameters in long-term hyperglycemic male rats. Male albino rats were divided as group I control, group II diabetes induced (streptozotocin [STZ] 60 mg/kg of body weight (b.w.) in 0.1 M citrate buffer), group III diabetic rats administered with 200 mg/kg b.w. of ethanolic extract of M. pruriens seed, group IV diabetic rats administered with 5 mg/kg b.w. of sildenafil citrate (SC), group V administered with 200 mg/kg b.w. of extract, and group VI administered with 5 mg/kg b.w. of SC. M. pruriens and SC were administered in single oral dosage per day for a period of 60 days. The animals were subjected to mating behavior analyses, libido, test of potency, and epididymal sperms were analyzed. The mating behavior, libido, test of potency, along with epididymal sperms were studied. The study showed significant reduction in sexual behavior and sperm parameters in group II. Daily sperm production (DSP) and levels of follicular stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, and testosterone were significantly reduced in group II, whereas the animals with diabetes administered with seed extract of M. pruriens (group III) showed significant improvement in sexual behavior, libido and potency, sperm parameters, DSP, and hormonal levels when compared to group II. The present work reveals the potential efficacy of ethanolic seed extract of M. pruriens to improve male sexual behavior with androgenic and antidiabetic effects in the STZ-induced diabetic male rats. This study supports the usage of M. pruriens in the Indian system of medicine as sexual invigorator in diabetic condition and encourages performing similar study in men.

  7. The Effects of Lead Acetate on Sexual Behavior and the Level of Testosterone in Adult Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mokhtar Mokhtari

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In the present study, the oral effect of lead acetate on the parameters related to sexualbehavior as well as changes in the level of testosterone hormone in adult male rats have beeninvestigated.Materials and Methods: Forty adult male Wistar rats were allocated into five equal groups. Thecontrol group received nothing, the sham group received distilled water and the experimentalgroups received 25, 50 and 100mg/kg lead acetate orally, respectively for 28 days. The changesin testosterone hormone level and following sexual behavior parameters were investigated: mountlatency (ML, intromission latency (IL, post ejaculatory interval (PEI, mount frequency (MF,ejaculatory latency (EL, intromission frequency (IF, copulatory efficacy (CE and intercopulatoryinterval (ICI.Results: The levels of testosterone hormone in the groups that received 50 and 100 mg/kg leadacetate showed significant decreases in compared to the control group. Additionally, the same dosesof lead acetate caused significant increases in ML, IL, PEI and EL compared to the control group.No significant change was observed in MF, but a significant decrease was detected in IF and CEin the experimental group that received 100 mg/kg lead acetate when compared with the controlgroup. ICI showed significant decreases in the experimental groups that received 50 and 100 mg/kglead acetate compared to the control group.Conclusion: It can be concluded that ingestion of lead acetate affects some behavioral activitiesand the testosterone level of male rats. These effects might be conducted via the alteration of leydigcells following lead acetate poisoning.

  8. Effect of single and repeated injections of selective D2-antagonist clebopride on maternal behavior of albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaeva, K K; Dobryakova, Yu V; Dubynin, V A; Kamensky, A A

    2012-06-01

    This study examined the effect of clebopride at low concentration that did not modify the motor activity on the parental care in female albino rats. Single injection of the drug attenuated the parental care reactions on postinjection minute 20, but not one day thereafter. The daily injection of the drug during the post partum period (1-6 days) resulted in significantly more pronounced and stable effects. The data obtained substantiated the views on the major contribution of D(2)-receptors in the development of behavioral manifestations of puerperal depression.

  9. [Effect of bone marrow mediator myelopeptides on the summation-threshold index and behavioral reactions of rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilenko, A M; Barashkov, G N; Zakharova, L A

    1984-12-01

    Transmitter peptides having immunostimulant and endorphine-like properties were isolated from supernatant of medullary cell culture. Bioregulatory peptides were called myelopeptides. Myelopeptides provoked changes of the summation-threshold index in rats, which augmented in time. These changes pointed to the realization of the analgetic effect of myelopeptides via the spinal-stem structures of the central nervous system. Having a remarkable analgesic effect myelopeptides administered in the doses tested did not produce any action on the behavioral responses. The latter circumstance makes them differ from narcotic analgesics and known endorphines.

  10. Effects of acute or repeated paroxetine and fluoxetine treatment on affective behavior in male and female adolescent rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amodeo, Leslie R.; Greenfield, Venuz Y.; Humphrey, Danielle E.; Varela, Veronica; Pipkin, Joseph A.; Eaton, Shannon E.; Johnson, Jelesa D.; Plant, Christopher P.; Harmony, Zachary R.; Wang, Li; Crawford, Cynthia A.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale The SSRI antidepressant fluoxetine is one of the few drugs that is effective at treating depression in adolescent humans. In contrast, the SSRI paroxetine has limited efficacy and is more at risk for inducing suicidal behavior. Objective The purpose of the present study was to more fully characterize the differential actions of paroxetine and fluoxetine. Methods In Experiment 1, male and female rats were injected with paroxetine (2.5 or 10 mg/kg), fluoxetine (10 mg/kg), or vehicle for 10 days starting on postnatal day (PD) 35, and affective behaviors were assessed using sucrose preference and elevated plus maze tasks. A separate set of rats were used to examine monoamine levels. In Experiment 2, rats were injected with paroxetine (2.5, 5 or 10 mg/kg), fluoxetine (5, 10 or 20 mg/kg), or vehicle during the same time frame as Experiment 1 and anxiety-like behaviors were measured using elevated plus maze, light/dark box, and acoustic startle. Results Repeated SSRI treatment failed to alter sucrose preference, although both paroxetine and fluoxetine reduced time spent in the open arms of the elevated plus maze and light compartment of the light/dark box. Paroxetine, but not fluoxetine, enhanced acoustic startle and interfered with habituation. Serotonin turnover was decreased by both acute and repeated fluoxetine treatment but unaltered by paroxetine administration. Discussion These results show that repeated treatment with paroxetine and fluoxetine has dissociable actions in adolescent rats. In particular, paroxetine, but not fluoxetine, increases acoustic startle at low doses and may increase sensitivity to environmental stressors. PMID:26141193

  11. Effect of modulated ultrahigh frequency field on behavior and hormone level in female rats under emotional stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasulov, M.M.

    The effect of a modulated electromagnetic field (MEMF) (field frequency of 40 MHz and modulated frequency of 50 Hz, 1 h exposure daily for 30 days) on behavior and level of sexual hormones, determined from the length of the estrous cycle and of its separate phases, was studied in female Wistar rats subjected to sexual deprivation. The ratio of frequency of running to number of vertical positions (R:V) was used as an index. Activity of rats declined during the 1-h exposure to MEMF; this may indicate the direct effect of MEMF on the central nervous system. Analysis of behavior after MEMF treatments ceased showed that the R:V ratio increased from 3.2:1 to 3:1 in month 3 and reached 2:1 in month 5. The relative significance of sexual behavior (lordosis, licking of perineum) more than double in comparison with the initial level. The findings support the existence of individual differences in sensitivity to a UHF field. The data on the estrous cycle indicate the tranquilizing effect of a UHF field on the neuroendocrine system and the greater resistance of individual animals exposed to MEMF to the development of sexual neurosis. 12 references, 2 figures.

  12. Sex differences in abuse-related neurochemical and behavioral effects of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazenka, M F; Suyama, J A; Bauer, C T; Banks, M L; Negus, S S

    2017-01-01

    3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) is a substrate for dopamine (DA), norepinephrine and serotonin (5HT) transporters that produces greater pharmacological effects on certain endpoints in females than males in both clinical and rodent preclinical studies. To evaluate potential for sex differences in abuse-related MDMA effects, the present study compared MDMA effects on intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS) and on in vivo microdialysis measurements of DA or 5HT in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) in female and male Sprague-Dawley rats. For ICSS studies, electrodes were implanted in the medial forebrain bundle and rats trained to press for electrical stimulation over a range of frequencies (56-158Hz, 0.05 log increments) under a fixed-ratio 1 schedule, and the potency (0.32-3.2mg/kg, 10min pretreatment) and time course (3.2. mg/kg, 10-180min pretreatment) of MDMA effects were determined. For in vivo microdialysis, rats were implanted with bilateral guide cannulae targeting the NAc, and the time course of MDMA effects (1.0-3.2mg/kg, 0-180min) on DA and 5HT was determined. MDMA produced qualitatively similar effects in both sexes on ICSS (both increases in low ICSS rates maintained by low brain-stimulation frequencies and decreases in high ICSS rates maintained by high brain-stimulation frequencies) and microdialysis (increases in both DA and 5HT). The duration and peak levels of both abuse-related ICSS facilitation and increases in NAc DA were longer in females. MDMA was also more potent to increase 5HT in females. These results provide evidence for heightened sensitivity of females to abuse-related behavioral and neurochemical effects of MDMA in rats. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. gross behavioral effects of acute doses of artesunate in wistar rats

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sniffing, climbing and scratching activities and these later effects were also seen at the lower ... It was concluded that artesunate may have some clearly definable central nervous .... behavioral parameters at higher doses of the artesunate.

  14. Effect of diet on brain metabolites and behavior in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liso Navarro, Ana A; Sikoglu, Elif M; Heinze, Cailin R; Rogan, Ryan C; Russell, Vivienne A; King, Jean A; Moore, Constance M

    2014-08-15

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a heterogeneous psychiatric disorder affecting 5-10% of children. One of the suggested mechanisms underlying the pathophysiology of ADHD is insufficient energy supply to neurons. Here, we investigated the role of omega 3 fatty acids in altering neural energy metabolism and behavior of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), which is an animal model of ADHD. To this end, we employed Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy ((1)H MRS) to evaluate changes in brain neurochemistry in the SHR following consumption of one of three experimental diets (starting PND 21): fish oil enriched (FOE), regular (RD) and animal fat enriched (AFE) diet. Behavioral tests were performed to evaluate differences in locomotor activity and risk-taking behavior (starting PND 44). Comparison of frontal lobe metabolites showed that increased amounts of omega 3 fatty acids decreased total Creatine levels (tCr), but did not change Glutamate (Glu), total N-Acetylaspartate (tNAA), Lactate (Lac), Choline (Cho) or Inositol (Ino) levels. Although behavior was not significantly affected by different diets, significant correlations were observed between brain metabolites and behavior in the open field and elevated plus maze. SHR with higher levels of brain tCr and Glu exhibited greater hyperactivity in a familiar environment. On the other hand, risk-taking exploration of the elevated plus maze's open arms correlated negatively with forebrain tNAA and Lac levels. These findings support the possible alteration in energy metabolites in ADHD, correlating with hyperactivity in the animal model. The data also suggest that omega 3 fatty acids alter brain energy and phospholipid metabolism. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Nortriptyline mediates behavioral effects without affecting hippocampal cytogenesis in a genetic rat depression model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersén, Asa; Wörtwein, Gitta; Gruber, Susanne H M

    2009-01-01

    A prevailing hypothesis is that neurogenesis is reduced in depression and that the common mechanism for antidepressant treatments is to increase it in adult hippocampus. Reduced neurogenesis has been shown in healthy rats exposed to stress, but it has not yet been demonstrated in depressed patients....... These results strengthen the arguments against hypothesis of neurogenesis being necessary in etiology of depression and as requisite for effects of antidepressants, and illustrate the importance of using a disease model and not healthy animals to assess effects of potential therapies for major depressive...

  16. Behavioral and physiologic effects of early nutrition and social factors in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamallo, A; Trancho, G J; Alario, P

    1988-01-01

    Two experimental methods to provoke caloric restriction during suckling were used. Each of the methods utilized two different rat groups: Low Growth (LG) and High Growth (HG). In one method, the groups also differed in a social factor, litter size: crowded (Cr) and control (Co). Growth differences and high levels of social competition were found among pups of the crowded group with Low Growth (CrLG) compared to the group with High Growth and small litters (CoHG). Both methods resulted in growth differences between respective groups from the first week of suckling. Differences in animal groups persisted forty days after weaning. LG animals had higher defecation scores with lower activity in the open-field test, higher susceptibility to restraint ulcers and adrenal hypertrophy than HG rats, in litters of equal size. However, early stimulation from social competition among pups in larger different litters in CrLG group counteracted nutritional factor effects. Elevated open-field defecation and ulceration scores with adrenal hypertrophy were found in CoHG rats.

  17. Effects of chlorogenic acid, caffeine, and coffee on behavioral and biochemical parameters of diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanello, Naiara; Schmatz, Roberta; Pereira, Luciane Belmonte; Rubin, Maribel A; da Rocha, João Batista Teixeira; Facco, Graziela; Pereira, Maria Ester; Mazzanti, Cinthia Melazzo de Andrade; Passamonti, Sabina; Rodrigues, Marília Valvassori; Carvalho, Fabiano Barbosa; da Rosa, Michelle Melgarejo; Gutierres, Jessie Martins; Cardoso, Andréia Machado; Morsch, Vera Maria; Schetinger, Maria Rosa Chitolina

    2014-03-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is associated with brain alterations that may contribute to cognitive dysfunctions. Chlorogenic acid (CGA) and caffeine (CA), abundant in coffee (CF), are natural compounds that have showed important actions in the brain. The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of CGA, CA, and CF on acetylcholinesterase (AChE), Na(+), K(+)-ATPase, aminolevulinate dehydratase (δ-ALA-D) activities and TBARS levels from cerebral cortex, as well as memory and anxiety in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Animals were divided into eight groups (n = 5-10): control; control/CGA 5 mg/kg; control/CA 15 mg/kg; control/CF 0.5 g/kg; diabetic; diabetic/CGA 5 mg/kg; diabetic/CA 15 mg/kg; and diabetic/CF 0.5 g/kg. Our results demonstrated an increase in AChE activity and TBARS levels in cerebral cortex, while δ-ALA-D and Na(+), K(+)-ATPase activities were decreased in the diabetic rats when compared to control water group. Furthermore, a memory deficit and an increase in anxiety in diabetic rats were observed. The treatment with CGA and CA prevented the increase in AChE activity in diabetic rats when compared to the diabetic water group. CGA, CA, and CF intake partially prevented cerebral δ-ALA-D and Na(+), K(+)-ATPase activity decrease due to diabetes. Moreover, CGA prevented diabetes-induced TBARS production, improved memory, and decreased anxiety. In conclusion, among the compounds studied CGA proved to be a compound which acts better in the prevention of brain disorders promoted by DM.

  18. Intravenous gestational cocaine in rats: effects on offspring development and weanling behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunko, P M; Moyer, D; Robinson, S E

    1993-01-01

    Pregnant rats were injected with cocaine (CN; 6 mg/kg) or an equal volume of saline (SAL), via the tail vein, on gestation days 8-20. A third group was untreated (UT). Maternal weight gain was not affected by dam treatment despite slight differences in food intake. Litter characteristics (e.g., litter size, pup weight) did not differ among groups. Indices of fetal mortality were not affected by the treatments. Developmental tests, initiated on postnatal day (PND) 2, indicated slight delays in the negative geotaxic response and eye opening in cocaine-exposed pups. Open-field and tail-flick tests were performed on PND 21. Pups were acutely injected with cocaine (10 mg/kg, IP), saline, or received no treatment before placement in a novel open field; morphine (1.5 mg/kg, SC) or saline was injected prior to the tail flick test. Pups from CN dams exhibited a significant decrease in spontaneous exploratory behavior compared to both controls, and a time-dependent increase in rearing compared to pups from UT dams. The acute cocaine injection prior to placement in the open field did not alter locomotion or rearing among dam treatment groups. However, the acute cocaine injection did increase stereotypy ratings for female pups from CN dams compared to similarly treated males, and females from SAL and UT dams. No differences were observed among groups in the tail-flick test. These data suggest that the IV route of administration provides a viable method of cocaine delivery in pregnant rats, and provides further evidence of the developmental and behavioral teratogenicity of prenatal cocaine exposure.

  19. Behavioral and neurochemical effects of chronic administration of reserpine and SKF-38393 in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neisewander, J.L.; Lucki, I.; McGonigle, P.

    1991-01-01

    Alterations in the density of dopamine receptor subtypes and behaviors mediated by the D1-selective agonist SKF-38393 were examined in rats treated chronically with reserpine, SKF-38393 or the combination of these drugs. Animals received either vehicle or reserpine (1 mg/kg s.c.) on days 1 to 28 and, in addition, half of each of these groups were treated with vehicle and half were treated with SKF-38393 (5-10 mg/kg s.c.) on days 15 to 29. Quantitative autoradiographic measurement of D1 receptors labeled with [ 3 H]SCH-23390 and D2 receptors labeled with [ 3 H]spiroperidol revealed that chronic administration of reserpine increased the density of both receptor subtypes in the nucleus accumbens and caudate-putamen, but not in the substantia nigra. Chronic administration of SKF-38393 alone did not alter D1 receptor density in any of these regions. However, chronic administration of the agonist in reserpinized animals decreased D1 receptor density in the nucleus accumbens, but not in the caudate-putamen or substantia nigra, demonstrating that this partial agonist can selectively down-regulate D1 receptors when endogenous dopaminergic tone is removed. The chronic drug treatments also altered behavioral responses. Chronic administration of SKF-38393 alone produced sensitization of the oral dyskinesia response elicited by a challenge injection of the agonist, but no significant change in the grooming response. Acute administration of SKF-38393 in rats treated with reserpine for 14 days produced stereotypy which was not altered after chronic administration of the agonist. Surprisingly, chronic administration of reserpine alone produced a spontaneous oral dyskinesia, which was blocked dose-dependently by the D2-selective antagonist spiroperidol. These findings are discussed in terms of their relevance to Parkinson's disease and tardive dyskinesia

  20. A study of time- and sex-dependent effects of vortioxetine on rat sexual behavior: Possible roles of direct receptor modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Pehrson, Alan L; Oosting, Ronald S; Gulinello, Maria; Olivier, Berend; Sanchez, Connie

    2017-07-15

    Treatment-related sexual dysfunction is a common side effect of antidepressants and contributes to patient non-compliance or treatment cessation. However, the multimodal antidepressant, vortioxetine, demonstrates low sexual side effects in depressed patients. To investigate the mechanisms involved, sexual behavior was assessed in male and female rats after acute, and repeated (7 and 14 days) treatment with vortioxetine, flesinoxan (a 5-HT 1A receptor agonist), CP-94253 (a 5-HT 1B receptor agonist), or ondansetron (a 5-HT 3 receptor antagonist). These selective ligands were chosen to simulate vortioxetine's direct modulation of these receptors. Paroxetine was also included in the male study. Acute and repeated treatment with vortioxetine at doses corresponding to clinical levels (based on serotonin transporter occupancy) had minimal effects on sexual behavior in male and female rats. High dose vortioxetine plus flesinoxan (to mimic predicted clinical levels of 5-HT 1A receptor occupancy by vortioxetine) facilitated male rat sexual behavior (acutely) while inhibiting female rat proceptive behavior (both acutely and after 14 days treatment). The selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, paroxetine, inhibited male sexual behavior after repeated administration (7 and 14 days). Flesinoxan alone facilitated male sexual behavior acutely while inhibiting female rat proceptive behavior after repeated administration (7 and 14 days). CP-94253 inhibited sexual behavior in both male and female rats after repeated administration. Ondansetron had no effect on sexual behavior. These findings underline the complex serotonergic regulation of sexual behavior and indicate that the low sexual side effects of vortioxetine found in clinical studies are likely associated with its direct modulation of serotonin receptors. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Low-dose memantine attenuated morphine addictive behavior through its anti-inflammation and neurotrophic effects in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shiou-Lan; Tao, Pao-Luh; Chu, Chun-Hsien; Chen, Shih-Heng; Wu, Hsiang-En; Tseng, Leon F; Hong, Jau-Shyong; Lu, Ru-Band

    2012-06-01

    Opioid abuse and dependency are international problems. Studies have shown that neuronal inflammation and degeneration might be related to the development of opioid addiction. Thus, using neuroprotective agents might be beneficial for treating opioid addiction. Memantine, an Alzheimer's disease medication, has neuroprotective effects in vitro and in vivo. In this study, we evaluated whether a low dose of memantine prevents opioid-induced drug-seeking behavior in rats and analyzed its mechanism. A conditioned-place-preference test was used to investigate the morphine-induced drug-seeking behaviors in rats. We found that a low-dose (0.2-1 mg/kg) of subcutaneous memantine significantly attenuated the chronic morphine-induced place-preference in rats. To clarify the effects of chronic morphine and low-dose memantine, serum and brain levels of cytokines and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) were measured. After 6 days of morphine treatment, cytokine (IL-1β, IL-6) levels had significantly increased in serum; IL-1β and IL-6 mRNA levels had significantly increased in the nucleus accumbens and medial prefrontal cortex, both addiction-related brain areas; and BDNF levels had significantly decreased, both in serum and in addiction-related brain areas. Pretreatment with low-dose memantine significantly attenuated chronic morphine-induced increases in serum and brain cytokines. Low-dose memantine also significantly potentiated serum and brain BDNF levels. We hypothesize that neuronal inflammation and BDNF downregulation are related to the progression of opioid addiction. We hypothesize that the mechanism low-dose memantine uses to attenuate morphine-induced addiction behavior is its anti-inflammatory and neurotrophic effects.

  2. Sex-dependent modification by chronic caffeine of acute methamphetamine effects on anxiety-related behavior in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Robert N; Hamilton, Jennifer J

    2018-06-01

    For fourteen days, male and female PVG/c hooded rats were provided continuously with either pure drinking water, or water containing caffeine in a quantity approximating a daily dose of 31.1 mg/kg. Then at intervals of 3 days, they were administered 1, 2 mg/kg methamphetamine (MA) or saline before being tested for anxiety-related behavior in a zero maze or a light/dark box, or their short-term spatial memory was assessed in a Y maze following introduction of a novel brightness change in one of the arms. Each rat experienced each type of apparatus with the same acute MA or saline treatment while still exposed to chronic caffeine or pure drinking water. While chronic caffeine on its own did not affect any behavioral measure, acute MA was anxiolytic for male rats suggested by increased entries and occupancy of zero-maze enclosed areas, and decreased emergence latencies and increased entries into the light/dark-box light compartment. Females were less affected than males by MA in both types of apparatus unless they also consumed caffeine. For male rats, choices of the Y-maze novel arm were affected by neither caffeine nor MA, but for females provided with unadulterated water, such choices were reduced by 1 mg/kg MA but increased for those exposed to caffeine, thereby suggesting either impaired or improved memory respectively. However, changes in anxiety could also explain these results. Overall, results generated in the three types of apparatus supported potentiation by caffeine of any effects of MA on anxiety for females only. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of stress or infection on rat behavior show robust reversals due to environmental disturbance [version 2; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samira Abdulai-Saiku

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The behavior of animals is intricately linked to the environment; a relationship that is often studied in laboratory conditions by using environmental perturbations to study biological mechanisms underlying the behavioral change.  Methods: This study pertains to two such well-studied and well-replicated perturbations, i.e., stress-induced anxiogenesis and Toxoplasma gondii -induced loss of innate fear. Here, we demonstrate that behavioral outcomes of these experimental manipulations are contingent upon the ambient quality of the wider environment where animal facilities are situated. Results: During late 2014 and early 2015, a building construction project started adjacent to our animal facility. During this phase, we observed that maternal separation stress caused anxiolysis, rather than historically observed anxiogenesis, in laboratory rats. We also found that Toxoplasma gondii infection caused an increase, rather than historically observed decrease, in innate aversion to predator odors in rats. Conclusion: These observations suggest that effects of stress and Toxoplasma gondii are dependent on variables in the environment that often go unreported in the published literature.

  4. Reproductive and behavioral effects of diisononyl phthalate (DINP) in perinatally exposed rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boberg, Julie; Christiansen, Sofie; Petersen, Marta Axelstad

    2011-01-01

    Diisononyl phthalate (DINP) is a plasticizer abundantly used in consumer products as a substitute for other plasticizers prohibited in certain products due to reproductive toxicity. As anti-androgenic effects of DINP are suspected, DINP effects on reproduction and sexually dimorphic behavior were...

  5. Gender-dependent behavioral and sensory effects of a commercial mixture of polychlorinated biphenyls (Aroclor 1254) in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, A M; Oshiro, W M; Haykal-Coates, N; Kodavanti, P R; Bushnell, P J

    2001-02-01

    Developmental exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) has been associated with behavioral and cognitive deficits in humans and animal models. Perinatal exposure to PCBs has also been associated with sensory deficits in animal models. These effects were hypothesized to be mediated in part by ortho-substituted PCBs, which do not or weakly bind to the aryl hydrocarbon (Ah) receptor. The present studies were designed to determine whether perinatal exposure to Aroclor 1254, a commercial mixture of > 99% ortho-substituted PCBs, would affect cognitive and sensory function in Long-Evans rats. Adult male and female offspring of female rats fed Aroclor 1254 (Lot #124-191; doses of 0, 1, or 6 mg/kg/day; gestational day 6 through postnatal day 21; n = eight/group) were trained to perform a signal detection task capable of assessing sensory thresholds. Training included autoshaping and operant conditioning. Thresholds for detecting a 1-s light stimulus were determined under background illuminations ranging from 2 lux to complete darkness. Female rats exposed to Aroclor 1254 autoshaped more rapidly than control females, at a rate akin to control males. Control females had lower thresholds than control males at all levels of background illumination. These differences were abolished by Aroclor 1254, which reduced thresholds in males and increased thresholds in females. These data extend previous findings of gender-specific effects of PCBs on neurobehavioral development to measures of acquisition and sensory function.

  6. The behavioral effects of chronic sugar and/or caffeine consumption in adult and adolescent rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Jane L; Wearne, Travis A; Homewood, Judi; Cornish, Jennifer L

    2017-08-01

    Caffeine is a psychostimulant frequently consumed by adults and children, often in combination with high levels of sugar. Chronic pretreatment with either substance can amplify both amphetamine and cocaine-induced hyperactivity in rodents. The present study sought to elucidate whether age at the time of exposure to sugar and/or caffeine alters sensitivity to an acute illicit psychostimulant (methamphetamine, [METH]) challenge in adulthood. Adult and adolescent (Postnatal Day 35 on first day of treatment) male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated for 26 days with water, caffeine (0.6 g/L), 10% sucrose or their combination. Locomotor behavior was measured on the first and last day of treatment. Following 9-days treatment free, animals were challenged with saline (1 ml/kg, i.p.) or METH (1 mg/kg, i.p.) and locomotor activity was measured. During the treatment period, adolescent rats maintained a higher caffeine (mg/kg) dose than their adult counterparts. Adding sugar to caffeine increased adolescent consumption and the highest caffeine dose consumed was measured in these animals. Drinking sugar-sweetened caffeinated water or combination did not produce cross-sensitization to METH administration in either age group. Nevertheless, the finding that regular exposure through adolescence to caffeinated sugar-sweetened beverages could increase consumption of caffeine and sugar later in life is important, as there is a large body of evidence that has linked excess consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages to a broad range of other negative physical and mental health outcomes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Effects of bark flour of Passiflora edulis on food intake, body weight and behavioral response of rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dandara A.F. Figueiredo

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Effects of treatment with the bark flour of Passiflora edulis Sims, Passifloraceae, were evaluated. Adult male Wistar rats were treated for 30 days (130 mg/kg, p.o. with the albedo flour, flavedo and full bark of P. edulis, corresponding to albedo associated with flavedo. Behavioral response observed after treatment with bark flour P. edulis showed sedative effects by the reduction of exploratory activity and increased duration of immobility in the open field test for the group of animals that received the albedo flour associated with the flavedo. Sedative effects were observed in the absence of motor incoordination or muscle relaxation. Food intake of experimental animals was not changed, but the weight gain was decreased both in animals that received only albedo flour, and in those who received the full bark flour. The full bark flour of Passiflora showed sedative effects, without anxiolytic effect detectable and muscle relaxation or motor incoordination, and reduces body weight gain.

  8. A detailed analysis of open-field habituation and behavioral and neurochemical antidepressant-like effects in postweaning enriched rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenes, Juan C; Padilla, Michael; Fornaguera, Jaime

    2009-01-30

    Our previous work has shown that male Sprague-Dawley rats reared in social isolation, standard housing and environmental enrichment differ in their spontaneous open-field activity and in some neurobehavioral depressive-like parameters. Here, we extended this evidence by using a shorter postweaning rearing period (1 month) and including additional evaluations. First, in order to obtain a better characterization of the exploratory strategies among rearing conditions we analyzed in detail the spontaneous activity at the first minute and during the 10-min session. Second, we asked whether the changes in open-field activity were related with basal anxiety levels in the elevated plus-maze. Third, behavior in the forced-swimming test was analyzed and afterward, the tissue levels of hippocampal norepinephrine and serotonin were assessed. The possible relationship between neurotransmitters and forced-swimming behavior were explored through correlation analyses. We found that rearing conditions (i) differed on locomotor habituation and on sensory-motor exploration at the first minute and during the 10-min session without modifying the plus-maze behavior; (ii) affected differentially the grooming time, its sequential components, and the relationship between grooming and locomotor parameters; (iii) modified forced-swimming behavior and the hippocampal concentration of norepinephrine, serotonin, and its turnover; and (iv) produced different correlation patterns between both neurotransmitters and forced-swimming behaviors. Overall, environmental enrichment accelerated open-field habituation and led to behavioral and neurochemical antidepressant-like effects. In contract, isolation rearing strongly impaired habituation and simple information processing, but showed marginal effects on depressive-like behavior and on hippocampal neurochemistry. The current results suggest that differential rearing is not only a useful procedure to study behavioral plasticity or rigidity in response

  9. Beneficial effects of fluoxetine, reboxetine, venlafaxine, and voluntary running exercise in stressed male rats with anxiety- and depression-like behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapmanee, Sarawut; Charoenphandhu, Jantarima; Charoenphandhu, Narattaphol

    2013-08-01

    Rodents exposed to mild but repetitive stress may develop anxiety- and depression-like behaviors. Whether this stress response could be alleviated by pharmacological treatments or exercise interventions, such as wheel running, was unknown. Herein, we determined anxiety- and depression-like behaviors in restraint stressed rats (2h/day, 5 days/week for 4 weeks) subjected to acute diazepam treatment (30min prior to behavioral test), chronic treatment with fluoxetine, reboxetine or venlafaxine (10mg/kg/day for 4 weeks), and/or 4-week voluntary wheel running. In elevated plus-maze (EPM) and forced swimming tests (FST), stressed rats spent less time in the open arms and had less swimming duration than the control rats, respectively, indicating the presence of anxiety- and depression-like behaviors. Stressed rats also developed learned fear as evaluated by elevated T-maze test (ETM). Although wheel running could reduce anxiety-like behaviors in both EPM and ETM, only diazepam was effective in the EPM, while fluoxetine, reboxetine, and venlafaxine were effective in the ETM. Fluoxetine, reboxetine, and wheel running, but not diazepam and venlafaxine, also reduced depression-like behavior in FST. Combined pharmacological treatment and exercise did not further reduce anxiety-like behavior in stressed rats. However, stressed rats treated with wheel running plus reboxetine or venlafaxine showed an increase in climbing duration in FST. In conclusion, regular exercise (voluntary wheel running) and pharmacological treatments, especially fluoxetine and reboxetine, could alleviate anxiety- and depression-like behaviors in stressed male rats. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. The effects of gestational and chronic atrazine exposure on motor behaviors and striatal dopamine in male Sprague-Dawley rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walters, Jennifer L.; Lansdell, Theresa A.; Lookingland, Keith J.; Baker, Lisa E.

    2015-01-01

    This study sought to investigate the effects of environmentally relevant gestational followed by continued chronic exposure to the herbicide, atrazine, on motor function, cognition, and neurochemical indices of nigrostriatal dopamine (DA) activity in male rats. Dams were treated with 100 μg/kg atrazine, 10 mg/kg atrazine, or vehicle on gestational day 1 through postnatal day 21. Upon weaning, male offspring continued daily vehicle or atrazine gavage treatments for an additional six months. Subjects were tested in a series of behavioral assays, and 24 h after the last treatment, tissue samples from the striatum were analyzed for DA and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC). At 10 mg/kg, this herbicide was found to produce modest disruptions in motor functioning, and at both dose levels it significantly lowered striatal DA and DOPAC concentrations. These results suggest that exposures to atrazine have the potential to disrupt nigrostriatal DA neurons and behaviors associated with motor functioning. - Highlights: • Male rats received gestational and chronic exposure to ATZ (10 mg/kg and 100 μg/kg). • ATZ altered locomotor activity and impaired motor coordination. • ATZ lowered striatal DA and DOPAC concentrations. • ATZ produced a potential anxiogenic effect. • ATZ did not impair performance in learning and memory assessments.

  11. The effects of gestational and chronic atrazine exposure on motor behaviors and striatal dopamine in male Sprague-Dawley rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walters, Jennifer L., E-mail: Jennifer.l.walters@wmich.edu [Western Michigan University, Department of Psychology, 1903 W Michigan Ave, Kalamazoo, MI 49008-5439 (United States); Lansdell, Theresa A., E-mail: lansdel1@msu.edu [Michigan State University, Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, 1355 Bogue Street, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Lookingland, Keith J., E-mail: lookingl@msu.edu [Michigan State University, Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, 1355 Bogue Street, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Baker, Lisa E., E-mail: lisa.baker@wmich.edu [Western Michigan University, Department of Psychology, 1903 W Michigan Ave, Kalamazoo, MI 49008-5439 (United States)

    2015-12-01

    This study sought to investigate the effects of environmentally relevant gestational followed by continued chronic exposure to the herbicide, atrazine, on motor function, cognition, and neurochemical indices of nigrostriatal dopamine (DA) activity in male rats. Dams were treated with 100 μg/kg atrazine, 10 mg/kg atrazine, or vehicle on gestational day 1 through postnatal day 21. Upon weaning, male offspring continued daily vehicle or atrazine gavage treatments for an additional six months. Subjects were tested in a series of behavioral assays, and 24 h after the last treatment, tissue samples from the striatum were analyzed for DA and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC). At 10 mg/kg, this herbicide was found to produce modest disruptions in motor functioning, and at both dose levels it significantly lowered striatal DA and DOPAC concentrations. These results suggest that exposures to atrazine have the potential to disrupt nigrostriatal DA neurons and behaviors associated with motor functioning. - Highlights: • Male rats received gestational and chronic exposure to ATZ (10 mg/kg and 100 μg/kg). • ATZ altered locomotor activity and impaired motor coordination. • ATZ lowered striatal DA and DOPAC concentrations. • ATZ produced a potential anxiogenic effect. • ATZ did not impair performance in learning and memory assessments.

  12. Estrogen-dependent effects on behavior, lipid-profile, and glycemic index of ovariectomized rats subjected to chronic restraint stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Caroline Calice; Lazzaretti, Camilla; Fontanive, Tiago; Dartora, Daniela Ravizzoni; Bauereis, Brian; Gamaro, Giovana Duzzo

    2014-03-01

    Stress has been shown to negatively affect the immune system, alter the body's metabolism, and play a strong role in the development of mood disorders. These effects are mainly driven through the release of hormones from the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA). Additionally, women are more likely to be affected by stress due to the estrogen fluctuation associated with their menstrual cycle. This study aims to evaluate the effect of chronic restraint stress, applied for 30 days, and estrogen replacement on behavior, glucose level, and the lipid profile of ovariectomized rats. Our results suggest that stress increases sweet food consumption in OVX females treated with estradiol (E2), but reduces consumption in animals not treated. Furthermore, stress increases locomotor activity and anxiety as assessed by the Open Field test and in the Elevated Plus Maze. Similarly, our results suggest that E2 increases anxiety in female rats under the same behavioral tests. In addition, stress reduces glucose and TC levels. Moreover, stress increase TG levels in the presence of E2 and decrease in its absence, as well as the estradiol increase TG levels in stressed groups and reduced in non-stressed groups. Our data suggest an important interaction between stress and estrogen, showing that hormonal status can induce changes in the animal's response to stress. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Ethanol injected into the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus induces behavioral stimulation in rats: an effect prevented by catalase inhibition and naltrexone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastor, Raúl; Aragon, Carlos M G

    2008-10-01

    It is suggested that some of the behavioral effects of ethanol, including its psychomotor properties, are mediated by beta-endorphin and opioid receptors. Ethanol-induced increases in the release of hypothalamic beta-endorphin depend on the catalasemic conversion of ethanol to acetaldehyde. Here, we evaluated the locomotor activity in rats microinjected with ethanol directly into the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ArcN), the main site of beta-endorphin synthesis in the brain and a region with high levels of catalase expression. Intra-ArcN ethanol-induced changes in motor activity were also investigated in rats pretreated with the opioid receptor antagonist, naltrexone (0-2 mg/kg) or the catalase inhibitor 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole (AT; 0-1 g/kg). We found that ethanol microinjections of 64 or 128, but not 256 microg, produced locomotor stimulation. Intra-ArcN ethanol (128 microg)-induced activation was prevented by naltrexone and AT, whereas these compounds did not affect spontaneous activity. The present results support earlier evidence indicating that the ArcN and the beta-endorphinic neurons of this nucleus are necessary for ethanol to induce stimulation. In addition, our data suggest that brain structures that, as the ArcN, are rich in catalase may support the formation of ethanol-derived pharmacologically relevant concentrations of acetaldehyde and, thus be of particular importance for the behavioral effects of ethanol.

  14. Histopathological and behavioral evaluations of the effects of crocin, safranal and insulin on diabetic peripheral neuropathy in rats

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    Amir Farshid

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Crocin and safranal, the major constituents of saffron, exert neuroprotective effects. In the present study, we investigated the effects of crocin and safranal  (alone or in combination with insulin on peripheral neuropathy in diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: Diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal (i.p. injection of 60 mg/kg of streptozotocin (STZ and confirmed by blood glucose level higher than 250 mg/dl. After confirmation of diabetes, crocin (30 mg/kg, i.p., safranal (1 mg/kg, i.p. (alone or in combination with insulin and insulin (5 IU/kg, s.c. were administered for eight weeks. Neuropathic pain was evaluated using acetone drop test. Histopathological changes of sciatic nerve were evaluated using light microscope. Blood glucose levels and sciatic nerve malondialdehyde (MDA contents were also measured. Results: STZ caused cold allodynia, edema and degenerative changes of sciatic nerve, hyperglycemia and an elevation of sciatic nerve MDA levels. Crocin, safranal and insulin improved STZ-induced behavioral, histopathological and biochemical changes. Combined treatments produced more documented improving effects. Conclusion: The results of the present study showed neuroprotective effects of crocin, safranal and insulin in a rat model of diabetic neuropathy. In addition, crocin and safranal enhanced the neuroprotective effect of insulin. The neuroprotective effects of theses chemical compounds could be associated with their anti-hyperglycemic and antioxidant properties.

  15. Effects of anti-obesity drugs, phentermine and mahuang, on the behavioral patterns in Sprague-Dawley rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Go, Ryeo-Eun; Hwang, Kyung-A; Kim, Seung-Hee; Lee, Min-Young; Kim, Cho-Won; Jeon, So-Ye; Kim, Yun-Bae; Choi, Kyung-Chul

    2014-06-01

    According to WHO global estimates from 2008, more than 1.4 billion adults were overweight and among them, over 200 million men and 300 million women were obese. Although the main treatment modalities for overweight and obese individuals remain dieting and physical exercise, the synthetic anti-obesity medications have been increasingly used due to their perceived convenience. Generally, anti-obesity medications are classified as appetite suppressants or fat absorption blockers. In the present study, we examined the adverse side-effects in respect of behavior changes of phentermine and Ephedra sinica (mahuang) that are anti-obesity drugs currently distributed to domestic consumers. Phentermine is mainly classified as an anorexing agent and mahuang a thermogenic agent. Because phentermine and mahuang are considered to display effectiveness through the regulation of nerve system, their potential influences of on behavioral changes were examined employing animal experiments. From the results of experiments testing locomotor activity through the use of treadmill, rota-rod, and open field system, phentermine and mahuang were commonly revealed to induce behavioral changes of rats by reducing a motor ability, an ability to cope with an external stimulus, and a sense of balance or by augmenting wariness or excitement. These adverse effects of phenternime and mahuang in behavioral changes need to be identified in humans and anti-obesity medications such as phentermine and mahuang should be prescribed for only obesity where it is anticipated that the benefits of the treatment outweigh their potential risks.

  16. Developmental and behavioral effects of prenatal primidone exposure in the rat.

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    Pizzi, W J; Alexander, T D; Loftus, J T

    1996-12-01

    Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were administered primidone (PRM) by oral gavage on gestation days 8-17 in doses of 0.40, and 80 mg/kg. Although these doses of PRM did not produce significant differences in litter size, birth weight, mortality, date of attainment of developmental landmarks or measures of preweaning reflex and motor development, there were a number of significant differences that developed as the animals approached and entered adulthood. When tested as adults, the 80 mg/kg male rats showed a deficit in the performance of an eight-arm radial maze task. These same animals showed a significant reduction in open field activity when tested as adults. In addition, both male and female PRM-treated animals showed reduced body weights at different periods corresponding to onset of sexual maturation during development. These findings are consistent with the larger body of literature reporting on the neurobehavioral teratology of phenobarbital, including its ability to produce lesions in the hippocampus and endocrine dysfunction resulting in reproductive deficits. These results suggest that PRM produces its adverse effects as a result of its metabolism to phenobarbital, which in turn affects the limbic system.

  17. Age influences the effects of nicotine and monoamine oxidase inhibition on mood-related behaviors in rats.

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    Villégier, Anne-Sophie; Gallager, Brittney; Heston, Jon; Belluzzi, James D; Leslie, Frances M

    2010-03-01

    Epidemiological studies have demonstrated a comorbidity of smoking with depression and anxiety, particularly during adolescence. However, few animal studies have considered possible synergistic interactions between nicotine and other tobacco smoke constituents, such as monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors, in the regulation of mood. The aim of the study was to test the hypothesis that nicotine combined with the irreversible MAO inhibitor, tranylcypromine, will differentially affect depression- and anxiety-related behaviors in adolescent and adult rats. Nicotine (0, 0.05, 0.2 mg/kg, s.c.) and tranylcypromine (3 mg/kg, i.p.) were tested separately, or together, on male rats aged postnatal days 30 and 68, in three mood-related behavioral tests: forced swim test (FST), elevated plus maze (EPM), and open field. Nicotine (0.2 mg/kg) in adults significantly decreased floating time in the FST and increased time spent in the open arm of the EPM, with no change in locomotor activity. Tranylcypromine pretreatment combined with nicotine (0.2 mg/kg) significantly increased locomotor activity and time spent in the center of the open field. Whereas nicotine alone had no significant effect on adolescents, it significantly increased locomotor activity and decreased floating time in the FST when combined with tranylcypromine pretreatment. There is an age-dependent effect of nicotine, alone and in combination with MAO inhibition, on mood-related behaviors. Whereas nicotine alone induces mood improvement in adults, it has no effect on adolescents. Nicotine combined with tranylcypromine has unique, age-dependent effects. Thus, experimental studies of smoking should consider both age and other tobacco constituents, such as MAO inhibitors, as critical factors.

  18. Social exclusion intensifies anxiety-like behavior in adolescent rats.

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    Lee, Hyunchan; Noh, Jihyun

    2015-05-01

    Social connection reduces the physiological reactivity to stressors, while social exclusion causes emotional distress. Stressful experiences in rats result in the facilitation of aversive memory and induction of anxiety. To determine the effect of social interaction, such as social connection, social exclusion and equality or inequality, on emotional change in adolescent distressed rats, the emotional alteration induced by restraint stress in individual rats following exposure to various social interaction circumstances was examined. Rats were assigned to one of the following groups: all freely moving rats, all rats restrained, rats restrained in the presence of freely moving rats and freely moving rats with a restrained rat. No significant difference in fear-memory and sucrose consumption between all groups was found. Change in body weight significantly increased in freely moving rats with a restrained rat, suggesting that those rats seems to share the stressful experience of the restrained rat. Interestingly, examination of the anxiety-like behavior revealed only rats restrained in the presence of freely moving rats to have a significant increase, suggesting that emotional distress intensifies in positions of social exclusion. These results demonstrate that unequally excluded social interaction circumstances could cause the amplification of distressed status and anxiety-related emotional alteration. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Adolescent opiate exposure in the female rat induces subtle alterations in maternal care and transgenerational effects on play behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole L. Johnson

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The non-medical use of prescription opiates, such as Vicodin® and MSContin®, has increased dramatically over the past decade. Of particular concern is the rising popularity of these drugs in adolescent female populations. Use during this critical developmental period could have significant long-term consequences for both the female user as well as potential effects on her future offspring. To address this issue, we have begun modeling adolescent opiate exposure in female rats and have observed significant transgenerational effects despite the fact that all drugs are withdrawn several weeks prior to pregnancy. The purpose of the current set of studies was to determine whether adolescent morphine exposure modifies postpartum care. In addition, we also examined juvenile play behavior in both male and female offspring. The choice of the social play paradigm was based on previous findings demonstrating effects of both postpartum care and opioid activity on play behavior. The findings revealed subtle modifications in the maternal behavior of adolescent morphine-exposed females, primarily related to the amount of time females’ spend nursing and in non-nursing contact with their young. In addition, male offspring of adolescent morphine-exposed mothers (MOR-F1 demonstrate decreased rough and tumble play behaviors, with no significant differences in general social behaviors (i.e. social grooming and social exploration. Moreover, there was a tendency toward increased rough and tumble play in MOR-F1 females, demonstrating the sex-specific nature of these effects. Given the importance of the postpartum environment on neurodevelopment, it is possible that modifications in maternal-offspring interactions, related to a history of adolescent opiate exposure, plays a role in the observed transgenerational effects. Overall, these studies indicate that the long-term consequences of adolescent opiate exposure can impact both the female and her future offspring.

  20. Modification of the effects of 5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine on exploratory behavior in rats by monoamine oxidase inhibitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halberstadt, Adam L.; Buell, Mahalah R.; Masten, Virginia L.; Risbrough, Victoria B.; Geyer, Mark A.

    2010-01-01

    RATIONALE The hallucinogenic tea known as ayahuasca is made from a combination of psychoactive plants that contribute the active components N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT) and 5-methoxy-DMT (5-MeO-DMT), as well as the monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors (MAOIs) harmine and harmaline for oral activity. OBJECTIVE The present study examined the effects of 5-MeO-DMT in combination with MAOIs in rats using the Behavioral Pattern Monitor (BPM), which enables analyses of patterns of locomotor activity and exploration. Interaction studies using the serotonin (5-HT)1A antagonist WAY-100635 (1.0 mg/kg) and the 5-HT2A antagonist MDL 11,939 (1.0 mg/kg) were also performed to assess the respective contributions of these receptors to the behavioral effects of 5-MeO-DMT in MAOI-treated animals. RESULTS 5-MeO-DMT (0.01, 0.1, and 1.0 mg/kg) decreased locomotor activity and investigatory behavior. In rats pretreated with a behaviorally inactive dose of harmaline (0.1 mg/kg), 1.0 mg/kg 5-MeO-DMT had biphasic effects on locomotor activity, initially reducing locomotion and then increasing activity as time progressed. The ability of harmaline to shift 5-MeO-DMT to a biphasic locomotor pattern was shared by the selective MAOA inhibitor clorgyline, whereas the selective MAOB inhibitor (−)-deprenyl was ineffective. The late hyperactivity induced by the combination of 1.0 mg/kg 5-MeO-DMT and 0.3 mg/kg clorgyline was blocked by pretreatment with MDL 11,939. Pretreatment with WAY-100635 failed to attenuate either the early hypoactivity or the late hyperactivity. CONCLUSIONS The ability of harmaline to modify the behavioral effects of 5-MeO-DMT is mediated by inhibition of MAOA. Further, 5-HT2A receptors are responsible for the late hyperactivity induced by 5-MeO-DMT in the presence of MAOA inhibitors. PMID:18604652

  1. Hippocampal effects of neuronostatin on memory, anxiety-like behavior and food intake in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlini, V P; Ghersi, M; Gabach, L; Schiöth, H B; Pérez, M F; Ramirez, O A; Fiol de Cuneo, M; de Barioglio, S R

    2011-12-01

    A 13-amino acid peptide named neuronostatin (NST) encoded in the somatostatin pro-hormone has been recently reported. It is produced throughout the body, particularly in brain areas that have significant actions over the metabolic and autonomic regulation. The present study was performed in order to elucidate the functional role of NST on memory, anxiety-like behavior and food intake and the hippocampal participation in these effects. When the peptide was intra-hippocampally administered at 3.0 nmol/μl, it impaired memory retention in both, object recognition and step-down test. Also, this dose blocked the hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) generation. When NST was intra-hippocampally administered at 0.3 nmol/μl and 3.0 nmol/μl, anxiolytic effects were observed. Also, the administration in the third ventricle at the higher dose (3.0 nmol/μl) induced similar effects, and both doses reduced food intake. The main result of the present study is the relevance of the hippocampal formation in the behavioral effects induced by NST, and these effects could be associated to a reduced hippocampal synaptic plasticity. Copyright © 2011 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. EFFECTS OF DIAZEPAM ON THE BEHAVIORAL RESPONSE TO STRESS IN NULLIPAROUS AND PRIMIPAROUS RATS

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    C. F. R. Garcia

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Reproductive experience (RE, i.e. the conjunct of gestation, parturition and lactation, is associated with alterations in secretions of hormones, reducing, for example, steroids and prolactin, possibly for the rest of a female’s life. Responses to stress are related to a behavioral expression of anxiety in the elevated plus-maze, once stress has an anxiogenic effect in this experimental model; both responses, to stress and anxiety, can be permanently modified in function of the ER. Besides, reduction in seprimiparous females’ sensibility to stress has been demonstrated. In this way, the results obtained until the present moment suggests that stress models the behavioral responses to stress and consequently to reproductive experience and that the hormonal scenery related to the estral cycle phase participates in this modulation. In this way too, the reproductive experience is able to reduce the sensibility to stress; however this fact is also influenced by the estral cycle phase.

  3. Effects of acute administration of the GABA(B) receptor agonist baclofen on behavioral flexibility in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beas, B Sofia; Setlow, Barry; Bizon, Jennifer L

    2016-07-01

    The ability to adjust response strategies when faced with changes in the environment is critical for normal adaptive behavior. Such behavioral flexibility is compromised by experimental disruption of cortical GABAergic signaling, as well as in conditions such as schizophrenia and normal aging that are characterized by cortical hyperexcitability. The current studies were designed to determine whether stimulation of GABAergic signaling using the GABA(B) receptor agonist baclofen can facilitate behavioral flexibility. Male Fischer 344 rats were trained in a set-shifting task in which they learned to discriminate between two response levers to obtain a food reward. Correct levers were signaled in accordance with two distinct response rules (rule 1: correct lever signaled by a cue light; rule 2: correct lever signaled by its left/right position). The order of rule presentation varied, but they were always presented sequentially, with the trials and errors to reach criterion performance on the second (set shift) rule providing the measure of behavioral flexibility. Experiments determined the effects of the GABA(B) receptor agonist baclofen (intraperitoneal, 0, 1.0, 2.5, and 4.0 mg/kg) administered acutely before the shift to the second rule. Baclofen enhanced set-shifting performance. Control experiments demonstrated that this enhancement was not simply due to improved discrimination learning, nor was it due to impaired recall of the initial discrimination rule. The results demonstrate that baclofen can facilitate behavioral flexibility, suggesting that GABA(B) receptor agonists may have utility for treating behavioral dysfunction in neuropsychiatric disorders.

  4. Behavioral and electrographic effects of opioids on kindled seizures in rats.

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    Caldecott-Hazard, S; Shavit, Y; Ackermann, R F; Engel, J; Frederickson, R C; Liebeskind, J C

    1982-11-18

    Our laboratory previously suggested that opioid peptides are released by an amygdaloid kindled seizure and may affect the elicitation of a subsequent seizure. The present study examined the effects of morphine, naloxone, enkephalin analogues, and conditions of morphine tolerance and withdrawal on the severity and duration of a series of amygdaloid kindled seizures. The results suggest two distinct opiate/opioid actions on seizures. The first is an anticonvulsant effect on the behavioral manifestations of seizures. This effect is seen following a high dose (50 mg/kg) of morphine or a low dose (6 mg/kg) of enkephalin analogue (LY146104), and is reversed by naloxone. The second is a naloxone-reversible prolonging effect of the high dose of morphine on the electrographic components of the seizures. Receptor affinities of these various opiate/opioid drugs suggest that these two actions are mediated by different receptors which appear not to include high affinity mu receptors.

  5. The effects of Valeriana officinalis L. hydro-alcoholic extract on depression like behavior in ovalbumin sensitized rats

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    Ali Neamati

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Neuroimmune factors have been considered as contributors to the pathogenesis of depression. Beside other therapeutic effects, Valeriana officinalis L., have been suggested to have anti-inflammatory effects. In the present study, the effects of V. officinalis L. hydro alcoholic extract was investigated on depression like behavior in ovalbumin sensitized rats. Materials and Methods: A total of 50 Wistar rats were divided into five groups: Group 1 (control group received saline instead of Valeriana officinalis L. extract. The animals in group 2 (sensitized were treated by saline instead of the extract and were sensitized using the ovalbumin. Groups 3-5 (Sent - Ext 50, (Sent - Ext 100 and (Sent - Ext 200 were treated by 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg of V. officinalis L. hydro-alcoholic extract respectively, during the sensitization protocol. Forced swimming test was performed for all groups and immobility time was recorded. Finally, the animals were placed in the open-field apparatus and the crossing number on peripheral and central areas was observed. Results: The immobility time in the sensitized group was higher than that in the control group (P < 0.01. The animals in Sent-Ext 100 and Sent-Ext 200 groups had lower immobility times in comparison with sensitized group (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01. In the open field test, the crossed number in peripheral by the sensitized group was higher than that of the control one (P < 0.01 while, the animals of Sent-Ext 50, Sent-Ext 100 and Sent-Ext 200 groups had lower crossing number in peripheral compared with the sensitized group (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01 respectively. Furthermore, in the sensitized group, the central crossing number was lower than that of the control group (P < 0.001. In the animals treated by 200 mg/kg of the extract, the central crossing number was higher than that of the sensitized group (P < 0. 05. Conclusions: The results of the present study showed that the hydro-alcoholic extract of V

  6. [Effect of selenium deficiency on the F344 inbred line offspring rats' neuro-behavior, ability of learning and memory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Liang-Li; Tian, Dong-Ping; Su, Min; Shen, Xiu-Na; Gao, Yuxia

    2006-01-01

    To establish the selenium (Se) deficient animal model on F344 inbred line rats and observe the effects of a long-term Se-deficiency on the offspring's neuro-behavior, abilities of learning and memory. Feeding F344 inbred line rats on Se-deficient diet to establish Se-deficient animal model. For the offspring, the body weight, physiological indexes nervous reflections for growth and development were monitored during the early postnatal period. The Se-deficient diet contained less than 0.01 mg/kg and the glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity in blood of the Se-deficient group rats is lower than the Se-normal group after feeding on Se-deficient diet for 4 weeks. For the offspring, the birth weight and the body weight of Se-deficient group were obviously lower than the Se-normal group before weaning. Se-deficient offspring rats differed from Se-normal controls in lower scores in surface righting reflex (RR) test at postnatal 4th day after delivery, cliff avoidance test at postnatal 7th day and auditory acuity trial at postnatal 10th day respectively. But these differences disappear after a few days in the same tests. In addition, no significant differences between two groups in suspending test and walking ability test at postnatal 12th and 14th day. In open field test, Se-deficient male offspring stayed less time in the middle grid and moved less. In Morris water maze test, the Se-deficient offspring spent more time to find the hidden platform at the 6th and 9th training tests in the place navigation trial. Furthermore, the Se-deficient group spent less time in target quadrant when giving the spatial probe trial. A Se-deficient animal model have been established on F344 inbred line rats successfully. A long-term Se deficiency could retard the development of the offspring in uterus and after delivery. Se deficiency also decreased the offspring's abilities of spatial learning and memory in Morris water maze test and resulted in the male offspring's nervousness to new

  7. Effects of Mild Blast Traumatic Brain Injury on Cerebral Vascular, Histopathological, and Behavioral Outcomes in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Yaping; Deyo, Donald; Parsley, Margaret A.; Hawkins, Bridget E.; Prough, Donald S.; DeWitt, Douglas S.

    2018-01-01

    Abstract To determine the effects of mild blast-induced traumatic brain injury (bTBI), several groups of rats were subjected to blast injury or sham injury in a compressed air-driven shock tube. The effects of bTBI on relative cerebral perfusion (laser Doppler flowmetry [LDF]), and mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) cerebral vascular resistance were measured for 2 h post-bTBI. Dilator responses to reduced intravascular pressure were measured in isolated middle cerebral arterial (MCA) segments, ex vivo, 30 and 60 min post-bTBI. Neuronal injury was assessed (Fluoro-Jade C [FJC]) 24 and 48 h post-bTBI. Neurological outcomes (beam balance and walking tests) and working memory (Morris water maze [MWM]) were assessed 2 weeks post-bTBI. Because impact TBI (i.e., non-blast TBI) is often associated with reduced cerebral perfusion and impaired cerebrovascular function in part because of the generation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species such as peroxynitrite (ONOO−), the effects of the administration of the ONOO− scavenger, penicillamine methyl ester (PenME), on cerebral perfusion and cerebral vascular resistance were measured for 2 h post-bTBI. Mild bTBI resulted in reduced relative cerebral perfusion and MCA dilator responses to reduced intravascular pressure, increases in cerebral vascular resistance and in the numbers of FJC-positive cells in the brain, and significantly impaired working memory. PenME administration resulted in significant reductions in cerebral vascular resistance and a trend toward increased cerebral perfusion, suggesting that ONOO− may contribute to blast-induced cerebral vascular dysfunction. PMID:29160141

  8. Behavioral Effects of Systemic, Infralimbic and Prelimbic Injections of a Serotonin 5-HT2A Antagonist in Carioca High- and Low-Conditioned Freezing Rats

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    Laura A. León

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The role of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine [5-HT] and 5-HT2A receptors in anxiety has been extensively studied, mostly without considering individual differences in trait anxiety. Our laboratory developed two lines of animals that are bred for high and low freezing responses to contextual cues that are previously associated with footshock (Carioca High-conditioned Freezing [CHF] and Carioca Low-conditioned Freezing [CLF]. The present study investigated whether ketanserin, a preferential 5-HT2A receptor blocker, exerts distinct anxiety-like profiles in these two lines of animals. In the first experiment, the animals received a systemic injection of ketanserin and were exposed to the elevated plus maze (EPM. In the second experiment, these two lines of animals received microinjections of ketanserin in the infralimbic (IL and prelimbic (PL cortices and were exposed to either the EPM or a contextual fear conditioning paradigm. The two rat lines exhibited bidirectional effects on anxiety-like behavior in the EPM and opposite responses to ketanserin. Both systemic and intra-IL cortex injections of ketanserin exerted anxiolytic-like effects in CHF rats but anxiogenic-like effects in CLF rats. Microinjections of ketanserin in the PL cortex also exerted anxiolytic-like effects in CHF rats but had no effect in CLF rats. These results suggest that the behavioral effects of 5-HT2A receptor antagonism might depend on genetic variability associated with baseline reactions to threatening situations and 5-HT2A receptor expression in the IL and PL cortices.Highlights-CHF and CLF rats are two bidirectional lines that are based on contextual fear conditioning.-CHF rats have a more “anxious” phenotype than CLF rats in the EPM.-The 5-HT2A receptor antagonist ketanserin had opposite behavioral effects in CHF and CLF rats.-Systemic and IL injections either decreased (CHF or increased (CLF anxiety-like behavior.-PL injections either decreased (CHF anxiety

  9. Strain-dependent effects of acute caffeine on anxiety-related behavior in PVG/c, Long-Evans and Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Robert N; Hancock, Nicola J

    2016-01-01

    To assess the possibility that acute caffeine's behavioral action might depend on rats' strain, effects of 50mg/kg of the drug were observed on activity, anxiety-related behavior and habituation learning in male and female rats from three different strains, namely PVG/c, Long-Evans and Wistar. All subjects were tested in an open field, an elevated plus maze and a light-dark box. For the three strains combined, increased occupancy of the center of the open field and entries of the open plus-maze arms with caffeine suggested caffeine-induced anxiolysis, whereas increased grooming in the open field, decreased rearing in the plus maze and increased risk assessment in the light-dark box were consistent with anxiogenesis. Caffeine also reduced open-field rearing only for PVG/c rats, and entries into and occupation of the light side of the light-dark box only for Long-Evans rats, and increased total defecation in the three types of apparatus for all three strains combined. Overall, caffeine appeared to be mainly anxiogenic. The drug also increased open-field ambulation for PVG/c rats and walking for all rats, but decreased open-field ambulation and entries into the plus maze closed arms for Wistar rats alone. In general, Wistar rats appeared to be the least and Long-Evans the most anxious of the three strains investigated. Caffeine also decreased within-session habituation of open-field ambulation for PVG/c rats alone, thereby suggesting strain-dependent interference with non-associative learning and short-term memory. Several overall sex differences were also observed that supported female rats being more active and less anxious than males. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Effects of Electromagnetic Radiation Exposure on Stress-Related Behaviors and Stress Hormones in Male Wistar Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdavi, Seyed Mohammad; Sahraei, Hedayat; Yaghmaei, Parichehreh; Tavakoli, Hassan

    2014-01-01

    Studies have demonstrated that electromagnetic waves, as the one of the most important physical factors, may alter cognitive and non-cognitive behaviors, depending on the frequency and energy. Moreover, non-ionizing radiation of low energy waves e.g. very low frequency waves could alter this phenomenon via alterations in neurotransmitters and neurohormones. In this study, short, medium, and long-term exposure to the extremely low frequency electromagnetic field (ELF-EMF) (1 and 5 Hz radiation) on behavioral, hormonal, and metabolic changes in male Wistar rats (250 g) were studied. In addition, changes in plasma concentrations for two main stress hormones, noradrenaline and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) were evaluated. ELF-EMF exposure did not alter body weight, and food and water intake. Plasma glucose level was increased and decreased in the groups which exposed to the 5 and 1Hz wave, respectively. Plasma ACTH concentration increased in both using frequencies, whereas nor-adrenaline concentration showed overall reduction. At last, numbers of rearing, sniffing, locomotor activity was increased in group receiving 5 Hz wave over the time. In conclusions, these data showed that the effects of 1 and 5 Hz on the hormonal, metabolic and stress-like behaviors may be different. Moreover, the influence of waves on stress system is depending on time of exposure. PMID:25489427

  11. Effects of electromagnetic radiation exposure on stress-related behaviors and stress hormones in male wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdavi, Seyed Mohammad; Sahraei, Hedayat; Yaghmaei, Parichehreh; Tavakoli, Hassan

    2014-11-01

    Studies have demonstrated that electromagnetic waves, as the one of the most important physical factors, may alter cognitive and non-cognitive behaviors, depending on the frequency and energy. Moreover, non-ionizing radiation of low energy waves e.g. very low frequency waves could alter this phenomenon via alterations in neurotransmitters and neurohormones. In this study, short, medium, and long-term exposure to the extremely low frequency electromagnetic field (ELF-EMF) (1 and 5 Hz radiation) on behavioral, hormonal, and metabolic changes in male Wistar rats (250 g) were studied. In addition, changes in plasma concentrations for two main stress hormones, noradrenaline and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) were evaluated. ELF-EMF exposure did not alter body weight, and food and water intake. Plasma glucose level was increased and decreased in the groups which exposed to the 5 and 1Hz wave, respectively. Plasma ACTH concentration increased in both using frequencies, whereas nor-adrenaline concentration showed overall reduction. At last, numbers of rearing, sniffing, locomotor activity was increased in group receiving 5 Hz wave over the time. In conclusions, these data showed that the effects of 1 and 5 Hz on the hormonal, metabolic and stress-like behaviors may be different. Moreover, the influence of waves on stress system is depending on time of exposure.

  12. EFFECTS OF MALNUTRITION AND ENVIRONMENT ON THE ACQUISITION AND EXTICTION OF AVOIDANCE BEHAVIOR IN RATS

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Luiz Marcellino de; Almeida, Sebastião de Sousa

    2016-01-01

    Twelve newborn rats were fed by mothers maintained on protein-deficient diet (12% casein, M) during lactation, and 12 rats fed by mothers maintained on a diet containing 25% casein were used as controls (C). After weaning, all animals were standard lab ration. Half of each group was housed individually (MI and CI), while the other half was allowed to live in pairs (MP and CP). When adult, all animals were trained to avoid footshocks by jumping onto a platform. Trainiing sessions consisted of ...

  13. Agomelatine's effect on circadian locomotor rhythm alteration and depressive-like behavior in 6-OHDA lesioned rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Leonardo C; Martynhak, Bruno J; Bassani, Taysa B; Turnes, Joelle de M; Machado, Meira M; Moura, Eric; Andreatini, Roberto; Vital, Maria A B F

    2018-05-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) patients often suffer from circadian locomotor rhythms impairment and depression, important non-motor symptoms. It is known that toxin-based animal models of PD can reproduce these features. In a 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) intranigral model, we first investigated the possible disturbances on circadian rhythms of locomotor activity. The rats were divided into 6-OHDA and Sham groups. After a partial dopaminergic lesion, the 6-OHDA group showed slight alterations in different circadian locomotor rhythms parameters. In a second experiment, we hypothesized agomelatine, an melatoninergic antidepressant with potential to resynchronize disturbed rhythms, could prevent neuronal damage and rhythm alterations in the same 6-OHDA model. The animals were divided into four groups: 6-OHDA+vehicle, 6-OHDA+ago, Sham+vehicle and 6-OHDA+ago. However, the treated animals (agomelatine 50 mg/kg for 22 days) showed an impaired rhythm robustness, and agomelatine did not induce significant changes in the other circadian parameters nor neuroprotection. Finally, in a third experiment, we examined the effects of agomelatine in the 6-OHDA model regarding depressive-like behavior, evaluated by sucrose preference test. The animals were also divided into four groups: 6-OHDA+vehicle, 6-OHDA+ago, Sham+vehicle and 6-OHDA+ago. The toxin infused animals showed a decrease in sucrose preference in comparison with the vehicle infused animals, however, agomelatine did not prevent this decrease. Our findings indicate that agomelatine worsened circadian locomotor rhythm and was not able to reverse the depressive-like behavior of rats in the 6-OHDA PD model. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. The effect of D2 agonist versus D2 antagonist on the fear behavior in the male rats using plus-maze method: the prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabzehkhah S

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: Dopaminergic is the most important neurotransmitter is fear. The dopaminergic mesolimbic pathway has essential role in excitable behavior, and it's role in Parkinson disease. The aim of this research in study, the effect of dopaminergic pathway in fear response. "n"nMethods: The elevated plus maze was used in combination with the percentage of time spent in the open arms of the maze (OAT% and the percentage of entries into the open arms (OAE% to measure fear. Increases in the OAT% and OAE% indicate an anxiolytic effect (reduction in anxiety, whereas decreases in the OAE% and OAT% indicate an anxiogenic effect. After five days, the rats were injected with saline and different doses of sulpiride and Bromocriptine."n"nResults: Results showed that intracerebroventricular administration of sulpiride, in the doses of 5, 20μg/rat and bromocriptine, D2 agonist in doses 65, 95μg/rat produced a significant effect comparing to sham groups (p<0.05. While intracerebroventricular administration of sulpiride 15, 10μg/rat, and bromocriptine 70, 80μg/rat, did not show any significant effect comparing with sham group (p<0.05. In the current research intracerebroventricular administration of sulpiride, D2 antagonist at the doses of 5, 10, 15, 20μg/rat and Bromocriptine, D2 agonist in the doses of 65, 70, 80, 95μg/rat were used and theire effect on the fear behavior were studied. "n"nConclusions: The possible effect of Dopaminergic system in the fear process, especially D2 receptor increase fear.

  15. Effects of Nicotine and Stress on Anxiety-related and Depression-related Behavior in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-30

    mesolimbic dopamine (3). Picciotto et al (46) highlight the ambiguity of nicotine’s relationship with stress suggesting that the drug can either...Toxicology 57:380-6 43. Lewis EM, Barnett JF, Freshwater L, Hoberman AM, Christian MS. 2002. Sexual maturation data for Crl Sprague-Dawley rats

  16. Effects of prenatal exposure to N-methylpyrrolidone on postnatal development and behavior in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hass, Ulla; Lund, S. P.; Elsner, J.

    1994-01-01

    Pregnant rats (Mol: WIST) were exposed to 150 ppm N-methylpyrrolidone for 6 hours per day on gestation days 7-20. The dose level was selected so as not to induce maternal toxicity or decrease viability of offspring. In the preweaning period, the exposed offspring had a lower body weight and their...

  17. Effects of unpredictable chronic stress on behavior and brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression in CA3 subfield and dentate gyrus of the hippocampus in different aged rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying; Ji, Yong-juan; Jiang, Hong; Liu, De-xiang; Zhang, Qian; Fan, Shu-jian; Pan, Fang

    2009-07-05

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a stress-responsive intercellular messenger modifying hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity. The interaction between stress and age in BDNF expression is currently not fully understood. This study was conducted to observe unpredictable stress effect on behavior and BDNF expression in CA3 subfield (CA3) and dentate gyrus of hippocampus in different aged rats. Forty-eight Wistar rats of two different ages (2 months and 15 months) were randomly assigned to six groups: two control groups and four stress groups. The rats in the stress group received three weeks of unpredictable mild stress. The depression state and the stress level of the animals were determined by sucrose preference test and observation of exploratory behavior in an open field (OF) test. The expressions of BDNF in CA3 and dentate gyrus of the hippocampus were measured using immunohistochemistry. Age and stress had different effects on the behavior of different aged animals (age: F = 6.173, P BDNF expression in the CA3 and dentate gyrus regions of the hippocampus following stress in both age groups (P BDNF (F = 9.408, P BDNF expression compared to the young stressed group at every testing time point. Stress has age-dependent effects on behavioral responses and hippocampal BDNF expression in rats.

  18. Effects of chronic treatment with fluvoxamine and paroxetine during adolescence on serotonin-related behavior in adult male rats.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, T.R. de; Snaphaan, L.J.A.E.; Pattij, T.; Veening, J.G.; Waldinger, M.D.; Cools, A.R.; Olivier, B.

    2006-01-01

    Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs) are designed to treat adults, but are increasingly prescribed for adolescents. SSRIs might cause permanent changes in serotonin-related behavior in adolescents, since their serotonergic system is still developing. Male Wistar rats were treated with

  19. Omega-3 fatty acid deficiency does not alter the effects of chronic fluoxetine treatment on central serotonin turnover or behavior in the forced swim test in female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Robert K; Able, Jessica A; Liu, Yanhong; Jandacek, Ronald; Rider, Therese; Tso, Patrick; Lipton, Jack W

    2013-12-01

    While translational evidence suggests that long-chain omega-3 fatty acid status is positively associated with the efficacy of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor drugs, the neurochemical mechanisms mediating this interaction are not known. Here, we investigated the effects of dietary omega-3 (n-3) fatty acid insufficiency on the neurochemical and behavioral effects of chronic fluoxetine (FLX) treatment. Female rats were fed diets with (CON, n=56) or without (DEF, n=40) the n-3 fatty acids during peri-adolescent development (P21-P90), and one half of each group was administered FLX (10mg/kg/day) for 30days (P60-P90) prior to testing. In adulthood (P90), regional brain serotonin (5-HT) and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic (5-HIAA) concentrations, presynaptic markers of 5-HT neurotransmission, behavioral responses in the forced swim test (FST), and plasma FLX and norfluoxetine (NFLX) concentrations were investigated. Peri-adolescent n-3 insufficiency led to significant reductions in cortical docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) composition in DEF (-25%, p≤0.0001) and DEF+FLX (-28%, p≤0.0001) rats. Untreated DEF rats exhibited significantly lower regional 5-HIAA/5-HT ratios compared with untreated CON rats, but exhibited similar behavioral responses in the FST. In both CON and DEF rats, chronic FLX treatment similarly and significantly decreased 5-HIAA concentrations and the 5-HIAA/5-HT ratio in the hypothalamus, hippocampus, and nucleus accumbens, brainstem tryptophan hydroxylase-2 mRNA expression, and immobility in the FST. While the FLX-induced reduction in 5-HIAA concentrations in the prefrontal cortex was significantly blunted in DEF rats, the reduction in the 5-HIAA/5-HT ratio was similar to CON rats. Although plasma FLX and NFLX levels were not significantly different in DEF and CON rats, the NFLX/FLX ratio was significantly lower in DEF+FLX rats. These preclinical data demonstrate that n-3 fatty acid deficiency does not significantly reduce the effects of chronic

  20. Metabolic, behavioral, and reproductive effects of vertical sleeve gastrectomy in an obese rat model of polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ressler, Ilana B; Grayson, Bernadette E; Seeley, Randy J

    2014-06-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrinopathy affecting women of reproductive age. Its clinical expression is diverse, including metabolic, behavioral, and reproductive effects, with many affected by obesity and decreased quality of life. Women with PCOS who have undergone surgically induced weight loss have reported tremendous benefit, not only with weight loss, but also improvement of hyperandrogenism and menstrual cyclicity. In a rat model of PCOS achieved via chronic administration of dihydrotestosterone (DHT) exposure, we investigated the ability of bariatric surgery, specifically vertical sleeve gastrectomy (VSG), to ameliorate the metabolic, behavioral, and reproductive abnormalities invoked by this PCOS model. We found that DHT treatment combined with exposure to a high-fat diet resulted in increased body weight and body fat, impaired fasting glucose, hirsutism, anxiety, and irregular cycles. VSG resulted in reduced food intake, body weight, and adiposity with improved fasting glucose and triglycerides. VSG induced lower basal corticosterone levels and attenuated stress responsivity. Once the DHT levels decreased to normal, regular estrous cyclicity was also restored. VSG, therefore, improved PCOS manifestations in a comprehensive manner and may represent a potential therapeutic approach for specific aspects of PCOS.

  1. Effects of rolipram, a phosphodiesterase 4 inhibitor, in combination with imipramine on depressive behavior, CRE-binding activity and BDNF level in learned helplessness rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Tetsuji; Tokumura, Miwa; Abe, Kohji

    2004-09-13

    The brain cAMP regulating system and its downstream elements play a pivotal role in the therapeutic effects of antidepressants. We previously reported the increase in activities of phosphodiesterase 4, a major phosphodiesterase isozyme hydrolyzing cAMP, in the frontal cortex and hippocampus of learned helplessness rats, an animal model for depression. The present study was undertaken to examine the combination of effects of rolipram, a phosphodiesterase 4 inhibitor, with imipramine, a typical tricyclic antidepressant, on depressive behavior in learned helplessness rats. Concurrently, cAMP-response element (CRE)-binding activity and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels related to the therapeutic effects of antidepressants were determined. Repeated administration of imipramine (1.25-10 mg/kg, i.p.) or rolipram (1.25 mg/kg, i.p.) reduced the number of escape failures in learned helplessness rats. Imipramine could not completely ameliorate the escape behavior to a level similar to that of non-stressed rats even at 10 mg/kg. However, repeated coadministration of rolipram with imipramine (1.25 and 2.5 mg/kg, respectively) almost completely eliminated the escape failures in learned helplessness rats. The reduction of CRE-binding activities and BDNF levels in the frontal cortex or hippocampus in learned helplessness rats were ameliorated by treatment with imipramine or rolipram alone. CRE-binding activities and/or BDNF levels of the frontal cortex and hippocampus were significantly increased by treatment with a combination of rolipram and imipramine compared to those in imipramine-treated rats. These results indicated that coadministration of phosphodiesterase type 4 inhibitors with antidepressants may be more effective for depression therapy and suggest that elevation of the cAMP signal transduction pathway is involved in the antidepressive effects.

  2. Effects of the GluN2B-NMDA receptor antagonist Ro 25-6981 on two types of behavioral flexibility in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Emma; Antoniak, Kristen; Feniquito, Alyssandra; Dringenberg, Hans C

    2017-02-15

    Recent evidence has implicated N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) in several aspects of learning and behavioral flexibility in rodents. Here, we examined the effects of treatment with Ro 25-6981, a selective antagonist of NMDARs containing GluN2B subunits, on two types of behavioral flexibility in rats, spatial reversal learning and set-shifting (spatial vs. motor strategy). To examine spatial reversal learning, rats were trained to swim to a hidden platform in a water maze over four days. On the following day, the platform was moved to a new location in the maze. Administration of Ro 25-6981 (10mg/kg) selectively impaired the early phase of reversal learning, but all rats learned to navigate to the new platform location over 12 trials. To examine set-shifting, independent groups of rats were trained to either swim to a fixed location (spatial strategy) or use a motor response (e.g., "turn left"; motor strategy) to find a hidden escape platform in a cross-shaped water maze apparatus; after task acquisition, rats were trained on the second, novel strategy (set-shift) following treatment with either Ro 25-6981 (10mg/kg) or saline. Administration of Ro 25-6981 had no effect on the ability of rats to perform the set-shift and use the new strategy to locate the escape platform. These results suggest that, in rats, spatial reversal learning, but not set-shifting, is sensitive to Ro-25-6981 treatment. Thus, NMDARs-GluN2B signaling may play a selective role in some forms of behavioral plasticity, particularly for situations involving the updating of information in the spatial domain. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Anticonvulsant and behavioral effects of GABA(B) receptor positive modulator CGP7930 in immature rats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mareš, Pavel; Tichá, Kateřina; Mikulecká, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 28, č. 1 (2013), s. 113-120 ISSN 1525-5050 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC554; GA ČR(CZ) GAP304/10/1274 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : GABAB receptor * pharmacology * ontogeny * rat Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 2.061, year: 2013

  4. Effects of Chronic Vitamin D3 Hormone Administration on Anxiety-Like Behavior in Adult Female Rats after Long-Term Ovariectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Fedotova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The present preclinical study was created to determine the therapeutic effects of vitamin D hormone treatment as an adjunctive therapy alone or in a combination with low dose of 17β-estradiol (17β-E2 on anxiety-like behavior in female rats with long-term absence of estrogen. Accordingly, the aim of the current study was to examine the effects of chronic cholecalciferol administration (1.0, 2.5 or 5.0 mg/kg subcutaneously, SC, once daily, for 14 days on the anxiety-like state after long-term ovariectomy in female rats. Twelve weeks postovariectomy, cholecalciferol was administered to ovariectomized (OVX rats and OVX rats treated with 17β-E2 (0.5 µg/rat SC, once daily, for 14 days. Anxiety-like behavior was assessed in the elevated plus maze (EPM and the light/dark test (LDT, and locomotor and grooming activities were tested in the open field test (OFT. Cholecalciferol at two doses of 1.0 and 2.5 mg/kg alone or in combination with 17β-E2 produced anxiolytic-like effects in OVX rats as evidenced in the EPM and the LDT, as well as increased grooming activity in the OFT. Our results indicate that cholecalciferol, at two doses of 1.0 and 2.5 mg/kg, has a profound anxiolytic-like effects in the experimental rat model of long-term estrogen deficiency.

  5. Effects of prenatal gamma irradiation on postnatal development of the nervous system and some forms of behavior in rats: Melatonin effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smajda, B.; Pipova, N.; Kiskova, T.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of our work was to find out whether irradiation of pregnant female rats with a dose of 1 Gy gamma rays during the most sensitive phase of CNS organogenesis causes a change in the intensity and time dynamics of neurogenesis in the hippocampus and whether these changes will correlate with changes in some selected behavioral parameters. Another objective was to investigate the protective effect of chronic administration of melatonin, an endogenous substance with proven antioxidant and genoprotective effects on neurogenesis processes in two age-differentiated groups of animals. The results showed a significant effect of a low dose of gamma rays applied during the sensitive phase of CNS embryogenesis on the intensity and time dynamics of neurogenesis in young and adult mammals. Melatonin administration has had a positive effect on cell proliferation and survival of mature neurons. From behavioral parameters, the positive effect of melatonin has only been shown to improve the long-term spatial memory of rats in the Morris swimming pool. (authors)

  6. Sex and estrous cycle-dependent changes in neurosteroid and benzodiazepine effects on food consumption and plus-maze learning behaviors in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, D S; Kulkarni, S K

    1999-01-01

    Experiments were designed to investigate the influence of estrous cycle and gender of the rat on the effects of a gamma-aminobutyric acid type A (GABA(A)) receptor active neurosteroid, 3alpha-hydroxy-5alpha-pregnan-20-one (allopregnanolone), the benzodiazepine, triazolam, and a GABA(A) receptor antagonistic neurosteroid, delta5-androsten-3beta-ol-17-one sulfate (dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate), on food intake and elevated plus-maze learning behaviors. Allopregnanolone (0.25 mg/kg, s.c.) and triazolam (0.25 mg/kg, i.p.) produced a hyperphagic effect, while dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (5 mg/kg, s.c.) elicited an anorectic effect. However, allopregnanolone was more potent in diestrous females, whereas triazolam exhibited significantly higher hyperphagic potency in estrus females. The extent of anorexia following dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate was alike in male and female rats. The triazolam- and allopregnanolone-induced hyperphagic effect was blocked by bicuculline (1 mg/kg, i.p.), a selective GABA(A) receptor antagonist. In contrast to triazolam, the hyperphagic effect of allopregnanolone was insensitive to flumazenil (5 mg/kg, i.p.), a benzodiazepine antagonist. Vehicle-treated diestrous rats displayed moderately higher latencies in the elevated plus-maze learning task than estrus or proestrus females. Although allopregnanolone and triazolam elicited equipotent learning deficits in plus-maze learning in male and female rats, the magnitude of impairment-induced by triazolam was significantly higher in diestrous females than proestrus females. Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate enhanced memory performance only in male rats. Although the use of the elevated plus-maze as a learning paradigm with benzodiazepines and neurosteroids may be sensitive to changes in anxiety, the differential data suggest that neurosteroid-induced effects are at least partly specific to learning behavior. These results confirm the role of estrous cycle and sex of rats in modifying the potency of

  7. Omega-3 Fatty Acid Deficiency Does Not Alter the Effects of Chronic Fluoxetine Treatment on Central Serotonin Turnover or Behavior in the Forced Swim Test in Female Rats

    OpenAIRE

    McNamara, Robert K.; Able, Jessica A.; Liu, Yanhong; Jandacek, Ronald; Rider, Therese; Tso, Patrick; Lipton, Jack W.

    2013-01-01

    While translational evidence suggests that long-chain omega-3 fatty acid status is positively associated with the efficacy of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor drugs, the neurochemical mechanisms mediating this interaction are not known. Here we investigated the effects of dietary omega-3 (n-3) fatty acid insufficiency on the neurochemical and behavioral effects of chronic fluoxetine (FLX) treatment. Female rats were fed diets with (CON, n=56) or without (DEF, n=40) the n-3 fatty acids d...

  8. Cardiovascular and behavioral effects produced by administration of liposome-entrapped GABA into the rat central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz, G C; Bahia, A P C O; de Figueiredo Müller-Ribeiro, F C; Xavier, C H; Patel, K P; Santos, R A S; Moreira, F A; Frézard, F; Fontes, M A P

    2015-01-29

    Liposomes are nanosystems that allow a sustained release of entrapped substances. Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the most prevalent inhibitory neurotransmitter of the central nervous system (CNS). We developed a liposomal formulation of GABA for application in long-term CNS functional studies. Two days after liposome-entrapped GABA was injected intracerebroventricularly (ICV), Wistar rats were submitted to the following evaluations: (1) changes in mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR) and renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA) to ICV injection of bicuculline methiodide (BMI) in anesthetized rats; (2) changes in cardiovascular reactivity to air jet stress in conscious rats; and (3) anxiety-like behavior in conscious rats. GABA and saline-containing pegylated liposomes were prepared with a mean diameter of 200 nm. Rats with implanted cannulas targeted to lateral cerebral ventricle (n = 5-8/group) received either GABA solution (GS), empty liposomes (EL) or GABA-containing liposomes (GL). Following (48 h) central microinjection (2 μL, 0.09 M and 99 g/L) of liposomes, animals were submitted to the different protocols. Animals that received GL demonstrated attenuated response of RSNA to BMI microinjection (GS 48 ± 9, EL 43 ± 9, GL 11 ± 8%; P nervous system. Copyright © 2014 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of Environmental Cues on Behavioral Efficacy of Haloperidol, Olanzapine and Clozapine in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Tao; Liu, Xinfeng; Li, Ming

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have reported that context can powerfully modulate the inhibitory effect of an antipsychotic drug on phencyclidine (PCP)-induced hyperlocomotion (a behavioral test used to evaluate putative antipsychotic drugs). The present study investigated the experimental conditions under which environmental stimuli exert their influence through associative conditioning processes. Experiment 1 examined the extent to which prior antipsychotic treatment in the home cages affected a drug’s ability to inhibit PCP-induced hyperlocomotion in a novel motor activity test apparatus. Five days of repeated haloperidol (0.05 mg/kg, sc) and olanzapine (2.0 mg/kg, sc) treatment in the home cages still potentiated their inhibition of PCP-induced hyperlocomotion (i.e. sensitization) assessed in a new environment, whereas the clozapine (10.0 mg/kg, sc) treatment enhanced the development of clozapine tolerance, indicating a lack of environmental modulation of antipsychotic efficacy. Experiment 2 assessed the impact of different numbers of antipsychotic administrations in either the home environment or test environment (e.g. 4, 2 or 0) on a drug’s ability to inhibit PCP-induced hyperlocomotion. Repeated administration of clozapine (5.0 mg/kg, sc) or olanzapine (1.0 mg/kg, sc) for 4 consecutive days, regardless of where these treatments occurred, caused a similar level of inhibition on PCP-induced hyperlocomotion. However, 4-day haloperidol (0.03 mg/kg, sc) treatment in the test apparatus caused a significant higher inhibition than 4-day home cage treatment. Thus, more exposures to the test environment under the influence of haloperidol (but not clozapine or olanzapine) cause a stronger inhibition than fewer exposures, indicating a strong environmental modulation. Collectively, these findings suggest that prior antipsychotic treatment in one environment could alter later antipsychotic-like response assessed in a different environment under certain test conditions. Therefore

  10. Modulatory effect of cilostazol on tramadol-induced behavioral and neurochemical alterations in rats challenged across the forced swim despair test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noha M. Gamil

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Pain-associated depression is encountered clinically in some cases such as cancer, chronic neuropathy, and after operations. Tramadol is an opioid analgesic drug that may modulate monoaminergic neurotransmission by inhibition of noradrenaline and serotonin reuptake that may contribute to its antidepressant-like effects. Clinically, tramadol is used either alone or in combination with other NSAIDs in the treatment of cases associated with pain and depression, e.g. low back pain, spinal cord injury, and post-operative pain management. However, tramadol monotherapy as an antidepressant is impeded by severe adverse effects including seizures and serotonin syndrome. Interestingly, phosphodiesterase-III inhibitors demonstrated novel promising antidepressant effects. Among which, cilostazol was reported to attenuate depression in post-stroke cases, geriatrics and patients undergoing carotid artery stenting. Therefore, this study was carried out to investigate the possible antidepressant-like effects of tramadol and/or cilostazol on the behavioral level in experimental animals, and to examine the neurochemical and biochemical effects of tramadol, cilostazol and their combination in rats, in order to explore the probable mechanisms of action underlying their effects. To achieve our target, male albino mice and rats were randomly allocated into five groups and administered either vehicle for control, fluoxetine (20 mg/kg, p.o., tramadol HCl (20 mg/kg, p.o., cilostazol (100 mg/kg, p.o., or combination of both tramadol and cilostazol. At day 14, mice and rats were challenged in the tail suspension test and forced swim test, respectively. Rats were sacrificed and brains were isolated for determination of brain monoamines, MDA, NO, SOD, and TNF-α. The current results showed that concurrent administration of cilostazol to tramadol-treated animals modulated depression on the behavioral level, and showed ameliorative neurochemical and biochemical effects

  11. [Changes of platelet rheological behavior and the interventional effects of ulinastatin in rats with high-voltage electrical burns].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Q F; Li, Y; Feng, J K; Xu, Y F; Tu, L L

    2017-12-20

    Objective: To explore the influence of high-voltage electrical burns on the number of platelet aggregation, β-thromboglobulin (β-TG) and platelet factor 4 (PF-4) and the interventional effects of ulinastatin in rats with high-voltage electrical burns. Methods: A total of 240 Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into sham injury (SI) group, simple electrical burn (SEB) group, normal saline (NS) group, and ulinastatin (UTI) group according to the random number table, with 60 rats in each group. The electrical current was applied to the outside proximal part of left forelimb of rats and exited from the outside proximal part of right hind limb of rats. Rats in groups SEB, NS, and UTI were inflicted with high-voltage electrical burn wounds of 1 cm×1 cm at current entrances and exits, with the voltage regulator and experimental transformer. Rats in group SI were sham injured through connecting the same equipments without electricity. At 2 min post injury, rats in group NS were intraperitoneally injected with 2 mL/kg NS, and rats in group UTI were intraperitoneally injected with 2×10(4) U/kg UTI of 10 g/L. At 15 min before injury and 5 min, 1 h, 2 h, 4 h, 8 h post injury, 10 rats in each group were selected to collect 5-7 mL blood of heart respectively. Blood of 0.05 mL were collected to make fresh blood smear for observing the number of platelet aggregation, and serum were separated from the remaining blood to determine content of β-TG and PF-4 with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Data were processed with analysis of factorial design of variance, student-Newman-Keuls test, Kruskal-Wallis H test, Wilcoxon rank sum test, and Bonferroni correction. Results: (1) At 15 min before injury, the numbers of platelet aggregation of rats were close among groups SI, SEB, NS and UTI (5.9±1.2, 5.8±1.2, 5.9±1.3, 5.9±1.1, respectively, with P values above 0.05). At 5 min, 1 h, 2 h, 4 h, 8 h post injury, the numbers of platelet aggregation of rats in group SEB were 57.2±16.3, 59

  12. Effects of acute caffeine on anxiety-related behavior in rats chronically exposed to the drug, with some evidence of possible withdrawal-reversal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Robert N; Hancock, Nicola J

    2017-03-15

    For 20days male and female PVG/c hooded rats were provided with caffeinated (approximately 50mg/kg/day) or unadulterated drinking water, and then their anxiety-related behavior was observed in an open field and elevated plus maze. Their choices of a brightness change were also observed in a Y maze to assess any caffeine effects on spatial memory. 24h later, all rats were tested again following an intraperitoneal injection of 50mg/kg acute caffeine, or vehicle. Earlier chronic caffeine decreased ambulation, walking, rearing, center occupancy and increased immobility in the open field thereby suggesting increased anxiety. However, occupancy of the plus-maze open arms and the Y-maze novel arm were increased by caffeine for male rats, but decreased for females probably because of sex differences in control levels of the response rather than to drug effects on anxiety and memory respectively. Following caffeine withdrawal, acute caffeine had the opposite effect to chronic treatment namely, increased open-field ambulation, walking, center occupancy and decreased immobility and defecation for caffeine-naïve rats that were suggestive of decreased anxiety. Similar but more consistent effects (plus decreased emergence latencies from a darkened start box into the open field) also typified the caffeine-experienced rats which in this case may have been accentuated by caffeine withdrawal-reversal. There was no evidence of either chronic or acute caffeine affecting spatial memory measured in the Y maze. There were also examples of lower overall activity and higher anxiety in male rats, than in females, and some sex-dependent caffeine effects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Differential effects of dopamine antagonists infused to the medial preoptic area on the sexual behavior of female rats primed with estrogen and progesterone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, M Dean; Pfaus, James G

    2012-10-01

    Dopamine (DA) in the medial preoptic area (mPOA) is important for the control of appetitive aspects of sexual behavior in the female rat. Recently, following infusions of DA agonists to the mPOA of females primed with estradiol benzoate (EB) alone, we found that the ratio of D1R/D2R activity within the mPOA determines the expression of appetitive behaviors (Graham and Pfaus, 2010). To further the knowledge of this mechanism, the present experiments examined the effects of intra-mPOA infusions of selective DA receptor antagonists. Ovariectomized, sexually-experienced rats primed with EB and progesterone (P) were implanted bilaterally with cannulae aimed at the mPOA and infused with 4 doses (0, 0.25, 1.0 and 4.0 μg) of the nonselective D1R/D2R antagonist flupenthixol (FLU), and selective D1R or D2R antagonists, SCH 23390 (SCH) or raclopride (RAC), respectively, in a randomized order prior to tests of sexual behavior in bilevel chambers. The high dose of FLU significantly decreased solicitations, hops and darts, and pacing behavior. The high dose of SCH also significantly decreased solicitations. In contrast, the high dose of RAC produced an increase in pacing, and a trend toward an increase in solicitations but no other effect on sexual behavior. These results reinforce the idea that the ratio of D1R/D2R activity within the mPOA of female rats is critical for the expression of appetitive behaviors, and further that this ratio is altered by P which shifts the DA effect to a predominantly facilitative D1R activation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of experimental suppression of active (REM) sleep during early development upon adult brain and behavior in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirmiran, M; Scholtens, J; van de Poll, N E; Uylings, H B; van der Gugten, J; Boer, G J

    1983-04-01

    In order to test the hypothesis that active sleep (AS) is important for the normal development of the central nervous system, 3 different deprivation methods were applied to male Wistar rat pups during the first month of life. Daily injection of clomipramine from 8 to 21 days of age reduced the high level of AS to less than the adult value throughout most of the experimental period. Administration of clonidine from 8 to 21 days of life induced an almost total suppression of AS. Instrumental deprivation, using the 'pendulum' method, led to a significant (but less severe) AS reduction during 2-4 weeks of postnatal age. Open-field behavior testing in adulthood revealed a higher than normal level of ambulation in all 3 experimental groups. Masculine sexual responses were deficient, due to a low level of both mounts and ejaculations, in both clomipramine- and clonidine-treated animals. Neither passive avoidance learning nor dark preference tests revealed any differences between the experimental and control rats. Sleep observations showed that there was an abnormally high incidence of large myoclonic jerks during AS in both clomipramine- and clonidine-treated rats. Subsequent measurement of regional brain weights showed a significant reduction in the cerebral cortex and medulla oblongata, as compared with the respective control groups, in both the clomipramine- and the clonidine-treated rats. In addition, DNA and protein determination in the affected brain areas showed a proportional reduction in the cortex and in the medulla. These results demonstrate that interference with normal functioning either of AS per se or of specific monoaminergic transmitter systems during early development can produce long-lasting behavioral as well as brain morphological and biochemical abnormalities in later life.

  15. [Effect of previous experience in reacting to a danger signal on "open field" behavior in the rat].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poltyreva, T E; Petrov, E S

    1983-01-01

    Modification of rats behaviour in an "hopen field" test was investigated, induced by an acoustic stimulus, previously subjected to conditioning in a shuttle chamber in experiments with possibility and impossibility of avoidance from electrical shock. It has been established that presentation of a stimulus having the meaning of a danger signal, in a new situation, significantly suppresses investigating behaviour of rats, whereas the stimulus which had not been subjected to conditioning exerts no marked effect on behaviour. The greatest suppression was observed in rats with "learned helplessness". This fact suggests that the degree of suppression of the behaviour in an open field in response to a danger signal, depends on the animal's previous experience in reacting to this signal.

  16. Effect of co-treatment with fluoxetine or mirtazapine and risperidone on the active behaviors and plasma corticosterone concentration in rats subjected to the forced swim test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogóż, Zofia; Kabziński, Marcin; Sadaj, Witold; Rachwalska, Paulina; Gądek-Michalska, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Several clinical reports have postulated a beneficial effect of the addition of a low dose of risperidone to the ongoing treatment with antidepressants in treatment-resistant depression. The present study aimed to examine the effect of treatment with fluoxetine or mirtazapine, given separately or jointly with risperidone, on active behavior and plasma corticosterone level in male Wistar rats subjected to the forced swim test (FST). The obtained results showed that fluoxetine (5 mg/kg), mirtazapine (5 and 10 mg/kg) or risperidone (0.05 and 0.1 mg/kg) did not change the active behavior of rats in the FST. However, co-treatment with fluoxetine (10 mg/kg) and risperidone (0.1 mg/kg) induced an antidepressant-like effect in that test because it significantly increased the swimming time and decreased the immobility time, while combined treatment with mirtazapine at 5 and 10 mg/kg and risperidone at 0.05 and 0.1 mg/kg evoked a significant increase in the swimming time and also climbing, and decreased the immobility time. WAY 100635 (a 5-HT(1A) receptor antagonist) at a dose of 0.1 mg/kg inhibited the antidepressant-like effect induced by co-administration of fluoxetine or mirtazapine and risperidone. Active behavior in that test did not reflect an increase in general activity, since combined treatment with fluoxetine or mirtazapine and risperidone failed to enhance the exploratory activity of rats. Co-treatment with fluoxetine or mirtazapine and risperidone did not reduce the stress-induced increase in plasma corticosterone concentration in animals subjected to the FST. The obtained results indicate that risperidone applied in a low dose enhances the antidepressant-like activity of fluoxetine and mirtazapine in the FST (but does not normalize the stress-induced increase in corticosterone level in these rats), and that 5-HT(1A) receptors may play some role in these effects.

  17. Chronic intermittent ethanol exposure in early adolescent and adult male rats: effects on tolerance, social behavior, and ethanol intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadwater, Margaret; Varlinskaya, Elena I; Spear, Linda P

    2011-08-01

    Given the prevalence of alcohol use in adolescence, it is important to understand the consequences of chronic ethanol exposure during this critical period in development. The purpose of this study was to assess possible age-related differences in susceptibility to tolerance development to ethanol-induced sedation and withdrawal-related anxiety, as well as voluntary ethanol intake after chronic exposure to relatively high doses of ethanol during adolescence or adulthood. Juvenile/adolescent and adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to one of five 10-day exposure conditions: chronic ethanol (4 g/kg every 48 hours), chronic saline (equivalent volume every 24 hours), chronic saline/acutely challenged with ethanol (4 g/kg on day 10), nonmanipulated/acutely challenged with ethanol (4 g/kg on day 10), or nonmanipulated. For assessment of tolerance development, duration of the loss of righting reflex (LORR) and blood ethanol concentrations (BECs) upon regaining of righting reflex (RORR) were tested on the first and last ethanol exposure days in the chronic ethanol group, with both saline and nonmanipulated animals likewise challenged on the last exposure day. Withdrawal-induced anxiety was indexed in a social interaction test 24 hours after the last ethanol exposure, with ethanol-naïve chronic saline and nonmanipulated animals serving as controls. Voluntary intake was assessed 48 hours after the chronic exposure period in chronic ethanol, chronic saline and nonmanipulated animals using an 8-day 2 bottle choice, limited-access ethanol intake procedure. In general, adolescent animals showed shorter durations of LORR and higher BECs upon RORR than adults on the first and last ethanol exposure days, regardless of chronic exposure condition. Adults, but not adolescents, developed chronic tolerance to the sedative effects of ethanol, tolerance that appeared to be metabolic in nature. Social deficits were observed after chronic ethanol in both adolescents and adults

  18. Effect of prenatal restraint stress and morphine co-administration on plasma vasopressin concentration and anxiety behaviors in adult rat offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakhjiri, Elnaz; Saboory, Ehsan; Roshan-Milani, Shiva; Rasmi, Yousef; Khalafkhani, Davod

    2017-03-01

    Stressful events and exposure to opiates during gestation have important effects on the later mental health of the offspring. Anxiety is among the most common mental disorders. The present study aimed to identify effects of prenatal restraint stress and morphine co-administration on plasma vasopressin concentration (PVC) and anxiety behaviors in rats. Pregnant rats were divided into four groups (n = 6, each): saline, morphine, stress + saline and stress + morphine treatment. The stress procedure consisted of restraint twice per day, two hours per session, for three consecutive days starting on day 15 of pregnancy. Rats in the saline and morphine groups received either 0.9% saline or morphine intraperitoneally on the same days. In the morphine/saline + stress groups, rats were exposed to restraint stress and received either morphine or saline intraperitoneally. All offspring were tested in an elevated plus maze (EPM) on postnatal day 90 (n = 6, each sex), and anxiety behaviors of each rat were recorded. Finally, blood samples were collected to determine PVC. Prenatal morphine exposure reduced anxiety-like behaviors. Co-administration of prenatal stress and morphine increased locomotor activity (LA) and PVC. PVC was significantly lower in female offspring of the morphine and morphine + stress groups compared with males in the same group, but the opposite was seen in the saline + stress group. These data emphasize the impact of prenatal stress and morphine on fetal neuroendocrine development, with long-term changes in anxiety-like behaviors and vasopressin secretion. These changes are sex specific, indicating differential impact of prenatal stress and morphine on fetal neuroendocrine system development. Lay Summary Pregnant women are sometimes exposed to stressful and painful conditions which may lead to poor outcomes for offspring. Opiates may provide pain and stress relief to these mothers. In this study, we used an experimental model of

  19. Effects of Refined Xiaoyaosan on Depressive-Like Behaviors in Rats with Chronic Unpredictable Mild Stress through Neurosteroids, Their Synthesis and Metabolic Enzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoling Guo

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: To observe the effects of refined Xiaoyaosan (XYS on the depressive-like behaviors in rats with chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS, and to explore the relationship between the changes of neurosteroids and mRNA expressions of their synthesis and metabolic enzymes, and the mechanism of XYS in the treatment of depression. Methods: Eighty-four healthy male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into normal group, model group, XYS group and fluoxetine group. The latter three groups were subjected to 21 days of CUMS to prepare the stress depression model. Rats in the XYS group, and fluoxetine group were given intragastric administration with refined XYS and fluoxetine, respectively. The behavioral changes of the rats were observed after 21 days. The contents of pregnenolone (PREG, progesterone (PROG and alloprognanolone (ALLO in the plasma of rats were measured by ELISA. The levels of PREG, PROG and ALLO in the hippocampus and amygdala tissues were measured by LC-MS/MS. The mRNA expressions of 3α-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3α-HSD, 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3β-HSD, cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc and 5α-reductase (5a-R in the hippocampus and amygdala were detected by RT-qPCR methods. Results: There were changes in the model rats. The contents of PREG, PROG and ALLO changed similarly, which reflected in the decrease of PROG and ALLO, and the increase of PREG. The mRNA expression of P450scc was increased, and the mRNA expressions of 3α-HSD, 3β-HSD and 5a-R were decreased. Refined XYS could improve the behaviors of rats and the biological indicators. Conclusions: There is a neurosteroid dysfunction in the brain region of depression rat model animals, and the mechanism of refined XYS depression treatment may be related to the regulation of the control of mRNA expression of related synthesis and metabolic enzymes in the hippocampus and amygdala, further affecting the contents of neurosteroids.

  20. Effects of hyperbaric oxygen and nerve growth factor on the long-term neural behavior of neonatal rats with hypoxic ischemic brain damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Lixia; Ren, Qing; Zhang, Yongjun; Wang, Jiwen

    2017-04-01

    To evaluate the effects of HBO (Hyperbaric oxygen) and NGF (Nerve growth factor) on the long-term neural behavior of neonatal rats with HIBD (Neonatal hypoxic ischemic brain damage). The HIBD model was produced by ligating the right common carotid artery of 7 days old SD (Sprague-Dawley) rats followed by 8% O2 + 92% N2 for 2h. Totally 40 rats were randomly divided into 5 groups including sham-operated group, HIBD control group, HBO treated group, NGF treated group and NGF + HBO treated group. The learning and memory ability of these rats was evaluated by Morris water maze at 30 days after birth, and sensory motor function was assessed by experiments of foot error and limb placement at 42 days after birth. The escape latency of HBO treated group, NGF treated group and NGF + HBO treated group was shorter than that of HIBD control group (pmemory ability and sensory motor function in neonatal rats after hypoxic ischemic brain damage.

  1. Effects of ACTH4–10 on self-stimulation behavior in the rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nyakas, C.; Bohus, B.; Wied, D. de

    The threshold current evoking self-stimulation or multiples of this current was used to investigate the effect of ACTH4–10 on response performance for brain stimulation reward in the medial septum (MS) and the medial forebrain bundle (MFB). ACTH4–10 in a dose of 50 μg administered SC enhanced

  2. Applications of Animal Research in the Behavioral Sciences: Effects of Chronic Exercise on Emotionality in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tharp, Gerald D.

    The psychological effects of exercise training are difficult to study in humans, but analogous emotionality changes in animals can be studied using simple measurements employed in emergence and open-field tests. The basis of these tests is that animals that are more emotional are more fearful when placed in a novel situation and will exhibit less…

  3. Differential effects of diet composition and timing of feeding behavior on rat brown adipose tissue and skeletal muscle peripheral clocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul de Goede

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of feeding behavior and diet composition, as well as their possible interactions, on daily (clock gene expression rhythms have mainly been studied in the liver, and to a lesser degree in white adipose tissue (WAT, but hardly in other metabolic tissues such as skeletal muscle (SM and brown adipose tissues (BAT. We therefore subjected male Wistar rats to a regular chow or free choice high-fat-high sugar (fcHFHS diet in combination with time restricted feeding (TRF to either the light or dark phase. In SM, all tested clock genes lost their rhythmic expression in the chow light fed group. In the fcHFHS light fed group rhythmic expression for some, but not all, clock genes was maintained, but shifted by several hours. In BAT the daily rhythmicity of clock genes was maintained for the light fed groups, but expression patterns were shifted as compared with ad libitum and dark fed groups, whilst the fcHFHS diet made the rhythmicity of clock genes become more pronounced. Most of the metabolic genes in BAT tissue tested did not show any rhythmic expression in either the chow or fcHFHS groups. In SM Pdk4 and Ucp3 were phase-shifted, but remained rhythmically expressed in the chow light fed groups. Rhythmic expression was lost for Ucp3 whilst on the fcHFHS diet during the light phase. In summary, both feeding at the wrong time of day and diet composition disturb the peripheral clocks in SM and BAT, but to different degrees and thereby result in a further desynchronization between metabolically active tissues such as SM, BAT, WAT and liver.

  4. Dose-Dependent Effects of Multiple Acute Cocaine Injections on Maternal Behavior and Aggression in Sprague-Dawley Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Johns, Josephine M.; Nelson, Christina J.; Meter, Kathleen E.; Lubin, Deborah A.; Couch, C. Destine; Ayers, Andy; Walker, Cheryl H.

    1998-01-01

    Rat dams, which had no prior drug treatment, were either nontreated controls or were injected subcutaneously 4 times during a 10-day period with a single dose of 30, 15 or 7.5 mg/kg of cocaine hydrochloride HCl, or normal saline. Injections were given immediately postpartum following delivery of their final pup (PPD 1), and again on postpartum day 3 (PPD 3), postpartum day 6 (PPD 6) and postpartum day 10 (PPD 10). Dams were observed 30 min following injections for maternal behavior (MB) towar...

  5. Some behavioral aspects of adult rats irradiated prenatally

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vekovishcheva, O.Yu.; Blagova, O.E.; Borovitskaya, A.E.; Evtushenko, V.I.; Khanson, K.P.

    1992-01-01

    This is a study of the effects of prenatal irradiation on the behavior of rats. The experiments were performed on 42 eighteen month old rats of both sexes. Eight of the males and thirteen females had been irradiated prenatally. The results of this experiment indicated that in general, the activation of behavior, the appearance of aggression and the increase in chaos along with the presence of behavior poses were typical of the suppressed condition of the prenatal irradiated animal. Also, among prenatally irradiated animals, there was a greater degree of anxiety, a slow rate of adjustment to unfamiliar situations and unfriendly relationships between animals of the same sex. These results were compared with the results of behavioral experiments on irradiated adult rats

  6. Dose-dependent effects of Asparagus adscendens root (AARR) extract on the anabolic, reproductive, and sexual behavioral activity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansode, Falgun Wanganuji; Arya, Kamal Ram; Singh, Rama Kant; Narender, T

    2015-02-01

    Asparagus adscendens Roxb (Liliaceae) has a promising role in modulation of various disorders such as leucorrhea, diarrhea, dysentery, diabetes, senile pruritus, asthma, fatigue antifilarial, antifungal, spermatorrhea, and sexual debility/seminal weakness. To investigate dose-dependent effects of Asparagus adscendens root (AARR) extract on anabolic, reproductive, and sexual behavioral activities with a view to emphasize the pharmacological basis. Rats were divided into five groups: Group I (control), Groups II-IV (AARR treated, 100, 200, and 300 mg/kg body weight, respectively, orally for 30 d) and Group V (standard control treated with sildenafil citrate, 5 mg/kg body weight). On day 31, copulatory and potency tests were carried out and an autopsy was done to study the reproductive function, namely, organ weights, spermatogenesis, daily sperm production rate (DSP), and epididymal sperm counts (ESC). AARR extract (200 and 300 mg/kg doses) caused a significant increase in body (p < 0.02 and p < 0.001) and testes (p < 0.01 and p < 0.001, control versus treated) weights. Reproductive activity showed significant a increase in testicular tubular diameter (p < 0.005-0.001), the number of round/elongated spermatids (p < 0.02-0.001), DSP, and ESC (p < 0.05-0.001). The sexual behavioral parameters including mounting/intromission frequency (13.0 ± 0.32/11.8 ± 0.37 and 18.2 ± 2.12/14.8 ± 1.15 versus 11.2 ± 0.66/8.2 ± 1.16), ejaculation latency (187.4 ± 1.91 and 191.4 ± 1.72 versus 180.0 ± 3.47), and penile erections (13.5 ± 0.3 and 14.5 ± 0.5 versus 8.5 ± 0.2) showed a significant increase at 200 and 300 mg/kg doses (ED50 300 mg/kg), but less than a standard control. In contrast, 100 mg/kg dose caused an increase (p < 0.005) in mounting latency only. These results indicate increased anabolic, reproductive, and sexual activities by AARR treatment. Thus, the data provide

  7. "Effects of the novel relatively short-acting kappa opioid receptor antagonist LY2444296 in behaviors observed after chronic extended-access cocaine self-administration in rats".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenza, Marta; Butelman, Eduardo R; Kreek, Mary Jeanne

    2017-08-01

    The recruitment of the stress circuitry contributes to a shift from positive to negative reinforcement mechanisms sustaining long-term cocaine addiction. The kappa opioid receptor (KOPr) signaling is upregulated by stress and chronic cocaine exposure. While KOPr agonists induce anhedonia and dysphoria, KOPr antagonists display antidepressant and anxiolytic properties. Most of the knowledge on KOPr antagonism is based on drugs with unusual pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties, complicating interpretation of results. Here we characterized in vivo behavioral and neuroendocrine effects of the novel relatively short-acting KOPr antagonist LY2444296. To date, no study has investigated whether systemic KOPr blockade reduced anxiety-like and depressive-like behaviors in animals previously exposed to chronic extended access cocaine self-administration. We tested the effect of LY2444296 in blocking KOPr-mediated aversive and neuroendocrine effects. Then, we tested acute systemic LY2444296 in reducing anxiety- and depression-like behaviors, as well as releasing the stress hormone corticosterone (CORT), observed after chronic extended access (18 h/day for 14 days) cocaine self-administration. LY2444296 blocked U69,593-induced place aversion and -reduced motor activity as well as U69,593-induced release of serum CORT, confirming its major site of action, without exerting an effect per se. Acute systemic administration of LY2444296 reduced anxiety-like and depressive-like behaviors, as well as CORT release, in rats tested after chronic extended access cocaine self-administration, but not in cocaine-naïve rats. Results suggest that acute blockade of KOPr by a relatively short-acting antagonist produces therapeutic-like effects selectively in rats with a history of chronic extended access cocaine self-administration.

  8. Effects of environmental enrichment during abstinence in morphine dependent parents on anxiety, depressive-like behaviors and voluntary morphine consumption in rat offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pooriamehr, Alireza; Sabahi, Parviz; Miladi-Gorji, Hossein

    2017-08-24

    Chronic morphine exposure during puberty increased morphine-induced rewarding effects and sensitization in the next generation. Given the well-known beneficial effects of environmental enrichment on the severity of physical and psychological dependence on morphine, we examined effects of enriched environment during morphine abstinence in morphine dependent parental rats before mating on the anxiety and depressive-like behaviors, and voluntary morphine consumption in their offspring. Paternal and/or maternal rats were injected with bi-daily doses (10mg/kg, 12h intervals) of morphine for 14days followed by rearing in a standard environment (SE) or enriched environment (EE) during 30days of morphine abstinence before mating. The pubertal male and female rat offspring were tested for anxiety (the elevated plus maze- EPM) and depression (sucrose preference test-SPT), and voluntary morphine consumption using a two-bottle choice (TBC) paradigm. The results showed that EE experience in morphine-dependent both parents result in an increase in the percentage of time spent into open arms/time spent on both arms using EPM in male offspring, higher levels of sucrose preference in female offspring and lower levels of voluntary morphine consumption in male and female offspring. Thus, EE experience in morphine-dependent both parents reduced anxiety, depressive-like behavior and also the voluntary morphine consumption in their offspring during puberty which may prevent the vulnerability of the next generation to drug abuse. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. The effects of the administration of two different doses of manganese on short-term spatial memory and anxiety-like behavior in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hogas M.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Manganese is a very well known neurotoxic agent. It has been mainly linked to impaired motor skills and disturbed psychomotor development. However, very few aspects are known about the cognitive deficits and behavioral consequences of chronic manganese exposure. In this context, we report herein our findings regarding short-term spatial memory, motor and anxiety-like behavior assessments in male Wistar rats exposed for 45 days to two different doses (3 mg/kg b.w., i.p. and 10 mg/kg b.w., i.p. of manganese. Behavior testing (Y-maze task and elevated plus maze was performed after 45 days of manganese administration. Chronic manganese exposure in Wistar rats led to behavioral alterations consisting of cognitive deficiencies in the Y-maze task and anxiety/compulsive-like behaviors in the elevated plus maze, but no motor disturbances as tested by the number of arm entries in the Y-maze. Additional work is necessary to understand the longterm effects of different doses and dosing regimens of manganese on cognitive/affective and motor functioning.

  10. [Comparative Analysis of Behavior in The Open-field Test in Wild Grey Rats (Rattus norvegicus) and in Grey Rats Subjected to Prolonged Selection for Tame And Aggressive Behavior].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozhemyakina, R V; Konoshenko, M Yu; Sakharov, D G; Smagin, D A; Markel, A L

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this work is analysis of the open-field behavior in grey rats selected for the tame and aggressive behavior in comparison with the wild grey rats. Significant influences of the rat group factor on the 13 of 19 behavioral features studied in the open-field were found. This effect, in general, depends on existence of great differences between behaviors of the wild rats from the one hand and behaviors of the tame and aggressive rats from the other. The behaviors of the rats from the last two groups are practically identical. Multidimensional analysis confirms the distinct separation in coordinates of the two main components of the wild rat behavior from the behavior of both the tame and selectively bred aggressive rats. The first main component dimension corresponds to the grade of fear, which was significantly enhanced in the wild rats. So, in spite of the equality of behavioral aggressiveness of the wild rats and the rats selected for aggression with the glove test, the behavior of selected aggressive rats in the open-field is analogous to behavior of the rats selected for tameness. Comparison of behavioral features with the hormonal stress responsiveness allowed us to conclude that the aggressive behavior of the wild and se lected for aggression rats based on different motivational and neuroendocrine processes.

  11. Antidepressant-like effects of the ethyl acetate soluble fraction of the root bark of Morus alba on the immobility behavior of rats in the forced swim test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Dong Wook; Kim, Yun Tai; Park, Ji-Hae; Baek, Nam-In; Han, Daeseok

    2014-06-12

    In this study, the antidepressant-like effects of Morus alba fractions in rats were investigated in the forced swim test (FST). Male Wistar rats (9-week-old) were administered orally the M. alba ethyl acetate (EtOAc 30 and 100 mg/kg) and M. alba n-butanol fractions (n-BuOH 30 and 100 mg/kg) every day for 7 consecutive days. On day 7, 1 h after the final administration of the fractions, the rats were exposed to the FST. M. alba EtOAc fraction at the dose of 100 mg/kg induced a decrease in immobility behavior (p alba EtOAc fraction at the dose of 100 mg/kg decreased the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis response to the stress, as indicated by an attenuated corticosterone response and decreased c-fos immunoreactivity in the hippocampal and hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) region. These findings demonstrated that M. alba EtOAc fraction have beneficial effects on depressive behaviors and restore both altered c-fos expression and HPA activity.

  12. Conjugated equine estrogen enhances rats' cognitive, anxiety, and social behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Walf, Alicia A.; Frye, Cheryl A.

    2008-01-01

    The ovarian hormone, 17β-estradiol (E2), has numerous targets in the body and brain, and can influence cognitive, affective, and social behavior. However, functional effects of commonly prescribed E2-based hormone therapies are less known. The effects of conjugated equine estrogen (CEE) on middle-aged female rats for cognitive (object recognition), anxiety (open field, plus maze), and social (social interaction, lordosis) behavior were compared-with vehicle. Our hypothesis that CEE would enha...

  13. Antidepressant-Like Effects of Lindera obtusiloba Extracts on the Immobility Behavior of Rats in the Forced Swim Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Wook Lim

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Lindera obtusiloba extracts are commonly used as an alternative medicine due to its numerous health benefits in Korea. However, the antidepressant-like effects of L. obtusiloba extracts have not been fully elucidated. In this study, we aimed to determine whether L. obtusiloba extracts exhibited antidepressant-like activity in rats subjected to forced swim test (FST-induced depression. Acute treatment of rats with L. obtusiloba extracts (200 mg/kg, p.o. significantly reduced immobility time and increased swimming time without any significant change in climbing. Rats treated with L. obtusiloba extracts also exhibited a decrease in the limbic hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis response to the FST, as indicated by attenuation of the corticosterone response and decreased c-Fos immunoreactivity in the hippocampus CA3 region. In addition, L. obtusiloba extracts, at concentrations that were not affected by cell viability, significantly decreased luciferase activity in response to cortisol in a concentration-dependent manner by the glucocorticoid binding assay in HeLa cells. Our findings suggested that the antidepressant-like effects of L. obtusiloba extracts were likely mediated via the glucocorticoid receptor (GR. Further studies are needed to evaluate the potential of L. obtusiloba extracts as an alternative therapeutic approach for the treatment of depression.

  14. Disruption of behavior and brain metabolism in artificially reared rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre-Benítez, Elsa L; Porras, Mercedes G; Parra, Leticia; González-Ríos, Jacquelina; Garduño-Torres, Dafne F; Albores-García, Damaris; Avendaño, Arturo; Ávila-Rodríguez, Miguel A; Melo, Angel I; Jiménez-Estrada, Ismael; Mendoza-Garrido, Ma Eugenia; Toriz, César; Diaz, Daniel; Ibarra-Coronado, Elizabeth; Mendoza-Ángeles, Karina; Hernández-Falcón, Jesús

    2017-12-01

    Early adverse life stress has been associated to behavioral disorders that can manifest as inappropriate or aggressive responses to social challenges. In this study, we analyzed the effects of artificial rearing on the open field and burial behavioral tests and on GFAP, c-Fos immunoreactivity, and glucose metabolism measured in anxiety-related brain areas. Artificial rearing of male rats was performed by supplying artificial milk through a cheek cannula and tactile stimulation, mimicking the mother's licking to rat pups from the fourth postnatal day until weaning. Tactile stimulation was applied twice a day, at morning and at night, by means of a camel brush on the rat anogenital area. As compared to mother reared rats, greater aggressiveness, and boldness, stereotyped behavior (burial conduct) was observed in artificially reared rats which occurred in parallel to a reduction of GFAP immunoreactivity in somatosensory cortex, c-Fos immunoreactivity at the amygdala and primary somatosensory cortex, and lower metabolism in amygdala (as measured by 2-deoxi-2-[ 18 fluoro]-d-glucose uptake, assessed by microPET imaging). These results could suggest that tactile and/or chemical stimuli from the mother and littermates carry relevant information for the proper development of the central nervous system, particularly in brain areas involved with emotions and social relationships of the rat. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol 77: 1413-1429, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Effect of endurance training on seizure susceptibility, behavioral changes and neuronal damage after kainate-induced status epilepticus in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchekalarova, J; Shishmanova, M; Atanasova, D; Stefanova, M; Alova, L; Lazarov, N; Georgieva, K

    2015-11-02

    The therapeutic efficacy of regular physical exercises in an animal model of epilepsy and depression comorbidity has been confirmed previously. In the present study, we examined the effects of endurance training on susceptibility to kainate (KA)-induced status epilepticus (SE), behavioral changes and neuronal damage in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). Male SHRs were randomly divided into two groups. One group was exercised on a treadmill with submaximal loading for four weeks and the other group was sedentary. Immediately after the training period, SE was evoked in half of the sedentary and trained rats by KA, while the other half of the two groups received saline. Basal systolic (SP), diastolic (DP) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) of all rats were measured at the beginning and at the end of the training period. Anxiety, memory and depression-like behaviour were evaluated a month after SE. The release of 5-HT in the hippocampus was measured using a liquid scintillation method and neuronal damage was analyzed by hematoxylin and eosin staining. SP and MAP of exercised SHRs decreased in comparison with the initial values. The increased resistance of SHRs to KA-induced SE was accompanied by an elongated latent seizure-free period, improved object recognition memory and antidepressant effect after the training program. While the anticonvulsant and positive behavioral effects of endurance training were accompanied by an increase of 5-HT release in the hippocampus, it did not exert neuroprotective activity. Our results indicate that prior exercise is an effective means to attenuate KA-induced seizures and comorbid behavioral changes in a model of hypertension and epilepsy suggesting a potential influence of hippocampal 5-HT on a comorbid depression. However, this beneficial impact does not prevent the development of epilepsy and concomitant brain damage. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of dietary linoleate/alpha-linolenate balance on the brain lipid composition, reproductive outcome and behavior of rats during their prenatal and postnatal development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheon, S H; Huh, M H; Lee, Y B; Park, J S; Sohn, H S; Chung, C W

    2000-11-01

    The effect of the dietary linoleate (LA)/alpha-linolenate (LNA) balance during development on the brain lipid composition, reproductive outcome and behavior of rats was studied. Female rats were fed on experimental diets during pregnancy and the resulting pups for 16 weeks. The dietary LA/LNA ratios were 1.07 (LA1), 2.64 (LA2), 4.45 (LA3), 7.68 (LA4) and 10.35 (LA5). The relative content of docosahexaenoate (DHA) in the brain of pups tended to increase with decreasing LA/LNA ratio at 0 and 3 weeks, while the level of DHA was maintained constant at 16 weeks regardless of the dietary LA/LNA ratio. The learning ability was measured at 12 weeks of age, and there was no difference among the groups. In an open field test, the exploratory index was significantly lower in the LA1 group than in the LA2 group. The LA1 group had a smaller litter size and lower survival rate than the other groups. We conclude that if the diet contained appropriate amounts and balance of LA and LNA, it was possible for rats to synthesize an appropriate amount of DHA and have normal behavioral activity without DHA supplementation.

  17. The effects of intracranial administration of hallucinogens on operant behavior in the rat. I. Lysergic acid diethylamide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokler, D J; Stoudt, K W; Sherman, L C; Rech, R H

    1986-10-01

    Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) was infused in one microliter volumes into discrete brain regions of rats trained to press a bar for food reinforcement. The sites were chosen as major areas of the brain 5-hydroxytryptamine (5HT) system: the dorsal and median raphe nuclei, dorsal hippocampus, lateral habenular nuclei, and the prefrontal cortex. Following training in a fixed ratio-40 (FR-40) operant behavior rats were implanted for the lateral habenular nuclei, dorsal hippocampus and the prefrontal cortex. Following recovery from surgery, LSD (8.6 to 86 micrograms) or vehicle was infused immediately before a daily operant session. Infusion of vehicle was inactive. LSD produced a dose-dependent decrease in reinforcements and an increase in 10-sec periods of non-responding (pause intervals). LSD was significantly more potent when infused into the dorsal raphe nucleus than following intracerebroventricular (ICV) administration, whereas LSD was less potent when infused into the median raphe, lateral habenula or dorsal hippocampus. ED50s for increases in pause intervals were 9, 13, 23, 25, and 54 micrograms for infusion into the dorsal raphe, prefrontal cortex, dorsal hippocampus, median raphe, and lateral habenular nuclei, respectively. The ED50 for ICV administration in a previous study was 15 micrograms. The ED50 of LSD placed into the prefrontal cortex did not differ significantly from that of the ICV infusion.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  18. Drug-, dose- and sex-dependent effects of chronic fluoxetine, reboxetine and venlafaxine on open-field behavior and spatial memory in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Vanessa C; Hughes, Robert N

    2015-03-15

    In an effort to address the need to include both sexes in studies of effects of the SSRI fluoxetine, the NRI reboxetine and the SNRI venlafaxine on anxiety-related behavior and memory along with the use of chronic drug administration, male and female PVG/c rats were fed diets containing two doses of each drug for 21 days. The rats' anxiety level was then assessed in an open field. Short-term spatial memory for a brightness change in a Y maze was also measured. While there was little evidence of anxiolytic effects of any of the drugs, both fluoxetine and, to a lesser extent, venlafaxine appeared to be mainly anxiogenic in their action depending on both dose and sex. Reboxetine was relatively ineffective in this respect. Ability to locate the Y-maze arm that had changed (from white to black) seemed to be impaired for male (but not female) rats by both fluoxetine and venlafaxine and, to a much lesser extent, by reboxetine. Given the relative ineffectiveness of reboxetine in either test, it is possible that the effects of the other two drugs on both anxiety and memory were mainly due to their serotonin reuptake inhibiting properties. The differences that occurred between males and females in responsiveness to all three drugs supported the long-held view that both sexes should be investigated in studies of this sort, especially in view of reports of sex differences in effects of clinically prescribed antidepressants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Prenatal noise and restraint stress interact to alter exploratory behavior and balance in juvenile rats, and mixed stress reverses these effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badache, Soumeya; Bouslama, Slim; Brahmia, Oualid; Baïri, Abdel Madjid; Tahraoui, Abdel Krim; Ladjama, Ali

    2017-05-01

    We aimed to investigate in adolescent rats the individual and combined effects of prenatal noise and restraint stress on balance control, exploration, locomotion and anxiety behavior. Three groups of pregnant rats were exposed to daily repeated stress from day 11 to day 19 of pregnancy: 3 min noise (Noise Stress, NS); 10 min restraint (restraint stress, RS); or 3 min noise followed by 10 min restraint (mixed stress, MS). On postnatal days (PND) 44, 45 and 46, four groups of male rats (Control, NS, RS:, MS; 16 rats each), were tested as follows: (1) beam walking (BW), (2) open field (OF) and (3) elevated plus maze (EPM). Our results show that the NS group had significantly impaired balance control, locomotion and both horizontal and vertical exploration (p time in EPM open arms: p time to complete BW: p < .05). Hence, combined prenatal stressors exert non-additive effects on locomotion, exploration and balance control, but induce greater anxiety through additive effects. Terminal plasma ACTH concentration was increased by prenatal stress, especially noise, which group had the largest adrenal glands. Overall, contrary to expectation, combined prenatal stressors can interact to increase anxiety level, but diminish alteration of exploration, locomotion and impaired balance control, which were strongly induced by noise stress. Lay summary: Experience of stress in pregnancy can have negative effects on the offspring that are long-lasting. Here, we used laboratory rats to see whether repeated episodes of exposure to loud noise or preventing free movement, alone or together, during pregnancy had different effects on behaviors of the adolescent offspring. Using standard tests, we found the prenatal stresses caused the offspring to be anxious, and not to balance when moving around as well as normal offspring; the degree of impairment depended on the type of stress - loud noise exposure had the greatest effects, but if the stresses were combined the effects

  20. Behavioral effects of nicotinic antagonist mecamylamine in a rat model of depression: prefrontal cortex level of BDNF protein and monoaminergic neurotransmitters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboul-Fotouh, Sawsan

    2015-03-01

    Several studies have pointed to the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) antagonists, such as mecamylamine (MEC), as a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of depression. The present study evaluated the behavioral and neurochemical effects of chronic administration of MEC (1, 2, and 4 mg/kg/day, intraperitoneally (i.p.)) in Wistar rats exposed to chronic restraint stress (CRS, 4 h × 6 W). MEC prevented CRS-induced depressive-like behavior via increasing sucrose preference, body weight, and forced swim test (FST) struggling and swimming while reducing immobility in FST and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis hyperactivity (adrenal gland weight and serum corticosterone). At the same time, MEC amended CRS-induced anxiety as indicated by decreasing central zone duration in open field test and increasing active interaction duration. Additionally, MEC modulated the prefrontal cortex (PFC) level of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), 5-hydroxy tryptamine (5-HT), and norepinephrine (NE). In conclusion, the present data suggest that MEC possesses antidepressant and anxiolytic-like activities in rats exposed to CRS. These behavioral effects may be in part mediated by reducing HPA axis hyperactivity and increasing PFC level of BDNF and monoamines. Accordingly, these findings further support the hypothesis that nAChRs blockade might afford a novel promising strategy for pharmacotherapy of depression.

  1. Neuropeptides and social behavior of rats tested in dyadic encounters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niesink, R.J.M.; Ree, J.M. van

    1984-01-01

    The effects of various neuropeptides on social behavior was studied in a test procedure in which 7-day isolated animals were tested together with non-isolated partners in dyadic encounters. The short-term isolation procedure increased the frequency and duration of social activities of the rats, but

  2. Behavioral, neuroendocrine and neurochemical effects of the imidazoline I2 receptor selective ligand BU224 in naive rats and rats exposed to the stress of the forced swim test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, David P; Martí, Octavi; Harbuz, Michael S; Vallès, Astrid; Belda, Xavier; Márquez, Cristina; Jessop, David S; Lalies, Margaret D; Armario, Antonio; Nutt, David J; Hudson, Alan L

    2003-05-01

    There is evidence for alterations in imidazoline(2) (I(2)) receptor density in depressed patients. Selective I(2) receptor ligands modulate central monoamine levels and activate the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and may have potential as antidepressants. To study the behavioral effects of the selective I(2) receptor ligand BU224 in the rat forced swim test (FST) and its effects on the HPA axis and central monoaminergic responses. Rats received saline or BU224 (10 mg/kg IP) 24, 18 and 1 h prior to 15 min exposure to the FST. Saline- and BU224-treated non-stressed groups were included. Time spent immobile, struggling and swimming calmly was measured. Plasma adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) and corticosterone levels 90 min post-BU224 were measured in addition to tissue levels of monoamines and metabolites in the frontal cortex, hippocampus and hypothalamus. Administration of BU224 significantly reduced immobility and increased mild swimming without affecting struggling. Exposure to the FST significantly increased plasma ACTH and corticosterone levels. BU224 administration also increased ACTH and potentiated the ACTH response to FST with no effect on corticosterone. BU224 administration significantly increased frontal cortex 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) levels and decreased 5-HT turnover in the frontal cortex and hypothalamus of rats exposed to FST. In non-stressed rats, BU224 decreased 5-HT turnover in the hippocampus and hypothalamus and decreased norepinephrine turnover in the frontal cortex. The selective I(2) receptor ligand BU224 reduces immobility of rats in the FST, indicative of antidepressant-like activity. This effect is accompanied by alterations in HPA axis and central monoaminergic activity.

  3. Maternal separation in early life modifies anxious behavior and Fos and glucocorticoid receptor expression in limbic neurons after chronic stress in rats: effects of tianeptine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo, Verónica; Durando, Patricia E; Suárez, Marta M

    2016-01-01

    Early-life adversity can lead to long-term consequence persisting into adulthood. Here, we assess the implications of an adverse early environment on vulnerability to stress during adulthood. We hypothesized that the interplay between early and late stress would result in a differential phenotype regarding the number of neurons immunoreactive for glucocorticoid receptor (GR-ir) and neuronal activity as assessed by Fos immunoreactivity (Fos-ir) in brain areas related to stress responses and anxiety-like behavior. We also expected that the antidepressant tianeptine could correct some of the alterations induced in our model. Male Wistar rats were subjected to daily maternal separation (MS) for 4.5 h during the first 3 weeks of life. As adults, the rats were exposed to chronic stress for 24 d and they were treated daily with tianeptine (10 mg/kg intraperitoneal) or vehicle (isotonic saline). Fos-ir was increased by MS in all structures analyzed. Chronic stress reduced Fos-ir in the hippocampus, but increased it in the paraventricular nucleus. Furthermore, chronic stress increased GR-ir in hippocampus (CA1) and amygdala in control non-MS rats. By contrast, when MS and chronic stress were combined, GR-ir was decreased in these structures. Additionally, whereas tianeptine did not affect Fos-ir, it regulated GR-ir in a region-dependent manner, in hippocampus and amygdala opposing in some cases the stress or MS effects. Furthermore, tianeptine reversed the MS- or stress-induced anxious behavior. The interplay between MS and chronic stress observed indicates that MS rats have a modified phenotype, which is expressed when they are challenged by stress in later life.

  4. Neuroprotective effects of curcumin on 6-hydroxydopamine-induced Parkinsonism in rats: behavioral, neurochemical and immunohistochemical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khuwaja, Gulrana; Khan, Mohd Moshahid; Ishrat, Tauheed; Ahmad, Ajmal; Raza, Syed Shadab; Ashafaq, Mohammad; Javed, Hayate; Khan, M Badruzzaman; Khan, Andleeb; Vaibhav, Kumar; Safhi, Mohammed M; Islam, Fakhrul

    2011-01-12

    Curcumin, the active principle of turmeric used in Indian curry is known for its antitumor, antioxidant, antiarthritic, anti-ischemic and anti-inflammatory properties and might inhibit the accumulation of destructive beta-amyloid in the brains of Alzheimer's disease patients. A Parkinsonian model in rats was developed by giving 6-hydroxydopamine (10 μg/2 μl in 0.1% ascorbic acid-saline) in the right striatum. After 3 weeks of lesioning, the behavior activities (rotarod, narrow beam test, grip test and contra-lateral rotations) were increased in a lesioned group as compared to a sham group and these activities were protected significantly with the pretreatment of curcumin. A significant protection on lipid peroxidation, glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, superoxide dismutase, catalase, tyrosine hydroxylase and D(2) receptor binding was observed in the striatum of lesioned group animals pretreated with 80 mg/kg body weight of curcumin for 21 days as compared to lesion group animals. No significant alterations on behavior and biochemical parameters were observed in sham group animals and the animals of sham group pretreated with curcumin. This study indicates that curcumin, which is an important ingredient of diet in India and also used in various systems of indigenous medicine, is helpful in preventing Parkinsonism and has therapeutic potential in combating this devastating neurologic disorder. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. The effects of A single dose of gamma-rays applied on the head on behavior of rats in Morris's water maze and in the open field test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smajda, B.; Kiskova, J.; Lievajova, K.; Capicikova, M.

    2006-01-01

    The effects of a sublethal dose of gamma-rays applied on the head on selected behavioral parameters were investigated in this study. Adult male Sprague-Dowley rats (n=9) were irradiated with a single dose of 20 Gy of gamma-rays from a 60 Co radiation source. The irradiated animals as well as sham-irradiated controls were tested daily in Morris water maze (MWM) (2 sessions per day) and in the open field test. The ability of spatial learning given by latency time to find the hidden platform was followed in MWM. The horizontal and vertical locomotion, the number of crossings of the center of the field and the washing behavior were recorded during an 8-minute test in the open field. The results obtained show, that radiation didn't altered significantly the dynamic of learning in MWM during the experiment. The level of horizontal and vertical locomotory activity in open field was lower in irradiated group in comparison with controls. The number of the crossings of the field's center, related to the level of anxiozity of animals was non-significantly lower in irradiated animals, whereas no differences in number of washing between both groups were detected. The results point to differences in radiosensitivity in various behavioral parameters in rats, maybe due to different level of their control and coordination in CNS. (authors)

  6. The effects of a head only gamma-irradiation on the learning and spatial memory and on open field behavior in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smajda, B.; Kiskova, J.; Lievajova, K.; Capicikova, M.

    2006-01-01

    The effects or a sublethal dose or gamma-rays applied to the head on selected behavioral parameters were investigated in this study. Adult male Sprague-Dowley rats (n = 9) were irradiated with a single dose or 20 Gy or gamma rays from a 6O Co radiation source. The irradiated animals as well as sham-irradiated controls were tested daily in a Morris water maze (MWM) and in the open field test. The ability of spatial learning given by latency time to find the hidden platform was followed in the MWM. Horizontal and vertical locomotion, the number of crossings or the center of the field and washing behavior were recorded in tests in tbe open field. The results obtained showed, that radiation did not significantly alter the time course of learning in MWM during the experiment. The levels of horizontal and vertical locomotor activity in open field were lower in the irradiated group in comparison with the controls. The number of tbe crossings or the fields center, related to tbe level or anxiety of the animals was not significantly lower in the irradiated animals, whereas no differences in the number of washings between both groups were detected. The results point to differences in radiosensitivity in various behavioral parameters in rats, maybe due to different levels of their control and coordination in the CNS. (authors)

  7. Effects of anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on behavioral and spatial memory during the early stage of traumatic brain injury in the rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Kyung Jae; Lee, Yong-Taek; Chae, Seoung Wan; Park, Chae Ri; Kim, Dae Yul

    2016-03-15

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a noninvasive technique to modulate the neural membrane potential. Its effects in the early stage of traumatic brain injury (TBI) have rarely been investigated. This study assessed the effects of anodal tDCS on behavioral and spatial memory in a rat model of traumatic brain injury. Thirty six rats underwent lateral fluid percussion and were then randomly assigned to one of three groups: control (n=12), five-day tDCS over peri-lesional cortex at one (1W, n=12), or two (2W, n=12) weeks post-injury. The Barnes maze (BM) and Rotarod (RR) tests were evaluated in a blind manner on day 1, week 3 and week 5 post-injury. After three weeks, both the 1W and 2W groups showed significant improvements in the BM ratio (PtDCS ameliorated behavioral and spatial memory function in the early phase after TBI when it is delivered two weeks post-injury. Earlier stimulation (one week post-injury) improves spatial memory only. However, the beneficial effects did not persist after cessation of the anodal stimulation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Behavioral and neurochemical effects of alpha lipoic acid associated with omega-3 in tardive dyskinesia induced by chronic haloperidol in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Araújo, Dayane Pessoa; Camboim, Thaisa Gracielle Martins; Silva, Ana Patrícia Magalhães; Silva, Caio da Fonseca; de Sousa, Rebeca Canuto; Barbosa, Mabson Delâno Alves; Oliveira, Lucidio Clebeson; Cavalcanti, José Rodolfo Lopes de Paiva; Lucena, Eudes Euler de Souza; Guzen, Fausto Pierdoná

    2017-07-01

    Tardive dyskinesia (TD) is characterized by involuntary movements of the lower portion of the face being related to typical antipsychotic therapy. TD is associated with the oxidative imbalance in the basal ganglia. Lipoic acid (LA) and omega-3 (ω-3) are antioxidants acting as enzyme cofactors, regenerating antioxidant enzymes. This study aimed to investigate behavioral and neurochemical effects of supplementation with LA (100 mg/kg) and ω-3 (1 g/kg) in the treatment of TD induced by chronic use of haloperidol (HAL) (1 mg/kg) in rats. Wistar male rats were used, weighing between 180-200 g. The animals were treated chronically (31 days) with LA alone or associated with HAL or ω-3. Motor behavior was assessed by open-field test, the catalepsy test, and evaluation of orofacial dyskinesia. Oxidative stress was accessed by determination of lipid peroxidation and concentration of nitrite. LA and ω-3 alone or associated caused an improvement in motor performance by increasing locomotor activity in the open-field test and decreased the permanence time on the bar in the catalepsy test and decreased the orofacial dyskinesia. LA and ω-3 showed antioxidant effects, decreasing lipid peroxidation and nitrite levels. Thus, the use of LA associated with ω-3 reduced the extrapyramidal effects produced by chronic use of HAL.

  9. Effects of environmental enrichment on behavioral deficits and alterations in hippocampal BDNF induced by prenatal exposure to morphine in juvenile rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadalipour, A; Sadeghzadeh, J; Vafaei, A A; Bandegi, A R; Mohammadkhani, R; Rashidy-Pour, A

    2015-10-01

    Prenatal morphine exposure throughout pregnancy can induce a series of neurobehavioral and neurochemical disturbances by affecting central nervous system development. This study was designed to investigate the effects of an enriched environment on behavioral deficits and changes in hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels induced by prenatal morphine in rats. On pregnancy days 11-18, female Wistar rats were randomly injected twice daily with saline or morphine. Offspring were weaned on postnatal day (PND) 21. They were subjected to a standard rearing environment or an enriched environment on PNDs 22-50. On PNDs 51-57, the behavioral responses including anxiety and depression-like behaviors, and passive avoidance memory as well as hippocampal BDNF levels were investigated. The light/dark (L/D) box and elevated plus maze (EPM) were used for the study of anxiety, forced swimming test (FST) was used to assess depression-like behavior and passive avoidance task was used to evaluate learning and memory. Prenatal morphine exposure caused a reduction in time spent in the EPM open arms and a reduction in time spent in the lit side of the L/D box. It also decreased step-through latency and increased time spent in the dark side of passive avoidance task. Prenatal morphine exposure also reduced immobility time and increased swimming time in FST. Postnatal rearing in an enriched environment counteracted with behavioral deficits in the EPM and passive avoidance task, but not in the L/D box. This suggests that exposure to an enriched environment during adolescence period alters anxiety profile in a task-specific manner. Prenatal morphine exposure reduced hippocampal BDNF levels, but enriched environment significantly increased BDNF levels in both saline- and morphine-exposed groups. Our results demonstrate that exposure to an enriched environment alleviates behavioral deficits induced by prenatal morphine exposure and up-regulates the decreased levels of BDNF

  10. Direct behavioral evidence for retronasal olfaction in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shree Hari Gautam

    Full Text Available The neuroscience of flavor perception is becoming increasingly important to understand abnormal feeding behaviors and associated chronic diseases such as obesity. Yet, flavor research has mainly depended on human subjects due to the lack of an animal model. A crucial step towards establishing an animal model of flavor research is to determine whether the animal uses the retronasal mode of olfaction, an essential element of flavor perception. We designed a go- no go behavioral task to test the rat's ability to detect and discriminate retronasal odorants. In this paradigm, tasteless aqueous solutions of odorants were licked by water-restricted head-fixed rats from a lick spout. Orthonasal contamination was avoided by employing a combination of a vacuum around the lick-spout and blowing clean air toward the nose. Flow models support the effectiveness of both approaches. The licked odorants were successfully discriminated by rats. Moreover, the tasteless odorant amyl acetate was reliably discriminated against pure distilled water in a concentration-dependent manner. The results from this retronasal odor discrimination task suggest that rats are capable of smelling retronasally. This direct behavioral evidence establishes the rat as a useful animal model for flavor research.

  11. Effects of prenatal X-irradiation on open-field behavior in rats: application of randomized fostering technique and mapping results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tachibana, T.

    1986-01-01

    Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were given X-irradiation (150 R) on Day 17 of gestation. After birth, all male pups were pooled once and then assigned randomly to irradiated mothers and control mothers. Offspring were administered an open-field test at about 7 weeks of age. The analysis was performed on the basis of two approaches: In the per subject approach, individual subject data (aggregation across Day 2 through Day 4) were treated as the basic unit of statistical analysis. In the per litter approach, double aggregation (aggregation across Day 2 through Day 4 for each subject and aggregation across subjects within each litter) was used. The per subject approach was slightly more sensitive as to the treatment effect, but it induced a reduction in the magnitude of eta squared. A principal component analysis was performed using eta squared together with those of several reference groups. Results were plotted on a map constructed from component scores. The characteristics of behavior in X-irradiated rats were very similar to those of the earlier stage of trials in terms of the location on the map. The postnatal maternal effect on open-field behavior was not serious and was adequately negligible in practice. A new fostering procedure was proposed and its advantages discussed

  12. Study of Melatonin Protective Effects on Learning and Memory Deficits Induced by Administration of Lead during Pregnancy and Postpartum in Rat: Behavioral and Biochemical Evaluations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Soleimani

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Few studies have investigated the possible ways to prevent lead induced defects during gestation and lactation. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of melatonin as a hormone with antioxidant properties on oxidative stress in the hippocampus and learning and memory impairment induced by administration of lead. Materials and Methods: Pregnant rats were exposed to treatments of control, lead acetate (0.2% solution in water, lead acetate + melatonin and melatonin (10 mg / kg by oral gavage from gestation day 6 until weaning. 21 days after birth, the activities of several antioxidant enzymes including superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GPX and catalase (CAT as well as malondialdehyde levels in hippocampus of 23 male offspring rats were assayed. To behavioral studies, on postnatal day 30, 57 rats were trained 6 days in the Morris water maze and the probe test was performed 24 h later. Results: The results showed that administration of lead during pregnancy and lactation could increase MDA levels and decrease glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and catalase antioxidant enzymes activities in the hippocampus of male offspring. Also, this treatment significantly disrupted performance of the Morris water maze test and impaired learning and spatial memory in male offspring compared with control. Administration of melatonin attenuated lipid peroxidation and could improve learning and spatial memory deficits and the activity of antioxidant enzymes in lead exposure group. Conclusion: Melatonin as a neuropotective drug can protect the hippocampus against the complications of lead exposure, in the course of development.

  13. Differential effects of diet composition and timing of feeding behavior on rat brown adipose tissue and skeletal muscle peripheral clocks.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Goede, P.; Sen, Satish; Oosterman, Johanneke E; Kalsbeek, A.

    2018-01-01

    The effects of feeding behavior and diet composition,as well as their possible interactions,on daily (clock) gene expression rhythms have mainly been studied in the liver, and to a lesser degree in white adipose tissue(WAT), but hardly in other metabolic tissues such as skeletal muscle (SM) and

  14. Effects of Adolescent Cannabinoid Self-Administration in Rats on Addiction-Related Behaviors and Working Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschmann, Erin K; Pollock, Michael W; Nagarajan, Vidhya; Torregrossa, Mary M

    2017-04-01

    Use of marijuana (Cannabis sativa) often begins in adolescence, and heavy adolescent marijuana use is often associated with impaired cognitive function in adulthood. However, clinical reports of long-lasting cognitive deficits, particularly in subjects who discontinue use in adulthood, are mixed. Moreover, dissociating innate differences in cognitive function from cannabis-induced deficits is challenging. Therefore, the current study sought to develop a rodent model of adolescent cannabinoid self-administration (SA), using the synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonist WIN55,212-2 (WIN), in order to assess measures of relapse/reinstatement of drug seeking and long-term effects on cognitive function assessed in a delay-match-to-sample working memory task and a spatial recognition task. Adolescent male rats readily self-administered WIN in 2-h or 6-h sessions/day, but did not demonstrate an escalation of intake with 6-h access. Rats exhibited significant cue-induced reinstatement of WIN seeking that increased with 21 days of abstinence (ie, 'incubation of craving'). Cognitive testing occurred in adulthood under drug-free conditions. Both 2-h and 6-h adolescent WIN SA groups exhibited significantly better working memory performance in adulthood relative to sucrose SA controls, and performance was associated with altered expression of proteins regulating GABAergic and glutamatergic signaling in the prefrontal cortex. Self-administered WIN did not produce either acute or chronic effects on short-term memory, but experimenter administration of WIN in adolescence, at doses previously reported in the literature, produced acute deficits in short-term memory that recovered with abstinence. Thus, SA of a rewarding cannabinoid in adolescence does not produce long-term cognitive dysfunction.

  15. Progesterone Exerts a Neuromodulatory Effect on Turning Behavior of Hemiparkinsonian Male Rats: Expression of 3α-Hydroxysteroid Oxidoreductase and Allopregnanolone as Suggestive of GABAA Receptors Involvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Yunes

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing amount of evidence for a neuroprotective role of progesterone and its neuroactive metabolite, allopregnanolone, in animal models of neurodegenerative diseases. By using a model of hemiparkinsonism in male rats, injection of the neurotoxic 6-OHDA in left striatum, we studied progesterone’s effects on rotational behavior induced by amphetamine or apomorphine. Also, in order to find potential explanatory mechanisms, we studied expression and activity of nigrostriatal 3α-hydroxysteroid oxidoreductase, the enzyme that catalyzes progesterone to its active metabolite allopregnanolone. Coherently, we tested allopregnanolone for a possible neuromodulatory effect on rotational behavior. Also, since allopregnanolone is known as a GABAA modulator, we finally examined the action of GABAA antagonist bicuculline. We found that progesterone, in addition to an apparent neuroprotective effect, also increased ipsilateral expression and activity of 3α-hydroxysteroid oxidoreductase. It was interesting to note that ipsilateral administration of allopregnanolone reversed a clear sign of motor neurodegeneration, that is, contralateral rotational behavior. A possible GABAA involvement modulated by allopregnanolone was shown by the blocking effect of bicuculline. Our results suggest that early administration of progesterone possibly activates genomic mechanisms that promote neuroprotection subchronically. This, in turn, could be partially mediated by fast, nongenomic, actions of allopregnanolone acting as an acute modulator of GABAergic transmission.

  16. Effects of administering testosterone undecanoate in rats subjected to physical exercise: effects on the estrous cycle, motor behavior and morphology of the liver and kidney

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    Moisés Tolentino Bento-Silva

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the work was evaluate the effects of testosterone undecanoate (TU treatment combined with moderate physical training on: the estrous cycle, body weight (BW, motor behavior (MB, and the morphohistology of the reproductive system, the liver and kidney in rats. Female Wistar rats (180 g - 250 g were divided as follows: sedentary + TU (S + TU, trained + TU (T + TU, sedentary + vehicle (S + V, trained + vehicle (T + V. The rats swam 50 min/Day, strapped with a 5% BW load, for 4 weeks. During this training, (BW was monitored daily as well as the estrous cycle (EC by vaginal smear. The TU (15 mg/kg s.c was administered 3 times/week for 4 weeks. At the end of the study, data on MB, BW and morphohistopathological changes in viscera were compiled. The (T + TU group had on average, a higher (BW in the fourth week compared to the first week, and (BW higher than (S + V and (S + TU groups. We noted an interruption in the EC and a decrease in weight of ovaries in animals treated with TU. In addition, there was an increase in the relative weight of the heart in groups (T + V and (T+ TU, and kidneys in group (T + TU. Histopathological analysis showed periportal congestion and isolated foci of hepatic necrosis in rats with TU. Thus, TU combined with training abolished the EC, promoted ovarian atrophy, liver necrosis, cardiac hypertrophy and a decrease in motor activity.O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar o efeito do tratamento com undecanoato de testosterona (UT combinado ao treinamento físico moderado sobre ciclo estral, peso corporal, estruturas do sistema reprodutor, comportamento motor e morfologia hepática e renal em ratas. Ratas Wistar (180 a 250 g foram divididas em: sedentárias + UT (S+UT, treinadas + UT (T+UT, sedentárias + veículo (S+V, treinadas + veículo (T+V. As ratas nadaram 50 min/dia com sobrecarga de ~5% do peso corporal por 4 semanas. Durante o período de treinamento foi realizado acompanhamento diário do peso corporal (PC e do

  17. Studies of the effect of 0.4-Gy and 0.6-Gy prenatal X-irradiation on postnatal adult behavior in the Wistar rat.

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    Jensh, R P; Brent, R L; Vogel, W H

    1987-02-01

    Thirty-four pregnant Wistar rats were X-irradiated on the 9th or 17th day of gestation at a dosage level 0.4 Gy or 0.6 Gy or were sham-irradiated. All mothers were allowed to deliver their offspring, and litters were limited to a maximum of eight on day 2. On day 30, 224 offspring were weaned and raised until 60 days of age, at which time testing began. Each rat randomly received, in random order, three of the following six behavioral tests: Water T-maze, Conditioned Avoidance Response, Forelimb Hanging, Activity Wheel, Swimming, and Open Field. There were no statistically significant differences between the irradiated and control groups for maternal weight or weight gain or mean litter size, although the litter size of the 17th day 0.6-Gy group was slightly lower. Among offspring irradiated with 0.6 Gy on the 17th day, 3-day-old neonates' weights were significantly reduced. Offspring irradiated on the 17th day with 0.6 Gy exhibited higher Conditioned Avoidance Response 5th-day and retest avoidance scores than did the controls. There were also significant sex differences in responses within the irradiated and control groups for several tests, which were unrelated to radiation exposure. The results of this study indicate that low-level X-irradiation during the fetal period of rat gestation results in neonatal growth retardation and subtle behavioral alterations that may be manifested in adult life. Growth retardation may be the most sensitive indicator of subtle effects that result from low-level prenatal exposure to X-rays.

  18. Studies of the effect of 0.4-Gy and 0.6-Gy prenatal X-irradiation on postnatal adult behavior in the Wistar rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensh, R.P.; Brent, R.L.; Vogel, W.H.

    1987-01-01

    Thirty-four pregnant Wistar rats were X-irradiated on the 9th or 17th day of gestation at a dosage level 0.4 Gy or 0.6 Gy or were sham-irradiated. All mothers were allowed to deliver their offspring, and litters were limited to a maximum of eight on day 2. On day 30, 224 offspring were weaned and raised until 60 days of age, at which time testing began. Each rat randomly received, in random order, three of the following six behavioral tests: Water T-maze, Conditioned Avoidance Response, Forelimb Hanging, Activity Wheel, Swimming, and Open Field. There were no statistically significant differences between the irradiated and control groups for maternal weight or weight gain or mean litter size, although the litter size of the 17th day 0.6-Gy group was slightly lower. Among offspring irradiated with 0.6 Gy on the 17th day, 3-day-old neonates' weights were significantly reduced. Offspring irradiated on the 17th day with 0.6 Gy exhibited higher Conditioned Avoidance Response 5th-day and retest avoidance scores than did the controls. There were also significant sex differences in responses within the irradiated and control groups for several tests, which were unrelated to radiation exposure. The results of this study indicate that low-level X-irradiation during the fetal period of rat gestation results in neonatal growth retardation and subtle behavioral alterations that may be manifested in adult life. Growth retardation may be the most sensitive indicator of subtle effects that result from low-level prenatal exposure to X-rays

  19. Antiepileptic effect of fisetin in iron-induced experimental model of traumatic epilepsy in rats in the light of electrophysiological, biochemical, and behavioral observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Jharana; Singh, Rameshwar; Sharma, Deepak

    2017-05-01

    Traumatic epilepsy is defined by episodes of recurring seizures secondary to severe brain injury. Though drugs are found effective to control seizures, their long-term use have been observed to increase reactive oxygen species in animals. Flavonoid fisetin, a natural bioactive phytonutrient reported to exert anticonvulsive effect in experimental seizure models. But, trauma-induced seizures could not be prevented by anticonvulsants was reported in some clinical studies. To study the effect of fisetin on epileptiform electrographic activity in iron-induced traumatic epilepsy and also the probable reason behind the effect in rats. Fisetin pretreatment (20 mg/kg body wt., p.o.) of rats for 12 weeks were chosen followed by injecting iron (5 µl, 100 mM) stereotaxically to generate iron-induced epilepsy. Experimental design include electrophysiological study (electroencephalograph in correlation with multiple unit activity (MUA) in the cortex and CA1 subfield of the hippocampus; spectral analysis of seizure and seizure-associated behavioral study (Morris water maze for spatial learning, open-field test for anxiety) and biochemical study (lipid peroxidation, Na + ,K + -ATPase activity) in both the cortex and the hippocampus. Fisetin pretreatment was found to prevent the development of iron-induced electrical seizure and decrease the corresponding MUA in the cortex (*P˂0.05) as well as in the hippocampus (***P˂0.001). Fisetin pretreatment decreased the lipid peroxides (*P˂0.05) and retained the Na + ,K + -ATPase activity (*P˂0.05) which was found altered in the epileptic animals and also found to attenuate the seizure-associated cognitive dysfunctions. This study demonstrated the antiepileptic action of fisetin in iron-induced model of epileptic rats by inhibiting oxidative stress.

  20. Effects of the aqueous extract of Pimpinella anisum L. seeds on exploratory activity and emotional behavior in rats using the open field and elevated plus maze tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamberini, Maria Thereza; Rodrigues, Domingos Sávio; Rodrigues, Daniela; Pontes, Victoria Bottino

    2015-06-20

    Pimpinella anisum L. is considered one of the first plants used for medicinal purposes. Pharmacological actions of the plant on the central nervous system have been proven but previous analyses have focused on anticonvulsant and neuroprotective actions. In traditional medicine worldwide, the use of Pimpinella is commonly recommended as a tranquilizer, although no scientific information supporting this use is available. Therefore, it was decided to investigate the central actions of the plant to observe behavioral responses, with an emphasis on the emotional component. To investigate the effects of the aqueous extract of Pimpinella seeds on exploratory activity and emotional behavior in rats using the open field and elevated plus maze tests. Seeds of Pimpinella were extracted with distilled water, concentrated and freeze-dried yielding the aqueous extract(AE). Rats were divided into four groups: control(water 5 mL/kg, p.o.) and AE 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 g/kg, p.o. Individual observations were performed in an open field and the parameters locomotor activity, rearing, grooming and defecation were recorded. In elevated plus maze test, rats were divided into four groups: control(water 5 mL/kg, p.o.) and AE 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 g/kg, p.o. The parameters arm entries, total time spent in open and closed arms; and total number of arrivals at the end of an open or closed arm were recorded for each rat. Among the parameters assessed with the open field test, only rearing was reduced in the AE 0.5 g/kg group. When AE 1.0 g/kg was administered, only the initiation of exploratory activity was delayed, without impairing the animals' general activity. The highest dose of AE (2.0 g/kg) induced a reduction in the animals' habituation during the open field test within the same session, as evidenced by the maintenance of high levels of peripheral locomotion and rearing throughout the test. On the elevated plus maze test, no alterations were observed in the responses of the animals relative to

  1. Effect of the adenosine A2A receptor antagonist MSX-3 on motivational disruptions of maternal behavior induced by dopamine antagonism in the early postpartum rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Mariana; Farrar, Andrew M; Hockemeyer, Jörg; Müller, Christa E; Salamone, John D; Morrell, Joan I

    2011-01-01

    Mesolimbic dopamine (DA), particularly in the nucleus accumbens, importantly regulates activational aspects of maternal responsiveness. DA antagonism and accumbens DA depletions interfere with early postpartum maternal motivation by selectively affecting most forms of active maternal behaviors, while leaving nursing behavior relatively intact. Considerable evidence indicates that there is a functional interaction between DA D2 and adenosine A(2A) receptors in striatal areas, including the nucleus accumbens. This study was conducted to determine if adenosine A(2A) receptor antagonism could reverse the effects of DA receptor antagonism on early postpartum maternal behavior. The adenosine A(2A) receptor antagonist MSX-3 (0.25-2.0 mg/kg, IP) was investigated for its ability to reverse the effects of the DA D2 receptor antagonist haloperidol (0.1 mg/kg, IP) on the maternal behavior of early postpartum female rats. Haloperidol severely impaired the expression of active maternal components, including retrieval and grouping the pups at the nest site, pup licking, and nest building. Co-administration of MSX-3 (0.25-2.0 mg/kg, IP) with haloperidol produced a dose-related attenuation of the haloperidol-induced behavioral deficits in early postpartum females. Doses of MSX-3 that effectively reversed the effects of haloperidol (0.5, 1.0 mg/kg), when administered in the absence of haloperidol, did not affect maternal responding or locomotor activity. Adenosine and DA systems interact to regulate early postpartum maternal responsiveness. This research may potentially contribute to the development of strategies for treatments of psychiatric disorders during the postpartum period, with particular emphasis in maintaining or restoring the mother-infant relationship.

  2. Effect of single neonatal treatment with the soy bean phytosteroid, genistein on the sexual behavior of adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csaba, G; Karabélyos, Cs

    2002-01-01

    Hormonal imprinting develops during the perinatal critical period, when the target hormone meets the yet unmatured receptor. As a consequence of imprinting the receptor accomplishes its maturation reaching the binding capacity characteristic to adults. In this period in the presence of foreign molecules similar to the target hormone faulty imprinting may occur with life-long consequences. Soy bean contains phytosteroids which can mimic estrogen effects. In the present experiments single genistein (20 microg) or combined genistein + benzpyrene (20 microg) treatments were done neonatally and the sexual behavior of male and female adult animals was studied. Genistein significantly increased the lordosis quotient of females, which was compensated by neonatal benzpyrene treatment. Genistein also enhanced the sexual activity of males, and this was significantly not reduced by parallel benzpyrene treatment. The results show that neonatal genistein exposure can imprint sexual activity for life and the presence of a second imprinter can modify genistein's behavioral effect.

  3. Brain and behavioral perturbations in rats following Western diet access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargrave, Sara L; Davidson, Terry L; Lee, Tien-Jui; Kinzig, Kimberly P

    2015-10-01

    Energy dense "Western" diets (WD) are known to cause obesity as well as learning and memory impairments, blood-brain barrier damage, and psychological disturbances. Impaired glucose (GLUT1) and monocarboxylate (MCT1) transport may play a role in diet-induced dementia development. In contrast, ketogenic diets (KD) have been shown to be neuroprotective. We assessed the effect of 10, 40 and 90 days WD, KD and Chow maintenance on spontaneous alternation (SA) and vicarious trial and error (VTE) behaviors in male rats, then analyzed blood glucose, insulin, and ketone levels; and hippocampal GLUT1 and MCT1 mRNA. Compared to Chow and KD, rats fed WD had increased 90 day insulin levels. SA was decreased in WD rats at 10, but not 40 or 90 days. VTE was perturbed in WD-fed rats, particularly at 10 and 90 days, indicating hippocampal deficits. WD rats had lower hippocampal GLUT1 and MCT1 expression compared to Chow and KD, and KD rats had increased 90 day MCT1 expression compared to Chow and WD. These data suggest that WD reduces glucose and monocarboxylate transport at the hippocampus, which may result in learning and memory deficits. Further, KD consumption may be useful for MCT1 transporter recovery, which may benefit cognition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Early and long-term effects of low- and high-LET radiation on rat behavior and monoamine metabolism in different brain regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belov, Oleg

    Space radiation is one of the factors representing a significant health risk to the astronauts during deep-space missions. A most harmful component of space radiation beyond the Earth's magnetosphere is the galactic cosmic rays which are composed of high-energy protons, α particles, and high charge and energy (HZE) nuclei. Recent studies performed at particle accelerators have revealed a significant impact of HZE nuclei on the central nervous system and, in particular, on the cognitive functions. However the exact molecular mechanisms behind the observed impairments remain mostly unclear. This research is focused on study of early and long-term effects of low- and high-linear-energy-transfer (LET) radiation on the rat behavior and monoamine metabolism in the brain regions involved in behavior and motor control and form emotional and motivational states. Different groups of rats were whole-body exposed to 500 MeV/u (12) C particles (LET 10.6 keV/µm) available at the Nuclotron accelerator of the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (Dubna, Russia) and to gamma rays at the equivalent dose of 1 Gy. An additional group of animals was sham-irradiated and considered as a control. The isolated brain regions have included the prefrontal cortex, nucleus accumbens, hypothalamus, hippocampus, and striatum where we determined the concentrations of noradrenalin, dopamine and its metabolites 3,4-doxyphenylacetic acid, homovanillic acid, and 3-methoxytyramine and serotonin and its metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid. The following effects were observed in the different periods after irradiation. 1 day after exposure to (12) C particles strong changes in the concentration of monoamines and their metabolites were observed in three structures, namely, the prefrontal cortex, nucleus accumbens, and hippocampus. However, significant changes were found in the prefrontal cortex and weaker changes were seen in the nucleus accumbens, whereas changes were insignificant in the hippocampus

  5. Environmental enrichment delays pup-induced maternal behavior in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Phyllis E; Gervais, Kristen J

    2011-05-01

    Adult, virgin rats do not spontaneously display maternal behavior when exposed to foster pups. However, continuous daily exposure of the female to foster pups for about 5-7 days can induce a set of maternal behaviors similar to those shown by postpartum dams. Induction latencies depend upon a number of factors, including the stress and anxiety levels of the female. The goal of this study was to attempt to mitigate the likely stressfulness of being singly housed during testing by enriching the rat's home cage environment and to determine if the concomitant environmental change would alter the latency to express maternal behavior. In addition, the effect of varying the number of test pups used for testing was examined. Two groups of virgin Sprague-Dawley rats were first tested on the elevated plus maze after 1 week of exposure to either control (standard housing) or enriched conditions. One week later, maternal behavior testing began using one or three pups. Upon completion of maternal behavior testing, plasma corticosterone concentrations were determined following a mild stressor. The data indicate that enrichment tends to increase anxiety-like behaviors in the elevated plus maze. In addition, enrichment delayed the onset of maternal behavior irrespective of the number of test pups. There were no effects of environmental enrichment on plasma corticosterone levels following exposure to a stressor. These results indicate that what is considered a modestly enriched environment delays the expression of pup-oriented responses and does not apparently reduce stress or improve performance on all behavioral tasks. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Behavioral Effects of Deep Brain Stimulation of the Anterior Nucleus of Thalamus, Entorhinal Cortex and Fornix in a Rat Model of Alzheimer′s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recent clinical and preclinical studies have suggested that deep brain stimulation (DBS can be used as a tool to enhance cognitive functions. The aim of the present study was to investigate the impact of DBS at three separate targets in the Papez circuit, including the anterior nucleus of thalamus (ANT, the entorhinal cortex (EC, and the fornix (FX, on cognitive behaviors in an Alzheimer′s disease (AD rat model. Methods: Forty-eight rats were subjected to an intrahippocampal injection of amyloid peptides 1-42 to induce an AD model. Rats were divided into six groups: DBS and sham DBS groups of ANT, EC, and FX. Spatial learning and memory were assessed by the Morris water maze (MWM. Recognition memory was investigated by the novel object recognition memory test (NORM. Locomotor and anxiety-related behaviors were detected by the open field test (OF. By using two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA, behavior differences between the six groups were analyzed. Results: In the MWM, the ANT, EC, and FX DBS groups performed differently in terms of the time spent in the platform zone (F(2,23 = 6.04, P < 0.01, the frequency of platform crossing (F(2,23 = 11.53, P < 0.001, and the percent time spent within the platform quadrant (F(2,23 = 6.29, P < 0.01. In the NORM, the EC and FX DBS groups spent more time with the novel object, although the ANT DBS group did not (F(2,23 = 10.03, P < 0.001. In the OF, all of the groups showed a similar total distance moved (F (1,42 = 1.14, P = 0.29 and relative time spent in the center (F(2,42 = 0.56, P = 0.58. Conclusions: Our results demonstrated that DBS of the EC and FX facilitated hippocampus-dependent spatial memory more prominently than ANT DBS. In addition, hippocampus-independent recognition memory was enhanced by EC and FX DBS. None of the targets showed side-effects of anxiety or locomotor behaviors.

  7. Effects of GABA-B receptor positive modulator on ketamine-induced psychosis-relevant behaviors and hippocampal electrical activity in freely moving rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jingyi; Stan Leung, L

    2017-10-01

    Decreased GABA B receptor function is proposed to mediate some symptoms of schizophrenia. In this study, we tested the effect of CGP7930, a GABA B receptor positive allosteric modulator, on ketamine-induced psychosis-relevant behaviors and hippocampal electrical activity in behaving rats. Electrodes were bilaterally implanted into the hippocampus, and cannulae were placed into the lateral ventricles of Long-Evans rats. CGP7930 or vehicle was injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) or intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.), alone or 15 min prior to ketamine (3 mg/kg, subcutaneous) injection. Paired click auditory evoked potentials in the hippocampus (AEP), prepulse inhibition (PPI), and locomotor activity were recorded before and after drug injection. CGP7930 at doses of 1 mg/kg (i.p.) prevented ketamine-induced deficit of PPI. CGP7930 (1 mg/kg i.p.) also prevented the decrease in gating of hippocampal AEP and the increase in hippocampal gamma (65-100 Hz) waves induced by ketamine. Unilateral i.c.v. infusion of CGP7930 (0.3 mM/1 μL) also prevented the decrease in gating of hippocampal AEP induced by ketamine. Ketamine-induced behavioral hyperlocomotion was suppressed by 5 mg/kg i.p. CGP7930. CGP7930 alone, without ketamine, did not significantly affect integrated PPI, locomotion, gating of hippocampal AEP, or gamma waves. CGP7930 (1 mg/kg i.p.) increased heterosynaptically mediated paired pulse depression in the hippocampus, a measure of GABA B receptor function in vivo. CGP7930 reduces the behavioral and electrophysiological disruptions induced by ketamine in animals, and the hippocampus may be one of the neural targets where CGP7930 exerts its actions.

  8. Chronic high-dose creatine has opposing effects on depression-related gene expression and behavior in intact and sex hormone-treated gonadectomized male and female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Patricia J; DeBold, Joseph F; Rios, Maribel; Kanarek, Robin B

    2015-03-01

    Creatine is an antioxidant, neuromodulator and key regulator of energy metabolism shown to improve depressive symptoms in humans and animals, especially in females. To better understand the pharmacological effects of creatine, we examined its influence on depression-related hippocampal gene expression and behaviors in the presence and absence of sex steroids. Sham-operated and gonadectomized male and female rats were fed chow alone or chow blended with either 2% or 4% w/w creatine monohydrate for five weeks before forced swim, open field, and wire suspension tests, or seven weeks total. Before supplementation, males were chronically implanted with an empty or a testosterone-filled (T) capsule (10-mm surface release), and females were administered progesterone (P, 250 μg), estradiol benzoate (EB, 2.5 μg), EB+P, or sesame oil vehicle weekly. Relative to non-supplemented shams, all hippocampal plasticity-related mRNAs measured, including brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), tyrosine kinase B, doublecortin, calretinin, and calbindin, were downregulated in sham males given 4% creatine, and BDNF, doublecortin, and calbindin mRNAs were downregulated in sham females given 4% creatine. In contrast, combined 4% creatine+T in castrates prevented downregulation of BDNF, doublecortin, and calretinin mRNAs. Similarly, combined 4% creatine+EB+P in ovariectomized females attenuated downregulation of BDNF and calbindin mRNA levels. Moderate antidepressant and anxiolytic-like behaviors were observed in EB+P-treated ovariectomized females fed creatine, with similar trends in T-treated castrates fed creatine. Altogether, these data show that chronic, high-dose creatine has opposing effects on neuroplasticity-related genes and depressive behavior in intact and gonadectomized male and female rats. The dose and schedule of creatine used negatively impacted hippocampal neuronal integrity in otherwise healthy brains, possibly through negative compensatory changes in energy

  9. Structure-activity relationship of linear tetrapeptides Tic-DPhe-Arg-Trp-NH2 at the human melanocortin-4 receptor and effects on feeding behaviors in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Zhixiong; MacNeil, Tanya; Weinberg, David H; Kalyani, Rubana N; Tang, Rui; Strack, Alison M; Murphy, Beth A; Mosley, Ralph T; Euan MacIntyre, D; Van der Ploeg, Lex H T; Patchett, Arthur A; Wyvratt, Matthew J; Nargund, Ravi P

    2005-10-01

    The melanocortin subtype-4 receptor (MC4R) has been implicated in the control of feeding behavior and body weight regulation. A series of tetrapeptides, based on Tic-DPhe-Arg-Trp-NH2-a mimic of the putative message sequence "His-Phe-Arg-Trp" and modified at the DPhe position, were prepared and pharmacologically characterized for potency and selectivity. Substitution of His with Tic gave peptides with significant increases in selectivity. The effects of the substitution pattern of DPhe were investigated and it has significant influences on potency and the level of the maximum cAMP accumulation. Intracerebroventricular administration of peptide 10 induced significant inhibition of cumulative overnight food intake and feeding duration in rats.

  10. The Inhibitory Effect of Somatostatin Receptor Activation on Bee Venom-Evoked Nociceptive Behavior and pCREB Expression in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study examined nociceptive behaviors and the expression of phosphorylated cAMP response element-binding protein (pCREB in the dorsal horn of the lumbar spinal cord and the dorsal root ganglion (DRG evoked by bee venom (BV. The effect of intraplantar preapplication of the somatostatin analog octreotide on nociceptive behaviors and pCREB expression was also examined. Subcutaneous injection of BV into the rat unilateral hindpaw pad induced significant spontaneous nociceptive behaviors, primary mechanical allodynia, primary thermal hyperalgesia, and mirror-thermal hyperalgesia, as well as an increase in pCREB expression in the lumbar spinal dorsal horn and DRG. Octreotide pretreatment significantly attenuated the BV-induced lifting/licking response and mechanical allodynia. Local injection of octreotide also significantly reduced pCREB expression in the lumbar spinal dorsal horn and DRG. Furthermore, pretreatment with cyclosomatostatin, a somatostatin receptor antagonist, reversed the octreotide-induced inhibition of the lifting/licking response, mechanical allodynia, and the expression of pCREB. These results suggest that BV can induce nociceptive responses and somatostatin receptors are involved in mediating the antinociception, which provides new evidence for peripheral analgesic action of somatostatin in an inflammatory pain state.

  11. Anticonvulsant, neuroprotective and behavioral effects of organic and conventional yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis St. Hil.) on pentylenetetrazol-induced seizures in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branco, Cátia Dos Santos; Scola, Gustavo; Rodrigues, Adriana Dalpicolli; Cesio, Verónica; Laprovitera, Mariajosé; Heinzen, Horacio; Dos Santos, Maitê Telles; Fank, Bruna; de Freitas, Suzana Cesa Vieira; Coitinho, Adriana Simon; Salvador, Mirian

    2013-03-01

    Epilepsy, which is one of the most common neurological disorders, involves the occurrence of spontaneous and recurrent seizures that alter the performance of the brain and affect several sensory and behavioral functions. Oxidative damage has been associated with post-seizure neuronal injury, thereby increasing an individual's susceptibility to the occurrence of neurodegenerative disorders. The present study investigated the possible anticonvulsive and neuroprotective effects of organic and conventional yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis), a plant rich in polyphenols, on pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-induced seizures in Wistar rats. The behavioral and polyphenolic profiles of the yerba mate samples were also evaluated. Infusions of yerba mate (50mg/kg) or distilled water were given to rats for fifteen days by oral gavage. On the 15th day the animals were subjected to open field test, and exploratory behavior was assessed. Subsequently, 60mg/kg PTZ (i.p.) was administered, and animals were observed for the appearance of convulsions for 30min. Latency for the first seizure, tonic-clonic and generalized seizures time, frequency of seizures and mortality induced by PTZ were recorded. The animals were then sacrificed, and the cerebellum, cerebral cortex and hippocampus were quickly removed and frozen to study the neuroprotective effects of yerba mate. The oxidative damage in lipids and proteins, nitric oxide levels, the activities of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (Sod) and catalase (Cat) and non-enzymatic cellular defense (sulfhydryl protein) were quantified in all the tissues. The results showed that organic and conventional yerba mate infusions were able to reduce the frequency of seizures when compared to the PTZ group. Besides, organic yerba mate infusion decreases the tonic-clonic seizures time in relation to the PTZ group. It was also shown that organic and conventional yerba mate infusions reduced the oxidative damage in lipids and proteins and nitric oxide

  12. Behavioral and Neurochemical Effects of Alpha-Lipoic Acid in the Model of Parkinson’s Disease Induced by Unilateral Stereotaxic Injection of 6-Ohda in Rat

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    Dayane Pessoa de Araújo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate behavioral and neurochemical effects of α-lipoic acid (100 mg/kg or 200 mg/kg alone or associated with L-DOPA using an animal model of Parkinson’s disease induced by stereotaxic injection of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA in rat striatum. Motor behavior was assessed by monitoring body rotations induced by apomorphine, open field test and cylinder test. Oxidative stress was accessed by determination of lipid peroxidation using the TBARS method, concentration of nitrite and evaluation of catalase activity. α-Lipoic acid decreased body rotations induced by apomorphine, as well as caused an improvement in motor performance by increasing locomotor activity in the open field test and use of contralateral paw (in the opposite side of the lesion produced by 6-OHDA at cylinder test. α-lipoic acid showed antioxidant effects, decreasing lipid peroxidation and nitrite levels and interacting with antioxidant system by decreasing of endogenous catalase activity. Therefore, α-lipoic acid prevented the damage induced by 6-OHDA or by chronic use of L-DOPA in dopaminergic neurons, suggesting that α-lipoic could be a new therapeutic target for Parkinson's disease prevention and treatment.

  13. Rats demonstrate helping behavior toward a soaked conspecific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Nobuya; Tan, Ling; Tate, Kazushi; Okada, Maya

    2015-09-01

    Helping behavior is a prosocial behavior whereby an individual helps another irrespective of disadvantages to him or herself. In the present study, we examined whether rats would help distressed, conspecific rats that had been soaked with water. In Experiment 1, rats quickly learned to liberate a soaked cagemate from the water area by opening the door to allow the trapped rat into a safe area. Additional tests showed that the presentation of a distressed cagemate was necessary to induce rapid door-opening behavior. In addition, it was shown that rats dislike soaking and that rats that had previously experienced a soaking were quicker to learn how to help a cagemate than those that had never been soaked. In Experiment 2, the results indicated that rats did not open the door to a cagemate that was not distressed. In Experiment 3, we tested behavior when rats were forced to choose between opening the door to help a distressed cagemate and opening a different door to obtain a food reward. Irrespective of how they learned to open the door, in most test trials, rats chose to help the cagemate before obtaining a food reward, suggesting that the relative value of helping others is greater than the value of a food reward. These results suggest that rats can behave prosocially and that helper rats may be motivated by empathy-like feelings toward their distressed cagemate.

  14. A behavioral economic analysis of the value-enhancing effects of nicotine and varenicline and the role of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in male and female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Scott T; Geary, Trevor N; Steiner, Amy N; Bevins, Rick A

    2018-04-09

    Reinforcement value enhancement by nicotine of non-nicotine rewards is believed to partially motivate smoking behavior. Recently, we showed that the value-enhancing effects of nicotine are well characterized by reinforcer demand models and that the value-enhancing effects of the smoking-cessation aid bupropion (Zyban) are distinct from those of nicotine and differ between the sexes. The present study evaluated potential sex differences in the enhancement effects of nicotine and varenicline (Chantix) using a reinforcer demand methodology. The role of α4β2* and α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in the enhancing effects of nicotine and varenicline is also evaluated. Male and female rats (n=12/sex) were trained to lever press maintained by sensory reinforcement by visual stimulus (VS) presentations. Changes in the VS value following nicotine and varenicline administration were assessed using an established reinforcer demand approach. Subsequently, the effects of antagonism of α4β2* and α7 nAChRs on varenicline and nicotine-induced enhancement active lever-pressing were assessed using a progressive ratio schedule. Nicotine and varenicline enhanced VS demand equivalently between the sexes as evaluated by reinforcer demand. However, α4β2* receptor antagonism attenuated value enhancement by nicotine and varenicline in females, but only of nicotine in males.

  15. Beneficial Effects of Highly Palatable Food on the Behavioral and Neural Adversities induced by Early Life Stress Experience in Female Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin Young; Lee, Jong-Ho; Kim, Doyun; Kim, Soung-Min; Koo, JaeHyung; Jahng, Jeong Won

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the effects of highly palatable food during adolescence on the psycho-emotional and neural disturbances caused by early life stress experience in female rats. Female Sprague-Dawley pups were separated from dam for 3 h daily during the first two weeks of birth (MS) or left undisturbed (NH). Half of MS females received free access to chocolate cookies in addition to ad libitum chow from postnatal day 28. Pups were subjected to the behavioral tests during young adulthood. The plasma corticosterone response to acute stress, ΔFosB and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels in the brain regions were analyzed. Total caloric intake and body weight gain during the whole experimental period did not differ among the experimental groups. Cookie access during adolescence and youth improved anxiety-/depression-like behaviors by MS experience. ΔFosB expression was decreased, but BDNF was increased in the nucleus accumbens of MS females, and ΔFosB expression was normalized and BDNF was further increased following cookie access. Corticosterone response to acute stress was blunted by MS experience and cookie access did not improve it. Results suggest that cookie access during adolescence improves the psycho-emotional disturbances of MS females, and ΔFosB and/or BDNF expression in the nucleus accumbens may play a role in its underlying neural mechanisms.

  16. Effectiveness of minocycline and FK506 alone and in combination on enhanced behavioral and biochemical recovery from spinal cord injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Mohammad; Zakaria, Abdulrahim; Almutairi, Khalid M

    2016-06-01

    Injury to the spinal cord results in immediate physical damage (primary injury) followed by a prolonged posttraumatic inflammatory disorder (secondary injury). The present study aimed to investigate the neuroprotective effects of minocycline and FK506 (Tacrolimus) individually and in combination on recovery from experimental spinal cord injury (SCI). Young adult male rats were subjected to experimental SCI by weight compression method. Minocycline (50mg/kg) and FK506 (1mg/kg) were administered orally in combination and individually to the SCI group daily for three weeks. During these three weeks, the recovery was measured using behavioral motor parameters (including BBB, Tarlov and other scorings) every other day for 29days after SCI. Thereafter, the animals were sacrificed and the segment of the spinal cord centered at the injury site was removed for the histopathological studies as well as for biochemical analysis of monoamines such as 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and 5-hydroxy-indolacetic acid (5-HIAA) and some oxidative stress indices, such as thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), total glutathione (GSH) and myeloperoxidase (MPO). All behavioral results indicated that both drugs induced significant recovery from SCI with respect to time. The biochemical and histopathological results supported the behavioral findings, revealing significant recovery in the regeneration of the injured spinal tissues, the monoamine levels, and the oxidative stress indices. Overall, the effects of the tested drugs for SCI recovery were as follows: FK506+minocycline>minocycline>FK506 in all studied parameters. Thus, minocycline and FK506 may prove to be a potential therapy cocktail to treat acute SCI. However, further studies are warranted. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of high-fat diet during gestation, lactation, or postweaning on physiological and behavioral indexes in borderline hypertensive rats

    OpenAIRE

    Mitra, Anaya; Alvers, Kristin M.; Crump, Erica M.; Rowland, Neil E.

    2008-01-01

    Maternal obesity is becoming more prevalent. We used borderline hypertensive rats (BHR) to investigate whether a high-fat diet at different stages of development has adverse programming consequences on metabolic parameters and blood pressure. Wistar dams were fed a high- or low-fat diet for 6 wk before mating with spontaneously hypertensive males and during the ensuing pregnancy. At birth, litters were fostered to a dam from the same diet group as during gestation or to the alternate diet con...

  18. Buspirone before prenatal stress protects against adverse effects of stress on emotional and inflammatory pain-related behaviors in infant rats: age and sex differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butkevich, Irina P; Mikhailenko, Viktor A; Vershinina, Elena A; Otellin, Vladimir A; Aloisi, Anna Maria

    2011-10-24

    Prenatal stress strengthens tonic pain and provokes depression. The serotoninergic system is involved in these processes. We recently showed that maternal buspirone, a 5-HT1A receptor agonist, protects against the adverse effects of in utero stress on depression and pain in adult rat offspring. Using a similar maternal treatment with buspirone, we focus here on the infant stage, which is important for the correction of prenatal abnormalities. Maternal buspirone before restraint stress during the last week of pregnancy decreased the time of immobility in the forced swim test in the infant offspring. Prenatal stress increased formalin-induced pain in the second part of the time-course of the response to formalin in males of middle infancy but in the first part of the response in males of late infancy. The effect was reversed by maternal buspirone. Pain dominated in males of both middle and late infancy but the time-course of formalin pain in infant females revealed a slower development of the processes. The results show that the time-course of formalin-induced pain in infant rats reacts to prenatal stress in an age-dependent and sexually dimorphic manner. Our finding of opposite influences of prenatal stress and buspirone before prenatal stress on formalin-induced pain during the interphase indicates that functional maturity of the descending serotonergic inhibitory system occurs in late infancy males (11-day-olds), and 5-HT1A receptors participate in this process. The data provide evidence that maternal treatment with buspirone prior to stress during pregnancy alleviates depression-like and tonic pain-related behaviors in the infant offspring. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Chronic administration during early adulthood does not alter the hormonally-dependent disruptive effects of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC) on complex behavior in female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winsauer, Peter J; Sutton, Jessie L

    2014-02-01

    This study examined whether chronic Δ(9)-THC during early adulthood would produce the same hormonally-dependent deficits in learning that are produced by chronic Δ(9)-THC during adolescence. To do this, either sham-operated (intact) or ovariectomized (OVX) female rats received daily saline or 5.6 mg/kg of Δ(9)-THC i.p. for 40 days during early adulthood. Following chronic administration, and a drug-free period to train both a learning and performance task, acute dose-effect curves for Δ(9)-THC (0.56-10 mg/kg) were established in each of the four groups (intact/saline, intact/THC, OVX/saline and OVX/THC). The dependent measures of responding under the learning and performance tasks were the overall response rate and the percentage of errors. Although the history of OVX and chronic Δ(9)-THC in early adulthood did not significantly affect non-drug or baseline behavior under the tasks, acute administration of Δ(9)-THC produced both rate-decreasing and error-increasing effects on learning and performance behavior, and these effects were dependent on their hormone condition. More specifically, both intact groups were more sensitive to the rate-decreasing and error-increasing effects of Δ(9)-THC than the OVX groups irrespective of chronic Δ(9)-THC administration, as there was no significant main effect of chronic treatment and no significant interaction between chronic treatment (saline or Δ(9)-THC) and the dose of Δ(9)-THC administered as an adult. Post mortem examination of 10 brain regions also indicated there were significant differences in agonist-stimulated GTPγS binding across brain regions, but no significant effects of chronic treatment and no significant interaction between the chronic treatment and cannabinoid signaling. Thus, acute Δ(9)-THC produced hormonally-dependent effects on learning and performance behavior, but a period of chronic administration during early adulthood did not alter these effects significantly, which is contrary to what we

  20. Effects of substance P and Sar-Met-SP, a NK1 agonist, in distinct amygdaloid nuclei on anxiety-like behavior in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassi, Gabriel Shimizu; de Carvalho, Milene Cristina; Brandão, Marcus Lira

    2014-05-21

    The amygdala, together with the dorsal periaqueductal gray (dPAG), medial hypothalamus, and deep layers of the superior and inferior colliculi, constitutes the encephalic aversion system, which has been considered the main neural substrate for the organization of fear and anxiety. The basolateral nucleus of the amygdala (BLA) acts as a filter for aversive stimuli to higher structures while the central (CeA) and the medial (MeA) nuclei constitute the output for the autonomic and somatic components of the emotional reaction through major projections to the limbic and brainstem regions. Although some findings point to the distinct participation of the substance P (SP) and the NK1 receptors system in the different nuclei of the amygdala on the expression of emotional behaviors, it is not clear if this system modulates anxiety-like responses in the distinct nuclei of the amygdala as well as the dPAG. Thus, it was investigated if the injection of SP into the BLA, CeA, or MeA affects the expression of anxiety-like responses of rats submitted to the elevated plus-maze (EPM) test and, if the effects are mediated by NK1 receptors. The results showed that SP and Sar-Met-SP (NK1 receptor selective agonist) injected into the CeA and MeA, but not into the BLA, caused anxiogenic-like effects in the EPM. Altogether, the data indicates that the SP may mimic the effects of anxiogenic stimuli via NK1 receptor activation only in the CeA and MeA (amygdala's nuclei output) and may activate the neural mechanisms involved in the defensive reaction genesis. The SP/NK1 receptors system activation may be phasically involved in very specific aspects of anxiety behaviors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of preoperative exposure to a high-fat versus a low-fat diet on ingestive behavior after gastric bypass surgery in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyfried, Florian; Miras, Alexander D; Bueter, Marco; Prechtl, Christina G; Spector, Alan C; le Roux, Carel W

    2013-11-01

    The consumption of high fat and sugar diets is decreased after gastric bypass surgery (GB). The mechanisms remain unclear, with tests of motivated behavior toward fat and sugar producing conflicting results in a rat model. These discrepancies may be due to differences in presurgical maintenance diets. The authors used their GB rat model to determine whether the fat content of preoperative maintenance diets affects weight loss, calorie intake, and macronutrient selection after surgery. Male Wistar rats were either low-fat diet fed (LFDF) with normal chow or high-fat diet fed (HFDF) before randomization to GB or sham surgery. In food preference test 1, the animals were offered the choice of a vegetable drink (V8) or a high-calorie liquid (Ensure), and in food preference test 2, they could choose normal chow or a solid high-fat diet. The GB groups did not differ significantly in terms of body weight loss or caloric intake. In food preference test 1, both groups responded similarly by reducing their preference for Ensure and increasing their preference for V8. In food preference test 2, the HFDF-GB rats reduced their preference for a solid high-fat diet gradually compared with the immediate reduction observed in the LFDF-GB rats. The consumption of presurgical maintenance diets with different fat contents did not affect postoperative weight loss outcomes. Both the LFDF-GB and HFDF-GB rats exhibited behaviors consistent with the possible expression of a conditioned taste aversion to a high-fat stimulus. These results suggest that for some physiologic parameters, low-fat-induced obesity models can be used for the study of changes after GB and have relevance to many obese humans who consume high-calorie but low-fat diets.

  2. [Study on feeding behavior patterns of rats on cariogenic diet].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Y

    1989-03-01

    The feeding behavior patterns of Jcl:Wistar rats fed on commercial stock diet and cariogenic diet (Diet #2000) were investigated with the newly developed autorecording system. They were caged separately under a regular light-dark cycle (L:D = 12:12). The results and conclusion were as follows. All rats have a circadian feeding rhythm, and 70-85% of feeding frequency were observed during the dark period. The group on the commercial stock diet showed a dual-peak pattern of feeding at 20:30 and 4:00. On the other hand, the cariogenic diet groups showed a more frequent feeding pattern during the dark period. The feeding frequency increased from 1:00 to 3:00 in the high sucrose diet group and more frequent feeding was observed. From these results, it was suggested that dental caries in the rats was caused by not only the local effect of sucrose in the mouth but also by the changing patterns of feeding behavior with cariogenic diet.

  3. Effect of fish oil and coconut fat supplementation on depressive-type behavior and corticosterone levels of prenatally stressed male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borsonelo, Elizabethe Cristina; Suchecki, Deborah; Galduróz, José Carlos Fernandes

    2011-04-18

    Prenatal stress (PNS) during critical periods of brain development has been associated with numerous behavioral and/or mood disorders in later life. These outcomes may result from changes in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity, which, in turn, can be modulated by environmental factors, such as nutritional status. In this study, the adult male offspring of dams exposed to restraint stress during the last semester of pregnancy and fed different diets were evaluated for depressive-like behavior in the forced swimming test and for the corticosterone response to the test. Female Wistar rats were allocated to one of three groups: regular diet, diet supplemented with coconut fat or with fish oil, offered during pregnancy and lactation. When pregnancy was confirmed, they were distributed into control or stress groups. Stress consisted of restraint and bright light for 45 min, three times per day, in the last week of pregnancy. The body weight of the adult offspring submitted to PNS was lower than that of controls. In the forced swimming test, time of immobility was reduced and swimming was increased in PNS rats fed fish oil and plasma corticosterone levels immediately after the forced swimming test were lower in PNS rats fed regular diet than their control counterparts; this response was reduced in control rats whose mothers were fed fish oil and coconut fat. The present results indicate that coconut fat and fish oil influenced behavioral and hormonal responses to the forced swimming test in both control and PNS adult male rats. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Effects of a glucosidase inhibitor (acarbose, BAY g 5421) on the development of obesity and food motivated behavior in Zucker (fafa) rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasselli, J R; Haraczkiewicz, E; Maggio, C A; Greenwood, M R

    1983-07-01

    BAY g 5421 (acarbose) inhibits carbohydrate digestion in the gut, thereby reducing the rate of glucose absorption. This experiment tested whether long term administration of acarbose to developing Zucker "fatty" (fafa) rats would, by reducing several lipogenic factors, attenuate lipid deposition and reduce the hyperphagia and increased food motivated behavior of these animals. From 7 to 20 weeks of life groups of fatty and lean (FaFa) control rats were fed 0, 20 or 40 mg acarbose/100 g maintenance diet (45% carbohydrate, 35% fat, 20% protein calories), while an additional fatty and lean group were pair-fed to respective 40 mg acarbose groups. Lean groups fed acarbose exhibited dose dependent reductions of body weight, insulin, triglycerides, retroperitoneal and epididymal pad weight, adipocyte size, LPL activity/cell (retroperitoneal pad only), and lipid deposition both in total grams of fat and as a percentage of carcass weight. Fatty groups fed acarbose exhibited dose dependent reductions of insulin, blood glucose, retroperitoneal pad weight, and, at one of the two doses used, significantly lowered body weight, (40 mg), triglycerides (20 mg) and cholesterol (20 mg). However, acarbose-fed fatty groups failed to show significant reductions of adipocyte size, number or LPL activity/cell in retroperitoneal and epididymal fat pads, and maintained their obese body composition, on a percentage basis, at levels not significantly different from that of the 0 mg fatty control group. Acarbose administration led to an initial dose dependent reduction of food intake in both genotypes, which persisted for the lean groups. Fatties fed the 20 mg dose showed a gradual tendency (ns) towards increased daily intake, lever pressed at elevated rates for food pellets, and refed at faster rates following fasting. Fatties fed the 40 mg dose maintained their daily intake at fatty control levels, did not lever press at elevated rates, and showed significantly reduced refeeding following

  5. Effects of Metabolic Programming on Juvenile Play Behavior and Gene Expression in the Prefrontal Cortex of Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hehar, Harleen; Ma, Irene; Mychasiuk, Richelle

    2016-01-01

    Early developmental processes, such as metabolic programming, can provide cues to an organism, which allow it to make modifications that are predicted to be beneficial for survival. Similarly, social play has a multifaceted role in promoting survival and fitness of animals. Play is a complex behavior that is greatly influenced by motivational and reward circuits, as well as the energy reserves and metabolism of an organism. This study examined the association between metabolic programming and juvenile play behavior in an effort to further elucidate insight into the consequences that early adaptions have on developmental trajectories. The study also examined changes in expression of four genes (Drd2, IGF1, Opa1, and OxyR) in the prefrontal cortex known to play significant roles in reward, bioenergetics, and social-emotional functioning. Using four distinct variations in developmental programming (high-fat diet, caloric restriction, exercise, or high-fat diet combined with exercise), we found that dietary programming (high-fat diet vs. caloric restriction) had the greatest impact on play behavior and gene expression. However, exercise also induced changes in both measures. This study demonstrates that metabolic programming can alter neural circuits and bioenergetics involved in play behavior, thus providing new insights into mechanisms that allow programming to influence the evolutionary success of an organism. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Assessment of Biochemical and Behavioral Effects of Carbaryl and Methomyl in Brown-Norway Rats from Preweaning to Sensecence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Factors impacting life stage-specific sensitivity to chemicals include toxicokinetic and toxicodynamic changes. To evaluate age-related differences in the biochemical and behavioral impacts of two typical N-methyl carbamate pesticides, we systematically compared their dose-respo...

  7. Time-dependent effects of neuropeptide Y infusion in the paraventricular hypothalamus on ingestive and associated behaviors in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, G; Strubbe, JH

    In this study the role of neuropeptide Y (NPY) in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) in the daily regulation of feeding, drinking, locomotor activity, and nestbox occupation was investigated. These behaviors were recorded during and after bilateral infusion of NPY into the PVN of

  8. A Conditioned Behavioral Paradigm for Assessing Onset and Lasting Tinnitus in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pace, Edward; Luo, Hao; Bobian, Michael; Panekkad, Ajay; Zhang, Xueguo; Zhang, Huiming; Zhang, Jinsheng

    2016-01-01

    Numerous behavioral paradigms have been developed to assess tinnitus-like behavior in animals. Nevertheless, they are often limited by prolonged training requirements, as well as an inability to simultaneously assess onset and lasting tinnitus behavior, tinnitus pitch or duration, or tinnitus presence without grouping data from multiple animals or testing sessions. To enhance behavioral testing of tinnitus, we developed a conditioned licking suppression paradigm to determine the pitch(s) of both onset and lasting tinnitus-like behavior within individual animals. Rats learned to lick water during broadband or narrowband noises, and to suppress licking to avoid footshocks during silence. After noise exposure, rats significantly increased licking during silent trials, suggesting onset tinnitus-like behavior. Lasting tinnitus-behavior, however, was exhibited in about half of noise-exposed rats through 7 weeks post-exposure tested. Licking activity during narrowband sound trials remained unchanged following noise exposure, while ABR hearing thresholds fully recovered and were comparable between tinnitus(+) and tinnitus(-) rats. To assess another tinnitus inducer, rats were injected with sodium salicylate. They demonstrated high pitch tinnitus-like behavior, but later recovered by 5 days post-injection. Further control studies showed that 1): sham noise-exposed rats tested with footshock did not exhibit tinnitus-like behavior, and 2): noise-exposed or sham rats tested without footshocks showed no fundamental changes in behavior compared to those tested with shocks. Together, these results demonstrate that this paradigm can efficiently test the development of noise- and salicylate-induced tinnitus behavior. The ability to assess tinnitus individually, over time, and without averaging data enables us to realistically address tinnitus in a clinically relevant way. Thus, we believe that this optimized behavioral paradigm will facilitate investigations into the mechanisms of

  9. The Effects of High-fat-diet Combined with Chronic Unpredictable Mild Stress on Depression-like Behavior and Leptin/LepRb in Male Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jin Ling; Liu, De Xiang; Jiang, Hong; Pan, Fang; Ho, Cyrus Sh; Ho, Roger Cm

    2016-10-14

    Leptin plays a key role in the pathogenesis of obesity and depression via the long form of leptin receptor (LepRb). An animal model of comorbid obesity and depression induced by high-fat diet (HFD) combined with chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) was developed to study the relationship between depression/anxiety-like behavior, levels of plasma leptin and LepRb in the brains between four groups of rats, the combined obesity and CUMS (Co) group, the obese (Ob) group, the CUMS group and controls. Our results revealed that the Co group exhibited most severe depression-like behavior in the open field test (OFT), anxiety-like behavior in elevated plus maze test (EMT) and cognitive impairment in the Morris water maze (MWM). The Ob group had the highest weight and plasma leptin levels while the Co group had the lowest levels of protein of LepRb in the hypothalamus and hippocampus. Furthermore, depressive and anxiety-like behaviors as well as cognitive impairment were positively correlated with levels of LepRb protein and mRNA in the hippocampus and hypothalamus. The down-regulation of leptin/LepRb signaling might be associated with depressive-like behavior and cognitive impairment in obese rats facing chronic mild stress.

  10. Neonatal tactile stimulation reverses the effect of neonatal isolation on open-field and anxiety-like behavior, and pain sensitivity in male and female adult Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imanaka, A; Morinobu, S; Toki, S; Yamamoto, S; Matsuki, A; Kozuru, T; Yamawaki, S

    2008-01-10

    It is well known that early life events induce long-lasting psychophysiological and psychobiological influences in later life. In rodent studies, environmental enrichment after weaning prevents the adulthood behavioral and emotional disturbances in response to early adversities. We compared the behavioral effect of neonatal isolation (NI) with the effect of NI accompanied by tactile stimulation (NTS) to determine whether NTS could reverse or prevent the effects of NI on the adulthood behavioral and emotional responses to environmental stimuli. In addition, we also examined the sex difference of the NTS effect. Measurements of body weights, an open-field locomotor test, an elevated plus maze test, a hot-plate test, and a contextual fear-conditioning test were performed on postnatal day 60. As compared with rats subjected to NI, rats subjected to NTS showed significantly higher activity and exploration in the open-field locomotor test, lower anxiety-like behavior in the elevated plus maze test, and significantly prolonged latencies in the hot-plate test, and this effect was equal among males and females. In the contextual fear-conditioning test, whereas NTS significantly reduced the enhanced freezing time due to NI in females, no significant difference in the freezing time between NI and NTS was found in males. These findings indicate that adequate tactile stimulation in early life plays an important role in the prevention of disturbances in the behavioral and emotional responses to environmental stimuli in adulthood induced by early adverse experiences.

  11. [Effect of space flight factors simulated in ground-based experiments on the behavior, discriminant learning, and exchange of monoamines in different brain structures of rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shtemberg, A S; Lebedeva-Georgievskaia, K V; Matveeva, M I; Kudrin, V S; Narkevich, V B; Klodt, P M; Bazian, A S

    2014-01-01

    Experimental treatment (long-term fractionated γ-irradiation, antiorthostatic hypodynamia, and the combination of these factors) simulating the effect of space flight in ground-based experiments rapidly restored the motor and orienting-investigative activity of animals (rats) in "open-field" tests. The study of the dynamics of discriminant learning of rats of experimental groups did not show significant differences from the control animals. It was found that the minor effect of these factors on the cognitive performance of animals correlated with slight changes in the concentration ofmonoamines in the brain structures responsible for the cognitive, emotional, and motivational functions.

  12. The behavioral and molecular evaluation of effects of social instability stress as a model of stress-related disorders in adult female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowacka-Chmielewska, Marta Maria; Kasprowska-Liśkiewicz, Daniela; Barski, Jarosław Jerzy; Obuchowicz, Ewa; Małecki, Andrzej

    2017-11-01

    The study aimed to test the hypotheses that chronic social instability stress (CSIS) alters behavioral and physiological parameters and expression of selected genes important for stress response and social behaviors. Adult female Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to the 4-week CSIS procedure, which involves unpredictable rotation between phases of isolation and overcrowding. Behavioral analyses (Experiment 1) were performed on the same rats before and after CSIS (n = 16) and physiological and biochemical measurements (Experiment 2) were made on further control (CON; n = 7) and stressed groups (CSIS; n = 8). Behaviors in the open field test (locomotor and exploratory activities) and elevated-plus maze (anxiety-related behaviors) indicated anxiety after CSIS. CSIS did not alter the physiological parameters measured, i.e. body weight gain, regularity of estrous cycles, and circulating concentrations of stress hormones and sex steroids. QRT-PCR analysis of mRNA expression levels was performed on amygdala, hippocampus, prefrontal cortex (PFC), and hypothalamus. The main finding is that CSIS alters the mRNA levels for the studied genes in a region-specific manner. Hence, expression of POMC (pro-opiomelanocortin), AVPR1a (arginine vasopressin receptor), and OXTR (oxytocin receptor) significantly increased in the amygdala following CSIS, while in PFC and/or hypothalamus, POMC, AVPR1a, AVPR1b, OXTR, and ERβ (estrogen receptor beta) expression decreased. CSIS significantly reduced expression of CRH-R1 (corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor type 1) in the hippocampus. The directions of change in gene expression and the genes and regions affected indicate a molecular basis for the behavior changes. In conclusion, CSIS may be valuable for further analyzing the neurobiology of stress-related disorders in females.

  13. Testing social acoustic memory in rats: effects of stimulus configuration and long-term memory on the induction of social approach behavior by appetitive 50-kHz ultrasonic vocalizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wöhr, Markus; Schwarting, Rainer K W

    2012-09-01

    Rats emit distinct types of ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs), which serve as situation-dependent affective signals. In appetitive situations, such as rough-and-tumble-play, high-frequency 50-kHz USVs occur, whereas low-frequency 22-kHz USVs can be observed in aversive situations, such as social defeat. USVs serve distinct communicative functions and induce call-specific behavioral responses in the receiver. While aversive 22-kHz USVs serve as alarm calls and induce behavioral inhibition, appetitive 50-kHz USVs have a pro-social communicative function and elicit social approach behavior, supporting the notion that they serve as social contact calls to (re)establish or maintain contact among conspecifics. The aim of the present study was to use the rat's ability to communicate in the ultrasonic range via high-frequency 50-kHz USVs in order to develop a test for social acoustic memory in rats with relevance for human verbal memory. Verbal learning and memory is among the seven cognitive domains identified as commonly deficient in human schizophrenia patients, but particularly difficult to model. We therefore tested whether the induction of social approach behavior by playback of appetitive 50-kHz USVs is dependent on (1) acoustic stimulus configuration and (2) social long-term memory, and whether (3) social long-term memory effects can be blocked by the administration of scopolamine, a muscarinic acetylcholine antagonist producing amnesia. Results show that social approach behavior in response to playback of natural 50-kHz USVs depends on acoustic stimulus configuration and occurs only when sound energy is concentrated to a critical frequency band in the ultrasonic range. Social approach behavior was detected during the first exposure to playback of 50-kHz USVs, whereas no such response was observed during the second exposure 1week later, indicating a stable memory trace. In contrast, when memory formation was blocked by i.p. administration of scopolamine (0.5mg/kg or

  14. Preconception paternal bisphenol A exposure induces sex-specific anxiety and depression behaviors in adult rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Fan

    Full Text Available Bisphenol A (BPA, an environmental endocrine-disrupting compound, has drawn a great attention for its adverse effect on behavioral development. Maternal exposure to this compound has been reported to induce anxiety and depression in offspring, but the effect of its paternal exposure is rarely discussed. This study investigated whether preconception paternal BPA exposure can affect the emotions of male rats and their offspring. Eighteen adult male rats (F0 received either a vehicle or 50 μg/kg/day BPA diet for 21 weeks and were then mated with non-exposed females to produce offspring (F1. The affective behaviors of F0 and F1 rats were evaluated in the open-field test, the elevated-plus maze and the forced swimming test, and their serum corticosterone were then examined. BPA exposure induced increased anxiety behaviors along with increased serum corticosterone in F0 rats. This paternal exposure also led to increased anxiety behaviors in F1 females and aggravated depression behaviors in both sexes of F1 rats. Furthermore, only F1 females exhibited increased serum corticosterone. Overall, these data indicate that preconception paternal exposure to a low dose of BPA may induce transgenerational sex-specific impairments in the affection of adult rats.

  15. Long-term effects of enriched environment following neonatal hypoxia-ischemia on behavior, BDNF and synaptophysin levels in rat hippocampus: Effect of combined treatment with G-CSF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griva, Myrsini; Lagoudaki, Rosa; Touloumi, Olga; Nousiopoulou, Evangelia; Karalis, Filippos; Georgiou, Thomas; Kokaraki, Georgia; Simeonidou, Constantina; Tata, Despina A; Spandou, Evangelia

    2017-07-15

    Increasing evidence shows that exposure to an enriched environment (EE) is neuroprotective in adult and neonatal animal models of brain ischemia. However, the mechanisms underlying this effect remain unclear. The aim of the current study was to investigate whether post-weaning EE would be effective in preventing functional deficits and brain damage by affecting markers of synaptic plasticity in a neonatal rat model of hypoxia-ischemia (HI). We also examined the possibility that granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF), a growth factor with known neuroprotective effects in a variety of experimental brain injury models, combined with EE stimulation could enhance the potential beneficial effect of EE. Seven-day-old Wistar rats of either sex were subjected to permanent ligation of the left common carotid artery followed by 60min of hypoxia (8% O 2 ) and immediately after weaning (postnatal day 21) were housed in enriched conditions for 4weeks. A group of enriched-housed rats had been treated with G-CSF immediately after HI for 5 consecutive days (50μg/kg/day). Behavioral examination took place approximately at three months of age and included assessments of learning and memory (Morris water maze) as well as motor coordination (Rota-Rod). Infarct size and hippocampal area were estimated following behavioral assessment. Synaptic plasticity was evaluated based on BDNF and synaptophysin expression in the dorsal hippocampus. EE resulted in recovery of post-HI motor deficits and partial improvement of memory impairments which was not accompanied by reduced brain damage. Increased synaptophysin expression was observed in the contralateral to carotid ligation hemisphere. Hypoxia-ischemia alone or followed by enriched conditions did not affect BDNF expression which was increased only in enriched-housed normal rats. The combined therapy of G-CSF and EE further enhanced cognitive function compared to EE provided as monotherapy and prevented HI-induced brain damage by

  16. Grooming behavior of spontaneously hypertensive rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buuse, M. van den; Jong, Wybren de

    1987-01-01

    In an open field spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) exhibited lower scores for grooming when compared to their normotensive controls, the Wistar Kyoto rats (WKY). After i.c.v. injection of 1 μg ACTH1–24 cumulative 50-min grooming scores were lower in SHR. Analysis of subscores indicated that the

  17. Impact of Sexual Deprivation on Sexual Behavior and Some Reproductive-Endocrinal Functions in Albino Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadek S. Abd El Moghny

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the effect of stress on the sexual behavior and its pathophysiological effects on some reproductive and endocrine functions in albino rats. Methods: One hundred and twenty albino rats were included and divided into a control groupand three exper-imental sub-groups, which were subjected to sexual stress. Female rats were investigated for the cytological changes in the phases of the estrous cycle. All rats were observed for behavioral changes throughout the experiment. Histopathological examination of the thyroid, testes and ovaries and the assessment of thyroid and gonadal hormones in the sera of control and experimental rats were performed. Results: Cytological examination revealed stopped estrous cycle in the diestrous phase in all female rats. Thyroid hormones revealed a decrease in the levels of triiodothyronine and thyroxin; however, non-significant changes were detected in the thyroid-stimulating hormone level in experimental rats compared to the controls. Gonadal hormones revealed a great discrepancy in their levels among both sexes. Conclusions: The results of the present study show that sexual excitation is one of the stressful factors affecting sexual behavior, hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid and hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axes as well as sex organs with secretory functions. Therefore, it is considered as a socio-pathological factor that needs more specific studies to further clarify its effects.

  18. Effects of shugan jieyu panacea on behavior and levels of ACTH in plasma and T3, T4, TSH and rT3 in serum in depression rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Huijing; Li Yang; Yao Jinghui; Li Youtian

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effects of Shugan Jieyu Panacea (SJP) on behavior and the levels of ACTH in plasma and T 3 , T 4 , TSH, rT 3 in serum in depression model rats and explore the mechanism. Methods: The model rats were lonely fed and received chronic moderate intensive unpredictable stimulation. Normal control group, depressed model group, high dosage SJP group, middle dosage SJP group, low dosage SJP group and fluoxetine group were set up. Different drugs were used in various groups for 21 d, then the body mass, sugar consumption and the behavior changes of the rats were determined and the levels of ACTH in plasma and T 3 , T 4 , TSH, rT 3 in serum were detected with radioimmunoassay. Results: Compared with normal group,the body mass was decreased (P 4 , rT 3 markedly decreased (P 3 was increased (P<0.05) in high, middle, low dosage SJP groups after treatment. At the same time, there was no obvious difference between SJP groups and fluoxetine groups. Conclusion: SJP can significantly improve the depression in rats, its mechanism may be connected with adjusting the function of HPAA and HPTA. (authors)

  19. Effects of Nicotine, Stress, and Sex on Behavioral and Biological Indices of Depression and Anxiety in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-09

    disorders. Nicotine & Tobacco Research, 13: 809-819. 74. Jarvis, M.J., Raw, M., Russell, M.A.H., & Feyerabend , C. (1982). Randomized controlled...Social Psychology, 54: 1063-1070. 121. West, R.J., Jarvis, M.J., Russell, M.A.H., Curruthers, M.E., & Feyerabend , C. (1984). Effect of nicotine

  20. Influence of body weight and type of chow on the sensitivity of rats to the behavioral effects of the direct-acting dopamine receptor agonist quinpirole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baladi, Michelle G; Newman, Amy H; France, Charles P

    2013-01-01

    Rationale Amount and type of food can alter dopamine systems and sensitivity to drugs acting on those systems. Objectives This study examined whether changes in body weight, food type, or both body weight and food type contribute to these effects. Methods Rats had free or restricted access (increasing, decreasing, or maintaining body weight) to standard (5.7% fat) or high fat (34.3%) chow. Results In rats gaining weight with restricted or free access to high fat chow, both limbs of the quinpirole yawning dose-response curve (0.0032–0.32 mg/kg) shifted leftward compared with rats eating standard chow. Restricting access to standard or high fat chow (maintaining or decreasing body weight) decreased or eliminated quinpirole-induced yawning; within one week of resuming free feeding, sensitivity to quinpirole was restored, although the descending limb of the dose-response curve was shifted leftward in rats eating high fat chow. These are not likely pharmacokinetic differences because quinpirole-induced hypothermia was not different among groups. PG01037 and L-741,626 antagonized the ascending and descending limbs of the quinpirole dose-response curve in rats eating high fat chow, indicating D3 and D2 receptor mediation, respectively. Rats eating high fat chow also developed insulin resistance. Conclusions These results show that amount and type of chow alter sensitivity to a direct-acting dopamine receptor agonist with the impact of each factor depending on whether body weight increases, decreases, or is maintained. These data demonstrate that feeding conditions, perhaps related to insulin and insulin sensitivity, profoundly impact the actions of drugs acting on dopamine systems. PMID:21544521

  1. Influence of body weight and type of chow on the sensitivity of rats to the behavioral effects of the direct-acting dopamine-receptor agonist quinpirole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baladi, Michelle G; Newman, Amy H; France, Charles P

    2011-10-01

    Amount and type of food can alter dopamine systems and sensitivity to drugs acting on those systems. This study examined whether changes in body weight, food type, or both body weight and food type contribute to these effects. Rats had free or restricted access (increasing, decreasing, or maintaining body weight) to standard (5.7% fat) or high-fat (34.3%) chow. In rats gaining weight with restricted or free access to high-fat chow, both limbs of the quinpirole yawning dose-response curve (0.0032-0.32 mg/kg) shifted leftward compared with rats eating standard chow. Restricting access to standard or high-fat chow (maintaining or decreasing body weight) decreased or eliminated quinpirole-induced yawning; within 1 week of resuming free feeding, sensitivity to quinpirole was restored, although the descending limb of the dose-response curve was shifted leftward in rats eating high-fat chow. These are not likely pharmacokinetic differences because quinpirole-induced hypothermia was not different among groups. PG01037 and L-741,626 antagonized the ascending and descending limbs of the quinpirole dose-response curve in rats eating high-fat chow, indicating D3 and D2 receptor mediation, respectively. Rats eating high-fat chow also developed insulin resistance. These results show that amount and type of chow alter sensitivity to a direct-acting dopamine-receptor agonist with the impact of each factor depending on whether body weight increases, decreases, or is maintained. These data demonstrate that feeding conditions, perhaps related to insulin and insulin sensitivity, profoundly impact the actions of drugs acting on dopamine systems.

  2. Effects of prenatal triphenyl-tin exposure on the development of behavior and conditioned learning in rat pups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehotzky, K; Szeberenyi, J M; Gonda, Z; Horkay, F; Kiss, A

    1982-01-01

    Neurotoxic effects of the fungicide triphenyl-tin acetate were examined in pups of mothers treated perorally on day 7-15 of gestation. The gait and development of motor coordination did not differ from those of control animals, in spite of the high mortality rate of control pups during the nursing period. Spontaneous locomotor activity of treated pups at the age of 23 and 36 days was increased, however by the age of 90 days activity returned to control levels. Conditioned avoidance was acquired more rapidly, but was also extinguished sooner in animals born from, the nursed by poisoned mothers than in control.

  3. Toxoplasma gondii influences aversive behaviors of female rats in an estrus cycle dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golcu, Doruk; Gebre, Rahiwa Z; Sapolsky, Robert M

    2014-08-01

    The protozoan Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) manipulates the behavior of its rodent intermediate host to facilitate its passage to its feline definitive host. This is accomplished by a reduction of the aversive response that rodents show towards cat odors, which likely increases the predation risk. Females on average show similar changes as males. However, behaviors that relate to aversion and attraction are usually strongly influenced by the estrus cycle. In this study, we replicated behavioral effects of T. gondii in female rats, as well as expanded it to two novel behavioral paradigms. We also characterized the role of the estrus cycle in the behavioral effects of T. gondii on female rats. Uninfected females preferred to spend more time in proximity to rabbit rather than bobcat urine, and in a dark chamber rather than a lit chamber. Infected females lost both of these preferences, and also spent more time investigating social novelty (foreign bedding in their environment). Taken together, these data suggest that infection makes females less risk averse and more exploratory. Furthermore, this effect was influenced by the estrus cycle. Uninfected rats preferred rabbit urine to bobcat urine throughout the cycle except at estrus and metestrus. In contrast, infected rats lost this preference at every stage of the cycle except estrus. Commensurate with the possibility that this was a hormone-dependent effect, infected rats had elevated levels of circulating progesterone, a known anxiolytic. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Social transmission of avoidance behavior under situational change in learned and unlearned rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira Masuda

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Rats receive information from other conspecifics by observation or other types of social interaction. Such social interaction may contribute to the effective adaptation to changes of environment such as situational switching. Learning to avoid dangerous places or objects rapidly occurs with even a single conditioning session, and the conditioned memory tends to be sustained over long periods. The avoidance is important for adaptation, but the details of the conditions under which the social transmission of avoidance is formed are unknown. We demonstrate that the previous experience of avoidance learning is important for the formation of behaviors for social transmission of avoidance and that the experienced rats adapt to a change of situation determined by the presence or absence of aversive stimuli. We systematically investigated social influence on avoidance behavior using a passive avoidance test in a light/dark two-compartment apparatus. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Rats were divided into two groups, one receiving foot shocks and another with no aversive experience in a dark compartment. Experienced and inexperienced rats were further divided into subjects and partners. In Experiment 1, each subject experienced (1 interaction with an experienced partner, (2 interaction with an inexperienced partner, or (3 no interaction. In Experiment 2, each subject experienced interaction with a partner that received a shock. The entering latency to a light compartment was measured. The avoidance behavior of experienced rats was inhibited by interaction with inexperienced or experienced partners in a safely-changed situation. The avoidance of experienced rats was reinstated in a dangerously-changed situation by interaction with shocked rats. In contrast, the inexperienced rats were not affected by any social circumstances. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results suggest that transmitted information among rats can be updated under a

  5. Age-related behavorial changes in methomyl effects on the behavior of labroatory rats: Comparison of operant behavior nad motor activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    The rapid increase in older adults in the population highlights the importance of understanding the role of aging in susceptibility to environmental contaminants. Methomyl is a cholinesteraseinhibiting carbamate pesticide used on a variety of produce. Although the effects of pest...

  6. Hippocampal 3alpha,5alpha-THP may alter depressive behavior of pregnant and lactating rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frye, Cheryl A; Walf, Alicia A

    2004-07-01

    The 5alpha-reduced metabolite of progesterone (P), 5alpha-pregnan-3alpha-ol-20-one (3alpha,5alpha-THP), may mediate progestins' effects to reduce depressive behavior of female rats in part through actions in the hippocampus. To investigate, forced swim test behavior and plasma and hippocampal progestin levels were assessed in groups of rats expected to differ in their 3alpha,5alpha-THP levels due to endogenous differences (pregnant and postpartum), administration of a 5alpha-reductase inhibitor (finasteride; 50 mg/kg sc), and/or gestational stress [prenatal stress (PNS)], an animal model of depression. Pregnant rats had higher plasma and hippocampal 3alpha,5alpha-THP levels and less depressive behavior (decreased immobility, increased struggling and swimming) in the forced swim test than did postpartum rats. Finasteride, compared to vehicle-administration, reduced plasma and hippocampal 3alpha,5alpha-THP levels and increased depressive behavior (increased immobility, decreased struggling and swimming). PNS was associated with lower hippocampal, but not plasma, 3alpha,5alpha-THP levels and increased swimming compared to that observed in control rats. Together, these data suggest that 3alpha,5alpha-THP in the hippocampus may mediate antidepressive behavior of female rats.

  7. Adult neurogenesis is reduced in the dorsal hippocampus of rats displaying learned helplessness behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Y C; Wang, S

    2010-11-24

    Clinical and preclinical studies suggest that the hippocampus has a role in the pathophysiology of major depression. In the learned helplessness (LH) animal model of depression after inescapable shocks (ISs) animals that display LH behavior have reduced cell proliferation in the hippocampus; this effect can be reversed by antidepressant treatment. Using this model, we compared rats that displayed LH behavior and rats that did not show LH behavior (NoLH) after ISs to determine whether reduced hippocampal cell proliferation is associated with the manifestation of LH behavior or is a general response to stress. Specifically, we examined cell proliferation, neurogenesis, and synaptic function in dorsal and ventral hippocampus of LH and NoLH animals and control rats that were not shocked. The LH rats had showed reduced cell proliferation, neurogenesis, and synaptic transmission in the dorsal hippocampus, whereas no changes were seen in the ventral hippocampus. These changes were not observed in the NoLH animals. In a group of NoLH rats that received the same amount of electrical shock as the LH rats to control for the unequal shocks received in these two groups, we observed changes in Ki-67(+) cells associated with acute stress. We conclude that reduced hippocampal cell proliferation and neurogenesis are associated with the manifestation of LH behavior and that the dorsal hippocampus is the most affected area. Copyright © 2010 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Environmental Enrichment Prevents Methamphetamine-Induced Spatial Memory Deficits and Obsessive-Compulsive Behavior in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samira Hajheidari

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study was designed to examine the effect of environmental enrichment during methamphetamine (METH dependency and withdrawal on methamphetamine-induced spatial learning and memory deficits and obsessive-compulsive behavior.Method: Adult male Wistar rats (200 ± 10 g chronically received bi-daily doses of METH (2 mg/kg, sc, with 12 hours intervals for 14 days. Rats reared in standard (SE or enriched environment (EE during the development of dependence on METH and withdrawal. Then, they were tested for spatial learning and memory (the water maze, and obsessive-compulsive behavior as grooming behavior in METH-withdrawn rats.Results: The results revealed that the Sal/EE and METH/EE rats reared in EE spent more time in the target zone on the water maze and displayed significantly increased proximity to the platform compared to their control groups. METH withdrawn rats reared in EE displayed less grooming behavior than METH/SE group.Conclusion: Our findings revealed EE ameliorates METH-induced spatial memory deficits and obsessive-compulsive behavior in rats.

  9. Garcinia mangostana Linn displays antidepressant-like and pro-cognitive effects in a genetic animal model of depression: a bio-behavioral study in the Flinders Sensitive Line rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberholzer, Inge; Möller, Marisa; Holland, Brendan; Dean, Olivia M; Berk, Michael; Harvey, Brian H

    2018-04-01

    There is abundant evidence for both disorganized redox balance and cognitive deficits in major depressive disorder (MDD). Garcinia mangostana Linn (GM) has anti-oxidant activity. We studied the antidepressant-like and pro-cognitive effects of raw GM rind in Flinders Sensitive Line (FSL) rats, a genetic model of depression, following acute and chronic treatment compared to a reference antidepressant, imipramine (IMI). The chemical composition of the GM extract was analysed for levels of α- and γ-mangostin. The acute dose-dependent effects of GM (50, 150 and 200 mg/kg po), IMI (20 mg/kg po) and vehicle were determined in the forced swim test (FST) in FSL rats, versus Flinders Resistant Line (FRL) control rats. Locomotor testing was conducted using the open field test (OFT). Using the most effective dose above coupled with behavioral testing in the FST and cognitive assessment in the novel object recognition test (nORT), a fixed dose 14-day treatment study of GM was performed and compared to IMI- (20 mg/kg/day) and vehicle-treated animals. Chronic treated animals were also assessed with respect to frontal cortex and hippocampal monoamine levels and accumulation of malondialdehyde. FSL rats showed significant cognitive deficits and depressive-like behavior, with disordered cortico-hippocampal 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid (5-HIAA) and noradrenaline (NA), as well as elevated hippocampal lipid peroxidation. Acute and chronic IMI treatment evoked pronounced antidepressant-like effects. Raw GM extract contained 117 mg/g and 11 mg/g α- and γ-mangostin, respectively, with acute GM demonstrating antidepressant-like effects at 50 mg/kg/day. Chronic GM (50 mg/kg/d) displayed significant antidepressant- and pro-cognitive effects, while demonstrating parity with IMI. Both behavioral and monoamine assessments suggest a more prominent serotonergic action for GM as opposed to a noradrenergic action for IMI, while both IMI and GM reversed hippocampal lipid peroxidation in

  10. The Neuroprotective Effect of Dark Chocolate in Monosodium Glutamate-Induced Nontransgenic Alzheimer Disease Model Rats: Biochemical, Behavioral, and Histological Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhavadas, Sowmya; Kapgal, Vijaya Kumar; Kutty, Bindu M; Subramanian, Sarada

    2016-01-01

    The vulnerability to oxidative stress and cognitive decline continue to increase during both normal and pathological aging. Dietary changes and sedentary life style resulting in mid-life obesity and type 2 diabetes, if left uncorrected, further add to the risk of cognitive decline and Alzheimer disease (AD) in the later stages of life. Certain antioxidant agents such as dietary polyphenols, taken in adequate quantities, have been suggested to improve the cognitive processes. In this study, we examined the effect of oral administration of dark chocolate (DC) containing 70% cocoa solids and 4% total polyphenol content for three months at a dose of 500 mg/Kg body weight per day to 17-month-old monosodium glutamate treated obese Sprague-Dawley rats, earlier characterized as a nontransgenic AD (NTAD) rat model after reversal of obesity, diabetes, and consequent cognitive impairments. The results demonstrated that DC reduced the hyperglycemia, inhibited the cholinesterase activity in the hippocampal tissue homogenates, and improved the cognitive performance in spatial memory related Barnes maze task. Histological studies revealed an increase in cell volume in the DC treated rats in the CA3 region of the hippocampus. These findings demonstrated the benefits of DC in enhancing cognitive function and cholinergic activity in the hippocampus of the aged NTAD rats while correcting their metabolic disturbances.

  11. Exposure to the widely used fungicide Mancozeb causes thyroid hormone disruption in rat dams but no behavioral effects in the offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Marta Axelstad; Boberg, Julie; Nellemann, Christine Lydia

    2011-01-01

    The widely used fungicide Mancozeb has been shown to cause hypothyroxinemia and other adverse effects on the thyroid hormone system in adult experimental animals. In humans, hypothyroxinemia early in pregnancy is associated with adverse effects on the developing nervous system and can lead...... to impaired cognitive function and motor development in children. The aim of the present study was therefore to assess whether perinatal Mancozeb exposure would cause developmental neurotoxicity in rats. Groups of 9-21 time-mated Wistar rats were dosed with 0, 50, 100 or 150 mg Mancozeb/kg bw/day by gavage...... offspring. The dose of 150 mg/kg/day caused neurotoxicity in the pregnant dams, and was therefore reduced to 100 mg/kg bw/day in mid study. T4 levels showed a dose-dependent and significant decreased in dams from all three dose groups on GD 15, whereas offspring T4 levels, thyroid weights and histology were...

  12. A Procedure to Observe Context-induced Renewal of Pavlovian-conditioned Alcohol-seeking Behavior in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Maddux, Jean-Marie; Lacroix, Franca; Chaudhri, Nadia

    2014-01-01

    Environmental contexts in which drugs of abuse are consumed can trigger craving, a subjective Pavlovian-conditioned response that can facilitate drug-seeking behavior and prompt relapse in abstinent drug users. We have developed a procedure to study the behavioral and neural processes that mediate the impact of context on alcohol-seeking behavior in rats. Following acclimation to the taste and pharmacological effects of 15% ethanol in the home cage, male Long-Evans rats receive Pavlovian disc...

  13. A new role for GABAergic transmission in the control of male rat sexual behavior expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Manzo, Gabriela; Canseco-Alba, Ana

    2017-03-01

    GABAergic transmission in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) exerts a tonic inhibitory influence on mesolimbic dopaminergic neurons' activity. Blockade of VTA GABA A receptors increases dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens (NAcc). Increases in NAcc dopamine levels typically accompany sexual behavior display. Copulation to satiety is characterized by the instatement of a long lasting (72h) sexual behavior inhibition and the mesolimbic system appears to be involved in this phenomenon. GABAergic transmission in the VTA might play a role in the maintenance of this long lasting sexual inhibitory state. To test this hypothesis, in the present work we investigated the effect of GABA A receptor blockade in sexually exhausted males 24h after copulation to satiety, once the sexual inhibitory state is established, and compared it with its effect in sexually experienced rats. Results showed that low doses of systemically administered bicuculline induced sexual behavior expression in sexually exhausted rats, but lacked an effect on copulation of sexually experienced animals. Intra-VTA bilateral infusion of bicuculline did not modify sexual behavior of sexually experienced rats, but induced sexual behavior expression in all the sexually exhausted males. Hence, GABA plays a role in the control of sexual behavior expression at the VTA. The role played by GABAergic transmission in male sexual behavior expression of animals with distinct sexual behavior conditions is discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Progressive behavioral changes in rats after exposure to low levels of ionizing radiation in utero

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norton, S.; Kimler, B.F.; Mullenix, P.J.

    1991-01-01

    The deleterious effects of ionizing radiation on the developing brain may be not only prolonged but progressive. Fetuses were exposed to 0.75 Gy of ionizing radiation on gestational day 15 through whole body exposure of the pregnant rat. Three behavioral tests (gait analysis, continuous corridor activity and photographic analysis of sequences of behavioral acts) were performed at 1 and 3 months, postnatally. Body weight and thickness of the cerebral cortex of irradiated rats were 10-15 percent below controls throughout the period of study. Behavior in all tests was more affected at 3 months than at 1 month of age. Gait of control rats, as measured by the angle of advanced of hind feet, widened about 20 percent for males and 40 percent for females from 1 to 3 months, as expected, while, in irradiated rats, the angle widened only about 10 percent. Continuous corridor activity increased less than 10 percent in controls and about 35 percent in irradiated rats over the same period. In photographic analysis of behavior, controls increased their time spent standing by about 50 percent in males and 20 percent in females from 1 to 3 months of age. Irradiated males increased time standing only about 10 percent and irradiated females decreased about 30 percent over the same period. The data obtained in these experiments support other evidence that some behavioral alterations from perinatal exposure to radiation become more marked with maturation

  15. Rat Ultrasonic Vocalizations and Behavioral Neuropharmacology: From the Screening of Drugs to the Study of Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simola, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    Several lines of evidence indicate that rats emit ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) in response to a wide range of stimuli that are capable of producing either euphoric (positive) or dysphoric (negative) emotional states. On these bases, recordings of USVs are extensively used in preclinical studies of affect, motivation, and social behavior. Rat USVs are sensitive to the effects of certain classes of psychoactive drugs, suggesting that emission of rat USVs can have relevance not only to neurobiology, but also to neuropharmacology and psychopharmacology. This review summarizes three types of rat USVs, namely 40-kHz USVs emitted by pups, 22-kHz USVs and 50-kHz USVs emitted by young and adult animals, and relevance of these vocalizations to neuropharmacological studies. Attention will be focused on the issues of how rat USVs can be used to evaluate the pharmacological properties of different classes of drugs, and how rat USVs can be combined with other behavioral models used in neuropharmacology. The strengths and limitations of experimental paradigms based on the evaluation of rat USVs will also be discussed.

  16. Role of the brain dopaminergic and opioid system in the regulation of "child's" (maternal bonding) behavior of newborn albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stovolosov, I S; Dubynin, V A; Kamensky, A A

    2011-01-01

    Administration of D(2) receptor antagonist clebopride in a dose not affecting locomotor activity was followed by a decrease in maternal bonding behavior of 10-day-old and 15-day-old albino rat pups. D(1) receptor antagonist SCH23390 had a stimulatory effect only on the behavior of 10-day-old newborns. Opioid peptide β-casomorphin-7 abolished the effect of clebopride in rat pups of the older age group.

  17. Acupuncture Attenuates Anxiety-Like Behavior by Normalizing Amygdaloid Catecholamines during Ethanol Withdrawal in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Lin Zhao

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Previously, we demonstrated acupuncture at acupoint HT7 (Shen-Men attenuated ethanol withdrawal syndrome by normalizing the dopamine release in nucleus accumbens shell. In the present study, we investigated the effect of acupuncture on anxiety-like behavior in rats and its relevant mechanism by studying neuro-endocrine parameters during ethanol withdrawal. Rats were treated with 3 g kg−1day−1 of ethanol (20%, w/v or saline by intraperitoneal injections for 28 days. The rats undergoing ethanol withdrawal exhibited anxiety-like behavior 72 h after the last dose of ethanol characterized by the decrease of time spent in the open arms of the elevated plus maze compared with the saline-treated rats (P < .05. Radioimmunoassay exhibited there were notably increased concentrations of plasma corticosterone in ethanol-withdrawn rats compared with saline-treated rats (P < .05. Additionally, high performance liquid chromatography analysis also showed the levels of norepinephrine and 3-methoxy-4-hydroxy-phenylglycol were markedly increased while the levels of dopamine and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid were significantly decreased in the central nucleus of the amygdala of ethanol-withdrawn rats compared with saline-treated rats (P < .01. Acupuncture groups were treated with acupuncture at acupoint HT7 or PC6 (Nei-Guan. Acupuncture at HT7 but not PC6 greatly attenuated the anxiety-like behavior during ethanol withdrawal as evidenced by significant increases in the percentage of time spent in open arms (P < .05. In the meantime, acupuncture at HT7 also markedly inhibited the alterations of neuro-endocrine parameters induced by ethanol withdrawal (P < .05. These results suggest that acupuncture may attenuate anxiety-like behavior during ethanol withdrawal through regulation of neuro-endocrine system.

  18. Long term treadmill exercise performed to chronic social isolated rats regulate anxiety behavior without improving learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cevik, Ozge Selin; Sahin, Leyla; Tamer, Lulufer

    2018-05-01

    The type and duration of exposure to stress is an important influence on emotional and cognitive functions. Learning is the adaptive response of the central nervous system that occurs in hippocampus which affects from environmental factors like exercise. In this study, we investigated effects of long term treadmill exercise on learning and behavior on chronic social isolated rat. Male Wistar rats (n = 32) randomly assigned into four groups: control, exercised, social isolation, social isolation + exercise during postnatal days (PNDs) 21-34. Social isolation protocol was applied during 14 days by placing rat in a cage one by one. Rats were exercised during 5 days, days were chosen randomly for overall 4 weeks (20, 30, 50, 60 min respectively). Finally, learning performance was evaluated by Morris water maze (MWM). Anxiety behavior was evaluated by Open field and elevated plus maze test. At the end of learning and behavior tests, the rats were decapitated to collect blood samples via intracardiac puncture and corticosterone analysis was performed with ELISA method. Animal weights and water consumption did not change significantly but food intake differed among groups. Corticosterone level did not change between groups. The frequency of entering to the target quadrant increased in exercised rat significantly. However, there was no difference in learning and memory in rats. Treadmill exercise reduced anxiety behavior significantly. Taken together these findings may point out that, long term treadmill exercise did not change learning and memory but reduced anxiety level of rat without changing corticosterone level. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of sub-optimal doses of fluoxetine plus estradiol on antidepressant-like behavior and hippocampal neurogenesis in ovariectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega-Rivera, Nelly M; Fernández-Guasti, Alonso; Ramírez-Rodríguez, Gerardo; Estrada-Camarena, Erika

    2015-07-01

    Estrogens and antidepressants synergize to reduce depressive symptoms and stimulate neurogenesis and neuroplastic events. The aim of this study was to explore whether the antidepressant-like effect induced by the combination of low doses of estradiol (E2) and fluoxetine (FLX) involves changes in cell proliferation, early survival, morphology and dendrite complexity of hippocampal new-immature neurons. The antidepressant-like effects of E2 and/or FLX were evaluated by the forced swimming test (FST), cell proliferation was determined with the endogenous marker Ki67, survival of newborn cells was established with bromo-deoxiuridine (BrdU) and immature neurons were ascertained by doublecortin (DCX) labeling while their dendrite complexity was evaluated with Sholl analysis. Ovariectomized Wistar rats were randomly assigned to one of the following groups: Vehicle (saline/14 days+Oil/-8h before FST); E2 (saline/14 days + E2 2.5 or 10 μg/rat; -8 h before FST); FLX (1.25 or 10 mg/kg for 14 days + oil -8h before FST), and FLX plus E2 (FLX 1.25 mg/kg for 14 days + E2 2.5 μg/rat -8 h before FST). The combination of sub-threshold doses of FLX plus E2 produced antidepressant-like actions similar to those induced by FLX or E2 given independently at optimal doses. Only FLX at an optimal dose and the combination of FLX plus E2 increased cell proliferation, the number of DCX-labeled immature neurons and the complexity of their dendritic tree, suggesting that these events may be responsible for their antidepressant-like effect. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Zinc prevents sickness behavior induced by lipopolysaccharides after a stress challenge in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago B Kirsten

    Full Text Available Sickness behavior is considered part of the specific beneficial adaptive behavioral and neuroimmune changes that occur in individuals in response to infectious/inflammatory processes. However, in dangerous and stressful situations, sickness behavior should be momentarily abrogated to prioritize survival behaviors, such as fight or flight. Taking this assumption into account, we experimentally induced sickness behavior in rats using lipopolysaccharides (LPS, an endotoxin that mimics infection by gram-negative bacteria, and then exposed these rats to a restraint stress challenge. Zinc has been shown to play a regulatory role in the immune and nervous systems. Therefore, the objective of this study was to examine the effects of zinc treatment on the sickness response of stress-challenged rats. We evaluated 22-kHz ultrasonic vocalizations, open-field behavior, tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α, corticosterone, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF plasma levels. LPS administration induced sickness behavior in rats compared to controls, i.e., decreases in the distance traveled, average velocity, rearing frequency, self-grooming, and number of vocalizations, as well as an increase in the plasma levels of TNF-α, compared with controls after a stressor challenge. LPS also decreased BDNF expression but did not influence anxiety parameters. Zinc treatment was able to prevent sickness behavior in LPS-exposed rats after the stress challenge, restoring exploratory/motor behaviors, communication, and TNF-α levels similar to those of the control group. Thus, zinc treatment appears to be beneficial for sick animals when they are facing risky/stressful situations.

  1. The Effect of Electroacupuncture on PKMzeta in the ACC in Regulating Anxiety-Like Behaviors in Rats Experiencing Chronic Inflammatory Pain

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    Junying Du

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic inflammatory pain can induce emotional diseases. Electroacupuncture (EA has effects on chronic pain and pain-related anxiety. Protein kinase Mzeta (PKMzeta has been proposed to be essential for the maintenance of pain and may interact with GluR1 to maintain CNS plasticity in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC. We hypothesized that the PKMzeta-GluR1 pathway in the ACC may be involved in anxiety-like behaviors of chronic inflammatory pain and that the mechanism of EA regulation of pain emotion may involve the PKMzeta pathway in the ACC. Our results showed that chronic inflammatory pain model decreased the paw withdrawal threshold (PWT and increased anxiety-like behaviors. The protein expression of PKCzeta, p-PKCzeta (T560, PKMzeta, p-PKMzeta (T560, and GluR1 in the ACC of the model group were remarkably enhanced. EA increased PWT and alleviated anxiety-like behaviors. EA significantly inhibited the protein expression of p-PKMzeta (T560 in the ACC, and only a downward trend effect for other substances. Further, the microinjection of ZIP remarkably reversed PWT and anxiety-like behaviors. The present study provides direct evidence that the PKCzeta/PKMzeta-GluR1 pathway is related to pain and pain-induced anxiety-like behaviors. EA treatment both increases pain-related somatosensory behavior and decreases pain-induced anxiety-like behaviors by suppressing PKMzeta activity in the ACC.

  2. Caffeine triggers behavioral and neurochemical alterations in adolescent rats.

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    Ardais, A P; Borges, M F; Rocha, A S; Sallaberry, C; Cunha, R A; Porciúncula, L O

    2014-06-13

    Caffeine is the psychostimulant most consumed worldwide but concerns arise about the growing intake of caffeine-containing drinks by adolescents since the effects of caffeine on cognitive functions and neurochemical aspects of late brain maturation during adolescence are poorly known. We now studied the behavioral impact in adolescent male rats of regular caffeine intake at low (0.1mg/mL), moderate (0.3mg/mL) and moderate/high (1.0mg/mL) doses only during their active period (from 7:00 P.M. to 7:00 A.M.). All tested doses of caffeine were devoid of effects on locomotor activity, but triggered anxiogenic effects. Caffeine (0.3 and 1mg/mL) improved the performance in the object recognition task, but the higher dose of caffeine (1.0mg/mL) decreased the habituation to an open-field arena, suggesting impaired non-associative memory. All tested doses of caffeine decreased the density of glial fibrillary acidic protein and synaptosomal-associated protein-25, but failed to modify neuron-specific nuclear protein immunoreactivity in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex. Caffeine (0.3-1mg/mL) increased the density of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and proBDNF density as well as adenosine A1 receptor density in the hippocampus, whereas the higher dose of caffeine (1mg/mL) increased the density of proBDNF and BDNF and decreased A1 receptor density in the cerebral cortex. These findings document an impact of caffeine consumption in adolescent rats with a dual impact on anxiety and recognition memory, associated with changes in BDNF levels and decreases of astrocytic and nerve terminal markers without overt neuronal damage in hippocampal and cortical regions. Copyright © 2014 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Synergist effects of n-acetylcysteine and deferoxamine treatment on behavioral and oxidative parameters induced by chronic mild stress in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arent, Camila O; Réus, Gislaine Z; Abelaira, Helena M; Ribeiro, Karine F; Steckert, Amanda V; Mina, Francielle; Dal-Pizzol, Felipe; Quevedo, João

    2012-12-01

    A growing body of evidence has pointed to a relationship between oxidative stress and depression. Thus, the present study was aimed at evaluating the effects of the antioxidants n-acetylcysteine (NAC), deferoxamine (DFX) or their combination on sweet food consumption and oxidative stress parameters in rats submitted to 40days of exposure to chronic mild stress (CMS). Our results showed that in stressed rats treated with saline, there was a decrease in sweet food intake and treatment with NAC or NAC in combination with DFX reversed this effect. Treatment with NAC and DFX decreased the oxidative damage, which include superoxide and TBARS production in submitochondrial particles, and also thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) levels and carbonyl proteins in the prefrontal cortex, amygdala and hippocampus. Treatment with NAC and DFX also increased the activity of the antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase and catalase in the same brain areas. Even so, a combined treatment with NAC and DFX produced a stronger increase of antioxidant activities in the prefrontal cortex, amygdala and hippocampus. The results described here indicate that co-administration may induce a more pronounced antidepressant activity than each treatment alone. In conclusion, these results suggests that treatment with NAC or DFX alone or in combination on oxidative stress parameters could have positive effects against neuronal damage caused by oxidative stress in major depressive disorders. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Behavioral and endocrine responses of rats with hereditary hypothalamic diabetes insipidus (Brattleboro strain)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bohus, B.; Wimersma Greidanus, T.B. van; Wied, D. de

    Behavioral and endocrine profiles were established of homozygous (HO-DI) and heterozygous (HE-DI) rats with hereditary hypothalamic diabetes insipidus in comparison to Wistar strain rats. HO-DI rats were inferior in acquiring and maintaining active and passive avoidance behavior. Behavioral deficits

  5. Behavioral and Neurochemical Studies in Stressed and Unstressed Rats Fed on Protein, Carbohydrate and Fat Rich Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samia Moin§, Saida Haider*, Saima Khaliq1, Saiqa Tabassum and Darakhshan J. Haleem

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Stress produces behavioral and neurochemical deficits. To study the relationship between adaptation to stress and macronutrient intake, the present study was designed to monitor the effects of different diets on feed intake, growth rate and serotonin (5-Hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT metabolism following exposure to restraint stress in rats. Rats were divided into four groups (n=12 as control, sugar, protein and fat rich diet fed rats. After 5 weeks of treatment animals of each group were divided into unrestrained and restrained animals (n=6. Rats of restrained group were given immobilization stress for 2 hours/day for 5 days. Food intake and growth rates of unrestrained and restrained rats were monitored daily. Rats were decapitated on 6th day to collect brain samples for neurochemical estimation. Results show that sugar diet fed rats produced adaptation to stress early as compared to normal diet fed rats. Food intake and growth rates of unrestrained and restrained rats were comparable on 3rd day in sugar diet fed rats and on 4th day in normal diet fed rats. Stress decreased food intake and growth rates of protein and fat treated rats. Repeated stress did not alter brain 5-HT and 5-HIAA levels of normal diet fed rats and sugar diet fed rats. Protein diet fed restrained rats showed elevated brain 5-HT levels. Fat diet fed restrained rats significantly decreased brain TRP and 5-HIAA levels. Finding suggested that carbohydrate diet might protect against stressful conditions. Study also showed that nutritional status could alter different behaviors in response to a stressful environment.

  6. Oxytocin attenuates aversive response to nicotine and anxiety-like behavior in adolescent rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyunchan; Jang, Minji; Noh, Jihyun

    2017-02-01

    Initial tobacco use is initiated with rewarding and aversive properties of nicotine and aversive response to nicotine plays a critical role in nicotine dependency. Decrease of nicotine aversion increases the nicotine use that causes behavioral and neuronal changes of animals. Oxytocin influences drug abuse and reciprocally affect vulnerability to drug use. To assess the effect of oxytocin on initial nicotine aversion and anxiety, we examined voluntary oral nicotine intake and anxiety-like behavior following oxytocin treatment in adolescent rats. Sprague-Dawley male rats (4 weeks old) were used. For oxytocin administration, rats were injected subcutaneously with saline or oxytocin (0.01, 0.1 and 1mg/kg) according to the assigned groups. Voluntary oral nicotine consumption test was performed by two bottle free-choice paradigm. To examine anxiety-like behavior in rats, we performed a light/dark box test. Oxytocin not only significantly increased the nicotine intake but also alleviated nicotine aversion after acclimation to nicotine solution in a concentration dependent manner. Meanwhile, oxytocin significantly reduced anxiety-like behavior. We suggest that oxytocin itself mitigates aversive response toward initial nicotine intake and anxiety-like behavior. These results widen the psychophysiological perspective on oxytocin for better understanding of nicotine addiction related behaviors influenced by diverse social factors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd and Japan Neuroscience Society. All rights reserved.

  7. Early deprivation increases high-leaning behavior, a novel anxiety-like behavior, in the open field test in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuniishi, Hiroshi; Ichisaka, Satoshi; Yamamoto, Miki; Ikubo, Natsuko; Matsuda, Sae; Futora, Eri; Harada, Riho; Ishihara, Kohei; Hata, Yoshio

    2017-10-01

    The open field test is one of the most popular ethological tests to assess anxiety-like behavior in rodents. In the present study, we examined the effect of early deprivation (ED), a model of early life stress, on anxiety-like behavior in rats. In ED animals, we failed to find significant changes in the time spent in the center or thigmotaxis area of the open field, the common indexes of anxiety-like behavior. However, we found a significant increase in high-leaning behavior in which animals lean against the wall standing on their hindlimbs while touching the wall with their forepaws at a high position. The high-leaning behavior was decreased by treatment with an anxiolytic, diazepam, and it was increased under intense illumination as observed in the center activity. In addition, we compared the high-leaning behavior and center activity under various illumination intensities and found that the high-leaning behavior is more sensitive to illumination intensity than the center activity in the particular illumination range. These results suggest that the high-leaning behavior is a novel anxiety-like behavior in the open field test that can complement the center activity to assess the anxiety state of rats. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd and Japan Neuroscience Society. All rights reserved.

  8. Behavioral Phenotyping of Dopamine Transporter Knockout Rats: Compulsive Traits, Motor Stereotypies, and Anhedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Cinque

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Alterations in dopamine neurotransmission are generally associated with diseases such as attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD. Such diseases typically feature poor decision making and lack of control on executive functions and have been studied through the years using many animal models. Dopamine transporter (DAT knockout (KO and heterozygous (HET mice, in particular, have been widely used to study ADHD. Recently, a strain of DAT KO rats has been developed (1. Here, we provide a phenotypic characterization of reward sensitivity and compulsive choice by adult rats born from DAT–HET dams bred with DAT–HET males, in order to further validate DAT KO rats as an animal model for preclinical research. We first tested DAT KO rats’ sensitivity to rewarding stimuli, provided by highly appetitive food or sweet water; then, we tested their choice behavior with an Intolerance-to-Delay Task (IDT. During these tests, DAT KO rats appeared less sensitive to rewarding stimuli than wild-type (WT and HET rats: they also showed a prominent hyperactive behavior with a rigid choice pattern and a wide number of compulsive stereotypies. Moreover, during the IDT, we tested the effects of amphetamine (AMPH and RO-5203648, a trace amine-associated receptor 1 (TAAR1 partial agonist. AMPH accentuated impulsive behaviors in WT and HET rats, while it had no effect in DAT KO rats. Finally, we measured the levels of tyrosine hydroxylase, dopamine receptor 2 (D2, serotonin transporter, and TAAR1 mRNA transcripts in samples of ventral striatum, finding no significant differences between WT and KO genotypes. Throughout this study, DAT KO rats showed alterations in decision-making processes and in motivational states, as well as prominent motor and oral stereotypies: more studies are warranted to fully characterize and efficiently use them in preclinical research.

  9. Relative contributions of pituitary-adrenal hormones to the ontogeny of behavioral inhibition in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, L K; Kim, H

    1995-04-01

    Recent investigations revealed that adrenalectomized (ADX) rat pups exhibit deficits in behavioral inhibition. Furthermore, administration of exogenous corticosterone (CORT) restores behavioral inhibition in ADX pups. Although these studies suggest that CORT has an important role in the development of behavioral inhibition, the relative behavioral effects of elevated pituitary hormone secretion induced by ADX are not known. Therefore, experiments were conducted to assess the potential behavioral effects of elevated adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) secretion induced by ADX and to further evaluate the contribution of endogenous CORT to the development of behavioral inhibition. In Experiment 1., we verified that 10-day-old ADX rats exhibit high levels of plasma ACTH throughout the preweaning period associated with the development of behavioral inhibition. In Experiment 2, 10-day-old pups were hypophysectomized (HYPOX) and ADX and were compared behaviorally to sham-operated controls on day 14. When tested in the presence of an anesthetized unfamiliar adult male rat, HYPOX + ADX pups exhibited low levels of freezing accompanied by ultrasonic vocalizations. These pups also had reduced concentrations of plasma ACTH and CORT. In Experiment 3, 10-day-old pups were HYPOX and tested for behavioral inhibition on day 14. In comparison to sham-operated controls, HYPOX rats exhibited significantly lower levels of freezing and had reduced plasma concentrations of ACTH and CORT. Results demonstrate clearly that deficits in freezing occur even in the presence of low plasma ACTH concentrations. Therefore, elevated secretion of pituitary hormones is not a major factor that contributes to the ADX-induced deficits in behavioral inhibition.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  10. Antidepressant behavioral effects of duloxetine and fluoxetine in the rat forced swimming test Efeitos antidepressivos da duloxetina e da fluoxetina no teste do nado forçado em ratos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Ciulla

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To compare the effects of the antidepressant drugs duloxetine and fluoxetine on depressive behaviors in rodents. METHODS: Eighteen male Wistar rats were given systemic injections of duloxetine, fluoxetine, or saline prior to a Forced Swimming Test (FST. Immobility and number of stops were measured. RESULTS: Rats given injections of fluoxetine displayed significantly less immobility (p = 0.02 and fewer stops than the control group (p = 0.003. Duloxetine significanlty reduced the number of stops (p = 0.003, but did not effect immobility (p = 0.48. CONCLUSION: Duloxetine and fluoxetine reduced depressive behaviors in the Forced FST. However, our findings suggest that fluoxetine is more effective than duloxetine.OBJETIVO: Comparar o efeito antidepressivo da droga cloridrato de duloxetina com a fluoxetina. MÉTODOS: O teste do nado forçado, teste comportamental que avalia a atividade antidepressiva em ratos, foi utilizado em 18 ratos Wistar, machos adultos, divididos em três grupos iguais: duloxetina, fluoxetina e controle. RESULTADOS: Os dados do teste do nado forçado foram analisados pelo teste One-way ANOVA, Mann Whitney e Kruskall-Wallis.Houve diferença significativa (p = 0,003 entre o número de paradas dos grupos duloxetina e fluoxetina e o grupo controle. CONCLUSÃO: A duloxetina e a fluoxetina tiveram frequência de paradas similares. A fluoxetina mostrou ser mais efetiva que a duloxetina no teste do nado forçado em ratos.

  11. Anatomic defects and behavioral abnormalities in rats irradiated in utero

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimler, B.F.; Norton, S.

    1987-01-01

    Pregnant rats were irradiated with 1.0 Gy whole-body doses of Cs-137 γ-rays on gestational days 11, 13, 15 and 17. Postnatal growth and preweaning behavior of the offspring were monitored prior to sacrifice or post-partuition day 28. Brain (sensory motor cortex) and pituitary tissues were processed for histological evaluation and morphometric analysis. The gestational days on which irradiation produced significant (rho<0.05) changes relative to controls are enclosed in parentheses, with the day(s) on which irradiation produced the maximum effect being underlined for the various parameters: body weight on post-partuition day 7, pituitary nuclear area, percent acidophils, and percent vacuolization, thickness of cortical layer I, II, III, IV, V, VI, and total cortical thickness; negative geotaxis, reflex suspension, continuous corridor activity, and gait. These data indicate that the critical period of development for radiation-induced alterations in post-natal growth, development, and behavior changes from the pituitary at gestational day 11 to the brain (primitive cortex) at days 13 to 17 with a peak of sensitivity at day 15

  12. Effect of Phaleria macrocarpa on sexual function of rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saadat Parhizkar

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of current study was to determine the effect of Phaleria macrocarpa (P. macrocarpafruits aqueous extract on reproductive performance of adult male rats by assessing the serum testosterone level and evaluating their libido behavior. Methods and Materials: Eighteen male adult Spraque Dawley rats were divided into three groups and designated as treatment (240 mg/kg P. macrocarpaaqueous extract, negative control (distilled water, and positive control (4 mg/kg testosterone which were supplemented through intragastric gavage for seven weeks. On the seventh week of supplementation, each of the male rats was introduced to five female rats at five different days to allow mating and observed the libido behavior. The mounting latency and mounting frequency were recorded for each mating. Results: P. macrocarpa aqueous extract significantly increased (p

  13. Maternal Style Selectively Shapes Amygdalar Development and Social Behavior in Rats Genetically Prone to High Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Joshua L; Glover, Matthew E; Pugh, Phyllis C; Fant, Andrew D; Simmons, Rebecca K; Akil, Huda; Kerman, Ilan A; Clinton, Sarah M

    2015-01-01

    The early-life environment critically influences neurodevelopment and later psychological health. To elucidate neural and environmental elements that shape emotional behavior, we developed a rat model of individual differences in temperament and environmental reactivity. We selectively bred rats for high versus low behavioral response to novelty and found that high-reactive (bred high-responder, bHR) rats displayed greater risk-taking, impulsivity and aggression relative to low-reactive (bred low-responder, bLR) rats, which showed high levels of anxiety/depression-like behavior and certain stress vulnerability. The bHR/bLR traits are heritable, but prior work revealed bHR/bLR maternal style differences, with bLR dams showing more maternal attention than bHRs. The present study implemented a cross-fostering paradigm to examine the contribution of maternal behavior to the brain development and emotional behavior of bLR offspring. bLR offspring were reared by biological bLR mothers or fostered to a bLR or bHR mother and then evaluated to determine the effects on the following: (1) developmental gene expression in the hippocampus and amygdala and (2) adult anxiety/depression-like behavior. Genome-wide expression profiling showed that cross-fostering bLR rats to bHR mothers shifted developmental gene expression in the amygdala (but not hippocampus), reduced adult anxiety and enhanced social interaction. Our findings illustrate how an early-life manipulation such as cross-fostering changes the brain's developmental trajectory and ultimately impacts adult behavior. Moreover, while earlier studies highlighted hippocampal differences contributing to the bHR/bLR phenotypes, our results point to a role of the amygdala as well. Future work will pursue genetic and cellular mechanisms within the amygdala that contribute to bHR/bLR behavior either at baseline or following environmental manipulations. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Experimental gastritis leads to anxiety- and depression-like behaviors in female but not male rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Human and animals studies support the idea that there is a gender-related co-morbidity of pain-related and inflammatory gastrointestinal (GI) diseases with psychological disorders. This co-morbidity is the evidence for the existence of GI-brain axis which consists of immune (cytokines), neural (vagus nerve) and neuroendocrine (HPA axis) pathways. Psychological stress causes disturbances in GI physiology, such as altered GI barrier function, changes in motility and secretion, development of visceral hypersensitivity, and dysfunction of inflammatory responses. Whether GI inflammation would exert impact on psychological behavior is not well established. We examined the effect of experimental gastritis on anxiety- and depression-like behaviors in male and female Sprague–Dawley rats, and evaluated potential mechanisms of action. Gastritis was induced by adding 0.1% (w/v) iodoacetamide (IAA) to the sterile drinking water for 7 days. Sucrose preference test assessed the depression-like behavior, open field test and elevated plus maze evaluated the anxiety-like behavior. IAA treatment induced gastric inflammation in rats of either gender. No behavioral abnormality or dysfunction of GI-brain axis was observed in male rats with IAA-induced gastritis. Anxiety- and depression-like behaviors were apparent and the HPA axis was hyperactive in female rats with IAA-induced gastritis. Our results show that gastric inflammation leads to anxiety- and depression-like behaviors in female but not male rats via the neuroendocrine (HPA axis) pathway, suggesting that the GI inflammation can impair normal brain function and induce changes in psychological behavior in a gender-related manner through the GI-to-brain signaling. PMID:24345032

  15. Litter size reduction accentuates maternal care and alters behavioral and physiological phenotypes in rat adult offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enes-Marques, Silvia; Giusti-Paiva, Alexandre

    2018-01-27

    Maternal behavior has a substantial impact on the behavioral, endocrine, and neural development of the pups. This study investigated the effect of altering the neonatal nutritional environment by modifying the litter size on maternal care and anxiety- and fear-like behaviors in rats during adulthood. On postnatal day (PND) 2, litters were adjusted to a small litter (SL) size of three pups per dam or normal litter (NL) size of 12 pups per dam. Maternal behaviors were scored daily during lactation (PND2-21). The weight gain, food intake, adiposity, and biochemical landmarks of offspring rats were evaluated. On PND60, performances in the open field, elevated plus-maze (EPM), and fear conditioning test were measured. The reduction of the litter size enhanced maternal care in lactating rats, increasing the arched-back posture and licking pups. SL offspring exhibited accelerated weight gain, hyperphagia, increased visceral fat mass, dyslipidemia, and hyperleptinemia in adulthood. The SL offspring of both sexes showed an increase in the anti-thigmotactic effect in the open field, an intact anxious-phenotype in the EPM, and a decrease in the time spent freezing during the fear-conditioning test, compared to NL. The neonatal environment as determined by litter size plays a crucial role in programming the adult metabolic phenotype as well as behavioral responses to stressful stimuli, with an impact on anxiety-like and fear behaviors. These behavioral changes in offspring may be, at least in part, a result of increased maternal care.

  16. City rats: insight from rat spatial behavior into human cognition in urban environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaski, Osnat; Portugali, Juval; Eilam, David

    2011-09-01

    The structure and shape of the urban environment influence our ability to find our way about in the city. Understanding how the physical properties of the environment affect spatial behavior and cognition is therefore a necessity. However, there are inherent difficulties in empirically studying complex and large-scale urban environments. These include the need to isolate the impact of specific urban features and to acquire data on the physical activity of individuals. In the present study, we attempted to overcome the above obstacles and examine the relation between urban environments and spatial cognition by testing the spatial behavior of rats. This idea originated from the resemblance in the operative brain functions and in the mechanisms and strategies employed by humans and other animals when acquiring spatial information and establishing an internal representation, as revealed in past studies. Accordingly, we tested rats in arenas that simulated a grid urban layout (e.g. Manhattan streets) and an irregular urban layout (e.g. Jerusalem streets). We found that in the grid layout, rat movement was more structured and extended over a greater area compared with their restricted movement in the irregular layout. These movement patterns recall those of humans in respective urban environments, illustrating that the structure and shape of the environment affect spatial behavior similarly in humans and rats. Overall, testing rats in environments that simulate facets of urban environments can provide new insights into human spatial cognition in urban environments.

  17. Antidepressant behavioral effects of duloxetine and amitriptyline in the rat forced swimming test Efeitos antidepressivos da duloxetina e da amitriptilina no teste do nado forçado em ratos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honório Sampaio Menezes

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To compare the effects of the antidepressant drugs duloxetine and amitriptyline on depressive behaviors in rats. METHODS: Fifteen male Wistar rats were given systemic injections of duloxetine, amitriptyline or saline prior to a Forced Swimming Test (FST. Immobility and number of stops were measured. Data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA and Kruskall-Wallis. RESULTS: Rats given injections of duloxetine displayed fewer stops than the amitriptyline and control group (pOBJETIVO: Comparar o efeito antidepressivo da droga cloridrato de duloxetina com a amitriptilina. MÉTODOS: O teste do nado forçado, teste comportamental que avalia a atividade antidepressiva em ratos, foi utilizado em 15 ratos Wistar, machos adultos, divididos em três grupos iguais: duloxetina, amitriptilina e controle. Os dados foram analisados pelo teste One-way ANOVA e Kruskall-Wallis. RESULTADOS: Houve diferença significativa entre o número de paradas (p <0,05 entre os grupos duloxetina e amitriptilina e o grupo controle. Grupo amitriptilina e controle não apresentaram diferença (p=0,8. CONCLUSÃO: A duloxetina reduziu o comportamento depressivo sendo mais efetiva do que a amitriptilina.

  18. Effects of L-cysteine on reinstatement of ethanol-seeking behavior and on reinstatement-elicited extracellular signal-regulated kinase phosphorylation in the rat nucleus accumbens shell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peana, Alessandra T; Giugliano, Valentina; Rosas, Michela; Sabariego, Marta; Acquas, Elio

    2013-01-01

    Alcoholism is a neuroadaptive disorder, and the understanding of the mechanisms of the high rates of relapse, which characterize it, represents one of the most demanding challenges in alcoholism and addiction research. The extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) is an intracellular kinase, critical for neuroplasticity in the adult brain that is suggested to play a fundamental role in the molecular mechanisms underlying drug addiction and relapse. We previously observed that a nonessential amino acid, L-cysteine, significantly decreases oral ethanol (EtOH) self-administration, reinstatement of EtOH-drinking behavior, and EtOH self-administration break point. Here, we tested whether L-cysteine can affect the ability of EtOH priming to induce reinstatement of EtOH-seeking behavior. In addition, we determined the ability of EtOH priming to induce ERK phosphorylation as well as the ability of L-cysteine to affect reinstatement-elicited ERK activation. To these purposes, Wistar rats were trained to nose-poke for a 10% v/v EtOH solution. After stable drug-taking behavior was obtained, nose-poking for EtOH was extinguished, and reinstatement of drug seeking, as well as reinstatement-elicited pERK, was determined after an oral, noncontingent, priming of EtOH (0.08 g/kg). Rats were pretreated with either saline or L-cysteine (80 to 120 mg/kg) 30 minutes before testing for reinstatement. The findings of this study confirm that the noncontingent delivery of a nonpharmacologically active dose of EtOH to rats, whose previous self-administration behavior had been extinguished, results in significant reinstatement into EtOH-seeking behavior. In addition, the results indicate that reinstatement selectively activates ERK phosphorylation in the shell of the nucleus accumbens (Acb) and that pretreatment with L-cysteine reduces either reinstatement of EtOH seeking and reinstatement-elicited pERK in the AcbSh. Altogether, these results indicate that L-cysteine could be an effective

  19. Short- and long-term behavioral effects of exposure to 21%, 40% and 100% oxygen after perinatal hypoxia-ischemia in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodworth, K Nina; Palmateer, Julie; Swide, Joseph; Grafe, Marjorie R

    2011-10-01

    Until recently, supplementation with 100% oxygen was standard therapy for newborns who required resuscitation at birth or suffered later hypoxic-ischemic events. Exposure to high concentrations of oxygen, however, may worsen oxidative stress induced by ischemic injury. In this study we investigated the short- and long-term behavioral outcomes in rats that had undergone hypoxic-ischemic brain injury on postnatal day 7, followed by 2h exposure to 21%, 40%, or 100% oxygen, compared to normal controls. There were no differences in the development of walking, head lifting and righting reflexes from postnatal days 9 to 15. Cliff avoidance showed some abnormal responses in the H21 animals. From postnatal days 28 to 56, three tests of sensorimotor coordination were performed weekly: ledged tapered beam, cylinder, and bilateral tactile stimulation. The ledged tapered beam test without prior training of animals was sensitive to injury, but did not distinguish between treatment groups. The cylinder test showed a greater use of the unimpaired limb in female 21% and 40% oxygen groups compared to controls. Performance in both cylinder and the beam tests showed a correlation with the degree of brain injury. The bilateral tactile stimulation test showed that the male 21% oxygen groups had worse sensory asymmetry than male 40% or 100% oxygen groups, but was not statistically significantly different from controls. We thus found a minor benefit to post-hypoxia-ischemic treatment with 100% and 40% oxygen compared to 21% in one test of early motor skills. Our results for long-term sensorimotor behavior, however, showed conflicting results, however, as males treated with 40% or 100% oxygen had less sensory asymmetry (better performance) in the bilateral tactile stimulation test than males treated with 21% oxygen, while females had impaired motor performance in the cylinder test with both 21% and 40% oxygen. Copyright © 2011 ISDN. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The effects of radionuclides on animal behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gagnaire, B.; Adam-Guillermin, C.; Bouron, A.; Lestaevel, P.

    2011-01-01

    Concomitant with the expansion of the nuclear industry, the concentrations of several pollutants, radioactive or otherwise, including uranium, caesium, cadmium and cobalt, have increased over the last few decades. These elemental pollutants do exist in the environment and are a threat to many organisms. Behavior represents the integration of all the anatomical adaptations and physiological processes that occur within an organism. Compared to other biological endpoints, the effects of pollutants on animal behavior have been the focus of only a few studies. However, behavioral changes appear to be ideal for assessing the effects of pollutants on animal populations, because behavior links physiological functions with ecological processes. The alteration of behavioral responses can have severe implications for survival of individuals and of population of some species. Behavioral disruptions may derive from several underlying mechanisms: disruption of neuro-sensorial activity and of endocrines, or oxidative and metabolic disruptions. In this review, we presented an overview of the current literature in which the effects of radioactive pollutants on behavior in humans, rodents, fish and wildlife species are addressed. When possible, we have also indicated the potential underlying mechanisms of the behavioral alterations and parameters measured. In fried, chronic uranium contamination is associated with behavior alterations and mental disorders in humans, and cognitive deficits in rats. Comparative studies on depleted and enriched uranium effects in rats showed that chemical and radiological activities of this metal induced negative effects on several behavioral parameters and also produced brain oxidative stress. Uranium exposure also modifies feeding behavior of bivalves and reproductive behavior of fish. Studies of the effects of the Chernobyl accident shows that chronic irradiation to 137 Cs induces both nervous system diseases and mental disorders in humans leading

  1. Finasteride inhibited brain dopaminergic system and open-field behaviors in adolescent male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Kang, Yun-Xiao; Ji, Xiao-Ming; Li, Ying-Kun; Li, Shuang-Cheng; Zhang, Xiang-Jian; Cui, Hui-Xian; Shi, Ge-Ming

    2018-02-01

    Finasteride inhibits the conversion of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone. Because androgen regulates dopaminergic system in the brain, it could be hypothesized that finasteride may inhibit dopaminergic system. The present study therefore investigates the effects of finasteride in adolescent and early developmental rats on dopaminergic system, including contents of dopamine and its metabolites (dihydroxy phenyl acetic acid and homovanillic acid) and tyrosine hydroxylase expressions both at gene and protein levels. Meanwhile, open-field behaviors of the rats are examined because of the regulatory effect of dopaminergic system on the behaviors. Open-field behaviors were evaluated by exploratory and motor behaviors. Dopamine and its metabolites were assayed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Tyrosine hydroxylase mRNA and protein expressions were determined by real-time qRT-PCR and western blot, respectively. It was found that in adolescent male rats, administration of finasteride at doses of 25 and 50 mg/kg for 14 days dose dependently inhibited open-field behaviors, reduced contents of dopamine and its metabolites in frontal cortex, hippocampus, caudate putamen, nucleus accumbens, and down-regulated tyrosine hydroxylase mRNA and protein expressions in substantia nigra and ventral tegmental area. However, there was no significant change of these parameters in early developmental rats after finasteride treatment. These results suggest that finasteride inhibits dopaminergic system and open-field behaviors in adolescent male rats by inhibiting the conversion of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone, and imply finasteride as a potential therapeutic option for neuropsychiatric disorders associated with hyperactivities of dopaminergic system and androgen. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Vitamin A acetate: a behavioral teratology study in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutz, S A; Troise, N J; Cimprich, R E; Yearsley, S M; Rugen, P J

    1989-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of maternal administration of vitamin A acetate on pup development and behavior. Vitamin A acetate was administered by oral gavage to pregnant rats (N = 10/treatment) on gestation days 6-19 at doses of 25,000, 50,000 or 100,000 I.U./kg/day. Male and female pups from dams that received 100,000 I.U./kg/day showed a significantly reduced live birth index but few external abnormalities. Twenty-four and 48 hour survival indices were also significantly reduced. The mean pup body weight gain at 100,000 I.U./kg/day was significantly reduced at days 1-3, 3-7 and 21-42. Pinna detachment and eye opening were significantly delayed in all male pups and in female pups from the 50,000 and 100,000 I.U./kg/day groups. Incisor eruption was significantly delayed in male and female pups from the 25,000 and 50,000 I.U./kg/day groups. The following showed no treatment effects: dam mean weight change, length of gestation, total litter size, surface righting, cliff avoidance, negative geotaxis, swimming development, open field activity and discriminatory learning.

  3. Effects of prenatal X-irradiation on postnatal testicular development and function in the Wistar rat: development/teratology/behavior/radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensh, R.P.; Brent, R.L.

    1988-01-01

    It is evident that significant permanent tissue hypoplasia can be produced following radiation exposure late in fetal development. Because two organs, brain and testes, are developmentally and functionally interrelated, it was of interest to determine whether fetal testicular hypoplasia was a primary or a secondary effect of fetal brain irradiation. Twenty-four pregnant Wistar strain rats were randomly assigned to one of four groups, and a laparotomy was performed on day 18 of gestation. The fetuses received sham irradiation, whole body irradiation, or only head/thorax or pelvic body irradiation at a dosage level of 1.5 Gy. Mothers were allowed to deliver and raise their offspring until postnatal day 30, when the offspring were weaned. At 60 days of age, 74 male offspring were allowed to mate with colony control females of similar age until successful insemination or until the males reached 90 days of age, when they were killed. Testes were weighed and processed for histologic examination. Direct radiation of testes, due to whole body or pelvic exposure, resulted in testicular growth retardation and significantly reduced spermatogenesis. Breeding activity of the males and the percent of positive inseminations were also slightly reduced. However, a significant percentage of male offspring receiving direct testicular radiation did produce offspring. Head/thorax-only irradiation did not adversely affect testicular growth or spermatogenesis. Therefore, the use of histologic analysis as the sole determinant of infertility may be misleading. This study indicates that testicular growth retardation and an increased infertility rate result from direct prenatal exposure of rat testes to X-radiation and are not necessarily mediated via X-irradiation effects on the central nervous system

  4. Role of the amygdala in antidepressant effects on hippocampal cell proliferation and survival and on depression-like behavior in the rat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge E Castro

    Full Text Available The stimulation of adult hippocampal neurogenesis by antidepressants has been associated with multiple molecular pathways, but the potential influence exerted by other brain areas has received much less attention. The basolateral complex of the amygdala (BLA, a region involved in anxiety and a site of action of antidepressants, has been implicated in both basal and stress-induced changes in neural plasticity in the dentate gyrus. We investigated here whether the BLA modulates the effects of the SSRI antidepressant fluoxetine on hippocampal cell proliferation and survival in relation to a behavioral index of depression-like behavior (forced swim test. We used a lesion approach targeting the BLA along with a chronic treatment with fluoxetine, and monitored basal anxiety levels given the important role of this behavioral trait in the progress of depression. Chronic fluoxetine treatment had a positive effect on hippocampal cell survival only when the BLA was lesioned. Anxiety was related to hippocampal cell survival in opposite ways in sham- and BLA-lesioned animals (i.e., negatively in sham- and positively in BLA-lesioned animals. Both BLA lesions and low anxiety were critical factors to enable a negative relationship between cell proliferation and depression-like behavior. Therefore, our study highlights a role for the amygdala on fluoxetine-stimulated cell survival and on the establishment of a link between cell proliferation and depression-like behavior. It also reveals an important modulatory role for anxiety on cell proliferation involving both BLA-dependent and -independent mechanisms. Our findings underscore the amygdala as a potential target to modulate antidepressants' action in hippocampal neurogenesis and in their link to depression-like behaviors.

  5. Increased sign-tracking behavior in adolescent rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeAngeli, Nicole E; Miller, Sarah B; Meyer, Heidi C; Bucci, David J

    2017-11-01

    An autoshaping procedure was used to test the notion that conditioned stimuli (CSs) gain greater incentive salience during adolescence than young adulthood under conditions of social isolation rearing and food restriction. Rats were single-housed and placed on food restriction during 10 daily training sessions in which a lever (CS + ) was presented then followed immediately by a food unconditioned stimulus (US). A second lever (CS - ) was presented on intermixed trials and was not reinforced. Despite the fact that food delivery was not contingent on the rats' behavior, all rats exhibited behaviors directed towards the lever (i.e., sign-tracking). In the adolescent group, the rate of lever pressing and the percentage of trials with a lever press were higher than in young adults. Initially, group differences were observed when rats were retrained when the adolescents had reached young adulthood. These findings support the hypothesis that cues that come to predict reward become imbued with excessive motivational value in adolescents, perhaps contributing to the hyper-responsiveness to reward-related stimuli typically observed during this period of development. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Behavioral changes in rats prenatally irradiated with low dose of gamma-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiskova, J.; Smajda, B.; Capicikova, M.; Lievajova, K.

    2006-01-01

    In this work, the effects of prenatal gamma-irradiation on behavior in adult Sprague-Dawley rats were studied. Four months old female rats were irradiated with a dose of 1 Gy of gamma-rays on day 15 of gestation. The offspring of irradiated mothers (n=26) and that of control, non-irradiated mothers (n=36) of both sexes at the age of 3 month were tested in Morris's water maze and in open field test. All experimental groups showed a tendency to shortening the time needed to reach the platform in each trial in Morris water maze. Statistically significant difference between irradiated and control rats was detected only in males on 3 rd experimental day. The ability to remember the position of the platform was not altered in irradiated animals after a 4 day pause. In open field test, statistically significant differences in comparison with controls were detected in number of squares entered and in crossings of the central square (P ≤ 0.05) in males. These findings suggest, when comparing with results of other authors, that irradiation effects on postnatal behavior in rats are extremely dependent on the time point of irradiation and that a correlation exist between the developmental stage of the individual brain structures at time of irradiation and the late behavioral effects. (authors)

  7. Antistress Effects of Rosa rugosa Thunb. on Total Sleep Deprivation-Induced Anxiety-Like Behavior and Cognitive Dysfunction in Rat: Possible Mechanism of Action of 5-HT6 Receptor Antagonist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Ju-Ryun; Oh, Dool-Ri; Han, SeulHee; Kim, Yu-Jin; Choi, EunJin; Bae, Donghyuck; Oh, Dong Hwan; Lee, Yoo-Hyun; Kim, Sunoh; Jun, Woojin

    2016-09-01

    Our previous results suggest that the Rosa rugosa Thunb. (family Rosaceae) alleviates endurance exercise-induced stress by decreasing oxidative stress levels. This study aimed to screen and identify the physiological antistress effects of an extract of R. rugosa (RO) on sleep deprivation-induced anxiety-like behavior and cognitive tests (in vivo) and tested for hippocampal CORT and monoamine levels (ex vivo), corticosterone (CORT)-induced injury, N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor, and serotonin 6 (5-hydroxytryptamine 6, 5-HT6) receptor activities (in vitro) in search of active principles and underlying mechanisms of action. We confirmed the antistress effects of RO in a sleep-deprived stress model in rat and explored the underlying mechanisms of its action. In conclusion, an R. rugosa extract showed efficacy and potential for use as an antistress therapy to treat sleep deprivation through its antagonism of the 5-HT6 receptor and resulting inhibition of cAMP activity.

  8. Neuroinflammation and Behavior in HIV-1 Transgenic Rats Exposed to Chronic Adolescent Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowson, Sydney A; Harrell, Constance S; Bekhbat, Mandakh; Gangavelli, Apoorva; Wu, Matthew J; Kelly, Sean D; Reddy, Renuka; Neigh, Gretchen N

    2016-01-01

    Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has improved prognosis for people living with HIV (PLWH) and dramatically reduced the incidence of AIDS. However, even when viral load is controlled, PLWH develop psychiatric and neurological disorders more frequently than those living without HIV. Adolescents with HIV are particularly susceptible to the development of psychiatric illnesses and neurocognitive impairments. While both psychiatric and neurocognitive disorders have been found to be exacerbated by stress, the extent to which chronic stress and HIV-1 viral proteins interact to impact behavior and relevant neuroinflammatory processes is unknown. Determination of the individual contributions of stress and HIV to neuropsychiatric disorders is heavily confounded in humans. In order to isolate the influence of HIV-1 proteins and chronic stress on behavior and neuroinflammation, we employed the HIV-1 transgenic (Tg) rat model, which expresses HIV-1 proteins with a gag and pol deletion, allowing for viral protein expression without viral replication. This Tg line has been characterized as a model of HAART-controlled HIV-1 infection due to the lack of viral replication but continued presence of HIV-1 proteins. We exposed male and female adolescent HIV-1 Tg rats to a mixed-modality chronic stress paradigm consisting of isolation, social defeat and restraint, and assessed behavior, cerebral vascularization, and neuroinflammatory endpoints. Stress, sex, and presence of the HIV-1 transgene impacted weight gain in adolescent rats. Female HIV-1 Tg rats showed decreases in central tendency during the light cycle in the open field regardless of stress exposure. Both male and female HIV-1 Tg rats exhibited decreased investigative behavior in the novel object recognition task, but no memory impairments. Adolescent stress had no effect on the tested behaviors. Microglia in female HIV-1 Tg rats exhibited a hyper-ramified structure, and gene expression of complement factor B was

  9. Sex and repeated restraint stress interact to affect cat odor-induced defensive behavior in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrot-Sinal, Tara S; Gregus, Andrea; Boudreau, Daniel; Kalynchuk, Lisa E

    2004-11-19

    The overall objective of the present experiment was to assess sex differences in the effects of repeated restraint stress on fear-induced defensive behavior and general emotional behavior. Groups of male and female Long-Evans rats received either daily restraint stress (stressed) or daily brief handling (nonstressed) for 21 consecutive days. On days 22-25, a number of behavioral tests were administered concluding with a test of defensive behavior in response to a predatory odor. Stressed and nonstressed males and females were exposed to a piece of cat collar previously worn by a female domestic cat (cat odor) or a piece of collar never worn by a cat (control odor) in a familiar open field containing a hide barrier. Rats displayed pronounced defensive behavior (increased hiding and risk assessment) and decreased nondefensive behavior (grooming, rearing) in response to the cat odor. Nonstressed females exposed to cat odor displayed less risk assessment behavior relative to nonstressed males exposed to cat odor. Restraint stress had little effect on defensive behavior in male rats but significantly increased risk assessment behaviors in females. Behavior on the Porsolt forced swim test (a measure of depression-like behavior) and the open field test (a measure of anxiety-like behavior) was not affected by stress or sex. These findings indicate the utility of the predator odor paradigm in detecting subtle shifts in naturally occurring anxiety-like behaviors that may occur differentially in males and females.

  10. Characterization of the rat exploratory behavior in the elevated plus-maze with Markov chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejada, Julián; Bosco, Geraldine G; Morato, Silvio; Roque, Antonio C

    2010-11-30

    The elevated plus-maze is an animal model of anxiety used to study the effect of different drugs on the behavior of the animal. It consists of a plus-shaped maze with two open and two closed arms elevated 50cm from the floor. The standard measures used to characterize exploratory behavior in the elevated plus-maze are the time spent and the number of entries in the open arms. In this work, we use Markov chains to characterize the exploratory behavior of the rat in the elevated plus-maze under three different conditions: normal and under the effects of anxiogenic and anxiolytic drugs. The spatial structure of the elevated plus-maze is divided into squares, which are associated with states of a Markov chain. By counting the frequencies of transitions between states during 5-min sessions in the elevated plus-maze, we constructed stochastic matrices for the three conditions studied. The stochastic matrices show specific patterns, which correspond to the observed behaviors of the rat under the three different conditions. For the control group, the stochastic matrix shows a clear preference for places in the closed arms. This preference is enhanced for the anxiogenic group. For the anxiolytic group, the stochastic matrix shows a pattern similar to a random walk. Our results suggest that Markov chains can be used together with the standard measures to characterize the rat behavior in the elevated plus-maze. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Effectiveness of memantine on depression-like behavior, memory deficits and brain mRNA levels of BDNF and TrkB in rats subjected to repeated unpredictable stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amidfar, Meysam; Kim, Yong-Ku; Wiborg, Ove

    2018-01-01

    downregulation. Administration of memantine reversed depression-like behavior and memory impairment and significantly increased BDNF and TrkB mRNA levels in both prefrontal cortex and hippocampus of stress exposed rats. CONCLUSIONS: Our study supports the hypothesis that drugs with antagonistic properties...... administration in rats subjected to the repeated unpredictable stress (RUS) paradigm. METHODS: Rats were split into four groups at random including control + saline, control + memantine, stressed + saline and stressed + memantine. After 10 days of exposure to the RUS paradigm, rats were administered memantine...... (20 mg/kg) intraperitoneally (ip) for 14 days. Depression-like behavior and memory performance were assessed by measuring immobility time in the forced swim test and passive avoidance test, respectively. The mRNA levels of BDNF and TrkB in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus were measured by real...

  12. Duloxetine prevents the effects of prenatal stress on depressive-like and anxiety-like behavior and hippocampal expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in adult male offspring rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaosong; Wang, Qi; Wang, Yan; Hu, Jingmin; Jiang, Han; Cheng, Wenwen; Ma, Yuchao; Liu, Mengxi; Sun, Anji; Zhang, Xinxin; Li, Xiaobai

    2016-12-01

    Stress during pregnancy may cause neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders. However, the mechanisms are largely unknown. Currently, pro-inflammatory cytokines have been identified as a risk factor for depression and anxiety disorder. Unfortunately, there is very little research on the long-term effects of prenatal stress on the neuroinflammatory system of offspring. Moreover, the relationship between antidepressant treatment and cytokines in the central nervous system, especially in the hippocampus, an important emotion modulation center, is unclear. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the effects of prenatal chronic mild stress during development on affective-like behaviors and hippocampal cytokines in adult offspring, and to verify whether antidepressant (duloxetine) administration from early adulthood could prevent the harmful consequences. To do so, prenatally stressed and non-stressed Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with either duloxetine (10mg/kg/day) or vehicle from postnatal day 60 for 21days. Adult offspring were divided into four groups: 1) prenatal stress+duloxetine treatment, 2) prenatal stress+vehicle, 3) duloxetine treatment alone, and 4) vehicle alone. Adult offspring were assessed for anxiety-like behavior using the open field test and depression-like behavior using the forced swim test. Brains were analyzed for pro-inflammatory cytokine markers in the hippocampus via real-time PCR. Results demonstrate that prenatal stress-induced anxiety- and depression-like behaviors are associated with an increase in hippocampal inflammatory mediators, and duloxetine administration prevents the increased hippocampal pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 and anxiety- and depression-like behavior in prenatally stressed adult offspring. This research provides important evidence on the long-term effect of PNS exposure during development in a model of maternal adversity to study the pathogenesis of depression and its therapeutic interventions

  13. Acute and chronic dosing of Lepidium meyenii (Maca) on male rat sexual behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lentz, Aaron; Gravitt, Karla; Carson, Culley C; Marson, Lesley

    2007-03-01

    The use of natural remedies for the treatment of sexual disorders is under current investigation. For generations people of the rural community in Peru have used Lepidium meyenii Walpers (Maca), because of their belief that it improves fertility and sexual desire. To determine the acute and chronic effects of Maca on male sexual behavior and to examine chronic administration of Maca on anxiety. Ejaculatory and mounting behavior and postejaculatory interval. Anxiety tests using an elevated plus maze, locomotion, and social interaction with another male. Maca (25 and 100 mg/kg) was orally administered to male rats for 30 days. Male sexual behavior was monitored after acute, 7 and 21 days of treatment. Anxiety behavior and locomotion were measured at 28-29 days using the elevated plus maze and social interaction tests. Maca treatment did not produce large changes in male sexual behavior. However, an increase in ejaculation latency and postejaculatory interval was observed after both acute and 7 days of treatment. After 21 days of treatment Maca had no effect on sexual behavior. Chronic administration of Maca did not increase locomotion or anxiety. Acute and short-term administration of Maca produced a small effect of rat male sexual behavior and long-term administration did not increase anxiety.

  14. Traveling Companions Add Complexity and Hinder Performance in the Spatial Behavior of Rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dorfman, Alex; Nielbo, Kristoffer Laigaard; Eilam, David

    2016-01-01

    -mate. It was found that the presence of another rat substantially altered the rats' spatial behavior. Lone rats collected the food items faster while traveling a shorter distance, reflecting a higher efficiency of task completion. When accompanied by a partner, however, the rats traveled together, visiting the same......We sought to uncover the impact of the social environment on the spatial behavior of rats. Food-deprived rats were trained in a spatial task of collecting food items from 16 equispaced objects. Following training, they were tested, first alone and then with a similarly-trained cage...... of rats’ natural behavior. Revisiting an object following food depletion implies that searching for food was not the main driving force in the rats' spatial behavior. Specifically, despite food deprivation, rats were more attentive to one another than to the food. This could be adaptive, since foraging...

  15. Prediction of rat behavior outcomes in memory tasks using functional connections among neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Lu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Analyzing the neuronal organizational structures and studying the changes in the behavior of the organism is key to understanding cognitive functions of the brain. Although some studies have indicated that spatiotemporal firing patterns of neuronal populations have a certain relationship with the behavioral responses, the issues of whether there are any relationships between the functional networks comprised of these cortical neurons and behavioral tasks and whether it is possible to take advantage of these networks to predict correct and incorrect outcomes of single trials of animals are still unresolved. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This paper presents a new method of analyzing the structures of whole-recorded neuronal functional networks (WNFNs and local neuronal circuit groups (LNCGs. The activity of these neurons was recorded in several rats. The rats performed two different behavioral tasks, the Y-maze task and the U-maze task. Using the results of the assessment of the WNFNs and LNCGs, this paper describes a realization procedure for predicting the behavioral outcomes of single trials. The methodology consists of four main parts: construction of WNFNs from recorded neuronal spike trains, partitioning the WNFNs into the optimal LNCGs using social community analysis, unsupervised clustering of all trials from each dataset into two different clusters, and predicting the behavioral outcomes of single trials. The results show that WNFNs and LNCGs correlate with the behavior of the animal. The U-maze datasets show higher accuracy for unsupervised clustering results than those from the Y-maze task, and these datasets can be used to predict behavioral responses effectively. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The results of the present study suggest that a methodology proposed in this paper is suitable for analysis of the characteristics of neuronal functional networks and the prediction of rat behavior. These types of structures in cortical

  16. Aloe vera gel improves behavioral deficits and oxidative status in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabatabaei, Seyed Reza Fatemi; Ghaderi, Shahab; Bahrami-Tapehebur, Mohammad; Farbood, Yaghoob; Rashno, Masome

    2017-12-01

    Oxidative stress has a major role in progression of diabetes-related behavioral deficits. It has been suggested that Aloe vera has anti-diabetic, antioxidative, and neuroprotective effects. The present study was designed to determine the effects of Aloe vera gel on behavioral functions, oxidative status, and neuronal viability in the hippocampus of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Fifty five adult male Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups, including: control (normal saline 8ml/kg/day; P.O.), diabetic (normal saline 8ml/kg/day; P.O.), Aloe vera gel (100mg/kg/day; P.O.), diabetic+Aloe vera gel (100mg/kg/day; P.O.) and diabetic+NPH insulin (10 IU/kg/day; S.C.). All treatments were started immediately following confirmation of diabetes in diabetic groups and were continued for eight weeks. Behavioral functions were evaluated by employing standard behavioral paradigms. Additionally, oxidative status and neuronal viability were assessed in the hippocampus. The results of behavioral tests showed that diabetes enhanced anxiety/depression-like behaviors, reduced exploratory and locomotor activities, decreased memory performance, and increased stress related behaviors. These changes in diabetic rats were accompanied by increasing oxidative stress and neuronal loss in the hippocampus. Interestingly, eight weeks of treatment with Aloe vera gel not only alleviated all the mentioned deficits related to diabetes, but in some aspects, it was even more effective than insulin. In conclusion, the results suggest that both interrelated hypoglycemic and antioxidative properties of Aloe vera gel are possible mechanisms that improve behavioral deficits and protect hippocampal neurons in diabetic animals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. The transfection of BDNF to dopamine neurons potentiates the effect of dopamine D3 receptor agonist recovering the striatal innervation, dendritic spines and motor behavior in an aged rat model of Parkinson's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis F Razgado-Hernandez

    Full Text Available The progressive degeneration of the dopamine neurons of the pars compacta of substantia nigra and the consequent loss of the dopamine innervation of the striatum leads to the impairment of motor behavior in Parkinson's disease. Accordingly, an efficient therapy of the disease should protect and regenerate the dopamine neurons of the substantia nigra and the dopamine innervation of the striatum. Nigral neurons express Brain Derived Neurotropic Factor (BDNF and dopamine D3 receptors, both of which protect the dopamine neurons. The chronic activation of dopamine D3 receptors by their agonists, in addition, restores, in part, the dopamine innervation of the striatum. Here we explored whether the over-expression of BDNF by dopamine neurons potentiates the effect of the activation of D3 receptors restoring nigrostriatal innervation. Twelve-month old Wistar rats were unilaterally injected with 6-hydroxydopamine into the striatum. Five months later, rats were treated with the D3 agonist 7-hydroxy-N,N-di-n-propy1-2-aminotetralin (7-OH-DPAT administered i.p. during 4½ months via osmotic pumps and the BDNF gene transfection into nigral cells using the neurotensin-polyplex nanovector (a non-viral transfection that selectively transfect the dopamine neurons via the high-affinity neurotensin receptor expressed by these neurons. Two months after the withdrawal of 7-OH-DPAT when rats were aged (24 months old, immunohistochemistry assays were made. The over-expression of BDNF in rats receiving the D3 agonist normalized gait and motor coordination; in addition, it eliminated the muscle rigidity produced by the loss of dopamine. The recovery of motor behavior was associated with the recovery of the nigral neurons, the dopamine innervation of the striatum and of the number of dendritic spines of the striatal neurons. Thus, the over-expression of BDNF in dopamine neurons associated with the chronic activation of the D3 receptors appears to be a promising strategy

  18. Prenatal restraint stress generates two distinct behavioral and neurochemical profiles in male and female rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Rita Zuena

    Full Text Available Prenatal Restraint Stress (PRS in rats is a validated model of early stress resulting in permanent behavioral and neurobiological outcomes. Although sexual dimorphism in the effects of PRS has been hypothesized for more than 30 years, few studies in this long period have directly addressed the issue. Our group has uncovered a pronounced gender difference in the effects of PRS (stress delivered to the mothers 3 times per day during the last 10 days of pregnancy on anxiety, spatial learning, and a series of neurobiological parameters classically associated with hippocampus-dependent behaviors. Adult male rats subjected to PRS ("PRS rats" showed increased anxiety-like behavior in the elevated plus maze (EPM, a reduction in the survival of newborn cells in the dentate gyrus, a reduction in the activity of mGlu1/5 metabotropic glutamate receptors in the ventral hippocampus, and an increase in the levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF and pro-BDNF in the hippocampus. In contrast, female PRS rats displayed reduced anxiety in the EPM, improved learning in the Morris water maze, an increase in the activity of mGlu1/5 receptors in the ventral and dorsal hippocampus, and no changes in hippocampal neurogenesis or BDNF levels. The direction of the changes in neurogenesis, BDNF levels and mGlu receptor function in PRS animals was not consistent with the behavioral changes, suggesting that PRS perturbs the interdependency of these particular parameters and their relation to hippocampus-dependent behavior. Our data suggest that the epigenetic changes in hippocampal neuroplasticity induced by early environmental challenges are critically sex-dependent and that the behavioral outcome may diverge in males and females.

  19. Monoamine levels in the nucleus accumbens correlate with male sexual behavior in middle-aged rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Houng-Wei; Shui, Hao-Ai; Liu, Hang-Shen; Tai, Mei-Yun; Tsai, Yuan-Feen

    2006-02-01

    The correlation between monoamine levels in the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) and male sexual behavior was studied in middle-aged rats. Male rats (18-19months) were assigned to three groups: (1) Group MIE consisted of rats showing mounts, intromissions, and ejaculations; (2) Group MI was composed of rats showing mounts and intromissions, but no ejaculation; and (3) Group NC were non-copulators showing no sexual behavior. Young adult rats (4-5months), displaying complete copulatory behavior, were used as the control group. Levels of dopamine (DA), serotonin, and norepinephrine and their metabolites in the NAcc were measured by high-pressure liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. No difference was seen in DA levels between MIE rats and young controls, whereas DA levels in NC rats were significantly lower than those in both MIE and MI rats. Serotonin levels in NC rats were significantly higher than those in MIE and MI rats. Conversely, norepinephrine levels in NC rats were lower than those in MIE rats. These results suggest that monoamine levels in the NAcc correlate with sexual performance in male rats and that changes in NAcc monoamine levels might affect male sexual behavior in middle-aged rats.

  20. Behavioral effects of α,α,β,β-tetradeutero-5-MeO-DMT in rats: comparison with 5-MeO-DMT administered in combination with a monoamine oxidase inhibitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halberstadt, Adam L.; Nichols, David E.; Geyer, Mark A.

    2012-01-01

    RATIONALE Ayahuasca is a psychoactive tea prepared from a combination of plants that contain a hallucinogenic tryptamine and monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs). Behavioral Pattern Monitor (BPM) experiments demonstrated that the combination of 5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine (5-MeO-DMT) and a behaviorally inactive dose of an MAOA inhibitor such as harmaline or clorgyline induces biphasic effects on locomotor activity in rats, initially reducing locomotion and then increasing activity as time progresses. OBJECTIVES The present study investigated whether the biphasic locomotor profile induced by the combination of 5-MeO-DMT and an MAOI is a consequence of a reduction in the rate of 5-MeO-DMT metabolism. This hypothesis was tested using a deuterated derivative of 5-MeO-DMT (α,α,β,β-tetradeutero-5-MeO-DMT) that is resistant to metabolism by MAO. RESULTS Confirming our previous findings, 1.0 mg/kg 5-MeO-DMT (s.c.) had biphasic effects on locomotor activity in rats pretreated with a behaviorally inactive dose of the nonselective MAOI pargyline (10 mg/kg). Administration of 5-MeO-DMT alone, even at doses greater than 1.0 mg/kg, produced only reductions in locomotor activity. Although low doses of α,α,β,β-tetradeutero-5-MeO-DMT (0.3 and 1.0 mg/kg, s.c.) produced only hypoactivity in the BPM, a dose of 3.0 mg/kg induced a biphasic locomotor profile similar to that produced by the combination of 5-MeO-DMT and an MAOI. Receptor binding studies demonstrated that deuterium substitution had little effect on the affinity of 5-MeO-DMT for a wide variety of neurotransmitter binding sites. CONCLUSIONS The finding with α,α,β,β-tetradeutero-5-MeO-DMT indicates that the hyperactivity induced by 5-MeO-DMT after MAO inhibition is a consequence of reduced metabolism of 5-MeO-DMT, leading to prolonged occupation of central serotonin receptors. These results demonstrate that deuterated tryptamines may be useful in behavioral and pharmacological studies to mimic the effects of

  1. Importance of associative learning processes for one-trial behavioral sensitization of preweanling rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougall, Sanders A; Pothier, Alexandria G; Der-Ghazarian, Taleen; Herbert, Matthew S; Kozanian, Olga O; Castellanos, Kevin A; Flores, Ana T

    2011-10-01

    During adulthood, associative learning is necessary for the expression of one-trial behavioral sensitization; however, it is uncertain whether the same associative processes are operative during the preweanling period. Two strategies were used to assess the importance of associative learning for one-trial behavioral sensitization of preweanling rats. In the initial experiments, we varied both the sequence and time interval between presentation of the conditioned stimulus (CS, novel environment) and unconditioned stimulus (US, cocaine). In the final experiment, we determined whether electroconvulsive shock-induced retrograde amnesia would disrupt one-trial behavioral sensitization. Results showed that robust-sensitized responding was apparent regardless of the sequence in which cocaine and the novel environment (the presumptive CS) were presented. Varying the time between CS and US presentation (0, 3, or 6 h) was also without effect. Results from experiment 3 showed that single or multiple electroconvulsive shock treatments did not alter the expression of the sensitized response. Therefore, these data indicated that one-trial behavioral sensitization of preweanling rats was exclusively mediated by nonassociative mechanisms and that associative processes did not modulate sensitized responding. These findings are in contrast to what is observed during adulthood, as adult rats exhibit one-trial behavioral sensitization only when associative processes are operative.

  2. FGF-2 induces behavioral recovery after early adolescent injury to the motor cortex of rats.

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    Nemati, Farshad; Kolb, Bryan

    2011-11-20

    Motor cortex injuries in adulthood lead to poor performance in behavioral tasks sensitive to limb movements in the rat. We have shown previously that motor cortex injury on day 10 or day 55 allow significant spontaneous recovery but not injury in early adolescence (postnatal day 35 "P35"). Previous studies have indicated that injection of basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2) enhances behavioral recovery after neonatal cortical injury but such effect has not been studied following motor cortex lesions in early adolescence. The present study undertook to investigate the possibility of such behavioral recovery. Rats with unilateral motor cortex lesions were assigned to two groups in which they received FGF-2 or bovine serum albumin (BSA) and were tested in a number of behavioral tests (postural asymmetry, skilled reaching, sunflower seed manipulation, forepaw inhibition in swimming). Golgi-Cox analysis was used to examine the dendritic structure of pyramidal cells in the animals' parietal (layer III) and forelimb (layer V) area of the cortex. The results indicated that rats injected with FGF-2 (but not BSA) showed significant behavioral recovery that was associated with increased dendritic length and spine density. The present study suggests a role for FGF-2 in the recovery of function following injury during early adolescence. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Dopamine receptors play distinct roles in sexual behavior expression of rats with a different sexual motivational tone.

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    Guadarrama-Bazante, Irma L; Canseco-Alba, Ana; Rodríguez-Manzo, Gabriela

    2014-10-01

    Dopamine (DA) plays a central role in the expression of male sexual behavior. The effects of DA-enhancing drugs on copulation seem to vary depending on the dose of the agonist used, the type of DA receptor activated, and the sexual condition of the animals. The aim of the present study was to carry out a systematic analysis of the effects of dopaminergic agonists on the expression of male sexual behavior by sexually competent rats in different sexual motivational states, that is when sexually active (sexually experienced) and when temporarily inhibited (sexually exhausted). To this end, the same doses of the nonselective DA receptor agonist apomorphine, the selective D2-like DA receptor agonist quinpirole, and the selective D1-like DA receptor agonist SKF38393 were injected intraperitoneally to sexually experienced or sexually exhausted male rats and their sexual behavior was recorded. Low apomorphine doses induced expression of sexual behavior in sexually satiated rats, but only reduced the intromission latency of sexually experienced rats. SKF38393 facilitated the expression of sexual behavior by sexually exhausted rats, but not that of sexually experienced males and quinpirole did not exert an effect in both types of animal. In line with these results, the apomorphine-induced reversal of sexual exhaustion was blocked by the D1-like receptor antagonist SCH23390. The data suggest that DA receptors play distinct roles in the expression of sexual behavior by male rats depending on their motivational state and that activation of D1-like receptors promotes the expression of sexual behavior in satiated rats.

  4. Behavioral cross-sensitization between testosterone and fenproporex in adolescent and adult rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.Q. Conceição

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The abuse of psychoactive drugs is considered a global health problem. During the last years, a relevant number of studies have investigated the relationship between anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS and other psychoactive drugs. AAS, such as testosterone, can cause a dependence syndrome that shares many features with the classical dependence to psychoactive substances. Pre-clinical evidence shows that there are interactions between testosterone and psychoactive drugs, such as cocaine. However, few studies have been performed to investigate the effect of repeated testosterone treatment on behavioral effects of amphetamine derivatives, such as fenproporex. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of repeated testosterone administration on fenproporex-induced locomotor activity in adolescent and adult rats. Adolescent male Wistar rats were injected with testosterone (10 mg/kg sc for 10 days. After 3 days, animals received an acute injection of fenproporex (3.0 mg/kg ip and the locomotor activity was recorded during 40 min. Thirty days later, the same animals received the same treatment with testosterone followed by a fenproporex challenge injection as described above. Our results demonstrated that repeated testosterone induced behavioral sensitization to fenproporex in adolescent but not in adult rats. These findings suggest that repeated AAS treatment might increase the dependence vulnerability to amphetamine and its derivatives in adolescent rats.

  5. Chronic fluoxetine inhibits sexual behavior in the male rat: reversal with oxytocin.

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    Cantor, J M; Binik, Y M; Pfaus, J G

    1999-06-01

    Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, used widely in the treatment of depression, progressively inhibit sexual orgasm in many patients and induce a transient inhibition of sexual desire. We attempted to model the effects of these drugs in sexually experienced male rats during tests of copulation in bilevel chambers. These chambers allow the study of both appetitive and consummatory sexual responses of male rats. Males were treated daily with fluoxetine hydrochloride (0, 1, 5, or 10 mg/kg) and tested for sexual behavior with receptive females at 4-day intervals. Rats were treated with oxytocin (200 ng/kg) or saline after ejaculations had decreased. Fluoxetine decreased ejaculatory responses of male rats in a dose- and time-dependent fashion, but left the copulatory efficiency of the males intact. In contrast, conditioned level changing, a measure of appetitive sexual excitement, was inhibited following acute and chronic treatment with 10 mg/kg, although tolerance may have developed to the effect of 5 mg/kg. Subsequent administration of oxytocin restored the ejaculatory response but not the measure of sexual excitement to baseline levels. The reversal by oxytocin of the fluoxetine-induced deficit in ejaculations is consistent with the hypothesis that serotonin suppresses ejaculatory mechanisms by interrupting the action of oxytocin, which normally accompanies sexual behavior. Co-administration of oxytocin may help to alleviate the predominant sexual side effect of serotonin reuptake blockers.

  6. Behavioral cross-sensitization between testosterone and fenproporex in adolescent and adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conceição, C Q; Engi, S A; Cruz, F C; Planeta, C S

    2017-11-17

    The abuse of psychoactive drugs is considered a global health problem. During the last years, a relevant number of studies have investigated the relationship between anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) and other psychoactive drugs. AAS, such as testosterone, can cause a dependence syndrome that shares many features with the classical dependence to psychoactive substances. Pre-clinical evidence shows that there are interactions between testosterone and psychoactive drugs, such as cocaine. However, few studies have been performed to investigate the effect of repeated testosterone treatment on behavioral effects of amphetamine derivatives, such as fenproporex. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of repeated testosterone administration on fenproporex-induced locomotor activity in adolescent and adult rats. Adolescent male Wistar rats were injected with testosterone (10 mg/kg sc for 10 days). After 3 days, animals received an acute injection of fenproporex (3.0 mg/kg ip) and the locomotor activity was recorded during 40 min. Thirty days later, the same animals received the same treatment with testosterone followed by a fenproporex challenge injection as described above. Our results demonstrated that repeated testosterone induced behavioral sensitization to fenproporex in adolescent but not in adult rats. These findings suggest that repeated AAS treatment might increase the dependence vulnerability to amphetamine and its derivatives in adolescent rats.

  7. Rat hippocampal alterations could underlie behavioral abnormalities induced by exposure to moderate noise levels.

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    Uran, S L; Aon-Bertolino, M L; Caceres, L G; Capani, F; Guelman, L R

    2012-08-30

    Noise exposure is known to affect auditory structures in living organisms. However, it should not be ignored that many of the effects of noise are extra-auditory. Previous findings of our laboratory demonstrated that noise was able to induce behavioral alterations that are mainly related to the cerebellum (CE) and the hippocampus (HC). Therefore, the aim of this work was to reveal new data about the vulnerability of developing rat HC to moderate noise levels through the assessment of potential histological changes and hippocampal-related behavioral alterations. Male Wistar rats were exposed to noise (95-97 dB SPL, 2h daily) either for 1 day (acute noise exposure, ANE) or between postnatal days 15 and 30 (sub-acute noise exposure, SANE). Hippocampal histological evaluation as well as short (ST) and long term (LT) habituation and recognition memory assessments were performed. Results showed a mild disruption in the different hippocampal regions after ANE and SANE schemes, along with significant behavioral abnormalities. These data suggest that exposure of developing rats to noise levels of moderate intensity is able to trigger changes in the HC, an extra-auditory structure of the Central Nervous System (CNS), that could underlie the observed behavioral effects. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Ethological analysis of mother-pup interactions and other behavioral reactions in rats: effects of malnutrition and tactile stimulation of the pups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riul T.R.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Mother-pup interaction, as well as other behavioral reactions were studied during the lactation period in 24 litters of Wistar rats and their dams fed either a 16% (control - C; 12 litters or a 6% (malnourished - M; 12 litters protein diet. The diets were isocaloric. Throughout lactation there was a 36.4% weight loss of M dams and a 63% body weight deficit in the M pups when compared to control pups. During this period, half of the litters were exposed daily to additional tactile stimulation (CS or MS, while the other half were submitted to normal rearing conditions (CN or MN. The tactile stimulation of pups (handling consisted of holding the animal in one hand and gently touching the dorsal part of the animal's body with the fingers for 3 min. A special camera and a time-lapse video were used to record litter behavior in their home cages. Starting at 6 p.m. and ending at 6 a.m., on days 3, 6, 12, 15, 18 and 21 of lactation, photos were taken at 4-s intervals. An increase in the frequency (154.88 ± 16.19 and duration (455.86 ± 18.05 min of suckling was observed throughout the lactation period in all groups compared to birth day (frequency 24.88 ± 2.37 and duration 376.76 ± 21.01 min, but the frequency was higher in the C (84.96 ± 8.52 than in the M group (43.13 ± 4.37; however, the M group (470.2 ± 11.87 min spent more time suckling as compared with the C group (393.67 ± 13.09 min. The M dams showed a decreased frequency of resting position throughout the lactation period (6.5 ± 2.48 compared to birth day (25.42 ± 7.74. Pups from the C group were more frequently observed separated (73.02 ± 4.38 and interacting (258.99 ± 20.61 more with their mothers than the M pups (separated 66.94 ± 5.5 and interacting 165.72 ± 12.05. Tactile stimulation did not interact with diet condition, showing that the kind of stimulation used in the present study did not lead to recovery from the changes induced by protein malnutrition. The changes in

  9. Voluntary physical exercise alters attentional orienting and social behavior in a rat model of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

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    Hopkins, Michael E; Sharma, Mita; Evans, Gretchen C; Bucci, David J

    2009-06-01

    The effects of voluntary physical exercise on attentional function and social behavior were examined in male and female spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), a commonly used animal model of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Rats in the exercise groups had free access to a running wheel for 2 weeks and then all rats received nonreinforced presentations of a visual stimulus (light) during the 1st training session, followed by daily sessions in which the light was paired with food. Nonexercising male and female SHR rats exhibited more unconditioned orienting behavior than Wistar-Kyoto rats. SHRs also exhibited impaired conditioning when the light was paired with food. Exercise reduced orienting in female SHRs but not in male SHRs. In the social interaction task, nonexercising male and female SHRs interacted more with an unfamiliar rat than Wistar-Kyoto rats. Exercise reduced the number of social interactions in female SHRs but not male SHRs. There were no differences in general locomotor activity observed between the nonexercising and exercising SHRs. These data indicate that exercise may preferentially benefit female SHRs, and has implications for using exercise as an intervention for ADHD and for understanding sex differences in the effects of exercise on behavior. Copyright (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  10. Restoration of peripheral V2 receptor vasopressin signaling fails to correct behavioral changes in Brattleboro rats.

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    Balázsfi, Diána; Pintér, Ottó; Klausz, Barbara; Kovács, Krisztina B; Fodor, Anna; Török, Bibiána; Engelmann, Mario; Zelena, Dóra

    2015-01-01

    Beside its hormonal function in salt and water homeostasis, vasopressin released into distinct brain areas plays a crucial role in stress-related behavior resulting in the enhancement of an anxious/depressive-like state. We aimed to investigate whether correction of the peripheral symptoms of congenital absence of AVP also corrects the behavioral alterations in AVP-deficient Brattleboro rats. Wild type (WT) and vasopressin-deficient (KO) male Brattleboro rats were tested. Half of the KO animals were treated by desmopressin (V2-receptor agonist) via osmotic minipump (subcutaneous) to eliminate the peripheral symptoms of vasopressin-deficiency. Anxiety was studied by elevated plus maze (EPM), defensive withdrawal (DW) and marble burying (MB) tests, while depressive-like changes were monitored in forced swimming (FS) and anhedonia by sucrose preference test. Cell activity was examined in septum and amygdala by c-Fos immunohistochemistry after 10 min FS. KO rats spent more time in the open arm of the EPM, spent less time at the periphery of DW and showed less burying behavior in MB suggesting a reduced anxiety state. KO animals showed less floating behavior during FS revealing a less depressive phenotype. Desmopressin treatment compensated the peripheral effects of vasopressin-deficiency without a significant influence on the behavior. The FS-induced c-Fos immunoreactivity in the medial amygdala was different in WT and KO rats, with almost identical levels in KO and desmopressin treated animals. There were no differences in central and basolateral amygdala as well as in lateral septum. Our data confirmed the role of vasopressin in the development of affective disorders through central mechanisms. The involvement of the medial amygdala in the behavioral alterations of vasopressin deficient animals deserves further attention. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Behavioral sensitization after repeated formaldehyde exposure in rats.

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    Sorg, B A; Hochstatter, T

    1999-01-01

    Multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) is a phenomenon whereby individuals report increased sensitivity to chemicals in the environment, and attribute their sensitivities to prior exposure to the same or often structurally unrelated chemicals. A leading hypothesis suggests that MCS is akin to behavioral sensitization observed in rodents after repeated exposure to drugs of abuse or environmental stressors. Sensitization occurring within limbic circuitry of the central nervous system (CNS) may explain the multisymptom complaints in individuals with MCS. The present studies represent the continuing development of an animal model for MCS, the basis of which is the CNS sensitization hypothesis. Three behaviors were assessed in rats repeatedly exposed to formaldehyde (Form) inhalation. In the first series of experiments, rats were given high-dose Form exposure (11 parts per million [ppm]; 1 h/day x 7 days) or low-dose Form exposure (1 ppm; either 1 h/day x 7 days or 1 h/day x 5 days/week x 4 weeks). Within a few days after discontinuing daily Form, cocaine-induced locomotor activity was elevated after high-dose Form or 20 days of low-dose Form inhalation. Approximately 1 month later, cocaine-induced locomotor activity remained significantly elevated in the 20-day Form-exposed rats. The second experiment assessed whether prior exposure to Form (20 days, as above) would alter the ability to condition to an odor (orange oil) paired with footshock. The results suggested a tendency to increase the conditioned fear response to the odor but not the context of the footshock box, and a decreased tendency to extinguish the conditioned fear response to odor. The third experiment examined whether CNS sensitization to daily cocaine or stress would alter subsequent avoidance responding to odor (Form). Daily cocaine significantly elevated approach responses to Form, while daily stress pretreatment produced a trend in the opposite direction, producing greater avoidance of Form. Preliminary

  12. Inherited behaviors, BDNF expression and response to treatment in a novel multifactorial rat model for depression.

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    Gersner, Roman; Gal, Ram; Levit, Ofir; Moshe, Hagar; Zangen, Abraham

    2014-06-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a common and devastating mental illness behaviorally characterized by various symptoms, including reduced motivation, anhedonia and psychomotor retardation. Although the etiology of MDD is still obscure, a genetic predisposition appears to play an important role. Here we used, for the first time, a multifactorial selective breeding procedure to generate a distinct 'depressed' rat line (DRL); our selection was based upon mobility in the forced swim test, sucrose preference and home-cage locomotion, three widely used tests associated with core characteristics of MDD. Other behavioral effects of the selection process, as well as changes in brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and the response to three antidepressant treatments, were also examined. We show that decreased mobility in the forced swim test and decreased sucrose preference (two directly selected traits), as well as decreased exploration in the open field test (an indirectly selected trait), are hereditary components in DRL rats. In addition, lower BDNF levels are observed in the dorsal hippocampus of DRL rats, complying with the neurotrophic hypothesis of depression. Finally, electroconvulsive shocks (ECS) but not pharmacological treatment normalizes both the depressive-like behavioral impairments and the BDNF-related molecular alterations in DRL rats, highlighting the need for robust treatment when the disease is inherited and not necessarily triggered by salient chronic stress. We therefore provide a novel multifactorial genetic rat model for depression-related behaviors. The model can be used to further study the etiology of the disease and suggest molecular correlates and possible treatments for the disease.

  13. Prenatal exposure to aflatoxin B1: developmental, behavioral, and reproductive alterations in male rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supriya, Ch.; Reddy, P. Sreenivasula

    2015-06-01

    Previous studies have shown that aflatoxin B1 (AfB1) inhibits androgen biosynthesis as a result of its ability to form a high-affinity complex with the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein. The results of the present study demonstrate the postnatal effects of in utero exposure to AfB1 in the rat. Pregnant Wistar rats were given 10, 20, or 50 μg AfB1/kg body weight daily from gestation day (GD) 12 to GD 19. At parturition, newborns were observed for clinical signs and survival. All animals were born alive and initially appeared to be active. Male pups from control and AfB1-exposed animals were weaned and maintained up to postnatal day (PD) 100. Litter size, birth weight, sex ratio, survival rate, and crown-rump length of the pups were significantly decreased in AfB1-exposed rats when compared to controls. Elapsed time (days) for testes to descend into the scrotal sac was significantly delayed in experimental pups when compared to control pups. Behavioral observations such as cliff avoidance, negative geotaxis, surface rightening activity, ascending wire mesh, open field behavior, and exploratory and locomotory activities were significantly impaired in experimental pups. Body weights and the indices of testis, cauda epididymis, prostate, seminal vesicles, and liver were significantly reduced on PD 100 in male rats exposed to AfB1 during embryonic development when compared with controls. Significant reduction in the testicular daily sperm production, epididymal sperm count, and number of viable, motile, and hypo-osmotic tail coiled sperm was observed in experimental rats. The levels of serum testosterone and activity levels of testicular hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases were significantly decreased in a dose-dependent manner with a significant increase in the serum follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone in experimental rats. Deterioration in the testicular and cauda epididymal architecture was observed in experimental rats. The results of fertility

  14. [Change of hippocampal NMDA receptor and emotional behavior and spatial learning and memory in status epilepticus rat model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei-Ping; Lou, Yan; Li, Zhen-Zhong; Li, Pan; Duan, Rui-Sheng

    2007-02-01

    SD rats were utilized for the purpose of the exploration of effects of status epilepticus (SE) on their emotional behavior, spatial learning and memory, and explorating its molecular mechanism. Forty maturity male SD rats, weighing (200 +/- 20) g were divided randomly and equally into SE group (SG) and normal control group (NG). The SG rats were induced by Pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) and the control animals received a saline (0.9%) solution. The change of emotional behavior in two groups were tested in elevated plus maze. Furthermore, Morris water maze was applied to evaluate the effects by SE on spatial learning and memory in rats. At the same time, N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor NR1 subunit mRNA in the hippocampus was determined by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). In elevated plus test, SE rats increased the times of visits as well as the time spent on the open arms of the elevated plus maze (P emotional behavior and damage of spatial learning and memory in rats. NR1 might be involved in the patho- and physiological process in causing these behavioral changes.

  15. Role of beta1-adrenoceptor in the basolateral amygdala of rats with anxiety-like behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Ailing; Li, Xiaorong; Zhao, Baoquan

    2008-05-23

    There are evidence suggesting that the function of adrenergic receptor is affected in the amygdala of animals with anxiety-like behavior. However, beta-adrenoceptor (beta-AR) subtypes, consisting of three subtypes, exert different effects on anxiety regulation. In order to determine the function of the beta1-AR subtype in anxiety-like behavior, we investigated the change of beta1-AR expression by immunostaining in the basolateral amygdala (BLA) of rats treated by conditional fear training. The results indicated that the level of beta1-AR was significantly increased in the BLA of fear-conditioned animals as compared that of controls. In animal behavioral tests, animals treated with selective beta1-AR antagonist metoprolol before conditional fear training exhibited a significant attenuation of anxiety-like behavior characterized by increased percentage of time spent and percentage of entries in the open arms, and increased number of head-dips in the elevated plus-maze (EPM) test compared with the animals treated with only saline. Furthermore, the rats pretreated with metoprolol in the conditional fear training significantly decreased the freezing behavior in the test compared with the controls. The results suggested that the beta1-AR played an important role in anxiety-like behavior, and inhibition of the beta1-AR in the BLA could produce anxiolytic effect.

  16. Intrahippocampal administration of an androgen receptor antagonist, flutamide, can increase anxiety-like behavior in intact and DHT-replaced male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edinger, Kassandra L; Frye, Cheryl A

    2006-08-01

    Testosterone (T) and its 5alpha-reduced metabolite, dihydrotestosterone (DHT), can decrease anxiety-like behavior; however, the mechanisms underlying these effects have not been established. First, we hypothesized that if T reduces anxiety-like behavior through actions of its 5alpha-reduced metabolite, DHT, then gonadectomy (GDX) would increase anxiety-like behavior, an effect which would be reversed by systemic administration of DHT. Second, we hypothesized that if T and DHT reduce anxiety-like behavior in part through actions at intracellular androgen receptors in the hippocampus, then administration of an androgen receptor antagonist, flutamide, directly to the hippocampus should increase anxiety-like behavior of intact and DHT-replaced, but not GDX, male rats. Inserts that were empty or contained flutamide were applied directly to the dorsal hippocampus of intact, GDX, or GDX and DHT-replaced rats 2 h prior to testing in the open field, elevated plus maze, or defensive freezing tasks. GDX rats exhibited significantly more anxiety-like behaviors than intact or DHT-replaced rats. Intact and DHT-replaced rats administered flutamide to the hippocampus showed significantly more anxiety-like behavior than did intact and DHT-replaced controls. However, flutamide alone did not increase anxiety-like behavior of GDX rats. Together, these findings suggest that androgens can decrease anxiety-like behavior of male rats in part through DHT's actions at androgen receptors in the hippocampus.

  17. Activation of adenosine A(1) receptors alters behavioral and biochemical parameters in hyperthyroid rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, Alessandra Nejar; Fontella, Fernanda Urruth; Bonan, Carla Denise; Barreto-Chaves, Maria Luiza M; Dalmaz, Carla; Sarkis, João José Freitas

    2006-02-28

    Adenosine acting on A(1) receptors has been related with neuroprotective and neuromodulatory actions, protection against oxidative stress and decrease of anxiety and nociceptive signaling. Previous studies demonstrated an inhibition of the enzymes that hydrolyze ATP to adenosine in the rat central nervous system after hyperthyroidism induction. Manifestations of hyperthyroidism include increased anxiety, nervousness, high O(2) consumption and physical hyperactivity. Here, we investigated the effects of administration of a specific agonist of adenosine A(1) receptor (N(6)-cyclopentyladenosine; CPA) on nociception, anxiety, exploratory response, locomotion and brain oxidative stress of hyperthyroid rats. Hyperthyroidism was induced by daily intraperitoneal injections of l-thyroxine (T4) for 14 days. Nociception was assessed with a tail-flick apparatus and exploratory behavior, locomotion and anxiety were analyzed by open-field and plus-maze tests. We verified the total antioxidant reactivity (TAR), lipid peroxide levels by the thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS) reaction and the free radicals content by the DCF test. Our results demonstrated that CPA reverted the hyperalgesia induced by hyperthyroidism and decreased the exploratory behavior, locomotion and anxiety in hyperthyroid rats. Furthermore, CPA decreased lipid peroxidation in hippocampus and cerebral cortex of control rats and in cerebral cortex of hyperthyroid rats. CPA also increased the total antioxidant reactivity in hippocampus and cerebral cortex of control and hyperthyroid rats, but the production of free radicals verified by the DCF test was changed only in cerebral cortex. These results suggest that some of the hyperthyroidism effects are subjected to regulation by adenosine A(1) receptor, demonstrating the involvement of the adenosinergic system in this pathology.

  18. Effects of repeated 9 and 30-day exposure to extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields on social recognition behavior and estrogen receptors expression in olfactory bulb of Wistar female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernal-Mondragón, C; Arriaga-Avila, V; Martínez-Abundis, E; Barrera-Mera, B; Mercado-Gómez, O; Guevara-Guzmán, R

    2017-02-01

    We investigated the short- and long-term effects of extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields (EMF) on social recognition behavior and expression of α- and β-estrogen receptors (ER). Rats were exposed to 60-Hz electromagnetic fields for 9 or 30 days and tested for social recognition behavior. Immunohistochemistry and western blot assays were performed to evaluate α- and β-ER expression in the olfactory bulb of intact, ovariectomized (OVX), and ovariectomized+estradiol (E2) replacement (OVX+E2). Ovariectomization showed impairment of social recognition after 9 days of EMF exposure and a complete recovery after E2 replacement and so did those after 30 days. Short EMF exposure increased expression of β-ER in intact, but not in the others. Longer exposure produced a decrease in intact but an increase in OVX and OVX+E2. Our findings suggest a significant role for β-estrogen receptors and a lack of effect for α-estrogen receptors on a social recognition task. EMF: extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields; ERs: estrogen receptors; OB: olfactory bulb; OVX: ovariectomized; OVX + E 2 : ovariectomized + estradiol replacement; IEI: interexposure interval; β-ER: beta estrogen receptor; E 2 : replacement of estradiol; GAPDH: glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase; WB: Western blot; PBS: phosphate-buffer saline; PB: phosphate-buffer.

  19. Adolescent voluntary exercise attenuated hippocampal innate immunity responses and depressive-like behaviors following maternal separation stress in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Mahsa; Peeri, Maghsoud; Hosseini, Mir-Jamal

    2016-09-01

    Early life stressful events have detrimental effects on the brain and behavior, which are associated with the development of depression. Immune-inflammatory responses have been reported to contribute in the pathophysiology of depression. Many studies have reported on the beneficial effects of exercise against stress. However, underlying mechanisms through which exercise exerts its effects were poorly studied. Therefore, it applied maternal separation (MS), as a valid animal model of early-life adversity, in rats from postnatal day (PND) 2 to 14 for 180min per day. At PND 28, male Wistar albino rats were subjected to 5 experimental groups; 1) controls 2) MS rats 3) MS rats treated with fluoxetine 5mg/kg to PND 60, 4) MS rats that were subjected to voluntary running wheel (RW) exercise and 5) MS rats that were subjected to mandatory treadmill (TM) exercise until adulthood. At PND 60, depressive-like behaviors were assessed by using forced swimming test (FST), splash test, and sucrose preference test (SPT). Our results revealed that depressive-like behaviors following MS stress were associated with an increase in expression of toll-like receptor 4 (Tlr-4) and its main signaling protein, Myd88, in the hippocampal formation. Also, we found that voluntary (and not mandatory) physical exercise during adolescence is protected against depressant effects of early-life stress at least partly through mitigating the innate immune responses in the hippocampus. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Cocaine-induced locomotor activity in rats selectively bred for low and high voluntary running behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jacob D; Green, Caroline L; Arthur, Ian M; Booth, Frank W; Miller, Dennis K

    2015-02-01

    The rewarding effects of physical activity and abused drugs are caused by stimulation of similar brain pathways. Low (LVR) and high (HVR) voluntary running lines were developed by selectively breeding Wistar rats on running distance performance on postnatal days 28-34. We hypothesized that LVR rats would be more sensitive to the locomotor-activating effects of cocaine than HVR rats due to their lower motivation for wheel running. We investigated how selection for LVR or HVR behavior affects inherited activity responses: (a) open field activity levels, (b) habituation to an open field environment, and (c) the locomotor response to cocaine. Open field activity was measured for 80 min on three successive days (days 1-3). Data from the first 20 min were analyzed to determine novelty-induced locomotor activity (day 1) and the habituation to the environment (days 1-3). On day 3, rats were acclimated to the chamber for 20 min and then received saline or cocaine (10, 20, or 30 mg/kg) injection. Dopamine transporter (DAT) protein in the nucleus accumbens was measured via Western blot. Selecting for low and high voluntary running behavior co-selects for differences in inherent (HVR > LVR) and cocaine-induced (LVR > HVR) locomotor activity levels. The differences in the selected behavioral measures do not appear to correlate with DAT protein levels. LVR and HVR rats are an intriguing physical activity model for studying the interactions between genes related to the motivation to run, to use drugs of abuse, and to exhibit locomotor activity.

  1. Prenatal undernutrition disrupted the sexual maturation, but not the sexual behavior, in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuzaki, Toshiya; Munkhzaya, Munkhsaikhan; Tungalagsuvd, Altankhuu; Mayila, Yiliyasi; Iwasa, Takeshi; Yano, Kiyohito; Yanagihara, Rie; Tokui, Takako; Kato, Takeshi; Kuwahara, Akira; Matsui, Sumika; Irahara, Minoru

    2017-10-01

    Exposure to various stressors, including psychological, metabolic, and immune, in the perinatal period induces long-lasting effects in physiological function and increase the risk of metabolic disorders in later life. In the present study, sexual maturation and sexual behavior were assessed in prenatally undernourished mature male rats. All the pregnant rats were divided into the maternal normal nutrition (mNN) group and the maternal undernutrition (mUN) group. The mUN mothers received 50% of the amount of the daily food intake of the mNN mothers. Preputial separation and sexual behavior were observed in randomly selected pups of the mNN and mUN groups. The body weight of the mothers was significantly lighter in the mUN group than in the mNN group. Similarly, the pups in the mUN group showed a significantly lower body weight than those in the mNN group from postnatal day (PND) 1 to PND 15. The preputial separation day was significantly delayed in the mUN group, compared to the mNN group. Sexual behavior did not show any significant difference between the two groups. These findings indicated that prenatal undernutrition delayed sexual maturation, but did not suppress sexual behavior, in mature male rats.

  2. What the laboratory rat has taught us about social play behavior: role in behavioral development and neural mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderschuren, Louk J M J; Trezza, Viviana

    2014-01-01

    Social play behavior is the most vigorous and characteristic form of social interaction displayed by developing mammals. The laboratory rat is an ideal species to study this behavior, since it shows ample social play that can be easily recognized and quantified. In this chapter, we will first briefly describe the structure of social play behavior in rats. Next, we will discuss studies that used social isolation rearing during the period in life when social play is most abundant to investigate the developmental functions of social play behavior in rats, focusing on the consequences of play deprivation on social, cognitive, emotional, and sensorimotor development. Last, we will discuss the neural substrates of social play behavior in rats, with emphasis on the limbic corticostriatal circuits that underlie emotions and their influence on behavior.

  3. BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF MICROWAVE RADIATION ON BRAIN TISSUE IN RATS

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    Boris Đinđić

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to microwave radiation induces multiple organ dysfunctions, especially in CNS.The aim of this work was investigation of biological effects of microwave radiation on rats' brain and determination of increased oxidative stress as a possible pathogenetic's mechanism.Wis tar rats 3 months old were divided in experimental (4 female and 4 male animal and control group (5 female and 4 male. This experimental group was constantly exposed to a magnetic field of 5 mG. We simulated using of mobile phones 30 min every day. The source of NIR emitted MF that was similar to mobile phones at 900 MHz. The rats were killed after 2 months. Biological effects were determined by observation of individual and collective behavior and body mass changes. Lipid per oxidation was determined by measuring quantity of malondialdehyde (MDA in brain homogenate.The animals in experimental group exposed to EMF showed les weight gain. The most important observations were changing of basic behavior models and expression of aggressive or panic behavior. The content of MDA in brain tissue is singificantly higher (1.42 times in rats exposed to electromagnetic fields (3,82±0.65 vs. control 2.69±0.42 nmol/mg proteins, p<0.01.Increased oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation after exposition in EM fields induced disorders of function and structure of brain.

  4. IMPAIRED LEARNING AND ABNORMAL OPEN-FIELD BEHAVIORS OF RATS AFTER EARLY POSTNATAL ANOXIA AND THE BENEFICIAL EFFECT OF THE CALCIUM-ANTAGONIST NIMODIPINE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    NYAKAS, C; MARKEL, E; SCHUURMAN, T; LUITEN, PGM

    1991-01-01

    Perinatal anoxia/hypoxia is considered a serious risk factor for normal brain development. Anoxia induced by repeated asphyxia at 2 and 4 days after birth resulted in a transient hyperactivity in the small open-field, and a behavioural depression in adult open-field activity of male Wistar rats. The

  5. Fresh onion juice enhanced copulatory behavior in male rats with and without paroxetine-induced sexual dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allouh, Mohammed Z; Daradka, Haytham M; Al Barbarawi, Mohammed M; Mustafa, Ayman G

    2014-02-01

    Onion (Allium cepa) is one of the most commonly cultivated species of the family Liliaceae, and has long been used in dietary and therapeutic applications. Treatment with fresh onion juice has been reported to promote testosterone production in male rats. Testosterone is the male sex hormone responsible for enhancing sexual libido and potency. This study aimed to investigate the effects of onion juice on copulatory behavior of sexually potent male rats and in male rats with paroxetine-induced sexual dysfunction. Sexually experienced male rats were divided into seven groups: a control group, three onion juice-treated groups, a paroxetine-treated group, and two groups treated with paroxetine plus different doses of onion juice. At the end of the treatments, sexual behavior parameters and testosterone levels were measured and compared among the groups. Administration of onion juice significantly reduced mount frequency and latency and increased the copulatory efficacy of potent male rats. In addition, administration of onion juice attenuated the prolonged ejaculatory latency period induced by paroxetine and increased the percentage of ejaculating rats. Serum testosterone levels increased significantly by onion juice administration. However, a significant reduction in testosterone because of paroxetine therapy was observed. This reduction was restored to normal levels by administration of onion juice. This study conclusively demonstrates that fresh onion juice improves copulatory behavior in sexually potent male rats and in those with paroxetine-induced sexual dysfunction by increasing serum testosterone levels.

  6. Indole, a Signaling Molecule Produced by the Gut Microbiota, Negatively Impacts Emotional Behaviors in Rats

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    Mathilde Jaglin

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Gut microbiota produces a wide and diverse array of metabolites that are an integral part of the host metabolome. The emergence of the gut microbiome-brain axis concept has prompted investigations on the role of gut microbiota dysbioses in the pathophysiology of brain diseases. Specifically, the search for microbe-related metabolomic signatures in human patients and animal models of psychiatric disorders has pointed out the importance of the microbial metabolism of aromatic amino acids. Here, we investigated the effect of indole on brain and behavior in rats. Indole is produced by gut microbiota from tryptophan, through the tryptophanase enzyme encoded by the tnaA gene. First, we mimicked an acute and high overproduction of indole by injecting this compound in the cecum of conventional rats. This treatment led to a dramatic decrease of motor activity. The neurodepressant oxidized derivatives of indole, oxindole and isatin, accumulated in the brain. In addition, increase in eye blinking frequency and in c-Fos protein expression in the dorsal vagal complex denoted a vagus nerve activation. Second, we mimicked a chronic and moderate overproduction of indole by colonizing germ-free rats with the indole-producing bacterial species Escherichia coli. We compared emotional behaviors of these rats with those of germ-free rats colonized with a genetically-engineered counterpart strain unable to produce indole. Rats overproducing indole displayed higher helplessness in the tail suspension test, and enhanced anxiety-like behavior in the novelty, elevated plus maze and open-field tests. Vagus nerve activation was suggested by an increase in eye blinking frequency. However, unlike the conventional rats dosed with a high amount of indole, the motor activity was not altered and neither oxindole nor isatin could be detected in the brain. Further studies are required for a comprehensive understanding of the mechanisms supporting indole effects on emotional

  7. Indole, a Signaling Molecule Produced by the Gut Microbiota, Negatively Impacts Emotional Behaviors in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaglin, Mathilde; Rhimi, Moez; Philippe, Catherine; Pons, Nicolas; Bruneau, Aurélia; Goustard, Bénédicte; Daugé, Valérie; Maguin, Emmanuelle; Naudon, Laurent; Rabot, Sylvie

    2018-01-01

    Gut microbiota produces a wide and diverse array of metabolites that are an integral part of the host metabolome. The emergence of the gut microbiome-brain axis concept has prompted investigations on the role of gut microbiota dysbioses in the pathophysiology of brain diseases. Specifically, the search for microbe-related metabolomic signatures in human patients and animal models of psychiatric disorders has pointed out the importance of the microbial metabolism of aromatic amino acids. Here, we investigated the effect of indole on brain and behavior in rats. Indole is produced by gut microbiota from tryptophan, through the tryptophanase enzyme encoded by the tnaA gene. First, we mimicked an acute and high overproduction of indole by injecting this compound in the cecum of conventional rats. This treatment led to a dramatic decrease of motor activity. The neurodepressant oxidized derivatives of indole, oxindole and isatin, accumulated in the brain. In addition, increase in eye blinking frequency and in c-Fos protein expression in the dorsal vagal complex denoted a vagus nerve activation. Second, we mimicked a chronic and moderate overproduction of indole by colonizing germ-free rats with the indole-producing bacterial species Escherichia coli. We compared emotional behaviors of these rats with those of germ-free rats colonized with a genetically-engineered counterpart strain unable to produce indole. Rats overproducing indole displayed higher helplessness in the tail suspension test, and enhanced anxiety-like behavior in the novelty, elevated plus maze and open-field tests. Vagus nerve activation was suggested by an increase in eye blinking frequency. However, unlike the conventional rats dosed with a high amount of indole, the motor activity was not altered and neither oxindole nor isatin could be detected in the brain. Further studies are required for a comprehensive understanding of the mechanisms supporting indole effects on emotional behaviors. As our findings

  8. Developmental disruption of amygdala transcriptome and socioemotional behavior in rats exposed to valproic acid prenatally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Catherine E; Hennessey, Thomas M; Gordon, Katelyn M; Ryan, Steve J; McNair, Morgan L; Ressler, Kerry J; Rainnie, Donald G

    2017-01-01

    The amygdala controls socioemotional behavior and has consistently been implicated in the etiology of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Precocious amygdala development is commonly reported in ASD youth with the degree of overgrowth positively correlated to the severity of ASD symptoms. Prenatal exposure to VPA leads to an ASD phenotype in both humans and rats and has become a commonly used tool to model the complexity of ASD symptoms in the laboratory. Here, we examined abnormalities in gene expression in the amygdala and socioemotional behavior across development in the valproic acid (VPA) rat model of ASD. Rat dams received oral gavage of VPA (500 mg/kg) or saline daily between E11 and 13. Socioemotional behavior was tracked across development in both sexes. RNA sequencing and proteomics were performed on amygdala samples from male rats across development. Effects of VPA on time spent in social proximity and anxiety-like behavior were sex dependent, with social abnormalities presenting in males and heightened anxiety in females. Across time VPA stunted developmental and immune, but enhanced cellular death and disorder, pathways in the amygdala relative to saline controls. At postnatal day 10, gene pathways involved in nervous system and cellular development displayed predicted activations in prenatally exposed VPA amygdala samples. By juvenile age, however, transcriptomic and proteomic pathways displayed reductions in cellular growth and neural development. Alterations in immune pathways, calcium signaling, Rho GTPases, and protein kinase A signaling were also observed. As behavioral, developmental, and genomic alterations are similar to those reported in ASD, these results lend support to prenatal exposure to VPA as a useful tool for understanding how developmental insults to molecular pathways in the amygdala give rise to ASD-related syndromes.

  9. Estradiol or fluoxetine alters depressive behavior and tryptophan hydroxylase in rat raphe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fu-Zhong; Wu, Yan; Zhang, Wei-Guo; Cai, Yi-Yun; Shi, Shen-Xun

    2010-03-10

    The effects of 17beta-estradiol and fluoxetine on behavior of ovariectomized rats subjected to the forced swimming test and the expression of tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) in dorsal and median raphe were investigated, respectively through time sampling technique of behavior scoring and immunohistochemistry. Both estradiol and fluoxetine increased swimming and decreased immobility in the forced swimming test. The forced swimming stress decreased integrated optical density of TPH-positive regions in dorsal and median raphe. Both estradiol and fluoxetine administration prevented integrated optical density of TPH-positive regions from being decreased by forced swimming stress. These observations suggest that both estradiol and fluoxetine have protective bearing on ovariectomized rats enduring forced swimming stress.

  10. The amygdala as a neurobiological target for ghrelin in rats: neuroanatomical, electrophysiological and behavioral evidence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayte Alvarez-Crespo

    Full Text Available Here, we sought to demonstrate that the orexigenic circulating hormone, ghrelin, is able to exert neurobiological effects (including those linked to feeding control at the level of the amygdala, involving neuroanatomical, electrophysiological and behavioural studies. We found that ghrelin receptors (GHS-R are densely expressed in several subnuclei of the amygdala, notably in ventrolateral (LaVL and ventromedial (LaVM parts of the lateral amygdaloid nucleus. Using whole-cell patch clamp electrophysiology to record from cells in the lateral amygdaloid nucleus, we found that ghrelin reduced the frequency of mEPSCs recorded from large pyramidal-like neurons, an effect that could be blocked by co-application of a ghrelin receptor antagonist. In ad libitum fed rats, intra-amygdala administration of ghrelin produced a large orexigenic response that lasted throughout the 4 hr of testing. Conversely, in hungry, fasted rats ghrelin receptor blockade in the amygdala significantly reduced food intake. Finally, we investigated a possible interaction between ghrelin's effects on feeding control and emotional reactivity exerted at the level of the amygdala. In rats allowed to feed during a 1-hour period between ghrelin injection and anxiety testing (elevated plus maze and open field, intra-amygdala ghrelin had no effect on anxiety-like behavior. By contrast, if the rats were not given access to food during this 1-hour period, a decrease in anxiety-like behavior was observed in both tests. Collectively, these data indicate that the amygdala is a valid target brain area for ghrelin where its neurobiological effects are important for food intake and for the suppression of emotional (anxiety-like behaviors if food is not available.

  11. [Behavior and functional state of the dopaminergic brain system in pups of depressive WAG/Rij rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malyshev, A V; Razumkina, E V; Rogozinskaia, É Ia; Sarkisova, K Iu; Dybynin, V A

    2014-01-01

    In the present work, it has been studied for the first time behavior and functional state of the dopaminergic brain system in pups of "depressive" WAG/Rij rats. Offspring of "depressive" WAG/Rij rats at age of 6-16 days compared with offspring of "normal" (non-depressed) outbred rats of the same age exhibited reduced rate of pshychomotor development, lower body weight, attenuation in integration of coordinated reflexes and vestibular function (greater latency of righting reflex, abnormal negative geotaxis), hyper-reactivity to tactile stimulation, reduced motivation to contact with mother (reduced infant-mother attachment). Differences in a nest seeking response induced by olfactory stimuli (olfactory discrimination test) and in locomotor activity (tests "gait reflex" and "small open field") have not been revealed. Acute injection of the antagonist of D2-like dopamine receptors clebopride 20 min before testing aggravated mother-oriented behavior in 15-days-old pups of both "depressive" and "non-depressive" rats. However this effect was greater in pups of "depressive" WAG/Rij rats compared with pups of "normal" rats that may indicate reduced functional activity of the dopaminergic brain system in offspring of "depressive" rats. It is proposed that reduced attachment behavior in pups of "depressive" WAG/Rij rats might be a consequence of maternal depression and associated with it reduced maternal care. Moreover, reduced attachment behavior in pups of "depressive" rats might be an early precursor (a marker) of depressive-like pathology which become apparent later in life (approximately at age of 3 months).

  12. A Novel Operant-based Behavioral Assay of Mechanical Allodynia in the Orofacial Region of Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrs, Eric L.; Kloefkorn, Heidi E.; Lakes, Emily H.; Jacobs, Brittany Y.; Neubert, John K.; Caudle, Robert M.; Allen, Kyle D.

    2015-01-01

    Background Detecting behaviors related to orofacial pain in rodent models often relies on subjective investigator grades or methods that place the animal in a stressful environment. In this study, an operant-based behavioral assay is presented for the assessment of orofacial tactile sensitivity in the rat. New Methods In the testing chamber, rats are provided access to a sweetened condensed milk bottle; however, a 360° array of stainless steel wire loops impedes access. To receive the reward, an animal must engage the wires across the orofacial region. Contact with the bottle triggers a motor, requiring the animal to accept increasing pressure on the face during the test. To evaluate this approach, tolerated bottle distance was measured for 10 hairless Sprague-Dawley rats at baseline and 30 minutes after application of capsaicin cream (0.1%) to the face. The experiment was repeated to evaluate the ability of morphine to reverse this effect. Results The application of capsaicin cream reduced tolerated bottle distance measures relative to baseline (porofacial sensitivity is presented using an operant system. Conclusions This operant device allows for consistent measurement of heightened tactile sensitivity in the orofacial regions of the rat. PMID:25823368

  13. Meningeal norepinephrine produces headache behaviors in rats via actions both on dural afferents and fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xiaomei; Yan, Jin; Tillu, Dipti; Asiedu, Marina; Weinstein, Nicole; Melemedjian, Ohannes; Price, Theodore; Dussor, Gregory

    2015-10-01

    Stress is commonly reported to contribute to migraine although mechanisms by which this may occur are not fully known. The purpose of these studies was to examine whether norepinephrine (NE), the primary sympathetic efferent transmitter, acts on processes in the meninges that may contribute to the pain of migraine. NE was applied to rat dura using a behavioral model of headache. Primary cultures of rat trigeminal ganglia retrogradely labeled from the dura mater and of rat dural fibroblasts were prepared. Patch-clamp electrophysiology, Western blot, and ELISA were performed to examine the effects of NE. Conditioned media from NE-treated fibroblast cultures was applied to the dura using the behavioral headache model. Dural injection both of NE and media from NE-stimulated fibroblasts caused cutaneous facial and hindpaw allodynia in awake rats. NE application to cultured dural afferents increased action potential firing in response to current injections. Application of NE to dural fibroblasts increased phosphorylation of ERK and caused the release of interleukin-6 (IL-6). These data demonstrate that NE can contribute to pro-nociceptive signaling from the meninges via actions on dural afferents and dural fibroblasts. Together, these actions of NE may contribute to the headache phase of migraine. © International Headache Society 2015.

  14. Neuroprotective and behavioral efficacy of intravenous transplanted adipose stem cells in experimental Parkinsonian rat models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malihe Nakhaeifard

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Parkinson's disease is a deficiency of dopamine in the striatum, characterized by bradykinesis, rigidity and resting tremor. Adipose tissue-Derived Stem Cells (ADSCs have many advantages for cell therapy because of the easy availability and pluripotency without ethical problems. In this research, the effects of ADSCs transplantation on motor impairment of rat Parkinsonian models were evaluated. Materials and Methods: Parkinson model was constructed by the unilateral lesion of striatum of male Wistar rats using 20µg of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA as lesion group. Cell and α-MEM (α-minimal essential medium groups were lesioned animals that received intravenous injection of 3×106 cells suspended in medium and medium repectively. All rats were evaluated behaviorally with rotarod and apomorphine-induced rotation tests, at 4 and 8 weeks after cell transplantation. Results: Lesion and α-MEM groups showed increased contralateral turns while cell group significantly ameliorated both in rotarod and apomorphine-induced rotation tests. There was a significant difference of contralateral turns between cell and lesioned groups at 8 weeks after transplantation. Lesioned rats showed significant decrease of staying on the rod as compared to control, but in cell group there was a significant increase in comparision with the lesioned animals. Conclusion: ADSCs injected intravenously promote functional recovery in Parkinsonian rats.

  15. [Age-related aspects of male rats sexual behavior with different senescence rates].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amstislavskaia, T G; Gladkikh, D V; Belousova, I I; Maslova, L N; Kolosova, N G

    2010-01-01

    Social and sexual behavior of males Wistar and senescence-accelerated OXYS rats was studied. The experimental model excluding direct interaction between partners showed that the exploratory activity decreased with aging in rats of both strains, but social motivation didn't change. No interstrain differences in intensity of sexual motivation in the presence of an inaccessible receptive female were observed in 4-month rats. The level of sexual motivation of 12-month Wistar rats didn't differ from that of 4-month animals. However, in 12-month OXYS males, sexual motivation was decreased as compared to both 4- and 12-month Wistar rats. The same regularities were found under conditions of direct interaction with a partner. Behavioral changes in 12-month OXYS rats were considered as genetically determinate abnormality at the initial stage of sexual behavior, i.e., sexual motivation. The results suggest the accelerated senescence of the reproductive system of OXYS rats.

  16. Housing conditions influence motor functions and exploratory behavior following focal damage of the rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gornicka-Pawlak, Elzbieta; Jabłońska, Anna; Chyliński, Andrzej; Domańska-Janik, Krystyna

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigated influence of housing conditions on motor functions recovery and exploratory behavior following ouabain focal brain lesion in the rat. During 30 days post-surgery period rats were housed individually in standard cages (IS) or in groups in enriched environment (EE) and behaviorally tested. The EE lesioned rats showed enhanced recovery from motor impairments in walking beam task, comparing with IS animals. Contrarily, in the open field IS rats (both lesioned and control) traveled a longer distance, showed less habituation and spent less time resting at the home base than the EE animals. Unlike the EE lesioned animals, the lesioned IS rats, presented a tendency to hyperactivity in postinjury period. Turning tendency was significantly affected by unilateral brain lesion only in the EE rats. We can conclude that housing conditions distinctly affected the rat's behavior in classical laboratory tests.

  17. Role of the agranular insular cortex in contextual control over cocaine-seeking behavior in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arguello, Amy A; Wang, Rong; Lyons, Carey M; Higginbotham, Jessica A; Hodges, Matthew A; Fuchs, Rita A

    2017-08-01

    Environmental stimulus control over drug relapse requires the retrieval of context-response-cocaine associations, maintained in long-term memory through active reconsolidation processes. Identifying the neural substrates of these phenomena is important from a drug addiction treatment perspective. The present study evaluated whether the agranular insular cortex (AI) plays a role in drug context-induced cocaine-seeking behavior and cocaine memory reconsolidation. Rats were trained to lever press for cocaine infusions in a distinctive context, followed by extinction training in a different context. Rats in experiment 1 received bilateral microinfusions of vehicle or a GABA agonist cocktail (baclofen and muscimol (BM)) into the AI or the overlying somatosensory cortex (SSJ, anatomical control region) immediately before a test of drug-seeking behavior (i.e., non-reinforced lever presses) in the previously cocaine-paired context. The effects of these manipulations on locomotor activity were also assessed in a novel context. Rats in experiment 2 received vehicle or BM into the AI after a 15-min reexposure to the cocaine-paired context, intended to reactivate context-response-cocaine memories and initiate their reconsolidation. The effects of these manipulations on drug context-induced cocaine-seeking behavior were assessed 72 h later. BM-induced pharmacological inactivation of the AI, but not the SSJ, attenuated drug context-induced reinstatement of cocaine-seeking behavior without altering locomotor activity. Conversely, AI inactivation after memory reactivation failed to impair subsequent drug-seeking behavior and thus cocaine memory reconsolidation. These findings suggest that the AI is a critical element of the neural circuitry that mediates contextual control over cocaine-seeking behavior.

  18. Increased anxiety-like behavior is associated with the metabolic syndrome in non-stressed rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, Daniel; Rico-Rosillo, Guadalupe; Vega-Robledo, Gloria Bertha; Zambrano, Elena

    2017-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MS) is a cluster of signs that increases the risk to develop diabetes mellitus type 2 and cardiovascular disease. In the last years, a growing interest to study the relationship between MS and psychiatric disorders, such as depression and anxiety, has emerged obtaining conflicting results. Diet-induced MS rat models have only examined the effects of high-fat or mixed cafeteria diets to a limited extent. We explored whether an anxiety-like behavior was associated with MS in non-stressed rats chronically submitted to a high-sucrose diet (20% sucrose in drinking water) using three different anxiety paradigms: the shock-probe/burying test (SPBT), the elevated plus-maze (EPM) and the open-field test (OFT). Behaviorally, the high-sucrose diet group showed an increase in burying behavior in the SPBT. Also, these animals displayed both avoidance to explore the central part of the arena and a significant increase in freezing behavior in the OFT and lack of effects in the EPM. Also, high-sucrose diet group showed signs of an MS-like condition: significant increases in body weight and body mass index, abdominal obesity, hypertension, hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, and dyslipidemia. Plasma leptin and resistin levels were also increased. No changes in plasma corticosterone levels were found. These results indicate that rats under a 24-weeks high-sucrose diet develop an MS associated with an anxiety-like behavior. Although the mechanisms underlying this behavioral outcome remain to be investigated, the role of leptin is emphasized. PMID:28463967

  19. A Coherent Pattern Among Social Behavior, Blood Pressure, Corticosterone and Catecholamine Measures in Individual Male Rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    FOKKEMA, DS; SMIT, K; VANDERGUGTEN, J; KOOLHAAS, JM

    1988-01-01

    Behavioral and physiological responses of 18 chronically cannulated male TMD-S3 rats were assessed during various social interactions with conspecifics, both with and without the possibility for physical contact (social vs. psychosocial stimulation). Response magnitudes (behavior, blood pressure,

  20. Anti-aggressive effects of neuropeptide S independent of anxiolysis in male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela I Beiderbeck

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Neuropeptide S (NPS exerts robust anxiolytic and memory enhancing effects, but only in a non-social context. In order to study whether NPS affects aggressive behavior we used Wistar rats bred for low (LAB and high (HAB levels of innate anxiety-related behaviour, respectively, which were both described to display increased levels of aggression compared with Wistar rats not selectively bred for anxiety (NAB. Male LAB, HAB and NAB rats were tested for aggressive behavior towards a male intruder rat within their home cage (10 min, resident-intruder [RI] test. Intracerebroventricular (icv infusion of NPS (1 nmol significantly reduced inter-male aggression in LAB rats, and tended to reduce aggression in HAB and NAB males. However, local infusion of NPS (0.2 or 0.1 nmol NPS into either the nucleus accumbens or the lateral hypothalamus did not influence aggressive behavior. Social investigation in the RI test and general social motivation assessed in the social preference paradigm were not altered by icv NPS. The anti-aggressive effect of NPS is most likely not causally linked to its anxiolytic properties, as intraperitoneal administration of the anxiogenic drug pentylenetetrazole decreased aggression in LAB rats whereas the anxiolytic drug diazepam did not affect aggression of HAB rats. Thus, although NPS has so far only been shown to exert effects on non-social behaviors, our results are the first demonstration of anti-aggressive effects of NPS in male rats.

  1. Different effects of two N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor antagonists on seizures, spontaneous behavior, and motor performance in immature rats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mareš, Pavel; Mikulecká, Anna

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 1 (2009), s. 32-39 ISSN 1525-5050 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC554; GA ČR(CZ) GA305/06/1188; GA MŠk(CZ) LN00B122 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : NMDA receptors * antagonists * developing rat Subject RIV: FH - Neuro logy Impact factor: 2.610, year: 2009

  2. Sigma-1 Receptor Mediates Acquisition of Alcohol Drinking and Seeking behavior in Alcohol-Preferring Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasio, Angelo; Valenza, Marta; Iyer, Malliga R.; Rice, Kenner C.; Steardo, Luca; Hayashi, T.; Cottone, Pietro; Sabino, Valentina

    2015-01-01

    Sigma-1 receptor (Sig-1R) has been proposed as a novel therapeutic target for drug and alcohol addiction. We have shown previously that Sig-1R agonists facilitate the reinforcing effects of ethanol and induce binge-like drinking, while Sig-1R antagonists block excessive drinking in both genetic and environmental models of alcoholism, without affecting intake in outbred non-dependent rats. Even though significant progress has been made in understanding the function of Sig-1Rs in alcohol reinforcement, its role in the early and late stage of alcohol addiction remains unclear. Administration of the selective Sig-1R antagonist BD-1063 dramatically reduced the acquisition of alcohol drinking behavior as well as the preference for alcohol in genetically selected TSRI Sardinian alcohol preferring (Scr:sP) rats; the treatment had no effect on total fluid intake, food intake or body weight gain, proving selectivity of action. Furthermore, BD-1063 dose-dependently decreased alcohol-seeking behavior in rats trained under a second-order schedule of reinforcement, in which responding is maintained by contingent presentation of a conditioned reinforcer. Finally, an innate elevation in Sig-1R protein levels was found in the nucleus accumbens of alcohol-preferring Scr:sP rats, compared to outbred Wistar rats, alteration which was normalized by chronic, voluntary alcohol drinking. Taken together these findings demonstrate that Sig-1R blockade reduces the propensity to both acquire alcohol drinking and to seek alcohol, and point to the nucleus accumbens as a potential key region for the effects observed. Our data suggest that Sig-1R antagonists may have therapeutic potential in multiple stages of alcohol addiction. PMID:25848705

  3. Fermented soymilk increases voluntary wheel running activity and sexual behavior in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Takuya; Shinohara, Yasutomo; Kaneko, Daisuke; Nishimura, Ikuko; Matsuyama, Asahi

    2010-12-01

    Wheel running by rodents is thought to reflect voluntary exercise in humans. The present study examined the effect of fermented soymilk (FSM) on voluntary wheel running in rats. FSM was prepared from soymilk (SM) using the bacteria Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides. The rats were fed a normal diet for 3 weeks followed by a 3-week administration of diet containing FSM or SM (5% w/w), and then the diets were switched back to a normal diet for 3 weeks. The voluntary wheel running activity was increased by FSM administration, although no changes were observed by SM administration. This effect was observed 2 weeks after FSM administration and lasted 1 week after deprivation of FSM. Then we evaluated the effect of FSM on sexual behavior in male rats. FSM administration for 10 days significantly increased the number of mounts. The protein expression of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) increased in the hippocampus by FSM administration and it is suggested that FSM may change norepinephrine or dopamine signaling in the brain. Our study provides the first evidence that FSM increases voluntary wheel running activity and sexual behavior and suggests that TH may be involved in these effects.

  4. Radio protective effects of selenium on rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakir, A.; Alya, G

    2005-11-01

    Potential radio-protective effects of different selenium supplement concentrations of 4, 8, 15 and 30 ppm were evaluated in rats. Four groups of rats were administered different concentrations of selenium in drinking water for 30 days before irradiation starting from the ablactation which considered as day 0. The results showed that the sodium selenite of 4 ppm and 8 ppm enhance the 30-day survival of irradiated rats at 7 Gy ( sup 6 sup 0 Co source, whole body irradiation dose rate of 1 Gy x min sup - sup 1) compared to the control group. The mean cumulated probability of survival of rats was 69%+-6 (mean+-S.E.) and 77%+-6 in 4 and 8 ppm groups, respectively, versus 42%+-9 for control group (P<0.001). It was also indicated that sodium selenite with concentrations of 15 and 30 ppm had no significant reduction in mortality. The mean cumulated probability of survival of rats was 50%+-12 (P=0.39) and 49%+-14 (P=0.04), respectively. The toxic effects of selenium were observed at 15 ppm and 30 ppm, survivals after 30 days of selenium intake were 76% and 46%, respectively. It was concluded that 4 and 8 ppm sodium selenite have a radio-protective effect. 15 and 30 ppm sodium selenite had no radio-protective effects in rats, this may be due to a synergism of toxicity and radiation effects. (author)

  5. Amphetamine and cocaine suppress social play behavior in rats through distinct mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achterberg, E J Marijke; Trezza, Viviana; Siviy, Stephen M; Schrama, Laurens; Schoffelmeer, Anton N M; Vanderschuren, Louk J M J

    2014-04-01

    Social play behavior is a characteristic form of social behavior displayed by juvenile and adolescent mammals. This social play behavior is highly rewarding and of major importance for social and cognitive development. Social play is known to be modulated by neurotransmitter systems involved in reward and motivation. Interestingly, psychostimulant drugs, such as amphetamine and cocaine, profoundly suppress social play, but the neural mechanisms underlying these effects remain to be elucidated. In this study, we investigated the pharmacological underpinnings of amphetamine- and cocaine-induced suppression of social play behavior in rats. The play-suppressant effects of amphetamine were antagonized by the alpha-2 adrenoreceptor antagonist RX821002 but not by the dopamine receptor antagonist alpha-flupenthixol. Remarkably, the effects of cocaine on social play were not antagonized by alpha-2 noradrenergic, dopaminergic, or serotonergic receptor antagonists, administered either alone or in combination. The effects of a subeffective dose of cocaine were enhanced by a combination of subeffective doses of the serotonin reuptake inhibitor fluoxetine, the dopamine reuptake inhibitor GBR12909, and the noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor atomoxetine. Amphetamine, like methylphenidate, exerts its play-suppressant effect through alpha-2 noradrenergic receptors. On the other hand, cocaine reduces social play by simultaneous increases in dopamine, noradrenaline, and serotonin neurotransmission. In conclusion, psychostimulant drugs with different pharmacological profiles suppress social play behavior through distinct mechanisms. These data contribute to our understanding of the neural mechanisms of social behavior during an important developmental period, and of the deleterious effects of psychostimulant exposure thereon.

  6. Sensory Prioritization in Rats: Behavioral Performance and Neuronal Correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Conrad C Y; Diamond, Mathew E; Arabzadeh, Ehsan

    2016-03-16

    Operating with some finite quantity of processing resources, an animal would benefit from prioritizing the sensory modality expected to provide key information in a particular context. The present study investigated whether rats dedicate attentional resources to the sensory modality in which a near-threshold event is more likely to occur. We manipulated attention by controlling the likelihood with which a stimulus was presented from one of two modalities. In a whisker session, 80% of trials contained a brief vibration stimulus applied to whiskers and the remaining 20% of trials contained a brief change of luminance. These likelihoods were reversed in a visual session. When a stimulus was presented in the high-likelihood context, detection performance increased and was faster compared with the same stimulus presented in the low-likelihood context. Sensory prioritization was also reflected in neuronal activity in the vibrissal area of primary somatosensory cortex: single units responded differentially to the whisker vibration stimulus when presented with higher probability compared with lower probability. Neuronal activity in the vibrissal cortex displayed signatures of multiplicative gain control and enhanced response to vibration stimuli during the whisker session. In conclusion, rats allocate priority to the more likely stimulus modality and the primary sensory cortex may participate in the redistribution of resources. Detection of low-amplitude events is critical to survival; for example, to warn prey of predators. To formulate a response, decision-making systems must extract minute neuronal signals from the sensory modality that provides key information. Here, we identify the behavioral and neuronal correlates of sensory prioritization in rats. Rats were trained to detect whisker vibrations or visual flickers. Stimuli were embedded in two contexts in which either visual or whisker modality was more likely to occur. When a stimulus was presented in the high

  7. Satiety in the obese Zucker rat: effects of carbohydrate type and acarbose (Bay g 5421).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggio, C A; Vasselli, J R

    1989-09-01

    Despite the obese Zucker rat's hyperphagia on carbohydrate diets such as laboratory chow, this laboratory has found that its satiety response to glucose and other simple sugars is comparable to that of its lean control rat. To further investigate carbohydrate satiety in the Zucker rat, the short-term feeding behavior of obese and lean rats was observed following intragastric infusions (7.2 kcal in 10 ml) of corn starch and the starch hydrolysates Polycose and dextrin. There were no reliable between-genotype differences in the feeding inhibitory effects of Polycose and dextrin. However, in obese rats, the satiety effect of corn starch was delayed and reduced compared to that observed in lean rats (p less than 0.04). To modify the effect of corn starch, rats were administered 0.2 or 0.6 mg/infusion of the carbohydrate digestive inhibitor acarbose (Bay g 5421). Acarbose significantly reduced the satiety effect of corn starch in lean rats (p less than 0.001), and further attenuated satiety in obese rats (p less than 0.02). Since secretion of pancreatic amylase, the enzyme that initiates starch digestion, is decreased in obese rats, this result suggests that alterations of digestive and/or absorptive processes may underlie the obese rat's impaired satiety response to complex carbohydrate.

  8. Gender differences in CMS and the effects of antidepressant venlafaxine in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Yanli; He, Jie; Hou, Jian; Lin, Fei; Tian, Jingwei; Kurihara, Hiroshi

    2013-11-01

    Gender differences in susceptibility to chronic mild stress (CMS) and effects of venlafaxine in rats have been investigated in the current study. Male and female SD rats were exposed to CMS or CMS plus chronic venlafaxine administration (10mg/kg, 21days) in order to study depressive behavior in rats. Rats were tested in open field test and sucrose preference test to figure out gender differences in behavior. Then serum corticosterone and the expression of FKBP5 in hippocampus of rats were detected to explore the possible mechanism. The results showed that the CMS impact on behavioral parameters and corticosterone levels and response to venlafaxine were gender dependent. Female rats appeared more vulnerable in the dysregulation of HPA axis to CMS. Venlafaxine treatment normalized depressive-like behavior in both gender. However, venlafaxine treated male rats exhibited better improved explore behavior and anhedonia. FKBP5 might be involved in the explanation of gender differences in CMS and venlafaxine treatment. Male and female rats respond differently to chronic stress and venlafaxine continuous treatment. This results have guiding meaning in design of trials related to stress induced depression. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Meloxicam blocks neuroinflammation, but not depressive-like behaviors, in HIV-1 transgenic female rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina L Nemeth

    Full Text Available Adolescents living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV comprise approximately 12% of the HIV-positive population worldwide. HIV-positive adolescents experience a higher rate of clinical depression, a greater risk of sexual and drug abuse behaviors, and a decreased adherence to highly active antiretroviral therapies (HAART. Using adolescent HIV-1 transgenic rats (HIV-1 tg that display related immune response alterations and pathologies, this study tested the hypothesis that developmental expression of HIV-1-related proteins induces a depressive-like phenotype that parallels a decrease in hippocampal cell proliferation and an increase in pro-inflammatory cytokine expression in the hippocampus. Consistent with this hypothesis, adolescent HIV-1 tg rats demonstrated a depressive-like behavioral phenotype, had decreased levels of cell proliferation, and exhibited elevated expression of monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (Mcp-1 in the hippocampus relative to controls. Subsequently, we tested the ability of meloxicam, a selective COX-2 inhibitor, to attenuate behavioral deficits via inflammatory mechanisms. Daily meloxicam treatments did not alter the behavioral profile despite effectively reducing hippocampal inflammatory gene expression. Together, these data support a biological basis for the co-morbid manifestation of depression in HIV-positive patients as early as in adolescence and suggest that modifications in behavior manifest independent of inflammatory activity in the hippocampus.

  10. Prenatal Stress Produces Sex Specific Changes in Depression-like Behavior in Rats: Implications for Increased Vulnerability in Females

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sickmann, Helle Mark; Arentzen, Tine S; Dyrby, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Stress during rat gestation can elicit depression-like physiological and behavioral responses in the offspring. However, human clinical depression is more prevalent among females than males. Accordingly, we examined how repeated variable prenatal stress (PS) alters rat anxiety- and depression...... and measured anxiety- (elevated plus maze, EPM) and depression-like (forced swim test, FST) behaviors in the offspring at a young adult age. As a stressful event later in life (in addition to PS) may be needed to actually trigger an episode of clinical depression, half of the animals were exposed to an acute...... affected in control animals after acute stressor exposure, however, this response was blunted in PS offspring. Moreover, FST immobility, as an indicator of depressive-like behavior, was increased in female but not male PS rats. Altogether, our results identify both sex- and circadian phase-specific effects...

  11. Prevention of disorders of behavioral reactions in rats using nootropics with sodium valproate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanov A.V.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Using of anticonvulsants can trigger a number of side effects, such as possible changes in behavior and emotional state of people with epilepsy, risk of unwarranted aggression, nervousness, discoordination, sleepiness, encephalopathies. However, the epilepsy itself as a chronic neurological pathology causes cognitive and "epileptic" deficiency, in patients general retardation, sluggishness of mental activity, decreased cognitive abilities de¬velop. Therefore it is advisable to combine anticonvulsants with nootropics with their ability to protect the brain and increase body's resistance to extreme stress, reduce neurological deficits, restore damaged mnestic and mental functions. The author considered the use of nootropics on the background of anticonvulsant sodium valproate (80 mg/kg. Behavioral reactions of white rats in the test "Open field" and muscle tone of white mice in the test "muscle relaxation" were performed on the day 4 nootropics introduction in 1 hour after a single sodium valproate application. It’s shown experimentally that sodium valproate provided systemic depriming action on orientation and exploratory activity of rats: locomotor activity reduced in the number of squares strolled by 62.8% and in the number of vertical uprights by 80%, the amount of peeping into the burrows decreased by 58.7% as compared with the control. In the test "muscle relaxation" sodium valproate reduced muscle strength of mice by 38.6%. Against the background of anticonvulsant application piracetam (500 mg/kg had no effect on the behavioral responses of rats and muscle tone of mice. Citicoline (500 mg/kg increased locomotor activity in the number of squares crossed by 29.7%, in the number of vertical racks – by 20%, and the endurance of mice by 18.6%. Memantine (10 mg/kg in combination with sodium valproate insignificantly decreased (by 8.4% locomotor activity of rats, but increased exploratory activity by 30.5%; withholding of mice on the wire

  12. Tualang honey improves memory performance and decreases depressive-like behavior in rats exposed to loud noise stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khairunnuur Fairuz Azman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent evidence has exhibited dietary influence on the manifestation of different types of behavior induced by stressor tasks. The present study examined the effects of Tualang honey supplement administered with the goal of preventing or attenuating the occurrence of stress-related behaviors in male rats subjected to noise stress. Forty-eight adult male rats were randomly divided into the following four groups: i nonstressed with vehicle, ii nonstressed with Tualang honey, iii stressed with vehicle, and iv stressed with honey. The supplement was given once daily via oral gavage at 0.2 g/kg body weight. Two types of behavioral tests were performed, namely, the novel object recognition test to evaluate working memory and the forced swimming test to evaluate depressive-like behavior. Data were analyzed by a two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA using IBM SPSS 18.0. It was observed that the rats subjected to noise stress expressed higher levels of depressive-like behavior and lower memory functions compared to the unexposed control rats. In addition, our results indicated that the supplementation regimen successfully counteracted the effects of noise stress. The forced swimming test indicated that climbing and swimming times were significantly increased and immobility times significantly decreased in honey-supplemented rats, thereby demonstrating an antidepressant-like effect. Furthermore, cognitive function was shown to be intensely affected by noise stress, but the effects were counteracted by the honey supplement. These findings suggest that subchronic exposure to noise stress induces depressive-like behavior and reduces cognitive functions, and that these effects can be attenuated by Tualang honey supplementation. This warrants further studies to examine the role of Tulang honey in mediating such effects.

  13. Progressive behavioral changes during the maturation of rats with early radiation-induced hypoplasia of fascia dentata granule cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mickley, G.A.; Ferguson, J.L.; Mulvihill, M.A.; Nemeth, T.J.

    1989-01-01

    Localized exposure of the neonatal rat brain to X-rays produces neuronal hypoplasia specific to the granule cell layer of the hippocampal dentate gyrus. This brain damage causes locomotor hyperactivity, slowed acquisition of passive avoidance tasks and long bouts of spontaneous turning (without reversals) in a bowl apparatus. Here we report how these behavioral deficits change as a function of subject aging and behavioral test replications. Portions of the neonatal rat cerebral hemispheres were X-irradiated in order to selectively damage the granule cells of the dentate gyrus. The brains of experimental animals received a fractionated dose of X rays (13 Gy total) over postnatal days 1 to 16 and control animals were sham-irradiated. Rats between the ages of 71-462 days were tested 3 separate times on each of the following 3 behavioral tests: (1) spontaneous locomotion, (2) passive avoidance acquisition, and (3) spontaneous circling in a large plastic hemisphere. Rats with radiation-induced damage to the fascia dentata exhibited long bouts of slow turns without reversals. Once they began, irradiated subjects perseverated in turning to an extent significantly greater than sham-irradiated control subjects. This irradiation effect was significant during all test series. Moreover, in time, spontaneous perseverative turning was significantly potentiated in rats with hippocampal damage but increased only slightly in controls. Early radiation exposure produced locomotor hyperactivity in young rats. While activity levels of controls remained fairly stable throughout the course of the experiment, the hyperactivity of the irradiated animals decreased significantly as they matured

  14. Behavior and memory evaluation of Wistar rats exposed to 1·8 GHz radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Júnior, Luiz Carlos de Caires; Guimarães, Ernesto da Silveira Goulart; Musso, Camila Manso; Stabler, Collin Turner; Garcia, Raúl Marcel González; Mourão-Júnior, Carlos Alberto; Andreazzi, Ana Eliza

    2014-09-01

    The development of communication systems has brought great social and economic benefits to society. As mobile phone use has become widespread, concerns have emerged regarding the potential adverse effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation (RF-EMR) used by these devices. To verify potential effects of mobile phone radiation on the central nervous system (CNS) in an animal model. Male Wistar rats (60 days old) were exposed to RF-EMR from a Global System for Mobile (GSM) cell phone (1·8 GHz) for 3 days. At the end of the exposure, the following behavioral tests were performed: open field and object recognition. Our results showed that exposed animals did not present anxiety patterns or working memory impairment, but stress behavior actions were observed. Given the results of the present study, we speculate that RF-EMR does not promote CNS impairment, but suggest that it may lead to stressful behavioral patterns.

  15. Glucose-Dependent Insulinotropic Polypeptide Mitigates 6-OHDA-Induced Behavioral Impairments in Parkinsonian Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Wen Yu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the effectiveness of glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP was evaluated by behavioral tests in 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA hemi-parkinsonian (PD rats. Pharmacokinetic measurements of GIP were carried out at the same dose studied behaviorally, as well as at a lower dose used previously. GIP was delivered by subcutaneous administration (s.c. using implanted ALZET micro-osmotic pumps. After two days of pre-treatment, male Sprague Dawley rats received a single unilateral injection of 6-OHDA into the medial forebrain bundle (MFB. The neuroprotective effects of GIP were evaluated by apomorphine-induced contralateral rotations, as well as by locomotor and anxiety-like behaviors in open-field tests. Concentrations of human active and total GIP were measured in plasma during a five-day treatment period by ELISA and were found to be within a clinically translatable range. GIP pretreatment reduced behavioral abnormalities induced by the unilateral nigrostriatal dopamine (DA lesion produced by 6-OHDA, and thus may be a novel target for PD therapeutic development.

  16. Root bark of Morus alba ameliorates the depressive-like behaviors in diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Mei; Ke, Yuting; Liu, Bingyang; Yuan, Yanyan; Wang, Fuyan; Bu, Shizhong; Zhang, Yisheng

    2017-01-10

    Diabetes-induced depression is one of the severe chronic complications of diabetes mellitus. Up to now, there are only a few effective medicines to prevent or manage the co-morbidity of diabetes and depression. The present study was to investigate the effect of root bark of Morus alba (RBM) on depressive-like behaviors in the diabetic rats established by a high fat diet and a low dose of streptozotocin. Depressive-like behaviors were measured by the open field test, locomotor activity test and forced swimming test. Plasma glucose and lipid parameters were also measured. Expression of Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and Akt in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) were assessed. The results showed that a 4-week administration of RBM (10g/kg, ig) significantly reversed the depressive-like behaviors. BDNF expression and phosphorylation of ERK and Akt were increased in the PFC following RBM treatment in the diabetic rats. The data demonstrated that RBM could improve the depressive-like behaviors induced by diabetes, suggesting a therapeutic potential of RBM for the diabetes-associated depression. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Glucose-Dependent Insulinotropic Polypeptide Mitigates 6-OHDA-Induced Behavioral Impairments in Parkinsonian Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yu-Wen; Hsueh, Shih-Chang; Lai, Jing-Huei; Chen, Yen-Hua; Kang, Shuo-Jhen; Hsieh, Tsung-Hsun; Hoffer, Barry J.; Li, Yazhou; Greig, Nigel H.; Chiang, Yung-Hsiao

    2018-01-01

    In the present study, the effectiveness of glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) was evaluated by behavioral tests in 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) hemi-parkinsonian (PD) rats. Pharmacokinetic measurements of GIP were carried out at the same dose studied behaviorally, as well as at a lower dose used previously. GIP was delivered by subcutaneous administration (s.c.) using implanted ALZET micro-osmotic pumps. After two days of pre-treatment, male Sprague Dawley rats received a single unilateral injection of 6-OHDA into the medial forebrain bundle (MFB). The neuroprotective effects of GIP were evaluated by apomorphine-induced contralateral rotations, as well as by locomotor and anxiety-like behaviors in open-field tests. Concentrations of human active and total GIP were measured in plasma during a five-day treatment period by ELISA and were found to be within a clinically translatable range. GIP pretreatment reduced behavioral abnormalities induced by the unilateral nigrostriatal dopamine (DA) lesion produced by 6-OHDA, and thus may be a novel target for PD therapeutic development. PMID:29641447

  18. Behavioral and biochemical characteristics of rats preferring ethanol or water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulikova, O.G.; Borodkin, Y.S.; Razumovskaya, N.I.; Shabanov, P.D.; Sokolovskaya, N.E.

    1985-01-01

    Considering that learning and memory processes are largely determined by the intensity of RNA synthesis in specific brain structure, the authors study the relationship between learning ability of rats preferring ethanol or water and the level of RNA-synthesizing activity of brain cell nuclei. RNA-synthesizing activity of cell nuclei from cortical gray matter of the animals was determined one month after selection by measuring incorporation of deuterium-uridine triphosphate. The numerical results were subjected to statistical analysis by Student's test at P 0.05. It is shown that the altered behavior of animals preferring ethanol is evidently based on disturbed interaction between mediator and genetic structures of brain cells

  19. Inhalation of Roman chamomile essential oil attenuates depressive-like behaviors in Wistar Kyoto rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Yingying; Wang, Ting; Wang, Rong; Ma, Yichuan; Song, Shanshan; Liu, Juan; Hu, Weiwei; Li, Shengtian

    2017-06-01

    The idea of aromatherapy, using essential oils, has been considered as an alternative antidepressant treatment. In the present study, we investigated the effect of Roman chamomile essential oil inhalation for two weeks on depressive-like behaviors in Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats. We found that inhalation of either Roman chamomile or one of its main components α-pinene, attenuated depressive-like behavior in WKY rats in the forced swim test. Using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation analysis (iTRAQ), we found that inhalation of α-pinene increased expression of proteins that are involved in oxidative phosphorylation, such as cytochrome c oxidase subunit 6C-2, cytochrome c oxidase subunit 7A2, ATPase inhibitor in the hippocampus, and cytochrome c oxidase subunit 6C-2, ATP synthase subunit e, Acyl carrier protein, and Cytochrome b-c1 complex subunit 6 in the PFC (prefrontal cortex). In addition, using the quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction technique, we confirmed an increase of parvalbumin mRNA expression in the hippocampus, which was shown to be upregulated by 2.8-fold in iTRAQ analysis, in α-pinene treated WKY rats. These findings collectively suggest the involvement of mitochondrial functions and parvalbumin-related signaling in the antidepressant effect of α-pinene inhalation.

  20. Behavioral and endocrine consequences of simultaneous exposure to two different stressors in rats: interaction or independence?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Muñoz-Abellán

    Full Text Available Although behavioral and endocrine consequences of acute exposure to stressors have been extensively studied, little is known about how simultaneous exposure to two different stressors interacts to induce short- and long-term effects. In the present experiment we studied this interaction in adult male rats exposed to cat fur odor (impregnated cloth or immobilization on boards either separately or simultaneously. We reasoned that exposure to the odor of a potential predator while immobilized, may potentiate its negative consequences as compared to exposure to only one of the stressors. Exposure to cat odor elicited the expected reduction of activity and avoidance of the area where the impregnated cloth was located. The endocrine response (plasma levels of ACTH and corticosterone, as a measure of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, HPA was markedly greater after immobilization than after cat fur odor and no additive effects were found by simultaneous exposure to both stressors. Cat odor, but not immobilization, increased anxiety-like behavior as evaluated in the elevated plus-maze 7 days after the stressors, with no evidence of enhanced HPA activation. In addition, cat odor exposure resulted in long-lasting (8 days later fear conditioning to the box containing a clean cloth, which was reflected by hypoactivity, avoidance of the cloth area and enhanced HPA activation. All these effects were similarly observed in rats exposed simultaneously to cat odor and immobilization. In rats only exposed to immobilization, only some weak behavioral signs of fear conditioning were found, but HPA activation in response to the context paired to immobilization was enhanced to the same extent as in cat odor-exposed animals, supporting a certain degree of endocrine conditioning. The present results did not reveal important behavioral interactions between the two stressors when animals experienced both simultaneously, whereas some interactions were found regarding

  1. Behavioral and endocrine consequences of simultaneous exposure to two different stressors in rats: interaction or independence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Abellán, Cristina; Rabasa, Cristina; Daviu, Nuria; Nadal, Roser; Armario, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    Although behavioral and endocrine consequences of acute exposure to stressors have been extensively studied, little is known about how simultaneous exposure to two different stressors interacts to induce short- and long-term effects. In the present experiment we studied this interaction in adult male rats exposed to cat fur odor (impregnated cloth) or immobilization on boards either separately or simultaneously. We reasoned that exposure to the odor of a potential predator while immobilized, may potentiate its negative consequences as compared to exposure to only one of the stressors. Exposure to cat odor elicited the expected reduction of activity and avoidance of the area where the impregnated cloth was located. The endocrine response (plasma levels of ACTH and corticosterone, as a measure of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, HPA) was markedly greater after immobilization than after cat fur odor and no additive effects were found by simultaneous exposure to both stressors. Cat odor, but not immobilization, increased anxiety-like behavior as evaluated in the elevated plus-maze 7 days after the stressors, with no evidence of enhanced HPA activation. In addition, cat odor exposure resulted in long-lasting (8 days later) fear conditioning to the box containing a clean cloth, which was reflected by hypoactivity, avoidance of the cloth area and enhanced HPA activation. All these effects were similarly observed in rats exposed simultaneously to cat odor and immobilization. In rats only exposed to immobilization, only some weak behavioral signs of fear conditioning were found, but HPA activation in response to the context paired to immobilization was enhanced to the same extent as in cat odor-exposed animals, supporting a certain degree of endocrine conditioning. The present results did not reveal important behavioral interactions between the two stressors when animals experienced both simultaneously, whereas some interactions were found regarding HPA activation

  2. Behavioral and Endocrine Consequences of Simultaneous Exposure to Two Different Stressors in Rats: Interaction or Independence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Abellán, Cristina; Rabasa, Cristina; Daviu, Nuria; Nadal, Roser; Armario, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    Although behavioral and endocrine consequences of acute exposure to stressors have been extensively studied, little is known about how simultaneous exposure to two different stressors interacts to induce short- and long-term effects. In the present experiment we studied this interaction in adult male rats exposed to cat fur odor (impregnated cloth) or immobilization on boards either separately or simultaneously. We reasoned that exposure to the odor of a potential predator while immobilized, may potentiate its negative consequences as compared to exposure to only one of the stressors. Exposure to cat odor elicited the expected reduction of activity and avoidance of the area where the impregnated cloth was located. The endocrine response (plasma levels of ACTH and corticosterone, as a measure of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, HPA) was markedly greater after immobilization than after cat fur odor and no additive effects were found by simultaneous exposure to both stressors. Cat odor, but not immobilization, increased anxiety-like behavior as evaluated in the elevated plus-maze 7 days after the stressors, with no evidence of enhanced HPA activation. In addition, cat odor exposure resulted in long-lasting (8 days later) fear conditioning to the box containing a clean cloth, which was reflected by hypoactivity, avoidance of the cloth area and enhanced HPA activation. All these effects were similarly observed in rats exposed simultaneously to cat odor and immobilization. In rats only exposed to immobilization, only some weak behavioral signs of fear conditioning were found, but HPA activation in response to the context paired to immobilization was enhanced to the same extent as in cat odor-exposed animals, supporting a certain degree of endocrine conditioning. The present results did not reveal important behavioral interactions between the two stressors when animals experienced both simultaneously, whereas some interactions were found regarding HPA activation

  3. Physical and behavioral development in rats after late prenatal exposure to diazepam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lall, S B; Sahoo, R N

    1990-01-01

    The effect of late prenatal exposure to diazepam (DZP) on physical and behavioral development of rat pups was investigated. Prenatal exposure to DZP (20 mg/kg, sc, in last week of pregnancy) did not alter litter size and no gross malformations were noted at birth. Body weight at birth and subsequent weight gain was significantly less in these animals. The development of reflexes and neuromuscular maturation was normal. Open field locomotor activity and rearing scores were significantly decreased. Test of social play in juvenile rats revealed normal pattern of sexual dimorphism with increased masculinized behavior. Acquisition and retention of passive avoidance task was not affected by DZP exposure, however, retention of brightness discrimination task was significantly decreased. The hypnotic effect of a challenge dose of DZP and convulsive effect of pentylene tetrazole remained unaltered. Open field activity test in adult animals revealed increased ambulation. Probe dose of amphetamine in these animals caused paradoxical decrease in activity. It is concluded that exposure to high dose of DZP during late prenatal period may not manifest in physical or neuromuscular impairment during early development period, except for weight loss, however, it may have long term effects on behavior becoming manifest in adolescence and at maturity.

  4. Infusions of ascorbic acid into the medial preoptic area facilitate appetitive sexual behavior in the female rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, M Dean; Pfaus, James G

    2013-10-02

    Ascorbic acid (AA), also known as Vitamin C, enhances dopamine (DA) transmission in mesolimbic and nigrostriatal terminals and augments DA-mediated behaviors. It is not yet known whether AA has a similar influence in other DA terminals, in particular terminals of the incertohypothalamic system that modulate the function of the medial preoptic area (mPOA). In female rats, DA in the mPOA plays a critical role in the generation of appetitive sexual responses, notably solicitations, hops, and darts, and we have shown previously that the role of DA in this region on female sexual behavior changes depending on the hormonal profile of the female. Since AA has often been used as a vehicle control in the examination of rat sexual behavior, the present study examined the effect of infusions of AA to the mPOA of sexual experienced ovariectomized rats under two hormonal conditions: partially-primed with estradiol benzoate (EB) alone or fully-primed with EB and progesterone. Relative to saline baselines, females under both hormonal conditions displayed a significant increase in appetitive sexual behaviors following infusions of AA. No difference in lordosis behavior was observed following AA infusions relative to saline baselines. We suggest that the mechanism by which AA infusions to the mPOA increase appetitive sexual behaviors in female rats may be through dose-dependent DA receptor interactions, possibly through both presynaptic release mechanisms and postsynaptic DA D1-related messenger systems. © 2013.

  5. R-Modafinil Attenuates Nicotine-Taking and Nicotine-Seeking Behavior in Alcohol-Preferring Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Fei; Bi, Guo-Hua; He, Yi; Yang, Hong-Ju; Gao, Jun-Tao; Okunola-Bakare, Oluyomi M; Slack, Rachel D; Gardner, Eliot L; Xi, Zheng-Xiong; Newman, Amy Hauck

    2015-01-01

    (±)-Modafinil (MOD) is used clinically for the treatment of sleep disorders and has been investigated as a potential medication for the treatment of psychostimulant addiction. However, the therapeutic efficacy of (±)-MOD for addiction is inconclusive. Herein we used animal models of self-administration and in vivo microdialysis to study the pharmacological actions of R-modafinil (R-MOD) and S-modafinil (S-MOD) on nicotine-taking and nicotine-seeking behavior, and mechanisms underlying such actions. We found that R-MOD is more potent and effective than S-MOD in attenuating nicotine self-administration in Long–Evans rats. As Long–Evans rats did not show a robust reinstatement response to nicotine, we used alcohol-preferring rats (P-rats) that display much higher reinstatement responses to nicotine than Long–Evans rats. We found that R-MOD significantly inhibited intravenous nicotine self-administration, nicotine-induced reinstatement, and nicotine-associated cue-induced drug-seeking behavior in P-rats. R-MOD alone neither sustained self-administration in P-rats previously self-administering nicotine nor reinstated extinguished nicotine-seeking behavior. The in vivo brain microdialysis assays demonstrated that R-MOD alone produced a slow-onset moderate increase in extracellular DA. Pretreatment with R-MOD dose-dependently blocked nicotine-induced dopamine (DA) release in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) in both naive and nicotine self-administrating rats, suggesting a DA-dependent mechanism underlying mitigation of nicotine's effects. In conclusion, the present findings support further investigation of R-MOD for treatment of nicotine dependence in humans. PMID:25613829

  6. Melatonin counteracts changes in hypothalamic gene expression of signals regulating feeding behavior in high-fat fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ríos-Lugo, María J; Jiménez-Ortega, Vanesa; Cano-Barquilla, Pilar; Mateos, Pilar Fernández; Spinedi, Eduardo J; Cardinali, Daniel P; Esquifino, Ana I

    2015-03-01

    Previous studies indicate that the administration of melatonin caused body weight and abdominal visceral fat reductions in rodent models of hyperadiposity. The objective of the present study performed in high-fat fed rats was to evaluate the activity of melatonin on gene expression of some medial basal hypothalamus (MBH) signals involved in feeding behavior regulation, including neuropeptide Y (NPY), proopiomelanocortin (POMC), prolactin-releasing peptide (PrRP), leptin- and insulin-receptors (R) and insulin-R substrate (IRS)-1 and -2. Blood levels of leptin and adiponectin were also measured. Adult Wistar male rats were divided into four groups (n=16 per group): (i) control diet (3% fat); (ii) high-fat (35%) diet; (iii) high-fat diet+melatonin; (iv) control diet+melatonin. Rats had free access to high-fat or control chow and one of the following drinking solutions: (a) tap water; (b) 25 μg/mL of melatonin. After 10 weeks, the high-fat fed rats showed augmented MBH mRNA levels of NPY, leptin-R, PrRP, insulin-R, IRS-1 and IRS-2. The concomitant administration of melatonin counteracted this increase. Feeding of rats with a high-fat diet augmented expression of the MBH POMC gene through an effect insensitive to melatonin treatment. The augmented levels of circulating leptin and adiponectin seen in high-fat fed rats were counteracted by melatonin as was the augmented body weight: melatonin significantly attenuated a body weight increase in high-fat fed rats without affecting chow or water consumption. Melatonin augmented plasma leptin and adiponectin in control rats. The results indicate that an effect on gene expression of feeding behavior signals at the central nervous system (CNS) may complement a peripheral rise of the energy expenditure produced by melatonin to decrease body weight in high-fat fed rats.

  7. Prenatal choline supplementation mitigates behavioral alterations associated with prenatal alcohol exposure in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Jennifer D; Idrus, Nirelia M; Monk, Bradley R; Dominguez, Hector D

    2010-10-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure can alter physical and behavioral development, leading to a range of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. Despite warning labels, pregnant women continue to drink alcohol, creating a need to identify effective interventions to reduce the severity of alcohol's teratogenic effects. Choline is an essential nutrient that influences brain and behavioral development. Recent studies indicate that choline supplementation can reduce the teratogenic effects of developmental alcohol exposure. The present study examined whether choline supplementation during prenatal ethanol treatment could mitigate the adverse effects of ethanol on behavioral development. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were intubated with 6 g/kg/day ethanol in a binge-like manner from gestational days 5-20; pair-fed and ad libitum chow controls were included. During treatment, subjects from each group were intubated with either 250 mg/kg/day choline chloride or vehicle. Spontaneous alternation, parallel bar motor coordination, Morris water maze, and spatial working memory were assessed in male and female offspring. Subjects prenatally exposed to alcohol exhibited delayed development of spontaneous alternation behavior and deficits on the working memory version of the Morris water maze during adulthood, effects that were mitigated with prenatal choline supplementation. Neither alcohol nor choline influenced performance on the motor coordination task. These data indicate that choline supplementation during prenatal alcohol exposure may reduce the severity of fetal alcohol effects, particularly on alterations in tasks that require behavioral flexibility. These findings have important implications for children of women who drink alcohol during pregnancy. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. Social defeat alters the acquisition of cocaine self-administration in rats: role of individual differences in cocaine-taking behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabbaj, M; Norton, C S; Kollack-Walker, S; Watson, S J; Robinson, T E; Akil, H

    2001-12-01

    It is known that social defeat can modulate cocaine self-administration. However, it is unclear whether this psychosocial stressor affects drug-taking behavior to the same extent across all individual animals, particularly those with differing propensities to self-administer psychostimulants. This study examined the effect of social defeat on cocaine self-administration in animals that differ in novelty-seeking behavior that predicts differences in drug self-administration. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were first classified into high-responder (HR) and low-responder (LR) groups. HR and LR rats were categorized based on their locomotor activity in a novel environment, with HR rats exhibiting higher locomotor activity than LR rats. Then, male rats were exposed on four occasions to an aggressive Long Evans male rat over the course of 4 days. Control rats were not exposed to the social defeat. All rats were subsequently implanted with jugular catheters and 3 days later placed into the self-administration box to study the acquisition of cocaine self-administration (0.25 mg per infusion). HR non-defeated animals self-administered more cocaine than the LR non-defeated animals. Following social defeat, the acquisition of cocaine self-administration is significantly delayed in HR rats and enhanced in LR rats. CONCLUSION The unique patterns of responsiveness in the HR and LR animals suggest that social defeat plays a role of equalizer of individual differences in drug-taking behavior.

  9. Prenatal exposure to methylazoxymethanol acetate in the rat alters neurotrophin levels and behavior : considerations for neurodevelopmental diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fiore, M; Korf, J; Angelucci, F; Talamini, L; Aloe, L

    2000-01-01

    We did a single injection of methylazoxymethanol acetate (MAM) in pregnant rats on gestational day (GD) 11 or 12 to investigate the long-lasting effects of early entorhinal cortex (EC) and hippocampus maldevelopment on behavior, brain nerve growth factor (NGF) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor

  10. COMPROMISE EFFECT ON CONSUMERS’ BEHAVIOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Surkamta Eric Santosa

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The way consumers think about the products they will buy determines their buying behavior. The decision to buy a particular product is obviously in accordance with the buyer’s attitude. The buyers will also feel more comfortable if their behavior meets with the approval and expectations of the people close to them. While the development of a certain attitude has no effect on subjective judgment, the effect of compromise is likely to make a contribution to its development. Since it is still unclear, this study’s main purposed is to clarify this. In addition, while an attitude is theorized as being a predictor of behavior, through behavioral intention, the study’s secondary purpose is to boost the earlier findings. Likewise, in accordance with the theory of planned behavior, the study will also examine the other predictors of behavioral intention, in relation to the behavioral intention itself. A sample consisting of a 100 respondents was compiled by using the convenience and judgment technique. The data were analyzed using Amos 16.0 and SPSS 16.0. As expected, the compromise effect had a significant influence on whether the customers’ attitude or the subjective norm was the main determinant. Likewise, the customers’ attitude, the subjective norm and perceived behavioral control were confirmed as good predictors of customers’ behavioral intentions.

  11. Study on cognitive impairment in diabetic rats by different behavioral experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu-bin, Ji; Zeng-yi, Li; Guo-song, Xin; Chi, Wei; Hong-jian, Zhu

    2017-12-01

    Object recognition test and Y maze test are widely used in learning and memory behavior evaluation techniques and methods. It was found that in the new object recognition experiment, the diabetic rats did more slowly than the normal rats in the discrimination of the old and new objects, and the learning and memory of the rats in the diabetic rats were injured. And the ratio of retention time and the number of errors in the Y maze test was much higher than that in the blank control group. These two methods can reflect the cognitive impairment in diabetic rats.

  12. Impairment of the organization of locomotor and exploratory behaviors in bile duct-ligated rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leke, Renata; de Oliveira, Diogo L; Mussulini, Ben Hur M.

    2012-01-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) arises from acute or chronic liver diseases and leads to several problems, including motor impairment. Animal models of chronic liver disease have extensively investigated the mechanisms of this disease. Impairment of locomotor activity has been described in different...... female Wistar rats underwent common bile duct ligation (BDL rats) or the manipulation of common bile duct without ligation (control rats). Six weeks after surgery, control and BDL rats underwent open-field, plus-maze and foot-fault behavioral tasks. The BDL rats developed chronic liver failure...

  13. Behavioral responses and fluid regulation in male rats after combined dietary sodium deficiency and water deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucia, Kimberly J; Curtis, Kathleen S

    2018-02-01

    Most investigators use a single treatment such as water deprivation or dietary sodium deficiency to evaluate thirst or sodium appetite, which underlie behavioral responses to body fluid challenges. The goal of the present experiments was to assess the effects of combined treatments in driving behaviors. Therefore, we evaluated the effect of combined overnight water deprivation and dietary sodium deficiency on water intake and salt intake by adult male rats in 2-bottle (0.5M NaCl and water) tests. Overnight water deprivation alone increased water intake, and 10days of dietary sodium deficiency increased 0.5M NaCl intake, with a secondary increase in water intake. During combined water deprivation and dietary sodium deficiency, water intake was enhanced and 0.5M NaCl was reduced, but not eliminated, suggesting that physiologically relevant behavioral responses persist. Nonetheless, the pattern of fluid intake was altered by the combined treatments. We also assessed the effect of these behaviors on induced deficits in body sodium and fluid volume during combined treatments and found that, regardless of treatment, fluid ingestion partially repleted the induced deficits. Finally, we examined urine volume and sodium excretion during dietary sodium deficiency with or without overnight water deprivation and found that, whether or not rats were water deprived, and regardless of water consumption, sodium excretion was minimal. Thus, the combination of water deprivation and dietary sodium deficiency appears to arouse drives that stimulate compensatory behavioral responses. These behaviors, in conjunction with physiological adaptations to the treatments, underlie body sodium and volume repletion in the face of combined water deprivation and dietary sodium deficiency. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Anxiety-related behavior in hyperhomocysteinemia induced by methionine nutritional overload in rats: role of the brain oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrncic, Dragan; Mikić, Jelena; Rasic-Markovic, Aleksandra; Velimirović, Milica; Stojković, Tihomir; Obrenović, Radmila; Rankov-Petrović, Bojana; Šušić, Veselinka; Djuric, Dragan; Petronijević, Nataša; Stanojlovic, Olivera

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of a methionine-enriched diet on anxiety-related behavior in rats and to determine the role of the brain oxidative status in these alterations. Adult male Wistar rats were fed from the 30th to 60th postnatal day with standard or methionine-enriched diet (double content comparing with standard diet: 7.7 g/kg). Rats were tested in open field and light-dark tests and afterwards oxidative status in the different brain regions were determined. Hyperhomocysteinemia induced by methionine-enriched diet in this study decreased the number of rearings, as well as the time that these animals spent in the center of the open field, but increased index of thigmotaxy. Oxidative status was selectively altered in the examined regions. Lipid peroxidation was significantly increased in the cortex and nc. caudatus of rats developing hyperhomocysteinemia, but unaltered in the hippocampus and thalamus. Based on the results of this research, it could be concluded that hyperhomocysteinemia induced by methionine nutritional overload increased anxiety-related behavior in rats. These proanxiogenic effects could be, at least in part, a consequence of oxidative stress in the rat brain.

  15. Changes in androgen receptor, estrogen receptor alpha, and sexual behavior with aging and testosterone in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Di; Gore, Andrea C

    2010-07-01

    Reproductive aging in males is characterized by a diminution in sexual behavior beginning in middle age. We investigated the relationships among testosterone, androgen receptor (AR) and estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha) cell numbers in the hypothalamus, and their relationship to sexual performance in male rats. Young (3months) and middle-aged (12months) rats were given sexual behavior tests, then castrated and implanted with vehicle or testosterone capsules. Rats were tested again for sexual behavior. Numbers of AR and ERalpha immunoreactive cells were counted in the anteroventral periventricular nucleus and the medial preoptic nucleus, and serum hormones were measured. Middle-aged intact rats had significant impairments of all sexual behavior measures compared to young males. After castration and testosterone implantation, sexual behaviors in middle-aged males were largely comparable to those in the young males. In the hypothalamus, AR cell density was significantly (5-fold) higher, and ERalpha cell density significantly (6-fold) lower, in testosterone- than vehicle-treated males, with no age differences. Thus, restoration of serum testosterone to comparable levels in young and middle-aged rats resulted in similar preoptic AR and ERalpha cell density concomitant with a reinstatement of most behaviors. These data suggest that age-related differences in sexual behavior cannot be due to absolute levels of testosterone, a